The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
Page  [1957]

Athletics and Physical Education

Page  [1958]
Page  1959


BEFORE 1873 the administration of athletic activities at the University of Michigan rested in groups with no official standing. These were the athletic clubs, which included the baseball, boating, and football organizations. In 1873 a Football Association was formed and in 1876 a Baseball Association, which merged in 1878 to form the first Athletic Association. This was entirely a student-controlled organization, seeking to direct the activities of the University athletic teams with the aim of raising funds for a gymnasium. In 1884 it "fell victim of the football and baseball teams which it sought to control." Athletic administration then reverted to the clubs which had existed before 1873.

In 1890-91, however, an attempt at athletic organization occurred, when the "University of Michigan Athletic Association" was formed, which proved durable. According to its constitution, any student could become a member by the payment of an annual fee of three dollars, making him a participant in the management of athletics. This organization was administered directly by its Board of Directors, which had practical control of the athletic policy of the University. The Board was composed of five officers and nine directors from various departments, elected by the student members in an annual election. An Advisory Board, composed of three nonresident alumni and four resident professors was also created, but as their duties were merely advisory and members were elected by the students, their influence was slight. The earliest official mention of a method for the control of intercollegiate athletics at Michigan appears to have been a reference in the Regents' Proceedings for May, 1892, to this Advisory Board: "Resolved, That the directors of the University Athletic Association shall have control of the Athletic Field for the remainder of the College year under the general direction of the Advisory Board; Provided, That they keep the grounds in good repair and … properly sprinkled during the summer season, it being understood also that the Association shall be entitled to the gate receipts" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 31). Apparently, the Athletic Association carried on the actual operation of the athletic program.

An untoward incident in 1893, however, led to the introduction of direct faculty control. In that year two members of one of the University teams were found to be subfreshmen. As a result a Board for the regulation of athletic sports was created by the University Senate, and "in its creation the students' Athletic Association concurred." This Board was to "have full control of all questions pertaining to athletics, subject to such regulations as the Senate may hereafter prescribe," the eligibility of players proposed for any University team, the arrangement of intercollegiate games, the granting of leaves of absence, the investigation of charges of misconduct on the part of the players, and was to approve the hiring of all coaches and trainers. Its policy was "to foster the spirit of honor and gentlemanliness in athletics, to suppress evil tendencies, and to see to it that play should not encroach too much on the claims of work" ("Minutes of the University Senate," Nov., 1893).

This first board was composed of nine members, five chosen from the University Senate by President Angell and four Page  1960undergraduates, originally selected by the Board of Directors of the Athletic Association but later by the student body. The older Advisory Board of the Athletic Association remained. With the organization of the Board in Control, however, the Athletic Association as a policy-making body lapsed.

In January, 1894, the Athletic Association turned over to the Regents its funds, facilities, and assets, consisting of cash and bonds totaling $6,095 (R.P., 1891-96, pp. 243-45).

In 1896 the Board in Control participated in the formation of the Intercollegiate (Western) Conference, now known as the "Big Ten." By 1895 the need of a definite athletic organization for midwestern colleges had been realized, and, at the instance of President Smart of Purdue, the presidents of seven institutions met at Chicago on January 11, 1895, to discuss athletic problems and means of control of intercollegiate athletics. An organization for such regulations and control was set up, consisting of appointed faculty representatives, one from each institution, and a brief set of general rules was drawn up. The following winter in February, 1896, the appointed faculty representatives met in Chicago. At this time the same institutions were represented as at the presidents' meeting in 1895, except that Michigan took the place of Lake Forest. Michigan, although President Angell had been expressly invited by President Smart to participate, had not been represented at the 1895 conference.

The seven original university members of the 1896 conference were Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, Northwestern, Purdue, Chicago, and Michigan, with Dr. C. B. G. de Nancrède and Professor Albert H. Pattengill representing Michigan's Board of Control. Professor Pattengill became a tower of strength in the deliberations of this body and was active in the formulation of its policies up to his death in 1906. To him Michigan owes not only the basis of her effective organization of its athletics but the original impetus toward securing Ferry Field and its equipment. In December 1899, Indiana University and the University of Iowa were admitted to the Western Conference, and in April, 1912, Ohio State.

The following resolution was adopted by the Regents on June 18, 1901: "That all moneys collected for athletic purposes from any source shall be cared for and deposited as the University Board in Control of Athletics shall direct; and that no money shall be disbursed from this fund, except on the approval of the chairman of the Board of Control and the Director of Outdoor Athletics" (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 651).

During the next four years the intercollegiate athletics program apparently became the subject of much public attention and criticism. In President Angell's report to the Regents in September, 1905, approximately two pages are devoted to problems in this field. His remarks make interesting reading, for certain of the problems were very similar to those existing in the 1950's. For example, he said: "One of the most difficult abuses to prevent is the offering of inducements to promising athletes in preparatory schools to come to this or that college" (R.P., 1901-6, p. 588). A year later, in his report filed at the October, 1906, meeting, he expressed hope that through Conference legislation college athletics could be rid of abuses and objectionable practices. His discussions concluded with this interesting prediction: "Certain it is that football will continue to be played, and will attract many spectators and will probably excite more interest among students than any other athletic game" (P.R., 1905-6, p. 14).

The history and activities of the Michigan Board of Control for more than a decade after the close of the football season of 1905 were largely influenced by Page  [unnumbered]

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The University of Michigan Stadium
Page  [unnumbered]Page  1961events which led to Michigan's withdrawal from membership in the Conference and, at the close of the period, her resumption of membership therein. The 1905 football season brought to a peak the growth of interest in intercollegiate athletics in general and in football in particular. Football had become not only rough, but dangerous in character, and the enthusiasm and rivalry between competing institutions had developed to such a point that it was not uncommonly maintained that football should be abolished. At President Angell's suggestion representatives of the Conference institutions met in Chicago in January, 1906. In his report of 1906, in summing up what had been accomplished, he said:

Indisputably then something remains to be done to rid college athletics of certain objectionable practices …

In harmony with these ideas the nine Western Universities whose students have been accustomed to meet in intercollegiate athletics, especially in football, sent delegates from their faculties to two conferences during the year to consider what new rules, if any, they should agree on for the better regulation of football contests … they were nearly all of one mind in condemnation of certain practices which had grown up … that there were too many great games in each season, that too much time and too much money were devoted to the games, that Freshmen ought not to be allowed on the University teams, that the employment of coaches brought in from outside the Institution, and especially at extravagant salaries should be dispensed with, that the price of admission to the games should be so reduced that all of the students could afford to attend, and that the offering of pecuniary inducements to school boys or to others to come to college in order to play on the team should be condemned and forbidden.

(R.P., 1906-10, p. 12.)

The so-called "Angell conferences," held on January 19 and March 9, 1906, evolved a set of restrictions which were officially adopted at the meeting of the regular Conference in March, 1906. The new rules and regulations, however, were, felt to be too stringent. The first was the well-known "freshman rule," requiring one year of residence as a prerequisite for eligibility. Second, intercollegiate competition was limited to three years, and graduate students were not eligible to play. Third, the training table and training quarters were prohibited. Fourth, freshman teams were not to be permitted to play in outside games, and the number of football games was limited to five. Under the three-year rule outstanding athletes already registered would have been denied their fourth year of competition, and the retroactive feature of the three-year rule was therefore bitterly opposed at Michigan. The abolition of the training table was also disliked. Criticism of the new rules and of the Conference was vigorous among Michigan students and alumni. At the meeting of November 13, 1906, Michigan's representative was instructed to urge the Conference to change the three-year rule so that it would not be retroactive.

On March 7, 1907, the Board in Control discussed the question of withdrawal from the Conference, the faculty arguing in favor of it and the students against it. The Board requested the Conference to modify the objectionable rules, but without success. In April, 1907, Mr. Stagg, representing the University of Chicago, replied: "Our Board will sanction games provided Michigan will observe Conference rules in all branches of athletics." The question of the training table was considered on October 11, 1907, the Board in Control voting to abide by the rules of the Conference against training tables and training quarters for athletes. Except for a brief meeting on October 24, the meeting of October 11 seems to have been the last meeting of the Board as then constituted. At that time the membership consisted of Professors Lane, Page  1962Sadler, McMurrich, Bates, and Lloyd, representing the faculty, and Messrs. Downey, Hill, Sample, and Coe, representing the students.

The Board of Regents on motion of Regent Fletcher adopted the following resolution on November 15, 1907:

Resolved, That the Board of Regents create a Board of Control of Athletics, the scope and duties of said Board to be afterwards defined;

Resolved, That it is the sense of the Board of Regents that the Board in Control of Athletics shall be responsible to the teaching force of the University, and that Faculty control be preserved by means of a majority representation of Faculty members on the said Board in Control of Athletics;

Resolved, That this Board of Control be composed of eight members as follows: … the professor of Physical Training and director of Waterman Gymnasium …; four Faculty members, one each from the following Faculties — literary, law, engineering, and medical, homeopathic, dental, pharmacy, jointly, be appointed by their representative Deans in conjunction with the President; that one graduate member be appointed by the directors of the Alumni Association, and two undergraduate members be appointed by the Student Athletic Board, and that the Board so constituted be confirmed by the Board of Regents;

Resolved, That this Board be organized by December first next, and each year thereafter.

(R.P., 1906-10, p. 206.)

The new Board convened for the first time in December, 1907, and the following were qualified as regular members: Professors A. H. Lloyd, H. M. Bates, C. B. G. de Nancrède, George W. Patterson, and Keene Fitzpatrick, Director of the Gymnasium, Henry Bodman for the alumni, and Dudley Kennedy and Paul Magoffin representing the students. Patterson was elected chairman, Bates, secretary, and Lloyd, treasurer. In the same month the report of the Deans in nominating members of the Board in Control of Athletics was submitted for approval to the Regents, and the following code of rules was adopted:

Board in Control of Athletics

1. The Board in Control of Athletics, as constituted by the Board of Regents at their November meeting, 1907, shall have full control of all questions pertaining to athletics except as hereinafter specified. It shall make, adopt and enforce the necessary rules governing all questions pertaining to the eligibility of players, intercollegiate relations and membership in associations of the universities and colleges organized for the regulation of athletics.

2. The officers of the Board in Control shall be a Chairman, to be elected by the Board in Control, and a Secretary and a Treasurer, to be elected by the Board.

The Board may elect the Graduate Director of Athletics as Secretary. The Chairman shall have a vote on all questions, and so shall the Secretary, if he be a regular member of the Board.

3. The following are the rules of the Board in Control of Athletics, but it is understood that the said Board in Control has full authority to make other and further rules in regard to the subject of athletics as it may find it necessary so to do, subject to the approval, however, of the Board of Regents. And it is further understood that it shall be the purpose of said Board in its action, and in any rules that it may adopt, to foster reasonable participation by the student body generally in physical exercise.

(a) All Schedules of games must be approved by the Board in Control before they shall become operative.

(b) No team representing the University shall play with any other team or organization without the consent of the Board in Control.

(c) The hiring of all coaches and trainers must be approved by the Board in Control.

(d) No person who is conditioned, not passed, or on probation shall be allowed to play on athletic teams representing the University.

(e) Ratification of the list of players on any Page  1963athletic team representing the University, and permission for any athletic team to leave town, must be obtained from the Board in Control.

(f) Before any person can play on any athletic team representing the University, he must sign a certificate of eligibility, counter-signed by the chairman of the committee of the Board of Eligibility of Players, the particular form to be prescribed by the Board in Control.

(g) It shall be the duty of the manager and the captain of any athletic team to report to the Board any violation of these rules.

4. In case of a tie vote in said Board in Control on any question, such question shall be referred to the President of the University and the Deans of the several departments sitting together, and their decision in the matter shall be final.

5. The Board in Control shall have the power to ask the advice of the University Senate on any matter pertaining to athletics, and shall at all times receive and consider recommendations from the Senate and petitions from the student body.

6. The Board in Control shall make a full report in writing of its work to the Board of Regents and to the University Senate at the end of each academic year, and whenever called for by either body.

(R.P., 1906-10, pp. 215-16.)

It was voted that Michigan's delegates to the next Conference meeting should be instructed to work for the passage of rules which would secure a seven-game schedule in football, authorize a training table, repeal the retroactive features of the three-year rule, and permit interdepartment graduates "to play three years." At the Conference meeting of January 13, 1908, the chairman reported that none of the changes in the rules urged by Michigan had been made. Therefore, in 1908, the Board in Control voted to withdraw from the Conference, those voting in the affirmative being Patterson, Fitzpatrick, de Nancrède, Kennedy, and Magoffin. Voting in opposition were Bates, Bodman, and Lloyd. It was also voted that Michigan should retain for the control of her athletics all of the Conference rules except those against which she had made formal protest, these being, specifically, the retroactive feature of the three-year rule, the limitation of football games to five instead of seven, and the rule against the training table. With the exception of two football games with Minnesota in 1909 and 1910, Michigan had no further contact with the Conference until the close of the year, 1917.

The two Minnesota games led to the adoption by the Conference of the so-called Non-Intercourse Rule by which member institutions were forbidden to play any institution that had once been a member of the Conference and had ceased to be such a member. It is probable that the desire to preserve the Conference had as much to do with the approval of the measure as did the desire to isolate Michigan. The adoption of the rule was prompted, no doubt, in part at least, by a desire to prevent further withdrawals, but this action quite naturally increased the resentment felt by those Michigan supporters who had approved her withdrawal from membership. Whether or not Michigan should remain outside the Conference was a subject of frequent discussion during the years following 1908. Generally speaking, the faculty was in favor of a resumption of membership, but the dominant opinion among students and alumni, at least on the part of those in the general neighborhood of Ann Arbor, was distinctly to the contrary.

A change was made in the constitution of the Board in Control in November, 1910. It was provided that it should be composed of the director of Outdoor Athletics, who was to be secretary and keep a full record of all proceedings; three alumni to be selected by the Regents; three students to be selected by Page  1964the Athletic Association; and four faculty members to be selected as follows: one by the dean of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, one by the dean of the Department of Engineering, one by the dean of the Department of Law, and one by the deans of the Department of Medicine and Surgery, the Homeopathic Medical College, the College of Dental Surgery, and the School of Pharmacy.

The Regents confirmed the nomination of Professor Ralph W. Aigler as the representative of the Law Department on the Board in Control of Athletics in May, 1913. It is unlikely that anyone suspected at the time what an important event this was to prove in the athletic history of Michigan. Professor Aigler continued as a member until May 31, 1955, a period of forty-two years of service.

In 1912-13 the agitation on the campus became acute, and for the first time since the withdrawal, the student members of the Board in Control of Athletics, elected by the student body, were in favor of resumption of Conference membership. Sentiment among the four faculty members was evenly divided. Two of the three alumni members, as well as the director, were strongly opposed to the proposed return to the Conference. In the fall of 1913, an effort to effect an organization favorable to return failed.

Two years later, at the May, 1915, meeting, the Regents amended the legislation creating the Board in Control of Athletics so that the four faculty members were elected by the University Senate rather than appointed, as had hitherto been the case, by the deans. This seemingly unimportant amendment had far-reaching consequences. In the first election by the Senate under this amended provision, only one of the then four faculty members of the Board in Control was continued in his position, and the four members elected by the Senate were all known to be favorable to resumption of membership in the Conference. At the next meeting of the Board in Control thereafter the one faculty member who had been continued by the action of the Senate was elected chairman. With four faculty members and three student members thus favorable to resumption of membership in the Conference, the next step was to secure action by the Board of Regents whereby the Conference might be satisfied that Michigan had the requisite faculty control of athletics.

In 1916 the Board in Control directed the chairman to confer personally with faculty representatives of the nine Conference members in order to discover what terms the Conference would require. As a result it was reported that the Conference would be satisfied if all actions of the Board in Control were reported to the Senate Council of the University, subject to veto by that body. Early in 1917, the Board of Regents adopted the recommendation of the Board in Control of Athletics requiring such report to the Senate Council and giving that body veto power. After the Regents had taken this action, the Conference in June, 1917, invited the University of Michigan to resume membership therein. This invitation was accordingly accepted by the Board, the resumption of membership to become effective as of November 20, 1917, before a scheduled game with Northwestern.

The most important step in athletic control and management at Michigan was taken in 1926 as the result of an exhaustive and outstanding report on athletics prepared by a Senate committee (appointed by Acting President Lloyd) of which Dean Edmund E. Day, later president of Cornell University, was the chairman. That report, which was largely the work of Dean Day, has Page  1965often been referred to as the most significant document ever prepared in the field of athletics. It received overwhelming approval by the Senate and was passed on to the Board of Regents. At the Regents' meeting of April, 1926, an extended reference was made to this report. The recommendations of the Day Committee, as approved by the Senate, for a change in the composition of the Athletic Board, were approved, the reason for the approval being stated as follows: "Because of the development of physical education as a part of University work and because of the growing recognition that athletics as a whole is becoming more and more an integral part of college life, it is undoubtedly well to provide for more faculty representation and interest in the new board we are hereby creating."

The new board consisted of two students, three alumni, and nine faculty representatives. Of the last-mentioned nine, the president of the University and the director of Intercollegiate Athletics were to be permanent members, "the other seven to be appointed by the President." It will, of course, be noted that a significant change was made at that time in the method of selecting the faculty members of the Board. Not only was the number increased so as to constitute a distinct majority of the Board's membership, but it was declared, following the recommendation of the Day Committee, as approved by the Senate, that the faculty members, except for two, were to be appointed by the president. The reason for this change from election by the Senate-at-large to appointment by the president was the conviction on the part of the Day Committee and the Senate that better faculty representation would be had by the process of appointment rather than by election. In the discussions of the Day Committee it had been pointed out that on a general election by a large body it was too likely that selections would be made on the basis of mere popularity and prominence rather than on equipment for the task.

At this time the Regents declared the powers and functions of the Board in Control of Athletics to be as follows:

The Board in Control of Athletics, subject to the provisions hereof, shall have full control of all questions pertaining to athletics. It shall make, adopt, and enforce the necessary rules governing all questions pertaining to the eligibility of players, intercollegiate relations, and membership in associations of universities and colleges organized for the regulation of athletics. It shall be the purpose of the Board, in all its actions and in any rules that it may adopt, to foster reasonable participation by the student body in general in the various forms of indoor and outdoor physical exercise.

Said Board in Control shall likewise for the present and until other plans have been perfected have general supervision of intramural sports, physical education, and allied matters, being expressly hereby charged with the duty of forthwith providing an adequate and proper plan for giving speedy effect to the general program outlined in the Senate Committee report on University athletics dated January 18, 1926.

(R.P., 1923-26, pp. 870-71.)

