The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
Page  [1757]

PART IX

Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

[missing figure]
The Michigan Union

Page  [1758]

Student Life and Organizations

Page  [unnumbered]
Page  1759

ENROLLMENT SURVEY

ENROLLMENT has more than doubled every twenty years at the University of Michigan. Beginning with only six freshmen and one sophomore in 1841, the first year of its operation in Ann Arbor, the University has steadily grown until it is among the largest in the world. In 1955-56, 33,723 students in credit and professional programs were taught by the faculty of the University.

The growth in size and the amount of service rendered can be significantly described in referring to the number of students earning degrees. Since 1845, when eleven students received degrees, 157,964 degrees have been granted, with 5,030 in 1955-56. The growth became so accelerated that in the nineteen-year period from 1937 to 1956 more degrees were awarded than in all the previous ninety-two years.

The University of Michigan has maintained, throughout the years, a strong undergraduate enrollment as a basis on which to build its graduate and graduate-professional programs.

The selective admissions policy has assured the University of students who have demonstrated the ability to succeed academically. For this reason the loss because of academic failure has been slight. The success of the freshmen and the high quality of the transfer students who enter the University, after acceptably completing work in other colleges, account for the high proportion of the number of degrees granted when compared to the number of students enrolled in degree or professional programs. The relation for the fiscal year of 1955-56 was 18.6 per cent. Even this high percentage was exceeded in many previous years.

The University of Michigan has, throughout its existence, been extremely popular with students outside the state. In the 1920's students came from all the states and more than thirty foreign countries. The cosmopolitan atmosphere of the University was maintained, and the out-of-state enrollment grew with the total University; in general one non-Michigan student registered for each two Michigan residents. Care was exercised to ensure that the out-of-state enrollment represented all parts of the country.

In the 1950's the seven counties adjoining the University's home county of Washtenaw contained more than one-half the population of the state, and they furnished nearly one-half of the Michigan enrollment at the University. The other counties furnished students to the University in proportion to their population also, and not in relation to their distance from Ann Arbor.

In the academic year of 1870-71 thirty-four women were admitted to the University. The percentage of women rose slowly for twenty-five years, reaching a plateau of about 20 per cent in 1895. In 1919-20 a new and higher percentage of women began to be enrolled. Near the end of World War II the percentage of women was at an all-time high of 47 per cent. The return of the men after the war reduced the ratio of women to men to about one to two, where it has since remained.

During wartime the facilities of the University were in great demand. In a six-year period, during and after World War II, 32,745 veterans attended University classes. Of this number 1,163 (3.6 per cent) were women. About one-third of the veterans came from beyond the borders of the state.

The first summer session was held in Page  17601894 for 91 students. The enrollment grew steadily, and in forty years became approximately one-half as large as the regular registration in the fall. This ratio was maintained for the next twenty years. Residence credit enrollment for the 1956 summer session was 9,028.

The need for extending the teaching services of the University beyond Ann Arbor was met by off-campus extension classes taught by regular faculty members. The first classes were held in 1911, and 230 students were enrolled in 1915-16. The enrollment for the academic year 1955-56 in extramural credit program classes was 5,011. An additional 977 persons took credit courses by correspondence in that year.

The demands upon the University's teaching facilities were so varied that many different programs were organized. The student accounting procedure followed the teaching program and was reported as follows for the academic year 1955-56.

There were 27,053 students registered in degree or postgraduate professional residence credit level programs. The postgraduate registrations were in programs designed to acquaint practicing physicians, dentists, and hospital workers with the latest developments in their fields. Although a degree was not the objective for this group, the instructional level was postgraduate.

Because some 850 postgraduate professional students were in training for less than half of the regular sessions they were counted separately.

The 5,988 students in extension credit courses utilizing classroom instruction and correspondence techniques were referred to above. In addition to these there were 600 students in extramural postgraduate professional medical programs of short duration but of an instructional level higher than that of first degree programs.

The enrollment in credit and professional programs referred to above was 33,723 in 1955-56.

The Extension Service also enrolled 6,994 students in certificate (noncredit) classroom courses which were offered because

Enrollment and Degrees Granted at the University of Michigan by Ten-Year Intervals (Fiscal Year Enrollments)
Year Credit & Professional Programs Residence Credit Degree and Post-graduate Professional Programs Degrees Granted
Total Men Women Total Men Women
1841-42 7 7 0 7 7 0 0
1850-51 159 159 0 159 159 0 18
1860-61 674 674 0 674 674 0 166
1870-71 1,110 1,076 34 1,110 1,076 34 304
1880-81 1,534 1,356 178 1,534 1,356 178 436
1890-91 2,420 1,975 445 2,420 1,975 445 635
1900-01 3,712 2,881 831 3,712 2,881 831 764
1910-11 5,381 4,467 914 5,381 4,467 914 1,096
1920-21 10,623 7,822 2,801 9,930 7,567 2,363 1,526
1930-31 15,500 9,765 5,735 12,531 8,538 3,993 2,673
1940-41 18,899 11,969 6,930 16,525 10,914 5,611 3,386
1950-51 31,339 21,425 9,914 25,649 18,116 7,533 6,399
1955-56 33,723 22,001 11,722 27,053 18,327 8,726 5,030
Page  1761of popular demand. An additional 1,101 students were served by correspondence.

All the above groups comprise 41,818 students enrolled in University instructional programs in 1955-56. Students registered in more than one credit program were counted only once. No registration was requested or count attempted of persons served by the instructional programs broadcast by the University's radio or television studios.

FEES AND EXPENSES

THE earliest fees established by the University were not for college students at all, but for the boys and girls in the Branches, which were really high schools or academies (see Part I: Branches). In November, 1837, the Regents fixed the annual fee for these students at ten dollars a year, except in Detroit and Monroe where the charge was fifteen dollars (R.P., 1837-64, p. 25). The fees actually collected, however, ranged from three dollars to ten dollars a term, depending on the course or curriculum pursued — the high rate being charged for individual instruction in music. School terms consisted of thirteen, fourteen, or fifteen weeks each.

When the University opened its doors to students of collegiate grade, the fees were the same as those which are shown in the first entry of the accompanying tables.* The faculty, in December, 1841, reported that each college student had paid an admission fee of ten dollars and was paying a "tax" for incidental expenses of about two dollars and fifty cents a term. The latter must have been identical with the charge of five to seven and one-half dollars a year, mentioned in early catalogues as the fee for room rent and janitor service. The faculty also reported that at this time board could be secured at from one and one-half to two dollars a week, washing was "from three to six shillings a dozen," and students paid up to one dollar and a half a cord for firewood.

It may be noted that the admission fee of ten dollars was not officially established by the Regents until October, 1842, although the faculty had been collecting it in the meantime. Tuition at the time was gratuitous. This was undoubtedly because the legislative act of 1837, providing for the organization of the University, specified that no charge for tuition should be made to citizens of the state. Consequently, when it was decided to collect a fee from each student, the expression "annual payment" was used, and the Regents' resolution distinctly states that this money was to defer incidental expenses. In 1880-81 the term "annual fee" was substituted for the words "annual payment."

The principle of charging higher fees to students not residents of Michigan was begun in the year 1865. In June, 1863, the finance committee of the Regents made a lengthy report on this subject, stating that the fact that all students, whether residents of Michigan or not, paid the same fees had been used to the injury of the University in the legislature (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 1043-50). Although Page  1762the committee recommended that an admission fee of twenty dollars be charged to residents of other states and twenty-five dollars to residents of foreign countries, no action was taken until March, 1865, and then the legislation applied only to the admission or matriculation fee. A differentiation was not made in the annual fees until 1877-78.

Until well after the turn of the century, University of Michigan fees remained remarkably low. From 1882-83 the schedule provided one fee for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and another, somewhat higher, which was uniform for the various professional schools. Such increases as were made during this period were usually voted upon by the Regents — in motions to increase all fees. In October, 1883, President Angell reported: "The fees have been raised in this University twice in the last eight years. In 1877 the annual fee and the diploma fee were each increased five dollars. In 1882 the annual fee for non-resident students in the Literary Department was again increased five dollars and in the Professional Schools ten dollars" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 596). In 1913-14 occurred a revision of the schedule whereby the library, the outdoor physical education fee, and the medical service or infirmary fee, all of which had been charged separately, were incorporated in the annual fees (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 709-11).

Another general study of the question took place in March, 1920, when a new schedule was adopted for the year 1920-21. In connection with the increases made at this time the Regents studied

Annual Fees, 1847-1932
L. S. and A. Eng., Arch., Med., Homeop. Med., Phar., Dent. Law
Catalogue Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1847-48 $.. $.. $.. $.. $.. $..
1859-60 5 .. 5 .. 5 ..
1864-65 5 5 5 5 5 5
1866-67 10 10 10 10 10 10
1874-75 15 20 15 20 15 20
1877-78 20 25 20 25 20 25
1882-83 20 30 25 35 30 50
1894-95 25* 35 30 40 30 40
1895-96 30 40 35 45 35 45
1905-6 30 40 45 55 45 55
L.S.A., Grad., Ed.,* B.Ad., For. & Con. Eng., Arch., Phar. Med., Homeop. (until 1922-23) Law Dentistry
Catalogue Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1910-11 $30 $40 $45 $55 $45 $55 $55 $65 $55 $75
1913-14 42 52 57 67 57 67 67 77 77 107
1917-18 44 64 59 89* 102 122 69 79 109 129
1921-22 82-77 107-102 97-92 122-117 142-137 202-197 107-102 127-122 142-137 127-122
1926-27 93 118 108 133 188 268 118 138 208 268
1929-30 98 123 113 138 193 273 123 143 213 273
1931-32 98-103 123-128* 113-118 138-143 200-205 300-305 123-128 143-148 225-230 300-305
Page  1763Semester Fees, 1932-56
L.S.A., Grad., Ed., B.Ad., For. & Con. Eng., Arch., Phar. Med., Homeop. (until 1922-23) Law Dentistry
Catalogue Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1932-33 $50 $62 $57 $70 $100 $150 $62 $72 $113 $150
1935-36 55 75 60 80 110 175 70 100 110 150
L.S.A., Ed., Grad., B. Ad., For. & Con., Pub. Health., Soc. Wk. Eng., Pharm., Arch. & Des. Medical Law Dentistry Music Nursing Public Health Grad.
Year Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1936-37 $ 55 $ 75 $ 60 $ 80 $110 $175 $ 70 $100 $110 $150 $ 40
1940-41 60 100 65 120 125 200 80 125 115 160 $ 60 $100 40
1945-46 65 110 70 130 140 225 90 140 140 210 130 200 40 $ 60 $100 $150
1950-51 75 200 75 200 145 275 105 225 145 275 145 250 55 120 105 225
1955-56 100 235 100 235 220 385 140 275 220 385 165 290 100 235 165 330
1944-45 — Music fees increased to include Applied Music.
1945-46 — Public Health and Nursing nonresident fee appears in schedule. Medical and Dental fee equalized.
1946-47 — Institute of Social Work fee appears in schedule. Engineering, Pharmacy, and Architecture and Design fees equalized with those in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
the fees of other institutions, and it may be said that the general policy has been to keep the rates at Michigan in line with those charged by other state universities. The fees which made up the schedule in 1920-21 included not only the Library, outdoor physical education, and Health Service charges but also the annual dues of the Michigan Union and the Michigan League, and, since these were not the same at this time, for a number of years it was necessary to collect different amounts from the men and the women.

Of changes affecting only special groups of students, perhaps the most important was that made in 1922 concerning the fee for part-time students, who could elect not more than five hours in any semester upon the payment of an annual fee of twenty-five dollars. The President's Report for 1921-22 states: "Such students, if entering the University for the first time, must also pay the usual matriculation fee and they must understand that the part-time fee of twenty-five dollars covers only the usual privileges of study and tuition" (P.R., 1921-22, p. 155). Important changes made since 1922 were the introduction of semester fees in 1933 and the incorporation of the matriculation and diploma fees in the semester fees in 1935-36.

The tables showing student expenses from year to year are in the main a reflection of general social and economic conditions. Very little was paid in pre-Civil War times as compared to necessary disbursements nowadays, but low prices were generally current then, and living conditions much simpler and more crude than they are today. After it was decided to discontinue the dormitory system, the Catalogue for many years quoted rates at which board and room could be obtained in private homes. From 1870 the cost of board in "eating clubs" was also given. The fact that this form of statement has changed in recent years indicates a change in student customs. Nowadays comparatively few students board and lodge with private families. Eating clubs have given way to Page  1764cafeterias and restaurants, and dormitories, again a feature of life at Michigan, house many students.

A noticeable rise in prices took place after the Civil War. The first of a number of studies of student expenditures was made in 1870-71, and the Catalogue for that year states that an average of such expenses over the preceding seven years had been three hundred and sixty-two dollars. Leveled off at three hundred and seventy dollars, this was the official estimate as late as 1907. In that year a further rise in prices began, reaching the peak at about the time of the stock market collapse in 1929.

The 1920's also show a decided increase in room rents, reflecting the room shortage at that time. The enrollment of the University increased markedly at the end of World War I, and during the administration of President Burton an active building program was carried out which involved the acquisition by the University of a number of tracts near the campus and the removal of houses in which rooms had been rented to students. A tendency for families to prefer apartments rather than houses, in which few rooms would be available for student lodgings, was also growing during this period. New dormitories have helped to relieve the situation, but there is, nevertheless, still a shortage of approved housing accommodations near the campus, and students have been forced to seek rooms farther and farther away.

It would appear that estimates printed in more recent catalogues are based on more careful studies of the situation than those made earlier. Obviously, early catalogues tended to repeat the same statements from year to year, and, while the rates given in the 1920's conform more closely to the current fees, the catalogues may have erred somewhat in failing to recognize that students who were

Average Annual Expense
Catalogue Total
1847-48 $ 70-100
1854-55 100
1857-58 125-150
1864-65 125-175
1870-71 362
1874-75 370, approximately
1907-8 400, approximately
1910-11 400-500
1915-16 500
1917-18 500 plus
1920-21 600 or more, average
1925-26 715-755*
1931-32 664 (men), 669 (women); nonresidents, 704-709 plus 150 for incidentals
1932-33 565-604 (nonresidents), plus incidentals
1935-36 347-387, economical schedule, 530-570, average schedule, plus incidentals
1937-38 530-570
1939-40 550-630
1941-42 855-975*
1944-45 750-840
1946-47 820-980
1948-49 820-1,030
1950-51 775-1,025
1951-52 885-1,105
1952-53 905-1,155
1953-54 955-1,205
1954-55 955-1,205
1955-56 1,025-1,295
forced to conserve their resources could by strict economy and by rooming in less desirable locations live at lower rates. More recent estimates, for this reason, have given both an economical and a so-called average schedule of expenses.

Special Fees

Fuel. — Wood was charged at cost in the early dormitories. The use of college buildings as dormitories was discontinued in the 1850's. Page  1765

Expenses for Board and Room Rent per Week
Year Room Board Board and Room
1847-48 $5.00-$7.50* ..... .....
1859-60 ..... ..... $2.00-$3.60
1867-68 ..... ..... 3.00- 6.00
1870-71 0.75- 2.00 $1.50- 2.00 3.00- 5.00
1905-6 0.75- 2.00 2.50- 3.00 3.50- 6.00
1910-11 0.75- 2.75 3.00- 4.00 3.50- 6.00
1915-16 1.00- 3.00 3.50- 4.50 4.00- 6.00
1917-19* 2.00- 4.00 4.00- 5.00 6.00- 8.00
1925-26 4.50 7.00 .....
1931-32 4.50 8.00 .....
1933-34 2.00- 4.00 3.50- 6.50 .....
Two-Semester Average Charge in Residence Halls
Year Room Board Board and Room
1936-37 $120 $195
1940-41 150 230
1945-46 170 340
1950-51* $560
1951-52 630
1952-63 650
1954-55 700
1955-56 750

Matriculation Fee. — Until 1880-81 this was called the "admission fee." In the beginning it was ten dollars for all students. The Catalogue of 1864-65 announces a change to ten dollars for residents of Michigan and twenty dollars for all others; that of 1866-67 gives the figures as ten dollars and twenty-five dollars, respectively. These rates were charged until 1935-36, when the matriculation fee was absorbed in the semester fee.

Diploma. — A general diploma fee of ten dollars, which appears in the 1882-83 Catalogue, was charged until 1935-36, when it was also absorbed in the semester fee. Previously, two dollars had been charged for a medical diploma (Cat., 1851-52); the teacher's certificate, two dollars, was first mentioned in the 1907-8 Calendar, Business Administration certificates in 1918-19, and Journalism and Geology certificates in 1922-23.

Deposits against Damage. — In the early years a deposit of one dollar was required of medical students.

Laboratory Fees. — These were first mentioned in the Calendar for 1880-81. "Demonstration courses" in Medicine at ten dollars per course were listed in catalogues from 1898-99 through 1915-16.

Summer Session Fees. — These fees first appeared in the Calendar of 1897-98. A ten dollar fee for a summer surveying course first appeared in the 1905-6 Calendar.

Gymnasium Locker Fees. — A fee of two dollars first appeared in the Calendar of 1898-99. A special Palmer Field fee of one dollar was charged in 1909-10. Beginning in 1912-13 an outdoor physical education fee of five dollars was charged for all students; this was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14. Locker fees are still charged.

Library Fees. — A fee of two dollars was charged law students, according to the Calendar of 1903-4, and all students from 1910-11; this was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14.

Health Service Fee. — A fee of two dollars (fifty cents for the summer session) was listed in the 1911-12 Calendar. This was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14.

Page  1766

STUDENT TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS

ALTHOUGH student life at Michigan has been rich in traditions, many of them have been comparatively short-lived. Efforts by the various classes to "establish" traditions often resulted in practices which died out without leaving a memory or a record of their demise. Class observances, such as the "Burning of Mechanics," the carrying of canes, the wearing of caps and pins, "exhibitions," dances, banquets, and games, have come and gone with time. Yet some have persisted throughout the years. When the Michigan Union was established in 1904 and the Student Council in 1905, central agencies were set up to preserve some of the old traditions. The great growth of the student body, however, and the formation of clubs and societies did much to dissipate class spirit and to lessen the interest in class activities. Organized athletics also provided a greater outlet for student emotional exuberance, with the result that many of the old customs were lost in the maze and helter-skelter of student life.

The wearing of some type of class cap has been traditional since the early days of the University. In 1868 students of the Literary Department adopted an "Oxford" style of class cap, blue with a square top, a black tassel in the center, and a movable "U. of M." visor. Caps with the class date '70, however, appear to have caused confusion and trouble because their wearers were not always members of that class; as a result this particular type of cap became an oddity. It is interesting to note that in 1870 Acting President Frieze and various professors also wore caps somewhat similar in style. The class of '72 adopted caps of blue broadcloth with small tassels and the class numerals in silver braid. The class of '73, of course, "rushed" them after chapel by throwing flour from the top of the stairs leading to the law lecture room, where the exercises were held. In 1877 a genuine mortar-board style of cap was chosen, but owing to lack of interest the effort to preserve the tradition failed at that time. Most of the senior classes wore distinctive caps in 1880, however, and the prevailing style in that year was the mortar board. In 1881 the seniors wore maroon fez caps with old-gold tassels, the juniors white "plugs," the sophomores white "derbies," and the freshmen black mortar boards with cardinal tassels. Senior "medics" wore black silk hats, the senior "laws" straw "derbies" with bands of blue and maize, and the pharmacy students Mackinac straw hats with bands of old-gold and cardinal. The sophomores of '85 and '87 also adopted class caps. During the early 1900's the tradition was revived for the freshman class, which adopted the once familiar gray "pot," with colored button to designate the school or department.

Cap Night was first celebrated on Saturday, June 11, 1904, at a student mass meeting held about a bonfire near the Medical Building. Songs were sung, speeches made, and the freshmen, as a symbol of their "graduating" from the ranks of "first-year men," burned the gray caps which they had worn all year. The celebration became an annual affair. Cap Night, held in "Sleepy Hollow," was designated in 1906 as the "first Saturday night in June," and the custom was continued for many years. Under the direction of the Student Council, the classes marched to the meeting place, in the 1920's the hollow to the east of the main Hospital Building, the senior class in cap and gown, to watch the burning of the caps. "M's" Page  1767were awarded to deserving athletes, and songs, speeches, and cheers marked the occasion. With the increase in enrollment, however, and the consequent loss of class spirit, the students became more and more reluctant to wear their caps, and in September, 1934, the custom was abolished by the Executive Committee of the Undergraduate Council (Student Council).

In 1910 the class toque came into vogue. This was worn by all the classes — seniors, blue with white band; juniors, white with blue band; sophomores, maroon with band of white; and freshmen, solid gray. Tassels of proper hue, designating school or college, adorned the toques. This custom, too, has gone the way of other student traditions.

Class canes were carried for the first time by the class of 1869. The class of '73 dropped the custom, but the class of '77 revived it. In 1889, when the old picket fence surrounding the campus was torn down, the seniors made themselves canes from the cedar posts. Later, enterprising merchants supplied canes from the same source. In 1923 May 5 was officially designated as Cane Day, and in 1928, April 29 was so observed. It was customary for the seniors to begin carrying their class canes during the month of May preceding graduation. From 1934 the senior classes observed the tradition sporadically, and it more or less died out by the end of the 1930's.

Class badges never became popular nor traditional at Michigan. The class of '74 wore an interlaced triangle and circle as a distinguishing seal of the class; the law class of '86 had a pin, and class pins have been worn by other graduating classes. Fraternity pins and pins representing distinctive student organizations and clubs destroyed interest in the class pin.

The first Class Exhibition was held in the old Presbyterian Church by the sophomore class on the evening of August 10, 1843. Orations, dissertations, essays, and poems were delivered, every member of the class participating. At the last Exhibition of this type, on April 29, 1870, by the class of '72, members of the class of '73 heckled the speakers, threw grass bouquets, and even hurled a rooster from the gallery to the stage of the Methodist Church, creating such a disturbance that the event was discontinued. At this time four members of the class were suspended for a period of six months and others for a longer period.

The first Junior Exhibition was held on August 14, 1844, and from that time the Junior Exhibition became deeply rooted in the traditions of the college. Speakers were elected by the faculty, and the distinction and the honor of being chosen were much coveted. From 1867 to 1877 speakers were selected from members of the class, and every member took part in the program. In the late 1870's, the Junior Exhibition was lampooned and burlesqued in mock programs by members of other classes or by those members of the class who had not been chosen to participate. After 1877, because of the resultant friction and unpleasantness, guest speakers were selected. The "Laws" and the "Medics" did not participate in the Exhibition; it was purely a practice of the Literary College.

The first Freshman Exhibition was given by the class of '72 on the evening of May 28, 1869. In 1869 Professor Frieze established "University Day" for the purpose of drawing more closely together the students of the various departments of the University. Only two are recorded. Perhaps the "University Day" celebration envisioned by Professor Frieze has furnished a precedent for the modern convocation, which was revived in 1913.

Page  1768On the evening before Class Day, May 27, 1873, a reception for the senior class was instituted. Dancing took place in Professor Cocker's lecture room in University Hall. The custom was continued until 1877, when religious bodies in the state made loud their objections to dancing in University buildings. The students then erected a pavilion on the campus for this purpose. In 1882 the Regents removed the restriction on dancing, and a reception and dance were held, thus establishing a tradition which continued for many years as the Senior Reception, given at that time on the Wednesday evening of Commencement week.

In 1885 Commencement for all schools and colleges of the University was held for the first time on the same day. Until then, the various schools and colleges had held independent exercises. In 1870 Professor Frieze began the custom of holding a Commencement Banquet to which alumni and guests of the University were invited. This occasion, later established officially by the Board of Regents, inaugurated the "Alumni Banquet" of Commencement week, held annually on Alumni Day. As Commencement time approached, it also became customary for the senior class to hold "sings" on the campus — in later years on or before the Library steps. Earlier, in both the spring and the fall, the seniors customarily gathered once a week about the "senior bench" to sing informally.

Swing-out, an old and venerable, as well as a beautiful tradition of the senior class, was held in May and celebrated the first wearing of the cap and gown. Because of lack of interest and respect for this honored old tradition, especially noticeable in the 1920's during the "prohibition era," Swing-out was discontinued in 1934 by action of the Student Council.

One of the most interesting and venerated of student traditions was the "burning of Mechanics" or, as it was sometimes called, the "hanging" of Mechanics, Physics, or Mathematics. Originally, it took place in honor of the completion of the course in physics under Professor ("Punky") Williams. It was celebrated as early as February 6, 1860, by the class of '61, and lasted, with interruptions and variations, until the early 1900's. The ceremonies were unique. Usually a procession of "solemn officials" in costume escorted the "corpus," borne on an elaborate bier, to a place of judgment, where the victim — the course in mechanics (physics, mathematics) — was most impressively "tried," "condemned," and "executed."

Programs printed for the occasion are among the most interesting memorabilia of student life. They were interesting, amusing, and sometimes "objectionable." The class of '64 severed the "Mechanical Jugular"; that of '65 "'suspended' the Physical Corpus"; the class of '66 used the method of "spontaneous combustion"; and that of '67 conducted an "Ignominious Execution of Physica Mechanica." At that time eight juniors armed with bayonets guarded the "corpus" from the infuriated sophomores, whose class cap had been placed upon the head of the "corpus," a skull furnished by the "medics!"

During the later years of Professor Williams' incumbency, from 1868 on, the custom was not regularly observed. The class of '74 celebrated it in 1873, and we read that the procession on that occasion was headed by the Grand Marshal on horseback, personifying King William of Germany. Then followed the dray bearing the culprit, who was presided over by a young "devil," one-half black and the other red, provided with horns, tail, and tripod. Then came the junior class, arrayed in fantastic costumes and armed with torches. The Page  1769principal characters were the judges and lawyers, with their white wigs and ermine cloaks, a bishop with his tall hat and string of "beads" (potatoes), and the members of the female delegation, who were truly ridiculous. In the course of march, they halted in front of the residence of the professor of physics and greeted him with hearty cheers. On the campus an immense crowd awaited, and the students immediately proceeded to the stage and commenced the trial. The prosecuting attorney alluded to the fact that physics had robbed them of much midnight oil and disturbed their dreams. This crime was great, and justice demanded his life. The counsel for the defense pleaded mercy for his client … But all his eloquence had no weight with the relentless judge, who sentenced the culprit to immediate death by hanging. On the class program of 1879, we read of the "Crematio Physicae Mechanicae," with the heading "Physics is dead, that mean old cuss, he'll never bore us more," illustrated by the picture of an imp being roasted over a fire.

Class dances have always been traditional social customs. In 1868 the graduating class gave the first Senior Hop on the eve before Thanksgiving day. This became the most definitely organized and important student social function of that time. In 1870 the Senior Social was instituted. The class of '71 gave the last Senior Hop. The juniors adopted the idea, however, and in 1872 occurred the first Junior Hop, now known as the "J-Hop." From 1880 to 1887 a Society Hop was held by the fraternities and independents. The Junior Hop was established under fraternity control by 1886, the fraternities by this time having assumed leadership in social affairs. There was considerable difficulty and rivalry between the fraternities and the independents — between the Palladium (fraternity) and non-Palladium (nonfraternity) groups. In 1896, the junior class desiring more definite control of this social activity, a constitution was drawn up to guide the Hop Committee. The dance was held, in early days, at the Gregory House, the old hotel on the northwest corner of Main and Huron streets. It was held in the Armory in 1876, and in the 1880's, it was often held in Hangsterfer's Hall, at the southwest corner of Main and Washington streets. Later, it was given in Waterman Gymnasium and later still in the Sports Building. Disorderly conduct of the students and public criticism have on several occasions compelled the University to ban the Hop for a given year. Long ago, however, it established itself as a major social tradition.

Academic Gowns

The class of 1894 of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts was the first to wear academic gowns at a Michigan Commencement. The students of the Law School and the Medical School opposed the idea. When told that it was an old English custom to use academic dress on important occasions they replied: "I suppose then that if someone told you it was raining in England, you'd turn up your trousers." The debate raged for weeks. Finally, some of the "Lits" bought gowns, and the "Laws" and the "Medics" served notice that anyone appearing on campus in such garb would be forcibly disrobed. That was the last year in which morning chapel was held in University Hall in what later became the offices of the recorder and of the dean of students.

The gown-wearing "Lits" set the day on which they were to appear, and the turbulent senior "Laws" prepared for a fracas. The dean of the Law School, learning of their designs, scheduled an Page  1770examination in order to keep them fully occupied during the danger period. The junior "Laws" then took up the cudgels. The "Lits" met in University Hall, donned their robes, and went to chapel in a body. All was calm until they started to leave after the service. The junior "Laws" were waiting at the door. As the procession approached, with Dean Martin L. D'Ooge and President Angell at the head, the "Laws" flashed into action. Dean D'Ooge demanded, "Young gentlemen, young gentlemen, what does this mean?" His question was ignored, and the invaders reached for the first gown. Just then "Prexy" went into action. Beaming upon the vandals with his most genial smile he inquired, "Can I do anything for you, gentlemen?" The enemy sheepishly disappeared. Later, however, a formal challenge to a "rush" was sent to the gownites and as formally accepted. The same evening the "Medics" and the "Laws," robed in nightshirts, met the "Lits." The battle was long and furious, but the "Lits" won. The next morning the fraternity houses on State Street were all aflutter with white streamers torn from the back of the enemy. This was the origin of the famous nightshirt parade which became an annual feature greatly enjoyed by the youth of the University community until the night when the leaders lost their heads and invaded the Library, creating such a disturbance that the parade was abolished.

In later years Swing-out was staged in connection with the vesper services held at four o'clock on Tuesdays and Thursdays in University Hall. These services, which replaced the old chapel services, were well attended by students and townspeople; in those days the Columbian organ was still new and people flocked to hear it.

Once the custom of wearing gowns was established in the Literary College, it was soon adopted by all the senior classes, resulting in part, no doubt, because of the strong contrast between the simple dignity of the black robes and the fantastic garb worn by some of the other students.

The student habit of flipping the tassel on the mortar board from left to right upon completion of graduation is without legitimate grounds; the American Council on Education has ruled that the custom is a mere "superstition."

Gowns for all bachelor's degree candidates should be black serge or worsted, with pointed sleeves; for the master's degree, black silk, serge, or worsted, with long closed sleeves; for the doctorate, black silk, with open round sleeves, faced down the front with velvet, with three velvet bars across each sleeve. The velvet should be black or a color that corresponds to the college or department which is granting the degree. All hoods should be of the same material as the gown and lined with yellow and blue. The edging of the hood should be of satin, silk, or velvet, the color indicating the department named in the diploma. Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degree hoods should be distinguished by length and width of edging. Mortar board caps of black serge or worsted covering are worn with all robes, with tassel of black or the color of the department granting the degree. Recipients of doctorates may wear tassels of gold thread on the regular cap. While tassels may hang on any side, the cap is an integral part of academic dress and should not be removed except during prayer. Colors distinctive of the various schools, colleges, and departments to which degrees pertain are: arts and letters, white; philosophy, dark blue; science, golden yellow; engineering, orange; fine arts and architecture, brown; law, purple; medicine, green; pharmacy, olive-green; dentistry, lilac; forestry, russet; education, light blue; Page  1771business administration, drab; library science, lemon; public health, salmon pink; music, pink; public administration, black; nursing, apricot; and social work, citron.

Chapel Services

In the early days of the University, students and faculty were up betimes. The first requirement of the day was attendance at chapel — in the fall and the spring at five-thirty in the morning, and during the winter at six-thirty. Because the services were held in North College (Mason Hall), which was used also as a dormitory, the students had not far to go. Members of the faculty who lived in the residences on the campus were also near at hand. A recitation followed immediately, before the students were free to go to breakfast at private homes in town. There was a second chapel session at four-thirty or five in the afternoon.

Religious influence was strong in the University. It could scarcely have been otherwise, for the first two professors were ministers. The Reverend George Palmer Williams, who taught natural philosophy, physics, and mathematics, was an Episcopalian, and the Reverend Joseph Whiting, who taught Latin and Greek, was a Presbyterian. Both were capable teachers, but they were selected, at least in part, to counteract the feeling in some circles that a state university would be a godless institution.

For the same reason, probably, attendance at chapel was made compulsory, and students were required to be at church on Sunday in the denomination of their choice. A proctor at each took roll. So determined were the Regents to avoid hostile criticism from religious organizations that for a number of years each of the leading Protestant sects was given representation on the faculty.

The religious practices at the University of Michigan, like the curriculum, were patterned after those of the colleges and universities in the East. Lyman D. Norris, who entered with the first class in 1841, left after three years and was admitted to Yale. In letters to his parents he explained that the programs, both academic and religious, were the same in New Haven as in Ann Arbor.

In 1856 President Henry Philip Tappan abolished the dormitory system because the buildings were needed for classrooms. Students had to find living quarters in town. Perhaps in recognition of the fact that they lived at some distance from the building, the President set the hour for chapel at seven forty-five.

After the Medical School was established in 1850, the announcement in the Catalogue read: "The undergraduate students are required to attend prayers daily in the College chapel." Because a candidate for admission to the Medical School had only to present "satisfactory evidence of good moral character, … [evidence] of a good English education, the knowledge of Natural Philosophy, the elementary Mathematical Sciences, and such an acquaintance with the Latin and Greek Languages as will enable … [him] to appreciate the technical language of medicine and read and write prescriptions," he could scarcely be called a graduate. The real reason for discrimination was that the room used for chapel was large enough for only the Literary students. In 1862 the Regents discussed the possibility of raising funds by subscription to build a chapel, but nothing was done.

Although the program in chapel was probably changed from time to time, the usual order consisted of a prayer and a brief address by the President, a hymn, and announcements. In 1870 Acting-President Henry Simmons Frieze introduced choral music. On Saturdays students Page  1772gave speeches. Saturday services were discontinued in 1871, and a few years later, attendance was made voluntary.

Professor Charles K. Wead explained in a letter written in 1877 that chapel was held at nine-fifteen "for those who choose to attend: from a third to a half of the academic students are usually present — that is, a majority of those who come out of recitation at 9:15 or are to go in at 9:30." He reported that President Angell always conducted the service. Morning prayers continued on this basis until 1895, when they were replaced by semiweekly vesper services.

During the period when attendance was required, some of the students, as might be expected, deliberately cut chapel. Proctors may have had some difficulty in taking roll, for in 1856, according to Daniel Satterthwaite's diary, the seats were numbered to facilitate checking. Because they had little interest in the proceedings, many of the students engaged in horseplay. Hostilities between sophomores and freshmen were carried into chapel, and ribald chants, shouts, and the throwing of hymnbooks, apple cores, and other missiles continued during the service.

This unchecked disorder apparently discouraged members of the faculty from being present. Their absence was resented by the students. One of them, Vincent S. Lovell, on February 7, 1870, wrote in his diary the following observation on the subject: "Quite an array of Professors at prayers this morning. It has always seemed to me as if the Faculty could require the attendance of the students with a good deal better grace, if there were more of them at morning prayers themselves."

A short while after Dr. James B. Angell became President, he wrote a letter in which he described his initial experiences in chapel. At the first session which he attended there was boisterous singing and throwing of missiles before the service began, and there was some commotion while it was in progress. According to Dr. Angell, this condition had prevailed for twenty years, and no president could stop it.

Dr. Angell reported that he did not preside at this first session but that he spoke briefly after the prayer, making no reference to the disorder. The boys went out noisily. The next morning, the President was in the room before the students entered. When he saw some sophomores preparing to throw nuts at the freshmen, he asked them to refrain. They obeyed. As the boys went out, there was some shouting. On the third morning the students were quiet. Dr. Angell made some remarks about the previous disturbances. The boys listened quietly, and there had been no further outbreaks up to the time of writing. Some students, however, found other means of amusement. Later, a horse was brought into chapel, and on another occasion freshmen put varnish on the sophomores' benches. President Angell had the respect of the students, and, in spite of such occasional lapses, during his administration the service was conducted in a dignified manner.

Class and Interschool Rivalry

Class rivalry, particularly between the freshman and sophomore classes, has been traditional ever since the early days of the University. This feeling, which has found expression in many forms, has been the result not only of student enthusiasm but particularly of an effort and a desire on the part of those already on the campus to initiate newcomers. From the first, there was rivalry between members of the various schools — for example, between the "Medics" and Page  1773"Laws," or the "Lits" and "Medics" and "Laws."

When the University Senate, in the late 1860's, established University Day in order to bring about a closer relationship between the students in the different departments, disputes arose concerning the selection of the chief officers for that day. The order of march finally decided upon was Medical class, Law class, and Literary class. The first University Day took place on November 17, 1869. The second, on November 21, 1870, resulted in a fight. The order of the classes on that occasion was Law, Literary, and Medical. As the procession returned from the exercises, which were held in one of the city churches, the "Laws," who were carrying the blue silk banner of their department, were attacked by undergraduate "Lits." A wild "rush" followed, with considerable damage to the members of the classes and the tearing of the banner. Such bitter feeling resulted that the celebration of University Day had to be abandoned.

In 1872 members of the Medical class tried to play football on the same field on which the contest between the freshman and sophomore Literary classes was scheduled. A struggle resulted between the "Lits" and "Medics," but the "Lits" succeeded in driving the "Medics" off the campus and outside the fence. Many spectators watched the long struggle in which, it is said, "nearly 700 or more men pushed and shouted and tugged and wrestled." The "Lits" marched in triumphant procession, arranged in the order of their classes, into the town where with cheers and songs they celebrated their victory.

When the students lived in the college dormitories it was customary for individual classes to meet in the same recitation rooms day after day. In addition to a desire to show their class spirit by wearing caps and colors, they also gave vent to their feelings by hazing and "rushing." The classes of '68, '70, and '73 seem to have had a superabundance of such spirit. Strong class friendships and interests helped to increase class rivalry. With the growth of the University, however, the number of student rooming houses decreased, compulsory attendance at chapel was discontinued, and, as a result, class spirit decreased. After the introduction of the elective system of studies, whereby members of the various classes often met in the same room, the consciousness of class distinction died down.

Before the building of University Hall, however, when conditions in the Literary College were so crowded, "rushes" ensued in corridors and on stairways, in which the freshmen tussled with the "sophs." In October, 1867, a fight between the two classes inaugurated the custom of holding good-natured tests of strength, in which the faculty did not intervene. When the class of '72 vented its wrath upon the class of '73 by hurling apples and other missiles in chapel, the faculty took action, and a per capita assessment upon the culprits to pay for damage done to the chapel was made. Soon rivalry took the form of football contests between the classes. Each side mustered an indefinite number of men; the object, in a fairly simple style of football, was to kick two out of three goals. Boxing and wrestling matches often accompanied the game, and the result was a so-called "football rush." The rivalry between the classes of '92 and '93, between 117 sophomores and 163 freshmen, resulting in injury to one freshman, helped to do away with this form of sport.

During hazing activities between the classes of '73 and '74, a band of sophomores "pumped" a group of freshmen by treating their heads to a cold water bath. This form of hazing was a popular college Page  1774sport. By the spring of 1874, hazing had become so common that it was looked upon as a nuisance, and the faculty determined to put an end to it by using the penalty of suspension. In April, 1874, three sophomores and three freshmen were suspended, thus arousing great indignation among the students. Parades and meetings were held, and two faculty members were hissed on the street. Fellow members of the sophomore and freshman classes filed petitions claiming equal guilt with the suspended students. This resulted, finally, in the dismissal of all eighty-one students for the remainder of the college year, with a great deal of attendant publicity.

During the 1880's, it was popular to kidnap the toastmaster of the freshman banquet. The introduction and popularity of organized athletic sports and games and organized physical exercise did much to divert excessive class spirit into other and less disturbing channels. At the same time, with the growth of the University, student clubs and societies were organized, resulting in a more systematic control of student affairs and of all nonathletic relationships. This systematic organization of student life began in the 1870's; by 1905 a student council had been organized to guide and assist in all such matters.

In the 1890's the class rivalries found expression in the "banner scrap." In fall, several weeks after the opening of college, on a designated Friday, the freshmen would gather about the flagpole to defend their banner against the sophomore class. The struggle lasted until the sophomores captured the freshman banner or until such time as the freshmen had been able to defend it for at least thirty minutes. After the contest, both classes continued to indulge their competitive zest, largely in an attempt to force members of the other class up trees. The freshman banquet customarily took place in February in Granger's Academy. The sophomores aimed to keep as many freshmen as possible from attending. For a time this was done by capturing freshmen and shaving the hair from their heads. This practice became such a nuisance and aroused so much criticism that it was abolished in 1906. In May four big contests were held. The "Tug of War," in which sixty members of the freshman class opposed sixty members of the sophomore class took place on the Huron River. A flag was fastened to the middle of a 350-foot rope, and the victors had to pull their opponents across the river in such a way that the flag arrived high and dry on the winning side. This contest was supervised by the Student Council. On the eve of the "Tug of War" the "Great Rock Scrap" took place. From 8:00 p.m. until 6:00 a.m. the following morning the freshmen attempted to place a large rock bearing their class numerals upon the campus, which during that time was defended by the sophomores. On the following morning, at Ferry Field, the contest between the classes was continued by a Relay Race and a Push Ball contest. The classes were so well organized that every member was able to participate in one or more of these contests. At their close, class rivalry for the school year was considered at an end. Cap Night, held in June, celebrated the cessation of hostilities.

Oftentimes, adventurous spirits performed harmless but rather unpleasant "pranks" in the name of their class. Members of the class of '73 unfurled a huge "Junior Brigands" banner on the flagstaff which surmounted the dome of the newly completed University Hall. A "tobacco-sign Indian" also found its way to the pedestal above the dome. To the Indian were tied four roosters, which crowed unceasingly and distressfully from the middle of the night until released Page  1775in the morning by the sore-pressed and disgusted janitor. In very early days a bell, mounted on a post between the North and South buildings (old Mason Hall and South Wing), was rung to awaken the inhabitants of the dormitories and to summon them to classes and chapel. A common student prank was to muffle the bell, to steal it, or in some way to render it useless so that it could not ring. Upon one occasion, following the theft of the bell, President Tappan's wise handling of the situation so shamed the malefactors that they not only returned it but agreed to attend classes regularly without being summoned. In those days strict attendance records were kept. Practical jokers, out of pure mischief, were not adverse to lodging a donkey or a cow (at that time animals were frequently pastured on the campus), a goose or a rooster in the classroom, to the surprise and discomfiture of the professor and the childish glee of a few boisterous spirits. Once a large amount of hay found its way into chapel before the exercises. Certainly such "jokes" were crude, but were they any less annoying than the present-day custom of painting class numerals on sidewalks and University buildings or of invading women's dormitories in raids?

In 1900, when interdepartmental rivalry ran high among the students, the "Lits" raised the class banner, flaunting the numerals of the class, to the top of the University flagpole. The enraged "Laws" enlisted the aid of a sharpshooter from the West, who brought the emblem down at the second shot. During the early 1900's, the practices of haircutting, face-painting, house-raiding, kidnaping — particularly of officers of the rival classes — were common. "Campus tickets" were sold to gullible freshmen every fall. The rivalry between the freshman and sophomore classes on "Black Friday" in the fall was accompanied by much disorder and unruly conduct. "Pumping" and "hair-cutting" activities and "traditions" had become a veritable "nightmare." In October, 1908, the Law faculty took measures which led to the "reform" of the traditional class "rush" and did much to abolish the more dangerous aspects of class rivalry. Pushball and tug-of-war contests were substituted for the annual flag and pole rushes.

Commencement

On August 6, 1845, the first University of Michigan Commencement was held in the Presbyterian Church of Ann Arbor. At that time, the only division of the University was the Literary Department. Each member of the class of 1845, which consisted of eleven men, was required to give an oration. The event was chronicled in the Michigan State Gazette of Jackson on August 11, 1845, as follows:

Correspondence of the State Gazette

Commencement

Editor of the Gazette,

Dear Sir: — In compliance with your request, I will give you such notes as I made of the commencement exercises of the University held in Ann Arbor Wednesday the 6th instant. This is the first regular "commencement" of our University, and its proceedings were viewed with much interest, by members from various parts of the State who had gathered to witness the proceedings. Michigan may well be proud of possessing such an institution as her University, which, although originated among the numerous extravagant schemes of the Mason Administration, yet remains a permanent blessing to the people, and although its funds have been somewhat crippled during the last few years, on account of the pressure of the times preventing that sale of the lands with which she was endowed, that was anticipated, still much good substantial learning has been diffused by its agency, and many young Page  1776ideas moulded for usefulness and honor. The proceedings of this commencement were unusually interesting, from the fact of its being the first time it has furnished a graduating class, or conferred degrees, and much solicitude was felt to see what would be the first fruits of the State's literary bantling.

The procession was formed at the University grounds at ten o'clock Wednesday morning and marched to the Presbyterian church, where the exercises were appointed to be held and in which a platform had been erected and arrangements made.

I noticed on the platform a number of the Regents, the Governor, Judges Fitch, Whipple, and Goodwin, and other dignitaries of the State, and a number of clergymen among whom was Mr. Fitch of our own town to whom was assigned the introductory prayer.

And here I would like, were it not too invidious, where all performed their part so creditably, to mention particularly the pleasure which I experienced in listening to the addresses of some of the speakers. The salutatory address was by Edmund Fish of Bloomfield, delivered in that peculiarly stately and harmonious idiom, the Latin, and was followed by a beautiful address from Edwin Lawrence of Monroe, on the subject of romance, who reviewed the classic days of Greece and Rome, the subsequent dark ages of Europe, and the adventurous times of the Crusaders, in a manner peculiarly elegant and graceful.

An address by P. W. H. Rawls of Kalamazoo, on "the perfection of philosophy" was particularly eloquent and well composed, and delivered with superior diction and purity of style, and also a poem, "The Nazarene," by the same person, was extremely well composed and eloquently delivered. An address by George E. Parmelee of Ann Arbor, on "the proper direction of intellectual effort," displayed much variety of thought and finish of composition combined with an accomplished and interesting delivery.

"The claims of agriculture and science" was presented by George W. Pray of Washtenaw, in an address replete with forcible argument and sound practical logic, and was highly creditable to him both for its sentiments, and the manner of its delivery. It exhibited the claims of agriculture to the attention of scientific men, and the benefits to the country of science so directed, in a masterly manner, illustrated by much vigor of thought and sound reasoning.

A Greek poem, by Thomas B. Cuming of Grand Rapids, was recited in an elegant and interesting manner, by its youthful author, who though in appearance still a freshman was among those who received the degree of Bachelor of Arts.

The valedictory address was by Fletcher O. Marsh of Kalamazoo, who well acquitted himself in the part assigned him. His reference to the past history of the University to the long association of teachers and students, and the prospect of their immediate parting, and his allusions to the sudden decease of their respected President was peculiarly affecting and appropriate.

Degrees were conferred on eleven graduates.

The music from a choir composed mostly of students, with which the exercises were interspersed was throughout excellent, — The address to the graduating class was by Professor Tenbrook.

In the afternoon a society of alumni was formed and an address delivered before the literary societies by Rev. Mr. Duffield of Detroit, with his usual ability.

Yours, truly, J. M. T.

Ann Arbor, August 7, 1845.

[J. M. T. = Jerome M. Treadwell.]

The custom of having each member of the class give an oration was continued until the classes became so large that it was impossible; thereafter a few graduates were chosen to participate in the program. This was not a very satisfactory arrangement, however, as it was difficult to choose the representatives of the class fairly. The dissatisfaction with the past method of conducting the Commencement exercises, together with the fact that in 1878 for the first time the Commencement exercises of the Literary and Medical departments were held together, led to the issuing of an invitation Page  1777to an outside speaker to give the Commencement address.

Up to 1878 each department of the University held its Commencement separately. In 1878 the term of the Medical Department was extended to June and the exercises of the Literary and Medical departments were combined. From 1884 on, the Commencement exercises of all departments were held in June.

Until 1874 the graduation exercises were held in the different churches in Ann Arbor, and occasionally in the hall of the Union School Building. With the completion of University Hall, the University campus had, for the first time, an auditorium large enough to take care of the crowd of townspeople and parents who attended the Commencement exercises.

University Hall continued to be the center of Commencement activities until Hill Auditorium was opened. A few years after World War I Commencement exercises were transferred to Ferry Field or to Yost Field House, depending on weather conditions. The exercises are now held in the Stadium in good weather.

The present order of exercises consists of the national anthem, the invocation, the address to the graduating classes, the conferring of degrees (including honorary degrees), the response of the graduating classes, the welcome to the Alumni Association, singing "The Yellow and Blue," and benediction.

The Students and the Town

There were many conflicts in the early days between members of the student body and various elements in the young and growing town of Ann Arbor. Some of these events are interesting because they reflect not only a mischievous penchant on the part of the students for playing pranks and practical jokes, but also the misunderstanding which arose between students and townspeople and the resulting effort by citizens and faculty to preserve law and order.

The population of Ann Arbor was greatly increased during the middle of the nineteenth century by the immigration of German settlers. These people were industrious and thrifty and became in time a leading influence in the life of the town. Some of them early established drinking and eating places in Ann Arbor after the German style. Among such taverns were Hangsterfer's and Binder's, both favorite student haunts.

In 1856 occurred what later was to become known as the "Dutch War." Two young men had made themselves conspicuously unpleasant at Hangsterfer's. They were reprimanded by the proprietor, and, a quarrel resulting, the students were ejected. The next evening they returned, greatly reinforced, and threateningly informed the proprietor that he must treat the crowd or "take the consequences." Upon his refusal, the students charged him with the battle cry, "revenge or beer!" A fight resulted in which knives were drawn, clubs were swung, kegs and barrels broken up, beer spilled, and the place badly damaged. The terrified defendants fled, with the students in pursuit. They were halted by the police, and although the officers of the law used diplomacy in attempting to settle the difficult situation, the students nursed a grudge and awaited an opportunity "to get even." After attending an Alpha Nu "spread" at Hangsterfer's, six students, ready for mischief and bent on revenge, decided to attend a dance for the townspeople, advertised to take place at Binder's. By means of a window, they gained access to a room where refreshments were laid out ready to be served. Here, carelessly noisy while eating and drinking, they were discovered, and although five got away, one was Page  1778captured and held. Those who escaped rushed back to the campus for reinforcements, and a crowd of students surrounded Binder's demanding the release of the prisoner. Binder, in turn, retaliated by asking a ransom of ten dollars for the culprit. The students became angrier and more determined. Using three large timbers as battering rams, they advanced upon the building, much to the terror of the guests within. Some of them obtained muskets. Surrounded by such a hostile force, Binder yielded and gave up the prisoner. The next day warrants were issued for the six students, but they were aided not only by their fellows, it is said, but by members of the faculty, and were so well shielded that in time the complainant, when confronted with a charge of selling liquor to minors, withdrew his complaint, and allowed his warrants to be quashed.

Other exciting conflicts between students and townspeople arose out of a mischievous desire on the part of the students to tear up the wooden sidewalks which lined the city streets and to carry away the gates and the posts of the fences which enclosed private yards. In the early days many complaints in the college papers concerned the constant need for repair of these rickety walks. On Monday evening, April 11, 1870, members of the class of 1873 raided and tore up the walks, making a very thorough job of it. The malefactors were threatened with arrest. City officials were violently angry, and only through the agency of Acting President Frieze, who took upon himself the financial obligation of settling the matter, were friendly relations restored. The class of 1873 later reimbursed Dr. Frieze by an assessment on the class.

During the 1880's the celebration of Halloween caused much damage to the town. In 1881 some junior medical students smashed street lamps and were fined $150. In 1883 the walks were torn up again; business signs were removed and lost to the rightful owners; and a statue of Benjamin Franklin which adorned the campus was covered with fresh paint. Considerable antagonism existed between the students and the Ann Arbor police force. At the slightest provocation "wild" students were arrested by the minions of the law.

For years there were no mail deliveries in Ann Arbor. The post office was lodged in a small frame building at the northwest corner of Ann Street and Fourth Avenue. In the late afternoon and evening, it was customary for the students to assemble and stand in line for their mail. On October 12, 1877, the freshmen and sophomores, after threatening to attack each other at the post office, adjourned to the campus for a "rush," but certain citizens had been sufficiently alarmed to summon help. A student who had taken no part in the disturbance was foolishly arrested in the post office, however, and not discharged until the next morning. This resulted in more student ill feeling toward the police.

At the opening of the 1879 term, such resentment had developed between students and the local constabulary that on the evening of October 14, policemen were stationed at the post office door so that only one student at a time could enter. It became apparent that an unnecessary delay would ensue in the delivery of the mail. The angry students broke out in hostile shouts and yells, and of course a disturbance arose. On the following night a large crowd of students and armed citizens gathered. The fire bell was rung to call out the state militia, and the latter charged with fixed bayonets. The mayor offered two dollars for every student arrested, and many were taken into custody. This unfortunate action Page  1779caused considerable trouble and did nothing to allay the ill feeling and animosity which was arising between "town and gown."

Another "rush" occurred in the post office in November, 1890. Several days later, rifle shots were heard in the center of the town. Several hundred students gathered, sensing and perhaps looking for trouble. Although the shots had been fired to celebrate the marriage of a member of the local militia, a noisy and excited crowd gathered in front of the house where the festivities were being held. The militia was called out, a conflict arose, the police attacking and trying to capture the students. One freshman, apparently only an onlooker, was struck by the butt end of a musket. A hand-to-hand fight ensued in which the sergeant of the militia was injured by a missile thrown by someone in the crowd. The student who had been attacked died. Public sentiment was aroused, and action by the governor of the state resulted. The local police force was disbanded, thus helping to allay the bitter feeling of the students toward the townspeople.

Many other student pranks caused difficulties between citizens and students. Upon one occasion, when the electric street railway was new in Ann Arbor, a student was carried beyond the place where he wished to alight. An argument arose between student and motorman. The student, demanding that he be returned to his destination, drew a revolver and wounded the motorman. Although he was arrested and expelled from the University, he escaped conviction.

On Commencement Day, in 1878, when the first Ann Arbor Railroad train arrived from Toledo, one of the flatcars contained a huge cannon, which was captured and pulled up State Street to the campus. During Commencement exercises in University Hall someone touched off the cannon, and the report, it is said, "was thunderous." Only President Angell's poise and sense of humor saved the dignity of the Commencement exercises.

One of the most sensational of student riots, known as the Star Theater riot, occurred on the night of March 16, 1908. The Star Theater was a "nickel" motion picture house situated on the south side of Washington Street, midway between Main Street and Fourth Avenue. One of a group of students persisted in whistling during the performance after he had been warned to be quiet. The proprietor ordered the troublemakers to leave. An altercation arose, during which one student struck the manager. In the scramble which resulted, the wrongdoers were ejected, but the next night several hundred students gathered outside the theater to jeer and sing.

On the following Monday the proprietor announced that his performance was conducted for townspeople and added that he did not care for student patronage. That evening almost a thousand students gathered in the street before the theater, defying the management. Eggs and vegetables were thrown at the theater. Bricks from a nearby building in the process of construction were hurled, and mob spirit ran riot. The theater and its contents were well-nigh demolished, the proprietor escaping by way of the back door. The fire department was called out, but streams of water did little to deter the angry students. The officers of the law were almost helpless. Even President Angell and Dean Hutchins, who were called, could not make themselves heard. On the following day eighteen students whom the police had been able to pick up on the outskirts of the mob found themselves in jail. Fifteen were turned over to the circuit court, but were bailed out and Page  1780criminal charges against them dismissed. The student body, however, dug down into its pockets and raised more than $1,000 to pay for the damages.

Riots prompted by the desire for free shows at the theaters have not been uncommon since that time, especially since the increase in the number of motion picture theaters. It was customary in the 1920's and 1930's for the management to give complimentary performances at the time of class games and on other special occasions.

In the early 1920's, upon one occasion, students rushed the Whitney Theater to see a well-known musical, entering the theater without tickets and occupying the best seats, thereby preventing the rightful occupants from seeing the performance. The united efforts of Dean Bursley and President Burton were necessary at that time to enable the "show" to go on.

In the early days the visit of a circus to Ann Arbor was an event. It was not unusual for groups of students to "rush" circus performances. On May 23, 1871, they bolted classes to see the Van Amburgh Circus, and only two boys appeared in Professor Jones's Greek class. (It is interesting to note that later all of the bolters were suspended until the following September.) Owing to some slight altercation between students and circus personnel, the students returned in the evening bent on mischief. By some trick they managed to loosen the seat supports so that both seats and occupants fell during the performance. A riot ensued. Memory of this escapade is preserved for Michigan students in the well-known song "I'm Going to the Hamburg Show," the word "Hamburg" having been substituted for the long since forgotten Van Amburgh. Another unfortunate "circus prank" occurred in the 1900's during a visit of Ringling Brothers to Ann Arbor. At that time the students threw firecrackers under the elephants during the parade. The terrified elephants, of course, stampeded, and the crowd rushed off in all directions. Ringling Brothers never visited Ann Arbor again, and for years the larger circuses avoided the city.

Michigan Songs

Distinctive college songs in American colleges doubtless came into being under the influence of student songs, particularly the German student songs, of the European universities. Many are obviously of German parentage, the music having been taken over bodily in some instances and the refrains vocalized in imitation of old German drinking songs. The first collection of college secret-society songs appeared in 1849, and Yale's first book of songs bears the date 1853.

The college songs of the University of Michigan rank high among those of other American colleges. Expressing the conviviality and inspiration of student life, wherever Michigan undergraduates or alumni meet, the singing of these old songs at once revives sentiments and memories which are dear to all and renews bonds of affection and loyalty.

During the 1860's efforts were made by student publications to increase the interest in singing at Michigan. In 1860 the Palladium encouraged the writing of college songs, and in the University Magazine for February, 1862, appeared "Ann Arbor Litoria," which became very popular:

Ann Arbor is a jolly home;
Sweedle inktum bum.
We love it still where e'er we roam;
Sweedle inktum bum.
The very songs we used to sing,
Sweedle inktum hi ru sa,
In memory's echoes long shall ring,
Sweedle inktum bum.
Page  1781Efforts were continued to produce "original" Michigan songs rather than imitations or adaptations of those sung in other universities or imported from abroad. The editors of the Palladium in 1864-65 offered a prize of ten dollars for the best original song. A committee, composed of President Haven and Professors Frieze and Evans, selected two of equal merit. The first, "Michigan University Song," by Arthur H. Snow ('65), sung to the air of the "Marseillaise," began:
Come, jolly boys, and lift your voices,
Ring out, ring out one hearty song…
The other, by James K. Blish ('66), entitled "Our College Home," was sung to the tune of "Upidee":
Come, throw your busy cares away
.....
And join us in our cheerful lay, …
Blish also wrote the "Quodlibet," sung to the tune of "The Captain with His Whiskers":
'Tis September's golden month, when the opening is at hand,
That we watch the trains and registers, to see the Freshman land…
The Palladium prize in 1868-69 was given to Richard S. Dewey ('69) for his "Let Every Student Fill His Bowl." The chorus, sung to the air of "Come, Landlord, Fill Your Flowing Bowl," began:
Let every student fill his bowl
With something not too strong, sir,
And pledge our Alma Mater's health,
And join this jovial song, sir; …
An old song to Dr. Tappan and the faculty, based upon the hymn, "Where, Oh Where Are the Hebrew Children?" has come down to us in a slightly different version: "Where, Oh Where Are the Verdant Freshmen?"

Professor Frieze (see Part I: The Administration of Henry Simmons Frieze), who was an excellent musician and a devoted lover of music, rendered incalculable service to the University and to the student body in his untiring efforts to develop an interest in things musical. He introduced and directed the choir at chapel exercises and constantly endeavored to arouse enthusiasm for student songs and singing. His efforts led to the establishment of definite student musical organizations, instrumental and vocal, of choral groups, class glee clubs and finally of the University Glee Club. New impetus was thereby given to the writing and singing of Michigan songs.

The most noteworthy collection is contained in a pamphlet, issued in 1889, entitled Songs of the Yellow and Blue. The publication of this slight volume marked an important step in the history of student singing at Michigan. The book contains some twenty songs, the words by Charles Mills Gayley ('78) and Fred Newton Scott ('84), and the music for the most part by Albert A. Stanley (A.M. hon. Mich. '90, D. Mus. '30) — all three honored alumni of the University and important figures in its development. In March, 1890, a second edition appeared. Some of these songs have become forever associated with Michigan student life. The first song in the volume is "The Yellow and Blue," the words by Gayley and music arranged from Balfe's "Pirate's Chorus." "Laudes Atque Carmina," the words by Gayley and music by Stanley, and "Goddess of the Inland Seas," the words by Gayley and the music adapted from J. Peters, are among the noblest and most inspired of college songs. Other songs celebrate the fun and good spirit of student life. Worthy of mention in this category are "Birds of a Feather," the "Cigarette Song," "The Co-ed That Vanquishes Me," "Elixir Juventatis," "Romeo and Juliet," and "We, Women of the Nation." "Ann Arbor" was arranged to the tune "The Page  1782Watch on the Rhine," at that time a widely used melody in American schools and colleges. This collection, of which Michigan can certainly be proud, has been described as "easily superior to the song-book of any other college" of its day.

In student publications of the 1880's and 1890's are many excellent verses and songs which were adapted to popular tunes of the times. Some of them today are merely a memory. In the Castalian of 1892 appeared "Universitas Michiganensium" by Frank W. Howe ('93), sung to the tune "Michigan My Michigan."

The "Friar's Song," the words by Harold W. Bowman ('00), was sung for many years at the meetings of the Friars Club and deserves a place in any Michigan songbook. Another old favorite is "'Tis of Michigan We Sing, with a merry, merry ring …" Of the three outstanding contributions in the volume of 1889, the "Laudes Atque Carmina," one of the most memorable of American college songs, has lost in favor because of the almost universal unfamiliarity with the Latin language, and the "Goddess of the Inland Seas" has proven a bit too involved in its classical allusions for modern tastes. "The Yellow and Blue" has taken its place as Michigan's college song.

Student groups have always sung the popular tunes of the times, sometimes adapting them to more purely local conditions. The popularity of athletics, especially of football, since the late 1890's has given rise to many stirring songs and marches. Best known of these has been "The Victors" by Louis Elbel ('96-'99), which has become the Michigan march on all occasions and is known as such throughout the land. Scarcely less popular is the football song, "Varsity," words by J. Fred Lawton ('11), and music by Earl V. Moore ('12). These two stirring march songs have inspired many a Michigan man and woman at athletic contests and pep-meetings. Not so well known nor so popular, but worthy of mention, are the "Men of the Maize and Blue," music by A. J. Gornetzky to words by W. A. P. John; "Fight Men of Michigan," words and music by William C. Archi, Jr., ('14, '17l); "Win for Michigan," by William T. Whedon ('81); and "Men of Yost," by M. B. Cooper, also the composer of the "Michigan Drinking Song."

The Michigan Union operas of the first two decades of the twentieth century provided many of the favorite later day student songs. "Michigenda" (1908) gave the hits "When Night Falls, Dear" and "Oh, Alma Mater," by Roy D. Welch ('09), who also wrote "A Faithful Pipe to Smoke" for the opera "Culture." "Koanzaland" (1909) gave to Michigan two of its well-known favorites, "In College Days" and "Michigan, Good-bye," words by Donald A. Kahn ('07-'10) and music by Earl V. Moore. "The Crimson Chest" (1910) contained the "Bum Army" and "Take Me Back to College," and "Contrairie Mary" (1913) produced the "Friar's Song" and "Men of the Maize and Blue." One of the most widely sung of later day songs has been the "I Want To Go Back to Michigan, to Dear Ann Arbor Town …" The enthusiasm for athletics and the operatic ambitions of the Union have not succeeded, however, in giving us songs which are comparable to the "Laudes Atque Carmina" and the "Yellow and Blue" of the Songbook issued in 1889.

the yellow and blue
Sing to the colors that float in the light;
Hurrah for the Yellow and Blue!
Yellow the stars as they ride thro' the night, And reel in a rollicking crew;
Yellow the fields where ripens the grain
And yellow the moon on the harvest wain; Hail!
Page  1783Hail to the colors that float in the light; Hurrah for the Yellow and Blue!
Blue are the billows that bow to the sun
When yellow-robed morning is due;
Blue are the curtains that ev'ning has spun, The slumbers of Phoebus to woo;
Blue are the blossoms to memory dear,
And blue is the sapphire and gleams like a tear; Hail!
Hail to the ribbons that nature has spun; Hurrah for the Yellow and Blue;
Here's to the college whose colors we wear,
Here's to the hearts that are true!
Here's to the maid of the golden hair, And eyes that are brimming with blue!
Garlands of bluebells and maize intertwine;
And hearts that are true and voices combine; Hail!
Hail to the college whose colors we wear; Hurrah for the Yellow and Blue!
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Humphrey, Edwin H. The Michigan Book. Ann Arbor: Inland Press, 1898.
Michigan's Favorite College Songs. Ed. by Roy D. Welch and Earl V. Moore. Ann Arbor: Publ. by Mrs. Minnie Maes Root.
The Michigan University Song Book. Comp. and ed. by Franklin Wagner ('99-'01, '04l). New York City: Hinds, Noble and Eldredge, 1904.
Shaw, Wilfred B. The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Songs of the Yellow and Blue. Words by Charles M. Gayley and Fred N. Scott. Music by Albert A. Stanley. Detroit, Mich.: Charles Babzin and Co., 1889.

COEDUCATION

Although the Organic Act of 1837 provided for the education of girls in connection with the branches of the University, the question of admitting women to the University itself does not seem to have risen at that time. Only Oberlin College then admitted women. About the middle of the nineteenth century and thereafter, however, the schools being founded in the Midwest and West offered equal educational opportunities to men and women.

Requests for admission had been made to the faculty as early as 1850, but the admission of women first came before the Regents, apparently, in 1858. Several requests were received at that time by the Regents from women asking permission to enter the University. The Regents referred the subject to a committee of three of its members. This committee found that opinions were very sharply divided on the subject, the proponents stressing right and justice and the opponents picturing destruction of the character of the University and ruin to the women who might come to the University.

Distinguished educators and public men were called upon to express their opinions. President Hopkins of Williams College was favorable to the idea, Chancellor Frelinghuysen of New Jersey feared its effects on the reputation of the University would be bad. President Walker of Harvard thought the decision must turn on the question whether females were to be educated for public or private life, and President Woolsey of Yale said he could not see what use degrees would be to girls unless they were to "addict" themselves to professional life. Even President Finney of Oberlin hedged, and Horace Mann dwelt on the dangers of the "terrible" experiment. President Tappan was interested in the education of young women, but thought there was an incompatibility between the two sexes and that college life was inconsistent with the nature of women.

Page  1784The committee after prolonged review of the subject came to the conclusion that matters should be allowed to stand as they were. In accepting the report the Regents resolved that in respect to the interests of the institution and of the young ladies the applications for admission should not be granted.

In 1867, however, the legislature adopted a resolution expressing the opinion that the high objects of the University would never be obtained until women were admitted to all its rights and privileges. This action of the legislature caused the Regents to consider the subject again. President Haven expressed the opinion that coeducation would introduce untold problems, and he proposed that the state provide a separate college for "females." (Apparently Professor James R. Boise informally admitted his own daughters to his classes in Greek in 1867.)

He changed his mind during the following year, however, and announced that he favored the admission of women to the University. In his opinion the honor of the University would thereby be increased rather than diminished. The University at that time was engaged in a controversy over the "homeopathic question," and it seems probable that Haven did not wish to increase differences with the legislature. He resigned in June, 1869, no action on the matter having been taken by the Regents, although Regent Willard had introduced a resolution stating that "in the opinion of the Board no rule exists in any of the University Statutes which excludes women from admission to the University."

The legislature at its next session passed a resolution requesting the Regents to act favorably on the admission of women, in accordance with President Haven's recommendation. And in January, 1870, the Regents adopted a resolution, offered by Regent Willard: "That the Board of Regents recognize the right of every resident of Michigan to the enjoyment of the privileges afforded by the University, and that no rule exists in any of the University statutes for the exclusion of any person from the University, who possesses the requisite literary and moral qualifications."

Almost immediately Madelon L. Stock-well of Kalamazoo presented herself for admission and was accepted as a member of the sophomore class. She graduated in 1872. One of the residence halls for women has been named in her honor. In 1870 thirty-four other women entered the University: fourteen in the Literary College, two in the Law School, and eighteen in the Medical School. Four women graduated in 1871. The first woman graduate of the University was Amanda Sanford of Auburn, New York, who received her degree in medicine. Sarah Killgore of Crawfordsville, Indiana, graduated in law the same day. The other two, Amelia and Mary Upjohn, graduated three months later in pharmaceutical chemistry.

In his report for 1869-70 Acting President Frieze stated that the faculty already saw that its fears concerning the admission of women were groundless and that they now faced the problem of obtaining facilities for the increasing number of students.

The faculty of the Medical School, however, early in 1870 presented a memorial to the Regents stating that "medical co-education of the sexes is at best an experiment of doubtful utility, and one not calculated to increase the dignity of man, nor the modesty of women." They were willing, however, to provide medical instruction to the women separately. As a result two separate courses of instruction were given by the faculty, and in 1871-72 thirty-five women were enrolled in medicine. Within a year this system began to break down — first in the course of Dr. Douglass — and came more or less to an end in 1881, Page  1785when the medical faculty was given discretion in the matter. Segregation of the classes continued in practical anatomy for some years, and at lectures the women sat at one side of the room until the erection of the West Medical Building, when they were allowed to choose their seats.

The majority of the faculty and of the students were opposed to admission of women, and there was even a stronger feeling against them on the part of the townspeople. There was some fear that the University would become less attractive to students and that business would suffer.

In his inaugural address on Commencement Day, 1871, President Angell took up the subject and said that if no undesirable results followed he foresaw that the eastern colleges would open their doors to women and that the effects of the system would be felt in Europe. It is interesting to note that while the eastern men's colleges are relatively unchanged in this respect, European universities are now generally open to both men and women.

The following year Dr. Angell noted that hardly one of the many anticipated embarrassments of coeducation had arisen. The coeds showed themselves capable of meeting the demands of their studies, and their health had not suffered thereby. A few years later he stated proudly that six women on the faculty of Wellesley College, including the president, were graduates of the University. And women graduates in medicine were already engaged in foreign lands as medical missionaries. (It may be noted that a growing stream of foreign students began to come to the University from the lands to which the medical missionaries went.)

President Angell reported in 1893 that women constituted 37 per cent of the students in the Literary College. He noted that too many boys left school to become wage earners before they were far in high school and that in many Michigan high schools the classes were made up almost entirely of girls. If this were to continue, he said, it would not be long before there would be as many college-trained women as men in the country. In 1899 he noted that 53 per cent of the graduates of that year with a bachelor of arts degree were women and that six of the twenty-one master's degrees were given to women.

The following figures show something of the comparative enrollment of men and women in the University in approximately the first half century after the introduction of coeducation:

College of LSA Medical School
Women Men Women Men
1874-75 62 346 47 323
1879-80 81 367 43 307
1884-85 119 405 56 278
1894-95 494 1,024 72 307
1904-5 646 765 30 310
All Undergrad. Totals
1924-25 1,754 3,396 30 506
(There were few women in the other professional schools — 3 in Law, for example, in 1904-5.)

In 1954-55 undergraduates were divided as follows: 4,566 women and 6,850 men; 38 women and 722 men were in the regular medical curriculum. From the first the average work of women has been of higher quality than that of the men.

The effect of coeducation on manners and morals was the subject of much debate. By the beginning of the twentieth century it was the opinion of the faculty that manners had been considerably improved, that there had been a "singular absence of improprieties of conduct," and that the scandals forecast had failed to appear.

Page  1786

THE RESIDENCE HALLS FOR MEN — THE MICHIGAN HOUSE PLAN

THE University of Michigan, which became the prototype of state-supported institutions in the Midwest, took its early shape from an established British and Colonial tradition. This tradition, though far removed from the residential college communities of Oxford and Cambridge, retained some appreciation of the need for housing students. Such housing was not related through tutorial or faculty associations to the academic program of the college or university. Strict proctoral controls and mere dormitory facilities limited the community life among the residents.

A rudimentary form of student housing, therefore, was what Henry Philip Tappan discovered when he assumed the presidency in 1852. With a growing student body the use of potential classroom space for any housing was judged out of place. Tappan not only questioned the value of the dormitories he found at Michigan, but, within one decade, he abolished them.

This act did not necessarily imply indifference to the welfare of the students. Tappan was convinced that a better balanced and more normal kind of accommodation existed among the private families of Ann Arbor. No better form of living could be found, he felt, to assist the student in the transition from his own home to the rigors of university study. He also envisioned an increasingly mature body of students on the campus and anticipated that the growth of the state system of preparatory education would free the University to pursue its proper and lofty function of training only the mature students. These, in turn, he thought, could take care of themselves in and out of the classroom.

President Tappan left the University in 1863 before his program was completed. What he would have done in the face of the continued increase in student enrollment, the admission of women, and the elaboration of undergraduate life in the form of athletic, literary, and fraternal societies cannot be answered. What he would have done when the growth of the University outstripped the family facilities of Ann Arbor raises an even more important question. His advocacy of the private residence rested upon the fact that it was normal and orderly, whereas the dormitory, despite its group values and charm, promoted snobbery and disorder. In spite of the practical sense of his point of view, however, alternative modes of housing did develop. Fraternities came into existence, despite faculty opposition, during his regime. Within a decade of his departure from Ann Arbor, women began to appear on the campus. By 1890 athletics was formally recognized as a part of University life, thus increasing the University's commitment to the undergraduate. Even earlier, boarding and rooming houses began to supplement the private family system of housing students in Ann Arbor. By the end of the first decade and a half of the 1900's, the demand for University-operated residences for women began to bear fruit. The men had to wait longer, but the way had been paved to return to a tradition which now gives the University of Michigan singular distinction among institutions of higher learning.

Concern for the housing of men as a University responsibility achieved sharp focus after World War I when, in 1920, President Burton appointed Professor Joseph A. Bursley as Director of the Housing Bureau for Men. This concern Page  1787gained momentum when that appointment was changed to Dean of Students the following year. It is safe to say that adequate, organized, University-sponsored housing for men became one of Dean Bursley's major obligations. Year after year the annual reports of his office emphasized the following theme: "Dormitories to house all of the students are not necessary, but enough to take care of the freshman class are necessary and vitally so, if the University is satisfactorily to discharge its duties to these young men, many of whom are thrown on their own resources for the first time" (P.R., 1922-23, p. 259).

The 1922-23 report was followed by two comprehensive studies of the housing situation. The first, in 1925, by Professor Robert C. Angell, of the Sociology Department, was indeed a far cry from Tappan's abrupt disposal of the subject. Professor Angell advocated housing for upperclassmen as well as freshmen. He went so far as to recommend a "Plan for Residential Colleges." This study put the problem of student residency in a new framework not unlike that which has distinguished Oxford and Cambridge for centuries. Whether the revival of these ancient and tested forms of student life at Harvard and Yale had anything to do with Angell's thinking is not so relevant as the fact that the University of Michigan has always been in the forefront among publicly supported universities in the development of a mature balance of institutions. The time had arrived, as this study indicates, for the University to commit itself educationally to the provision of shelter. This was indeed a prelude to the Michigan House Plan.

The second study of housing, in 1935-36, was made by Professor Fred B. Wahr, at that time Assistant Dean in Charge of Housing for Men. His view of the situation may best be understood by his own words: "The general housing situation today, the scarcity of good rooms coupled with the increase in attendance, reminds one forcibly of the need for rooms which existed in the early twenties at the close of the War, when the attendance at the University began to increase rapidly" (P.R., 1935-36, pp. 42-45). In the same report Dean Bursley wrote: "We need modern, fireproof, well-equipped but not elaborate nor luxurious dormitories sufficient to care for eight hundred to one thousand men, and built in small units accommodating eighty to one hundred each. Such accommodations would take care of the freshman class and a small number of nonfraternity upperclassmen." One need not underline the shift in Bursley's thinking from need for freshman dormitories in 1922 to a plan for a house system in 1935-36. This change, which was expressed on the eve of the opening of Allen-Rumsey House, was incorporated both physically and educationally in the mature conception of the Michigan House Plan by Professor Karl Litzenberg, the first and only Director of Residence Halls on the campus. Of the purposes of the House Plan he wrote as follows:

A response to the immediate needs of the University was demanded in the 1920's; but a solution which would take the form of minimum sleeping and eating space for 2,500 students was not acceptable to President Ruthven and the Board of Regents. Barracks or serried cubicles could have been built, which might have covered half or three-quarters of the student body with an official university roof and provided adequately for physical welfare. But to quote The University Record:

'The Board of Regents has insisted … that the houses should be more than mere rooming and boarding houses… A Michigan House Plan has, consequently, been developed.'

The position taken by the Board of Regents Page  1788and the President was one which implied that opportunities for self-development, for the profitable use of leisure time, for entering into organized recreational, social, and cultural programs should be made available to students in University-owned residence halls. Hence, the sphere of influence of the house plan was not circumscribed by the view that the contribution of the houses projected should be in the realm of physical comfort alone.

The house plan concept rests on certain premises — the most important of which is that a student residence hall can and should contribute to education in the broadest sense of the term.


(Karl Litzenberg, Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 47 [1941]: 239-53.)

Thus, the shift from the rudimentary dormitory of the middle 1800's to the interregnum when no University-sponsored housing at all existed, and then to the Michigan House Plan, involved more than a cycle. It brought to the University a growth in the notion of what a student community should be. Every activity and every student institution was finally to come under educational scrutiny, and every campus organization eventually was to seek some association with the University.

The building of Allen-Rumsey House in 1937 was followed by the completion of the other seven houses of the West Quadrangle in 1939. The following year the first four houses of the East Quadrangle were added to the men's community. In a matter of three years not only were the freshmen housed in University Residence Halls, but there were still enough upperclassmen on campus to give continuity to the staff and to student government.

Only the middle one of these three years gave the House Plan an opportunity to become established. The first year, 1939-40, was a time of uncertainty, restlessness, and disorder occasioned by the occupation of living quarters before they were furnished and by the presence of construction crews still in the process of building. The dining rooms could not be put into operation until some weeks after the beginning of the semester. The system was forced to operate as supervised housing but without the amenities of dining and living together. The entire community took on a temporary housing tone rather than the many-faceted, long-range, cultural features so ably anticipated by Professor Litzenberg. It is no overstatement to say that many educational efforts of the staff and numerous attempts to organize the residents into a community by the student government ended in frustration and pain. Based on such a foundation the prospects of the Michigan House Plan did not look bright. Pessimistic feelings among staff and students and the need to skim off personnel for the opening of the East Quadrangle tended to dominate the scene at the close of the academic year. In the background, the outbreak of World War II in Poland, in spite of considerable student verbosity about the Yanks not coming this time, cast a further pall on the future.

In the second year, the spread of World War II showed how basically sound the House Plan was. The situation was the very antithesis of that which prevailed in 1939-40. The appointment of Charles H. Peake and Joseph E. Kallenbach as Chief Resident Advisers of the West and East Quadrangles gave these units local leadership, integration, and immediate supervision. Under their guidance the residential program gained momentum. Student government, instituted somewhat awkwardly the first year, developed rapidly. In the West Quadrangle, with the sympathetic assistance of Professor Carl A. Brandt, chairman of the Board of Governors of Residence Halls, residential scholarships were established. The Strauss Memorial Library added to the educational dimension Page  1789of the residence halls by sponsoring regular language tables and classical concerts. Individual counseling was extended, faculty participation was invited, intramural athletic programs were formulated, and academic competition was encouraged and recognized. Hopes for the future could not have been more promising.

Instead, and before the end of the first semester of 1941-42, the United States was at war. As staff and student members of the houses began to enlist or plan to enlist and as the national danger became more pronounced, thoughts of studies and permanent residential organizations diminished and in some cases disappeared altogether. The prospect of vacant residence halls in the face of the national emergency led to only one solution. By the spring of 1943, both the East and the West Quadrangles were involved in the war effort. At the end of that academic year the East Quadrangle was occupied by Army Specialized Groups, and the West Quadrangle had been taken over completely by the Navy. To all intents and purposes the Michigan House Plan might well have been abandoned at that time. But again it proved its vitality as an organization. A nucleus of farsighted staff members in the West Quadrangle approached Dean Bursley and Francis C. Shiel, at that time Business Manager and Acting Director of Residence Halls, in regard to a plan of continuity for the Men's Residence Halls. Of singular merit was their concern for the postwar burden which might come suddenly. Mr. Shiel and Dean Bursley, with the help of Professor Brandt, enlisted the aid of the Board of Governors of Residence Halls. As a result of their combined efforts, some twenty-two fraternities were leased to the University for the use of staff and students. On and off during the war period, seven of these houses were occupied by the men. The remaining staff and students were distributed among the houses so as to do the most good. In time, with additional help from newcomers, a reliable core of staff and residents awaited the end of the war. Among the newcomers some war veterans were to be found. In addition to Bursley, Shiel, and Brandt, no story of the Michigan House Plan would be complete without mention of the contribution of Mrs. Laura D. Niles, Mrs. Elliott K. Herdman, Mrs. Theron Langford, Mrs. Virginia Harryman, Mrs. Woolsey W. Hunt, John Bingley, and Woodrow Ohlsen. The addition of Leonard A. Schaadt, now Business Manager of Residence Halls, and Lionel H. Laing, now a member of the Board of Governors of Residence Halls, indicates the caliber as well as the permanence of the people who were appointed to administer the system during its lean years. The valiant activities of Mrs. Charles W. Lobdell in those years of acceleration will long be remembered by those who otherwise might never have had leave or vacation time.

This scattered effort constituted the Michigan House Plan until enlistment, officer training, and other war needs began to slack off. By 1946 all of the residence houses were reoccupied but not on the grand terms of 1940-41, admittedly the one normal year in the history of the House Plan. In spite of the addition of four houses to the East Quadrangle in 1947, the return of the veterans together with the growing freshman classes, resulted in doubling up in all available space. These crowded conditions, which continued until the completion of the seven new houses of the South Quadrangle in 1951-52, placed a strain upon the development of the House Plan, but did not stop its growth.

The most notable changes took place in the area of student activities. One Page  1790noticed the increased style and sophistication of the social program. The long-neglected tastes of the veterans were given opportunities at Quadrangle dances; these, at times, exceeded professional standards. Student interest, encouraged by Provost James P. Adams and Dean Erich A. Walter, chairman of the Postwar Board of Governors of Residence Halls, resulted in the Faculty Associate Program. The growth of student government not only resulted in frequent and more efficient gatherings, but moved into unprecedented areas, such as self-discipline and student judiciaries. The establishment of shortwave radio and wired broadcasting stations added another dimension to this growing student community. Broadcasting was soon to be integrated in a network extending beyond the men's residence halls to include the women's units. The completion of the South Quadrangle resulted in one large-scale stride in student housing.

