The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.

From 1941 until 1953, the administration of the University Library was entrusted to Professor Warner Rice, who served simultaneously as Director of the University Library and Chairman of the Department of English Language and Literature. It is a tribute to Professor Rice's wisdom, talent, and energy that, while dividing his time between two such demanding responsibilities, he was able to encourage the growth of the Library's book collection, to adapt the Library's services to rapidly changing needs, and to begin the planning of facilities and new administrative patterns for the future. It would be difficult to exaggerate the value of the service Professor Rice rendered to the University by performing so ably in so difficult a dual capacity for such an extended period.

As is to be expected, a considerable expansion of the Library's physical facilities was necessitated during the past two decades by the growth of enrollment and the consequent increase in library use, the need for library support of new programs of study and research, the geographic spread of the campus, and the continuing rapid increase in the library's collections. In the 1940s plans had been prepared for an addition to the General Library building. By 1953, however, these plans had been rendered obsolete by the increase in the campus population and the necessity of introducing new patterns of library service to the undergraduate students. Between 1951 and 1953 a decision had been taken to discard the plan for an addition to the General Library. Instead, it was proposed that a library storage building be erected on the North Campus and that a separate library be designed for service to undergraduates. The General Library building was to be rehabilitated and the Medical Library was to be moved to a new building in the Medical Center. Except in the case of the Medical Center Library, for which architectural plans had been prepared prior to the summer of 1953, these decisions had not yet led to the writing of programs to guide the architects. Beginning in August of 1953, however, work on specifications and designs for new buildings proceeded rapidly and the next few years saw the completion of an impressive series of libraries.

In 1955 the Central Service and Stack Building was Page  267opened on the North Campus with space enough to house some 400,000 volumes of little-used materials. Some years earlier, Harvard University had adapted an old building for library storage and made space available to other libraries in the Boston area on a rental basis, but the Michigan library storage building may have been the first separate structure specifically designed for this purpose on a university campus. Construction costs were cut to the point of leaving the interior walls unfinished and the insulation exposed but the ventilation and humidification systems were carefully engineered and drawer-style shelving was selected to increase the storage capacity of the four stack levels of the building. A one-story wing was provided to house the University Bindery which previously had occupied a room in the General Library basement.

The first library books stored in the Central Service and Stack Building were a technology collection that for years had been accommodated very poorly in the basement of the Education Building and a number of sets of journals that had been given shelf space, charitably, in the stacks of the Business Administration Library.

In 1955, also, a library was provided in the new Phoenix Memorial Laboratory to accommodate publications relating to atomic energy and, in the same year, a new library for the Medical Center was completed as a wing of the Kresge Research Building. Prior to 1955 the service of medical publications had been provided in a small reading room of the General Library Building, a space originally intended to house a book stack. The distance of this reading room in the General Library from the Medical School buildings had precluded extensive use of the collections by the medical faculty and had made it almost useless for the staff of the University Hospital and the School of Nursing. With the opening of the new Medical Center Library it was possible to provide adequate service in one central location for the nurses, the medical students, the medical and nursing faculties, and the hospital staff.

In the following year the Legislature made it possible to replace the roof over the stack area of the General Library Building, a continuing fire hazard for the preceding thirty-six years. At some cost to the appearance of the building the walls of the book stack part of the building were raised sufficiently to make space for two additional stack levels and a flat roof was constructed to replace the old mansard roof. Funds available for this remodeling were sufficient to permit an increase in the Page  268usable space available on each main floor of the Library by providing flooring in the light wells on both sides of the building.