This statement of functions and powers was expanded by the Regents in a resolution adopted in January, 1927:

  • a. The Board in Control of Athletics is responsible for the administration of intercollegiate athletics, intramural sports, and recreational activities, and the required work in physical education for men and women.
  • b. The immediate concern of the Board in Control of Athletics is the development of a comprehensive program of physical training, — including staff, grounds, and equipment, whereby all students in the University and members of the Faculty will be given ample opportunity for daily exercise and physical development.
  • Page  1966c. The Board in Control of Athletics shall carefully consider with a view to gradually putting into effect the recommendations of the Day Committee relative to a two-, three-and four-year program of required physical education.
  • d. All matters involving the foregoing, including personnel, budget, and policies, are under the control of the Board in Control of Athletics, subject of course to the By-Laws of the Board of Regents.

(R.P., 1926-29, p. 126.)

It was in compliance with the recommendations of this committee that the Board in Control of Athletics instituted its program of athletics for all and carried out the elaborate building operations, financed by a bond issue, which resulted in the completion of the Stadium, the Sports Building, the Women's Athletic Building, and Palmer Field.

Several changes in legislation have been made since 1926. In January, 1932, the president of the University was omitted from membership on the Board in Control, and the number of appointive faculty members was increased from seven to eight. In February, 1934, the name of the board was changed from Board in Control of Athletics to Board in Control of Physical Education, it being considered that the latter name was more nearly indicative of its functions. The comprehensive revision of the bylaws in the early 1940's in organizing the "Department of Physical Education and Athletics" led to a change having to do with the chairmanship of the Board. At that time the name was changed to Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. It had been the practice, certainly from 1910, for the Athletic Board to elect its own chairman from among the faculty representatives. In the revision of the bylaws, the Regents provided that the head of the Department of Physical Education, who was made director of Intercollegiate Athletics, was to be not only an ex officio member of the Board but also chairman (R.P., 1939-42, pp. 857-61).

At the Regents' meeting of November, 1951, the bylaws were modified to provide that seven members of the Senate among the nine constituting the faculty representation on the Board, should be appointed by the president from a panel of Senate members chosen by the Senate Advisory Committee on University Affairs.

In June, 1953, the Board in Control was enlarged when the bylaws were revised to provide that the dean of men should be a member of the Board, ex officio.

Thus, in 1956, the Board consisted of the following members:

  • 1) Nine members of the University Senate:
    • a. Seven to be appointed by the President from a panel of Senate members chosen by the Senate Advisory Committee on University Affairs, subject to the approval of the Board of Regents, and
    • b. The Director of Physical Education and Athletics and the Dean of Men, to be members ex officio. The seven appointed members hold office in each case for four years, and no appointed member shall hold office more than two successive terms.
  • 2) The University representative in the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives ex officio, unless he is otherwise a member of the Board by appointment.
  • 3) Three alumni selected by the Board of Regents to hold office for three years in each case but not for more than two consecutive terms.
  • 4) Two students, one chosen each year from the junior class by the male members of the student body, each student member to hold office for two years.

Page  1967

Angell, James B. MS correspondence. In James B. Angell Papers, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1894-95.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac W. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-60 (1894-1956).
The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, Vol. 54 (1947-48).
MS, "Minutes of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1900-47.
MS, "Minutes of the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics." (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1900-1956.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1900-1940, Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1900-1956.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1892-1956.


CRICKET. — The first organized sport at the University of Michigan was cricket. The "Pioneer Cricket Club" of eight officers and twenty-five members, headed by a student president, Frank Todd, was formed in 1860. The game, more strictly a modification of the English sport, was played with wickets set up on State Street. As it increased in popularity, however, it became somewhat of a nuisance and a traffic obstacle, and in 1865 the Board of Regents appropriated $50 for the upkeep of nearby grounds, thereby for the first time officially recognizing an organized athletic activity at Michigan (R.P., 1864-70, p. 95).

Before that time athletics was unknown or carried on extemporaneously. For example, an early student records that "sawing wood and carrying it upstairs" to his room was the principal form of exercise. Feats of strength, jumping, weight-lifting, and foot races were favored individual competitive exercises. Group activities consisted of such games as "one old cat" and "wicket," a crude form of cricket. Fishing trips along the Huron River or hikes to Ypsilanti, when faculty permission could be obtained, were other recreational pastimes.

Actually, the first demands for athletic facilities came before 1858; in that year an old military barracks on the campus was transformed into a gymnasium with a few bars, poles, ropes, and rings. The gymnasium, which had a tanbark floor and a canvas roof, was a sort of circus tent that could be used only in warm weather as it had to be erected on poles set in the ground.

Baseball. — The first attempt to organize a collegiate sport took place in 1863, when baseball was introduced to the students. John M. Hinchman and Emory L. Grant ('66) were credited with the innovation. The latter sponsored a movement to lay out a diamond on the northeast corner of the campus. Little headway was made in 1863, but in 1864, with Hinchman acting as catcher, president, and captain, the first University Baseball Club was formed. By 1867 the club, which had grown to forty-six members from its original nine in 1864, had developed to such an extent that it was playing in the race for the state championship and was outfitted in playing uniforms. Some of the early scores are interesting. In 1867 Michigan defeated Ann Arbor, 30-26, and won from Jackson, 43-15. After losing to Detroit, 36-20, in the first game, the club defeated their big city rivals, 70-17.

Meanwhile, cricket declined in popularity; by 1872 the number in the club Page  1968had dropped to thirty, although an outside schedule was played in spite of the disapproval of the faculty. During an attempt to revive the sport in 1872-73, the Michigan cricket players defeated Lodi "79 and 7 wickets" to 62, and again in the same year, 135-133. The next year they lost to the Peninsular Club of Detroit.

In 1872 only one baseball game is recorded, Michigan defeating the Mutuals of Jackson, 19-9. The first intercollegiate game, played with Wisconsin on May 20, 1882, was won by Michigan, 20-8. This game was part of the schedule of the Intercollegiate Baseball League of which Michigan, Wisconsin, Northwestern, and Racine were members. Michigan withdrew from that association the next year to play professional and semiprofessional opponents, although Oberlin was met in 1886 and Michigan Agricultural College twice in 1887. The first eastern trip was made in 1890. Michigan played Cornell and Colgate and the following year met Yale and Harvard.

Peter Conway, a National League pitcher, was selected to supervise training in 1891, thus becoming the first hired coach. He was followed by F. J. Sexton in 1896, C. F. Watkins in 1897, and "Skel" Roach in 1903. Jerry Utley ('03e), an outstanding pitcher for Michigan, coached in 1904; he was followed by L. W. McAllister, in 1905, and R. L. Lowe in 1907. Wesley Branch Rickey ('11l), who became a major figure in the professional baseball scene, took charge as coach in 1910. One of his players was George Sisler ('15e), who captained the 1915 team and later became one of the greatest first basemen in the history of the sport. Rickey was followed by Carl Lundgren (1914-20), and he, in turn, was succeeded in 1921 by Ray Lyle Fisher (Middlebury '10), who had concluded a major league career as pitcher, first for the old New York Highlanders, forerunner of the modern Yankees, and then as hurler for the Cincinnati Reds, later accepting the position of Supervisor in Physical Education and Baseball Coach, which he still holds at Michigan. Fisher's record at Michigan is one of the most remarkable in collegiate baseball, his teams winning or sharing the Conference championship fifteen times. During his term of service no other coach or institution has equaled this record. Six titles were earned during his first twenty years and nine since 1941.

In 1953 Michigan won its first N.C.A.A. baseball championship, although the 1882 team, upon the basis of its record, was credited with winning the intercollegiate title. Fisher was named "Coach of the Year" in 1953 in recognition of his outstanding coaching performance. In Conference competition since he took over the reins in 1921, Michigan won or shared the title in 1923, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1936, 1941, 1942, 1944, 1945, 1948, 1949, 1952, and 1953.

The Western Conference, or Big Ten, properly known as the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives, dates from February, 1896, with Michigan, Chicago, Illinois, Minnesota, Northwestern, Purdue, and Wisconsin as members of the original organization. Indiana, Ohio State, and Iowa joined later. The members, aiming to regulate and standardize conditions in all forms of intercollegiate competition and also to maintain a high ideal of amateurism in college sports, attempted a fundamental reform in its organization to which Michigan did not subscribe, and consequently the University withdrew from the Conference in 1906, to remain outside until late in 1917.

Football. — Football, in which Michigan players were to become famous as the "Champions of the West," made its Page  1969appearance soon after baseball. First reference to the game was in 1862, when the student newspaper, the Chronicle, reported that "a group of 42 sophomores was beaten by 82 frosh." In 1872 class captains were named, including William S. Sheeran ('73), senior; Calvin Thomas ('74, LL.D. hon. '04), junior; Edgar D. Root ('75e), sophomore, and E. Crofton Fox, freshman. The first Football Association was formed in 1873 with Charles J. Thomas ('74) as president. Other members were Ben T. Cable ('76), vice-president; Willis L. Watkins ('75), secretary; and Myron H. Phelps (Yale '76), treasurer. The first captain of the team was Wayne Hayman ('73, '75l). No record of the team or of scores exists. Hayman is listed as captain of the football team in 1874-75, the year the first official team was selected. Members of the group, in addition to Hayman, included Samuel W. Smith ('78l), Ben Safley ('76), Ben Birdsall, Jr. ('75e), Edgar D. Root ('75e), Frederic G. White, George E. Pantlind ('75e, '78l), Ben Cable ('76), David N. De Tarr ('78, '80m), John D. Sanders ('76e), and Michael J. McMahon. No games are listed. No mention of football is made in the records of 1875, and that year also the faculty refused the baseball team permission to play out-of-town games.

Football, as the Rugby Game, was introduced in 1876 by Charles M. Gayley ('78), who later wrote "The Yellow and Blue." The first intercollegiate game was played May 30, 1878, at White Stocking Park, Chicago, in what was probably the first collegiate contest played in the "West," Michigan defeating Racine, 7-2, scoring one goal and a touchdown to Racine's lone touchdown. Under the rules then in force a goal counted five points and a touchdown, two. In the fall of that year Michigan again played Racine, winning 1-0. Toronto also was played that year; the score was 0-0.

The University team for 1877-78 included Captain R. T. Edwards, Alexis C. Angell ('78, '80l), David N. De Tarr, William C. Johnson ('78), Joseph A. Beaumont ('80e), Irving K. Pond ('79e, hon. '11), Charles S. Henning ('79e), Frank G. Allen ('81), Andrew S. Deacon, John A. Green ('80), and Everett Marshall (Palladium, 1878, p. 109). The first invasion of the East by Michigan took place in 1881. Three games were played, Michigan losing all three — to Harvard, 4-0; to Yale, 11-0, and to Princeton, 13-4. No schedule was arranged in 1882, but in 1883 Michigan again played and lost to Yale and Harvard.

The systematic development of the game at Michigan dates from 1891, when the first complete advance schedule was arranged. Mike Murphy was the first Michigan football coach; he was assisted by Frank Crawford (Yale '91, Michigan '93l). The first western trip ever made by a Michigan football team took place in 1892; the team was under the direction of Frank Barbour, another Yale graduate. Games were played with Wisconsin, Minnesota, Northwestern, and Chicago. Wisconsin and Chicago were defeated, but losses came at the hands of the Gophers and Northwestern. Against Purdue at Ann Arbor four Michigan players were injured, and, as the team had only three substitutes, the contest had to be called, Purdue winning 24-0. Stories are told of the early-day "giants" of football, but a check of the 1894 players reveals that the average weight of the '94 team members was 170 pounds, the line averaging 178 and the backfield, 155 ½.

A Board in Control of Athletics, composed of five professors and four undergraduates, was established in 1893 by the University Senate to have "full control of all questions pertaining to athletics," including "the eligibility of players, intercollegiate games, leaves of absence, Page  1970the investigation of charges of misconduct on the part of players, and the hiring of coaches and trainers."

In the same year stands were erected to accommodate 400 at Regents Field; these burned in 1895 and were rebuilt at double the seating capacity. In 1902 Dexter M. Ferry, of Detroit, donated an additional seventeen acres to the University, and the combined tracts were named "Ferry Field." The new field, which had a maximum seating capacity of 46,000, was first used in 1906. The present Michigan Stadium was erected in 1927 to seat 87,000; the capacity was increased in 1948 to 97,000 and to more than 100,000 in 1956.

William Lloyd McCauley (Princeton '94), a medical student, coached from 1894 through 1896. In 1894 Keene Fitzpatrick (see Part IX: Department of Physical Education for Men) came to Michigan as the first Instructor in Physical Training and trainer of the team. He became a famous figure in early Wolverine sports history and later at Princeton, one of the country's great track coaches. McCauley was assisted by a student-alumni advisory group, including Gustave H. (Dutch) Ferbert ('97), James E. Duffy ('90, '92l, hon. '21), James Baird ('96e), William C. Malley ('90l, LL.M. '91), Frederick W. Henninger ('97e), and Giovanni R. F. Villa ('96l). The Board in Control, in 1898, appointed Charles M. Baird (see Part VI: The University Musical Society), to fill the newly created position of graduate manager of athletics. Baird, who was destined to play an important part in the rapid rise of Michigan as an athletic power, was succeeded, in 1909, by Phillip G. Bartelme, Director of Outdoor Athletics.

An incident which had great bearing upon the University's future in athletics occurred in 1898. Michigan's varsity squad of eighteen players, with seventeen on the reserve squad, swept through all its games, including Notre Dame and Illinois, until the big game of the year — that with Chicago. In spite of difficulties, victory was finally won, 12-11, after a field-length run by substitute Charles Widman in the closing minutes of the game. Widman's sensational dash so inspired a senior music student, Louis Elbel, that he wrote "The Victors," one of Michigan's greatest songs — one of the greatest of all college songs. It might be said that this event provided the first gathering of the threads of athletic endeavor and school spirit which make up the intangible known as Michigan tradition.

In 1900 Langdon (Biff) Lea, famous Princeton star, replaced Ferbert and the student coaches, and, while the season was successful on the whole, there was dissatisfaction because of two setbacks — at the hands of Chicago, 15-6, and Iowa, 28-5. Thus, the stage was set for the coming of a man who was to leave his impress for all time upon Michigan athletics. Fielding Harris Yost (LL.B. West Virginia '97, LL.D. Marshall '28), after a colorful career as player at the University of West Virginia and at Lafayette and as coach at Ohio Wesleyan and the universities of Nebraska, Kansas, and Stanford, came to the University to begin his long and remarkable term of service in 1901. His first years at Michigan were those of the famous "Point-a-Minute" teams. With such well-remembered luminaries as Hugh White ('02l), Neil Snow ('02), Harrison (Boss) Weeks ('02l), Dan McGugin ('04l), and "Willie" Heston ('04l), the 1901 team scored 550 points to 0 for all opponents. It concluded the year by going to Pasadena, California, to participate in the first Tournament of Roses Game ever played — defeating Stanford, 49-0, on New Year's Day, 1902.

The 1902 team scored 644 points to Page  197112; the 1903 team was scored upon once, as it was tied 6-6 by Minnesota at Minneapolis in the game that established another Michigan tradition, that of the Little Brown Jug. Michigan completed the season with 565 points as against 6 for all opponents. In 1904 Michigan scored 567 points to 22 for the opposition, and by the end of the year had a record of fifty-six victories since 1901 and a total of 2,821 points to 40 for opponents. In the 1905 game with Chicago the teams battled on even terms until Dennie Clark, in a now famous play, tried to run out a rolling punt from behind the goal line and was tackled for a safety and the only two points of the game. That 2-0 loss marked Michigan's first in five years and ended the first era of Wolverine domination over Conference football. Michigan was out of the Conference from 1906 until November, 1917, but defeated Minnesota, Conference champion, in 1909 and again in 1910.

Yost produced many All-Americans during his long term of service. Although William R. Cunningham ('94, '99m), center on the 1898 team, was selected as Michigan's first All-American, he was not generally recognized because he was not named on Walter Camp's official team, and Willie Heston, in 1903-4, is regarded as Michigan's first All-American. Adolph (Germany) Schulz, in 1907, Henry A. Vick, in 1921, and Jack Blott, in 1923, were other great centers at Michigan under Yost; centers Maynard D. Morrison, 1931, and Charles (Chuck) Bernard, 1932, were both coached by that sterling Yost pupil Jack Blott. Other great players who won All-American honors under Yost were halfbacks Johnny Maulbetsch, 1914; Jimmy Craig, 1913; Cedric Smith, 1917; Frank Steketee, 1918; Harry Kipke, 1922, and Bennie Friedman, 1926; ends Stanfield Wells, 1910, and Bennie Oosterbaan, 1925, 1926, 1927, and linemen Albert Benbrook, 1909 and 1910, and Ernie Allmendinger, 1917.

One of Yost's many contributions to the game of football was the famous play "Old 83," the forerunner of such modern plays as the "keep-or-pitch-off" play that earmarks the split-T formation and the T-formation's "belly" plays. His influence on the growth of Michigan spirit and tradition was tremendous. Once, when asked how he developed morale in his teams, he replied, "You don't put morale on like a coat. You build it day by day." With the exception of the year 1924-25, when he was relieved by George Little, Yost was Head Coach from 1901 through 1926. His first four teams, 1901, 1902, 1903, and 1904, and his last four, in 1922, 1923, 1925, and 1926 were Western Conference champions. He became Director of Athletics at Michigan in 1921, serving in that capacity until 1941, when he was succeeded by Crisler, present Director.

In 1924 Harold (Red) Grange, the famous "Galloping Ghost" of the Illinois team, staged one of his most remarkable gridiron performances, at the expense of Michigan, at Champaign, scoring four touchdowns in ten minutes and then adding another. A year later, playing against Grange on the same field, the Wolverines defeated the Illini, 3-0, one of the greatest defensive performances of the era, although Grange's achievement of the 1924 season overshadowed it in the public eye.

When Yost retired as Coach in 1926 he was succeeded by Elton E. (Tad) Wieman, another of his former players. Wieman was succeeded in 1928 by Harry Kipke ('24), one of the great punters of Wolverine history. Kipke produced four Conference champions from 1930 through 1933, and in 1932 and 1933 his teams were accorded mythical national championship honors. It was Page  1972during this period that such All-Americans as Harry Newman, quarterback and key man of those great Kipke teams, flourished, along with Morrison and Bernard, centers, and Francis Wistert, tackle, 1933, first of the three All-American Wistert brothers. From 1934 through 1937, however, Michigan fared ill on the gridiron, winning only two games and losing eight in 1934 and 1936, and breaking even with 4-4 marks in 1935 and 1937.

Herbert Orin (Fritz) Crisler (Chicago '22) was appointed Head Coach and Assistant Director of Athletics in 1938 and Director in 1941. He had been a nine-letterman at the University of Chicago, and began his coaching career there in 1922. He served as head football coach and athletic director at the University of Minnesota from 1930 to 1931, and then went to Princeton. Directing the gridiron fortunes of Old Nassau's Tigers from 1932 through 1937, he coached his teams to thirty-five victories, nine defeats, and five ties. The Crisler era of coaching at Michigan lasted from 1938 through the 1947 season.

