Although the Bureau of Psychological Services was not officially created by the Regents until September 28, 1945, two of its four programs of service had already been carried on by the University for many years under other names. Historically, the first of these was a program of psychological testing and evaluation of university students begun in 1927 by Dean Clarence Yoakum and conducted by him, until his death in 1945, in his role as Director and later, Vice-President in charge of Educational Investigations. The second service program incorporated into the newly created Bureau was that of the Psychological Clinic, which had been officially established by the Regents in 1938 at the suggestion of Professor Charles Griffitts of the Department of Psychology. Its purposes were: (a) to provide a comprehensive program of psychological testing, counseling, and clinical work with school Page 164children in both Ann Arbor and surrounding communities and (b) to provide professional training in clinical psychology for graduate students in psychology. Dr. Griffitts served as the first director until his resignation in 1944. In the fall of 1939, the Graduate School offered, for the first time, a professional graduate training program in clinical psychology. This was a two-year master-degree program, including a one-semester internship in the Clinic or other agency offering clinical services. The field work for this pioneering professional degree was supervised by a team of psychologists from the Psychological Clinic led by Dr. Wilma Donahue who, following Dr. Griffitts' resignation in 1944, assumed administrative responsibility for the Psychological Clinic.
With the end of World War II, student enrollment increased rapidly, resulting in the demand for additional and more comprehensive psychological services to students. In September 1945, the Clinic assumed responsibility for administering, scoring, and reporting the scores for all psychological and educational tests used for student admission, course placement, and counseling. Professional responsibility for this service of the Clinic was assigned to Professor M. W. Travers, who served on a joint appointment with Education until he left the University in 1948.
A further expansion of services to students resulted from the fact that the G.I. benefits available to World War II veterans included educational and vocational testing and counseling. Initially under contract with the Veterans Administration, these services to University of Michigan veteran-students were provided by a counseling service created in 1946 within the Psychological Clinic. Professor Edward Bordin, on a joint appointment with the Department of Psychology, assumed professional responsibility for this new student service. As the proportion of veteran-students declined, over the years, this service has been increasingly supported by General Funds.
With this considerably expanded program of psychological services, Dr. Donahue recommended a broader and more appropriate name for the "Psychological Clinic." Accordingly, in 1945, the Regents created the Bureau of Psychological Services of the Institute for Human Adjustment. Dr. Donahue organized the programs of the new Bureau into four relatively autonomous divisions: the Psychological Clinic, the Testing Division, the Research Division, and the Counseling Division. During the next three years, Dr. Donahue was also active in developing Page 165a program in gerontology. In 1949 she resigned from the Bureau to become Director of a new Program of Gerontology, also in the Institute for Human Adjustment. During the following year (1949-50), the Bureau operated under the guidance of Professor Clyde Coombs, Chief of the Research Division. Finally, in August 1950, Professor E. Lowell Kelly was appointed Director of the Bureau and has since served continuously on a joint appointment with the Department of Psychology.
On becoming Director, Dr. Kelly decided to eliminate the Research Division as a separate unit of the Bureau, believing that each of the three operating divisions should conduct its own program of research. He also changed the name of the Testing Division to the Evaluation and Examinations Division.
Shortly thereafter, a new fourth division of the Bureau was created. As the result of a widely-sensed need for a program in remedial reading to serve those students whose reading speed and comprehension were not adequate for the demands of university study, a group composed of representatives of the Department of English of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, of the School of Education, and administrative officers of the University recommended the development of a reading improvement program. The decision to administer this program through the Bureau was based on three considerations, (a) the program was to be equally available to all students in all schools and colleges, (b) the training was to be on a voluntary noncredit basis, and (c) it seemed desirable that it be closely coordinated with the Bureau's on-going programs of student testing and counseling. In 1952, the Division of Reading Improvement became the fourth unit of the Bureau. Its first Chief was Donald Smith who served on a joint appointment with the School of Education until 1967. As was expected, the largest proportion of students seeking this service were freshmen. Of interest, however, was the fact that the next largest group served was first-year graduate students. In addition to providing this specialized service to University students, the Reading Improvement Division developed a program of remedial reading for grade and high school students and provided training in remedial reading for public school teachers.
Because the services of the Evaluation and Examinations Division were primarily to administrative and instructional units of the University, e.g., Admissions, Page 166Schools, and Colleges rather than to individual students and clients, it was finally decided, in 1968, that this unit would function more smoothly if transferred to the Office of the Vice-President for Academic Affairs. Thus, for the last two years, the Bureau included three relatively autonomous operating divisions and a small administrative unit.
The Bureau has been indeed fortunate in the continuity of the leadership provided by its division chiefs. Dr. Bordin has been Chief of the Counseling Division since its beginning in 1946. Dr. Fred Wyatt has served as Chief of the Psychological Clinic since 1952. The Division of Reading Improvement has had but two Chiefs, Dr. Smith from its inception in 1952 to 1967 and Dr. Dale Brethower, who had served as Assistant Chief, since 1968. During this same period the Division of Evaluation and Examinations has had four Chiefs; Dr. Travers from 1945 to 1948, Dr. Edward Furst from 1948 to 1956, Dr. John Milholland from 1956 to 1964, and Dr. Benno Fricke since 1964. Dr. Fricke, however, had been Assistant Chief of the division since 1955.
While all divisions of the Bureau were created primarily to provide specialized services to the University and to its students, each also serves many other segments of the community. Thus the Evaluation and Examinations Division is responsible for the local administration of several national testing programs (College Board, Medical College Aptitude, Graduate Record, etc.). The other three divisions also make their specialized services available to individuals not connected with the University, on a sliding fee basis. (The fee income of the Psychological Clinic regularly exceeds its support from General Funds.) And while all services to students are now completely supported from General Funds, it should not be forgotten that each of these programs of service were begun and initially supported by the endowment income of the Mary A. Rackham Fund.
Over the years, the services provided by the Bureau have grown steadily and appear to meet important personal, educational, and social needs. It is likely, however, that the more important contribution of the Bureau has been its direct participation in the professional training of doctoral candidates to assume responsible positions in other settings. All senior staff members of the Bureau hold joint teaching appointments in psychology or education and all divisions provide excellent supervised practice and internship experiences for graduate students in their Page 167fields of specialization. The service divisions of the Bureau are generally regarded as model agencies of service and for field training.
In the last few years most of the programs of the one-time multifaceted Institute for Human Adjustment have been transferred to other units of the University, e.g., the Speech Clinic to the Medical School, the Fresh Air Camp to the School of Education, the Division of Gerontology becoming a separate Institute administered jointly with Wayne State University, and so forth. The result was that in 1970, the Bureau of Psychological Services was the only remaining unit of the Institute for Human Adjustment. Obviously, it was desirable that one or the other of these organizational names (and its Director) be dropped. As of July 1, 1971, the Bureau of Psychological Services became the Institute for Human Adjustment with Dr. Kelly as its Director.