As early as 1948 suggestions emanating from staff and student leaders urged the integration of the two Quadrangles at the student-government level. Student leaders took the suggestion to counsel and after much deliberation the Association of Independent Men was instituted. Intended as a residence hall service to the less organized off-campus community, it never received the confidence nor earned the co-operation of the regular residence halls student community. With the opening of the South Quadrangle and the organization of its council, the governing bodies of the three Quadrangles established the new and now accepted InterHouse Council, which was to have a campus as well as a residence hall orientation. InterHouse Council was stimulated by the Association of Independent Men, which buttressed its own structure with vague hopes of becoming the focal organization of the expanding men's residence halls system. Institution of the I.H.C., however, signaled the demise of A.I.M. Other campus groups saw, in the men's residence halls, a threat to their relative positions on campus and took measures to put the I.H.C. in its place. Time, the co-operation of student leaders, and the calm guidance of staff and University officers brought the men's residence halls system into the proper perspective.

No historical comment on the Michigan House Plan would be either just or adequate without mentioning the contribution of President Alexander G. Ruthven and the members of the Board of Regents of the late 1930's. Although his own part in the conception is modestly omitted, President Ruthven phrased it at the time in the following words:

The Board of Regents has insisted that the houses should be more than mere rooming and boarding houses. They recognize that, broadly conceived, education should include both formal instruction in the business of living and informal training in the enrichment of personality. A Michigan House Plan has, consequently, been developed which will give the student experience in communal living and assistance in expanding his education into those areas which must be cultivated if he is to become a citizen of the world.


(Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 47: 239-53.)
Ruthven's constant reiteration of this theme, his comradely spirit, his surveillance of building progress, his counsel to members of the staff, his casual nocturnal visits, as well as his continued Faculty Associateship of Allen-Rumsey House, will never be forgotten.

In the same spirit of acknowledgment for services rendered, the Board of Governors of Residence Halls also deserves mention, perhaps most of all because its help is constant, generally unknown, and often subject to criticism. Despite this undramatic role, the chairmen of this Board: Henry Clay Anderson, Carl G. Brandt, Erich A. Walter, and Page  1791Walter B. Rea, with rare self-denial and devotion to the educational interests of the University, have contributed much to the development of the residence halls. In this connection some of its early members should also be mentioned, particularly Professors Charles L. Jamison, Margaret Elliott Tracy, and John W. Eaton.

The Michigan House Plan has engaged the energies and the imagination of many people whose training and campus experience hark back to the German point of view. It is a satisfaction to note that their early reflections upon the needs of a maturing University brought them back to a conception which had once been abandoned, but which now makes it possible to characterize Michigan as a residential university of first rank.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angell, Robert C. MS, "A Tentative Plan for the Promotion of Satisfactory Living Conditions and Social Contacts Among Students at the University of Michigan." 1925.
Litzenberg, Karl. "The Michigan House Plan."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 47 (1941): 239-53.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1956.

THE HOUSING OF WOMEN STUDENTS

IN 1870, the year in which women students first entered the University, thirty-four were enrolled. The history of housing for women begins properly with an account of the difficulties encountered by these women. The prejudice of faculty, students, and citizens did not end with the Regents' resolution of January, 1870, admitting them to the University (R.P., 1870-76, pp. 2-3). This attitude continued to manifest itself in many ways, but in none more painfully than in the reluctance of Ann Arbor's rooming house owners to take in women for room and board. Report has it that they were regarded with scorn and accepted only when male students were not available as roomers.

The result in the early days was that women had notoriously poor living conditions and very little recognition in the social life of the town. The direct result of these struggles in the decades from 1880 to 1900 was the organization of sororities. A few women who had difficulty in finding living accommodations would take over a house and, as vacancies occurred, invite others to join them. These groups were soon sponsored by Greek-letter organizations and thus became part of the widespread national sorority movement. Eventually, the sorority houses afforded pleasant and comfortable accommodations for the girls they housed.

As time went on the rooming house owners became more friendly toward the women and began to rent rooms to them. For years, however, the "mixed" rooming house which accommodated both women and men was the accepted standard in Ann Arbor. No effort was made to establish separate houses for girls or to furnish any of the conveniences which we now take for granted. No sitting rooms were provided for the reception of callers, the bedrooms were poorly furnished and heated, and the bathroom facilities inadequate.

The Women's League, organized in Page  17921890, and the Student Christian Association, established in 1859-60, did much to alleviate the situation. The Castalian for 1891 reported that a "Reception Committee" had been appointed "whose duty it was to welcome Freshman girls, to help them in finding their way about the college buildings, to introduce them to their different professors, and assist them in getting suitable rooms and boarding places." After a few years these duties were taken over entirely by the League Executive Committee.

With the appointment of Dr. Eliza M. Mosher, the first Dean of Women, in 1896, interest increased in improving the women's facilities. Although special emphasis was placed on physical education and hygiene, an effort was made to improve the social life of the girls by providing parlors, dining rooms, and kitchens in Barbour Gymnasium. A small auditorium was even set aside for their use. Interest at that time, however, was concentrated on the building of the gymnasium rather than on improving housing conditions.

No radical change took place until 1902, when, upon the resignation of Dr. Mosher to resume the practice of medicine, Mrs. Myra Beach Jordan ('93) became Dean of Women. In this year, 453 women were enrolled in the University. In the fall of 1904 a united movement among the girls to secure rooming places with reception rooms where they could entertain their guests was begun. By this time eight sororities had managed to rent houses then known as "house clubs." Through the Women's League, Dean Jordan encouraged groups of girls to live together in approved houses, which were inspected and supervised by the Dean of Women. In these "league" houses, the first of which was opened in 1904, rooms were rented only to women, and parlor privileges were included in the rental. As an experiment in group living, the League, in 1909-10, contracted with three landladies for the use of their houses, with guaranteed income. Although this proved a financial burden to the League treasury, the following year it led to formal contracts with an additional "six of the most desirable landladies in town … to take girls only, giving them the use of the parlor and home privileges without money guarantee" (Minutes of the Women's League, April 6, 1910). The lack of guaranteed income was offset in the contracts by stipulations which more or less guaranteed roomers. The October, 1910, issue of The Michigan Alumnus commented favorably upon this work of the Dean of Women and the Women's League:

With the opening of the present school year, every freshman girl entering the University had been provided with a room before she came, either in the nine homes selected by the Women's League … or in another series of houses in which girls alone are provided for. The upper-classmen have greater freedom in the selection of the houses in which they are to room, but in most cases they are living in the houses which have been approved by the Women's League. The work of corresponding with the freshmen entering the University was undertaken by … the Women's League … every freshman … was met at the train and properly installed immediately upon arrival.


(Mich. Alum., 17 [1910-11]: 5.)

Although the number of league houses was increasing, it was evident that dormitories would be the only permanent solution to the housing problem. Accordingly, in October, 1910, the Women's League enlisted the interest of every undergraduate woman in this movement and sent out as financial secretaries Myrtle White Godwin, of Houghton, Michigan, for the year 1910-11 and Agnes Parks Robey, of New York City, for 1911-12, to arouse interest in the dormitory idea. "While the amount of money raised by these young women was Page  1793not large, the educational value of their campaign cannot be overestimated for they and the women back of them were the spiritual pioneers for better living conditions at Michigan" (Mich. Alum., 27 [1920-21]: 301).

In 1912 a further significant step in the development of housing for women took place. The following statement in appreciation of Mrs. Jordan's interest in improving housing conditions for women is pertinent:

Upon the foundation laid by Dr. Mosher, her successor, Mrs. Myra Beach Jordan, A.B. '93, has built by tact and clear-sightedness for the administration of the women students, the most successful organization possessed by any University…

With her intimate knowledge of the girls and their needs, Mrs. Jordan has devoted herself to the improvement of their living conditions. The first necessity was to create a public sentiment demanding a change. The inertia of a settled habit was against her, but ten years of quiet endeavor have brought their reward. Faculty, landladies, and, most important of all, student sentiment, are now with her. The result is that there are now 32 approved rooming houses where only women are taken as roomers. In many of these houses the landladies furnish parlors for the use of the students, and they co-operate with the Dean in every way possible to make the standard of social conduct of the college town conform to the best to be found elsewhere… The women students themselves are making every effort to secure adequate Halls of Residence as speedily as possible. For years the League raised money for this purpose… The League now has $25,000 secured toward the erection of the Residence Halls. The determined effort which is being made by the women shows the success which the Dean has achieved in creating … a demand for better living conditions and higher social standards.


(Mich. Alum., 18 [1911-12]: 434-36.)

The interest thus aroused resulted in two splendid gifts to the University. Helen Newberry Residence, the first dormitory for women, opened for the summer session of 1915, was the gift of Truman H. and John S. Newberry and their sister, Mrs. Henry Newberry Joy. Martha Cook Building, given by William Wilson Cook in memory of his mother, Martha Cook, was occupied in September of the same year (see Part VIII: Residences for Women).

With the organization of the Alumnae Council, the Detroit branch of the Association of University Women announced in 1917 that the association would buy and remodel a house for women, to be ready for the opening of the fall semester. This residence, which accommodated about sixteen persons, was built for girls who needed to earn a part of their expenses and was run on a co-operative basis. In 1926, when the site of the first Alumnae House was needed by the city for the extension of Forest Avenue, the old Harriman residence at 1219 Washtenaw Avenue was purchased as a home for the residents of Alumnae House.

In 1917 Regent Levi Barbour gave the University $100,000 and several parcels of land to be used for the erection of a dormitory in memory of his mother, Betsy Barbour; the house was opened in 1920. In 1919 Mrs. Jordan wrote:

At this date we have 1,584 women in the University, while the total for the year 1918-19 was only 1,050. The question of finding places for these girls in organized houses … has been a great problem. By the first of September, there were applications from 254 young women for whom we had no accommodations, but thanks to a careful canvass of the rooming houses no girl was sent home for lack of a room… The 13 sororities house about 350 girls comfortably. Last year we had 295 freshman girls, this year we have 518… Last year there were 32 organized University rooming houses for college girls; this year there are 58, with five or more girls, and a definite house organization with a House-head, Social Committee, Scholarship Committee, and a representative to the Women's League. The heads of these houses meet monthly to discuss problems Page  1794of house organization… The high cost of living has affected the number of girls who are having to earn a whole or a part of their living. There are between 100 and 150 college girls who are working, of this number 36 are earning both board and room and 20 are earning their board.


(Mich. Alum., 26 [1919]: 133-35.)

It should be emphasized that Helen Newberry Residence, Martha Cook Building, and Alumnae, Betsy Barbour, and Adelia Cheever houses were all acquired during Dean Jordan's term of service (1902-22) and that the University owes much to her influence and perseverance. Yet she was still unhappy about the situation and reported in 1920-21 that a thousand women were still living outside dormitories, sororities, and other organized housing.

In 1921 the University was given the residence of Judge Noah Cheever ('63, '65l) at 516 Madison Street. This house, the fifth women's residence to be donated to the University, was named Adelia Cheever residence, and, with Pamela Noble Cottage, which was added to the property in 1922, accommodated about twenty-five girls. It, too, was run as a co-operative house.

In spite of the additional housing provided by the new dormitories, by the newly established sororities, and by the league houses, which in 1928 numbered seventy-six, the housing facilities of Ann Arbor were taxed to the utmost. The league houses had become overcrowded, and prices of rooms were exorbitant. A report of these conditions was made to the Board of Regents by the Committee of Advisers, which had taken over the duties of Dean of Women in 1926 (see Part II: The Office of the Dean of Women). As a result the Regents, in September, 1928, authorized the building of a dormitory to house 440 girls.

The prospect of building such a large dormitory, however, caused a serious controversy between the landladies of Ann Arbor and the University. The landladies feared that their rooms would be left empty and their means of livelihood thus endangered. The new dormitory was also criticized as being too large and the proposed site was considered "too far away from campus."

A petition protesting the construction of the building was presented to the Regents in October, 1928. A committee was approved by the mayor to study the economic effect on the city of the building of such a dormitory and in general of the continuation of the University's building plans. Regents Sawyer, Beal, and Clements conferred with the mayor's committee and, as a result, in January, 1929, the Regents postponed construction of the dormitory in order to make a more thorough study of the financing plan involved.

It was pointed out by the deans of the University, however, that the necessity for dormitories was seen "more than fifteen years ago" and was formally expressed to the Regents in 1915 (see Dean's Statement [R.P., 1926-29, pp. 818-23]). The deans favored the dormitory principle "as a matter of educational policy." A resolution was also passed on this matter in 1920 and discussed by President Burton and Dean Bursley in reports presented in 1921-22.

The construction of Mosher-Jordan, the first large women's dormitory at the University of Michigan, was completed in 1930-31. The building was financed by a bond issue and organized on a plan which made it possible for the house to pay for itself over a period of twenty-five years. The residence consists of two halls of residence serviced by a central kitchen, but it is operated as two separate social units (see Part VIII: Mosher-Jordan Halls). Until 1932 each dormitory except Mosher-Jordan, which was under direct University control, was operated Page  1795as a separate financial unit by a Board of Governors appointed by the Board of Regents for that house. In 1933 it became necessary to lower the price of room and board because of the depression and the consequent financial pressure on students and parents. As a result, it was difficult for Mosher-Jordan Halls, without some assistance, to meet the large annual payments demanded by a self-liquidating plan, and the dormitory was placed under central management. All of the other University dormitories for women with the exception of Martha Cook Building, which by the terms of its deed of gift was prevented from doing so, were united at this time under one business management, thereby affecting great saving in general overhead expense.

This was the first attempt to establish a correlated program for residence halls. With the appointment of Miss Ellen Stevenson as Business Manager of Dormitories, an efficient organization was created which began to solve the financial and physical operation problems that had developed as a result of the separate operation of the individual residences. In 1939, at the time the Michigan House Plan was instituted, Miss Stevenson (Mrs. George M. Stanley) was succeeded as Business Manager of Residence Halls by Francis C. Shiel, the present Manager of Service Enterprises. At the time the House Plan was established, the student personnel management of the women's residence halls, including student welfare and the social programs, was centralized in the office of the dean of women; the house directors and their assistants were appointed by the Regents on recommendation of the dean.

By 1935 the housing shortage for women had increased to the point where the dormitories were seriously overcrowded. Before the opening of Mosher-Jordan in 1930-31, there had been seventy-six league houses. After its construction there were only twelve. By 1935-36, however, the number had risen again to sixty-two, and there was an urgent demand on the part of the public for more dormitory accommodations. In 1938-39, 773 girls were living in dormitories, 399 in sororities, 588 in league houses, and 258 at home or with relatives. One hundred and fifty-nine were living by permission in outside approved residences, and twenty-one in the Michigan League Building.

The construction of Madelon Louisa Stockwell Hall, named in honor of Mrs. Charles K. Turner, née Madelon Louisa Stockwell, the first woman to be admitted to the University, helped to ease the situation. This dormitory, built as the result of a grant by the Federal Administration of Public Works (P.W.A.), was completed in 1940 and housed 426 women.

The shortage of housing for women increased in the 1940's, however. During World War II the University augmented its facilities by listing more league houses, and by renting fraternity houses. The Ann Arbor News of September 23, 1944, reported that the University had leased eighteen fraternity houses for University women. Extra space was provided by converting single rooms to doubles and doubles to triples in the dormitories and by housing more girls in the Michigan League Building. Because of the housing situation in these years, even those students whose academic records were good were discouraged from applying for admission to the University.

With the end of the war in 1945 and the return of several thousand veterans, the situation became increasingly difficult and unpredictable. The fraternity houses, which had been rented for women, were re-occupied by the men.

Page  1796Another women's residence hall became available in 1945 with the purchase of Mary Bartron Henderson House. Plans to raise money for this house, to be operated on a co-operative basis, had been adopted by the Alumnae Council as its major Alumni Ten-Year Program in 1937. It was intended, originally, to construct a new house, but increasing building costs made it advisable to buy an older, well-constructed residence and renovate it. The house was opened in 1945 and named for Mary Bartron Henderson, director of the campaign committee which made possible the erection of the Michigan League. She had made a special investigation of the possibility of additional co-operative housing for women, whereby through co-operative effort and self-help the students' living costs could be reduced to a minimum. In 1944, at the request of the Alumnae Council, Alumnae House had been renamed Mary Markley House in honor of Mary Butler Markley, one of the first women to graduate from the University. In 1950, however, because the house was in poor condition and too small to be operated efficiently, it was closed. This provided $20,000 with which the alumnae were able to complete the remodeling of Mary Bartron Henderson House.

The enrollment of women in 1945 was 5,078, showing an average increase of six hundred women a year for three years. Outside the University residence hall system there were ninety league houses accommodating 1,112 girls. In 1946-47 the number dropped to seventy-six, housing 1,024 girls; the sororities took care of 519. The houses were inspected each year by representatives from the Health Service and the Office of the Dean of Women. At this time a dormitory for women, housing 126 students, was opened at Willow Run. In 1947-48, although enrollment had decreased slightly and the capacity of the residence halls had been increased, the shortage of living space for women was still acute. The number of league houses fell from seventy-six in 1946 to sixty-two in 1947.

Since 1945 the number of league houses has steadily declined as the women who own them grow older, as the cost of upkeep rises, and as the amount of University housing slowly but steadily increases. In 1947 there were nineteen sororities housing 550 women students. Almost all the sororities had more members than they could accommodate. The overflow was taken care of in nearby league houses. In addition, a total of 1,055 special permissions were granted by the dean of women to girls who wished to live in private homes. Three houses under the sponsorship of the Interco-operative Council housed fifty-seven girls.

Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall, named for Dean Alice C. Lloyd, opened in September, 1949. This dormitory, which houses five hundred girls, consists of four units or houses, named for four women who were prominent in the history of the University: Sarah Caswell Angell, Alice Freeman Palmer, Mary Louisa Hinsdale, and Caroline Hubbard Kleinstueck (see Part VIII: Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall). Alice Crocker Lloyd ('16), Dean of Women from 1930 until her death in 1950, served the University during the most critical years in the history of women's housing. Her term of office covered the period of World War II, when the housing situation was most acute. In these years all of the large residence halls were constructed and finally united under one central management.

In 1953 Geddes House was purchased by the University at a cost of $54,000 for use as a girls' co-operative dwelling.

The sorority situation through the years developed certain perplexing problems. By 1938-39 well-established Page  1797groups which had been on campus long enough to have their properties clear or almost clear of debt were not seriously affected, but membership in some of the younger sororities decreased to the point where it was impossible to carry the overhead. By 1938-39 eight groups were too large for their houses, and four houses did not have enough members to fill their rooms. In order that the number of sororities might not diminish on the campus, a secretary was appointed by the Panhellenic Association, and it was her duty to assist the smaller houses during rushing. This resulted in better co-operation among the various sororities.

By 1956 the number of sororities at Michigan had increased to twenty-nine, and the President's Report for 1955-56 states: "Between June 1, 1951, and June 1, 1956, the amount of money invested by the sororities in expansion and rehabilitation of their several properties cannot … total less than one million dollars… This is a very fine record of support of the University in its years of expansion."

September, 1950, marked the inauguration of a policy to house all freshman women in the University system rather than to close the residence hall lists on a given date and relegate all subsequently admitted freshmen to league houses or rooms in town. The implementation of this policy, however, produced enormous difficulties. The upstairs corridor lounges or small study halls in Stockwell, Mosher-Jordan, and Alice Crocker Lloyd halls were all converted to "quads," and this resulted in the residence halls being more crowded than ever before. In August, 1951, the Board of Governors of Residence Halls released Victor Vaughan House for the use of women students. It had accommodations for 185 persons and took care of the overflow in the larger residence halls. In 1952 Tyler and Prescott houses in the East Quadrangle, not without much regret on the part of the men, became residences for women with space for two hundred graduate and undergraduate women. In 1953-54, with the increased enrollment of women and the drop in men's enrollment, Chicago House in the West Quadrangle was also made available to women students.

On July 1, 1954, Couzens Hall was removed from the management of the Hospital and became an integral part of the University residence hall system. This dormitory, which now houses about 530 women, was given to the University in 1923 by the Honorable James Couzens, of Detroit, United States Senator from Michigan — when he presented the University with $600,000 for "the construction of a building for the housing of student … and graduate nurses." An addition, with 265 bed spaces, was completed in 1956.

In 1954 the Board of Governors of Residence Halls released Fletcher Hall to the use of the women. Fletcher Hall was built as a men's residence hall in 1922-23 by a group of alumni organized under Michigan laws as the Dormitories Corporation. It was named for the Honorable Frank W. Fletcher, for many years a regent of the University. Partly because of the depression and partly because of administrative difficulties, the corporation was unable to pay for the building, and in 1933 the University acquired it at a receiver's sale for $13,000.

In September, 1953, the University had 2,500 dormitory spaces for women, not including the housing for 144 persons provided by Martha Cook Building. By 1956 this figure had been increased to 3,036.

Page  1798

FRATERNITIES

FRATERNITY life at the University of Michigan goes back almost to the first days of the University. The first two fraternities, Beta Theta Pi and Chi Psi, were established in 1845, the year the first class was graduated. At this time the whole fraternity system in America was scarcely twenty years old.

Phi Beta Kappa, it is true, had been established at the College of William and Mary on December 5, 1776, as an undergraduate literary and social organization and thus may be said to be the oldest American college fraternity. After the demise of the first southern chapters because of the Revolutionary War, it spread to the colleges in the North, where, however, it apparently never became a fraternity in the modern sense. The secret provisions of its constitution were very generally attacked, and as a result most chapters dropped the feature of secrecy and emphasis was increasingly placed upon the policy of indicating and rewarding scholastic attainments.

It remained for a group of fraternities established at Union College in 1825 and 1827 to set the pattern for the present American fraternity system. The first of these was the Kappa Alpha Society, formed in the autumn of 1825 by certain members of a defunct military company who enjoyed the fellowship it had provided. Two years later, March 4, 1827, saw the establishment of Sigma Phi, and in November of the same year Delta Phi was organized.

From this little group the fraternity system spread throughout the country, so that by the time it was introduced at Michigan there were eight national fraternities with chapters in the leading institutions of the country. Seven of these, Kappa Alpha, Sigma Phi, Delta Phi, Alpha Delta Phi, Psi Upsilon, Chi Psi, and Delta Kappa Epsilon, were first established in eastern institutions, while Beta Theta Pi, founded at Miami in 1839, was distinctly western in its origin.

The question as to which fraternity first appeared in Ann Arbor has long been a matter of discussion, though in the official list of fraternities in the Michiganensian Chi Psi has been given the place of honor. However, Beta Theta Pi was organized on July 17, 1845, and the chapter was established on the following November 13, according to the records of the chapter, although its members, apparently, did not wear their badges or publicly make known the existence of the fraternity. This would make it just a little older than Chi Psi, which was organized in December, 1845, and actually established in April, 1846, with its members immediately proclaiming their fraternity affiliation. Moreover, Chi Psi has had a continuous existence at the University, whereas Beta Theta Pi was disbanded for two periods, from 1850 to 1854, and again from 1864 to 1875.

The relative priority status of these two fraternities has given rise to many heated discussions among fraternity men, with the question officially adjusted in 1931, when it was finally agreed that Beta Theta Pi and Chi Psi were of equal rank as to their years on the Michigan campus and should be jointly listed in first place in the Michiganensian, Beta Theta Pi to be given first place in the even years and Chi Psi in the odd years. This procedure was soon superseded, however, when all the fraternities were listed in alphabetical order.

With the establishment of Alpha Delta Phi, August 5, 1846, a large proportion of the students then in the University became members of the three existing fraternities. There was, however, on the books of the University a Page  1799rule drawn up in 1840, before any students were enrolled, by Professor George Palmer Williams, known as Rule Twenty, which provided that "no student shall be or shall become a member of any society connected with the University which has not first submitted its constitution to the faculty and received their approval."

Apparently, small attention at first was paid to this rule. It had been approved in accordance with the ideas of faculty regulation of student life prevailing in most colleges of that period, when the students were on the average younger than they are today. For a short time the existence of the fraternities was unnoticed, at least officially; but in the summer of 1846 some student depredations were traced to a small log house situated in the depths of the heavily wooded area east of the campus, probably on the present site of Forest Hill Cemetery. This building, which was discovered to be the headquarters of the Chi Psi fraternity, is supposed to have been the first fraternity lodge of which there is a record in any American university. A University official attempted to enter the building, but was barred by the students because of the rule of secrecy of the organization. This incident led to a revelation of the existence of two fraternities, Chi Psi and Beta Theta Pi, and compelled the faculty to take some action in the enforcement of Rule Twenty.

Lists of the members of the two fraternities were freely given the faculty upon request, since the students relied upon the large proportion of the undergraduate body who were members of these organizations, their connections with the people of Ann Arbor, and their widespread affiliations in many other leading educational institutions of the country, to prevent any drastic action by the faculty. In the meantime, another society, Alpha Delta Phi, had been established on Commencement day, August 5, 1846. A representative had offered to submit certain parts of the constitution to the Regents, but the Board was too busy with Commencement business to consider the matter at the time. The students, nevertheless, completed their organization, and it was not long before the faculty was aware of a third fraternity in existence on the campus.

The question of the proper action to take in regard to these organizations was a serious one for the faculty. At first, they decided upon a moderate course, simply requiring the societies to promise not to initiate more members, and exacting of all matriculates in the University a pledge not to join societies that had not secured faculty approval. Thus, they thought the organizations would soon disappear. But their expectations proved to be ill-founded. Alpha Delta Phi proceeded to initiate new members on the assumption that it existed, if not with the approval, at least by the sufferance of the faculty. The faculty learned of this action in March, 1847, and the new initiates were obliged to withdraw, while a stringent pledge was signed by the original members. A second offer by Alpha Delta Phi to submit its constitution was declined by the faculty since "it had no authority to legalize them as a society in the University of Michigan." The students promptly took advantage of this statement, maintaining that if the faculty could not legalize a society it could not forbid it. Beta Theta Pi, which sought recognition in July, 1848, was informed that it came under the prohibition of the law.

It is very plain that the students relied upon their strong position and continued to initiate members sub rosa under one pretext or another for some time following this action of the faculty. Toward the close of the college year 1847-48, the faculty addressed letters to the presidents of several eastern colleges Page  1800asking their opinions concerning the possibility of suppressing the Greek letter societies. The reports were generally unfavorable, but it was apparent that while regulations similar to Michigan's Rule Twenty were supposedly in force, none of the institutions had been able actually to suppress the societies. It was even suggested by Chancellor Frelinghuysen of New York University that so many lawyers and other literary graduates belonged to them that suppression would be difficult.

Thus, the situation drifted on until 1849, when a recently issued catalogue of the University was found on the campus in which were printed the names of eleven undergraduate members of the Chi Psi fraternity. This precipitated a further inquiry which led to disclosure of the names of the members of Alpha Delta Phi. In both cases, the student defense was that it was no longer a chapter in the University, but "in Ann Arbor"; the members did not meet on University premises; and as persons unconnected with any college had been admitted to membership the societies could not be regarded as consisting of students.

This plea was considered an evasion, and it was announced that the members of these two fraternities would be dismissed from the University at the opening of the next term unless they renounced their affiliations. As a result seven students ostensibly withdrew from their fraternities, while the rest were expelled on December 18, 1849. Members of the third fraternity, Beta Theta Pi, were not dismissed until September, 1850, since they had made the plea that their constitution was not signed. Thus, a very considerable proportion of the student body of that period left the University, never to return. Many went to Union College, others to the University of Rochester. A few returned to Ann Arbor, while some never finished their college course. The number of graduates for the years 1850-53 ranges from ten to twelve, in contrast to the twenty-four who were graduated in 1849, and the twenty-one in 1854, after the last class affected was graduated.

Events of such far-reaching importance naturally did not escape the attention of the citizens of Ann Arbor, many of whom had sons and friends among the student body. They severely criticized the faculty as well as the Regents, who were not able to take a decisive position after a tie vote, six to six, on a resolution declaring the student fraternity members were not to be "regarded as amenable to punishment," submitted on July 20, 1848. Moreover, the attention of the Masons and other secret societies came to be focused upon the struggle. The result was an indignation meeting of citizens held on December 20, 1849, at which support was given to the fraternities and a complete change of faculty was advocated. As a further result, a bill was introduced in the legislature of 1850 providing that the Regents should be elected by the people instead of appointed by the governor.

Thus, the state legislature was drawn into the struggle, and it has been asserted that the call for a constitutional convention was a direct result, since the 1850 constitution provided for the election of the Board of Regents. In any case the whole problem was carried to the legislature by some of the expelled students, by the nonfraternity students, who supported the faculty action, and by the faculty itself, which submitted a rather ill-considered memorial containing many violent and unsupported statements. The situation, moreover, had been complicated by certain students' submitting a garbled version of the faculty memorial several weeks in advance.

This continuing agitation eventually became too strong for the faculty, and it Page  1801was forced to change its position. In a series of meetings held in October, 1850, the constitutions of Beta Theta Pi and Alpha Delta Phi were considered, as well as an "exhibition of the system of fundamental rules and regulations of which the constitution of Chi Psi consists," which resulted in the reinstatement of the fraternities. The first action taken was in regard to Beta Theta Pi and was embodied in the following resolution:

whereas, The Constitution of Beta Theta Pi society has, in compliance with the twentieth Article, Chapter 4, of the college laws, been perused for the approval of the faculty in order that students may be members thereof,

Resolved, That the faculty, having examined, do so far approve said constitution as to permit students of the university to be members of said society on condition. [Here are set forth the conditions: (1) No senior shall belong until written consent of his parent is filed with the president of the faculty; (2) the faculty shall be informed of times and places of meetings; (3) all meetings shall be held in college buildings; (4) no change shall be made in the constitution without approval of faculty; (5) the faculty shall be furnished the name of every member within one week of his admission; (6) the fraternity shall not interfere with the administration of college government; (7) the regulations shall be obligatory upon the entire fraternity.]

The yeas and nays being called for, the resolution was passed by the following vote: Yeas, Professors Whedon, Douglass, Fasquelle and Ten Brook; Nays, Professors Williams and Agnew.

The suspended chapter of Beta Theta Pi, however, was not reconstituted until 1854; Chi Psi and Alpha Delta Phi apparently still retained a small membership and were able to reorganize their chapters immediately.

This whole controversy served to reveal the weakness of the University and led, as has already been noted, to a drastic change in the government of the institution, particularly in the election of the Board of Regents and the appointment of a strong executive in the person of President Tappan. As was pointed out by Professor Andrew Ten Brook, who was a member of the faculty at that time, both the students and the faculty were the victims of a mistaken and impracticable theory of university government. The self-reliance and maturity of the students caused them to resent the implied faculty paternalism and minute regulation of student life. The faculty, moreover, held the narrow-minded clerical point of view of that period and supposed that they had the support of the other leading American colleges. Nevertheless, the students knew that in no other institution had faculty regulation of the fraternities been effective, and they resolutely maintained their position. Under these circumstances the final victory of the students was perhaps inevitable.

On the settlement of the fraternity question, these organizations entered upon a period of steady growth, with new chapters continuing to be established as the University grew. Delta Kappa Epsilon was inaugurated in the University in 1855, Delta Phi came in the same year, gave up its charter twenty years later, was re-established in 1923, and withdrew in 1936. Sigma Phi came in 1858, established largely under the auspices of Professor Andrew D. White. Zeta Psi came as the seventh fraternity in the same year, 1858, while Psi Upsilon was organized in 1865. Phi Delta Theta was chartered in 1864, but the names of the members were not listed until 1866, and in the spring of 1866 the chapter became dormant, not to be revived until 1887. Delta Tau Delta was organized in 1874, suspended in 1876, and reorganized in 1880. Phi Kappa Psi and Delta Upsilon came in the same year, 1876; the Page  1802latter, a nonsecret fraternity which started in the east as an antisecret organization, has developed into a nonsecret body which, however, except in the fact that its motto is known, has little to distinguish it from the secret organizations.

Sigma Chi was established in 1877, became dormant a few years later, and was re-established in 1896. Chi Phi opened its doors in 1882, surrendered its charter in 1885, and became active again in 1921. Sigma Alpha Epsilon was organized in 1888, and Theta Delta Chi in 1889. Between 1890 and 1927 the list of fraternities more than quadrupled, although the proportion of the fraternity members among the students actually decreased, owing to the rapid growth of the University. This was a larger number of these organizations than the student body could support, so that by 1940 more than one-third had closed their doors on the Michigan campus. While nearly two-thirds of the students were members of the Greek letter organizations in the University's early days, less than one-third of the men and women in the University are now members of these societies.

Among the professional fraternities, Phi Delta Phi organized the parent chapter of the fraternity at the University of Michigan in 1869. Nu Sigma Nu, a medical fraternity, was also first organized at Michigan in 1882 with the late William J. Mayo as one of the charter members, and the same year the first chapter of Delta Sigma Delta was organized by students in the Dental School.

The earlier history of the fraternities in the University is closely associated with the annual University yearbook, which first appeared in 1859 as the Palladium, apparently a reincarnation of an earlier publication known as The University Register, a four-page paper which gave lists of University officers, graduates, and secret society members. The Palladium was published by the fraternities and soon became a booklet of some fifty pages bound in glazed paper. Eight hundred copies were printed at a cost of $85. Practically all the fraternities were listed in this publication up to 1876, when the nonsecret fraternity, Delta Upsilon, appeared.

The fraternities established after that date were not included in the Palladium, with the exception of Phi Kappa Psi. Thus, the older fraternities were known as the "Palladium fraternities" and came to have a certain amount of social prestige deriving from their age and close-knit organization. Other groups resented this assumption on the part of the Palladium group and established their own yearbook, the Castalian, in 1890. In 1897 the Palladium and the Castalian, together with the Res Gestae of the Law School, were combined into a new publication, the present Michiganensian, although the spirit of the old Palladium still existed.

These older fraternities for years had sponsored the annual Junior Hop, which had been the principal student social event since 1877 and had been preceded by a similar ball given by the seniors since 1868. This control of the Junior Hop by the Palladium fraternities was resented by the other fraternities and the nonfraternity "independents," and a protest to the Regents in 1896 resulted in a ruling that if University buildings were to be used for social functions, all representatives of the junior class should be eligible to attend. The Palladium fraternities refused to participate and the result was two hops, one given in Toledo by eight fraternities, which chartered a special train, and one in the University Gymnasium by the more recent fraternities and independents. The following year a compromise was effected by which these fraternities and independents Page  1803were admitted to representation upon the Junior Hop committee, an arrangement which exists at the present time.

The separate fraternity lodges or clubhouses, which add a great deal to the aspect of the city of Ann Arbor through their usually attractive architectural design, are an essential feature of fraternity life at the University of Michigan. Aside from the early log cabin lodge of Chi Psi, the first fraternity building was erected by Delta Kappa Epsilon, the little chapel-like building, built in 1878, on William Street near the corner of State Street. Alpha Delta Phi, however, had formally inaugurated the chapter house system in Ann Arbor as early as the college year 1875-76, when it occupied the octagonal residence originally used by Professor Alexander Winchell, situated on North University Avenue on the present site of Hill Auditorium. This later became the home of Delta Tau Delta.

The first fraternity clubhouse especially erected as living quarters for the student members was that built by Psi Upsilon on the corner of South University and State Street, where the Lawyers' Club now stands. It was a large, rather ungainly brick building, erected in the college year 1879-80, and reconstructed and greatly enlarged twelve years later. In 1884 the first house of Alpha Delta Phi, across State Street, was completed and dedicated, while the chapter house of Delta Kappa Epsilon, which stood next to the Psi Upsilon house on State Street, was formally dedicated in 1889.

At the present time the fraternities and sororities occupy an important place, as they always have, in the fabric of student society. They have been criticized, and with some justice, as being undemocratic and exclusive, extending their privileges to only a part of the student body. But they have added color to the college atmosphere, have provided in some degree an equivalent for home life and intimate companionship for at least a part of the student body, and have constituted unofficial agencies through which the University could reach the students on occasion when official action seemed undesirable. The strong, close-knit influence which the fraternities exercised in an early day on student life as a whole has been greatly modified in recent years, so that now the fraternities relatively are a much less important element than they were at one time when undergraduate activities and clubs, musical, dramatic, forensic, and literary, were largely dominated by them.

The question has sometimes been raised as to whether the fraternities are the ideal solution for the creation of smaller social units in a huge student body, such as exists at the University of Michigan. In the past, membership in the fraternities has been too small to permit really economical operation, and this has made membership impossible for many students because of the expense, although of late the tendency has been to enlarge the membership, since freshmen are no longer permitted to live in the fraternity houses. Moreover, initiates must have a satisfactory scholastic record before they are permitted to join a fraternity. The rise of the residence halls has also limited to a certain extent the number of students who desire to join fraternities. All of these factors have led to a decrease in the actual number of fraternities. Most of the organizations discontinued during the last decade are those more recently formed which lacked strong support on the part of alumni members, always an important factor in the maintenance of the older fraternities.

For some time there has existed a strong movement toward the elevation of student scholarship standards on the Page  1804part of the fraternities. There was a time when scholarship was not emphasized by many of these social organizations. A strong reform program on the part of the University, supported by alumni, has improved this situation, particularly since the University now publishes every year a chart showing the exact standing of every fraternity. Though the general average of the fraternity student is little if any above the general average of the University, the fraternities at the lower end of the scale almost always hear from their alumni and are subject to an insistent demand that they improve their record, with usually favorable results. It may be said, however, that the scholastic position of the different fraternities is still of lesser importance to most students than other factors in the selection of their fraternity affiliations.

A significant step in the relationship of the University to the fraternities was taken in 1914 when the Interfraternity Council was organized following a recommendation contained in a report by the Committee on Student Affairs presented in 1913. The "fraternity situation" was becoming increasingly unsatisfactory, ideals of scholarship were low, while the practice of pledging members long before they were ready for college and the questionable methods used in "rushing" prospective members called for drastic action. The most striking provisions of the constitution of the council were that all pledging must be done in Ann Arbor and not before the tenth day previous to the opening of classes; the prohibition of any freshmen living in fraternity houses; and, most important of all, that no initiate should have less than eleven hours of credit of at least C grade, and that no student on probation or warning should be initiated. The constitution provided also for the publication of an annual scholarship chart showing the relative standing of these societies.

The Interfraternity Council rules have been altered from time to time, so that the University enters more intimately and effectively into the management of the fraternities. Permission of the University is required for the holding of dances; the appointment of financial advisers, who are responsible for an operating budget and monthly financial statements on the part of each fraternity, is specified; and fraternities unable to meet their obligations at the end of the year may be denied permission to reopen by the University. In the matter of rushing the regulations now limit the rushing period, provide for the statement of preference both by the student and the fraternity, and otherwise define and limit the rushing procedure on the part of these organizations.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Castalia, Univ. Mich., 1867-70.
Castalian, Univ. Mich., 1890-97.
The Chronicle, Univ. Mich., 1869-90.
Michiganensian, Univ. Mich., 1897-1956.
Palladium, Univ. Mich., 1859-97.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York, 1920.
The University Argonaut, Univ. Mich., 1882-90.
University Regulations Concerning Student Affairs …, Official Publ., Univ. Mich., Vol. 56, No. 16 (1954).
Page  1805

SORORITIES

By 1870, the year in which the first woman was admitted to the University, five sororities, which were later to become national in scope, had been established at other institutions of higher learning. The development of sororities at Michigan was an inevitable outgrowth of coeducation. As more and more women enrolled in the University, it was natural for them to form groups with common interests and standards. In 1875 a few women students were asked to establish a chapter of Kappa Alpha Theta at Michigan. Fearing that a secret order might weaken the cause of coeducation, they declined. As the enrollment of women increased, however, this argument was no longer valid, and the Chronicle for November 23, 1878, announced: "There is a report circulating to the effect that the coeds are to have a secret society after the manner of the boys." Eta chapter of Kappa Alpha Theta, the first sorority at Michigan, was established in 1879.

The first organizations were ridiculed and their members accused of attempting to imitate the men. The advent of the sorority was considered a joke by the fraternity men, who had finally, after much antagonism from faculty and townspeople, been accepted themselves. In spite of this the sororities grew in number. Beta chapter of Gamma Phi Beta was chartered in 1882 and Xi chapter of Delta Gamma in 1885.

In the latter year the Michigan members of Kappa Alpha Theta disagreed with the sorority-at-large and surrendered their charter. In 1886 the former members reorganized as a college chapter with no national affiliation. The local group patterned itself after the New York Sorosis (one of America's first women's clubs) and took the name Collegiate Sorosis. Beta chapter of Pi Beta Phi was chartered in 1888 and Delta Gamma chapter of Kappa Kappa Gamma in 1890.

The organization of the Women's League in 1890 was the first campuswide development to improve the relationship among the sororities and between "affiliated" and "independent" women. One representative from each sorority and an equal number of "independents" served on the League Executive Committee. The minutes of its early meetings contain an occasional reference to rushing problems and attempts to establish a standard pattern for all sororities to follow in securing new members.

Within the next fifteen years (1891-1905), five more sororities were organized at the University. Theta chapter of Alpha Phi was chartered in 1892 and Iota chapter of Delta Delta Delta in 1894. Kappa Alpha Theta was re-established in 1893. Theta chapter of Alpha Chi Omega was founded at Michigan in 1898 and Eta chapter of Chi Omega in 1905.

With the formation of so many groups, the necessity for unification on both the national and local levels was apparent. The first meeting of representatives of all national sororities was held at Boston in 1891 at the invitation of Kappa Kappa Gamma, and in 1902 the second meeting was called by Alpha Phi in Chicago. From these meetings, the National Inter-Sorority Conference (now National Panhellenic Conference) developed.

With nine sororities vying for new members on the Michigan campus, the need to establish basic group regulations for rushing was an urgent problem. This was first accomplished in 1904, when the following rules were printed:

  • 1) The rushing season is defined as the first three weeks of the first semester, Page  1806beginning the Tuesday before the day of matriculation.
  • 2) Each sorority shall have the privilege of sending two members and no more to meet a train on which that sorority expects a guest to arrive.
  • 3) There shall be no public or formal rushing on Sundays. All exceptions to this rule shall be explained to the association in open meeting.
  • 4) Any girls accompanied in the Dean's office by members of one sorority shall not be approached by members of other sororities until she has left the Dean's office.
  • 5) Meetings of the association shall be held during the rushing season.
  • 6) These rules shall be binding for the college year 1904-1905. (Mich. Alum., 10 [1903-04]: 424.)

The "association" mentioned above was the first united group formed by the local sororities. The Inter-Sorority Association (now the Panhellenic Association) program grew from these meetings held during rushing into a year-round organization where scholarship, philanthropies, women's activities, and other topics of mutual concern were discussed.

Because of the difficult housing situation which the women students encountered in the early years, sorority membership offered a definite advantage. As a compact unit, a group could afford to contract its own facilities on a rental basis in the mid-1880's. The desirability of self-operating living units contributed to their prestige, but the relatively higher cost for better housing, in addition to the need for financial backing, made it impossible for the sororities to solve the problem for all women students. Each sorority admitted more members than its house could accommodate, and new members eagerly awaited the opportunity to live in the chapter house. In 1904 Gamma Phi Beta purchased its own house, and Collegiate Sorosis built a residence in 1906. As the financial situation permitted, other sororities followed suit.

By 1904 all the women on campus were united through the Women's League in the drive for better living conditions; the initial objective was the provision of parlor facilities. With the support of Dean Jordan the sororities attempted to improve the housing situation for all University women by refusing to pledge any girl who lived in a house where she did not have the use of the parlor. Thus, "unco-operative" landladies were in danger of losing the entire freshman trade.

Alpha chapter of Theta Phi Alpha, a sorority for Catholic women, was established at Michigan in 1912. Several other chapters were established during the 1920's. Alpha Epsilon chapter of Alpha Xi Delta was added in 1920. Pi chapter of Alpha Epsilon Phi, Omicron Pi chapter of Alpha Omicron Pi, and Sigma Zeta chapter of Kappa Delta were all chartered in the year 1921. During the next year (1922) Alpha Beta chapter of Alpha Gamma Delta and the Eta chapter of Phi Sigma Sigma were established.

In the mid 1920's, social events sponsored by the Panhellenic Association gained in popularity. The first Panhellenic Ball was held in 1923 as a benefit for the Michigan League Building Fund. Ten of the forty fraternities supposedly threatened to impose heavy fines on any member who went to the Ball; the indignation of the women was great, but to everyone's surprise, the dance was a great success with 275 couples attending. The Panhellenic Ball, held annually since that year, has had as many as 400 couples in attendance. Intersorority banquets and luncheons were part of each year's program. In 1929 Beta Eta chapter of Alpha Delta Pi was chartered at the University.

The period of the 1930's was a time of Page  1807crisis for the sororities. In addition to the general financial difficulties, it was feared that the newly opened women's dormitories would offer such competition that prospective members would lose interest in sorority activity. Living conditions in the sorority houses came into close comparison with those of the new residence halls, but the advantages of living in small, unified groups proved to be a great source of strength to the sorority system. As the financial situation became more acute, several sororities closed their houses and became inactive — Sigma Kappa in 1934, Delta Zeta in 1935, Theta Phi Alpha in 1936, and Phi Sigma Sigma in 1943. Working within strict budgets, the other groups managed to survive.

The uneven distribution of membership among the groups was solved by a 1938 Panhellenic decision which allowed four years for each group to adjust its total active membership to 60. This "chapter limitation" number was constant until 1957, when it was raised to 65. During World War II, with the increased enrollment of women, all housing facilities were crowded to capacity. Over a period of several years, many fraternity houses were converted for a time to women's residences.

In 1944 Chi chapter of Sigma Delta Tau was installed. Alpha Eta chapter of Delta Zeta was rechartered between 1948 and 1952, and Zeta Tau Alpha became inactive in 1951. Delta Eta of Delta Phi Epsilon was installed in 1954; Alpha Mu of Sigma Kappa was reinstated in 1955 and Alpha Gamma chapter of Zeta Tau Alpha in 1956. Delta Xi chapter of Phi Mu was chartered in 1957, bringing the total number of housed sororities to twenty-one.

In addition, there are two national sororities at Michigan which do not house their members. Nu chapter of Delta Sigma Theta, originally chartered in 1921, became inactive in 1930, but was rechartered in 1948. Beta Eta chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha was chartered in 1932.

Sororities at Michigan have made a significant contribution toward the development of housing for women. More than one-fourth of the women enrolled are sorority members. Each group has housed its members for many years at no cost to the University. Excellent living conditions are supplemented by social and philanthropic projects. Much scholarship and financial aid is provided by the individual sororities, and training in the amenities and the development of high personal and scholastic standards have always been emphasized.

THE MICHIGAN UNION

In its essentials the Michigan Union, both as an organization and as a building, came as an expression of a long-standing need on the part of the student body of the University. For many years a conviction had been developing, though not very precisely expressed, that with the rapid growth of the University some force was desirable to integrate the life of the students, to give them a sense of unity, and to serve as a great club and center for all student, faculty, and alumni activities.

This feeling eventually gave recognition in the fall of 1903 to the need for a Michigan Union building. The movement was furthered by interviews with President Angell and leading members Page  1808of the faculty, printed in the Michigan Daily for December 5, 1903. As a result, on December 29 of the same year, the senior society, Michigamua, issued a call for a meeting of representatives of the leading University organizations to consider ways and means to further the project. Two members each from Quadrangle, Friars, the Toastmasters' Club, and the Michigan Daily, at a meeting in February, 1904, conferred with the members of Michigamua and with Professors Henry M. Bates, Robert M. Wenley, John R. Allen, and Fred N. Scott, who was appointed temporary chairman. Shirley W. Smith represented the Alumni Association. These men all gave strong and active support to the project. The student members of the "Committee for the Organization of a Union" included Edward F. Parker ('04), temporary secretary, D. Bethune Duffield Blain ('04, '06l), Franklin A. Wagner ('04l), Paul Jones ('05l), William K. Williams ('01, '04l), Samuel E. Thomason ('04), Thomas B. Roberts ('04), Thomas A. Sims ('04, '06l), and Sanford Trippet ('04l).

With the help and encouragement of Professor Bates, later Dean of the Law School, articles of association, which set the number of directors at twelve, were drawn up and signed on June 20, 1904. The articles have since been amended twice.

In November, 1911, the number of directors was increased to seventeen and in May, 1952, to nineteen. At a meeting on November 5, 1904, this first Executive Committee recommended the establishment of an "incorporated" body, to be known as the Michigan Union, for students, alumni, faculty, and regents. These "incorporators" of the Michigan Union were Edward F. Parker, D. Bethune D. Blain, David E. Beardsley ('02, '04m), Edward S. Corwin ('00), Curtis A. Evans ('02, '04m), Paul Jones, Richard R. Kirk ('03, A.M. '04), Thomas B. Roberts, Thomas A. Sims, Shirley W. Smith (ex officio) as secretary of the Alumni Association, succeeded in the fall of 1904 by Wilfred B. Shaw ('04), Samuel E. Thomason, Sanford Trippet, and Frank A. Wagner. Members of the first Board of Directors were Edward F. Parker, recording secretary, D. B. D. Blain, corresponding secretary, Wilfred B. Shaw, financial secretary, James S. Baley ('05), H. S. Graver ('04), Lucius A. Farnham ('05m), Thomas A. Sims, Burton S. Knapp ('04p), and Professors Bates, Wenley, Scott, and Allen.

Edward F. (Bob) Parker, who had first been responsible for arousing student and faculty interest in the plan, was elected as the first president. In fact Parker may be considered the actual founder of the Union. It was he who first conceived the idea of such a great student center and it was he who was responsible for interesting the newly organized senior society Michigamua in the project, thus ensuring wide student support.* The Executive Committee also proposed that the movement be officially inaugurated at a great dinner to be held at the beginning of the following school year. The organization found immediate favor with the students; its aims were widely discussed and specifically set forth in an article printed in the Michigan Alumnus of April, 1904.

Early in 1904 the Board of Directors began holding regular meetings in Professor Scott's seminary room in the old West Hall. The first public meeting of the Union was the dinner held on November 11, 1904, at which 1,100 persons were present; President Angell was the presiding officer.

In its first days the Union functioned Page  1809entirely as an organization, and, in accordance with its fundamental purpose, it became almost at once a unifying and co-ordinating agency in the life of the students, with the undergraduate organizations turning to it for effective guidance and assistance. Class elections were held under the auspices of the Union, a student council was set up, and a fund was established to buy the portrait of President Angell, by William L. Chase, which now hangs in the Union.

Almost immediately a campaign for a proposed Union Club House, as it was then called, was inaugurated, giving rise to a long series of entertainments which contributed not a little to the Union's finances during its early years. The directors of the Union came to the conclusion that no precedent existed anywhere for a building of the type they felt to be necessary. The first requisite, in their opinion, was that the building, if it was to serve the needs of all the men of the University, should be large and all-inclusive. It was recognized that the women already had, for the time, a fairly satisfactory social center in the parlors of Barbour Gymnasium, and the Union, therefore, was envisaged as a club for the men of the University. These objectives were first set forth in a statement by Professor Henry M. Bates on the aims of the Union, which appeared in the Michigan Alumnus of April, 1905:

What is the Union? For what does it stand, and what does it hope to accomplish? As its name indicates it is an organization, a Union for all Michigan men, graduates, faculty and regents. Its avowed objects are to promote University spirit, and to increase social intercourse and acquaintance with each other's work among the members of the different departments and other University organizations. As a means to these ends, and to some extent as an end in itself, it is proposed, as soon as funds can be secured, to erect a great building, … to be a house for the Union and headquarters in Ann Arbor for all Michigan men.

Dean Bates was perhaps more responsible than any other one individual, over those early years, in ensuring continuing faculty and student support and recognition of the fundamental concept of the Union. It is fair to say that his efforts were the determining factor in the eventual success of the project and in establishing its fundamental policies.

To serve its purpose it was necessary that the building should include not only ample lounges, reading and committee rooms, but also dining rooms with adequate kitchens, billiard and game rooms, a large assembly room and ballroom, and probably accommodations for returning alumni and a swimming pool. It was recognized that a building with such facilities would be expensive, and the first estimates, accordingly, were between $300,000 and $400,000.

Meanwhile, difficulties arose in the campaign for funds. The Alumni Association, through a committee, which included many distinguished alumni, of which Judge Claudius B. Grant ('59, hon. '91) was chairman, had authorized the raising of money for a building to be erected as a memorial to the students of the University who had died in the Civil War and Spanish-American War, and the members of this committee had already entered actively upon their task. Inevitably, confusion arose in the minds of the alumni as to whether the Union was to be the memorial proposed or a separate social center as planned by the Union Committee (see Part VIII: Alumni Memorial Hall). The matter was discussed at length in the Michigan Alumnus (December, 1904) and elsewhere, but efforts to unite the two projects proved unavailing. The members of the alumni committee were unable to conceive of the functions of the proposed Page  1810Union building as these were understood by the officers of the Union, and as a result the two campaigns were carried on simultaneously, with a certain degree of unfortunate rivalry. The Memorial Committee, however, eventually secured sufficient funds to proceed, although it left an indebtedness of some $4,000 which was borne by the Alumni Association for many years. In 1907 the construction of Alumni Memorial Hall, situated across the street from the Union, was begun; it was completed in 1910.

At the same time the efforts of the Union to raise funds met with a certain degree of success. In the winter of 1905-6 it was decided to ask for subscriptions, and on December 20, 1905, at a mass meeting held in University Hall, the plans were laid before the students with speeches and slides. In May, 1905, the student carnival in the form of a County Fair (now Michigras), held in Waterman Gymnasium, netted the Union $2,700; on May 23, 1906, the Student Lecture Association contributed its profits for the year, amounting to $1,500, and on May 4 and 5, 1906, a student entertainment, the Michigan Union Minstrels, raised $1,500. The following year a similar minstrel show, given in Detroit, was equally successful. The annual dinners, which began in 1904, also became for a number of years a feature of University life.

With funds thus raised the Union proceeded to take the first steps toward a clubhouse. The old home of Judge Thomas M. Cooley, on State Street, was purchased and remodeled. Although admittedly inadequate, the house in a measure provided some of the facilities planned for the future building and demonstrated effectively the need of a large center for student and faculty activities. This first clubhouse was formally opened on Thursday evening, November 14, 1907 (see Part VIII: Michigan Union Building).

The fact that it was operated as a club necessitated, for the first time, the payment of Union dues, which were fixed at $2.50 for each student. Despite the fact that it was relatively late in the college year, a large number of students became active members. Until 1918-19, however, when the dues were included in the University fees, by no means all of the men enrolled in the organization.

Nevertheless, interest and enthusiasm were widespread, and student energies eventually crystallized in the first of the many Michigan Union Operas, which began with "Michigenda," given in February, 1908, in the old Athens Theater (later the Whitney, razed in 1956). Given over a period of three days, this performance netted the sum of $2,000 toward the support of the organization and the clubhouse (Mich. Alum., 14 [1907-8]: 229-30). Through the years 1908-26 the Opera contributed about $125,000. In these early years the Union functioned as an agency for the expression of student interests and enthusiasm, and to its effectiveness as an organization, in the years before the present building was constructed, may be ascribed the present effectiveness of both the organization and the building which came to be its eventual symbol.

The plans for the new building were prepared by architects Allen B. Pond ('80a, A.M. hon. '11) and Irving K. Pond ('79e, A.M. hon. '11), of Chicago, whose boyhood home stood on part of the site upon which the Union Building eventually was built. In April, 1910, an announcement setting forth tentative plans and exterior sketches of the building was published in the Alumnus, thus giving a new impetus to the project. In the campaign for funds for the new building, the student officers took an active part, notably such early Union presidents Page  1811as Herbert W. Clark ('05, '08l), James K. Watkins ('09), Walle W. Merritt ('08, '12l), and Howard L. Barkdull ('09, '11l).

A special effort was undertaken to secure an increased membership, which grew rapidly until 4,047 students were enrolled in 1914. This represented a large part of the student body of that time and reflected the important place of the Union in University life. The offices of president, of secretary, and of departmental vice-presidents of the Union came to be among the most sought after and important student offices. Throughout these years the office of president was given alternately to a fraternity man and to an independent.

Despite faculty and alumni membership on the Board of Directors, the proportion of students on the board made the Union an effective expression of the best student opinion, and there was rarely a division on student-faculty lines. The student officers directed the constantly growing activities of the Union without compensation, many of them devoting almost all of their spare time to the work. Occasionally, a question arose as to the desirability of financial recognition of their services, but the board always felt that this would be inconsistent with the democratic ideals of the organization. In the campaign for funds for the new building, the student officers took an effective part, many of them traveling about the country to lay the case of the Union before alumni groups.

The first definite move for a new and larger building was initiated at a meeting of alumni held in Ann Arbor in December, 1910. Out of this meeting grew the final organization which eventually secured the necessary funds. The beginnings of the program were necessarily modest, and at first were confined largely to a program of publicity through the Michigan Alumnus and the Michigan Daily which, some years before contributions were actually solicited, resulted in a cordial and co-operative attitude on the part of the alumni.

The use of the first building grew so rapidly that in 1912, at the time of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the University, it proved necessary to build an addition in the form of a frame structure, 50 by 100 feet, at the rear. This addition, called the Assembly Hall, was used for large social gatherings and dramatic performances. Later, it became a theater for University plays. For years the Michigan Union Opera was presented here, and thus the addition acquired its later name, the Mimes Theater. Eventually, after some years' service as a Play Production Laboratory Theater, it was razed.

The adoption of a Union button, to be worn by all student members, after the popular athletic button was discontinued, also added to the general student pride in the Michigan Union. By 1914 the property of the Union, including the first clubhouse and addition, was valued at $40,000, with an indebtedness of a little more than half that amount. Subscriptions at that time, before the campaign for the present building was begun in June, 1914, amounted to $23,000. The advent of World War I a few months later, necessitated postponement of the plans for a campaign, however, and it was not until October, 1915, that actual solicitation of funds on a large scale began. Subscriptions came in rapidly during the following year, and by October, 1916, $765,000 had been secured in pledges, of which about $235,000 was in cash. The objective finally had been set at $1,000,000, including $250,000 for endowment.

The central campaign committee in Ann Arbor included Professors Henry M. Bates (chairman), Joseph A. Bursley, Evans Holbrook, Gardner S. Williams, Page  1812and Dr. Reuben Peterson from the faculty, Regents Benjamin S. Hanchett and Harry C. Bulkley, Henry E. Bodman ('96), George W. Millen, Shirley W. Smith, and Homer L. Heath ('07). Alumni subcommittees were set up all over the country, and arrangements were made for visits from representatives of the Union. By March, 1917, the sum of $800,000 had been subscribed, with about half of this amount actually in hand.

This successful campaign was carried on largely under the direction of Homer L. Heath, general manager of the Union from 1908 to 1926, who was untiring in his efforts to promote the project. This response seemed to justify plans for immediate construction. A building committee, organized in October, 1911, included Professor Joseph A. Bursley (chairman), Roy D. Chapin, Henry W. Douglas ('90e), William D. McKenzie ('96), Professor Henry E. Riggs, Frederick W. Stevens, ('87l), Professor Gardner S. Williams, and Homer L. Heath. This committee worked faithfully through 1927.

In addition to the building committee, an Alumni Advisory Committee was also established, consisting of Lawrence Maxwell ('94, hon. '93, hon. '04), Earl D. Babst ('93, '94l, hon. '11), Eugene J. Carpenter, Roy D. Chapin, Delbert J. Haff ('84, '86l, hon. '09), Richard C. Peters, Charles B. Warren ('91, hon. '16), and John M. Zane ('84, hon. '14). Actual construction did not begin until 1916, when President Hutchins turned the first sod for the building at Commencement of 1916; building operations were well under way by the fall of that year. The building committee was composed of men thoroughly competent to deal with problems of construction; they acted as their own contractors, thus saving considerable sums in the cost of the building. The Cooley house was razed at this time. The preliminary plans, however, involved only the construction of the shell of the building; the interior finish and furnishings were to be provided as the subscriptions were paid.

With America's entry into World War I in the spring of 1917 and with consequent changes and loss of enrollment in the University, the collection of these unpaid subscriptions became increasingly difficult, and construction had to be postponed. Plans were developed, in the meantime, for a war-time use of the unfinished structure. An advance loan by the Michigan State War Preparedness Board of $260,000 permitted completion of the building to a point where it could be used as a barracks, and it was taken over by the Students' Army Training Corps. With the beginning of the fall semester in 1918, some 800 corps members were housed in the Union, and meals were served to more than 4,000 persons in the building and in temporary mess halls set up beside it.

The end of the war brought the officers of the Union face to face with the fact that with a large investment already in the building it was imperative that it be completed and the loan from the state repaid. After an unsuccessful effort to raise the necessary $301,170, the building committee decided to borrow sufficient funds to finish the interior and provide the furnishings, using the unpaid pledges as security. This action permitted construction to be resumed, and the Michigan Union was opened in the fall of 1919. At its completion the building was dedicated as a memorial to President James B. Angell, and a bronze tablet to his memory was placed at the front entrance. Many years later, a portrait sketch of him in his last year as President, executed by Wilfred B. Shaw, was hung in the entrance hallway of the 1956 addition.

One of the first measures passed by Page  1813the directors after the construction of the new building was a rule that the Union, as exclusively a men's club, should not permit women to use the front entrance; they were to be admitted only through the side door. This measure was strongly advocated by some of the faculty members who were familiar with the general practice of university clubs elsewhere. A doorkeeper was installed to enforce this ruling, which was not abrogated until 1954, when the new building program was instituted.

The Michigan Union and its grounds were deeded to the University in March, 1920. At that time the building cost was stated to have been $1,150,000 with reproduction value for that year of more than $1,350,000. Subscriptions aggregated more than $1,167,000, of which $740,000 had been paid in cash. In the communication and deed it was stated:

It will be observed that the deed expressly states that by its acceptance the Regents assume neither a moral nor a legal obligation to pay any indebtedness of the Union now existing or at any time arising. The Union building has enormously increased the pride of the alumni in the University and they will never countenance a request for money from the Regents, either for the building or for the operation thereof. The indebtedness now outstanding is not yet due and is covered by subscriptions payable in the future. Payments on such subscriptions are being made in a most gratifying manner as they mature.


(R.P., 1917-20, p. 888.)

Although more than $50,000 had been subscribed by students alone through 1,000 life memberships and despite the fact that 70 per cent of the students were life members by 1920, the question of annual student memberships in the Union had never been on an altogether satisfactory basis. Therefore, in June, 1918, the Board of Regents "directed that the annual fee of each male student in the University be increased by $3, which sum out of each annual fee should be paid over by the Treasurer of the University to the proper official of the Michigan Union" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 240). This was to take effect with the first semester of the 1918-19 school year. The dues thus collected were raised to five dollars in 1919-20. As a result all the men students in the University automatically became members of the Union. The student fee was raised to six dollars a semester in 1923, to ten dollars in 1926, and to twelve dollars in 1952. It was in 1926 that the automatic life membership after eight semesters was enacted.

Through these years the Union had been governed by a Board of seventeen directors comprising student, faculty, and alumni representatives, a method of organization which proved adequate until the problems incident to the administration of the new building arose. It was then found advisable to create another body, known as the Board of Governors, to manage the Union as a large and financially responsible corporation.

Although first authorized in 1917, the Board of Governors was not finally con stituted until 1920. This body was composed of the student president of the Union, a representative from the Board of Regents, the financial secretary of the Union, and three alumni members. In June, 1928, the Board of Governors as an independent unit was abolished, and a finance committee of the Board of Directors was set up in its place. This committee is composed of (a) the regent member of the Board of Directors (ex officio), (b) the president of the Union (ex officio), (c) the financial secretary of the Union (ex officio), (d) the dean of students (ex officio), (e) the recording secretary (ex officio), and (f) two non-student members of the Board of Directors, both residents of Ann Arbor — all appointed by the Board of Directors. Page  1814The financial secretary is chairman of the committee. The directors deal with the use of the building as a social center and the policies of the Union as an organization, while the Finance Committee administers the finances of the organization and supervises the actual use of the building. Homer L. Heath, who was general manager from 1908 to 1926, was succeeded by L. Paul Buckley ('05l), 1926-33, Stanley G. Waltz, 1933-41, and Franklin Kuenzel, acting manager, 1941-45, general manager, 1945- .

From the first the building proved that the contentions of the early advocates of such a center for student life were fully justified. An analysis made during its first year of use showed that more than 2,500 formal and informal meetings were held in the building and that an average of 7,500 persons entered its doors every day. Although the opening of the building had been delayed two months, the total business for the first year amounted to half a million dollars, with a deficit of only $3,000.

When the building was finally opened for use the swimming pool and the library and reading room on the second floor were left unfinished. The completion of these two sections became an almost immediate objective on the part of the students. In June, 1923, a gift of $21,500 by Mrs. Edward W. Pendleton, of Detroit, permitted the Board of Governors to finish the Library as a memorial to her husband, Edward W. Pendleton ('72). This room was ready for use early in 1925, and a start toward the library itself was made through the donation of Mr. Pendleton's library.

Meanwhile, the students had been carrying on an active campaign to raise $50,000 for the completion of the swimming pool. Eventually, through various entertainments and solicitation of funds, they raised $20,000, which was supplemented by contributions from alumni and special donors, thus permitting the construction of the pool in 1924; it was opened on March 28, 1925. Extensive student use of the Union building throughout its first years also made necessary an increase in the space devoted to administrative offices, an improvement which was completed in 1930.

While the Union as a building almost immediately assumed a recognized place in University life, the fact that it was completed and operating as planned served to lessen the zest in the campaign and, in practice, made it difficult, if not impossible to raise the indebtedness, which amounted to $306,000 in 1925. It was to meet this situation that the Board of Regents approved an increase in the Union student fee to ten dollars. It was provided, however, that only one-half of this sum should be spent for maintenance; the other half being reserved for the retirement of the Union's debt. When this was finally accomplished in 1935, the Union was free to enter upon a series of additions. In 1936 and 1938 two new wings to the south were constructed. The first, providing quarters for the University Club, as well as fifty-four additional rooms for guests, afforded more than 90,000 more square feet of available space. This wing runs parallel to the main structure, while the other, with frontage on Madison Street, houses the International Center and affords eighty additional guest rooms. The residence halls of the West Quadrangle, directly behind the Union, bordering on Madison and Thompson streets, were completed in 1937-39 and connect with the basement and first floor of the Union by means of corridors. The plans for these dormitories were developed in connection with the Union expansion.

The Michigan Union becomes known to the undergraduate through the work of the student activities committee, composed of the Union president, the Union Page  1815executive secretary, and the members of the Union Executive Council. The members of the Council are selected by the senior officers to head the various committees, which in 1955-56 included campus affairs, student services, publicity, social, dance, public relations, personnel and administration, and University relations.

"Union Week," held at the beginning of each semester, serves to introduce the student to University facilities. During the year there are dances each weekend. Friday evenings the "Little Club" is one of the most popular spots in Ann Arbor. Membership dances are held each Saturday night in the ballroom. The Union sponsors theater trips to Detroit during the year, permitting the student to take advantage of the plays which come to the metropolitan area. Twice a month a Union Forum is held at which controversial issues are debated and discussed by students and faculty. Other projects include University Day, a program for highschool seniors, football ticket resale, tutorial service, speech-photography-art contests, dance contests, student-faculty-administration conferences, and the Michigan Union Opera.

Several projects are sponsored by the Union in co-operation with women's groups. Michigras, the semiannual spring carnival and parade, involving everyone on campus, is a joint project with the Women's Athletic Association. In alternate years the two groups present Spring Weekend, consisting of a Skit Night entertainment and a "soap-box derby." The Union also presents various programs in co-operation with the Women's League. Student leaders for Orientation Week are chosen by the League and Union, and student groups entertain in the local hospitals at Easter and Christmas. Monthly teas are given at the home of the President of the University. Gulantics, an all-campus talent show, is presented in the spring and Homecoming in the fall. The Michigan Union also serves as headquarters for the Interfraternity Council, Inter-House Council, Men's Glee Club, Quadrangle, Michigamua, Druids, the senior honorary society of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Vulcans, the senior engineering honorary society, and Sphinx, the junior honorary society of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

While the Michigan Union was by no means the first college building designed to serve student social life and activities, since there were other buildings answering this purpose elsewhere, notably at Harvard, Stanford, Dartmouth, Pennsylvania, and Toronto, it was the first one built on such an impressive scale that it could serve as a practicable center for all the men students, as well as faculties and alumni. Upon its final completion it immediately attracted wide attention, and similar buildings sprang up all over the country, so in a sense it may be considered the first of the great student unions now to be found on the campuses of almost all the large American colleges and universities.

The present (1954) constitution defines in Article II the purposes of the Union: "To furnish a University social and recreational center; to provide a meeting place for faculty, alumni, and students of the University; and to help in fitting University of Michigan men for the performance of their duties as good citizens." Article III provides that "membership shall be confined to men," and sets forth the following six classifications of membership: life, student, annual, honorary, directors, and summer session. Article IV provides that the Board of Directors shall consist of: the student president and executive secretary, the financial secretary appointed by the Regents, the dean of men, ex officio, the Page  1816general secretary of the Alumni Association (ex officio), the highest-ranking male officer of the legislative branch of the student government (ex officio), seven student vice-presidents elected by the student members of the Union, three faculty members from the University Senate, two alumni elected by the Alumni Association, and one member of the Board of Regents. This Board shall be "the policy-making body of the Union," with "full power to supervise and control all its activities." The president of the Union presides over all meetings of members, and of the directors.

The first section of Article V provides that the president and executive secretary shall be selected by a committee composed of the dean of men, three student members from the seven vice-presidents, and three faculty or alumni members. Section II defines the procedure for the annual election by the students, under the supervision of the student government, of the seven vice-presidents. Articles VI to IX set forth the duties of the president, executive secretary, financial secretary, and the general manager. The following committees of the Board of Directors are authorized and their membership and duties defined in Article X: activities, appointments, finance, and house.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Constitution of the University of Michigan Union.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 11-46 (1903-40).
The Michigan Daily, 1903-20.
"Minutes of the Board of Directors of the Michigan Union," 1904-56.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1900-40.
Parker, Edward F., , D. B. D. Blaine, , Wilfred B. Shaw. MSS, Letters Concerning the Student Movement for the Michigan Union. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Parker, Edward F."When the Michigan Union Was a Dream,"Mich. Alum., May 22, 1926, p. 599.
Parker, Edward F.The First Years of the Michigan Union,"Mich. Alum., May 29, 1926, p. 617.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1901-9; 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1901-56.
Smith, Shirley W.Harry Burns Hutchins. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1951. Pp. 137 ff.
University of Michigan.Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921: Univ. Mich., 1923.

THE WOMEN'S LEAGUE

THE history of the Women's League is the story of women at the University. The presence of women on campus was ignored, for the most part, by both students and faculty for twenty years after the admission of the first woman in 1870. The natural craving for social life found expression as the years passed in the forming of sororities, but only a small part of the growing number of women was included, while the fact that these groups were rivals served often to separate the women rather than to unite them. It was the desire for unity and the need for social intercourse which led to the formation of the Women's League in 1890.

In May of that year, Alice (Freeman) Palmer ('76, Ph.D. hon. '82) addressed the Alumnae Association, emphasizing "the necessity for college girls cultivating their social natures, as well as their intellectual powers." As a result of her interest, serious consideration was given to the problems faced by women students. One of the founders of the League, Mary (Butler) Markley ('92), contributed to the Castalian (the yearbook published by the "independents" of the senior class) an article which described Page  1817"the object of the association, its working, and its aims" as they were expressed during the League's first year on campus:

In order to discuss plans for originating some society which should unite all college girls irrespective of department, class, or fraternity, and which should tend to promote a more decided college spirit and intensify and deepen our love for our Alma Mater, a meeting was held shortly before the close of college. At this meeting there were eighteen college girls and three Faculty ladies … a committee was appointed to draft a constitution. A Reception Committee was also appointed whose duty it was … to welcome Freshman girls, to help them in finding their way about the college buildings, to introduce them to their different professors, and assist them in getting suitable rooms and boarding places, and in establishing their church relations, as well as the various minor details of life which add so much to one's comfort in going to a strange place…

In October the first general meeting was held in the University Chapel, Mrs. Angell presiding, and Mrs. Gayley Browne presenting the object of the society. At this time our Constitution was read and approved, the terms of membership agreed upon, and the question of a name discussed but not settled. Another meeting was held later, and the name Women's League of the U. of M. decided upon.*

All college girls were to be eligible for membership, and also the ladies of the families of those who have been or are now Professors in the University, upon payment of the fees agreed upon. Arrangements were also made for the admittance of others interested in the welfare of the girls. At this meeting membership fees were paid and an enthusiastic company of Faculty ladies and college girls donned their yellow and blue badges.


(Castalian, 6 [1891]: 78-79.)

The government of the Women's League was organized with a student Executive Committee and an Advisory Committee — a group of Ann Arbor women known as associate members. The Executive Committee included one member from each sorority and an equal number of independents, chosen at a caucus of unaffiliated women (MS, "Constitution of the Woman's League"). Representatives were elected from students enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and also in the Pharmacy, Dental, Homeopathic, and Law departments. The committee elected its own officers and chairman. The first president of the Women's League was Ethel (Fountain) Hussey ('91), an independent who was instrumental in the initial planning preceding the League's formation. The Advisory and Executive committees held regular business meetings together and separate meetings when necessary. Mrs. Gayley Browne served as the first chairman of the Advisory Committee.

In November, 1890, it was decided "that the associate members who were willing and able to undertake the work — should take ten of the college girls as a special charge — the names to be drawn by lot — this arrangement to last through the college year (MS, "Minutes of the Woman's League," December 6, 1890). Each woman who took part served as adviser and counselor to her group of ten. Numerous "at homes" were given by these associate members, and their gracious hospitality and friendship were an important part of the League program. In addition, seven general meetings or receptions were held during the first year, 1890-91.

In October and November the meetings were both business and social. In January Professor Fred Newton Scott addressed the group on the subject "Art as Relating to the Peranesi Collection." Page  1818In February Mrs. Angell held a general reception, and in March Mrs. Charles B. G. de Nancrède also entertained the League. Jane Addams, of Hull House, spoke on the "Outgrowths of Toynbee Hall" in April. On May 2, 1891, Mrs. Angell led a "conversation on social etiquette." The report for the year showed 212 active members, 48 associate members, and a balance of $57.28 in the treasury. In 1891 President Angell commented: "I deem worthy of mention here the formation of the Woman's League, an organization composed of many of the women students and of the wives of members of the faculties … It has already proved of value by conferring both pleasure and benefit upon its members" (P.R., 1891, p. 11).

In June, 1891, the Executive Committee received a letter from the Detroit Branch of the Collegiate Alumnae, asking that a committee be formed to raise funds for the women's department of the new gymnasium. Waterman Gymnasium was in the process of construction, and this letter marked the beginning of a long campaign by the women of the University for a "women's annex" to this building. In January, 1892, Professor Albert A. Stanley gave the surplus from the Paderewski concert to the gymnasium fund. In the same month Miss Octavia W. Bates ('77, '97l), of Detroit, presented the plans for the Women's Building, illustrating her remarks with sketches. The League members were greatly encouraged and gave their support to all projects planned for the benefit of the gymnasium fund. Alice (Freeman) Palmer, the guest speaker at the second annual meeting in May, 1892, spoke on "The Life and Future of College Women." The secretary of the League reported: "Altho' the League has done nothing startling during the past year, it is coming more and more to be looked upon, both here and wherever the University is known, as the representative of the Women of the University and that it is undoubtedly accomplishing the work for which its founders designed it, is evident from the hearty expressions of approval of its work, made by those who have been watching its course" (MS, "Minutes of the Women's League," May 3, 1892).

During the next few years the League expanded its activities. The "at homes" were replaced by a series of tea parties given by the ladies of the faculty. The Executive Committee took charge of new student "groups," thus relieving the Ann Arbor women of this duty, and each member was responsible for meeting her girls throughout the year. Socials for the new girls were given in the parlors of Newberry Hall. Since 1890 the "Fruit and Flower Mission," a committee which ministered to patients in the Hospital, had been operated under the auspices of the League; in October, 1893, this arrangement became official, and provision was made to promote other service projects.

The Women's League sponsored Friday afternoon dances for members and their friends, and lectures and symposiums were held on subjects of interest; the topics varied from the "Columbian Tea and World's Fair Symposium" to a "political symposium" — a debate on women's suffrage. Circulars explaining the work of the League were sent each year to accredited high schools. Upon the suggestion of the Advisory Committee, in 1893, an "intercollegiate correspondence" was begun with colleges in which women were enrolled.

Waterman Gymnasium, completed in the fall of 1894, was used by the men in the afternoons and by the women on certain mornings of the week. From the large number of women who enrolled voluntarily for supervised athletics, the need of a separate women's gymnasium Page  1819was apparent. Early in 1895, the drive for the Women's Building received great impetus:

One of the Regents, Mr. Hebard, secured ten thousand dollars — a large part his own gift — toward the erection of such a building as a wing of the present gymnasium, and another Regent, Mr. Barbour, gave for the same purpose a lot of land in Detroit valued at twenty-five thousand dollars… The purpose is not only to provide a gymnasium in this building, but also other rooms which the women much need, such as bath rooms, parlors, and an assembly room, that will accommodate a few hundred persons where lectures especially for the women may be given.


(P.R., 1895, pp. 20-21.)

Mr. John Canfield, of Manistee, also gave $5,000. The League was promised space in the proposed building, and the women enthusiastically set about raising the $15,000 needed to meet the estimated total cost. Appeals for subscriptions were sent to all alumnae and friends of the University, and mass meetings were held to raise funds. Any woman giving $500 to the gymnasium fund automatically became a "life member" of the League, and in January, 1896, the League offered a scholarship to the University to any graduate of an accredited high school who would raise $500 for the gymnasium. Proceeds from all entertainments and projects during the next five years were applied to the gymnasium fund.

The League became a member of the State Federation of Women's Clubs in November, 1895, and was an active participant in that group for more than twenty years. The first delegate to the annual meeting took advantage of the opportunity to acquaint the women of the state with the need for a Women's Building at the University of Michigan. Donations were received later from many of the women's groups represented at that meeting.

The Board of Regents selected Eliza M. Mosher ('75m) as Professor of Hygiene and Dean of Women in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1896; she was the first woman to be appointed professor on the University of Michigan faculty. Her duties included the first official University supervision of women's affairs. Dean Mosher, who was made an honorary member of the Women's League, won the respect and friendship of the students and was soon an active participant in all their meetings.

In 1898 the League was incorporated so that it could own property legally. The purpose of the organization was stated as follows:

To promote acquaintance, unity, and loyalty among its members both actual and associate, and to elevate social life in the University. — To organize upper class women into a body whereby systematic and helpful work may be done for incoming students. — To make it possible for the women of the University of Michigan to investigate subjects of general importance with facility and thoroughness and to inaugurate any other work which may be deemed advisable by the executive and advisory committees.


("Articles of Incorporation of the Women's League.")
Under the new corporation bylaws the Executive Committee presented a slate of nominations to the annual meeting of League members who then elected officers.

Welcoming of new students and the work in the Hospital were still important League activities. In the fall of 1901 the League was hostess at the annual meeting of the State Federation of Women's Clubs. The following semester the Girls' Glee Club was formed, and the first "County Fair," sponsored jointly by the Men's Athletic Association and the Women's League, took place in the spring of 1902. The Fair, held on two consecutive nights in the combined Waterman-Barbour Page  1820Gymnasiums, was publicized each day at noon by a street parade. Vaudeville and side shows were presented by campus groups, and great crowds attended every evening. This entertainment proved to be the most successful ever attempted, and a large profit was divided between the sponsoring organizations.

The "group" system was still found to be of value in making contact with the women on campus. In 1899, in an attempt to encourage participation in League-sponsored activities, the groups were expanded to include nonmembers. Originally, there were ten members in each group, but by 1902 this had been increased to twenty, ten freshmen and ten upperclassmen. The older girls looked after the younger and accompanied them to League functions, and the groups took turns entertaining each other at the weekly receptions. Each group had two patronesses from the associate membership and a group leader who was chosen by the Executive Committee.

Another important phase of League activity was the student employment bureau, organized in 1896 to assist women in finding work in the community. In 1902 President Angell reported: "I take pleasure in recognizing the great value of the services rendered by the Student's Christian Association, the Young Men's Christian Association, and the Women's League in aiding new students in finding suitable homes and also employment … The great body of our students have very limited means, and many of them are glad of the opportunity to gain something by honorable toil, however menial" (P.R., 1902, p. 9).

The Women's Building was opened in November, 1896, and the gymnasium a year later. The parlors, completed in 1900, were furnished by the Women's League. The building was named "Barbour Gymnasium" in honor of the principal donor, Regent Barbour, and, at the suggestion of the Women's League, the second-floor assembly room was named "Sarah Caswell Angell Hall," in honor of Mrs. Angell.

Dean Mosher, who personally supervised the building and equipping of the Gymnasium and organized the women's program in physical education, resigned in 1902 to return to private practice in New York. In the six years she had served as Dean, Dr. Mosher had brought great honor to that position and had helped to eliminate much of the antagonism toward coeds. Myra (Beach) Jordan ('93) succeeded Dean Mosher in 1902. Realizing the need for centralizing the interests of women students, Mrs. Jordan made the Women's Building (Barbour Gymnasium) the focus of social events on the campus and encouraged the League to become the "clearing house" for all women's activities.

Women's honorary societies were formed — Mortar Board (all-campus senior women's honorary) and Senior Society (independent senior women's honorary) in 1906, and Wyvern (all-campus junior women's honorary) in 1910. In 1912 the Women's Athletic Association, which had formed separately in 1905, became the "Athletic Committee of the Women's League"; this merger lasted until 1917. The women's vocational conference, first presented by the League in 1915, was so successful that it became an annual event. Dramatic groups were organized, and a "point system" to evaluate the participation of women in campus activities was put into practice in 1913. War relief work was the chief interest from 1917 to 1919, and each woman was asked to pledge a part of her time to the Red Cross.

The social life of the women improved largely as a result of the development of class loyalty. In the fall of each year Mrs. Jordan gave four Friday afternoon receptions for the freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior women, respectively. Page  1821Class projects and meetings were organized at these weekly receptions, which were continued under the sponsorship of the League. Since 1884 the Freshman Spread in honor of new students had been given annually by the sophomores for all the women on campus. During Commencement week in 1903 the seniors presented a Senior Play in which all of the parts were taken by women. The graduates were honored by the three other classes at a Senior Breakfast and at a party held by the juniors the night before Commencement. In 1904 the juniors entertained the seniors with an original playlet, which was a takeoff on prominent seniors. This was the first Junior Girls' Play, an annual production which soon developed into a full-length musical comedy.