When he arrived at Michigan in 1938, he found two sophomores on his squad who were destined to loom large in the success of Wolverine teams. One of these was a husky young Irishman named Thomas Dudley Harmon, whom Yost earlier had called "the greatest prep athlete in the United States." The other was quarterback Forest Evashevski, Harmon's blocking convoy and a fine player in his own right. This pair, however, did not reach their peak until they were juniors because in 1938 Harmon was at right half while the veteran Paul Kromer handled the key left halfback spot. In the first season under the new regime, the Wolverines won six games and lost only one as compared to a 4-4 record the preceding season. They beat Michigan State, to which they had lost for four years in a row. The game with Northwestern was a tie, and the loss was to Minnesota.

Crisler's first team, a forerunner of the great offensive teams for which he was to become noted, scored 131 points to 40 for the opposition as compared to the 1937 team which had scored only 54 points and which had yielded 110. Although he was not in a key ball-carrying position in 1938, Harmon took part in that 14-0 victory over State and went on to average better than five yards for each of his 77 ball-carrying attempts; he also completed 21 of 45 passes for 310 yards. It was apparent from the beginning that Crisler demanded speed from his teams — speed and crisp blocking plus perfect timing. Of his quarterbacks, especially, he also sought alertness and unusual blocking talents.

Michigan, in 1939, won its first game from the Spartans, 26-13. Because of an injury to Paul Kromer, Crisler shifted Harmon over to left halfback. With Evashevski's blocking and help from fullback Bob Westfall, the 1939 team won six and lost two games and then swept through 1940 with a seven to one record. Harmon, from the left halfback position, gained 884 yards in 130 tries to average 6.8 yards, and his passes gained 583 yards more. He punted twice — two quick kicks of 55 yards each. In his senior year he did the punting and added place-kicking to his duties, scoring 21 points in twenty-three minutes against California, Michigan's total of 21 against Michigan State, and 20 points against Harvard.

Harmon was one of the great All-Americans of his era, earning honors on almost all All-American teams in 1939 and 1940. He completed three seasons at Michigan with an individual record showing 2,134 yards of rushing on 398 attempts, 101 pass completions for 1,304 yards, 33 points after touchdown, and Page  1973two field goals for a total of 237 points. He also threw sixteen touchdown passes during the 1,128 minutes he played. Wearing his famous number "Old 98," which was retired upon his graduation, Harmon's memorable duels with Pennsylvania's famous Francis Reagan and his play against Ohio State went down in Michigan history among the greatest performances by Wolverine athletes. He was winner of the Heisman Trophy and also was named captain of the 1940 All-American team.

Westfall followed him in 1941 as All-American, and in 1942, Albert, the second of the Wistert brothers, earned that honor as tackle, as did Julius Franks, Jr., one of the finest guards ever to play at Michigan. Crisler had another All-American in Ralph Heikkinen in 1938, but the first Conference championship, despite a remarkable record, did not develop until 1943. An influx of service trainees with such stars as Elroy Hirsch, Fred Negus, and Bill Daley, in addition to such other fine players as Captain Paul White, Bob Wiese, and Mervin Pregulman made Michigan a Conference winner with All-American honors for Daley at fullback and Pregulman at tackle.

Michigan won five games and lost two in 1944 in Conference play, and then came the exciting years of 1945, 1946, 1947 — the rise of the famous "two-platoon" system at Michigan and the march to the Rose Bowl. In 1945 the drain of the services upon college gridirons became so pronounced that the Western Conference relaxed its rule barring freshmen from competition, and thus Crisler found himself at the begining of a ten-game schedule which included both Army and Navy, with a goodly sprinkling of seventeen-year-olds on his squad. Knowing that he would be forced to use these youthful players against tried veterans in the Army game, including such stars as the well-known Felix (Doc) Blanchard and Glenn Davis, Crisler fathered two-platoon football. He has pointed out:

We arrived at the two-team system at Michigan not out of any great ingenuity on our part, but out of pure necessity. It was a veteran Army team, and Michigan had mostly freshmen. We divided the line into two groups, one whose abilities were best suited to offense, the other best gifted in defense. Then we ran the offensive team in whenever we gained possession. When we lost possession — which was frequently — the defensive line took over. We lost, 28 to 7, but it should have been worse.

The 1945 Army game was a milestone in football history and in Michigan tradition. The gallant stand of the green band of players — six seventeen-year-old freshmen were in the starting line-up — captured the imagination not only of the throng in Yankee Stadium but of the entire country. Coaches everywhere began looking into the hitherto available but unexplored possibilities of the two-platoon system. It is interesting that Crisler later was chairman of the football rules committee that outlawed the unlimited substitution rule in 1953 after its application had been developed to such an extent that it became undesirable and detrimental in the eyes of the national committee.

The Wolverines lost only to Army, Navy, and to Big Ten champion Indiana in 1945, and with 1946 came the return of service men to colleges everywhere. In 1946, with such players as Bob Chappuis, Pete and Chalmers (Bump) Elliott, Dick Rifenburg, Jack Weisenburger, Howard Yerges, Leonard Ford, Bob Mann, Tony Momsen, and Bruce Hilkene, the Wolverines developed into the precisioned group that was to sweep forward to the Rose Bowl the following year. The 1946 team gave Army a stiff battle in the Michigan Stadium before losing 20-13, again to the Blanchard-Davis Page  1974combination. After a tie with Northwestern, the Wolverines dropped a 13-9 decision to Illinois.

In 1947 Michigan's second Rose Bowl team — actually it should be called the second "Tournament of Roses Team" because the first game, on January 1, 1902, was not a "Bowl" game — was the first to achieve a perfect season under Crisler. It belongs among the greatest teams in Wolverine history because of its perfect teamwork, speed, and baffling attack. The imagination of the press, radio, and public was captured by "Michigan's Magicians" with their bewildering assortment of double reverses, buck laterals, crisscrosses, and spins. There was one team for offense, another for defense, and only two players, half-back "Bump" Elliott and fullback Jack Weisenburger, played both. The team thundered through the season with only two opponents threatening seriously, Illinois which fell, 14-7, and Minnesota which lost, 13-6. Chappuis was the man of the hour against Minnesota, while Elliott's 74-yard punt return for a touchdown and a 52-yard pass, Chappuis to Elliott on the four-yard line, and a subsequent touchdown by Henry Fonda, resulted in victory over Illinois. The Wolverines also proved themselves against Wisconsin. The game was played at Madison on a field made slippery by wind, snow, and rain, but Michigan's deft ball-handling was never better demonstrated as victory was achieved, 40-6.

The 1948 Rose Bowl game actually was no contest as Southern California was routed, 49-0 — the exact score by which Fielding Yost's first team had defeated Stanford in 1902. Michigan set or equaled nine Rose Bowl records in winning this game. Crisler was named Coach of the Year, and both Chappuis and Elliott were chosen All-American.

Crisler retired as Coach in 1948 to devote full time to the ever-increasing duties of the athletic directorship. His chief assistant and Backfield Coach, Bennie Oosterbaan, a staff member since 1928 and Michigan's only three-time All-American, succeeded him. Much of the 1947 team was still available, although Chappuis, Weisenburger, Elliott, Yerges, and Hilkene were gone. Dick Rifenburg played end, and Alvin Wistert, tackle. The 1948 team, completing its second straight undefeated season, won both the Big Ten and the national collegiate football titles, and Oosterbaan also was named Coach of the Year. Alvin Wistert, the only one of the three brothers to become All-American twice, repeated his performance in 1949. Michigan won over Michigan State and Stanford before suffering defeat, 21-7, by Army and the following week lost a hard-fought 21-20 game to Northwestern. The last game was a 7-7 tie with Ohio State, and the team shared in the Conference title, marking the third straight season the Wolverines had won or shared top honors in the Western Conference.

The victory over Ohio State, 9-3, in the famous "Roses that Bloom in the Snow" game at Columbus in 1950, secured the title and the Rose Bowl bid for Michigan. The game was played in a blinding blizzard accompanied by a 10-degree temperature. While 50,500 spectators shivered in the stands, the game was delayed twenty minutes as workmen sought to clear the field of snow. Some remarkable kicking under adverse circumstances by Charlie Ortmann and a blocked punt by Center Tony Momsen, which he fell on for the game's lone touchdown, won for Michigan. The Wolverines had won four games, lost one, and been tied in another in Conference play. They earned their third Rose Bowl title on January 1, 1951, by defeating the University of California, 14-6.

Michigan dropped to fourth place in Page  19751951, winning four games and losing two in the Conference as well as losing to Michigan State, not yet in the Big Ten, by a score of 25-0, the first time the Spartans had defeated the Wolverines since 1937. Losses also came at the hands of Stanford and Cornell outside the Conference, the latter, 20-7, at Ithaca.

In 1952 the Wolverines again finished fourth in the Conference, with a 4-2 record, losing to Illinois and Ohio State and dropping both of its nonleague contests — to Michigan State and to Stanford. Because of a fifth-place tie with Iowa and a 3-3 record, including losses to Minnesota, Illinois, and Michigan State, 1953 proved to be one of Michigan's poorest years. The 1954 season, surprisingly, saw the Wolverines back in second place and tied with Wisconsin in the Big Ten; the record was six won, three lost. After defeating the University of Washington, 14-0, the Maize and Blue was set down, 26-7, by Army. A week later, however, Michigan scored a 14-13 victory over a highly regarded Iowa team, coached by former Wolverine star Forest Evashevski, and then defeated Northwestern and Minnesota only to run into a 13-9 upset from Indiana. A 14-7 win over Illinois and a 33-7 upset of Michigan State came before the Wolverines were defeated by Ohio State, 21-7.

The year 1955 began with a great fanfare, built upon the come-back the Wolverines had made with a sophomore-dominated team in 1954, particularly upon the individual prowess of one player, Ron Kramer, left end, whom the critics had belatedly discovered in the latter stages of the 1954 season. In a 42-7 victory over Missouri, Kramer scored 23 points. A 14-7 win over Michigan State followed, and, for the first time, Michigan defeated Army, 26-2. Victories were won over Northwestern, Minnesota, and Iowa, although a series of injuries in which Kramer and Tom Maentz figured handicapped the squad, and the Wolverines were upset by Illinois at Champaign, 25-0. After defeating Indiana, 30-0, the stage was set for the Conference championship game with Ohio State. With the Big Ten title in the balance and the largest crowd ever to witness a game in the Stadium — 97,369, the Maize and Blue went down to a 17-0 defeat at the hands of the Buckeyes. The game ended in disorder. Michigan finished in third place that year, with Ohio winning the title. Michigan State, in second place, was selected as the Conference contestant since the Buckeyes were not eligible, having competed in the Rose Bowl game the year before.

By 1957, in nine seasons under Oosterbaan, Michigan had won fifty-six games, lost twenty-four, and tied twice. In the Western Conference the Wolverines had won forty times, lost fifteen, and tied twice. Percentage-wise in over-all competition, Oosterbaan-coached teams had a .700 mark; in the Conference it was .719. Since 1948 Michigan teams had won or shared the Western Conference title three times, won a national and a Rose Bowl championship, finished second twice, third once, fourth twice, and tied for fifth place another year. Under Oosterbaan's direction, All-Americans have been Dick Rifenburg, end, 1948; Alvin Wistert, tackle, 1948 and 1949; Allen Wahl, tackle, 1949 and 1950; Arthur Walker, tackle, 1954; and Ron Kramer, end, 1955 and 1956.

Track. — The organization of the University Athletic Club in 1874 marked the first formal recognition of track as a University sport. Early track and field competition was limited to athletic tournaments and field days held on the Fair Grounds. Field Day by 1884, however, had become an elaborate program of twenty events. The tournament program differed greatly from a modern track and field program. Listed among the Page  1976events were the three- and ten-mile walking contests, collar and elbow wrestling, catch-as-catch-can wrestling, heavyweight boxing, tug-of-war, Indian clubs, drop kick, standing jump, throwing the baseball, lawn tennis, chasing greased pig, obstruction race, and Rugby. Events which had to do with track and field in the modern sense were the 100-yard dash, the half mile run, the hop-step-and-jump, and the hammer throw. The latter two events, which until fairly recent times were included on the intercollegiate program, have been discontinued.

The first track venture into intercollegiate competition was in 1893, when the Maize and Blue entered the Northwestern Intercollegiate Athletic Association meet and won, Michigan 52; Wisconsin 45; Northwestern, 15. Michigan won again in 1898 and in 1901, under the direction of Coach Keene Fitzpatrick, and entered the Western Conference meet for the first time and won, taking the outdoor title for four straight years. Because Michigan left the Western Conference in 1906, a Maize and Blue track team did not appear again in Conference competition until 1918. While out of the Conference, emphasis in track competition was placed on the Eastern Intercollegiate meet, in which Michigan finished second in 1907 and third for five successive years from 1910 to 1914.

Michigan track for more than sixty years has been in charge of only six men. Keene Fitzpatrick, as already mentioned, came to Michigan in 1894 as football trainer and track coach, and left for Princeton in 1910, to be succeeded by Dr. Alvin C. Kraenzlein, who served until 1912. Steve Farrell was Coach from 1912 until 1930; Charles Hoyt, from 1930 to 1940; J. Kenneth Doherty from 1941 to 1947; Don Canham, Doherty's assistant and a star high jumper, took over in 1948. Although Michigan was not a member of the Western Conference when Farrell was appointed in 1912, his teams won four indoor championships and five outdoor titles, including the 1918 crown, in the first season Michigan was back in the league. Under Hoyt's direction the Maize and Blue won seven outdoor crowns and added eight indoor titles. Doherty led two outdoor and three indoor teams to championships, and Canham captured both titles for two successive years. Despite the fact that Michigan was out of the Western Conference for eleven years, Wolverine track teams by 1956 had won twenty-two outdoor championships and seventeen indoor crowns. Closest rival has been Illinois, a continuous member of the Conference.

Michigan has contributed its share of track competitors to United States and other Olympic teams. Charles Dvorak ('01, '04l) won the pole vault event in 1900 and the championship in 1904. Archie Hahn ('04l), a triple winner at St. Louis in 1904, won the 60-meter dash in 7 seconds, the 100-meter dash in 11 seconds, and took the 200-meter event in 21.6. In the same year Ralph Rose won the shot put with a toss of 48 feet 7 ½ inches as compared to the world record mark of 48 feet 10 inches, which he had set during the regular season. With Dvorak's pole vault performance of 11 feet 6 inches, Michigan won four first places. Rose won the weight event again, in 1908, at London. His winning toss was 46 feet 7 ½ inches. John C. Garrels ('07e) took third place by capturing a second in the 110-meter hurdles. Gayle A. Dull ('08), a distance runner, was also on the squad.

Both Ralph Craig ('11) and Rose were double winners at Stockholm in 1912, although the latter was no longer competing for Michigan. Craig won the 100-meter dash in 10.8 seconds, and repeated in the 200-meter event with a 21.7 performance. Page  1977Rose finished second in the "best hand" event, and Carroll B. Haff ('13, '15l) placed fifth in the 400-meter race. In the Antwerp Games of 1920, Carl Johnson ('20) finished second in the broad jump for the United States. In the Paris Olympics of 1924, DeHart Hubbard won the broad jump with a leap of 24 feet 5 ½ inches, and James Brooker took second in the pole vault. At Amsterdam, in 1928, George (Buck) Hester, sprinter, competed in the dashes for Canada. At the Los Angeles Games in 1932, Eddie Tolan took the 100-meter dash in 10.3 seconds and then captured the 200-meter event in 21.2, setting new records in both events. Ed Turner took fifth in the 800-meter race.

In London, in 1948, Herb Barten finished fourth in the 800-meters, and Eck Koutonen, a broad jumper, competed in the hop-step-jump. Several Michigan trackmen competed in the Games at Helsinki, Finland, in 1952, but none represented the United States. Roland (Fritz) Nilsson took fifth in the shot put for his native Sweden, while Canadian team members John Ross, 800 meters, Jack Carroll, 400 meters, and Roy Pella competed in the discus.

Cross country. — Members of a cross country club, organized in 1901, made up four-mile relay teams, which won the Penn Relays between 1901 and 1906. The 1905 team set a world record in the four-mile event and lowered that mark again in 1906 to 18 minutes 10.4 seconds. The quartet which set the 1906 record included Rowe, Coe, Ramey, and Maloney. Cross country as a varsity sport was not established at Michigan until 1920, and Michigan won its first Big Ten championship in 1922, taking both the individual and team titles. Egbert R. Isbell, a noted distance runner, won the the individual title by covering the five-mile course at Lafayette, Indiana, in 26 minutes 33.2 seconds. Cross country was discontinued as a regular varsity sport in 1934, but from time to time the Wolverines have competed in Conference championships as a means of training distance runners on the track squad. Don McEwen won the individual title over a four-mile course at Washington Park in Chicago in 1949, by covering the distance in 19:44.5. In 1950, on a four-mile emergency course at Washington Park, he set another mark of 19:34.1. Michigan won its only other Conference cross country championship in 1954, scoring 55 points.

Tennis. — Tennis came into vogue in 1880, and an association was formed in 1883. First participation in Western Conference matches took place in 1897, and the first tennis letters were awarded that year. In 1902 at the Western Intercollegiate Tournament in Chicago, Harry Wherry and Henry Danforth won the doubles championship for Michigan, and then Danforth defeated Wherry for the individual crown. Danforth won the individual title again in 1903, and Raymond St. John and Walter Lee won the doubles. The Wolverines continued to win in the limited meet through 1904.

In 1910 full-scale Western Conference tournaments were inaugurated, but since Michigan was out of the Conference at this time, the Maize and Blue did not have another chance at a championship until 1919, when Walter Westbrook, one of the big names in Michigan tennis, won the singles championship. Westbrook then teamed with Nicholas Bartz to win the doubles championship. Repeating with the singles championship in 1920, he went on to engage the great William T. Tilden in the finals of the National Clay Court championships in 1925, forcing Tilden to five straight sets before losing. Westbrook and Harvey Snodgrass defeated Tilden and Wiener for the national doubles championship that year. The versatile Westbrook was also a trackman, winning the Illinois Relays Page  1978pole vault championship with a vault of 12 feet 1/2 inch.

Michigan did not have another individual champion until 1948, when Andy Paton won the singles crown; he and William Mikulich won the doubles crown in the same year. Earlier, Horace Barton and Kingsley Moore had won the 1927 doubles. In 1955 and 1956, under the direction of Coach Bill Murphy, the Wolverines won the Big Ten championship, MacKay and Potter taking the 1955 doubles title and MacKay winning the 1956 individual title; teaming again, they won the doubles. MacKay, a Davis Cup candidate, was invited to England, where he played successfully in a number of matches as one of the younger Davis Cup team candidates. Michigan won team championships in 1941, 1944, 1945, 1955, and 1956, the first official team championship upon a point basis having been established in 1934. Under Murphy's leadership the Wolverines won thirty-one consecutive dual meet victories in 1955-56 and, entering the 1957 season, are still undefeated.

