The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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Student Life and Organizations

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Page  1759

ENROLLMENT SURVEY

ENROLLMENT has more than doubled every twenty years at the University of Michigan. Beginning with only six freshmen and one sophomore in 1841, the first year of its operation in Ann Arbor, the University has steadily grown until it is among the largest in the world. In 1955-56, 33,723 students in credit and professional programs were taught by the faculty of the University.

The growth in size and the amount of service rendered can be significantly described in referring to the number of students earning degrees. Since 1845, when eleven students received degrees, 157,964 degrees have been granted, with 5,030 in 1955-56. The growth became so accelerated that in the nineteen-year period from 1937 to 1956 more degrees were awarded than in all the previous ninety-two years.

The University of Michigan has maintained, throughout the years, a strong undergraduate enrollment as a basis on which to build its graduate and graduate-professional programs.

The selective admissions policy has assured the University of students who have demonstrated the ability to succeed academically. For this reason the loss because of academic failure has been slight. The success of the freshmen and the high quality of the transfer students who enter the University, after acceptably completing work in other colleges, account for the high proportion of the number of degrees granted when compared to the number of students enrolled in degree or professional programs. The relation for the fiscal year of 1955-56 was 18.6 per cent. Even this high percentage was exceeded in many previous years.

The University of Michigan has, throughout its existence, been extremely popular with students outside the state. In the 1920's students came from all the states and more than thirty foreign countries. The cosmopolitan atmosphere of the University was maintained, and the out-of-state enrollment grew with the total University; in general one non-Michigan student registered for each two Michigan residents. Care was exercised to ensure that the out-of-state enrollment represented all parts of the country.

In the 1950's the seven counties adjoining the University's home county of Washtenaw contained more than one-half the population of the state, and they furnished nearly one-half of the Michigan enrollment at the University. The other counties furnished students to the University in proportion to their population also, and not in relation to their distance from Ann Arbor.

In the academic year of 1870-71 thirty-four women were admitted to the University. The percentage of women rose slowly for twenty-five years, reaching a plateau of about 20 per cent in 1895. In 1919-20 a new and higher percentage of women began to be enrolled. Near the end of World War II the percentage of women was at an all-time high of 47 per cent. The return of the men after the war reduced the ratio of women to men to about one to two, where it has since remained.

During wartime the facilities of the University were in great demand. In a six-year period, during and after World War II, 32,745 veterans attended University classes. Of this number 1,163 (3.6 per cent) were women. About one-third of the veterans came from beyond the borders of the state.

The first summer session was held in Page  17601894 for 91 students. The enrollment grew steadily, and in forty years became approximately one-half as large as the regular registration in the fall. This ratio was maintained for the next twenty years. Residence credit enrollment for the 1956 summer session was 9,028.

The need for extending the teaching services of the University beyond Ann Arbor was met by off-campus extension classes taught by regular faculty members. The first classes were held in 1911, and 230 students were enrolled in 1915-16. The enrollment for the academic year 1955-56 in extramural credit program classes was 5,011. An additional 977 persons took credit courses by correspondence in that year.

The demands upon the University's teaching facilities were so varied that many different programs were organized. The student accounting procedure followed the teaching program and was reported as follows for the academic year 1955-56.

There were 27,053 students registered in degree or postgraduate professional residence credit level programs. The postgraduate registrations were in programs designed to acquaint practicing physicians, dentists, and hospital workers with the latest developments in their fields. Although a degree was not the objective for this group, the instructional level was postgraduate.

Because some 850 postgraduate professional students were in training for less than half of the regular sessions they were counted separately.

The 5,988 students in extension credit courses utilizing classroom instruction and correspondence techniques were referred to above. In addition to these there were 600 students in extramural postgraduate professional medical programs of short duration but of an instructional level higher than that of first degree programs.

The enrollment in credit and professional programs referred to above was 33,723 in 1955-56.

The Extension Service also enrolled 6,994 students in certificate (noncredit) classroom courses which were offered because

Enrollment and Degrees Granted at the University of Michigan by Ten-Year Intervals (Fiscal Year Enrollments)
Year Credit & Professional Programs Residence Credit Degree and Post-graduate Professional Programs Degrees Granted
Total Men Women Total Men Women
1841-42 7 7 0 7 7 0 0
1850-51 159 159 0 159 159 0 18
1860-61 674 674 0 674 674 0 166
1870-71 1,110 1,076 34 1,110 1,076 34 304
1880-81 1,534 1,356 178 1,534 1,356 178 436
1890-91 2,420 1,975 445 2,420 1,975 445 635
1900-01 3,712 2,881 831 3,712 2,881 831 764
1910-11 5,381 4,467 914 5,381 4,467 914 1,096
1920-21 10,623 7,822 2,801 9,930 7,567 2,363 1,526
1930-31 15,500 9,765 5,735 12,531 8,538 3,993 2,673
1940-41 18,899 11,969 6,930 16,525 10,914 5,611 3,386
1950-51 31,339 21,425 9,914 25,649 18,116 7,533 6,399
1955-56 33,723 22,001 11,722 27,053 18,327 8,726 5,030
Page  1761of popular demand. An additional 1,101 students were served by correspondence.

All the above groups comprise 41,818 students enrolled in University instructional programs in 1955-56. Students registered in more than one credit program were counted only once. No registration was requested or count attempted of persons served by the instructional programs broadcast by the University's radio or television studios.

FEES AND EXPENSES

THE earliest fees established by the University were not for college students at all, but for the boys and girls in the Branches, which were really high schools or academies (see Part I: Branches). In November, 1837, the Regents fixed the annual fee for these students at ten dollars a year, except in Detroit and Monroe where the charge was fifteen dollars (R.P., 1837-64, p. 25). The fees actually collected, however, ranged from three dollars to ten dollars a term, depending on the course or curriculum pursued — the high rate being charged for individual instruction in music. School terms consisted of thirteen, fourteen, or fifteen weeks each.

When the University opened its doors to students of collegiate grade, the fees were the same as those which are shown in the first entry of the accompanying tables.* The faculty, in December, 1841, reported that each college student had paid an admission fee of ten dollars and was paying a "tax" for incidental expenses of about two dollars and fifty cents a term. The latter must have been identical with the charge of five to seven and one-half dollars a year, mentioned in early catalogues as the fee for room rent and janitor service. The faculty also reported that at this time board could be secured at from one and one-half to two dollars a week, washing was "from three to six shillings a dozen," and students paid up to one dollar and a half a cord for firewood.

It may be noted that the admission fee of ten dollars was not officially established by the Regents until October, 1842, although the faculty had been collecting it in the meantime. Tuition at the time was gratuitous. This was undoubtedly because the legislative act of 1837, providing for the organization of the University, specified that no charge for tuition should be made to citizens of the state. Consequently, when it was decided to collect a fee from each student, the expression "annual payment" was used, and the Regents' resolution distinctly states that this money was to defer incidental expenses. In 1880-81 the term "annual fee" was substituted for the words "annual payment."

The principle of charging higher fees to students not residents of Michigan was begun in the year 1865. In June, 1863, the finance committee of the Regents made a lengthy report on this subject, stating that the fact that all students, whether residents of Michigan or not, paid the same fees had been used to the injury of the University in the legislature (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 1043-50). Although Page  1762the committee recommended that an admission fee of twenty dollars be charged to residents of other states and twenty-five dollars to residents of foreign countries, no action was taken until March, 1865, and then the legislation applied only to the admission or matriculation fee. A differentiation was not made in the annual fees until 1877-78.

Until well after the turn of the century, University of Michigan fees remained remarkably low. From 1882-83 the schedule provided one fee for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and another, somewhat higher, which was uniform for the various professional schools. Such increases as were made during this period were usually voted upon by the Regents — in motions to increase all fees. In October, 1883, President Angell reported: "The fees have been raised in this University twice in the last eight years. In 1877 the annual fee and the diploma fee were each increased five dollars. In 1882 the annual fee for non-resident students in the Literary Department was again increased five dollars and in the Professional Schools ten dollars" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 596). In 1913-14 occurred a revision of the schedule whereby the library, the outdoor physical education fee, and the medical service or infirmary fee, all of which had been charged separately, were incorporated in the annual fees (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 709-11).

Another general study of the question took place in March, 1920, when a new schedule was adopted for the year 1920-21. In connection with the increases made at this time the Regents studied

Annual Fees, 1847-1932
L. S. and A. Eng., Arch., Med., Homeop. Med., Phar., Dent. Law
Catalogue Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1847-48 $.. $.. $.. $.. $.. $..
1859-60 5 .. 5 .. 5 ..
1864-65 5 5 5 5 5 5
1866-67 10 10 10 10 10 10
1874-75 15 20 15 20 15 20
1877-78 20 25 20 25 20 25
1882-83 20 30 25 35 30 50
1894-95 25* 35 30 40 30 40
1895-96 30 40 35 45 35 45
1905-6 30 40 45 55 45 55
L.S.A., Grad., Ed.,* B.Ad., For. & Con. Eng., Arch., Phar. Med., Homeop. (until 1922-23) Law Dentistry
Catalogue Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1910-11 $30 $40 $45 $55 $45 $55 $55 $65 $55 $75
1913-14 42 52 57 67 57 67 67 77 77 107
1917-18 44 64 59 89* 102 122 69 79 109 129
1921-22 82-77 107-102 97-92 122-117 142-137 202-197 107-102 127-122 142-137 127-122
1926-27 93 118 108 133 188 268 118 138 208 268
1929-30 98 123 113 138 193 273 123 143 213 273
1931-32 98-103 123-128* 113-118 138-143 200-205 300-305 123-128 143-148 225-230 300-305
Page  1763Semester Fees, 1932-56
L.S.A., Grad., Ed., B.Ad., For. & Con. Eng., Arch., Phar. Med., Homeop. (until 1922-23) Law Dentistry
Catalogue Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1932-33 $50 $62 $57 $70 $100 $150 $62 $72 $113 $150
1935-36 55 75 60 80 110 175 70 100 110 150
L.S.A., Ed., Grad., B. Ad., For. & Con., Pub. Health., Soc. Wk. Eng., Pharm., Arch. & Des. Medical Law Dentistry Music Nursing Public Health Grad.
Year Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1936-37 $ 55 $ 75 $ 60 $ 80 $110 $175 $ 70 $100 $110 $150 $ 40
1940-41 60 100 65 120 125 200 80 125 115 160 $ 60 $100 40
1945-46 65 110 70 130 140 225 90 140 140 210 130 200 40 $ 60 $100 $150
1950-51 75 200 75 200 145 275 105 225 145 275 145 250 55 120 105 225
1955-56 100 235 100 235 220 385 140 275 220 385 165 290 100 235 165 330
1944-45 — Music fees increased to include Applied Music.
1945-46 — Public Health and Nursing nonresident fee appears in schedule. Medical and Dental fee equalized.
1946-47 — Institute of Social Work fee appears in schedule. Engineering, Pharmacy, and Architecture and Design fees equalized with those in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
the fees of other institutions, and it may be said that the general policy has been to keep the rates at Michigan in line with those charged by other state universities. The fees which made up the schedule in 1920-21 included not only the Library, outdoor physical education, and Health Service charges but also the annual dues of the Michigan Union and the Michigan League, and, since these were not the same at this time, for a number of years it was necessary to collect different amounts from the men and the women.

Of changes affecting only special groups of students, perhaps the most important was that made in 1922 concerning the fee for part-time students, who could elect not more than five hours in any semester upon the payment of an annual fee of twenty-five dollars. The President's Report for 1921-22 states: "Such students, if entering the University for the first time, must also pay the usual matriculation fee and they must understand that the part-time fee of twenty-five dollars covers only the usual privileges of study and tuition" (P.R., 1921-22, p. 155). Important changes made since 1922 were the introduction of semester fees in 1933 and the incorporation of the matriculation and diploma fees in the semester fees in 1935-36.

The tables showing student expenses from year to year are in the main a reflection of general social and economic conditions. Very little was paid in pre-Civil War times as compared to necessary disbursements nowadays, but low prices were generally current then, and living conditions much simpler and more crude than they are today. After it was decided to discontinue the dormitory system, the Catalogue for many years quoted rates at which board and room could be obtained in private homes. From 1870 the cost of board in "eating clubs" was also given. The fact that this form of statement has changed in recent years indicates a change in student customs. Nowadays comparatively few students board and lodge with private families. Eating clubs have given way to Page  1764cafeterias and restaurants, and dormitories, again a feature of life at Michigan, house many students.

A noticeable rise in prices took place after the Civil War. The first of a number of studies of student expenditures was made in 1870-71, and the Catalogue for that year states that an average of such expenses over the preceding seven years had been three hundred and sixty-two dollars. Leveled off at three hundred and seventy dollars, this was the official estimate as late as 1907. In that year a further rise in prices began, reaching the peak at about the time of the stock market collapse in 1929.

The 1920's also show a decided increase in room rents, reflecting the room shortage at that time. The enrollment of the University increased markedly at the end of World War I, and during the administration of President Burton an active building program was carried out which involved the acquisition by the University of a number of tracts near the campus and the removal of houses in which rooms had been rented to students. A tendency for families to prefer apartments rather than houses, in which few rooms would be available for student lodgings, was also growing during this period. New dormitories have helped to relieve the situation, but there is, nevertheless, still a shortage of approved housing accommodations near the campus, and students have been forced to seek rooms farther and farther away.

It would appear that estimates printed in more recent catalogues are based on more careful studies of the situation than those made earlier. Obviously, early catalogues tended to repeat the same statements from year to year, and, while the rates given in the 1920's conform more closely to the current fees, the catalogues may have erred somewhat in failing to recognize that students who were

Average Annual Expense
Catalogue Total
1847-48 $ 70-100
1854-55 100
1857-58 125-150
1864-65 125-175
1870-71 362
1874-75 370, approximately
1907-8 400, approximately
1910-11 400-500
1915-16 500
1917-18 500 plus
1920-21 600 or more, average
1925-26 715-755*
1931-32 664 (men), 669 (women); nonresidents, 704-709 plus 150 for incidentals
1932-33 565-604 (nonresidents), plus incidentals
1935-36 347-387, economical schedule, 530-570, average schedule, plus incidentals
1937-38 530-570
1939-40 550-630
1941-42 855-975*
1944-45 750-840
1946-47 820-980
1948-49 820-1,030
1950-51 775-1,025
1951-52 885-1,105
1952-53 905-1,155
1953-54 955-1,205
1954-55 955-1,205
1955-56 1,025-1,295
forced to conserve their resources could by strict economy and by rooming in less desirable locations live at lower rates. More recent estimates, for this reason, have given both an economical and a so-called average schedule of expenses.

Special Fees

Fuel. — Wood was charged at cost in the early dormitories. The use of college buildings as dormitories was discontinued in the 1850's. Page  1765

Expenses for Board and Room Rent per Week
Year Room Board Board and Room
1847-48 $5.00-$7.50* ..... .....
1859-60 ..... ..... $2.00-$3.60
1867-68 ..... ..... 3.00- 6.00
1870-71 0.75- 2.00 $1.50- 2.00 3.00- 5.00
1905-6 0.75- 2.00 2.50- 3.00 3.50- 6.00
1910-11 0.75- 2.75 3.00- 4.00 3.50- 6.00
1915-16 1.00- 3.00 3.50- 4.50 4.00- 6.00
1917-19* 2.00- 4.00 4.00- 5.00 6.00- 8.00
1925-26 4.50 7.00 .....
1931-32 4.50 8.00 .....
1933-34 2.00- 4.00 3.50- 6.50 .....
Two-Semester Average Charge in Residence Halls
Year Room Board Board and Room
1936-37 $120 $195
1940-41 150 230
1945-46 170 340
1950-51* $560
1951-52 630
1952-63 650
1954-55 700
1955-56 750

Matriculation Fee. — Until 1880-81 this was called the "admission fee." In the beginning it was ten dollars for all students. The Catalogue of 1864-65 announces a change to ten dollars for residents of Michigan and twenty dollars for all others; that of 1866-67 gives the figures as ten dollars and twenty-five dollars, respectively. These rates were charged until 1935-36, when the matriculation fee was absorbed in the semester fee.

Diploma. — A general diploma fee of ten dollars, which appears in the 1882-83 Catalogue, was charged until 1935-36, when it was also absorbed in the semester fee. Previously, two dollars had been charged for a medical diploma (Cat., 1851-52); the teacher's certificate, two dollars, was first mentioned in the 1907-8 Calendar, Business Administration certificates in 1918-19, and Journalism and Geology certificates in 1922-23.

Deposits against Damage. — In the early years a deposit of one dollar was required of medical students.

Laboratory Fees. — These were first mentioned in the Calendar for 1880-81. "Demonstration courses" in Medicine at ten dollars per course were listed in catalogues from 1898-99 through 1915-16.

Summer Session Fees. — These fees first appeared in the Calendar of 1897-98. A ten dollar fee for a summer surveying course first appeared in the 1905-6 Calendar.

Gymnasium Locker Fees. — A fee of two dollars first appeared in the Calendar of 1898-99. A special Palmer Field fee of one dollar was charged in 1909-10. Beginning in 1912-13 an outdoor physical education fee of five dollars was charged for all students; this was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14. Locker fees are still charged.

Library Fees. — A fee of two dollars was charged law students, according to the Calendar of 1903-4, and all students from 1910-11; this was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14.

Health Service Fee. — A fee of two dollars (fifty cents for the summer session) was listed in the 1911-12 Calendar. This was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14.

Page  1766

STUDENT TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS

ALTHOUGH student life at Michigan has been rich in traditions, many of them have been comparatively short-lived. Efforts by the various classes to "establish" traditions often resulted in practices which died out without leaving a memory or a record of their demise. Class observances, such as the "Burning of Mechanics," the carrying of canes, the wearing of caps and pins, "exhibitions," dances, banquets, and games, have come and gone with time. Yet some have persisted throughout the years. When the Michigan Union was established in 1904 and the Student Council in 1905, central agencies were set up to preserve some of the old traditions. The great growth of the student body, however, and the formation of clubs and societies did much to dissipate class spirit and to lessen the interest in class activities. Organized athletics also provided a greater outlet for student emotional exuberance, with the result that many of the old customs were lost in the maze and helter-skelter of student life.

The wearing of some type of class cap has been traditional since the early days of the University. In 1868 students of the Literary Department adopted an "Oxford" style of class cap, blue with a square top, a black tassel in the center, and a movable "U. of M." visor. Caps with the class date '70, however, appear to have caused confusion and trouble because their wearers were not always members of that class; as a result this particular type of cap became an oddity. It is interesting to note that in 1870 Acting President Frieze and various professors also wore caps somewhat similar in style. The class of '72 adopted caps of blue broadcloth with small tassels and the class numerals in silver braid. The class of '73, of course, "rushed" them after chapel by throwing flour from the top of the stairs leading to the law lecture room, where the exercises were held. In 1877 a genuine mortar-board style of cap was chosen, but owing to lack of interest the effort to preserve the tradition failed at that time. Most of the senior classes wore distinctive caps in 1880, however, and the prevailing style in that year was the mortar board. In 1881 the seniors wore maroon fez caps with old-gold tassels, the juniors white "plugs," the sophomores white "derbies," and the freshmen black mortar boards with cardinal tassels. Senior "medics" wore black silk hats, the senior "laws" straw "derbies" with bands of blue and maize, and the pharmacy students Mackinac straw hats with bands of old-gold and cardinal. The sophomores of '85 and '87 also adopted class caps. During the early 1900's the tradition was revived for the freshman class, which adopted the once familiar gray "pot," with colored button to designate the school or department.

Cap Night was first celebrated on Saturday, June 11, 1904, at a student mass meeting held about a bonfire near the Medical Building. Songs were sung, speeches made, and the freshmen, as a symbol of their "graduating" from the ranks of "first-year men," burned the gray caps which they had worn all year. The celebration became an annual affair. Cap Night, held in "Sleepy Hollow," was designated in 1906 as the "first Saturday night in June," and the custom was continued for many years. Under the direction of the Student Council, the classes marched to the meeting place, in the 1920's the hollow to the east of the main Hospital Building, the senior class in cap and gown, to watch the burning of the caps. "M's" Page  1767were awarded to deserving athletes, and songs, speeches, and cheers marked the occasion. With the increase in enrollment, however, and the consequent loss of class spirit, the students became more and more reluctant to wear their caps, and in September, 1934, the custom was abolished by the Executive Committee of the Undergraduate Council (Student Council).

In 1910 the class toque came into vogue. This was worn by all the classes — seniors, blue with white band; juniors, white with blue band; sophomores, maroon with band of white; and freshmen, solid gray. Tassels of proper hue, designating school or college, adorned the toques. This custom, too, has gone the way of other student traditions.

Class canes were carried for the first time by the class of 1869. The class of '73 dropped the custom, but the class of '77 revived it. In 1889, when the old picket fence surrounding the campus was torn down, the seniors made themselves canes from the cedar posts. Later, enterprising merchants supplied canes from the same source. In 1923 May 5 was officially designated as Cane Day, and in 1928, April 29 was so observed. It was customary for the seniors to begin carrying their class canes during the month of May preceding graduation. From 1934 the senior classes observed the tradition sporadically, and it more or less died out by the end of the 1930's.

Class badges never became popular nor traditional at Michigan. The class of '74 wore an interlaced triangle and circle as a distinguishing seal of the class; the law class of '86 had a pin, and class pins have been worn by other graduating classes. Fraternity pins and pins representing distinctive student organizations and clubs destroyed interest in the class pin.

The first Class Exhibition was held in the old Presbyterian Church by the sophomore class on the evening of August 10, 1843. Orations, dissertations, essays, and poems were delivered, every member of the class participating. At the last Exhibition of this type, on April 29, 1870, by the class of '72, members of the class of '73 heckled the speakers, threw grass bouquets, and even hurled a rooster from the gallery to the stage of the Methodist Church, creating such a disturbance that the event was discontinued. At this time four members of the class were suspended for a period of six months and others for a longer period.

The first Junior Exhibition was held on August 14, 1844, and from that time the Junior Exhibition became deeply rooted in the traditions of the college. Speakers were elected by the faculty, and the distinction and the honor of being chosen were much coveted. From 1867 to 1877 speakers were selected from members of the class, and every member took part in the program. In the late 1870's, the Junior Exhibition was lampooned and burlesqued in mock programs by members of other classes or by those members of the class who had not been chosen to participate. After 1877, because of the resultant friction and unpleasantness, guest speakers were selected. The "Laws" and the "Medics" did not participate in the Exhibition; it was purely a practice of the Literary College.

The first Freshman Exhibition was given by the class of '72 on the evening of May 28, 1869. In 1869 Professor Frieze established "University Day" for the purpose of drawing more closely together the students of the various departments of the University. Only two are recorded. Perhaps the "University Day" celebration envisioned by Professor Frieze has furnished a precedent for the modern convocation, which was revived in 1913.

Page  1768On the evening before Class Day, May 27, 1873, a reception for the senior class was instituted. Dancing took place in Professor Cocker's lecture room in University Hall. The custom was continued until 1877, when religious bodies in the state made loud their objections to dancing in University buildings. The students then erected a pavilion on the campus for this purpose. In 1882 the Regents removed the restriction on dancing, and a reception and dance were held, thus establishing a tradition which continued for many years as the Senior Reception, given at that time on the Wednesday evening of Commencement week.

In 1885 Commencement for all schools and colleges of the University was held for the first time on the same day. Until then, the various schools and colleges had held independent exercises. In 1870 Professor Frieze began the custom of holding a Commencement Banquet to which alumni and guests of the University were invited. This occasion, later established officially by the Board of Regents, inaugurated the "Alumni Banquet" of Commencement week, held annually on Alumni Day. As Commencement time approached, it also became customary for the senior class to hold "sings" on the campus — in later years on or before the Library steps. Earlier, in both the spring and the fall, the seniors customarily gathered once a week about the "senior bench" to sing informally.

Swing-out, an old and venerable, as well as a beautiful tradition of the senior class, was held in May and celebrated the first wearing of the cap and gown. Because of lack of interest and respect for this honored old tradition, especially noticeable in the 1920's during the "prohibition era," Swing-out was discontinued in 1934 by action of the Student Council.

One of the most interesting and venerated of student traditions was the "burning of Mechanics" or, as it was sometimes called, the "hanging" of Mechanics, Physics, or Mathematics. Originally, it took place in honor of the completion of the course in physics under Professor ("Punky") Williams. It was celebrated as early as February 6, 1860, by the class of '61, and lasted, with interruptions and variations, until the early 1900's. The ceremonies were unique. Usually a procession of "solemn officials" in costume escorted the "corpus," borne on an elaborate bier, to a place of judgment, where the victim — the course in mechanics (physics, mathematics) — was most impressively "tried," "condemned," and "executed."

Programs printed for the occasion are among the most interesting memorabilia of student life. They were interesting, amusing, and sometimes "objectionable." The class of '64 severed the "Mechanical Jugular"; that of '65 "'suspended' the Physical Corpus"; the class of '66 used the method of "spontaneous combustion"; and that of '67 conducted an "Ignominious Execution of Physica Mechanica." At that time eight juniors armed with bayonets guarded the "corpus" from the infuriated sophomores, whose class cap had been placed upon the head of the "corpus," a skull furnished by the "medics!"

During the later years of Professor Williams' incumbency, from 1868 on, the custom was not regularly observed. The class of '74 celebrated it in 1873, and we read that the procession on that occasion was headed by the Grand Marshal on horseback, personifying King William of Germany. Then followed the dray bearing the culprit, who was presided over by a young "devil," one-half black and the other red, provided with horns, tail, and tripod. Then came the junior class, arrayed in fantastic costumes and armed with torches. The Page  1769principal characters were the judges and lawyers, with their white wigs and ermine cloaks, a bishop with his tall hat and string of "beads" (potatoes), and the members of the female delegation, who were truly ridiculous. In the course of march, they halted in front of the residence of the professor of physics and greeted him with hearty cheers. On the campus an immense crowd awaited, and the students immediately proceeded to the stage and commenced the trial. The prosecuting attorney alluded to the fact that physics had robbed them of much midnight oil and disturbed their dreams. This crime was great, and justice demanded his life. The counsel for the defense pleaded mercy for his client … But all his eloquence had no weight with the relentless judge, who sentenced the culprit to immediate death by hanging. On the class program of 1879, we read of the "Crematio Physicae Mechanicae," with the heading "Physics is dead, that mean old cuss, he'll never bore us more," illustrated by the picture of an imp being roasted over a fire.

Class dances have always been traditional social customs. In 1868 the graduating class gave the first Senior Hop on the eve before Thanksgiving day. This became the most definitely organized and important student social function of that time. In 1870 the Senior Social was instituted. The class of '71 gave the last Senior Hop. The juniors adopted the idea, however, and in 1872 occurred the first Junior Hop, now known as the "J-Hop." From 1880 to 1887 a Society Hop was held by the fraternities and independents. The Junior Hop was established under fraternity control by 1886, the fraternities by this time having assumed leadership in social affairs. There was considerable difficulty and rivalry between the fraternities and the independents — between the Palladium (fraternity) and non-Palladium (nonfraternity) groups. In 1896, the junior class desiring more definite control of this social activity, a constitution was drawn up to guide the Hop Committee. The dance was held, in early days, at the Gregory House, the old hotel on the northwest corner of Main and Huron streets. It was held in the Armory in 1876, and in the 1880's, it was often held in Hangsterfer's Hall, at the southwest corner of Main and Washington streets. Later, it was given in Waterman Gymnasium and later still in the Sports Building. Disorderly conduct of the students and public criticism have on several occasions compelled the University to ban the Hop for a given year. Long ago, however, it established itself as a major social tradition.

Academic Gowns

The class of 1894 of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts was the first to wear academic gowns at a Michigan Commencement. The students of the Law School and the Medical School opposed the idea. When told that it was an old English custom to use academic dress on important occasions they replied: "I suppose then that if someone told you it was raining in England, you'd turn up your trousers." The debate raged for weeks. Finally, some of the "Lits" bought gowns, and the "Laws" and the "Medics" served notice that anyone appearing on campus in such garb would be forcibly disrobed. That was the last year in which morning chapel was held in University Hall in what later became the offices of the recorder and of the dean of students.

The gown-wearing "Lits" set the day on which they were to appear, and the turbulent senior "Laws" prepared for a fracas. The dean of the Law School, learning of their designs, scheduled an Page  1770examination in order to keep them fully occupied during the danger period. The junior "Laws" then took up the cudgels. The "Lits" met in University Hall, donned their robes, and went to chapel in a body. All was calm until they started to leave after the service. The junior "Laws" were waiting at the door. As the procession approached, with Dean Martin L. D'Ooge and President Angell at the head, the "Laws" flashed into action. Dean D'Ooge demanded, "Young gentlemen, young gentlemen, what does this mean?" His question was ignored, and the invaders reached for the first gown. Just then "Prexy" went into action. Beaming upon the vandals with his most genial smile he inquired, "Can I do anything for you, gentlemen?" The enemy sheepishly disappeared. Later, however, a formal challenge to a "rush" was sent to the gownites and as formally accepted. The same evening the "Medics" and the "Laws," robed in nightshirts, met the "Lits." The battle was long and furious, but the "Lits" won. The next morning the fraternity houses on State Street were all aflutter with white streamers torn from the back of the enemy. This was the origin of the famous nightshirt parade which became an annual feature greatly enjoyed by the youth of the University community until the night when the leaders lost their heads and invaded the Library, creating such a disturbance that the parade was abolished.

In later years Swing-out was staged in connection with the vesper services held at four o'clock on Tuesdays and Thursdays in University Hall. These services, which replaced the old chapel services, were well attended by students and townspeople; in those days the Columbian organ was still new and people flocked to hear it.

Once the custom of wearing gowns was established in the Literary College, it was soon adopted by all the senior classes, resulting in part, no doubt, because of the strong contrast between the simple dignity of the black robes and the fantastic garb worn by some of the other students.

The student habit of flipping the tassel on the mortar board from left to right upon completion of graduation is without legitimate grounds; the American Council on Education has ruled that the custom is a mere "superstition."

Gowns for all bachelor's degree candidates should be black serge or worsted, with pointed sleeves; for the master's degree, black silk, serge, or worsted, with long closed sleeves; for the doctorate, black silk, with open round sleeves, faced down the front with velvet, with three velvet bars across each sleeve. The velvet should be black or a color that corresponds to the college or department which is granting the degree. All hoods should be of the same material as the gown and lined with yellow and blue. The edging of the hood should be of satin, silk, or velvet, the color indicating the department named in the diploma. Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degree hoods should be distinguished by length and width of edging. Mortar board caps of black serge or worsted covering are worn with all robes, with tassel of black or the color of the department granting the degree. Recipients of doctorates may wear tassels of gold thread on the regular cap. While tassels may hang on any side, the cap is an integral part of academic dress and should not be removed except during prayer. Colors distinctive of the various schools, colleges, and departments to which degrees pertain are: arts and letters, white; philosophy, dark blue; science, golden yellow; engineering, orange; fine arts and architecture, brown; law, purple; medicine, green; pharmacy, olive-green; dentistry, lilac; forestry, russet; education, light blue; Page  1771business administration, drab; library science, lemon; public health, salmon pink; music, pink; public administration, black; nursing, apricot; and social work, citron.

Chapel Services

In the early days of the University, students and faculty were up betimes. The first requirement of the day was attendance at chapel — in the fall and the spring at five-thirty in the morning, and during the winter at six-thirty. Because the services were held in North College (Mason Hall), which was used also as a dormitory, the students had not far to go. Members of the faculty who lived in the residences on the campus were also near at hand. A recitation followed immediately, before the students were free to go to breakfast at private homes in town. There was a second chapel session at four-thirty or five in the afternoon.

Religious influence was strong in the University. It could scarcely have been otherwise, for the first two professors were ministers. The Reverend George Palmer Williams, who taught natural philosophy, physics, and mathematics, was an Episcopalian, and the Reverend Joseph Whiting, who taught Latin and Greek, was a Presbyterian. Both were capable teachers, but they were selected, at least in part, to counteract the feeling in some circles that a state university would be a godless institution.

For the same reason, probably, attendance at chapel was made compulsory, and students were required to be at church on Sunday in the denomination of their choice. A proctor at each took roll. So determined were the Regents to avoid hostile criticism from religious organizations that for a number of years each of the leading Protestant sects was given representation on the faculty.

The religious practices at the University of Michigan, like the curriculum, were patterned after those of the colleges and universities in the East. Lyman D. Norris, who entered with the first class in 1841, left after three years and was admitted to Yale. In letters to his parents he explained that the programs, both academic and religious, were the same in New Haven as in Ann Arbor.

In 1856 President Henry Philip Tappan abolished the dormitory system because the buildings were needed for classrooms. Students had to find living quarters in town. Perhaps in recognition of the fact that they lived at some distance from the building, the President set the hour for chapel at seven forty-five.

After the Medical School was established in 1850, the announcement in the Catalogue read: "The undergraduate students are required to attend prayers daily in the College chapel." Because a candidate for admission to the Medical School had only to present "satisfactory evidence of good moral character, … [evidence] of a good English education, the knowledge of Natural Philosophy, the elementary Mathematical Sciences, and such an acquaintance with the Latin and Greek Languages as will enable … [him] to appreciate the technical language of medicine and read and write prescriptions," he could scarcely be called a graduate. The real reason for discrimination was that the room used for chapel was large enough for only the Literary students. In 1862 the Regents discussed the possibility of raising funds by subscription to build a chapel, but nothing was done.

Although the program in chapel was probably changed from time to time, the usual order consisted of a prayer and a brief address by the President, a hymn, and announcements. In 1870 Acting-President Henry Simmons Frieze introduced choral music. On Saturdays students Page  1772gave speeches. Saturday services were discontinued in 1871, and a few years later, attendance was made voluntary.