All the women of the University, including alumnae, were invited to the annual Michigan Women's Banquet, first held in 1907. Sponsored by the Women's League and the Collegiate Alumnae, this affair became one of the highlights of the school year, varying from dinners to luncheons or receptions. An attendance of 600 was not unusual. From 1909 to 1920 the Junior Girls' Play was presented as part of the entertainment. These class events have become traditions to University of Michigan women and are preserved in essence in League class projects. The distinct organization of the classes strengthened the feeling of women's "corporate existence." Each class felt responsible not only for its share in these projects but for the over-all improvement of conditions for women. The Michigan Alumnus, in November, 1911, commented that the Women's League was regarded as "the representative of Michigan women in all campus affairs … Everything that is of interest to women and touches them on Campus is carried on by the League."

Barbour Gymnasium had been in use only twelve years when a new "athletic" problem arose. In 1908-9 the erection of the Chemistry Building on the site of the tennis courts eliminated the only place for outdoor athletics available to the women. At the suggestion of Mrs. Hussey, the League purchased the 6.9 acres which comprised Sleepy Hollow, situated south of the Observatory. The transaction was made possible through a gift of $1,500 from Regent Peter White and a $500 loan from Regent Levi L. Barbour. The League assumed a $4,700 mortgage on the balance. Solicitations and fund-raising projects during the next few years netted more than $5,500; of this amount, $3,000 was the gift of Senator Thomas W. Palmer. Additional lots were purchased at intervals, and the total land thus acquired became the nucleus of the present Palmer Athletic Field.

Housing was another important problem which was of much concern to the Women's League. The members promoted projects to arouse interest in better housing conditions, and as a direct result of their labors separate houses for women, known as league houses, were established on the campus. By 1909, however, because of the growing enrollment of women it was clear that dormitories would be the only answer to the housing problem. A drive was begun for funds, and the League employed a financial secretary to travel about and arouse interest in the project among the alumni. As a direct result of their efforts Helen Newberry Residence, the Martha Cook Building, Alumnae House, and Betsy Barbour House had been donated to the University by 1920.

Recognizing the need for uniformity in the procedures and government of the proposed residence halls, as well as in the scattered living units already on campus, the League, in 1913, appointed a self-government committee to work with representatives from all the women's house groups and to investigate systems Page  1822of government for women in other coeducational universities. In 1914 the constitution of the League was amended to include provision for a permanent self-government committee consisting of two League officers, four elected representatives, and the dean of women as adviser without vote. The vice-president of the League was designated as chairman. Later in that year, the name of the committee was changed to the "Judiciary Council." The League, with the permission of the Student Affairs Committee, organized a simple form of government for the league houses and a set of uniform regulations and house rules for all women's residences.

By 1915, the League, in the twenty-five years since its establishment, had expanded in size and scope, and the early form of government had become unwieldy. It was reincorporated, therefore, and its structure was revised in the new bylaws. All business was conducted by a Board of Directors, which was made up of the officers and four class representatives; later, committee chairmen were added to this board. A Board of Representatives, which included one representative from each organized league house and sorority, and five independents-at-large, met regularly in order to serve as a means of communication with the active membership, to recommend policies for action by the Board of Directors, and to ratify house rules. There was also an Advisory Board of seven associate members. Under the new bylaws the Judiciary Council was given charge of girls' class organization, nominations of class representatives to serve on the Board of Directors, and matters of conduct and house regulation.

The League presented a pageant, "Joan d'Arc," with a cast of 300 men and women students in the spring of 1914. More than 4,000 persons attended, and it was a great success. In 1916 another pageant was undertaken as a part of the tercentenary Shakespeare celebration. Although the production was well managed, its finances were not. The "Annual Report of the Committee on Student Affairs" commented, "in view of the universal interest in the occasion and the University's duty to participate in the world-wide celebration, the debit is no more than the Campus may cheerfully assume in so good a cause." Unfortunately, it was the League which had to make up the $800. The pageant deficit was cleared within the following year, but the League officers could see no way to lessen the $1,700 still owing on Palmer Athletic Field. Therefore, in June, 1917, the League petitioned the Regents to liquidate this debt, and the Board agreed, meeting the payments out of the accumulation in the Palmer Field Fee Fund (R.P., 1914-17, p. 793).

The fact that women had never served on the Student Council nor been permitted to vote in elections served as a factor to strengthen the position of the Women's League, which was viewed as an equal governing body by both students and faculty. In 1918 the president of the Student Council and the president of the Women's League were invited to attend meetings of the Senate Committee on Student Affairs as nonvoting student representatives. The chairman of that committee, Professor Louis A. Strauss, replied as follows to a question regarding student self-government:

In general, … the Student Council takes charge of all campus elections, regulates the games between the freshmen and sophomore classes, assumes the lead in all movements of the University interest involving student initiative, and attempts to model student sentiment on public questions in the right direction. The Judiciary Council of the Women exercises similar functions on the whole with greater success, as I believe they have the more united support of the women of the University.


(MS, "CorrespondencePage  1823 of the Senate Committee on Student Affairs.")

A University Committee on Discipline was set up in 1922 to handle cases referred by the deans or those which involved students enrolled in two or more University schools or colleges. A representative of the Women's Judiciary Council was invited to attend formal meetings of this committee when cases pertaining to women students were to be discussed.

By 1918-19 virtually every undergraduate woman was enrolled as a "dues-paying member" of the League. In February, 1919, the Board approved the request of the Women's League and of the Dean of Women that with the beginning of the University year 1919-20 there should be included in the annual fee of all women students "the sum of $1, the net proceeds of which were to be turned over to the Women's League" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 509). Under this arrangement every woman student in the University automatically became a member of the League upon admission to the University.

In June, 1919, at a luncheon given the alumnae during Commencement week, the League outlined the work of the past year and stressed the need for a new building to serve as a social center for women. At a meeting of the Alumnae Council in January, 1921, it was emphasized that Barbour Gymnasium facilities were inadequate for the current enrollment of women, which had multiplied four times since the building's construction. At that time the League had more than $1,200 to offer the Alumnae Council with which to finance a campaign for a new building. Consequently, it was voted to raise one million dollars for the building.

The fund-raising program for the League was the primary interest of the undergraduates in the 1920's. All League activities centered around the goal of the new women's building, which was to be named the "University of Michigan League." An Undergraduate Campaign Committee was appointed to stimulate interest and promote projects to increase the building fund. The University donated the site of the Michigan League in December, 1921, with the condition that the Alumnae Council begin building within five years. This was also the date of the first "Women's League and InterChurch Bazaar," an event which yielded thousands of dollars annually.

After twenty years of service, Dean Jordan resigned in June, 1922. Her achievements as dean, which had endeared her to Michigan women, were aptly described by the Regents:

Not alone has she materially improved the housing condition of the women students on the campus but she has throughout her career taken a personal interest … that should be appreciated by every one interested in the welfare of the University women… When it is considered how many there are and how rapid has been the growth of the University, it is small wonder the Governing Body feels grateful to Mrs. Jordan for the results which must be accredited to her.


(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 364-65.)
Jean Hamilton (Vassar '00) succeeded to the position in September, 1922, and served for four years. In 1923 she became acting chairman of the Michigan League campaign fund, devoting one-half of her time to this work.

In 1923 it was reported: "Never for an instant has anyone in Ann Arbor been permitted to forget that every woman in the student body or in any way connected with the University is a factor in the campaign for funds for the Women's League Building … They have had sales, style-shows, benefits without number, their booths have grown up like mushrooms about the city, but they have done their work with a quiet enthusiasm Page  1824which has at once opened the public's purse and earned its grateful admiration" (Mich. Alum., 29 [1922-23]: 1033-34). Class projects were one of the "means" used to raise funds. The Junior Girls' Play, presented in honor of the seniors and first staged in the Whitney Theater in 1919, was opened to the "general public" for the first time in 1923. In 1924 the first Freshman Pageant was given as a part of Lantern Night celebration and was thereafter a yearly event; until this time freshmen had not been permitted to participate in extracurricular activities which involved public performances. The Senior Girls' Play was presented publicly until 1925, when it became a part of the entertainment at the women's Senior Breakfast, and the Women's Banquet was replaced by a tea in honor of alumnae attending the annual Schoolmasters' Conference. In the same year the first Sophomore Circus was held in conjunction with the bazaar.

The Committee on Student Affairs was reorganized in 1925 to consist of the dean of students, the dean of women, six Senate members, and five students, including the president of the Women's League and one other woman student to be elected by the League Board of Directors.

Upon the resignation of Dean Hamilton in 1926, the office of dean of women was discontinued, and a Committee of Advisers to Women, made up of Alice Crocker Lloyd ('16), Beatrice W. Johnson (Maine '24, A.M. ibid. '25), and Grace E. Richards (Minnesota '10, A.M. ibid. '17) was appointed. From this time women's self-government was greatly encouraged. It was decided that "since the house rules are made by the Women's League, it is fitting that the Judiciary Council of the League enforce them" (P.R., 1926-27, p. 166).

Mary (Bartron) Henderson ('04) was elected executive secretary of the Alumnae Council in January, 1926. One of her duties was the supervision of the campaign for funds for the Michigan League Building (see Part VIII: Michigan League Building). Only one-half of the million dollars estimated had been raised at that time, but under her guidance, the balance of the money for construction was pledged by June, 1927, at which time ground was broken.

According to the original plan of management for the building, a Board of Governors was appointed to control all matters affecting its operation. Membership on this Board included a regent, three alumnae, two women appointed by the Regents, one of the advisers to women, the head of the Department of Physical Education for Women, the president of the Women's League, and three undergraduates from the Board of Directors. Instead of placing the responsibility with the Board of Governors during the first year of operation, the Alumnae Council was given full control of the building under the direction of Mrs. Henderson. The Michigan League was formally opened on May 4, 1929. At last the women of the University had a "home" of their own, and the Women's League had a center for all its activities. Facilities included meeting rooms, dining rooms, lounges, work rooms, a ballroom, hotel accommodations, and a theater seating 700. When the building was formally presented to the Regents on April 1, 1930, a new Board of Governors was appointed, and the following statement recorded:

The Regents of the University of Michigan accept with the profoundest thanks the Michigan League Building, which was turned over to their custody on April 1, 1930. As public officers, charged by the people of Michigan with the control of the University of this State, the welfare of the women students is one of the most important responsibilities committed to our care. It has also Page  1825been one of our most troublesome problems. Facilities for the social gatherings of women students and for the housing of their extracurricular activities, which rightfully take a prominent place in the experience and training of a college student, have been in late years utterly inadequate, if not wholly non-existent. The Michigan League Building has already remedied this unfortunate situation, and we can see that it is to prove of the greatest practical use to the women students of the University and the alumnae themselves.


(R.P., 1929-32, p. 223.)

With the appointment of Miss Lloyd as Dean of Women in 1930, the "adviser" system came to an end. At Dean Lloyd's request, the Regents added to her staff a new position. Assistant Professor Ethel A. McCormick (Columbia '23), of the Department of Physical Education for Women, was appointed Social Director in the Office of the Dean of Women on a half-time basis, to be in charge of women's social activities. By 1932 Miss McCormick's work had proved to be of such value that she left the Department of Physical Education to become Social Director of Women, with her office and residence in the Michigan League Building.

Management of the building faced many difficulties in the early 1930's. Finances were a major problem. The endowment fund originally planned had not materialized, and the League was forced to become self-supporting. Because there were fewer students during the depression, the League found it difficult to make ends meet. By 1934, however, the situation had begun to improve. At the request of the Board of Governors, the Regents assumed control of the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater and placed it under separate management. Relieved of the responsibility for the theater, the League began to make progress, and in June, 1935, Regent Esther (Marsh) Cram reported that "for the first time … the operation of the League showed a substantial balance instead of a deficit."

In the 1930's the Women's League as an organization was closely identified with the newly opened building, the Michigan League. The problems of the one seriously affected the other, and it was difficult to separate the duties of the building staff from the activities of the student group. To eliminate this confusion and to clarify the position of the Women's League as the governing body for women students, the administration of the building, 1934-35, was combined with the student organization under the title Michigan League; the Women's League became the Undergraduate Division. The students were given more opportunity to share in the responsibilities of the Board of Governors, with the League president as chairman. The name of the undergraduate executive body was changed from the Board of Directors to the Michigan League Council. A Board of Representatives, composed of the Panhellenic Association and Assembly (a newly formed organization for non-affiliated women), was established as the legislative branch of the League. Each campus housing unit was represented on this Board, which decided questions of student government. The Judiciary Council, in turn, enforced the rules made by the Board of Representatives.

A merit system was adopted in selecting League officers and chairmen. The retiring Judiciary Council interviewed candidates for League posts and nominated the best-qualified applicants. The women's student body elected the new members of the Judiciary Council and the vice-presidents from those nominated, and the retiring League Council elected the new committee chairmen. Nominations for League officers were referred to the Electoral Board, composed of three faculty members and four students. All-campus elections for League positions Page  1826were discontinued in 1940; the Electoral Board was given power to elect the Judiciary members, and the vice-presidents were chosen by the League Council. Henry C. Anderson, Director of Student-Alumni Relations, reported in 1936:

The Michigan League … contributed more than usual to student government and student activities… Approximately four hundred students took part in one or more of the various activities… The League completed final payment on its pledge of fifty thousand dollars, made at the time the Michigan League Building was started


(P.R., 1935-36, p. 38).

At about this time the League began an endowment to provide scholarships from accumulated interest. The Ethel McCormick Scholarships for outstanding undergraduate activity leaders have been awarded annually since 1937, and the Alice Crocker Lloyd Fellowship for graduate study has been awarded semiannually since 1944.

Activities in the 1940's were greatly influenced by World War II. In her report for 1942-43, Dean Lloyd said:

The activity program of the girls changed drastically in character. Such traditional affairs as the Sophomore Cabaret, the Junior Girls' Play and the Freshman Project were abandoned. The sophomores took over as their special enterprise, hospital volunteer work; the juniors sold bonds and stamps; and the seniors took charge of the campus working on surgical dressings for the Red Cross.


(P.R., 1942-43, p. 48.)
The League helped to alleviate the labor shortage by recruiting volunteers and part-time workers from the women students. Owing to the nature of its activity, the League Council adopted the name Women's War Council in 1944. Because the building was being used to capacity in 1943, many activities were centered in the housing units. Private parties and banquets were kept at a minimum because of increased food and labor costs. Inexpensive meals were served daily in the ballroom, which had been converted to a dining room.

In 1946-47 the League returned to a peace-time basis. The executive board resumed the name Michigan League Undergraduate Council, and class programs became as elaborate as before. Volunteer hospital work and participation in local philanthropies were resumed, and the Council initiated a successful drive for the University Fresh Air Camp Fund. In 1949 the Electoral Board was discontinued, and the election of officers and the selection of committees were referred directly to the Board of Representatives. The following year (1950), the Undergraduate Division resumed its original title, the Women's League.

Because Miss McCormick's staff now includes three assistants, it is possible to maintain close contact with the various League projects. In addition to its governing and co-ordinating function, the Women's League emphasizes training for leadership. Class programs and service committees have expanded in scope and participation. The practice of interviewing and nominating candidates for League positions has resulted in well-organized committees. Detailed written reports are bound in permanent form as the "President's Reports" of the Women's League.

Today (1957) the structure of the League is complex, yet unified. The Board of Governors, eight representing alumnae, administration, and faculty and five students, determines policy for the building. The student group, the Women's League, has three branches of government. The League Council, the administrative branch, includes officers, committee chairmen, and presidents of associated organizations. This group plans and co-ordinates women's activities. The program offered by the various Page  1827League committees includes community service through hospital volunteers and entertainers, instruction in ballroom dancing, contact with foreign students, tutoring services, and the maintenance and staffing of the League library. Special projects of educational and entertainment value are presented as well as dances and parties. Class projects such as the Junior Girls' Play, the Sophomore Coed Show, and Frosh Weekend are given yearly. In addition, the League co-operates with the Michigan Union in carrying out the Orientation program for new students, and in planning the Homecoming festivities, the monthly teas at the home of President Hatcher, and Gulantics, the campus talent show.

The Women's Senate, which replaced the Board of Representatives in 1953, is the legislative branch of the Women's League. There is one senator for every sixty women on campus, and each housing unit chooses its representatives. The Senate makes decisions on all proposed women's legislation and on the League budget; it also elects the officers of the Women's League. The Women's Judiciary Council, the third branch of the League, is the disciplinary body which enforces the legislation passed by the Women's Senate. The Judiciary Council acts as a co-ordinating and reviewing group for the House Judiciary Councils established in each living unit and for the League House Judiciary Council which handles housing cases outside of the sorority and residence hall system.

Program and structure have fluctuated greatly in the sixty-seven years since the founding of the League, but the purpose has remained the same — to unite the women students irrespective of varied backgrounds, courses of study, affiliations, or interests. In addition to its coordinating and governing functions, the League has emphasized leadership training in organizational and service opportunities. In many respects, this work was "not chosen," but laid upon it by the demands of the University.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Butler, Mary E. (Markley). "The Women's League."Castalian, Vol. 6 (1891): 77-80.
"Constitution of the Women's League," adopted Oct. 11, 1890. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-60 (1894-1954).
MS, "Annual Report of Committee on Student Affairs," 1915-19.
MS, "Articles of Incorporation of the Women's League," filed June 9, 1898.
MS, "Correspondence of the Senate Committee on Student Affairs."
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1907-22.
MS, "Minutes of the Women's League." 1890-1955.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1890-1909, 1921-55.
President's Report of the Women's League (various titles), 1934-55.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1890-1955.
Page  1828

MEN'S STUDENT SELF-GOVERNMENT

UNTIL the turn of the century, when the student population remained below five thousand, minor disciplinary cases involving individual students were handled most informally by the academic deans or by individual faculty members. Monetary fines apparently were unheard of; "warning" and "probation" for misconduct were administered in a paternalistic manner and were not even entered on a record card. Serious cases involving suspension or expulsion were adjudicated by the various faculties acting as a whole. In the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, for example, this practice continued until 1912, with the president of the University presiding over each faculty meeting. Appeals in cases of suspension occasionally were presented to the Regents, but the Regents consistently sustained the faculty action. In the 1892 Proceedings it was stated: "This Board desires to be explicitly understood as recognizing the authority of the Faculty of any Department in the University to expel and exclude students of that Department from the University Buildings and Grounds" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 16). Until 1912 each faculty looked after its own students, and students on a combined curriculum presented a problem, causing the Regents to pass the first bylaw initiating a judicial structure: "Resolved, That the discipline of students on combined courses shall be administered by a Board consisting of the President and Deans of the Departments in which students in question are registered" (R.P., 1910-14, p. 579).

Dr. Eliza M. Mosher was appointed Professor of Hygiene and Women's Dean in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1896. As Dean of Women she was assigned the same duties in relation to the women in the Literary Department as the dean discharged in relation to all the students of that Department. Women in attendance at the University were classified as follows: Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 513; Department of Medicine, 68; Department of Law, 5; School of Pharmacy, 6; Homeopathic Medical College, 3; and College of Dental Surgery, 6. Women enrolled in colleges other than Literature, Science, and the Arts remained under the jurisdiction of the academic deans until 1923, when the jurisdiction of the dean of women was broadened to include all women enrolled in the University. This ruling apparently was an attempt to catch up with fact, for Dean Jordan's achievements from 1902 until 1922 are ample evidence that she was Dean of Women and not just Dean within the Literary College.

In order to meet an emergency, the University Senate, in 1902, created a committee which eventually became the Committee on Student Affairs; this name was officially adopted in 1914. In 1898 it was necessary for the Regents to define stringent regulations for the financial operation of the Students' Lecture Association. Two students were expelled for mishandling the funds of the association in 1902, one by the Law School and the other by the Literary College. Their appeal to the Regents for reinstatement was denied. In that same year the University Senate resolved, "That a committee of five members of the University faculties be established, whose duty it shall be to have general supervision of the affairs of the Students' Lecture Association, the Good Government Club, and other organizations and boards of students, excepting athletic organizations" ("Minutes of the University Senate," May 26, 1902).

The members of this committee, then Page  1829called the "Committee on Students' Organizations Other Than Athletic," were appointed by the president and met for the first time on June 12, 1902. Their first official act was disciplinary, recommending to the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts the withholding of a degree from a student "guilty of irregularities in connection with the affairs of the Students' Lecture Association." The Literary faculty adopted the recommendation (R.P., June, 1922).

Until the creation of the University Committee on Discipline twenty years later, and for some time thereafter, the Committee on Student Affairs acted as a disciplinary agent for students of the nonathletic organizations, assuming authority over cases involving eligibility, intoxication, and the like. It confined its jurisdiction to violations of University regulations within an organization. It was not a disciplinary committee except for group violations; therefore it was careful to observe faculty authority. For example, this same committee, in 1915, established rules on eligibility and then stated that cases of violation of these rules would be reported to the college concerned for discipline. On November 2, 1923, it recommended that disciplinary action for individual students be referred to the appropriate faculties.

In the period preceding the establishment of a University committee on discipline (1922), two student bodies within the University created their own disciplinary structure. In 1914-15 the Women's League, then operating from Barbour Gymnasium, set up a judiciary system to take care of infractions of regulations in the various women's organizations (see Part IX: Women's Student Self-Government).

The Honor System, adopted by the students in the College of Engineering in 1916 (see Part VII: College of Engineering, pp. 1173, 1178-80), concerned itself solely with the cardinal principle "that it is dishonorable for any man to receive credit for work which is not the result of his own efforts." This system derives its authority from the students in the College of Engineering, with the approval of the faculty of that College, and has operated successfully for more than forty years.

World War I interrupted the growth of judiciaries, and in the aftermath of that war came an increased enrollment and the genesis of a complex administrative structure. Certain generalities can be made about the pre-World War I disciplinary structure. It was, except for organizations, primarily in the hands of the various faculties. No sharp line of demarcation existed between administration and faculty. What is now viewed as the "Administration" was apparently at that time the Regents, whose closeness to the University and to student affairs allowed them to legislate on such matters as bonfires on the campus, bicycles on the diagonal, the granting of loans to individual students, and whether or not the Law School could or could not put up twenty-five dollars worth of shelving.

After World War I all was changed. In 1921 the Regents established the Office of Student Affairs, which became the "catch-all' for nonacademic or extracurricular activities. This marked, so it would seem, the dichotomy between faculty and administration. The president, the Regents, and the faculty began to take a less active role, and authority gradually came to rest in committees, administrators, and students. What had formerly been the responsibility of all members of the faculty, in time became the concern of the few who served on the University Committee on Discipline, which was established by the University Senate in 1922 and adopted by the Regents in the same year, to complement Page  1830the Committee on Student Affairs (amended May 24, 1923; March 27, and May 29, 1934). From the viewpoint of structure the result appeared to be two disciplinary authorities instead of one. Where the faculties alone had held the authority, a University Committee was created which could exercise control over all cases involving students from more than one school or college of the University. This reflected the 1912 legislation of the Regents. The committee could also act in other cases referred to it. The faculties retained complete jurisdiction in cases of discipline which involved only their own students, and the Senate suggested that any faculty as a general policy might refer all cases of discipline of its own students at the discretion of the dean, to the University Committee on Discipline. There is no record, however, that this was ever formally voted upon.

In the same year, 1922, Dean Cabot of the Medical School called attention to the student nurses who were not at that time under the supervision of the Dean of Women, whereupon the Deans' Conference ("Minutes," June 6, 1923) voted that "women in the Nurses' Training Schools and Dental Hygienists be considered subject to the same disciplinary regulations as women students in all other parts of the University."

Central though the Office of Student Affairs became in the disciplinary machinery of the University, it had no special authority from the University Council or the Regents. The general bylaw outlining the authority of the dean of women applied to the dean of students with one added authority: to act in cases involving a violation of the driving regulation. This was originally delegated to that office by the Conference of Deans. That the Office of Student Affairs gained more and more the nature of a disciplinary agency came not through legislation but by default and, of course, an ever-increasing student enrollment. It was assumed at a meeting of the Deans' Conference in February, 1921, that "the disciplinary work of the Dean of Students would presumably deal only with offences which were obvious infractions of ordinary rules of good behavior." It was believed that after reasonable publicity, any infraction of the rules would find the student body on the side of the authorities and would in short time develop general understanding of the policy of the dean of students as the representative of the faculty.

The reason for the pivotal position which the dean of students came to hold may be seen in two statements issued ten years apart. In a letter written by Professor John B. Waite to President Burton on May 20, 1923, he stated:

Before the Committee [on Discipline] can impose punishment or take other action it must have data on which to act. But there is at present no fact gathering agency in the University organization… Somebody could; but who? Dean Bursley will not do it, nor his assistants. I doubt if you or the Regents would approve (even if we were willing) of members of the Committee spending their time ambushing bootleggers and raiding students' parties. Yet, if the Committee is to discipline those students, somebody must get the facts. It has been demonstrated beyond question that this man's fellow students will not give any information against him. The facts won't jump out, they must be pulled out. Even members of the faculty declined to give information before the committee in its investigation of the swing-out drunkenness.


("Minutes of Committee on Student Conduct.")
In a report, concerning the Committee on Discipline, presented by Major Basil D. Edwards to the University Council in 1932, he said:

It is contemplated that the Dean of Students will be an important factor in the operations of the Committee. His assistance has been indispensable. He has called the meetings of the Committee and largely handled Page  1831the presentation of the cases, all of which have been previously investigated by him. His familiarity with disciplinary action taken in the various colleges in other cases has made him a valuable advisor. His knowledge of the rules of the University has been indispensable because, otherwise, the members of the Committee would frequently have been unable to inform themselves of the rules.


("Minutes of Committee on Student Conduct.")
Not only had the dean of students become a fact-gatherer, but in ten years the entire machinery was channeled through his office.

From 1906 to 1922 the Student Council appears to have played a passive role in disciplinary matters. In 1916 the president of the Student Council and the president of the Women's League were invited to attend, without vote, the meetings of the Committee on Student Affairs. Both the League and the Student Council had had in the prewar period a recommending position. No record exists of any direct disciplinary action taken by either student body for violations of University regulations. In 1919 a Student Committee on Underclass Conduct was established to regulate the hazing of freshmen. In 1923 this committee fell into ill repute and, although not formally abolished, it disappeared. However passive or restricted student bodies were in judicial matters, in the 1922 (amended May, 1923) provision creating the University Committee on Discipline, a role was assigned to the students: "The Committee on the Student Council provided for in its constitution (namely, the President of the council and two members appointed by him) or representatives of the Women's League, as the case may be, shall be invited to attend formal meetings of the University Committee on Discipline." The Regents amended the legislation creating the University Committee on Discipline to include this student participation. In the period from 1916 to 1934 the Student Council had a Student Advisory Committee which investigated student infractions and made recommendations to faculty committees, to the Committee on Student Affairs, and to the University Committee on Discipline.

In 1934, according to a letter written by Dean Joseph Bursley, "the organization plan of the Undergraduate Council needed restudy, since the women of the University indicated their desire not to participate in the latter organization." As a result of the reorganization of the Undergraduate Council, the Committee on Student Affairs accepted a constitution of the Men's Student Council which included the following articles:

Article III

Sec. 1 — In all schools and colleges except the Law School, Medical School and School of Dentistry the Men's Council shall have power in all men students' activities coming within the field of its recognized jurisdiction, as it now exists or as it may hereinafter be widened by the University.

Sec. 2 — All cases involving discipline of men students which are to come before the University Committee on Discipline and other discipline cases in which the procedure is authorized by the individual school or college, shall be referred to the Judiciary Committee of the Council for investigation and report. Within a reasonable time after receiving official notification of the complaint, the Council shall submit to the University Discipline Committee, or the proper administrative authority of the college concerned, all the documents in the case, together with a written recommendation as to the disciplinary action suggested.

Sec. 3 — Scholastic violations of the Honor Code in the College of Engineering are exempt from such control and will continue to be handled by the Student Honor Committee of that college…

Sec. 4 — Cases of scholastic dishonesty in other schools and colleges are exempt from the control mentioned in Section 2 of this Article and will continue to be handled as atPage  1832present.


("Constitution of the Men's Student Council," April 2, 1935.)

By 1934 student enrollment had risen to 9,000, and another structural change took place. The name and function of the Committee on Discipline was changed to the University Committee on Student Conduct. The initial meeting of the new committee occurred on June 5, 1934.

In the provisions which prevailed between 1922 and 1934, the Committee on Student Discipline was not a policy-making body. The University Senate, the Regents, the Deans' Conference, and, in particular, the Committee on Student Affairs, formulated the various rules and regulations. The Committee on Student Discipline for the consideration of any particular case consisted of three Senate members and a faculty representative from each of the schools or colleges involved. This committee had jurisdiction over cases implicating students from more than one school or college. The Committee on Student Affairs continued to discipline group cases (including fraternities, sororities, and honoraries) until the Sub-Committee on Discipline was established in 1934.

Even after this date, the Committee on Student Affairs felt that it had a controlling authority in cases of group violations. The following resolutions were adopted by the Committee on Student Affairs in May, 1949, and amended in December, 1949:

  • 1. Any recognized student organization which disregards accepted procedures, through the infraction of rules set forth in university regulations concerning student affairs, conduct, and discipline, with subsequent amendments, shall be subject to judicial hearing.
  • 2. Charges arising under the above shall be subject to hearing by the Judiciary Council in the first instance either upon a motion to that effect by the Student Affairs Committee or upon the initiative of the Judiciary Council. The Judiciary Council after conducting hearings to determine whether there has been any infraction on the part of the organization under investigation, shall make recommendations for disciplinary action to the Student Affairs Committee.
  • 3. Disciplinary action shall be defined as follows:
    • a. Probation — wherein the organization shall be permitted to function under warning.
    • b. Suspension — wherein the organization shall cease to function as a group for a stated period.
    • c. Withdrawal — wherein the organization shall have its recognition withdrawn.
  • 4. Whenever the Committee on Student Affairs deems disciplinary action warranted against a student organization, the Committee shall make recommendations to the University Subcommittee on Discipline for appropriate action.

("Minutes of Committee on Student Affairs.")

In 1934 the Committee on Discipline became the Committee on Student Conduct. Although this committee created by and representing all faculties has a major or primary authority in disciplinary cases, its duties and responsibilities are of a legislative or policy-making character. Its major work and its great contribution was made in 1937, when it compiled the rules and regulations applicable to students outside the classroom. Since 1937 the Committee on Student Conduct has met whenever necessary to change or refine that basic document.

The Committee on Student Conduct created the Sub-Committee on Discipline, which differs from the 1922-34 committee. Three Senate members constitute the actual case committee, and their verdict is final. The faculty representatives from the various schools and colleges were dropped. The liaison between the Sub-Committee on Discipline and the Committee on Student Conduct was the secretary of the Conduct Committee, Page  1833who sat with the Sub-Committee, without vote. As secretary he arranged the time and place of meeting, took notes, and informed the various agencies interested in the disciplined students. Until 1947 this work was carried out by Dean Earl V. Moore, of the School of Music. In that year, on recommendation of Professor Arthur Van Duren, the duties of the Sub-Committee were delegated to the Office of Student Affairs, with the dean of students in the case of men and dean of women in the case of women notifying deans and parents of the action taken.

In 1934 no provision was made for students to participate in the deliberations of the Committee on Student Conduct, although students were invited to sit, without vote, on the Sub-Committee. In 1947 three representatives, one from the Student Legislature, one from the Men's Judiciary, and the third from the Women's Judiciary were made voting members of the Committee on Student Conduct.

With the demise of the Undergraduate Council in 1934, a Men's Judiciary was created to "conduct preliminary investigation of student conduct arising under the regulations of the University of Michigan referred to it by the Director of the Office of Student Affairs, or initiated by the Council itself, and to make decisions for disciplinary action subject to approval by the University Committee on Discipline ("Minutes of Committee on Student Conduct"). In 1948 an amendment to the Men's Judiciary Constitution, in co-operation with the Women's Judiciary, converted a part of its membership into a joint council. The men's Judiciary Council lingered on until 1953, when it was discontinued and the Joint Judiciary Council was approved by the president and the Sub-Committee.

From the opening of the West Quadrangle in 1939 until the resumption of student life following World War II, discipline in the Men's Residence Halls was administered by the staff, in particular by the Resident Advisers, by delegation from the Board of Governors of Residence Halls. After World War II various experiments in house and quadrangle judiciaries were reviewed by the Board of Governors, and in April, 1953, authority was delegated to student judiciaries working within the jurisdiction of and under review by the Joint Judiciary Council.

The judicial pattern of the houses composing the Interfraternity Council is not so easily defined. No house has a judicial body, per se; some houses have made provision in their constitutions for the cabinet to act as a judiciary when one becomes necessary. This same provision, with a very narrow jurisdiction, is in corporated in the constitution of the Interfraternity Council:

There shall be an Executive Committee which shall be the judicial body of the Interfraternity Council, and shall enforce the rules of that organization… The Executive Committee shall have jurisdiction over matters of fraternity conduct referred to it by the Office of the Dean of Men… The maximum penalty for violations occurring under the above is the loss of all fraternity privileges which are regulated by the Interfraternity Council.

Page  1834

WOMEN'S STUDENT SELF-GOVERNMENT

SINCE the formation of the Women's League in 1890, women's student self-government at Michigan has been an important factor in student life. Based on the principle that the problems of every woman are the concern of the Women's League, the resulting governmental function was a natural outgrowth. The history of the Women's Judiciary Council, consequently, is interwoven with the history of the Women's League. Through the co-operation of the dean of women, a system of self-government developed, with prestige and dignity for all women students.

Before the movement for residence halls began to take form, the diversity and lack of supervision in the student living units resulted in many inconsistencies in the rules and regulations enforced in the various houses. In March, 1913, the "Report of the Committee on House Clubs" (prepared by the Committee on Non-Athletic Organizations) was adopted by the University Senate. The report stated that "practically all of the house-clubs including the so-called league-houses of the women, were found to have house rules that in most cases were well conceived and … fairly well executed …" The report suggested a "reconsideration of these house rules" and recommended that "for the purpose involved the various clubs be divided into six groups: professional fraternities, professional sororities, general fraternities, general sororities, other men's house-clubs, and other women's house-clubs," and that action in disciplinary matters ratified by three-fourths of the clubs in any group be declared as binding upon all the members of that group.

In the spring of 1913, a delegate from the Women's League was sent to the first annual conference of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Association for Women's Self-Government (the Intercollegiate Association of Women Students). In May of the same year a "Self-Government" Committee was formed within the existing League structure to plan, with the house groups, a system of house government which would work into a larger system of self-government. Accordingly, upon petitioning the Student Affairs Committee of the University Senate, the Women's League was given permission to organize each residence housing five or more University women — with a house president and executive, advisory, social, and scholarship committees — and to regulate these houses under the general rules proposed by a Judiciary Council and ratified by the prescribed three-quarters vote.

The 1915 Constitution of the Women's League was the first to establish the three branches of self-government. The Board of Directors (executive) included the officers and chairmen, the Board of Representatives consisted of one member from each living unit, and the Judiciary Council was described as follows:

Article VI. — Judiciary Council

Sec. 1 — There shall be a Judiciary Council which shall consist of the President and Vice-President of the League, and the class representatives from the outgoing freshman, sophomore, and junior classes.

Sec. 2 — The Judiciary Council shall have charge of all girls' class organizations and shall provide for the nomination by the classes of class representatives to the Judiciary Council.

Sec. 3 — The Judiciary Council shall have charge of such matters of conduct and House Regulation as shall be referred to it by the Board of Directors, the Board of Representatives, or the Dean of Women.

Sec. 4 — The Dean of Women shall be exofficioPage  1835member of the Judiciary Council.

Sec. 5 — The Judiciary Council shall elect a secretary from its own number at the first meeting after its election.

Article XIII. — Meetings

Sec. 6 — Regular meetings of the Judiciary Council shall be held during the second and fourth weeks of each month, at times and places fixed by the Council.

Article XVI. — Quorum

Sec. 3 — Three members of the Judiciary Council shall constitute a quorum.

The following year (1916) the Women's Judiciary Council presented a petition (signed by ten of the eleven sororities, all of the league houses, and the dormitories) to the Senate Committee on Student Affairs requesting that mid-week dances be abolished and that the closing hour on Friday nights be one o'clock. This action, spontaneous on the part of the women students, was a definite move toward making all-campus rules representative of student opinion. Uniform house rules were established by the Board of Representatives of the Women's League, and procedures for house government and specific rules of conduct were outlined at this time. The closing hour was set for women's residences at 10:30 P.M. during the week and 11:30 on Friday and Saturday, and in February, 1916, the Judiciary Council reported that it had "taken definite action against Sunday movies and with reference to going up the river" (canoeing on the Huron). In 1918 letters were sent to the dormitories, sororities, and league houses stating the uniform rules, and in the 1920's these were printed for general distribution. Many of the standards were stringent in comparison with the present. As late as 1926, all freshman women were required to be in their houses by 8:00 P.M., and no freshman was permitted to have an evening engagement except on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday nights or on a night before a University holiday. A second-semester freshman was allowed one mid-week date if she had no grade below a C.

A University Committee on Discipline was set up in 1922 to handle cases referred by the deans or those which involved students enrolled in two or more University schools or colleges. A representative of the Women's Judiciary Council was invited to attend formal meetings of this committee when cases pertaining to women students were to be discussed.

Under the Committee of Advisers to Women (1926-30; see Part II: Office of the Dean of Women), the Judiciary Council was given full authority to enforce house rules. In addition, cases of immorality, drinking, dishonesty, or insubordination were included under the jurisdiction of the Council. None of the advisers attended the sessions, but an assistant adviser worked closely with the Council, making all hearing appointments and filing reports on penalties. Cases involving a girl's removal from school were considered jointly by the Council and the Committee of Advisers; if a decision could not be reached, the case was then referred to the president of the University.

Since the work of the Council was of such a specialized nature and required more and more time on the part of its members, in 1927-28 the president and vice-president of the Women's League were relieved of this duty. In order to maintain continuity in the work, members of the Council were elected for two-year terms — two juniors to serve for two years and one additional senior who was elected every year. Nominations for these offices were approved by the Committee of Advisers to women prior to the election.

In 1932 elections to the central committees for class projects were placed under the supervision of the Women's Page  1836Judiciary Council, and in 1934 the Council was given the responsibility of making nominations for all Women's League positions. The choice was based on the merit of the applicant and on a system of petitioning and interviewing. Nominations were then referred to the appropriate body for election: to the Electoral Board for the election of officers, to the League Council (former Board of Directors) for committee appointments, and to the women students for the annual election of vice-presidents and Women's Judiciary Council members. This function was one of the Council's duties until 1946, when a separate committee was formed to interview and nominate.

In the spring of 1934 the house rules were altered in order to permit seniors to stay out on Saturday nights until 1:30 A.M. In 1940-41 freshman hours were extended to 10:30 P.M. on week nights, and copies of the house rules were mimeographed for each woman student. In 1942 the closing hour for Friday and Saturday nights was set at 12:30 A.M.

Four sophomore aides were added to the women's judiciary system in 1942-43. The aides did not attend hearings or decisions, but carried out the routine work of checking and filing. The structure of the Council was altered and its organization more clearly defined in the Women's League constitution of 1946-47. Three seniors and three juniors were chosen by the Electoral Board to serve on the Council; one senior was appointed chairman, and each of the other members was placed in charge of a campus "district" which was determined at the beginning of the year. These district chairmen worked closely with the house presidents and house directors in their districts. The district chairmen were responsible for checking reported violations and for interviewing those who broke University regulations. A sophomore judiciary aide, assigned to each district chairman, checked sign-out sheets, reported irregularities to the district chairman, and filed reports. The chairman of the Judiciary Council served as a member of the Committee on Student Conduct and of the University Sub-Committee on Discipline.

In 1948-49 the Student Legislature insisted on controlling the Women's Judiciary Council in order that a joint judiciary council could be established to handle problems involving both men and women. The Women's League, however, felt that student legislative control was not a necessary step toward this goal. After much controversy, machinery for the Joint Judiciary Council was set up to hear cases referred by the Student Legislature. Members included four men from the Men's Judiciary Council and three women from the Women's Judiciary Council.

Changes in the League constitution, in 1949-50, eliminated the Electoral Board and strengthened the Board of Representatives by making it responsible for electing the executive officers of the Women's League, the members of the Interviewing Committee, and the chairman of the Women's Judiciary Council. New rules, regulations, and policies pertaining to women students were still initiated by the Board of Representatives. The procedure for changing or adding to the house rules was as follows: (1) The proposed rule was submitted to the Women's League president who discussed the suggested change with the dean of women in order to be certain that it was in accord with University policy. (2) The proposal was placed on the agenda of the Board of Representatives who discussed the pros and cons. (3) It was then referred to the women students for a vote. (4) A three-fourths majority of all votes cast was necessary for the proposal to become a house rule.

Page  1837In the fall of 1950, the Women's Judiciary Council made a great effort to reach new students with information concerning judiciary procedures. House rules and regulations were published in an informal pamphlet entitled "Judy be Good," which was distributed by the orientation leaders. The members of the Women's Judiciary Council visited each dormitory, where they enacted a "mock trial" and explained the function of the judiciary system. In cases of serious violation, the house president of the residence where the girl lived was invited to attend the hearings. The individual house directors were given the responsibility of granting mid-week late permissions.

On December 12, 1950, the University Sub-Committee on Discipline delegated the hearing of all cases to the Joint Judiciary Council on a one-year trial basis. The Joint Judiciary Council interpreted University rules and regulations and made recommendations to the subcommittee. According to the constitution of the Joint Council, approved by the Student Affairs Committee, the Joint Council was composed of four men and four women, and the chairmanship was held alternately by the chairman of the Men's or Women's Judiciary Council.

In 1951 the president of the Women's League appointed a committee to discuss judicial procedures, and the suggestions incorporated in the committee report were adopted by the League Board of Representatives. The dean of women delegated disciplinary authority in all cases concerning women students to a combined administration and student judicial group known as the Women's Panel, composed of the dean and the chairman and one junior member of the Women's Judiciary Council. The panel investigated the facts of each major disciplinary problem and then referred the case for hearing either to the Women's Judiciary Council or to the Joint Judiciary Council. When confidential or summary action was deemed advisable, the panel itself decided the case. A woman student who was suspended could request the panel to place her on "women's probation"; this status eliminated her from participating in extracurricular activities and substituted volunteer work in a service organization for a prescribed number of hours each week.

Increasing enrollment resulted in a larger number of cases for review each year by the Women's Council. To alleviate this problem, the present decentralized judiciary system was put into practice in 1952-53. Each residence hall and sorority now has a "House Judiciary Council" which exercises jurisdiction over all minor disciplinary problems. A League House Judiciary Council composed of three permanent and two rotating members serves the same function for all the league houses. Weekly reports on violations and penalties are filed with the Women's Judiciary Council and the house director. A student who is dissatisfied with the ruling of her House Judiciary Council may appeal the case to the Women's Judiciary Council.

The co-ordination of the House Judiciary councils and the League House Judiciary Council is the responsibility of the Women's Judiciary Council. In the years since this system has been in effect, it has had the co-operation of all the women on campus and has met with great success. Each semester a workshop is conducted for the members of the House Judiciary councils and the house directors. Procedures and penalties are discussed in an attempt to bring about as much uniformity as possible in the decisions made by the various groups. Files on all decisions serve as a reference.

On June 12, 1953, the Board of Regents approved the constitution of the Joint Judiciary Council, which provided Page  1838that five men and five women members should be chosen by an interviewing board composed of the president and vice-president of the Student Legislature, the president of the Women's League, the chairman of the Interviewing and Nominating Committee, and the retiring chairman of the Joint Judiciary Council. The Sub-Committee on Discipline was to act as an appellate authority.

There has been little change in the women's judiciary system since 1953. In 1953-54 the membership of the Women's Panel was altered to include the highest-ranking member of the Joint Judiciary Council rather than a junior member of the Women's Judiciary Council; in this way, better co-operation was established between the Women's Panel, the Joint Judiciary Council, and the Women's Judiciary Council. When the Student Government Council replaced the Student Legislature in 1954-55, the judiciary system was not altered. All other changes have been procedural rather than structural.

From the beginning the women's judiciary system has been modified frequently to incorporate the best suggestions brought to the attention of the Women's League. Women at Michigan have taken very seriously the responsibility of student self-government, and co-operation with other campus organizations has been maintained in order to keep women's judiciary policies in accord with student opinion.

FOREIGN STUDENTS

FOR the past several decades the University of Michigan has ranked as one of the first four American institutions in the enrollment of foreign students. The other three are on the Atlantic or the Pacific Coast. While this large foreign enrollment, broadly speaking, may be considered the result of a cosmopolitan tradition which has existed at Michigan almost from the University's first days, many forces have worked together to bring it about. Some of these forces are obscure, but most of them have resulted from the unusually broad conception of the place of the University in world affairs and from the opportunity it possesses, through its alumni, to increase international understanding.

From the beginning, the University was interested in foreign peoples and eager to extend its influence in international affairs. It is important to remember that the actual establishment of the University occurred at the beginning of the great evangelistic movement in the Protestant churches which sent American missionaries into the most remote and hazardous corners of the world. It is significant that a member of the very first class to be graduated from the University, the class of 1845, was destined to be the first missionary sent to China by the Methodists. It was an impressive sight when, in 1929, the Methodist Conference, in session in Ann Arbor, adjourned for a half day to pilgrimage in a long cavalcade to the little cemetery at Unadilla to pay tribute to Judson Dwight Collins, whose pioneer work in China opened that country to Methodist investment in schools, churches, and hospitals. From the class of 1848 Horatio W. Shaw, a great uncle of Wilfred Shaw, went to Allahabad, India, returning Page  1839just in time to escape the Sepoy Rebellion. Tillman C. Trowbridge ('52, LL.D. '80), under the auspices of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (Congregational), went to Turkey, where he lived a life of great usefulness, and Thomas Spencer Ogden ('53, A.M. '57) was sent to Corsica by the Presbyterian Board.

Scores of Michigan men and women, as the great missionary movement swept to its climax, went out, not only to preach the gospel and minister to the sick but, whether intentionally or not, to become alumni centers of interest in the University of Michigan. Whatever opinion one may hold regarding the theological and denominational dogmatism of that period, one cannot fail to recognize the heroism and sincerity of these men and women; certainly the foreign students who were soon to come in such numbers to the University were the fruits of their sowing.

In later years, visits and expeditions abroad by our professors encouraged foreign students to come to the University, and in recent times governmental programs have resulted in bringing students to the campus in large numbers.

There were foreign students at the University from the very first, one from Mexico and one from Wales in 1847, two Canadians in 1852, an Englishman in 1853, and several students from Hawaii in 1854 and 1855, but these were sporadic cases, mostly the sons of missionaries. The cosmopolitan movement at Michigan actually began with the appearance of the first Oriental student, a Japanese, Saiske Tagai, who came in 1872, in the fourth decade of the University's history. The following year another Japanese student enrolled, Masakazu Stehachi Toyama (A.M. hon. '86), who not only became the president of the Imperial University, but the first minister of state for education in Japan and who died laden with imperial honors for his service to Japanese education.

Some years later, in the spring of 1880, President James B. Angell was appointed envoy extraordinary, minister plenipotentiary, and special commissioner to the Chinese Empire. As no one at the time could have foreseen, his diplomatic service marked the beginning of an interchange of courtesies between the University and the countries of the Far East which has continued for more than three quarters of a century. The University in 1885 was given the Chinese collection of textiles and art objects which aids in making Michigan a center for the study of Oriental civilization. The University has loaned specialists to China: Henry C. Adams to advise in problems of communication, and Howard B. Merrick, Clifton O. Carey, Hugh Brodie, Harry Bouchard, and a corps of other young engineering faculty men, to help solve the flood problems of the Pearl River.

From China has come a long line of students among whom have been many distinguished scholars and diplomats, leaders in education, and in government affairs. China, however, was not the first to avail itself of the opportunity for study made apparent to the East by President Angell's visit. Japan, with characteristic aggressiveness, moved first. Undoubtedly, President Angell's close friendship with the great Toyama had much to do with this.

Japanese students began to arrive at Michigan only two years after Angell's return; they came in substantial numbers for fifty years, and for at least the first half of that period Japanese education was greatly influenced by returning Michigan alumni. Toyama, especially, had a powerful influence on the shaping of the early educational policies of the Japanese government. As these educational systems and techniques developed, Page  1840however, they came to be fashioned more and more on European models. America had less to contribute than had Germany and France, and gradually the enrollment of Japanese in all American universities decreased. At Michigan the peak of the early enrollment was reached in 1920, when twenty-five students from Japan were enrolled. Not until after World War II was the number of students again significant. In the early postwar period the Occupation forces sponsored a large number of students. In 1949 there were only five Japanese on campus, but in 1950 there were forty-one. Never since have there been less than thirty-two, and the number has been as large as fifty-eight. The presence of the Center for Japanese Studies on campus and in Japan and the growing connection between the University and Japanese institutions indicate a continued increase in the number of students from that country.

The first Chinese students did not appear at the University until eleven years after President Angell's diplomatic service to China. Three entered the University in 1892. Two of them, Ida Kahn ('96m, A.M. hon. '20) and Mary Stone [Meiyii Shie] ('96m) were the adopted daughters of Miss Gertrude Howe, a medical missionary who had had her training in the University's Medical School in 1871 and 1872. These two women, by their magnificent medical service, were destined to inspire the Barbour scholarships for Oriental women, established by Levi L. Barbour in 1917, which have placed so many trained women leaders in various countries of the East. The enrollment of Chinese students, stimulated by the Barbour scholarships, by the scholarships provided in 1910 from the Boxer indemnity funds, and by other increasingly liberal grants, had grown until it reached the amazing figure of 160 in 1935-36. After a slackening during World War II the number again rose, reaching 189 in 1948. The Communist control of China immediately affected the number of students from there, which has now stabilized at about eighty, most of them from Formosa. In recent years large numbers have come also from Thailand, thus increasing even more the concentration of students from Asiatic countries.

The evangelistic crusade, which sent our alumni to foreign lands as teachers and preachers from 1850 to 1870, and the contacts established by such diplomatic services as those of President Angell and Henry Carter Adams, were not the only influences affecting the cosmopolitan movement at the University. Expeditions for purposes of scientific research have also had their effect. The most notable of these were the zoological expeditions to the Philippines of Professor Joseph B. Steere and of Dean C. Worcester. These expeditions gave a group of brilliant young Michigan men an interest in the Philippines and an intimate knowledge of the country and the people that made them invaluable to the political development of the Islands after the American occupation in 1899.

Not only were Michigan men in the majority in the cabinet of the governor of the Islands, William H. Taft, but the University of the Philippines was organized on the model of the University of Michigan by Dean Worcester, Judge E. F. Johnson, Justice George Malcolm, Professor Edgar M. Ledyard, Professor C. G. Wrentmore, and other distinguished Michigan alumni. The first deans of the colleges of Medicine, Law, Engineering, and Agriculture were all Michigan men. It is interesting to note that Governor General Frank Murphy, as well as Professor Joseph Ralston Hayden, who was vice-governor general, were also Michigan men. This prominence of Michigan alumni and the development of exchange professorships between Page  1841the University of Michigan and the University of the Philippines gave Michigan greatly increased prestige, not only in the Philippines but throughout the Far East area. Students from the Philippines began to arrive at the University in 1900 almost immediately after the American occupation, and they have come continuously ever since. Twenty-nine, the peak of their prewar enrollment, was reached in 1921; it remained almost constant until 1930 when it began to drop. Not until the years after World War II did the number again become significant. In 1955 seventy Filipino students were enrolled.

There were no students from the Near East until 1886; at first only a few came, never more than seven or eight, and until 1929 the number was usually smaller. This seems remarkable when one recalls that missionaries from the University went to Turkey in large numbers at a very early date — the Trowbridges in 1852, the Neils and Shepards in the early 1880's, the Christies, Barnums, and a score of others in the 1890's — and that several archeological expeditions from the University have worked for years in various parts of the Near East. President Angell, near the end of his active life, was Minister to Turkey, and in 1911 the University lent Professor John R. Allen to Robert College to organize the engineering department there and to serve temporarily as dean. It is apparent that the University has had a larger contact with the Near East and perhaps a greater interest in its peoples than it has had in those of any other area, yet these contacts and this interest have begun to bring students to Michigan for study only since 1929.

All these influences were not, however, without effect, as is evidenced by the growth and development of the two great American-sponsored schools, Robert College at Istanbul, and the American University at Beirut. By 1929 students from the Near East began for the first time to come to the United States for advanced study; previously they had gone to the nearer European universities. The development at Michigan of a curriculum in Oriental languages, of another in Islamic art, the establishment of government scholarships by Iraq, and the greatly increased numbers of Michigan scholars working in Egypt and Mesopotamia turned the eyes of the Near East in the direction of the University of Michigan. The number of students from the Near East is now more than 160, with Turkey and Iraq both represented by forty or more students each.

There have been many other interesting phases of this cosmospolitan movement at the University. Latin America early sent students to Michigan. One came in 1863, and since 1877 the succession of these students has been almost unbroken; since 1900 they have been one of the important groups on campus. Through most of the past fifty years, the University of Michigan has had one of the largest enrollments of Latin American students in this country. Perhaps there is some significance in the fact that this institution was host to the first Pan-American Congress, and that the entire delegation of representatives of the South American countries visited Ann Arbor in 1889.

The Good Neighbor Policy of the 1940's, which throughout the United States spurred attention to Latin America and resulted in the establishment of the English Language Institute at the University of Michigan, led to the large numbers of Latin Americans who have been coming to the University in the past two decades. Since 1940 there have never been fewer than 125; the peak of 192 was reached in 1944.

India had no students at the University until 1902 — never more than a half Page  1842dozen or so in any one year until 1920. Then, possibly because the Barbour scholarships became available, possibly because World War I ended, or because of the anti-British feeling in India, the number suddenly increased. For ten years it climbed steadily, held for four or five years, and then quite unaccountably plunged to a mere half dozen. After independence, however, the number of Indians, Pakistanis, and Burmese, all of whom were counted as from "India" in earlier figures, increased: fifteen came from Pakistan in 1955, and 104 from India and thirty-seven from Burma in 1956.

For fifteen years, from 1912 to 1927, an almost spectacular invasion of South Africans took place, men who came with almost ferocious energy to study dentistry. Then, quite as suddenly as they came, they disappeared. They got what they wanted and had in that fifteen years established their own dental college for the training of their own men. There are many such curious and interesting examples of the effect of circumstances on these rising and falling enrollments within the international group.

While no one European country has been represented by large numbers of students, a few have come each year from Europe. In one or two years, chiefly because of government programs, the number rose. In the past few years, the enrollment from Europe and Africa, taken together, has ranged between 175 and 200.

The members of our large group of foreign-born students have been exceptional. Some of them have been selected on the basis of competitive examinations, some have been sent on scholarships as a reward for government service, and some are sons and daughters of wealthy families of high cultural ideals who have taken advantage of all their own educational systems have to offer. They are interesting, not only because they come from strange and distant lands, but because they have had unusual experiences in their lives.

Certain studies of the foreign student population of the University have brought out facts other than the quantitative analyses given. In 1952 and 1954 these studies were concerned with the financial backing of foreign students and with the enrollment by schools and major fields of study. In the study of finances it was found that 54 per cent of 703 foreign students in 1952 and 61 per cent of 790 in 1954 were here without scholarships, being supported by their families, their savings, or by employment in Ann Arbor. Scholarships from their home countries accounted for 16 per cent and 13 per cent in the two years; from the United States government 15 per cent and 10.5 per cent; from the University of Michigan scholarships and fellowships 5 per cent and 4 per cent; from private agencies and foundations 5 per cent and 4 per cent; and from international organizations 2 per cent each year. In professional schools and colleges demanding previous undergraduate training the percentages of these samples were 11.6 per cent and 8 per cent, respectively; in undergraduate schools and colleges to which freshmen can be admitted there were 44.6 per cent in 1952 and 43.6 per cent in 1954; and in the Graduate School and graduate divisions there were 43.8 per cent and 48.4 per cent.

Major fields of study in these two sample years (1952 and 1954) included engineering, languages and linguistics, health sciences, mathematics and natural sciences, social sciences, business administration, education, and law and pre-law. The largest enrollments were in engineering, languages and linguistics, and the health sciences.

These representatives of racial and national Page  1843groups, although they present some problems requiring careful consideration — problems of language, immigration, housing, health, finances, and social contacts — are not merely a colorful, exotic feature of the Michigan campus, they have much to contribute to its life as students and as alumni. For years they have given the student body an international outlook and an interest in foreign affairs. There is no finer opportunity for strengthening the bonds of good will between countries than by encouraging mutual acquaintance between these international guests and their American hosts. The influence of their presence at the University is increasingly apparent, especially in the growing interest in foreign study. More and more, students and faculty are seeking opportunities for study and travel in the countries represented by our foreign students. Not only do these students help to give a wider world outlook to the members of the student body of which they are a part, but they are of service in many practical ways. In the development of curriculums hundreds of Oriental students help to make concrete and appealing what would otherwise be purely academic. It is safe to say that more American students will be attracted to the study of foreign cultures by personal contact with students from other countries than by the most alluring prospectus.

Our foreign student enrollment is one of the most significant factors responsible for the University of Michigan's reputation as a great international institution. The presence of these students on campus and their impact on their own countries as alumni help to create international understanding and to strengthen the possibilities for peace.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1865-1954.

THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER

THE International Center, which is charged with the supervision of all the intercultural and international relations of the University of Michigan, developed as an expression of the University's interest in students from other lands. Michigan has had a special interest in foreign students ever since President James B. Angell went to China as Minister Plenipotentiary in 1880-81. Their presence on the Michigan campus has always been evidence of the broad liberal conception of the University's purpose. From Angell's time to the present, there has been a rising tide of students from all over the world until by 1956-57 the enrollment of foreign students reached 1,315, from eighty-two countries.

It early became apparent that these students require special guidance in adjusting to new conditions. The development of the program for foreign students closely parallels the professional career of Professor J. Raleigh Nelson, the first Counselor to Foreign Students, who established the International Center and, in 1936, became its first Director. In 1908, at the invitation of Dean Cooley of the Engineering College, Nelson came to Page  1844the University to develop English courses for engineering students. He had had fourteen successful years as a teacher of Latin in Chicago.

Nelson was not slow in discovering that most foreign students had had so little experience in the use of English that they were unprepared to do university work. For this reason he inaugurated a noncredit course in English to give them the preparation they so obviously needed if they were to compete with American students. In addition to the classroom work in this course, he took them, once a week, on a tour of the campus — the Library, the Dental College, and so on. Later, they visited Greenfield Village, the Ford factory, and other points of special interest to prospective engineers. The reports of these excursions were read and discussed in class. In this way instruction in report writing began under Nelson, who became a pioneer in the field. The informality of these trips and the interest they had for the students, in addition to the constant necessity for mastering the complexities of the English language, were effective and stimulating. In its intent and even in its method of procedure, English 1a was the direct antecedent of the English Language Service of the International Center and, later, indirectly, of the English Language Institute.

Within three years after Nelson's arrival, the faculty of the College of Engineering, on a motion by Professor Henry E. Riggs, authorized the establishment of a Committee on Foreign Students. Under the title of Counselor to Foreign Students in the College of Engineering, Nelson was made permanent chairman of this committee, which was very active in discovering those who needed special guidance and in providing help for them.

Until 1933 foreign students in other colleges of the University had no special counselor. In the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Professor Jonathan A. C. Hildner, because of his personal interest and his understanding of their problems, had served as adviser without compensation, and Joseph Bursley, Dean of Students from 1921 to 1947, was always helpful in emergencies. One of Nelson's Chinese students once asked him, as a special favor, if he would advise his roommate, who was in a state of hysteria because he had been given a program which included beginning French. To quote Nelson's own words: "I put on my hat, and marched indignantly across the Campus to Dean Bursley's office, to discuss with him the crying need of a special counselor for foreign students."

Enrollment of foreign students was increasing, and both Bursley and Ruthven were agreed that a special University adviser for them was necessary. Nelson had the qualifications, the experience, and the interest in the problem which made him obviously "the man for the job." He was already chairman of the Engineering English Department, Editor of Publications in the new Department of Engineering Research, and permanent chairman of the Committee on Foreign Students in Engineering. He accepted the post of University Counselor to Foreign Students in 1933 with some reluctance. As he said ruefully: "You have now loaded me with all the troubles of the world!" — a comment prophetic, indeed, as the future proved. In agreeing to undertake the work, Nelson asked for an office centrally located where he would be easily accessible to all foreign students, and then solved his own problem by discovering a small room — a mere "cubbyhole," as he described it — on the first floor of Angell Hall. This was simply furnished, and on the door, conspicuously displayed, was the sign "Counselor to Foreign Students." By Page  18451934 space in old University Hall had been made ready for a group of counselors. Professor Nelson, Dr. Edward Blakeman, Counselor on Religion, and Professor W. Carl Rufus, Secretary of the Committee on Barbour Scholarships, all had offices there. Miss Wilma A. Gwinner (later Mrs. A. L. Nye) was secretary for Professor Nelson and Dr. Blakeman.

The reports on foreign students required by the Immigration Act of 1924 had become burdensome to the Registrar's Office, and as soon as the new office was established, Professor Nelson was asked to take charge of them. Thus began the long satisfactory relationship, which still continues, with the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

Professor Nelson was, nominally, still chairman of the Engineering English Department and Editor of Publications in the Department of Engineering Research. For a year and a half, he continued to teach both sections of English 1a and also read and edited the reports for each of his fifty senior engineers. He offered his course in English for foreign students to all who cared to attend and made himself constantly available to those who desired counsel. President Ruthven was greatly interested in the rapidly developing program and therefore asked Professor Nelson to resign all other activities in order to devote full time to it.

Thus far, in the evolution of the International Center, there had been no provision for social contact, either with the American community or within the foreign groups, although the foreign students had always been welcome in certain private homes. Nelson turned to the Michigan Union, which had been built as a social center for all students, for a solution to this problem. The Union rose to the occasion, and a regular Sunday-night supper hour was arranged. After the meal a speaker, chosen from the foreign group, gave a brief talk, which led to a free discussion of topics of mutual interest. These evenings were so informal and so friendly that the members of the group gradually came to feel that they belonged together. This was the beginning — faint and vague — of the International Center. The need of a more adequate meeting place was apparent, however. Professor Nelson took the problem to Dr. Ruthven, and within a week new quarters were found. Owing to lack of funds, when the South Wing had been added to the Union, the ground floor had been left unfinished. This was now to become the home of the International Center.

In order to study the experiences of other student centers, Professor Nelson made a tour of the eastern and midwestern states, visiting international houses in Chicago, New York, and Washington, and student centers at the University of Pennsylvania and Ohio State University. He returned better prepared, he felt, to solve his own problems at the University of Michigan.

During the summer, while the builders were at work, Professor and Mrs. Nelson selected all the furnishings for the Center: carpets, drapes, upholstered chairs and davenports, many of which, after fifteen years of use, are still in good condition. They also gave the students a grand piano, an indispensable feature of any student gathering place.

On August 31, 1938, Nelson, with the added title of Director of the International Center, and his faithful secretary, Miss Gwinner, moved into the Union. At the time the Center was opened, the space available seemed ample for the activities planned and for the handling of foreign student problems. Later, some of the guestrooms were also taken over. These quarters, however, have long since been outgrown. Nevertheless, the International Page  1846Center in its Michigan Union home has been beloved by young people from all over the world, and in its friendly atmosphere, many international friendships have been formed.

Although the new Center now had a permanent home, Nelson was still faced by many problems. By the time college opened six weeks later, he had a staff of paid and volunteer student assistants, who were enthusiastic and eager to begin and proud to be a part of the experiment. Among them was M. Robert B. Klinger, a graduate student, who became a special counselor on immigration and other problems having to do with foreign students. Klinger's service to the International Center has extended through all the years since it opened its doors.

One of the first programs at the Center was a social hour, held on Thursday of Orientation Week. The occasion was so successful that these Thursday teas are still continued, thus giving the foreign students and their American friends an opportunity to know each other. Within the next five years gathering war clouds intensified the problems of counseling. In this difficult period students from other countries gradually became stranded as their homelands were involved.

Emphasis on the Good Neighbor Policy of Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Co-ordinator Nelson Rockefeller led to a large increase in the enrollment of Latin American students. The need of a committee to aid in handling the University's relations with Latin America became apparent. Authorized by the University Council and appointed by President Ruthven in November, 1941, the Committee on Latin American Affairs included Dean Bursley, Dr. Lowell T. Coggeshall, Dr. Louis A. Hopkins, and Professors Irving A. Leonard, Raleigh Schorling, and J. Raleigh Nelson, chairman. Four other members of the faculty assisted during that year: Dean Henry F. Vaughan and Professors Nathan Sinai, Robert B. Hall, and Dudley M. Phelps.

Two years later, in November, 1943, the Committee on Latin American Relations was reorganized as the Committee on Intercultural Relations. Its functions were as follows:

  • 1. To make a survey of the active projects within the University affecting its permanent intercultural relations, and, with a view to a continuing service, to keep informed of the development of such projects or of new proposals that might in any way influence those relations.
  • 2. To secure, if possible, a proper correlation of all approved projects in order to prevent duplication, overlapping, and conflict of interests.
  • 3. To lend encouragement and active co-operation in the development of all such approved projects.
  • 4. To formulate a general plan for the systematic extension of scholarships and fellowships.
  • 5. To develop ways and means for co-operating with all governmental and other agencies working for closer permanent intercultural relations. (Letter, L. A. Hopkins to J. R. Nelson.)

From the beginning of J. R. Nelson's service to the University, he had been vitally concerned with developing means to help foreign students adjust to new environments. He continued to regard the teaching of English as the problem of primary importance in planning the program. English 1a and 1b became the model for the English Language Service of the Center and the progenitor of the English Language Institute. During the Center's first two years the Department of Speech and the Department of Linguistics co-operated with Nelson in organizing this instruction. In the first year, Professors John H. Muyskens and Charles C. Fries, on several occasions, addressed the foreign student assembly Page  1847in their Sunday evening programs, and upon occasion lent members of their staffs for work with individual students or with study groups.

In 1940 Nelson discovered Miss Sarah E. Grollman, of the University's Department of Speech, who at the time was engaged in graduate study under Professors Muyskens and Fries. Nelson felt that her background and her training fitted her to carry out the English language program. She was appointed Language Assistant in the Center in 1941, and Nelson turned over to her all his material developed in English 1a and 1b. Since that date, Miss Grollman has headed the English Language Service. She has, in these years, won wide recognition, both here and abroad, for the results which she has achieved.

In the spring of 1940, the State Department, in carrying out the Good Neighbor Policy, brought a large contingent of Turkish officers, with their wives, for a year's advanced training in engineering. Another project of the State Department, planned in co-operation with the Grace Lines, was carried out with the countries of South America as a gesture of good will. The International Center was host, during the summer, to a group of students from Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Lectures on American life by members of the faculty, tours to various points of interest in the community, and an intensive course in English were offered the visitors. Meanwhile, a student-exchange program had been negotiated with Brazil. For several years this project gave us the opportunity to send some of our graduate students to Brazil and to receive, in return, advanced students from that country. Similar direct University exchanges were arranged with Lingnan University in Canton and with the American University in Beirut, Lebanon.

One of the most revealing demonstrations of the interest of the Ann Arbor community in its foreign students was the annual Thanksgiving dinner. At the last of these dinners, at the close of Nelson's term of service, 550 foreign students, their hosts, and other friends sat down to Thanksgiving dinner in the elaborately decorated Union ballroom. The custom began, in a simple way, as a project of the Ann Arbor Rotary Club, of which Nelson was an active member. Professor Edwin C. Goddard of the International Committee suggested that the Club sponsor a typical New England Thanksgiving dinner for foreign students. The members of the Rotary Committee and others who were interested agreed to act as hosts, each paying for ten foreign students. The experiment proved so successful that the Thanksgiving dinner became a part of the International Center program.

In 1942, as Nelson approached retirement, in order to give continuity to the work of the International Center, he recommended the establishment of a Board of Governors. A committee, which included George E. Carrothers, Arthur S. Aiton, and Joseph A. Bursley, was appointed by the Board in the same year. Nelson retired in June, 1943, after thirty-five years of devoted service to the University. At the farewell dinner in his honor were assembled not only many friends, associates, and foreign students, but also representatives of the governmental agencies with which he had worked in the course of his career. The Regents announced that a bronze tablet in his honor would be hung in the Center, and the Committee of the State Department, to which he had been appointed by President Roosevelt, came in a body and held their annual meeting in Ann Arbor, on the day preceding the dinner. The Philippine Student Club presented a life-size portrait of Professor Nelson, painted by the distinguished Page  1848Filipino artist Eduardo Salgado, which now hangs in the Lounge.

Dr. Esson M. Gale succeeded Nelson in 1943. Dr. Gale, after more than thirty years of service in China, first as a foreign student and later in various important capacities in United States international and Chinese civil service, was no stranger to Ann Arbor. He had taught at the University in 1927-28 and was Acting James Orin Murfin Professor of Political Science in 1942-43.

Gale built on the foundations laid by Nelson. The enrollment of foreign students continued to grow, and the complexity of services to them grew even faster owing to the strains of the war and postwar period. Moreover, the large migration of leaders and specialists from abroad began in earnest at that time, and the services of the International Center were expanded to care for them. Gale found himself increasingly absorbed in co-ordinating the diverse activities of his office, which, in addition to the foreign student program, included more and more of the University's farflung international interests. During the eleven years that he was Counselor-Director, the International Center, with an orientation program similar to the pattern of the Latin-American Summer Session of 1941, serviced two groups, one a group of Chilean engineers and the other a group of students sponsored by the government of Thailand.

Mrs. Kathleen M. Mead, who joined the staff in 1947 as Administrative Assistant, has had charge of teas, social programs, room assignments, and the entire plant operation. When difficulties in finding rooms for foreign students became a problem for the Center, Mrs. Mead also undertook this work. In 1955, under the supervision of Dr. James M. Davis, a housing survey was made to determine where the foreign students were living and how they felt about their accommodations. This survey is the basis for determining present operations and future policy. In the meantime, Mrs. Mead, in co-operation with community committees, attempts to find additional housing for foreign students.

The rapid surge of the Communist army over China left many students from that land stranded in our midst. The University of Michigan had much to do with the national program for the alleviation of their distress through the services of Gale, whose lifelong interest in China was well known. In addition, he was director of the newly formed National Association of Foreign Student Advisers (organized at a national convention in Ann Arbor in April, 1948), and a member of the Advisory Board for Emergency Aid to Chinese Students of the Department of State. For several years the China Aid program was a large factor in the operation of the Center. National interest in the educational exchange program as a part of our foreign policy became focused in legislation by Congress year after year, resulting in a larger and larger enrollment of foreign students. The services of the Center were continuously expanded to take care of visitors and to meet the needs of the University in educational matters of international importance.

The Board of Governors grew in numbers during the years; two additional members were added by action of the Board of Regents on December 29, 1944. The Director of the Office of Student Affairs was made an ex-officio member in February, 1947, the Dean of Women in July, 1949, and in 1954 the Vice-President for Student Affairs was designated ex-officio chairman, and three student members were added.

Gale retired June 30, 1954, and was succeeded by James McCoy Davis, who had had experience in Southeast Asia during the war, had served in the Institute Page  1849of International Education, and came directly from the University of Washington, where he had been Counselor to Foreign Students and Executive Director of the Foundation for International Understanding Through Students. Since his appointment, the most significant developments have been the delegation of program work to the International Student Association formed under Gale, continued expansion of staff, an ever-increasing attention to the international and intercultural interests of the University beyond the foreign student program, increased emphasis on University-wide service through hospitality and local program arrangements for visiting foreign leaders, and evaluation in the foreign student field.

In 1954-55 a new credit program of English for Foreign Students was instituted in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Miss Grollman joined the staff of the English Department in September, 1955, on a part-time basis to teach the English 1 and 2 sections composed of foreign students, but still continued the English Language Service in the Center. Davis early recognized the need for additional counseling staff. Klinger was promoted to Counselor in 1955, and Gaston J. Sigur transferred to the counseling service with the same title. When Sigur accepted a post in Tokyo, another change was made by the appointment of two assistant counselors to assist Klinger.

Before Nelson's retirement and throughout Gale's tenure, and ever present today, is the need for larger quarters for the Center's work. In 1950 Dr. and Mrs. Arthur Pound gave the University the funds to remodel a large home at 1024 Hill Street, which later became known as the Madelon Pound House. This relieved some of the more pressing need for space, and has served as another homelike meeting place for the University's foreign students. However, the need for one building in which all of the Center's activities can be localized still exists, and plans are being studied for a new building which will be adequate as the International Center of the future.

SCHOLARSHIPS

THE scholarship story at the University of Michigan covers a period of almost one hundred years. Emphasis in this article has been placed on the origin of the many kinds and types of scholarships now in existence at the University. These are supported by gifts from individuals, companies, alumni groups, and students; others are provided by tax funds. In type, they vary from those with the very general eligibility bases of character, academic performance, and need to those designated for students who are members of particular families or who live in specified geographical areas. Others are for students engaged in certain fields of study or for those who must meet special eligibility requirements set up by the donors.

The first mention of scholarships in the Regents' Proceedings, in March, 1858, reads as follows: "A communication was received from the President and Academical Faculty relative to the establishment of scholarships, which, on motion of Regent McIntyre, was laid on the table" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 733). At the Regents' meeting of June 24, 1858, the following minutes are recorded: "The memorial of Professor [Andrew D.] Page  1850White relative to the establishment of scholarships was taken from the table. On motion of Regent Baxter the proposition was accepted and the scholarships established" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 746). The "proposition," which was made by a citizen of Michigan, offered to provide $100 on condition that the Regents would vote a similar sum to establish four scholarships of $50 each for competition among entering students. The Regents' Proceedings does not disclose the name of the "citizen of Michigan" who provided the necessary funds. The next mention of scholarships occurred at the meeting of September 29, 1858, when, on motion of Regent Baxter, it was "Resolved, that Professor White be requested to designate the name[s] of the remaining scholarships established at our last session" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 760).

Two of these scholarships, named respectively for President Theodore Dwight Woolsey, of Yale, and President Henry Barnard, of Wisconsin, were awarded for the best examinations in the subjects required for admission to the Classical Department of the University and the other two, named for Douglas Houghton and John D. Pierce, were given to successful competitors in the scientific branches. At a meeting of the Regents on September 20, 1866, however, a motion by Regent Johnson to the effect that prizes for scholarships be discontinued was adopted (R.P., 1864-70, p. 182).

For a long time after 1866 the University offered no scholarships whatsoever, and finally, when others appeared in the record they came as the result of private gifts and not by action of the Regents. The "Scholarship Fund of the Class of '94" was established in 1894 by a gift of $2,000 from that class to be used as loans for the benefit of needy and worthy undergraduates in the Literary Department (R.P., 1891-96, p. 304). This, the first of many class scholarships, memorials, and loan funds established by University classes, by June 30, 1956, had a principal of $14,940. During the school year, 1955-56, sixty-six loans totaling $12,861 were made from this particular fund. Five classes which completed work prior to 1894 also have scholarship or loan funds established after that date.

In his "Annual Report," submitted to the Regents in October, 1894, President Angell noted that it would be desirable for the University to have a number of endowments which would produce fellowships of $400 or $500 annually. He commented: "By the aid of such fellowships Harvard, Cornell and Chicago are constantly drawing some of our most promising graduates to their halls" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 399). Apparently, this recommendation bore fruit, as at the February 21, 1895, meeting, a resolution was passed "that the thanks of this Board be returned to the Parke, Davis & Co., of Detroit, for their gift of five hundred dollars to endow a scholarship in Chemistry for the coming year" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 409). This was the first gift from a corporation to the University for scholarship purposes. Such gifts now number in the hundreds and total many thousands of dollars each year.

In April, 1895, the sum of $25,000 was received from Mrs. Clara Harrison Stranahan of Brooklyn, New York, for the purpose of endowing scholarships in memory of her father, Seth Harrison, for the benefit of his descendants. In the school year 1956-57, three descendants received aid through the Seth Harrison Scholarship Fund. A complete genealogical table of the Harrison family, maintained in the office of the President of the University, shows that these students are in the sixth generation removed from Seth Harrison. While the terms of eligibility for this scholarship are limited, the scholarship is virtually always in use.

In 1895 Mr. Henry Phillips, of Philadelphia, Page  1851founded the Phillips Scholarships, intended as rewards for the best entrance examinations in Greek. This endowment has furnished a remarkable example of the difficulty experienced by a benefactor in foreseeing the future. At the time Mr. Phillips made the gift, Greek was commonly taught in the high schools, and entrance examinations were much more important than they have since become. At the present time almost all students entering the University of Michigan do so either by certification of their preparatory schools or by transfer from some other college, and most students of Greek begin the study of the subject after they have entered college. Consequently, it became necessary for the Regents, in order to carry out the donor's intention, to seek the aid of the courts. As a result the Phillips Scholarships are now awarded on the basis of a special examination, preferably in both Greek and Latin, but, if Greek is not presented, in Latin alone. This was one of the earliest scholarships designed to aid students who are proficient in certain fields. Largely as a result of this experience, the University recommends to prospective donors that the Regents be permitted to exercise discretion in the use of funds if, with unforeseen future changes, it becomes impracticable or inexpedient to pursue the precise course laid down by the donor. The general tenor of the donor's original intention is, of course, always followed.

In 1900 a gift from Margaret E. Hunt, of Detroit, established the Margaret Smith Hunt Scholarships for students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. This gift, which consisted of certain parcels of land in California, was given with the understanding that the land should be retained until after the death of donor and then sold in order to provide funds with which to establish scholarships (R.P., 1896-1901, pp. 546-56). The lands were sold in 1952, and the scholarship fund is now active. The Lucinda Hinsdale Stone Supplementary Loan Scholarship Fund was established in 1904 as the result of a gift from the Michigan State Federation of Women's Clubs, in honor of Lucinda Hinsdale Stone, the first woman to receive an honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the University. The fund is available for loans or for outright grants to women students who face financial emergencies. The original gift of $3,000 has increased until by 1956-57 the principal was $7,449. The first instance of financial aid made available to students by students was the Alice Freeman Palmer Scholarship Fund established in May, 1905, by the Student's Lecture Association. The original gift of $800 has now grown to a sum exceeding $16,000.

In 1917 Levi L. Barbour ('63,'65l), of Detroit, Michigan, gave $50,000 with which to establish the Levi Barbour Oriental Girls Scholarship Fund to enable young women from the Orient to attend the University of Michigan. The principal was increased by further gifts from Mr. Barbour and a bequest at the time of his death in 1926. The fund, which is administered by a special committee, by 1956 had increased to $466,597.

Known at the time it was established in 1918 as the Chicago Association of University of Michigan Alumnae Association Scholarship, and renamed in 1949 the Louise Fairman Scholarship, this endowment fund constituted the first scholarship aid provided by the alumni. Today many alumni and alumnae clubs give assistance to deserving students through locally raised scholarship funds, most frequently providing expenditures on a year-to-year basis. Club officials nominate candidates to the Committee on University Scholarships, which appoints the award winners.

The will of LaVerne Noyes, of Chicago, Page  1852who died in July, 1919, provided that the income from his estate should be used to pay tuition in full or in part for United States citizens, without regard to sex, religion, or political party, who had served in the United States Army or Navy in World War I and been honorably discharged or who were descended by blood from someone who had served. For a number of years the trustees of the LaVerne Noyes estate granted scholarships from this fund, and then in December, 1937, by the gift of $69,600 the trustees established the LaVerne Noyes Foundation to provide scholarships in accordance with the terms of Mr. Noyes's will. Applicants for this scholarship are required to exhibit an honorable discharge or other official document which will establish the military service of the father or grandfather. Some twenty to twenty-five undergraduate students at the University receive tuition grants through this program each year.

Typical of the funds set up during the period from 1920 to 1930 was the D.A.R. War Memorial Scholarship established in 1924 for residents of Michigan. Candidates must be deemed worthy of financial assistance by the Committee on University Scholarships. Other funds begun in this decade were the Joseph Baker and Mary R. Davis Scholarship given in 1922 to help students majoring in geodesy and surveying. The Cornelius and Margaret Donovan Scholarship assists engineering students who are working their way through the University. The Simon Mandlebaum Scholarship, established in 1929, provides six annual scholarships for male students, three in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and three in the College of Engineering. The Stephen Spaulding Scholarship, established in 1926 by the parents of Stephen Spaulding, who died in that year while attending the University, is available to members of Beta Theta Pi fraternity. The Collegiate Sorosis Award, given in 1927 by the husband and children of Maude Merritt Drake, provides an award for the member of the Collegiate Sorosis sorority who gives greatest promise of developing into a fine type of womanhood, and the Agnes C. Weaver Scholarship is for the benefit of medical and premedical students.

The American Indian Scholarships were established by the Regents in 1932 at "the formal request of the Secretary of the Interior, and in recognition of the fact that by the Treaty of Fort Meigs, September 29, 1817, the Indian tribes of this vicinity deeded to the 'College of Detroit,' of which the University of Michigan is the successor, three sections of land [comprising 1,871 acres], which was the first benefaction made to this institution" (R.P., 1929-32, pp. 947-48). Five scholarships are provided each year to cover the semester fees of American Indian students, who may be enrolled in any division of the University. Proof of American Indian ancestry must be established through the United States Office of Indian Affairs, the Department of the Interior, or through other acceptable sources. Applicants, who may be of either sex, are recommended on the basis of worthiness, need, and ability.

Because the University had never had many scholarships for entering freshman students, the Board, in May, 1931, with funds provided by an appropriation, established the Michigan Alumni Undergraduate Scholarships and authorized that a number, not to exceed fifty, should be granted for the year 1931-32. Candidates were nominated by the University of Michigan Alumni Clubs of the state, and the holder of such a scholarship received full tuition for the freshman year. In succeeding years the Regents continued these scholarships and eventually, if satisfactory academic work was Page  1853maintained, they become renewable for the sophomore, junior, and senior years. Each alumni club in the state, depending on its size had the privilege of recommending from one to three candidates for this program.

At the July, 1943, meeting, the Regents established the University List Scholarships, whereby a scholarship becomes available for a graduate of each secondary school on the accredited list of the University. Qualifications for these scholarships include academic ability, desirable personal characteristics, good citizenship and health, and need of financial assistance. This program greatly increased the number of students entering the University with tuition assistance.