Professor Thomas C. Trueblood (see Part IV: The Department of Speech), who was associated with Michigan athletics for more than fifty years, helped to organize and coach some of the earlier teams; such former players as Lee and Westbrook, Christian Mack, Paul Leidy, James Angell, and Hutchins at various times also served as Coach. John B. Johnstone was Coach from 1929 until 1937, when he was succeeded by LeRoy Weir, who served until 1946. W. Campbell Dixon, who became Coach in 1947, was followed by William Murphy, present mentor.

Golf. — The credit for the introduction of golf at Michigan, in 1901, and for the development of the sport must be given to Professor Trueblood, whose energies in the early years were devoted to both tennis and golf. The first intercollegiate schedule was arranged in 1921 under his direction, and competition began at Western Conference level in 1922. Trueblood retired as Coach in 1935 to be succeeded by Ray O. Courtright, who remained in charge until William Barclay took over in 1945-46. Albert C. Katzenmeyer has been Golf Coach from 1947 to date. From 1922 Michigan has had one of the finest golf records in the Big Ten. Beginning in 1931 the Wolverines won the Big Ten title five years in a row and repeated again in 1943, 1944, and 1945. Further championships came in 1946, 1947, 1949, and 1952, with the 1956 team finishing in the runner-up spot. John Fischer, Big Ten champion for two years and national intercollegiate champion in 1932, won the National Amateur championship in 1936. Charles Kocsis, Big Ten champion for two years, won the National Collegiate title in 1936. Ben Smith was Conference individual champion in 1943, and Ed Schalon won the crown outright in 1947 and tied for it in 1949.

Basketball. — Intercollegiate basketball, one of the most popular indoor sports, has had a rather short history at Michigan. Although it was introduced in 1909 under G. D. Corneal, it was abandoned, to be revived in 1917 by Professor Elmer D. Mitchell, who later became chairman of the Department of Physical Education for Men. Mitchell coached the sport for two seasons, 1917-18 and 1918-19. Edwin J. Mather took charge in 1919 and coached until his death before the 1929 season. He was succeeded by George F. Veenker, who directed the cagers for two seasons before Franklin C. Cappon took over in 1930.

Michigan won its first championship in 1926, sharing the title with Indiana, and in 1927 the Wolverines, with a 10-2 record and a percentage mark of .833, won the title outright. One of the stars Page  1979of those two teams was Bennie G. Oosterbaan, who was selected on a mythical All-American basketball team and led the Big Ten in scoring in 1928. The Wolverines repeated again in 1929, with another 10-2 record. Cappon joined the staff of Princeton University, 1937-39, and Oosterbaan took over until 1946, when he, in turn, was succeeded by Osborne Cowles. Under Cowles's direction the Maize and Blue again won the title in 1947-48 with another 10-2 record. Ernest B. McCoy became Coach in 1948-49, when Cowles left to become coach at the University of Minnesota. McCoy directed activities until 1953, when the present mentor, William J. Perigo, was appointed.

In 1955-56 Ron Kramer set all-time Michigan scoring marks both for an individual game and for the season. He scored 34 points against Northwestern, breaking his own previous mark of 30 points which he had set earlier in the season against Oregon, as Michigan won, 94-76. Several times he also tied the 1949 mark of Mack Supronowicz. Kramer's score of 448 points for the season, with an average of 20.3 points per game, is the best to date for any Michigan player.

Swimming. — Michigan has long been a power in intercollegiate swimming, owing largely to the abilities of Matt Mann, Supervisor Emeritus in Physical Education and Swimming Coach Emeritus, who was in charge from 1924 until 1954, when he was succeeded by Gus Stager, one of his own protégés, and Bruce Harlan, who was placed in charge of the divers. Until recent years, when Ohio State began an upward surge, under Mann's direction Michigan dominated Western Conference swimming. The Michigan-Ohio State swimming rivalry has grown into one of the keenest in intercollegiate circles, and Mann and Mike Peppe, veteran Buckeye coach, over the years staged a remarkable series of duels in Conference races. During the twenty-nine years that Mann coached Michigan swimming teams, sixteen of them won Big Ten titles, and thirteen were winners of National Intercollegiate championships. Under his direction Michigan produced more Olympic swimmers than any other Conference institution. Mann coached the 1952 United States Olympic team that won the championship.

In 1928 a Canadian, Garnet Ault, competed in swimming, and Paul Samson swam for the United States on the winning relay team and also on the water polo squad. James Cristy took third in the 1,500-meter race at Los Angeles in 1932, and Richard Degener finished third in diving in the same year. Five Michigan athletes placed in the Olympics in Berlin in 1936. Degener, competing for the second time, won the springboard diving title; Jack Kasley and Taylor Drysdale also placed. Kasley reached the semifinals of the 200-meter breast stroke, and Drysdale was fourth in the 100-meter back stroke. In 1948 Bobby Sohl finished third in the 200-meter breast stroke. In 1952 three Michigan athletes competed, Burwell (Bumpy) Jones in the 200 meters and in the relay, Ron Gora in the 100 meters, representing the United States, and John Davies, swimming for Australia, won the Olympic crown in the 200-meter breast stroke. In succession of service to the University, Mann is the fourth swimming coach since Jack Jerome directed activities in 1921-22. William Sperry coached the squad in 1923 and Gerald Barnes in 1924. Since 1954 Stager and Bruce Harlan, in charge of diving, have guided Michigan to two successive second places.

Wrestling. — Intercollegiate wrestling dates from 1921. Hevery L. Thorne was the first mat Coach in 1921-22; he, Page  1980in turn, was succeeded by Richard Barker. Clifford Keen, present Coach, took over in 1925, and in thirty-one years he has produced nine Big Ten champions. His teams have finished second on eleven other occasions, and his 1955 and 1956 teams won the Conference title. He also has trained many Olympic team members, including world's heavyweight champion, Ed Don George. Both George and Bobby Hewitt were members of the American squad in the 1928 Olympics, George winning the Olympic heavy-weight title and Hewitt taking runner-up honors in the 128-pound division. Keen was manager of the 1948 United States Olympic mat team in London.

Hockey. — Hockey also had its beginning in 1921, with Richard Barss as Coach (1921-26). Although officially not on the Western Conference athletic program, hockey provided a number of Big Ten teams with competition. In 1921, for example, Michigan met Michigan Agricultural College (Michigan State University), Notre Dame, Michigan Tech, and Wisconsin, and Conference teams Minnesota and Illinois. Eddie Lowrey became Coach in 1926 and produced championship teams; competition was with Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Illinois in 1930, 1931, and 1935, and Michigan tied with Minnesota in 1937. Two of Lowrey's outstanding protégés were John Sherf, who later achieved a reputation as a professional player, from 1933 to 1935, and Vic Heyliger, from 1935 to 1937. Heyliger later starred with the Chicago Blackhawks, and then became coach at the University of Illinois. In 1944-45 he succeeded Lowrey as Coach, and Michigan rose to a major position in the rapidly growing intercollegiate ice sport. Under Heyliger's direction the Wolverines achieved an outstanding record, winning the National Collegiate Athletic Association championship eight times since the title play-offs were established at Colorado Springs in 1948. The Wolverines also won the Western Intercollegiate Hockey League crown in 1956 and tied with Minnesota for it in 1952. In the Winter Games at Cortina, Italy, in 1956, Willard Ikola was goalie on the U. S. Hockey team, and John Matchefts was a wing. Michigan's record, since 1921, includes 609 games played, 364 won, 211 lost, and 34 tied. Under Barss, of 54 games played, 30 were victories, 20 were losses, and 4 were ties. Lowrey's record included a total of 279 games played, of which Michigan won 124, lost 135, and tied 20. Since 1944-45 the Wolverines have been victorious in 211 contests, have lost 56, and tied 10.

Gymnastics. — Although gymnastics was conducted on a nonvarsity level for a number of years, it did not become a varsity sport until 1931. Wilbur West coached the first team, which, although it lost all four of its dual meets, finished fifth in the Big Ten. The next two years the Wolverines took fourth place in the Big Ten. The 1932 team won one meet and lost three, while in 1933 the only meet engaged in was against the Detroit Turnverein, the Maize and Blue winning 437.5 to 427. The sport was discontinued in 1933 and not resumed until 1948, when it was re-established on a varsity level, with Newton C. Loken as Coach. It has developed steadily, and the team finished in second place in 1950 and in 1956. Since 1948 Michigan has won forty-nine and lost sixteen meets, being undefeated in seven straight meets in 1956. Edward Gagnier, Canadian all-around champion, is perhaps the most outstanding performer.

Fencing. — Fencing was an official varsity sport from 1927 through 1933-34 but was discontinued at the end of that season. It was coached by John B. Johnstone and during the period of its existence the record included 21 victories, 7 losses, and 1 tie.

Page  1981

Athletic Annual, Univ. Mich., 1866-1921, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Athletic Record, Univ. Mich., 1930-52, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
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Football Programs, Univ. Mich., 1895-1956, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
The Michiganensian, Vols. 1-60 (1897-1956), Univ. of Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," Univ. Mich., 1900-1956.
Pack, Phil. "100 Years of Athletics, Univ. Mich., 1837-1937." Ann Arbor, Mich.
The Palladium, Vols. 1-38 (1859-96), Univ. of Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1870-1909; 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1870-1956.
Shaw, Wilfred B."Michigan and the Conference. A Ten-Year Argument Over the University's Athletic Relations."Mich. Alum., 54 (1947-48): 34-48.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.


EFFORTS to provide physical education for men at the University of Michigan began in the 1860's. In December, 1868, President Haven presented a petition signed by 250 students "praying for the establishment of a gymnasium" (R.P., 1864-70, p. 312). In September, 1869, the following resolution was adopted by the Board:

Resolved, That the University Senate be requested to examine and report to the Board in regard to the propriety of establishing a Gymnasium in connection with the University, … also in regard to the relation which it shall hold to the University Course, if so established; and to collect information and present their views respecting the entire subject of introducing Gymnastic Exercises as a part of a course of Education.

(R.P., 1864-70, p. 376.)
After making a study of certain Eastern colleges and universities which already had gymnasiums and the effects of gymnastics upon the scholarship and the physical condition of the students, the Senate, in 1870, reported:

A vast expansion of the scope of our American college system is the characteristic educational fact of the last fifteen years. One very important direction in which this recent enlargement has shown itself, is toward systematic physical culture, as a regular part of the work of a college course …; There is no other spectacle of a want of symmetry in the development of a human being so glaring and so painful as that of a cultivated mind inhabiting a neglected, feeble and incompetent body. And the declaration is confirmed by the fact that the principal modern writers on education — Roger Ascham, Bacon, Cowley, Milton, Locke, Rousseau, Dr. Arnold, Horace Mann, and Herbert Spencer — have insisted upon the equal rights and the equal needs of the body and the mind, with reference to systematic training. Yet, in America fifteen years ago, no contrast could have been greater than that which was presented between theory and practice upon the subject. All our educational authorities sanctioned physical culture; and all our educational institutions neglected it.

(R.P., 1870-76, p. 7.)

The Senate thereupon recommended the establishment of a Department of Hygiene and Physical Culture, the construction of a gymnasium to cost about $25,000, and the appointment of a professor to be in charge of the new department. It was also recommended that attendance at the gymnasium be optional but that those students who did participate should pay a fee of $2.00 to $3.00 a year "to meet operating costs until Page  1982either by private munificence or by state endowment the expenses of the department should be otherwise provided for." Apparently, no steps were taken by the Regents to carry out these recommendations.

Finally, in 1878, an earlier Football Association was reorganized by the students as the Athletic Association of the University, an incorporated society with its main objective the raising of money for the gymnasium. When, after many years of student effort, the money was turned over to the University in 1894, the total was only about $6,000. In 1879 the University once more took the initiative. In his report to the Regents for that year, President Angell stated: "A well-equipped gymnasium is … much needed. It would not only contribute to the physical well being of the students, but would also confer indirectly both intellectual and moral good. The health and consequently the intellectual and moral vigor of not a few of our students suffers from the lack of sufficient … exercise" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 419).

In 1880 President Frieze urged the Regents to take steps in this direction:

Among the wants recognized by the University … is that of a gymnasium for the promotion of the physical development and health of the students… A sound mind without the sound body loses half of its efficiency. For several years our students … have been making earnest and commendable efforts to raise the funds necessary for the erection and equipment of a suitable building. But the opportunities within the reach of students for creating such a fund, are exceedingly limited; and they cannot hope, without assistance, to raise the requisite amount. The struggle which they are making deserves our hearty sympathy.

(R.P., 1876-81, p. 585.)

In 1885 the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts asked the legislature for an appropriation for this purpose, but five years later, in October, 1890, President Angell was still pointing out the urgent need for a gymnasium. By this time it was clear that it was useless to expect any assistance from the legislature. The first real help toward the gymnasium came in January, 1891, when Joshua W. Waterman, of Detroit, contributed $20,000 with the provision that a like amount be raised from other sources. The Senate took charge of the fund-raising campaign, and a student committee was appointed to help in the drive. By April, 1891, $20,182 had been collected. Plans were drawn, and the cost of construction was estimated at $60,000 rather than the $40,000 on hand. Work on the building began in April, 1892. Progress was slow owing to the shortage of money and materials. The University finally appropriated University funds in order to complete the building. The J-Hop of April, 1893, marked the informal opening of the gymnasium. It was not until October, 1894, that the gymnasium was equipped and ready for classes. Final cost of construction was $65,134.

The required program. — Dr. James B. Fitzgerald became the first Director of Waterman Gymnasium in 1894, and Keene Fitzpatrick, who was appointed Instructor in the same year, became Acting Director in 1899 and Director in 1904. In the year 1901 George A. May, M.D., a graduate of Yale University, came to Michigan as Fitzpatrick's assistant, with the title of Instructor in Physical Education. Dr. May was officially appointed Director of Waterman Gymnasium in March, 1910. He held this position until 1942. He was a well-known personality on the campus and was familiarly called "Doc" by the students who had passed through his gymnastic classes.

Gymnasium classes were formed in 1894-95 for those who wished to attend, but no credit was given for the work. In Page  19831898, however, a resolution was passed by the Regents making gymnastics compulsory for the freshman class of the Literary and Engineering departments. The 1901-2 Calendar announced: "Work in the gymnasium, twice a week, is required of first year students [who] … are expected to report to the Director … between October 1 and October 26 for physical examination and assignment to sections" (Cal., 1901-2, p. 113).

By 1917, however, the following information concerning facilities and physical training for men was given in the Catalogue.

Waterman Gymnasium affords excellent opportunity for all phases of gymnastic and indoor athletic activities. The main floor is a rectangle 246 by 90 feet, with truncated corners, allowing if desired a 75-yard straight away sprinting track. There is also a dirt pit for jumping and shot putting, covered by a trap door when not in use, as well as equipment of the various kinds of apparatus usually found in the best modern gymnasiums. Several smaller rooms are devoted to administration, fencing, boxing and other special purposes, while the basement is given to baths, lockers, handball, shotput, and a rifle range… A gallery makes room for an elliptical running track, ten laps to the mile.

Before beginning gymnasium work each student receives a thorough physical examination, in order to eliminate those who are not physically capable of doing the regular class work. Every student examined is measured and furnished with an anthropometric chart, which affords a comparison of his own measurements with those of the average student and reveals for correction any abnormality that may be present. A second measurement is made after the class work is finished, in order to note what changes have taken place.

The compulsory work in Physical Training is planned to produce uniform development, which is of the greatest importance; … Credit toward the requirement in physical training is given for outdoor sports in season, … After the close of the season for these sports, students participating in them just report for regular indoor work. An outdoor running track has been constructed adjacent to the gymnasium, in order to secure outdoor running when weather conditions permit.

(Catalogue, 1917-18, pp. 134-35.)
The nature of the formal program of that time is revealed in this description of facilities and equipment.

By 1920-21 the program still consisted of gymnastics, track events, fencing, boxing, wrestling, and rugged outdoor sports such as football and cross-country running. Attendance was required at lectures in personal hygiene, which were added in the fall of that year. In 1925 the students in the required program were classified in four groups: those who were qualified for active practice sessions in the various freshman sports, those who passed efficiency tests and were capable of doing more advanced work, those in the regular physical education classes, and those who needed special corrective work. Students in the regular physical education classes had calisthenics, apparatus work, tumbling, and mass athletics.

Until the late 1920's the program was very formal. In the past quarter of a century, however, physical exercise and recreation have reflected the basic changes in American attitude. After World War I, physical training was advocated as a solution to the unfitness of American youth for war, which the draft statistics had disclosed. In time there was a trend away from strenuous, disciplined exercise and toward voluntary participation in the more enjoyable forms of sport:

In the University … the required physical training program for freshmen was enthusiastically promoted; yet fifteen years later, its organization was at a minimum level whereas the recreational [intramural] sports program was enjoying increased facilities, staff, and general popularity. The recreational program, of course, was not generally Page  1984concerned with developmental exercises and strenuous training. It is true that in varsity athletics, where there is a strong conditioning emphasis and regularity of participation, the number of sports as well as the number of men in each sport increased to some extent; yet the total varsity participation still did not exceed one-tenth of the University male population.

("Report Concerning Physical Education at the University of Michigan," Bell, Mitchell, Crisler. 1945.)

In 1925 the University was stirred to action concerning the student's bodily training and development. Therefore, the Day Committee was appointed in May, 1925, to consider the "place and function of varsity athletics in University life … and to analyze the required physical education program." The final outcome of the Day report resulted in the building of the football Stadium, the Sports Building, the Women's Athletic Building, and Palmer Field. Instruction in the required program for men continued to be given in Waterman Gymnasium. The Day report has remained as an outstanding example of a scholarly and statesmanlike attitude of the faculty toward the proper place of physical education and athletics in University life.

In 1932 a new committee was appointed by the University Council to investigate the place of physical education in the University and the immediate problems in this field. More specifically the committee was expected to determine the requirements in physical education, to express an opinion as to whether the separate schools of the University should determine requirements, and to make recommendations in view of the evidence gathered. The trend away from formalized activities to sports was apparent when the committee recommended voluntary play in place of required exercise and advised that the latter should be maintained at a minimum.

At this time all departments of the University with the exception of Oral Hygiene and Military Science required one year of physical education. Since 1928 military drill has been accepted in place of the physical education requirement. The objectives of physical education as reported by the 1932 committee, with Nathan Sinai as chairman, were to promote and maintain proper growth and development, to improve neuromuscular control, to provide corrective work, and to develop individual interest in physical education so that later life leisure time might be served. The recommendations of this committee included the following: the one-year requirement, thirty periods of selected activity, special requirements for varsity work, military drill, band members, and employed students, and a clarification of the organization of physical education at the University. This report resulted in a decision to the effect that the physical education requirement would be determined by the separate schools and that greater freedom would be permitted in the election of activities in the second semester. The Catalogue for 1932 stated that after spring recess "students … could select any outdoor or indoor activity for which facilities are furnished, namely, golf, tennis, swimming, baseball, softball, track and field, gymnasium activities, wrestling, boxing, fencing, handball, and squash." By 1939 the student was permitted to select activities in the first semester as well as in the second. Boxing, wrestling, basketball, track and field, fencing, and gymnastics were offered. In the second semester he was permitted a choice of badminton, volleyball, golf, handball, fencing, boxing, wrestling, gymnastics, and basketball.