Professor Charles K. Wead explained in a letter written in 1877 that chapel was held at nine-fifteen "for those who choose to attend: from a third to a half of the academic students are usually present — that is, a majority of those who come out of recitation at 9:15 or are to go in at 9:30." He reported that President Angell always conducted the service. Morning prayers continued on this basis until 1895, when they were replaced by semiweekly vesper services.

During the period when attendance was required, some of the students, as might be expected, deliberately cut chapel. Proctors may have had some difficulty in taking roll, for in 1856, according to Daniel Satterthwaite's diary, the seats were numbered to facilitate checking. Because they had little interest in the proceedings, many of the students engaged in horseplay. Hostilities between sophomores and freshmen were carried into chapel, and ribald chants, shouts, and the throwing of hymnbooks, apple cores, and other missiles continued during the service.

This unchecked disorder apparently discouraged members of the faculty from being present. Their absence was resented by the students. One of them, Vincent S. Lovell, on February 7, 1870, wrote in his diary the following observation on the subject: "Quite an array of Professors at prayers this morning. It has always seemed to me as if the Faculty could require the attendance of the students with a good deal better grace, if there were more of them at morning prayers themselves."

A short while after Dr. James B. Angell became President, he wrote a letter in which he described his initial experiences in chapel. At the first session which he attended there was boisterous singing and throwing of missiles before the service began, and there was some commotion while it was in progress. According to Dr. Angell, this condition had prevailed for twenty years, and no president could stop it.

Dr. Angell reported that he did not preside at this first session but that he spoke briefly after the prayer, making no reference to the disorder. The boys went out noisily. The next morning, the President was in the room before the students entered. When he saw some sophomores preparing to throw nuts at the freshmen, he asked them to refrain. They obeyed. As the boys went out, there was some shouting. On the third morning the students were quiet. Dr. Angell made some remarks about the previous disturbances. The boys listened quietly, and there had been no further outbreaks up to the time of writing. Some students, however, found other means of amusement. Later, a horse was brought into chapel, and on another occasion freshmen put varnish on the sophomores' benches. President Angell had the respect of the students, and, in spite of such occasional lapses, during his administration the service was conducted in a dignified manner.

Class and Interschool Rivalry

Class rivalry, particularly between the freshman and sophomore classes, has been traditional ever since the early days of the University. This feeling, which has found expression in many forms, has been the result not only of student enthusiasm but particularly of an effort and a desire on the part of those already on the campus to initiate newcomers. From the first, there was rivalry between members of the various schools — for example, between the "Medics" and Page  1773"Laws," or the "Lits" and "Medics" and "Laws."

When the University Senate, in the late 1860's, established University Day in order to bring about a closer relationship between the students in the different departments, disputes arose concerning the selection of the chief officers for that day. The order of march finally decided upon was Medical class, Law class, and Literary class. The first University Day took place on November 17, 1869. The second, on November 21, 1870, resulted in a fight. The order of the classes on that occasion was Law, Literary, and Medical. As the procession returned from the exercises, which were held in one of the city churches, the "Laws," who were carrying the blue silk banner of their department, were attacked by undergraduate "Lits." A wild "rush" followed, with considerable damage to the members of the classes and the tearing of the banner. Such bitter feeling resulted that the celebration of University Day had to be abandoned.

In 1872 members of the Medical class tried to play football on the same field on which the contest between the freshman and sophomore Literary classes was scheduled. A struggle resulted between the "Lits" and "Medics," but the "Lits" succeeded in driving the "Medics" off the campus and outside the fence. Many spectators watched the long struggle in which, it is said, "nearly 700 or more men pushed and shouted and tugged and wrestled." The "Lits" marched in triumphant procession, arranged in the order of their classes, into the town where with cheers and songs they celebrated their victory.

When the students lived in the college dormitories it was customary for individual classes to meet in the same recitation rooms day after day. In addition to a desire to show their class spirit by wearing caps and colors, they also gave vent to their feelings by hazing and "rushing." The classes of '68, '70, and '73 seem to have had a superabundance of such spirit. Strong class friendships and interests helped to increase class rivalry. With the growth of the University, however, the number of student rooming houses decreased, compulsory attendance at chapel was discontinued, and, as a result, class spirit decreased. After the introduction of the elective system of studies, whereby members of the various classes often met in the same room, the consciousness of class distinction died down.

Before the building of University Hall, however, when conditions in the Literary College were so crowded, "rushes" ensued in corridors and on stairways, in which the freshmen tussled with the "sophs." In October, 1867, a fight between the two classes inaugurated the custom of holding good-natured tests of strength, in which the faculty did not intervene. When the class of '72 vented its wrath upon the class of '73 by hurling apples and other missiles in chapel, the faculty took action, and a per capita assessment upon the culprits to pay for damage done to the chapel was made. Soon rivalry took the form of football contests between the classes. Each side mustered an indefinite number of men; the object, in a fairly simple style of football, was to kick two out of three goals. Boxing and wrestling matches often accompanied the game, and the result was a so-called "football rush." The rivalry between the classes of '92 and '93, between 117 sophomores and 163 freshmen, resulting in injury to one freshman, helped to do away with this form of sport.

During hazing activities between the classes of '73 and '74, a band of sophomores "pumped" a group of freshmen by treating their heads to a cold water bath. This form of hazing was a popular college Page  1774sport. By the spring of 1874, hazing had become so common that it was looked upon as a nuisance, and the faculty determined to put an end to it by using the penalty of suspension. In April, 1874, three sophomores and three freshmen were suspended, thus arousing great indignation among the students. Parades and meetings were held, and two faculty members were hissed on the street. Fellow members of the sophomore and freshman classes filed petitions claiming equal guilt with the suspended students. This resulted, finally, in the dismissal of all eighty-one students for the remainder of the college year, with a great deal of attendant publicity.

During the 1880's, it was popular to kidnap the toastmaster of the freshman banquet. The introduction and popularity of organized athletic sports and games and organized physical exercise did much to divert excessive class spirit into other and less disturbing channels. At the same time, with the growth of the University, student clubs and societies were organized, resulting in a more systematic control of student affairs and of all nonathletic relationships. This systematic organization of student life began in the 1870's; by 1905 a student council had been organized to guide and assist in all such matters.

In the 1890's the class rivalries found expression in the "banner scrap." In fall, several weeks after the opening of college, on a designated Friday, the freshmen would gather about the flagpole to defend their banner against the sophomore class. The struggle lasted until the sophomores captured the freshman banner or until such time as the freshmen had been able to defend it for at least thirty minutes. After the contest, both classes continued to indulge their competitive zest, largely in an attempt to force members of the other class up trees. The freshman banquet customarily took place in February in Granger's Academy. The sophomores aimed to keep as many freshmen as possible from attending. For a time this was done by capturing freshmen and shaving the hair from their heads. This practice became such a nuisance and aroused so much criticism that it was abolished in 1906. In May four big contests were held. The "Tug of War," in which sixty members of the freshman class opposed sixty members of the sophomore class took place on the Huron River. A flag was fastened to the middle of a 350-foot rope, and the victors had to pull their opponents across the river in such a way that the flag arrived high and dry on the winning side. This contest was supervised by the Student Council. On the eve of the "Tug of War" the "Great Rock Scrap" took place. From 8:00 p.m. until 6:00 a.m. the following morning the freshmen attempted to place a large rock bearing their class numerals upon the campus, which during that time was defended by the sophomores. On the following morning, at Ferry Field, the contest between the classes was continued by a Relay Race and a Push Ball contest. The classes were so well organized that every member was able to participate in one or more of these contests. At their close, class rivalry for the school year was considered at an end. Cap Night, held in June, celebrated the cessation of hostilities.

Oftentimes, adventurous spirits performed harmless but rather unpleasant "pranks" in the name of their class. Members of the class of '73 unfurled a huge "Junior Brigands" banner on the flagstaff which surmounted the dome of the newly completed University Hall. A "tobacco-sign Indian" also found its way to the pedestal above the dome. To the Indian were tied four roosters, which crowed unceasingly and distressfully from the middle of the night until released Page  1775in the morning by the sore-pressed and disgusted janitor. In very early days a bell, mounted on a post between the North and South buildings (old Mason Hall and South Wing), was rung to awaken the inhabitants of the dormitories and to summon them to classes and chapel. A common student prank was to muffle the bell, to steal it, or in some way to render it useless so that it could not ring. Upon one occasion, following the theft of the bell, President Tappan's wise handling of the situation so shamed the malefactors that they not only returned it but agreed to attend classes regularly without being summoned. In those days strict attendance records were kept. Practical jokers, out of pure mischief, were not adverse to lodging a donkey or a cow (at that time animals were frequently pastured on the campus), a goose or a rooster in the classroom, to the surprise and discomfiture of the professor and the childish glee of a few boisterous spirits. Once a large amount of hay found its way into chapel before the exercises. Certainly such "jokes" were crude, but were they any less annoying than the present-day custom of painting class numerals on sidewalks and University buildings or of invading women's dormitories in raids?

In 1900, when interdepartmental rivalry ran high among the students, the "Lits" raised the class banner, flaunting the numerals of the class, to the top of the University flagpole. The enraged "Laws" enlisted the aid of a sharpshooter from the West, who brought the emblem down at the second shot. During the early 1900's, the practices of haircutting, face-painting, house-raiding, kidnaping — particularly of officers of the rival classes — were common. "Campus tickets" were sold to gullible freshmen every fall. The rivalry between the freshman and sophomore classes on "Black Friday" in the fall was accompanied by much disorder and unruly conduct. "Pumping" and "hair-cutting" activities and "traditions" had become a veritable "nightmare." In October, 1908, the Law faculty took measures which led to the "reform" of the traditional class "rush" and did much to abolish the more dangerous aspects of class rivalry. Pushball and tug-of-war contests were substituted for the annual flag and pole rushes.

Commencement

On August 6, 1845, the first University of Michigan Commencement was held in the Presbyterian Church of Ann Arbor. At that time, the only division of the University was the Literary Department. Each member of the class of 1845, which consisted of eleven men, was required to give an oration. The event was chronicled in the Michigan State Gazette of Jackson on August 11, 1845, as follows:

Correspondence of the State Gazette

Commencement

Editor of the Gazette,

Dear Sir: — In compliance with your request, I will give you such notes as I made of the commencement exercises of the University held in Ann Arbor Wednesday the 6th instant. This is the first regular "commencement" of our University, and its proceedings were viewed with much interest, by members from various parts of the State who had gathered to witness the proceedings. Michigan may well be proud of possessing such an institution as her University, which, although originated among the numerous extravagant schemes of the Mason Administration, yet remains a permanent blessing to the people, and although its funds have been somewhat crippled during the last few years, on account of the pressure of the times preventing that sale of the lands with which she was endowed, that was anticipated, still much good substantial learning has been diffused by its agency, and many young Page  1776ideas moulded for usefulness and honor. The proceedings of this commencement were unusually interesting, from the fact of its being the first time it has furnished a graduating class, or conferred degrees, and much solicitude was felt to see what would be the first fruits of the State's literary bantling.

The procession was formed at the University grounds at ten o'clock Wednesday morning and marched to the Presbyterian church, where the exercises were appointed to be held and in which a platform had been erected and arrangements made.

I noticed on the platform a number of the Regents, the Governor, Judges Fitch, Whipple, and Goodwin, and other dignitaries of the State, and a number of clergymen among whom was Mr. Fitch of our own town to whom was assigned the introductory prayer.

And here I would like, were it not too invidious, where all performed their part so creditably, to mention particularly the pleasure which I experienced in listening to the addresses of some of the speakers. The salutatory address was by Edmund Fish of Bloomfield, delivered in that peculiarly stately and harmonious idiom, the Latin, and was followed by a beautiful address from Edwin Lawrence of Monroe, on the subject of romance, who reviewed the classic days of Greece and Rome, the subsequent dark ages of Europe, and the adventurous times of the Crusaders, in a manner peculiarly elegant and graceful.

An address by P. W. H. Rawls of Kalamazoo, on "the perfection of philosophy" was particularly eloquent and well composed, and delivered with superior diction and purity of style, and also a poem, "The Nazarene," by the same person, was extremely well composed and eloquently delivered. An address by George E. Parmelee of Ann Arbor, on "the proper direction of intellectual effort," displayed much variety of thought and finish of composition combined with an accomplished and interesting delivery.

"The claims of agriculture and science" was presented by George W. Pray of Washtenaw, in an address replete with forcible argument and sound practical logic, and was highly creditable to him both for its sentiments, and the manner of its delivery. It exhibited the claims of agriculture to the attention of scientific men, and the benefits to the country of science so directed, in a masterly manner, illustrated by much vigor of thought and sound reasoning.

A Greek poem, by Thomas B. Cuming of Grand Rapids, was recited in an elegant and interesting manner, by its youthful author, who though in appearance still a freshman was among those who received the degree of Bachelor of Arts.

The valedictory address was by Fletcher O. Marsh of Kalamazoo, who well acquitted himself in the part assigned him. His reference to the past history of the University to the long association of teachers and students, and the prospect of their immediate parting, and his allusions to the sudden decease of their respected President was peculiarly affecting and appropriate.

Degrees were conferred on eleven graduates.

The music from a choir composed mostly of students, with which the exercises were interspersed was throughout excellent, — The address to the graduating class was by Professor Tenbrook.

In the afternoon a society of alumni was formed and an address delivered before the literary societies by Rev. Mr. Duffield of Detroit, with his usual ability.

Yours, truly, J. M. T.

Ann Arbor, August 7, 1845.

[J. M. T. = Jerome M. Treadwell.]

The custom of having each member of the class give an oration was continued until the classes became so large that it was impossible; thereafter a few graduates were chosen to participate in the program. This was not a very satisfactory arrangement, however, as it was difficult to choose the representatives of the class fairly. The dissatisfaction with the past method of conducting the Commencement exercises, together with the fact that in 1878 for the first time the Commencement exercises of the Literary and Medical departments were held together, led to the issuing of an invitation Page  1777to an outside speaker to give the Commencement address.

Up to 1878 each department of the University held its Commencement separately. In 1878 the term of the Medical Department was extended to June and the exercises of the Literary and Medical departments were combined. From 1884 on, the Commencement exercises of all departments were held in June.

Until 1874 the graduation exercises were held in the different churches in Ann Arbor, and occasionally in the hall of the Union School Building. With the completion of University Hall, the University campus had, for the first time, an auditorium large enough to take care of the crowd of townspeople and parents who attended the Commencement exercises.

University Hall continued to be the center of Commencement activities until Hill Auditorium was opened. A few years after World War I Commencement exercises were transferred to Ferry Field or to Yost Field House, depending on weather conditions. The exercises are now held in the Stadium in good weather.

The present order of exercises consists of the national anthem, the invocation, the address to the graduating classes, the conferring of degrees (including honorary degrees), the response of the graduating classes, the welcome to the Alumni Association, singing "The Yellow and Blue," and benediction.

The Students and the Town

There were many conflicts in the early days between members of the student body and various elements in the young and growing town of Ann Arbor. Some of these events are interesting because they reflect not only a mischievous penchant on the part of the students for playing pranks and practical jokes, but also the misunderstanding which arose between students and townspeople and the resulting effort by citizens and faculty to preserve law and order.

The population of Ann Arbor was greatly increased during the middle of the nineteenth century by the immigration of German settlers. These people were industrious and thrifty and became in time a leading influence in the life of the town. Some of them early established drinking and eating places in Ann Arbor after the German style. Among such taverns were Hangsterfer's and Binder's, both favorite student haunts.

In 1856 occurred what later was to become known as the "Dutch War." Two young men had made themselves conspicuously unpleasant at Hangsterfer's. They were reprimanded by the proprietor, and, a quarrel resulting, the students were ejected. The next evening they returned, greatly reinforced, and threateningly informed the proprietor that he must treat the crowd or "take the consequences." Upon his refusal, the students charged him with the battle cry, "revenge or beer!" A fight resulted in which knives were drawn, clubs were swung, kegs and barrels broken up, beer spilled, and the place badly damaged. The terrified defendants fled, with the students in pursuit. They were halted by the police, and although the officers of the law used diplomacy in attempting to settle the difficult situation, the students nursed a grudge and awaited an opportunity "to get even." After attending an Alpha Nu "spread" at Hangsterfer's, six students, ready for mischief and bent on revenge, decided to attend a dance for the townspeople, advertised to take place at Binder's. By means of a window, they gained access to a room where refreshments were laid out ready to be served. Here, carelessly noisy while eating and drinking, they were discovered, and although five got away, one was Page  1778captured and held. Those who escaped rushed back to the campus for reinforcements, and a crowd of students surrounded Binder's demanding the release of the prisoner. Binder, in turn, retaliated by asking a ransom of ten dollars for the culprit. The students became angrier and more determined. Using three large timbers as battering rams, they advanced upon the building, much to the terror of the guests within. Some of them obtained muskets. Surrounded by such a hostile force, Binder yielded and gave up the prisoner. The next day warrants were issued for the six students, but they were aided not only by their fellows, it is said, but by members of the faculty, and were so well shielded that in time the complainant, when confronted with a charge of selling liquor to minors, withdrew his complaint, and allowed his warrants to be quashed.

Other exciting conflicts between students and townspeople arose out of a mischievous desire on the part of the students to tear up the wooden sidewalks which lined the city streets and to carry away the gates and the posts of the fences which enclosed private yards. In the early days many complaints in the college papers concerned the constant need for repair of these rickety walks. On Monday evening, April 11, 1870, members of the class of 1873 raided and tore up the walks, making a very thorough job of it. The malefactors were threatened with arrest. City officials were violently angry, and only through the agency of Acting President Frieze, who took upon himself the financial obligation of settling the matter, were friendly relations restored. The class of 1873 later reimbursed Dr. Frieze by an assessment on the class.

During the 1880's the celebration of Halloween caused much damage to the town. In 1881 some junior medical students smashed street lamps and were fined $150. In 1883 the walks were torn up again; business signs were removed and lost to the rightful owners; and a statue of Benjamin Franklin which adorned the campus was covered with fresh paint. Considerable antagonism existed between the students and the Ann Arbor police force. At the slightest provocation "wild" students were arrested by the minions of the law.

For years there were no mail deliveries in Ann Arbor. The post office was lodged in a small frame building at the northwest corner of Ann Street and Fourth Avenue. In the late afternoon and evening, it was customary for the students to assemble and stand in line for their mail. On October 12, 1877, the freshmen and sophomores, after threatening to attack each other at the post office, adjourned to the campus for a "rush," but certain citizens had been sufficiently alarmed to summon help. A student who had taken no part in the disturbance was foolishly arrested in the post office, however, and not discharged until the next morning. This resulted in more student ill feeling toward the police.

At the opening of the 1879 term, such resentment had developed between students and the local constabulary that on the evening of October 14, policemen were stationed at the post office door so that only one student at a time could enter. It became apparent that an unnecessary delay would ensue in the delivery of the mail. The angry students broke out in hostile shouts and yells, and of course a disturbance arose. On the following night a large crowd of students and armed citizens gathered. The fire bell was rung to call out the state militia, and the latter charged with fixed bayonets. The mayor offered two dollars for every student arrested, and many were taken into custody. This unfortunate action Page  1779caused considerable trouble and did nothing to allay the ill feeling and animosity which was arising between "town and gown."

Another "rush" occurred in the post office in November, 1890. Several days later, rifle shots were heard in the center of the town. Several hundred students gathered, sensing and perhaps looking for trouble. Although the shots had been fired to celebrate the marriage of a member of the local militia, a noisy and excited crowd gathered in front of the house where the festivities were being held. The militia was called out, a conflict arose, the police attacking and trying to capture the students. One freshman, apparently only an onlooker, was struck by the butt end of a musket. A hand-to-hand fight ensued in which the sergeant of the militia was injured by a missile thrown by someone in the crowd. The student who had been attacked died. Public sentiment was aroused, and action by the governor of the state resulted. The local police force was disbanded, thus helping to allay the bitter feeling of the students toward the townspeople.

Many other student pranks caused difficulties between citizens and students. Upon one occasion, when the electric street railway was new in Ann Arbor, a student was carried beyond the place where he wished to alight. An argument arose between student and motorman. The student, demanding that he be returned to his destination, drew a revolver and wounded the motorman. Although he was arrested and expelled from the University, he escaped conviction.

On Commencement Day, in 1878, when the first Ann Arbor Railroad train arrived from Toledo, one of the flatcars contained a huge cannon, which was captured and pulled up State Street to the campus. During Commencement exercises in University Hall someone touched off the cannon, and the report, it is said, "was thunderous." Only President Angell's poise and sense of humor saved the dignity of the Commencement exercises.

One of the most sensational of student riots, known as the Star Theater riot, occurred on the night of March 16, 1908. The Star Theater was a "nickel" motion picture house situated on the south side of Washington Street, midway between Main Street and Fourth Avenue. One of a group of students persisted in whistling during the performance after he had been warned to be quiet. The proprietor ordered the troublemakers to leave. An altercation arose, during which one student struck the manager. In the scramble which resulted, the wrongdoers were ejected, but the next night several hundred students gathered outside the theater to jeer and sing.

On the following Monday the proprietor announced that his performance was conducted for townspeople and added that he did not care for student patronage. That evening almost a thousand students gathered in the street before the theater, defying the management. Eggs and vegetables were thrown at the theater. Bricks from a nearby building in the process of construction were hurled, and mob spirit ran riot. The theater and its contents were well-nigh demolished, the proprietor escaping by way of the back door. The fire department was called out, but streams of water did little to deter the angry students. The officers of the law were almost helpless. Even President Angell and Dean Hutchins, who were called, could not make themselves heard. On the following day eighteen students whom the police had been able to pick up on the outskirts of the mob found themselves in jail. Fifteen were turned over to the circuit court, but were bailed out and Page  1780criminal charges against them dismissed. The student body, however, dug down into its pockets and raised more than $1,000 to pay for the damages.

Riots prompted by the desire for free shows at the theaters have not been uncommon since that time, especially since the increase in the number of motion picture theaters. It was customary in the 1920's and 1930's for the management to give complimentary performances at the time of class games and on other special occasions.

In the early 1920's, upon one occasion, students rushed the Whitney Theater to see a well-known musical, entering the theater without tickets and occupying the best seats, thereby preventing the rightful occupants from seeing the performance. The united efforts of Dean Bursley and President Burton were necessary at that time to enable the "show" to go on.

In the early days the visit of a circus to Ann Arbor was an event. It was not unusual for groups of students to "rush" circus performances. On May 23, 1871, they bolted classes to see the Van Amburgh Circus, and only two boys appeared in Professor Jones's Greek class. (It is interesting to note that later all of the bolters were suspended until the following September.) Owing to some slight altercation between students and circus personnel, the students returned in the evening bent on mischief. By some trick they managed to loosen the seat supports so that both seats and occupants fell during the performance. A riot ensued. Memory of this escapade is preserved for Michigan students in the well-known song "I'm Going to the Hamburg Show," the word "Hamburg" having been substituted for the long since forgotten Van Amburgh. Another unfortunate "circus prank" occurred in the 1900's during a visit of Ringling Brothers to Ann Arbor. At that time the students threw firecrackers under the elephants during the parade. The terrified elephants, of course, stampeded, and the crowd rushed off in all directions. Ringling Brothers never visited Ann Arbor again, and for years the larger circuses avoided the city.

Michigan Songs

Distinctive college songs in American colleges doubtless came into being under the influence of student songs, particularly the German student songs, of the European universities. Many are obviously of German parentage, the music having been taken over bodily in some instances and the refrains vocalized in imitation of old German drinking songs. The first collection of college secret-society songs appeared in 1849, and Yale's first book of songs bears the date 1853.

The college songs of the University of Michigan rank high among those of other American colleges. Expressing the conviviality and inspiration of student life, wherever Michigan undergraduates or alumni meet, the singing of these old songs at once revives sentiments and memories which are dear to all and renews bonds of affection and loyalty.

During the 1860's efforts were made by student publications to increase the interest in singing at Michigan. In 1860 the Palladium encouraged the writing of college songs, and in the University Magazine for February, 1862, appeared "Ann Arbor Litoria," which became very popular:

Ann Arbor is a jolly home;
Sweedle inktum bum.
We love it still where e'er we roam;
Sweedle inktum bum.
The very songs we used to sing,
Sweedle inktum hi ru sa,
In memory's echoes long shall ring,
Sweedle inktum bum.
Page  1781Efforts were continued to produce "original" Michigan songs rather than imitations or adaptations of those sung in other universities or imported from abroad. The editors of the Palladium in 1864-65 offered a prize of ten dollars for the best original song. A committee, composed of President Haven and Professors Frieze and Evans, selected two of equal merit. The first, "Michigan University Song," by Arthur H. Snow ('65), sung to the air of the "Marseillaise," began:
Come, jolly boys, and lift your voices,
Ring out, ring out one hearty song…
The other, by James K. Blish ('66), entitled "Our College Home," was sung to the tune of "Upidee":
Come, throw your busy cares away
.....
And join us in our cheerful lay, …
Blish also wrote the "Quodlibet," sung to the tune of "The Captain with His Whiskers":
'Tis September's golden month, when the opening is at hand,
That we watch the trains and registers, to see the Freshman land…
The Palladium prize in 1868-69 was given to Richard S. Dewey ('69) for his "Let Every Student Fill His Bowl." The chorus, sung to the air of "Come, Landlord, Fill Your Flowing Bowl," began:
Let every student fill his bowl
With something not too strong, sir,
And pledge our Alma Mater's health,
And join this jovial song, sir; …
An old song to Dr. Tappan and the faculty, based upon the hymn, "Where, Oh Where Are the Hebrew Children?" has come down to us in a slightly different version: "Where, Oh Where Are the Verdant Freshmen?"

Professor Frieze (see Part I: The Administration of Henry Simmons Frieze), who was an excellent musician and a devoted lover of music, rendered incalculable service to the University and to the student body in his untiring efforts to develop an interest in things musical. He introduced and directed the choir at chapel exercises and constantly endeavored to arouse enthusiasm for student songs and singing. His efforts led to the establishment of definite student musical organizations, instrumental and vocal, of choral groups, class glee clubs and finally of the University Glee Club. New impetus was thereby given to the writing and singing of Michigan songs.

The most noteworthy collection is contained in a pamphlet, issued in 1889, entitled Songs of the Yellow and Blue. The publication of this slight volume marked an important step in the history of student singing at Michigan. The book contains some twenty songs, the words by Charles Mills Gayley ('78) and Fred Newton Scott ('84), and the music for the most part by Albert A. Stanley (A.M. hon. Mich. '90, D. Mus. '30) — all three honored alumni of the University and important figures in its development. In March, 1890, a second edition appeared. Some of these songs have become forever associated with Michigan student life. The first song in the volume is "The Yellow and Blue," the words by Gayley and music arranged from Balfe's "Pirate's Chorus." "Laudes Atque Carmina," the words by Gayley and music by Stanley, and "Goddess of the Inland Seas," the words by Gayley and the music adapted from J. Peters, are among the noblest and most inspired of college songs. Other songs celebrate the fun and good spirit of student life. Worthy of mention in this category are "Birds of a Feather," the "Cigarette Song," "The Co-ed That Vanquishes Me," "Elixir Juventatis," "Romeo and Juliet," and "We, Women of the Nation." "Ann Arbor" was arranged to the tune "The Page  1782Watch on the Rhine," at that time a widely used melody in American schools and colleges. This collection, of which Michigan can certainly be proud, has been described as "easily superior to the song-book of any other college" of its day.

In student publications of the 1880's and 1890's are many excellent verses and songs which were adapted to popular tunes of the times. Some of them today are merely a memory. In the Castalian of 1892 appeared "Universitas Michiganensium" by Frank W. Howe ('93), sung to the tune "Michigan My Michigan."

The "Friar's Song," the words by Harold W. Bowman ('00), was sung for many years at the meetings of the Friars Club and deserves a place in any Michigan songbook. Another old favorite is "'Tis of Michigan We Sing, with a merry, merry ring …" Of the three outstanding contributions in the volume of 1889, the "Laudes Atque Carmina," one of the most memorable of American college songs, has lost in favor because of the almost universal unfamiliarity with the Latin language, and the "Goddess of the Inland Seas" has proven a bit too involved in its classical allusions for modern tastes. "The Yellow and Blue" has taken its place as Michigan's college song.

Student groups have always sung the popular tunes of the times, sometimes adapting them to more purely local conditions. The popularity of athletics, especially of football, since the late 1890's has given rise to many stirring songs and marches. Best known of these has been "The Victors" by Louis Elbel ('96-'99), which has become the Michigan march on all occasions and is known as such throughout the land. Scarcely less popular is the football song, "Varsity," words by J. Fred Lawton ('11), and music by Earl V. Moore ('12). These two stirring march songs have inspired many a Michigan man and woman at athletic contests and pep-meetings. Not so well known nor so popular, but worthy of mention, are the "Men of the Maize and Blue," music by A. J. Gornetzky to words by W. A. P. John; "Fight Men of Michigan," words and music by William C. Archi, Jr., ('14, '17l); "Win for Michigan," by William T. Whedon ('81); and "Men of Yost," by M. B. Cooper, also the composer of the "Michigan Drinking Song."

The Michigan Union operas of the first two decades of the twentieth century provided many of the favorite later day student songs. "Michigenda" (1908) gave the hits "When Night Falls, Dear" and "Oh, Alma Mater," by Roy D. Welch ('09), who also wrote "A Faithful Pipe to Smoke" for the opera "Culture." "Koanzaland" (1909) gave to Michigan two of its well-known favorites, "In College Days" and "Michigan, Good-bye," words by Donald A. Kahn ('07-'10) and music by Earl V. Moore. "The Crimson Chest" (1910) contained the "Bum Army" and "Take Me Back to College," and "Contrairie Mary" (1913) produced the "Friar's Song" and "Men of the Maize and Blue." One of the most widely sung of later day songs has been the "I Want To Go Back to Michigan, to Dear Ann Arbor Town …" The enthusiasm for athletics and the operatic ambitions of the Union have not succeeded, however, in giving us songs which are comparable to the "Laudes Atque Carmina" and the "Yellow and Blue" of the Songbook issued in 1889.

the yellow and blue
Sing to the colors that float in the light;
Hurrah for the Yellow and Blue!
Yellow the stars as they ride thro' the night, And reel in a rollicking crew;
Yellow the fields where ripens the grain
And yellow the moon on the harvest wain; Hail!
Page  1783Hail to the colors that float in the light; Hurrah for the Yellow and Blue!
Blue are the billows that bow to the sun
When yellow-robed morning is due;
Blue are the curtains that ev'ning has spun, The slumbers of Phoebus to woo;
Blue are the blossoms to memory dear,
And blue is the sapphire and gleams like a tear; Hail!
Hail to the ribbons that nature has spun; Hurrah for the Yellow and Blue;
Here's to the college whose colors we wear,
Here's to the hearts that are true!
Here's to the maid of the golden hair, And eyes that are brimming with blue!
Garlands of bluebells and maize intertwine;
And hearts that are true and voices combine; Hail!
Hail to the college whose colors we wear; Hurrah for the Yellow and Blue!
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Humphrey, Edwin H. The Michigan Book. Ann Arbor: Inland Press, 1898.
Michigan's Favorite College Songs. Ed. by Roy D. Welch and Earl V. Moore. Ann Arbor: Publ. by Mrs. Minnie Maes Root.
The Michigan University Song Book. Comp. and ed. by Franklin Wagner ('99-'01, '04l). New York City: Hinds, Noble and Eldredge, 1904.
Shaw, Wilfred B. The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Songs of the Yellow and Blue. Words by Charles M. Gayley and Fred N. Scott. Music by Albert A. Stanley. Detroit, Mich.: Charles Babzin and Co., 1889.

COEDUCATION

Although the Organic Act of 1837 provided for the education of girls in connection with the branches of the University, the question of admitting women to the University itself does not seem to have risen at that time. Only Oberlin College then admitted women. About the middle of the nineteenth century and thereafter, however, the schools being founded in the Midwest and West offered equal educational opportunities to men and women.

Requests for admission had been made to the faculty as early as 1850, but the admission of women first came before the Regents, apparently, in 1858. Several requests were received at that time by the Regents from women asking permission to enter the University. The Regents referred the subject to a committee of three of its members. This committee found that opinions were very sharply divided on the subject, the proponents stressing right and justice and the opponents picturing destruction of the character of the University and ruin to the women who might come to the University.

Distinguished educators and public men were called upon to express their opinions. President Hopkins of Williams College was favorable to the idea, Chancellor Frelinghuysen of New Jersey feared its effects on the reputation of the University would be bad. President Walker of Harvard thought the decision must turn on the question whether females were to be educated for public or private life, and President Woolsey of Yale said he could not see what use degrees would be to girls unless they were to "addict" themselves to professional life. Even President Finney of Oberlin hedged, and Horace Mann dwelt on the dangers of the "terrible" experiment. President Tappan was interested in the education of young women, but thought there was an incompatibility between the two sexes and that college life was inconsistent with the nature of women.

Page  1784The committee after prolonged review of the subject came to the conclusion that matters should be allowed to stand as they were. In accepting the report the Regents resolved that in respect to the interests of the institution and of the young ladies the applications for admission should not be granted.

In 1867, however, the legislature adopted a resolution expressing the opinion that the high objects of the University would never be obtained until women were admitted to all its rights and privileges. This action of the legislature caused the Regents to consider the subject again. President Haven expressed the opinion that coeducation would introduce untold problems, and he proposed that the state provide a separate college for "females." (Apparently Professor James R. Boise informally admitted his own daughters to his classes in Greek in 1867.)