On January 16, 1958, the University opened the doors of a library building that was to make possible a most significant advance in library service and was to exert a profound influence on the nature of undergraduate instruction on this campus. At 8:00 a.m. that day President Harlan Hatcher unlocked the doors of the Undergraduate Library, a building of 145,036 square feet containing seats for slightly more than 2,000 readers, an initial collection of some 40,000 books, and an audio room where 144 students could play phonorecordings of music, poetry, and drama individually or listen to broadcasts from a control room on one of 14 channels. The building also contained: a multipurpose room that could seat more than 200 people and was equipped for the showing of films; a print gallery on the fourth floor where the History of Art Department could display its art reproductions for study by undergraduates; a staff lounge; a student lounge in the basement; and, at the front of the library on the ground floor, an art exhibit area for the display of prints. This was the first large open-shelf library on the campus. It was designed to be as inviting as possible and to encourage reading and study. Reserve books were shelved in their proper position in the classified arrangement of the stacks rather than in a separate protected area in the hope that the student seeking a book that he was required to read would be attracted by other books in the same subject and might read beyond his assignment. This innovation seemed to be highly successful in the first few years of the Undergraduate Library's existence since analyses of book loans for home use indicated that approximately 40 percent were course-related but not required. It had to be sacrificed nine years later, however, to the need to keep the required reading safe from theft. The open stack arrangement was introduced simultaneously in the General Library. (It had already been in effect in the branch libraries.) As a consequence an atmosphere of freedom in use of the libraries was created and a considerable reduction in labor for the Circulation Department was achieved.

The initial Undergraduate Library collection was selected by Mr. R. C. Stewart and the catalog of this library formed a notable list of books that would do credit to any college library. The management of the library was entrusted to Mrs. Roberta Keniston, to whose indefatigable energy and humane interest in the students' welfare and in undergraduate education we owe the immediate Page  269and continuing success of the Undergraduate Library. Prior to 1958, service to undergraduate students had been provided primarily in two study halls located respectively in the basement of the General Library and in Angell Hall, and in the Main Reading Room of the General Library. The average student arriving on this campus found himself confronting an inordinately complex and huge catalog into whose mysteries he was not initiated. He was intimidated by the size of the library collections, by the fact that reference librarians were heavily engaged in assisting graduate students and faculty, by the difficulty of finding material that would serve his purpose. For lack of a facility especially designed for the needs of undergraduates, instruction in many undergraduate courses depended very largely on the textbook rather than on varied reading or on independent study. With the advent of the Undergraduate Library this condition was altered. Promptly, faculty members began taking advantage of the new facility. Year by year since then the number of lists of required and recommended reading housed in the Undergraduate Library has increased until today more than 17,000 volumes, plus several thousand copies of journal articles representing some 400 reading lists, are on reserve each term. The basic collection, also, a compact and very choice collection of good books, was a stimulus and an inducement to reading. The comfortable chairs and lounge furniture, the spaciousness of the seating arrangement at the time the library was opened, the colors of the interior, and the freedom from monitoring added to the attraction of the building and the Undergraduate Library very rapidly became one of the most heavily used university library buildings in the country.

The Undergraduate Library was dedicated on February 21, 1958, at 4:00 p.m. in a ceremony in the Multipurpose Room of that building followed by a reception and a dinner that same evening in the Michigan Union at which President Hatcher gave the address. Present for the celebration were a number of distinguished publishers, authors, professors, educational administrators, and librarians who were attending a conference on the campus on "The Undergraduate and the Lifetime Reading Habit." Sponsored by the University Library and the National Book Committee, this conference was financed by grants from the Council on Library Resources, Inc. and the American Library Association. Professor Jacob Price of the University's Department of History, who served as conference manager, edited the proceedings in a volume entitled Reading for Life. It was published by the University of Michigan Press.

Page  270Although the Lamont Library at Harvard University was the first undergraduate library at a major university housed in a separate building, the Undergraduate Library at Michigan was the first at a state institution or at any university with a very large undergraduate enrollment. As a consequence, it received unusually widespread attention and interest. Visitors from other American campuses as well as from foreign universities were numerous for a number of years after its completion and its great success here led to emulation by numerous other universities.

With the opening of the Undergraduate Library, the study halls in the General Library and in Angell Hall were diverted to other purposes and the so-called Social Science Library, which contained publications to serve psychology and social work students was abolished. At the same time, a new Social Work Library was established in the Frieze Building to which the School of Social Work had moved.