About a year later, in October, 1944, the Regents merged the University List Scholarship plan and the Michigan Alumni Undergraduate Scholarships into a single scholarship program known as the Regents-Alumni Scholarships. These grants are open to graduating seniors, one in each of the accredited high schools of the state. In addition, a number of awards at large are made annually to provide for those communities where more than one well-qualified candidate applies. In the selection procedure, the applicants write a competitive examination and are interviewed by University alumni who submit individual evaluations of each candidate. The scholarships cover semester fees and are renewable for the normal duration of the undergraduate program in which the student is enrolled. Five hundred and forty-six Regents-Alumni Scholarship awards were made in 1956.

At the May meeting of 1941, the Regents, upon recommendation of the Conference of Deans, established the Michigan Public Junior College Scholarships, which provide tuition based upon the enrollment of each of the public junior colleges in the state. These scholarships, covering tuition for the junior year and renewable for an additional year, provide scholarships for each 200 students, or a major fraction thereof, enrolled in the public junior colleges. Candidates, who must be citizens of the United States and residents of Michigan, are nominated to the Committee on University Scholarships by the officials of the respective junior colleges.

The Scholarship Division of the Office of Student Affairs, established by the Board in 1947, administers most of the scholarships which are not designated for a particular school or college. This division also prepares a bulletin summarizing information about scholarships, fellowships, and awards.

The Bomber Scholarship, supported by funds raised by students during the years of World War II, was one of the first to be administered by the new office. It was intended, originally, to provide tuition for students who had had their education interrupted because of war service. When the United States Congress passed the G. I. Bill, the Bomber Scholarship, in the form of grants of $100 a semester, was set up to give supplementary assistance to deserving veterans. Several hundred students received assistance through this program between 1947 and 1952.

The Elmer Gedeon Memorial Scholarship, established in 1951 by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics in memory of "M" letter winners who lost their lives in World War II, is open to undergraduate men students showing: moral character and good citizenship; scholastic ability and intellectual capacity and achievement; physical ability; and capacity and promise of leadership and success. It is the intention of the Board that these scholarships shall not be awarded to the recipients as athletes, but that candidates must be Page  1854well-rounded young men possessing the necessary qualities. The scholarships, which vary in amount according to individual need, range in value from $200 to $1,500 a year, and are renewable for three years if the holder maintains a B average.

In 1955 the Michigan Alumni Fund Nonresident Freshman Scholarship program, designed to pay the difference between instate and outstate fees, was established. Candidates are nominated by out-of-state University of Michigan clubs throughout the United States and territories. Fifteen awards were made in 1955 and twenty in 1956. These scholarships are renewable for four years if the student maintains a satisfactory average.

The General Motors Corporation College Scholarship plan was instituted in 1955. By this plan five entering freshmen receive scholarships, varying from $200 to $1,500 a year, based upon the financial need of the family of each winner. In 1955 the National Merit Scholarship Program tested more than 60,000 high school seniors and announced 504 awards to take effect in September, 1956. Students winning Merit Scholarships may attend the college of their choice. Nine of the winners elected to attend the University of Michigan. Other corporate groups including the Lockheed Aircraft Company, the Detroit Edison Company, the Consumers' Power Company, and the Argus Camera Company established scholarships available to students entering the University of Michigan between 1950 and 1956.

In the fall of 1956 the Educational Testing Service, which is supported by a large group of sponsors, offered the Scholarship Qualifying Test, and on October 24, 1956, 67,000 high school seniors throughout the nation competed. The University of Michigan is one of the many colleges and universities which will use the scores from this test in considering freshman scholarship applicants. The College Scholarship Service, a division of the Educational Testing Service, provides forms and procedures for use in determining the financial need of scholarship applicants. The University used this service for the first time in 1956-57.

Virtually all scholarships given at the University of Michigan have a need factor. The Horace H. Rackham Undergraduate Scholarships are an exception. This fund provides awards to worthy young men who combine academic ability, fine character, and athletic ability in their qualifications. Applicants are not required to supply financial information. Annually, about five awards of $500 a year are made through this program.

From the very beginning of the scholarship program at the University in 1858, gifts and appropriations have increased until 4,640 students received a total of $1,448,843 through undergraduate scholarships and graduate fellowships in 1955-56. Some $600,000 of these funds came from endowment income. Another $475,000 was provided from the general funds of the University. Foundations provided about $200,000 and industry another $300,000. The balance came from miscellaneous sources.

Graduate School Scholarships. — The State College Scholarships in the Graduate School were established by the Board of Regents in 1912 for graduates of the various accredited colleges in the state (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 365-66). Nomination of a candidate is made to the Dean of the Graduate School by the faculty of the college from which the student comes. In 1933 University Scholarships, the stipend of which covers registration fees only, were established in the Graduate School by the Regents. Properly qualified graduates of any accredited college or university may apply for Page  1855these, and selections are made primarily on the basis of scholastic achievement rather than pecuniary need.

In February, 1938, a little more than three years after beginning their support of graduate fellowships, the trustees of the Rackham estate made a gift to the University to be designated as the Horace H. Rackham Fund for Undergraduate Scholarships. This fund is administered by a small committee, of which the Dean of the Graduate School is chairman. Eligibility requirements for these scholarships are quite similar to those for the Rhodes Scholarships, namely, high scholastic ability, moral character, leadership, and physical ability.

In November, 1953, the Regents established the Herbert Boynton Scholarship Fund, made possible through a generous gift to the University from the estate of the late Herbert E. Boynton. It was the desire of the donor that the income from the endowment be used to provide scholarships for worthy members of the junior and senior classes in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and for graduates of that College who are in the Graduate School. On the basis of enrollment of qualified students, one-fourth of the income from this Fund is allocated for graduate scholarships covering registration fees only. The Herbert E. Boynton Scholarships were awarded for the first time in the academic year, 1954-55.

The Barbour Scholarships

President Ruthven has characterized the University of Michigan's Barbour Scholarships for Oriental Women as a unique possession. In the long list of scholarships and fellowships for foreign students in the United States nothing comparable in number and widespread influence can be found. Some 212 women have been provided University training, qualifying them to return for lives of service in their homelands. They come from a dozen countries, spanning Asia to Istanbul. Their service literally encircles the globe: they are in Hawaii, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, India, Syria, and Turkey, with a few in Europe and a number in the United States.

The generous gifts of Levi Lewis Barbour to his alma mater were chiefly in the interest of women — a gift of property in Detroit, which led to the naming of Barbour Gymnasium in his honor, Betsy Barbour House, and the Barbour Scholarships. He was also instrumental in establishing the Office of Dean of Women and in selecting the first incumbent and was ever the champion of education for women, although he had no sisters or daughters, and his wife was an invalid. But he had a New England mother of great courage and inspiration who was completely devoted to her family. His desire was to raise the standard of the home and of society by educating women as well as men. Mr. Barbour, who was graduated from the University in 1863, and from the Law School two years later, was Regent of the University from 1892 to 1898 and from 1902 to 1908.

While traveling in the Orient, Mr. Barbour was impressed with the remarkable work of three women trained in medicine at Michigan: two Chinese, Mary Stone, '96m, and Ida Kahn, '96m, and one Japanese, Tomo Inouye, '01m. He saw a need and an opportunity — Oriental women scientifically and broadly trained at Michigan could return to their homes for a life of service. He began to plan for the scholarships that bear his name. His main purpose was beautifully though briefly expressed in a letter to President Hutchins: "The idea of the Oriental girls' scholarships is to bring Page  1856girls from the Orient, give them an Occidental education and let them take back whatever they find good and assimilate the blessings among the peoples from which they come."

On June 22, 1917, Mr. Barbour appeared before the Board of Regents and presented to the University a foundation of $50,000 to establish scholarships for young women from Oriental countries. The amount was increased several times during his life, and his residuary estate raised the assets of the foundation to approximately $650,000.

The memorandum of agreement designated a committee in charge of the scholarships consisting of "the President of the University, the Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the Dean of Women, and the Dean of the Medical School." Instruction was provided for applicants not fully prepared to elect the University courses required. So rapid was the development of women's education in the Orient and at the University that eleven years later a majority of the Barbour scholars were graduate students and, upon petition, the Board of Regents added to the committee the Dean of the Graduate School.

In 1920, according to a letter to Mr. Barbour, "the Committee decided to appoint some person with a personal knowledge of conditions in the Far East. One of the instructors in Astronomy has been thought of for the work." Accordingly, W. Carl Rufus, who retired as Professor of Astronomy and Secretary of the Barbour Scholarships in 1946, was drafted.

Mr. Barbour lived to see his dream rapidly being realized. When he died in 1925, the total number of appointees had reached nearly sixty, of whom twenty-five attended the University during 1924-25, the number he had hoped to see. Many had visited him in his home and those in America at the time of his death attended his funeral in Detroit as a group and were present at a memorial service at Betsy Barbour House in Ann Arbor. On the latter occasion one of the Chinese Barbour Scholars was called upon to respond extemporaneously. She expressed the sincere appreciation of the entire group and pledged the consecration of their lives to the development of education for women in the Orient. She was Dr. Yi-fang Wu, who became president of Ginling College.

Among the scholars who had returned to the Orient at that time was another future college president, Dr. Lucy Wang, of Hwa Nan College, formerly at Foochow. The committee takes pride in the fact that the presidents of the two colleges for women in China were Barbour Scholars, trained at Michigan. Scores of other leaders in education, medicine, and social service indicate that Mr. Barbour's anticipations have rapidly come to full realization.

To announce the scholarships in the Orient and to develop a method of securing applications and making appointments were the chief problems first faced by the committee. Letters were sent to Michigan alumni in the Orient, to government officials, and to educational institutions admitting women.

Advisory Barbour Scholarship committees, whose chief function was to accept applications, certify the academic credentials, pass judgment on general qualifications, and make recommendations, were appointed in several Oriental countries. In some other countries selected institutions or individuals acted as special advisers.

The transformation of the first Barbour Scholar, Kameyo Sadakata, a tiny and timid Japanese schoolgirl, into a well-trained pediatrician required eleven years. After several months in Mr. Barbour's home she matriculated for premedical courses in September, 1915, and entered the Medical School three years later.

Determination and persistence finally Page  1857won for her the coveted M.D. degree in 1924. She devoted an additional year to special work in pediatrics in the laboratory of Dr. D. M. Cowie.

Of the 212 appointees up to 1941, approximately one-half were Chinese, one-fifth Japanese, with Indians, Filipinos, and Koreans making up the large majority of the others. Turkey, Siam, Sumatra, Arabia, Malaya, Syria, Hawaii, and Bulgaria have also been represented. Applications and inquiries have also been received from Jews, Armenians, Singhalese, and natives of islands of the Pacific. In 1938 at the Kuling Conference of China's leading women, there were fifty-four women representing thirteen provinces, among whom were eight Michigan graduates including seven Barbour Scholars. The People's Political Council, with a membership of 214, has fourteen women members, including two Barbour Scholars, Mrs. C. L. Lo (née Wei-djen Djang), wife of the president of National Central University, and Dr. Wu.

Among the seventy-five applicants for the year 1928-29 was a young woman from a high-class Kashmiri Brahmin family, Miss Sharkeshwari Agha, with a B.A., M.A., and LL.B. from the University of Allahabad, who was the principal of a high school in that city. At the meeting of the committee to make the awards she was appointed. During two years at Michigan she specialized in education and received another M.A. degree. She left in 1930. Miss Agha has served on a number of national committees and as secretary of the All-India Women's Conference for Education and Social Reform. She became a member of the court of Allahabad University, supreme controlling body of that organization.

In the Osaka Mainichi, October 10, 1930, was an article in Japanese, translated in part as follows: "A Korean-born Young Woman, the beautiful Miss Whang-Kyung Koh, will be Graduated with the Degree, Bachelor of Law, from Doshisha University next spring. As she is the first woman of her race to graduate from this university, the event is as marked as the appearance of a red flower in the midst of green foliage."

She entered Michigan as a Barbour Scholar in the fall of 1931, earned an M.A. in economics in 1933, then specialized in sociology, completing the courses required for a doctorate and obtaining sufficient material for her dissertation. In 1935 she returned to her native land.

She obtained a teaching position, spent some time completing her thesis, and, with her sister, organized a social settlement near Seoul, the expense of which, including one full-time worker, was paid out of the sisters' salaries. In 1937 Miss Koh's Ph.D. in sociology was granted at Michigan. Dr. Koh became dean of the School of Home Economics and head of the Department of Economics at Ehwa College, Seoul, the only college for Korean women.

The first Barbour Scholar from Manila was Maria C. Lanzar. At Michigan Miss Lanzar specialized in political science. After receiving her Ph.D. in 1928 she returned to Manila as a member of the faculty in political science. She also served for several years as dean of women.

A new feature, the Barbour Fellowships, was established in 1928 to be awarded upon invitation to Oriental women of noteworthy achievement. They yielded a larger stipend than the scholarships and were intended to provide for a year's leave of absence with an opportunity to use the classrooms, libraries, and laboratories of the University for special investigation and research. Invitations were extended and accepted by ten fellows from 1928 to 1932, when the plan was temporarily discontinued.

Among the former Barbour Scholars a Page  1858large percentage is now in the United States. More than one hundred and fifty, however, are in their native lands carrying out Mr. Barbour's desire to raise the status of women in the home and society. Over one hundred are active in the field of education. In Japan most of our Barbour Scholars are connected with colleges for women.

Many Barbour Scholars have entered the field of medicine. The contributions of Barbour Scholars in the emancipation of women in the Orient have also been outstanding. Only one Chinese Barbour Scholar, as far as is known to the writer, had suffered from bound feet. That practice has passed away. To the Oriental, however, the custom was not as bad as the old American method of binding and distorting the waist. Only one scholar came directly from Indian purdah. She was accompanied from her seclusion to the secretary's office by an uncle; during the first interview, in spite of many attempts to hear her voice, the secretary could distinguish only a faint response, and she looked up but once. Not long afterward, she was a free individual able to say that her soul was her own. From suppression she came to the chairmanship of a nation's political council, from inferiority to recognition in medical and other learned societies.

A large number of former Barbour Scholars are engaged in religious work. From Japan, especially, many Barbour Scholars come from Christian mission schools and colleges, because these institutions give adequate preparation in English, while the government institutions in general do not. That gave rise to a question by a Japanese educator whether anyone not a Christian could apply. He appeared surprised to learn that among our Barbour Scholars are representatives of many Far Eastern religions and some who claim "no religion."

Barbour Scholars come under the same regulations as other women students and have been excellently provided for, probably better than Oriental men. During the earlier days some advocated that the Barbour Scholars should be assigned to the women's dormitories so that they could benefit by associating with American girls. The secretary's rejoinder was "so that the Americans may profit by the example of the Oriental girls."

The academic standard maintained by the Barbour Scholars has been uniformly very high; scarcely a failure has been recorded. A total of about three hundred academic degrees has been granted to Barbour Scholars, of which master's exceed one-half, doctor's, including M.D.'s, exceed one-quarter.

Many have been elected to honorary societies. Quite remarkably it seems, at least two have won honors in creative writing in English; major Hopwood awards have been granted to Man-kuei Li and to Celia Chao.

But one major object of Mr. Barbour's benefaction remains to be consummated. The Barbour Scholars have been designated as "ambassadors of goodwill." Their broad training and experience have developed a sympathetic understanding of other races. On the Michigan campus during two world wars, the Barbour Scholars have mingled with an equanimity which is even finer than the virtue of Oriental courtesy. The spirit of helpfulness has been frequently demonstrated as a representative of one belligerent nation welcomed a new scholar of an enemy race, assisted in introducing her to the intricacies of American university life, and successfully aided in guiding her through the labyrinth of new paths and the crossword puzzle of unfamiliar election cards and enrollment blanks to be sorted and signed. As they returned to their native lands these Page  1859women carried this spirit of international friendship and helpfulness.

Frank L. Huntley, Professor of English, succeeded Professor Rufus as Secretary of the Barbour Scholarship Committee in 1946. In 1949-50 the income of the fund was drastically cut when the Regents refinanced the principal. At present the fund amounts to about $450,000. When the income dropped it was necessary to curtail the number of scholarships from twenty-five to fifteen. Married women are now eligible. The scholarship pays tuition, fees, and a stipend of $1,000 an academic year.

FELLOWSHIPS

THE earliest endowed fellowship to be given regularly was the Elisha Jones Classical Fellowship, established on April 17, 1889, by Mrs. Catharine E. Jones in memory of her husband, Elisha Jones ('59, A.M. '62), a member of the faculty from 1870 until his death on August 16, 1888. The fellowship was supported by his widow from 1889 until 1900, and she had intended to endow it, but unfortunately was prevented from doing so by shrinkage of values in the estate. Nevertheless, the list of Elisha Jones Fellows was a notable one: 1889-91, Herbert F. De Cou ('88, A.M. '90), a brilliant archeologist who later met his death in northern Africa; 1891-93, Clarence L. Meader ('91, Ph.D. '00), until 1938 Professor of General Linguistics at Michigan; 1893-95, Walter Dennison ('93, Ph.D. '97), at the time of his death on March 18, 1917, Professor of Latin and Greek at Swarthmore College; 1895-97, Mary Gilmore Williams ('95, Ph.D. '97), Professor of Greek at Mount Holyoke College; 1897-99, Duane Reed Stuart ('96, Ph.D. '01), at the time of his death on August 29, 1941, Professor of Classics at Princeton University; and 1899-1900, Walter D. Hadzsits ('98, Ph.D. '02), who held a professorship at Smith College until he died in 1910.

The Buhl Classical Fellowships, given by Mr. Theodore D. Buhl in 1901, were continued annually by him during his lifetime, and maintained for a number of years by his son, Mr. Lawrence Buhl. Many holders of these fellowships have attained prominence as college or university teachers.

The second fellowship foundation at Michigan was the Angeline Bradford Whittier Fellowship in Botany, which dates from 1903. No others were received until 1910, when the Emma J. Cole Fellowship in Botany was established. In the same year, however, the Regents began the policy of providing stipends out of University funds for a limited number of fellows in the Graduate School. These are the so-called University Fellowships, which are still given. In 1912 the State College Fellowships in the Graduate School were initiated for graduates of the various colleges in the state, who are nominated by their own faculties. Subsequently, in 1927, the Regents established the Alfred H. Lloyd Fellowships in honor of Dean Alfred H. Lloyd (see Part IV: Department of Philosophy); these are given to outstanding candidates who already possess the Ph.D. degree and desire to continue research. In 1933 the University Scholarships in the Graduate School were established to assist outstanding seniors of the undergraduate schools and colleges of the University during their first year in the Graduate School. As in the case of the scholarships, the most numerous Page  1860additions to the list of fellowships have come in the last two decades.

When the Board of Governors of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies met for the first time in April, 1936, the trustees of the Rackham estate had already made provision for ten Horace H. Rackham Predoctoral Fellowships to be awarded annually. The first awards under this gift to the University were made for the second semester of 1934-35. At its first meeting, the Board of Governors voted to continue these ten fellowships and to add two Horace H. Rackham Postdoctoral Fellowships. These twelve fellowships have been continued each year. Periodically, the Board has increased the stipends of the Rackham Fellowships because of the rising cost of living and the increased stipend of similar fellowships in conformity with the original objective of making "these Fellowships, as was originally intended, the most attractive fellowships in the Graduate School."

In the fall of 1945, the Board of Governors set aside a fund for a third category of fellowships, namely, the Horace H. Rackham Special Fellowships for exceptionally promising graduate students whose studies were interrupted by the war. The need for these has naturally diminished with the passage of time.

In the course of its history the University has received many gifts for fellowship purposes and for immediate expenditures. An important class of benefactions of this kind consists of fellowships donated by industrial organizations, from which the University has many times benefited. Chemical engineering, highway engineering, chemistry, and pharmacy have been the commonest fields in which these fellowships have been established, and such concerns as the Allied Chemical and Dye Company, Consumers Power Company, Dow Chemical Company, the duPont de Nemours Company, Eli Lilly and Company, General Motors Corporation, Michigan Gas Association, Parke, Davis and Company, Procter and Gamble Company, Socony Vacuum Company, the Standard Oil companies, and the Upjohn Company have been frequent donors. The late Roy D. Chapin, of Detroit, for many years supplied funds for fellowships in highway engineering and highway transport, and the Carnegie Corporation has shown special interest in librarianship.

STUDENT LOAN FUNDS AND EMPLOYMENT

THE first student loan fund of $2,000 was given to the University by the Literary Class of 1894 to establish a scholarship loan fund. The Literary Class of 1897 established a second fund. The first student loan, in the amount of $75, was granted by the University from this fund in 1897, the only loan given during that year. From this small beginning the amount of help given to students gradually increased. In 1955-56, a total of 3,815 loans amounting to $461,583 were granted. In 1956 the University had in its possession 162 separate loan funds donated by various classes, organizations, and individuals. In some cases restrictions have been placed on the use of the funds by the donors. Students eligible to benefit must be from certain classes or colleges, and Page  1861sometimes the interest which a loan may draw is fixed.

Student loan funds are administered by a committee consisting of the dean of students as chairman, the dean of women, and two representatives of the business staff. Each applicant files with this committee a completed questionnaire which requires him to state his need for a loan and includes a budget form to be filled out giving information concerning income and personal expenses. Sometimes a student is required to appear before the committee so that the members may talk with him about his needs before they make a decision on his request. In making a loan the committee takes into account the moral character of the applicant, his scholastic record and possibilities, and his sense of financial responsibility.

Student Employment. — Although both the Michigan League and the Student Christian Association for years had maintained very successful student employment bureaus and each year succeeded in providing part-time work for hundreds of students, before the appointment of Joseph A. Bursley as Dean of Students in February, 1921, there was no official University office where students might apply for employment. In July of that year Bursley set up a Student Employment Bureau, with Mrs. Mary L. Stewart in charge, for the purpose of helping students to find outside work which would enable them to earn, in part, their way through the University. Jobs, ranging from manual labor to highly skilled technical work, were found to fit the talents of the students.

After 1934 for several years thousands of Michigan students were aided by the National Youth Administration, a governmental agency which was established during the depression. The Office of Student Affairs was responsible for the Student Employment Bureau until 1947, when it was transferred to the Personnel Office, which now handles all matters of student employment.

THE MICHIGAN UNION OPERA

THE story of the Michigan Union Opera is so closely interwoven with the Michigan Union that it has become a part of the history of that organization. The Opera was a natural development of the county fairs and minstrel shows staged so often during the years when the students were engaged in securing funds for the creation and operation of a Union building.

The first Opera, "Michigenda," was staged at the Athens (Whitney) Theater in the spring of 1908. The Michigan Union, first housed in the old Judge Cooley home on State Street, opened its doors in the fall of 1907. From that time until 1929, with the exception of the war year, 1918, the Opera was presented yearly with an all-male cast. In that year, however, because of the drop in men's enrollment, the production, "Let's Go," written by Al Weeks, with music by Earl V. Moore, included women in the cast.

The Michigan Union is indebted to the Opera for its very existence, as it was the profits from this activity which kept the Union out of financial difficulties in its first trying and formative years. The first two Operas netted enough money to purchase the ground on which the Union now stands, and subsequent shows helped to pay off the bonds on the building itself. During the first twenty-three Page  1862years of its history, the Opera played before capacity audiences totaling approximately 400,000 persons, and a gross income of $812,258 resulted in a net profit of $147,760.

In the 1920's five hundred students tried out each year for cast, chorus, committees, and orchestra. Such support could not help but benefit the Michigan Union. It was the Union which staged the Opera, so that working for the Opera was working for the Union.

By 1920 the scope of the Opera had broadened to include seven Ann Arbor and fifteen out-of-town performances. The Opera was usually scheduled so that the cast could make out-of-town tours in Christmas or spring vacation. In addition to the box-office receipts, success made itself felt in other ways. The public loved the gay tunes, with their witty lyrics, the farcical plots, and comic dialogue. Above all, the bizarre sight of husky males tripping lightsome dance steps in garish female attire and make-up brought howls from the audience. It was burlesque comedy, often "corny," sometimes crude, but always funny. Performances were given for alumni groups in other Michigan cities. From there it was just a step to Broadway — and a success that failed.

Each new production was bigger, more lavish, and more expensive than the last. Each year saw larger and larger amounts of money invested. A full-time director was hired and experts retained at considerable fees to coach specialty features.

Until the year 1912, the Opera was presented by the Michigan Union. Then Mimes, a subsidiary dramatic association of the Union, was organized, and thereafter the production was under its auspices. Earl Moore, Phil Fletcher, Matt Blish, and Homer Heath organized Mimes not solely for honorary purposes, but to give continuity to the Opera productions. Membership was elective, and only those students who had shown ability in some branch of Opera activity were considered. Dramatics and the writing of plays and music were encouraged during the college year for the benefit of the Opera. In 1922 the old building in the rear of the Union was remodeled into the Mimes Theater, and here, until 1931, Mimes also presented plays for the benefit of students, faculty, and townspeople.

The first five Opera productions, "Michigenda," in February, 1908, "Culture," in December, 1908, "Koanzaland," in 1909, "Crimson Chest," in 1910, and "Awakened Rameses," in 1911, played only to Ann Arbor audiences. The sixth, "Contrarie Mary," in 1913, was invited by the alumni to play in Chicago and was so well received that "Model Daughter" was demanded in 1914. This was the beginning of the annual Opera trip. "All that Glitters," in 1915, "Tres Rouge," in 1916, and "Fool's Paradise," in 1917, also played in Michigan cities during the spring vacation. "Let's Go," in 1918, visited Camp Custer at Battle Creek, Kalamazoo, and Detroit. "Come on Dad," 1919, "George Did It," 1920, and "Top O'Th' Mornin'," 1921, also played only to Michigan audiences. "Make It for Two," the sixteenth annual production, was also given in 1921, and "In and Out" appeared during Christmas vacation of 1922 before audiences in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.

The Opera reached its zenith in 1923, the first banner year. "Cotton Stockings" played in Ann Arbor, Toledo, Cleveland, Buffalo, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Chicago, Grand Rapids, Saginaw, Flint, Bay City, and Detroit. The production, presented before audiences totaling 40,000 persons, grossed $91,791, with a resultant profit of $30,318. The Michigan Union Opera Page  1863holds the record for an amateur production given at the Metropolitan Opera House of $6,000 for one performance. "Tickled to Death," 1924, played only in the Middle West, but in 1925 "Tambourine" again made the trip to the East. "Front Page Stuff," 1926, "Same to You," 1927, "Rainbow's End," 1928, and "Merrie-Go-Round," 1929, all went on extensive tours.

By 1930 the Opera was a "dead pigeon," killed by an almost fantastic combination of bad luck and success. On New Year's Eve, 1929, the most costly Opera of all met with a howling blizzard in New York City. The show played to an almost empty theater, and the troupe left New York with empty pockets. The depression halted further performances until 1934-35, when an attempt was made to revive the Opera, but the production, which did not merit the support of the student body, resulted in a loss of approximately $850. No more operas were given until 1940, when All-American Tommy Harmon starred as Jimmy Roosevelt in "Four Out of Five," presented at the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The Union Finance Committee provided a budget, and the four evening performances and one matinee were well attended. Once again the company came to a halt after playing "Take a Number" four days after Pearl Harbor. Seven years elapsed before the Opera gave another production, "Froggy Bottom," in 1949. The show was good enough to draw sell-out crowds for all four performances, a success well earned by two and onehalf years of hard work on the part of students determined to put the Opera back on its feet.

"Go West, Madam," presented in April, 1951, at the Detroit Music Hall and sponsored by the University of Michigan Club of Detroit, was the thirty-first production of the Opera. "Flim Flam," directed by Fred Evans, was presented in 1955, in Detroit and Flint, as well as in Ann Arbor.

Few students of the present generation know that many popular Michigan songs were written by students for the Michigan Union operas. "College Days" is from "Koanzaland"; "When Night Falls Dear" from "Michigenda"; "The Friar's Song" from "Contrarie Mary"; and "Men of the Maize and Blue" from "Tres Rouge." In this respect it is interesting to note that Earl V. Moore ('12), composer of four Operas, is now Dean of the School of Music. Abraham J. Gorney ('17, '19l), another composer, writes popular music, and Roy D. Welch in 1935 became chairman of the Department of Music at Princeton University. Former Opera composers are not the only Opera men who have achieved prominence in music. Chase B. Sikes ('17), now Chase Baromeo, leading man of "Tres Rouge," became a famous basso of the Metropolitan Opera Company, and Barre Hill ('25), leading man of "Tickled to Death," became a member of the Chicago Opera Company. During its first twenty-three years the Opera had only six directors. Hal Stephens staged the first three, Bert St. John the next five, Eugene Sanger the ninth, Charles P. Morgan the tenth and eleventh. Collaborating with Roy Hoyer, for many years leading juvenile with Fred Stone, in the arrangement of the dancing, E. Mortimer Shuter was responsible for twelve.

Page  1864

THE JUNIOR GIRLS' PLAY

THE Junior Girls' Play, presented annually by women students, developed from an informal entertainment into a full-length musical comedy. For more than fifty years the play has been a campus tradition, symbolic of college life and friendships, and its performances have highlighted the junior year for thousands of participants. The first Junior Girls' Play, on April 11, 1904, comprised a series of sketches on the "College Career of Buster Brown," a take-off on "seniority." Men's costumes were largely from Dean Jordan's husband's wardrobe. Presented in Sarah Caswell Angell Hall in Barbour Gymnasium, the performance was part of the entertainment at the annual party given by the junior women in honor of the graduating seniors. Only a handful of juniors took part in the play itself. The next year (1905) "Every Senior," an original morality play, was given, followed by "Alice in Seniorland" (1906), and "Don Quixote, the Coed Knight" (1907), which was written by Elinor Demmon Tealdi. All of these plays were parodies of familiar classical books. In 1908 two playlets were presented: "Coedenda" and "Michiguse," a parody on "Michigenda," the first Union Opera, which had been produced earlier in the same year.

From 1909 to 1920 an additional performance of the Junior Girls' Play was given for those attending the annual Women's Banquet, sponsored by the Women's League and the Collegiate Alumnae. (The first performance has always been presented exclusively for the senior women.) During this period the play came to be closely tied to the activity program of the Women's League. "Eds and Co," given in 1909, was a look into the University life of the year 1950. "Martiagan," in 1910, included clever imitations of certain popular members of the faculty. The 1911 play was a Mother Goose farce. In 1912 the present form of a complete musical comedy was initiated. "In Old Bagdad" was written by two junior women, and, for the first time, the music for the Junior Girls' Play was composed by a man — Earl V. Moore ('12), now Dean of the School of Music. The 1913 Junior Girls' Play took the form of two playlets, "The Realm of Dreams" and "Daily Life," in which abundant opportunity was found for the customary jokes on the seniors. "The Treasure of Toule" was staged in 1914, with Moore directing the orchestra.

Several important changes marked the 1915 production, "The Comeback." An orchestra of University women provided the music for the play, the first of a series of ten Junior Girls' Plays directed by Professor John L. Brumm of the Department of Journalism. For the first time also, the "male" lead was allowed to wear a real tuxedo. A performance was given in Toledo, at that time the longest trip taken by a Junior Girls' Play cast.

"The Yankee Yogi" was presented in 1916. The second performance was "open to the public," which meant that, for the first time, men were permitted to attend. It had been planned to repeat the play after the Women's Banquet, but because of the announcement of President Angell's death, the performance was postponed until the following week. It was also given later in Detroit under the auspices of the Detroit Association of University of Michigan Women.

The 1917 play, "Felicia Finesses" was a satire on college men. It met with decided success, as did "Meddling with Mars" (1918). Beginning in 1919, the play was staged in the local Whitney Page  1865Theater. In accordance with tradition, the senior women, donning their caps and gowns for the first time, met for the Senior Supper and marched in a body to the Whitney Theater to see "Gold," a musical allegory. The performance received the following accolade from Professor Louis A. Strauss, Chairman of the Committee on Student Affairs:

The Junior Girls' Play, an institution much older than the Union Opera, was especially noteworthy this year. With the handicap of a far smaller field of talent to draw from, and under the necessity of rigid economy in production the Junior Play in some respects puts the Opera to shame. It is written, composed, and presented exclusively by the girls of the junior class, under the direction of a member of the faculty. Given in compliment to the Senior Girls, and restricted in attendance to the alumnae and women students, it is assured of a sympathetic audience …

The annual play is characterized by a freshness of motivation and a boldness and delicacy of fancy that we seek in vain in the Union Opera. From this it must not be supposed that the play is academic or highbrow. It has abundance of local color, sparkle of fun, dancing, and diverting comedy. But the whole has a savor of thorough-going dedication to an enterprise above the common, and it loses nothing in zest by its remotness from the ordinary. When the women of the University hold their revels, they do not forget that they are University women."


(MS, "Report of the Committee on Student Affairs," 1918-19.)

During the 1920's there was such interest in the project that it became increasingly difficult to eliminate tryouts; different girls were selected to make up each dancing and singing chorus. This was also the period when the campaign for funds for the Michigan League Building gained impetus. Large contributions were made from the profits of the Junior Girls' Play "Patricia Passes" (1920). "Selina Sue" (1921) and "Scepters and Serenades" (1922) were highly successful, both artistically and financially.

As the play increased in popularity and the staging became more polished, requests increased to open the performance to the public. With the exception of the 1916 play and the out-of-town showings, the audience was still restricted to women students and alumnae. Each year requests were presented to the Committee on Student Affairs asking permission for the men to attend. The committee, however, argued that "opening the play to the public would change its character as a social institution on the Campus, modify its standards, and impair one of the most distinctive features of University life at Michigan …" (Mich. Alum., 28 [1921-22]: 742).

After the 1922 performance, the entire cast signed a petition asking to give a public performance for the benefit of the Michigan League. When the petition was denied, a resolution was passed at an impromptu mass meeting of more than two hundred University women, demanding to know whether women had been admitted with the full rights granted to the men or with special restrictions. As a result, in 1923, four performances were given of "Jane Climbs a Mountain" — the twentieth annual Junior Girls' Play and the first of a long series to be viewed by the entire campus.

Six performances were given of "Thank You, Madam" (1924), which set a record with 150 in the cast. Amy Loomis ('22) directed "Castles in Spain" (1925) and "Becky Behave" (1926). For the first time in many years, "Eight 'Til Eight" (1927) was directed by one of the junior women — Phyllis Loughton ('28), and a special performance was given in Orchestra Hall in Detroit. Minna Miller served as director of "For the Love of Pete" (1928), a satire on intellectualism contrasted with intelligence. In 1929 the Page  1866final play presented in the Whitney Theater was "Forward March, a Musical Travesty on War and Women."

The activity before production was an important factor in the success of each play. Work really began in the fall when the book was written. Casting was done before Christmas, and rehearsals started immediately after the first of the year. Committees were elected to construct scenery, apply make-up, and prepare costumes:

Perhaps … the first night audience, which consisted mostly of the women of the Senior Class, was the only one of the week which thoroughly appreciated how much of an accomplishment was represented by that smooth rising of the first curtain. To the average theater-goer it meant nothing more than another event added to the long list of campus dramatic offerings; but to the Senior girls who had been through the mill it meant the culmination of eleven weeks of intense work, annoying disappointments, obstacles overcome — and the between semesters holiday sacrificed to the cause.


(Mich. Alum., 30[1923-24]: 693-94.)

The year 1930 began a new era in the history of the Junior Girls' Play. Since then all Ann Arbor performances have been given in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater in the Michigan League Building. A more limited scale of production reflected the economic depression of that period.

"State Street," the first play presented in the new building, with Amy Loomis as director, was received enthusiastically. The following years brought "Came the Dawn" (1931), "No Man's Land" (1932), "Love on the Run" (1933), "Gangs All There" (1934), and "Tune in on Love" (1935). In 1936 the Central Committee authored "Sprize." The next year, an all-campus competition was closed when "Feather in His Cap" was chosen as the 1937 Junior Girls' Play. The 1938 play was "The Mulberry Bush," a mythical comedy; this was the first and only year that men appeared in the cast. "Pig-in-the-Poke" (1939), "HiFalutin'" (1940), and "Jumping Jupiter" (1941) were all highly successful. The directors included Amy G. Loomis, Harriet Brazier, Russel McCracken, Sarah Pierce, and Richard McElvey.

The years during World War II were filled with radical changes. In 1942 an extra performance of "No Questions Asked," a musical revue, was presented at Fort Custer. In the next two years the play was not given; the juniors sold war bonds and stamps as their class project. Skits were presented at a Junior-Senior Stunt Night in 1943, but even the Senior Supper was discontinued in 1944. This has been the only break in the continuity of the performances.

In 1945 the Junior Girls' Play was back on the boards with "Take It from There." "There's Room for All" (1946) was a satire on the housing problem, and the plot of "The Best Years" (1947) included a view of each era since the admission of Madelon Stockwell to the University in 1870. "Make Mine Michigan" (1948) was a campus satire, while "Fate of the Union" (1949) predicted the future. In 1950 "The Real McCoy" was straight from the hills; "It's the Payoff" was presented in 1951. Each year a junior woman was chosen to serve as director.

Of recent years the plot has included fewer male characters, until by 1957 there were no parts where girls had to dress and act as men. "Heavenly Daze" (1952), "Vanity Flair" (1953), "Tickled Pink" (1954), "Cock-a-Hoop" (1955), "Rising High" (1956), and "Live It Up" (1957) comprise the remaining shows. The last play had a professional director, Theodore Heusel, as well as a student director. Each Junior Girls' Play has tried to outdo the others in catchy tunes, smooth production, and ticket sales.

Page  1867The work of producing the Junior Girls' Play is a year-long process. The Central Committee is chosen by the League Interviewing and Nominating Committee in the spring. The committee chairmen begin work on a scenario immediately, and the author must complete the script over the summer. In the fall the junior women sign up with the committees on which they would like to serve; scenery is planned and constructed; costumes are designed; publicity releases scheduled, and posters drawn. Cast tryouts are held after the intersession; even when a professional director supervises the production, there is also a student director who gains practical experience. A student treasurer, working closely with the social director of the Women's League, supervises budgets and expenditures. Five weeks of rehearsal lead to the culmination — the rising curtain. Although four performances are given each spring, it is still opening night — Senior Night — which gives the greatest meaning to the Junior Girls' Play.

THE MEN'S GLEE CLUB

A GLEE Club may have existed as early as 1846. Combined with a string instrument group, it is mentioned in the Palladium for 1859-60 as Les Sans Souci organization. In the following years the Palladium lists the Amateur Musical Club, University Choir, Sophomore Glee Club, Senior Glee Club, Cremona Club, Sophomore Aeolians, Amphionic, and Minstrels. Several fraternities organized serenading clubs in the late 1860's.

The University Glee Club had seven members in 1868-69. This group gave a series of concerts in different cities of the state, beginning at Jackson, in February, 1870. More than one hundred students "formed an excursion party to attend the debut of the club, and we are informed that the pleasure of the trip was enhanced by special railroad accommodations and fine weather" (Michigan Book, p. 137). The Jackson Citizen had this to say of the concert: "The Concert of the Glee Club of the University of Michigan, last night, was a splendid musical treat. The members composing it have fine natural voices, in the main, which they have well cultivated. That the large audience before them was pleased was testified by repeated applause." The club gave twenty-six concerts that season, and "everywhere the alumni were enthusiastic and hospitable. By wearing University caps the glee club gave to some persons the impression that they were members of a fire-company, while others took them to be Arabs travelling with Forepaugh's circus."

The Chronicle noted in 1873 an entire absence of musical organizations and suggested that each class form a glee club. A renewal of interest took place in 1876 and the Glee Club made a successful tour, visiting Detroit, Jackson, and Eaton Rapids, but in 1878 the group again became dormant.

The University Glee Club was revived in 1884, this time without break to the present — 1957. Soon after the time of its revival it became one of the most important student societies. It was supplemented in 1889-90 by the University Banjo Club and a few years later by a second organization, the University Mandolin Club.

In 1890 Albert A. Stanley became director of the Glee Club, and under his Page  1868leadership the club acquired a national reputation and began its series of long concert trips to Chicago, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Salt Lake City, Los Angeles, Buffalo, Rochester, Albany, and New York City. By 1928 the club had visited forty states. Dr. Earl V. Moore followed Dr. Stanley in the directorship, and the succeeding directors have been Theodore Harrison, David Mattern, and, since 1947, Professor Philip Duey.

Professor Duey, the present director, has added considerably to the prestige of the group. He was formerly a member of the famed "Revelers Quartette." He arranges much of the music sung by the club, and some of his arrangements, known as the Michigan Glee Club Series, are being published by the Boston Music Company.

In the fall of 1951 the club gave a combined concert with the Glee Club of Cornell University and since then has given joint concerts with the glee clubs of other universities. During the summer of 1955 the Glee Club made a four-week concert tour of Europe. Sixteen concerts were given in The Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, and France. The tour began with a command performance before Queen Juliana of The Netherlands. The club has appeared on the Ed Sullivan "Toast of the Town" television show, and it has recorded a group of college songs for Decca records.

Members are drawn from nearly all the colleges of the University, about half being enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Past members include Stuart Churchill, of Fred Waring fame, Chase Baromeo, formerly a basso with the Metropolitan Opera Company, and Thomas Dewey, former governor of New York, who was also business manager of the club. The club is student-managed and self-perpetuating, and the student officers are responsible for the concert tours and other activities.

THE GIRLS' GLEE CLUB

THE Girls' Glee Club was organized in 1902-3, with Lily Virginia Lyon ('03) as president and Mrs. George Hastreiter as director. Seventeen members were listed in the Michiganensian of that year. Isobel Stellwagen ('05; Mrs. James A. Hurst), was the second president, and her interest and enthusiasm helped to keep the modest organization alive and contributed greatly to its progress. Dean of Women Myra B. Jordan, by arousing interest in the group, aided in establishing the young women singers on the campus.

By the time of Mrs. Hastreiter's resignation in 1905, the club had become an established campus organization, and for that reason Professor Albert A. Stanley, of the School of Music, deemed it advisable to have a member of the music faculty as director of the Glee Club. Nora Crane Hunt accordingly undertook the work and continued it until 1933. The membership averaged slightly more than twenty until 1912-13, when the number increased to forty-one. From that year until the 1920's the size of the club varied but little. An active membership of about seventy was customary during the next decade, but by 1932-33 there had been a slight decrease. In 1940 the club had about sixty members.

There was no large concert hall in the early 1900's, but in those days an appearance in University Hall or even at a tea party in Barbour Gymnasium, then the center of women's activities, was as exciting as an appearance is nowadays in Page  1869Hill Auditorium. The Girls' Glee Club gave frequent concerts in Michigan cities and also sang at Ohio State and Ohio Wesleyan universities.

The first radio program given by the group antedated the establishment of a regular University broadcasting service. A crude studio for the purpose was installed in University Hall. In the early 1930's, by way of contrast with its humble beginnings, the Girls' Glee Club was selected to represent college musical organizations on a program of the National Broadcasting Company. Marjorie McClung ('31, M.Mus. '32), who later studied voice in Vienna and took part in the famous summer music festival at Salzburg in 1938, was the soloist on this program.

Margaret Martindale ('34), who was student director in 1932-33, the last year of Miss Hunt's term of service, became director in 1933-34. So outstanding was her work that Professor Earl V. Moore, of the School of Music, invited the club to appear that year on an afternoon concert of the May Festival. The name "Stanley Chorus" was adopted on this occasion in honor of the late Professor Stanley, who had contributed so long and so effectively to the development of music in Ann Arbor (see Part VI: The University Musical Society and the School of Music). Achilles Taliaferro succeeded Miss Martindale upon her graduation, and he in turn was succeeded, in 1936-37, by University Carillonneur Wilmot F. Pratt. When Pratt went on leave of absence in 1937-38 Thor Johnson, then Instructor in Music Literature, became Director.

The group met in Burton Tower every Thursday night of the school year. Candidates for membership were required to prove their ability in tryouts, which were open to women students of all the schools and colleges on the campus. The year's program consisted of one or two Ann Arbor concerts (usually given in connection with the Little Symphony series), at least one out-of-town appearance, and two or three local radio broadcasts.

The old name "Girls' Glee Club," under which the organization had been known, was resumed in 1937-38. In succeeding years the club was directed by Professor Marguerite Hood, Mrs. Samuel D. Estep, and Professor Maynard Klein.

In 1953, by agreement with the Michigan League, the Dean of Women, and Dean Earl Moore, the club was discontinued. Its activities have been largely absorbed in the Michigan Choir, the Arts Chorale, and the Michigan Singers, the organizations developed in recent years by Professor Klein.

COMEDY CLUB

AFTER the sporadic attempts at such dramatic productions as the Menaechmi of Plautus by the University Dramatic Club in the late 1880's and early 1890's, the Comedy Club was organized, about 1896, by Norman Hackett and others.

The new club usually chose its plays from the least expensive successes of the day, though the emphasis was placed on social rather than strictly dramatic ends. It became a closed corporation, entrance to which was gained more often by dramatic friendships than dramatic ability. There were some talented members, however, and annual performances given during J-Hop weekends were considered one of the dramatic as well as social events of the year. The presentation of such plays as The Private Secretary, APage  1870Night Off, All the Comforts of Home, and A Scrap of Paper was of that period.

The deficiencies of the club were apparent enough not only to members of the faculty but to students as well. In 1907 Professor Louis A. Strauss rewrote the club's constitution, stipulating that henceforth members were to be chosen for their dramatic ability by competitive tryouts to which any student on the campus was invited. Moreover, a student on the campus could not take part in a public performance if his academic standing was not satisfactory.

As a result of this reorganization the new club earnestly tried to choose plays of literary merit conditioned, naturally, by the limitations of its members as well as by the popular texts of the day. This standard was responsible for the presentation of George Farquhar's The Recruiting Officer rewritten from the original by Professor Strauss. Its curtain was raised in the "new" Whitney Theater and had the distinction of being the first campus production to play there. In 1909 James Barrie's The Admirable Crichton was given. After Barrie's play came Gogol's The Inspector, marking its second performance in the United States. This unprecedented high standard of production continued until the war, with The Title Mart by Winston Churchill (1911), The Magistrate by Pinero (1912), Money by Bulwer Lytton (1913), The Scarecrow by Percy Mackaye (1914), Pomander Walk by Stuart Lewis Parker (1915), and James Barrie's The Professor's Love Story (1916). Then the United States entered the war and the Comedy Club tried to give the campus something in a lighter vein. Even though its membership and resources were greatly diminished, it succeeded in putting on Jerome K. Jerome's Miss Hobbs and Mason's Green Stockings.

The end of the war gave the club increased vitality and with it came a period of excellent production under the direction and advice of Professors J. Raleigh Nelson and Herbert A. Kenyon. In 1920 Professor Nelson staged Alice Sit-by-the-Fire. The next year brought Graham Moffat's quaint Scotch comedy, Bunty Pulls the Strings. Shaw's Pygmalion in 1922 was followed by A. A. Milne's Mr. Pim Passes By (1923) and Walter Hackett's Captain Applejack.

Comedy Club's principal interest had again become a dramatic rather than a social one. Biweekly meetings were held for the study of new plays and the presentation of at least one act of them. At this time the club staged its plays at the Mimes Theater rather than at the Whitney. This increased activity brought A. A. Milne's Red Feathers, Shaw's The Admirable Bashville, James Barrie's A Well Remembered Voice (1925), Shaw's You Never Can Tell, Megrue's Tea for Three, Shaw's Great Catherine (1926), T. F. Fallon's The Last Warning, and Sutton Vane's Outward Bound. The year 1928 saw performances of Meet the Wife by Lynn Starling, Dulcy by George Kaufman and Marc Connelly, and The Constant Wife by Somerset Maugham, and 1929 The Jest by Sem Benelli and Diplomacy by Sardou.

In the spring of 1929 Comedy Club had the distinction of inaugurating the newly opened Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The play was Clemence Dane's Granite. This was followed by numerous other presentations in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater, such as Molnar's Olympia (1930), John Lewis Brumm's The Strait Jacket, and the old French farce Pierre Patelin (1931). Anthony and Anna, Meet the Wife, and the good old melodrama Streets of New York were the program for 1932, followed by Meet the Prince, Murray Hill, and Three Times the Hour by Valentine Davies, a former Comedy Club president.

In its last few years Comedy Club had Page  1871gradually become overshadowed by Play Production. In 1934 Vincent Wall's Late Love, and The Last of Mrs. Cheney and the Playboy of the Western World were produced with much artistic but little financial success. In 1935 Raymond Van Sickle's Why Minnie Boggs! made expenses but not enough to pay off bills that had been accumulating. Comedy Club had no alternative. It was compelled to turn out its floodlights and drop its curtain. Comedy Club is now a thing of the past, but it made dramatic history on the campus of the University of Michigan.

Many names connected with Comedy Club have become famous: Phyllis Povah, Robert Henderson, Warren Parker, Norman Hackett, Phyllis Loughton, Valentine Davies, Amy Loomis, Richard Kendrick, Allan Hanley, the stagehand who became Governor Comstock, and many others. The good work of the Comedy Club was spurred on by such men as Professors Louis A. Strauss, J. Raleigh Nelson, Herbert A. Kenyon, and Oscar J. Campbell. It was not unrecognized work either, for Alla Nazimova, Arthur Wing Pinero, Raymond Van Sickle, and the late Sir Ben Greet are among those who have expressed their praise for the work of the club. It was a gallant and a gay history.

THE BANDS

AUTHENTIC information as to the exact date when the Michigan Band was formed is not available, because it developed as a student organization with few written records and was not accorded official recognition until it had been in existence for almost fifty years. The first reference to a band at the University is found in a quotation by a graduate of the class of 1845. He mentioned that "the University Band of nine pieces assisted to a great extent in the singing at the chapel services."

In 1858 Les Sans Souci, a musical organization composed of some fifteen students who made ensemble music their hobby, was organized. It was this group that first took the name of the Michigan Band. It is recorded that in the office of Robert A. Campbell, Treasurer of the University from 1911 until 1931, there was an old sepia photograph of six be-whiskered individuals with instruments no longer used except in concert bands. The picture, dated 1859, is obviously of this group. (For the text identifying the picture's battered obverse, see Mich. Alum., August 11, 1934, p. 509.) This organization, whose music was derived from flutes, wind instruments, and some string instruments, was in truth more of an orchestra than a band, but it is the first such University group of which there is any knowledge.

The Palladium of 1873 contained an advertisement for the "University Brass Band." A sketch shows some sixteen members playing "over-the-shoulder" model Civil War instruments. Uniforms were of the Union Army Civil War type. The following names were listed: J. W. Whitmore, leader; W. Hayman, H. W. Gelston, W. Buzzle, D. Buzzle, Beaman, W. Williams, F. A. Maynard, Charles Warren, Tuthill, and Harry Perley. Orchestrion Hall was given as headquarters.

Football fans will be interested in the fact that as early as the 1880's a volunteer student group began making appearances at Michigan football games. Much of the early data on the Band has Page  1872been lost, however. Irving K. Pond ('79), who played first drum (a fine Prussian instrument now in the Stearns Collection in Hill Auditorium) during the season of 1878-79, has contributed much valuable information on the early history. Unfortunately, all too little is known about the Band between the time of the Civil War and the turn of the century.

According to a short history written by Henri P. dePont ('02), who played the cornet, the first genuine University Band was organized in the fall of 1896. DePont, who was in charge of the project, was assisted by Dan F. Zimmerman, George Levin, and Roy P. Warren. A collection was taken to buy music, and the first rehearsal was held in Harris Hall. Warren was elected director and DePont manager. (The roster of the Band for the year 1899 is printed in the Mich. Alum., September, 1926.) During the first few months the Band had a difficult time finding places to rehearse. It met in Ann Arbor High School, Harris Hall, over Calkins Drug Store on State Street, and downtown over stores on Main Street.

Although still entirely a student organization and only partly recognized by the Athletic Association, the Band began playing regularly at football games in 1897, making its first public appearance at the Washington's Birthday exercises in University Hall on February 22, 1897. The Athletic Association at this time carried out a successful campaign for funds for the Band, which played for all of the spring games and in the fall of 1897 accompanied the team to Detroit. On that occasion the Band numbered thirty men. The Band became a regular feature of the games and was subject to the call of the Athletic Association, playing for all athletic events, both outdoors and indoors. It still had no regular rehearsal hall, and because of mobilization for the Spanish-American War, it was necessary to hire musicians from outside the University for 1898-99.

In 1898 the Athletic Association raised money for new uniforms. The blouse was of dark blue with "UM" on the collar and a braided front, trousers of regulation cavalry with one-half-inch yellow stripe, cap Army style with gold braid and side buttons and a lyre embroidered on the front. About this time the fencing and boxing room in Waterman Gymnasium was turned over to the Band for rehearsals.

The Band's first appearance in full uniform was on November 24, 1898, when Michigan won against Chicago on Marshall Field in Chicago. The Band which played for the Athletic Association dances in Waterman Gymnasium from 1899 through 1902 was made up entirely of students, the need for "hired" musicians having passed. "The class of music was of the best; marches ran into the fourth and fifth grades; short concert numbers were well selected; and heavy overtures were of high class" (Mich. Alum., 32 [1925-26], p. 749).

The first bandstand was erected on the campus in 1909. At this time the Regents voted to appropriate $50 for the purchase of music and uniforms upon condition that the sum of $100 each should be contributed to the Band by the Students' Council and by the Athletic Association (R.P., 1906-10, p. 471). In 1910 the Regents appropriated $100 for "music, uniforms, etc." on condition that the Band should give frequent evening concerts on campus during the months following spring recess and should furnish the music required by the University for the ceremonies of Commencement Week. It was duly noted that "the payment of the $100 is not to be made until after the service during Commencement Week shall have been satisfactorily rendered" (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 667-68). This is the first indication of the policy of having the Page  1873University Band play at Commencement, a tradition which has continued to the present time.

According to Earl V. Moore, Dean of the School of Music, during the years 1908-12 the University Band, as such, was directed by "Ike" Fischer. "Ike," although never a student, conducted a student dance band at Granger's on the site of the present University TV studios on Maynard Street. He gathered a group of musicians and other interested students at MacMillan Hall (site of the present Methodist Church on the corner of State and Huron streets), passed out uniforms and music, and then proceeded to march this Saturday afternoon football band down to old Ferry Field.

In 1913 a request from the Student Council and the Board in Control of Athletics asking for an appropriation of $1,500 "for support of a proper University of Michigan Band" was denied by the Board of Regents, but in January, 1914, the Band received its first official financial assistance from the University in the form of an allotment of twenty-five dollars per member for thirty student members. This was intended primarily as compensation for time spent playing at Commencement activities. It was further provided "that the Band should be under the regulation of the University Senate Committee on Non-Athletic Organizations, so far as the scholarship of band members is concerned" (R.P., 1910-14, p. 909). Thus, in 1914, the Band gained official recognition and became a unit of the University.

An indication of the growing importance of the Band in University life and relations can be gained from the Regents' Proceedings of January, 1914: "On motion of Regent Hanchett the sum of $250.00 was added to the appropriation in the budget for the support of the University Band with the understanding that this sum was to be used, in connection with the University School of Music, for securing a first-class leader for the band" (R.P., 1914-17, p. 229). Thus, in 1915, Captain Wilfred Wilson became the first permanent conductor of the University of Michigan Band. As was customary with instructors in music during this period, Wilson was expected to supplement his salary from the University by giving private lessons to music students.

In 1915 the Band included about thirty pieces, but its activities were still on a rather indeterminate level. After two more years the Band had increased to forty, and cape-style uniforms, combining maize and blue, appeared for the first time.

During the 1920's the Band was in the embarrassing position of a large organization with no actual provision for its care. Robert Campbell succeeded in raising $1,500, part from the Regents and part from the Athletic Association, and this, together with sums derived from a few concerts, was used to refurnish and reorganize the Band, which became a unit of seventy pieces.

Another problem arose, however, when the student body ceased to patronize the periodic concerts, and the musicians were forced to "pass the hat" on the campus, provide a pail for donations outside the Ferry Field gate, and hold tag days whenever it was desirable to take the Band to an "away" football game. Such financing arrangements became impossible in time, and Mr. Campbell requested the Board of Regents to establish the Band as an integral unit of the University, supported by appropriation each year. He was refused, but after gaining the support of the Athletic Association, permission was finally granted and a plan evolved whereby fifty cents from each student's tuition was set aside for the maintenance of the Band (R.P., 1923-26, p. 706).

Page  1874During the years of World War I, the Band, under Wilson's direction, participated in Liberty Bond drives and other patriotic campaigns. Typical of these was the fifth Liberty Loan drive in 1918. The Band, composed of sixty-five members, traveled to Saginaw and Detroit by rail and provided the major attraction in the state bond campaign, making numerous concert and parade appearances. In 1922 the Band inaugurated the first of a series of annual spring concert tours, which have continued intermittently to the present time. In April, during spring vacation, the group also appeared in Saginaw, Muskegon, Lansing, and Kalamazoo.

Captain Wilson continued as conductor of the Michigan Band until 1926, when Norman Larson was appointed conductor. He came to Michigan from Minnesota, where he had been active in music education. He, in turn, was followed by Nicholas D. Falcone, who assumed the conductorship in 1927.

An astute and learned musician, Falcone received his early musical training at the Roseto School of Music in Italy under the guidance of the famous Donatelli brothers. At the urging of Michel Conversa, a friend who gave instruction in wind instruments at Michigan, he came to Ann Arbor and, in 1913, was hired to play in the University Commencement Band under the direction of Carl Fischer. It is interesting to note that included in the obligations of the Commencement period of that time were a concert on the Library steps on Friday night, playing for raising the flag at 7:00 A.M. on Saturday morning, playing for the graduates as they marched from the Library to old Ferry Field, and playing for the Commencement processional and recessional. Falcone recollects that he had to transpose the entire concert and other music because the instruments of the University were in "high pitch."

In the mid 1920's the Marching Band, which played for all home games, had still another responsibility. Falcone recounts that in 1927, during all "away" games, the Band was required to form in the Michigan Union ballroom, where there was a huge blackboard with the various gridiron markers painted on its surface, together with a telegrapher and a key. As the game progressed, the telegrapher received word of the various passes, plays, and kicks, and these were duly posted on the "chalk gridiron." The Band played before the game, during time-outs, at half-time, and, of course, whenever a Michigan touchdown was scored. The Band at this time numbered about ninety-six and formed in eight files twelve ranks deep. In the early years of Falcone's tenure, freshmen were not permitted to play in the University Concert Band, but they were used in what was called the Reserve, or second Band.

In 1929, when freshmen were admitted to membership in the regular University Band, the Marching Band participated in an unusual experience. The Michigan team played both Mount Union College and Ypsilanti Normal on the same day, and the Marching Band was required to appear at both games. The Band at this time rehearsed in Morris Hall for two hours on Wednesday evenings. At the conclusion of the football season an additional rehearsal was held on Saturday afternoons from 2:30 to 5:00 P.M.

The Marching Band, after 1929, made at least two out-of-town trips each year. Formations were of the letter type such as "Yost," "Mich," and "M." The letters were always formed on the march and were seldom presented in a static position. It is believed that the Michigan Band formed the first script "Ohio" on the field, and a picture, dated 1931, is available as proof of this feat. In the typical half-time show of this era the Band entered at midfield, executing a column right at midfield, marched to the goal line, counter-marched, formed a Page  1875letter, marched the letter the length of the gridiron to the opposite goal, counter-marched, formed a Michigan letter which was marched back to midfield, where the alma mater song of the opposing school and the "Yellow and Blue" were performed, whereupon the Band left the field.

In 1930 the old uniform consisting of a cape with gold braid across the chest was discarded in favor of the coat-type uniform with yellow Sam Browne belts. The year 1932-33 was an important one in the history of the Bands for it marked the first time that women were permitted to play in the Concert Band.

The following are two typical Concert or Symphonic Band (the titles are interchangeable) programs of the 1930's:

    March, 1931
  • Overture to Phédre
  • Wotan's Farewell
  • Danse Macabre
  • Fantasia de Concerto
  • L'Arlésienne Suite No. 2
  • Bolero — Ravel
    March, 1932
  • Rosamunde Overture
  • Caucasian Sketches
  • Concerto No. 2 in E Flat Major — Weber
  • The Pines of Rome
  • Les Préludes

In 1934-35, owing to Mr. Falcone's failing health, Bernard Hirsch, a graduate student, was in charge of the University Bands.

Professor William D. Revelli, who was appointed Conductor of Bands in 1935, came to Michigan from Hobart, Indiana, where for ten years he had been director of music in the public schools of that city. While at Hobart his school bands won five consecutive national championships and received national recognition. University Band headquarters at that time were in Morris Hall, just north of the Michigan Union, on a site now occupied by the present Administration Building. The building was shared with the University Broadcasting Service.

From 1937-38 the University Bands improved constantly in every particular. Because of the reputation of Professor Revelli and his national prominence as a band conductor, the number of talented players who applied for admission to the Bands increased each year, the quality of music improved, and the finished performance far surpassed that of previous Michigan Bands. The physical resources of the Bands increased each year. Bass clarinets, alto clarinets, bassoons, oboes, French horns, and euphoniums were purchased to increase the instrumentation, and the library was enlarged by the acquisition of the finest in symphonic band repertory. Four concerts were given in Hill Auditorium in 1937-38, and the Band also appeared at Kalamazoo, Sturgis, and at the Chrysler Institute of Engineering commencement exercises in Detroit.

One trip was made in 1937 to Evanston, Illinois, to attend the Northwestern-Michigan game. A comparatively short trip to Chicago for approximately 120 men at that time cost about $2,200, and a trip to New York or Philadelphia, about $4,200. In that year the Marching Band had approximately 125 men, and the first Concert Band, under Revelli's direction, numbered ninety.

In the 1930's a member of the Army R.O.T.C. staff assisted Revelli in drilling the Marching Band during the football season, a custom which was prevalent in universities during that period. In 1936 and 1937 the drum major of the Marching Band was Robert Fox, and Major Richard Coursey was the drillmaster. In the following year Fred Weist was drum major of the Marching Band. From 1937 to 1939 Major Walter B. Fariss was drillmaster and assisted Revelli with the Marching Band as the membership increased to 120 in 1937. From 1938 to 1939 the drum majors of the Marching Page  1876Band were John Sherrill and Gilbert Stephenson.

In the years 1940-43 the position of drillmaster was held by Major Robert N. Kunz, Major John Lohla, and Captain Leonard W. Peterson, with Robert Commanday and James Roberts, student drillmasters. The post of drum major was occupied by John Sherrill, James Kennedy, and Lynn Stedman.

A special instructor was appointed in 1946 to assist Professor Revelli and also to serve as a member of the Wind Instrument faculty of the School of Music and the Department of Bands. In this capacity, Harold Ferguson became Instructor in Brass Instruments and Assistant Director of University Bands. Mr. Ferguson assisted Revelli in drilling the Marching Band and was also a teacher of trombone in the School of Music; Lynn Stedman continued as drum major. In this year, also, Harris Hall, at the corner of State and Huron streets, formerly the guild hall of St. Andrews Episcopal Church, was leased by the University and remodeled as headquarters for the University Bands and the Wind Instrument Department. In March, 1946, the Symphony Band presented the grand concert at the annual convention of the North Central Division of the Music Educators' National Conference at Indianapolis, Indiana.

The year 1947 was memorable because it marked the first appearance of the Michigan Marching Band in the famous Rose Bowl at Pasadena, California. Under the leadership of Revelli and Ferguson, the Band, with Drum Major Noah Knepper, made numerous appearances on its way to and from this nationally famous New Year's Day football game.

Jack Lee served as Assistant Conductor of Bands under Revelli from 1948 until 1952. In 1948-49 Fred Breidenbach was drum major of the Marching Band. In this year also, Lambda chapter of Tau Beta Sigma (Women's National Honorary Band Sorority) was established at Michigan.

The Marching Band, in 1949, adopted a new uniform — dark blue in color, with the word michigan in gold braid on each sleeve. This uniform was augmented with a gold plume on the cap, gold shoulder epaulets, a blue and gold short cape, white cotton gloves, a yellow tie and breast pocket handkerchief, white cross belt in West Point style with a brass breast and waist plate, and white spats.

On November 14, 1949, Revelli inaugurated the first Band Day, which was held in the Michigan Football Stadium. Here twenty-nine picked bands from high schools throughout the state, with approximately 1,800 members, performed in mass half-time ceremonies at the game. In addition to playing several selections, the bands formed such words and initials as "Sousa" and "U.S.A." on the gridiron.

The University of Michigan and the Michigan Bands were hosts in March, 1950, to the sixteenth Annual Convention of the American Bandmasters' Association. Several concerts were presented, and many famous bandsmen such as Edwin Franko Goldman, Henry Fillmore, and Karl L. King appeared in the rôle of guest conductor with the Michigan Symphony Band. In addition, the Symphony Band visited cities in Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan.

The Marching Band was increased to 135 members in 1950. Dick Smith was drum major, and Sam Szor and Floyd Zarbock were the twirlers. During this year a film short entitled "Here Comes the Band," featuring the Marching Band, was produced by R.K.O.-Pathé Pictures and received both national and international release. In 1951 the Marching Band, with the same drum major Page  1877and twirlers, made its second appearance in the Rose Bowl at Pasadena, California, and in addition, performed at various points throughout the country. This trip, as was the previous Rose Bowl trip in 1947, was financed by the Buick Motor Corporation. The Buick tradition of sponsoring one trip each year began in 1937 and has continued to the present time.

Dr. Edwin Franko Goldman appeared once more as guest conductor with the Symphony Band in April, 1951. The Symphony Band was invited in March, 1952, to present the grand concert for the Music Educators' National Conference at the Philadelphia Academy of Music. The Symphony Band also appeared at other cities in Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio.

In 1952 George Cavender was appointed Assistant Conductor of Bands. "Band Day" had grown to include 103 bands, which appeared on the gridiron during the half-time intermission, with Paul Yoder as guest conductor. In January at the Midwestern Conference in 1953 LeRoy Anderson appeared as guest conductor with the Symphony Band in Hill Auditorium. In this year the Band visited cities in Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois.

The Marching Band had increased to 146 members by 1953, with Floyd Zarbock as drum major and William Modlin and "Champ" Patton as twirlers. This was the year that Edwin Franko Goldman added another to the list of "Michigan Musical Heritages," when he composed the march entitled "Michigan." The University dedicated the Edwin Franko Goldman room in Harris Hall on May 18, 1954. Here are preserved manuscripts, autographed pictures of many of the world's greatest musical artists, and other musical memorabilia, given to the University by Dr. Goldman.

The "postgame" show was introduced by the University of Michigan: In addition to the regular pregame and half-time shows, the Band presented special postgame programs which often attracted as many as sixty to seventy thousand people. In 1954, for the first time, the Marching Band used co-drum majors, Victor Walton and "Champ" Gurdon Patton, with twirlers Joseph Brown and William Modlin. The musical program of Band Day consisted entirely of works written by Dr. Goldman, who again appeared as guest conductor. In February the Symphony Band toured Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana. In Elkhart, Indiana, the Symphony Band presented the grand concert at the national convention of the American Bandmasters' Association. In the spring of this year, musical history was made when the Michigan Symphony Band became the first "Big Ten" band to appear in formal concert in Boston Symphony Hall, and in Carnegie Hall, New York City. Other cities visited by the Symphony Band on the spring tour in this year included Painesville, Ohio, Springfield, Massachusetts, East Weymouth, Massachusetts, East Providence, Rhode Island, Hartford, Connecticut, and, in New York state, Buffalo, Elmira, Endicott, and Schenectady.

On October 15, 1955, the Michigan Bands presented the largest massed band ever assembled at one time anywhere in the world: 171 bands, with a combined membership of 11,500 members, assembled on the gridiron for colorful half-time ceremonies. Membership in the Marching Band had grown to 165 members; "Champ" Patton was drum major, with Joseph Brown and William Modlin twirlers. In the same month, for the first time in television history, the Marching Band was featured in a special program on N.B.C. television on the "Dave Garroway" and "Home" shows. Page  1878In 1956, while Revelli was on sabbatical leave, Assistant Conductor George Cavender was in charge of University Bands.

Varsity Night, the all-campus talent show sponsored by the University Bands, has become one of the traditions of the Michigan campus and is the major fundraising event staged annually to assist the Bands financially. First conceived in 1939 by Ernest Jones, who was student business manager of the Band and an editor of the Michigan Daily, Varsity Night has grown to include such names as Ferde Grofe, Morton Gould, and Robert Q. Lewis on its distinguished roster of participants.

In the history of bands at Michigan, the position of student business manager has always been an important one. In the early days, he was the "right hand" of the conductor in many of the administrative details concerned with the Band. Among these men the following should be mentioned: George Hall, Ernest Jones, Don Chown, Glen Yarberry, James B. Hause, George Irwin, Stewart Park, Warren Bellis, Donald S. Lewis, Charles M. Hollis, Maynard Hall, Carl Snyder, Paul Liddicoat, Charles Hills, Bernard Leutholtz, and Carmen Spadaro.

By 1956 the Marching Band had grown to 175 members with Drum Major "Champ" Patton and twirlers John Kinkendall, Joseph Brown, Gary Kocher, and Gary Klickard. Marching shows were performed around such themes as the Civil War, melodies of Rogers and Hammerstein, "Roman Holiday" (based on the homecoming theme), and the theme songs of various famous bandleaders. In December, 1956, the Symphony Band was chosen to present the grand concert for the biennial meeting of the College Band Directors' National Conference in Chicago, Illinois. The Symphony Band also visited cities in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.

Many members of the University administrative staff have provided administrative and sometimes financial guidance and counsel for the Bands. Robert Campbell, University Treasurer, is the first-mentioned faculty adviser, and he served until 1919. He was succeeded by Herbert G. Watkins, Secretary of the University, adviser until 1945, and by Walter B. Rea, Dean of Men, adviser until 1952. James B. Shortt, Assistant to the Director of Public Relations, became faculty business manager in 1953 and has continued in this position.

Believing that a university band should serve not only as a musical inspiration but also as an educational force, Revelli organized the Midwestern Conference in 1936. At these the University Symphony Band appeared in formal concerts and clinics, forums, demonstrations, and panels on which leading musical authorities in the country were presented to the conductors of the state. Because a great need existed for a clinic to feature marching band information, Revelli, in 1948, organized the National Band Conductors' Conference, which meets each July and is open without charge to conductors across the nation. Believing also in the value of contests and festivals in the life of the students and in the training of bands, Revelli reorganized the State Band and Orchestra Festival in 1936 and urged the development and establishment of the State Solo and Ensemble Festival.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Michigan Alumnus, 1926-36.
Palladium, Univ. Mich., 1873.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1906-46.
Page  1879

THE STUDENT LECTURE ASSOCIATION

THIS organization, long the center of extracurricular cultural activities in the University community, was formed in 1854, probably in emulation of the successful lecture course of the Detroit Young Men's Society during the preceding winter. In letters preserved by Samuel H. White, now in the University archives, there is some inconclusive evidence that the moving spirits among the founders were members of the Alpha Nu Literary Society. White was secretary of the Student Lecture Association in 1854-55, and president both of it and of Alpha Nu in 1855-56.

The first lecture presented was by President Tappan, who spoke early in January, 1855, on "The Spirit of Literature." The first season was not markedly successful, despite the popularity of the main attraction, Bayard Taylor; in 1855-56, however, nine lecturers were secured, among them Taylor, Horace Mann, and Ralph Waldo Emerson. This was the first of a long series of courses averaging about ten numbers each, with a large proportion of nationally known speakers, some of whom returned as many as a half dozen times. Before 1885 the Student Lecture Association had brought to Ann Arbor, besides a host of less remembered celebrities, Theodore Parker, Wendell Phillips, Horace Greeley, Carl Schurz, Artemus Ward, John B. Gough, P. T. Barnum, L. J. R. Agassiz, Anna Dickinson, Theodore Tilton, Charles Sumner, Mark Twain, Edwin L. Godkin, Bret Harte, and Matthew Arnold. Beginning with 1868-69, moreover, the Student Lecture Association usually offered one or more musical numbers, and in October, 1876, it presented, at an expense of $1,000, a celebrated symphony orchestra directed by Theodore Thomas. This and many other offerings of the Association are landmarks in the cultural history of the University.

The most vigorous period of the Student Lecture Association was that before the Civil War, when lecturing was less a business than a means of satisfying a widespread anxiety for self-improvement. The enduring strength of the organization is demonstrated, however, by the way in which it weathered the rivalry of the Students' Liberal Lecture Association, founded in 1867 as a protest against a course overburdened with partisan political addresses by Greeley, Tilton, and Phillips, and by its survival in the face of downtown competition from Hill's Opera House (later the Whitney Theater), which was offering lectures as well as plays in the 1870's and 1880's.

The constantly rising cost (the average expense per number grew from $48.12 in 1862-63 to $324.63 in 1881-82) made it increasingly difficult for the officers of the Association to obtain a well-rounded course. After 1875 they came to depend more and more upon musical numbers, and the courses reflect a country-wide decline in lecturing proper. With the formation of the University Musical Society (see Part VI: The University Musical Society) a part of the function which the Student Lecture Association had served passed into other hands. From 1885 on, however, it was becoming less and less important to the life of the campus, in part because of the intellectual self-sufficiency which developed with the University, in part, perhaps, because of the development of a more varied extracurricular life.

By far the largest number of lectures presented by the Student Lecture Association may be classified as lay sermons, on ethical or moral subjects. The most representative use of this type of lecture Page  1880was that by Emerson, who in 1856 expressed his willingness to speak for $25, if the Association was "easily able" to manage that much. For him, as for a number of others, lecturing was a duty, not a livelihood. Less earnest lecturers spoke on literature, on travel, on history, on politics and foreign affairs; some were frankly and bravely humorists, and a few took science for their theme. Year by year, the programs reflected the intellectual fashions and preoccupations of the nation at large, as well as gradual changes in its taste. Abolition, reconstruction, women's rights, civil service, the Coast Survey, the Atlantic cable, Arctic exploration, Darwinism, Shakespearean actors, Arnold's notions on literature and science, western humor, and the operettas of Gilbert and Sullivan — all found a place on the capacious platforms of the Methodist Church or University Hall.

In its days of prosperity, the Student Lecture Association served more than one useful purpose. For a number of years, beginning about 1868, it provided sums of money to stock the library with current newspapers and magazines. In 1876 the officers were able to spend $1,450 for a grand piano for the stage of University Hall. In 1880 the Association was helping with the gymnasium fund.

Yet its greatest service, perhaps, was one which did not depend on showing a profit: the introduction of callow youth to a world of gaslights and opera glasses, of oratory and classical music and brief but magnificent glimpses of vistas more sophisticated even than the great circle of University Hall. Thus, one member of the class of '70 writes of an evening when Olive Logan lectured "on the foibles of her sex and in the midst of her talk gave an ocular demonstration. Throwing back her bustle to its fullest she pranced across the pulpit in the 'Grecian bend.' It 'brought down the house,' and almost threatened the Association with censorship." And one member of the class of '80 tells of playing a concert waltz by Chopin on the same program with Eduard Remenyi, the famous violinist: "A further incident of the evening not forgotten is how, coming to the rear of the stage after a performance, Remenyi was veiled down his front with horse-hair shed from his violin bow." Many another alumnus has treasured such memories of Ann Arbor, and it is safe to say that for many generations of Michigan men and women the Student Lecture Association was an integral part of education, in the larger sense of the word.

The Association came to an end in 1912, its function of providing lecturers being taken over by the Oratorical Association, reorganized in recent years as the University Lecture Course, and long managed by Professor Carl G. Brandt.

DEBATING

INTEREST in public speaking and debating existed almost from the first days of the University, and regular instruction was offered long before the establishment of the Department of Elocution and Oratory in 1892 (see Part IV: Department of Speech). Before that time, some training in elocution had been given by Professor Moses Coit Tyler in combination with his work in English literature. Later, in 1872, President Harry Burns Hutchins, then Instructor in Rhetoric and History, organized the Junior Debate, which was Page  1881held between various sections of the Junior Class. In 1876 this debate was continued by his successor, Isaac Newton Demmon, who was to become in a few years Professor of English Literature. In the next decade, under his guidance, debating became a popular pastime among the students, as evidenced by the formation of many debating societies. The great increase in the work in composition and public speaking which came with the broadening of the course of study in 1878, however, led to the abandonment of these debates, and instruction in the subject fell to a low ebb until Professor Thomas Clarkson Trueblood came in 1884 to give one-third of his time to the work. His success in this field eventually led to his appointment as Professor of Oratory in 1892, and under his direction debating enjoyed a brilliant career.

But if the powers that be were slow to recognize the desire of the students for instruction in public speaking, there were many more or less unofficial avenues for those who desired to give vent to their oratorical impulses. Two opportunities existed almost from the first, the old literary societies and the class exhibitions and Commencement programs. The first literary society, Phi Phi Alpha, was organized in 1842, to be followed by Alpha Nu. Adelphi was not formed until shortly after the demise of Phi Phi Alpha in 1860. The traditional programs of these societies were largely orations, essays, and concluding debates in which were debated such momentous questions as:

  • "Resolved: That the benefits of novel reading will compensate for its injuries.
  • Resolved: That we have sufficient evidence for belief in ethereal spirits.
  • Resolved: That brutes reason.
  • Resolved: That woman has as much influence in the nation as man.
  • Resolved: That students should not form matrimonial engagements while in college."

These societies also maintained literary papers. Phi Phi Alpha had the "Castalia," Alpha Nu, the "Sybil," and Adelphi, "The Hesperian." In 1868 they established a series of prize contests, debates for sophomores and juniors, and orations for seniors. For these, first and second prizes were awarded at public exhibitions, which never failed to arouse great interest. This traditional emphasis on public speaking was maintained consistently until the 1920's, and many distinguished alumni of the University were numbered among the contestants.

Although Alpha Nu and Adelphi rendered great service to the University, they were not the only student organizations which had public speaking as their reason for existence. Others which have come and gone are remembered only by their own student generation and by the heavy weight of their classical names. Such were a multitude of debating clubs which sprang up in the 1860's under such impressive titles as "Homotrapezoi," "Philozetian," "Panarmonian," or, in the Law Department, the less pretentious "Douglas," "Clay," and "Lincoln" societies, the forerunners of the Jeffersonian and Webster societies. A latter-day organization was the long-popular "Toastmaster's Club," which aimed to perpetuate the doubtful joys of afterdinner oratory. Other means of self-expression were those formal exhibitions of which the long-popular annual Junior Exhibition was the most prominent. Later, the only vestige of student participation in programs of this character was in the annual Class Day exercises.

Another organization which stimulated interest in platform speaking was the Students' Lecture Association, which for many years was one of the most successful undergraduate enterprises. It was Page  1882organized in September, 1854, and continued for almost sixty years to bring distinguished and sometimes, judged by latter-day standards, undistinguished speakers before student audiences. It ceased to exist in 1912, but only after the broadening interests of the University began to attract to Ann Arbor many prominent visitors, while at the same time the multiplication of other forms of entertainment lessened the attractions of the traditional lecture course.

That the privilege of hearing some of these speakers was not always properly appreciated is shown by the comments of the editor of one of the local papers on a lecture by Emerson: "The subject of the lecture was 'Human Beauty,' rather a singular subject, it strikes us, from so homely a man as Mr. Emerson. Mr. Emerson is not a pleasing speaker — in fact, is an awkward speaker, and yet he demands the utmost attention of every hearer."

From 1889, under Trueblood's direction debating enjoyed a brilliant career. With the gradual organization of the Department of Elocution and Oratory, public speaking and debating came to have a recognized place among student activities. Matches at that time were confined to rivalry between the Department of Law and the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the final contest of the season was regarded as a gala occasion.

Intercollegiate debates and contests were organized to stimulate student interest. These were first inaugurated by the Michigan Oratorical Association which, soon after its establishment in 1889, at Professor Trueblood's instigation invited neighboring universities to form an Oratorical Union — an annual intercollegiate oratorical contest, open only to undergraduates. Invitations were sent to Oberlin, Wisconsin, Northwestern, and Cornell universities. With the exception of Cornell these were the colleges which formed the Northern Oratorical League, established in 1890.

In the next two years the universities of Chicago and Iowa were added to the list of opponents. Minnesota joined in 1897. Interest in the subject at this time was very keen; the opening of the debating season often found as many as sixty to one hundred contestants trying out for positions on the team. In 1895 debating was placed under the auspices of the Oratorical Association, an arrangement which assured it a definite place on the campus.

In 1896, under the guidance of Professor Trueblood, the Central Debating League was formed for the purpose of encouraging intercollegiate debating among the major universities. Michigan, Chicago, and Northwestern were the first members of this league. Arrangements were made to hold semifinal matches, followed by a final debate, in order to determine which league team was the winner. The first Central Debating League contest, in 1896, was won by the University of Michigan. The following years saw both Wisconsin and Minnesota as members of the league at various times. The University of Michigan held and won its first intersectional debate in 1896, with the University of Pennsylvania. By 1900 the University had won seven of its first ten debates, the last five victories having been consecutive.

In 1907, in order to replace the previous single-team arrangement, two debating teams were established for each university. With each university upholding both sides of the question, the University of Michigan won both of the final debates of the league contest. In 1914 the new Midwest Debating League was formed. The University entered two teams in this league and won both of the final debates. It was now participating in two leagues, with four teams. At the Page  1883close of the period ending in 1920, the University had established a record, having won forty-two of its sixty-four intercollegiate debates. Twenty-four debates had been won unanimously and only four lost. In 1920-21 women were admitted to the University debating teams. In 1925 the first Women's Debate League was formed, with the University of Indiana and Ohio State University as our opponents.

The University of Michigan participated in and won its first international debate, against Oxford University in 1924, and in 1926 was invited to send representatives to England to take part in a series of debates. This was the first time a university west of New York had been accorded such an honor. While in England the University won four of the five debates in which it participated.

The Western Conference Debate League was formed to supplant the other two leagues in 1926. It included all the "Big Ten" schools except the University of Chicago, which was to enter at a later date. Both the women's and men's debating teams of each university were members of the league. Participation in the regular program of this league constitutes the University's present system of debate. Today, there is participation in national and regional student congresses sponsored by Delta Sigma Rho, and also an invitational tournament held each spring in Ann Arbor. Other activities include individual debates held at this and other universities and many appearances before service clubs, high schools, and community audiences. Various styles of debating are now employed with a type of cross-question debating being used most frequently. Since World War II, approximately eighty University of Michigan students have participated each year in debate activities.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1864-1956.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York, 1920.
The Adelphi House of Representatives

On March 6, 1857, an organization known as the Literary Adelphi made its appearance on the campus, with Cushman Kellogg Davis ('57, LL.D. '86), later United States Senator from Minnesota, as its first president. Though the year 1857 marks the first appearance of the name Adelphi, the society indirectly traces its origins to an earlier date, for in the year 1861 the Literary Adelphi, through a unification with Phi Phi Alpha, which was founded in 1842 and expired in 1861, leaving its library and other effects to Adelphi, came into the heritage of the oldest student organization at the University and the first forensic society in the state.