He changed his mind during the following year, however, and announced that he favored the admission of women to the University. In his opinion the honor of the University would thereby be increased rather than diminished. The University at that time was engaged in a controversy over the "homeopathic question," and it seems probable that Haven did not wish to increase differences with the legislature. He resigned in June, 1869, no action on the matter having been taken by the Regents, although Regent Willard had introduced a resolution stating that "in the opinion of the Board no rule exists in any of the University Statutes which excludes women from admission to the University."

The legislature at its next session passed a resolution requesting the Regents to act favorably on the admission of women, in accordance with President Haven's recommendation. And in January, 1870, the Regents adopted a resolution, offered by Regent Willard: "That the Board of Regents recognize the right of every resident of Michigan to the enjoyment of the privileges afforded by the University, and that no rule exists in any of the University statutes for the exclusion of any person from the University, who possesses the requisite literary and moral qualifications."

Almost immediately Madelon L. Stock-well of Kalamazoo presented herself for admission and was accepted as a member of the sophomore class. She graduated in 1872. One of the residence halls for women has been named in her honor. In 1870 thirty-four other women entered the University: fourteen in the Literary College, two in the Law School, and eighteen in the Medical School. Four women graduated in 1871. The first woman graduate of the University was Amanda Sanford of Auburn, New York, who received her degree in medicine. Sarah Killgore of Crawfordsville, Indiana, graduated in law the same day. The other two, Amelia and Mary Upjohn, graduated three months later in pharmaceutical chemistry.

In his report for 1869-70 Acting President Frieze stated that the faculty already saw that its fears concerning the admission of women were groundless and that they now faced the problem of obtaining facilities for the increasing number of students.

The faculty of the Medical School, however, early in 1870 presented a memorial to the Regents stating that "medical co-education of the sexes is at best an experiment of doubtful utility, and one not calculated to increase the dignity of man, nor the modesty of women." They were willing, however, to provide medical instruction to the women separately. As a result two separate courses of instruction were given by the faculty, and in 1871-72 thirty-five women were enrolled in medicine. Within a year this system began to break down — first in the course of Dr. Douglass — and came more or less to an end in 1881, Page  1785when the medical faculty was given discretion in the matter. Segregation of the classes continued in practical anatomy for some years, and at lectures the women sat at one side of the room until the erection of the West Medical Building, when they were allowed to choose their seats.

The majority of the faculty and of the students were opposed to admission of women, and there was even a stronger feeling against them on the part of the townspeople. There was some fear that the University would become less attractive to students and that business would suffer.

In his inaugural address on Commencement Day, 1871, President Angell took up the subject and said that if no undesirable results followed he foresaw that the eastern colleges would open their doors to women and that the effects of the system would be felt in Europe. It is interesting to note that while the eastern men's colleges are relatively unchanged in this respect, European universities are now generally open to both men and women.

The following year Dr. Angell noted that hardly one of the many anticipated embarrassments of coeducation had arisen. The coeds showed themselves capable of meeting the demands of their studies, and their health had not suffered thereby. A few years later he stated proudly that six women on the faculty of Wellesley College, including the president, were graduates of the University. And women graduates in medicine were already engaged in foreign lands as medical missionaries. (It may be noted that a growing stream of foreign students began to come to the University from the lands to which the medical missionaries went.)

President Angell reported in 1893 that women constituted 37 per cent of the students in the Literary College. He noted that too many boys left school to become wage earners before they were far in high school and that in many Michigan high schools the classes were made up almost entirely of girls. If this were to continue, he said, it would not be long before there would be as many college-trained women as men in the country. In 1899 he noted that 53 per cent of the graduates of that year with a bachelor of arts degree were women and that six of the twenty-one master's degrees were given to women.

The following figures show something of the comparative enrollment of men and women in the University in approximately the first half century after the introduction of coeducation:

College of LSA Medical School
Women Men Women Men
1874-75 62 346 47 323
1879-80 81 367 43 307
1884-85 119 405 56 278
1894-95 494 1,024 72 307
1904-5 646 765 30 310
All Undergrad. Totals
1924-25 1,754 3,396 30 506
(There were few women in the other professional schools — 3 in Law, for example, in 1904-5.)

In 1954-55 undergraduates were divided as follows: 4,566 women and 6,850 men; 38 women and 722 men were in the regular medical curriculum. From the first the average work of women has been of higher quality than that of the men.

The effect of coeducation on manners and morals was the subject of much debate. By the beginning of the twentieth century it was the opinion of the faculty that manners had been considerably improved, that there had been a "singular absence of improprieties of conduct," and that the scandals forecast had failed to appear.

Page  1786

THE RESIDENCE HALLS FOR MEN — THE MICHIGAN HOUSE PLAN

THE University of Michigan, which became the prototype of state-supported institutions in the Midwest, took its early shape from an established British and Colonial tradition. This tradition, though far removed from the residential college communities of Oxford and Cambridge, retained some appreciation of the need for housing students. Such housing was not related through tutorial or faculty associations to the academic program of the college or university. Strict proctoral controls and mere dormitory facilities limited the community life among the residents.

A rudimentary form of student housing, therefore, was what Henry Philip Tappan discovered when he assumed the presidency in 1852. With a growing student body the use of potential classroom space for any housing was judged out of place. Tappan not only questioned the value of the dormitories he found at Michigan, but, within one decade, he abolished them.

This act did not necessarily imply indifference to the welfare of the students. Tappan was convinced that a better balanced and more normal kind of accommodation existed among the private families of Ann Arbor. No better form of living could be found, he felt, to assist the student in the transition from his own home to the rigors of university study. He also envisioned an increasingly mature body of students on the campus and anticipated that the growth of the state system of preparatory education would free the University to pursue its proper and lofty function of training only the mature students. These, in turn, he thought, could take care of themselves in and out of the classroom.

President Tappan left the University in 1863 before his program was completed. What he would have done in the face of the continued increase in student enrollment, the admission of women, and the elaboration of undergraduate life in the form of athletic, literary, and fraternal societies cannot be answered. What he would have done when the growth of the University outstripped the family facilities of Ann Arbor raises an even more important question. His advocacy of the private residence rested upon the fact that it was normal and orderly, whereas the dormitory, despite its group values and charm, promoted snobbery and disorder. In spite of the practical sense of his point of view, however, alternative modes of housing did develop. Fraternities came into existence, despite faculty opposition, during his regime. Within a decade of his departure from Ann Arbor, women began to appear on the campus. By 1890 athletics was formally recognized as a part of University life, thus increasing the University's commitment to the undergraduate. Even earlier, boarding and rooming houses began to supplement the private family system of housing students in Ann Arbor. By the end of the first decade and a half of the 1900's, the demand for University-operated residences for women began to bear fruit. The men had to wait longer, but the way had been paved to return to a tradition which now gives the University of Michigan singular distinction among institutions of higher learning.

Concern for the housing of men as a University responsibility achieved sharp focus after World War I when, in 1920, President Burton appointed Professor Joseph A. Bursley as Director of the Housing Bureau for Men. This concern Page  1787gained momentum when that appointment was changed to Dean of Students the following year. It is safe to say that adequate, organized, University-sponsored housing for men became one of Dean Bursley's major obligations. Year after year the annual reports of his office emphasized the following theme: "Dormitories to house all of the students are not necessary, but enough to take care of the freshman class are necessary and vitally so, if the University is satisfactorily to discharge its duties to these young men, many of whom are thrown on their own resources for the first time" (P.R., 1922-23, p. 259).

The 1922-23 report was followed by two comprehensive studies of the housing situation. The first, in 1925, by Professor Robert C. Angell, of the Sociology Department, was indeed a far cry from Tappan's abrupt disposal of the subject. Professor Angell advocated housing for upperclassmen as well as freshmen. He went so far as to recommend a "Plan for Residential Colleges." This study put the problem of student residency in a new framework not unlike that which has distinguished Oxford and Cambridge for centuries. Whether the revival of these ancient and tested forms of student life at Harvard and Yale had anything to do with Angell's thinking is not so relevant as the fact that the University of Michigan has always been in the forefront among publicly supported universities in the development of a mature balance of institutions. The time had arrived, as this study indicates, for the University to commit itself educationally to the provision of shelter. This was indeed a prelude to the Michigan House Plan.

The second study of housing, in 1935-36, was made by Professor Fred B. Wahr, at that time Assistant Dean in Charge of Housing for Men. His view of the situation may best be understood by his own words: "The general housing situation today, the scarcity of good rooms coupled with the increase in attendance, reminds one forcibly of the need for rooms which existed in the early twenties at the close of the War, when the attendance at the University began to increase rapidly" (P.R., 1935-36, pp. 42-45). In the same report Dean Bursley wrote: "We need modern, fireproof, well-equipped but not elaborate nor luxurious dormitories sufficient to care for eight hundred to one thousand men, and built in small units accommodating eighty to one hundred each. Such accommodations would take care of the freshman class and a small number of nonfraternity upperclassmen." One need not underline the shift in Bursley's thinking from need for freshman dormitories in 1922 to a plan for a house system in 1935-36. This change, which was expressed on the eve of the opening of Allen-Rumsey House, was incorporated both physically and educationally in the mature conception of the Michigan House Plan by Professor Karl Litzenberg, the first and only Director of Residence Halls on the campus. Of the purposes of the House Plan he wrote as follows:

A response to the immediate needs of the University was demanded in the 1920's; but a solution which would take the form of minimum sleeping and eating space for 2,500 students was not acceptable to President Ruthven and the Board of Regents. Barracks or serried cubicles could have been built, which might have covered half or three-quarters of the student body with an official university roof and provided adequately for physical welfare. But to quote The University Record:

'The Board of Regents has insisted … that the houses should be more than mere rooming and boarding houses… A Michigan House Plan has, consequently, been developed.'

The position taken by the Board of Regents Page  1788and the President was one which implied that opportunities for self-development, for the profitable use of leisure time, for entering into organized recreational, social, and cultural programs should be made available to students in University-owned residence halls. Hence, the sphere of influence of the house plan was not circumscribed by the view that the contribution of the houses projected should be in the realm of physical comfort alone.

The house plan concept rests on certain premises — the most important of which is that a student residence hall can and should contribute to education in the broadest sense of the term.


(Karl Litzenberg, Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 47 [1941]: 239-53.)

Thus, the shift from the rudimentary dormitory of the middle 1800's to the interregnum when no University-sponsored housing at all existed, and then to the Michigan House Plan, involved more than a cycle. It brought to the University a growth in the notion of what a student community should be. Every activity and every student institution was finally to come under educational scrutiny, and every campus organization eventually was to seek some association with the University.

The building of Allen-Rumsey House in 1937 was followed by the completion of the other seven houses of the West Quadrangle in 1939. The following year the first four houses of the East Quadrangle were added to the men's community. In a matter of three years not only were the freshmen housed in University Residence Halls, but there were still enough upperclassmen on campus to give continuity to the staff and to student government.

Only the middle one of these three years gave the House Plan an opportunity to become established. The first year, 1939-40, was a time of uncertainty, restlessness, and disorder occasioned by the occupation of living quarters before they were furnished and by the presence of construction crews still in the process of building. The dining rooms could not be put into operation until some weeks after the beginning of the semester. The system was forced to operate as supervised housing but without the amenities of dining and living together. The entire community took on a temporary housing tone rather than the many-faceted, long-range, cultural features so ably anticipated by Professor Litzenberg. It is no overstatement to say that many educational efforts of the staff and numerous attempts to organize the residents into a community by the student government ended in frustration and pain. Based on such a foundation the prospects of the Michigan House Plan did not look bright. Pessimistic feelings among staff and students and the need to skim off personnel for the opening of the East Quadrangle tended to dominate the scene at the close of the academic year. In the background, the outbreak of World War II in Poland, in spite of considerable student verbosity about the Yanks not coming this time, cast a further pall on the future.

In the second year, the spread of World War II showed how basically sound the House Plan was. The situation was the very antithesis of that which prevailed in 1939-40. The appointment of Charles H. Peake and Joseph E. Kallenbach as Chief Resident Advisers of the West and East Quadrangles gave these units local leadership, integration, and immediate supervision. Under their guidance the residential program gained momentum. Student government, instituted somewhat awkwardly the first year, developed rapidly. In the West Quadrangle, with the sympathetic assistance of Professor Carl A. Brandt, chairman of the Board of Governors of Residence Halls, residential scholarships were established. The Strauss Memorial Library added to the educational dimension Page  1789of the residence halls by sponsoring regular language tables and classical concerts. Individual counseling was extended, faculty participation was invited, intramural athletic programs were formulated, and academic competition was encouraged and recognized. Hopes for the future could not have been more promising.

Instead, and before the end of the first semester of 1941-42, the United States was at war. As staff and student members of the houses began to enlist or plan to enlist and as the national danger became more pronounced, thoughts of studies and permanent residential organizations diminished and in some cases disappeared altogether. The prospect of vacant residence halls in the face of the national emergency led to only one solution. By the spring of 1943, both the East and the West Quadrangles were involved in the war effort. At the end of that academic year the East Quadrangle was occupied by Army Specialized Groups, and the West Quadrangle had been taken over completely by the Navy. To all intents and purposes the Michigan House Plan might well have been abandoned at that time. But again it proved its vitality as an organization. A nucleus of farsighted staff members in the West Quadrangle approached Dean Bursley and Francis C. Shiel, at that time Business Manager and Acting Director of Residence Halls, in regard to a plan of continuity for the Men's Residence Halls. Of singular merit was their concern for the postwar burden which might come suddenly. Mr. Shiel and Dean Bursley, with the help of Professor Brandt, enlisted the aid of the Board of Governors of Residence Halls. As a result of their combined efforts, some twenty-two fraternities were leased to the University for the use of staff and students. On and off during the war period, seven of these houses were occupied by the men. The remaining staff and students were distributed among the houses so as to do the most good. In time, with additional help from newcomers, a reliable core of staff and residents awaited the end of the war. Among the newcomers some war veterans were to be found. In addition to Bursley, Shiel, and Brandt, no story of the Michigan House Plan would be complete without mention of the contribution of Mrs. Laura D. Niles, Mrs. Elliott K. Herdman, Mrs. Theron Langford, Mrs. Virginia Harryman, Mrs. Woolsey W. Hunt, John Bingley, and Woodrow Ohlsen. The addition of Leonard A. Schaadt, now Business Manager of Residence Halls, and Lionel H. Laing, now a member of the Board of Governors of Residence Halls, indicates the caliber as well as the permanence of the people who were appointed to administer the system during its lean years. The valiant activities of Mrs. Charles W. Lobdell in those years of acceleration will long be remembered by those who otherwise might never have had leave or vacation time.

This scattered effort constituted the Michigan House Plan until enlistment, officer training, and other war needs began to slack off. By 1946 all of the residence houses were reoccupied but not on the grand terms of 1940-41, admittedly the one normal year in the history of the House Plan. In spite of the addition of four houses to the East Quadrangle in 1947, the return of the veterans together with the growing freshman classes, resulted in doubling up in all available space. These crowded conditions, which continued until the completion of the seven new houses of the South Quadrangle in 1951-52, placed a strain upon the development of the House Plan, but did not stop its growth.

The most notable changes took place in the area of student activities. One Page  1790noticed the increased style and sophistication of the social program. The long-neglected tastes of the veterans were given opportunities at Quadrangle dances; these, at times, exceeded professional standards. Student interest, encouraged by Provost James P. Adams and Dean Erich A. Walter, chairman of the Postwar Board of Governors of Residence Halls, resulted in the Faculty Associate Program. The growth of student government not only resulted in frequent and more efficient gatherings, but moved into unprecedented areas, such as self-discipline and student judiciaries. The establishment of shortwave radio and wired broadcasting stations added another dimension to this growing student community. Broadcasting was soon to be integrated in a network extending beyond the men's residence halls to include the women's units. The completion of the South Quadrangle resulted in one large-scale stride in student housing.

As early as 1948 suggestions emanating from staff and student leaders urged the integration of the two Quadrangles at the student-government level. Student leaders took the suggestion to counsel and after much deliberation the Association of Independent Men was instituted. Intended as a residence hall service to the less organized off-campus community, it never received the confidence nor earned the co-operation of the regular residence halls student community. With the opening of the South Quadrangle and the organization of its council, the governing bodies of the three Quadrangles established the new and now accepted InterHouse Council, which was to have a campus as well as a residence hall orientation. InterHouse Council was stimulated by the Association of Independent Men, which buttressed its own structure with vague hopes of becoming the focal organization of the expanding men's residence halls system. Institution of the I.H.C., however, signaled the demise of A.I.M. Other campus groups saw, in the men's residence halls, a threat to their relative positions on campus and took measures to put the I.H.C. in its place. Time, the co-operation of student leaders, and the calm guidance of staff and University officers brought the men's residence halls system into the proper perspective.

No historical comment on the Michigan House Plan would be either just or adequate without mentioning the contribution of President Alexander G. Ruthven and the members of the Board of Regents of the late 1930's. Although his own part in the conception is modestly omitted, President Ruthven phrased it at the time in the following words:

The Board of Regents has insisted that the houses should be more than mere rooming and boarding houses. They recognize that, broadly conceived, education should include both formal instruction in the business of living and informal training in the enrichment of personality. A Michigan House Plan has, consequently, been developed which will give the student experience in communal living and assistance in expanding his education into those areas which must be cultivated if he is to become a citizen of the world.


(Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 47: 239-53.)
Ruthven's constant reiteration of this theme, his comradely spirit, his surveillance of building progress, his counsel to members of the staff, his casual nocturnal visits, as well as his continued Faculty Associateship of Allen-Rumsey House, will never be forgotten.

In the same spirit of acknowledgment for services rendered, the Board of Governors of Residence Halls also deserves mention, perhaps most of all because its help is constant, generally unknown, and often subject to criticism. Despite this undramatic role, the chairmen of this Board: Henry Clay Anderson, Carl G. Brandt, Erich A. Walter, and Page  1791Walter B. Rea, with rare self-denial and devotion to the educational interests of the University, have contributed much to the development of the residence halls. In this connection some of its early members should also be mentioned, particularly Professors Charles L. Jamison, Margaret Elliott Tracy, and John W. Eaton.

The Michigan House Plan has engaged the energies and the imagination of many people whose training and campus experience hark back to the German point of view. It is a satisfaction to note that their early reflections upon the needs of a maturing University brought them back to a conception which had once been abandoned, but which now makes it possible to characterize Michigan as a residential university of first rank.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angell, Robert C. MS, "A Tentative Plan for the Promotion of Satisfactory Living Conditions and Social Contacts Among Students at the University of Michigan." 1925.
Litzenberg, Karl. "The Michigan House Plan."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 47 (1941): 239-53.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1956.

THE HOUSING OF WOMEN STUDENTS

IN 1870, the year in which women students first entered the University, thirty-four were enrolled. The history of housing for women begins properly with an account of the difficulties encountered by these women. The prejudice of faculty, students, and citizens did not end with the Regents' resolution of January, 1870, admitting them to the University (R.P., 1870-76, pp. 2-3). This attitude continued to manifest itself in many ways, but in none more painfully than in the reluctance of Ann Arbor's rooming house owners to take in women for room and board. Report has it that they were regarded with scorn and accepted only when male students were not available as roomers.

The result in the early days was that women had notoriously poor living conditions and very little recognition in the social life of the town. The direct result of these struggles in the decades from 1880 to 1900 was the organization of sororities. A few women who had difficulty in finding living accommodations would take over a house and, as vacancies occurred, invite others to join them. These groups were soon sponsored by Greek-letter organizations and thus became part of the widespread national sorority movement. Eventually, the sorority houses afforded pleasant and comfortable accommodations for the girls they housed.

As time went on the rooming house owners became more friendly toward the women and began to rent rooms to them. For years, however, the "mixed" rooming house which accommodated both women and men was the accepted standard in Ann Arbor. No effort was made to establish separate houses for girls or to furnish any of the conveniences which we now take for granted. No sitting rooms were provided for the reception of callers, the bedrooms were poorly furnished and heated, and the bathroom facilities inadequate.

The Women's League, organized in Page  17921890, and the Student Christian Association, established in 1859-60, did much to alleviate the situation. The Castalian for 1891 reported that a "Reception Committee" had been appointed "whose duty it was to welcome Freshman girls, to help them in finding their way about the college buildings, to introduce them to their different professors, and assist them in getting suitable rooms and boarding places." After a few years these duties were taken over entirely by the League Executive Committee.

With the appointment of Dr. Eliza M. Mosher, the first Dean of Women, in 1896, interest increased in improving the women's facilities. Although special emphasis was placed on physical education and hygiene, an effort was made to improve the social life of the girls by providing parlors, dining rooms, and kitchens in Barbour Gymnasium. A small auditorium was even set aside for their use. Interest at that time, however, was concentrated on the building of the gymnasium rather than on improving housing conditions.

No radical change took place until 1902, when, upon the resignation of Dr. Mosher to resume the practice of medicine, Mrs. Myra Beach Jordan ('93) became Dean of Women. In this year, 453 women were enrolled in the University. In the fall of 1904 a united movement among the girls to secure rooming places with reception rooms where they could entertain their guests was begun. By this time eight sororities had managed to rent houses then known as "house clubs." Through the Women's League, Dean Jordan encouraged groups of girls to live together in approved houses, which were inspected and supervised by the Dean of Women. In these "league" houses, the first of which was opened in 1904, rooms were rented only to women, and parlor privileges were included in the rental. As an experiment in group living, the League, in 1909-10, contracted with three landladies for the use of their houses, with guaranteed income. Although this proved a financial burden to the League treasury, the following year it led to formal contracts with an additional "six of the most desirable landladies in town … to take girls only, giving them the use of the parlor and home privileges without money guarantee" (Minutes of the Women's League, April 6, 1910). The lack of guaranteed income was offset in the contracts by stipulations which more or less guaranteed roomers. The October, 1910, issue of The Michigan Alumnus commented favorably upon this work of the Dean of Women and the Women's League:

With the opening of the present school year, every freshman girl entering the University had been provided with a room before she came, either in the nine homes selected by the Women's League … or in another series of houses in which girls alone are provided for. The upper-classmen have greater freedom in the selection of the houses in which they are to room, but in most cases they are living in the houses which have been approved by the Women's League. The work of corresponding with the freshmen entering the University was undertaken by … the Women's League … every freshman … was met at the train and properly installed immediately upon arrival.


(Mich. Alum., 17 [1910-11]: 5.)

Although the number of league houses was increasing, it was evident that dormitories would be the only permanent solution to the housing problem. Accordingly, in October, 1910, the Women's League enlisted the interest of every undergraduate woman in this movement and sent out as financial secretaries Myrtle White Godwin, of Houghton, Michigan, for the year 1910-11 and Agnes Parks Robey, of New York City, for 1911-12, to arouse interest in the dormitory idea. "While the amount of money raised by these young women was Page  1793not large, the educational value of their campaign cannot be overestimated for they and the women back of them were the spiritual pioneers for better living conditions at Michigan" (Mich. Alum., 27 [1920-21]: 301).

In 1912 a further significant step in the development of housing for women took place. The following statement in appreciation of Mrs. Jordan's interest in improving housing conditions for women is pertinent:

Upon the foundation laid by Dr. Mosher, her successor, Mrs. Myra Beach Jordan, A.B. '93, has built by tact and clear-sightedness for the administration of the women students, the most successful organization possessed by any University…

With her intimate knowledge of the girls and their needs, Mrs. Jordan has devoted herself to the improvement of their living conditions. The first necessity was to create a public sentiment demanding a change. The inertia of a settled habit was against her, but ten years of quiet endeavor have brought their reward. Faculty, landladies, and, most important of all, student sentiment, are now with her. The result is that there are now 32 approved rooming houses where only women are taken as roomers. In many of these houses the landladies furnish parlors for the use of the students, and they co-operate with the Dean in every way possible to make the standard of social conduct of the college town conform to the best to be found elsewhere… The women students themselves are making every effort to secure adequate Halls of Residence as speedily as possible. For years the League raised money for this purpose… The League now has $25,000 secured toward the erection of the Residence Halls. The determined effort which is being made by the women shows the success which the Dean has achieved in creating … a demand for better living conditions and higher social standards.


(Mich. Alum., 18 [1911-12]: 434-36.)

The interest thus aroused resulted in two splendid gifts to the University. Helen Newberry Residence, the first dormitory for women, opened for the summer session of 1915, was the gift of Truman H. and John S. Newberry and their sister, Mrs. Henry Newberry Joy. Martha Cook Building, given by William Wilson Cook in memory of his mother, Martha Cook, was occupied in September of the same year (see Part VIII: Residences for Women).

With the organization of the Alumnae Council, the Detroit branch of the Association of University Women announced in 1917 that the association would buy and remodel a house for women, to be ready for the opening of the fall semester. This residence, which accommodated about sixteen persons, was built for girls who needed to earn a part of their expenses and was run on a co-operative basis. In 1926, when the site of the first Alumnae House was needed by the city for the extension of Forest Avenue, the old Harriman residence at 1219 Washtenaw Avenue was purchased as a home for the residents of Alumnae House.

In 1917 Regent Levi Barbour gave the University $100,000 and several parcels of land to be used for the erection of a dormitory in memory of his mother, Betsy Barbour; the house was opened in 1920. In 1919 Mrs. Jordan wrote:

At this date we have 1,584 women in the University, while the total for the year 1918-19 was only 1,050. The question of finding places for these girls in organized houses … has been a great problem. By the first of September, there were applications from 254 young women for whom we had no accommodations, but thanks to a careful canvass of the rooming houses no girl was sent home for lack of a room… The 13 sororities house about 350 girls comfortably. Last year we had 295 freshman girls, this year we have 518… Last year there were 32 organized University rooming houses for college girls; this year there are 58, with five or more girls, and a definite house organization with a House-head, Social Committee, Scholarship Committee, and a representative to the Women's League. The heads of these houses meet monthly to discuss problems Page  1794of house organization… The high cost of living has affected the number of girls who are having to earn a whole or a part of their living. There are between 100 and 150 college girls who are working, of this number 36 are earning both board and room and 20 are earning their board.


(Mich. Alum., 26 [1919]: 133-35.)

It should be emphasized that Helen Newberry Residence, Martha Cook Building, and Alumnae, Betsy Barbour, and Adelia Cheever houses were all acquired during Dean Jordan's term of service (1902-22) and that the University owes much to her influence and perseverance. Yet she was still unhappy about the situation and reported in 1920-21 that a thousand women were still living outside dormitories, sororities, and other organized housing.

In 1921 the University was given the residence of Judge Noah Cheever ('63, '65l) at 516 Madison Street. This house, the fifth women's residence to be donated to the University, was named Adelia Cheever residence, and, with Pamela Noble Cottage, which was added to the property in 1922, accommodated about twenty-five girls. It, too, was run as a co-operative house.

In spite of the additional housing provided by the new dormitories, by the newly established sororities, and by the league houses, which in 1928 numbered seventy-six, the housing facilities of Ann Arbor were taxed to the utmost. The league houses had become overcrowded, and prices of rooms were exorbitant. A report of these conditions was made to the Board of Regents by the Committee of Advisers, which had taken over the duties of Dean of Women in 1926 (see Part II: The Office of the Dean of Women). As a result the Regents, in September, 1928, authorized the building of a dormitory to house 440 girls.

The prospect of building such a large dormitory, however, caused a serious controversy between the landladies of Ann Arbor and the University. The landladies feared that their rooms would be left empty and their means of livelihood thus endangered. The new dormitory was also criticized as being too large and the proposed site was considered "too far away from campus."

A petition protesting the construction of the building was presented to the Regents in October, 1928. A committee was approved by the mayor to study the economic effect on the city of the building of such a dormitory and in general of the continuation of the University's building plans. Regents Sawyer, Beal, and Clements conferred with the mayor's committee and, as a result, in January, 1929, the Regents postponed construction of the dormitory in order to make a more thorough study of the financing plan involved.

It was pointed out by the deans of the University, however, that the necessity for dormitories was seen "more than fifteen years ago" and was formally expressed to the Regents in 1915 (see Dean's Statement [R.P., 1926-29, pp. 818-23]). The deans favored the dormitory principle "as a matter of educational policy." A resolution was also passed on this matter in 1920 and discussed by President Burton and Dean Bursley in reports presented in 1921-22.

The construction of Mosher-Jordan, the first large women's dormitory at the University of Michigan, was completed in 1930-31. The building was financed by a bond issue and organized on a plan which made it possible for the house to pay for itself over a period of twenty-five years. The residence consists of two halls of residence serviced by a central kitchen, but it is operated as two separate social units (see Part VIII: Mosher-Jordan Halls). Until 1932 each dormitory except Mosher-Jordan, which was under direct University control, was operated Page  1795as a separate financial unit by a Board of Governors appointed by the Board of Regents for that house. In 1933 it became necessary to lower the price of room and board because of the depression and the consequent financial pressure on students and parents. As a result, it was difficult for Mosher-Jordan Halls, without some assistance, to meet the large annual payments demanded by a self-liquidating plan, and the dormitory was placed under central management. All of the other University dormitories for women with the exception of Martha Cook Building, which by the terms of its deed of gift was prevented from doing so, were united at this time under one business management, thereby affecting great saving in general overhead expense.

This was the first attempt to establish a correlated program for residence halls. With the appointment of Miss Ellen Stevenson as Business Manager of Dormitories, an efficient organization was created which began to solve the financial and physical operation problems that had developed as a result of the separate operation of the individual residences. In 1939, at the time the Michigan House Plan was instituted, Miss Stevenson (Mrs. George M. Stanley) was succeeded as Business Manager of Residence Halls by Francis C. Shiel, the present Manager of Service Enterprises. At the time the House Plan was established, the student personnel management of the women's residence halls, including student welfare and the social programs, was centralized in the office of the dean of women; the house directors and their assistants were appointed by the Regents on recommendation of the dean.

By 1935 the housing shortage for women had increased to the point where the dormitories were seriously overcrowded. Before the opening of Mosher-Jordan in 1930-31, there had been seventy-six league houses. After its construction there were only twelve. By 1935-36, however, the number had risen again to sixty-two, and there was an urgent demand on the part of the public for more dormitory accommodations. In 1938-39, 773 girls were living in dormitories, 399 in sororities, 588 in league houses, and 258 at home or with relatives. One hundred and fifty-nine were living by permission in outside approved residences, and twenty-one in the Michigan League Building.

The construction of Madelon Louisa Stockwell Hall, named in honor of Mrs. Charles K. Turner, née Madelon Louisa Stockwell, the first woman to be admitted to the University, helped to ease the situation. This dormitory, built as the result of a grant by the Federal Administration of Public Works (P.W.A.), was completed in 1940 and housed 426 women.

The shortage of housing for women increased in the 1940's, however. During World War II the University augmented its facilities by listing more league houses, and by renting fraternity houses. The Ann Arbor News of September 23, 1944, reported that the University had leased eighteen fraternity houses for University women. Extra space was provided by converting single rooms to doubles and doubles to triples in the dormitories and by housing more girls in the Michigan League Building. Because of the housing situation in these years, even those students whose academic records were good were discouraged from applying for admission to the University.

With the end of the war in 1945 and the return of several thousand veterans, the situation became increasingly difficult and unpredictable. The fraternity houses, which had been rented for women, were re-occupied by the men.

Page  1796Another women's residence hall became available in 1945 with the purchase of Mary Bartron Henderson House. Plans to raise money for this house, to be operated on a co-operative basis, had been adopted by the Alumnae Council as its major Alumni Ten-Year Program in 1937. It was intended, originally, to construct a new house, but increasing building costs made it advisable to buy an older, well-constructed residence and renovate it. The house was opened in 1945 and named for Mary Bartron Henderson, director of the campaign committee which made possible the erection of the Michigan League. She had made a special investigation of the possibility of additional co-operative housing for women, whereby through co-operative effort and self-help the students' living costs could be reduced to a minimum. In 1944, at the request of the Alumnae Council, Alumnae House had been renamed Mary Markley House in honor of Mary Butler Markley, one of the first women to graduate from the University. In 1950, however, because the house was in poor condition and too small to be operated efficiently, it was closed. This provided $20,000 with which the alumnae were able to complete the remodeling of Mary Bartron Henderson House.

The enrollment of women in 1945 was 5,078, showing an average increase of six hundred women a year for three years. Outside the University residence hall system there were ninety league houses accommodating 1,112 girls. In 1946-47 the number dropped to seventy-six, housing 1,024 girls; the sororities took care of 519. The houses were inspected each year by representatives from the Health Service and the Office of the Dean of Women. At this time a dormitory for women, housing 126 students, was opened at Willow Run. In 1947-48, although enrollment had decreased slightly and the capacity of the residence halls had been increased, the shortage of living space for women was still acute. The number of league houses fell from seventy-six in 1946 to sixty-two in 1947.

Since 1945 the number of league houses has steadily declined as the women who own them grow older, as the cost of upkeep rises, and as the amount of University housing slowly but steadily increases. In 1947 there were nineteen sororities housing 550 women students. Almost all the sororities had more members than they could accommodate. The overflow was taken care of in nearby league houses. In addition, a total of 1,055 special permissions were granted by the dean of women to girls who wished to live in private homes. Three houses under the sponsorship of the Interco-operative Council housed fifty-seven girls.

Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall, named for Dean Alice C. Lloyd, opened in September, 1949. This dormitory, which houses five hundred girls, consists of four units or houses, named for four women who were prominent in the history of the University: Sarah Caswell Angell, Alice Freeman Palmer, Mary Louisa Hinsdale, and Caroline Hubbard Kleinstueck (see Part VIII: Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall). Alice Crocker Lloyd ('16), Dean of Women from 1930 until her death in 1950, served the University during the most critical years in the history of women's housing. Her term of office covered the period of World War II, when the housing situation was most acute. In these years all of the large residence halls were constructed and finally united under one central management.

In 1953 Geddes House was purchased by the University at a cost of $54,000 for use as a girls' co-operative dwelling.