In 1960, with the founding of the University's branch campus in Dearborn, a temporary library was established there as part of the University Library system. In 1963 a new Physics-Astronomy Library was completed in a wing of the Physics-Astronomy Building. For the first time the University undertook to provide a separate structure for a branch library instead of housing it in a building designed for other purposes. As a consequence the Physics-Astronomy Library is architecturally one of the most successful branch libraries on campus. In 1964 space was devoted in the Institute of Science and Technology Building on the North Campus to a small library to serve the scientists at work in that building and, also in 1964, with the completion of the School of Music Building on the North Campus, a spacious library was opened in that building. In 1966 a new library to serve the Highway Safety Research Institute was housed temporarily in space allotted to the Institute of Science and Technology Library. From that location it moved to the City Center Building and subsequently was accommodated, in 1969, in the new Highway Safety Research Institute Building on the North Campus.

The most notable addition to the Library's facilities, however, after the construction of the Undergraduate Library, was the annex to the General Library Building. This structure was sufficiently near completion by the spring of 1970 so that the move of books from the North Campus Central Service and Stack Building and from the General Library stacks into this new building could begin on June 8 of that year. By the end of September, 1,650,000 volumes had been Page  271relocated on the six levels of the General Library and on five floors of the new structure. The Map Room was relocated to the eighth floor of the new building in June and the transfer of the rare book collection, begun in July, was completed for the most part in October. In November, the Labadie Collection of Protest Literature, which is under the custody of the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, was moved. By the end of January, 1971, all materials, including the manuscripts, had been removed from the former quarters of the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections

The new building was named the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library but there was sufficient confusion between this designation and the name General Library still used for the older part of the building to make it advisable for the Regents to rename the entire complex the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library. The former General Library has since then been referred to as the North Building and the new structure as the South Building.

The new addition has been called "the best possible solution of an impossible problem." It had been apparent from the very outset that an attempt to expand the stack area of the former General Library Building and to combine this expansion with additional reader and staff space would be a mistake. For one thing, the style of the General Library Building had long been outmoded. It was in the tradition of the inflexible library with a self-supporting stack at the rear, with waste space in the public and work areas, and varying floor-load capacities in the public rooms. Its inflexibility for many years had been a severe trial both to the staff of the library and to the readers. At the same time it was not financially feasible to consider building a library of the size that would be needed to replace the antiquated and inefficient General Library and also to provide space for future growth. It was apparent that the University could not dispense with the General Library and that some accommodation would have to be made between the new construction and the old. The new building was placed directly behind the General Library and linked to it at the second level. Additional connections were provided at the sixth, eighth, ninth, and tenth stack levels of the old building. The Public Catalog was moved from its crowded former location in the second-floor corridor of the General Library into a rehabilitated area, formerly the fifth- and sixth-stack levels of the old building, now the main passage between the public areas of the old North Building and the new structure.

Page  272The Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library was designed by Albert Kahn Associated Architects and Engineers in Detroit, the same firm that had designed the General Library, the Clements Library, the Undergraduate Library, the Physics-Astronomy Library, and numerous other buildings on the campus. It contains 132,866 square feet gross, of which 87,812 square feet are usable for library purposes. Including site development, construction costs, architects' fees, stack installation, furniture, equipment and carpeting, the total cost of the building approximated $5,500,000. A Federal grant of $1,458,333 under the Higher Education Facilities Act, a Federal loan of $2,000,000, and alumni gifts comprised this total. Features of this new building include 532 carrels, 24 seats in eight typing rooms, a new, spacious, and handsome Department of Rare Books and Special Collections with 28 seats in its reading room, a new Map Room seating 48, a manuscript room seating eight, and a classroom with 21 seats. In addition, it has 1,312 book lockers, 200 typewriter lockers, six seats in two rooms for blind and handicapped students, and an auxiliary charging station on the second floor. The stack capacity, exclusive of the rare-book stacks, is 900,000 volumes. The construction of the building is unusual in that each floor has a clear span, uninterrupted by columns, of 48-1/2 × 247-1/2 feet. Every square foot of the seven floors of the building proper is usable space. Rest rooms, public telephones, three public elevators, and a stairway are all accommodated in a service core which connects the new construction with the old General Library. An additional fire stair is housed in an exterior stair-well at each end of the building. The top floor of the building also houses new administrative offices for the University Library system.

In the summer of 1971, with the completion of the new building for the School of Dentistry, the Dentistry Library moved into new quarters and, in July, the Public Health Library moved into well-designed and well-equipped space in the new Thomas Francis Building of the School of Public Health.