With World War II, physical fitness became of paramount importance. The Regents, in May, 1942, adopted the following Page  1985program for the emergency period:

A physical conditioning non-credit course conforming to Army and Navy requirements, especially designed to fit students for services in the Armed Forces, beginning June 15, 1942. … This … course shall consist of three one and one-half hour periods per week … [and] shall be supplemented by corrective exercise where necessary.

As a condition to continued attendance at the University, the above physical training course is required of students who, at the beginning of a particular term, are (a) registered under the Selective Service Act or (b) enrolled in special enlistment programs. … This course may be substituted by the student for the present required course in physical education.

Each period of one and one-half hours is divided into two forty-five minute sections for mass activities and for individual activities. The mass activities program consists of calisthenics, games, relays, obstacle racing, and individual and mass combative exercises. The individual program includes boxing, gymnastics, wrestling, track and field, and games. All students are required to pass the standard Navy swimming test.

(Announcement, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 1942-43, pp. 226-29.)

In order to carry out this program a complete change of departmental procedure was necessary. Only those activities which emphasized physical conditioning and the building of self-confidence were selected. The students were enthusiastic about the program and indicated a desire for postwar physical education along similar lines. As a result, in March, 1944, a committee was appointed by Herbert O. Crisler, Director of Physical Education and Athletics, to recommend a new physical education plan. The committee centered its attention on the required work, with the realization that the program should emphasize the individual rather than mass needs and that physical education should be an integral part of a University education.

The report, completed in October, 1945, stated that in 1938-39, of twenty-five universities surveyed by McCristal and Miller (McCristal and Miller, pp. 70-80), seventeen had a requirement of two or more years and that seventeen gave credit for physical education. The University ranked in the lowest quarter of this survey with respect to credit and requirement because Michigan did not give credit and required only one year of work. The committee made an intensive study of the program as it was before the war and of the emergency program which replaced it, and as a result the following recommendations were made: that the requirement, to become effective in October, 1946, be increased to six semesters, that credit be given for physical education, that a continuous program of research be established, and that steps be taken to secure adequate facilities and staff. No undergraduate was to be excused from physical education and, although special consideration would be given war veterans they, too, would be subject to the requirement. It was recommended that physical education be integrated with the other units of the University, that the program be centered around the needs of the individual and that counseling service be provided, and that the required program, intramural sports, and varsity athletics be integrated so that the various staffs could most fully serve the individual student. It was also recommended that the intercollegiate competitive program be broadened in order to accommodate more men and that extramural sports days be encouraged and planned.

No faculty action was taken to put the 1945 committee's recommendations into effect. The present-day curriculum in the required physical education program falls short of the proposed 1945 plan. Nevertheless, under the direction of Mr. Page  1986Howard Leibee, who was placed in charge of the Required Program in the fall of 1945, considerable progress toward the ideal curriculum has been achieved. Since 1945, when conditions have warranted it, new courses have been added. The curriculum has become much more flexible, permitting election of physical education activities that have a carry-over, life-long value. Progression in the instruction has been emphasized, too, so that students who choose certain sports may find advanced instruction available to them. Because of the complete coverage of the program, comprising activities for the handicapped as well as for all levels of physical fitness and skill, there is no need for exemptions from the requirement, as was frequently the case.

Despite the increasing enrollment of freshman students, every effort has been made to keep the classes small and the instruction as individualized as possible. A number of graduate students who have had special experience in sports are utilized as teaching fellows. The twenty courses offered, with several sections available in popular activities such as golf, tennis, and swimming include: Developmental Activities, Swimming (beginning and intermediate), Life Saving, Diving, Badminton, Basketball, Self-Defense (boxing, wrestling, and hand-to-hand), Golf, Softball, Fencing (beginning and intermediate), Trampolining and Gymnastic Activities, Individual Exercises, Tennis (beginning and intermediate), Squash, Weight Lifting, Fly and Bait Casting, Ice and Figure Skating, Bowling, Square and Social Dancing (Co-recreational), and Sports Survey.

At present all of the courses in the required physical education curriculum are activity courses with the exception of PEM 60, a sports survey course, especially for students who for medical reasons are unable to participate in physical activity. This unique course acquaints the student with theories, techniques, and practices utilized in sports activities suitable to his professional field. It deals with the place of sports in our social, economic, and educational life and emphasizes safety principles as applied to sports activities.

All students are required to have a health examination before attending the first class. During the year physical fitness tests and motor-skill tests are given, and advisory follow-up work is undertaken. All students failing to pass the swimming test must elect Beginning Swimming. At the end of the semester the students are graded upon their physical proficiency, knowledge of sports, attitude, and progress in improvement.

Intramural Sports

Before 1912 there was no central organization to promote sports for the general student body, so the students of their own accord began to rally around specific units. Teams were organized representing the different colleges and schools, and games were played between them. The Michigan Alumnus for February, 1912, stated: "Twenty games between the Laws, Engineers, Homeops, Lits, and a combined team known as the Sciences, from the Dental, Medical and Pharmacy Departments, made up the interdepartment schedule of hockey games held during January." And the Michigan Daily for October 3, 1913, reported: "The First Annual All-Comers Championship Tennis Tournament for the title of the campus will start on the Ferry Field Courts today, with thirty-two contestants entered."

In this way an embryo intramural program developed which became more and more student controlled. Finally, however, Page  1987it grew too large to be handled without a stronger and more permanent centralized authority. The Men's Athletic Association, which had permitted the use of its fields and other facilities, realized that some form of control would be necessary. Thus, in the fall of 1912 Prentiss Douglas, a member of the football coaching staff, was appointed half-time to take charge of intramural athletics, which consisted, actually, of interclass sports. An article by T. Hawley Tapping, at that time a staff member of the Michigan Daily, is herewith quoted: "In the school year of 1912-13, the department of intramural activities was first created. Prentiss Douglas, this fall the coach of the freshman football team, was made the director … and it was a success from the very first."

The University of Michigan thus became the first educational institution to appoint a coach to direct its intramural program. This move toward a unified system was helpful to the Men's Athletic Association because it permitted direct control over space and equipment. The fields and courts were assigned impartially and without confusion, the games were better supervised, and any loss or damage to equipment could easily be traced. Under Douglas' direction the intramural program was expanded and improved. Greater interest developed in interclass competition and in promoting the physical welfare of the students; enrollment increased in sports, and the value of the new branch in college athletics was recognized.

The following year (1913-14) Floyd Rowe ('08e), who was appointed Intramural Director on a full-time basis, established procedures which were to continue for many years. Records show that some two thousand students took part in thirteen sports programs. The use of the word "intramural" in this sense is credited to Allen S. Whitney of the School of Education and a member of the Board in Control of Athletics.

Owing to the pressure of World War I, the work was largely superseded by military activities in 1917-18. It was reorganized in 1919 with Elmer Dayton Mitchell ('12, Ph.D. '38) as Director. Increased enrollment and the impetus given to athletics by the war caused an immediate increase in intramural participation. Fourteen sports made up the program at that time. The fraternity sports program and the all-year point system were established, and, with the growth of intramural athletics at this and other Western Conference schools, the first meeting of the Western Conference Intramural Directors took place in 1920. This group, which has continued to the present time, has had much to do with the development of the program throughout the country.

In the fall of 1921 the department was transferred from the Athletic Association to the Division of Hygiene, Public Health, and Physical Education (P.R., 1921-22, pp. 153-54). A substantial increase in its budget also resulted. With increased facilities provided from inter-collegiate athletic funds, it was now possible for the students to take part in informal sports participation, whereas previously participation had been confined to organized athletic competition. As a result, the name of the department was changed from Intramural Athletics to the more inclusive title of Intramural Sports.

In 1921-22 the game of speedball was introduced by Professor Mitchell as a substitute for football, which was proving too hazardous for untrained players without adequate protective equipment. The game combined the outstanding features of soccer, basketball, and football. In 1941-42 the popular game of touch football was added. Softball, introduced in 1922-23, was readily accepted because Page  1988it required a small area of playing space and little equipment. Practice was held to a minimum. The game has continued on the program to the present time.

The construction of Yost Field House (the first field house in the country), which was opened in 1923, aided in the development of intramural athletics. Varsity activities were removed from Waterman Gymnasium, thus freeing its facilities to a great extent for use by intramural sports. Over the years the Field House also has been the scene of many intramural events, particularly indoor track and field.

Another administrative change took place in 1926, when intramural sports and the programs in physical education for both men and women were placed under the jurisdiction of the newly created Board in Control of Athletics (R.P., 1923-26, pp. 868-71). The greatest stimulus to the intramural program, however, came in 1927-28 with the construction of the magnificent new Sports Building. Owing largely to Fielding H. Yost's enthusiasm and his belief in and support of "athletics for all," the building was opened in October, 1928, the first university-owned structure in the nation devoted primarily to intramural sports (see Part VIII: The Athletic Plant). Open House was held on March 21, 1929. A program, built around winter sports, has continued as an annual event. Many championships and exhibitions are held, and instructional clinics are conducted by outstanding sports figures.

Faculty members were quick to take advantage of the fine facilities at the Sports Building, and in 1929-30 a number of tournaments were conducted for them. A favorite game is water polo, which was introduced in 1925 when the Michigan Union swimming pool was opened. The game is played during the noon hour, with the participants going to the Michigan Union for luncheon immediately after the game. The game of paddleball invented by Earl Riskey, a departmental staff member, was added in 1930-31. This game, which is similar to squash, is played with a wooden paddle in a handball court under handball rules. It has continued on the program to the present time.

In 1933-34 the federal government inaugurated a program of federal aid under F.E.R.A. (Federal Emergency Relief Administration, later N.Y.A.), which provided aid for students on jobs not already held by salaried workers. The program made a definite contribution to intramural athletics at Michigan because it augmented opportunities for student teachers and made possible the repair and addition of facilities. The Board in Control of Athletics was changed to the Board in Control of Physical Education in 1934-35 (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 297-98).

A new emphasis developed in 1935 on recreation as a valuable contribution to the wise use of leisure time and on sports which had a "carry-over" value. Students were urged to take part in golf, badminton, bowling, tennis, swimming, handball, squash, paddleball, skating, and the like. It was recognized at this time that impromptu play was just as important in the intramural program as organized competition, and a program of instruction was set up for those who wanted to participate.

Before 1937-38 graduate students competed with undergraduates. In this year a separate division was created which gave the graduate student an opportunity to compete in intramural sports.

The completion of the West Quadrangle resulted in competition between Residence Halls. The program was inaugurated in 1939-40, and the seven Page  1989houses in the Quadrangle participated enthusiastically. At the end of the school year an athletic banquet to which intramural participants were invited was held, thus setting the pattern for future residence halls groups. The facilities of the Sports Building were made available each Friday evening for a corecreation program, and men and women students engaged in volleyball, badminton, basketball, paddleball, squash, and swimming. This program has continued to be popular.

The year 1939-40 also saw the first attempt at a recreation program for foreign students. There was team competition in soccer and volleyball, and individual tournaments in badminton and tennis. A special open house was held at the International Center at which time various championships were played, and students gave exhibitions of the various sports and recreations of their own countries. In 1953 the game of cricket was added for the benefit of the foreign students. It is interesting to note that cricket was originally responsible for the University's first official recognition of athletics. In 1865 the Regents appropriated $50 in order to prepare "a suitable place on the grounds for the use of the University Cricket Clubs" (R.P., 1867-70, p. 95).

The East Quadrangle program got under way in 1941 with the opening of the first three of the houses. Under this new organization, Quad champions chosen in each sport met the West Quad winners for the residence halls championship.

During World War II the Department of Physical Education for Men conducted a physical conditioning noncredit course especially designed to prepare students for service in the Armed Forces. The intramural, athletic, and physical education facilities were made available, and programs were carried on for Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force. For this special instruction a physical fitness test was given, and students were placed in special groups in accordance with their scores. The year 1943-44 saw a curtailment of the intramural program owing to the emphasis placed on physical conditioning and military skills during the war.

The Board in Control of Physical Education became the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics in 1942 (R.P., 1939-42, pp. 859-61). Professor Elmer Mitchell was appointed chairman of the Department of Physical Education for Men, and Earl N. Riskey, working under his direction, was placed in charge of intramural sports.

In 1945 the University acquired Willow Village, a former war workers' housing unit, and in 1946 the Department of Physical Education for Men inaugurated a temporary intramural program for students in residence there. Rodney J. Grambeau, who joined the intramural staff in 1947, was put in charge of the work.

A full-scale intramural program was resumed in 1947-48. A competitive program for faculty members, set up in 1948-49, was expanded the following year when some 150 faculty members competed with the same number of students in six sports. The faculty won, and this event has been continued every year.

When the South Quadrangle was opened in 1951, seven houses took part in the first program for that group. With this, the third Quad, the Residence Halls program attained second place in the all-intramural program with a total of twenty units. Only the social fraternity division, which had forty units, was larger.

The unprecedented growth of student enrollment places an ever-constant burden upon the intramural program to provide adequate facilities for an "athletics for all" program. This need is recognized Page  1990and is partly being met by new additions of athletic fields, such as Wines Field, which is lighted at night to take care of the increased number of teams, and by the addition of the old varsity swimming pool, which, since the new varsity pool has been completed, has been turned over completely for classes and intramural recreation. The University has taken cognizance of future needs by acquiring lands adjacent to the new North Campus for recreational use.

Professional Preparation of Teachers

At the March, 1920, meeting of the Board of Regents, President Burton presented a communication from the Michigan State Department of Public Instruction with respect to the preparation of teachers in the field of physical education. A year later, the Board took the following action establishing a Department of Physical Education:

There is hereby created and established a University Department of Physical Education.

This Department shall be put in charge of some person to be chosen by the Board of Regents who shall have the rank, privileges, and duties of a full professor and hold the title of Director of Physical Education …

The Director … shall be in primary charge of all athletic fields for men and women, of both gymnasiums, … of all sports, indoor, outdoor, intercollegiate, and intramural. He shall … by virtue of his position … be a member of, and Chairman of the present Board in Control of Outdoor Athletics, … All trainers, coaches, and assistant coaches … shall be appointed by the Board in Control of Outdoor Athletics on the recommendation of the Director of Physical Education.

(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 120-21.)

President Burton outlined a plan, which the Regents approved, for the projected department, and with Regent Murfin he was empowered to work out detailed arrangements, including the making of appointments. The resolution creating the Department of Physical Education was then rescinded because the matter was referred to a committee which recommended instead the establishment of two departments:

  • (1) We recommend [that] there be established two departments: (a) A University Department of Hygiene and Public Health including a Department of Physical Education. (b) A Department of Intercollegiate Athletics.
  • (2) The man chosen to be in charge of the first-named department shall be given the title of Director of University Hygiene and Public Health and shall have professional rank. He shall be Professor of Hygiene and Public Health in the Medical School, shall have supervision of the University Health Service, of all gymnasiums, and of intramural activities…
  • (3) Intercollegiate Athletics shall be placed in charge of a man to have the title of Director of Intercollegiate Athletics. He shall be chosen by the Board of Regents…
  • (4) Assistants connected with the School of Education shall be nominated to the Board of Regents, through the Dean of the School of Education and President of the University.

(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 203-4.)

The appointment of Fielding H. Yost as Director of Intercollegiate Athletics was announced in June, 1921, and that of Dr. John Sundwall as Director of the Department of Hygiene and Public Health, including Physical Education, in September of the same year.

The four-year curriculum. — The new four-year curriculum inaugurated in the fall of 1921 was aimed to meet the demands for competent young men and women to supervise the physical health of children in the public schools, to provide recreation for growing youth, and to instruct prospective coaches in scientific methods of training school teams. It Page  1991also endeavored to provide training in physical education for high-school teachers and principals and school superintendents. The course was so constructed as to combine general education with specialized training in two lines: (1) that which included gymnastics, play, and games for persons of all ages and the program of recreation and health for young people; and (2) that of athletic training which would fit the prospective candidate to train scientifically the school teams in various branches of competitive sports, to give instruction in skilled methods of play, and to build up a competitive but friendly rivalry with other schools. Instruction was provided by the School of Education, the Department of Hygiene and Public Health, and the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics. Provision was made for directed teaching to be given during the junior and senior years, and for the student to give instruction in gymnasium and intramural activities.

A plan presented by Dean J. R. Effinger of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, recommending that courses for athletic coaches be given in the summer session, was inaugurated in 1922 under the sponsorship of the School of Education. In the following year credit was given for the course.

In 1923-24 Fielding H. Yost and George Little were appointed Professor and Associate Professor, respectively, of the Theory and Practice of Athletic Coaching. Courses covering the school program in physical education, graded play and games, organization and administration, first aid, and practical hygiene were offered. A bulletin on Physical Education, Athletics, and School Health was published in 1922, stating the objective of the course to be the preparation of the student to enable him to assume the duties of a director of physical education and school health. The objectives were the same for men and women, with the exception of coaching. The student was trained to conduct physical examinations and gymnastic activities, to teach health education, to advise concerning the location and planning of the gymnasium, playground, athletic field, and equipment, to advise concerning heating, lighting, ventilation, and sanitation of school buildings, to direct playground activities, to provide health education and recreational training for teachers, to coach or supervise coaching of football, baseball, track, and swimming, and to assume responsibilities for the business management of various teams.

Subjects comprising the curriculum were organized into four groups, the first of which included rhetoric, chemistry, sociology, public speaking, educational psychology, educational administration, vocational guidance, and secondary education. The second group consisted of subjects selected to acquaint the student with the normal processes of the body, such as zoology, anatomy, general physiology, applied physiology, with particular reference to nutrition, metabolism, growth, neuromuscular physiology, exercise, fatigue, and rest. In the third group were courses designed to familiarize the student with the fundamentals of mental hygiene, bacteriology, introductory hygiene, physical reconstruction, school health problems, communicable disease control, first aid, and sex hygiene. Group four included subjects designed to prepare the student to organize and supervise the various interests and activities in physical education and athletics. Kinesiology, community play, history and principles of physical education, and the theory of administration of physical education were included.

After the reorganization of departments in 1923-24, the professional program in Physical Education, Athletics, Page  1992and School Health was known as Department "F" of the School of Education. Actions were taken to meet the need for trained personnel in these fields. In the University Catalogue for 1924 the following statement by Dr. Sundwall appeared: "In order to meet the need for well-trained instructors and supervisors, the universities and colleges are instituting courses in physical education. The physical instructor should have academic and professional training equal in every respect to that of general educators… The physical educator by virtue of his training, his ideals, and importance of his work becomes an integral part of the faculty."