The sorority situation through the years developed certain perplexing problems. By 1938-39 well-established Page  1797groups which had been on campus long enough to have their properties clear or almost clear of debt were not seriously affected, but membership in some of the younger sororities decreased to the point where it was impossible to carry the overhead. By 1938-39 eight groups were too large for their houses, and four houses did not have enough members to fill their rooms. In order that the number of sororities might not diminish on the campus, a secretary was appointed by the Panhellenic Association, and it was her duty to assist the smaller houses during rushing. This resulted in better co-operation among the various sororities.

By 1956 the number of sororities at Michigan had increased to twenty-nine, and the President's Report for 1955-56 states: "Between June 1, 1951, and June 1, 1956, the amount of money invested by the sororities in expansion and rehabilitation of their several properties cannot … total less than one million dollars… This is a very fine record of support of the University in its years of expansion."

September, 1950, marked the inauguration of a policy to house all freshman women in the University system rather than to close the residence hall lists on a given date and relegate all subsequently admitted freshmen to league houses or rooms in town. The implementation of this policy, however, produced enormous difficulties. The upstairs corridor lounges or small study halls in Stockwell, Mosher-Jordan, and Alice Crocker Lloyd halls were all converted to "quads," and this resulted in the residence halls being more crowded than ever before. In August, 1951, the Board of Governors of Residence Halls released Victor Vaughan House for the use of women students. It had accommodations for 185 persons and took care of the overflow in the larger residence halls. In 1952 Tyler and Prescott houses in the East Quadrangle, not without much regret on the part of the men, became residences for women with space for two hundred graduate and undergraduate women. In 1953-54, with the increased enrollment of women and the drop in men's enrollment, Chicago House in the West Quadrangle was also made available to women students.

On July 1, 1954, Couzens Hall was removed from the management of the Hospital and became an integral part of the University residence hall system. This dormitory, which now houses about 530 women, was given to the University in 1923 by the Honorable James Couzens, of Detroit, United States Senator from Michigan — when he presented the University with $600,000 for "the construction of a building for the housing of student … and graduate nurses." An addition, with 265 bed spaces, was completed in 1956.

In 1954 the Board of Governors of Residence Halls released Fletcher Hall to the use of the women. Fletcher Hall was built as a men's residence hall in 1922-23 by a group of alumni organized under Michigan laws as the Dormitories Corporation. It was named for the Honorable Frank W. Fletcher, for many years a regent of the University. Partly because of the depression and partly because of administrative difficulties, the corporation was unable to pay for the building, and in 1933 the University acquired it at a receiver's sale for $13,000.

In September, 1953, the University had 2,500 dormitory spaces for women, not including the housing for 144 persons provided by Martha Cook Building. By 1956 this figure had been increased to 3,036.

Page  1798

FRATERNITIES

FRATERNITY life at the University of Michigan goes back almost to the first days of the University. The first two fraternities, Beta Theta Pi and Chi Psi, were established in 1845, the year the first class was graduated. At this time the whole fraternity system in America was scarcely twenty years old.

Phi Beta Kappa, it is true, had been established at the College of William and Mary on December 5, 1776, as an undergraduate literary and social organization and thus may be said to be the oldest American college fraternity. After the demise of the first southern chapters because of the Revolutionary War, it spread to the colleges in the North, where, however, it apparently never became a fraternity in the modern sense. The secret provisions of its constitution were very generally attacked, and as a result most chapters dropped the feature of secrecy and emphasis was increasingly placed upon the policy of indicating and rewarding scholastic attainments.

It remained for a group of fraternities established at Union College in 1825 and 1827 to set the pattern for the present American fraternity system. The first of these was the Kappa Alpha Society, formed in the autumn of 1825 by certain members of a defunct military company who enjoyed the fellowship it had provided. Two years later, March 4, 1827, saw the establishment of Sigma Phi, and in November of the same year Delta Phi was organized.

From this little group the fraternity system spread throughout the country, so that by the time it was introduced at Michigan there were eight national fraternities with chapters in the leading institutions of the country. Seven of these, Kappa Alpha, Sigma Phi, Delta Phi, Alpha Delta Phi, Psi Upsilon, Chi Psi, and Delta Kappa Epsilon, were first established in eastern institutions, while Beta Theta Pi, founded at Miami in 1839, was distinctly western in its origin.

The question as to which fraternity first appeared in Ann Arbor has long been a matter of discussion, though in the official list of fraternities in the Michiganensian Chi Psi has been given the place of honor. However, Beta Theta Pi was organized on July 17, 1845, and the chapter was established on the following November 13, according to the records of the chapter, although its members, apparently, did not wear their badges or publicly make known the existence of the fraternity. This would make it just a little older than Chi Psi, which was organized in December, 1845, and actually established in April, 1846, with its members immediately proclaiming their fraternity affiliation. Moreover, Chi Psi has had a continuous existence at the University, whereas Beta Theta Pi was disbanded for two periods, from 1850 to 1854, and again from 1864 to 1875.

The relative priority status of these two fraternities has given rise to many heated discussions among fraternity men, with the question officially adjusted in 1931, when it was finally agreed that Beta Theta Pi and Chi Psi were of equal rank as to their years on the Michigan campus and should be jointly listed in first place in the Michiganensian, Beta Theta Pi to be given first place in the even years and Chi Psi in the odd years. This procedure was soon superseded, however, when all the fraternities were listed in alphabetical order.

With the establishment of Alpha Delta Phi, August 5, 1846, a large proportion of the students then in the University became members of the three existing fraternities. There was, however, on the books of the University a Page  1799rule drawn up in 1840, before any students were enrolled, by Professor George Palmer Williams, known as Rule Twenty, which provided that "no student shall be or shall become a member of any society connected with the University which has not first submitted its constitution to the faculty and received their approval."

Apparently, small attention at first was paid to this rule. It had been approved in accordance with the ideas of faculty regulation of student life prevailing in most colleges of that period, when the students were on the average younger than they are today. For a short time the existence of the fraternities was unnoticed, at least officially; but in the summer of 1846 some student depredations were traced to a small log house situated in the depths of the heavily wooded area east of the campus, probably on the present site of Forest Hill Cemetery. This building, which was discovered to be the headquarters of the Chi Psi fraternity, is supposed to have been the first fraternity lodge of which there is a record in any American university. A University official attempted to enter the building, but was barred by the students because of the rule of secrecy of the organization. This incident led to a revelation of the existence of two fraternities, Chi Psi and Beta Theta Pi, and compelled the faculty to take some action in the enforcement of Rule Twenty.

Lists of the members of the two fraternities were freely given the faculty upon request, since the students relied upon the large proportion of the undergraduate body who were members of these organizations, their connections with the people of Ann Arbor, and their widespread affiliations in many other leading educational institutions of the country, to prevent any drastic action by the faculty. In the meantime, another society, Alpha Delta Phi, had been established on Commencement day, August 5, 1846. A representative had offered to submit certain parts of the constitution to the Regents, but the Board was too busy with Commencement business to consider the matter at the time. The students, nevertheless, completed their organization, and it was not long before the faculty was aware of a third fraternity in existence on the campus.

The question of the proper action to take in regard to these organizations was a serious one for the faculty. At first, they decided upon a moderate course, simply requiring the societies to promise not to initiate more members, and exacting of all matriculates in the University a pledge not to join societies that had not secured faculty approval. Thus, they thought the organizations would soon disappear. But their expectations proved to be ill-founded. Alpha Delta Phi proceeded to initiate new members on the assumption that it existed, if not with the approval, at least by the sufferance of the faculty. The faculty learned of this action in March, 1847, and the new initiates were obliged to withdraw, while a stringent pledge was signed by the original members. A second offer by Alpha Delta Phi to submit its constitution was declined by the faculty since "it had no authority to legalize them as a society in the University of Michigan." The students promptly took advantage of this statement, maintaining that if the faculty could not legalize a society it could not forbid it. Beta Theta Pi, which sought recognition in July, 1848, was informed that it came under the prohibition of the law.

It is very plain that the students relied upon their strong position and continued to initiate members sub rosa under one pretext or another for some time following this action of the faculty. Toward the close of the college year 1847-48, the faculty addressed letters to the presidents of several eastern colleges Page  1800asking their opinions concerning the possibility of suppressing the Greek letter societies. The reports were generally unfavorable, but it was apparent that while regulations similar to Michigan's Rule Twenty were supposedly in force, none of the institutions had been able actually to suppress the societies. It was even suggested by Chancellor Frelinghuysen of New York University that so many lawyers and other literary graduates belonged to them that suppression would be difficult.

Thus, the situation drifted on until 1849, when a recently issued catalogue of the University was found on the campus in which were printed the names of eleven undergraduate members of the Chi Psi fraternity. This precipitated a further inquiry which led to disclosure of the names of the members of Alpha Delta Phi. In both cases, the student defense was that it was no longer a chapter in the University, but "in Ann Arbor"; the members did not meet on University premises; and as persons unconnected with any college had been admitted to membership the societies could not be regarded as consisting of students.

This plea was considered an evasion, and it was announced that the members of these two fraternities would be dismissed from the University at the opening of the next term unless they renounced their affiliations. As a result seven students ostensibly withdrew from their fraternities, while the rest were expelled on December 18, 1849. Members of the third fraternity, Beta Theta Pi, were not dismissed until September, 1850, since they had made the plea that their constitution was not signed. Thus, a very considerable proportion of the student body of that period left the University, never to return. Many went to Union College, others to the University of Rochester. A few returned to Ann Arbor, while some never finished their college course. The number of graduates for the years 1850-53 ranges from ten to twelve, in contrast to the twenty-four who were graduated in 1849, and the twenty-one in 1854, after the last class affected was graduated.

Events of such far-reaching importance naturally did not escape the attention of the citizens of Ann Arbor, many of whom had sons and friends among the student body. They severely criticized the faculty as well as the Regents, who were not able to take a decisive position after a tie vote, six to six, on a resolution declaring the student fraternity members were not to be "regarded as amenable to punishment," submitted on July 20, 1848. Moreover, the attention of the Masons and other secret societies came to be focused upon the struggle. The result was an indignation meeting of citizens held on December 20, 1849, at which support was given to the fraternities and a complete change of faculty was advocated. As a further result, a bill was introduced in the legislature of 1850 providing that the Regents should be elected by the people instead of appointed by the governor.

Thus, the state legislature was drawn into the struggle, and it has been asserted that the call for a constitutional convention was a direct result, since the 1850 constitution provided for the election of the Board of Regents. In any case the whole problem was carried to the legislature by some of the expelled students, by the nonfraternity students, who supported the faculty action, and by the faculty itself, which submitted a rather ill-considered memorial containing many violent and unsupported statements. The situation, moreover, had been complicated by certain students' submitting a garbled version of the faculty memorial several weeks in advance.

This continuing agitation eventually became too strong for the faculty, and it Page  1801was forced to change its position. In a series of meetings held in October, 1850, the constitutions of Beta Theta Pi and Alpha Delta Phi were considered, as well as an "exhibition of the system of fundamental rules and regulations of which the constitution of Chi Psi consists," which resulted in the reinstatement of the fraternities. The first action taken was in regard to Beta Theta Pi and was embodied in the following resolution:

whereas, The Constitution of Beta Theta Pi society has, in compliance with the twentieth Article, Chapter 4, of the college laws, been perused for the approval of the faculty in order that students may be members thereof,

Resolved, That the faculty, having examined, do so far approve said constitution as to permit students of the university to be members of said society on condition. [Here are set forth the conditions: (1) No senior shall belong until written consent of his parent is filed with the president of the faculty; (2) the faculty shall be informed of times and places of meetings; (3) all meetings shall be held in college buildings; (4) no change shall be made in the constitution without approval of faculty; (5) the faculty shall be furnished the name of every member within one week of his admission; (6) the fraternity shall not interfere with the administration of college government; (7) the regulations shall be obligatory upon the entire fraternity.]

The yeas and nays being called for, the resolution was passed by the following vote: Yeas, Professors Whedon, Douglass, Fasquelle and Ten Brook; Nays, Professors Williams and Agnew.

The suspended chapter of Beta Theta Pi, however, was not reconstituted until 1854; Chi Psi and Alpha Delta Phi apparently still retained a small membership and were able to reorganize their chapters immediately.

This whole controversy served to reveal the weakness of the University and led, as has already been noted, to a drastic change in the government of the institution, particularly in the election of the Board of Regents and the appointment of a strong executive in the person of President Tappan. As was pointed out by Professor Andrew Ten Brook, who was a member of the faculty at that time, both the students and the faculty were the victims of a mistaken and impracticable theory of university government. The self-reliance and maturity of the students caused them to resent the implied faculty paternalism and minute regulation of student life. The faculty, moreover, held the narrow-minded clerical point of view of that period and supposed that they had the support of the other leading American colleges. Nevertheless, the students knew that in no other institution had faculty regulation of the fraternities been effective, and they resolutely maintained their position. Under these circumstances the final victory of the students was perhaps inevitable.

On the settlement of the fraternity question, these organizations entered upon a period of steady growth, with new chapters continuing to be established as the University grew. Delta Kappa Epsilon was inaugurated in the University in 1855, Delta Phi came in the same year, gave up its charter twenty years later, was re-established in 1923, and withdrew in 1936. Sigma Phi came in 1858, established largely under the auspices of Professor Andrew D. White. Zeta Psi came as the seventh fraternity in the same year, 1858, while Psi Upsilon was organized in 1865. Phi Delta Theta was chartered in 1864, but the names of the members were not listed until 1866, and in the spring of 1866 the chapter became dormant, not to be revived until 1887. Delta Tau Delta was organized in 1874, suspended in 1876, and reorganized in 1880. Phi Kappa Psi and Delta Upsilon came in the same year, 1876; the Page  1802latter, a nonsecret fraternity which started in the east as an antisecret organization, has developed into a nonsecret body which, however, except in the fact that its motto is known, has little to distinguish it from the secret organizations.

Sigma Chi was established in 1877, became dormant a few years later, and was re-established in 1896. Chi Phi opened its doors in 1882, surrendered its charter in 1885, and became active again in 1921. Sigma Alpha Epsilon was organized in 1888, and Theta Delta Chi in 1889. Between 1890 and 1927 the list of fraternities more than quadrupled, although the proportion of the fraternity members among the students actually decreased, owing to the rapid growth of the University. This was a larger number of these organizations than the student body could support, so that by 1940 more than one-third had closed their doors on the Michigan campus. While nearly two-thirds of the students were members of the Greek letter organizations in the University's early days, less than one-third of the men and women in the University are now members of these societies.

Among the professional fraternities, Phi Delta Phi organized the parent chapter of the fraternity at the University of Michigan in 1869. Nu Sigma Nu, a medical fraternity, was also first organized at Michigan in 1882 with the late William J. Mayo as one of the charter members, and the same year the first chapter of Delta Sigma Delta was organized by students in the Dental School.

The earlier history of the fraternities in the University is closely associated with the annual University yearbook, which first appeared in 1859 as the Palladium, apparently a reincarnation of an earlier publication known as The University Register, a four-page paper which gave lists of University officers, graduates, and secret society members. The Palladium was published by the fraternities and soon became a booklet of some fifty pages bound in glazed paper. Eight hundred copies were printed at a cost of $85. Practically all the fraternities were listed in this publication up to 1876, when the nonsecret fraternity, Delta Upsilon, appeared.

The fraternities established after that date were not included in the Palladium, with the exception of Phi Kappa Psi. Thus, the older fraternities were known as the "Palladium fraternities" and came to have a certain amount of social prestige deriving from their age and close-knit organization. Other groups resented this assumption on the part of the Palladium group and established their own yearbook, the Castalian, in 1890. In 1897 the Palladium and the Castalian, together with the Res Gestae of the Law School, were combined into a new publication, the present Michiganensian, although the spirit of the old Palladium still existed.

These older fraternities for years had sponsored the annual Junior Hop, which had been the principal student social event since 1877 and had been preceded by a similar ball given by the seniors since 1868. This control of the Junior Hop by the Palladium fraternities was resented by the other fraternities and the nonfraternity "independents," and a protest to the Regents in 1896 resulted in a ruling that if University buildings were to be used for social functions, all representatives of the junior class should be eligible to attend. The Palladium fraternities refused to participate and the result was two hops, one given in Toledo by eight fraternities, which chartered a special train, and one in the University Gymnasium by the more recent fraternities and independents. The following year a compromise was effected by which these fraternities and independents Page  1803were admitted to representation upon the Junior Hop committee, an arrangement which exists at the present time.

The separate fraternity lodges or clubhouses, which add a great deal to the aspect of the city of Ann Arbor through their usually attractive architectural design, are an essential feature of fraternity life at the University of Michigan. Aside from the early log cabin lodge of Chi Psi, the first fraternity building was erected by Delta Kappa Epsilon, the little chapel-like building, built in 1878, on William Street near the corner of State Street. Alpha Delta Phi, however, had formally inaugurated the chapter house system in Ann Arbor as early as the college year 1875-76, when it occupied the octagonal residence originally used by Professor Alexander Winchell, situated on North University Avenue on the present site of Hill Auditorium. This later became the home of Delta Tau Delta.

The first fraternity clubhouse especially erected as living quarters for the student members was that built by Psi Upsilon on the corner of South University and State Street, where the Lawyers' Club now stands. It was a large, rather ungainly brick building, erected in the college year 1879-80, and reconstructed and greatly enlarged twelve years later. In 1884 the first house of Alpha Delta Phi, across State Street, was completed and dedicated, while the chapter house of Delta Kappa Epsilon, which stood next to the Psi Upsilon house on State Street, was formally dedicated in 1889.

At the present time the fraternities and sororities occupy an important place, as they always have, in the fabric of student society. They have been criticized, and with some justice, as being undemocratic and exclusive, extending their privileges to only a part of the student body. But they have added color to the college atmosphere, have provided in some degree an equivalent for home life and intimate companionship for at least a part of the student body, and have constituted unofficial agencies through which the University could reach the students on occasion when official action seemed undesirable. The strong, close-knit influence which the fraternities exercised in an early day on student life as a whole has been greatly modified in recent years, so that now the fraternities relatively are a much less important element than they were at one time when undergraduate activities and clubs, musical, dramatic, forensic, and literary, were largely dominated by them.

The question has sometimes been raised as to whether the fraternities are the ideal solution for the creation of smaller social units in a huge student body, such as exists at the University of Michigan. In the past, membership in the fraternities has been too small to permit really economical operation, and this has made membership impossible for many students because of the expense, although of late the tendency has been to enlarge the membership, since freshmen are no longer permitted to live in the fraternity houses. Moreover, initiates must have a satisfactory scholastic record before they are permitted to join a fraternity. The rise of the residence halls has also limited to a certain extent the number of students who desire to join fraternities. All of these factors have led to a decrease in the actual number of fraternities. Most of the organizations discontinued during the last decade are those more recently formed which lacked strong support on the part of alumni members, always an important factor in the maintenance of the older fraternities.

For some time there has existed a strong movement toward the elevation of student scholarship standards on the Page  1804part of the fraternities. There was a time when scholarship was not emphasized by many of these social organizations. A strong reform program on the part of the University, supported by alumni, has improved this situation, particularly since the University now publishes every year a chart showing the exact standing of every fraternity. Though the general average of the fraternity student is little if any above the general average of the University, the fraternities at the lower end of the scale almost always hear from their alumni and are subject to an insistent demand that they improve their record, with usually favorable results. It may be said, however, that the scholastic position of the different fraternities is still of lesser importance to most students than other factors in the selection of their fraternity affiliations.

A significant step in the relationship of the University to the fraternities was taken in 1914 when the Interfraternity Council was organized following a recommendation contained in a report by the Committee on Student Affairs presented in 1913. The "fraternity situation" was becoming increasingly unsatisfactory, ideals of scholarship were low, while the practice of pledging members long before they were ready for college and the questionable methods used in "rushing" prospective members called for drastic action. The most striking provisions of the constitution of the council were that all pledging must be done in Ann Arbor and not before the tenth day previous to the opening of classes; the prohibition of any freshmen living in fraternity houses; and, most important of all, that no initiate should have less than eleven hours of credit of at least C grade, and that no student on probation or warning should be initiated. The constitution provided also for the publication of an annual scholarship chart showing the relative standing of these societies.

The Interfraternity Council rules have been altered from time to time, so that the University enters more intimately and effectively into the management of the fraternities. Permission of the University is required for the holding of dances; the appointment of financial advisers, who are responsible for an operating budget and monthly financial statements on the part of each fraternity, is specified; and fraternities unable to meet their obligations at the end of the year may be denied permission to reopen by the University. In the matter of rushing the regulations now limit the rushing period, provide for the statement of preference both by the student and the fraternity, and otherwise define and limit the rushing procedure on the part of these organizations.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Castalia, Univ. Mich., 1867-70.
Castalian, Univ. Mich., 1890-97.
The Chronicle, Univ. Mich., 1869-90.
Michiganensian, Univ. Mich., 1897-1956.
Palladium, Univ. Mich., 1859-97.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York, 1920.
The University Argonaut, Univ. Mich., 1882-90.
University Regulations Concerning Student Affairs …, Official Publ., Univ. Mich., Vol. 56, No. 16 (1954).
Page  1805

SORORITIES

By 1870, the year in which the first woman was admitted to the University, five sororities, which were later to become national in scope, had been established at other institutions of higher learning. The development of sororities at Michigan was an inevitable outgrowth of coeducation. As more and more women enrolled in the University, it was natural for them to form groups with common interests and standards. In 1875 a few women students were asked to establish a chapter of Kappa Alpha Theta at Michigan. Fearing that a secret order might weaken the cause of coeducation, they declined. As the enrollment of women increased, however, this argument was no longer valid, and the Chronicle for November 23, 1878, announced: "There is a report circulating to the effect that the coeds are to have a secret society after the manner of the boys." Eta chapter of Kappa Alpha Theta, the first sorority at Michigan, was established in 1879.

The first organizations were ridiculed and their members accused of attempting to imitate the men. The advent of the sorority was considered a joke by the fraternity men, who had finally, after much antagonism from faculty and townspeople, been accepted themselves. In spite of this the sororities grew in number. Beta chapter of Gamma Phi Beta was chartered in 1882 and Xi chapter of Delta Gamma in 1885.

In the latter year the Michigan members of Kappa Alpha Theta disagreed with the sorority-at-large and surrendered their charter. In 1886 the former members reorganized as a college chapter with no national affiliation. The local group patterned itself after the New York Sorosis (one of America's first women's clubs) and took the name Collegiate Sorosis. Beta chapter of Pi Beta Phi was chartered in 1888 and Delta Gamma chapter of Kappa Kappa Gamma in 1890.

The organization of the Women's League in 1890 was the first campuswide development to improve the relationship among the sororities and between "affiliated" and "independent" women. One representative from each sorority and an equal number of "independents" served on the League Executive Committee. The minutes of its early meetings contain an occasional reference to rushing problems and attempts to establish a standard pattern for all sororities to follow in securing new members.

Within the next fifteen years (1891-1905), five more sororities were organized at the University. Theta chapter of Alpha Phi was chartered in 1892 and Iota chapter of Delta Delta Delta in 1894. Kappa Alpha Theta was re-established in 1893. Theta chapter of Alpha Chi Omega was founded at Michigan in 1898 and Eta chapter of Chi Omega in 1905.

With the formation of so many groups, the necessity for unification on both the national and local levels was apparent. The first meeting of representatives of all national sororities was held at Boston in 1891 at the invitation of Kappa Kappa Gamma, and in 1902 the second meeting was called by Alpha Phi in Chicago. From these meetings, the National Inter-Sorority Conference (now National Panhellenic Conference) developed.

With nine sororities vying for new members on the Michigan campus, the need to establish basic group regulations for rushing was an urgent problem. This was first accomplished in 1904, when the following rules were printed:

  • 1) The rushing season is defined as the first three weeks of the first semester, Page  1806beginning the Tuesday before the day of matriculation.
  • 2) Each sorority shall have the privilege of sending two members and no more to meet a train on which that sorority expects a guest to arrive.
  • 3) There shall be no public or formal rushing on Sundays. All exceptions to this rule shall be explained to the association in open meeting.
  • 4) Any girls accompanied in the Dean's office by members of one sorority shall not be approached by members of other sororities until she has left the Dean's office.
  • 5) Meetings of the association shall be held during the rushing season.
  • 6) These rules shall be binding for the college year 1904-1905. (Mich. Alum., 10 [1903-04]: 424.)

The "association" mentioned above was the first united group formed by the local sororities. The Inter-Sorority Association (now the Panhellenic Association) program grew from these meetings held during rushing into a year-round organization where scholarship, philanthropies, women's activities, and other topics of mutual concern were discussed.

Because of the difficult housing situation which the women students encountered in the early years, sorority membership offered a definite advantage. As a compact unit, a group could afford to contract its own facilities on a rental basis in the mid-1880's. The desirability of self-operating living units contributed to their prestige, but the relatively higher cost for better housing, in addition to the need for financial backing, made it impossible for the sororities to solve the problem for all women students. Each sorority admitted more members than its house could accommodate, and new members eagerly awaited the opportunity to live in the chapter house. In 1904 Gamma Phi Beta purchased its own house, and Collegiate Sorosis built a residence in 1906. As the financial situation permitted, other sororities followed suit.

By 1904 all the women on campus were united through the Women's League in the drive for better living conditions; the initial objective was the provision of parlor facilities. With the support of Dean Jordan the sororities attempted to improve the housing situation for all University women by refusing to pledge any girl who lived in a house where she did not have the use of the parlor. Thus, "unco-operative" landladies were in danger of losing the entire freshman trade.

Alpha chapter of Theta Phi Alpha, a sorority for Catholic women, was established at Michigan in 1912. Several other chapters were established during the 1920's. Alpha Epsilon chapter of Alpha Xi Delta was added in 1920. Pi chapter of Alpha Epsilon Phi, Omicron Pi chapter of Alpha Omicron Pi, and Sigma Zeta chapter of Kappa Delta were all chartered in the year 1921. During the next year (1922) Alpha Beta chapter of Alpha Gamma Delta and the Eta chapter of Phi Sigma Sigma were established.

In the mid 1920's, social events sponsored by the Panhellenic Association gained in popularity. The first Panhellenic Ball was held in 1923 as a benefit for the Michigan League Building Fund. Ten of the forty fraternities supposedly threatened to impose heavy fines on any member who went to the Ball; the indignation of the women was great, but to everyone's surprise, the dance was a great success with 275 couples attending. The Panhellenic Ball, held annually since that year, has had as many as 400 couples in attendance. Intersorority banquets and luncheons were part of each year's program. In 1929 Beta Eta chapter of Alpha Delta Pi was chartered at the University.

The period of the 1930's was a time of Page  1807crisis for the sororities. In addition to the general financial difficulties, it was feared that the newly opened women's dormitories would offer such competition that prospective members would lose interest in sorority activity. Living conditions in the sorority houses came into close comparison with those of the new residence halls, but the advantages of living in small, unified groups proved to be a great source of strength to the sorority system. As the financial situation became more acute, several sororities closed their houses and became inactive — Sigma Kappa in 1934, Delta Zeta in 1935, Theta Phi Alpha in 1936, and Phi Sigma Sigma in 1943. Working within strict budgets, the other groups managed to survive.

The uneven distribution of membership among the groups was solved by a 1938 Panhellenic decision which allowed four years for each group to adjust its total active membership to 60. This "chapter limitation" number was constant until 1957, when it was raised to 65. During World War II, with the increased enrollment of women, all housing facilities were crowded to capacity. Over a period of several years, many fraternity houses were converted for a time to women's residences.

In 1944 Chi chapter of Sigma Delta Tau was installed. Alpha Eta chapter of Delta Zeta was rechartered between 1948 and 1952, and Zeta Tau Alpha became inactive in 1951. Delta Eta of Delta Phi Epsilon was installed in 1954; Alpha Mu of Sigma Kappa was reinstated in 1955 and Alpha Gamma chapter of Zeta Tau Alpha in 1956. Delta Xi chapter of Phi Mu was chartered in 1957, bringing the total number of housed sororities to twenty-one.

In addition, there are two national sororities at Michigan which do not house their members. Nu chapter of Delta Sigma Theta, originally chartered in 1921, became inactive in 1930, but was rechartered in 1948. Beta Eta chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha was chartered in 1932.

Sororities at Michigan have made a significant contribution toward the development of housing for women. More than one-fourth of the women enrolled are sorority members. Each group has housed its members for many years at no cost to the University. Excellent living conditions are supplemented by social and philanthropic projects. Much scholarship and financial aid is provided by the individual sororities, and training in the amenities and the development of high personal and scholastic standards have always been emphasized.

THE MICHIGAN UNION

In its essentials the Michigan Union, both as an organization and as a building, came as an expression of a long-standing need on the part of the student body of the University. For many years a conviction had been developing, though not very precisely expressed, that with the rapid growth of the University some force was desirable to integrate the life of the students, to give them a sense of unity, and to serve as a great club and center for all student, faculty, and alumni activities.

This feeling eventually gave recognition in the fall of 1903 to the need for a Michigan Union building. The movement was furthered by interviews with President Angell and leading members Page  1808of the faculty, printed in the Michigan Daily for December 5, 1903. As a result, on December 29 of the same year, the senior society, Michigamua, issued a call for a meeting of representatives of the leading University organizations to consider ways and means to further the project. Two members each from Quadrangle, Friars, the Toastmasters' Club, and the Michigan Daily, at a meeting in February, 1904, conferred with the members of Michigamua and with Professors Henry M. Bates, Robert M. Wenley, John R. Allen, and Fred N. Scott, who was appointed temporary chairman. Shirley W. Smith represented the Alumni Association. These men all gave strong and active support to the project. The student members of the "Committee for the Organization of a Union" included Edward F. Parker ('04), temporary secretary, D. Bethune Duffield Blain ('04, '06l), Franklin A. Wagner ('04l), Paul Jones ('05l), William K. Williams ('01, '04l), Samuel E. Thomason ('04), Thomas B. Roberts ('04), Thomas A. Sims ('04, '06l), and Sanford Trippet ('04l).

With the help and encouragement of Professor Bates, later Dean of the Law School, articles of association, which set the number of directors at twelve, were drawn up and signed on June 20, 1904. The articles have since been amended twice.

In November, 1911, the number of directors was increased to seventeen and in May, 1952, to nineteen. At a meeting on November 5, 1904, this first Executive Committee recommended the establishment of an "incorporated" body, to be known as the Michigan Union, for students, alumni, faculty, and regents. These "incorporators" of the Michigan Union were Edward F. Parker, D. Bethune D. Blain, David E. Beardsley ('02, '04m), Edward S. Corwin ('00), Curtis A. Evans ('02, '04m), Paul Jones, Richard R. Kirk ('03, A.M. '04), Thomas B. Roberts, Thomas A. Sims, Shirley W. Smith (ex officio) as secretary of the Alumni Association, succeeded in the fall of 1904 by Wilfred B. Shaw ('04), Samuel E. Thomason, Sanford Trippet, and Frank A. Wagner. Members of the first Board of Directors were Edward F. Parker, recording secretary, D. B. D. Blain, corresponding secretary, Wilfred B. Shaw, financial secretary, James S. Baley ('05), H. S. Graver ('04), Lucius A. Farnham ('05m), Thomas A. Sims, Burton S. Knapp ('04p), and Professors Bates, Wenley, Scott, and Allen.

Edward F. (Bob) Parker, who had first been responsible for arousing student and faculty interest in the plan, was elected as the first president. In fact Parker may be considered the actual founder of the Union. It was he who first conceived the idea of such a great student center and it was he who was responsible for interesting the newly organized senior society Michigamua in the project, thus ensuring wide student support.* The Executive Committee also proposed that the movement be officially inaugurated at a great dinner to be held at the beginning of the following school year. The organization found immediate favor with the students; its aims were widely discussed and specifically set forth in an article printed in the Michigan Alumnus of April, 1904.

Early in 1904 the Board of Directors began holding regular meetings in Professor Scott's seminary room in the old West Hall. The first public meeting of the Union was the dinner held on November 11, 1904, at which 1,100 persons were present; President Angell was the presiding officer.

In its first days the Union functioned Page  1809entirely as an organization, and, in accordance with its fundamental purpose, it became almost at once a unifying and co-ordinating agency in the life of the students, with the undergraduate organizations turning to it for effective guidance and assistance. Class elections were held under the auspices of the Union, a student council was set up, and a fund was established to buy the portrait of President Angell, by William L. Chase, which now hangs in the Union.

Almost immediately a campaign for a proposed Union Club House, as it was then called, was inaugurated, giving rise to a long series of entertainments which contributed not a little to the Union's finances during its early years. The directors of the Union came to the conclusion that no precedent existed anywhere for a building of the type they felt to be necessary. The first requisite, in their opinion, was that the building, if it was to serve the needs of all the men of the University, should be large and all-inclusive. It was recognized that the women already had, for the time, a fairly satisfactory social center in the parlors of Barbour Gymnasium, and the Union, therefore, was envisaged as a club for the men of the University. These objectives were first set forth in a statement by Professor Henry M. Bates on the aims of the Union, which appeared in the Michigan Alumnus of April, 1905:

What is the Union? For what does it stand, and what does it hope to accomplish? As its name indicates it is an organization, a Union for all Michigan men, graduates, faculty and regents. Its avowed objects are to promote University spirit, and to increase social intercourse and acquaintance with each other's work among the members of the different departments and other University organizations. As a means to these ends, and to some extent as an end in itself, it is proposed, as soon as funds can be secured, to erect a great building, … to be a house for the Union and headquarters in Ann Arbor for all Michigan men.