More important than the physical facilities of the Library are the collections which they house and in this respect the University Library has striven to maintain the tradition of excellence that was established with the very first purchase for the Library of The University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Between 1953 and 1971 the collections of the University Library system increased from 1,946,000 to 3,653,000 volumes. This figure excludes the 743,000 volumes Page  273in the collections of the Business Administration, Clements, Flint Senior College, Highway Safety Research Institute, Law, and Mental Health Research Institute Libraries, and the Michigan Historical Collections. All University libraries collectively contained a total of 4,397,000 volumes as of July 1, 1971, making it one of the five largest library collections at American universities. Since 1953 the rate of growth of the University Library collections has increased by 286 percent, from 41,214 volumes to 157,134 volumes per year. The implications of this escalation in terms of space problems and processing and administrative work-load are obvious.

In the second quarter of this century emphasis has been placed on the acquisition of retrospective publications, primarily of Western European origin. By mid-century the checking of antiquarian dealers' catalogs often proved to be wasteful since so high a percentage of the desirable items listed were found to be available in the Library's collections. This earlier retrospective emphasis has proved to be most fortunate inasmuch as, in the third quarter century the rapid increase in publication worldwide, the proliferation of new disciplines, and the emphasis in recent years on studies relating to Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Near East have pre-empted much of the Library's acquisitions budget and the time of the processing staff. The most striking aspect of the acquisitions program since mid-century has been the growth of the collections that support the various area programs undertaken by the University in the 1960s. This development has been accelerated since 1962 by the University Library's participation in the Public Law 480 Program. Through the agency of the Library of Congress the University Library has been receiving practically all current research publications of India, Pakistan, Indonesia, the United Arab Republic, Israel, Yugoslavia, and Ceylon. In addition, efforts to strengthen the Far Eastern collections during the past decade have given us one of the strongest and largest Japanese and Chinese collections in the United States.

Tremendous increase in the support of research by large university libraries has enhanced the value and the role of departments of rare books and special collections. More and more scholars are working with primary sources: manuscripts, original documents, eyewitness accounts, first editions or early editions revised by the author himself, the first reports of an experiment or a discovery, contemporary pamphlets or other ephemera often considered quite unimportant at the time they were issued and therefore Page  274discarded. These are the raw materials of history. Although the interpretation of them may vary from time to time, the materials themselves, unlike secondary sources, are timeless and never go out of date. Even a re-examination of the originals with a fresh point of view has fruitful results for scholarship.

Our Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, with its approximately 200,000 items, preserves, collects, and services such primary source materials. While they are heavily used at this University, chiefly by faculty and graduate students, they have also a national and an international significance as visitors and inquiries come from all corners of the earth. Of particular importance in attracting the attention of scholars are the special collections which attempt to treat one subject in depth. Both the generosity of donors and an active and discriminating acquisition program have contributed toward making this Department into a major repository for research materials. Its holdings have been enhanced since 1953 by the acquisition of a number of notable collections.

Noteworthy among the additions in the field of English and American literature have been: the Swinburne, Pater, Dickens, Marianne Moore, and Whitman collections. The first of these began in 1933 with a gift by Mr. Lowell Kerr (A.B. '23) of 47 volumes of Swinburne's works and Swinburneiana and seven manuscripts. In December 1966, Mr. and Mrs. Kerr presented the remaining and larger part of their Swinburne collection, consisting of about 235 volumes and 112 manuscripts. The total gift includes first editions of all Swinburne's books and most of the pamphlets (many of these are presentation copies) as well as significant later editions of many titles, books owned by Swinburne, and Swinburneiana. Of manuscripts there are over 60 holograph letters by Swinburne plus other letters to or about him, 18 holograph manuscripts mostly of his poetry but some of prose works, and several important manuscripts relating to Swinburne written by his contemporaries. The collection also contains photographs and original drawings, copies of manuscripts, and clippings. The entire collection, representing a lifetime of Swinburne study and collecting, makes Michigan a major center of Swinburne source materials.

The Walter Pater Collection, given in May of 1959 by Mr. Francis L. D. Goodrich, contains 145 volumes, including two complete sets of the first editions of Pater's nine major works, later editions of some of these titles, and four books owned by Pater. There are also two holograph letters.