The change in the requirements of the School of Education, as made by the Board in 1925, provided that, beginning in October, 1927, the student should have junior standing and 25 per cent more honor points than hours, except for those students who entered the four-year curriculum in physical education. At the same meeting requirements for graduation were changed to 124 semester hours and 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit. Since that time the student pursuing the four-year curriculum in physical education has had to meet the same requirements for graduation as have other students in the School of Education. The entrance requirement for the four-year curriculum differed from that of other departments in the School of Education because students majoring in physical education were admitted in the freshman year, yet the number of academic hours and honor points required for graduation was the same.

The following faculty members have served as chairman of the departmental program: Dean Allen S. Whitney (1922-27), Dr. John Sundwall (1927-30), Dean James B. Edmonson (1930-36), Professor Laurie Campbell (1945-48), Dr. Margaret Bell (1942-45; 1951-54), and Professor Elmer D. Mitchell (1936-42; 1948-51; 1954-57).

Graduate curriculum. — The graduate curriculum for teachers was introduced in 1931 with three sequences available: administration, supervision, and teaching. Dr. Jackson Sharman, who had previously been state director of physical education in Alabama and had just received his Ph.D. degree from Columbia University, was appointed to take charge of the new graduate work. He remained until 1938, when he accepted the position of head of the Physical Education Department at the University of Alabama. From 1938 the graduate teaching, including the direction of theses, was shared by qualified members of the staff working under the direction of the elected chairman of Department "F."

A sequence in school health education was inaugurated in 1932 in co-operation with the Division of Hygiene and Public Health, and in 1936-37 a fifth sequence leading to the master of arts degree in education was approved. The requirements for this degree included twenty-four semester hours of work and a thesis. In 1937-38 the enrollment of undergraduates totaled 126, of which 71 were men. The number of graduate students had more than doubled since 1936-37, with 82 enrolled. A program leading to the Ph.D. or Ed.D. degree was established in 1938 (see Part VI: The School of Education).

By 1939, 220 men and 165 women had received the undergraduate degree. Undergraduate minors in school health and in physical education were introduced in 1937. An increasing graduate enrollment was apparent over the five-year period from 1936-37 to 1940-41. From a total of 33 men and women it rose to 174. By August, 1949, a study showed that 291 men and women had received master's degrees in education, with specialization Page  1993in health, physical education, and recreation. Since then, with the postwar G.I. influx and the increased college enrollment, the number has greatly increased, and, each year, in addition, some twenty to thirty doctoral applicants and candidates are working on their requirements.

After World War II there was an unprecedented enrollment in the professional curriculum, particularly on the graduate level. There was a dearth of teachers for the many positions that were open, and many of the service men who had worked in physical training and recreation programs of the U. S. Army, Navy, and Air Force were eager to resume their educational preparation and were enabled to do so financially by the provisions of the G.I. bill. In particular, the demand for graduate work increased heavily, and new sequences of study were added to those already established to take care of the new needs in recreation (community, industrial, agency, and hospital), in camping (with new emphasis on school camping and outdoor education), and on safety education (with emphasis on life saving, liability, and driver education). Enactments by the state legislature enhanced the interest in these new areas of instruction. A noticeable trend in education, which greatly affected physical education, was the demand for the master's degree. Many large cities and some states insisted on the master's degree as a requisite for teaching in high schools.

With this development the Department of Physical Education was called upon to introduce Saturday classes and Extension classes for teachers in service. This need has been met correspondingly as it has developed, and the trend has now developed similarly in the direction of the doctoral degree. The great increase in the size of college and university staffs, because of the current expansion of student enrollment, partly accounts for this growth, but there are other factors as well. The new community college movement is one — it creates a demand for teachers with higher degrees. Also, a number of state departments of education and large city departments have created supervisory and co-ordinating positions which call for more than the usual amount of academic preparation.

Research. — With the appointment of Paul Hunsicker in 1949-50, it was possible for the department to emphasize experimental research. Before this time graduate research had been mainly of a philosophical, historical, observational, and survey nature. Professor Hunsicker, with a background obtained in the Physical Fitness Laboratory at the University of Illinois, served as a graduate adviser in the experimental area. This supplemented earlier research procedures which had been under the direction of Professor Mitchell. Some helpful grants from the Graduate Research Committee, together with special appropriations from the University, made it possible for special research equipment to be obtained.

The problem of housing was one of the first tasks that confronted the building up of an impressive research laboratory; but, with the acquisition in 1955 of the former Athletic Administration Building on Ferry Field, the matter of space was satisfactorily solved. Dr. Hunsicker now has assistants and a well-equipped laboratory in which departmental and graduate research is conducted. These studies are largely in the areas of physical fitness, age growth, gerontology, and motor-skill learning. Some of them are carried on co-operatively with other graduate departments of the University; others with research departments of industries, the armed services, and public and private agencies.

In his recent annual reports Professor Page  1994Mitchell has continued to mention the need for academic titles for staff members, adequate office space, an increase in the budgetary item for teaching fellows, and a budget for research studies by staff members.

By 1955, with the larger enrollment of doctoral students, research output had increased. Co-operative research with other graduate departments of the University was still increasing, and outside public and private agencies were turning to the University for guidance in the areas of physical education and recreation.

Although the general trend in other universities has been toward separate undergraduate curricula in physical education, health education, and recreation, the policy of the department at the University of Michigan, since its inception, has been as yet to offer a generalized four-year curriculum with subsequent specialization at the graduate level. Nine sequences of related course work leading to the degree of master of arts or of master of science are available. The doctoral program leads either to the degree of doctor of philosophy or doctor of education.


Announcement, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Univ. Mich., 1917-26, 1942-43.
Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-22.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1917-25.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-25.
McCristal, K. J., , and Emil A. Miller. "A Brief Survey of the Present Status of the Health and Physical Education Requirements for Men Students in Colleges and Universities."The Research Quarterly, X (December, 1949).
MS, "Minutes of the University Council," Univ. Mich., Jan. 2, 1942.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1870-1909, 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1864-1956.
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," Univ. Mich., 1893-1902. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Report of the Committee on Educational Policies Covering Physical Education and Athletics, Univ. Mich.
Report of the Committee on Physical Education, Univ. Mich., March 7, 1932.
Report Concerning Physical Education at the University of Michigan, Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor, 1945.


PHYSICAL education as such was given no recognition by the University until 1890. In the 1870's there were no gymnasiums nor recreation halls either for men or for women. President Angell stated in 1883: "How earnestly the students desire a gymnasium is shown by their zealous efforts to raise money for its erection. They have already secured a considerable sum." He said, in 1886, that more space was needed for ball grounds and tennis courts and added: "The expediency of acquiring more land before the growth of the city carries the price still higher … seems to me well worthy of consideration." At this time forty acres of land still constituted the entire campus. In 1890 he again recommended:

We still need an ample field for the athletic exercises of the students. Ten or fifteen acres should be secured… It is superfluous Page  1995to say in this connection that a spacious gymnasium would also conduce greatly to the health of our students… A structure too small or unsuitably equipped would be worse than none. It must also be remembered that a considerable annual expense, at least three thousand dollars, possibly four thousand, will be needed to pay the salary of a suitable director, and to meet the cost of maintenance.

(R.P., 1886-91, p. 454.)
In October, 1890, the Board of Regents authorized the purchase of ten acres of land on South State Street for an athletic field. This, of course was intended only for the use of the men.

E. W. Arnold, architect, in 1891, estimated that a gymnasium would cost $60,000 if a wing for the women were added and $48,000 if it were omitted (R.P., 1886-91, p. 603). At this time Joshua W. Waterman offered $20,000 toward the project if friends of the University would raise an equal amount (see Part VIII: Waterman Gymnasium). This generous gift was accepted by the Regents, but it was not enough for the entire building, and plans for the women's wing had to be abandoned. Waterman Gymnasium was completed in 1894 at a total cost of more than $65,000.

The first reference to physical education for women probably occurred in 1893 during the construction of the building, when President Angell referred to the contemplated "wing" for the use of the women "who need the privileges of a gymnasium quite as much as the young men" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 125). At this time the only physical activities for women were walking through the Arboretum, tennis on the part of the more daring, and rowing on the Huron. Physical education for men was as yet in an experimental stage, and the women had to wait for some time before their need of a gymnasium was even recognized.

By 1894 the women were permitted the use of Waterman Gymnasium on certain mornings and were given some instruction. Thus, classes in physical education for women at the University were first conducted, in 1894-96, by Keene Fitzpatrick, the newly appointed instructor for the men, who set aside morning hours several days a week for this work. It is reported that 250 women availed themselves of the opportunity to attend these classes during the school year of 1894-95. This number represents almost a 50 per cent response as the total enrollment of women at the time was approximately 550. Of 800 physical examinations given in that year, 176 were of women and were given by Dr. Annie Ives ('94m). The purpose of the program carried on by Fitzpatrick was to discipline the body through exercise and to counteract the strain placed upon the women by intensive study. To accomplish his purpose, marching, calisthenics, and simple running and throwing games were introduced — a typical physical training program for this period. Strenuous activity had to be avoided since many of the women were unaccustomed to physical exercise. There were no organized team sports nor individual sports of any kind.

For this instruction the women wore no special costume. They dressed as freely as they dared, which for the "gay nineties" meant ankle-length full skirts, tight waists, large puffed sleeves, and high-button shoes. The windows of Waterman Gymnasium were blinded, and no man save Mr. Fitzpatrick was allowed in the building during the mornings when the women were taking their exercises. There were no showers but, in 1895, the Board of Regents voted to place eighty lockers in the building "for the use of the women."

By 1896 a gymnasium for the girls had long been considered one of the most urgent needs of the University, and several attempts to provide one had been Page  1996made. The Detroit Branch of the Collegiate Alumnae organized the first effort to secure such a building. Octavia W. Bates ('77, LL.M. '97) devoted much time to soliciting gifts and interesting people in the project, and $2,000 was contributed. In the meantime the enrollment of women was increasing. The organization of the Women's League, in 1890, proved the need, not only of a gymnasium, but of a building for social occasions. Great was the rejoicing, therefore, in 1895, when President Angell announced that Regent Charles Hebard had secured $10,000 — a large part his own gift — and that Regent Barbour had given $25,000 to erect a women's building. A "movement" was "set on foot to raise fifteen thousand dollars more, to meet the estimated cost of the building, fifty thousand dollars" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 517). Students, alumnae, faculty women, and townspeople labored unceasingly, and although all of the $15,000 had not yet been secured, in the fall of 1895 plans for the building were adopted. Mr. John Canfield, of Manistee, gave $5,000, and the additional gift of another lot from Regent Barbour, in 1897, intended originally for an art building (R.P., 1896-1901, pp. 178-79), again served the interests of the women. This second property was not sold until years later and apparently was incorporated in the property used to form the endowment of the Barbour scholarships. Nevertheless, in 1898 it was moved "that in view of the generosity of Ex-Regent Barbour in giving property valued at $25,000 to aid in the erection of the Women's Building on the campus, that hereafter the building be known as the Barbour Gymnasium" (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 185). It was, therefore, named for the Honorable Levi L. Barbour ('63, '65l), of Detroit, who served as Regent from 1892 to 1898 and again from 1902 to 1908. The final cost of construction was $41,341. The building was attached to the north side of Waterman Gymnasium and contained, in addition to the gymnasium and necessary bath and dressing rooms, two parlors, consulting rooms for the dean, and an auditorium with seating capacity for 600. Apparatus was purchased for $200, and a piano was rented for $25. Although not yet completed, the building was used for the first time in 1896. The Regents appropriated $250 for eight tennis courts to be built between the Gymnasium and the Medical Building. Two of these courts were to be used exclusively by the young ladies of the University.

The expected completion of the building emphasized the necessity for a director of physical training for women. In 1896, it was resolved "that Eliza M. Mosher, M.D., be elected Professor of Hygiene and Women's Dean in the Department of Literature, Science and the Arts, at a salary of $2,000 a year, if she chooses to practice her profession of medicine, or of $2,500 a year if she does not so choose, her duties to begin October 1, next" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 577).

Eliza Maria Mosher ('75m) had held various administrative and professional positions, and it was expected that by her instruction in hygiene and her personal contact with the women students she would be of great service to them. Her duties as professor were to give instruction in hygiene, to take charge of the Women's Gymnasium after it was erected, and to "discharge the same duties in relation to the women in the Literary Department as the Dean now discharges in relation to all the students of that department" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 577). Her duties as dean included, in addition to those which ordinarily belonged to that office, a general physical examination of each new woman student and a recording of her physical history and condition upon beginning her course of study in the University. This examination, in addition to the incidental use that it served Page  1997in connection with the granting of excuses for absences, enabled the instructor to decide as to the advisability of gymnasium work for each student. It also brought her into close relation with the women in the early months of their college course, thus giving them an opportunity for personal counsel at a time when it was often much needed.

During the year 1896-97, 153 women were enrolled for gymnasium work. Careful physical measurements were made, and a chart was prepared for each. In this way the instructor was able to estimate at the close of the year the degree of development attained. The course for women, which extended over three years, the work of each year being more difficult and demanding greater skill and self-control than that of the previous year, was, however, entirely voluntary, a condition which, owing to irregular attendance, proved unsatisfactory. Dr. Mosher suggested that the highest success could be attained only by including the work in that required by the University or by placing it upon the credit basis. To meet the attendance problem the Regents, in 1898, made the work in gymnasium compulsory for the freshman class in the Literary and Engineering departments. This applied to both men and women. The responsibility for carrying out this measure was delegated to the deans of the respective departments and to the Director of the Gymnasium. President Angell's report for 1898 stated:

It has been decided to require of the first year students in the literary and engineering departments attendance for two hours a week on instruction in the gymnasium. It has been found that often those who are most in need of physical exercise do not take it… It is hoped that they will by trial see the benefits of it and acquire the habit of taking systematic and regular exercise.

(R.P., 1896-1901, p. 310.)

The program of physical training followed the line of that given by Fitzpatrick in 1894-96 and included calisthenics, marching, apparatus work, basketball, and track. Gymnastics were characterized by preciseness and formality as well as by lack of rhythm. Formality was the keynote of all the instruction. Calisthenics, in particular, was done in quick jerky movements with the body held rigid and well disciplined. The idea of drill in exercises was strongly supported. Not until 1903 was the first indoor meet for women held. The instruction in hygiene was also elective, but was generally well attended. There were three divisions: Personal Hygiene, Household "Economics," and Domestic and Municipal Hygiene (Catalogue, 1899-1900, pp. 98-99).

A significant change in administration occurred with the resignation of Dr. Mosher in 1902. Up to this time the office of dean of women and professor of hygiene had been vested in one person who was also closely associated with the physical education instruction and activities. Myra B. Jordan ('93) succeeded Dr. Mosher as Dean of Women, but the responsibility for hygiene lectures and physical examinations was taken over by Dr. Alice Snyder ('00m), the Director of Barbour Gymnasium, who had come to the University as Instructor in 1897. Upon Dr. Snyder's resignation in 1904, her place was filled by Dr. Helen E. Brooks, who for two years had assisted in the teaching of physical education. Dr. Brooks was Director of Physical Training until 1907. By this time the staff had increased to five members, a director, two instructors, one assistant instructor, and one instructor in swimming.

Additions made in the curriculum during this time and the organization of the Women's Athletic Association reflected to a limited degree the drastic changes which were to take place in the department. Although the gymnastic program was strictly adhered to in fulfilling the requirements set up by the Board of Page  1998Regents, certain "additions" to the women's program were significant in the light of future developments. Basketball and baseball were added to the instruction, and swimming was taught under the direction of Mrs. C. H. Georg. For instruction in swimming, a wooden rack was constructed in the pool so that a beginner could be strapped to a long pole and held afloat without any danger of sinking as she paddled in the water. The Women's Athletic Association, organized in 1905, sponsored competitive basketball, baseball, and tennis. Indoor meets, held under the direction of the Women's Athletic Association, initiated worthwhile ideas leading to sports organization in women's athletics.

With the turn of the century interest in the unlimited possibilities for out-of-door exercise increased, and in 1902 Dexter M. Ferry gave seventeen acres for an athletic field for the men. Physical education was as yet unheard of. Instruction in the gymnasium was spoken of either as "gymnasium work" or as "physical training," and physical training was referred to in terms of exercises. Individual sports, rhythms, and competitive athletics for women, staged outdoors, were as yet unknown. Nevertheless, with the passing of the years, the attitude toward athletics for women students had changed from skepticism to acceptance. Consequently, a proposal for an outdoor athletic field for the girls was met with interest rather than by opposition. Arguments for such a field were numerous. Although men's outdoor athletics had prospered at Ferry Field, tennis was still the only outdoor sport for women, and even this became impossible after the Chemistry Building crowded the last tennis courts off the campus in 1910.

In the summer of 1908 a seven-acre tract of land known as "Sleepy Hollow" was bought. This purchase was made possible by an initial gift of $1,500 from Regent Peter White, of Marquette (R.P., 1906-10, p. 348). The land, within easy reach of Barbour Gymnasium, was effectively wooded with huge oaks which screened the girls from curious passersby. In 1909 Senator Thomas W. Palmer gave $3,000 to the University to be used for the new playing field. In honor of this timely generosity the women's athletic field was named Palmer Field. A Field Day for women, held on the new recreation field on May 26, 1910, included the dedication of the grounds and the installation of the new League officers.

Dr. Bertha Stuart ('03, '08m), who had been on the teaching staff under Dr. Brooks, was appointed Director in 1908. She was succeeded the following year by Catherine L. Bigelow, who held the position until 1914 and under whose guidance great advancement took place in the physical education program. The curriculum was enlarged, and more modern methods were introduced; calisthenics was decreased, and interpretive dancing was introduced; track and field work were added.

In 1910, under the combined efforts of Dean Jordan and Miss Bigelow, in order to provide a fund for the maintenance of Palmer Field and to open it to all University women, the following proposal was submitted to the Board of Regents:

We do petition that an 'incidental' fee of one dollar shall be paid annually by every women along with her annual fees, for which a ticket shall be given in receipt. This ticket shall entitle her to the use of the field, the club-house, and a locker, when lockers shall have been provided. We further request that the Barbour Gymnasium fee be reduced to one dollar.

(R.P., 1906-10, p. 694.)

Meanwhile, the costume changed again. White cotton middy blouses with high necks and colored ties were worn with pleated boxlike bloomers bloused Page  1999over the knees. Long black stockings and low slippers completed this dashing outfit. For swimming the women wore high-necked suits of brown denim which came half way between the knees and the ankles.

In 1914 women's athletics were controlled by the director of physical education, the dean of women, and an athletic chairman appointed by the president of the Women's League. Miss Bigelow resigned as Director of the Gymnasium in 1914 and was succeeded by Alice Evans (Smith College '05), who held the position until 1919.