Dean Bates was perhaps more responsible than any other one individual, over those early years, in ensuring continuing faculty and student support and recognition of the fundamental concept of the Union. It is fair to say that his efforts were the determining factor in the eventual success of the project and in establishing its fundamental policies.

To serve its purpose it was necessary that the building should include not only ample lounges, reading and committee rooms, but also dining rooms with adequate kitchens, billiard and game rooms, a large assembly room and ballroom, and probably accommodations for returning alumni and a swimming pool. It was recognized that a building with such facilities would be expensive, and the first estimates, accordingly, were between $300,000 and $400,000.

Meanwhile, difficulties arose in the campaign for funds. The Alumni Association, through a committee, which included many distinguished alumni, of which Judge Claudius B. Grant ('59, hon. '91) was chairman, had authorized the raising of money for a building to be erected as a memorial to the students of the University who had died in the Civil War and Spanish-American War, and the members of this committee had already entered actively upon their task. Inevitably, confusion arose in the minds of the alumni as to whether the Union was to be the memorial proposed or a separate social center as planned by the Union Committee (see Part VIII: Alumni Memorial Hall). The matter was discussed at length in the Michigan Alumnus (December, 1904) and elsewhere, but efforts to unite the two projects proved unavailing. The members of the alumni committee were unable to conceive of the functions of the proposed Page  1810Union building as these were understood by the officers of the Union, and as a result the two campaigns were carried on simultaneously, with a certain degree of unfortunate rivalry. The Memorial Committee, however, eventually secured sufficient funds to proceed, although it left an indebtedness of some $4,000 which was borne by the Alumni Association for many years. In 1907 the construction of Alumni Memorial Hall, situated across the street from the Union, was begun; it was completed in 1910.

At the same time the efforts of the Union to raise funds met with a certain degree of success. In the winter of 1905-6 it was decided to ask for subscriptions, and on December 20, 1905, at a mass meeting held in University Hall, the plans were laid before the students with speeches and slides. In May, 1905, the student carnival in the form of a County Fair (now Michigras), held in Waterman Gymnasium, netted the Union $2,700; on May 23, 1906, the Student Lecture Association contributed its profits for the year, amounting to $1,500, and on May 4 and 5, 1906, a student entertainment, the Michigan Union Minstrels, raised $1,500. The following year a similar minstrel show, given in Detroit, was equally successful. The annual dinners, which began in 1904, also became for a number of years a feature of University life.

With funds thus raised the Union proceeded to take the first steps toward a clubhouse. The old home of Judge Thomas M. Cooley, on State Street, was purchased and remodeled. Although admittedly inadequate, the house in a measure provided some of the facilities planned for the future building and demonstrated effectively the need of a large center for student and faculty activities. This first clubhouse was formally opened on Thursday evening, November 14, 1907 (see Part VIII: Michigan Union Building).

The fact that it was operated as a club necessitated, for the first time, the payment of Union dues, which were fixed at $2.50 for each student. Despite the fact that it was relatively late in the college year, a large number of students became active members. Until 1918-19, however, when the dues were included in the University fees, by no means all of the men enrolled in the organization.

Nevertheless, interest and enthusiasm were widespread, and student energies eventually crystallized in the first of the many Michigan Union Operas, which began with "Michigenda," given in February, 1908, in the old Athens Theater (later the Whitney, razed in 1956). Given over a period of three days, this performance netted the sum of $2,000 toward the support of the organization and the clubhouse (Mich. Alum., 14 [1907-8]: 229-30). Through the years 1908-26 the Opera contributed about $125,000. In these early years the Union functioned as an agency for the expression of student interests and enthusiasm, and to its effectiveness as an organization, in the years before the present building was constructed, may be ascribed the present effectiveness of both the organization and the building which came to be its eventual symbol.

The plans for the new building were prepared by architects Allen B. Pond ('80a, A.M. hon. '11) and Irving K. Pond ('79e, A.M. hon. '11), of Chicago, whose boyhood home stood on part of the site upon which the Union Building eventually was built. In April, 1910, an announcement setting forth tentative plans and exterior sketches of the building was published in the Alumnus, thus giving a new impetus to the project. In the campaign for funds for the new building, the student officers took an active part, notably such early Union presidents Page  1811as Herbert W. Clark ('05, '08l), James K. Watkins ('09), Walle W. Merritt ('08, '12l), and Howard L. Barkdull ('09, '11l).

A special effort was undertaken to secure an increased membership, which grew rapidly until 4,047 students were enrolled in 1914. This represented a large part of the student body of that time and reflected the important place of the Union in University life. The offices of president, of secretary, and of departmental vice-presidents of the Union came to be among the most sought after and important student offices. Throughout these years the office of president was given alternately to a fraternity man and to an independent.

Despite faculty and alumni membership on the Board of Directors, the proportion of students on the board made the Union an effective expression of the best student opinion, and there was rarely a division on student-faculty lines. The student officers directed the constantly growing activities of the Union without compensation, many of them devoting almost all of their spare time to the work. Occasionally, a question arose as to the desirability of financial recognition of their services, but the board always felt that this would be inconsistent with the democratic ideals of the organization. In the campaign for funds for the new building, the student officers took an effective part, many of them traveling about the country to lay the case of the Union before alumni groups.

The first definite move for a new and larger building was initiated at a meeting of alumni held in Ann Arbor in December, 1910. Out of this meeting grew the final organization which eventually secured the necessary funds. The beginnings of the program were necessarily modest, and at first were confined largely to a program of publicity through the Michigan Alumnus and the Michigan Daily which, some years before contributions were actually solicited, resulted in a cordial and co-operative attitude on the part of the alumni.

The use of the first building grew so rapidly that in 1912, at the time of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the University, it proved necessary to build an addition in the form of a frame structure, 50 by 100 feet, at the rear. This addition, called the Assembly Hall, was used for large social gatherings and dramatic performances. Later, it became a theater for University plays. For years the Michigan Union Opera was presented here, and thus the addition acquired its later name, the Mimes Theater. Eventually, after some years' service as a Play Production Laboratory Theater, it was razed.

The adoption of a Union button, to be worn by all student members, after the popular athletic button was discontinued, also added to the general student pride in the Michigan Union. By 1914 the property of the Union, including the first clubhouse and addition, was valued at $40,000, with an indebtedness of a little more than half that amount. Subscriptions at that time, before the campaign for the present building was begun in June, 1914, amounted to $23,000. The advent of World War I a few months later, necessitated postponement of the plans for a campaign, however, and it was not until October, 1915, that actual solicitation of funds on a large scale began. Subscriptions came in rapidly during the following year, and by October, 1916, $765,000 had been secured in pledges, of which about $235,000 was in cash. The objective finally had been set at $1,000,000, including $250,000 for endowment.

The central campaign committee in Ann Arbor included Professors Henry M. Bates (chairman), Joseph A. Bursley, Evans Holbrook, Gardner S. Williams, Page  1812and Dr. Reuben Peterson from the faculty, Regents Benjamin S. Hanchett and Harry C. Bulkley, Henry E. Bodman ('96), George W. Millen, Shirley W. Smith, and Homer L. Heath ('07). Alumni subcommittees were set up all over the country, and arrangements were made for visits from representatives of the Union. By March, 1917, the sum of $800,000 had been subscribed, with about half of this amount actually in hand.

This successful campaign was carried on largely under the direction of Homer L. Heath, general manager of the Union from 1908 to 1926, who was untiring in his efforts to promote the project. This response seemed to justify plans for immediate construction. A building committee, organized in October, 1911, included Professor Joseph A. Bursley (chairman), Roy D. Chapin, Henry W. Douglas ('90e), William D. McKenzie ('96), Professor Henry E. Riggs, Frederick W. Stevens, ('87l), Professor Gardner S. Williams, and Homer L. Heath. This committee worked faithfully through 1927.

In addition to the building committee, an Alumni Advisory Committee was also established, consisting of Lawrence Maxwell ('94, hon. '93, hon. '04), Earl D. Babst ('93, '94l, hon. '11), Eugene J. Carpenter, Roy D. Chapin, Delbert J. Haff ('84, '86l, hon. '09), Richard C. Peters, Charles B. Warren ('91, hon. '16), and John M. Zane ('84, hon. '14). Actual construction did not begin until 1916, when President Hutchins turned the first sod for the building at Commencement of 1916; building operations were well under way by the fall of that year. The building committee was composed of men thoroughly competent to deal with problems of construction; they acted as their own contractors, thus saving considerable sums in the cost of the building. The Cooley house was razed at this time. The preliminary plans, however, involved only the construction of the shell of the building; the interior finish and furnishings were to be provided as the subscriptions were paid.

With America's entry into World War I in the spring of 1917 and with consequent changes and loss of enrollment in the University, the collection of these unpaid subscriptions became increasingly difficult, and construction had to be postponed. Plans were developed, in the meantime, for a war-time use of the unfinished structure. An advance loan by the Michigan State War Preparedness Board of $260,000 permitted completion of the building to a point where it could be used as a barracks, and it was taken over by the Students' Army Training Corps. With the beginning of the fall semester in 1918, some 800 corps members were housed in the Union, and meals were served to more than 4,000 persons in the building and in temporary mess halls set up beside it.

The end of the war brought the officers of the Union face to face with the fact that with a large investment already in the building it was imperative that it be completed and the loan from the state repaid. After an unsuccessful effort to raise the necessary $301,170, the building committee decided to borrow sufficient funds to finish the interior and provide the furnishings, using the unpaid pledges as security. This action permitted construction to be resumed, and the Michigan Union was opened in the fall of 1919. At its completion the building was dedicated as a memorial to President James B. Angell, and a bronze tablet to his memory was placed at the front entrance. Many years later, a portrait sketch of him in his last year as President, executed by Wilfred B. Shaw, was hung in the entrance hallway of the 1956 addition.

One of the first measures passed by Page  1813the directors after the construction of the new building was a rule that the Union, as exclusively a men's club, should not permit women to use the front entrance; they were to be admitted only through the side door. This measure was strongly advocated by some of the faculty members who were familiar with the general practice of university clubs elsewhere. A doorkeeper was installed to enforce this ruling, which was not abrogated until 1954, when the new building program was instituted.

The Michigan Union and its grounds were deeded to the University in March, 1920. At that time the building cost was stated to have been $1,150,000 with reproduction value for that year of more than $1,350,000. Subscriptions aggregated more than $1,167,000, of which $740,000 had been paid in cash. In the communication and deed it was stated:

It will be observed that the deed expressly states that by its acceptance the Regents assume neither a moral nor a legal obligation to pay any indebtedness of the Union now existing or at any time arising. The Union building has enormously increased the pride of the alumni in the University and they will never countenance a request for money from the Regents, either for the building or for the operation thereof. The indebtedness now outstanding is not yet due and is covered by subscriptions payable in the future. Payments on such subscriptions are being made in a most gratifying manner as they mature.


(R.P., 1917-20, p. 888.)

Although more than $50,000 had been subscribed by students alone through 1,000 life memberships and despite the fact that 70 per cent of the students were life members by 1920, the question of annual student memberships in the Union had never been on an altogether satisfactory basis. Therefore, in June, 1918, the Board of Regents "directed that the annual fee of each male student in the University be increased by $3, which sum out of each annual fee should be paid over by the Treasurer of the University to the proper official of the Michigan Union" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 240). This was to take effect with the first semester of the 1918-19 school year. The dues thus collected were raised to five dollars in 1919-20. As a result all the men students in the University automatically became members of the Union. The student fee was raised to six dollars a semester in 1923, to ten dollars in 1926, and to twelve dollars in 1952. It was in 1926 that the automatic life membership after eight semesters was enacted.

Through these years the Union had been governed by a Board of seventeen directors comprising student, faculty, and alumni representatives, a method of organization which proved adequate until the problems incident to the administration of the new building arose. It was then found advisable to create another body, known as the Board of Governors, to manage the Union as a large and financially responsible corporation.

Although first authorized in 1917, the Board of Governors was not finally con stituted until 1920. This body was composed of the student president of the Union, a representative from the Board of Regents, the financial secretary of the Union, and three alumni members. In June, 1928, the Board of Governors as an independent unit was abolished, and a finance committee of the Board of Directors was set up in its place. This committee is composed of (a) the regent member of the Board of Directors (ex officio), (b) the president of the Union (ex officio), (c) the financial secretary of the Union (ex officio), (d) the dean of students (ex officio), (e) the recording secretary (ex officio), and (f) two non-student members of the Board of Directors, both residents of Ann Arbor — all appointed by the Board of Directors. Page  1814The financial secretary is chairman of the committee. The directors deal with the use of the building as a social center and the policies of the Union as an organization, while the Finance Committee administers the finances of the organization and supervises the actual use of the building. Homer L. Heath, who was general manager from 1908 to 1926, was succeeded by L. Paul Buckley ('05l), 1926-33, Stanley G. Waltz, 1933-41, and Franklin Kuenzel, acting manager, 1941-45, general manager, 1945- .

From the first the building proved that the contentions of the early advocates of such a center for student life were fully justified. An analysis made during its first year of use showed that more than 2,500 formal and informal meetings were held in the building and that an average of 7,500 persons entered its doors every day. Although the opening of the building had been delayed two months, the total business for the first year amounted to half a million dollars, with a deficit of only $3,000.

When the building was finally opened for use the swimming pool and the library and reading room on the second floor were left unfinished. The completion of these two sections became an almost immediate objective on the part of the students. In June, 1923, a gift of $21,500 by Mrs. Edward W. Pendleton, of Detroit, permitted the Board of Governors to finish the Library as a memorial to her husband, Edward W. Pendleton ('72). This room was ready for use early in 1925, and a start toward the library itself was made through the donation of Mr. Pendleton's library.

Meanwhile, the students had been carrying on an active campaign to raise $50,000 for the completion of the swimming pool. Eventually, through various entertainments and solicitation of funds, they raised $20,000, which was supplemented by contributions from alumni and special donors, thus permitting the construction of the pool in 1924; it was opened on March 28, 1925. Extensive student use of the Union building throughout its first years also made necessary an increase in the space devoted to administrative offices, an improvement which was completed in 1930.

While the Union as a building almost immediately assumed a recognized place in University life, the fact that it was completed and operating as planned served to lessen the zest in the campaign and, in practice, made it difficult, if not impossible to raise the indebtedness, which amounted to $306,000 in 1925. It was to meet this situation that the Board of Regents approved an increase in the Union student fee to ten dollars. It was provided, however, that only one-half of this sum should be spent for maintenance; the other half being reserved for the retirement of the Union's debt. When this was finally accomplished in 1935, the Union was free to enter upon a series of additions. In 1936 and 1938 two new wings to the south were constructed. The first, providing quarters for the University Club, as well as fifty-four additional rooms for guests, afforded more than 90,000 more square feet of available space. This wing runs parallel to the main structure, while the other, with frontage on Madison Street, houses the International Center and affords eighty additional guest rooms. The residence halls of the West Quadrangle, directly behind the Union, bordering on Madison and Thompson streets, were completed in 1937-39 and connect with the basement and first floor of the Union by means of corridors. The plans for these dormitories were developed in connection with the Union expansion.

The Michigan Union becomes known to the undergraduate through the work of the student activities committee, composed of the Union president, the Union Page  1815executive secretary, and the members of the Union Executive Council. The members of the Council are selected by the senior officers to head the various committees, which in 1955-56 included campus affairs, student services, publicity, social, dance, public relations, personnel and administration, and University relations.

"Union Week," held at the beginning of each semester, serves to introduce the student to University facilities. During the year there are dances each weekend. Friday evenings the "Little Club" is one of the most popular spots in Ann Arbor. Membership dances are held each Saturday night in the ballroom. The Union sponsors theater trips to Detroit during the year, permitting the student to take advantage of the plays which come to the metropolitan area. Twice a month a Union Forum is held at which controversial issues are debated and discussed by students and faculty. Other projects include University Day, a program for highschool seniors, football ticket resale, tutorial service, speech-photography-art contests, dance contests, student-faculty-administration conferences, and the Michigan Union Opera.

Several projects are sponsored by the Union in co-operation with women's groups. Michigras, the semiannual spring carnival and parade, involving everyone on campus, is a joint project with the Women's Athletic Association. In alternate years the two groups present Spring Weekend, consisting of a Skit Night entertainment and a "soap-box derby." The Union also presents various programs in co-operation with the Women's League. Student leaders for Orientation Week are chosen by the League and Union, and student groups entertain in the local hospitals at Easter and Christmas. Monthly teas are given at the home of the President of the University. Gulantics, an all-campus talent show, is presented in the spring and Homecoming in the fall. The Michigan Union also serves as headquarters for the Interfraternity Council, Inter-House Council, Men's Glee Club, Quadrangle, Michigamua, Druids, the senior honorary society of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Vulcans, the senior engineering honorary society, and Sphinx, the junior honorary society of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

While the Michigan Union was by no means the first college building designed to serve student social life and activities, since there were other buildings answering this purpose elsewhere, notably at Harvard, Stanford, Dartmouth, Pennsylvania, and Toronto, it was the first one built on such an impressive scale that it could serve as a practicable center for all the men students, as well as faculties and alumni. Upon its final completion it immediately attracted wide attention, and similar buildings sprang up all over the country, so in a sense it may be considered the first of the great student unions now to be found on the campuses of almost all the large American colleges and universities.

The present (1954) constitution defines in Article II the purposes of the Union: "To furnish a University social and recreational center; to provide a meeting place for faculty, alumni, and students of the University; and to help in fitting University of Michigan men for the performance of their duties as good citizens." Article III provides that "membership shall be confined to men," and sets forth the following six classifications of membership: life, student, annual, honorary, directors, and summer session. Article IV provides that the Board of Directors shall consist of: the student president and executive secretary, the financial secretary appointed by the Regents, the dean of men, ex officio, the Page  1816general secretary of the Alumni Association (ex officio), the highest-ranking male officer of the legislative branch of the student government (ex officio), seven student vice-presidents elected by the student members of the Union, three faculty members from the University Senate, two alumni elected by the Alumni Association, and one member of the Board of Regents. This Board shall be "the policy-making body of the Union," with "full power to supervise and control all its activities." The president of the Union presides over all meetings of members, and of the directors.

The first section of Article V provides that the president and executive secretary shall be selected by a committee composed of the dean of men, three student members from the seven vice-presidents, and three faculty or alumni members. Section II defines the procedure for the annual election by the students, under the supervision of the student government, of the seven vice-presidents. Articles VI to IX set forth the duties of the president, executive secretary, financial secretary, and the general manager. The following committees of the Board of Directors are authorized and their membership and duties defined in Article X: activities, appointments, finance, and house.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Constitution of the University of Michigan Union.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 11-46 (1903-40).
The Michigan Daily, 1903-20.
"Minutes of the Board of Directors of the Michigan Union," 1904-56.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1900-40.
Parker, Edward F., , D. B. D. Blaine, , Wilfred B. Shaw. MSS, Letters Concerning the Student Movement for the Michigan Union. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Parker, Edward F."When the Michigan Union Was a Dream,"Mich. Alum., May 22, 1926, p. 599.
Parker, Edward F.The First Years of the Michigan Union,"Mich. Alum., May 29, 1926, p. 617.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1901-9; 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1901-56.
Smith, Shirley W.Harry Burns Hutchins. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1951. Pp. 137 ff.
University of Michigan.Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921: Univ. Mich., 1923.

THE WOMEN'S LEAGUE

THE history of the Women's League is the story of women at the University. The presence of women on campus was ignored, for the most part, by both students and faculty for twenty years after the admission of the first woman in 1870. The natural craving for social life found expression as the years passed in the forming of sororities, but only a small part of the growing number of women was included, while the fact that these groups were rivals served often to separate the women rather than to unite them. It was the desire for unity and the need for social intercourse which led to the formation of the Women's League in 1890.

In May of that year, Alice (Freeman) Palmer ('76, Ph.D. hon. '82) addressed the Alumnae Association, emphasizing "the necessity for college girls cultivating their social natures, as well as their intellectual powers." As a result of her interest, serious consideration was given to the problems faced by women students. One of the founders of the League, Mary (Butler) Markley ('92), contributed to the Castalian (the yearbook published by the "independents" of the senior class) an article which described Page  1817"the object of the association, its working, and its aims" as they were expressed during the League's first year on campus:

In order to discuss plans for originating some society which should unite all college girls irrespective of department, class, or fraternity, and which should tend to promote a more decided college spirit and intensify and deepen our love for our Alma Mater, a meeting was held shortly before the close of college. At this meeting there were eighteen college girls and three Faculty ladies … a committee was appointed to draft a constitution. A Reception Committee was also appointed whose duty it was … to welcome Freshman girls, to help them in finding their way about the college buildings, to introduce them to their different professors, and assist them in getting suitable rooms and boarding places, and in establishing their church relations, as well as the various minor details of life which add so much to one's comfort in going to a strange place…

In October the first general meeting was held in the University Chapel, Mrs. Angell presiding, and Mrs. Gayley Browne presenting the object of the society. At this time our Constitution was read and approved, the terms of membership agreed upon, and the question of a name discussed but not settled. Another meeting was held later, and the name Women's League of the U. of M. decided upon.*

All college girls were to be eligible for membership, and also the ladies of the families of those who have been or are now Professors in the University, upon payment of the fees agreed upon. Arrangements were also made for the admittance of others interested in the welfare of the girls. At this meeting membership fees were paid and an enthusiastic company of Faculty ladies and college girls donned their yellow and blue badges.


(Castalian, 6 [1891]: 78-79.)

The government of the Women's League was organized with a student Executive Committee and an Advisory Committee — a group of Ann Arbor women known as associate members. The Executive Committee included one member from each sorority and an equal number of independents, chosen at a caucus of unaffiliated women (MS, "Constitution of the Woman's League"). Representatives were elected from students enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and also in the Pharmacy, Dental, Homeopathic, and Law departments. The committee elected its own officers and chairman. The first president of the Women's League was Ethel (Fountain) Hussey ('91), an independent who was instrumental in the initial planning preceding the League's formation. The Advisory and Executive committees held regular business meetings together and separate meetings when necessary. Mrs. Gayley Browne served as the first chairman of the Advisory Committee.

In November, 1890, it was decided "that the associate members who were willing and able to undertake the work — should take ten of the college girls as a special charge — the names to be drawn by lot — this arrangement to last through the college year (MS, "Minutes of the Woman's League," December 6, 1890). Each woman who took part served as adviser and counselor to her group of ten. Numerous "at homes" were given by these associate members, and their gracious hospitality and friendship were an important part of the League program. In addition, seven general meetings or receptions were held during the first year, 1890-91.

In October and November the meetings were both business and social. In January Professor Fred Newton Scott addressed the group on the subject "Art as Relating to the Peranesi Collection." Page  1818In February Mrs. Angell held a general reception, and in March Mrs. Charles B. G. de Nancrède also entertained the League. Jane Addams, of Hull House, spoke on the "Outgrowths of Toynbee Hall" in April. On May 2, 1891, Mrs. Angell led a "conversation on social etiquette." The report for the year showed 212 active members, 48 associate members, and a balance of $57.28 in the treasury. In 1891 President Angell commented: "I deem worthy of mention here the formation of the Woman's League, an organization composed of many of the women students and of the wives of members of the faculties … It has already proved of value by conferring both pleasure and benefit upon its members" (P.R., 1891, p. 11).

In June, 1891, the Executive Committee received a letter from the Detroit Branch of the Collegiate Alumnae, asking that a committee be formed to raise funds for the women's department of the new gymnasium. Waterman Gymnasium was in the process of construction, and this letter marked the beginning of a long campaign by the women of the University for a "women's annex" to this building. In January, 1892, Professor Albert A. Stanley gave the surplus from the Paderewski concert to the gymnasium fund. In the same month Miss Octavia W. Bates ('77, '97l), of Detroit, presented the plans for the Women's Building, illustrating her remarks with sketches. The League members were greatly encouraged and gave their support to all projects planned for the benefit of the gymnasium fund. Alice (Freeman) Palmer, the guest speaker at the second annual meeting in May, 1892, spoke on "The Life and Future of College Women." The secretary of the League reported: "Altho' the League has done nothing startling during the past year, it is coming more and more to be looked upon, both here and wherever the University is known, as the representative of the Women of the University and that it is undoubtedly accomplishing the work for which its founders designed it, is evident from the hearty expressions of approval of its work, made by those who have been watching its course" (MS, "Minutes of the Women's League," May 3, 1892).

During the next few years the League expanded its activities. The "at homes" were replaced by a series of tea parties given by the ladies of the faculty. The Executive Committee took charge of new student "groups," thus relieving the Ann Arbor women of this duty, and each member was responsible for meeting her girls throughout the year. Socials for the new girls were given in the parlors of Newberry Hall. Since 1890 the "Fruit and Flower Mission," a committee which ministered to patients in the Hospital, had been operated under the auspices of the League; in October, 1893, this arrangement became official, and provision was made to promote other service projects.

The Women's League sponsored Friday afternoon dances for members and their friends, and lectures and symposiums were held on subjects of interest; the topics varied from the "Columbian Tea and World's Fair Symposium" to a "political symposium" — a debate on women's suffrage. Circulars explaining the work of the League were sent each year to accredited high schools. Upon the suggestion of the Advisory Committee, in 1893, an "intercollegiate correspondence" was begun with colleges in which women were enrolled.

Waterman Gymnasium, completed in the fall of 1894, was used by the men in the afternoons and by the women on certain mornings of the week. From the large number of women who enrolled voluntarily for supervised athletics, the need of a separate women's gymnasium Page  1819was apparent. Early in 1895, the drive for the Women's Building received great impetus:

One of the Regents, Mr. Hebard, secured ten thousand dollars — a large part his own gift — toward the erection of such a building as a wing of the present gymnasium, and another Regent, Mr. Barbour, gave for the same purpose a lot of land in Detroit valued at twenty-five thousand dollars… The purpose is not only to provide a gymnasium in this building, but also other rooms which the women much need, such as bath rooms, parlors, and an assembly room, that will accommodate a few hundred persons where lectures especially for the women may be given.


(P.R., 1895, pp. 20-21.)

Mr. John Canfield, of Manistee, also gave $5,000. The League was promised space in the proposed building, and the women enthusiastically set about raising the $15,000 needed to meet the estimated total cost. Appeals for subscriptions were sent to all alumnae and friends of the University, and mass meetings were held to raise funds. Any woman giving $500 to the gymnasium fund automatically became a "life member" of the League, and in January, 1896, the League offered a scholarship to the University to any graduate of an accredited high school who would raise $500 for the gymnasium. Proceeds from all entertainments and projects during the next five years were applied to the gymnasium fund.

The League became a member of the State Federation of Women's Clubs in November, 1895, and was an active participant in that group for more than twenty years. The first delegate to the annual meeting took advantage of the opportunity to acquaint the women of the state with the need for a Women's Building at the University of Michigan. Donations were received later from many of the women's groups represented at that meeting.

The Board of Regents selected Eliza M. Mosher ('75m) as Professor of Hygiene and Dean of Women in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1896; she was the first woman to be appointed professor on the University of Michigan faculty. Her duties included the first official University supervision of women's affairs. Dean Mosher, who was made an honorary member of the Women's League, won the respect and friendship of the students and was soon an active participant in all their meetings.

In 1898 the League was incorporated so that it could own property legally. The purpose of the organization was stated as follows:

To promote acquaintance, unity, and loyalty among its members both actual and associate, and to elevate social life in the University. — To organize upper class women into a body whereby systematic and helpful work may be done for incoming students. — To make it possible for the women of the University of Michigan to investigate subjects of general importance with facility and thoroughness and to inaugurate any other work which may be deemed advisable by the executive and advisory committees.


("Articles of Incorporation of the Women's League.")
Under the new corporation bylaws the Executive Committee presented a slate of nominations to the annual meeting of League members who then elected officers.

Welcoming of new students and the work in the Hospital were still important League activities. In the fall of 1901 the League was hostess at the annual meeting of the State Federation of Women's Clubs. The following semester the Girls' Glee Club was formed, and the first "County Fair," sponsored jointly by the Men's Athletic Association and the Women's League, took place in the spring of 1902. The Fair, held on two consecutive nights in the combined Waterman-Barbour Page  1820Gymnasiums, was publicized each day at noon by a street parade. Vaudeville and side shows were presented by campus groups, and great crowds attended every evening. This entertainment proved to be the most successful ever attempted, and a large profit was divided between the sponsoring organizations.

The "group" system was still found to be of value in making contact with the women on campus. In 1899, in an attempt to encourage participation in League-sponsored activities, the groups were expanded to include nonmembers. Originally, there were ten members in each group, but by 1902 this had been increased to twenty, ten freshmen and ten upperclassmen. The older girls looked after the younger and accompanied them to League functions, and the groups took turns entertaining each other at the weekly receptions. Each group had two patronesses from the associate membership and a group leader who was chosen by the Executive Committee.

Another important phase of League activity was the student employment bureau, organized in 1896 to assist women in finding work in the community. In 1902 President Angell reported: "I take pleasure in recognizing the great value of the services rendered by the Student's Christian Association, the Young Men's Christian Association, and the Women's League in aiding new students in finding suitable homes and also employment … The great body of our students have very limited means, and many of them are glad of the opportunity to gain something by honorable toil, however menial" (P.R., 1902, p. 9).

The Women's Building was opened in November, 1896, and the gymnasium a year later. The parlors, completed in 1900, were furnished by the Women's League. The building was named "Barbour Gymnasium" in honor of the principal donor, Regent Barbour, and, at the suggestion of the Women's League, the second-floor assembly room was named "Sarah Caswell Angell Hall," in honor of Mrs. Angell.

Dean Mosher, who personally supervised the building and equipping of the Gymnasium and organized the women's program in physical education, resigned in 1902 to return to private practice in New York. In the six years she had served as Dean, Dr. Mosher had brought great honor to that position and had helped to eliminate much of the antagonism toward coeds. Myra (Beach) Jordan ('93) succeeded Dean Mosher in 1902. Realizing the need for centralizing the interests of women students, Mrs. Jordan made the Women's Building (Barbour Gymnasium) the focus of social events on the campus and encouraged the League to become the "clearing house" for all women's activities.

Women's honorary societies were formed — Mortar Board (all-campus senior women's honorary) and Senior Society (independent senior women's honorary) in 1906, and Wyvern (all-campus junior women's honorary) in 1910. In 1912 the Women's Athletic Association, which had formed separately in 1905, became the "Athletic Committee of the Women's League"; this merger lasted until 1917. The women's vocational conference, first presented by the League in 1915, was so successful that it became an annual event. Dramatic groups were organized, and a "point system" to evaluate the participation of women in campus activities was put into practice in 1913. War relief work was the chief interest from 1917 to 1919, and each woman was asked to pledge a part of her time to the Red Cross.

The social life of the women improved largely as a result of the development of class loyalty. In the fall of each year Mrs. Jordan gave four Friday afternoon receptions for the freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior women, respectively. Page  1821Class projects and meetings were organized at these weekly receptions, which were continued under the sponsorship of the League. Since 1884 the Freshman Spread in honor of new students had been given annually by the sophomores for all the women on campus. During Commencement week in 1903 the seniors presented a Senior Play in which all of the parts were taken by women. The graduates were honored by the three other classes at a Senior Breakfast and at a party held by the juniors the night before Commencement. In 1904 the juniors entertained the seniors with an original playlet, which was a takeoff on prominent seniors. This was the first Junior Girls' Play, an annual production which soon developed into a full-length musical comedy.

All the women of the University, including alumnae, were invited to the annual Michigan Women's Banquet, first held in 1907. Sponsored by the Women's League and the Collegiate Alumnae, this affair became one of the highlights of the school year, varying from dinners to luncheons or receptions. An attendance of 600 was not unusual. From 1909 to 1920 the Junior Girls' Play was presented as part of the entertainment. These class events have become traditions to University of Michigan women and are preserved in essence in League class projects. The distinct organization of the classes strengthened the feeling of women's "corporate existence." Each class felt responsible not only for its share in these projects but for the over-all improvement of conditions for women. The Michigan Alumnus, in November, 1911, commented that the Women's League was regarded as "the representative of Michigan women in all campus affairs … Everything that is of interest to women and touches them on Campus is carried on by the League."

Barbour Gymnasium had been in use only twelve years when a new "athletic" problem arose. In 1908-9 the erection of the Chemistry Building on the site of the tennis courts eliminated the only place for outdoor athletics available to the women. At the suggestion of Mrs. Hussey, the League purchased the 6.9 acres which comprised Sleepy Hollow, situated south of the Observatory. The transaction was made possible through a gift of $1,500 from Regent Peter White and a $500 loan from Regent Levi L. Barbour. The League assumed a $4,700 mortgage on the balance. Solicitations and fund-raising projects during the next few years netted more than $5,500; of this amount, $3,000 was the gift of Senator Thomas W. Palmer. Additional lots were purchased at intervals, and the total land thus acquired became the nucleus of the present Palmer Athletic Field.

Housing was another important problem which was of much concern to the Women's League. The members promoted projects to arouse interest in better housing conditions, and as a direct result of their labors separate houses for women, known as league houses, were established on the campus. By 1909, however, because of the growing enrollment of women it was clear that dormitories would be the only answer to the housing problem. A drive was begun for funds, and the League employed a financial secretary to travel about and arouse interest in the project among the alumni. As a direct result of their efforts Helen Newberry Residence, the Martha Cook Building, Alumnae House, and Betsy Barbour House had been donated to the University by 1920.

Recognizing the need for uniformity in the procedures and government of the proposed residence halls, as well as in the scattered living units already on campus, the League, in 1913, appointed a self-government committee to work with representatives from all the women's house groups and to investigate systems Page  1822of government for women in other coeducational universities. In 1914 the constitution of the League was amended to include provision for a permanent self-government committee consisting of two League officers, four elected representatives, and the dean of women as adviser without vote. The vice-president of the League was designated as chairman. Later in that year, the name of the committee was changed to the "Judiciary Council." The League, with the permission of the Student Affairs Committee, organized a simple form of government for the league houses and a set of uniform regulations and house rules for all women's residences.