Since its origin many changes have marked the growth of the organization. From a society with strong literary tendencies, at whose early meetings a literary magazine called "The Hesperian" was read and discussed, the Adelphi has emerged. In the year 1914-15 the name was changed to the Adelphi House of Representatives. The plan of having each member represent a state in the Union was instituted, and meetings were patterned after sessions of the House of Representatives in Washington. The emphasis was mainly on forensic activities, with debates, discussions, and outside speakers on its program.

Among the year's highlights on the Adelphi program were the traditional debate with Alpha Nu, in which freshman members of each society contended, the stump debate with Sigma Rho Tau, usually Page  1884on some humorous subject, the joint meeting with the Athena Literary Society, and as a culmination to the year's activities, the annual banquet held at the Michigan Union, at which awards and honors were bestowed.

Former members of Adelphi include such men as the late William Wilson Cook ('80, '82l), donor of the law buildings and of Martha Cook Building and Ira Waite Jayne ('05), former presiding judge of the Circuit Court of Wayne County, Detroit.

The Adelphi House of Representatives was one of the few extracurricular activities open to first-semester freshmen, and shared with Alpha Nu the privilege of establishing its own policies without a faculty adviser.

Athena Literary Society

The first women's debating society at the University owes its existence to the inspiration of Vera Andrus ('19, A.M. '21). Originally called the Girls' Oratorical League, it was organized with twenty charter members on the evening of November 5, 1917, which was the day that the state of New York voted for woman suffrage by a majority of ninety-four thousand. A few weeks later the name was changed to Athena Literary Society. The zeal of Thomas C. Trueblood, then Professor of Oratory and in charge of the public speaking instruction, and that of Ray K. Immel, Instructor in Oratory, brought about recognition of the society's charter by the University.

The Athena Literary Society met weekly during the school year — first in the old Alpha Nu room in University Hall, then in Barbour Gymnasium, later in Room 302, University Hall, and finally in the Athena room on the fourth floor of Angell Hall. Occasionally, meetings of the society were adjourned in order to attend lectures or recitals by famous speakers or artists such as Ethel Leginska, Professor Trueblood, William Jennings Bryan, Catherine Breshkovsky, and Jane Addams.

The threefold purpose of the organization was to provide a practice forum for public speaking, a society through which women could try out for intercollegiate debates (in 1917 all debate tryouts were held through Adelphi and Alpha Nu), and for the study of parliamentary usage.

The early history of the Athena Literary Society is replete with "first times." Its members attended a meeting of the Adelphi House of Representatives and a meeting of Alpha Nu in December, 1917, the first times that women had been admitted to the sessions of either group. In the same month three Athena members, Victoria Adams, Vera Andrus, and Ruth Huston, tried out in Adelphi for the annual debate of the Midwest Debate League on the cabinet-parliamentary form of government for the United States. This was the first time women had tried out for the varsity debate squad. In May, 1918, the first woman timekeeper in University debate circles was furnished by the Athena Literary Society, and in the same month the society participated actively in the oratorical elections, hitherto an exclusively masculine affair.

The example of the Athena Literary Society led to the founding of the Portia Literary Society in 1923 and to the founding of five similar organizations at other universities, including Delta Chapter at South Dakota in 1931. From 1924 to 1931, Athena and Portia held an annual series of debates for the Lillian B. Huston trophy, which was won permanently by Athena.

A few subjects of debate indicate how closely Athena women followed the trend of the times. The subject in 1918 was Page  1885"Woman Suffrage and Democracy"; in 1921, "The Kansas Industrial Plan"; in 1922, "Merchant-Marine Subsidy"; in 1924, "The Bok Peace Plan"; in 1926, "United States Claims in China"; and in 1929, "The Emergence of Women from the Home" and "The University Auto Ban."

THE STUDENTS' CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION

THE University was never intended to be a sectarian school, but from the beginning leaders of the various churches were active in its faculty and administration, and it had a distinctly religious atmosphere. John Monteith, a Presbyterian clergyman, and Gabriel Richard, a Roman Catholic priest, were appointed as the first two professors of the University of Michigania in 1817. Almost twenty years later, in 1836, shortly before Michigan became a state, John D. Pierce, a Presbyterian home missionary, was appointed as the first State Superintendent of Public Instruction. In January, 1837, Pierce submitted a plan for a state school system, including provision for a university, which was to be the basis for the Organic Act of March 18, 1837, under which the University was organized.

When the University was opened to students in 1841, the two professors who constituted the faculty were George P. Williams and Joseph Whiting, both clergymen. By 1845 the Reverend Andrew Ten Brook, three doctors of medicine, and a tutor in Latin and Greek had been added. Three of the five principals of the branches (see Part I: Branches) were clergymen. In the next two years the Reverend Daniel D. Whedon and the Reverend J. Holmes Agnew were appointed, and by 1848 the Board of Visitors consisted of five clergymen. The Reverend George Duffield, D.D., was a regent and for many years had great influence and prominence in University affairs. Although the first Board of Regents did not include a clergyman, by 1852 eleven of forty-four men who had served as regents had been clergymen. Until 1852 each full resident professor in turn was expected to serve for a year as president of the faculty. Thus, Professors Whiting, Williams, Ten Brook, Whedon, and Agnew, all clergymen, had held this office. Dr. Tappan, the University's first President, and his successor, President Haven, continued the clerical succession.

The University early recognized its responsibility for the "morals of its students" and required them to attend prayers daily in the College chapel. The first Catalogue (1843-44) announced: "Every student is required to attend public worship on the Sabbath, at such one of the Churches in the village of Ann Arbor, as his parent or guardian may direct." In his plan for the "Organization of the University" President Tappan said:

In the University, it is designed to organize all the Faculties with the exception of the Theological, which will be left to the different denominations. It is hoped, however, that schools of Theology will be established at Ann Arbor. In some departments of Theological science it may be possible for the different denominations to unite in establishing common professorships. In others they will naturally choose to have separate professorships.


(Cat., 1854-55, p. 24.)
Page  1886This statement continued to appear in successive catalogues until 1863. Other members of the faculty, notably Professors Boise, Ford, Frieze, Palmer, Olney, and later, President Angell and Charles Kendall Adams, were greatly interested in and gave strong support to the religious life of the University and to those organizations fostering religion.

From the early days of the University a student-conducted Sunday morning prayer meeting was held in the old chapel. In 1845 the Union Society of Missionary Inquiry was founded with a three-fold purpose: to study the condition of the heathen, to give the seniors a chance to spread themselves, to place the young ladies of Ann Arbor under religious influence (Monthly Bull., March 11, 1898, pp. 19-21).

Professor Ten Brook remembers the founding in this way:

It was, I think, during the college year 1846-47 that a representative of the students, Mr. T. R. Chase of the class of 1849 called on me for counsel in regard to the organization of a society with a religious purpose among the students of the University; and in reply to his questions I outlined to him the constitution of the Society for Missionary Inquiry then existing at Madison University. This was the society the researches and spirit of whose members had long been so fruitful in supplying missionaries for both the foreign and home field[s], the former from that branch of the body known as the Eastern Association, while another division called the Western Association was made up of men destined to our Western frontier settlements.


(Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 47 [1941]: 145.)
As a result of the interview an organization with the general name of the Society of Inquiry was established.

In the beginning the organization was vigorous and Christian, but by 1856-57 the monthly meetings were devoted to "papers on geographical, historical, ethnological, and similar subjects. These were given at times in a flippant way and by persons irreligious and even immoral." Some students became "pained and disgusted at what seemed to them to be a travesty upon religious subjects and withdrew from the society" (Spence, MS, p. 2). The offices of the organization became the spoils of college politics, and the society expired in the fall of 1857.

Those who had been dissatisfied with the Society of Inquiry met frequently for prayer and conference in the home of Mrs. Elizabeth K. Spence, whose sons, Adam K. and Edwin A., were among the interested students. Mrs. Spence told them about a new organization, the Young Men's Christian Association, which was active in several cities in the development of Christian faith and character. A committee was formed, and the organization of the Young Men's Christian Association was completed in January, 1858. Adam K. Spence, later a professor at the University, was its first president.

The Michigan association was perhaps the first college Y.M.C.A. in the country, though there is a possibility that a student Y.M.C.A. was formed at Cumberland University before January, 1858. The Virginia group, founded in October, 1858, however, affiliated with the national organization and has remained in that relationship throughout its history, while the Michigan Association, though related from time to time with the national Y.M.C.A., has only occasionally conformed to the "Y" pattern.

The Peninsular Phoenix for January, 1858, records the event: "The Missionary Society of Inquiry has been dissolved by mutual consent of its members, and a new organization effected … having in view nearly the same general purpose on a more extensive plan. The procuring of a room to be delivered to their use, and the collecting of a library of religious Page  1887books are among the very praiseworthy contemplations of this society." In the same account the first program of the organization is described: "An address is to be delivered every fourth Sabbath by one of its members at some one of the churches in town. The first of these given was at the Congregational Church on December 20, 1857 by Henry A. Humphrey" (Penin. Phoenix, Jan., 1858, p. 17). Additional programs included Sunday morning religious meetings and student-led prayer meetings and discussions.

The early meetings of the Association were held in a room on the third floor in the South Wing of University Hall. It was in this room that Professor C. Ford proposed the organization of the Christian Library Association to which he later gave a generous collection of books. For many years after its establishment in May, 1858, in the University Catalogue its purpose is stated: "[To procure] by donation, and purchase without expense to the University, a Free Circulating Library of moral and religious works, for the use of all members of the University." The library, which eventually included about 1,500 volumes, later became part of the S.C.A. library.

In 1859-60 a new constitution was written in which the name of the organization was changed to Students' Christian Association (Constitution [of] Oct. 1859. In Minute Book, 1860-69). Agitation for the admission of women to the University began in the 1850's, and in 1858 the Regents appointed a committee to study the matter. Although the first woman, Madelon Louisa Stock-well, was not admitted until 1870 the daughters of some of the professors are believed to have attended classes before that time. The leaders of the Y.M.C.A. had expressed themselves in favor of the admission of women and seem to have changed the name of their organization, both as a means of giving emphasis to their position and in order to be prepared in the event that women students were to appear on the campus. When, in 1870, the Misses Hemingway, Knight, Hapgood, and Hall became members of the S.C.A. they were welcomed as "Christian and beloved brethren of this Association" (Chronicle, 2, Nov. 5, 1870). Four years later, the feminine contingent became a real influence as it was joined by Miss Maria Mosher who, in 1896, was to become the first Dean of Women at the University, Miss Alice Freeman (Mrs. George Herbert Palmer, later president of Wellesley College), and the Misses Mary Marston, Andrews, and Case.

With the appointment of Dr. Haven, later bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as President of the University in 1863, great impetus was given to the Student Christian Association. A room was provided and comfortably fitted out on the first floor of the South Wing, and although far too small for the purpose this remained the home of the Association for many years. After the Civil War a period of great activity occurred in the history of the Association. A "Historical Sketch of the S.C.A.," written in 1898 by Professor Martin L. D'Ooge, a former clergyman and vigorous supporter of the Association, contributed greatly to the knowledge of the first forty years of its life.

The Association first became affiliated with the national Y.M.C.A. movement in 1866. Professor Spence, as a delegate to the national conferences, was a leader in the effort to gain full status and recognition for college groups, an effort which was finally successful in 1870 (Shedd, pp. 113-16).

In the same year, 1866, students in the professional schools began to participate in the program, and for many years the elaborate structure of the group included vice-presidents from the Literary, Medical, Page  1888Law, Engineering, Pharmacy, Homeopathic, and Dental departments, in addition to the president, a vice-president for men and another for women, a secretary, a treasurer, and, after 1880, a managing editor and business manager for the Monthly Bulletin. The Association was controlled and directed by the students, with the faculty taking active part. As its purpose became increasingly evangelistic, a third constitution, dated 1864, moved the organization farther away from its earlier literary and academic purpose. The new program included the making of "a united effort for their own religious improvement and the welfare of others."

Although the admission of women in 1870 gave fresh impetus to the organization, their presence also brought new problems. Four women represented the Michigan Student Christian Association at the state Y.M.C.A. convention of 1883. Soon thereafter, Mr. L. D. Wishard, the international secretary of the Y.M.C.A., visited Ann Arbor, hoping to persuade the students in the local group to join the national Y.M.C.A. He met with the groups separately, and the women agreed to "set the men free" for the greater benefits of the state and national relationship with the Y.M.C.A., which could not be continued if the group operated on a coeducational basis. The men were unwilling, however, and it was also feared that the women were too few to support a separate organization. Both students and faculty urged that the S.C.A. continue coeducationally, with separate committees for special occasions. Repeated appeals from the national office met with no success over the next twelve years.

In the meantime, the organization flourished. There was no Michigan Union, no Michigan League, no dean of men, nor dean of women, no counselors in religion nor workers with foreign students. The S.C.A. was the most active student organization on the campus, and it extended its work into all departments of the University. According to the Bulletin of March, 1889, the program included the following weekly meetings:

  • Sunday — University Chapel, 9:15 to 10:15 a.m.; University Hospital, 2:15 to 3:00 p.m.; Homeopathic Hospital, 2:30 to 3:15 p.m.; Bible Classes, 12; Pharmaceutical Department Prayer Meeting, 2:30 to 3:00 p.m.
  • Monday — Literary Department, Freshman Class Prayer Meeting. Sophomore Class Prayer Meeting in Alpha Nu Hall. Junior Class Prayer Meeting in Adelphi Hall.
  • Tuesday — Law Department Prayer Meeting. Homeopathic Prayer Meeting in Adelphi Hall, 6:45 to 7:15 p.m.
  • Wednesday — General Association Prayer Meeting. Business meeting following.
  • Thursday — Medical Department Prayer Meeting. Dental Department Prayer Meeting in Alpha Nu Hall.
  • Friday — Special meetings.

In addition to meetings on the campus, S.C.A. students led religious meetings for hospital patients and residents in the County Home, and later, they addressed meetings in other towns and cities.

The outstanding occasion of the year was the annual address delivered in University Hall on a Sunday evening by one of the country's prominent religious leaders. The churches of the city joined with the Association in this meeting. A large audience also responded to the weekly Sunday morning service, held in the University Chapel, and usually addressed by some member of the faculty. The first address each year was given by President Angell, whose welcoming words and wise counsel were not soon forgotten by those who heard him. Other addresses, such as one by Professor Henry S. Frieze, in 1889, on the "Restoration of Church Unity," made a deep impression on the students.

Page  1889The S.C.A. Monthly Bulletin, first published in 1880, enjoyed a vigorous life for more than twenty years. It contained religious and devotional materials, articles, poems, news, and reports of addresses. In 1897 it became the weekly paper of the University. The last known issue is dated April 25, 1902. During one period more than a thousand copies of the Bulletin were printed each month for campus distribution (Mich. Alum., 4 [1897-98]:303).

In the expanding University, many needs, first seen and met by the S.C.A., were later to become official services of the University of functions of other student organizations. The forerunner of the present Orientation Week was the New Students' Social, which was attended by great numbers and attempted to introduce new students to the life of the University. A new Students' Handbook, a guide to the campus and to Ann Arbor published annually from 1886 to 1937 by the S.C.A., was continued for several more years under the Student Religious Association. It became known as the "Freshman Bible," and the twenty-fourth edition, in 1909, was distributed to more than 5,000 students.

The Employment Bureau, also begun in 1886, was an important part of the program for thirty-five years, and at its peak in 1919-20, 2,414 jobs with a value of $95,400, were found for more than 600 students. In his 1907 report to the Regents, President Angell said: "The Students' Christian Association has of late years rendered great service to our students by assisting the newcomers in finding … employment, by which they may earn enough to pay a portion of their expenses. During the last year they aided in finding employment for 595 persons."

In those days most out-of-town students came by train, and all were met by S.C.A. members. In 1879 and after, the prestige of the Association was further enhanced by its work in finding rooms for students; more than 2,000 rooms were listed in 1909. In the same year the S.C.A. began the custom of keeping a card directory of all students; this later became the Student Directory. Sex hygiene lectures were given each year for new men students.

At the quarter-centennial celebration of the Association in 1883, the need for more adequate facilities was expressed, and an urgent appeal was made for a building fund. The membership had grown to more than three hundred in that year. Various church bodies adopted resolutions favoring the move, and a sketch was made of a modest one-story structure. In 1886 William H. Walker ('87) raised an initial fund, and the next year Alfred E. Jennings ('89) took over the campaign that resulted in a new and enlarged building plan. President Angell laid the cornerstone on May 26, 1888, and the remaining funds were collected in time for the dedication, free from debt, on Sunday, June 21, 1891, of Newberry Hall. The building was named in honor of Judge John S. Newberry ('47) whose widow, Mrs. Helen H. Newberry, had given $18,000 of the total cost of $40,000. The lot, directly across State Street from University Hall, had been purchased a few years earlier for $2,500, donated by faculty, students, and Ann Arbor residents.

Shortly after the dedication President Angell stated: "I desire to commend most heartily the endowment of the Students' Christian Association. For more than forty years it has been the chief organization through which religious work among the students has been carried on. Its aim is to care for your sons and daughters. Its work has become so large that it greatly needs some permanent endowment" (Letter, MS, sent over Dr. Angell's signature in campaign of 1891-93). Such an endowment was never found, and the lack of it was a Page  1890major source of difficulty during the later years of the organization.

One of the great student enthusiasms of the nineteenth century was Christian foreign missions. The S.C.A. grew increasingly interested until, in 1882, the Mission[ary] Band was formed. In 1889 the S.C.A. subscribed $850 to send its own missionary, Dr. James S. Grant ('89m), who had been medical vice-president of the Association. Arrangements were made which supported his work in China for many years. Later, Oscar Roberts and his wife went out as S.C.A. missionaries to Africa. Other projects were supported in Turkey. The Mission[ary] Band eventually affiliated with the national Student Volunteer Movement.

In 1896 the Bulletin published a list of seventeen who were looking forward to life service in foreign missions. President Angell, in 1901, gave the names of sixty-five graduates of the University, most of them from the Medical Department, who had served as foreign missionaries.

In 1910 Charles F. Shaw ('11e), offered to give $10,000 and his services for engineering work in Basra in the Persian Gulf if the S.C.A. would send a doctor with him. The students enthusiastically accepted the offer, and, in 1911, Dr. Hall G. Van Vlack ('10m) and his wife sailed, to be followed two years later by Miss Minnie Holzhauer, a graduate of the Nursing School (Michigan Daily, April 15, 19, 1915). Much of the story is told on scattered pieces of letterhead which reads, "Michigan in Arabia — An Industrial and Medical Mission in Busrah, Arabia — Supported by Students, Alumni and Faculty of the University of Michigan — Under the Auspices of the Students' Christian Association of the University of Michigan — Busrah, Persian Gulf." Schools were begun, providing the foundation for a school system to include higher education, a hospital was built, public health instruction was taken over, and construction was begun on a warehouse and a block of shops (The Busrah Mission, Correspondence file, M.H.C.).

The students contributed almost $12,000 during the first five years (Mich. Alum., 22 [1915-16]: 342). By 1916 World War I had forced Shaw to leave Basra, and Van Vlack's letters record a tragedy of war and plague and of an American doctor with no funds either to continue his work or to come home (Correspondence, Van Vlack to W. H. Tinker, 1916). The source of support — student interest in the mission project — had been pre-empted by the tense international situation and by the financial requirements of a new building. Student missionary interest at Michigan was strong and vital but relatively shortlived as compared with the efforts at other universities (Vincent, MS).

In 1885 a Ministerial Band was formed, patterned after the Mission[ary] Band — its purpose to secure greater personal consecration to the Christian ministry and to arouse a deeper interest in its calling. It was vigorous and active for many years and was later called the Divinity Band.

The continuing efforts of the national Y.M.C.A. to divide the S.C.A. in order to establish a Y.M.C.A. and a Y.W.C.A. bore some fruit in 1895, when a small group of men was stimulated by John R. Mott to build their own organization (Mich. Alum., 1 [1894-95]:106-7). Two years later, however, a proposal that the S.C.A. become the parent organization, with separate branches for men and women, was defeated, and in 1901 a University Y.W.C.A. was formed. All three organizations flourished for a time, and it may have been wise to divide the work since the S.C.A. structure had become increasingly complex and the membership Page  1891had grown to more than a thousand. At that time it was the largest college association in the country.

Financial problems, already acute, since no endowment had been found to provide for the maintenance of Newberry Hall and its staff, were increased as three Christian associations looked to the same sources for funds. Therefore, in November, 1904, the 1897 plan was adopted. The S.C.A. became the parent organization which held the property. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. became the program groups, with the women centering their work in Newberry Hall and the men renting quarters from the Presbyterians in Sackett and MacMillan halls.

The work prospered, but a gradual change in emphasis can be noted in contemporary accounts. During the first forty years many service activities were developed, but the primary program emphasis was on the chapel services, Bible study, and addresses by religious leaders. After the merging of the three groups, the prayer meetings, the chapel services, and the Monthly Bulletin, which for most of its life had been a religious journal, were discontinued. While the weekly Sunday service was still well-attended, the major share of effort was put into the Freshman Handbook, the rooming agency, the employment bureau, the Student Directory, sex hygiene lectures, and other secular projects. The unique function of the Christian Association was no longer the heart of its program.

The vitality of the organization, however, necessitated enlarged facilities. Sackett and MacMillan halls were too small and were soon to be reclaimed by their Presbyterian owners. A lot was purchased on the corner of State and Washington streets in 1909, and for a few years the inadequate space provided by a house on the premises was supplemented during the first weeks of the fall semester by a large tent.

The move toward a new building was not without its hazards. In 1911 accusations by a local minister and a faculty member received much publicity. They charged that the Y.M.C.A. was conflicting with church activities, that it taught a theology not in accord with modern scholarship, that its officers influenced new students to avoid certain courses and professors, and that its program and projected clubhouse were in direct conflict with the newly constructed and organized Michigan Union (Michigan Daily, Nov. 29, 1911). Amid noisy conjecture the "Y" leaders and the local ministry quietly solved their difficulties by rescheduling "Y" meetings and by co-ordinating the work of the Y.M.C.A. with the work of the various churches.

The prominence of the dispute had aroused student discussion concerning the importance of the "Y." The old feeling that the national Y.M.C.A. had forced itself upon the campus was revived with the charge that the local group was not student-controlled, and, for the first time, Y.M.C.A. sponsorship of the many campus services was questioned. "Y" officials stated that the new building would house religious activities and that it would not duplicate the facilities of the Union, but because the program included many service functions and relatively few which were primarily religious in character, people were not convinced. The issue was widely debated, and while it had no immediate effect upon the program, it can now be seen as the first hint that the strength of the Y.M.C.A. had passed its peak at Michigan.

A campaign for building funds was carried on in 1915 under the leadership of Wellington H. Tinker, general secretary of the local Y.M.C.A. John R. Page  1892Mott, head of the international organization, provided much support, referring to the campus group as the "oldest, the largest, and the strongest of any student Christian Association, not only in America, but in the world" (Letter, Mott to Tinker, Jan. 12, 1912). With Dr. Mott's help Tinker obtained a subscription of $60,000 from John D. Rockefeller on the condition that this amount be matched from other sources within a specified time. A total of $128,000 was raised, and, after delays caused by wartime shortages and further assurances that there would be no conflict with "the broader functions of the Union," the building was opened on March 2, 1917. It was named Lane Hall in honor of Judge Victor H. Lane, Professor of Law, who had served as president of the Association and as chairman of the Y.M.C.A. Board of Trustees. Women were soon included in the program. Newberry Hall was vacated and rented to the University, thus providing the Association's major source of income for several years.

Preceding a postwar decline from which the organization never recovered, the peak year for the Association was 1915-16. Thirty-five hundred handbooks were distributed, 1,500 letters were sent to prefreshmen, 3,493 jobs were secured for students, and the sex hygiene lectures were sponsored for all men. Bible classes and other religious meetings were held regularly; 803 new members were added; twenty-one deputations were sent to fifteen nearby communities; delegations attended state and national conferences; and $2,800 was raised for the Busrah Mission project. New projects included the book exchange and English Language classes for foreign students, the former now operated by the Student Government Council and the latter by the English Language Institute.

Work with foreign students on the Michigan campus was inaugurated by the S.C.A. as it conducted language classes, welcomed and housed the Cosmopolitan Club, which included students from all lands, provided office space for national clubs as they organized, and gave a Thanksgiving Dinner for foreign students in the Union Ballroom. The first campus directory of foreign students was also compiled by the S.C.A. At the end of World War I and in the years immediately following, three major influences upon the program of the Association were the increasing importance of the churches in student religious activity, the degree to which the service functions of the S.C.A. were taken over by the Michigan Union, the League, and the University, and the effects of the war itself.

The churches had recognized their responsibility for their students at an early date. By 1891 student guilds had been established by the Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Congregational, Unitarian, and Roman Catholic churches. The earliest work was established by the Methodist Church in 1879. Several had their own buildings for student work, including the Methodist Stalker Hall, the Presbyterian Sackett and MacMillan halls, and the Episcopal Hobart Hall, later to be known as Harris Hall in recognition of the service which Bishop Harris had rendered to the student work of the church. It was not until 1911, as already mentioned, that a feeling of competition between the churches and the S.C.A. became evident, and this was soon resolved. The church groups, which grew rapidly after the war, began to look to the S.C.A. as the clearing house for religious activity on the campus.

Wellington H. Tinker, whose tenure as general secretary had included the peak program years of 1912-16, the rise and decline of the Busrah Mission, and the building of Lane Hall, resigned in 1917, and the Association was left without Page  1893adequate professional leadership. During the war Lane Hall was turned over to the Y.M.C.A. International Committee to provide "Y" facilities and program for military trainees on the campus, thus breaking the continuity of the campus Association. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. ceased to exist, and the properties and program responsibility were turned back to the S.C.A. Thomas St. Clair Evans, who had successfully worked out systems in which the work of the churches was co-ordinated with S.C.A. activity at Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania, was brought to Ann Arbor as S.C.A. secretary. In 1919 Evans arranged for the ministers who worked with students to have offices in Lane Hall and to form, with him, a board responsible for conducting religious work among students. In 1920 Evans encountered mounting student opposition to the nonstudent control of religious affairs, but it was his position that the S.C.A. was there to serve the churches rather than to be the expression of student interest in religion. Student interest lagged, however, and the pastors decided to conduct work from their own buildings. Thus, the S.C.A. was left to find its place in a campus situation in which its uniqueness as the major campus religious organization had been irretrievably lost.

Evans changed the name of the Association from Students' Christian Association to Student Christian Association, perhaps because the possessive form was no longer applicable. To bolster sagging interest, campus-wide elections were held for S.C.A. offices, but this served only to recruit officers with little personal interest in the purposes of the organization. During this period Orientation Week had replaced the S.C.A. welcome to freshmen, the Student Directory was taken over as a student publication, the rooming list and employment bureau went to the Office of Student Affairs, and the "Y" social events were replaced by the Union and League parties. At least two of the church groups and certain discontented students were not in agreement with Evans and his plan to place the S.C.A. under the control of the denominational interests.

The coming of President Burton in 1920 gave impetus to a desire for student initiative and control. Evans resigned in 1921, and the next two years saw little activity because of the all-campus election of officers and the lack of professional program assistance. In 1923 Harold C. Coffman was appointed as general secretary, and with the help of President Burton he was able to wipe out the debt, which had reached $48,000. President Burton died just as the new program was getting under way. His successor, President Little, attempted to return the Association to the students, with no secretary, no property, and no debt. This plan elicited little enthusiasm from the students. For ten years the burden of debt had been too heavy for them. The attempt, under Evans, to merge the student work budget of the S.C.A. with that of the churches had resulted in loss of control to the churches. In the same way aid from the administration was given with every good intention, but with no student voice in determining the pattern. Student workers became few, and those who remained tried to find activities in student life to justify continuance of their work. They had some success but popular response was meager.

Certain important events stand out in sharp contrast against the general decline of interest and activity. Monthly religious meetings were held in Hill Auditorium in 1921-24 before the largest college audiences in the country. One of the most useful activities begun by the S.C.A. was the Fresh Air Camp, conceived in 1919 by Evans and Lewis C. Page  1894Reimann ('16), with the first camp conducted at a temporary site in 1921. Students and officers of the S.C.A. acted as big brothers to 130 neglected boys. It is a far move from that first camp in rented tents to the present-day permanent camp on Patterson Lake, with comfortable cottages and halls erected by the generosity of numerous friends. The camp is now operated by the University for the benefit of underprivileged boys and the training of students who combine a summer of counseling with a directed learning experience.

Freshman Rendezvous was begun in 1925. More than 150 prospective freshmen considered most promising for future leadership spent three days preceding Orientation Week at the Fresh Air Camp. Older students, graduates of past Rendezvous camps, acted as counselors, while the President of the University, various professors, and others participated in the program. The purpose was to impress upon this select group ideas and ideals deemed most helpful to them in making their influence upon the life of the University a constructive one. Rendezvous, which is open to all students as an introduction to the religious resources of the campus, is now conducted on a coeducational and recreational basis under the sponsorship of the Office of Religious Affairs, with the cooperation of other campus organizations.

The financial problem became more acute as the program no longer attracted subscriptions to the budget and as the depression approached. Homer C. Grafton, who had succeeded Coffman as secretary, resigned in 1929, and no successor was appointed. A student request for a secretary was rejected by the Board of Trustees in 1932 because of lack of funds, and the S.C.A., without full-time professional assistance, continued until its demise in 1937. The sale of Lane Hall was authorized in 1928, but never consummated.

Perhaps the greatest religious influence upon the lives of Michigan men from 1914 to 1932 was the Upper Room Bible Class, conducted every Saturday evening from seven to eight by Dr. Thomas M. Iden, affectionately called "Father Iden." During that period as many as a thousand men a year sat under his instruction. He was the author-editor of the Upper Room Bulletin, used by Bible classes in many other universities. In 1925 those who had participated in his classes subscribed $5,000 to send him around the world. His letters from many countries were collected and published upon his return. Later, subscriptions were raised to have his portrait painted; this now hangs in the Lane Hall library.

With the appointment of President Alexander Ruthven, in 1929, a different concept of the relationship between religion and higher education was introduced. In Ruthven's opinion a state university, which could not afford to be sectarian, could not, on the other hand, afford to neglect religion. In 1933, $2,500 was donated by the Earhart Foundation for the purpose of creating the position of Counselor in Religious Education (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 269-70). Additional money was added from other funds, and Dr. Edward W. Blakeman was appointed to the position. His responsibilities were to help the University to understand the religious problems of the student and to improve the facilities for his spiritual development, to be available daily for counsel, and to serve as mediator between the University and the various religious agencies and as adviser to the University on religious affairs. Among the developments of his office were the Student Parley — an annual week-end conference in which students and faculty exchange views, a conference in religion, in which outstanding religious leaders were brought together each summer, and the degree program in religion and ethics: The Page  1895University-sponsored activities supplemented the voluntary religious activity of the Christian Association.

It was apparent, however, that the S.C.A. could not continue to finance a program. Therefore, in 1936, the trustees of the Association transferred Newberry Hall and Lane Hall to the University without stipulation as to their future use but with the expressed hope that Lane Hall "may serve the purpose for which it was originally intended, that is, a center of religious study and activities for all students in the University" (R.P., 1936-39, p. 118). At the same time the Regents agreed to assume the responsibility for a program that would "tend to encourage student interest and study in the broader aspects of religious education and properly co-ordinated student activities in religious and allied fields." The activities of the Student Christian Association were turned over to a Board of Governors of Lane Hall, and the Student Religious Association was organized as a University-sponsored student program designed to include students of all faiths.

The Student Christian Association had spanned eighty years in the life of the University. It had grown from a small band of twelve to become the largest, possibly the oldest, college Christian Association in the world, and was unequaled as an example of student initiative and enterprise. Under its auspices were begun many projects now recognized as essential services of the University. It was inevitable that it could not remain the one major campus organization, even in the field of religion, in the face of great University expansion and decentralization. In the end it was its great success which caused it to assume financial burdens that it could not carry without an endowment which was never found. The independence which permitted it to be so creative in response to the needs of a growing and changing campus deprived it of the support and continuity to be gained from national and international affiliation. Thus, in January, 1937, eighty years from the month of its founding, the Students' Christian Association transferred its properties and its responsibility for the religious education of students to the University of Michigan.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angell, James B. Letters sent during building campaign for Newberry Hall, in 1891-93. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Annual Report, Students' Christian Association, 1916.
Bald, F. Clever. Letter to Walter Kayuski, Feb. 3, 1950.
Blakeman, Edward W. MS, "A Dynamic Michigan in Post-War Years." Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Busrah Mission, Letters from Hall G. Van Vlack to Wellington Tinker, 1915-16. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1843-55.
The Chronicle, II: 4.
D'Ooge, Martin L."On the Occasion of the Fortieth Anniversary of the Student Christian Association."Monthly Bull., 1880-1926.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
Goddard, E. C. MS, "The Students' Christian Association." Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Iden, Thomas M.Upper Room Letters from Many Lands. Ann Arbor: George Wahr Publ. Co., 1925.
Likert, Rensis, MS, I, SRA.
"M" Handbook, 1890-1926.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-44 (1894-1938).
The Michigan Daily, Nov. 29, 1911; Dec. 20, 1911. Supplement, April 15, 19, 1915.
Minute Book, Students' Christian Association, 1860-69; 1927-37.
The Monthly Bulletin, Vols. 4-19.
Page  1896Mott, John R. Letter to Wellington Tinker, Jan. 12, 1912. In S.C.A. Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
The Peninsular Phoenix, Vols. 1, 4, 6, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1907-37.
Ruthven, Alexander G. Letter to Emory J. Hyde, Dec. 18, 1936. In Student Christian Association Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Shedd, Clarence Prouty. Two Centuries of Student Christian Movements. New York.
Spence, Adam Knight. MS. "A History of the Young Men's Christian Association at the University of Michigan." In Student Christian Association Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Spence, Mary Elizabeth. Letter to Walter Kayuski, April 20, 1948. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Ten Brook, Andrew. American State Universities, Their Origin and Progress. Cincinnati: R. Clarke and Co., 1875. Association Press, 1934.
Vincent, Lena. MS, "A Call from the Tents of Kedar." Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.

THE STUDENT RELIGIOUS ASSOCIATION

FROM the establishment of the Student Christian Association in 1858, the interest of the University in the religious life of the students was evident. Presidents Tappan and Haven provided University rooms for the organization and often addressed the student body at chapel and at other religious meetings. President Angell was active in soliciting funds for the building of Newberry Hall and later in seeking endowment for the Association. In recognition of services rendered the University, the Regents, in 1911, voted an annual payment to the Association of $500 (R.P., 1910-14, p. 267).

Both President Burton and his successor, President Little, had plans for saving the Association, when a depleted program, diminishing student interest, and lack of adequate endowment began to threaten its life. President Burton had been instrumental in wiping out a debt of $48,000 and in bringing about the appointment of a new general secretary, while President Little hoped to rebuild the organization by giving it back to the students in its entirety.

In 1934 President Ruthven created the position of Counselor in Religious Education as an expression of his belief that the University's concern for religion must be expressed within the educational scope of the University. Against this backdrop of assured administrative interest, the Student Christian Association trustees suggested that Lane Hall and Newberry Hall be transferred to the University and that the University accept responsibility for a student religious program. The transfer of properties took place in December, 1936 (R.P., 1936-39, p. 118). In March, 1937, a Board of Governors for the Student Christian Association was established, consisting of Dr. Raphael Isaacs, Professors Howard McClusky, William McLaughlin, Ferdinand Menefee, and Erich Walter, and alumni members Emory J. Hyde and James Inglis (R.P., 1936-39, p. 200). The name of the Student Christian Association was changed to Student Religious Association in May, 1937, in recognition of the fact that University sponsorship required the inclusion of all religions. From the first, the Board of Governors, which included two student members, represented the Catholic, the Protestant, and the Jewish faiths.

The constitution of the new Student Religious Association was approved by the Regents in July, 1937. The purpose of the Association was "to assist the student in recognizing the place of religion Page  1897in life; to help him in facing the real issues of the modern world; to counsel with him in developing a worthy sense of values; and to form such relationships with the religious forces represented in Ann Arbor as … contribute to the realization of these themes." The members of the Association included all who were interested.

It was clear from the beginning that no attempt would be made to establish a University church and that the work of the counselor in religious education, as well as curricular offerings in religion, was to be outside the jurisdiction of the Board of Governors.

When Kenneth W. Morgan was appointed, in 1937, as the first director of the Student Religious Association, the maintenance of the building had been a financial problem for many years. With a few students who had expressed an interest in the program, he began to work. The list of program activities in 1937-39 was an impressive one. As many as eighteen speakers were brought to the campus for lectures. A book-review group, music groups, and a choir were formed. A freshman Round Table, a Saturday luncheon discussion group, and special-interest groups, including one on anti-Semitism, were a part of the program. In addition, there were work holidays, a toy-lending library, the health service visit plan, student deputations to outlying communities, and the Bureau of Student Opinion, which played a large part in sampling student opinion at that time. Activities carried over from the days of the S.C.A. included the Freshman Handbook and Freshman Rendezvous, which in 1941 became a coeducational religious conference rather than the social orientation program for men, which it had been.

Perhaps the major event during the first two years was the series of lectures on "The Existence and Nature of God," given by Lord Bertrand Russell, Monsignor Fulton Sheen, and Dr. Reinhold Niebuhr. Attendance at these lectures ranged from 1,500 to 2,500.

The importance of the program under Morgan, however, lay in the philosophy of student work which he established and which has been followed by his successors. He believed strongly in the use of small groups in which all the members could participate. His methods included seminars, conferences, and personal counseling as well as lectures and the development of friendly relations with the local churches. Lane Hall, under his direction, became one of the most intellectually stimulating places on the campus.

It was not the purpose of the University at this time to encourage co-operation between religious groups, but to aid them in their work and to supplement it wherever possible. Morgan found that the work with Roman Catholic students was well established in its own center. Archbishop Mooney expressed a real interest in the University's program and a friendly relationship was established. The Jewish work was also in good hands. The Hillel Foundation building was inadequate, however, and so the facilities of Lane Hall were made available to the Jewish students for some of their activities. Several members of Hillel participated in the study of anti-Semitism carried on by the S.R.A., and Dr. Isaac Rabinovitz, Director of Hillel, led discussions in Lane Hall. Relations between Hillel and the Student Religious Association were most co-operative.

The development of the work with Protestant students paralleled to some extent that of the Catholics and the Jews. Some of the Protestant groups, although well equipped with buildings were not yet well staffed. This indicated that there was little co-operation among the Protestant groups. Morgan sought Page  1898to establish a co-operative relationship among them — because of the values in such co-operation and because it was not possible to have communication between Catholics, Protestants, and Jews until the Protestants had reached a point in their mutual development in which there could be a "Protestant" contribution.

Thus, the effort during the early years of the program consisted of making contributions to the religious organizations according to their various needs rather than attempting to build up a large degree of interreligious co-operation. The Inter-Guild Council was organized in November, 1937, as a council of Protestant student religious organizations. Inter-Guild conferences, held in the spring and fall, did much to improve relationships among the churches and between the University and the churches.

While the Inter-Guild Council operated as a student co-operative effort, in 1938, at Morgan's invitation, regular meetings of the Protestant ministers who worked with students were held. In February, 1939, an Advisory Board was formed, consisting of the Protestant ministers to students, the Catholic priests, the director of Hillel Foundation, and a layman from each of these organizations. This group met with the Board of Governors periodically to discuss the religious problems of the University and to clarify relationships between the University and the local religious groups. Co-operation was also maintained with the Christian Science student organization and with the local chapter of the Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, both of which met regularly at Lane Hall.

The problem of defining a state university's responsibility for campus religious affairs was ever present, and policy decisions had to be made without precedent from other campus situations. It was discovered, for example, that the S.R.A. could not maintain a contributing membership in the national Y.M.C.A., although this relationship made an important contribution to the work carried on in Lane Hall (Minutes of the Board of Governors [Minute Book], March, 1938). It was also decided that while a University building such as Lane Hall could be used by any of the religious groups for their own meetings, it would not be suitable for one group to hold a public meeting in the building strictly for the presentation of its own sectarian point of view.

World War II brought new problems. The program was continued insofar as possible with changes only where they proved to be necessary. Additional services were provided for the men in service and for those victims of the war who were in need of relief.

In the spring of 1942 Morgan resigned to serve in civilian public service, and the Regents decided that his position could not be filled at that time. An Advisory Board of students, faculty, and a member of the Board of Governors was appointed to work with Dr. Blakeman as adviser in directing the program of the Association. In reviewing his five years at the University, Morgan observed that in 1937 few girls had participated in S.R.A. activities, but by 1942 they were taking a natural place in the program, and although the number remained small, an increasing number of foreign students was noticeable. While the question of pacifism arose as a result of the war situation, this did not prove to be serious. The Board of Governors announced that the policy of the Student Religious Association would continue to be what it always had been — to encourage the discussion of any problem from the point of view of religion and that the discussion of moral and ethical views of the war was to be encouraged. The freedom with which such "unpopular" subjects was discussed, however, in such insecure times, contributed significantly to Page  1899the loss of Lane Hall's popularity as a center for student activity.

In November, 1942, William Muehl, a student in the Law School, and once S.R.A. president, was appointed as part-time acting Director. The significance of the work under Muehl's direction lay in two areas. While the program during the war was limited, still, with student aid, it was carried out. Moreover, with President Ruthven's support, Lane Hall was maintained as the religious center of the University when it might well have been taken over for war activities. The work, of course, was complicated by uncertainty concerning the future of the program and the various exigencies of the wartime situation. Student interest turned to some extent to more glamorous and patriotic activities and to the social aspects of the program rather than toward discussional activities concerned with attitudes and beliefs.

While the war resulted in a limited program, it also brought some significant advances in interreligious relationships. In March, 1943, a committee including the counselor in religious education, one rabbi, one priest, two Protestant ministers, and the director of the Association, was appointed to perform liaison duties between the military and the civic agencies — in this case the University and the churches. Thus began an experience in interreligious co-operation which was to mean much in the future development of interaction between the faiths.

The Board of Governors, in 1944, defined the position of the director as follows: (1) he was to be responsible for the organization and policy and for annual reports to the Board, (2) he was … free to discuss economic and religious problems within the Association although the emphasis was to be upon religion, (3) there was to be no attempt to win students from other religious groups, but to provide a program for the unchurched as well as for those affiliated with denominations, (4) the director would be available for counseling, and (5) he would not be concerned with promoting a large membership, but in providing a program in which students of various religious preferences would find something of interest.

Franklin H. Littell, who was appointed Director in 1944, faced many problems. For example Lane Hall was used by a number of nonreligious groups which had been moved into the building during the war. Littell established a policy which gave priority to student religious organizations, other recognized student groups receiving secondary consideration. While the early relationship with denominational organizations had been one in which the University provided services to them, a feeling of competition between University-sponsored work and the church-sponsored groups had arisen. Littell believed that students who did not belong to church groups should be provided for, but he also felt that each student should find his place eventually in a particular religious community. He, too, favored a strong inter-Protestant Council for the campus. The war had destroyed some of the gains which Morgan had made with Inter-Guild, but by 1945 the Council had been enlarged and was working on its constitution. At this time Littell urged the Protestant groups to form stronger affiliations with the Catholic and Jewish groups in an interreligious program. The Campus Religious Council, which was accredited as a body related to the Student Religious Association in August, 1945, represented a co-operative effort between the priest, the rabbi, the chairman of the Protestant student directors, and the director of Lane Hall. This group discussed important issues of religion and higher education.

Further stimulus was provided in 1945 by means of a Colloquium in Religious Education, carried on over a period of Page  1900several weeks, with research people from other universities participating. As a result the Council raised three questions: (1) What can a tax-supported institution do to establish the academic status of study in the various religions? (2) What can the University do to establish the professional status of the religious counselors? (3) What services and facilities can be supplied which will serve the unchurched students and deal responsibly and in a representative fashion with the student congregations? These questions represent the primary issues which have been raised over the years concerning the relationship of the University to the organized religious groups.

Inter-Guild, which had originally been a committee of the Student Religious Association and later a semi-independent agency, held its first independent convention in May, 1945, when a constitution and budget were proposed. At this time some of the Protestant groups were still not in a position to make a contribution to co-operative-Protestant student work. Within the next few years, however, owing perhaps partly to Littell's concern with this matter, the larger Protestant groups did provide well-trained staffs for their work. One of the results of the newly organized Protestant co-operation was the appointment in December, 1946, of Mrs. Christine Chambers as Protestant Consultant to Students from Other Countries.

The program under Littell's direction was based upon three well-defined principles. The first, called "intentional fellowship," was a method of working with small groups in which equal emphasis is placed upon the purpose for which the group is gathered and the dynamics by which individual identification with the group is accomplished. The second principle stated that the purpose of Lane Hall was to supplement and to complement the primary religious communities and to help the student to find his place in one of them. According to the third, no graduate of the University would be considered properly prepared as a citizen until he had acquired some understanding of faiths other than his own and some ability to work with people of other religions.

After the war, in order to re-establish the place of Lane Hall in the minds of students and faculty, lectures and luncheons were given. The program consisted of a Christmas Carol Sing, coffee hours designed to improve faculty-student relations, receptions, luncheon discussions, religious and work groups, a magazine called Insight, weekend retreats and conferences, and seminars. Littell was concerned about the lack of relationship between religion in the curriculum and extracurricular religious activities and felt that study of religion could never be successful at Michigan unless credit could be given for it. Leadership training included the training of student officers for interreligious activity and the conduct of various student initiative groups such as the World Student's Service Fund and Town Hall. Lane Hall and the S.R.A. also assisted in the relief program, which included the World Student Service Fund, Famine Relief, and other related projects.

By 1946 the growth of the Association and its related agencies had gone far beyond the provisions of the original constitution. The constitutional revision in the spring of 1947 made a greater distinction between the Association and Lane Hall, and thus gave the students more freedom to determine their own organization. In December, 1947, the Regents passed a new bylaw recognizing Lane Hall as the center for religious study and activities and placing it under the supervision of a Board of Governors. It was the duty of this Board to carry out a program designed to encourage student interest in religious study and to maintain co-operation on behalf of the Page  1901University with off-campus religious groups. The Board was to encourage and maintain within its jurisdiction the Student Religious Association as the student organization. This group, to be governed by its own constitution, would provide opportunity for student initiative and the development of extracurricular programs in religion. The Board was also to be responsible for appointments, budgets, and general supervision of programs and facilities.

While the new bylaw was a redefinition of the existing situation, the new constitution of the Association, passed in 1948, indicated that a closer relationship was developing between the religious centers and Lane Hall. Until this time, S.R.A. had been interreligious in the sense that it was open to all, and the Council included representatives of all faiths. In 1946-47 the Association considered its function to be largely that of working with students who were not interested in any church group. The Council, however, which consisted of representatives from almost all of the organized student denominational groups, formulated the policy and determined the program for the organization (Constitution of 1948). Those who were not members of church groups were welcome to participate, but the net result seems to have been that those not affiliated with student religious groups lost interest in an organization in which they had little part in determining policy and program. The new structure of the S.R.A. did, on the other hand, establish interreligious co-operation on the student level to parallel that on the professional level.

By 1945, the student religious groups were recognized student activities, and in 1946, John Craig was appointed as the first full-time professionally trained program director. Craig was succeeded in the fall of 1948 by DeWitt C. Baldwin, who, upon Littell's resignation in April, 1949, was appointed Director of Lane Hall and of the Student Religious Association. Baldwin also believed in informal education carried out in small groups and in weekend conferences and retreats, but he also advocated placing more of the program direction and initiative in the hands of the students. The S.R.A. program seems to have lost some of its intellectual appeal after the revision.

Under Baldwin intercultural activities as a means of approaching questions of religious distinctions and differences increased. Outings and seminars in comparative religions were included in the program, and summer experiences in work camps and human relations projects, both here and abroad, were emphasized. Baldwin was also instrumental in the formation of the Council for International Living, which resulted in the first international house for men at the University.

Relief projects begun after the war were continued and enlarged to include the placement of displaced persons. Two program assistants, William Miller and C. Bushnell Olmstead, were instrumental in carrying out this part of the program, both having had previous experience in working with refugee problems and world student relief operations.

Work with the Protestant groups through Inter-Guild had been increasingly turned over to the Protestant student directors. In 1954 Inter-Guild became the University Christian Federation in a slight constitutional revision, and in 1955-56 the Protestant Student Directors reorganized and became the Christian Federation Advisers. Each group is now composed of the same organizations, with each of the federation advisers devoting time to counseling and advising the Christian Federation Council and program.

One project of the Protestant directors, the Office of the Protestant Counselor for International Students, Page  1902has become firmly established. In December, 1949, Mrs. Chambers resigned, and Miss Doris Reed was appointed in her place. Miss Reed, now Mrs. Rumman, operates under the auspices of the Protestant Foundation for International Students, which in turn is supported by the United Church Women of the state, by the Protestant churches in Ann Arbor, and by the member groups of the University Christian Federation.

In 1953-54 the staff of Lane Hall prepared the manuscript for Chapter 3 of the pamphlet, And Crown Thy Good, a manual of interreligious co-operation on the college campus, published by the National Conference of Christians and Jews.

During the time that Baldwin has been with the University, a consistent attempt has been made to define more clearly the many and varied facets of the work. The Lane Hall and S.R.A. program had developed as the result of activities centered in a specific location. To this function had gradually been added the co-ordination of religious affairs and the co-operative enterprise involving all of the religious groups of the University. With Dr. Blakeman's resignation in 1949, his duties as a religious counselor to students were transferred to the Director of Lane Hall, and shortly thereafter those student religious workers deemed qualified were recognized by the University as members of the University Board of Religious Counselors. This function was also co-ordinated by the Director of Lane Hall. It became evident that the Regents' bylaw passed in 1947 was no longer an adequate description of the duties and function of the Lane Hall staff. Some clarification had taken place in April, 1949, when the Board of Governors issued a statement defining the relationship between Lane Hall and the curricular offerings in religion. The decision was that there should be no formal administrative or financial relationship between the two though an effective working relationship was to be encouraged.

In 1954 the title of the Director of Lane Hall was changed to Co-ordinator of Religious Affairs. James A. Lewis was appointed Vice-President for Student Affairs in 1954, and Lane Hall, as one of ten student service agencies under his jurisdiction, began a full-scale evaluation and reorganization resulting in a new bylaw, adopted by the Regents in May, 1956, establishing the Office of Religious Affairs. The purpose of the new office, which replaces the Lane Hall staff and the Student Religious Association, is to encourage religious growth of the student as an important part of educating the whole person. This purpose is implemented "through creating and facilitating relationships between the University and the religious resources available to it, including those provided by the churches and religious foundations, and through a program which (1) provides services to the instructional program of the University and (2) builds attitudes which recognize religion as a valid area of intellectual inquiry and as an appropriate resource for the student's growth to responsible citizenship" (Regents' Bylaw, 31.08).

Administratively, the Office of Religious Affairs is under the direction of the co-ordinator of religious affairs, who is responsible to the vice-president for student affairs and the Board of Governors for Religious Affairs. The Board of Governors has one additional member — the presiding officer of the Association of Religious Counselors. The other exofficio members are the vice-president for student affairs and the presiding officer of the Council of Student Religious Organizations.

The Association of Religious Counselors, which includes all who work as advisers to the religious groups, has replaced the Campus Religious Council as Page  1903the interreligious council. The Council of Student Religious Organizations, made up of representatives from the organized student religious groups, has replaced the Student Religious Association Council, and provides for co-operation between the groups rather than for a program of interreligious activity. The Office of Religious Affairs emphasizes the relevance of religion to the educational process, and the effective integration of the intellectual and practical aspects of religion. It stresses the religious foundations as the primary agencies providing religious resources to the University; therefore the major emphasis is no longer upon a program of University-sponsored religious activities centered in Lane Hall, although program is seen as a necessary part of co-ordination. Freshman Rendezvous is carried on with the co-operation of Panhellenic, Inter-Fraternity Council, Inter-House Council, Assembly Association, Inter-Coop Council, and the Council of Student Religious Organizations.

To a large extent program sponsorship has been replaced by a counseling service. The program staff works with a student-faculty advisory board which is made up of representatives from the major campus organizations, graduate students, faculty members, representatives of the freshman class, representatives from the Eastern faiths, and three student members of the Board of Governors for Religious Affairs. The co-ordinator sits as a member of the Committee on Program in Religious Studies of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, working especially with the selection of speakers for lectures in religion. This represents the first formal relationship between curriculum and extracurricular religious activity.

In order to establish wider relationships among students, the Office of the Co-ordinator has been moved to the Student Activities Building. The staff, which now includes four full-time professionally trained religious counselors, has embarked upon a year of experimentation preparatory to the full implementation of the new program.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annual Report, Student Religious Association, 1941-42.
Blakeman, Edward W., Letter to William McLaughlin, March 17, 1943.
Board of Governors of Lane Hall, "Tentative Statement Concerning the Contemplated Program in Religious Courses and the Functions of the Director of Lane Hall," April 18, 1949.
Campus Religious Council, Letter to William McLaughlin, January 8, 1946.
Constitution, Christian Federation Advisers, 1955.
Constitution, Student Religious Association, July, 1937; May 10, 1948.
Constitution, University Christian Federation, 1954.
Littell, Franklin H., "A Five Year Plan for Religion at the University of Michigan," March 19, 1946.
Littell, Franklin H., "Five Year Report of the Director," November 1, 1949.
Littell, Franklin H., "Proposals of the Director," April 3, 1945.
Littell, Franklin H., "Two Year Report, Inter-Guild," October 2, 1946.
Littell, Franklin H., "Two Year Report, Part Two, Student Religious Association and Lane Hall," November 1946.
Minute Books, Board of Governors of the Student Religious Association and Lane Hall, 1937-40, 1940-45, 1945-47, 1947-51, 1951-55, 1955-.
Morgan, Kenneth W., "Five Year Report, Student Religious Association," 1942.
Morgan, Kenneth W., "Two Year Report, Student Religious Association," 1939.
Muehl, William E., "Report of the Acting Director to the Board of Governors," 1942-43.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich. 1910-39.
Robinson, Allyn P., Ed., And Crown Thy Good, a Manual on Interreligious Co-operation on the College Campus. New York: National Conference of Christians and Jews. 1954.
Page  1904

THE BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS

AT a meeting of the University Senate on June 2, 1903, a report was made by Professor Volney M. Spaulding on behalf of a special committee on nonathletic student organizations, recommending that a board be created to regulate the U. of M. Daily, that it be authorized to acquire the stock, property, and good will of the paper, that the Board have full control of all questions pertaining to the paper subject to the Senate regulations, and that the board consist of seven members, four appointed from the Senate and three from the student body. These recommendations were adopted. The four Senate members of the first board were Professors Fred N. Scott, Allen S. Whitney, Alfred H. Lloyd, and Frank L. Sage.

At the first meeting of the newly formed Board in Control of the Michigan Daily on November 19, 1903, Professor Scott was elected chairman of the board, one of the student members was elected secretary, and Professor Lloyd was elected treasurer, and a constitution and bylaws for the board were adopted. In the same year the constitution was amended to provide for the election of the three student members of the board by the student body. At the third meeting of the board there was some discussion of the board assuming control of the Michiganensian, but nothing was done about it at the time.

On November 24, 1908, the University Senate changed the name of the board to the Board in Control of Student Publications and, except as regards the Michiganensian for 1908-9, its jurisdiction was extended to cover all periodical publications edited by members of the student body. In 1908 the board authorized the publication of the Gargoyle, in 1909 it took over the Student Directory, and in 1911 it took over control of the Wolverine, the summer session paper.

In the report of the treasurer of the board made on October 28, 1913, is to be found the first suggestion of a plan for a University-owned printing plant and offices for the student publications. At that time the board had $9,000 on hand. By 1915 this sum had grown to nearly $14,000, and to facilitate the accumulation of funds for obtaining a suitable building, the board petitioned the Regents for permission to turn over its funds for investment and safekeeping to the treasurer of the University. At this time the board was operating under a five-year contract made in 1914, by the terms of which the Ann Arbor Press printed the Daily and furnished office space for all of the student publications in its building on Maynard Street.

The board was incorporated in 1919 as a nonprofit corporation, consisting of seven members, four appointed by the president of the University from the University Senate and three elected by the students from the student body. The next year the publications moved into roomy quarters on the second floor of the Ann Arbor Press Building, where they remained until the Student Publications Building was completed. In 1922 it was decided to buy a flatbed press to be used for printing the Daily, at a cost of about $10,000, and in the same year an executive committee was appointed to consider definite plans for a new student publications building. Professors Edson R. Sunderland, Joseph A. Bursley, and Morris P. Tilley were appointed a committee Page  1905to purchase a site for the building.

Professor Scott retired from the board in 1927 after having served for twenty-four years as its chairman. His tolerant and sympathetic guiding hand had started the board on its successful career and had helped many generations of student editors. Professor Robert C. Angell was appointed to take his place, and Professor Tilley was chosen chairman.

In the fall of 1929, on the retirement of Professor Tilley, Professor Angell was chosen as chairman of the board. In 1930 plans for the new building, drawn by Pond and Pond, architects, were approved by the board. It was to contain office space for all of the student publications, but to have facilities to print only the Daily, since it was felt that the printing of the other publications could be done more advantageously by contract with commercial printers. In the following year the contract for the building was let, and it was ready for occupancy in the summer of 1932.

The first publication edited in the new building, the Summer Michigan Daily of 1932, was also the first publication to be directly under the control of the University administration. The plan provided that the managing editor and business manager of the Summer Daily should be full-time employees, not enrolled in the summer session, and that they should be responsible directly to the dean of the summer session. This made the Summer Daily the official organ of the summer session, and it was sent to all students enrolled for the summer, a part of the tuition fee being allocated for that purpose. A proposal that a subscription to the winter Daily be included in the tuition fee was rejected by the board in 1936, on the ground that such a move might tend to make the Daily more of a University organ, and thereby subject the administration to responsibility for what was said in the paper and reduce the responsibility resting on the student editors.

A committee on University publications of the Alumni Advisory Council held a meeting on May 7, 1932, at which it was pointed out that, whether the student editors liked it or not, the Daily was regarded by many as an official organ of the University. The committee advocated a somewhat stricter control by the faculty of the material included in the paper. As a result of the committee's recommendations, two alumni actively engaged in newspaper work were added to the Board in Control of Student Publications in the winter of 1933. The two men appointed to hold these positions were Lee A White of the Detroit News and Stuart Perry of the Adrian Daily Telegram.

In 1930 the board established scholarships for students who had worked for four semesters on any student publication and had during that time maintained a B average in their college work. At first these scholarships were for $100 apiece.

In the spring of 1932 Professor Louis A. Strauss was elected to take Professor Angell's place as chairman of the board. Professor Strauss retired from the chairmanship of the board after five years of service, at the end of the first semester of the year 1937-38, and was replaced by Professor William A. McLaughlin. In 1957 Professor John W. Reed was chairman, Maurice M. Rinkel was Business Secretary, Kenneth L. Chatters was Superintendent of Printing, and Werner J. Mattson was Office Manager.

At the time the board took over the management of the various publications, they were owned and operated by students, many of whom derived a considerable income from that source. For the first few years a policy was adopted of allowing the managing editors and business managers a percentage of the net Page  1906profits of the publication for the year. Later, a system of salaries was adopted, and a substantial number of salaried positions are provided on the various student publications.

It is the custom of the board to appoint the senior staffs of the various publications for the ensuing academic year at a meeting held in the spring. There is usually keen rivalry for these positions. The board considers all the information that it can obtain regarding the ability and capacity of the candidates, such as their experience on the publication, their college grades, the opinions of the outgoing senior staffs, the views of the candidates themselves regarding the problems involved in the positions, as shown by application petitions and personal interviews arranged by the different members of the board, and the promptness and efficiency of the candidates as shown by their records made on the publications and any other available data.

STUDENT ANNUALS

THE first of the annuals published by students was a pamphlet of four pages, The University Register, issued in June, 1857. This publication contained the names of the regents, faculty, graduates, students, and members of the literary and secret societies.

The University Register was shortly followed by The Palladium, an annual published by the secret societies, or fraternities as they are now called, which was to have a long and successful life before it was consolidated into The Michiganensian in 1897. The first number of The Palladium appeared at the end of the college year 1858-59 and for the first few years was only a four-page paper published semiannually. The Palladium contained lists of the members of the secret societies, each headed by a vignette, regents, faculty, and class officers, and during the years of the Civil War also published lists of the students serving in the Army. The annual gradually increased in size and improved in content until in 1896 it was a book illustrated with cuts and drawings and containing a considerable amount of literary material. In 1884 it acquired hard covers.

Seven fraternities co-operated in the first few issues of The Palladium and were listed in the book in the order of their founding at Michigan. These were Chi Psi, Beta Theta Pi, Alpha Delta Phi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Delta Phi, Sigma Phi, and Zeta Psi. They were joined in 1865 by Psi Upsilon and, although more groups were added later until the editorial board at one time numbered representatives of fifteen different fraternities, these eight were known as the original Palladium group, a distinction which still has some influence on the campus today.

Dissatisfied with their treatment in The Palladium, a group of antisecret society independents published the first number of The University Castalia in the spring of 1866. This annual published only five volumes, the last in 1870.

In the meantime, in 1867, the sophomore class published the first of a long series of annuals, edited by second-year students, called The Oracle, under the heading, "I am Sir Oracle, and when I ope' my lips, let no dog bark." The first issue was a pamphlet of eight pages, but by the turn of the century it had grown to about one hundred pages. Devoted principally to activities of the sophomore class, The Oracle was early a champion Page  1907of coeducation. In the year 1882 Fred N. Scott, later a member of the faculty and long a successful chairman of the Board in Control of Student Publications, was the managing editor of The Oracle. The board of editors of the annual, originally five, was later increased to ten members, chosen equally from the fraternity and independent factions, and in 1895 it included two women students. In 1900 The Oracle was severely criticized in The Michigan Alumnus, which stated that it was "a sort of tumor on college journalism, it serves no end… Save its thirty years of troubled past, it has nothing to recommend it." It passed out of existence soon after.

The first Student Directory was put out in 1879 by the Student Christian Association, which continued to publish it until 1909, when it was taken over by the Board in Control of Student Publications.

The students of the Law and Medical departments of the University published an annual in 1873 called The Sapphire, of which there was only one volume. This had a cover drawing characterized as libelous. In 1883 the women students of the University tried their hand at an annual to defend their interests and produced The Amulet, of which there were no further issues.

The University Castalia was revived in 1890 by the independent group on the campus under the name of The Castalian, which lasted until 1897 when it too was merged into The Michiganensian. Published yearly except in 1893 when its cuts were destroyed by fire, The Castalian contained interesting literary material and illustrations and none of the anti-fraternity material which colored most of the publications of the time. The issue of 1896 was particularly praised by The Michigan Alumnus as "the finest annual ever published by the University."

In 1894 the senior class of the Law School published an annual devoted to the fraternities, societies, and activities of the law students. In 1894 the book was called To Wit, and the last two issues, in 1895 and 1896, Res Gestae. The juniors of the Homeopathic Department issued a booklet, Phials, in one number in 1899.

In April, 1897, the first issue of The Michiganensian appeared, the result of a consolidation of The Palladium, The Castalian, and Res Gestae, representing the senior literary, engineering, and law classes. It has remained ever since the official student yearbook. Control of The Michiganensian was vested in the Board in Control of Student Publications in 1908, and since that time all of the editors and the business manager of the publication have been chosen annually by the Board. It was suggested in The Michigan Alumnus in 1900 that The Michiganensian "should be given more the character of a yearbook, should be paged and indexed, and made the Michigan reference book of the year, giving the names of the winners of the various University contests, lists of society members, etc." These suggestions have been gradually followed by the editors of the book. The history of The Michiganensian has been one of slow evolution, rather than of any marked alterations from year to year. In 1930 there was finally settled a controversy which had disturbed the editors of the "Ensian" ever since it took over The Palladium. Beta Theta Pi and Chi Psi both laid claim to having been the first fraternity founded on the Michigan campus and consequently to the place of honor as the first fraternity to be listed in the yearbook. By a contract of 1930 it was agreed that the two fraternities would be entitled to the position in alternate years, but this arrangement was soon dropped in favor of listing all fraternities in alphabetical order.

At the present time The Michiganensian is usually a profusely illustrated Page  1908book of some five hundred pages bound in durable covers. It includes articles and photographs on various aspects of the Schools and Colleges, on the various campus activities, and a section recounting the athletic achievements of Michigan teams during the year. Each senior has his picture in the book, and there are group pictures of the members of each fraternity and sorority and of Residence Hall groups. It has in all respects been made the comprehensive "Michigan reference book of the year" which the writer in the Alumnus hoped for in 1900.

STUDENT NEWSPAPERS

THE first student publication on the campus of the University of Michigan in the form of a student newspaper was The Peninsular Phoenix and Gazetteer published by secret society members during the college year 1857-58. Dealing for the most part with college matters, it was published three times during the year.

The University Chronicle was first published in 1867. A biweekly of eight pages, it dealt with student problems and Michigan and general college news. The staff of The University Chronicle was equally divided between members of secret societies and independents. It was consolidated into The Chronicle in 1869.

The Chronicle, the first issue of which appeared in September, 1869, had been organized the spring before. The first number, of sixteen pages, included topical articles and items of general college news and announced itself as a forum for the discussion of campus matters. Finding this an insufficient field for its endeavors, it proposed to expand beyond purely college news in 1872 and accept literary contributions. This effort does not seem to have met with much success, however, for The Chronicle issues for the succeeding years differ in only minor respects from those before the plan was announced. Throughout its relatively long and successful life, the paper maintained a policy of frank and outspoken antagonism to the faculty and the Board of Regents of the University. The Chronicle was issued as a biweekly until 1877, when it was changed to a weekly. In 1883 it acquired a cover and increased its size to twenty-two pages. The issues of 1870, 1871, and 1872 were outstanding in the field of college journalism at that time. Originally edited by a board of eight editors, again divided between secret-society men and independents, in 1887 the size of the board was increased to twelve. In 1876 "The Chronicle Association" was incorporated, the right of voting for the editors was limited to members, and the membership was limited to students of the Literary Department. The Chronicle was consolidated into The Chronicle-Argonaut in 1890.

Having been left out of the organization of The Chronicle, the students in the professional departments started the publication of a sixteen-page biweekly of their own in 1879 called The University. It lasted for only two volumes.

As a result of a piece of political chicanery by the members, several fraternities were excluded from the vote for the editors of The Chronicle in 1882. These five fraternities then started a rival paper called The University Argonaut, which first appeared in October, 1882. Begun as a biweekly of twenty pages, it changed to an eight-page weekly in 1884. Until The University Argonaut was merged into Page  1909The Chronicle-Argonaut in 1890 as a result of further fraternity-independent trouble, the fraternities were divided in their allegiance to The Chronicle and The University Argonaut. As a result of the same battle over the control of The Chronicle which resulted in The University Argonaut, a paper was issued in May, 1882, called The Boomerang, which expired after one issue.

The Chronicle-Argonaut, published weekly, lasted only through the year 1890-91. After the decease of The Chronicle-Argonaut in the spring of 1891, the fraternities which had been represented on its board published for a short time in the fall of 1891 a weekly called The Yellow and the Blue.

In 1889 the nonfraternity editors of The Chronicle resigned from the board of editors and formed the Independent Association, which published the first issue of The U. of M. Daily in September, 1890. Although the original board of fourteen editors was composed entirely of antifraternity men, a few editors from fraternities were admitted in 1895-96. The first issue of the paper was of four pages, and the first volume contained 174 issues.

On the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of the founding of The U. of M. Daily in 1921, Ralph Stone ('92l), one of the founders and Regent from 1924 to 1940, said: "The avowed object of the Daily editors from the very start was to furnish the news of the University promptly and accurately, likewise to promote clean athletics and sound morals among the student body. It was a strenuous task to blaze the trail for the first two years, but the news service was complete and the Daily was a positive influence for good during the period of which I have knowledge from my connection with it."

While this high-minded attitude probably gained something from the thirty years of retrospect, there is no doubt that when the paper was founded it took considerable courage to attempt a daily publication. Under the leadership of Otto H. Hans, who was for four years the business manager of The Daily, and the managing editor in 1900-1901, several important changes were made in the paper. It was decided to abandon the Monday edition and print one on Sunday, because there was no campus news created on Sunday. Likewise, The Daily undertook delivery before breakfast. Both of these moves were innovations in college journalism. At the same time the column length was increased, making The Daily the largest student paper in the United States.

In the spring of 1901, a competitor to The Daily to be called The Varsity News was under consideration. After a survey of the advertisers, it was found that the town could not support two daily papers, so a consolidation was effected, resulting in the publication in the fall of 1901 of The Michigan Daily-News. This paper lasted for two years, and the last edition in the spring of 1903 announced the sale of the paper to the University Senate. The Board in Control of The Michigan Daily, as it was then called, changed the name of the paper to The Michigan Daily and again altered the page size.

With the change to University control of the paper, The Daily ceased to be the organ of a clique, as it had been accused of being previously and extended its sympathy to the whole University. Although it had been hoped by some members of the faculty who were opposed to the former management of the paper that the new Board in Control would exercise an effective censorship over the news columns, the board, under the leadership of Professor Scott, quickly made it clear that it had no intention of doing so, believing that a certain amount of responsibility was essential to the development Page  1910of the student editors and that the paper would lose favor with its student audience if it were known that the faculty were censoring it.

In 1907 it was declared by the Board in Control that it was the policy of the Daily "to steer along a safe course between becoming a mere bulletin board on the one hand and a modern newspaper on the other." One can imagine how the student editors felt about this pronunciamento.

With the summer session of 1910 a paper for the students of the summer was started, called The Wolverine. Edited by Lee A White, the paper featured campus life during the summer and appeared thrice weekly in the afternoons. It had no formal connection with the Daily, although it was mainly staffed by Daily men. In 1922 The Wolverine was changed to The Summer Michigan Daily and made a daily during the summer session.

The size of The Daily was increased from five to six columns and the page was made one inch longer in 1911, and new type and headlines were authorized. The Association of Eastern College Newspapers awarded to The Daily in 1916 its first prize for an editorial written by Verne E. Burnett, one of its editors for that year.

During the year that the United States was involved in World War I it was found to be almost impossible to get editors for the paper, most of those who had been chosen in the spring of 1917 having left school to join the Army. In this situation the Board in Control adopted the expedient of choosing a woman, Miss Mildred C. Mighell, as managing editor for the first time in the history of the paper. When the regularly chosen editor returned in January, 1919, however, he took over his position.

In the fall of 1920 the University authorities started publishing the "Official Bulletin" of the University in The Daily and at the same time paying for subscriptions to the paper for all of the members of the faculty. This policy has been followed ever since with the exception of a few days in the fall of 1931 when the faculty subscriptions were withdrawn by a University administrative officer because of a misunderstanding over some critical articles which had appeared in the paper.

In 1932 The Summer Michigan Daily was taken from the hands of the student editors and complete control vested in the dean of the summer session. Full-time editors were chosen for the paper, usually from the senior staff of the Daily for the preceding year, and the paper was sent to all students in the summer session, the subscription being added to the tuition fee. The first Summer Michigan Daily to be issued under this plan of professional editing was also the first edition of the Daily to be printed in the new Student Publications Building (see Part VIII: Student Publications Building). Coincidental with the move into the new building and the purchase of all new equipment was a change in the type face used both for the body type and the headlines. Instead of the hodgepodge of Cheltenham and any other type face that happened to be handy, The Daily adopted a uniform headline form of upper and lower case Bodoni type, following the type style set by the New York Herald-Tribune.

For many years the Daily has been one of the best, if not the best college newspaper in the country. Being a member of the Associated Press and the only morning newspaper printed in Ann Arbor, it has been able to combine on its front page a mixture of important national news with well-written and edited local and campus news. At various times it has carried on its editorial page the work of campus columnists of a very high Page  1911grade, although in recent years these have given way to nationally syndicated columns. In its early years the Daily was primarily concerned with news of campus sporting events, but, gradually, most of such material has been concentrated on a special sports page, only the most important sport results being given front-page space. Also in recent years a special page is sometimes given over to campus society news and articles of particular interest to women students.

In order to lessen the cut-throat competition among the underclassmen for the senior positions on the staff, the Board in Control has attempted many times to reorganize the staff so that advancement will be purely on a merit basis, and at the same time has tried to equalize the senior salaries so that this item will constitute less of a factor in the minds of the underclass editors. So far none of these experiments have proved completely successful, and the process of evolution of a satisfactory system is still going on. In 1956 there were almost 200 students on the staff of the Daily.

The paper is edited by a board of senior editors, headed by the managing editor. They are chosen annually by the Board in Control of Student Publications from the eligible juniors on the staff.

The number of pages in the paper depends on the amount of advertising obtained for the day. In the affluent days of the late 1920's, The Daily consisted not infrequently of sixteen pages, while during the depths of the depression of the early 1930's many issues contained only four pages. At the present time the majority of the papers are of eight pages, with an occasional six-page issue.

STUDENT MAGAZINES

ALTHOUGH not properly a literary magazine, the first student venture into the field of literary composition was the "Sibyl" of the Alpha Nu society, one of the early campus organizations. Handwritten because there were no available means of duplication and no necessity for it, the "Sibyl" was read aloud at the meetings of Alpha Nu. It contained poems and essays written by the members of the club. So far as can be ascertained from the University records, it lasted from May 24, 1844, until November 2, 1866.

During the year 1861 a literary magazine was edited by a board consisting of four editors, two from each of the two societies, Adelphi and Alpha Nu, the leading campus literary groups, which was called the University Quarterly.

The first number of The Michigan University Magazine appeared in June, 1867. A pamphlet of some forty-four pages, it was published monthly as an expression of student thought. While it lasted it was one of the best college reviews in the country. In order to avoid the factionalism marring most of the college publications then in existence, the board of editors of the magazine was equally divided between fraternity men and independents, chosen from the junior class on the Saturday before Class Day. It was merged in The Chronicle in 1869.

The next publication to set itself up frankly as a literary magazine was The Inlander, which was first published in the fall of 1890 by the seniors of the class of 1891 at the beginning of their senior year. In the first issue, the editors of The Inlander stated: "The Inlander, accordingly, Page  1912will make its sole and only end the bringing forth results of literary ability of a high order, and the fostering and encouragement of talent…" Having set themselves a high goal, the successive editors of The Inlander proceeded to live up to it remarkably well, and many works of merit were published in it before it finally succumbed from lack of support in 1907. During this incarnation The Inlander was published monthly. In 1903 control of The Inlander was put in the hands of the Quadrangle Club with faculty representation on the staff, and in 1905 it was made a biweekly Sunday supplement to The Daily.

Five years after the death of The Inlander the first number of a new campus literary magazine appeared, called The Painted Window. Taking its name from a poem printed as a prelude to the first number, The Painted Window carried on the cover of its too few issues a drawing of a Gothic stained glass cathedral window. In addition to poems, essays, and short stories, each issue carried a reproduction in black and white of some work of art. Edgar Ansel Mowrer, then of the Chicago News Bureau in Paris, was the business manager of the little monthly. The Painted Window was first published in March, 1912, and the last issue is dated March, 1913. In 1916 The Inlander was revived, subsidized by the Board in Control of Student Publications, but was discontinued again in 1918.

In the second semester of the college year 1920-21, a mimeographed paper entitled Whimsies made its bow on the campus. In an introductory essay headed "The Why of Whimsies" the editors explained that they would like their magazine to be to the campus what the Atlantic Monthly was to the country at large: "Whimsies makes no attempt to assume literary high-priesthood, or to pose as a defender of literature against barbarism." After the first few issues the magazine was printed and assumed a cover. In his report of the Board in Control of Student Publications for 1921, Professor Scott said of it: "Obviously, however, so spontaneous and unpretentious a magazine, especially when it is also of so high a grade of literary excellence, deserves to be encouraged." The editors included Yuki Osawa, Stella Brunt (Osborn), Dorothy Greenwald, and Halsey Davidson.

In 1924 the name of the magazine was changed to The Inlander, thus becoming the third incarnation of that Michigan tradition, although its tone continued to be that of the magazine of the early 1920's which it had succeeded, rather than that of the more ambitious magazine which first carried the Inlander name. In 1930 this latest attempt to revive The Inlander failed. Included in the last few issues of the magazine were reproductions of works of art.

Contemporary was the name of the next literary magazine to be published on the campus. It was authorized by the Board in Control in May, 1935, and publication was started the following fall. It lasted for only two years.

Campus, the first summer-session magzine began and ended in 1938. It contained short stories, cartoons, and photographs. A year later Perspectives made a short-lived appearance as a literary magazine.

The most recent student literary magazine is Generation. It is dedicated to the arts. Music, literature, drawing, and photography are presented and analyzed in its three issues a year.

Student Humor Magazines

The first attempt at a student humor magazine was Wrinkle, a biweekly which first appeared on October 13, 1893, under the heading, "Enjoy life while you live, for you will be a long time dead." Published by a stock company, Wrinkle soon lost its pretentions to being a biweekly Page  1913and frankly admitted that it was "published by the students every little while during the college year." Wrinkle, a highly successful magazine while it lasted, contained many excellent cartoons and much really humorous material. Of the special J-Hop edition of 1899, the managing editor of the Yale Record remarked that it was the best humorous college paper he had ever reviewed. Wrinkle died of inanition in 1905.

In December 1908, the Board in Control of Student Publications authorized Lee A White to publish a literary magazine and take 60 per cent of the profits of the first issue. The result of this permission was the first issue of the Gargoyle, which came out with a special J-Hop edition in February, 1909. For its first few issues Gargoyle considered itself a literary magazine, containing stories, articles, and pictures, and only the back part of the magazine was filled with humorous articles and jokes. By a process of evolution, however, Gargoyle soon became the campus humor magazine and has remained such up to the present time.

During Gargoyle's life as a publication there has occasionally been trouble because of the publication of questionable matter. The quality of the magazine has varied from year to year, depending on the ability of the managing editor. Although in some years it has been merely silly, in others it has followed the lead of good national publications and made a place for itself on the campus. In some years it has added sections on men's and women's clothes for campus wear and has had a music section devoted to the merits of dance orchestras.

Journals of Opinion

Before the turn of the century most of the student publications, lacking the specialization which appears today, were in a sense journals of opinion as, no matter what the form, the editors were not slow in voicing their views. Most, however, also served some other function. In November 1861, as an outgrowth of the feeling between the independents and members of the secret societies, a bitterly antisecret society magazine, The University Independent, was first issued. Only four numbers were printed before the name was changed in March, 1862, to University Magazine, of which there was only one issue.

In 1916, the Board in Control of Student Publications authorized the creation of a new magazine of student opinion on the campus to be called Chimes. The first number was placed on sale in November, 1919, and contained, among other things, a debate on the respective merits of the Washtenaw and State street fraternities and a criticism of the campus honor societies. Each number contained a dedication to some member of the faculty whose photograph was reproduced. In his report of the Board in Control of Student Publications for 1921 Professor Scott points out that Chimes had failed as a purveyor of pure literature but accomplished a useful purpose as an organ of opinion. In March, 1925, Chimes was changed to a Sunday supplement to the Daily, and in 1926 it was discontinued; Sunday supplements have been revived since World War II at various times.

In 1922-23 appeared the short-lived The Tempest, which adopted a truculent tone toward the University administration and was much influenced by H. L. Mencken.

In 1931 two journals appeared, both lasting for only a short time. One, Diagonal, proclaiming that "this is not a literary magazine," and taking a belligerent attitude toward campus affairs in general, severely criticized campus politics, pep meetings, and the "paternalism" of the University administration, but took time out to praise President Page  1914Ruthven. The other, The Student Socialist, was published by the Michigan Socialist Club with the avowed purpose of stimulating "student interest in the unsolved problems of American social life, stressing the new thought embodied in socialism." Adopting a radical platform, it attacked impartially the Daily, the R.O.T.C., Detroit millionaires, the American Red Cross, the American Medical Association, and the federal government.

Pictorial Publications

Two different attempts have been made to bring to the campus pictorial publications showing the students to themselves. Both were very short-lived. One, the Michigan Optic, was authorized in the fall of 1922. The other, Panorama, patterned after Life magazine, started publication in the fall of 1937 and lasted through five issues.

The Michigan Technic

The history of the Michigan Technic goes back to 1887, although a bound volume of "papers presented before the Engineering Society of the University of Michigan in 1882-1883" gives rise to the claim of the year 1882 as the date of founding of the publication. In early days every student was a member of the Engineering Society. This society published the Technic as an annual, containing the program of the society for the year, biographies of various faculty men, and authoritative technical articles written by faculty and students. These articles were from papers which had been presented before the society.

The magazine filled a real need in those days, which were before the advent of the numerous professional journals now published. Many papers which appeared were reprinted, to be used as reference material in courses then being taught. It was read by faculty, students, and alumni with great interest. Even today the contents of some of the old magazines are very valuable. As the College grew, the activities of the society increased, and the magazine grew also. From an annual, it became a semiannual, then a quarterly, and finally a monthly publication. It was published by the Engineering Society up to the time of the death of the society, in 1923. Then an independent student staff with a faculty Advisory Board took over the work of publication.

The organization of the Engineering Society provided for a chairman of the Technic Board, who was managing editor of the magazine. With the help of an editor, a business manager, and a small staff, the magazine was published. No faculty Advisory Board was listed until 1906, when Dean Mortimer E. Cooley, Professor George W. Patterson, and two alumni, Walter L. Stebbings and Ralph R. Tinkham, were appointed. A new board was appointed every year until a more permanent body was set up in 1914. This permanent board has continued to function up to the present.

The early staffs struggled along from year to year, keeping no permanent records. Continuity of policy was carried on by word of mouth and whatever experience could be transferred during the period of apprenticeship served by each member of the staff. If any attempts were made to bind the organization together or to record procedure, they must have met defeat, for there are no records.

The formation of Engineering College Magazines Associated, in 1921, was of importance to the Technic and to engineering college publications in general. This association, of which the Technic is a charter member, was formed for the purpose of improving the editorial quality, make-up, and appearance of the member magazines. The page size of the magazines was also standardized, as an Page  1915aid to securing advertising from nationally advertised products. Standards of quality were set up and awards were given as incentives to work toward better editorial content and attractive appearance. The great contribution of E.C.M.A. was in the securing of large advertisements for each magazine. These advertisements were handled through a commercial agency and entailed little work on the part of the staff of the individual magazine. A large amount of the revenue for the publication of the magazine came from these advertisements.