The following resolution concerning additional compulsory physical training was passed by the Board of Regents in 1915:

All first and second year women are required to take and complete satisfactorily, without credit, a course in Physical Education to be given twice each week during the college year under the conditions determined by the Physical Director for women.

Women students shall also be required to take, during their first year of residence, a course of six lectures in Hygiene to be given by the Women's Physician.

Students will be excused from these requirements only by permission of the Dean of Women or the Physician for Women.

(R.P., 1914-17, p. 175.)
Because of the increasing interest in physical education, owing, in part, to World War I, there were few objections to this requirement. Organized class work during the war was somewhat curtailed, however, because of the demands of the Army on buildings and facilities.

In 1917 approximately 1,000 girls were enrolled in gymnasium classes. After the war, emergency measures were discarded, and the program was reorganized. Miss Marion Wood (Columbia '26, M.S. '28), now Mrs. Edward M. Bragg, who had been on the staff under Miss Evans, became Director of Barbour Gymnasium in 1919 upon Miss Evans' resignation, and the staff was increased from two instructors in 1914 to four in 1920.

Miss Wood's interpretation of the objectives of physical education were: health as an ideal, good fun in physical activity, sportsmanship in playing games, elimination of overemphasis on athletic attitude, and participation in some activity by every girl. A physical examination was given each student. Of the six required lectures in hygiene, Miss Wood gave one dealing with correct posture. She also did the first experimental work with motor-ability tests. She resigned in 1923 after ten years of loyal service.

There were at this time no extramural matches for girls, but interclass contests and intramural play were stressed. The point system, developed through the Women's Athletic Association, served as a motivating device for more general participation in these extracurricular activities (see Part IX: The Women's Athletic Association).

In February, 1921, an important advance was made in physical education when the Regents passed the following measure:

There is hereby created and established a University Department of Physical Education.

This Department shall be put in charge of some person to be chosen by the Board of Regents who shall have the rank, privileges, and duties of a full professor and hold the title of Director of Physical Education …

The Director of Physical Education shall be in primary charge of all athletic fields for men and women, of both gymnasiums (the men's gymnasium and the women's gymnasium), of all sports, indoor, outdoor, intercollegiate, and intramural. He shall have entire charge of the athletic office as now or hereafter constituted, and, by virtue of his position, shall be a member of, and Chairman of the present Board in Control of Outdoor Athletics, whose powers and duties shall notPage  2000be affected by this resolution except as expressly provided herein…

It is hoped and expected that by the adoption of this program a method will be speedily found whereby every student on the campus will become actively interested in his or her physical well being, and to that end the so-called intramural athletics in some proper form, it is expected, will be further enlarged and developed upon the campus.

(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 120-21.)

In June of the same year the Regents passed a resolution establishing a Division of Hygiene and Public Health, which included the departments of Physical Education and Intercollegiate Athletics. The Health Service and all gymnasiums and intramural activities, including women's physical education, were placed under the Division of Hygiene and Public Health. The aims of the new Division were the promotion of the physical welfare of the students, the dissemination of knowledge concerning the application of hygiene and sanitation as affecting both the individual and the community, and co-operation in the training of experts in these fields (Hubbard, p. 70).

Dr. John M. Sundwall was appointed Director. President Burton, in announcing his appointment, emphasized his responsibility to the teacher-training program in physical education in the School of Education, which, in 1921, became an independent unit rather than a department in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

The major change in the Department of Physical Education for Women after Miss Wood's resignation in 1923 was the appointment of Dr. Margaret Bell (Chicago '15, M.D. Rush Medical College '21) as Associate Professor of Physical Education, Director of Physical Education for Women, and Physician in the Health Service. She had charge of all physical education for women, including that in the University High School, and of the education of teachers under the Division of Hygiene and Public Health. With her appointment it was planned to have close co-operation between the developmental and recreational fields of physical education and the remedial and health-promoting aspects which were conducted in co-operation with the Health Service. In addition to serving as chairman of the department, Dr. Bell taught professional courses in the undergraduate and graduate programs until 1946, when the pressure of increasing responsibilities forced her to give up teaching. She was promoted to Professor in the School of Education and subsequently in the School of Public Health in 1924. Since her appointment in 1923 many changes have taken place in facilities, equipment, program, staff, scheduling, and research.

The staff, which in 1924 consisted of five instructors and one fellow, by 1956 included fourteen full-time instructors, four part-time assistants, and four teaching fellows. Over the years a number of staff members have been of much service in the development of the program and deserve particular mention. B. Louise Patterson (Wisconsin '17, M.S. Michigan '26) was appointed Assistant Professor of Physical Education in the School of Education and Director of Physical Education for Girls in the University High School in 1924. She was in charge of the program in Teacher Education and adviser to the Women's Athletic Association. Miss Ethel McCormick, who had been promoted to Assistant Professor in 1926, was in immediate charge of the required program of the department. Dorothy Beise Miller (Minnesota '26, M.A. Ohio State '31) was appointed Instructor in Physical Education in 1930 and was promoted to Associate Supervisor with the rank of Assistant Professor in 1942. She specialized Page  2001in corrective physical education and made valuable studies in curriculum construction with special emphasis on the physical education program for women. She resigned in 1945. Mabel E. Rugen (Wisconsin '25, Ph.D. New York University '31) was appointed Assistant Professor of Physical Education in 1930. Later, she became Associate Professor of Physical Education in the School of Education and Health Co-ordinator for University High School. She was promoted to Professor of Health Education in 1946 and has been associated primarily with the professional education program for teachers of physical education on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Laurie E. Campbell ('28, Ed.D. New York University '43) was appointed Assistant Professor in 1929-30. She became Supervisor in Physical Education in 1942 and Professor of Physical Education for Women in the School of Education in 1953. Professor Campbell has been directly responsible for the development of the program in teacher education. Under her direction great advancement has taken place in both the graduate and undergraduate curriculums. Currently, she is engaged in research on the development of the elementary school program. Marie Hartwig ('29, M.A. '38), who has been in immediate charge of the Recreational Program since 1930, acts also as adviser to the Women's Athletic Association, which is sponsored by the Department of Physical Education. She is Supervisor in the department, as well as Lecturer in the School of Education, and also directs the Counselor Education Program at Interlochen, the National Music Camp. Her contribution to the Recreational Program and to the department as a whole has been invaluable.

In addition to those already mentioned, the staff by 1955-56 included Fritzie Gareis (Sargent '41, M.S. Michigan '49), Ruth W. Harris (Pembroke '41, M.S. Wellesley '43), Elizabeth Ludwig (Milwaukee-Downer '30, Ph.D. New York University '54), and Esther E. Pease (California '31, Ph.D. Michigan '53).

The work of the department was completely reorganized in 1924-25. The interests of the students were ascertained by questionnaire and conference. Their criticisms, likes, and dislikes in sports were considered as well as their physical and recreational requirements. Because of the implication of physical defect, the term "remedial gymnastics" was discarded for "individual gymnastics." The elective work flourished. Included in the program at that time were hockey, tennis, archery, track, basketball, baseball, natural dancing, clog and folk dancing, horseback riding, swimming for beginners, games, individual gymnastics, fencing, golf, and outing activities. Although only two physical education periods a week were required of the freshmen and sophomores, an extra period was added in the fall for the checking and correction of defects. Students were classified according to the results of the preliminary medical examinations on the basis of unlimited activity, slightly modified activity, limited activity, corrective activity, and no activity.

Medical examinations for women, which until the 1920's had been given almost entirely by medical students, had been inadequate. In 1924, however, these were put on a sound medical basis and by 1925 were conducted in a thorough and scientific manner.

In 1925, as the result of a request for a new football stadium, a committee headed by Dean Edmund E. Day was appointed by Acting President Alfred H. Lloyd to study the athletic situation at Michigan and report to the Senate Council. This report was significant because it reopened for discussion the entire Page  2002problem of athletics (see Part I: The Little Administration). As a result, the program for both men and women was placed under the direct control of a newly created Board in Control of Athletics. The Day Report was important in the development of physical education for women because it drew attention to the fact that outdoor facilities for them should be increased to provide adequate recreation opportunities. Palmer Field and the University land in the block immediately south were developed by the Board in Control of Athletics. In 1926 a rifle range was constructed in the old Engineering Building, and permission was obtained for the use of the swimming pools in the Y.M.C.A. Building and in the Michigan Union. Students majoring in physical education, together with the members of the Women's Athletic Association, prompted the organization of many clubs for specific sports.

The new impetus for better facilities for women brought into focus the need of an adequate recreation building on Palmer Field. Early estimates of the prospective building totaled approximately $150,000, but through the efforts of the Board in Control of Athletics twice this amount was raised. Total construction costs for the development of Palmer Field and the construction of the Women's Athletic Building amounted to more than $350,000. The red brick, two-story, colonial-type structure with white pillars and trim, situated on the south end of Palmer Field at the intersection of Forest and North University avenues, was formally opened in May, 1928. The basement contains complete athletic equipment, including four bowling alleys and rifle and archery ranges.

The original women's athletic field comprises almost seven acres. It affords facilities for outdoor track, including two cinder tracks and jumping pits; a hockey field used also for soccer, lacrosse, and golf practice; an outdoor picnic site with fireplace; sixteen tennis courts; a putting green with an adjacent court for volleyball or croquet; space for horseshoes and quoits; and an elevated terrace for instruction in the various sports.

In 1933 the physical education requirement for women, which until this time had been two hours a week for two years, was changed from two years to one. Increases in staff and facilities resulted in a greater variety of activities together with smaller classes and better instruction. Scheduling was improved so that a student had two consecutive hours free for a class in physical education. Students are now encouraged to become proficient in two or more activities in order that a "carry-over" into adult life may be realized. The curriculum offerings in the department are broad enough to provide for a variety of interests.

After thirty years of work and planning, the Women's Swimming Pool was opened in 1954 (see Part VIII: The Women's Swimming Pool). The pool, costing more than a million dollars exclusive of the land, was financed by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. The W.A.A. Pool Fund of some $30,000, which had grown as the result of campus-wide endeavor on the part of many groups, both men's and women's, was turned over to the Board in Control of Athletics for the furnishing of the pool. Many campus organizations, in addition to the Women's Athletic Association and the Alumnae Association, had contributed to this fund. Without Dr. Bell's tireless effort and continued drive the Swimming Pool would never have been built. Her portrait, a gift of the alumnae, hangs in the lower lobby. The pool serves many University groups, in addition to the growing needs of the Department of Physical Education for Women. The scheduling of a large number Page  2003of classes in aquatics has solved some of the problems which had been created by a lack of adequate facilities for the growing enrollment in the required program. The interest in swimming, diving, water safety, and synchronized swimming has been marked.

With the steady increase in the enrollment of women, the program of the department has expanded and changed to take care of the individual needs of the student in the required program and to offer every possible opportunity to those interested in electing activities in the instructional program. The department is so organized that there is fine co-operation among the three units (required, professional, and recreation). The members of the staff share in planning and directing the activities of all three units, and the educational objectives of the department serve as guideposts to unity of purpose and action.

In addition to the increased enrollment in swimming, there has been great interest in the ballet and modern dance. A choreographer's workshop, which meets regularly on a voluntary basis, is largely responsible for the dance programs presented on campus, in other communities at the request of the Extension Service, and on television.

A noteworthy development in 1955-56 was the use of television for informal instruction in women's sports and in the dance. The department co-operated with the University television studios in the production of kinescopes on badminton, archery, hockey, and modern dance. The use of television is being studied as a medium to acquaint the public with the work in physical education and to give some idea of the value of sports activities for women. Continuous effort is made to provide a physical education program geared to the present-day needs of women students in their role as future wives and mothers. The program, which is constantly evaluated and revised to conform to the latest advances in the field, has grown and developed accordingly.

There is also increasing interest in the therapeutic effects of exercise. Special exercise clinics are held for students with functional defects, weak feet, lack of muscle tone and co-ordination, dysmenorrhea, and similar difficulties. Students are sent by the Health Service or are selfreferred. The fine co-operation between the Health Service and the Physical Education Department has always operated to the advantage of both students and staff.

The Recreation Program includes all elective sports and dancing sponsored by the department, the Intramural Program, and the Women's Athletic Association clubs; campus tournaments, and activities during open hours on the field, tennis courts, in Barbour Gymnasium, the Women's Athletic Building, and the Women's Pool. The department provides advisers and leaders for out-of-door programs and camp weekends, and for such activities as square dances and splash parties. Four to five thousand individuals participate yearly in the Recreation Program. In 1955-56 forty-eight teams in the Intramural leagues competed in volleyball, forty-five in basketball, thirty-eight in softball, and forty-two in bowling. It is the aim of the department to encourage and train students to plan for and to conduct their own recreation, using the facilities and services of the department when necessary. Activities, for the most part, however, are student managed under the direction of a faculty sponsor. The Women's Athletic Association has a threefold program carried on through tournaments, social and sports events, and sports and dance clubs, in which 415 persons were enrolled in 1955-56. Clubs operating under the W.A.A. Board are modern dance, ballet, fencing, Page  2004tennis, golf, bowling, badminton, riding, figure skating, rifle, Michifish, speed swimming, diving, basketball, and hockey. Many of these clubs sponsored special events during the year, such as the synchronized swimming show, games with area colleges and schools, and the dance concerts. The Women's Athletic Association sponsors the traditional Lantern Night, Michigras, Spring Weekend, which includes Skit Night and the Wolverine Derby, and Sports Days held in co-operation with other colleges.

The Professional Program. — The professional program in physical education was authorized by the Regents in June, 1921, when the four-year curriculum leading to a bachelor of science degree was established (R.P., 1921-22, p. 244). Although the program was not begun until the fall of 1921, a number of transfer students were graduated in 1924 with a major in physical education.

Dr. Margaret Bell, chairman of the Department of Physical Education for Women, and Dr. Elmer Mitchell, chairman of the Department of Physical Education for Men, were both active in the development of the professional curriculum. With Dr. John Sundwall, Director of Intercollegiate Athletics Fielding H. Yost, Associate Professor George A. May, and Assistant Professor Louise Patterson, they planned a curriculum which prepared the student in the areas of health education, physical education, and to a limited degree, in recreation.

Certain events stand out as milestones in the steady growth of the program, some of which presaged similar developments at other colleges and universities. As early as 1922, a summer school for coaches was inaugurated for those who were interested, not primarily in an academic degree, but in obtaining practical instruction from specialists in their respective fields (R.P., 1921-22, p. 244). Impetus for securing this type of training undoubtedly was due in part to the passage of the compulsory physical education laws in Michigan and other states, which necessitated the drafting of teachers with little previous experience. With the increase in the number of physical education graduates of the four-year degree programs, the need of summer session offerings for undergraduates diminished, and a contrasting demand arose for graduate work leading to the master's degree. Before the opening of the summer session in 1932, the Department of Physical Education for Women introduced two short term sports' institutes of one week each, offering instruction in tennis, swimming, golf, hockey, archery, dance, and riding. No credit was given, the object being primarily to aid teachers in the field who wished to increase their own knowledge and proficiency in individual sports and dance as opposed to gymnastics and team sports, which still largely dominated high school and college programs.

The graduate curriculum leading to a master's degree in physical education became effective during the summer session of 1931. Three sequences of study were offered, administration of physical education, supervision, and teaching. Three new sequences have been added since, camping, outdoor education, and recreation, bringing the current total to six. The doctoral program established in 1938 has continued to expand since the first two candidates received the Ph.D. degree in 1940.

With the development of the professional curriculum, which meant a corresponding growth in enrollment, co-ordination of the services of the Department of Physical Education for Men and the Department of Physical Education for Women became a necessity. Therefore, a committee of staff members teaching Department "F" (physical education and recreation) courses was organized, Page  2005with a chairman serving for a three-year term. The following individuals have acted in this capacity: Dean Allen S. Whitney (1922-27), Dr. John Sundwall (1927-30), Dean James B. Edmonson (1930-36), Dr. Margaret Bell (1942-45; 1951-54), Professor Laurie Campbell (1945-48), and Professor Elmer D. Mitchell (1936-42; 1948-51; 1954-57).

The undergraduate professional curriculum, under the School of Education, prepares women students to become instructors, with limited work in health education and in recreation. The undergraduate enrollment of students from other departments minoring in physical education averages approximately 100 men and 80 women a semester.

A camp counselor education program was introduced in the summer of 1944 at the National Music Camp at Interlochen, Michigan, under the leadership of Professor Campbell and Miss Hartwig. This work supplements the undergraduate curriculum and prepares students for camp counseling and camp leadership. Emphasis is upon outdoor education, and the program for women has been most successful.

In 1949 a recommendation was approved that all students in the elementary school curriculum take a teaching course in physical education. This action reflects a national trend of the self-contained classroom, as well as a growing recognition that many elementary school children would be deprived of education through motor activities if the elementary school teacher were not prepared to offer work in this area. The responsibility for developing and presenting the course was assigned to Professor Campbell. Because of the increased enrollment of prospective elementary school teachers, the course has become a major area of professional work. At the present time three sections are offered each semester, enrollment approximating 250 to 275 students a year. In the past five years the course has also been given during the summer session.

Students in the professional curriculum are prepared to teach elementary as well as high-school students. After completion of content and methods courses at each level, they are assigned to student teaching for a full year, one semester in the elementary schools and one semester in the junior and senior high schools of the city. The department takes the responsibility for the supervision of these students in the elementary schools. Supervision in the secondary schools is assigned to a member of the staff who is assisted by the critic teachers in the various schools to which the students are assigned.

While the undergraduate program is generalized with a broad overview of all aspects of physical education, specialization is provided on the graduate level. The decade since the close of World War II has witnessed an over-all expansion of the graduate program in physical education. The number of courses offered has increased to fifteen. During the postwar years from 1946 to 1950, the graduate enrollment in physical education reached a peak of 125 students a semester, with 220 in the summer session. Of late years the enrollment has averaged seventy students a semester, with approximately 120 in the summer session. Including undergraduate and extension students, approximately 325 students are enrolled in physical education courses each semester. The number of doctoral graduates has steadily increased, with a total of thirty-five having received either the Ph.D. or Ed.D. degree by June, 1955.

Present departmental facilities and staff do not permit extensive research in women's physical education, but a number of studies have been undertaken during the past year, one supported by the Horace H. Rackham research grant Page  2006funds. Two projects conducted in cooperation with the Research Section of the Midwest Association for Physical Education of College Women are concerned with the contribution of women's sports to the development of strength. Two studies, "The Relationship between Abdominal Strength, and the Incidence of Dysmenorrhea in College Women" by Dr. Margaret Bell, and "A Study of Arm and Shoulder Girdle Strength of College Women," by Ruth Harris and Dr. C. Etta Walters, completed in 1953-54, were published in the Research Quarterly of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation in March and May, 1955.