Page  275The Dickens Collection was acquired in June of 1966 from Charles B. Crouse of Detroit. Its 65 items comprise all of Dickens' major works. Most of the secondary ones are represented in first editions, among them two presentation copies inscribed by Dickens and other items of distinguished provenance. The collection also contains a number of Dickens' minor pieces as well as works pertaining to him, eight manuscripts (six by Dickens), an original sketch by Cruikshank, the steel plate etched by "Phiz" for a David Copperfield illustration, and playbills for eight early dramatizations.

The Marianne Moore Collection, given by Laurence H. Scott (A.B. '55) in December of 1968, contains about 180 manuscripts, chiefly letters, together with the first editions of the poet's works, proof sheets, serial issues to which she had contributed, and works about her. Mr. Scott continues to add to this collection from time to time.

Mr. Charles Feinberg has continued to make additions to the Library's Whitman Collection. Among them are at least 20 rare items, including the author's edition of Leaves of Grass, Camden, 1882, published in an edition of between 50 and 75 copies, and a complete set of the Walt Whitman Fellowship Papers, 1894-1918.

The Library's collections relating to the theater was augmented in June 1959 by the Alfred Lunt Collection given by Professor Bennett Weaver, a boyhood friend of Mr. Lunt. In addition to 134 letters and postcards, there are many of Lunt's drawings made as suggestions for costumes and stage settings. Professor Weaver also added programs of plays in which the Lunts appeared and clippings about them and their work. The letters may not be made available to readers during the lifetime of the Lunts.

The original gift of the Van Volkenburg-Browne Theater Collection was made in 1946. In 1947 Mrs. Maurice Browne (Ellen Van Volkenburg) added two cases of material to the collection consisting of correspondence, programs, photographs, manuscripts, working drafts, and directors' scripts. In March of 1971 she contributed all her personal correspondence and diaries, books from her own library, and other materials from her theatrical work.

Growth of the Library's collections in the performing arts was assured by a bequest in 1964 from Mrs. Bessie White Kenyon of more than $133,000, the income to be used Page  276for purchases of books relating to the theater, stage, and drama.

Several notable collections were added to the collections in history and social sciences of the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. One of these, received in November of 1961 from Mrs. Emma S. Woytinsky and announced publicly at a reception on November 30, 1962, contains books, pamphlets, reprints, and journal articles written between 1905 and 1960 by her husband, Wladimir S. Woytinsky, an internationally renowned economist and one of the architects of the U.S. Social Security System. Some are the original editions, others are photocopies. Following Mrs. Woytinsky's death in April of 1968, the books and archival materials in the Woytinskys' library in Washington, D.C., were sent to The University of Michigan Library.

In 1955 the Library purchased a notable collection of 1,100 French political pamphlets printed between the mid-16th and mid-17th centuries.

Also of value for history are the Finerty Irish Papers, presented in June of 1969 by Mrs. John Finerty at the suggestion of President Eamon de Valera of Ireland. Mr. Finerty, a noted trial lawyer, was a long-time friend of President de Valera and one of the chief movers in American-Irish affairs from 1920 to 1960. The Finerty Papers, about 3,500 items, include correspondence with most of the prominent Irish Republicans over a period of many years, as well as a great many documents of various kinds, minutes of meetings, speeches, legal papers, clippings, photographs, and mementos. They constitute invaluable primary source material.

In late 1970 the Library purchased 34 cases of files comprising the records of the American Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born from its founding in 1933 until recent times. Included are court records, committee publications, records of conferences, government documents, related publications of the time, and personal correspondence. The Labadie Collection has long been noted for its records of the deportations following World War I, and this new acquisition supplies documentation up to 1960. Furthermore, the American Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born has agreed that The University of Michigan Library shall be the exclusive depository for its files for the period from 1960 on, when and as the Committee wishes to make them available.

Approximately 60 volumes of publications of the Putney and Oneida Communities, 1837-1879, were purchased in 1961 from Oneida Ltd.'s Historical Committee through the Page  277granddaughter of the Community's founder, John Humphrey Noyes. These volumes were for many years in the Mansion House at Oneida, and many of them have on their flyleaves the autographs of early leaders of the Community. Of particular importance are the long runs of serial publications issued by the Community and edited by Noyes.