The Technic ran along in about the same way, growing in size and prosperity, until 1929 when the business depression ended most of the advertising. Circulation fell with advertising, leaving the Technic with very seriously curtailed revenues and, as a result, it operated at a loss for several years.

In a desperate attempt to stave off financial collapse, the staff of 1932-33, in composing the Articles of Management which were adopted February 21, 1933, took the first step toward binding the organization together. The Technic is now guided by a faculty Advisory Committee and a Student Publication Board.

The loss of revenue in the depression focused attention on the low student circulation, and ultimately on the editorial content of the magazine. Concentration on editorial quality brought the Technic several awards in different years in the E.C.M.A., including the awards for the best covers and for the "Best All-around Magazine."

Page  [1916]
Page  [1917]

Campus Societies

Page  [1918]
Page  1919

CAMPUS SOCIETIES

Michigamua

MICHIGAMUA was founded in the fall of the year 1901 by a few members of the junior class of that year. One of the charter members, "Pontiac" Fred G. Dewey, wrote:

"On a night toward the close of the first semester a dozen or more juniors sat down for dinner in an already ancient hostelry, the Arlington Hotel. Then and there the aims were unanimously ratified and the choice of the formal details entrusted to committees.

"With the opening of the second semester the Tribe of Michigamua took its place among the campus organizations complete with Sachem, Wiskinke, and a Keeper of the Wampum. Names were bestowed on the braves to distinguish them from the palefaces. One of the redskins recalled a tune learned in the foothills of the Ozarks and to this were fitted the original verses of the Michigamua song. Critics have questioned the authenticity of the Indian music.

"A new Sachem supplanted the first at the beginning of the senior year and gave way to a third who sat at the head of the council table during the second semester. Meantime the idea took form that Michigamua must not perish from earth at Commencement but that the boon must be passed on in trust to others. Ten young bucks were chosen from the Class of 1903. Whitmore Lake was selected as the meeting place for the historic powwow. And there on a cloudless day in June the old braves enjoined on the young warriors observance of the tribal customs, intoned the chant for the last time, doffed the headdresses and passed on the great peace pipe."

The practice of initiating a certain number of the junior class to perpetuate the organization has been continued to the present day. The charter members of Michigamua were: Arthur Merritt Barrett, Philip Everette Bursley, Robert H. Moon, Frank William Copley, Richard D. T. Hollister, Merritt Charles McNeil, James Strasburg, William F. Temple, Claude Thorne Tuck, Henry W. Willis, John W. Woodhams, Fred G. Dewey, Chasen W. Brooks, Henry J. Brown, Arthur G. Browne, Harry S. Durant, Walter T. Fishleigh, Earl Heenan, Roscoe B. Huston, Dan A. Killian, Benjamin C. Loder, Ralph Van Deman Magoffin, Charles S. Matthews, George W. Maxey, Thomas G. Mayhugh, Lauren E. Mills, Hugh H. Parrish, George Fontaine Schmid, Daniel D. Schurtz, Herbert C. Smith, Neil W. Snow, Louis Nap. Udell, Stuart W. Utley, and Milo A. White.

With the passing of time and the ever-changing collegiate customs and ethics, in certain artificial ways the "Tribe," as it is called on the Michigan campus, has also changed — although it has fundamentally remained the same. For instance, election to membership now has more concrete rules of order than in the beginning. At first the "Tribe" was made up of a carefree group of friends who used to meet at the library every night to study and later ran a relay, among themselves on the campus, ending up with a party of cider and doughnuts at a local emporium or someone's room. Most of them were independents, and whether or not they were athletes or scholars made little difference — they were good fellows.

But the situation changed. The University enrollment began to break into the higher thousands and membership Page  1920into Michigamua came to be based on accomplishments on the campus. No longer did every student know every other student. In a sense, mass production of the automobile had pushed the horse and buggy out of the picture. Consequently, today, to become a "Brave" of the Tribe a "Paleface" must achieve prominence among his fellows in some particular extracurricular activity. If he is connected with athletics he must become captain or senior manager. If he works on any one of the publications he must win the business managership or editorship. Presidency or recording secretaryship of the Michigan Union, prominent office in the Interfraternity Council, editorship of the engineering Technic, scholastic honorary societies, etc., all of these activities at least put one's name before the student body and, consequently, the active "Braves" of Michigamua.

Now, although it is practically impossible to be elected to "Tribe" without some office or campus position, there is no hard and fast rule in this respect, and there are cases of "just plain good fellows" being selected to membership. Furthermore, attaining any one of the aforementioned positions does not assure the student that he will be selected. Essentially, and above all else, a young man chosen must be at heart a true Michigan man in the eyes of the initiating "Braves."

Other than students elected members of the faculty have from time to time been chosen as "honorary sachems" in recognition of long years of outstanding service to the University. Among such men have been R. M. Wenley, J. Bursley, F. H. Yost, H. M. Bates, M. L. Niehuss, and H. D. Crisler.

The actual initiation is called "Rope Day." Late in the spring the nucleus of the new Tribe are informed, individually, of their election by a personal midnight call of a band of "howling fiends" who throw the "young bucks" out of bed, pound them heartily on the back, and place in their hands a "birchbark," that is, the invitation. The next afternoon the "young bucks" gather to await the coming of the Tribe. In due time the "fighting braves" appear, daub the "young bucks" with red paint, throw them on the ground, tie them to a long rope by one hand, and force them to "duck-walk" across the campus to the Union, ascend seven flights of stairs into the Union Tower to the "Wigwam of Michigamua," slapping them upon their bare backs all the while. In the "Wigwam," a beautiful birchbark room, they formally become "Braves" of Michigamua and are given Indian names by which they are always known in connection with the Tribe. The "Wigwam" is decorated with paintings, hides, and items symbolizing Indian life.

Michigamua, as an organization, has representatives in every powerful group on the campus, and during the school year at its weekly meetings discusses conditions concerning the University. If the matter lies within its power Michigamua takes action to better the University in some small or large way — for example, in the establishment of the Michigan Union. Many other beneficial movements have had their motivation from the Tribe. But the name of Michigamua does not appear publicly. The "Braves" have always had the policy of working in the background through some other organization.

Thus, although Michigamua has changed, the same undying spirit of Michigan exists today as it did in the original "Tribe," and the members today might well be the same spirited group that pledged to one another: "The object of this tribe shall be to foster a spirit of Page  1921loyalty for our Alma Mater and promote good class fellowship…"

Druids

On a spring evening of each year, the members of Druids, garbed in their traditional gowns and hoods, with torches in hand, march from the Forest room in the Union to the Druid rock where some twenty neophytes await the ordeal of initiation. Finishing this informal part of the proceedings, the members, singing the "Men of Druids" song, lead the "Awenyds" back to the Forest room, where formal ceremonies are held. With these at an end, a new class is welcomed into the society to carry on the purpose and traditions of Druids.

The organization was established in 1909-10 by twenty men as the Senior Honorary Society of the Literary College, with eligibility to membership based upon meritorious services to the University and selection by the members. Professor Arthur L. Cross and the late Dean John R. Effinger were chosen as the first two honorary members from the faculty, remaining active until their deaths. Druids counts among its alumni the late Supreme Court Justice Frank Murphy and Dean Earl Moore, of the School of Music.

The purpose of Druids is to coalesce the aims and efforts of its members so as to serve the University better by lending the united support of the society to each member in his fields of activity.

Sphinx

Sphinx, junior men's honorary society, was founded by members of the junior Literary Class of 1906. The purpose of the founders was to establish a junior society which would be devoted to furthering class spirit and good fellowship and which would lead in the activities of the junior Literary Class.

Since its founding many well-known athletes and men who have been active in the student publications, the Union, and so on, have passed through its ranks. Among its members have been Dean Walter Rea, Bennie Oosterbaan, Tom Harmon, and Ron Kramer. About the middle of the 1920's Sphinx disappeared from the campus for a short time, but returned again in 1926.

The Sphinx signifies an Egyptian group headed by the pharaoh, and the members meet in the temple of the pharaoh. Each member has an Egyptian name.

Originally, the organization was composed of members of the junior class of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, but as the University expanded all colleges of the University, except the College of Engineering, came to be represented in its ranks. The court of the Sphinx serves to maintain a source of leadership service to the University.

In 1956 Sphinx had twenty-eight members. A room for Sphinx is provided in the Michigan Union Tower. This is its first permanent home. The society in 1956 began a campaign to raise money to decorate the room so that it might be available for Sphinx alumni returning to the University.

The colorful initiation ceremony of Sphinx takes place in the spring in front of the Library, when the neophytes, covered with brick dust, bow before the temple of the pharaoh and wade around in the Cooley Fountain pool — "looking for the River Nile."

Mortar Board

Mortar Board is a national senior women's honorary society. It was Page  1922founded in 1906, its formation being an outgrowth of the existence, on numerous college campuses, of senior women's honor societies whose purpose was to serve. Through the pioneering efforts of four such local societies — at Swarthmore College, Cornell University, Ohio State University, and the University of Michigan — the national organization called Mortar Board came into being.

The purpose of Mortar Board is to provide for the co-operation between societies, to promote college loyalty, to advance the spirit of service and fellowship among university women, to maintain a high standard of scholarship, to recognize and encourage leadership, and to stimulate and develop a finer type of college woman.

Tapping is carried on similarly in all ninety-six chapters of Mortar Board. The members, dressed in black caps and gowns and carrying lighted candles, tap newly chosen women after closing hours. The members march through the house where the prospective member lives, singing "Thy Ideals" and awakening other girls living in the house. The members continue singing as they place a mortar board on the girl's head and give her an invitation to become a member. The next day, the new member must wear her mortar board wherever she goes. Mortar Board taps in the spring. Between five and twenty-five girls may be tapped each year.

Some time later the girls are initiated, they then sign the chapter membership list and learn of Mortar Board traditions. They receive their black and gold Mortar Board pins inscribed with the Greek letters Pi Sigma Alpha. New members attend regular meetings with the old members until new officers are elected for the following year. New members of Mortar Board are chosen by present members of the society.

As a first step in the selection of members, letters are sent to various campus organizations, house mothers, and faculty members requesting personal recommendations for qualified girls. Members of Mortar Board may also submit recommendations. The qualifications of the girl specify what she has done, how she carried out her responsibilities, and how she worked with subordinates and leaders.

In order to be eligible, girls must be second-semester juniors or first semester seniors during the spring semester when tapping takes place. Girls chosen must be outstanding in service, scholarship, and leadership and must be willing to give time and effort to being active Mortar Board members. A girl must also have a grade point average three-tenths of a point higher than the all-campus women's average, figured through the fall preceding tapping.

Each year, Mortar Board has fundraising activities as well as service projects. Cinema Guild movies are sponsored as a source of income for the society. Mortar Board members serve as ushers for the movies and wait on table at the League as a service project as well as a source of income. The Mortar Board Society aided the Gorham Company in campus research on a new pattern. Mortar Board members were hostesses at the first alumnae tea held in the home of President and Mrs. Hatcher in 1955. The group has aided the local chapter of the League of Women Voters and has raised money to complete the Alice Crocker Lloyd Drama Collection in the League Library.

Mortar Board sponsors a State Day, when girls from other chapters in the area visit to discuss common topics of interest, to share ideas, and to get to know each other. Mortar Board, with the other senior honoraries, sponsors a Career Day Conference for all women on campus. On this day outstanding representatives Page  1923of many fields of interest are on hand to inform and advise students. Mortar Board is currently working on a project of organized tours of the University of Michigan campus and the Ann Arbor area for foreign students.

Each year Mortar Board gives a one hundred dollar scholarship to a deserving girl who is about to enter her senior year. Each year, also, national Mortar Board gives at least one Katherine Wills Coleman fellowship for graduate work. This is named for a former national president. The fellowship carries an award of five hundred dollars. Any active member of a chapter is eligible if she can quality as a candidate for an advanced degree in an accepted university.

From its beginning, Mortar Board spread over the campuses of America, always aiming to serve the ideals of discriminating service, responsible leadership, and the application of scholarly principles to personal and general problems.

Owls

Members of the secret society of Owls could rightly lay claim to belonging to the oldest organization of its type on the Michigan campus. Launched in the early spring of 1860, it went out of existence with World War I in 1918 following a history which offers in itself innumerable commentaries on life about a university campus. The affection of its members for Owls has been one of its characteristics — a characteristic which brought it back into activity after several lapses. Repeated promptings have come at various times from alumni, urging still another "revival," so finis cannot be written to the story of Owls until all of its present living alumni have ceased their pleas.

Rigid adherence to historical data prompts the observation that only by inference does there exist a link between the society launched in 1860 and the Owls of the forepart of the twentieth century. Sometime during the years immediately following 1869 that first organization ceased to exist — so the written records indicate. In 1899 there was launched Gamma Delta Nu, familiarly known as Owls. Less than ten years later its members were referring to the Owls of 1860 as their founders, though some among those who wrote the constitution of Gamma Delta Nu deny any knowledge of a relationship.

In the years from 1913 to the closing period of its active life, all "fledglings" were taught that Owls was launched during Civil War days, though the members of that time were in error in their interpretation of the stimulus to organization. The story then passed by word of mouth from old to new members described the foundation as having been prompted by the desire of students on the Michigan campus to be of assistance to the widows and children of fellow students killed in the Civil War. It was this interpretation which prompted the Owls of 1916 to launch a practice which has existed — though handled by other agencies — to the date of this writing, namely the Christmas Goodfellow program on the campus.

The story of Owls is told in the "Owl Book," a cherished and hallowed relic of the society, though but a scribbled and disorganized record of less than twenty years of its existence. This book, after many disappearances and many searches, is now a part of the Michigan Historical Collections.

The Owls society, brought into existence in the early spring of 1860 by members of the class of '61, was modeled on the Yale senior societies. It is said to have been stimulated by Professor Andrew D. White, himself a member of Skull and Bones at Yale. Membership Page  1924was recruited from the rosters of the Greek letter fraternities on the campus, and records state that one of its purposes was the breaking down of the barriers of misunderstanding and enmity existing among these societies. It was secret in act and form, not even having a known name. Its symbol was an owl, which gave it the title by which it was generally known.

Almost immediately after it was formed it was attacked both by the campus at large and then by the very secret societies it was supposed to aid. Shortly, certain of these societies forbade allegiance to it by members, and in its latter years, about 1868, many of its members were nonfraternity men. It disappeared from campus about 1870.

Gamma Delta Nu came into existence with a membership recruited from the senior class of 1899. It was composed of nonfraternity men who were congenial and who sought a vehicle for their enjoyment of one another's company. From 1913 to 1915 the society lapsed into comparative inactivity, but was brought back to full bloom by the one member left on the campus. As this man had joined a social fraternity in the interim, he reverted to the original principle of Owls and recruited the membership from fraternity men. Thus Owls had completed the cycle.

With the coming of World War I the membership, almost to a man, enlisted for service. Many never returned to the campus, receiving their degrees "in absentia," and Owls passed out of existence.

Vulcans

The Senior engineering honorary society Vulcans was organized in 1904, in order, as is stated in the preamble of the constitution, "to promote good fellowship and bring about better acquaintance amongst the congenial members of the senior engineering class of the University of Michigan."

The society was named after the Greek god who first welded together iron and steel. The emblem is an anvil bearing the word "Vulcan" and the class year.

Three kinds of membership were established: active, graduate, and honorary. Scholarship is not the sole requirement for initiation; a candidate must be popular and active in both scholastic and social affairs in the College of Engineering to be considered for membership. Junior students who fulfill these requirements are voted on by the active members and their initiation is conducted late in the spring. For eligible senior students who have been passed by in the spring initiation is held in the fall. No definite annual number of new members has been set, but a limit of about twenty members a year has been established by precedent.

Meetings are held in the Vulcan room in the tower of the Michigan Union every second Sunday evening. Aside from providing its members with this form of fellowship and inspiration, the society's principal active function is to participate in student affairs of the College of Engineering and of the University as a whole, in co-operation with the other honorary societies on the campus.

Triangles

Triangles, junior engineering honorary society, was founded in the year of 1907 by "Stimmie" Stimson, with the purpose of promoting good fellowship and maintaining college and class spirit. The charter membership consists of twenty-two students chosen from the junior engineering class and honorary members chosen from the faculty. The original charter provided for the election of officers Page  1925each semester, and this as well as the other general policies of Triangles has remained unchanged since the founding of the Society.

In maintaining college and class spirit the endeavors of the society have been many. The members have been leaders in various charity and relief drives. They have supported the Goodfellow drives and Red Cross relief projects with earnest work.

The requirements for selection of members are of such a nature as to encourage activity in the many extracurricular activities offered at the University of Michigan. Prominent men from athletics, student publications, and political activities have always been chosen, thereby co-ordinating all class activities into a cosmopolitan group.

Each year members are chosen from the sophomore class in May. These men in turn choose in the following fall additional men. More men may then be elected by the society as a whole if they deem such action fit. Active membership ceases at the end of the junior year, seniors having been made passive. This system has been in effect since the founding of the society and has worked very satisfactorily. Honorary members have been elected from time to time.

Members of the society benefit by a closer association with the faculty members and as a consequence gain a broader education.

The Engineering Council

The Engineering Council of the University of Michigan was the outgrowth of a need which was felt by members of the faculty and of the student body of the College of Engineering. It was formed under a constitution during the year 1927 and has served as a linking factor between faculty and students. It has also co-ordinated the various engineering societies, has served to perpetuate the time-honored traditions of the College, and has promoted the general welfare of students of engineering. The Council was discontinued in 1947 because of a financial misadventure with an ice show. Soon thereafter an Engineering Steering Committee was formed, and in 1954 this became the reactivated Engineering Council.

In former years there were a number of student organizations maintained for the purpose of reading papers and holding discussions along various scientific lines, all acting more or less independently of each other. The Engineering Council represents all departments of the College of Engineering through designated members from the several student branches of professional societies: ASCE, ASME, AIEE-IRE, AIChE, SAE, IAS, SAM, and Quarterdeck. Honor societies, Tau Beta Pi and Vulcans, are represented by one member each. In addition to these, members are elected from the engineering classes, as follows: each of the four class presidents and five members at large elected by the Council, and one member from the senior class to serve for one year, the editor of the Michigan Technic, and three members from the College of Engineering faculty.

All student members of the Engineering Council must have a general average grade of at least 2.0 and must not be on probation. Each such member is to be a full-time undergraduate student registered in the College.

Members are required to attend all meetings, serve on committees to which they are appointed, and, when requested by the council, make written reports of activities under their supervision. The regular meetings of the council are held twice a month on a fixed schedule.

A majority of the members elect constitutes a quorum, and a majority of the members present at any regular or special Page  1926meeting of any group determines the approval for that group.

The officers of the council consist of a president, a vice-president, and a secretary-treasurer. Their duties are such as usually pertain to these offices.

The duties of the Engineering Council are to supervise any meetings, competitions, or functions in which engineering students participate; to represent the student body of the College of Engineering in any discussions with other colleges or schools; to promote frequent social entertainments amongst engineering students; to present petitions or requests of the students in connection with the College of Engineering to the proper faculty or administrative authority; and to advance the interests of the students, the College of Engineering, and the University of Michigan in all ways within its power, particularly, by co-operating with the Student Government Council, the Engineering Honor Council, and the constituent engineering societies. The council plays an important part in the management of the Engineers' Slide Rule Ball and the Engineering Open House, and is always at the beck and call of the dean in any of the activities of the College of Engineering.

The Barrister's Society

In the spring of 1904, several members of the junior class of the Law School conceived the idea of establishing a senior honorary society for the Law School. On May 24, 1904, a meeting was held at Newberry Hall to discuss the formation of such a society. At this meeting a committee of five men, W. E. Wilcox, E. R. Conder, W. R. Lloyd, O. L. Crumpacker, and D. D. Williams, was appointed to draft a constitution and bylaws. A week later the constitution and bylaws were approved, and an election of officers took place. Thus was born the Barrister's Society.

The object of the society, as stated in its constitution, is "the social and professional advancement of its members and of the Law School." The general intention was to supplement the work of the classroom with social as well as intellectual activity in a more congenial atmosphere, and with this end in view, the Barristers have functioned. In its first year, the society held biweekly meetings. It was customary at those meetings to have several members of the society deliver papers on current topics of the law and Barrister ideals. However, this practice was apparently abandoned after several years.

The Barristers flourished without interruption down to 1938. During these years the society was active socially, holding banquets, luncheons, and parties quite regularly. For many years the Barristers cosponsored with the Vulcans and Druids an annual "BVD Dance" until it fell into disfavor with the dean of students and had to be discontinued. In 1938 the Barrister's Society was suspended by the dean of students for one year. After a year in limbo, a more discreet Barrister's Society emerged. Soon World War II depleted the ranks of the society, but it managed to keep alive through the years of the war.

The postwar years brought about the establishment of new traditions and functions for the Barristers. In the spring of 1947, the Barristers sponsored the Crease Dance and published the Raw Review, and the Wig and Robe Dance was sponsored in December, 1947. These dances proved to be successful, and they have been held since then under the auspices of the society. In the fall of 1947, the black string bow tie made its appearance as the hallmark of membership. In recent years the Barristers have Page  1927made a substantial yearly contribution to the operation of the Case Club, and a scholarship fund has been established to assist deserving Law students not qualified for Law School scholarships because of grades. The basic objectives of the Barrister's Society have probably changed little from the ideals of its founders fifty years ago, but particular "traditions" have come and gone and new ones have been created to fill their places.

Each spring the members select men from the junior class who have distinguished themselves through their leadership in various Law School activities, through scholarship and good fellowship for membership in the society. The new members are inducted into the Barristers in the traditional initiation ceremony, marked by the wearing of the judicial wigs and robes by the old members. The new men continue the functions of the society into the following year, and during the following fall semester, they select additional members of the senior class for membership in the society.

The membership rolls are filled with the names of men who have later distinguished themselves, and the hopes of the charter members, that "an organization be founded which would become an agent for good to the Law School and its members," have been realized, as attested by the fact of its continued existence for more than five decades.

Galens

In 1914 a group of medical students gathered to form an honorary society. They selected the name of Galen, a famous Greek physician who lived about 1800 years ago, for the organization. Samuel W. Donaldson ('16m) and Hubert R. John ('16m) were instrumental in the formation of the society and did much of the preliminary organizational work. Other members of the group in its first year were Albert C. Furstenburg, '15m, now Dean of the Medical School; Maurice R. Lohman, '15m; Frank P. Hunter, '15m; Walter I. Lillie, '15m; John W. Sherrick, '15m; Alonzo C. Smith, '15m; Clarence A. Christensen, '16m; Frederick Harrison,' 16m; Edgar V. Beardslee, '16m; Evan G. Galbraith, '16m; George J. Curry, '15m; Glen J. Wilmore, '16m; Harold R. Henderson, '16m; Loren K. Meredith, '16m; William M. Dugan, '16m; John J. O'Leary, '16m; J. Bradford Seeley, '16m; and Richards E. Amos, '15m.

In the beginning the new society did not have the broad interests later developed. It was organized primarily to fill the need for a liaison agency between students and faculty of the Medical School. Meetings were held at different medical fraternity houses. Faculty men were invited to become honorary members. The new society began to form a closer bond between the students and faculty.

From modest beginnings the society has developed a comprehensive program of service to the University and to the children in its Hospital perhaps unequaled by a comparable society anywhere. Galen Medical Society, supported by the generosity of students and townspeople, has broadened its original interests to brighten the lives of thousands of individuals.

On the night of November 3, 1927, William W. Thomas ('28m) suggested at a meeting of the society that a tag day be held to raise money to "help the poor kids in University Hospital at Christmas time." Out of this suggestion has come happiness to many thousands of children.

Thoms was appointed to head a tag day committee that same evening, with Fred M. Doyle ('28m) and Glenn A. Carmichael ('28m) as his associates. In Page  1928the following month Galens held its first tag day, followed by its first annual Christmas party for shut-in children in the University Hospital.

Tag days have been held by members of Galens annually ever since in order to provide Christmas cheer and year-long vocational and recreational interest to children in the Hospital. Another source of revenue for the society is the Galens newsstand, operated at the Hospital, and the annual Caduceus Ball and Medical School Smoker also produce income which goes into the general fund.

The society has set up a loan fund to assist medical students, and Galens scholarships are also available. The society has donated money to obtain much-needed surgical equipment for a hospital in England. Contributions have been made to the Hospital Bulletin, to the Internship Committee, to the photography shop at the Hospital for the purpose of increasing medical knowledge by study of photographs, to the maintenance of a physiotherapist for polio cases, and to numerous other projects.

In February, 1928, the society received a letter from Miss Dorothy Ketcham, then Director of the Social Service Department of the Hospital, outlining the need for a prevocational shop and for recreational facilities for children confined to the Hospital. Members of Galens foresaw the enormous value of such an investment and arranged to provide funds for its inception.

The Galens Shop was begun in 1928. It is now regarded as the finest venture of its kind in any general hospital. Financed through the generosity of University students and Ann Arbor townspeople the shop was founded and carefully nurtured through the years by Galens and Miss Dorothy Ketcham.

All children who are confined to the University Hospital are welcome to the Galens Shop. When they are physically limited in their movements the materials of the shop are brought to their bedside. The project has immeasurable therapeutic value.

Self-sufficiency is the keynote of the shop's program. Under the careful guidance of a thoroughly trained instructor, the children are free to select what they desire from the multitude of tools, work projects, toys, games, books, and records. The program attempts to help the children attain self-sufficiency through individual expression. They learn to design and create things which produce inner satisfaction. They express themselves through materials and tools. And they learn the all-important faculty of sharing their experiences, working together, and encouraging each other.

The materials and tools provided in the shop are many and varied. There are jig saws, a lathe, a sander, a drill and circular saw — all equipped with safety features and run by electricity. There are innumerable hand tools, all readily accessible to the children, and work tables, paint facilities, drying racks, and plenty of books and patterns designed to stimulate ideas.

Out of the Galens "Fun Fund" have come books, games, manipulative toys, many kinds of dolls, trains, and endless other toys and educational tools. A complete record library, designed especially for the children, is maintained. The wonder, amazement, and sheer joy of finding these things at a hospital have been expressed in the eyes and voices of thousands of sick children.

Toastmasters

Initiates into Toastmasters, all-campus honor society, are told that the organization is the second oldest of its classification at the University. Priority, they are advised, goes to Owls, though Owls became inactive shortly after World War I and has been unknown to undergraduate generations since that time. Thus far no advocate has come forward Page  1929to dispute the contention made by the members of Toastmasters.

Toastmasters came into existence in 1897. There was no formal launching of the society; it merely began in an informal way and grew to man's size. Early members gave to Paul A. Cowgill the right to the title of founder. Cowgill had been a student at Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti before entering the University, and there had gathered together a group of students who enjoyed making speeches after having partaken of a meal. Originally those "meals" had been the contents of boxes of delicacies from "home."

The scheme proved so enjoyable that when Cowgill entered the University he sought to perpetuate the idea. He was successful, for the informal gatherings which he engineered were relished by the participants. Formal organization was the natural consequence and Toastmasters was in full swing.

The society took a unique place on the campus. Though classified with class honor societies, it made little pretense to being other than a rather selfish, social organization. The members gathered regularly for a dinner. The appointed chairman of the evening took charge after the menu; announced topics for "toasts" only a few seconds before the member was to respond; and at the close of the toast program a "critic" made scathing comment on the after-dinner-speaking mannerisms of his fellows.

Toastmasters became, consequently, a valuable training ground for extemporaneous speaking. The meetings were enjoyable, for there was sought for membership the witty and the alert student. Alumni pride in membership in Toastmasters is general among those who have appeared on its rosters. This alumni pride resulted in the reviving of the club in 1934 after a period of inactivity between 1921 and that date.

HONORARY SCHOLASTIC SOCIETIES

Phi Beta Kappa

ALTHOUGH the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts is the oldest unit of the University on the campus, dating from 1841, and for the first years offered only a classical program, the local chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was not established until 1907. The Alpha chapter of Michigan was an outgrowth of a society, which had started in the spring of that year, known as the Alpha Honor Society. It was founded by Phi Beta Kappa men on the faculty, who looked forward to the time when a chapter of the national society should be granted. For many years the need for formal recognition of intellectual and scholarly achievements of students had been keenly felt by both students and faculty alike, and at times this interest had been openly expressed but without results.

In the autumn of 1907 the National Council of the United Chapters granted to the members of the society, who were on the faculty of the University of Michigan, a charter for a chapter to be known as the Alpha Chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa in the state of Michigan, the first in the state. Twenty-four names of these faculty members appear on the charter.

Although the oldest "Greek letter" society, originally organized in 1776, it is no longer in any sense of the word a secret body. Its founders were really and avowedly bound together to devote themselves to the encouragement and recognition of undergraduate scholarship Page  1930and its responsibilities. Since 1883 the various chapters have been united in a representative organization, the members of whose council meet every three years to transact general business. Its helpful traditions and stimulating personal associations have contributed materially to the friendship and fellowship of scholars.

One of the few references to the early period at Michigan reads:

Nearly fifty years ago a movement to organize a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa at Michigan was set on foot, but the absence of a marking system and the indifference or hostility of the Faculty defeated the project. It is to be regretted that there exists among us no society instituted for the purpose of high scholarship in classical studies; and perhaps the obstacles in the way of founding such a society are not insurmountable.


(The Michigan Book, 1898, p. 184.)
This would date the attempt near the end of the "fraternity war" in 1850, when after a severe struggle the University at last accepted the presence of social fraternities.

Phi Beta Kappa was not mentioned in the "Minutes" of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts of that period. According to record, the faculty on July 10, 1848, forbade the students to organize a literary society. It is possible that this society could have been a proposed chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, but it is more likely that the organization was to have been a local society with an active undergraduate program.

An unsigned and undated history of the Alpha chapter of Michigan reads as follows: "The official historian of the University remarks that as 'an indication of its free spirit … it is characterized by the total absence, from the beginning, of a marking system, and of a hierarchy of college honors, and the sole reliance upon natural incentives to secure study and win scholarship.'" These words explain two difficulties which so long attended the introduction of a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa into the University of Michigan: its aim of fostering scholastic distinction was felt to conflict with the educational ideal of the University, and in the absence of a marking system it was argued that the appropriate machinery was lacking for selecting students with accuracy and fairness. Apparently, the gradeless recording system resulted from a belief that distinctions, even on the basis of scholarship, were out of place in a state university. Many educators, however, were of the opinion that grades encouraged high scholarship, and no doubt many members of the first University of Michigan faculty were well aware of and concurred in this view. Although not positively known, it is believed that their decision to dispense with grades sprang from sincere conviction and that the choice was made for the purpose of preserving democratic equality.

No account of a preliminary discussion of grades has been preserved, for the marking of passed, not passed, or conditioned had become established in the five years before the record of faculty meetings was begun. This record shows that the members of the faculty were men of stern temperament who were more disposed to give a student demerits for inattention to his studies than to hold out inducements for superior work. The task of a faculty member, as thus conceived, was to hold the student unremittingly to the performance of his duty. On January 9, 1865, Professor Alexander Winchell wrote in his diary: "Had call from Tutor Adams in reference to a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa in the University." Winchell was absent from many of the faculty meetings in that eventful year, and apparently nothing came of the suggestion.

President Angell was greatly surprised Page  1931at the absence of grades when he came to the University in 1871, but soon became an earnest advocate of the practice which he found here. Various comments on the subject are made in his annual reports. The quality of the class work, he said, proved that the mature student did not require grades as an incentive. The upperclassmen, in particular, were studying not for marks or credits, but "with a sincere devotion to learning seeking in a most generous and earnest spirit the broadest and deepest culture obtainable here." Students who might otherwise have suffered from a planless program under the freer elective system, which he favored, by the lack of grades were thus spared the temptation of choosing courses simply to obtain a high average. Although President Angell was a member of Phi Beta Kappa (Brown University, 1849) and served as a member of the first senate (1883-92), he did not early encourage the establishment of a chapter on this campus. By 1883, when the United Chapters were organized, Phi Beta Kappa was represented by a total of twenty-five chapters, the "West" being represented by three in Ohio — Adelbert College of Western Reserve University, Kenyon College, and Marietta College. The geographical distribution of chapters rapidly changed, however, in the decade 1887-96; six of the sixteen added during that time were in the Middle West, and of these, four were in state universities younger than the University of Michigan.

The traditional indifference of the University toward recognition of exceptional scholarship persisted outwardly, but with the passage of time and the increase in the material prosperity of the state, different ideas of education arose. Students who had done good work here were resentful when former high-school classmates proudly displayed Phi Beta Kappa keys won at other institutions. This injustice was recognized by faculty members who as undergraduates elsewhere had been elected to the society.

In 1898-99 definite action was taken. A petition, signed by both undergraduates and graduates, requesting the establishment of a chapter was handed to Professor Henry S. Carhart to be presented to the proper authorities. Although it failed of its purpose, it precipitated much discussion.

Professor Robert M. Wenley reported on the objections (Mich. Alum., 6[1899-1900], p. 47). In outline, among his principal points, were these:

  • I. Theoretical or even imaginary objections.
    • A. The judgment of the world may reverse that of the society; hence, an election to Phi Beta Kappa has no value.
      • Answer: All academic judgments are subject to the same risk, but this by no means lessens the value of education or the rewards which are conferred upon outstanding students.
    • B. Election to Phi Beta Kappa from the senior class tends to place too much emphasis upon the first degree.
      • Answer: If this means that it might weaken the incentive to seek distinction by doing graduate work, it should be noted that the very students earnest and able enough to enter Phi Beta Kappa are the ones most likely to proceed with graduate work and that the best graduate schools are in those institutions in which Phi Beta Kappa maintains a chapter.
    • C. It will cause undue rivalry among the students.
      • Answer: The student body at the University of Michigan is far too large to suffer from such rivalry, and scholastic honors must compete with those bestowed for participation in such activities as athletics.
    • D. The age-old difficulty, women.
      • Page  1932Answer: The constitution of Phi Beta Kappa does not prevent the election of women members; in fact, several chapters have made such elections and still survive.
  • II. Practical difficulties.
    • A. The lack of a grading system, which many think absolutely necessary to the proper conduct of elections of Phi Beta Kappa.
      • Answer: The society is able to adapt itself to existing conditions.
    • B. The difficulty of making a choice under the existing conditions.
      • Answer: The task is not impossible, and the society will undertake it.

An event which fostered the cause of Phi Beta Kappa at the University of Michigan was the abolition in 1901 of the four time-honored degrees of bachelor of letters, bachelor of philosophy, bachelor of arts, and bachelor of science in favor of an omnibus bachelor of arts degree and an almost completely elective program of studies. In a few years the effects of the greater freedom became noticeable. Less serious students sought the path of least resistance; others were overwhelmed by their own ambition. Out of the confusion emerged the necessity for encouraging high scholastic achievement.

The Michigan Chapter of Sigma Xi was established in 1903. For a few years thereafter, membership was open to seniors in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts who had done the greater part of their work in science and had excelled in scholarship. This award for superior students in science made the lack of a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa the more conspicuous. The final successful attempt to establish a chapter came from the students themselves. A feeling was growing among the more serious undergraduates that higher scholarship would be promoted by such academic distinction as Phi Beta Kappa could confer. At length in 1906 a new movement was begun under the leadership of two organizations, Quadrangle and Mortar Board, made up of members chosen on the basis of high scholarship and literary achievement. A petition was prepared in which the following points were brought out:

  • 1. That investigation has made clear that the desire for some formal recognition of scholarship and personal worth is strong throughout the student body.
  • 2. That the University of Michigan recognizes merit along other lines but makes no formal acknowledgment of intellectual and scholarly attainments of the students.
  • 3. That Phi Beta Kappa selects its members in the senior year, when the students of the University have demonstrated their ability and their personal worth.
  • 4. That Phi Beta Kappa has a chapter in all the other large colleges of the country, and so helps to uphold a certain standard of scholarship and character in the college world, and it seems accordingly desirable that the University of Michigan, as a recognized power in education, should contribute her support to this end.
  • 5. That Phi Beta Kappa confers distinction without material advantages.
  • 6. That Phi Beta Kappa is a democratic institution, in that its methods are known to every student and it is not exclusive, since its honors are open for the competition of all.
  • 7. That the plan under consideration does not necessitate a definite grading or marking system.

On January 30, 1907, a meeting of the faculty members of Phi Beta Kappa was called to consider the question of organizing a chapter at the University of Michigan. The names of the eleven professors who responded to this first call were: Arthur G. Canfield, Arthur Fair-banks, John A. Fairlie, Francis W. Kelsey, Alfred H. Lloyd, Joseph L. Markley, Frederic L. Paxson, Walter B. Pillsbury, John S. P. Tatlock, Hugo P. Thieme, and Robert M. Wenley. Mr. Page  1933Lloyd was elected temporary chairman and Mr. Fairlie temporary secretary. The student petition was then read. On the motion of Mr. Paxson those present formed themselves into the Alpha Honor Society of the University of Michigan, and a president, a secretary, and an executive committee of three were elected. After conferring with President Angell a constitution for the present honor society was drawn up, and a formal application was forwarded to the senate of the United Chapters requesting its endorsement for a charter. This application was signed by Henry C. Adams, Henry S. Carhart, Arthur L. Cross, William V. N. Garretson, William H. Hobbs, Herbert A. Kenyon, Edward H. Kraus, John F. Shepard, F. M. Taylor, W. H. Wait, H. L. Wilgus, and Max Winkler, in addition to the eleven who had organized the Alpha Honor Society.

On March 8, 1907, the senate of the United Chapters unanimously recommended to the Council that a charter be granted for a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa at the University of Michigan. On the strength of this action, the Alpha Honor Society then proceeded to apply to seniors in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts the same estimates and tests of personality, character, and scholarship that would have been applied had the election been made to a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, and on May 8, 1907, elected to membership ten men and nine women.

On May 28, 1907, a reception in their honor, followed by a dinner, was held in Barbour Gymnasium. Professor Alfred H. Lloyd, president, presided. Professor Herbert C. Sadler, as representative of Sigma Xi, welcomed the new organization to the University community; the other speakers of the evening were Professors Cross, M. L. D'Ooge, Fairbanks, Hobbs, R. Hudson, and Kelsey.

The National Council of the United Chapters, on September 12, 1907, adopted the recommendation made by the senate in the previous March.

Two months later, on November 13, 1907, the Alpha chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa of Michigan was installed by the president of the United Chapters, Professor Edwin A. Grosvenor of Amherst College. The names of President Angell and the twenty-three faculty members who had signed the application appear on the charter. Students from the senior class of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and members of Sigma Xi were guests at the ceremony, which took place in Sarah Caswell Angell Hall. The Michigan chapter thus founded comprised sixty-four members. The men and women of the class of 1907 who had previously been admitted to the Alpha Honor Society were formally elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and the Alpha Honor Society ceased to exist.

The installation of a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa marked one of the most important changes which had taken place at the University in many years. There was placed before the student body a definite challenge which could arouse ambition and quicken interest in scholarly achievements. Unfortunately, some of the old prejudice still lingered. Professor Alfred H. Lloyd, to whose tact, energy, and enthusiasm much of the credit and success for its establishment was due, wrote:

Real democracy must do all in its power to put all men, as well as all the interests and affairs of men, on equal footing in the sense of securing to all equal opportunity, but it can never do without excellence and the cordial, public recognition of it. What renders conscious excellence or publicly recognized and applauded excellence unworthy and undemocratic is, not by any means the excellence itself nor the consciousness or applause of it, but the unconsciousness of its responsibilities. In short, equal opportunity, public recognition of excellence, and public Page  1934service make the real democracy.


(Mich. Alum., 14 [1906-7], pp. 100-103.)

A delicate and difficult task confronted the new organization. Since the election of alumni was permitted by the rules of the United Chapters, it was agreed that good students of former years, who had been denied recognition by the tardy arrival of the chapter, should receive the honor, even if late. The charter members needed assistance in this evaluation, and they accordingly elected eleven other faculty members, all of whom had been graduated from the University and, by reason of their long association with the students, were in a position to render valuable advice. They were Professors Wooster W. Beman, Charles H. Cooley, Martin L. D'Ooge, Joseph H. Drake, Richard Hudson, Moritz Levi, Fred N. Scott, Claude H. Van Tyne, Allen S. Whitney, Dean Myra B. Jordan, and Dean John O. Reed.

From the long list of graduates from the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, prior to 1907, recommendations for alumnus membership were made. It was necessary, to some extent, to consider achievement subsequent to graduation, but in making the selections the members of the committee kept constantly in mind the fact that excellence in undergraduate scholarship was a prime prerequisite for election to Phi Beta Kappa. Therefore, so far as older teachers were willing to trust their memories and college records were available, undergraduate scholarship was the determining factor. All in all 452 elections of alumni were made before the chapter decided in 1932 to discontinue elections to alumnus membership. The action was taken not because of any waning of desire to give due recognition but because the loss of many older members of the faculty had made it increasingly difficult to obtain fair means of judgment. Another reason was the growing feeling in the society at large that the practice of electing alumni might easily be carried to excess.

The charter permits the election of honorary members, but the chapter has always been wary in availing itself of this privilege. In the fifty years of its existence only five such elections have been made.

Quite properly, inasmuch as the fraternity was organized with the purpose of giving recognition to high scholarship among undergraduates, the chapter has devoted its energy chiefly to making as careful and discriminating a choice as possible from the classes which have graduated since 1907. The primary ground of distinction is manifested by excellence in scholarship, as well as the qualifications of character and personality stressed by the parent organization. Furthermore, it is expected that only students who have taken at least one-half of their work in languages, literature, fine arts, history, political and social sciences, mathematics, philosophy, and science other than applied science may be considered as candidates.

At first, only seniors in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were elected, but when the School of Education was opened in 1921 its seniors also were made eligible, since so much of their work was done in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In 1927 the chapter voted to elect yearly not more than fifteen juniors of exceptionally high academic standing. Since 1930 graduate students who meet the rigid requirements have also been eligible for election; an amendment passed at the 1928 triennial council meeting made such elections possible. The first students from the School of Music were chosen in 1942.

On May 9, 1908, the first annual banquet Page  1935was held at the Michigan Union, at which the principal address was given by Professor George H. Palmer of Harvard University. The election of new members takes place once a year in the spring, and the initiates are honored at a banquet with a guest speaker and two student speakers, one representing the women initiates, the other the men. All in all, to June, 1956, a total of 3,561 elections have been made: 452 alumni members, 5 honorary members, 206 graduate students, 2,366 seniors and 313 juniors from the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 162 seniors from the School of Education, and 57 seniors from the School of Music.

In addition to the students who have been elected, all members of the faculty who have been chosen by this or any other chapter are considered active members of the Alpha Chapter of Michigan. Members of other chapters of Phi Beta Kappa, living in the vicinity, may affiliate with this chapter.

The selection of members is based on experience that undergraduate scholarship is a good test of both ability and character. It is impossible to avoid occasionally missing an eligible student. Sometimes, men of great ability make poor showing in their college work, but in the long run the intellectual leaders in a class are at its head, and these are they whom Phi Beta Kappa wishes to add to its list. Since the Alpha chapter of Michigan was ushered into the University community, it is believed that high ideals of scholarship have been materially promoted.

Sigma Xi

The Society of the Sigma Xi is a national organization, the aim of which is the furtherance of scientific research by the banding together of workers who have contributed, or may be expected to contribute, to the advancement of knowledge in any science. It was founded at Cornell University in 1886 through the merger of two independent movements started there — one for the encouragement of pure science, which had originated in the field of geology and had later been broadened under the name Society of Modern Scientists, and the other a local engineering society called Sigma Xi. The new Sigma Xi soon became a national society designed to promote all scientific research, but, spreading first to schools of engineering, it emphasized the applied aspect of science until it had become established in large endowed and state universities of more general scope. At the end of fifty years, sixty-eight regular chapters were functioning, besides thirty-four clubs or associations not possessing the privilege of electing new members.

In May, 1903, thirty-five members of the faculty and graduates of the University of Michigan obtained the charter for a chapter of Sigma Xi. The local organization declined a proffered Greek letter in favor of the simple designation the "Michigan chapter." Under this name it was installed June 4, 1903, with Professor J. Playfair McMurrich as president. The Michigan chapter later relinquished to the University of Missouri all claim to the letter M or its equivalent.

At one of its earliest business meetings (March 24, 1904), before selecting any students for membership the society voted to admit women. This vote was promptly reconsidered, but promptly reaffirmed, and of the twenty-nine students and five faculty members elected at that meeting, six were women.

Election to membership was conducted, in the early years, by vote of the entire chapter upon recommendations from committees in the various colleges and schools. As the University rapidly Page  1936grew, this method became so unwieldy and erratic that in 1913 the council of the chapter was made the final electoral body. For many years regular nominations for membership were made only in the spring, with additional fall elections in the two years 1921 and 1922. At present nominations are made in November and initiation is in March.

The conditions of membership have changed from time to time. At first the election of students was based, as it was at most other institutions, principally upon scholarship. Undergraduate members were drawn from the upper 10 per cent of the seniors who had done most of their work in science. Phi Beta Kappa, whose University of Michigan chapter was installed in 1907, did not elect seniors pursuing chiefly scientific courses; in effect, therefore, the two honor societies were complementary. A formal proposal to refuse for Sigma Xi any senior who had been elected to Phi Beta Kappa was defeated in 1910, and again in 1919; nevertheless, several students were rejected in 1920 on the specific ground that they had previously been elected to Phi Beta Kappa.

From the first, research was one of the prime qualifications for the admission of graduate students and faculty members to Sigma Xi. These two groups also differed from each other in the qualifications set up. Graduate students who held faculty positions were being chosen as from the faculty in 1915, but at least since 1920 they have been elected as graduate students.

Because Sigma Xi was founded specifically to promote scientific research, high scholarship as a sole requirement for undergraduate admission gradually came to be regarded as an anomaly. Should not the distinction between undergraduate members, with their scholastic requirement only, and graduate members elected on the basis of research, be replaced by a distinction between persons admitted after having conducted research and those who merely gave promise of so doing? The Michigan chapter went on record in 1914, and again in 1916, as favoring the new classification "associate membership" for those elected on the basis of promise, and in 1920, after suitable enabling revisions had been introduced into the national constitution, adopted the distinction.

With the growing insistence on research for admission to Sigma Xi, election of seniors in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts declined, until, by 1920, it had almost ceased. Even associate membership was not usually bestowed on seniors in that College, although it remained open to seniors in the College of Engineering. This gradual abandonment of senior elections in the Literary College left the students of science without an honor society, a condition later remedied to some extent by a change in the rules of Phi Beta Kappa whereby that society elected purely on the basis of scholarship, without regard to subjects, and further, in 1926, by the establishment of a chapter of Phi Kappa Phi at the University.

As early as 1915 the Michigan chapter of Sigma Xi sought, in conjunction with Phi Beta Kappa, to inaugurate some plan by which recognition of intellectual attainments should be given at the Commencement. The idea then germinated bore fruit years later in the Honors Convocation, which has become an established annual event.

The general program of Sigma Xi at the University of Michigan consists of five meetings a year. As compared with its work at other institutions, it has been voluntarily restricted because of the prior existence of the Research Club, which was providing some members of Sigma Xi with an opportunity to meet with representatives of research in the humanities.

The several meetings of the year culminate Page  1937in the initiation banquet in the spring. Some of the meetings between 1921 and 1925 were held jointly with the Junior Research Club. Until 1928-29 the principal feature of each meeting other than the business session was an address of general scientific interest. Many of the meetings since the fall of 1928 have been visits about the campus to places of interest to research workers — the various laboratories, departments of the Library and Hospital, the dictionary offices, and museum collections, including the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments — where representatives of the departments concerned, acting as hosts, have discussed and demonstrated their work. The majority of speakers before the Michigan chapter have been members of the faculty or administrative staff, but more than one-third have been brought from other institutions.

The balance and range of scientific interests of the chapter can be inferred from the variety of subjects represented by its twenty-seven presidents, each of whom has served for two years. Seven have come from marine, electrical, chemical, sanitary engineering, and engineering mechanics, and seven from medical departments — bacteriology, biological chemistry, psychiatry, pathology, and anatomy. One president has been a pharmaceutical chemist, another an economic zoologist, and the other eleven were engaged in basic physical and natural sciences — mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, physics, zoology, psychology, paleontology, and mineralogy.

To the close of 1955-56, the Michigan chapter of Sigma Xi elected directly to membership 1,930 persons, promoted to membership 1,075 who had previously been elected associates either here or at other institutions, and elected 2,471 associate members who have not been subsequently advanced to membership in the Michigan chapter. The total number of different persons elected is, therefore, 5,476. Many others are or have been affiliated with the Michigan chapter after election elsewhere.

Phi Kappa Phi

The all-campus award for excellence in scholarship, outstanding character, and conspicuous service to the University is membership in the national honor society Phi Kappa Phi. This organization was established at the University of Maine in 1897 for the purpose of emphasizing the democracy and unity of American higher education. Its point of departure from the policies of other honor societies is that it recognizes no specific academic requirements. Any member of the University, regardless of his major subject or the college to which he belongs, is eligible for membership after his junior year.

Achievement in the various fields of learning, law, the classics, engineering, and medicine is indicated by the eight "points" or groups of rays on the emblem of the society which radiate from behind a flattened globe bearing the initials of the Phi Kappa Phi motto, Philosophia kratei photon — "the love of learning rules the world."

The organization of the University of Michigan chapter in 1926 came about as the result of a suggestion made to President Little by Clarence E. S. Bardsley, who later became professor of civil engineering at the University of Missouri and who was nationally famous for his work and writings in the field of engineering. Both Little and Bardsley were members of Phi Kappa Phi.

The petition for organization, signed by President Little, the deans of the several schools and colleges, and certain professors, eligible alumni, and members initiated elsewhere, was dated June 21, 1926. The installation took place on November 26.

Page  1938The value to the University of a national all-campus honor society was appreciated, especially by those schools and colleges of the University graduating relatively few students. Although individual schools have their own honor societies, the advantage of an emblem of scholarship easily recognized by people in all fields was realized.

Each year a list of candidates, with the names arranged in order of honorpoint rating, is prepared for the executive committee. The residence requirement is thirty hours credit. Only 7 per cent of the class may be elected to membership, and each candidate must rank scholastically in the highest one-fifth of the graduating class of his respective college or school. In the larger colleges of the University, selection has been almost entirely a reward for scholarship, and since no definite measures of character and personality are established, the election, which is made by the executive committee of the local chapter, includes the upper 7 per cent of the class. The smaller schools, colleges, and graduate divisions make specific recommendations, which the executive committee of the society usually accepts, of those in the eligible group. Since 1933, 5 per cent of the graduate students have been also elected each year.

The University of Michigan chapter of Phi Kappa Phi maintains a custom aimed toward encouraging undergraduate scholastic achievement. Every freshman named in Honors Convocation receives from the president of the local chapter a formal congratulation in printed script, similar in appearance to the notification of election.

From 1934 on three graduate scholarships were granted each year by the national society. Several of these scholarships were won by candidates from the University of Michigan.

By 1956 a total of 5,961 members had been initiated, a few faculty members, in addition to graduate students and seniors. Dues of $12 have sufficed to include the key, the certificate, a place at the initiation banquet, and a year's subscription to the quarterly Phi Kappa Phi Journal. A small financial surplus has also been maintained.

Quadrangle Club

Sometime during 1899, or possibly earlier, the idea of a "literary" society began to interest at least three students. Christian Gauss was thinking of an "Omar Khayyam Club." Harold M. Bowman argued for the "Skull and Bones" plan. Clarence B. Morrill wanted something that would bring together those of intellectual interests who might not otherwise find each other in the crowd. Gauss graduated in 1899, to become Instructor in French; the other two were seniors in 1900. Quite likely others were concerned.

An early spring day of 1900 found Gauss and Morrill on the grass in front of the old Library. The subject returned, and Morrill proposed that something be started. They hunted up Bowman in the Library. Forthwith, Quadrangle was born. A second meeting soon was arranged, and shortly Corwin, president of the Senior Class, Slaughter, Assistant in Philosophy, McInnis, Assistant in English, and possibly others, were added.

Before further action, Wenley was called in, and soon he was entertaining eight founders of Quadrangle in his home. He contributed a good deal to the organization. Before coming to Michigan in 1896 Wenley had already been a member of a club of this type at the University of Glasgow, where he had been "University medallist in Philosophy and Theology, Fellow, 1884. President of the Students' Representative Council, President Page  1939of the Union, President of the Liberal Club, President of the Philosophical Society, Glasgow."

Under the title "Academic Tensions" Wenley's contribution to "The Quadrangle Book" gives, in delightful style, what is perhaps the only record of his knowledge and experience of university clubs. He tells how a number of students at Oxford rather spontaneously organized Old Mortality about 1860, naming their club after Scott's eccentric tombstone-carving character. A little later, when Glasgow was rising to her heights, the Old Mortality idea was adopted, and Glasgow's Witenagemot club came into being.

The 1900 Michiganensian prints the first list of members of the Quadrangle Club: Dons — Robert M. Wenley, George Rebec, and Benjamin P. Bourland. Members — Benjamin P. Bourland, Harold M. Bowman, Ira A. Campbell, Edward S. Corwin, Arthur L. Cross, Frank D. Eaman, Christian F. Gauss, Evans Holbrook, Edward C. Marsh, Lewis W. McCandless, Norman K. McInnis, Clarence B. Morrill, Harlow S. Person, George Rebec, Thomas L. Robinson, William D. Russell, Frederick B. Shoaff, Frank S. Simons, John W. Slaughter, James S. Symons, Harry I. Weinstein, and Lafayette Young.

In his "Academic Tensions" Wenley, to "help Quadrangle to become more conscious of itself," quoted from something a member of the Old Mortality Club had written: "By some of the members of the society its meetings are remembered as the very salt of their university life. The free discussion of everything in heaven or earth, the fresh enjoyment of intellectual sympathy, the fearless intercommunication of spirits, the youthful faith that the key of truth lies very near to our hands, gave a unique zest and charm to those meetings of students with students, before the inevitable parting of the ways of manhood has come." Wenley conferred on Quadrangle the privilege of "free discussion of everything in heaven or earth." Such discussion he had enjoyed as a student. And the quotation he gives speaks of "students with students" — hence, a liberal club for students.

As Holbrook pointed out, two of the faculty founders, Wenley and Rebec, were in philosophy, one, Bourland, in Romance languages. This gives the clue to the club's principal interests in early years — literature and philosophy. But change is inevitable. Fred N. Scott put his stamp on the club's trend of interest during the early period. Scott's effect was literary, of course, and one imagines there was less philosophy and more literature while he was active. It is safe to guess that Charles H. Cooley opened the door to let a little sociology trickle in. One does not need to guess about David Friday; economics would have a fair share of attention after 1908, if he and Henry C. Adams were to be kept interested. And if political science had been neglected up to 1910, Jesse Reeves appeared about then to set matters straight. History probably had naturally been given a fair deal; at any rate, it never languished for want of support after Claude Van Tyne's or U. B. Phillips' advent.

If the preceding paragraph seems to indicate faculty domination to the exclusion of proper mention of student interests and activities, it probably stands for a true picture. The faculty stayed on year after year; they are known, they are remembered, they have left their imprint. The students came and were soon gone, unless they could get nothing else to do and had to join the faculty. Moreover, from the very beginning, faculty members were handed a large share of control, to make sure of the election of none but high-standing students. However, Page  1940Quadrangle was a students' club, following Skull and Bones to the extent of electing fifteen students each year. And now, quoting from a letter from a founder, Clarence Morrill:

Membership is perpetual.… Consequently, our meetings along about 1906-8, when I last saw Quadrangle, were attended by many members of the faculty. This, however, I do not think repressed the baker's dozen of undergraduates, because of the character of our meetings. After a desultory dropping-in period, order was called by the Provost and a paper or brief lecture was presented by some member, usually a youngster, most often a graduate student. Once in a while we had wonderful talks from men like Scott, Wenley, McLaughlin, Cooley. Rebec was also an unfailing fount of ideas in conversation.

After the supper a discussion followed which, at first, was general and followed the subject; but it inevitably wandered away and broke the meeting into little groups. It was in these group conversations that the wonderful intimacies between celebrated professors and callow undergraduates sprang up which gave Quadrangle its remarkable character, and which counteracted the tendency of mere numbers to swamp the individual in a university. Late in the evening a diversion occurred. Coffee, chocolate and buttered buns came up from Tuttle's — the real Tuttle's — and this broke up the little groups, which usually reassembled again. Then the older men went home to bed, while the youngsters wrangled over philosophical niceties into the wee hours.

Thus, even by 1908, Quadrangle was largely a faculty club, but the attendance was predominantly of undergraduates and instructors. Students have always been elected, with a minimum of perhaps ten in any one year; latterly, the number has exceeded fifteen a year. Also, the society began with philosophical and literary interests — so much so that each member, on contributing a paper, did his best to turn writer or philosopher at least for a night, no matter what his calling. But inevitably, the introduction of strong personalities has swung Quadrangle's attention through a wide range of human interests, even as "Old Mortality discussed everything in heaven or earth."

Early meetings were held in the Chi Psi house on Huron Street, also in a room over one of the State Street stores. For several years quarters were in the Groves Building at the corner of State and Liberty streets. About 1906 a move was made to the top floor of the Calkins Drug Store building on State Street, from which outlook Quadrangle frequently viewed the campus until 1920. The Union took care of matters for another two years. Thereafter, meetings were held at the homes of various faculty members until, in the 1930's, the club settled down in quarters assigned to it in the Michigan Union.

The Quadrangle Book mentioned above is a 1914 publication of contributions to "Q" — a private edition of 150 copies, one copy being kept in the University Library. "Q" occurred at the end of the evening, following refreshments, when contributions, which are anonymous, were read. In any one year there has been poetry of both kinds — good and bad — satire, wit, serious and hard thrusts at whatever may seem to the author to need bashing, humorous essays, and so on. Each year, on the average, the bound, typed manuscripts of "Q" have amounted to a fair-sized book. Many a now-famous personage has left his silliness at least partly behind by giving vent to it in "Q."

The conservative element on the campus in times past cast a wary eye at Quadrangle. At one time a Quadrangler incautiously recommended a man for a teaching position by saying he was a former provost of the club; it immediately developed that no good had been achieved, and there was considerable Page  1941defending to do. And how things — and men — can change! Wenley, the liberal who was a founding member, was met one day by a member on Wenley's return to the campus after World War I. The member wished to know if Wenley would be attending meetings. Not he. "That place," replied the philosopher, "is overrun with too many radicals."

Freshman Honorary Societies
Phi Eta Sigma

In order to encourage and reward high scholarship among the men students of the freshman classes, Thomas Arkle Clark, at the University of Illinois, conceived and developed the idea of Phi Eta Sigma. The fraternity came into existence on March 22, 1923. The seeds of the national organization were sown in the spring of 1926, and they began to bear fruit in the following fall when the University of Michigan petitioned for admittance.

On November 19, 1926, the University of Michigan chapter was installed by Dean Clark, W. Donald Forsyth, and S. S. Howe of the University of Illinois. Dean Bursley was elected to honorary membership and was chosen as the adviser for the chapter. President Little and Dean Effinger were initiated as honorary members, and forty-six freshmen met the membership requirement of at least half A and half B for a normal schedule. In the spring of 1927 Dean Bursley, who had been actively interested in the activities of Phi Eta Sigma on the campus since its inception, was elected grand vice-president of the first national organization.

Previous to 1928 the only motive of the organization was recognition of superior scholarship, and meetings were very informal and irregularly called. In 1928 Phi Eta Sigma undertook the projects of supplying freshman advisers at the beginning of the year for the new freshmen, and of formulating a plan to install the honor system in the projected University College. Upon the abandonment of the plan for the College the latter project was given up.

During the intervening years the main activities of the club have been smokers for freshman men and dinners at the Michigan Union for members. On these occasions speakers have been engaged. It has never been the intent or policy of the society to participate in campus activities or social life. Instead, Phi Eta Sigma brings the subject of scholastic attainment to the attention of the college freshman immediately upon his entrance into college and thus achieves its primary purpose of elevating standards of scholarship.

Alpha Lambda Delta

Alpha Lambda Delta was formed at the University of Illinois May 31, 1924, for the purpose of recognizing high scholarship among freshman women and of inspiring them to study. The University of Michigan chapter was founded in 1928, the fourth member chapter of the national organization.

Alice Crocker Lloyd ('16), Dean of Women from 1930 to 1950, was a charter member of the chapter at Michigan and served continuously as its faculty adviser. She was one of the six members-at-large on the National Council from 1936 until her death in 1950, and served as national vice-president in 1948.

Any freshman woman who in her first semester attains a scholastic average equivalent to at least half A and half B on a normal schedule is automatically elected to membership.

Since the principal function of Alpha Lambda Delta is merely to encourage the intellectually promising women students at a critical phase of their college careers, and to make underclassmen aware of the value of scholastic success, the society attempts no program except its annual Page  1942initiation banquet in the spring. At this time new members are given the privilege of wearing the emblem — a pin which represents a tiny candle — and they elect officers from among their own number. The officers, with the help of the faculty adviser, carry on business with national headquarters, arrange for delegation at national conventions, and issue invitations to those of the next freshman class eligible for membership. The outgoing officers, the only sophomores at the banquet, conduct the initiation and install their successors in office.

Tau Beta Pi

Tau Beta Pi, the engineering honor society, was founded in 1885 at Lehigh University. In 1904 Professor Henry H. Higbie came to the University of Michigan from Columbia University, where a chapter had recently been installed. He was influential in establishing Michigan Gamma chapter in the spring of 1906.

As a minimum requirement of eligibility the candidate for membership must be in the upper one-fourth of the senior class or in the upper one-eighth of the junior class and must also show promise of giving especially valuable and useful service to the engineering profession.

Achievement in industry is recognized by the conferment of membership with distinction upon prominent engineers. The custom at the University is to admit one such member each year.

The society's aim, as stated in the preamble to its constitution, is "to mark in a fitting manner those who have conferred honor upon their Alma Mater by distinguished scholarship and exemplary character as undergraduates in engineering … and to foster a spirit of liberal culture in the engineering colleges of America."

Iota Alpha

The plan for the engineering honor society of Iota Alpha was formulated by faculty members of the College of Engineering at New York University in the spring of 1919. The name consists of the initial letter of the first and last words of a phrase from Hesiod's Works and Days (line 288), translated "toil before achievement." The emblem, an elongated hexagon, represents a crystal, the fineness and purity of which symbolize the product of labor and discipline. On the face of the emblem are the letters Iota Alpha and a sprig of laurel, traditional mark of the recognition of achievement.

The founding of Beta chapter at Michigan in 1925 marked the beginning of a conservative program of national expansion adopted the previous year. Members are elected from senior and graduate students in November and initiated in January. They remain as junior members, however, until they are thirty years old and have completed seven years of professional experience in engineering. Junior membership then lapses, but one who has held it may be considered for full membership upon application. This device of the national organization was invented to eliminate "deadwood" and thus to keep the character of the society such as to deserve the respect of the more mature members.

The aim of the society is to stamp approval upon good work done by students, in all branches of engineering, yet place character and the promise of future usefulness upon a par with scholastic excellence. Efforts are made, especially, to stimulate young engineers engaged in practice, as well as to recognize by honorary membership prominent members of the profession.

The Michigan chapter became inactive in 1942 because of conditions brought about by the war, particularly the loss of graduate enrollment in the Page  1943University. There is at present no plan to reactivate the society.

Alpha Omega Alpha

Alpha Omega Alpha is a nonsecret, college medical honor society, membership to which is based entirely upon scholarship, moral qualifications being satisfactory. It was organized at the College of Medicine of the University of Illinois in Chicago on August 25, 1902, by William Root. It is the only organization of its kind in this country, and in medical circles holds a place comparable to the position of Phi Beta Kappa in literary colleges. The purposes of AOA are to encourage scholarship, personal honesty, and the spirit of medical research.

The Michigan chapter of Alpha Omega Alpha was the thirteenth formed and first met in 1907. Following the lead of the national organization, the local chapter has the policy of selecting not more than one-sixth of the senior class for membership, and five members of the junior class. The new members are presented to the chapter at an annual initiation banquet held in the fall. This meeting features an address by some well-known medical personality.

The other activities of the chapter center around the Student Day program, which is held each spring. This event gives recognition to those students who have participated in medical research. At the meeting these students present, in formal fashion, the results of their investigations to the faculty and student body of the Medical School.

Rho Chi

Rho Chi, the only national pharmaceutical honor society, is regarded highly by pharmacists and professional workers in related fields. Chapters are authorized only in accredited colleges of pharmacy in the United States. The principal objective of Rho Chi is to promote the advancement of the pharmaceutical sciences through encouragement and recognition of outstanding scholarship. The society has a significant research fund from which grants are made and annually holds a convention at which outstanding speakers are heard.

The national society grew out of a local pharmaceutical group at the University of Michigan, called the Aristolochite Society. The parent organization flourished in the College of Pharmacy on the Michigan campus from 1908 until 1922, when it ceased to exist and a charter was granted by the state of Michigan to Alpha Chapter of Rho Chi.

Over the years Rho Chi has grown into a nation-wide and influential organization. Alpha Chapter has been active throughout this period, and its members have served as officers and in various other capacities in the national society.

Students are selected from among the juniors, seniors, and graduate students working in pharmacy on the basis of scholarship and professional contributions to pharmacy. A scholastic average of B is required, together with approval by the dean of the College for recommendation to membership. Election is by ballot of the voting membership of the chapter, and affirmative votes must be cast by three-fourths of this membership.

Initiation is held in the spring, usually in co-operation with the honors banquet sponsored by the Student Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association of the College of Pharmacy. Alpha Chapter does not hold monthly or other regular meetings.

Alpha Chapter sponsors a number of prizes and one scholarship in the College of Pharmacy. Prizes are awarded to outstanding Page  1944students in the freshman and sophomore classes at the spring dinner, and a $100 scholarship is awarded annually to the student who has shown the greatest scholastic improvement during the preceding year. The basis for this award is unusual in that emphasis is placed on over-all improvement rather than on a high average. A student who at one time may have been deficient in over-all average may be awarded the scholarship.

A comprehensive history has recently been published, "The Rho Chi Society," by Roy A. Bowers and David L. Cowen, in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education (19:244-84, 1955). The role of the University of Michigan in originating and helping to develop Rho Chi during recent decades is outlined in this history.

Tau Sigma Delta

To quote from the constitution: "The purpose of this society shall be to bring into closer relation the departments of Applied Arts such as Architecture and Landscape Design, to maintain a higher standard of scholarship in these departments and to supply a common tie between the similar departments of the several universities."

The society was founded here at Michigan in 1913, mainly through the efforts of Herbert L. Burgess, a student in the College of Architecture. Three other students in his class worked with him to establish this, the Alpha chapter. All four names appear on the constitution, Burgess, Fred B. Klein, Harold M. Penney, and Harry F. Weeks. Burgess designed the society insignia. There are now chapters at many other universities.

Eligibility for membership is dependent solely on grades and moral character. Students in the Graduate School are eligible for full active membership. Activities are restricted to monthly luncheons, at which time members of the faculty speak on current topics and trends in architecture, etc. Two initiations are held each year, one in the fall and one in the spring.

Order of the Coif

The American order that bears this name is the outgrowth of an earlier society known as Theta Kappa Nu. This society was founded at the University of Illinois in 1902 for the purpose of promoting scholarship among American law students. The Michigan chapter of Theta Kappa Nu came into existence on November 15, 1910, when a charter was granted to a group of students desirous of organizing an honorary scholastic society in the University of Michigan Law School. The charter members were Arthur J. Abbott, Howard L. Barkdull, McKee Robison, and John S. Prescott, of the Law class of 1911 and Samuel H. Roberts, who was a graduate of the Law Department at the University in 1907.

Theta Kappa Nu had a slow growth, and in 1910 had but six chapters. In the meantime, in 1907, there had been organized at the Law School of Northwestern University a local society having the same object, which took the name Order of the Coif. The undergraduate members of the Order of the Coif in 1910 accepted a charter from Theta Kappa Nu. In 1911 the delegates to a national convention of Theta Kappa Nu decided to submit to the chapters for adoption not only a thoroughly revised national constitution but also a recommendation that the name be changed to the Order of the Coif. The constitution and change of name were ratified by the chapters and, thus, in February, 1912, the first national organization of the Order of the Coif was effected. Today, there are in Page  1945existence forty-six chapters of the order.

The name for this order was derived from an English order of the same name that was one of the most ancient and one of the most honored institutions of the common law. The English order was a small and exclusive association of lawyers from whose members the judges of the Court of Common Pleas, the King's Bench, and the Exchequer were appointed. "Coif" was the word used to designate the cap which all the members of the order were compelled to wear. This close-fitting hood can be seen today in old engravings, pictures, and effigies of distinguished judges and serjeants. With the advent of wigs the "coif" became a piece of white lawn attached to the top of the wig.

The fundamental purpose of the American Order of the Coif is, "to foster a spirit of careful study and to mark in a fitting manner those who have attained a high grade of scholarship." Consistent with such a declared purpose, student membership is limited to those who, in their senior year, rank in the upper 10 per cent of their class. Each spring the faculty members of the order elect the new student members from this group. In addition, each chapter annually may elect one member of the legal profession who has attained distinction to honorary membership in the society. The Michigan chapter has frequently elected outstanding lawyers and judges to such honorary membership.

Membership in the Order of the Coif is the highest scholastic honor that can be bestowed upon the graduates of the University of Michigan Law School. The membership lists include the names of many men and women who later distinguished themselves as lawyers, jurists, educators, legislators, in government office, or in business. Through 1956 seven hundred students have been honored by membership in the Order of the Coif.

Sigma Alpha Iota

In the early spring of 1903, Mrs. Fredreka Howland, the wife of William Howland, head of the Vocal Department of the University School of Music, suggested that a musical sorority be organized which would aim for high standards of musicianship and for promotion of the highest type of music. A meeting was held in Mr. Howland's studio in Ann Arbor to discuss this idea. There was some talk of a musical club, but finally a sorority was decided upon as better fitting plans for close bonds of friendship. It was decided that only students of fine character and special musical talent combined with excellent scholarship would be eligible for membership. On June 12, 1903, Sigma Alpha Iota Musical Sorority was founded. Following are the names of the founders, who were graduate students and faculty members: Elizabeth A. Campbell, Frances Caspari, Minnie M. Davis (Sherrill), Leila H. Farlin (Laughlin), Nora Crane Hunt, Georgina Potts, and Mary Storrs (Andersen).

Minnie M. Davis was elected the first president of Alpha chapter. The first annual initiation was held March 7, 1904, at which time Mrs. William Howland was initiated as the first patroness and Blanche Abbott as the first active member. Minnie M. Davis presided at this initiation, which was held in her home. A banquet followed. Madame Louise Homer, the first national honorary member, was initiated by Alpha Chapter at the home of Elsa Stanley on May 12, 1904.

In order to have the sorority properly incorporated under Michigan state laws, articles of association were drawn and signed on December 1, 1904, by seven Page  1946active members and two patronesses of Alpha Chapter. The badge was designed by Edward F. Roehm of Detroit. It has a border of fifteen pearls encircling seven pipes of Pan. The enameled plaques of the Greek letters appear between the pearls at each side and top center. The charter was completed under the supervision of Elsa G. Stanley, president of Alpha chapter in 1904-5, who, with Elizabeth A. Campbell, installed eleven members of Beta Chapter, Northwestern University School of Music, Evanston, Illinois, on December 3, 1904.

From this well-founded beginning the growth of Sigma Alpha Iota has been steady and strong so that the national organization today consists of 105 college chapters, seventy alumnae chapters, and twenty-six alumnae groups in cities throughout the United States. SAI began as an honorary musical sorority, but changed to "professional" in 1922. The name was amended in 1928 to that used today: "Sigma Alpha Iota International Musical Fraternity for Women." The membership consists of college students, alumnae, patronesses, and honorary members. The object of this organization is to give moral and material aid to its members, to promote and dignify the musical profession, to establish and maintain friendly relations between musicians and music schools, and to further the development of music in America.

During World War II Sigma Alpha Iota planned for the period of reconstruction with rehabilitation services of music. Many portable instruments, including clinic organs, have been presented to veterans' hospitals for therapeutic as well as recreational purposes. Owing to the needs of foreign countries, music and music library materials have been sent to European countries. Similar aid has also been given to schools in the Philippines and in Korea.

Beta Gamma Sigma

In the field of commerce and business administration Beta Gamma Sigma is the only scholarship honor society recognized by the American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business. The purpose of the society is to encourage and reward scholarship and accomplishment along the lines of business activity among students and graduates of colleges or courses in commerce or in business administration in American colleges and universities, to promote the advancement and spread of education in the science of business, to foster principles of honesty and integrity in business practice, and to encourage a more friendly attitude of the business public toward graduates of commercial courses.

The national organization of Beta Gamma Sigma is the outgrowth of a consolidation of three local honorary clubs, the Economics Club of the University of California, Delta Kappa Chi of the University of Illinois, and Beta Gamma Sigma of the University of Wisconsin, the last having been founded in 1907. The consolidation was effected in 1913.

Elections to membership are held each semester and are confined to members of the graduating class who rank in the upper tenth and from members of the junior class who are among the highest 2 per cent on the basis of scholarship. In addition, there are provisions for the election of alumni members and honorary members who have shown distinguished ability in the field of business. Graduate students may also be elected if they were not available for election as undergraduates.

The installation of the Alpha of Michigan Chapter of Beta Gamma Sigma was held on May 23, 1930, at the Michigan Union. The ceremony was conducted by Professor Hiram T. Scovill, of the University Page  1947of Illinois, member of the executive national committee of Beta Gamma Sigma, assisted by Professor Charles L. Jamison of the School of Business Administration of the University of Michigan, who is a charter member of the Alpha of Wisconsin chapter, and by Albert R. Mott, from the chapter of the University of Minnesota. At that time the following active charter members were initiated: Joseph E. Castner, Lemuel L. Laing, Kenneth G. Stuart, Milton J. Drake, Robert T. Beall, Clare E. Griffin, Ernest M. Fisher, Olin W. Blackett, William A. Paton, and Robert G. Rodkey.

DEPARTMENTAL SCHOLASTIC SOCIETIES

Student Branch of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences

THE aeronautical societies at the University of Michigan have always performed the function of uniting enthusiasts of aeronautics into a strong progressive group.

The history of these clubs, from which our present organization known as the University of Michigan Student Branch of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences has emerged, preceded the founding of the Department of Aeronautical Engineering by some seven years. Although the exact date of the founding of the first club is unknown, reference can be found to an aeronautical society as far back as 1909.

The first Aero Club benefited from the very considerable interest of Dean Herbert C. Sadler, then professor and chairman of the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, and from Professor Felix W. Pawlowski, who originated the first courses in aeronautical engineering at the University.

The activities of the club were as varied as they were extensive. A wind tunnel was constructed to study the behavior of various bodies in wind currents, and two gliders were designed and built by the members during the years 1911 to 1914. In 1915 the club was presented with a 1912 Model B Wright hydroplane, and in 1916, with a 35,000 cubic foot capacity free balloon. These were donations to the club from Russel Alger of Detroit and Frederic W. Alger ('18e) of Clarkston.

In 1925 the club's balloon was entered in the Detroit News Race and placed second. A part of the prize money was used to secure membership in the Balloon Section of the Detroit Flying Club. This enabled students to make flights in the balloons of that organization, and a number of successful trips were taken. In 1928 the club's activities were officially divided into a Balloon Section, a Glider Section, and a Motor Plane Section. The new Motor Plane Section proved its worth in 1930 by the fact that two men from this section were sent as delegates to the Collegiate Air Tour of the East.

At a meeting of the aeronautical engineers held on October 2, 1934, it was decided to form an Aeronautical Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, to be associated with the Mechanical Engineering Division already in existence. This was the first time the Aero Club had been affiliated with a national engineering society, and membership in it was subject only to the charter regulations of the national organization.

On May 19, 1936, at a combined meeting of the Aero Branch of the A.S.M.E. Page  1948and the I.A.S., the A.S.M.E. branch petitioned the I.A.S. to absorb the club under the name "University of Michigan Student Branch of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences." The national organization accepted the request and the Student Branch was founded. Membership to the branch is open to all students interested in aeronautical engineering.

The branch sponsors regularly scheduled technical meetings at which are presented guest lecturers and film showings. Field trips are made to aeronautical industries and government laboratories, and an annual picnic is held with the aeronautical engineering faculty. The University of Michigan Student Branch has established a record of active as well as successful participation in the annual regional conferences, organized by the various senior sections of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, which give student members an opportunity to present papers in competition for cash awards. First award papers, graduate and undergraduate from each conference, are published annually. Student members may subscribe, at special rates, to the Aeronautical Engineering Review and the Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. After graduation, any student member will automatically qualify for transfer to associate membership in the Institute.

American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Student Branch)

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers was not organized until 1908, which is in itself an indication of the youth of the profession. A Committee on Chemical Engineering Education was created at once, and this committee has had an important influence. Its functions were entirely advisory until, in 1923, the institute instructed it to survey the curricula at the schools offering programs in chemical engineering and report those which it considered as offering satisfactory courses taught according to acceptable standards. The report of the committee as adopted by the institute in 1925 listed fourteen schools in the United States as acceptable, and among them was the University of Michigan.

At the annual meeting held in December 1922, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers amended their constitution so as to form student chapters. At this same December meeting an application from the Chemical Engineering Society of the University of Michigan for admission as a Student Branch received favorable action.

Any student of the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering is eligible for membership. The affairs of the chapter are conducted by student officers elected each semester and are supervised by a counselor who is a faculty member appointed by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

About forty meetings are held each academic year. Thirty of these consist of luncheon meetings at which the sixty to eighty students prepare their own sandwiches. Usually, a movie of general or technical interest is shown, but occasionally a panel discussion is held. About eight evening meetings, with speakers from chemical engineering firms, are held. The speakers come from throughout the country, including both the West and East coasts. A discussion period, followed by refreshments, permits great informality at these meetings. About four field trips a year are held. Usually, chemical process plants in the Detroit industrial area are inspected.

Each year a different university is host for a regional meeting of the student chapters in the area of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, and Ohio. There is also a full-day student chapter program at each annual meeting of the American Institute Page  1949of Chemical Engineers, indicating the great interest of the parent organization in the student chapters. Whereas this student chapter stood alone in 1922, in 1956 it was the senior of 102 chapters.

American Society of Civil Engineers (Student Chapter)

The student chapter of the American Society of Civil Engineers at the University of Michigan was founded by twenty-four members of the senior engineering class of 1923 through the instigation of Professor Henry E. Riggs. Professor Riggs was the chapter's faculty adviser for 1923-24.

As there were a great many social societies on the campus at that time, the chapter was founded as an honorary society for civil engineers of the junior and senior years. Another engineering society, the Web and Flange, was also in existence, but it was absorbed by the student chapter a few years later.

The object of the society was to further the professional improvement of its members and to encourage intercourse with men of practical science. A student was required to have a 2.6 average and the unanimous approval of the active members in order to be accepted. From 1924-33 Professor Chester O. Wisler was adviser of the society.

In March, 1933, the society was changed from an honorary to a semihonorary group of civil-transportation engineers of the junior and senior classes. The scholastic requirements were changed to a 2.0 average, and the approval of the majority of the members was required for acceptance.

Sophomores in civil or transportation engineering became eligible for membership with the approval of the executive committee in 1936. In 1940 membership was opened to all students enrolled in the civil or transportation engineering departments and having a sophomore standing or higher; thus the society ceased to exist as an honorary group and became a professional organization.

Professor Lawrence C. Maugh was faculty adviser to the group from 1933 to 1940. Since then W. J. Emmons, Earnest Boyce, J. C. Kohl, and Donald Cortright have been faculty advisers. Professor Robert B. Harris was faculty adviser in 1957.

American Institute of Electrical Engineers and Institute of Radio Engineers

Before 1910 the American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a national organization in name only, active largely in the New York City area. About 1910 the suggestion of Professor C. F. Scott, of Yale University, led to the establishment of sections of the A.I.E.E. in the larger cities and to the establishment of branches in schools and colleges which offered adequate curriculums for training in electrical engineering. The University of Michigan branch was founded about 1906 under the guidance of Benjamin F. Bailey.

A second national electrical engineering professional society was formed somewhat later — the Institute of Radio Engineers. The University student branch is a joint organization with AIEE and IRE.

By joining the local branch students become affiliated with either one of the national professional organizations and learn something of their ideals, problems, and work. To foster interest in the organization, each national branch member receives the monthly publication of the society of his choice. Branch membership is open to any student registered in the electrical engineering curriculum.

Page  1950
Chi Epsilon

Chi Epsilon was founded in the year 1923 on the campus of the University of Illinois. Its objective and purpose were then, and continue to be, to contribute to the improvement of the engineering profession by fostering the development and exercise of fundamentally sound traits of character and technical ability among undergraduate civil engineers. Chi Epsilon in contributing to such a development works to produce a higher standard of service to humanity, and this results in increasing the efficacy of the profession as an instrument of social betterment.

This goal is met in part by placing a mark of distinction on the undergraduate who has upheld the honor of the department by high scholastic ability. The academic requirements of Chi Epsilon are that a man be in the upper one-third of the senior class or in the upper one-quarter of the junior class. From this list of eligible men, the members of the society are elected by a majority vote of the active membership. Character traits, practicality, and sociability are considered in this voting procedure.

Chi Epsilon was installed on the campus of the University of Michigan in the spring of 1949. It was the twenty-fifth chapter in a rapidly growing national fraternity which now totals forty-eight active chapters within the continental limits of the United States.

Local activities are planned with a frequency of about two-week intervals throughout the year. Basically, the meetings are faculty-student get-togethers at which research and technical developments are discussed. Social gatherings are frequently a part of the agenda. At the semiannual initiation banquet those men newly elected to Chi Epsilon are introduced to the faculty of the department. The local group through pledge activities builds models and provides teaching aids for the staff of the Civil Engineering Department. Each fall the student group circularizes the alumni, and each spring a newsletter is sent out passing on the accumulated information to those who have left the campus. At frequent intervals an alumni reunion is held for those who care to return and renew old acquaintances as well as to pass on their experiences to the younger members of the profession.

These are some of the activities which resulted in the Michigan chapter receiving the award at the 1954 National Biennial Conclave as the most outstanding chapter in the country. We are proud of our tradition, and we are confident that in spite of the increasingly complex nature of the engineering work involved in ministering to the needs of society, Chi Epsilon will continue to play its part in strengthening the profession to meet the challenge.