By 1915, the League, in the twenty-five years since its establishment, had expanded in size and scope, and the early form of government had become unwieldy. It was reincorporated, therefore, and its structure was revised in the new bylaws. All business was conducted by a Board of Directors, which was made up of the officers and four class representatives; later, committee chairmen were added to this board. A Board of Representatives, which included one representative from each organized league house and sorority, and five independents-at-large, met regularly in order to serve as a means of communication with the active membership, to recommend policies for action by the Board of Directors, and to ratify house rules. There was also an Advisory Board of seven associate members. Under the new bylaws the Judiciary Council was given charge of girls' class organization, nominations of class representatives to serve on the Board of Directors, and matters of conduct and house regulation.

The League presented a pageant, "Joan d'Arc," with a cast of 300 men and women students in the spring of 1914. More than 4,000 persons attended, and it was a great success. In 1916 another pageant was undertaken as a part of the tercentenary Shakespeare celebration. Although the production was well managed, its finances were not. The "Annual Report of the Committee on Student Affairs" commented, "in view of the universal interest in the occasion and the University's duty to participate in the world-wide celebration, the debit is no more than the Campus may cheerfully assume in so good a cause." Unfortunately, it was the League which had to make up the $800. The pageant deficit was cleared within the following year, but the League officers could see no way to lessen the $1,700 still owing on Palmer Athletic Field. Therefore, in June, 1917, the League petitioned the Regents to liquidate this debt, and the Board agreed, meeting the payments out of the accumulation in the Palmer Field Fee Fund (R.P., 1914-17, p. 793).

The fact that women had never served on the Student Council nor been permitted to vote in elections served as a factor to strengthen the position of the Women's League, which was viewed as an equal governing body by both students and faculty. In 1918 the president of the Student Council and the president of the Women's League were invited to attend meetings of the Senate Committee on Student Affairs as nonvoting student representatives. The chairman of that committee, Professor Louis A. Strauss, replied as follows to a question regarding student self-government:

In general, … the Student Council takes charge of all campus elections, regulates the games between the freshmen and sophomore classes, assumes the lead in all movements of the University interest involving student initiative, and attempts to model student sentiment on public questions in the right direction. The Judiciary Council of the Women exercises similar functions on the whole with greater success, as I believe they have the more united support of the women of the University.


(MS, "CorrespondencePage  1823 of the Senate Committee on Student Affairs.")

A University Committee on Discipline was set up in 1922 to handle cases referred by the deans or those which involved students enrolled in two or more University schools or colleges. A representative of the Women's Judiciary Council was invited to attend formal meetings of this committee when cases pertaining to women students were to be discussed.

By 1918-19 virtually every undergraduate woman was enrolled as a "dues-paying member" of the League. In February, 1919, the Board approved the request of the Women's League and of the Dean of Women that with the beginning of the University year 1919-20 there should be included in the annual fee of all women students "the sum of $1, the net proceeds of which were to be turned over to the Women's League" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 509). Under this arrangement every woman student in the University automatically became a member of the League upon admission to the University.

In June, 1919, at a luncheon given the alumnae during Commencement week, the League outlined the work of the past year and stressed the need for a new building to serve as a social center for women. At a meeting of the Alumnae Council in January, 1921, it was emphasized that Barbour Gymnasium facilities were inadequate for the current enrollment of women, which had multiplied four times since the building's construction. At that time the League had more than $1,200 to offer the Alumnae Council with which to finance a campaign for a new building. Consequently, it was voted to raise one million dollars for the building.

The fund-raising program for the League was the primary interest of the undergraduates in the 1920's. All League activities centered around the goal of the new women's building, which was to be named the "University of Michigan League." An Undergraduate Campaign Committee was appointed to stimulate interest and promote projects to increase the building fund. The University donated the site of the Michigan League in December, 1921, with the condition that the Alumnae Council begin building within five years. This was also the date of the first "Women's League and InterChurch Bazaar," an event which yielded thousands of dollars annually.

After twenty years of service, Dean Jordan resigned in June, 1922. Her achievements as dean, which had endeared her to Michigan women, were aptly described by the Regents:

Not alone has she materially improved the housing condition of the women students on the campus but she has throughout her career taken a personal interest … that should be appreciated by every one interested in the welfare of the University women… When it is considered how many there are and how rapid has been the growth of the University, it is small wonder the Governing Body feels grateful to Mrs. Jordan for the results which must be accredited to her.


(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 364-65.)
Jean Hamilton (Vassar '00) succeeded to the position in September, 1922, and served for four years. In 1923 she became acting chairman of the Michigan League campaign fund, devoting one-half of her time to this work.

In 1923 it was reported: "Never for an instant has anyone in Ann Arbor been permitted to forget that every woman in the student body or in any way connected with the University is a factor in the campaign for funds for the Women's League Building … They have had sales, style-shows, benefits without number, their booths have grown up like mushrooms about the city, but they have done their work with a quiet enthusiasm Page  1824which has at once opened the public's purse and earned its grateful admiration" (Mich. Alum., 29 [1922-23]: 1033-34). Class projects were one of the "means" used to raise funds. The Junior Girls' Play, presented in honor of the seniors and first staged in the Whitney Theater in 1919, was opened to the "general public" for the first time in 1923. In 1924 the first Freshman Pageant was given as a part of Lantern Night celebration and was thereafter a yearly event; until this time freshmen had not been permitted to participate in extracurricular activities which involved public performances. The Senior Girls' Play was presented publicly until 1925, when it became a part of the entertainment at the women's Senior Breakfast, and the Women's Banquet was replaced by a tea in honor of alumnae attending the annual Schoolmasters' Conference. In the same year the first Sophomore Circus was held in conjunction with the bazaar.

The Committee on Student Affairs was reorganized in 1925 to consist of the dean of students, the dean of women, six Senate members, and five students, including the president of the Women's League and one other woman student to be elected by the League Board of Directors.

Upon the resignation of Dean Hamilton in 1926, the office of dean of women was discontinued, and a Committee of Advisers to Women, made up of Alice Crocker Lloyd ('16), Beatrice W. Johnson (Maine '24, A.M. ibid. '25), and Grace E. Richards (Minnesota '10, A.M. ibid. '17) was appointed. From this time women's self-government was greatly encouraged. It was decided that "since the house rules are made by the Women's League, it is fitting that the Judiciary Council of the League enforce them" (P.R., 1926-27, p. 166).

Mary (Bartron) Henderson ('04) was elected executive secretary of the Alumnae Council in January, 1926. One of her duties was the supervision of the campaign for funds for the Michigan League Building (see Part VIII: Michigan League Building). Only one-half of the million dollars estimated had been raised at that time, but under her guidance, the balance of the money for construction was pledged by June, 1927, at which time ground was broken.

According to the original plan of management for the building, a Board of Governors was appointed to control all matters affecting its operation. Membership on this Board included a regent, three alumnae, two women appointed by the Regents, one of the advisers to women, the head of the Department of Physical Education for Women, the president of the Women's League, and three undergraduates from the Board of Directors. Instead of placing the responsibility with the Board of Governors during the first year of operation, the Alumnae Council was given full control of the building under the direction of Mrs. Henderson. The Michigan League was formally opened on May 4, 1929. At last the women of the University had a "home" of their own, and the Women's League had a center for all its activities. Facilities included meeting rooms, dining rooms, lounges, work rooms, a ballroom, hotel accommodations, and a theater seating 700. When the building was formally presented to the Regents on April 1, 1930, a new Board of Governors was appointed, and the following statement recorded:

The Regents of the University of Michigan accept with the profoundest thanks the Michigan League Building, which was turned over to their custody on April 1, 1930. As public officers, charged by the people of Michigan with the control of the University of this State, the welfare of the women students is one of the most important responsibilities committed to our care. It has also Page  1825been one of our most troublesome problems. Facilities for the social gatherings of women students and for the housing of their extracurricular activities, which rightfully take a prominent place in the experience and training of a college student, have been in late years utterly inadequate, if not wholly non-existent. The Michigan League Building has already remedied this unfortunate situation, and we can see that it is to prove of the greatest practical use to the women students of the University and the alumnae themselves.


(R.P., 1929-32, p. 223.)

With the appointment of Miss Lloyd as Dean of Women in 1930, the "adviser" system came to an end. At Dean Lloyd's request, the Regents added to her staff a new position. Assistant Professor Ethel A. McCormick (Columbia '23), of the Department of Physical Education for Women, was appointed Social Director in the Office of the Dean of Women on a half-time basis, to be in charge of women's social activities. By 1932 Miss McCormick's work had proved to be of such value that she left the Department of Physical Education to become Social Director of Women, with her office and residence in the Michigan League Building.

Management of the building faced many difficulties in the early 1930's. Finances were a major problem. The endowment fund originally planned had not materialized, and the League was forced to become self-supporting. Because there were fewer students during the depression, the League found it difficult to make ends meet. By 1934, however, the situation had begun to improve. At the request of the Board of Governors, the Regents assumed control of the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater and placed it under separate management. Relieved of the responsibility for the theater, the League began to make progress, and in June, 1935, Regent Esther (Marsh) Cram reported that "for the first time … the operation of the League showed a substantial balance instead of a deficit."

In the 1930's the Women's League as an organization was closely identified with the newly opened building, the Michigan League. The problems of the one seriously affected the other, and it was difficult to separate the duties of the building staff from the activities of the student group. To eliminate this confusion and to clarify the position of the Women's League as the governing body for women students, the administration of the building, 1934-35, was combined with the student organization under the title Michigan League; the Women's League became the Undergraduate Division. The students were given more opportunity to share in the responsibilities of the Board of Governors, with the League president as chairman. The name of the undergraduate executive body was changed from the Board of Directors to the Michigan League Council. A Board of Representatives, composed of the Panhellenic Association and Assembly (a newly formed organization for non-affiliated women), was established as the legislative branch of the League. Each campus housing unit was represented on this Board, which decided questions of student government. The Judiciary Council, in turn, enforced the rules made by the Board of Representatives.

A merit system was adopted in selecting League officers and chairmen. The retiring Judiciary Council interviewed candidates for League posts and nominated the best-qualified applicants. The women's student body elected the new members of the Judiciary Council and the vice-presidents from those nominated, and the retiring League Council elected the new committee chairmen. Nominations for League officers were referred to the Electoral Board, composed of three faculty members and four students. All-campus elections for League positions Page  1826were discontinued in 1940; the Electoral Board was given power to elect the Judiciary members, and the vice-presidents were chosen by the League Council. Henry C. Anderson, Director of Student-Alumni Relations, reported in 1936:

The Michigan League … contributed more than usual to student government and student activities… Approximately four hundred students took part in one or more of the various activities… The League completed final payment on its pledge of fifty thousand dollars, made at the time the Michigan League Building was started


(P.R., 1935-36, p. 38).

At about this time the League began an endowment to provide scholarships from accumulated interest. The Ethel McCormick Scholarships for outstanding undergraduate activity leaders have been awarded annually since 1937, and the Alice Crocker Lloyd Fellowship for graduate study has been awarded semiannually since 1944.

Activities in the 1940's were greatly influenced by World War II. In her report for 1942-43, Dean Lloyd said:

The activity program of the girls changed drastically in character. Such traditional affairs as the Sophomore Cabaret, the Junior Girls' Play and the Freshman Project were abandoned. The sophomores took over as their special enterprise, hospital volunteer work; the juniors sold bonds and stamps; and the seniors took charge of the campus working on surgical dressings for the Red Cross.


(P.R., 1942-43, p. 48.)
The League helped to alleviate the labor shortage by recruiting volunteers and part-time workers from the women students. Owing to the nature of its activity, the League Council adopted the name Women's War Council in 1944. Because the building was being used to capacity in 1943, many activities were centered in the housing units. Private parties and banquets were kept at a minimum because of increased food and labor costs. Inexpensive meals were served daily in the ballroom, which had been converted to a dining room.

In 1946-47 the League returned to a peace-time basis. The executive board resumed the name Michigan League Undergraduate Council, and class programs became as elaborate as before. Volunteer hospital work and participation in local philanthropies were resumed, and the Council initiated a successful drive for the University Fresh Air Camp Fund. In 1949 the Electoral Board was discontinued, and the election of officers and the selection of committees were referred directly to the Board of Representatives. The following year (1950), the Undergraduate Division resumed its original title, the Women's League.

Because Miss McCormick's staff now includes three assistants, it is possible to maintain close contact with the various League projects. In addition to its governing and co-ordinating function, the Women's League emphasizes training for leadership. Class programs and service committees have expanded in scope and participation. The practice of interviewing and nominating candidates for League positions has resulted in well-organized committees. Detailed written reports are bound in permanent form as the "President's Reports" of the Women's League.

Today (1957) the structure of the League is complex, yet unified. The Board of Governors, eight representing alumnae, administration, and faculty and five students, determines policy for the building. The student group, the Women's League, has three branches of government. The League Council, the administrative branch, includes officers, committee chairmen, and presidents of associated organizations. This group plans and co-ordinates women's activities. The program offered by the various Page  1827League committees includes community service through hospital volunteers and entertainers, instruction in ballroom dancing, contact with foreign students, tutoring services, and the maintenance and staffing of the League library. Special projects of educational and entertainment value are presented as well as dances and parties. Class projects such as the Junior Girls' Play, the Sophomore Coed Show, and Frosh Weekend are given yearly. In addition, the League co-operates with the Michigan Union in carrying out the Orientation program for new students, and in planning the Homecoming festivities, the monthly teas at the home of President Hatcher, and Gulantics, the campus talent show.

The Women's Senate, which replaced the Board of Representatives in 1953, is the legislative branch of the Women's League. There is one senator for every sixty women on campus, and each housing unit chooses its representatives. The Senate makes decisions on all proposed women's legislation and on the League budget; it also elects the officers of the Women's League. The Women's Judiciary Council, the third branch of the League, is the disciplinary body which enforces the legislation passed by the Women's Senate. The Judiciary Council acts as a co-ordinating and reviewing group for the House Judiciary Councils established in each living unit and for the League House Judiciary Council which handles housing cases outside of the sorority and residence hall system.

Program and structure have fluctuated greatly in the sixty-seven years since the founding of the League, but the purpose has remained the same — to unite the women students irrespective of varied backgrounds, courses of study, affiliations, or interests. In addition to its coordinating and governing functions, the League has emphasized leadership training in organizational and service opportunities. In many respects, this work was "not chosen," but laid upon it by the demands of the University.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Butler, Mary E. (Markley). "The Women's League."Castalian, Vol. 6 (1891): 77-80.
"Constitution of the Women's League," adopted Oct. 11, 1890. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-60 (1894-1954).
MS, "Annual Report of Committee on Student Affairs," 1915-19.
MS, "Articles of Incorporation of the Women's League," filed June 9, 1898.
MS, "Correspondence of the Senate Committee on Student Affairs."
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1907-22.
MS, "Minutes of the Women's League." 1890-1955.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1890-1909, 1921-55.
President's Report of the Women's League (various titles), 1934-55.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1890-1955.
Page  1828

MEN'S STUDENT SELF-GOVERNMENT

UNTIL the turn of the century, when the student population remained below five thousand, minor disciplinary cases involving individual students were handled most informally by the academic deans or by individual faculty members. Monetary fines apparently were unheard of; "warning" and "probation" for misconduct were administered in a paternalistic manner and were not even entered on a record card. Serious cases involving suspension or expulsion were adjudicated by the various faculties acting as a whole. In the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, for example, this practice continued until 1912, with the president of the University presiding over each faculty meeting. Appeals in cases of suspension occasionally were presented to the Regents, but the Regents consistently sustained the faculty action. In the 1892 Proceedings it was stated: "This Board desires to be explicitly understood as recognizing the authority of the Faculty of any Department in the University to expel and exclude students of that Department from the University Buildings and Grounds" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 16). Until 1912 each faculty looked after its own students, and students on a combined curriculum presented a problem, causing the Regents to pass the first bylaw initiating a judicial structure: "Resolved, That the discipline of students on combined courses shall be administered by a Board consisting of the President and Deans of the Departments in which students in question are registered" (R.P., 1910-14, p. 579).

Dr. Eliza M. Mosher was appointed Professor of Hygiene and Women's Dean in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1896. As Dean of Women she was assigned the same duties in relation to the women in the Literary Department as the dean discharged in relation to all the students of that Department. Women in attendance at the University were classified as follows: Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 513; Department of Medicine, 68; Department of Law, 5; School of Pharmacy, 6; Homeopathic Medical College, 3; and College of Dental Surgery, 6. Women enrolled in colleges other than Literature, Science, and the Arts remained under the jurisdiction of the academic deans until 1923, when the jurisdiction of the dean of women was broadened to include all women enrolled in the University. This ruling apparently was an attempt to catch up with fact, for Dean Jordan's achievements from 1902 until 1922 are ample evidence that she was Dean of Women and not just Dean within the Literary College.

In order to meet an emergency, the University Senate, in 1902, created a committee which eventually became the Committee on Student Affairs; this name was officially adopted in 1914. In 1898 it was necessary for the Regents to define stringent regulations for the financial operation of the Students' Lecture Association. Two students were expelled for mishandling the funds of the association in 1902, one by the Law School and the other by the Literary College. Their appeal to the Regents for reinstatement was denied. In that same year the University Senate resolved, "That a committee of five members of the University faculties be established, whose duty it shall be to have general supervision of the affairs of the Students' Lecture Association, the Good Government Club, and other organizations and boards of students, excepting athletic organizations" ("Minutes of the University Senate," May 26, 1902).

The members of this committee, then Page  1829called the "Committee on Students' Organizations Other Than Athletic," were appointed by the president and met for the first time on June 12, 1902. Their first official act was disciplinary, recommending to the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts the withholding of a degree from a student "guilty of irregularities in connection with the affairs of the Students' Lecture Association." The Literary faculty adopted the recommendation (R.P., June, 1922).

Until the creation of the University Committee on Discipline twenty years later, and for some time thereafter, the Committee on Student Affairs acted as a disciplinary agent for students of the nonathletic organizations, assuming authority over cases involving eligibility, intoxication, and the like. It confined its jurisdiction to violations of University regulations within an organization. It was not a disciplinary committee except for group violations; therefore it was careful to observe faculty authority. For example, this same committee, in 1915, established rules on eligibility and then stated that cases of violation of these rules would be reported to the college concerned for discipline. On November 2, 1923, it recommended that disciplinary action for individual students be referred to the appropriate faculties.

In the period preceding the establishment of a University committee on discipline (1922), two student bodies within the University created their own disciplinary structure. In 1914-15 the Women's League, then operating from Barbour Gymnasium, set up a judiciary system to take care of infractions of regulations in the various women's organizations (see Part IX: Women's Student Self-Government).

The Honor System, adopted by the students in the College of Engineering in 1916 (see Part VII: College of Engineering, pp. 1173, 1178-80), concerned itself solely with the cardinal principle "that it is dishonorable for any man to receive credit for work which is not the result of his own efforts." This system derives its authority from the students in the College of Engineering, with the approval of the faculty of that College, and has operated successfully for more than forty years.

World War I interrupted the growth of judiciaries, and in the aftermath of that war came an increased enrollment and the genesis of a complex administrative structure. Certain generalities can be made about the pre-World War I disciplinary structure. It was, except for organizations, primarily in the hands of the various faculties. No sharp line of demarcation existed between administration and faculty. What is now viewed as the "Administration" was apparently at that time the Regents, whose closeness to the University and to student affairs allowed them to legislate on such matters as bonfires on the campus, bicycles on the diagonal, the granting of loans to individual students, and whether or not the Law School could or could not put up twenty-five dollars worth of shelving.

After World War I all was changed. In 1921 the Regents established the Office of Student Affairs, which became the "catch-all' for nonacademic or extracurricular activities. This marked, so it would seem, the dichotomy between faculty and administration. The president, the Regents, and the faculty began to take a less active role, and authority gradually came to rest in committees, administrators, and students. What had formerly been the responsibility of all members of the faculty, in time became the concern of the few who served on the University Committee on Discipline, which was established by the University Senate in 1922 and adopted by the Regents in the same year, to complement Page  1830the Committee on Student Affairs (amended May 24, 1923; March 27, and May 29, 1934). From the viewpoint of structure the result appeared to be two disciplinary authorities instead of one. Where the faculties alone had held the authority, a University Committee was created which could exercise control over all cases involving students from more than one school or college of the University. This reflected the 1912 legislation of the Regents. The committee could also act in other cases referred to it. The faculties retained complete jurisdiction in cases of discipline which involved only their own students, and the Senate suggested that any faculty as a general policy might refer all cases of discipline of its own students at the discretion of the dean, to the University Committee on Discipline. There is no record, however, that this was ever formally voted upon.

In the same year, 1922, Dean Cabot of the Medical School called attention to the student nurses who were not at that time under the supervision of the Dean of Women, whereupon the Deans' Conference ("Minutes," June 6, 1923) voted that "women in the Nurses' Training Schools and Dental Hygienists be considered subject to the same disciplinary regulations as women students in all other parts of the University."

Central though the Office of Student Affairs became in the disciplinary machinery of the University, it had no special authority from the University Council or the Regents. The general bylaw outlining the authority of the dean of women applied to the dean of students with one added authority: to act in cases involving a violation of the driving regulation. This was originally delegated to that office by the Conference of Deans. That the Office of Student Affairs gained more and more the nature of a disciplinary agency came not through legislation but by default and, of course, an ever-increasing student enrollment. It was assumed at a meeting of the Deans' Conference in February, 1921, that "the disciplinary work of the Dean of Students would presumably deal only with offences which were obvious infractions of ordinary rules of good behavior." It was believed that after reasonable publicity, any infraction of the rules would find the student body on the side of the authorities and would in short time develop general understanding of the policy of the dean of students as the representative of the faculty.

The reason for the pivotal position which the dean of students came to hold may be seen in two statements issued ten years apart. In a letter written by Professor John B. Waite to President Burton on May 20, 1923, he stated:

Before the Committee [on Discipline] can impose punishment or take other action it must have data on which to act. But there is at present no fact gathering agency in the University organization… Somebody could; but who? Dean Bursley will not do it, nor his assistants. I doubt if you or the Regents would approve (even if we were willing) of members of the Committee spending their time ambushing bootleggers and raiding students' parties. Yet, if the Committee is to discipline those students, somebody must get the facts. It has been demonstrated beyond question that this man's fellow students will not give any information against him. The facts won't jump out, they must be pulled out. Even members of the faculty declined to give information before the committee in its investigation of the swing-out drunkenness.


("Minutes of Committee on Student Conduct.")
In a report, concerning the Committee on Discipline, presented by Major Basil D. Edwards to the University Council in 1932, he said:

It is contemplated that the Dean of Students will be an important factor in the operations of the Committee. His assistance has been indispensable. He has called the meetings of the Committee and largely handled Page  1831the presentation of the cases, all of which have been previously investigated by him. His familiarity with disciplinary action taken in the various colleges in other cases has made him a valuable advisor. His knowledge of the rules of the University has been indispensable because, otherwise, the members of the Committee would frequently have been unable to inform themselves of the rules.


("Minutes of Committee on Student Conduct.")
Not only had the dean of students become a fact-gatherer, but in ten years the entire machinery was channeled through his office.

From 1906 to 1922 the Student Council appears to have played a passive role in disciplinary matters. In 1916 the president of the Student Council and the president of the Women's League were invited to attend, without vote, the meetings of the Committee on Student Affairs. Both the League and the Student Council had had in the prewar period a recommending position. No record exists of any direct disciplinary action taken by either student body for violations of University regulations. In 1919 a Student Committee on Underclass Conduct was established to regulate the hazing of freshmen. In 1923 this committee fell into ill repute and, although not formally abolished, it disappeared. However passive or restricted student bodies were in judicial matters, in the 1922 (amended May, 1923) provision creating the University Committee on Discipline, a role was assigned to the students: "The Committee on the Student Council provided for in its constitution (namely, the President of the council and two members appointed by him) or representatives of the Women's League, as the case may be, shall be invited to attend formal meetings of the University Committee on Discipline." The Regents amended the legislation creating the University Committee on Discipline to include this student participation. In the period from 1916 to 1934 the Student Council had a Student Advisory Committee which investigated student infractions and made recommendations to faculty committees, to the Committee on Student Affairs, and to the University Committee on Discipline.

In 1934, according to a letter written by Dean Joseph Bursley, "the organization plan of the Undergraduate Council needed restudy, since the women of the University indicated their desire not to participate in the latter organization." As a result of the reorganization of the Undergraduate Council, the Committee on Student Affairs accepted a constitution of the Men's Student Council which included the following articles:

Article III

Sec. 1 — In all schools and colleges except the Law School, Medical School and School of Dentistry the Men's Council shall have power in all men students' activities coming within the field of its recognized jurisdiction, as it now exists or as it may hereinafter be widened by the University.

Sec. 2 — All cases involving discipline of men students which are to come before the University Committee on Discipline and other discipline cases in which the procedure is authorized by the individual school or college, shall be referred to the Judiciary Committee of the Council for investigation and report. Within a reasonable time after receiving official notification of the complaint, the Council shall submit to the University Discipline Committee, or the proper administrative authority of the college concerned, all the documents in the case, together with a written recommendation as to the disciplinary action suggested.

Sec. 3 — Scholastic violations of the Honor Code in the College of Engineering are exempt from such control and will continue to be handled by the Student Honor Committee of that college…

Sec. 4 — Cases of scholastic dishonesty in other schools and colleges are exempt from the control mentioned in Section 2 of this Article and will continue to be handled as atPage  1832present.


("Constitution of the Men's Student Council," April 2, 1935.)

By 1934 student enrollment had risen to 9,000, and another structural change took place. The name and function of the Committee on Discipline was changed to the University Committee on Student Conduct. The initial meeting of the new committee occurred on June 5, 1934.

In the provisions which prevailed between 1922 and 1934, the Committee on Student Discipline was not a policy-making body. The University Senate, the Regents, the Deans' Conference, and, in particular, the Committee on Student Affairs, formulated the various rules and regulations. The Committee on Student Discipline for the consideration of any particular case consisted of three Senate members and a faculty representative from each of the schools or colleges involved. This committee had jurisdiction over cases implicating students from more than one school or college. The Committee on Student Affairs continued to discipline group cases (including fraternities, sororities, and honoraries) until the Sub-Committee on Discipline was established in 1934.

Even after this date, the Committee on Student Affairs felt that it had a controlling authority in cases of group violations. The following resolutions were adopted by the Committee on Student Affairs in May, 1949, and amended in December, 1949:

  • 1. Any recognized student organization which disregards accepted procedures, through the infraction of rules set forth in university regulations concerning student affairs, conduct, and discipline, with subsequent amendments, shall be subject to judicial hearing.
  • 2. Charges arising under the above shall be subject to hearing by the Judiciary Council in the first instance either upon a motion to that effect by the Student Affairs Committee or upon the initiative of the Judiciary Council. The Judiciary Council after conducting hearings to determine whether there has been any infraction on the part of the organization under investigation, shall make recommendations for disciplinary action to the Student Affairs Committee.
  • 3. Disciplinary action shall be defined as follows:
    • a. Probation — wherein the organization shall be permitted to function under warning.
    • b. Suspension — wherein the organization shall cease to function as a group for a stated period.
    • c. Withdrawal — wherein the organization shall have its recognition withdrawn.
  • 4. Whenever the Committee on Student Affairs deems disciplinary action warranted against a student organization, the Committee shall make recommendations to the University Subcommittee on Discipline for appropriate action.

("Minutes of Committee on Student Affairs.")

In 1934 the Committee on Discipline became the Committee on Student Conduct. Although this committee created by and representing all faculties has a major or primary authority in disciplinary cases, its duties and responsibilities are of a legislative or policy-making character. Its major work and its great contribution was made in 1937, when it compiled the rules and regulations applicable to students outside the classroom. Since 1937 the Committee on Student Conduct has met whenever necessary to change or refine that basic document.

The Committee on Student Conduct created the Sub-Committee on Discipline, which differs from the 1922-34 committee. Three Senate members constitute the actual case committee, and their verdict is final. The faculty representatives from the various schools and colleges were dropped. The liaison between the Sub-Committee on Discipline and the Committee on Student Conduct was the secretary of the Conduct Committee, Page  1833who sat with the Sub-Committee, without vote. As secretary he arranged the time and place of meeting, took notes, and informed the various agencies interested in the disciplined students. Until 1947 this work was carried out by Dean Earl V. Moore, of the School of Music. In that year, on recommendation of Professor Arthur Van Duren, the duties of the Sub-Committee were delegated to the Office of Student Affairs, with the dean of students in the case of men and dean of women in the case of women notifying deans and parents of the action taken.

In 1934 no provision was made for students to participate in the deliberations of the Committee on Student Conduct, although students were invited to sit, without vote, on the Sub-Committee. In 1947 three representatives, one from the Student Legislature, one from the Men's Judiciary, and the third from the Women's Judiciary were made voting members of the Committee on Student Conduct.

With the demise of the Undergraduate Council in 1934, a Men's Judiciary was created to "conduct preliminary investigation of student conduct arising under the regulations of the University of Michigan referred to it by the Director of the Office of Student Affairs, or initiated by the Council itself, and to make decisions for disciplinary action subject to approval by the University Committee on Discipline ("Minutes of Committee on Student Conduct"). In 1948 an amendment to the Men's Judiciary Constitution, in co-operation with the Women's Judiciary, converted a part of its membership into a joint council. The men's Judiciary Council lingered on until 1953, when it was discontinued and the Joint Judiciary Council was approved by the president and the Sub-Committee.

From the opening of the West Quadrangle in 1939 until the resumption of student life following World War II, discipline in the Men's Residence Halls was administered by the staff, in particular by the Resident Advisers, by delegation from the Board of Governors of Residence Halls. After World War II various experiments in house and quadrangle judiciaries were reviewed by the Board of Governors, and in April, 1953, authority was delegated to student judiciaries working within the jurisdiction of and under review by the Joint Judiciary Council.

The judicial pattern of the houses composing the Interfraternity Council is not so easily defined. No house has a judicial body, per se; some houses have made provision in their constitutions for the cabinet to act as a judiciary when one becomes necessary. This same provision, with a very narrow jurisdiction, is in corporated in the constitution of the Interfraternity Council:

There shall be an Executive Committee which shall be the judicial body of the Interfraternity Council, and shall enforce the rules of that organization… The Executive Committee shall have jurisdiction over matters of fraternity conduct referred to it by the Office of the Dean of Men… The maximum penalty for violations occurring under the above is the loss of all fraternity privileges which are regulated by the Interfraternity Council.

Page  1834

WOMEN'S STUDENT SELF-GOVERNMENT

SINCE the formation of the Women's League in 1890, women's student self-government at Michigan has been an important factor in student life. Based on the principle that the problems of every woman are the concern of the Women's League, the resulting governmental function was a natural outgrowth. The history of the Women's Judiciary Council, consequently, is interwoven with the history of the Women's League. Through the co-operation of the dean of women, a system of self-government developed, with prestige and dignity for all women students.

Before the movement for residence halls began to take form, the diversity and lack of supervision in the student living units resulted in many inconsistencies in the rules and regulations enforced in the various houses. In March, 1913, the "Report of the Committee on House Clubs" (prepared by the Committee on Non-Athletic Organizations) was adopted by the University Senate. The report stated that "practically all of the house-clubs including the so-called league-houses of the women, were found to have house rules that in most cases were well conceived and … fairly well executed …" The report suggested a "reconsideration of these house rules" and recommended that "for the purpose involved the various clubs be divided into six groups: professional fraternities, professional sororities, general fraternities, general sororities, other men's house-clubs, and other women's house-clubs," and that action in disciplinary matters ratified by three-fourths of the clubs in any group be declared as binding upon all the members of that group.

In the spring of 1913, a delegate from the Women's League was sent to the first annual conference of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Association for Women's Self-Government (the Intercollegiate Association of Women Students). In May of the same year a "Self-Government" Committee was formed within the existing League structure to plan, with the house groups, a system of house government which would work into a larger system of self-government. Accordingly, upon petitioning the Student Affairs Committee of the University Senate, the Women's League was given permission to organize each residence housing five or more University women — with a house president and executive, advisory, social, and scholarship committees — and to regulate these houses under the general rules proposed by a Judiciary Council and ratified by the prescribed three-quarters vote.

The 1915 Constitution of the Women's League was the first to establish the three branches of self-government. The Board of Directors (executive) included the officers and chairmen, the Board of Representatives consisted of one member from each living unit, and the Judiciary Council was described as follows:

Article VI. — Judiciary Council

Sec. 1 — There shall be a Judiciary Council which shall consist of the President and Vice-President of the League, and the class representatives from the outgoing freshman, sophomore, and junior classes.

Sec. 2 — The Judiciary Council shall have charge of all girls' class organizations and shall provide for the nomination by the classes of class representatives to the Judiciary Council.

Sec. 3 — The Judiciary Council shall have charge of such matters of conduct and House Regulation as shall be referred to it by the Board of Directors, the Board of Representatives, or the Dean of Women.

Sec. 4 — The Dean of Women shall be exofficioPage  1835member of the Judiciary Council.

Sec. 5 — The Judiciary Council shall elect a secretary from its own number at the first meeting after its election.

Article XIII. — Meetings

Sec. 6 — Regular meetings of the Judiciary Council shall be held during the second and fourth weeks of each month, at times and places fixed by the Council.

Article XVI. — Quorum

Sec. 3 — Three members of the Judiciary Council shall constitute a quorum.