Over the years there has been a shift of emphasis on the various objectives of physical education, which has been reflected to some extent in the activity offerings on the University level. Whereas health as an important outcome was emphasized at the turn of the century, and physical fitness was an issue as a result of World War I rejections, the pendulum gradually swung to recreation and sociological objectives during the depression period of the 1930's. The need for recreation skills to offset the strains of unemployment and economic and social pressures gave rise to the introduction of individual sports and similar "carry-over" activities. For a short period between 1940 and 1945 physical fitness again became an issue because of the pressures of World War II. Exercise for its conditioning value per se was again stressed in the schools, particularly in the boys' and men's programs. It should be noted, however, that the emphasis on recreation skills, particularly for their therapeutic value in the maintenance of good mental health did not diminish during the war period. The postwar swing back to a decreased interest in physical fitness within past years has been questioned and challenged as a direct outcome of recent studies on the lack of muscular fitness of American boys and girls as compared with European children. The President's Conference on Fitness, held in June, 1956, has again brought into focus the individual's biological and physiological needs for activity, and recent meetings of physical educators have resulted in recommendations for a reevaluation of the physical education program in the light of basic fitness needs.


Announcement, School of Education; Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich. 1890-1914.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Hubbard, Lucius L., Comp. Organization and Aims of the University of Michigan as Reflected in Its By-Laws …, 1922. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. 1923.
Laws, Ordinances, By-laws and Regulations …, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1861.
Michiganensian, 15:262.
Michigan Alumnus, 1890-1956.
MS, "Minutes of the Women's League" ("Women's League History"), Univ. Mich., 1890-1923.
MS, "Minutes of the Women's Athletic Association," Univ. Mich., 1905-56.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1870-90, 1920-55.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1870-1954.
Page  2007


IN 1893, just three years after the establishment of the Women's League, the Women's Athletic Committee of the Women's League was organized. Ten cents out of every fifty-cent membership was set aside to finance the activities of this group. From this small beginning, in which the only sport offered was basketball, evolved the campus-wide Women's Athletic Association of today, offering women participation in more than twenty different activities. Ten years after the Athletic Committee was organized, the first annual indoor track meet was held. This and the annual class basketball tournament were the only athletic events for women.

By 1905 it was felt that other sports were needed. In order to draw these together, the Women's Athletic Association was formed "to promote interest in gymnastic and athletic sports among the women of the University." A meeting preliminary to the organization of the Association was called on May 25, 1905, by Dr. Helen E. Brooks, Physical Director of Barbour Gymnasium. Two days later, on May 27, the constitution was read and approved. The purpose of the association as stated in Article II was "to promote participation in athletic activities by, to emphasize physical fitness among, and to foster a comprehensive recreational program for the women of the University of Michigan."

The following officers were elected for the year 1905-6: Lotta Broadbridge, president; Margaret Turner, vice-president; Rena Mosher, secretary; Alice Reynick, treasurer; May Caughey, senior representative; Edith Lutz, junior representative; and Edith Edmiston, sophomore representative. The first official records of the association were begun at the first meeting of the Executive Committee in 1905. A bulletin board for W.A.A. notices was bought, and basketball, baseball, and tennis were organized. One problem of great importance the first year was the question of invitations to the basketball games. Much discussion of the subject finally resulted in amendments to the constitution. It was decided that invitations would be issued for each open game and that ten cents would be charged for W.A.A. members and twenty-five cents for others. Participants in the games received one invitation free, and the captains received two, but all extras had to be paid for. This income supplied the treasury. The Mandolin Club was organized as a part of the Association at this time, and a successful performance of the Swedish Dancers was given under the auspices of the W.A.A.

An Athletic Association pin was adopted in 1907-8 — a gold block "M" with a dark blue enamel oval on which the letters "WAA" were inscribed in gold. New events were added to the track meet, and class teams were organized. The girls were required to come out for practice once a week in order to participate in the meet. Fifteen cents was charged outsiders, admission being free to college girls.

The first W.A.A. handbook, describing the various activities available for women, was printed in 1908. A social chairman was added to the Executive Committee, and more than seven parties, banquets, and the like were sponsored.

Through the generosity of Regent Peter White, the first part of the land which now comprises Palmer Field was purchased in 1908 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 348), thus providing the women students of the University adequate space for athletics. In 1909 Senator Palmer contributed the money to pay off the debt on the field, and in appreciation it was named for him (R.P., 1906-10, p. 591). The Women's League contributed about Page  2008$5,000 toward the total purchase price of $9,000, and additional small lots were bought and added to the site. The facilities of Palmer Field include the Women's Athletic Building, an out-of-door fireplace, three hockey fields that are used interchangeably for other sports — soccer, lacrosse, golf, archery, track, and field. There are sixteen tennis courts and a beautiful nine-hole putting green and golf traps. Space is provided for volleyball, croquet, horseshoes, and quoits. An elevated terrace is used for instruction. The new Swimming Pool is situated directly south of the building.

In January, 1910, it was voted that the membership fee be fifty cents; this gave each girl admission to all games free of charge as well as the right to play on her own class team and compete in the various sports. It was also decided that captains and class managers would be members of the Executive Committee. The rules of precedence were established. The track meet was given up in favor of an enlarged and popular outdoor field day in connection with Lantern Night. In 1911 the system of requiring University regulations for team membership was inaugurated. Numerals were awarded to girls who made class teams in outdoor competitive sports or in the semi-final tennis matches, and letters were given those who made the championship team. A publicity manager was added to the Executive Committee. With an enlarged membership, the financial problems of the club became increasingly difficult, and many ways of raising money were tried. Candy was sold at the May Festival and refreshments on Field Day. Admission was charged to the Saturday afternoon parties, and gate receipts were collected for the final basketball games.

Requirements became more stringent every year for participation in sports, and in December, 1912, it was voted that a person with a below C average could not take part in athletics.

In June, 1912, a committee of the Athletic Association met with a committee of the Women's League, consisting of the president, Miss Bigelow, Mrs. Jordan, Miss Alfred, Miss Reighard, and Miss Higgins and passed the following recommendations:

1. That in view of the new Athletic Tax of five dollars, it is moved, seconded, and carried that the Athletic Association be merged into the Women's League to be known as the "Athletic Committee of the Women's League." 2. That there shall be but one fee, … twenty-five cents, which admits to membership of Women's League and that this committee shall hold no money but all bills received shall pass through the hands of the League Treasurer. 3. The persons of the committee shall be as follows: a chairman, a member from each class, and a member representing each sport. These persons shall be recommended by the preceding Athletic Committee to the League President and voted upon by the League Board, or appointed by the League President as League Board may decide… The Physical Director and her assistant shall be members ex-officio.

(MS, "Minutes of the Women's Athletic Association.")

It was decided in January, 1913, to permit graduate students to play on the senior team. The popular game of field hockey was introduced at this time. Attempts were made to instill athletic spirit in the women, and in order to arouse interest in sports, a letter was written to high-school girls planning to come to the University.

In the same year the Athletic Committee recommended that the head of each sport be chosen by the members of that particular sport, that the basketball manager be elected at the annual basketball banquet, the hockey manager at the hockey picnic, the tennis manager by participants in the tournament, and that Page  2009a nominating committee, appointed by the chairman of the Athletic Committee, report the candidates for office. The Athletic Committee was enlarged to include a baseball manager, and a study of the point system was begun. By 1914-15 the Athletic Committee consisted of eighteen members, including a recorder of athletic honors, whose duties hitherto had been performed by the Department of Physical Education. It was voted to accept the honor system for the Athletic Committee's point system, and a simple silver pin, with the original "M" adopted in 1907, was awarded for athletic achievement. A white sweater with roll collar and a blue "M" on a yellow background was given for 100 athletic honor points. It was also voted to award athletic honor points to the members of the Athletic Committee.

In order to secure funds for the clubhouse to be built on Palmer Field, various attempts to earn money were made in 1916-17. Weenies were sold at Palmer Field in the hockey season, bulbs were purchased and raised for sale, skating carnivals were held with an admission fee of fifteen cents, and at an all-campus dance one Saturday afternoon the Association cleared $100. With the formation of a dance club and a hiking club, a swing away from interclass competition began, with the result that today numerous sports clubs are affiliated with the Women's Athletic Association. The following year golf and horseback riding were offered.

In 1917 the organization once more severed its connection with the Women's League and drew up a new constitution, providing for a twenty-member board. In January, 1918, it was reported that the constitution had been formally accepted by the Committee on Student Affairs. A further revision of the constitution, in 1919, was followed by the adoption of standards for participation set up by the University Student Affairs Committee, and the Michigan organization became affiliated with the Athletic Conference of American College Women. A delegate was sent to the Central District Conference at Columbia, Missouri, and the uniform point system of the A.C.A.C.W. was subsequently adopted. Then the old system of awards was changed from a 100-point to a 1,000point basis, whereby membership was limited to those who had earned 100 athletic honor points.

A junior Women's Athletic Association was established in the year 1921 to supplement the major organization, and girls having fewer than 1,000 points automatically became members of the Junior Association. Dues of twenty-five cents were applied on the senior dues when a girl joined that organization. Because of the closed membership policy, however, the membership decreased, and financial difficulties developed. There was so little in the treasury in 1921-22 that no further activities or projects could be sponsored, and that year Miss Wood loaned the Association $45 to tide it over.

Because of the increasing number of women students, class competition grew more and more artificial, and interhouse competition became the basis of many tournaments. Honorary varsity teams in major sports were chosen by the student manager and the faculty sponsor of each sport. Interest in rifle marksmanship developed, and a club was formed; a swimming manager was added in 1921, and swimming rules and regulations were adopted; archery was included in the program.

With the appointment of Dr. Margaret Bell as Director of the Women's Physical Education Department and of Miss B. Louise Patterson (now Mrs. John Page  2010Van Sickle) as Assistant Professor in 1923, great progress was made in the development of the Women's Athletic Association. Dr. Bell, with the officers of the Association, drew up plans for a closer co-operation between the Women's Physical Education Department and the Association, directed toward the goal of athletic participation on the part of every woman on campus. She succeeded in obtaining a regular budget from the Palmer Field Fund for the Women's Athletic Association in 1925-26, assuring University women expanded programs in sports and allowing the Association to concern itself with the program rather than to expend all its energies in money-making ventures. Material awards for participation in sports were abandoned at this time, and it was decided that athletic honor points should no longer be given for executive positions.

In 1927-28, at the time of the construction of the Women's Athletic Building, "Sleepy Hollow" was shorn of its great oaks, and its hills were leveled and the grounds surfaced to provide the present Palmer Field. On January 11, 1928, the Women's Athletic Association held an informal housewarming in the building, which was formally opened on May 9. A sports conference for high-school girls was held in conjunction with Lantern Night. Bowling facilities were provided, and an attempt was made to organize teams for women living in league houses by zoning the houses and encouraging participation in these units. In April, 1930, the Michigan Athletic Association was host to the National Athletic Conference of American College Women, attended by 300 delegates.

In 1930-31 the constitution was revised so that every University woman was included in the Association. Women who had earned a minimum of five points and who had paid the annual dues of $1.00 became active members. A regular A.C.A.C.W. representative was appointed to the Executive Committee and charged with reporting an exchange of athletic news with other colleges. The association also sponsored a Hockey Play Day for five other Michigan colleges.

A reorganization of the Women's League Council in 1932-33 made possible an installation banquet held jointly by the League and the Athletic Association. Other new trends were evident in 1933-34. A student was a member of the Association without payment of dues, but she was considered inactive until she had earned fifty points. The school year was divided into four sports seasons with programs for each, and at least one team sport and three individual sports were offered each season. Volleyball was included. The Intramural Board, formerly in charge of interhouse competition, was discontinued, and sports managers were chosen, with house managers organized under a general intramural manager, thus placing students in responsible positions of leadership. At Lantern Night, competition among six selected girls from each house was an innovation; supper was served on the terrace of the Women's Athletic Building, and the senior line of march formed a block "M" to conclude the festivities.

A training course for Women's Athletic Association sports leaders was begun in 1935-36 as a joint project by W.A.A. and the Department of Physical Education for Women. Co-recreational activities were emphasized, and men and women participated in badminton, bowling, tennis, riding, dancing, swimming, hockey, and rifle. A more satisfactory plan for league house competition was adopted, and an honors board with the names of the winners in various sports was erected on the landing in the Women's Athletic Building.

Page  2011In 1938, in a new plan for Lantern Night, twenty-four residence units competed in a women's sing, which was preceded by a line of march, from the Library to Palmer Field. More than 600 women, led by the Varsity Band, marched, formed the block "M" and sang "The Yellow and Blue."

W.A.A. was hostess to the women's athletic associations from other colleges in the state of Michigan in 1940. The two-day session was held at the Women's Athletic Building, with delegates from ten colleges attending. Participation records for the year 1940-41 showed an increase of more than 400. At this time one-third of the women enrolled in the University took part in at least one athletic sport. Hockey, basketball, tennis, golf, fencing, and dancing meets were held at Michigan with teams from other schools. An innovation was the three-way meet with Michigan State and Ohio State in fencing and golf. Telegraphic meets were held in archery, bowling, and rifle.

W.A.A. received the first financial aid from the Women's League in the form of a check for $160 in 1941-42. The annual men's varsity swimming organization gave the organization $75, which was invested in a war bond. Rec-rally, which was held for three nights in Barbour Gymnasium, replaced the annual carnival given in former years. The first evening was devoted to mass physical fitness exercises and a posture contest, the second night to a discussion of grooming, and the third evening to corecreational activities. Participation in sports programs increased. Basketball and hockey were the only club sports in which there was competition with outside schools during the regular season. The dance club held a symposium for college and high-school girls in the spring, which drew 100 participants from eight schools. In May a Sports Day was held with Michigan State, Michigan State Normal, University of Toledo, and Kalamazoo College attending. Competition took place in tennis, archery, golf, badminton, fencing, and riding. The entire affair, which was under student supervision, was remarkable for the fine leadership demonstrated in its organization and administration.

The pressure of World War II affected the W.A.A. program in many ways. The heavy academic load put space at a premium so that many events had to be held at night and on Saturday afternoons, and there was difficulty in scheduling. Sports clubs and tournaments showed a slight decrease in participation, although the number taking part in more than one activity increased. The voluntary exercise program increased total participation to 2,400, two-thirds of the enrollment of women. A Camp Counselor Club was formed, making the total number of clubs seventeen.

Once again, in 1951, the National Convention of the Athletic Federation of College Women was held on the Michigan campus, with a delegation of 500 students from all over the United States.

Throughout the years W.A.A. has given strong support to women's sports and to the dance and has done much to procure adequate facilities, notably, Barbour Gymnasium, Palmer Field, the Women's Athletic Building, and the Women's Swimming Pool. The present Women's Athletic Association, directed by an Executive Committee and a Board of thirty-two members, is student led and produces many strong leaders. Its main objective is the promotion of women's sports, both campus and extramural.

The W.A.A. program falls roughly into three categories, the direction and promotion of sports, the consolidation of student opinion and interests in sports, and the responsibility for traditional projects such as Michigras, Spring Weekend, Page  2012and Lantern Night. The number of clubs supported by W.A.A., which varies between fourteen and twenty, includes the following: Badminton, Ballet, Basketball, Bowling, Camp Counselors, Fencing, Golf, Hockey, Ice Skating, Michifish, Michifins, Modern Dance, Speed Swimming, Rifle, Riding, and Tennis. W.A.A. also conducts the affairs of the house athletic managers, representing some 100 dormitories, sororities, and league houses. Such events as dance concerts, the Michifish water show, high-school playdays, college playdays, group competitions, horse shows, and clinics on golf and tennis are sponsored by both W.A.A. and the Department of Physical Education for Women.

Lantern Night had its beginning in the early 1900's. In its early days the annual event was made up of a field day and included the May Pole dance and a big picnic. Over the years, often because of inclement weather, the field day was discontinued, and since the 1940's the Lantern Night ceremonies have been conducted in May in Hill Auditorium. The women, organized in classes, march behind the Varsity Band from Alumni Memorial Hall to Hill Auditorium. Here the incoming president of W.A.A. greets a full house and gives the W.A.A. report of the year. Following this come the winners of the intergroup "Sing," for which try-outs are held several days previously. In 1955-56, thirty groups competed, and thirteen sororities and dormitories made the finals.

Miss Marie Hartwig ('29, M.A. '38), who has been in immediate charge of the recreational program since 1930, acts as Adviser to the Women's Athletic Association, which is sponsored by the Department of Physical Education for Women. Miss Hartwig's contribution to the program and to the development of the Women's Athletic Association has been noteworthy.

Particular mention should be made of the efforts of the Women's Athletic Association over a period of more than twenty-five years to raise money for the Women's Swimming Pool and to keep the project alive on the campus. The first recommendations for a pool were made by Dr. Bell in 1923. Not only did the alumni contribute generously to the project, but the labor and enthusiasm of the various student groups was campus wide. The first contribution of $1,000 was received in 1931. From that time until ground was broken in 1952, contributions were made to the swimming pool fund. More than twenty campus organizations, both men's and women's, worked unceasingly and year after year donated the proceeds of various exhibitions and entertainments so that the women some day might have a swimming pool of their own.

The Michigras Carnival, which had its beginning in the Penny Carnival, is given jointly for two nights and one afternoon by the W.A.A. and the Michigan Union. This traditional event, a parade extravaganza featuring carnival rides, side shows, and games of skill, attracts thousands of participants and clears thousands of dollars. The proceeds are divided equally between the W.A.A. and the Michigan Union. Before the Women's Pool was built the proceeds were donated to the W.A.A. pool fund. In 1954 more than $4,000 was given to the department with which to buy furnishings for the pool. The carnival is held every two years, alternating with the W.A.A.-Michigan Union Spring Weekend, which includes a sports afternoon, a soapbox derby, and multiple sports; a Skit Night is given in the evening. This, too, is a popular event which provides desirable recreation and earns money.

Much thought has been given to the problem of intercollegiate sports for women. It is felt that until all students Page  2013can be given adequate instruction, together with a realization of the place of physical education in the life of the individual, the family, and the community, staff teaching time and limited facilities should not be used in training the highly skilled student to greater perfection. The same idea was expressed by President Angell, in 1891, in a communication to the Board of Regents:

Two things seem to be clear. One is, that we should seek to make our gymnastic accommodations conduce to the normal physical development and sound health of the many rather than to the abnormal development of a few athletes; the other is, that we should so conduct and regulate athletic games that they are kept free from demoralizing accessories.

(R.P., 1886-91, p. 561.)
Although President Angell made the foregoing statement in relation to athletics for men, much of what he said can also be found today incorporated in the principles governing physical education for women. While the needs of women students have been satisfied by intramural competition supplemented by playdays, the question of competition still remains. An appropriate competitive program might prove to be a desirable instrument for the promotion of women's sports and the dance. As yet, however, nothing has been done in this direction. At present there are few sports which could be promoted without resulting in handicaps to the present program.


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MS, "Minutes of the Women's Athletic Association," Univ. Mich., 1905-56.
MS, "Minutes of the Women's League," Univ. Mich., 1890-1923.
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