Eta Kappa Nu

Eta Kappa Nu is an electrical engineering society founded at the University of Illinois, on October 28, 1904, for closer co-operation among, and mutual benefit to, students and others in the profession, which by their attainments in college or in practice manifest exceptional interest and marked ability in electrical engineering.

The Beta Epsilon chapter at the University of Michigan was installed on April 23, 1937. There were eleven charter members, and the first president, Jerome B. Wiesner, was instrumental in its establishment.

To become a member, one must manifest interest and ability in electrical engineering, have a scholastic average of B or better, and be elected by the active chapter. The general activity of the society is to promote scholarship and to aid the faculty and student body in the Page  1951advancement of the profession of electrical engineering.

Quarterdeck Club

The Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering has had an honorary society since 1905. In October of that year the six members of the senior class organized a club to meet monthly to read papers and discuss subjects connected with the work of the classroom. The members called themselves the Indoor Yacht Club and selected a pin design which is still used.

After a few meetings the enthusiasm for serious papers faded out, and for the next two years the club continued only as a social group. It was revived with a more serious purpose and program under the name of Quarterdeck Club in the autumn of 1908 and has maintained that character ever since. The club preserves a file of the papers written by members for presentation at its meetings.

The society initiates members twice a year. Its admission requirements are upon a sliding scale: men with sixty-five hours of credit or more must have a grade average of C or higher, but an average higher than C is required of candidates with less than sixty-five hours of credit, the better students becoming eligible earlier in their college careers. A student whose grades average 3.5 points (halfway between B and A) at the end of thirty-three hours of work may be admitted, whereas another may become eligible with only a B, or three-point, average at the end of fifty hours, or with an average one-third of a grade above C (2.33) upon the completion of sixty hours.

Phi Delta Kappa

On January 24, 1906, the initial chapter of a professional organization for men specializing in education, known then as Phi Kappa Mu, was established at Indiana University. Within four years two additional chapters were set up in other institutions. Meanwhile two other similar fraternities had made their appearance. One, known as Phi Delta Kappa, was established at Columbia University on May 13, 1908, and the other, Nu Rho Beta, at the University of Missouri on February 23, 1909. Since all of these organizations resembled one another closely as to purposes, their amalgamation was effected on March 1, 1910, under the name Phi Delta Kappa. This action was essential, because all of them had pretensions national in scope. The parent chapter at Indiana was designated Alpha, the one at Columbia became Beta, and the other at Missouri, Gamma.

The movement thus begun has grown to unanticipated proportions. In 1956 there were eighty-four campus chapters and sixty-two field chapters in existence, with a total membership which approximates 63,000. Recently the national office, in charge of an executive staff, has been established in permanent headquarters at Bloomington, Indiana. The official publication is The Phi Delta Kappan, which appears monthly. It is now in the thirty-eighth volume.

Throughout the generation of its existence Phi Delta Kappa has emphasized a three-fold purpose, namely, research, service, and leadership. Through its individual members it is indirectly represented on practically all of the outstanding national and regional committees and governing bodies in education.

A chapter of Phi Delta Kappa, Omega, was established at the University of Michigan, March 12, 1921. During the thirty-five years of the chapter's existence, 1,606 local members have taken the fraternity's obligation. The growth of the Omega chapter has been a steady Page  1952one. Few undergraduate students have been initiated. This means that, generally speaking, the membership is characterized by two types of individuals: inexperienced graduate students with superior scholastic standing and experienced schoolmen with equally good scholastic records, who have matriculated for advanced degrees in the University. The chapter roll contains the names of many men who have achieved more than local eminence. Some are internationally known.

Phi Sigma

Phi Sigma is the only international biological honor society in existence. It is the sole representative of its field in the Association of College Honor Societies (the A.C.H.S.). Phi Sigma was founded at Ohio State University in 1915 and has grown solidly but conservatively ever since. Present initiates total more than 21,000. The elected membership and chapters are collegiate. All society policies and practices are determined by the members. Active members are mostly students and most of them are graduate students.

A governing council, elected at the biennial general meetings, is typically composed of individuals of professional rank. This council serves without financial reward to carry out instructions given in the constitution and imposed on it by the general meetings.

The object of Phi Sigma is to stimulate research in the biological sciences. Such stimulation is accomplished in many ways. All of these are strengthened by participation of the society in the A.C.H.S.

As a member of the A.C.H.S., Phi Sigma honors superior scholarship. This it does by selecting its members from superior students. It confers distinction for high achievement also through the annual Phi Sigma scholarship awards, which are made on each campus where there is a chapter. The awards are given irrespective of membership in the society.

The chapter of Phi Sigma on the University of Michigan campus is now the oldest and largest. This chapter, Beta, has played an important role in the general affairs of Phi Sigma. The following Michigan men have figured among the council officers of Phi Sigma: E. W. Sink was president in 1921 and 1922; Alexander G. Ruthven, President-Emeritus of the University of Michigan, was honorary president of Phi Sigma from 1930 through 1939; Professor A. I. Ortenburger, now at the University of Oklahoma, a Beta member as a graduate student, was council secretary and the backbone of all of Phi Sigma over the years from 1929 through 1946. He was succeeded by Henry van der Schalie, secretary from 1947 through 1950. In 1947 Karl F. Lagler became council vice-president, and since 1951 he has been president; in 1956 van der Schalie was elected council vice-president for a term of four years.

The history of Beta chapter of Phi Sigma dates from June 3, 1916. Many staff members in the biological departments of the University are members. The officers of Beta chapter are president, vice-president, corresponding secretary, recording secretary, treasurer, and editor. Student members are mostly graduate students who have shown research promise, who are biology majors, and who have a scholarship rating in the upper 35 per cent of their class.

The chapter plans its own program with a wide variety of activities ranging from the presentation of papers by members, and lectures and demonstrations by outside speakers, to field trips, biological photography salons, and other events. Meetings are monthly, in the Rackham Amphitheater.

Page  1953
Phi Lambda Upsilon

The Delta Chapter of Phi Lambda Upsilon was established on the campus of the University of Michigan in 1909. Other chapters had already been formed at Illinois (1899), Wisconsin (1906), and Columbia (1909). There are, at present, 49 active chapters with a total membership of over 26,000.

Early in the year 1909, a group of graduate students felt the need for an organization of chemists to "encourage and support original research in chemistry, to raise the standards of scholarship, and to bring into closer personal contact students in the different branches of chemistry." In March, 1909, this group formed the Chemical Club of the University of Michigan. About ten men were present at this first meeting. F. E. Bartell was elected president of the club, H. A. Hard, vice-president, J. W. Robinson, secretary, and H. G. Walker, treasurer. Shortly thereafter, at the suggestion of Professor S. Lawrence Bigelow, the club made application for a charter of Phi Lambda Upsilon. The charter was granted and in May, 1909, the Delta chapter of Phi Lambda Upsilon was formally installed at the University.

The charter members of Delta Chapter were Floyd E. Bartell, James E. Harris, Glenn B. Britton, Harvey C. Brill, C. S. Robinson, H. A. Hard, L. P. Kyrides, H. G. Walker, G. H. Courey, and F. W. Hunter. Professor Bartell is the only charter member on the campus now.

To date, 1,318 men have been initiated to membership in the Delta chapter. The chapter has about 100 active members and 64 faculty members. Thirty new men were initiated during the 1956-57 school year to active membership.

Phi Lambda Upsilon is composed of male students majoring in chemistry or in chemical engineering or in other allied chemical fields, such as biological chemistry and metallurgy. Active membership consists of male graduate students and male undergraduate students above junior rank. To be active, members must be in residence at the chapter location and majoring in chemistry or active in research or administration of chemistry.

Active members are selected on two credentials. The first is that a candidate must have a high scholastic average. The National Council sets the minimum and the local chapter has the choice of its particular average which the student must meet. Having satisfied this requirement, the second is that the candidate must meet the approval of the present active group when it considers him as a prospective chemist, as an addition to the society, and as one whom they would welcome into the society.

The Delta chapter of Phi Lambda Upsilon holds regular business meetings throughout the year. The chapter also has two initiations each year and the annual banquet. Other activities include a spring and summer picnic and a Christmas party.

The chapter endeavors to be an active agent in building up contacts between the faculty and between the students as well.

Kappa Tau Alpha

Kappa Tau Alpha, a fraternity honoring scholarship in journalism, was organized at the University of Missouri in 1910, but did not become national until 1930. The Michigan chapter was the fifth to be established, in the year 1930-31, through the efforts of Professor John L. Brumm of the Department of Journalism. Charter members of KTA were David M. Nichol, Jack L. Goldsmith, Sally Ensminger, Virginia Gage, Elizabeth Gerhard, Catherine S. Howe, Mary Dunnugan, William C. Jacobs, Helen E. Musselwhite, Wilbur J. Myers, Ford W. Spikerman, Lee Rice, Alice Boter, Mary Alice Frederick, Sally Wilbur, Richard Prickett, Theresa Fein, Page  1954J. Truman Steinko, Virginia Murphy, and Ruth Gallmeyer.

KTA is organized for the recognition and encouragement of high scholarship among students of journalism in American colleges and universities in which there are properly conducted schools and departments of journalism. It is pledged to the support of high scholarship, the schools of journalism, and other projects for the improvement of the press. Kappa, Tau, Alpha — standing for Knowledge, Truth, Accuracy — are descriptive of its purpose.

Scholarship and character are the only qualifications for election. Juniors and seniors must fall within the upper 10 per cent of their class and not more than 10 per cent of the total junior-senior groups may hold membership at one time.

The chapter's chief contribution is the fostering of genuine comradeship and an esprit de corps among all students majoring in journalism. The program is broadly designed, with the emphasis on the stimulation of student interest in educational, professional problems as well as in controversial issues of the day.

Le Cercle Français

In 1956, the "Cercle Français de l'Université du Michigan" presented its fiftieth consecutive annual dramatic performance. The history of the Cercle Français is a long one: as early as December, 1902, a meeting was called to form a French club. Those at the meeting were enthusiastic. The object was "to form a French Society for increasing the study and interest in the French Language and Literature." Professor Arthur G. Canfield was made chairman of the committee in charge, and it was stated at the time that "it is intended to make this society a permanent part of student life. It is hoped that the organization will be strong and the benefits derived from it so great that once started, it will continue to prosper for years to come." On December 18 the first meeting of the Cercle Français was held for the election of officers. Early in 1903 a French lecturer, M. Mabilleau, was invited to talk to the group. As a preparation to his lecture, four lectures in French were given by members of the Department of Romance Languages.

The following year a course of public lectures on "Contemporary France" was given, and another French lecturer, André Michel, was invited to come to Ann Arbor, and on March 10, 1904, a "Soirée Dramatique" was given, comprising two short plays; another soirée took place on June 4.

Ever since those early days the Cercle Français has continued to function. Each year distinguished French scholars have been invited to deliver lectures under its auspices. Likewise, each year lectures in French have been given by members of the faculty.

The excellent presentation of Molière's Le Bourgeois-Gentilhomme under the direction of Professor Béziat de Bordes in 1907 inaugurated one of the most valuable traditions on the campus. Every year since that date the Cercle Français has presented a work of French dramatic art, classical plays alternating with contemporary successes of the Paris stage.

On many occasions special editions of the plays were published by members of the department for use in the classes, and to be preserved as souvenirs.

The play is generally given early in May, and concludes the year's program. The plays have been presented at the Whitney Theater, the Sarah Caswell Angell Hall, the Mimes Theater, and the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater.

Until his retirement from teaching in 1956, Professor Charles E. Koëlla had long been the mentor of the society and the director of its plays. Professor Denkinger is now director of the plays and Page  1955J. Carduner is the faculty adviser of the Cercle.

Besides the activities open to all, the better students of the department may be elected to membership in the Cercle Français. The active members of the Cercle meet to hear informal talks in French, play games, present short plays, and talk French.

Pi Lambda Theta

A natural consequence of the establishment of separate departments of education in American universities was the appearance of professional honorary societies for students of education. The first of these was Phi Delta Kappa, a society for men, which became a national organization in 1910. A similar society for women was organized in November of the same year.

Seven such societies for women were in existence by May, 1916. These groups united in 1917 to found a national honorary society for women in education. The name chosen was that of the oldest organization — Pi Lambda Theta, of the University of Missouri. The emblem, a key based upon the Egyptian ankh, or key of life, bears the colors blue and gold — to symbolize education and the warm spirit of friendship.

The objectives adopted by the organization are to foster professional spirit and to seek and maintain the highest standards of scholarship and professional preparation, especially among women; to work actively to further the cause of democratic education; to co-operate in the solution of problems which interpenetrate various fields of knowledge; to encourage intercultural understandings; to strive for a clear understanding of local, state, national, and international problems and to stimulate active participation in their solution; to develop a professional fellowship among women engaged in education; to encourage graduate work and to stimulate research in accordance with these purposes.

There are seven national officers, a consultant, and an editorial staff, as well as various standing and special committees. Life memberships, initiation fees, and national assessments have made possible the yearly grant by the national organization of three $2,000 fellowships — the Ella Victoria Dobbs Research Fellowship, and two P. L. T. fellowships; the creation of a loan fund for members; and the quarterly publication of the national organ, which was originally known as the Pi Lambda Theta Journal. In 1953 the name was changed to Educational Horizons. This contains articles of general interest by distinguished men and women in the field of education, as well as information about the various active university chapters and the alumnae chapters.

Xi chapter of Pi Lambda Theta was established at Ann Arbor, December 9, 1922. Dean Jean Hamilton, Jean Thomas ('22), Miss Leila Gerry, national secretary, Miss Margaret Cameron, and Natalie Jordan ('23) were the speakers at the banquet. Among the initiates were the following officers: president, Natalie Jordan; vice-president, Harriet Blum; recording secretary, Margaret Chapin; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Ivaleen Smith; keeper of the records, Margaret Welker. Professor C. O. Davis sponsored the group.

From its beginning Xi chapter has been closely associated with the national organization. Members have held national office or national committee memberships; Marguerite Hall, at one time president, was national treasurer from 1943 until 1946; she was also chairman of the advisory committee to the editor of the Journal. Mrs. Catherine Greene held the office of national corresponding secretary. Ruth Lofgren, president, 1953-54, is currently research editor. Shata Ling, Page  1956president, 1954-56, has served on the publication and on the nominating committees.

In 1926 Xi chapter adopted a scholarship award program. There is also a revolving loan fund for graduate student members.

Meetings of the Xi chapter are held once a month, except in January, when a newsletter is sent to all members. Once each semester, and also during the summer session, an invitational tea is held for prospective members. Those who are invited to membership must have a high scholastic average (B or above), must be recommended by two members of the faculty, and must give evidence of professional experience or interest. Initiation ceremonies are held three times during the calendar year. On each occasion approximately twenty-five candidates are initiated.

The activities of Xi chapter have been many and varied. In some years the programs have been built around such interests and hobbies as modern plays, music, and art. The members have also been aware of a responsibility for community service. In 1939, stimulated by Professor Edmonson, they made teacher recruitment one of their most valuable contributions to the University and to neighboring school systems. This feeling of responsibility persisted throughout the war years.

In 1953 Xi chapter adopted a project which has proved interesting and worth-while. The members have worked closely with the English Language Institute in helping to interpret American life and education for a group of foreign students who are English teachers in their native lands. These students come to Michigan each fall for four months of intensive training in English and methods of teaching it. Pi Lambda Theta members help them to find rooms in private homes and help with their entertainment while they are in Ann Arbor. In 1955 and 1956 a series of interviews between the foreign students and Ann Arbor public school students was conducted with Mrs. Shata Ling as moderator. These were recorded on tape. One set of tapes was sent to the State Department in Washington, and each student received a recording of his own interview.

As a high point in the chapter's activities, the national Biennial Council was held in Ann Arbor, August 22-26, 1955. This was attended by officers, delegates, and visitors from both the active and alumnae chapters.

Page  [1957]

Athletics and Physical Education

Page  [1958]
Page  1959

THE BOARD IN CONTROL OF INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

BEFORE 1873 the administration of athletic activities at the University of Michigan rested in groups with no official standing. These were the athletic clubs, which included the baseball, boating, and football organizations. In 1873 a Football Association was formed and in 1876 a Baseball Association, which merged in 1878 to form the first Athletic Association. This was entirely a student-controlled organization, seeking to direct the activities of the University athletic teams with the aim of raising funds for a gymnasium. In 1884 it "fell victim of the football and baseball teams which it sought to control." Athletic administration then reverted to the clubs which had existed before 1873.

In 1890-91, however, an attempt at athletic organization occurred, when the "University of Michigan Athletic Association" was formed, which proved durable. According to its constitution, any student could become a member by the payment of an annual fee of three dollars, making him a participant in the management of athletics. This organization was administered directly by its Board of Directors, which had practical control of the athletic policy of the University. The Board was composed of five officers and nine directors from various departments, elected by the student members in an annual election. An Advisory Board, composed of three nonresident alumni and four resident professors was also created, but as their duties were merely advisory and members were elected by the students, their influence was slight. The earliest official mention of a method for the control of intercollegiate athletics at Michigan appears to have been a reference in the Regents' Proceedings for May, 1892, to this Advisory Board: "Resolved, That the directors of the University Athletic Association shall have control of the Athletic Field for the remainder of the College year under the general direction of the Advisory Board; Provided, That they keep the grounds in good repair and … properly sprinkled during the summer season, it being understood also that the Association shall be entitled to the gate receipts" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 31). Apparently, the Athletic Association carried on the actual operation of the athletic program.

An untoward incident in 1893, however, led to the introduction of direct faculty control. In that year two members of one of the University teams were found to be subfreshmen. As a result a Board for the regulation of athletic sports was created by the University Senate, and "in its creation the students' Athletic Association concurred." This Board was to "have full control of all questions pertaining to athletics, subject to such regulations as the Senate may hereafter prescribe," the eligibility of players proposed for any University team, the arrangement of intercollegiate games, the granting of leaves of absence, the investigation of charges of misconduct on the part of the players, and was to approve the hiring of all coaches and trainers. Its policy was "to foster the spirit of honor and gentlemanliness in athletics, to suppress evil tendencies, and to see to it that play should not encroach too much on the claims of work" ("Minutes of the University Senate," Nov., 1893).

This first board was composed of nine members, five chosen from the University Senate by President Angell and four Page  1960undergraduates, originally selected by the Board of Directors of the Athletic Association but later by the student body. The older Advisory Board of the Athletic Association remained. With the organization of the Board in Control, however, the Athletic Association as a policy-making body lapsed.

In January, 1894, the Athletic Association turned over to the Regents its funds, facilities, and assets, consisting of cash and bonds totaling $6,095 (R.P., 1891-96, pp. 243-45).

In 1896 the Board in Control participated in the formation of the Intercollegiate (Western) Conference, now known as the "Big Ten." By 1895 the need of a definite athletic organization for midwestern colleges had been realized, and, at the instance of President Smart of Purdue, the presidents of seven institutions met at Chicago on January 11, 1895, to discuss athletic problems and means of control of intercollegiate athletics. An organization for such regulations and control was set up, consisting of appointed faculty representatives, one from each institution, and a brief set of general rules was drawn up. The following winter in February, 1896, the appointed faculty representatives met in Chicago. At this time the same institutions were represented as at the presidents' meeting in 1895, except that Michigan took the place of Lake Forest. Michigan, although President Angell had been expressly invited by President Smart to participate, had not been represented at the 1895 conference.

The seven original university members of the 1896 conference were Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, Northwestern, Purdue, Chicago, and Michigan, with Dr. C. B. G. de Nancrède and Professor Albert H. Pattengill representing Michigan's Board of Control. Professor Pattengill became a tower of strength in the deliberations of this body and was active in the formulation of its policies up to his death in 1906. To him Michigan owes not only the basis of her effective organization of its athletics but the original impetus toward securing Ferry Field and its equipment. In December 1899, Indiana University and the University of Iowa were admitted to the Western Conference, and in April, 1912, Ohio State.

The following resolution was adopted by the Regents on June 18, 1901: "That all moneys collected for athletic purposes from any source shall be cared for and deposited as the University Board in Control of Athletics shall direct; and that no money shall be disbursed from this fund, except on the approval of the chairman of the Board of Control and the Director of Outdoor Athletics" (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 651).

During the next four years the intercollegiate athletics program apparently became the subject of much public attention and criticism. In President Angell's report to the Regents in September, 1905, approximately two pages are devoted to problems in this field. His remarks make interesting reading, for certain of the problems were very similar to those existing in the 1950's. For example, he said: "One of the most difficult abuses to prevent is the offering of inducements to promising athletes in preparatory schools to come to this or that college" (R.P., 1901-6, p. 588). A year later, in his report filed at the October, 1906, meeting, he expressed hope that through Conference legislation college athletics could be rid of abuses and objectionable practices. His discussions concluded with this interesting prediction: "Certain it is that football will continue to be played, and will attract many spectators and will probably excite more interest among students than any other athletic game" (P.R., 1905-6, p. 14).

The history and activities of the Michigan Board of Control for more than a decade after the close of the football season of 1905 were largely influenced by Page  [unnumbered]

[missing figure]
The University of Michigan Stadium
Page  [unnumbered]Page  1961events which led to Michigan's withdrawal from membership in the Conference and, at the close of the period, her resumption of membership therein. The 1905 football season brought to a peak the growth of interest in intercollegiate athletics in general and in football in particular. Football had become not only rough, but dangerous in character, and the enthusiasm and rivalry between competing institutions had developed to such a point that it was not uncommonly maintained that football should be abolished. At President Angell's suggestion representatives of the Conference institutions met in Chicago in January, 1906. In his report of 1906, in summing up what had been accomplished, he said:

Indisputably then something remains to be done to rid college athletics of certain objectionable practices …

In harmony with these ideas the nine Western Universities whose students have been accustomed to meet in intercollegiate athletics, especially in football, sent delegates from their faculties to two conferences during the year to consider what new rules, if any, they should agree on for the better regulation of football contests … they were nearly all of one mind in condemnation of certain practices which had grown up … that there were too many great games in each season, that too much time and too much money were devoted to the games, that Freshmen ought not to be allowed on the University teams, that the employment of coaches brought in from outside the Institution, and especially at extravagant salaries should be dispensed with, that the price of admission to the games should be so reduced that all of the students could afford to attend, and that the offering of pecuniary inducements to school boys or to others to come to college in order to play on the team should be condemned and forbidden.


(R.P., 1906-10, p. 12.)

The so-called "Angell conferences," held on January 19 and March 9, 1906, evolved a set of restrictions which were officially adopted at the meeting of the regular Conference in March, 1906. The new rules and regulations, however, were, felt to be too stringent. The first was the well-known "freshman rule," requiring one year of residence as a prerequisite for eligibility. Second, intercollegiate competition was limited to three years, and graduate students were not eligible to play. Third, the training table and training quarters were prohibited. Fourth, freshman teams were not to be permitted to play in outside games, and the number of football games was limited to five. Under the three-year rule outstanding athletes already registered would have been denied their fourth year of competition, and the retroactive feature of the three-year rule was therefore bitterly opposed at Michigan. The abolition of the training table was also disliked. Criticism of the new rules and of the Conference was vigorous among Michigan students and alumni. At the meeting of November 13, 1906, Michigan's representative was instructed to urge the Conference to change the three-year rule so that it would not be retroactive.

On March 7, 1907, the Board in Control discussed the question of withdrawal from the Conference, the faculty arguing in favor of it and the students against it. The Board requested the Conference to modify the objectionable rules, but without success. In April, 1907, Mr. Stagg, representing the University of Chicago, replied: "Our Board will sanction games provided Michigan will observe Conference rules in all branches of athletics." The question of the training table was considered on October 11, 1907, the Board in Control voting to abide by the rules of the Conference against training tables and training quarters for athletes. Except for a brief meeting on October 24, the meeting of October 11 seems to have been the last meeting of the Board as then constituted. At that time the membership consisted of Professors Lane, Page  1962Sadler, McMurrich, Bates, and Lloyd, representing the faculty, and Messrs. Downey, Hill, Sample, and Coe, representing the students.

The Board of Regents on motion of Regent Fletcher adopted the following resolution on November 15, 1907:

Resolved, That the Board of Regents create a Board of Control of Athletics, the scope and duties of said Board to be afterwards defined;

Resolved, That it is the sense of the Board of Regents that the Board in Control of Athletics shall be responsible to the teaching force of the University, and that Faculty control be preserved by means of a majority representation of Faculty members on the said Board in Control of Athletics;

Resolved, That this Board of Control be composed of eight members as follows: … the professor of Physical Training and director of Waterman Gymnasium …; four Faculty members, one each from the following Faculties — literary, law, engineering, and medical, homeopathic, dental, pharmacy, jointly, be appointed by their representative Deans in conjunction with the President; that one graduate member be appointed by the directors of the Alumni Association, and two undergraduate members be appointed by the Student Athletic Board, and that the Board so constituted be confirmed by the Board of Regents;

Resolved, That this Board be organized by December first next, and each year thereafter.


(R.P., 1906-10, p. 206.)

The new Board convened for the first time in December, 1907, and the following were qualified as regular members: Professors A. H. Lloyd, H. M. Bates, C. B. G. de Nancrède, George W. Patterson, and Keene Fitzpatrick, Director of the Gymnasium, Henry Bodman for the alumni, and Dudley Kennedy and Paul Magoffin representing the students. Patterson was elected chairman, Bates, secretary, and Lloyd, treasurer. In the same month the report of the Deans in nominating members of the Board in Control of Athletics was submitted for approval to the Regents, and the following code of rules was adopted:

Board in Control of Athletics

1. The Board in Control of Athletics, as constituted by the Board of Regents at their November meeting, 1907, shall have full control of all questions pertaining to athletics except as hereinafter specified. It shall make, adopt and enforce the necessary rules governing all questions pertaining to the eligibility of players, intercollegiate relations and membership in associations of the universities and colleges organized for the regulation of athletics.

2. The officers of the Board in Control shall be a Chairman, to be elected by the Board in Control, and a Secretary and a Treasurer, to be elected by the Board.

The Board may elect the Graduate Director of Athletics as Secretary. The Chairman shall have a vote on all questions, and so shall the Secretary, if he be a regular member of the Board.

3. The following are the rules of the Board in Control of Athletics, but it is understood that the said Board in Control has full authority to make other and further rules in regard to the subject of athletics as it may find it necessary so to do, subject to the approval, however, of the Board of Regents. And it is further understood that it shall be the purpose of said Board in its action, and in any rules that it may adopt, to foster reasonable participation by the student body generally in physical exercise.

(a) All Schedules of games must be approved by the Board in Control before they shall become operative.

(b) No team representing the University shall play with any other team or organization without the consent of the Board in Control.

(c) The hiring of all coaches and trainers must be approved by the Board in Control.

(d) No person who is conditioned, not passed, or on probation shall be allowed to play on athletic teams representing the University.

(e) Ratification of the list of players on any Page  1963athletic team representing the University, and permission for any athletic team to leave town, must be obtained from the Board in Control.

(f) Before any person can play on any athletic team representing the University, he must sign a certificate of eligibility, counter-signed by the chairman of the committee of the Board of Eligibility of Players, the particular form to be prescribed by the Board in Control.

(g) It shall be the duty of the manager and the captain of any athletic team to report to the Board any violation of these rules.

4. In case of a tie vote in said Board in Control on any question, such question shall be referred to the President of the University and the Deans of the several departments sitting together, and their decision in the matter shall be final.

5. The Board in Control shall have the power to ask the advice of the University Senate on any matter pertaining to athletics, and shall at all times receive and consider recommendations from the Senate and petitions from the student body.

6. The Board in Control shall make a full report in writing of its work to the Board of Regents and to the University Senate at the end of each academic year, and whenever called for by either body.


(R.P., 1906-10, pp. 215-16.)

It was voted that Michigan's delegates to the next Conference meeting should be instructed to work for the passage of rules which would secure a seven-game schedule in football, authorize a training table, repeal the retroactive features of the three-year rule, and permit interdepartment graduates "to play three years." At the Conference meeting of January 13, 1908, the chairman reported that none of the changes in the rules urged by Michigan had been made. Therefore, in 1908, the Board in Control voted to withdraw from the Conference, those voting in the affirmative being Patterson, Fitzpatrick, de Nancrède, Kennedy, and Magoffin. Voting in opposition were Bates, Bodman, and Lloyd. It was also voted that Michigan should retain for the control of her athletics all of the Conference rules except those against which she had made formal protest, these being, specifically, the retroactive feature of the three-year rule, the limitation of football games to five instead of seven, and the rule against the training table. With the exception of two football games with Minnesota in 1909 and 1910, Michigan had no further contact with the Conference until the close of the year, 1917.

The two Minnesota games led to the adoption by the Conference of the so-called Non-Intercourse Rule by which member institutions were forbidden to play any institution that had once been a member of the Conference and had ceased to be such a member. It is probable that the desire to preserve the Conference had as much to do with the approval of the measure as did the desire to isolate Michigan. The adoption of the rule was prompted, no doubt, in part at least, by a desire to prevent further withdrawals, but this action quite naturally increased the resentment felt by those Michigan supporters who had approved her withdrawal from membership. Whether or not Michigan should remain outside the Conference was a subject of frequent discussion during the years following 1908. Generally speaking, the faculty was in favor of a resumption of membership, but the dominant opinion among students and alumni, at least on the part of those in the general neighborhood of Ann Arbor, was distinctly to the contrary.

A change was made in the constitution of the Board in Control in November, 1910. It was provided that it should be composed of the director of Outdoor Athletics, who was to be secretary and keep a full record of all proceedings; three alumni to be selected by the Regents; three students to be selected by Page  1964the Athletic Association; and four faculty members to be selected as follows: one by the dean of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, one by the dean of the Department of Engineering, one by the dean of the Department of Law, and one by the deans of the Department of Medicine and Surgery, the Homeopathic Medical College, the College of Dental Surgery, and the School of Pharmacy.

The Regents confirmed the nomination of Professor Ralph W. Aigler as the representative of the Law Department on the Board in Control of Athletics in May, 1913. It is unlikely that anyone suspected at the time what an important event this was to prove in the athletic history of Michigan. Professor Aigler continued as a member until May 31, 1955, a period of forty-two years of service.

In 1912-13 the agitation on the campus became acute, and for the first time since the withdrawal, the student members of the Board in Control of Athletics, elected by the student body, were in favor of resumption of Conference membership. Sentiment among the four faculty members was evenly divided. Two of the three alumni members, as well as the director, were strongly opposed to the proposed return to the Conference. In the fall of 1913, an effort to effect an organization favorable to return failed.

Two years later, at the May, 1915, meeting, the Regents amended the legislation creating the Board in Control of Athletics so that the four faculty members were elected by the University Senate rather than appointed, as had hitherto been the case, by the deans. This seemingly unimportant amendment had far-reaching consequences. In the first election by the Senate under this amended provision, only one of the then four faculty members of the Board in Control was continued in his position, and the four members elected by the Senate were all known to be favorable to resumption of membership in the Conference. At the next meeting of the Board in Control thereafter the one faculty member who had been continued by the action of the Senate was elected chairman. With four faculty members and three student members thus favorable to resumption of membership in the Conference, the next step was to secure action by the Board of Regents whereby the Conference might be satisfied that Michigan had the requisite faculty control of athletics.

In 1916 the Board in Control directed the chairman to confer personally with faculty representatives of the nine Conference members in order to discover what terms the Conference would require. As a result it was reported that the Conference would be satisfied if all actions of the Board in Control were reported to the Senate Council of the University, subject to veto by that body. Early in 1917, the Board of Regents adopted the recommendation of the Board in Control of Athletics requiring such report to the Senate Council and giving that body veto power. After the Regents had taken this action, the Conference in June, 1917, invited the University of Michigan to resume membership therein. This invitation was accordingly accepted by the Board, the resumption of membership to become effective as of November 20, 1917, before a scheduled game with Northwestern.

The most important step in athletic control and management at Michigan was taken in 1926 as the result of an exhaustive and outstanding report on athletics prepared by a Senate committee (appointed by Acting President Lloyd) of which Dean Edmund E. Day, later president of Cornell University, was the chairman. That report, which was largely the work of Dean Day, has Page  1965often been referred to as the most significant document ever prepared in the field of athletics. It received overwhelming approval by the Senate and was passed on to the Board of Regents. At the Regents' meeting of April, 1926, an extended reference was made to this report. The recommendations of the Day Committee, as approved by the Senate, for a change in the composition of the Athletic Board, were approved, the reason for the approval being stated as follows: "Because of the development of physical education as a part of University work and because of the growing recognition that athletics as a whole is becoming more and more an integral part of college life, it is undoubtedly well to provide for more faculty representation and interest in the new board we are hereby creating."

The new board consisted of two students, three alumni, and nine faculty representatives. Of the last-mentioned nine, the president of the University and the director of Intercollegiate Athletics were to be permanent members, "the other seven to be appointed by the President." It will, of course, be noted that a significant change was made at that time in the method of selecting the faculty members of the Board. Not only was the number increased so as to constitute a distinct majority of the Board's membership, but it was declared, following the recommendation of the Day Committee, as approved by the Senate, that the faculty members, except for two, were to be appointed by the president. The reason for this change from election by the Senate-at-large to appointment by the president was the conviction on the part of the Day Committee and the Senate that better faculty representation would be had by the process of appointment rather than by election. In the discussions of the Day Committee it had been pointed out that on a general election by a large body it was too likely that selections would be made on the basis of mere popularity and prominence rather than on equipment for the task.

At this time the Regents declared the powers and functions of the Board in Control of Athletics to be as follows:

The Board in Control of Athletics, subject to the provisions hereof, shall have full control of all questions pertaining to athletics. It shall make, adopt, and enforce the necessary rules governing all questions pertaining to the eligibility of players, intercollegiate relations, and membership in associations of universities and colleges organized for the regulation of athletics. It shall be the purpose of the Board, in all its actions and in any rules that it may adopt, to foster reasonable participation by the student body in general in the various forms of indoor and outdoor physical exercise.

Said Board in Control shall likewise for the present and until other plans have been perfected have general supervision of intramural sports, physical education, and allied matters, being expressly hereby charged with the duty of forthwith providing an adequate and proper plan for giving speedy effect to the general program outlined in the Senate Committee report on University athletics dated January 18, 1926.


(R.P., 1923-26, pp. 870-71.)

This statement of functions and powers was expanded by the Regents in a resolution adopted in January, 1927:

  • a. The Board in Control of Athletics is responsible for the administration of intercollegiate athletics, intramural sports, and recreational activities, and the required work in physical education for men and women.
  • b. The immediate concern of the Board in Control of Athletics is the development of a comprehensive program of physical training, — including staff, grounds, and equipment, whereby all students in the University and members of the Faculty will be given ample opportunity for daily exercise and physical development.
  • Page  1966c. The Board in Control of Athletics shall carefully consider with a view to gradually putting into effect the recommendations of the Day Committee relative to a two-, three-and four-year program of required physical education.
  • d. All matters involving the foregoing, including personnel, budget, and policies, are under the control of the Board in Control of Athletics, subject of course to the By-Laws of the Board of Regents.

(R.P., 1926-29, p. 126.)

It was in compliance with the recommendations of this committee that the Board in Control of Athletics instituted its program of athletics for all and carried out the elaborate building operations, financed by a bond issue, which resulted in the completion of the Stadium, the Sports Building, the Women's Athletic Building, and Palmer Field.

Several changes in legislation have been made since 1926. In January, 1932, the president of the University was omitted from membership on the Board in Control, and the number of appointive faculty members was increased from seven to eight. In February, 1934, the name of the board was changed from Board in Control of Athletics to Board in Control of Physical Education, it being considered that the latter name was more nearly indicative of its functions. The comprehensive revision of the bylaws in the early 1940's in organizing the "Department of Physical Education and Athletics" led to a change having to do with the chairmanship of the Board. At that time the name was changed to Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. It had been the practice, certainly from 1910, for the Athletic Board to elect its own chairman from among the faculty representatives. In the revision of the bylaws, the Regents provided that the head of the Department of Physical Education, who was made director of Intercollegiate Athletics, was to be not only an ex officio member of the Board but also chairman (R.P., 1939-42, pp. 857-61).

At the Regents' meeting of November, 1951, the bylaws were modified to provide that seven members of the Senate among the nine constituting the faculty representation on the Board, should be appointed by the president from a panel of Senate members chosen by the Senate Advisory Committee on University Affairs.

In June, 1953, the Board in Control was enlarged when the bylaws were revised to provide that the dean of men should be a member of the Board, ex officio.

Thus, in 1956, the Board consisted of the following members:

  • 1) Nine members of the University Senate:
    • a. Seven to be appointed by the President from a panel of Senate members chosen by the Senate Advisory Committee on University Affairs, subject to the approval of the Board of Regents, and
    • b. The Director of Physical Education and Athletics and the Dean of Men, to be members ex officio. The seven appointed members hold office in each case for four years, and no appointed member shall hold office more than two successive terms.
  • 2) The University representative in the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives ex officio, unless he is otherwise a member of the Board by appointment.
  • 3) Three alumni selected by the Board of Regents to hold office for three years in each case but not for more than two consecutive terms.
  • 4) Two students, one chosen each year from the junior class by the male members of the student body, each student member to hold office for two years.

Page  1967
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angell, James B. MS correspondence. In James B. Angell Papers, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1894-95.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac W. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-60 (1894-1956).
The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, Vol. 54 (1947-48).
MS, "Minutes of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1900-47.
MS, "Minutes of the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics." (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1900-1956.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1900-1940, Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1900-1956.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1892-1956.

INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

CRICKET. — The first organized sport at the University of Michigan was cricket. The "Pioneer Cricket Club" of eight officers and twenty-five members, headed by a student president, Frank Todd, was formed in 1860. The game, more strictly a modification of the English sport, was played with wickets set up on State Street. As it increased in popularity, however, it became somewhat of a nuisance and a traffic obstacle, and in 1865 the Board of Regents appropriated $50 for the upkeep of nearby grounds, thereby for the first time officially recognizing an organized athletic activity at Michigan (R.P., 1864-70, p. 95).

Before that time athletics was unknown or carried on extemporaneously. For example, an early student records that "sawing wood and carrying it upstairs" to his room was the principal form of exercise. Feats of strength, jumping, weight-lifting, and foot races were favored individual competitive exercises. Group activities consisted of such games as "one old cat" and "wicket," a crude form of cricket. Fishing trips along the Huron River or hikes to Ypsilanti, when faculty permission could be obtained, were other recreational pastimes.

Actually, the first demands for athletic facilities came before 1858; in that year an old military barracks on the campus was transformed into a gymnasium with a few bars, poles, ropes, and rings. The gymnasium, which had a tanbark floor and a canvas roof, was a sort of circus tent that could be used only in warm weather as it had to be erected on poles set in the ground.

Baseball. — The first attempt to organize a collegiate sport took place in 1863, when baseball was introduced to the students. John M. Hinchman and Emory L. Grant ('66) were credited with the innovation. The latter sponsored a movement to lay out a diamond on the northeast corner of the campus. Little headway was made in 1863, but in 1864, with Hinchman acting as catcher, president, and captain, the first University Baseball Club was formed. By 1867 the club, which had grown to forty-six members from its original nine in 1864, had developed to such an extent that it was playing in the race for the state championship and was outfitted in playing uniforms. Some of the early scores are interesting. In 1867 Michigan defeated Ann Arbor, 30-26, and won from Jackson, 43-15. After losing to Detroit, 36-20, in the first game, the club defeated their big city rivals, 70-17.

Meanwhile, cricket declined in popularity; by 1872 the number in the club Page  1968had dropped to thirty, although an outside schedule was played in spite of the disapproval of the faculty. During an attempt to revive the sport in 1872-73, the Michigan cricket players defeated Lodi "79 and 7 wickets" to 62, and again in the same year, 135-133. The next year they lost to the Peninsular Club of Detroit.

In 1872 only one baseball game is recorded, Michigan defeating the Mutuals of Jackson, 19-9. The first intercollegiate game, played with Wisconsin on May 20, 1882, was won by Michigan, 20-8. This game was part of the schedule of the Intercollegiate Baseball League of which Michigan, Wisconsin, Northwestern, and Racine were members. Michigan withdrew from that association the next year to play professional and semiprofessional opponents, although Oberlin was met in 1886 and Michigan Agricultural College twice in 1887. The first eastern trip was made in 1890. Michigan played Cornell and Colgate and the following year met Yale and Harvard.

Peter Conway, a National League pitcher, was selected to supervise training in 1891, thus becoming the first hired coach. He was followed by F. J. Sexton in 1896, C. F. Watkins in 1897, and "Skel" Roach in 1903. Jerry Utley ('03e), an outstanding pitcher for Michigan, coached in 1904; he was followed by L. W. McAllister, in 1905, and R. L. Lowe in 1907. Wesley Branch Rickey ('11l), who became a major figure in the professional baseball scene, took charge as coach in 1910. One of his players was George Sisler ('15e), who captained the 1915 team and later became one of the greatest first basemen in the history of the sport. Rickey was followed by Carl Lundgren (1914-20), and he, in turn, was succeeded in 1921 by Ray Lyle Fisher (Middlebury '10), who had concluded a major league career as pitcher, first for the old New York Highlanders, forerunner of the modern Yankees, and then as hurler for the Cincinnati Reds, later accepting the position of Supervisor in Physical Education and Baseball Coach, which he still holds at Michigan. Fisher's record at Michigan is one of the most remarkable in collegiate baseball, his teams winning or sharing the Conference championship fifteen times. During his term of service no other coach or institution has equaled this record. Six titles were earned during his first twenty years and nine since 1941.

In 1953 Michigan won its first N.C.A.A. baseball championship, although the 1882 team, upon the basis of its record, was credited with winning the intercollegiate title. Fisher was named "Coach of the Year" in 1953 in recognition of his outstanding coaching performance. In Conference competition since he took over the reins in 1921, Michigan won or shared the title in 1923, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1936, 1941, 1942, 1944, 1945, 1948, 1949, 1952, and 1953.

The Western Conference, or Big Ten, properly known as the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives, dates from February, 1896, with Michigan, Chicago, Illinois, Minnesota, Northwestern, Purdue, and Wisconsin as members of the original organization. Indiana, Ohio State, and Iowa joined later. The members, aiming to regulate and standardize conditions in all forms of intercollegiate competition and also to maintain a high ideal of amateurism in college sports, attempted a fundamental reform in its organization to which Michigan did not subscribe, and consequently the University withdrew from the Conference in 1906, to remain outside until late in 1917.

Football. — Football, in which Michigan players were to become famous as the "Champions of the West," made its Page  1969appearance soon after baseball. First reference to the game was in 1862, when the student newspaper, the Chronicle, reported that "a group of 42 sophomores was beaten by 82 frosh." In 1872 class captains were named, including William S. Sheeran ('73), senior; Calvin Thomas ('74, LL.D. hon. '04), junior; Edgar D. Root ('75e), sophomore, and E. Crofton Fox, freshman. The first Football Association was formed in 1873 with Charles J. Thomas ('74) as president. Other members were Ben T. Cable ('76), vice-president; Willis L. Watkins ('75), secretary; and Myron H. Phelps (Yale '76), treasurer. The first captain of the team was Wayne Hayman ('73, '75l). No record of the team or of scores exists. Hayman is listed as captain of the football team in 1874-75, the year the first official team was selected. Members of the group, in addition to Hayman, included Samuel W. Smith ('78l), Ben Safley ('76), Ben Birdsall, Jr. ('75e), Edgar D. Root ('75e), Frederic G. White, George E. Pantlind ('75e, '78l), Ben Cable ('76), David N. De Tarr ('78, '80m), John D. Sanders ('76e), and Michael J. McMahon. No games are listed. No mention of football is made in the records of 1875, and that year also the faculty refused the baseball team permission to play out-of-town games.

Football, as the Rugby Game, was introduced in 1876 by Charles M. Gayley ('78), who later wrote "The Yellow and Blue." The first intercollegiate game was played May 30, 1878, at White Stocking Park, Chicago, in what was probably the first collegiate contest played in the "West," Michigan defeating Racine, 7-2, scoring one goal and a touchdown to Racine's lone touchdown. Under the rules then in force a goal counted five points and a touchdown, two. In the fall of that year Michigan again played Racine, winning 1-0. Toronto also was played that year; the score was 0-0.

The University team for 1877-78 included Captain R. T. Edwards, Alexis C. Angell ('78, '80l), David N. De Tarr, William C. Johnson ('78), Joseph A. Beaumont ('80e), Irving K. Pond ('79e, hon. '11), Charles S. Henning ('79e), Frank G. Allen ('81), Andrew S. Deacon, John A. Green ('80), and Everett Marshall (Palladium, 1878, p. 109). The first invasion of the East by Michigan took place in 1881. Three games were played, Michigan losing all three — to Harvard, 4-0; to Yale, 11-0, and to Princeton, 13-4. No schedule was arranged in 1882, but in 1883 Michigan again played and lost to Yale and Harvard.

The systematic development of the game at Michigan dates from 1891, when the first complete advance schedule was arranged. Mike Murphy was the first Michigan football coach; he was assisted by Frank Crawford (Yale '91, Michigan '93l). The first western trip ever made by a Michigan football team took place in 1892; the team was under the direction of Frank Barbour, another Yale graduate. Games were played with Wisconsin, Minnesota, Northwestern, and Chicago. Wisconsin and Chicago were defeated, but losses came at the hands of the Gophers and Northwestern. Against Purdue at Ann Arbor four Michigan players were injured, and, as the team had only three substitutes, the contest had to be called, Purdue winning 24-0. Stories are told of the early-day "giants" of football, but a check of the 1894 players reveals that the average weight of the '94 team members was 170 pounds, the line averaging 178 and the backfield, 155 ½.

A Board in Control of Athletics, composed of five professors and four undergraduates, was established in 1893 by the University Senate to have "full control of all questions pertaining to athletics," including "the eligibility of players, intercollegiate games, leaves of absence, Page  1970the investigation of charges of misconduct on the part of players, and the hiring of coaches and trainers."

In the same year stands were erected to accommodate 400 at Regents Field; these burned in 1895 and were rebuilt at double the seating capacity. In 1902 Dexter M. Ferry, of Detroit, donated an additional seventeen acres to the University, and the combined tracts were named "Ferry Field." The new field, which had a maximum seating capacity of 46,000, was first used in 1906. The present Michigan Stadium was erected in 1927 to seat 87,000; the capacity was increased in 1948 to 97,000 and to more than 100,000 in 1956.

William Lloyd McCauley (Princeton '94), a medical student, coached from 1894 through 1896. In 1894 Keene Fitzpatrick (see Part IX: Department of Physical Education for Men) came to Michigan as the first Instructor in Physical Training and trainer of the team. He became a famous figure in early Wolverine sports history and later at Princeton, one of the country's great track coaches. McCauley was assisted by a student-alumni advisory group, including Gustave H. (Dutch) Ferbert ('97), James E. Duffy ('90, '92l, hon. '21), James Baird ('96e), William C. Malley ('90l, LL.M. '91), Frederick W. Henninger ('97e), and Giovanni R. F. Villa ('96l). The Board in Control, in 1898, appointed Charles M. Baird (see Part VI: The University Musical Society), to fill the newly created position of graduate manager of athletics. Baird, who was destined to play an important part in the rapid rise of Michigan as an athletic power, was succeeded, in 1909, by Phillip G. Bartelme, Director of Outdoor Athletics.

An incident which had great bearing upon the University's future in athletics occurred in 1898. Michigan's varsity squad of eighteen players, with seventeen on the reserve squad, swept through all its games, including Notre Dame and Illinois, until the big game of the year — that with Chicago. In spite of difficulties, victory was finally won, 12-11, after a field-length run by substitute Charles Widman in the closing minutes of the game. Widman's sensational dash so inspired a senior music student, Louis Elbel, that he wrote "The Victors," one of Michigan's greatest songs — one of the greatest of all college songs. It might be said that this event provided the first gathering of the threads of athletic endeavor and school spirit which make up the intangible known as Michigan tradition.

In 1900 Langdon (Biff) Lea, famous Princeton star, replaced Ferbert and the student coaches, and, while the season was successful on the whole, there was dissatisfaction because of two setbacks — at the hands of Chicago, 15-6, and Iowa, 28-5. Thus, the stage was set for the coming of a man who was to leave his impress for all time upon Michigan athletics. Fielding Harris Yost (LL.B. West Virginia '97, LL.D. Marshall '28), after a colorful career as player at the University of West Virginia and at Lafayette and as coach at Ohio Wesleyan and the universities of Nebraska, Kansas, and Stanford, came to the University to begin his long and remarkable term of service in 1901. His first years at Michigan were those of the famous "Point-a-Minute" teams. With such well-remembered luminaries as Hugh White ('02l), Neil Snow ('02), Harrison (Boss) Weeks ('02l), Dan McGugin ('04l), and "Willie" Heston ('04l), the 1901 team scored 550 points to 0 for all opponents. It concluded the year by going to Pasadena, California, to participate in the first Tournament of Roses Game ever played — defeating Stanford, 49-0, on New Year's Day, 1902.

The 1902 team scored 644 points to Page  197112; the 1903 team was scored upon once, as it was tied 6-6 by Minnesota at Minneapolis in the game that established another Michigan tradition, that of the Little Brown Jug. Michigan completed the season with 565 points as against 6 for all opponents. In 1904 Michigan scored 567 points to 22 for the opposition, and by the end of the year had a record of fifty-six victories since 1901 and a total of 2,821 points to 40 for opponents. In the 1905 game with Chicago the teams battled on even terms until Dennie Clark, in a now famous play, tried to run out a rolling punt from behind the goal line and was tackled for a safety and the only two points of the game. That 2-0 loss marked Michigan's first in five years and ended the first era of Wolverine domination over Conference football. Michigan was out of the Conference from 1906 until November, 1917, but defeated Minnesota, Conference champion, in 1909 and again in 1910.

Yost produced many All-Americans during his long term of service. Although William R. Cunningham ('94, '99m), center on the 1898 team, was selected as Michigan's first All-American, he was not generally recognized because he was not named on Walter Camp's official team, and Willie Heston, in 1903-4, is regarded as Michigan's first All-American. Adolph (Germany) Schulz, in 1907, Henry A. Vick, in 1921, and Jack Blott, in 1923, were other great centers at Michigan under Yost; centers Maynard D. Morrison, 1931, and Charles (Chuck) Bernard, 1932, were both coached by that sterling Yost pupil Jack Blott. Other great players who won All-American honors under Yost were halfbacks Johnny Maulbetsch, 1914; Jimmy Craig, 1913; Cedric Smith, 1917; Frank Steketee, 1918; Harry Kipke, 1922, and Bennie Friedman, 1926; ends Stanfield Wells, 1910, and Bennie Oosterbaan, 1925, 1926, 1927, and linemen Albert Benbrook, 1909 and 1910, and Ernie Allmendinger, 1917.

One of Yost's many contributions to the game of football was the famous play "Old 83," the forerunner of such modern plays as the "keep-or-pitch-off" play that earmarks the split-T formation and the T-formation's "belly" plays. His influence on the growth of Michigan spirit and tradition was tremendous. Once, when asked how he developed morale in his teams, he replied, "You don't put morale on like a coat. You build it day by day." With the exception of the year 1924-25, when he was relieved by George Little, Yost was Head Coach from 1901 through 1926. His first four teams, 1901, 1902, 1903, and 1904, and his last four, in 1922, 1923, 1925, and 1926 were Western Conference champions. He became Director of Athletics at Michigan in 1921, serving in that capacity until 1941, when he was succeeded by Crisler, present Director.

In 1924 Harold (Red) Grange, the famous "Galloping Ghost" of the Illinois team, staged one of his most remarkable gridiron performances, at the expense of Michigan, at Champaign, scoring four touchdowns in ten minutes and then adding another. A year later, playing against Grange on the same field, the Wolverines defeated the Illini, 3-0, one of the greatest defensive performances of the era, although Grange's achievement of the 1924 season overshadowed it in the public eye.

When Yost retired as Coach in 1926 he was succeeded by Elton E. (Tad) Wieman, another of his former players. Wieman was succeeded in 1928 by Harry Kipke ('24), one of the great punters of Wolverine history. Kipke produced four Conference champions from 1930 through 1933, and in 1932 and 1933 his teams were accorded mythical national championship honors. It was Page  1972during this period that such All-Americans as Harry Newman, quarterback and key man of those great Kipke teams, flourished, along with Morrison and Bernard, centers, and Francis Wistert, tackle, 1933, first of the three All-American Wistert brothers. From 1934 through 1937, however, Michigan fared ill on the gridiron, winning only two games and losing eight in 1934 and 1936, and breaking even with 4-4 marks in 1935 and 1937.

Herbert Orin (Fritz) Crisler (Chicago '22) was appointed Head Coach and Assistant Director of Athletics in 1938 and Director in 1941. He had been a nine-letterman at the University of Chicago, and began his coaching career there in 1922. He served as head football coach and athletic director at the University of Minnesota from 1930 to 1931, and then went to Princeton. Directing the gridiron fortunes of Old Nassau's Tigers from 1932 through 1937, he coached his teams to thirty-five victories, nine defeats, and five ties. The Crisler era of coaching at Michigan lasted from 1938 through the 1947 season.

When he arrived at Michigan in 1938, he found two sophomores on his squad who were destined to loom large in the success of Wolverine teams. One of these was a husky young Irishman named Thomas Dudley Harmon, whom Yost earlier had called "the greatest prep athlete in the United States." The other was quarterback Forest Evashevski, Harmon's blocking convoy and a fine player in his own right. This pair, however, did not reach their peak until they were juniors because in 1938 Harmon was at right half while the veteran Paul Kromer handled the key left halfback spot. In the first season under the new regime, the Wolverines won six games and lost only one as compared to a 4-4 record the preceding season. They beat Michigan State, to which they had lost for four years in a row. The game with Northwestern was a tie, and the loss was to Minnesota.

Crisler's first team, a forerunner of the great offensive teams for which he was to become noted, scored 131 points to 40 for the opposition as compared to the 1937 team which had scored only 54 points and which had yielded 110. Although he was not in a key ball-carrying position in 1938, Harmon took part in that 14-0 victory over State and went on to average better than five yards for each of his 77 ball-carrying attempts; he also completed 21 of 45 passes for 310 yards. It was apparent from the beginning that Crisler demanded speed from his teams — speed and crisp blocking plus perfect timing. Of his quarterbacks, especially, he also sought alertness and unusual blocking talents.

Michigan, in 1939, won its first game from the Spartans, 26-13. Because of an injury to Paul Kromer, Crisler shifted Harmon over to left halfback. With Evashevski's blocking and help from fullback Bob Westfall, the 1939 team won six and lost two games and then swept through 1940 with a seven to one record. Harmon, from the left halfback position, gained 884 yards in 130 tries to average 6.8 yards, and his passes gained 583 yards more. He punted twice — two quick kicks of 55 yards each. In his senior year he did the punting and added place-kicking to his duties, scoring 21 points in twenty-three minutes against California, Michigan's total of 21 against Michigan State, and 20 points against Harvard.

Harmon was one of the great All-Americans of his era, earning honors on almost all All-American teams in 1939 and 1940. He completed three seasons at Michigan with an individual record showing 2,134 yards of rushing on 398 attempts, 101 pass completions for 1,304 yards, 33 points after touchdown, and Page  1973two field goals for a total of 237 points. He also threw sixteen touchdown passes during the 1,128 minutes he played. Wearing his famous number "Old 98," which was retired upon his graduation, Harmon's memorable duels with Pennsylvania's famous Francis Reagan and his play against Ohio State went down in Michigan history among the greatest performances by Wolverine athletes. He was winner of the Heisman Trophy and also was named captain of the 1940 All-American team.

Westfall followed him in 1941 as All-American, and in 1942, Albert, the second of the Wistert brothers, earned that honor as tackle, as did Julius Franks, Jr., one of the finest guards ever to play at Michigan. Crisler had another All-American in Ralph Heikkinen in 1938, but the first Conference championship, despite a remarkable record, did not develop until 1943. An influx of service trainees with such stars as Elroy Hirsch, Fred Negus, and Bill Daley, in addition to such other fine players as Captain Paul White, Bob Wiese, and Mervin Pregulman made Michigan a Conference winner with All-American honors for Daley at fullback and Pregulman at tackle.

Michigan won five games and lost two in 1944 in Conference play, and then came the exciting years of 1945, 1946, 1947 — the rise of the famous "two-platoon" system at Michigan and the march to the Rose Bowl. In 1945 the drain of the services upon college gridirons became so pronounced that the Western Conference relaxed its rule barring freshmen from competition, and thus Crisler found himself at the begining of a ten-game schedule which included both Army and Navy, with a goodly sprinkling of seventeen-year-olds on his squad. Knowing that he would be forced to use these youthful players against tried veterans in the Army game, including such stars as the well-known Felix (Doc) Blanchard and Glenn Davis, Crisler fathered two-platoon football. He has pointed out:

We arrived at the two-team system at Michigan not out of any great ingenuity on our part, but out of pure necessity. It was a veteran Army team, and Michigan had mostly freshmen. We divided the line into two groups, one whose abilities were best suited to offense, the other best gifted in defense. Then we ran the offensive team in whenever we gained possession. When we lost possession — which was frequently — the defensive line took over. We lost, 28 to 7, but it should have been worse.

The 1945 Army game was a milestone in football history and in Michigan tradition. The gallant stand of the green band of players — six seventeen-year-old freshmen were in the starting line-up — captured the imagination not only of the throng in Yankee Stadium but of the entire country. Coaches everywhere began looking into the hitherto available but unexplored possibilities of the two-platoon system. It is interesting that Crisler later was chairman of the football rules committee that outlawed the unlimited substitution rule in 1953 after its application had been developed to such an extent that it became undesirable and detrimental in the eyes of the national committee.

The Wolverines lost only to Army, Navy, and to Big Ten champion Indiana in 1945, and with 1946 came the return of service men to colleges everywhere. In 1946, with such players as Bob Chappuis, Pete and Chalmers (Bump) Elliott, Dick Rifenburg, Jack Weisenburger, Howard Yerges, Leonard Ford, Bob Mann, Tony Momsen, and Bruce Hilkene, the Wolverines developed into the precisioned group that was to sweep forward to the Rose Bowl the following year. The 1946 team gave Army a stiff battle in the Michigan Stadium before losing 20-13, again to the Blanchard-Davis Page  1974combination. After a tie with Northwestern, the Wolverines dropped a 13-9 decision to Illinois.

In 1947 Michigan's second Rose Bowl team — actually it should be called the second "Tournament of Roses Team" because the first game, on January 1, 1902, was not a "Bowl" game — was the first to achieve a perfect season under Crisler. It belongs among the greatest teams in Wolverine history because of its perfect teamwork, speed, and baffling attack. The imagination of the press, radio, and public was captured by "Michigan's Magicians" with their bewildering assortment of double reverses, buck laterals, crisscrosses, and spins. There was one team for offense, another for defense, and only two players, half-back "Bump" Elliott and fullback Jack Weisenburger, played both. The team thundered through the season with only two opponents threatening seriously, Illinois which fell, 14-7, and Minnesota which lost, 13-6. Chappuis was the man of the hour against Minnesota, while Elliott's 74-yard punt return for a touchdown and a 52-yard pass, Chappuis to Elliott on the four-yard line, and a subsequent touchdown by Henry Fonda, resulted in victory over Illinois. The Wolverines also proved themselves against Wisconsin. The game was played at Madison on a field made slippery by wind, snow, and rain, but Michigan's deft ball-handling was never better demonstrated as victory was achieved, 40-6.

The 1948 Rose Bowl game actually was no contest as Southern California was routed, 49-0 — the exact score by which Fielding Yost's first team had defeated Stanford in 1902. Michigan set or equaled nine Rose Bowl records in winning this game. Crisler was named Coach of the Year, and both Chappuis and Elliott were chosen All-American.

Crisler retired as Coach in 1948 to devote full time to the ever-increasing duties of the athletic directorship. His chief assistant and Backfield Coach, Bennie Oosterbaan, a staff member since 1928 and Michigan's only three-time All-American, succeeded him. Much of the 1947 team was still available, although Chappuis, Weisenburger, Elliott, Yerges, and Hilkene were gone. Dick Rifenburg played end, and Alvin Wistert, tackle. The 1948 team, completing its second straight undefeated season, won both the Big Ten and the national collegiate football titles, and Oosterbaan also was named Coach of the Year. Alvin Wistert, the only one of the three brothers to become All-American twice, repeated his performance in 1949. Michigan won over Michigan State and Stanford before suffering defeat, 21-7, by Army and the following week lost a hard-fought 21-20 game to Northwestern. The last game was a 7-7 tie with Ohio State, and the team shared in the Conference title, marking the third straight season the Wolverines had won or shared top honors in the Western Conference.

The victory over Ohio State, 9-3, in the famous "Roses that Bloom in the Snow" game at Columbus in 1950, secured the title and the Rose Bowl bid for Michigan. The game was played in a blinding blizzard accompanied by a 10-degree temperature. While 50,500 spectators shivered in the stands, the game was delayed twenty minutes as workmen sought to clear the field of snow. Some remarkable kicking under adverse circumstances by Charlie Ortmann and a blocked punt by Center Tony Momsen, which he fell on for the game's lone touchdown, won for Michigan. The Wolverines had won four games, lost one, and been tied in another in Conference play. They earned their third Rose Bowl title on January 1, 1951, by defeating the University of California, 14-6.

Michigan dropped to fourth place in Page  19751951, winning four games and losing two in the Conference as well as losing to Michigan State, not yet in the Big Ten, by a score of 25-0, the first time the Spartans had defeated the Wolverines since 1937. Losses also came at the hands of Stanford and Cornell outside the Conference, the latter, 20-7, at Ithaca.

In 1952 the Wolverines again finished fourth in the Conference, with a 4-2 record, losing to Illinois and Ohio State and dropping both of its nonleague contests — to Michigan State and to Stanford. Because of a fifth-place tie with Iowa and a 3-3 record, including losses to Minnesota, Illinois, and Michigan State, 1953 proved to be one of Michigan's poorest years. The 1954 season, surprisingly, saw the Wolverines back in second place and tied with Wisconsin in the Big Ten; the record was six won, three lost. After defeating the University of Washington, 14-0, the Maize and Blue was set down, 26-7, by Army. A week later, however, Michigan scored a 14-13 victory over a highly regarded Iowa team, coached by former Wolverine star Forest Evashevski, and then defeated Northwestern and Minnesota only to run into a 13-9 upset from Indiana. A 14-7 win over Illinois and a 33-7 upset of Michigan State came before the Wolverines were defeated by Ohio State, 21-7.

The year 1955 began with a great fanfare, built upon the come-back the Wolverines had made with a sophomore-dominated team in 1954, particularly upon the individual prowess of one player, Ron Kramer, left end, whom the critics had belatedly discovered in the latter stages of the 1954 season. In a 42-7 victory over Missouri, Kramer scored 23 points. A 14-7 win over Michigan State followed, and, for the first time, Michigan defeated Army, 26-2. Victories were won over Northwestern, Minnesota, and Iowa, although a series of injuries in which Kramer and Tom Maentz figured handicapped the squad, and the Wolverines were upset by Illinois at Champaign, 25-0. After defeating Indiana, 30-0, the stage was set for the Conference championship game with Ohio State. With the Big Ten title in the balance and the largest crowd ever to witness a game in the Stadium — 97,369, the Maize and Blue went down to a 17-0 defeat at the hands of the Buckeyes. The game ended in disorder. Michigan finished in third place that year, with Ohio winning the title. Michigan State, in second place, was selected as the Conference contestant since the Buckeyes were not eligible, having competed in the Rose Bowl game the year before.

By 1957, in nine seasons under Oosterbaan, Michigan had won fifty-six games, lost twenty-four, and tied twice. In the Western Conference the Wolverines had won forty times, lost fifteen, and tied twice. Percentage-wise in over-all competition, Oosterbaan-coached teams had a .700 mark; in the Conference it was .719. Since 1948 Michigan teams had won or shared the Western Conference title three times, won a national and a Rose Bowl championship, finished second twice, third once, fourth twice, and tied for fifth place another year. Under Oosterbaan's direction, All-Americans have been Dick Rifenburg, end, 1948; Alvin Wistert, tackle, 1948 and 1949; Allen Wahl, tackle, 1949 and 1950; Arthur Walker, tackle, 1954; and Ron Kramer, end, 1955 and 1956.

Track. — The organization of the University Athletic Club in 1874 marked the first formal recognition of track as a University sport. Early track and field competition was limited to athletic tournaments and field days held on the Fair Grounds. Field Day by 1884, however, had become an elaborate program of twenty events. The tournament program differed greatly from a modern track and field program. Listed among the Page  1976events were the three- and ten-mile walking contests, collar and elbow wrestling, catch-as-catch-can wrestling, heavyweight boxing, tug-of-war, Indian clubs, drop kick, standing jump, throwing the baseball, lawn tennis, chasing greased pig, obstruction race, and Rugby. Events which had to do with track and field in the modern sense were the 100-yard dash, the half mile run, the hop-step-and-jump, and the hammer throw. The latter two events, which until fairly recent times were included on the intercollegiate program, have been discontinued.

The first track venture into intercollegiate competition was in 1893, when the Maize and Blue entered the Northwestern Intercollegiate Athletic Association meet and won, Michigan 52; Wisconsin 45; Northwestern, 15. Michigan won again in 1898 and in 1901, under the direction of Coach Keene Fitzpatrick, and entered the Western Conference meet for the first time and won, taking the outdoor title for four straight years. Because Michigan left the Western Conference in 1906, a Maize and Blue track team did not appear again in Conference competition until 1918. While out of the Conference, emphasis in track competition was placed on the Eastern Intercollegiate meet, in which Michigan finished second in 1907 and third for five successive years from 1910 to 1914.

Michigan track for more than sixty years has been in charge of only six men. Keene Fitzpatrick, as already mentioned, came to Michigan in 1894 as football trainer and track coach, and left for Princeton in 1910, to be succeeded by Dr. Alvin C. Kraenzlein, who served until 1912. Steve Farrell was Coach from 1912 until 1930; Charles Hoyt, from 1930 to 1940; J. Kenneth Doherty from 1941 to 1947; Don Canham, Doherty's assistant and a star high jumper, took over in 1948. Although Michigan was not a member of the Western Conference when Farrell was appointed in 1912, his teams won four indoor championships and five outdoor titles, including the 1918 crown, in the first season Michigan was back in the league. Under Hoyt's direction the Maize and Blue won seven outdoor crowns and added eight indoor titles. Doherty led two outdoor and three indoor teams to championships, and Canham captured both titles for two successive years. Despite the fact that Michigan was out of the Western Conference for eleven years, Wolverine track teams by 1956 had won twenty-two outdoor championships and seventeen indoor crowns. Closest rival has been Illinois, a continuous member of the Conference.

Michigan has contributed its share of track competitors to United States and other Olympic teams. Charles Dvorak ('01, '04l) won the pole vault event in 1900 and the championship in 1904. Archie Hahn ('04l), a triple winner at St. Louis in 1904, won the 60-meter dash in 7 seconds, the 100-meter dash in 11 seconds, and took the 200-meter event in 21.6. In the same year Ralph Rose won the shot put with a toss of 48 feet 7 ½ inches as compared to the world record mark of 48 feet 10 inches, which he had set during the regular season. With Dvorak's pole vault performance of 11 feet 6 inches, Michigan won four first places. Rose won the weight event again, in 1908, at London. His winning toss was 46 feet 7 ½ inches. John C. Garrels ('07e) took third place by capturing a second in the 110-meter hurdles. Gayle A. Dull ('08), a distance runner, was also on the squad.

Both Ralph Craig ('11) and Rose were double winners at Stockholm in 1912, although the latter was no longer competing for Michigan. Craig won the 100-meter dash in 10.8 seconds, and repeated in the 200-meter event with a 21.7 performance. Page  1977Rose finished second in the "best hand" event, and Carroll B. Haff ('13, '15l) placed fifth in the 400-meter race. In the Antwerp Games of 1920, Carl Johnson ('20) finished second in the broad jump for the United States. In the Paris Olympics of 1924, DeHart Hubbard won the broad jump with a leap of 24 feet 5 ½ inches, and James Brooker took second in the pole vault. At Amsterdam, in 1928, George (Buck) Hester, sprinter, competed in the dashes for Canada. At the Los Angeles Games in 1932, Eddie Tolan took the 100-meter dash in 10.3 seconds and then captured the 200-meter event in 21.2, setting new records in both events. Ed Turner took fifth in the 800-meter race.

In London, in 1948, Herb Barten finished fourth in the 800-meters, and Eck Koutonen, a broad jumper, competed in the hop-step-jump. Several Michigan trackmen competed in the Games at Helsinki, Finland, in 1952, but none represented the United States. Roland (Fritz) Nilsson took fifth in the shot put for his native Sweden, while Canadian team members John Ross, 800 meters, Jack Carroll, 400 meters, and Roy Pella competed in the discus.

Cross country. — Members of a cross country club, organized in 1901, made up four-mile relay teams, which won the Penn Relays between 1901 and 1906. The 1905 team set a world record in the four-mile event and lowered that mark again in 1906 to 18 minutes 10.4 seconds. The quartet which set the 1906 record included Rowe, Coe, Ramey, and Maloney. Cross country as a varsity sport was not established at Michigan until 1920, and Michigan won its first Big Ten championship in 1922, taking both the individual and team titles. Egbert R. Isbell, a noted distance runner, won the the individual title by covering the five-mile course at Lafayette, Indiana, in 26 minutes 33.2 seconds. Cross country was discontinued as a regular varsity sport in 1934, but from time to time the Wolverines have competed in Conference championships as a means of training distance runners on the track squad. Don McEwen won the individual title over a four-mile course at Washington Park in Chicago in 1949, by covering the distance in 19:44.5. In 1950, on a four-mile emergency course at Washington Park, he set another mark of 19:34.1. Michigan won its only other Conference cross country championship in 1954, scoring 55 points.

Tennis. — Tennis came into vogue in 1880, and an association was formed in 1883. First participation in Western Conference matches took place in 1897, and the first tennis letters were awarded that year. In 1902 at the Western Intercollegiate Tournament in Chicago, Harry Wherry and Henry Danforth won the doubles championship for Michigan, and then Danforth defeated Wherry for the individual crown. Danforth won the individual title again in 1903, and Raymond St. John and Walter Lee won the doubles. The Wolverines continued to win in the limited meet through 1904.

In 1910 full-scale Western Conference tournaments were inaugurated, but since Michigan was out of the Conference at this time, the Maize and Blue did not have another chance at a championship until 1919, when Walter Westbrook, one of the big names in Michigan tennis, won the singles championship. Westbrook then teamed with Nicholas Bartz to win the doubles championship. Repeating with the singles championship in 1920, he went on to engage the great William T. Tilden in the finals of the National Clay Court championships in 1925, forcing Tilden to five straight sets before losing. Westbrook and Harvey Snodgrass defeated Tilden and Wiener for the national doubles championship that year. The versatile Westbrook was also a trackman, winning the Illinois Relays Page  1978pole vault championship with a vault of 12 feet 1/2 inch.

Michigan did not have another individual champion until 1948, when Andy Paton won the singles crown; he and William Mikulich won the doubles crown in the same year. Earlier, Horace Barton and Kingsley Moore had won the 1927 doubles. In 1955 and 1956, under the direction of Coach Bill Murphy, the Wolverines won the Big Ten championship, MacKay and Potter taking the 1955 doubles title and MacKay winning the 1956 individual title; teaming again, they won the doubles. MacKay, a Davis Cup candidate, was invited to England, where he played successfully in a number of matches as one of the younger Davis Cup team candidates. Michigan won team championships in 1941, 1944, 1945, 1955, and 1956, the first official team championship upon a point basis having been established in 1934. Under Murphy's leadership the Wolverines won thirty-one consecutive dual meet victories in 1955-56 and, entering the 1957 season, are still undefeated.

Professor Thomas C. Trueblood (see Part IV: The Department of Speech), who was associated with Michigan athletics for more than fifty years, helped to organize and coach some of the earlier teams; such former players as Lee and Westbrook, Christian Mack, Paul Leidy, James Angell, and Hutchins at various times also served as Coach. John B. Johnstone was Coach from 1929 until 1937, when he was succeeded by LeRoy Weir, who served until 1946. W. Campbell Dixon, who became Coach in 1947, was followed by William Murphy, present mentor.

Golf. — The credit for the introduction of golf at Michigan, in 1901, and for the development of the sport must be given to Professor Trueblood, whose energies in the early years were devoted to both tennis and golf. The first intercollegiate schedule was arranged in 1921 under his direction, and competition began at Western Conference level in 1922. Trueblood retired as Coach in 1935 to be succeeded by Ray O. Courtright, who remained in charge until William Barclay took over in 1945-46. Albert C. Katzenmeyer has been Golf Coach from 1947 to date. From 1922 Michigan has had one of the finest golf records in the Big Ten. Beginning in 1931 the Wolverines won the Big Ten title five years in a row and repeated again in 1943, 1944, and 1945. Further championships came in 1946, 1947, 1949, and 1952, with the 1956 team finishing in the runner-up spot. John Fischer, Big Ten champion for two years and national intercollegiate champion in 1932, won the National Amateur championship in 1936. Charles Kocsis, Big Ten champion for two years, won the National Collegiate title in 1936. Ben Smith was Conference individual champion in 1943, and Ed Schalon won the crown outright in 1947 and tied for it in 1949.

Basketball. — Intercollegiate basketball, one of the most popular indoor sports, has had a rather short history at Michigan. Although it was introduced in 1909 under G. D. Corneal, it was abandoned, to be revived in 1917 by Professor Elmer D. Mitchell, who later became chairman of the Department of Physical Education for Men. Mitchell coached the sport for two seasons, 1917-18 and 1918-19. Edwin J. Mather took charge in 1919 and coached until his death before the 1929 season. He was succeeded by George F. Veenker, who directed the cagers for two seasons before Franklin C. Cappon took over in 1930.

Michigan won its first championship in 1926, sharing the title with Indiana, and in 1927 the Wolverines, with a 10-2 record and a percentage mark of .833, won the title outright. One of the stars Page  1979of those two teams was Bennie G. Oosterbaan, who was selected on a mythical All-American basketball team and led the Big Ten in scoring in 1928. The Wolverines repeated again in 1929, with another 10-2 record. Cappon joined the staff of Princeton University, 1937-39, and Oosterbaan took over until 1946, when he, in turn, was succeeded by Osborne Cowles. Under Cowles's direction the Maize and Blue again won the title in 1947-48 with another 10-2 record. Ernest B. McCoy became Coach in 1948-49, when Cowles left to become coach at the University of Minnesota. McCoy directed activities until 1953, when the present mentor, William J. Perigo, was appointed.

In 1955-56 Ron Kramer set all-time Michigan scoring marks both for an individual game and for the season. He scored 34 points against Northwestern, breaking his own previous mark of 30 points which he had set earlier in the season against Oregon, as Michigan won, 94-76. Several times he also tied the 1949 mark of Mack Supronowicz. Kramer's score of 448 points for the season, with an average of 20.3 points per game, is the best to date for any Michigan player.

Swimming. — Michigan has long been a power in intercollegiate swimming, owing largely to the abilities of Matt Mann, Supervisor Emeritus in Physical Education and Swimming Coach Emeritus, who was in charge from 1924 until 1954, when he was succeeded by Gus Stager, one of his own protégés, and Bruce Harlan, who was placed in charge of the divers. Until recent years, when Ohio State began an upward surge, under Mann's direction Michigan dominated Western Conference swimming. The Michigan-Ohio State swimming rivalry has grown into one of the keenest in intercollegiate circles, and Mann and Mike Peppe, veteran Buckeye coach, over the years staged a remarkable series of duels in Conference races. During the twenty-nine years that Mann coached Michigan swimming teams, sixteen of them won Big Ten titles, and thirteen were winners of National Intercollegiate championships. Under his direction Michigan produced more Olympic swimmers than any other Conference institution. Mann coached the 1952 United States Olympic team that won the championship.

In 1928 a Canadian, Garnet Ault, competed in swimming, and Paul Samson swam for the United States on the winning relay team and also on the water polo squad. James Cristy took third in the 1,500-meter race at Los Angeles in 1932, and Richard Degener finished third in diving in the same year. Five Michigan athletes placed in the Olympics in Berlin in 1936. Degener, competing for the second time, won the springboard diving title; Jack Kasley and Taylor Drysdale also placed. Kasley reached the semifinals of the 200-meter breast stroke, and Drysdale was fourth in the 100-meter back stroke. In 1948 Bobby Sohl finished third in the 200-meter breast stroke. In 1952 three Michigan athletes competed, Burwell (Bumpy) Jones in the 200 meters and in the relay, Ron Gora in the 100 meters, representing the United States, and John Davies, swimming for Australia, won the Olympic crown in the 200-meter breast stroke. In succession of service to the University, Mann is the fourth swimming coach since Jack Jerome directed activities in 1921-22. William Sperry coached the squad in 1923 and Gerald Barnes in 1924. Since 1954 Stager and Bruce Harlan, in charge of diving, have guided Michigan to two successive second places.

Wrestling. — Intercollegiate wrestling dates from 1921. Hevery L. Thorne was the first mat Coach in 1921-22; he, Page  1980in turn, was succeeded by Richard Barker. Clifford Keen, present Coach, took over in 1925, and in thirty-one years he has produced nine Big Ten champions. His teams have finished second on eleven other occasions, and his 1955 and 1956 teams won the Conference title. He also has trained many Olympic team members, including world's heavyweight champion, Ed Don George. Both George and Bobby Hewitt were members of the American squad in the 1928 Olympics, George winning the Olympic heavy-weight title and Hewitt taking runner-up honors in the 128-pound division. Keen was manager of the 1948 United States Olympic mat team in London.

Hockey. — Hockey also had its beginning in 1921, with Richard Barss as Coach (1921-26). Although officially not on the Western Conference athletic program, hockey provided a number of Big Ten teams with competition. In 1921, for example, Michigan met Michigan Agricultural College (Michigan State University), Notre Dame, Michigan Tech, and Wisconsin, and Conference teams Minnesota and Illinois. Eddie Lowrey became Coach in 1926 and produced championship teams; competition was with Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Illinois in 1930, 1931, and 1935, and Michigan tied with Minnesota in 1937. Two of Lowrey's outstanding protégés were John Sherf, who later achieved a reputation as a professional player, from 1933 to 1935, and Vic Heyliger, from 1935 to 1937. Heyliger later starred with the Chicago Blackhawks, and then became coach at the University of Illinois. In 1944-45 he succeeded Lowrey as Coach, and Michigan rose to a major position in the rapidly growing intercollegiate ice sport. Under Heyliger's direction the Wolverines achieved an outstanding record, winning the National Collegiate Athletic Association championship eight times since the title play-offs were established at Colorado Springs in 1948. The Wolverines also won the Western Intercollegiate Hockey League crown in 1956 and tied with Minnesota for it in 1952. In the Winter Games at Cortina, Italy, in 1956, Willard Ikola was goalie on the U. S. Hockey team, and John Matchefts was a wing. Michigan's record, since 1921, includes 609 games played, 364 won, 211 lost, and 34 tied. Under Barss, of 54 games played, 30 were victories, 20 were losses, and 4 were ties. Lowrey's record included a total of 279 games played, of which Michigan won 124, lost 135, and tied 20. Since 1944-45 the Wolverines have been victorious in 211 contests, have lost 56, and tied 10.

Gymnastics. — Although gymnastics was conducted on a nonvarsity level for a number of years, it did not become a varsity sport until 1931. Wilbur West coached the first team, which, although it lost all four of its dual meets, finished fifth in the Big Ten. The next two years the Wolverines took fourth place in the Big Ten. The 1932 team won one meet and lost three, while in 1933 the only meet engaged in was against the Detroit Turnverein, the Maize and Blue winning 437.5 to 427. The sport was discontinued in 1933 and not resumed until 1948, when it was re-established on a varsity level, with Newton C. Loken as Coach. It has developed steadily, and the team finished in second place in 1950 and in 1956. Since 1948 Michigan has won forty-nine and lost sixteen meets, being undefeated in seven straight meets in 1956. Edward Gagnier, Canadian all-around champion, is perhaps the most outstanding performer.

Fencing. — Fencing was an official varsity sport from 1927 through 1933-34 but was discontinued at the end of that season. It was coached by John B. Johnstone and during the period of its existence the record included 21 victories, 7 losses, and 1 tie.

Page  1981
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Athletic Annual, Univ. Mich., 1866-1921, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Athletic Record, Univ. Mich., 1930-52, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
The Chronicle, Vols. 1-21 (1869-90), Univ. of Mich.
Football Programs, Univ. Mich., 1895-1956, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
The Michiganensian, Vols. 1-60 (1897-1956), Univ. of Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," Univ. Mich., 1900-1956.
Pack, Phil. "100 Years of Athletics, Univ. Mich., 1837-1937." Ann Arbor, Mich.
The Palladium, Vols. 1-38 (1859-96), Univ. of Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1870-1909; 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1870-1956.
Shaw, Wilfred B."Michigan and the Conference. A Ten-Year Argument Over the University's Athletic Relations."Mich. Alum., 54 (1947-48): 34-48.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR MEN

EFFORTS to provide physical education for men at the University of Michigan began in the 1860's. In December, 1868, President Haven presented a petition signed by 250 students "praying for the establishment of a gymnasium" (R.P., 1864-70, p. 312). In September, 1869, the following resolution was adopted by the Board:

Resolved, That the University Senate be requested to examine and report to the Board in regard to the propriety of establishing a Gymnasium in connection with the University, … also in regard to the relation which it shall hold to the University Course, if so established; and to collect information and present their views respecting the entire subject of introducing Gymnastic Exercises as a part of a course of Education.


(R.P., 1864-70, p. 376.)
After making a study of certain Eastern colleges and universities which already had gymnasiums and the effects of gymnastics upon the scholarship and the physical condition of the students, the Senate, in 1870, reported:

A vast expansion of the scope of our American college system is the characteristic educational fact of the last fifteen years. One very important direction in which this recent enlargement has shown itself, is toward systematic physical culture, as a regular part of the work of a college course …; There is no other spectacle of a want of symmetry in the development of a human being so glaring and so painful as that of a cultivated mind inhabiting a neglected, feeble and incompetent body. And the declaration is confirmed by the fact that the principal modern writers on education — Roger Ascham, Bacon, Cowley, Milton, Locke, Rousseau, Dr. Arnold, Horace Mann, and Herbert Spencer — have insisted upon the equal rights and the equal needs of the body and the mind, with reference to systematic training. Yet, in America fifteen years ago, no contrast could have been greater than that which was presented between theory and practice upon the subject. All our educational authorities sanctioned physical culture; and all our educational institutions neglected it.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 7.)