The following year (1916) the Women's Judiciary Council presented a petition (signed by ten of the eleven sororities, all of the league houses, and the dormitories) to the Senate Committee on Student Affairs requesting that mid-week dances be abolished and that the closing hour on Friday nights be one o'clock. This action, spontaneous on the part of the women students, was a definite move toward making all-campus rules representative of student opinion. Uniform house rules were established by the Board of Representatives of the Women's League, and procedures for house government and specific rules of conduct were outlined at this time. The closing hour was set for women's residences at 10:30 P.M. during the week and 11:30 on Friday and Saturday, and in February, 1916, the Judiciary Council reported that it had "taken definite action against Sunday movies and with reference to going up the river" (canoeing on the Huron). In 1918 letters were sent to the dormitories, sororities, and league houses stating the uniform rules, and in the 1920's these were printed for general distribution. Many of the standards were stringent in comparison with the present. As late as 1926, all freshman women were required to be in their houses by 8:00 P.M., and no freshman was permitted to have an evening engagement except on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday nights or on a night before a University holiday. A second-semester freshman was allowed one mid-week date if she had no grade below a C.

A University Committee on Discipline was set up in 1922 to handle cases referred by the deans or those which involved students enrolled in two or more University schools or colleges. A representative of the Women's Judiciary Council was invited to attend formal meetings of this committee when cases pertaining to women students were to be discussed.

Under the Committee of Advisers to Women (1926-30; see Part II: Office of the Dean of Women), the Judiciary Council was given full authority to enforce house rules. In addition, cases of immorality, drinking, dishonesty, or insubordination were included under the jurisdiction of the Council. None of the advisers attended the sessions, but an assistant adviser worked closely with the Council, making all hearing appointments and filing reports on penalties. Cases involving a girl's removal from school were considered jointly by the Council and the Committee of Advisers; if a decision could not be reached, the case was then referred to the president of the University.

Since the work of the Council was of such a specialized nature and required more and more time on the part of its members, in 1927-28 the president and vice-president of the Women's League were relieved of this duty. In order to maintain continuity in the work, members of the Council were elected for two-year terms — two juniors to serve for two years and one additional senior who was elected every year. Nominations for these offices were approved by the Committee of Advisers to women prior to the election.

In 1932 elections to the central committees for class projects were placed under the supervision of the Women's Page  1836Judiciary Council, and in 1934 the Council was given the responsibility of making nominations for all Women's League positions. The choice was based on the merit of the applicant and on a system of petitioning and interviewing. Nominations were then referred to the appropriate body for election: to the Electoral Board for the election of officers, to the League Council (former Board of Directors) for committee appointments, and to the women students for the annual election of vice-presidents and Women's Judiciary Council members. This function was one of the Council's duties until 1946, when a separate committee was formed to interview and nominate.

In the spring of 1934 the house rules were altered in order to permit seniors to stay out on Saturday nights until 1:30 A.M. In 1940-41 freshman hours were extended to 10:30 P.M. on week nights, and copies of the house rules were mimeographed for each woman student. In 1942 the closing hour for Friday and Saturday nights was set at 12:30 A.M.

Four sophomore aides were added to the women's judiciary system in 1942-43. The aides did not attend hearings or decisions, but carried out the routine work of checking and filing. The structure of the Council was altered and its organization more clearly defined in the Women's League constitution of 1946-47. Three seniors and three juniors were chosen by the Electoral Board to serve on the Council; one senior was appointed chairman, and each of the other members was placed in charge of a campus "district" which was determined at the beginning of the year. These district chairmen worked closely with the house presidents and house directors in their districts. The district chairmen were responsible for checking reported violations and for interviewing those who broke University regulations. A sophomore judiciary aide, assigned to each district chairman, checked sign-out sheets, reported irregularities to the district chairman, and filed reports. The chairman of the Judiciary Council served as a member of the Committee on Student Conduct and of the University Sub-Committee on Discipline.

In 1948-49 the Student Legislature insisted on controlling the Women's Judiciary Council in order that a joint judiciary council could be established to handle problems involving both men and women. The Women's League, however, felt that student legislative control was not a necessary step toward this goal. After much controversy, machinery for the Joint Judiciary Council was set up to hear cases referred by the Student Legislature. Members included four men from the Men's Judiciary Council and three women from the Women's Judiciary Council.

Changes in the League constitution, in 1949-50, eliminated the Electoral Board and strengthened the Board of Representatives by making it responsible for electing the executive officers of the Women's League, the members of the Interviewing Committee, and the chairman of the Women's Judiciary Council. New rules, regulations, and policies pertaining to women students were still initiated by the Board of Representatives. The procedure for changing or adding to the house rules was as follows: (1) The proposed rule was submitted to the Women's League president who discussed the suggested change with the dean of women in order to be certain that it was in accord with University policy. (2) The proposal was placed on the agenda of the Board of Representatives who discussed the pros and cons. (3) It was then referred to the women students for a vote. (4) A three-fourths majority of all votes cast was necessary for the proposal to become a house rule.

Page  1837In the fall of 1950, the Women's Judiciary Council made a great effort to reach new students with information concerning judiciary procedures. House rules and regulations were published in an informal pamphlet entitled "Judy be Good," which was distributed by the orientation leaders. The members of the Women's Judiciary Council visited each dormitory, where they enacted a "mock trial" and explained the function of the judiciary system. In cases of serious violation, the house president of the residence where the girl lived was invited to attend the hearings. The individual house directors were given the responsibility of granting mid-week late permissions.

On December 12, 1950, the University Sub-Committee on Discipline delegated the hearing of all cases to the Joint Judiciary Council on a one-year trial basis. The Joint Judiciary Council interpreted University rules and regulations and made recommendations to the subcommittee. According to the constitution of the Joint Council, approved by the Student Affairs Committee, the Joint Council was composed of four men and four women, and the chairmanship was held alternately by the chairman of the Men's or Women's Judiciary Council.

In 1951 the president of the Women's League appointed a committee to discuss judicial procedures, and the suggestions incorporated in the committee report were adopted by the League Board of Representatives. The dean of women delegated disciplinary authority in all cases concerning women students to a combined administration and student judicial group known as the Women's Panel, composed of the dean and the chairman and one junior member of the Women's Judiciary Council. The panel investigated the facts of each major disciplinary problem and then referred the case for hearing either to the Women's Judiciary Council or to the Joint Judiciary Council. When confidential or summary action was deemed advisable, the panel itself decided the case. A woman student who was suspended could request the panel to place her on "women's probation"; this status eliminated her from participating in extracurricular activities and substituted volunteer work in a service organization for a prescribed number of hours each week.

Increasing enrollment resulted in a larger number of cases for review each year by the Women's Council. To alleviate this problem, the present decentralized judiciary system was put into practice in 1952-53. Each residence hall and sorority now has a "House Judiciary Council" which exercises jurisdiction over all minor disciplinary problems. A League House Judiciary Council composed of three permanent and two rotating members serves the same function for all the league houses. Weekly reports on violations and penalties are filed with the Women's Judiciary Council and the house director. A student who is dissatisfied with the ruling of her House Judiciary Council may appeal the case to the Women's Judiciary Council.

The co-ordination of the House Judiciary councils and the League House Judiciary Council is the responsibility of the Women's Judiciary Council. In the years since this system has been in effect, it has had the co-operation of all the women on campus and has met with great success. Each semester a workshop is conducted for the members of the House Judiciary councils and the house directors. Procedures and penalties are discussed in an attempt to bring about as much uniformity as possible in the decisions made by the various groups. Files on all decisions serve as a reference.

On June 12, 1953, the Board of Regents approved the constitution of the Joint Judiciary Council, which provided Page  1838that five men and five women members should be chosen by an interviewing board composed of the president and vice-president of the Student Legislature, the president of the Women's League, the chairman of the Interviewing and Nominating Committee, and the retiring chairman of the Joint Judiciary Council. The Sub-Committee on Discipline was to act as an appellate authority.

There has been little change in the women's judiciary system since 1953. In 1953-54 the membership of the Women's Panel was altered to include the highest-ranking member of the Joint Judiciary Council rather than a junior member of the Women's Judiciary Council; in this way, better co-operation was established between the Women's Panel, the Joint Judiciary Council, and the Women's Judiciary Council. When the Student Government Council replaced the Student Legislature in 1954-55, the judiciary system was not altered. All other changes have been procedural rather than structural.

From the beginning the women's judiciary system has been modified frequently to incorporate the best suggestions brought to the attention of the Women's League. Women at Michigan have taken very seriously the responsibility of student self-government, and co-operation with other campus organizations has been maintained in order to keep women's judiciary policies in accord with student opinion.

FOREIGN STUDENTS

FOR the past several decades the University of Michigan has ranked as one of the first four American institutions in the enrollment of foreign students. The other three are on the Atlantic or the Pacific Coast. While this large foreign enrollment, broadly speaking, may be considered the result of a cosmopolitan tradition which has existed at Michigan almost from the University's first days, many forces have worked together to bring it about. Some of these forces are obscure, but most of them have resulted from the unusually broad conception of the place of the University in world affairs and from the opportunity it possesses, through its alumni, to increase international understanding.

From the beginning, the University was interested in foreign peoples and eager to extend its influence in international affairs. It is important to remember that the actual establishment of the University occurred at the beginning of the great evangelistic movement in the Protestant churches which sent American missionaries into the most remote and hazardous corners of the world. It is significant that a member of the very first class to be graduated from the University, the class of 1845, was destined to be the first missionary sent to China by the Methodists. It was an impressive sight when, in 1929, the Methodist Conference, in session in Ann Arbor, adjourned for a half day to pilgrimage in a long cavalcade to the little cemetery at Unadilla to pay tribute to Judson Dwight Collins, whose pioneer work in China opened that country to Methodist investment in schools, churches, and hospitals. From the class of 1848 Horatio W. Shaw, a great uncle of Wilfred Shaw, went to Allahabad, India, returning Page  1839just in time to escape the Sepoy Rebellion. Tillman C. Trowbridge ('52, LL.D. '80), under the auspices of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (Congregational), went to Turkey, where he lived a life of great usefulness, and Thomas Spencer Ogden ('53, A.M. '57) was sent to Corsica by the Presbyterian Board.

Scores of Michigan men and women, as the great missionary movement swept to its climax, went out, not only to preach the gospel and minister to the sick but, whether intentionally or not, to become alumni centers of interest in the University of Michigan. Whatever opinion one may hold regarding the theological and denominational dogmatism of that period, one cannot fail to recognize the heroism and sincerity of these men and women; certainly the foreign students who were soon to come in such numbers to the University were the fruits of their sowing.

In later years, visits and expeditions abroad by our professors encouraged foreign students to come to the University, and in recent times governmental programs have resulted in bringing students to the campus in large numbers.

There were foreign students at the University from the very first, one from Mexico and one from Wales in 1847, two Canadians in 1852, an Englishman in 1853, and several students from Hawaii in 1854 and 1855, but these were sporadic cases, mostly the sons of missionaries. The cosmopolitan movement at Michigan actually began with the appearance of the first Oriental student, a Japanese, Saiske Tagai, who came in 1872, in the fourth decade of the University's history. The following year another Japanese student enrolled, Masakazu Stehachi Toyama (A.M. hon. '86), who not only became the president of the Imperial University, but the first minister of state for education in Japan and who died laden with imperial honors for his service to Japanese education.

Some years later, in the spring of 1880, President James B. Angell was appointed envoy extraordinary, minister plenipotentiary, and special commissioner to the Chinese Empire. As no one at the time could have foreseen, his diplomatic service marked the beginning of an interchange of courtesies between the University and the countries of the Far East which has continued for more than three quarters of a century. The University in 1885 was given the Chinese collection of textiles and art objects which aids in making Michigan a center for the study of Oriental civilization. The University has loaned specialists to China: Henry C. Adams to advise in problems of communication, and Howard B. Merrick, Clifton O. Carey, Hugh Brodie, Harry Bouchard, and a corps of other young engineering faculty men, to help solve the flood problems of the Pearl River.

From China has come a long line of students among whom have been many distinguished scholars and diplomats, leaders in education, and in government affairs. China, however, was not the first to avail itself of the opportunity for study made apparent to the East by President Angell's visit. Japan, with characteristic aggressiveness, moved first. Undoubtedly, President Angell's close friendship with the great Toyama had much to do with this.

Japanese students began to arrive at Michigan only two years after Angell's return; they came in substantial numbers for fifty years, and for at least the first half of that period Japanese education was greatly influenced by returning Michigan alumni. Toyama, especially, had a powerful influence on the shaping of the early educational policies of the Japanese government. As these educational systems and techniques developed, Page  1840however, they came to be fashioned more and more on European models. America had less to contribute than had Germany and France, and gradually the enrollment of Japanese in all American universities decreased. At Michigan the peak of the early enrollment was reached in 1920, when twenty-five students from Japan were enrolled. Not until after World War II was the number of students again significant. In the early postwar period the Occupation forces sponsored a large number of students. In 1949 there were only five Japanese on campus, but in 1950 there were forty-one. Never since have there been less than thirty-two, and the number has been as large as fifty-eight. The presence of the Center for Japanese Studies on campus and in Japan and the growing connection between the University and Japanese institutions indicate a continued increase in the number of students from that country.

The first Chinese students did not appear at the University until eleven years after President Angell's diplomatic service to China. Three entered the University in 1892. Two of them, Ida Kahn ('96m, A.M. hon. '20) and Mary Stone [Meiyii Shie] ('96m) were the adopted daughters of Miss Gertrude Howe, a medical missionary who had had her training in the University's Medical School in 1871 and 1872. These two women, by their magnificent medical service, were destined to inspire the Barbour scholarships for Oriental women, established by Levi L. Barbour in 1917, which have placed so many trained women leaders in various countries of the East. The enrollment of Chinese students, stimulated by the Barbour scholarships, by the scholarships provided in 1910 from the Boxer indemnity funds, and by other increasingly liberal grants, had grown until it reached the amazing figure of 160 in 1935-36. After a slackening during World War II the number again rose, reaching 189 in 1948. The Communist control of China immediately affected the number of students from there, which has now stabilized at about eighty, most of them from Formosa. In recent years large numbers have come also from Thailand, thus increasing even more the concentration of students from Asiatic countries.

The evangelistic crusade, which sent our alumni to foreign lands as teachers and preachers from 1850 to 1870, and the contacts established by such diplomatic services as those of President Angell and Henry Carter Adams, were not the only influences affecting the cosmopolitan movement at the University. Expeditions for purposes of scientific research have also had their effect. The most notable of these were the zoological expeditions to the Philippines of Professor Joseph B. Steere and of Dean C. Worcester. These expeditions gave a group of brilliant young Michigan men an interest in the Philippines and an intimate knowledge of the country and the people that made them invaluable to the political development of the Islands after the American occupation in 1899.

Not only were Michigan men in the majority in the cabinet of the governor of the Islands, William H. Taft, but the University of the Philippines was organized on the model of the University of Michigan by Dean Worcester, Judge E. F. Johnson, Justice George Malcolm, Professor Edgar M. Ledyard, Professor C. G. Wrentmore, and other distinguished Michigan alumni. The first deans of the colleges of Medicine, Law, Engineering, and Agriculture were all Michigan men. It is interesting to note that Governor General Frank Murphy, as well as Professor Joseph Ralston Hayden, who was vice-governor general, were also Michigan men. This prominence of Michigan alumni and the development of exchange professorships between Page  1841the University of Michigan and the University of the Philippines gave Michigan greatly increased prestige, not only in the Philippines but throughout the Far East area. Students from the Philippines began to arrive at the University in 1900 almost immediately after the American occupation, and they have come continuously ever since. Twenty-nine, the peak of their prewar enrollment, was reached in 1921; it remained almost constant until 1930 when it began to drop. Not until the years after World War II did the number again become significant. In 1955 seventy Filipino students were enrolled.

There were no students from the Near East until 1886; at first only a few came, never more than seven or eight, and until 1929 the number was usually smaller. This seems remarkable when one recalls that missionaries from the University went to Turkey in large numbers at a very early date — the Trowbridges in 1852, the Neils and Shepards in the early 1880's, the Christies, Barnums, and a score of others in the 1890's — and that several archeological expeditions from the University have worked for years in various parts of the Near East. President Angell, near the end of his active life, was Minister to Turkey, and in 1911 the University lent Professor John R. Allen to Robert College to organize the engineering department there and to serve temporarily as dean. It is apparent that the University has had a larger contact with the Near East and perhaps a greater interest in its peoples than it has had in those of any other area, yet these contacts and this interest have begun to bring students to Michigan for study only since 1929.

All these influences were not, however, without effect, as is evidenced by the growth and development of the two great American-sponsored schools, Robert College at Istanbul, and the American University at Beirut. By 1929 students from the Near East began for the first time to come to the United States for advanced study; previously they had gone to the nearer European universities. The development at Michigan of a curriculum in Oriental languages, of another in Islamic art, the establishment of government scholarships by Iraq, and the greatly increased numbers of Michigan scholars working in Egypt and Mesopotamia turned the eyes of the Near East in the direction of the University of Michigan. The number of students from the Near East is now more than 160, with Turkey and Iraq both represented by forty or more students each.

There have been many other interesting phases of this cosmospolitan movement at the University. Latin America early sent students to Michigan. One came in 1863, and since 1877 the succession of these students has been almost unbroken; since 1900 they have been one of the important groups on campus. Through most of the past fifty years, the University of Michigan has had one of the largest enrollments of Latin American students in this country. Perhaps there is some significance in the fact that this institution was host to the first Pan-American Congress, and that the entire delegation of representatives of the South American countries visited Ann Arbor in 1889.

The Good Neighbor Policy of the 1940's, which throughout the United States spurred attention to Latin America and resulted in the establishment of the English Language Institute at the University of Michigan, led to the large numbers of Latin Americans who have been coming to the University in the past two decades. Since 1940 there have never been fewer than 125; the peak of 192 was reached in 1944.

India had no students at the University until 1902 — never more than a half Page  1842dozen or so in any one year until 1920. Then, possibly because the Barbour scholarships became available, possibly because World War I ended, or because of the anti-British feeling in India, the number suddenly increased. For ten years it climbed steadily, held for four or five years, and then quite unaccountably plunged to a mere half dozen. After independence, however, the number of Indians, Pakistanis, and Burmese, all of whom were counted as from "India" in earlier figures, increased: fifteen came from Pakistan in 1955, and 104 from India and thirty-seven from Burma in 1956.

For fifteen years, from 1912 to 1927, an almost spectacular invasion of South Africans took place, men who came with almost ferocious energy to study dentistry. Then, quite as suddenly as they came, they disappeared. They got what they wanted and had in that fifteen years established their own dental college for the training of their own men. There are many such curious and interesting examples of the effect of circumstances on these rising and falling enrollments within the international group.

While no one European country has been represented by large numbers of students, a few have come each year from Europe. In one or two years, chiefly because of government programs, the number rose. In the past few years, the enrollment from Europe and Africa, taken together, has ranged between 175 and 200.

The members of our large group of foreign-born students have been exceptional. Some of them have been selected on the basis of competitive examinations, some have been sent on scholarships as a reward for government service, and some are sons and daughters of wealthy families of high cultural ideals who have taken advantage of all their own educational systems have to offer. They are interesting, not only because they come from strange and distant lands, but because they have had unusual experiences in their lives.

Certain studies of the foreign student population of the University have brought out facts other than the quantitative analyses given. In 1952 and 1954 these studies were concerned with the financial backing of foreign students and with the enrollment by schools and major fields of study. In the study of finances it was found that 54 per cent of 703 foreign students in 1952 and 61 per cent of 790 in 1954 were here without scholarships, being supported by their families, their savings, or by employment in Ann Arbor. Scholarships from their home countries accounted for 16 per cent and 13 per cent in the two years; from the United States government 15 per cent and 10.5 per cent; from the University of Michigan scholarships and fellowships 5 per cent and 4 per cent; from private agencies and foundations 5 per cent and 4 per cent; and from international organizations 2 per cent each year. In professional schools and colleges demanding previous undergraduate training the percentages of these samples were 11.6 per cent and 8 per cent, respectively; in undergraduate schools and colleges to which freshmen can be admitted there were 44.6 per cent in 1952 and 43.6 per cent in 1954; and in the Graduate School and graduate divisions there were 43.8 per cent and 48.4 per cent.

Major fields of study in these two sample years (1952 and 1954) included engineering, languages and linguistics, health sciences, mathematics and natural sciences, social sciences, business administration, education, and law and pre-law. The largest enrollments were in engineering, languages and linguistics, and the health sciences.

These representatives of racial and national Page  1843groups, although they present some problems requiring careful consideration — problems of language, immigration, housing, health, finances, and social contacts — are not merely a colorful, exotic feature of the Michigan campus, they have much to contribute to its life as students and as alumni. For years they have given the student body an international outlook and an interest in foreign affairs. There is no finer opportunity for strengthening the bonds of good will between countries than by encouraging mutual acquaintance between these international guests and their American hosts. The influence of their presence at the University is increasingly apparent, especially in the growing interest in foreign study. More and more, students and faculty are seeking opportunities for study and travel in the countries represented by our foreign students. Not only do these students help to give a wider world outlook to the members of the student body of which they are a part, but they are of service in many practical ways. In the development of curriculums hundreds of Oriental students help to make concrete and appealing what would otherwise be purely academic. It is safe to say that more American students will be attracted to the study of foreign cultures by personal contact with students from other countries than by the most alluring prospectus.

Our foreign student enrollment is one of the most significant factors responsible for the University of Michigan's reputation as a great international institution. The presence of these students on campus and their impact on their own countries as alumni help to create international understanding and to strengthen the possibilities for peace.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1865-1954.

THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER

THE International Center, which is charged with the supervision of all the intercultural and international relations of the University of Michigan, developed as an expression of the University's interest in students from other lands. Michigan has had a special interest in foreign students ever since President James B. Angell went to China as Minister Plenipotentiary in 1880-81. Their presence on the Michigan campus has always been evidence of the broad liberal conception of the University's purpose. From Angell's time to the present, there has been a rising tide of students from all over the world until by 1956-57 the enrollment of foreign students reached 1,315, from eighty-two countries.

It early became apparent that these students require special guidance in adjusting to new conditions. The development of the program for foreign students closely parallels the professional career of Professor J. Raleigh Nelson, the first Counselor to Foreign Students, who established the International Center and, in 1936, became its first Director. In 1908, at the invitation of Dean Cooley of the Engineering College, Nelson came to Page  1844the University to develop English courses for engineering students. He had had fourteen successful years as a teacher of Latin in Chicago.

Nelson was not slow in discovering that most foreign students had had so little experience in the use of English that they were unprepared to do university work. For this reason he inaugurated a noncredit course in English to give them the preparation they so obviously needed if they were to compete with American students. In addition to the classroom work in this course, he took them, once a week, on a tour of the campus — the Library, the Dental College, and so on. Later, they visited Greenfield Village, the Ford factory, and other points of special interest to prospective engineers. The reports of these excursions were read and discussed in class. In this way instruction in report writing began under Nelson, who became a pioneer in the field. The informality of these trips and the interest they had for the students, in addition to the constant necessity for mastering the complexities of the English language, were effective and stimulating. In its intent and even in its method of procedure, English 1a was the direct antecedent of the English Language Service of the International Center and, later, indirectly, of the English Language Institute.

Within three years after Nelson's arrival, the faculty of the College of Engineering, on a motion by Professor Henry E. Riggs, authorized the establishment of a Committee on Foreign Students. Under the title of Counselor to Foreign Students in the College of Engineering, Nelson was made permanent chairman of this committee, which was very active in discovering those who needed special guidance and in providing help for them.

Until 1933 foreign students in other colleges of the University had no special counselor. In the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Professor Jonathan A. C. Hildner, because of his personal interest and his understanding of their problems, had served as adviser without compensation, and Joseph Bursley, Dean of Students from 1921 to 1947, was always helpful in emergencies. One of Nelson's Chinese students once asked him, as a special favor, if he would advise his roommate, who was in a state of hysteria because he had been given a program which included beginning French. To quote Nelson's own words: "I put on my hat, and marched indignantly across the Campus to Dean Bursley's office, to discuss with him the crying need of a special counselor for foreign students."

Enrollment of foreign students was increasing, and both Bursley and Ruthven were agreed that a special University adviser for them was necessary. Nelson had the qualifications, the experience, and the interest in the problem which made him obviously "the man for the job." He was already chairman of the Engineering English Department, Editor of Publications in the new Department of Engineering Research, and permanent chairman of the Committee on Foreign Students in Engineering. He accepted the post of University Counselor to Foreign Students in 1933 with some reluctance. As he said ruefully: "You have now loaded me with all the troubles of the world!" — a comment prophetic, indeed, as the future proved. In agreeing to undertake the work, Nelson asked for an office centrally located where he would be easily accessible to all foreign students, and then solved his own problem by discovering a small room — a mere "cubbyhole," as he described it — on the first floor of Angell Hall. This was simply furnished, and on the door, conspicuously displayed, was the sign "Counselor to Foreign Students." By Page  18451934 space in old University Hall had been made ready for a group of counselors. Professor Nelson, Dr. Edward Blakeman, Counselor on Religion, and Professor W. Carl Rufus, Secretary of the Committee on Barbour Scholarships, all had offices there. Miss Wilma A. Gwinner (later Mrs. A. L. Nye) was secretary for Professor Nelson and Dr. Blakeman.

The reports on foreign students required by the Immigration Act of 1924 had become burdensome to the Registrar's Office, and as soon as the new office was established, Professor Nelson was asked to take charge of them. Thus began the long satisfactory relationship, which still continues, with the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

Professor Nelson was, nominally, still chairman of the Engineering English Department and Editor of Publications in the Department of Engineering Research. For a year and a half, he continued to teach both sections of English 1a and also read and edited the reports for each of his fifty senior engineers. He offered his course in English for foreign students to all who cared to attend and made himself constantly available to those who desired counsel. President Ruthven was greatly interested in the rapidly developing program and therefore asked Professor Nelson to resign all other activities in order to devote full time to it.

Thus far, in the evolution of the International Center, there had been no provision for social contact, either with the American community or within the foreign groups, although the foreign students had always been welcome in certain private homes. Nelson turned to the Michigan Union, which had been built as a social center for all students, for a solution to this problem. The Union rose to the occasion, and a regular Sunday-night supper hour was arranged. After the meal a speaker, chosen from the foreign group, gave a brief talk, which led to a free discussion of topics of mutual interest. These evenings were so informal and so friendly that the members of the group gradually came to feel that they belonged together. This was the beginning — faint and vague — of the International Center. The need of a more adequate meeting place was apparent, however. Professor Nelson took the problem to Dr. Ruthven, and within a week new quarters were found. Owing to lack of funds, when the South Wing had been added to the Union, the ground floor had been left unfinished. This was now to become the home of the International Center.

In order to study the experiences of other student centers, Professor Nelson made a tour of the eastern and midwestern states, visiting international houses in Chicago, New York, and Washington, and student centers at the University of Pennsylvania and Ohio State University. He returned better prepared, he felt, to solve his own problems at the University of Michigan.

During the summer, while the builders were at work, Professor and Mrs. Nelson selected all the furnishings for the Center: carpets, drapes, upholstered chairs and davenports, many of which, after fifteen years of use, are still in good condition. They also gave the students a grand piano, an indispensable feature of any student gathering place.

On August 31, 1938, Nelson, with the added title of Director of the International Center, and his faithful secretary, Miss Gwinner, moved into the Union. At the time the Center was opened, the space available seemed ample for the activities planned and for the handling of foreign student problems. Later, some of the guestrooms were also taken over. These quarters, however, have long since been outgrown. Nevertheless, the International Page  1846Center in its Michigan Union home has been beloved by young people from all over the world, and in its friendly atmosphere, many international friendships have been formed.

Although the new Center now had a permanent home, Nelson was still faced by many problems. By the time college opened six weeks later, he had a staff of paid and volunteer student assistants, who were enthusiastic and eager to begin and proud to be a part of the experiment. Among them was M. Robert B. Klinger, a graduate student, who became a special counselor on immigration and other problems having to do with foreign students. Klinger's service to the International Center has extended through all the years since it opened its doors.

One of the first programs at the Center was a social hour, held on Thursday of Orientation Week. The occasion was so successful that these Thursday teas are still continued, thus giving the foreign students and their American friends an opportunity to know each other. Within the next five years gathering war clouds intensified the problems of counseling. In this difficult period students from other countries gradually became stranded as their homelands were involved.

Emphasis on the Good Neighbor Policy of Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Co-ordinator Nelson Rockefeller led to a large increase in the enrollment of Latin American students. The need of a committee to aid in handling the University's relations with Latin America became apparent. Authorized by the University Council and appointed by President Ruthven in November, 1941, the Committee on Latin American Affairs included Dean Bursley, Dr. Lowell T. Coggeshall, Dr. Louis A. Hopkins, and Professors Irving A. Leonard, Raleigh Schorling, and J. Raleigh Nelson, chairman. Four other members of the faculty assisted during that year: Dean Henry F. Vaughan and Professors Nathan Sinai, Robert B. Hall, and Dudley M. Phelps.

Two years later, in November, 1943, the Committee on Latin American Relations was reorganized as the Committee on Intercultural Relations. Its functions were as follows:

  • 1. To make a survey of the active projects within the University affecting its permanent intercultural relations, and, with a view to a continuing service, to keep informed of the development of such projects or of new proposals that might in any way influence those relations.
  • 2. To secure, if possible, a proper correlation of all approved projects in order to prevent duplication, overlapping, and conflict of interests.
  • 3. To lend encouragement and active co-operation in the development of all such approved projects.
  • 4. To formulate a general plan for the systematic extension of scholarships and fellowships.
  • 5. To develop ways and means for co-operating with all governmental and other agencies working for closer permanent intercultural relations. (Letter, L. A. Hopkins to J. R. Nelson.)

From the beginning of J. R. Nelson's service to the University, he had been vitally concerned with developing means to help foreign students adjust to new environments. He continued to regard the teaching of English as the problem of primary importance in planning the program. English 1a and 1b became the model for the English Language Service of the Center and the progenitor of the English Language Institute. During the Center's first two years the Department of Speech and the Department of Linguistics co-operated with Nelson in organizing this instruction. In the first year, Professors John H. Muyskens and Charles C. Fries, on several occasions, addressed the foreign student assembly Page  1847in their Sunday evening programs, and upon occasion lent members of their staffs for work with individual students or with study groups.

In 1940 Nelson discovered Miss Sarah E. Grollman, of the University's Department of Speech, who at the time was engaged in graduate study under Professors Muyskens and Fries. Nelson felt that her background and her training fitted her to carry out the English language program. She was appointed Language Assistant in the Center in 1941, and Nelson turned over to her all his material developed in English 1a and 1b. Since that date, Miss Grollman has headed the English Language Service. She has, in these years, won wide recognition, both here and abroad, for the results which she has achieved.

In the spring of 1940, the State Department, in carrying out the Good Neighbor Policy, brought a large contingent of Turkish officers, with their wives, for a year's advanced training in engineering. Another project of the State Department, planned in co-operation with the Grace Lines, was carried out with the countries of South America as a gesture of good will. The International Center was host, during the summer, to a group of students from Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Lectures on American life by members of the faculty, tours to various points of interest in the community, and an intensive course in English were offered the visitors. Meanwhile, a student-exchange program had been negotiated with Brazil. For several years this project gave us the opportunity to send some of our graduate students to Brazil and to receive, in return, advanced students from that country. Similar direct University exchanges were arranged with Lingnan University in Canton and with the American University in Beirut, Lebanon.

One of the most revealing demonstrations of the interest of the Ann Arbor community in its foreign students was the annual Thanksgiving dinner. At the last of these dinners, at the close of Nelson's term of service, 550 foreign students, their hosts, and other friends sat down to Thanksgiving dinner in the elaborately decorated Union ballroom. The custom began, in a simple way, as a project of the Ann Arbor Rotary Club, of which Nelson was an active member. Professor Edwin C. Goddard of the International Committee suggested that the Club sponsor a typical New England Thanksgiving dinner for foreign students. The members of the Rotary Committee and others who were interested agreed to act as hosts, each paying for ten foreign students. The experiment proved so successful that the Thanksgiving dinner became a part of the International Center program.

In 1942, as Nelson approached retirement, in order to give continuity to the work of the International Center, he recommended the establishment of a Board of Governors. A committee, which included George E. Carrothers, Arthur S. Aiton, and Joseph A. Bursley, was appointed by the Board in the same year. Nelson retired in June, 1943, after thirty-five years of devoted service to the University. At the farewell dinner in his honor were assembled not only many friends, associates, and foreign students, but also representatives of the governmental agencies with which he had worked in the course of his career. The Regents announced that a bronze tablet in his honor would be hung in the Center, and the Committee of the State Department, to which he had been appointed by President Roosevelt, came in a body and held their annual meeting in Ann Arbor, on the day preceding the dinner. The Philippine Student Club presented a life-size portrait of Professor Nelson, painted by the distinguished Page  1848Filipino artist Eduardo Salgado, which now hangs in the Lounge.

Dr. Esson M. Gale succeeded Nelson in 1943. Dr. Gale, after more than thirty years of service in China, first as a foreign student and later in various important capacities in United States international and Chinese civil service, was no stranger to Ann Arbor. He had taught at the University in 1927-28 and was Acting James Orin Murfin Professor of Political Science in 1942-43.

Gale built on the foundations laid by Nelson. The enrollment of foreign students continued to grow, and the complexity of services to them grew even faster owing to the strains of the war and postwar period. Moreover, the large migration of leaders and specialists from abroad began in earnest at that time, and the services of the International Center were expanded to care for them. Gale found himself increasingly absorbed in co-ordinating the diverse activities of his office, which, in addition to the foreign student program, included more and more of the University's farflung international interests. During the eleven years that he was Counselor-Director, the International Center, with an orientation program similar to the pattern of the Latin-American Summer Session of 1941, serviced two groups, one a group of Chilean engineers and the other a group of students sponsored by the government of Thailand.