In 1954 the Library acquired a music collection that gives its holdings in that field great eminence This collection, assembled over a period of years by J.A. Stellfeld, distinguished jurist and musicologist, contains some 4,000 books, periodicals, and pamphlets, and approximately 6,000 musical items. Essentially this is a musicological reference library with many basic works that the School of Music had sought vainly for years, but it contains also a collection of early books and music. Although it is strongest in 18th century material, it reaches back into the 17th and 16th centuries and has extraordinary breadth of coverage in early works on theory, history and criticism, in early sacred and secular vocal music, opera, and instrumental music, and contains even engravings and prints. According to Charles van Borren, dean of European musicologists, "the holdings in early music of Stellfeld's library rank in importance immediately after those of the Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique and the Bibliothèque de Conservatoire in Brussels."

Another addition to the music collection was the gift of manuscript music by Glenn Osser in 1970. Mr. Osser (1935, Music) is a well-known arranger, conductor, and composer with a notable career in radio and television. Mr. Osser's gift of well over 750 items are of his own compositions.

The scientific collections of the Library benefited from the acquisition of several collections. About 3,000 volumes, a bequest of the late professor Harley H. Bartlett, were received in July 1960. Approximately 2,300 of these volumes are in the field of botany and include first editions of many important works and a collection of the 16th and 17th century herbals. The remainder cover travel and exploration, anthropology, and folklore. In 1956-57 the Medical Center Library received the small but valuable Carl Vernon Weller Collection on lead poisoning. In 1961 Dr. Henry John presented the materials he had collected for the past 45 years on Jan Evangelista Purkyn (1787-1869), famous Czech physiologist and pharmacologist.

The Engineering-Transportation Library was the recipient Page  278in 1966 of a gift of 130 volumes comprising day-by-day accounts of the construction and maintenance of the Panama Canal, pictorial volumes, details of the dredging, maps, and records of medical activities related to the construction of the Canal.

The Stephen Spaulding Collection, established by Colonel and the late Mrs. Thomas M. Spaulding as a memorial to their son, contained 3,160 volumes on July 1, 1953. Today it consists of 6,145 volumes including the four-millionth book in the Library's collections. This volume was presented by Colonel Spaulding on October 9, 1969, to President Robben W. Fleming in a ceremony at Colonel Spaulding's residence in Washington, D.C. It is The Fayt of Armes and of Chyvalrye, printed by England's first printer, William Caxton, at Westminster, July 14, 1489. Of the Library's 423 incunable titles about 30 percent were given by Colonel Spaulding.

A noteworthy addition to the Stephen Spaulding Collection was a collection of 545 volumes bequeathed to the Library by Oliver Spaulding, Stephen Spaulding's cousin. Included in this collection were six incunabula, about 30 imprints of the 16th century, many fine editions of the Greek and Roman classics, belles-lettres, history, religion, a long run of the works of Renan, about 15 examples of different printings of Aucassin et Nicolette, and a collection of fine printing from such presses as the Kelmscott, Doves, and Ashendene.

The Asia Library benefited from two major acquisitions: a comprehensive subject-classified file acquired in 1970 on the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China (1966-69), containing material from newspapers, books, pamphlets, the "Red Guards" papers, local broadcasts monitored in Hong Kong, and reports made by American and Nationalist Chinese agencies; and a unique collection of 8,242 Japanese dramas in manuscript.

Two collections of drawings enhanced the collections of the Architecture Library. Two hundred and seventy-six architectural drawings by the distinguished architect, Albert Kahn, dating from 1891 to 1925 were presented to the library by his son, Dr. Edgar Kahn, and 31 rolls of large drawings by the famous landscape architect, Jens Jensen, as well as other archival material relating to him were presented by Professor Leonard Eaton in 1965.