The Senate thereupon recommended the establishment of a Department of Hygiene and Physical Culture, the construction of a gymnasium to cost about $25,000, and the appointment of a professor to be in charge of the new department. It was also recommended that attendance at the gymnasium be optional but that those students who did participate should pay a fee of $2.00 to $3.00 a year "to meet operating costs until Page  1982either by private munificence or by state endowment the expenses of the department should be otherwise provided for." Apparently, no steps were taken by the Regents to carry out these recommendations.

Finally, in 1878, an earlier Football Association was reorganized by the students as the Athletic Association of the University, an incorporated society with its main objective the raising of money for the gymnasium. When, after many years of student effort, the money was turned over to the University in 1894, the total was only about $6,000. In 1879 the University once more took the initiative. In his report to the Regents for that year, President Angell stated: "A well-equipped gymnasium is … much needed. It would not only contribute to the physical well being of the students, but would also confer indirectly both intellectual and moral good. The health and consequently the intellectual and moral vigor of not a few of our students suffers from the lack of sufficient … exercise" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 419).

In 1880 President Frieze urged the Regents to take steps in this direction:

Among the wants recognized by the University … is that of a gymnasium for the promotion of the physical development and health of the students… A sound mind without the sound body loses half of its efficiency. For several years our students … have been making earnest and commendable efforts to raise the funds necessary for the erection and equipment of a suitable building. But the opportunities within the reach of students for creating such a fund, are exceedingly limited; and they cannot hope, without assistance, to raise the requisite amount. The struggle which they are making deserves our hearty sympathy.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 585.)

In 1885 the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts asked the legislature for an appropriation for this purpose, but five years later, in October, 1890, President Angell was still pointing out the urgent need for a gymnasium. By this time it was clear that it was useless to expect any assistance from the legislature. The first real help toward the gymnasium came in January, 1891, when Joshua W. Waterman, of Detroit, contributed $20,000 with the provision that a like amount be raised from other sources. The Senate took charge of the fund-raising campaign, and a student committee was appointed to help in the drive. By April, 1891, $20,182 had been collected. Plans were drawn, and the cost of construction was estimated at $60,000 rather than the $40,000 on hand. Work on the building began in April, 1892. Progress was slow owing to the shortage of money and materials. The University finally appropriated University funds in order to complete the building. The J-Hop of April, 1893, marked the informal opening of the gymnasium. It was not until October, 1894, that the gymnasium was equipped and ready for classes. Final cost of construction was $65,134.

The required program. — Dr. James B. Fitzgerald became the first Director of Waterman Gymnasium in 1894, and Keene Fitzpatrick, who was appointed Instructor in the same year, became Acting Director in 1899 and Director in 1904. In the year 1901 George A. May, M.D., a graduate of Yale University, came to Michigan as Fitzpatrick's assistant, with the title of Instructor in Physical Education. Dr. May was officially appointed Director of Waterman Gymnasium in March, 1910. He held this position until 1942. He was a well-known personality on the campus and was familiarly called "Doc" by the students who had passed through his gymnastic classes.

Gymnasium classes were formed in 1894-95 for those who wished to attend, but no credit was given for the work. In Page  19831898, however, a resolution was passed by the Regents making gymnastics compulsory for the freshman class of the Literary and Engineering departments. The 1901-2 Calendar announced: "Work in the gymnasium, twice a week, is required of first year students [who] … are expected to report to the Director … between October 1 and October 26 for physical examination and assignment to sections" (Cal., 1901-2, p. 113).

By 1917, however, the following information concerning facilities and physical training for men was given in the Catalogue.

Waterman Gymnasium affords excellent opportunity for all phases of gymnastic and indoor athletic activities. The main floor is a rectangle 246 by 90 feet, with truncated corners, allowing if desired a 75-yard straight away sprinting track. There is also a dirt pit for jumping and shot putting, covered by a trap door when not in use, as well as equipment of the various kinds of apparatus usually found in the best modern gymnasiums. Several smaller rooms are devoted to administration, fencing, boxing and other special purposes, while the basement is given to baths, lockers, handball, shotput, and a rifle range… A gallery makes room for an elliptical running track, ten laps to the mile.

Before beginning gymnasium work each student receives a thorough physical examination, in order to eliminate those who are not physically capable of doing the regular class work. Every student examined is measured and furnished with an anthropometric chart, which affords a comparison of his own measurements with those of the average student and reveals for correction any abnormality that may be present. A second measurement is made after the class work is finished, in order to note what changes have taken place.

The compulsory work in Physical Training is planned to produce uniform development, which is of the greatest importance; … Credit toward the requirement in physical training is given for outdoor sports in season, … After the close of the season for these sports, students participating in them just report for regular indoor work. An outdoor running track has been constructed adjacent to the gymnasium, in order to secure outdoor running when weather conditions permit.


(Catalogue, 1917-18, pp. 134-35.)
The nature of the formal program of that time is revealed in this description of facilities and equipment.

By 1920-21 the program still consisted of gymnastics, track events, fencing, boxing, wrestling, and rugged outdoor sports such as football and cross-country running. Attendance was required at lectures in personal hygiene, which were added in the fall of that year. In 1925 the students in the required program were classified in four groups: those who were qualified for active practice sessions in the various freshman sports, those who passed efficiency tests and were capable of doing more advanced work, those in the regular physical education classes, and those who needed special corrective work. Students in the regular physical education classes had calisthenics, apparatus work, tumbling, and mass athletics.

Until the late 1920's the program was very formal. In the past quarter of a century, however, physical exercise and recreation have reflected the basic changes in American attitude. After World War I, physical training was advocated as a solution to the unfitness of American youth for war, which the draft statistics had disclosed. In time there was a trend away from strenuous, disciplined exercise and toward voluntary participation in the more enjoyable forms of sport:

In the University … the required physical training program for freshmen was enthusiastically promoted; yet fifteen years later, its organization was at a minimum level whereas the recreational [intramural] sports program was enjoying increased facilities, staff, and general popularity. The recreational program, of course, was not generally Page  1984concerned with developmental exercises and strenuous training. It is true that in varsity athletics, where there is a strong conditioning emphasis and regularity of participation, the number of sports as well as the number of men in each sport increased to some extent; yet the total varsity participation still did not exceed one-tenth of the University male population.


("Report Concerning Physical Education at the University of Michigan," Bell, Mitchell, Crisler. 1945.)

In 1925 the University was stirred to action concerning the student's bodily training and development. Therefore, the Day Committee was appointed in May, 1925, to consider the "place and function of varsity athletics in University life … and to analyze the required physical education program." The final outcome of the Day report resulted in the building of the football Stadium, the Sports Building, the Women's Athletic Building, and Palmer Field. Instruction in the required program for men continued to be given in Waterman Gymnasium. The Day report has remained as an outstanding example of a scholarly and statesmanlike attitude of the faculty toward the proper place of physical education and athletics in University life.

In 1932 a new committee was appointed by the University Council to investigate the place of physical education in the University and the immediate problems in this field. More specifically the committee was expected to determine the requirements in physical education, to express an opinion as to whether the separate schools of the University should determine requirements, and to make recommendations in view of the evidence gathered. The trend away from formalized activities to sports was apparent when the committee recommended voluntary play in place of required exercise and advised that the latter should be maintained at a minimum.

At this time all departments of the University with the exception of Oral Hygiene and Military Science required one year of physical education. Since 1928 military drill has been accepted in place of the physical education requirement. The objectives of physical education as reported by the 1932 committee, with Nathan Sinai as chairman, were to promote and maintain proper growth and development, to improve neuromuscular control, to provide corrective work, and to develop individual interest in physical education so that later life leisure time might be served. The recommendations of this committee included the following: the one-year requirement, thirty periods of selected activity, special requirements for varsity work, military drill, band members, and employed students, and a clarification of the organization of physical education at the University. This report resulted in a decision to the effect that the physical education requirement would be determined by the separate schools and that greater freedom would be permitted in the election of activities in the second semester. The Catalogue for 1932 stated that after spring recess "students … could select any outdoor or indoor activity for which facilities are furnished, namely, golf, tennis, swimming, baseball, softball, track and field, gymnasium activities, wrestling, boxing, fencing, handball, and squash." By 1939 the student was permitted to select activities in the first semester as well as in the second. Boxing, wrestling, basketball, track and field, fencing, and gymnastics were offered. In the second semester he was permitted a choice of badminton, volleyball, golf, handball, fencing, boxing, wrestling, gymnastics, and basketball.

With World War II, physical fitness became of paramount importance. The Regents, in May, 1942, adopted the following Page  1985program for the emergency period:

A physical conditioning non-credit course conforming to Army and Navy requirements, especially designed to fit students for services in the Armed Forces, beginning June 15, 1942. … This … course shall consist of three one and one-half hour periods per week … [and] shall be supplemented by corrective exercise where necessary.

As a condition to continued attendance at the University, the above physical training course is required of students who, at the beginning of a particular term, are (a) registered under the Selective Service Act or (b) enrolled in special enlistment programs. … This course may be substituted by the student for the present required course in physical education.

Each period of one and one-half hours is divided into two forty-five minute sections for mass activities and for individual activities. The mass activities program consists of calisthenics, games, relays, obstacle racing, and individual and mass combative exercises. The individual program includes boxing, gymnastics, wrestling, track and field, and games. All students are required to pass the standard Navy swimming test.


(Announcement, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 1942-43, pp. 226-29.)

In order to carry out this program a complete change of departmental procedure was necessary. Only those activities which emphasized physical conditioning and the building of self-confidence were selected. The students were enthusiastic about the program and indicated a desire for postwar physical education along similar lines. As a result, in March, 1944, a committee was appointed by Herbert O. Crisler, Director of Physical Education and Athletics, to recommend a new physical education plan. The committee centered its attention on the required work, with the realization that the program should emphasize the individual rather than mass needs and that physical education should be an integral part of a University education.

The report, completed in October, 1945, stated that in 1938-39, of twenty-five universities surveyed by McCristal and Miller (McCristal and Miller, pp. 70-80), seventeen had a requirement of two or more years and that seventeen gave credit for physical education. The University ranked in the lowest quarter of this survey with respect to credit and requirement because Michigan did not give credit and required only one year of work. The committee made an intensive study of the program as it was before the war and of the emergency program which replaced it, and as a result the following recommendations were made: that the requirement, to become effective in October, 1946, be increased to six semesters, that credit be given for physical education, that a continuous program of research be established, and that steps be taken to secure adequate facilities and staff. No undergraduate was to be excused from physical education and, although special consideration would be given war veterans they, too, would be subject to the requirement. It was recommended that physical education be integrated with the other units of the University, that the program be centered around the needs of the individual and that counseling service be provided, and that the required program, intramural sports, and varsity athletics be integrated so that the various staffs could most fully serve the individual student. It was also recommended that the intercollegiate competitive program be broadened in order to accommodate more men and that extramural sports days be encouraged and planned.

No faculty action was taken to put the 1945 committee's recommendations into effect. The present-day curriculum in the required physical education program falls short of the proposed 1945 plan. Nevertheless, under the direction of Mr. Page  1986Howard Leibee, who was placed in charge of the Required Program in the fall of 1945, considerable progress toward the ideal curriculum has been achieved. Since 1945, when conditions have warranted it, new courses have been added. The curriculum has become much more flexible, permitting election of physical education activities that have a carry-over, life-long value. Progression in the instruction has been emphasized, too, so that students who choose certain sports may find advanced instruction available to them. Because of the complete coverage of the program, comprising activities for the handicapped as well as for all levels of physical fitness and skill, there is no need for exemptions from the requirement, as was frequently the case.

Despite the increasing enrollment of freshman students, every effort has been made to keep the classes small and the instruction as individualized as possible. A number of graduate students who have had special experience in sports are utilized as teaching fellows. The twenty courses offered, with several sections available in popular activities such as golf, tennis, and swimming include: Developmental Activities, Swimming (beginning and intermediate), Life Saving, Diving, Badminton, Basketball, Self-Defense (boxing, wrestling, and hand-to-hand), Golf, Softball, Fencing (beginning and intermediate), Trampolining and Gymnastic Activities, Individual Exercises, Tennis (beginning and intermediate), Squash, Weight Lifting, Fly and Bait Casting, Ice and Figure Skating, Bowling, Square and Social Dancing (Co-recreational), and Sports Survey.

At present all of the courses in the required physical education curriculum are activity courses with the exception of PEM 60, a sports survey course, especially for students who for medical reasons are unable to participate in physical activity. This unique course acquaints the student with theories, techniques, and practices utilized in sports activities suitable to his professional field. It deals with the place of sports in our social, economic, and educational life and emphasizes safety principles as applied to sports activities.

All students are required to have a health examination before attending the first class. During the year physical fitness tests and motor-skill tests are given, and advisory follow-up work is undertaken. All students failing to pass the swimming test must elect Beginning Swimming. At the end of the semester the students are graded upon their physical proficiency, knowledge of sports, attitude, and progress in improvement.

Intramural Sports

Before 1912 there was no central organization to promote sports for the general student body, so the students of their own accord began to rally around specific units. Teams were organized representing the different colleges and schools, and games were played between them. The Michigan Alumnus for February, 1912, stated: "Twenty games between the Laws, Engineers, Homeops, Lits, and a combined team known as the Sciences, from the Dental, Medical and Pharmacy Departments, made up the interdepartment schedule of hockey games held during January." And the Michigan Daily for October 3, 1913, reported: "The First Annual All-Comers Championship Tennis Tournament for the title of the campus will start on the Ferry Field Courts today, with thirty-two contestants entered."

In this way an embryo intramural program developed which became more and more student controlled. Finally, however, Page  1987it grew too large to be handled without a stronger and more permanent centralized authority. The Men's Athletic Association, which had permitted the use of its fields and other facilities, realized that some form of control would be necessary. Thus, in the fall of 1912 Prentiss Douglas, a member of the football coaching staff, was appointed half-time to take charge of intramural athletics, which consisted, actually, of interclass sports. An article by T. Hawley Tapping, at that time a staff member of the Michigan Daily, is herewith quoted: "In the school year of 1912-13, the department of intramural activities was first created. Prentiss Douglas, this fall the coach of the freshman football team, was made the director … and it was a success from the very first."

The University of Michigan thus became the first educational institution to appoint a coach to direct its intramural program. This move toward a unified system was helpful to the Men's Athletic Association because it permitted direct control over space and equipment. The fields and courts were assigned impartially and without confusion, the games were better supervised, and any loss or damage to equipment could easily be traced. Under Douglas' direction the intramural program was expanded and improved. Greater interest developed in interclass competition and in promoting the physical welfare of the students; enrollment increased in sports, and the value of the new branch in college athletics was recognized.

The following year (1913-14) Floyd Rowe ('08e), who was appointed Intramural Director on a full-time basis, established procedures which were to continue for many years. Records show that some two thousand students took part in thirteen sports programs. The use of the word "intramural" in this sense is credited to Allen S. Whitney of the School of Education and a member of the Board in Control of Athletics.

Owing to the pressure of World War I, the work was largely superseded by military activities in 1917-18. It was reorganized in 1919 with Elmer Dayton Mitchell ('12, Ph.D. '38) as Director. Increased enrollment and the impetus given to athletics by the war caused an immediate increase in intramural participation. Fourteen sports made up the program at that time. The fraternity sports program and the all-year point system were established, and, with the growth of intramural athletics at this and other Western Conference schools, the first meeting of the Western Conference Intramural Directors took place in 1920. This group, which has continued to the present time, has had much to do with the development of the program throughout the country.

In the fall of 1921 the department was transferred from the Athletic Association to the Division of Hygiene, Public Health, and Physical Education (P.R., 1921-22, pp. 153-54). A substantial increase in its budget also resulted. With increased facilities provided from inter-collegiate athletic funds, it was now possible for the students to take part in informal sports participation, whereas previously participation had been confined to organized athletic competition. As a result, the name of the department was changed from Intramural Athletics to the more inclusive title of Intramural Sports.

In 1921-22 the game of speedball was introduced by Professor Mitchell as a substitute for football, which was proving too hazardous for untrained players without adequate protective equipment. The game combined the outstanding features of soccer, basketball, and football. In 1941-42 the popular game of touch football was added. Softball, introduced in 1922-23, was readily accepted because Page  1988it required a small area of playing space and little equipment. Practice was held to a minimum. The game has continued on the program to the present time.

The construction of Yost Field House (the first field house in the country), which was opened in 1923, aided in the development of intramural athletics. Varsity activities were removed from Waterman Gymnasium, thus freeing its facilities to a great extent for use by intramural sports. Over the years the Field House also has been the scene of many intramural events, particularly indoor track and field.

Another administrative change took place in 1926, when intramural sports and the programs in physical education for both men and women were placed under the jurisdiction of the newly created Board in Control of Athletics (R.P., 1923-26, pp. 868-71). The greatest stimulus to the intramural program, however, came in 1927-28 with the construction of the magnificent new Sports Building. Owing largely to Fielding H. Yost's enthusiasm and his belief in and support of "athletics for all," the building was opened in October, 1928, the first university-owned structure in the nation devoted primarily to intramural sports (see Part VIII: The Athletic Plant). Open House was held on March 21, 1929. A program, built around winter sports, has continued as an annual event. Many championships and exhibitions are held, and instructional clinics are conducted by outstanding sports figures.

Faculty members were quick to take advantage of the fine facilities at the Sports Building, and in 1929-30 a number of tournaments were conducted for them. A favorite game is water polo, which was introduced in 1925 when the Michigan Union swimming pool was opened. The game is played during the noon hour, with the participants going to the Michigan Union for luncheon immediately after the game. The game of paddleball invented by Earl Riskey, a departmental staff member, was added in 1930-31. This game, which is similar to squash, is played with a wooden paddle in a handball court under handball rules. It has continued on the program to the present time.

In 1933-34 the federal government inaugurated a program of federal aid under F.E.R.A. (Federal Emergency Relief Administration, later N.Y.A.), which provided aid for students on jobs not already held by salaried workers. The program made a definite contribution to intramural athletics at Michigan because it augmented opportunities for student teachers and made possible the repair and addition of facilities. The Board in Control of Athletics was changed to the Board in Control of Physical Education in 1934-35 (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 297-98).

A new emphasis developed in 1935 on recreation as a valuable contribution to the wise use of leisure time and on sports which had a "carry-over" value. Students were urged to take part in golf, badminton, bowling, tennis, swimming, handball, squash, paddleball, skating, and the like. It was recognized at this time that impromptu play was just as important in the intramural program as organized competition, and a program of instruction was set up for those who wanted to participate.

Before 1937-38 graduate students competed with undergraduates. In this year a separate division was created which gave the graduate student an opportunity to compete in intramural sports.

The completion of the West Quadrangle resulted in competition between Residence Halls. The program was inaugurated in 1939-40, and the seven Page  1989houses in the Quadrangle participated enthusiastically. At the end of the school year an athletic banquet to which intramural participants were invited was held, thus setting the pattern for future residence halls groups. The facilities of the Sports Building were made available each Friday evening for a corecreation program, and men and women students engaged in volleyball, badminton, basketball, paddleball, squash, and swimming. This program has continued to be popular.

The year 1939-40 also saw the first attempt at a recreation program for foreign students. There was team competition in soccer and volleyball, and individual tournaments in badminton and tennis. A special open house was held at the International Center at which time various championships were played, and students gave exhibitions of the various sports and recreations of their own countries. In 1953 the game of cricket was added for the benefit of the foreign students. It is interesting to note that cricket was originally responsible for the University's first official recognition of athletics. In 1865 the Regents appropriated $50 in order to prepare "a suitable place on the grounds for the use of the University Cricket Clubs" (R.P., 1867-70, p. 95).

The East Quadrangle program got under way in 1941 with the opening of the first three of the houses. Under this new organization, Quad champions chosen in each sport met the West Quad winners for the residence halls championship.

During World War II the Department of Physical Education for Men conducted a physical conditioning noncredit course especially designed to prepare students for service in the Armed Forces. The intramural, athletic, and physical education facilities were made available, and programs were carried on for Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force. For this special instruction a physical fitness test was given, and students were placed in special groups in accordance with their scores. The year 1943-44 saw a curtailment of the intramural program owing to the emphasis placed on physical conditioning and military skills during the war.

The Board in Control of Physical Education became the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics in 1942 (R.P., 1939-42, pp. 859-61). Professor Elmer Mitchell was appointed chairman of the Department of Physical Education for Men, and Earl N. Riskey, working under his direction, was placed in charge of intramural sports.

In 1945 the University acquired Willow Village, a former war workers' housing unit, and in 1946 the Department of Physical Education for Men inaugurated a temporary intramural program for students in residence there. Rodney J. Grambeau, who joined the intramural staff in 1947, was put in charge of the work.

A full-scale intramural program was resumed in 1947-48. A competitive program for faculty members, set up in 1948-49, was expanded the following year when some 150 faculty members competed with the same number of students in six sports. The faculty won, and this event has been continued every year.

When the South Quadrangle was opened in 1951, seven houses took part in the first program for that group. With this, the third Quad, the Residence Halls program attained second place in the all-intramural program with a total of twenty units. Only the social fraternity division, which had forty units, was larger.

The unprecedented growth of student enrollment places an ever-constant burden upon the intramural program to provide adequate facilities for an "athletics for all" program. This need is recognized Page  1990and is partly being met by new additions of athletic fields, such as Wines Field, which is lighted at night to take care of the increased number of teams, and by the addition of the old varsity swimming pool, which, since the new varsity pool has been completed, has been turned over completely for classes and intramural recreation. The University has taken cognizance of future needs by acquiring lands adjacent to the new North Campus for recreational use.

Professional Preparation of Teachers

At the March, 1920, meeting of the Board of Regents, President Burton presented a communication from the Michigan State Department of Public Instruction with respect to the preparation of teachers in the field of physical education. A year later, the Board took the following action establishing a Department of Physical Education:

There is hereby created and established a University Department of Physical Education.

This Department shall be put in charge of some person to be chosen by the Board of Regents who shall have the rank, privileges, and duties of a full professor and hold the title of Director of Physical Education …

The Director … shall be in primary charge of all athletic fields for men and women, of both gymnasiums, … of all sports, indoor, outdoor, intercollegiate, and intramural. He shall … by virtue of his position … be a member of, and Chairman of the present Board in Control of Outdoor Athletics, … All trainers, coaches, and assistant coaches … shall be appointed by the Board in Control of Outdoor Athletics on the recommendation of the Director of Physical Education.


(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 120-21.)

President Burton outlined a plan, which the Regents approved, for the projected department, and with Regent Murfin he was empowered to work out detailed arrangements, including the making of appointments. The resolution creating the Department of Physical Education was then rescinded because the matter was referred to a committee which recommended instead the establishment of two departments:

  • (1) We recommend [that] there be established two departments: (a) A University Department of Hygiene and Public Health including a Department of Physical Education. (b) A Department of Intercollegiate Athletics.
  • (2) The man chosen to be in charge of the first-named department shall be given the title of Director of University Hygiene and Public Health and shall have professional rank. He shall be Professor of Hygiene and Public Health in the Medical School, shall have supervision of the University Health Service, of all gymnasiums, and of intramural activities…
  • (3) Intercollegiate Athletics shall be placed in charge of a man to have the title of Director of Intercollegiate Athletics. He shall be chosen by the Board of Regents…
  • (4) Assistants connected with the School of Education shall be nominated to the Board of Regents, through the Dean of the School of Education and President of the University.

(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 203-4.)

The appointment of Fielding H. Yost as Director of Intercollegiate Athletics was announced in June, 1921, and that of Dr. John Sundwall as Director of the Department of Hygiene and Public Health, including Physical Education, in September of the same year.

The four-year curriculum. — The new four-year curriculum inaugurated in the fall of 1921 was aimed to meet the demands for competent young men and women to supervise the physical health of children in the public schools, to provide recreation for growing youth, and to instruct prospective coaches in scientific methods of training school teams. It Page  1991also endeavored to provide training in physical education for high-school teachers and principals and school superintendents. The course was so constructed as to combine general education with specialized training in two lines: (1) that which included gymnastics, play, and games for persons of all ages and the program of recreation and health for young people; and (2) that of athletic training which would fit the prospective candidate to train scientifically the school teams in various branches of competitive sports, to give instruction in skilled methods of play, and to build up a competitive but friendly rivalry with other schools. Instruction was provided by the School of Education, the Department of Hygiene and Public Health, and the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics. Provision was made for directed teaching to be given during the junior and senior years, and for the student to give instruction in gymnasium and intramural activities.

A plan presented by Dean J. R. Effinger of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, recommending that courses for athletic coaches be given in the summer session, was inaugurated in 1922 under the sponsorship of the School of Education. In the following year credit was given for the course.

In 1923-24 Fielding H. Yost and George Little were appointed Professor and Associate Professor, respectively, of the Theory and Practice of Athletic Coaching. Courses covering the school program in physical education, graded play and games, organization and administration, first aid, and practical hygiene were offered. A bulletin on Physical Education, Athletics, and School Health was published in 1922, stating the objective of the course to be the preparation of the student to enable him to assume the duties of a director of physical education and school health. The objectives were the same for men and women, with the exception of coaching. The student was trained to conduct physical examinations and gymnastic activities, to teach health education, to advise concerning the location and planning of the gymnasium, playground, athletic field, and equipment, to advise concerning heating, lighting, ventilation, and sanitation of school buildings, to direct playground activities, to provide health education and recreational training for teachers, to coach or supervise coaching of football, baseball, track, and swimming, and to assume responsibilities for the business management of various teams.

Subjects comprising the curriculum were organized into four groups, the first of which included rhetoric, chemistry, sociology, public speaking, educational psychology, educational administration, vocational guidance, and secondary education. The second group consisted of subjects selected to acquaint the student with the normal processes of the body, such as zoology, anatomy, general physiology, applied physiology, with particular reference to nutrition, metabolism, growth, neuromuscular physiology, exercise, fatigue, and rest. In the third group were courses designed to familiarize the student with the fundamentals of mental hygiene, bacteriology, introductory hygiene, physical reconstruction, school health problems, communicable disease control, first aid, and sex hygiene. Group four included subjects designed to prepare the student to organize and supervise the various interests and activities in physical education and athletics. Kinesiology, community play, history and principles of physical education, and the theory of administration of physical education were included.

After the reorganization of departments in 1923-24, the professional program in Physical Education, Athletics, Page  1992and School Health was known as Department "F" of the School of Education. Actions were taken to meet the need for trained personnel in these fields. In the University Catalogue for 1924 the following statement by Dr. Sundwall appeared: "In order to meet the need for well-trained instructors and supervisors, the universities and colleges are instituting courses in physical education. The physical instructor should have academic and professional training equal in every respect to that of general educators… The physical educator by virtue of his training, his ideals, and importance of his work becomes an integral part of the faculty."

The change in the requirements of the School of Education, as made by the Board in 1925, provided that, beginning in October, 1927, the student should have junior standing and 25 per cent more honor points than hours, except for those students who entered the four-year curriculum in physical education. At the same meeting requirements for graduation were changed to 124 semester hours and 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit. Since that time the student pursuing the four-year curriculum in physical education has had to meet the same requirements for graduation as have other students in the School of Education. The entrance requirement for the four-year curriculum differed from that of other departments in the School of Education because students majoring in physical education were admitted in the freshman year, yet the number of academic hours and honor points required for graduation was the same.

The following faculty members have served as chairman of the departmental program: Dean Allen S. Whitney (1922-27), Dr. John Sundwall (1927-30), Dean James B. Edmonson (1930-36), Professor Laurie Campbell (1945-48), Dr. Margaret Bell (1942-45; 1951-54), and Professor Elmer D. Mitchell (1936-42; 1948-51; 1954-57).

Graduate curriculum. — The graduate curriculum for teachers was introduced in 1931 with three sequences available: administration, supervision, and teaching. Dr. Jackson Sharman, who had previously been state director of physical education in Alabama and had just received his Ph.D. degree from Columbia University, was appointed to take charge of the new graduate work. He remained until 1938, when he accepted the position of head of the Physical Education Department at the University of Alabama. From 1938 the graduate teaching, including the direction of theses, was shared by qualified members of the staff working under the direction of the elected chairman of Department "F."

A sequence in school health education was inaugurated in 1932 in co-operation with the Division of Hygiene and Public Health, and in 1936-37 a fifth sequence leading to the master of arts degree in education was approved. The requirements for this degree included twenty-four semester hours of work and a thesis. In 1937-38 the enrollment of undergraduates totaled 126, of which 71 were men. The number of graduate students had more than doubled since 1936-37, with 82 enrolled. A program leading to the Ph.D. or Ed.D. degree was established in 1938 (see Part VI: The School of Education).

By 1939, 220 men and 165 women had received the undergraduate degree. Undergraduate minors in school health and in physical education were introduced in 1937. An increasing graduate enrollment was apparent over the five-year period from 1936-37 to 1940-41. From a total of 33 men and women it rose to 174. By August, 1949, a study showed that 291 men and women had received master's degrees in education, with specialization Page  1993in health, physical education, and recreation. Since then, with the postwar G.I. influx and the increased college enrollment, the number has greatly increased, and, each year, in addition, some twenty to thirty doctoral applicants and candidates are working on their requirements.

After World War II there was an unprecedented enrollment in the professional curriculum, particularly on the graduate level. There was a dearth of teachers for the many positions that were open, and many of the service men who had worked in physical training and recreation programs of the U. S. Army, Navy, and Air Force were eager to resume their educational preparation and were enabled to do so financially by the provisions of the G.I. bill. In particular, the demand for graduate work increased heavily, and new sequences of study were added to those already established to take care of the new needs in recreation (community, industrial, agency, and hospital), in camping (with new emphasis on school camping and outdoor education), and on safety education (with emphasis on life saving, liability, and driver education). Enactments by the state legislature enhanced the interest in these new areas of instruction. A noticeable trend in education, which greatly affected physical education, was the demand for the master's degree. Many large cities and some states insisted on the master's degree as a requisite for teaching in high schools.

With this development the Department of Physical Education was called upon to introduce Saturday classes and Extension classes for teachers in service. This need has been met correspondingly as it has developed, and the trend has now developed similarly in the direction of the doctoral degree. The great increase in the size of college and university staffs, because of the current expansion of student enrollment, partly accounts for this growth, but there are other factors as well. The new community college movement is one — it creates a demand for teachers with higher degrees. Also, a number of state departments of education and large city departments have created supervisory and co-ordinating positions which call for more than the usual amount of academic preparation.

Research. — With the appointment of Paul Hunsicker in 1949-50, it was possible for the department to emphasize experimental research. Before this time graduate research had been mainly of a philosophical, historical, observational, and survey nature. Professor Hunsicker, with a background obtained in the Physical Fitness Laboratory at the University of Illinois, served as a graduate adviser in the experimental area. This supplemented earlier research procedures which had been under the direction of Professor Mitchell. Some helpful grants from the Graduate Research Committee, together with special appropriations from the University, made it possible for special research equipment to be obtained.

The problem of housing was one of the first tasks that confronted the building up of an impressive research laboratory; but, with the acquisition in 1955 of the former Athletic Administration Building on Ferry Field, the matter of space was satisfactorily solved. Dr. Hunsicker now has assistants and a well-equipped laboratory in which departmental and graduate research is conducted. These studies are largely in the areas of physical fitness, age growth, gerontology, and motor-skill learning. Some of them are carried on co-operatively with other graduate departments of the University; others with research departments of industries, the armed services, and public and private agencies.

In his recent annual reports Professor Page  1994Mitchell has continued to mention the need for academic titles for staff members, adequate office space, an increase in the budgetary item for teaching fellows, and a budget for research studies by staff members.

By 1955, with the larger enrollment of doctoral students, research output had increased. Co-operative research with other graduate departments of the University was still increasing, and outside public and private agencies were turning to the University for guidance in the areas of physical education and recreation.

Although the general trend in other universities has been toward separate undergraduate curricula in physical education, health education, and recreation, the policy of the department at the University of Michigan, since its inception, has been as yet to offer a generalized four-year curriculum with subsequent specialization at the graduate level. Nine sequences of related course work leading to the degree of master of arts or of master of science are available. The doctoral program leads either to the degree of doctor of philosophy or doctor of education.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Univ. Mich., 1917-26, 1942-43.
Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-22.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1917-25.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-25.
McCristal, K. J., , and Emil A. Miller. "A Brief Survey of the Present Status of the Health and Physical Education Requirements for Men Students in Colleges and Universities."The Research Quarterly, X (December, 1949).
MS, "Minutes of the University Council," Univ. Mich., Jan. 2, 1942.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1870-1909, 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1864-1956.
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," Univ. Mich., 1893-1902. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Report of the Committee on Educational Policies Covering Physical Education and Athletics, Univ. Mich.
Report of the Committee on Physical Education, Univ. Mich., March 7, 1932.
Report Concerning Physical Education at the University of Michigan, Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor, 1945.

THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN

PHYSICAL education as such was given no recognition by the University until 1890. In the 1870's there were no gymnasiums nor recreation halls either for men or for women. President Angell stated in 1883: "How earnestly the students desire a gymnasium is shown by their zealous efforts to raise money for its erection. They have already secured a considerable sum." He said, in 1886, that more space was needed for ball grounds and tennis courts and added: "The expediency of acquiring more land before the growth of the city carries the price still higher … seems to me well worthy of consideration." At this time forty acres of land still constituted the entire campus. In 1890 he again recommended:

We still need an ample field for the athletic exercises of the students. Ten or fifteen acres should be secured… It is superfluous Page  1995to say in this connection that a spacious gymnasium would also conduce greatly to the health of our students… A structure too small or unsuitably equipped would be worse than none. It must also be remembered that a considerable annual expense, at least three thousand dollars, possibly four thousand, will be needed to pay the salary of a suitable director, and to meet the cost of maintenance.


(R.P., 1886-91, p. 454.)
In October, 1890, the Board of Regents authorized the purchase of ten acres of land on South State Street for an athletic field. This, of course was intended only for the use of the men.

E. W. Arnold, architect, in 1891, estimated that a gymnasium would cost $60,000 if a wing for the women were added and $48,000 if it were omitted (R.P., 1886-91, p. 603). At this time Joshua W. Waterman offered $20,000 toward the project if friends of the University would raise an equal amount (see Part VIII: Waterman Gymnasium). This generous gift was accepted by the Regents, but it was not enough for the entire building, and plans for the women's wing had to be abandoned. Waterman Gymnasium was completed in 1894 at a total cost of more than $65,000.

The first reference to physical education for women probably occurred in 1893 during the construction of the building, when President Angell referred to the contemplated "wing" for the use of the women "who need the privileges of a gymnasium quite as much as the young men" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 125). At this time the only physical activities for women were walking through the Arboretum, tennis on the part of the more daring, and rowing on the Huron. Physical education for men was as yet in an experimental stage, and the women had to wait for some time before their need of a gymnasium was even recognized.

By 1894 the women were permitted the use of Waterman Gymnasium on certain mornings and were given some instruction. Thus, classes in physical education for women at the University were first conducted, in 1894-96, by Keene Fitzpatrick, the newly appointed instructor for the men, who set aside morning hours several days a week for this work. It is reported that 250 women availed themselves of the opportunity to attend these classes during the school year of 1894-95. This number represents almost a 50 per cent response as the total enrollment of women at the time was approximately 550. Of 800 physical examinations given in that year, 176 were of women and were given by Dr. Annie Ives ('94m). The purpose of the program carried on by Fitzpatrick was to discipline the body through exercise and to counteract the strain placed upon the women by intensive study. To accomplish his purpose, marching, calisthenics, and simple running and throwing games were introduced — a typical physical training program for this period. Strenuous activity had to be avoided since many of the women were unaccustomed to physical exercise. There were no organized team sports nor individual sports of any kind.

For this instruction the women wore no special costume. They dressed as freely as they dared, which for the "gay nineties" meant ankle-length full skirts, tight waists, large puffed sleeves, and high-button shoes. The windows of Waterman Gymnasium were blinded, and no man save Mr. Fitzpatrick was allowed in the building during the mornings when the women were taking their exercises. There were no showers but, in 1895, the Board of Regents voted to place eighty lockers in the building "for the use of the women."

By 1896 a gymnasium for the girls had long been considered one of the most urgent needs of the University, and several attempts to provide one had been Page  1996made. The Detroit Branch of the Collegiate Alumnae organized the first effort to secure such a building. Octavia W. Bates ('77, LL.M. '97) devoted much time to soliciting gifts and interesting people in the project, and $2,000 was contributed. In the meantime the enrollment of women was increasing. The organization of the Women's League, in 1890, proved the need, not only of a gymnasium, but of a building for social occasions. Great was the rejoicing, therefore, in 1895, when President Angell announced that Regent Charles Hebard had secured $10,000 — a large part his own gift — and that Regent Barbour had given $25,000 to erect a women's building. A "movement" was "set on foot to raise fifteen thousand dollars more, to meet the estimated cost of the building, fifty thousand dollars" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 517). Students, alumnae, faculty women, and townspeople labored unceasingly, and although all of the $15,000 had not yet been secured, in the fall of 1895 plans for the building were adopted. Mr. John Canfield, of Manistee, gave $5,000, and the additional gift of another lot from Regent Barbour, in 1897, intended originally for an art building (R.P., 1896-1901, pp. 178-79), again served the interests of the women. This second property was not sold until years later and apparently was incorporated in the property used to form the endowment of the Barbour scholarships. Nevertheless, in 1898 it was moved "that in view of the generosity of Ex-Regent Barbour in giving property valued at $25,000 to aid in the erection of the Women's Building on the campus, that hereafter the building be known as the Barbour Gymnasium" (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 185). It was, therefore, named for the Honorable Levi L. Barbour ('63, '65l), of Detroit, who served as Regent from 1892 to 1898 and again from 1902 to 1908. The final cost of construction was $41,341. The building was attached to the north side of Waterman Gymnasium and contained, in addition to the gymnasium and necessary bath and dressing rooms, two parlors, consulting rooms for the dean, and an auditorium with seating capacity for 600. Apparatus was purchased for $200, and a piano was rented for $25. Although not yet completed, the building was used for the first time in 1896. The Regents appropriated $250 for eight tennis courts to be built between the Gymnasium and the Medical Building. Two of these courts were to be used exclusively by the young ladies of the University.

The expected completion of the building emphasized the necessity for a director of physical training for women. In 1896, it was resolved "that Eliza M. Mosher, M.D., be elected Professor of Hygiene and Women's Dean in the Department of Literature, Science and the Arts, at a salary of $2,000 a year, if she chooses to practice her profession of medicine, or of $2,500 a year if she does not so choose, her duties to begin October 1, next" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 577).

Eliza Maria Mosher ('75m) had held various administrative and professional positions, and it was expected that by her instruction in hygiene and her personal contact with the women students she would be of great service to them. Her duties as professor were to give instruction in hygiene, to take charge of the Women's Gymnasium after it was erected, and to "discharge the same duties in relation to the women in the Literary Department as the Dean now discharges in relation to all the students of that department" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 577). Her duties as dean included, in addition to those which ordinarily belonged to that office, a general physical examination of each new woman student and a recording of her physical history and condition upon beginning her course of study in the University. This examination, in addition to the incidental use that it served Page  1997in connection with the granting of excuses for absences, enabled the instructor to decide as to the advisability of gymnasium work for each student. It also brought her into close relation with the women in the early months of their college course, thus giving them an opportunity for personal counsel at a time when it was often much needed.

During the year 1896-97, 153 women were enrolled for gymnasium work. Careful physical measurements were made, and a chart was prepared for each. In this way the instructor was able to estimate at the close of the year the degree of development attained. The course for women, which extended over three years, the work of each year being more difficult and demanding greater skill and self-control than that of the previous year, was, however, entirely voluntary, a condition which, owing to irregular attendance, proved unsatisfactory. Dr. Mosher suggested that the highest success could be attained only by including the work in that required by the University or by placing it upon the credit basis. To meet the attendance problem the Regents, in 1898, made the work in gymnasium compulsory for the freshman class in the Literary and Engineering departments. This applied to both men and women. The responsibility for carrying out this measure was delegated to the deans of the respective departments and to the Director of the Gymnasium. President Angell's report for 1898 stated:

It has been decided to require of the first year students in the literary and engineering departments attendance for two hours a week on instruction in the gymnasium. It has been found that often those who are most in need of physical exercise do not take it… It is hoped that they will by trial see the benefits of it and acquire the habit of taking systematic and regular exercise.


(R.P., 1896-1901, p. 310.)

The program of physical training followed the line of that given by Fitzpatrick in 1894-96 and included calisthenics, marching, apparatus work, basketball, and track. Gymnastics were characterized by preciseness and formality as well as by lack of rhythm. Formality was the keynote of all the instruction. Calisthenics, in particular, was done in quick jerky movements with the body held rigid and well disciplined. The idea of drill in exercises was strongly supported. Not until 1903 was the first indoor meet for women held. The instruction in hygiene was also elective, but was generally well attended. There were three divisions: Personal Hygiene, Household "Economics," and Domestic and Municipal Hygiene (Catalogue, 1899-1900, pp. 98-99).

A significant change in administration occurred with the resignation of Dr. Mosher in 1902. Up to this time the office of dean of women and professor of hygiene had been vested in one person who was also closely associated with the physical education instruction and activities. Myra B. Jordan ('93) succeeded Dr. Mosher as Dean of Women, but the responsibility for hygiene lectures and physical examinations was taken over by Dr. Alice Snyder ('00m), the Director of Barbour Gymnasium, who had come to the University as Instructor in 1897. Upon Dr. Snyder's resignation in 1904, her place was filled by Dr. Helen E. Brooks, who for two years had assisted in the teaching of physical education. Dr. Brooks was Director of Physical Training until 1907. By this time the staff had increased to five members, a director, two instructors, one assistant instructor, and one instructor in swimming.

Additions made in the curriculum during this time and the organization of the Women's Athletic Association reflected to a limited degree the drastic changes which were to take place in the department. Although the gymnastic program was strictly adhered to in fulfilling the requirements set up by the Board of Page  1998Regents, certain "additions" to the women's program were significant in the light of future developments. Basketball and baseball were added to the instruction, and swimming was taught under the direction of Mrs. C. H. Georg. For instruction in swimming, a wooden rack was constructed in the pool so that a beginner could be strapped to a long pole and held afloat without any danger of sinking as she paddled in the water. The Women's Athletic Association, organized in 1905, sponsored competitive basketball, baseball, and tennis. Indoor meets, held under the direction of the Women's Athletic Association, initiated worthwhile ideas leading to sports organization in women's athletics.

With the turn of the century interest in the unlimited possibilities for out-of-door exercise increased, and in 1902 Dexter M. Ferry gave seventeen acres for an athletic field for the men. Physical education was as yet unheard of. Instruction in the gymnasium was spoken of either as "gymnasium work" or as "physical training," and physical training was referred to in terms of exercises. Individual sports, rhythms, and competitive athletics for women, staged outdoors, were as yet unknown. Nevertheless, with the passing of the years, the attitude toward athletics for women students had changed from skepticism to acceptance. Consequently, a proposal for an outdoor athletic field for the girls was met with interest rather than by opposition. Arguments for such a field were numerous. Although men's outdoor athletics had prospered at Ferry Field, tennis was still the only outdoor sport for women, and even this became impossible after the Chemistry Building crowded the last tennis courts off the campus in 1910.

In the summer of 1908 a seven-acre tract of land known as "Sleepy Hollow" was bought. This purchase was made possible by an initial gift of $1,500 from Regent Peter White, of Marquette (R.P., 1906-10, p. 348). The land, within easy reach of Barbour Gymnasium, was effectively wooded with huge oaks which screened the girls from curious passersby. In 1909 Senator Thomas W. Palmer gave $3,000 to the University to be used for the new playing field. In honor of this timely generosity the women's athletic field was named Palmer Field. A Field Day for women, held on the new recreation field on May 26, 1910, included the dedication of the grounds and the installation of the new League officers.

Dr. Bertha Stuart ('03, '08m), who had been on the teaching staff under Dr. Brooks, was appointed Director in 1908. She was succeeded the following year by Catherine L. Bigelow, who held the position until 1914 and under whose guidance great advancement took place in the physical education program. The curriculum was enlarged, and more modern methods were introduced; calisthenics was decreased, and interpretive dancing was introduced; track and field work were added.

In 1910, under the combined efforts of Dean Jordan and Miss Bigelow, in order to provide a fund for the maintenance of Palmer Field and to open it to all University women, the following proposal was submitted to the Board of Regents:

We do petition that an 'incidental' fee of one dollar shall be paid annually by every women along with her annual fees, for which a ticket shall be given in receipt. This ticket shall entitle her to the use of the field, the club-house, and a locker, when lockers shall have been provided. We further request that the Barbour Gymnasium fee be reduced to one dollar.


(R.P., 1906-10, p. 694.)

Meanwhile, the costume changed again. White cotton middy blouses with high necks and colored ties were worn with pleated boxlike bloomers bloused Page  1999over the knees. Long black stockings and low slippers completed this dashing outfit. For swimming the women wore high-necked suits of brown denim which came half way between the knees and the ankles.

In 1914 women's athletics were controlled by the director of physical education, the dean of women, and an athletic chairman appointed by the president of the Women's League. Miss Bigelow resigned as Director of the Gymnasium in 1914 and was succeeded by Alice Evans (Smith College '05), who held the position until 1919.

The following resolution concerning additional compulsory physical training was passed by the Board of Regents in 1915:

All first and second year women are required to take and complete satisfactorily, without credit, a course in Physical Education to be given twice each week during the college year under the conditions determined by the Physical Director for women.

Women students shall also be required to take, during their first year of residence, a course of six lectures in Hygiene to be given by the Women's Physician.

Students will be excused from these requirements only by permission of the Dean of Women or the Physician for Women.


(R.P., 1914-17, p. 175.)
Because of the increasing interest in physical education, owing, in part, to World War I, there were few objections to this requirement. Organized class work during the war was somewhat curtailed, however, because of the demands of the Army on buildings and facilities.

In 1917 approximately 1,000 girls were enrolled in gymnasium classes. After the war, emergency measures were discarded, and the program was reorganized. Miss Marion Wood (Columbia '26, M.S. '28), now Mrs. Edward M. Bragg, who had been on the staff under Miss Evans, became Director of Barbour Gymnasium in 1919 upon Miss Evans' resignation, and the staff was increased from two instructors in 1914 to four in 1920.

Miss Wood's interpretation of the objectives of physical education were: health as an ideal, good fun in physical activity, sportsmanship in playing games, elimination of overemphasis on athletic attitude, and participation in some activity by every girl. A physical examination was given each student. Of the six required lectures in hygiene, Miss Wood gave one dealing with correct posture. She also did the first experimental work with motor-ability tests. She resigned in 1923 after ten years of loyal service.

There were at this time no extramural matches for girls, but interclass contests and intramural play were stressed. The point system, developed through the Women's Athletic Association, served as a motivating device for more general participation in these extracurricular activities (see Part IX: The Women's Athletic Association).

In February, 1921, an important advance was made in physical education when the Regents passed the following measure:

There is hereby created and established a University Department of Physical Education.

This Department shall be put in charge of some person to be chosen by the Board of Regents who shall have the rank, privileges, and duties of a full professor and hold the title of Director of Physical Education …

The Director of Physical Education shall be in primary charge of all athletic fields for men and women, of both gymnasiums (the men's gymnasium and the women's gymnasium), of all sports, indoor, outdoor, intercollegiate, and intramural. He shall have entire charge of the athletic office as now or hereafter constituted, and, by virtue of his position, shall be a member of, and Chairman of the present Board in Control of Outdoor Athletics, whose powers and duties shall notPage  2000be affected by this resolution except as expressly provided herein…

It is hoped and expected that by the adoption of this program a method will be speedily found whereby every student on the campus will become actively interested in his or her physical well being, and to that end the so-called intramural athletics in some proper form, it is expected, will be further enlarged and developed upon the campus.


(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 120-21.)

In June of the same year the Regents passed a resolution establishing a Division of Hygiene and Public Health, which included the departments of Physical Education and Intercollegiate Athletics. The Health Service and all gymnasiums and intramural activities, including women's physical education, were placed under the Division of Hygiene and Public Health. The aims of the new Division were the promotion of the physical welfare of the students, the dissemination of knowledge concerning the application of hygiene and sanitation as affecting both the individual and the community, and co-operation in the training of experts in these fields (Hubbard, p. 70).

Dr. John M. Sundwall was appointed Director. President Burton, in announcing his appointment, emphasized his responsibility to the teacher-training program in physical education in the School of Education, which, in 1921, became an independent unit rather than a department in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

The major change in the Department of Physical Education for Women after Miss Wood's resignation in 1923 was the appointment of Dr. Margaret Bell (Chicago '15, M.D. Rush Medical College '21) as Associate Professor of Physical Education, Director of Physical Education for Women, and Physician in the Health Service. She had charge of all physical education for women, including that in the University High School, and of the education of teachers under the Division of Hygiene and Public Health. With her appointment it was planned to have close co-operation between the developmental and recreational fields of physical education and the remedial and health-promoting aspects which were conducted in co-operation with the Health Service. In addition to serving as chairman of the department, Dr. Bell taught professional courses in the undergraduate and graduate programs until 1946, when the pressure of increasing responsibilities forced her to give up teaching. She was promoted to Professor in the School of Education and subsequently in the School of Public Health in 1924. Since her appointment in 1923 many changes have taken place in facilities, equipment, program, staff, scheduling, and research.

The staff, which in 1924 consisted of five instructors and one fellow, by 1956 included fourteen full-time instructors, four part-time assistants, and four teaching fellows. Over the years a number of staff members have been of much service in the development of the program and deserve particular mention. B. Louise Patterson (Wisconsin '17, M.S. Michigan '26) was appointed Assistant Professor of Physical Education in the School of Education and Director of Physical Education for Girls in the University High School in 1924. She was in charge of the program in Teacher Education and adviser to the Women's Athletic Association. Miss Ethel McCormick, who had been promoted to Assistant Professor in 1926, was in immediate charge of the required program of the department. Dorothy Beise Miller (Minnesota '26, M.A. Ohio State '31) was appointed Instructor in Physical Education in 1930 and was promoted to Associate Supervisor with the rank of Assistant Professor in 1942. She specialized Page  2001in corrective physical education and made valuable studies in curriculum construction with special emphasis on the physical education program for women. She resigned in 1945. Mabel E. Rugen (Wisconsin '25, Ph.D. New York University '31) was appointed Assistant Professor of Physical Education in 1930. Later, she became Associate Professor of Physical Education in the School of Education and Health Co-ordinator for University High School. She was promoted to Professor of Health Education in 1946 and has been associated primarily with the professional education program for teachers of physical education on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Laurie E. Campbell ('28, Ed.D. New York University '43) was appointed Assistant Professor in 1929-30. She became Supervisor in Physical Education in 1942 and Professor of Physical Education for Women in the School of Education in 1953. Professor Campbell has been directly responsible for the development of the program in teacher education. Under her direction great advancement has taken place in both the graduate and undergraduate curriculums. Currently, she is engaged in research on the development of the elementary school program. Marie Hartwig ('29, M.A. '38), who has been in immediate charge of the Recreational Program since 1930, acts also as adviser to the Women's Athletic Association, which is sponsored by the Department of Physical Education. She is Supervisor in the department, as well as Lecturer in the School of Education, and also directs the Counselor Education Program at Interlochen, the National Music Camp. Her contribution to the Recreational Program and to the department as a whole has been invaluable.

In addition to those already mentioned, the staff by 1955-56 included Fritzie Gareis (Sargent '41, M.S. Michigan '49), Ruth W. Harris (Pembroke '41, M.S. Wellesley '43), Elizabeth Ludwig (Milwaukee-Downer '30, Ph.D. New York University '54), and Esther E. Pease (California '31, Ph.D. Michigan '53).

The work of the department was completely reorganized in 1924-25. The interests of the students were ascertained by questionnaire and conference. Their criticisms, likes, and dislikes in sports were considered as well as their physical and recreational requirements. Because of the implication of physical defect, the term "remedial gymnastics" was discarded for "individual gymnastics." The elective work flourished. Included in the program at that time were hockey, tennis, archery, track, basketball, baseball, natural dancing, clog and folk dancing, horseback riding, swimming for beginners, games, individual gymnastics, fencing, golf, and outing activities. Although only two physical education periods a week were required of the freshmen and sophomores, an extra period was added in the fall for the checking and correction of defects. Students were classified according to the results of the preliminary medical examinations on the basis of unlimited activity, slightly modified activity, limited activity, corrective activity, and no activity.

Medical examinations for women, which until the 1920's had been given almost entirely by medical students, had been inadequate. In 1924, however, these were put on a sound medical basis and by 1925 were conducted in a thorough and scientific manner.

In 1925, as the result of a request for a new football stadium, a committee headed by Dean Edmund E. Day was appointed by Acting President Alfred H. Lloyd to study the athletic situation at Michigan and report to the Senate Council. This report was significant because it reopened for discussion the entire Page  2002problem of athletics (see Part I: The Little Administration). As a result, the program for both men and women was placed under the direct control of a newly created Board in Control of Athletics. The Day Report was important in the development of physical education for women because it drew attention to the fact that outdoor facilities for them should be increased to provide adequate recreation opportunities. Palmer Field and the University land in the block immediately south were developed by the Board in Control of Athletics. In 1926 a rifle range was constructed in the old Engineering Building, and permission was obtained for the use of the swimming pools in the Y.M.C.A. Building and in the Michigan Union. Students majoring in physical education, together with the members of the Women's Athletic Association, prompted the organization of many clubs for specific sports.

The new impetus for better facilities for women brought into focus the need of an adequate recreation building on Palmer Field. Early estimates of the prospective building totaled approximately $150,000, but through the efforts of the Board in Control of Athletics twice this amount was raised. Total construction costs for the development of Palmer Field and the construction of the Women's Athletic Building amounted to more than $350,000. The red brick, two-story, colonial-type structure with white pillars and trim, situated on the south end of Palmer Field at the intersection of Forest and North University avenues, was formally opened in May, 1928. The basement contains complete athletic equipment, including four bowling alleys and rifle and archery ranges.

The original women's athletic field comprises almost seven acres. It affords facilities for outdoor track, including two cinder tracks and jumping pits; a hockey field used also for soccer, lacrosse, and golf practice; an outdoor picnic site with fireplace; sixteen tennis courts; a putting green with an adjacent court for volleyball or croquet; space for horseshoes and quoits; and an elevated terrace for instruction in the various sports.

In 1933 the physical education requirement for women, which until this time had been two hours a week for two years, was changed from two years to one. Increases in staff and facilities resulted in a greater variety of activities together with smaller classes and better instruction. Scheduling was improved so that a student had two consecutive hours free for a class in physical education. Students are now encouraged to become proficient in two or more activities in order that a "carry-over" into adult life may be realized. The curriculum offerings in the department are broad enough to provide for a variety of interests.

After thirty years of work and planning, the Women's Swimming Pool was opened in 1954 (see Part VIII: The Women's Swimming Pool). The pool, costing more than a million dollars exclusive of the land, was financed by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. The W.A.A. Pool Fund of some $30,000, which had grown as the result of campus-wide endeavor on the part of many groups, both men's and women's, was turned over to the Board in Control of Athletics for the furnishing of the pool. Many campus organizations, in addition to the Women's Athletic Association and the Alumnae Association, had contributed to this fund. Without Dr. Bell's tireless effort and continued drive the Swimming Pool would never have been built. Her portrait, a gift of the alumnae, hangs in the lower lobby. The pool serves many University groups, in addition to the growing needs of the Department of Physical Education for Women. The scheduling of a large number Page  2003of classes in aquatics has solved some of the problems which had been created by a lack of adequate facilities for the growing enrollment in the required program. The interest in swimming, diving, water safety, and synchronized swimming has been marked.

With the steady increase in the enrollment of women, the program of the department has expanded and changed to take care of the individual needs of the student in the required program and to offer every possible opportunity to those interested in electing activities in the instructional program. The department is so organized that there is fine co-operation among the three units (required, professional, and recreation). The members of the staff share in planning and directing the activities of all three units, and the educational objectives of the department serve as guideposts to unity of purpose and action.

In addition to the increased enrollment in swimming, there has been great interest in the ballet and modern dance. A choreographer's workshop, which meets regularly on a voluntary basis, is largely responsible for the dance programs presented on campus, in other communities at the request of the Extension Service, and on television.

A noteworthy development in 1955-56 was the use of television for informal instruction in women's sports and in the dance. The department co-operated with the University television studios in the production of kinescopes on badminton, archery, hockey, and modern dance. The use of television is being studied as a medium to acquaint the public with the work in physical education and to give some idea of the value of sports activities for women. Continuous effort is made to provide a physical education program geared to the present-day needs of women students in their role as future wives and mothers. The program, which is constantly evaluated and revised to conform to the latest advances in the field, has grown and developed accordingly.

There is also increasing interest in the therapeutic effects of exercise. Special exercise clinics are held for students with functional defects, weak feet, lack of muscle tone and co-ordination, dysmenorrhea, and similar difficulties. Students are sent by the Health Service or are selfreferred. The fine co-operation between the Health Service and the Physical Education Department has always operated to the advantage of both students and staff.

The Recreation Program includes all elective sports and dancing sponsored by the department, the Intramural Program, and the Women's Athletic Association clubs; campus tournaments, and activities during open hours on the field, tennis courts, in Barbour Gymnasium, the Women's Athletic Building, and the Women's Pool. The department provides advisers and leaders for out-of-door programs and camp weekends, and for such activities as square dances and splash parties. Four to five thousand individuals participate yearly in the Recreation Program. In 1955-56 forty-eight teams in the Intramural leagues competed in volleyball, forty-five in basketball, thirty-eight in softball, and forty-two in bowling. It is the aim of the department to encourage and train students to plan for and to conduct their own recreation, using the facilities and services of the department when necessary. Activities, for the most part, however, are student managed under the direction of a faculty sponsor. The Women's Athletic Association has a threefold program carried on through tournaments, social and sports events, and sports and dance clubs, in which 415 persons were enrolled in 1955-56. Clubs operating under the W.A.A. Board are modern dance, ballet, fencing, Page  2004tennis, golf, bowling, badminton, riding, figure skating, rifle, Michifish, speed swimming, diving, basketball, and hockey. Many of these clubs sponsored special events during the year, such as the synchronized swimming show, games with area colleges and schools, and the dance concerts. The Women's Athletic Association sponsors the traditional Lantern Night, Michigras, Spring Weekend, which includes Skit Night and the Wolverine Derby, and Sports Days held in co-operation with other colleges.

The Professional Program. — The professional program in physical education was authorized by the Regents in June, 1921, when the four-year curriculum leading to a bachelor of science degree was established (R.P., 1921-22, p. 244). Although the program was not begun until the fall of 1921, a number of transfer students were graduated in 1924 with a major in physical education.

Dr. Margaret Bell, chairman of the Department of Physical Education for Women, and Dr. Elmer Mitchell, chairman of the Department of Physical Education for Men, were both active in the development of the professional curriculum. With Dr. John Sundwall, Director of Intercollegiate Athletics Fielding H. Yost, Associate Professor George A. May, and Assistant Professor Louise Patterson, they planned a curriculum which prepared the student in the areas of health education, physical education, and to a limited degree, in recreation.

Certain events stand out as milestones in the steady growth of the program, some of which presaged similar developments at other colleges and universities. As early as 1922, a summer school for coaches was inaugurated for those who were interested, not primarily in an academic degree, but in obtaining practical instruction from specialists in their respective fields (R.P., 1921-22, p. 244). Impetus for securing this type of training undoubtedly was due in part to the passage of the compulsory physical education laws in Michigan and other states, which necessitated the drafting of teachers with little previous experience. With the increase in the number of physical education graduates of the four-year degree programs, the need of summer session offerings for undergraduates diminished, and a contrasting demand arose for graduate work leading to the master's degree. Before the opening of the summer session in 1932, the Department of Physical Education for Women introduced two short term sports' institutes of one week each, offering instruction in tennis, swimming, golf, hockey, archery, dance, and riding. No credit was given, the object being primarily to aid teachers in the field who wished to increase their own knowledge and proficiency in individual sports and dance as opposed to gymnastics and team sports, which still largely dominated high school and college programs.

The graduate curriculum leading to a master's degree in physical education became effective during the summer session of 1931. Three sequences of study were offered, administration of physical education, supervision, and teaching. Three new sequences have been added since, camping, outdoor education, and recreation, bringing the current total to six. The doctoral program established in 1938 has continued to expand since the first two candidates received the Ph.D. degree in 1940.

With the development of the professional curriculum, which meant a corresponding growth in enrollment, co-ordination of the services of the Department of Physical Education for Men and the Department of Physical Education for Women became a necessity. Therefore, a committee of staff members teaching Department "F" (physical education and recreation) courses was organized, Page  2005with a chairman serving for a three-year term. The following individuals have acted in this capacity: Dean Allen S. Whitney (1922-27), Dr. John Sundwall (1927-30), Dean James B. Edmonson (1930-36), Dr. Margaret Bell (1942-45; 1951-54), Professor Laurie Campbell (1945-48), and Professor Elmer D. Mitchell (1936-42; 1948-51; 1954-57).

The undergraduate professional curriculum, under the School of Education, prepares women students to become instructors, with limited work in health education and in recreation. The undergraduate enrollment of students from other departments minoring in physical education averages approximately 100 men and 80 women a semester.

A camp counselor education program was introduced in the summer of 1944 at the National Music Camp at Interlochen, Michigan, under the leadership of Professor Campbell and Miss Hartwig. This work supplements the undergraduate curriculum and prepares students for camp counseling and camp leadership. Emphasis is upon outdoor education, and the program for women has been most successful.

In 1949 a recommendation was approved that all students in the elementary school curriculum take a teaching course in physical education. This action reflects a national trend of the self-contained classroom, as well as a growing recognition that many elementary school children would be deprived of education through motor activities if the elementary school teacher were not prepared to offer work in this area. The responsibility for developing and presenting the course was assigned to Professor Campbell. Because of the increased enrollment of prospective elementary school teachers, the course has become a major area of professional work. At the present time three sections are offered each semester, enrollment approximating 250 to 275 students a year. In the past five years the course has also been given during the summer session.

Students in the professional curriculum are prepared to teach elementary as well as high-school students. After completion of content and methods courses at each level, they are assigned to student teaching for a full year, one semester in the elementary schools and one semester in the junior and senior high schools of the city. The department takes the responsibility for the supervision of these students in the elementary schools. Supervision in the secondary schools is assigned to a member of the staff who is assisted by the critic teachers in the various schools to which the students are assigned.

While the undergraduate program is generalized with a broad overview of all aspects of physical education, specialization is provided on the graduate level. The decade since the close of World War II has witnessed an over-all expansion of the graduate program in physical education. The number of courses offered has increased to fifteen. During the postwar years from 1946 to 1950, the graduate enrollment in physical education reached a peak of 125 students a semester, with 220 in the summer session. Of late years the enrollment has averaged seventy students a semester, with approximately 120 in the summer session. Including undergraduate and extension students, approximately 325 students are enrolled in physical education courses each semester. The number of doctoral graduates has steadily increased, with a total of thirty-five having received either the Ph.D. or Ed.D. degree by June, 1955.

Present departmental facilities and staff do not permit extensive research in women's physical education, but a number of studies have been undertaken during the past year, one supported by the Horace H. Rackham research grant Page  2006funds. Two projects conducted in cooperation with the Research Section of the Midwest Association for Physical Education of College Women are concerned with the contribution of women's sports to the development of strength. Two studies, "The Relationship between Abdominal Strength, and the Incidence of Dysmenorrhea in College Women" by Dr. Margaret Bell, and "A Study of Arm and Shoulder Girdle Strength of College Women," by Ruth Harris and Dr. C. Etta Walters, completed in 1953-54, were published in the Research Quarterly of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation in March and May, 1955.

Over the years there has been a shift of emphasis on the various objectives of physical education, which has been reflected to some extent in the activity offerings on the University level. Whereas health as an important outcome was emphasized at the turn of the century, and physical fitness was an issue as a result of World War I rejections, the pendulum gradually swung to recreation and sociological objectives during the depression period of the 1930's. The need for recreation skills to offset the strains of unemployment and economic and social pressures gave rise to the introduction of individual sports and similar "carry-over" activities. For a short period between 1940 and 1945 physical fitness again became an issue because of the pressures of World War II. Exercise for its conditioning value per se was again stressed in the schools, particularly in the boys' and men's programs. It should be noted, however, that the emphasis on recreation skills, particularly for their therapeutic value in the maintenance of good mental health did not diminish during the war period. The postwar swing back to a decreased interest in physical fitness within past years has been questioned and challenged as a direct outcome of recent studies on the lack of muscular fitness of American boys and girls as compared with European children. The President's Conference on Fitness, held in June, 1956, has again brought into focus the individual's biological and physiological needs for activity, and recent meetings of physical educators have resulted in recommendations for a reevaluation of the physical education program in the light of basic fitness needs.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education; Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich. 1890-1914.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Hubbard, Lucius L., Comp. Organization and Aims of the University of Michigan as Reflected in Its By-Laws …, 1922. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. 1923.
Laws, Ordinances, By-laws and Regulations …, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1861.
Michiganensian, 15:262.
Michigan Alumnus, 1890-1956.
MS, "Minutes of the Women's League" ("Women's League History"), Univ. Mich., 1890-1923.
MS, "Minutes of the Women's Athletic Association," Univ. Mich., 1905-56.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1870-90, 1920-55.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1870-1954.
Page  2007

WOMEN'S ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION

IN 1893, just three years after the establishment of the Women's League, the Women's Athletic Committee of the Women's League was organized. Ten cents out of every fifty-cent membership was set aside to finance the activities of this group. From this small beginning, in which the only sport offered was basketball, evolved the campus-wide Women's Athletic Association of today, offering women participation in more than twenty different activities. Ten years after the Athletic Committee was organized, the first annual indoor track meet was held. This and the annual class basketball tournament were the only athletic events for women.

By 1905 it was felt that other sports were needed. In order to draw these together, the Women's Athletic Association was formed "to promote interest in gymnastic and athletic sports among the women of the University." A meeting preliminary to the organization of the Association was called on May 25, 1905, by Dr. Helen E. Brooks, Physical Director of Barbour Gymnasium. Two days later, on May 27, the constitution was read and approved. The purpose of the association as stated in Article II was "to promote participation in athletic activities by, to emphasize physical fitness among, and to foster a comprehensive recreational program for the women of the University of Michigan."

The following officers were elected for the year 1905-6: Lotta Broadbridge, president; Margaret Turner, vice-president; Rena Mosher, secretary; Alice Reynick, treasurer; May Caughey, senior representative; Edith Lutz, junior representative; and Edith Edmiston, sophomore representative. The first official records of the association were begun at the first meeting of the Executive Committee in 1905. A bulletin board for W.A.A. notices was bought, and basketball, baseball, and tennis were organized. One problem of great importance the first year was the question of invitations to the basketball games. Much discussion of the subject finally resulted in amendments to the constitution. It was decided that invitations would be issued for each open game and that ten cents would be charged for W.A.A. members and twenty-five cents for others. Participants in the games received one invitation free, and the captains received two, but all extras had to be paid for. This income supplied the treasury. The Mandolin Club was organized as a part of the Association at this time, and a successful performance of the Swedish Dancers was given under the auspices of the W.A.A.

An Athletic Association pin was adopted in 1907-8 — a gold block "M" with a dark blue enamel oval on which the letters "WAA" were inscribed in gold. New events were added to the track meet, and class teams were organized. The girls were required to come out for practice once a week in order to participate in the meet. Fifteen cents was charged outsiders, admission being free to college girls.

The first W.A.A. handbook, describing the various activities available for women, was printed in 1908. A social chairman was added to the Executive Committee, and more than seven parties, banquets, and the like were sponsored.

Through the generosity of Regent Peter White, the first part of the land which now comprises Palmer Field was purchased in 1908 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 348), thus providing the women students of the University adequate space for athletics. In 1909 Senator Palmer contributed the money to pay off the debt on the field, and in appreciation it was named for him (R.P., 1906-10, p. 591). The Women's League contributed about Page  2008$5,000 toward the total purchase price of $9,000, and additional small lots were bought and added to the site. The facilities of Palmer Field include the Women's Athletic Building, an out-of-door fireplace, three hockey fields that are used interchangeably for other sports — soccer, lacrosse, golf, archery, track, and field. There are sixteen tennis courts and a beautiful nine-hole putting green and golf traps. Space is provided for volleyball, croquet, horseshoes, and quoits. An elevated terrace is used for instruction. The new Swimming Pool is situated directly south of the building.

In January, 1910, it was voted that the membership fee be fifty cents; this gave each girl admission to all games free of charge as well as the right to play on her own class team and compete in the various sports. It was also decided that captains and class managers would be members of the Executive Committee. The rules of precedence were established. The track meet was given up in favor of an enlarged and popular outdoor field day in connection with Lantern Night. In 1911 the system of requiring University regulations for team membership was inaugurated. Numerals were awarded to girls who made class teams in outdoor competitive sports or in the semi-final tennis matches, and letters were given those who made the championship team. A publicity manager was added to the Executive Committee. With an enlarged membership, the financial problems of the club became increasingly difficult, and many ways of raising money were tried. Candy was sold at the May Festival and refreshments on Field Day. Admission was charged to the Saturday afternoon parties, and gate receipts were collected for the final basketball games.

Requirements became more stringent every year for participation in sports, and in December, 1912, it was voted that a person with a below C average could not take part in athletics.

In June, 1912, a committee of the Athletic Association met with a committee of the Women's League, consisting of the president, Miss Bigelow, Mrs. Jordan, Miss Alfred, Miss Reighard, and Miss Higgins and passed the following recommendations:

1. That in view of the new Athletic Tax of five dollars, it is moved, seconded, and carried that the Athletic Association be merged into the Women's League to be known as the "Athletic Committee of the Women's League." 2. That there shall be but one fee, … twenty-five cents, which admits to membership of Women's League and that this committee shall hold no money but all bills received shall pass through the hands of the League Treasurer. 3. The persons of the committee shall be as follows: a chairman, a member from each class, and a member representing each sport. These persons shall be recommended by the preceding Athletic Committee to the League President and voted upon by the League Board, or appointed by the League President as League Board may decide… The Physical Director and her assistant shall be members ex-officio.


(MS, "Minutes of the Women's Athletic Association.")

It was decided in January, 1913, to permit graduate students to play on the senior team. The popular game of field hockey was introduced at this time. Attempts were made to instill athletic spirit in the women, and in order to arouse interest in sports, a letter was written to high-school girls planning to come to the University.

In the same year the Athletic Committee recommended that the head of each sport be chosen by the members of that particular sport, that the basketball manager be elected at the annual basketball banquet, the hockey manager at the hockey picnic, the tennis manager by participants in the tournament, and that Page  2009a nominating committee, appointed by the chairman of the Athletic Committee, report the candidates for office. The Athletic Committee was enlarged to include a baseball manager, and a study of the point system was begun. By 1914-15 the Athletic Committee consisted of eighteen members, including a recorder of athletic honors, whose duties hitherto had been performed by the Department of Physical Education. It was voted to accept the honor system for the Athletic Committee's point system, and a simple silver pin, with the original "M" adopted in 1907, was awarded for athletic achievement. A white sweater with roll collar and a blue "M" on a yellow background was given for 100 athletic honor points. It was also voted to award athletic honor points to the members of the Athletic Committee.

In order to secure funds for the clubhouse to be built on Palmer Field, various attempts to earn money were made in 1916-17. Weenies were sold at Palmer Field in the hockey season, bulbs were purchased and raised for sale, skating carnivals were held with an admission fee of fifteen cents, and at an all-campus dance one Saturday afternoon the Association cleared $100. With the formation of a dance club and a hiking club, a swing away from interclass competition began, with the result that today numerous sports clubs are affiliated with the Women's Athletic Association. The following year golf and horseback riding were offered.

In 1917 the organization once more severed its connection with the Women's League and drew up a new constitution, providing for a twenty-member board. In January, 1918, it was reported that the constitution had been formally accepted by the Committee on Student Affairs. A further revision of the constitution, in 1919, was followed by the adoption of standards for participation set up by the University Student Affairs Committee, and the Michigan organization became affiliated with the Athletic Conference of American College Women. A delegate was sent to the Central District Conference at Columbia, Missouri, and the uniform point system of the A.C.A.C.W. was subsequently adopted. Then the old system of awards was changed from a 100-point to a 1,000point basis, whereby membership was limited to those who had earned 100 athletic honor points.

A junior Women's Athletic Association was established in the year 1921 to supplement the major organization, and girls having fewer than 1,000 points automatically became members of the Junior Association. Dues of twenty-five cents were applied on the senior dues when a girl joined that organization. Because of the closed membership policy, however, the membership decreased, and financial difficulties developed. There was so little in the treasury in 1921-22 that no further activities or projects could be sponsored, and that year Miss Wood loaned the Association $45 to tide it over.

Because of the increasing number of women students, class competition grew more and more artificial, and interhouse competition became the basis of many tournaments. Honorary varsity teams in major sports were chosen by the student manager and the faculty sponsor of each sport. Interest in rifle marksmanship developed, and a club was formed; a swimming manager was added in 1921, and swimming rules and regulations were adopted; archery was included in the program.

With the appointment of Dr. Margaret Bell as Director of the Women's Physical Education Department and of Miss B. Louise Patterson (now Mrs. John Page  2010Van Sickle) as Assistant Professor in 1923, great progress was made in the development of the Women's Athletic Association. Dr. Bell, with the officers of the Association, drew up plans for a closer co-operation between the Women's Physical Education Department and the Association, directed toward the goal of athletic participation on the part of every woman on campus. She succeeded in obtaining a regular budget from the Palmer Field Fund for the Women's Athletic Association in 1925-26, assuring University women expanded programs in sports and allowing the Association to concern itself with the program rather than to expend all its energies in money-making ventures. Material awards for participation in sports were abandoned at this time, and it was decided that athletic honor points should no longer be given for executive positions.

In 1927-28, at the time of the construction of the Women's Athletic Building, "Sleepy Hollow" was shorn of its great oaks, and its hills were leveled and the grounds surfaced to provide the present Palmer Field. On January 11, 1928, the Women's Athletic Association held an informal housewarming in the building, which was formally opened on May 9. A sports conference for high-school girls was held in conjunction with Lantern Night. Bowling facilities were provided, and an attempt was made to organize teams for women living in league houses by zoning the houses and encouraging participation in these units. In April, 1930, the Michigan Athletic Association was host to the National Athletic Conference of American College Women, attended by 300 delegates.

In 1930-31 the constitution was revised so that every University woman was included in the Association. Women who had earned a minimum of five points and who had paid the annual dues of $1.00 became active members. A regular A.C.A.C.W. representative was appointed to the Executive Committee and charged with reporting an exchange of athletic news with other colleges. The association also sponsored a Hockey Play Day for five other Michigan colleges.

A reorganization of the Women's League Council in 1932-33 made possible an installation banquet held jointly by the League and the Athletic Association. Other new trends were evident in 1933-34. A student was a member of the Association without payment of dues, but she was considered inactive until she had earned fifty points. The school year was divided into four sports seasons with programs for each, and at least one team sport and three individual sports were offered each season. Volleyball was included. The Intramural Board, formerly in charge of interhouse competition, was discontinued, and sports managers were chosen, with house managers organized under a general intramural manager, thus placing students in responsible positions of leadership. At Lantern Night, competition among six selected girls from each house was an innovation; supper was served on the terrace of the Women's Athletic Building, and the senior line of march formed a block "M" to conclude the festivities.

A training course for Women's Athletic Association sports leaders was begun in 1935-36 as a joint project by W.A.A. and the Department of Physical Education for Women. Co-recreational activities were emphasized, and men and women participated in badminton, bowling, tennis, riding, dancing, swimming, hockey, and rifle. A more satisfactory plan for league house competition was adopted, and an honors board with the names of the winners in various sports was erected on the landing in the Women's Athletic Building.

Page  2011In 1938, in a new plan for Lantern Night, twenty-four residence units competed in a women's sing, which was preceded by a line of march, from the Library to Palmer Field. More than 600 women, led by the Varsity Band, marched, formed the block "M" and sang "The Yellow and Blue."

W.A.A. was hostess to the women's athletic associations from other colleges in the state of Michigan in 1940. The two-day session was held at the Women's Athletic Building, with delegates from ten colleges attending. Participation records for the year 1940-41 showed an increase of more than 400. At this time one-third of the women enrolled in the University took part in at least one athletic sport. Hockey, basketball, tennis, golf, fencing, and dancing meets were held at Michigan with teams from other schools. An innovation was the three-way meet with Michigan State and Ohio State in fencing and golf. Telegraphic meets were held in archery, bowling, and rifle.

W.A.A. received the first financial aid from the Women's League in the form of a check for $160 in 1941-42. The annual men's varsity swimming organization gave the organization $75, which was invested in a war bond. Rec-rally, which was held for three nights in Barbour Gymnasium, replaced the annual carnival given in former years. The first evening was devoted to mass physical fitness exercises and a posture contest, the second night to a discussion of grooming, and the third evening to corecreational activities. Participation in sports programs increased. Basketball and hockey were the only club sports in which there was competition with outside schools during the regular season. The dance club held a symposium for college and high-school girls in the spring, which drew 100 participants from eight schools. In May a Sports Day was held with Michigan State, Michigan State Normal, University of Toledo, and Kalamazoo College attending. Competition took place in tennis, archery, golf, badminton, fencing, and riding. The entire affair, which was under student supervision, was remarkable for the fine leadership demonstrated in its organization and administration.

The pressure of World War II affected the W.A.A. program in many ways. The heavy academic load put space at a premium so that many events had to be held at night and on Saturday afternoons, and there was difficulty in scheduling. Sports clubs and tournaments showed a slight decrease in participation, although the number taking part in more than one activity increased. The voluntary exercise program increased total participation to 2,400, two-thirds of the enrollment of women. A Camp Counselor Club was formed, making the total number of clubs seventeen.

Once again, in 1951, the National Convention of the Athletic Federation of College Women was held on the Michigan campus, with a delegation of 500 students from all over the United States.

Throughout the years W.A.A. has given strong support to women's sports and to the dance and has done much to procure adequate facilities, notably, Barbour Gymnasium, Palmer Field, the Women's Athletic Building, and the Women's Swimming Pool. The present Women's Athletic Association, directed by an Executive Committee and a Board of thirty-two members, is student led and produces many strong leaders. Its main objective is the promotion of women's sports, both campus and extramural.

The W.A.A. program falls roughly into three categories, the direction and promotion of sports, the consolidation of student opinion and interests in sports, and the responsibility for traditional projects such as Michigras, Spring Weekend, Page  2012and Lantern Night. The number of clubs supported by W.A.A., which varies between fourteen and twenty, includes the following: Badminton, Ballet, Basketball, Bowling, Camp Counselors, Fencing, Golf, Hockey, Ice Skating, Michifish, Michifins, Modern Dance, Speed Swimming, Rifle, Riding, and Tennis. W.A.A. also conducts the affairs of the house athletic managers, representing some 100 dormitories, sororities, and league houses. Such events as dance concerts, the Michifish water show, high-school playdays, college playdays, group competitions, horse shows, and clinics on golf and tennis are sponsored by both W.A.A. and the Department of Physical Education for Women.

Lantern Night had its beginning in the early 1900's. In its early days the annual event was made up of a field day and included the May Pole dance and a big picnic. Over the years, often because of inclement weather, the field day was discontinued, and since the 1940's the Lantern Night ceremonies have been conducted in May in Hill Auditorium. The women, organized in classes, march behind the Varsity Band from Alumni Memorial Hall to Hill Auditorium. Here the incoming president of W.A.A. greets a full house and gives the W.A.A. report of the year. Following this come the winners of the intergroup "Sing," for which try-outs are held several days previously. In 1955-56, thirty groups competed, and thirteen sororities and dormitories made the finals.

Miss Marie Hartwig ('29, M.A. '38), who has been in immediate charge of the recreational program since 1930, acts as Adviser to the Women's Athletic Association, which is sponsored by the Department of Physical Education for Women. Miss Hartwig's contribution to the program and to the development of the Women's Athletic Association has been noteworthy.

Particular mention should be made of the efforts of the Women's Athletic Association over a period of more than twenty-five years to raise money for the Women's Swimming Pool and to keep the project alive on the campus. The first recommendations for a pool were made by Dr. Bell in 1923. Not only did the alumni contribute generously to the project, but the labor and enthusiasm of the various student groups was campus wide. The first contribution of $1,000 was received in 1931. From that time until ground was broken in 1952, contributions were made to the swimming pool fund. More than twenty campus organizations, both men's and women's, worked unceasingly and year after year donated the proceeds of various exhibitions and entertainments so that the women some day might have a swimming pool of their own.

The Michigras Carnival, which had its beginning in the Penny Carnival, is given jointly for two nights and one afternoon by the W.A.A. and the Michigan Union. This traditional event, a parade extravaganza featuring carnival rides, side shows, and games of skill, attracts thousands of participants and clears thousands of dollars. The proceeds are divided equally between the W.A.A. and the Michigan Union. Before the Women's Pool was built the proceeds were donated to the W.A.A. pool fund. In 1954 more than $4,000 was given to the department with which to buy furnishings for the pool. The carnival is held every two years, alternating with the W.A.A.-Michigan Union Spring Weekend, which includes a sports afternoon, a soapbox derby, and multiple sports; a Skit Night is given in the evening. This, too, is a popular event which provides desirable recreation and earns money.

Much thought has been given to the problem of intercollegiate sports for women. It is felt that until all students Page  2013can be given adequate instruction, together with a realization of the place of physical education in the life of the individual, the family, and the community, staff teaching time and limited facilities should not be used in training the highly skilled student to greater perfection. The same idea was expressed by President Angell, in 1891, in a communication to the Board of Regents:

Two things seem to be clear. One is, that we should seek to make our gymnastic accommodations conduce to the normal physical development and sound health of the many rather than to the abnormal development of a few athletes; the other is, that we should so conduct and regulate athletic games that they are kept free from demoralizing accessories.


(R.P., 1886-91, p. 561.)
Although President Angell made the foregoing statement in relation to athletics for men, much of what he said can also be found today incorporated in the principles governing physical education for women. While the needs of women students have been satisfied by intramural competition supplemented by playdays, the question of competition still remains. An appropriate competitive program might prove to be a desirable instrument for the promotion of women's sports and the dance. As yet, however, nothing has been done in this direction. At present there are few sports which could be promoted without resulting in handicaps to the present program.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1890-1914.
Michigan Alumnus, 1890-1956.
Michiganensian, 1897-1917, 1919-35, 1936-46.
MS, "Minutes of the Women's Athletic Association," Univ. Mich., 1905-56.
MS, "Minutes of the Women's League," Univ. Mich., 1890-1923.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1870-1954.Page  [2014]