Individual rarities added to the collections in the past eighteen years are too many to list in these pages but it is difficult not to mention three. One is the almost complete set, lacking only two out of 186 items, of the Page  279dissertations of Linné, published in 1743-76. All these dissertations were printed in small editions, and complete sets of the originals are exceedingly scarce. Even the famous Linné collection in the British Museum is not as complete in dissertations as this one. Another is the six-volume Kralice Bible (1579-93) which, apart from its religious significance, stands as a great achievement of Czech literature. Like Luther's Bible in German, the Kralice Bible set the standard for a vernacular language and orthography. The third is a copy of the first edition of the Theuerdank, Nuremberg, 1517. This was the last outstanding poem modeled on the old court epics of the Middle Ages. It is illustrated with superb woodcuts by noted German artists including Hans Burgkmair, Hans Schäufelein, and Leonhard Beck and it was the second earliest book to be printed in a fraktur type.

In the past eighteen years, services of the University Library system have increased at a rate far exceeding the increase in enrollment. Circulation of books for home use which totaled slightly less than 314,000 in fiscal year 1953 had increased to 1,214,000 by fiscal year 1971. The use of books within the libraries, always extremely difficult to measure in open shelf collections, is estimated to be three or four times as great as circulation for home use. Nor does the above statistic include the circulation of books from current reserve collections. In 1959 the Library extended the borrowing privilege to the faculty of other institutions of higher education in Michigan and in 1961 it liberalized its policy with respect to the lending of books to industry in Ann Arbor. All of this was a prelude to the establishment in 1968 of a so-called State Access Office funded with federal money granted to the state under the Library Services and Construction Act and made available by the State Department of Education and the State Library of Michigan for the purpose of providing efficient and comprehensive interlibrary loan service to the other libraries in the State. Establishment of this office was the direct consequence of the survey undertaken by Charles Nelson Associates at the instigation of the State Library in Lansing, which elicited the consensus from the faculty members of Michigan institutions of higher education that the best collections available in this state in their respective subject fields were those of The University of Michigan.

Other innovations in library service included experimentation with a telephone request and delivery service from the Hatcher Library to various departments of the College Page  280of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Much more important was the participation of the Medical Center Library in the MEDLARS Program of the National Library of Medicine whereby, using funds provided by the National Library, our Medical Center Library employed personnel specially trained to frame requests that could be processed through the National Library's computer store of medical literature, indexing and producing special bibliographies suited to a medical researcher's individual needs. Services from our MEDLARS Center have been extremely useful not only to researchers on the Michigan campus, but to physicians and researchers on the campuses of other institutions in the state and at various hospitals.

With respect to the administration of the University Library system numerous major changes should be reported. Foremost among these were: the development of middle management in the diversified and complex operations of the University Library; the application of systems analysis techniques to many of the Library's operations and, indeed, the employment of specialists in systems analysis for the solution of many of the problems facing the Library; the addition of specialists in various subject fields, primarily in the publications of Asian, Middle Eastern, and East European countries; increase in the responsibility of divisional librarians for book selection; the elimination of clerical work from the jobs of the professional staff, and a sharp increase in the nonacademic personnel employed relative to the professional staff in the Library; the introduction of the use of computer-assisted processes in acquisitions work, in circulation, and in the production of an annual edition of the Union List of Scientific and Technical Serials in The University of Michigan Libraries; and greatly increased attention to the techniques and demands of good personnel administration and of financial management. In 1970 the Library became a member of the Center for Research Libraries which, by that time, had become national rather than purely regional in its orientation. From fiscal 1953 to fiscal 1972 the staff of the University Library, on appropriated funds, increased from FTE 98.5 academic and 70.03 nonacademic positions to FTE 117.77 and 350.45 respectively. Its annual budget increased from $774,990 to $4,692,885.

Any list of personnel whose contributions to the Library were of great value during the past eighteen years would be far too long for these pages. Mention must be made, Page  281however, of Mr. Samuel W. McAllister, who continued as Associate Director until 1959; Mr. Rolland Stewart, who has served the Library since 1949 and has been successively the Chief Bibliographer, the Head of the Book Selection Department, Assistant Director for Technical Services and, since 1967, Associate Director for Public Services; Dr. Robert Muller, who served the Library for fifteen years first as Assistant Director for Technical Services and subsequently as Associate Director in charge of the science libraries and administrative services; and Mr. Joseph Treyz, who for six years was Assistant Director for Technical Services.