Mrs. Kathleen M. Mead, who joined the staff in 1947 as Administrative Assistant, has had charge of teas, social programs, room assignments, and the entire plant operation. When difficulties in finding rooms for foreign students became a problem for the Center, Mrs. Mead also undertook this work. In 1955, under the supervision of Dr. James M. Davis, a housing survey was made to determine where the foreign students were living and how they felt about their accommodations. This survey is the basis for determining present operations and future policy. In the meantime, Mrs. Mead, in co-operation with community committees, attempts to find additional housing for foreign students.

The rapid surge of the Communist army over China left many students from that land stranded in our midst. The University of Michigan had much to do with the national program for the alleviation of their distress through the services of Gale, whose lifelong interest in China was well known. In addition, he was director of the newly formed National Association of Foreign Student Advisers (organized at a national convention in Ann Arbor in April, 1948), and a member of the Advisory Board for Emergency Aid to Chinese Students of the Department of State. For several years the China Aid program was a large factor in the operation of the Center. National interest in the educational exchange program as a part of our foreign policy became focused in legislation by Congress year after year, resulting in a larger and larger enrollment of foreign students. The services of the Center were continuously expanded to take care of visitors and to meet the needs of the University in educational matters of international importance.

The Board of Governors grew in numbers during the years; two additional members were added by action of the Board of Regents on December 29, 1944. The Director of the Office of Student Affairs was made an ex-officio member in February, 1947, the Dean of Women in July, 1949, and in 1954 the Vice-President for Student Affairs was designated ex-officio chairman, and three student members were added.

Gale retired June 30, 1954, and was succeeded by James McCoy Davis, who had had experience in Southeast Asia during the war, had served in the Institute Page  1849of International Education, and came directly from the University of Washington, where he had been Counselor to Foreign Students and Executive Director of the Foundation for International Understanding Through Students. Since his appointment, the most significant developments have been the delegation of program work to the International Student Association formed under Gale, continued expansion of staff, an ever-increasing attention to the international and intercultural interests of the University beyond the foreign student program, increased emphasis on University-wide service through hospitality and local program arrangements for visiting foreign leaders, and evaluation in the foreign student field.

In 1954-55 a new credit program of English for Foreign Students was instituted in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Miss Grollman joined the staff of the English Department in September, 1955, on a part-time basis to teach the English 1 and 2 sections composed of foreign students, but still continued the English Language Service in the Center. Davis early recognized the need for additional counseling staff. Klinger was promoted to Counselor in 1955, and Gaston J. Sigur transferred to the counseling service with the same title. When Sigur accepted a post in Tokyo, another change was made by the appointment of two assistant counselors to assist Klinger.

Before Nelson's retirement and throughout Gale's tenure, and ever present today, is the need for larger quarters for the Center's work. In 1950 Dr. and Mrs. Arthur Pound gave the University the funds to remodel a large home at 1024 Hill Street, which later became known as the Madelon Pound House. This relieved some of the more pressing need for space, and has served as another homelike meeting place for the University's foreign students. However, the need for one building in which all of the Center's activities can be localized still exists, and plans are being studied for a new building which will be adequate as the International Center of the future.

SCHOLARSHIPS

THE scholarship story at the University of Michigan covers a period of almost one hundred years. Emphasis in this article has been placed on the origin of the many kinds and types of scholarships now in existence at the University. These are supported by gifts from individuals, companies, alumni groups, and students; others are provided by tax funds. In type, they vary from those with the very general eligibility bases of character, academic performance, and need to those designated for students who are members of particular families or who live in specified geographical areas. Others are for students engaged in certain fields of study or for those who must meet special eligibility requirements set up by the donors.

The first mention of scholarships in the Regents' Proceedings, in March, 1858, reads as follows: "A communication was received from the President and Academical Faculty relative to the establishment of scholarships, which, on motion of Regent McIntyre, was laid on the table" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 733). At the Regents' meeting of June 24, 1858, the following minutes are recorded: "The memorial of Professor [Andrew D.] Page  1850White relative to the establishment of scholarships was taken from the table. On motion of Regent Baxter the proposition was accepted and the scholarships established" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 746). The "proposition," which was made by a citizen of Michigan, offered to provide $100 on condition that the Regents would vote a similar sum to establish four scholarships of $50 each for competition among entering students. The Regents' Proceedings does not disclose the name of the "citizen of Michigan" who provided the necessary funds. The next mention of scholarships occurred at the meeting of September 29, 1858, when, on motion of Regent Baxter, it was "Resolved, that Professor White be requested to designate the name[s] of the remaining scholarships established at our last session" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 760).

Two of these scholarships, named respectively for President Theodore Dwight Woolsey, of Yale, and President Henry Barnard, of Wisconsin, were awarded for the best examinations in the subjects required for admission to the Classical Department of the University and the other two, named for Douglas Houghton and John D. Pierce, were given to successful competitors in the scientific branches. At a meeting of the Regents on September 20, 1866, however, a motion by Regent Johnson to the effect that prizes for scholarships be discontinued was adopted (R.P., 1864-70, p. 182).

For a long time after 1866 the University offered no scholarships whatsoever, and finally, when others appeared in the record they came as the result of private gifts and not by action of the Regents. The "Scholarship Fund of the Class of '94" was established in 1894 by a gift of $2,000 from that class to be used as loans for the benefit of needy and worthy undergraduates in the Literary Department (R.P., 1891-96, p. 304). This, the first of many class scholarships, memorials, and loan funds established by University classes, by June 30, 1956, had a principal of $14,940. During the school year, 1955-56, sixty-six loans totaling $12,861 were made from this particular fund. Five classes which completed work prior to 1894 also have scholarship or loan funds established after that date.

In his "Annual Report," submitted to the Regents in October, 1894, President Angell noted that it would be desirable for the University to have a number of endowments which would produce fellowships of $400 or $500 annually. He commented: "By the aid of such fellowships Harvard, Cornell and Chicago are constantly drawing some of our most promising graduates to their halls" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 399). Apparently, this recommendation bore fruit, as at the February 21, 1895, meeting, a resolution was passed "that the thanks of this Board be returned to the Parke, Davis & Co., of Detroit, for their gift of five hundred dollars to endow a scholarship in Chemistry for the coming year" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 409). This was the first gift from a corporation to the University for scholarship purposes. Such gifts now number in the hundreds and total many thousands of dollars each year.

In April, 1895, the sum of $25,000 was received from Mrs. Clara Harrison Stranahan of Brooklyn, New York, for the purpose of endowing scholarships in memory of her father, Seth Harrison, for the benefit of his descendants. In the school year 1956-57, three descendants received aid through the Seth Harrison Scholarship Fund. A complete genealogical table of the Harrison family, maintained in the office of the President of the University, shows that these students are in the sixth generation removed from Seth Harrison. While the terms of eligibility for this scholarship are limited, the scholarship is virtually always in use.

In 1895 Mr. Henry Phillips, of Philadelphia, Page  1851founded the Phillips Scholarships, intended as rewards for the best entrance examinations in Greek. This endowment has furnished a remarkable example of the difficulty experienced by a benefactor in foreseeing the future. At the time Mr. Phillips made the gift, Greek was commonly taught in the high schools, and entrance examinations were much more important than they have since become. At the present time almost all students entering the University of Michigan do so either by certification of their preparatory schools or by transfer from some other college, and most students of Greek begin the study of the subject after they have entered college. Consequently, it became necessary for the Regents, in order to carry out the donor's intention, to seek the aid of the courts. As a result the Phillips Scholarships are now awarded on the basis of a special examination, preferably in both Greek and Latin, but, if Greek is not presented, in Latin alone. This was one of the earliest scholarships designed to aid students who are proficient in certain fields. Largely as a result of this experience, the University recommends to prospective donors that the Regents be permitted to exercise discretion in the use of funds if, with unforeseen future changes, it becomes impracticable or inexpedient to pursue the precise course laid down by the donor. The general tenor of the donor's original intention is, of course, always followed.

In 1900 a gift from Margaret E. Hunt, of Detroit, established the Margaret Smith Hunt Scholarships for students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. This gift, which consisted of certain parcels of land in California, was given with the understanding that the land should be retained until after the death of donor and then sold in order to provide funds with which to establish scholarships (R.P., 1896-1901, pp. 546-56). The lands were sold in 1952, and the scholarship fund is now active. The Lucinda Hinsdale Stone Supplementary Loan Scholarship Fund was established in 1904 as the result of a gift from the Michigan State Federation of Women's Clubs, in honor of Lucinda Hinsdale Stone, the first woman to receive an honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the University. The fund is available for loans or for outright grants to women students who face financial emergencies. The original gift of $3,000 has increased until by 1956-57 the principal was $7,449. The first instance of financial aid made available to students by students was the Alice Freeman Palmer Scholarship Fund established in May, 1905, by the Student's Lecture Association. The original gift of $800 has now grown to a sum exceeding $16,000.

In 1917 Levi L. Barbour ('63,'65l), of Detroit, Michigan, gave $50,000 with which to establish the Levi Barbour Oriental Girls Scholarship Fund to enable young women from the Orient to attend the University of Michigan. The principal was increased by further gifts from Mr. Barbour and a bequest at the time of his death in 1926. The fund, which is administered by a special committee, by 1956 had increased to $466,597.

Known at the time it was established in 1918 as the Chicago Association of University of Michigan Alumnae Association Scholarship, and renamed in 1949 the Louise Fairman Scholarship, this endowment fund constituted the first scholarship aid provided by the alumni. Today many alumni and alumnae clubs give assistance to deserving students through locally raised scholarship funds, most frequently providing expenditures on a year-to-year basis. Club officials nominate candidates to the Committee on University Scholarships, which appoints the award winners.

The will of LaVerne Noyes, of Chicago, Page  1852who died in July, 1919, provided that the income from his estate should be used to pay tuition in full or in part for United States citizens, without regard to sex, religion, or political party, who had served in the United States Army or Navy in World War I and been honorably discharged or who were descended by blood from someone who had served. For a number of years the trustees of the LaVerne Noyes estate granted scholarships from this fund, and then in December, 1937, by the gift of $69,600 the trustees established the LaVerne Noyes Foundation to provide scholarships in accordance with the terms of Mr. Noyes's will. Applicants for this scholarship are required to exhibit an honorable discharge or other official document which will establish the military service of the father or grandfather. Some twenty to twenty-five undergraduate students at the University receive tuition grants through this program each year.

Typical of the funds set up during the period from 1920 to 1930 was the D.A.R. War Memorial Scholarship established in 1924 for residents of Michigan. Candidates must be deemed worthy of financial assistance by the Committee on University Scholarships. Other funds begun in this decade were the Joseph Baker and Mary R. Davis Scholarship given in 1922 to help students majoring in geodesy and surveying. The Cornelius and Margaret Donovan Scholarship assists engineering students who are working their way through the University. The Simon Mandlebaum Scholarship, established in 1929, provides six annual scholarships for male students, three in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and three in the College of Engineering. The Stephen Spaulding Scholarship, established in 1926 by the parents of Stephen Spaulding, who died in that year while attending the University, is available to members of Beta Theta Pi fraternity. The Collegiate Sorosis Award, given in 1927 by the husband and children of Maude Merritt Drake, provides an award for the member of the Collegiate Sorosis sorority who gives greatest promise of developing into a fine type of womanhood, and the Agnes C. Weaver Scholarship is for the benefit of medical and premedical students.

The American Indian Scholarships were established by the Regents in 1932 at "the formal request of the Secretary of the Interior, and in recognition of the fact that by the Treaty of Fort Meigs, September 29, 1817, the Indian tribes of this vicinity deeded to the 'College of Detroit,' of which the University of Michigan is the successor, three sections of land [comprising 1,871 acres], which was the first benefaction made to this institution" (R.P., 1929-32, pp. 947-48). Five scholarships are provided each year to cover the semester fees of American Indian students, who may be enrolled in any division of the University. Proof of American Indian ancestry must be established through the United States Office of Indian Affairs, the Department of the Interior, or through other acceptable sources. Applicants, who may be of either sex, are recommended on the basis of worthiness, need, and ability.

Because the University had never had many scholarships for entering freshman students, the Board, in May, 1931, with funds provided by an appropriation, established the Michigan Alumni Undergraduate Scholarships and authorized that a number, not to exceed fifty, should be granted for the year 1931-32. Candidates were nominated by the University of Michigan Alumni Clubs of the state, and the holder of such a scholarship received full tuition for the freshman year. In succeeding years the Regents continued these scholarships and eventually, if satisfactory academic work was Page  1853maintained, they become renewable for the sophomore, junior, and senior years. Each alumni club in the state, depending on its size had the privilege of recommending from one to three candidates for this program.

At the July, 1943, meeting, the Regents established the University List Scholarships, whereby a scholarship becomes available for a graduate of each secondary school on the accredited list of the University. Qualifications for these scholarships include academic ability, desirable personal characteristics, good citizenship and health, and need of financial assistance. This program greatly increased the number of students entering the University with tuition assistance.

About a year later, in October, 1944, the Regents merged the University List Scholarship plan and the Michigan Alumni Undergraduate Scholarships into a single scholarship program known as the Regents-Alumni Scholarships. These grants are open to graduating seniors, one in each of the accredited high schools of the state. In addition, a number of awards at large are made annually to provide for those communities where more than one well-qualified candidate applies. In the selection procedure, the applicants write a competitive examination and are interviewed by University alumni who submit individual evaluations of each candidate. The scholarships cover semester fees and are renewable for the normal duration of the undergraduate program in which the student is enrolled. Five hundred and forty-six Regents-Alumni Scholarship awards were made in 1956.

At the May meeting of 1941, the Regents, upon recommendation of the Conference of Deans, established the Michigan Public Junior College Scholarships, which provide tuition based upon the enrollment of each of the public junior colleges in the state. These scholarships, covering tuition for the junior year and renewable for an additional year, provide scholarships for each 200 students, or a major fraction thereof, enrolled in the public junior colleges. Candidates, who must be citizens of the United States and residents of Michigan, are nominated to the Committee on University Scholarships by the officials of the respective junior colleges.

The Scholarship Division of the Office of Student Affairs, established by the Board in 1947, administers most of the scholarships which are not designated for a particular school or college. This division also prepares a bulletin summarizing information about scholarships, fellowships, and awards.

The Bomber Scholarship, supported by funds raised by students during the years of World War II, was one of the first to be administered by the new office. It was intended, originally, to provide tuition for students who had had their education interrupted because of war service. When the United States Congress passed the G. I. Bill, the Bomber Scholarship, in the form of grants of $100 a semester, was set up to give supplementary assistance to deserving veterans. Several hundred students received assistance through this program between 1947 and 1952.

The Elmer Gedeon Memorial Scholarship, established in 1951 by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics in memory of "M" letter winners who lost their lives in World War II, is open to undergraduate men students showing: moral character and good citizenship; scholastic ability and intellectual capacity and achievement; physical ability; and capacity and promise of leadership and success. It is the intention of the Board that these scholarships shall not be awarded to the recipients as athletes, but that candidates must be Page  1854well-rounded young men possessing the necessary qualities. The scholarships, which vary in amount according to individual need, range in value from $200 to $1,500 a year, and are renewable for three years if the holder maintains a B average.

In 1955 the Michigan Alumni Fund Nonresident Freshman Scholarship program, designed to pay the difference between instate and outstate fees, was established. Candidates are nominated by out-of-state University of Michigan clubs throughout the United States and territories. Fifteen awards were made in 1955 and twenty in 1956. These scholarships are renewable for four years if the student maintains a satisfactory average.

The General Motors Corporation College Scholarship plan was instituted in 1955. By this plan five entering freshmen receive scholarships, varying from $200 to $1,500 a year, based upon the financial need of the family of each winner. In 1955 the National Merit Scholarship Program tested more than 60,000 high school seniors and announced 504 awards to take effect in September, 1956. Students winning Merit Scholarships may attend the college of their choice. Nine of the winners elected to attend the University of Michigan. Other corporate groups including the Lockheed Aircraft Company, the Detroit Edison Company, the Consumers' Power Company, and the Argus Camera Company established scholarships available to students entering the University of Michigan between 1950 and 1956.

In the fall of 1956 the Educational Testing Service, which is supported by a large group of sponsors, offered the Scholarship Qualifying Test, and on October 24, 1956, 67,000 high school seniors throughout the nation competed. The University of Michigan is one of the many colleges and universities which will use the scores from this test in considering freshman scholarship applicants. The College Scholarship Service, a division of the Educational Testing Service, provides forms and procedures for use in determining the financial need of scholarship applicants. The University used this service for the first time in 1956-57.

Virtually all scholarships given at the University of Michigan have a need factor. The Horace H. Rackham Undergraduate Scholarships are an exception. This fund provides awards to worthy young men who combine academic ability, fine character, and athletic ability in their qualifications. Applicants are not required to supply financial information. Annually, about five awards of $500 a year are made through this program.

From the very beginning of the scholarship program at the University in 1858, gifts and appropriations have increased until 4,640 students received a total of $1,448,843 through undergraduate scholarships and graduate fellowships in 1955-56. Some $600,000 of these funds came from endowment income. Another $475,000 was provided from the general funds of the University. Foundations provided about $200,000 and industry another $300,000. The balance came from miscellaneous sources.

Graduate School Scholarships. — The State College Scholarships in the Graduate School were established by the Board of Regents in 1912 for graduates of the various accredited colleges in the state (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 365-66). Nomination of a candidate is made to the Dean of the Graduate School by the faculty of the college from which the student comes. In 1933 University Scholarships, the stipend of which covers registration fees only, were established in the Graduate School by the Regents. Properly qualified graduates of any accredited college or university may apply for Page  1855these, and selections are made primarily on the basis of scholastic achievement rather than pecuniary need.

In February, 1938, a little more than three years after beginning their support of graduate fellowships, the trustees of the Rackham estate made a gift to the University to be designated as the Horace H. Rackham Fund for Undergraduate Scholarships. This fund is administered by a small committee, of which the Dean of the Graduate School is chairman. Eligibility requirements for these scholarships are quite similar to those for the Rhodes Scholarships, namely, high scholastic ability, moral character, leadership, and physical ability.

In November, 1953, the Regents established the Herbert Boynton Scholarship Fund, made possible through a generous gift to the University from the estate of the late Herbert E. Boynton. It was the desire of the donor that the income from the endowment be used to provide scholarships for worthy members of the junior and senior classes in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and for graduates of that College who are in the Graduate School. On the basis of enrollment of qualified students, one-fourth of the income from this Fund is allocated for graduate scholarships covering registration fees only. The Herbert E. Boynton Scholarships were awarded for the first time in the academic year, 1954-55.

The Barbour Scholarships

President Ruthven has characterized the University of Michigan's Barbour Scholarships for Oriental Women as a unique possession. In the long list of scholarships and fellowships for foreign students in the United States nothing comparable in number and widespread influence can be found. Some 212 women have been provided University training, qualifying them to return for lives of service in their homelands. They come from a dozen countries, spanning Asia to Istanbul. Their service literally encircles the globe: they are in Hawaii, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, India, Syria, and Turkey, with a few in Europe and a number in the United States.

The generous gifts of Levi Lewis Barbour to his alma mater were chiefly in the interest of women — a gift of property in Detroit, which led to the naming of Barbour Gymnasium in his honor, Betsy Barbour House, and the Barbour Scholarships. He was also instrumental in establishing the Office of Dean of Women and in selecting the first incumbent and was ever the champion of education for women, although he had no sisters or daughters, and his wife was an invalid. But he had a New England mother of great courage and inspiration who was completely devoted to her family. His desire was to raise the standard of the home and of society by educating women as well as men. Mr. Barbour, who was graduated from the University in 1863, and from the Law School two years later, was Regent of the University from 1892 to 1898 and from 1902 to 1908.

While traveling in the Orient, Mr. Barbour was impressed with the remarkable work of three women trained in medicine at Michigan: two Chinese, Mary Stone, '96m, and Ida Kahn, '96m, and one Japanese, Tomo Inouye, '01m. He saw a need and an opportunity — Oriental women scientifically and broadly trained at Michigan could return to their homes for a life of service. He began to plan for the scholarships that bear his name. His main purpose was beautifully though briefly expressed in a letter to President Hutchins: "The idea of the Oriental girls' scholarships is to bring Page  1856girls from the Orient, give them an Occidental education and let them take back whatever they find good and assimilate the blessings among the peoples from which they come."

On June 22, 1917, Mr. Barbour appeared before the Board of Regents and presented to the University a foundation of $50,000 to establish scholarships for young women from Oriental countries. The amount was increased several times during his life, and his residuary estate raised the assets of the foundation to approximately $650,000.

The memorandum of agreement designated a committee in charge of the scholarships consisting of "the President of the University, the Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the Dean of Women, and the Dean of the Medical School." Instruction was provided for applicants not fully prepared to elect the University courses required. So rapid was the development of women's education in the Orient and at the University that eleven years later a majority of the Barbour scholars were graduate students and, upon petition, the Board of Regents added to the committee the Dean of the Graduate School.

In 1920, according to a letter to Mr. Barbour, "the Committee decided to appoint some person with a personal knowledge of conditions in the Far East. One of the instructors in Astronomy has been thought of for the work." Accordingly, W. Carl Rufus, who retired as Professor of Astronomy and Secretary of the Barbour Scholarships in 1946, was drafted.

Mr. Barbour lived to see his dream rapidly being realized. When he died in 1925, the total number of appointees had reached nearly sixty, of whom twenty-five attended the University during 1924-25, the number he had hoped to see. Many had visited him in his home and those in America at the time of his death attended his funeral in Detroit as a group and were present at a memorial service at Betsy Barbour House in Ann Arbor. On the latter occasion one of the Chinese Barbour Scholars was called upon to respond extemporaneously. She expressed the sincere appreciation of the entire group and pledged the consecration of their lives to the development of education for women in the Orient. She was Dr. Yi-fang Wu, who became president of Ginling College.

Among the scholars who had returned to the Orient at that time was another future college president, Dr. Lucy Wang, of Hwa Nan College, formerly at Foochow. The committee takes pride in the fact that the presidents of the two colleges for women in China were Barbour Scholars, trained at Michigan. Scores of other leaders in education, medicine, and social service indicate that Mr. Barbour's anticipations have rapidly come to full realization.

To announce the scholarships in the Orient and to develop a method of securing applications and making appointments were the chief problems first faced by the committee. Letters were sent to Michigan alumni in the Orient, to government officials, and to educational institutions admitting women.

Advisory Barbour Scholarship committees, whose chief function was to accept applications, certify the academic credentials, pass judgment on general qualifications, and make recommendations, were appointed in several Oriental countries. In some other countries selected institutions or individuals acted as special advisers.

The transformation of the first Barbour Scholar, Kameyo Sadakata, a tiny and timid Japanese schoolgirl, into a well-trained pediatrician required eleven years. After several months in Mr. Barbour's home she matriculated for premedical courses in September, 1915, and entered the Medical School three years later.

Determination and persistence finally Page  1857won for her the coveted M.D. degree in 1924. She devoted an additional year to special work in pediatrics in the laboratory of Dr. D. M. Cowie.

Of the 212 appointees up to 1941, approximately one-half were Chinese, one-fifth Japanese, with Indians, Filipinos, and Koreans making up the large majority of the others. Turkey, Siam, Sumatra, Arabia, Malaya, Syria, Hawaii, and Bulgaria have also been represented. Applications and inquiries have also been received from Jews, Armenians, Singhalese, and natives of islands of the Pacific. In 1938 at the Kuling Conference of China's leading women, there were fifty-four women representing thirteen provinces, among whom were eight Michigan graduates including seven Barbour Scholars. The People's Political Council, with a membership of 214, has fourteen women members, including two Barbour Scholars, Mrs. C. L. Lo (née Wei-djen Djang), wife of the president of National Central University, and Dr. Wu.

Among the seventy-five applicants for the year 1928-29 was a young woman from a high-class Kashmiri Brahmin family, Miss Sharkeshwari Agha, with a B.A., M.A., and LL.B. from the University of Allahabad, who was the principal of a high school in that city. At the meeting of the committee to make the awards she was appointed. During two years at Michigan she specialized in education and received another M.A. degree. She left in 1930. Miss Agha has served on a number of national committees and as secretary of the All-India Women's Conference for Education and Social Reform. She became a member of the court of Allahabad University, supreme controlling body of that organization.

In the Osaka Mainichi, October 10, 1930, was an article in Japanese, translated in part as follows: "A Korean-born Young Woman, the beautiful Miss Whang-Kyung Koh, will be Graduated with the Degree, Bachelor of Law, from Doshisha University next spring. As she is the first woman of her race to graduate from this university, the event is as marked as the appearance of a red flower in the midst of green foliage."

She entered Michigan as a Barbour Scholar in the fall of 1931, earned an M.A. in economics in 1933, then specialized in sociology, completing the courses required for a doctorate and obtaining sufficient material for her dissertation. In 1935 she returned to her native land.

She obtained a teaching position, spent some time completing her thesis, and, with her sister, organized a social settlement near Seoul, the expense of which, including one full-time worker, was paid out of the sisters' salaries. In 1937 Miss Koh's Ph.D. in sociology was granted at Michigan. Dr. Koh became dean of the School of Home Economics and head of the Department of Economics at Ehwa College, Seoul, the only college for Korean women.

The first Barbour Scholar from Manila was Maria C. Lanzar. At Michigan Miss Lanzar specialized in political science. After receiving her Ph.D. in 1928 she returned to Manila as a member of the faculty in political science. She also served for several years as dean of women.

A new feature, the Barbour Fellowships, was established in 1928 to be awarded upon invitation to Oriental women of noteworthy achievement. They yielded a larger stipend than the scholarships and were intended to provide for a year's leave of absence with an opportunity to use the classrooms, libraries, and laboratories of the University for special investigation and research. Invitations were extended and accepted by ten fellows from 1928 to 1932, when the plan was temporarily discontinued.

Among the former Barbour Scholars a Page  1858large percentage is now in the United States. More than one hundred and fifty, however, are in their native lands carrying out Mr. Barbour's desire to raise the status of women in the home and society. Over one hundred are active in the field of education. In Japan most of our Barbour Scholars are connected with colleges for women.

Many Barbour Scholars have entered the field of medicine. The contributions of Barbour Scholars in the emancipation of women in the Orient have also been outstanding. Only one Chinese Barbour Scholar, as far as is known to the writer, had suffered from bound feet. That practice has passed away. To the Oriental, however, the custom was not as bad as the old American method of binding and distorting the waist. Only one scholar came directly from Indian purdah. She was accompanied from her seclusion to the secretary's office by an uncle; during the first interview, in spite of many attempts to hear her voice, the secretary could distinguish only a faint response, and she looked up but once. Not long afterward, she was a free individual able to say that her soul was her own. From suppression she came to the chairmanship of a nation's political council, from inferiority to recognition in medical and other learned societies.

A large number of former Barbour Scholars are engaged in religious work. From Japan, especially, many Barbour Scholars come from Christian mission schools and colleges, because these institutions give adequate preparation in English, while the government institutions in general do not. That gave rise to a question by a Japanese educator whether anyone not a Christian could apply. He appeared surprised to learn that among our Barbour Scholars are representatives of many Far Eastern religions and some who claim "no religion."

Barbour Scholars come under the same regulations as other women students and have been excellently provided for, probably better than Oriental men. During the earlier days some advocated that the Barbour Scholars should be assigned to the women's dormitories so that they could benefit by associating with American girls. The secretary's rejoinder was "so that the Americans may profit by the example of the Oriental girls."

The academic standard maintained by the Barbour Scholars has been uniformly very high; scarcely a failure has been recorded. A total of about three hundred academic degrees has been granted to Barbour Scholars, of which master's exceed one-half, doctor's, including M.D.'s, exceed one-quarter.

Many have been elected to honorary societies. Quite remarkably it seems, at least two have won honors in creative writing in English; major Hopwood awards have been granted to Man-kuei Li and to Celia Chao.

But one major object of Mr. Barbour's benefaction remains to be consummated. The Barbour Scholars have been designated as "ambassadors of goodwill." Their broad training and experience have developed a sympathetic understanding of other races. On the Michigan campus during two world wars, the Barbour Scholars have mingled with an equanimity which is even finer than the virtue of Oriental courtesy. The spirit of helpfulness has been frequently demonstrated as a representative of one belligerent nation welcomed a new scholar of an enemy race, assisted in introducing her to the intricacies of American university life, and successfully aided in guiding her through the labyrinth of new paths and the crossword puzzle of unfamiliar election cards and enrollment blanks to be sorted and signed. As they returned to their native lands these Page  1859women carried this spirit of international friendship and helpfulness.

Frank L. Huntley, Professor of English, succeeded Professor Rufus as Secretary of the Barbour Scholarship Committee in 1946. In 1949-50 the income of the fund was drastically cut when the Regents refinanced the principal. At present the fund amounts to about $450,000. When the income dropped it was necessary to curtail the number of scholarships from twenty-five to fifteen. Married women are now eligible. The scholarship pays tuition, fees, and a stipend of $1,000 an academic year.

FELLOWSHIPS

THE earliest endowed fellowship to be given regularly was the Elisha Jones Classical Fellowship, established on April 17, 1889, by Mrs. Catharine E. Jones in memory of her husband, Elisha Jones ('59, A.M. '62), a member of the faculty from 1870 until his death on August 16, 1888. The fellowship was supported by his widow from 1889 until 1900, and she had intended to endow it, but unfortunately was prevented from doing so by shrinkage of values in the estate. Nevertheless, the list of Elisha Jones Fellows was a notable one: 1889-91, Herbert F. De Cou ('88, A.M. '90), a brilliant archeologist who later met his death in northern Africa; 1891-93, Clarence L. Meader ('91, Ph.D. '00), until 1938 Professor of General Linguistics at Michigan; 1893-95, Walter Dennison ('93, Ph.D. '97), at the time of his death on March 18, 1917, Professor of Latin and Greek at Swarthmore College; 1895-97, Mary Gilmore Williams ('95, Ph.D. '97), Professor of Greek at Mount Holyoke College; 1897-99, Duane Reed Stuart ('96, Ph.D. '01), at the time of his death on August 29, 1941, Professor of Classics at Princeton University; and 1899-1900, Walter D. Hadzsits ('98, Ph.D. '02), who held a professorship at Smith College until he died in 1910.

The Buhl Classical Fellowships, given by Mr. Theodore D. Buhl in 1901, were continued annually by him during his lifetime, and maintained for a number of years by his son, Mr. Lawrence Buhl. Many holders of these fellowships have attained prominence as college or university teachers.

The second fellowship foundation at Michigan was the Angeline Bradford Whittier Fellowship in Botany, which dates from 1903. No others were received until 1910, when the Emma J. Cole Fellowship in Botany was established. In the same year, however, the Regents began the policy of providing stipends out of University funds for a limited number of fellows in the Graduate School. These are the so-called University Fellowships, which are still given. In 1912 the State College Fellowships in the Graduate School were initiated for graduates of the various colleges in the state, who are nominated by their own faculties. Subsequently, in 1927, the Regents established the Alfred H. Lloyd Fellowships in honor of Dean Alfred H. Lloyd (see Part IV: Department of Philosophy); these are given to outstanding candidates who already possess the Ph.D. degree and desire to continue research. In 1933 the University Scholarships in the Graduate School were established to assist outstanding seniors of the undergraduate schools and colleges of the University during their first year in the Graduate School. As in the case of the scholarships, the most numerous Page  1860additions to the list of fellowships have come in the last two decades.

When the Board of Governors of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies met for the first time in April, 1936, the trustees of the Rackham estate had already made provision for ten Horace H. Rackham Predoctoral Fellowships to be awarded annually. The first awards under this gift to the University were made for the second semester of 1934-35. At its first meeting, the Board of Governors voted to continue these ten fellowships and to add two Horace H. Rackham Postdoctoral Fellowships. These twelve fellowships have been continued each year. Periodically, the Board has increased the stipends of the Rackham Fellowships because of the rising cost of living and the increased stipend of similar fellowships in conformity with the original objective of making "these Fellowships, as was originally intended, the most attractive fellowships in the Graduate School."

In the fall of 1945, the Board of Governors set aside a fund for a third category of fellowships, namely, the Horace H. Rackham Special Fellowships for exceptionally promising graduate students whose studies were interrupted by the war. The need for these has naturally diminished with the passage of time.

In the course of its history the University has received many gifts for fellowship purposes and for immediate expenditures. An important class of benefactions of this kind consists of fellowships donated by industrial organizations, from which the University has many times benefited. Chemical engineering, highway engineering, chemistry, and pharmacy have been the commonest fields in which these fellowships have been established, and such concerns as the Allied Chemical and Dye Company, Consumers Power Company, Dow Chemical Company, the duPont de Nemours Company, Eli Lilly and Company, General Motors Corporation, Michigan Gas Association, Parke, Davis and Company, Procter and Gamble Company, Socony Vacuum Company, the Standard Oil companies, and the Upjohn Company have been frequent donors. The late Roy D. Chapin, of Detroit, for many years supplied funds for fellowships in highway engineering and highway transport, and the Carnegie Corporation has shown special interest in librarianship.

STUDENT LOAN FUNDS AND EMPLOYMENT

THE first student loan fund of $2,000 was given to the University by the Literary Class of 1894 to establish a scholarship loan fund. The Literary Class of 1897 established a second fund. The first student loan, in the amount of $75, was granted by the University from this fund in 1897, the only loan given during that year. From this small beginning the amount of help given to students gradually increased. In 1955-56, a total of 3,815 loans amounting to $461,583 were granted. In 1956 the University had in its possession 162 separate loan funds donated by various classes, organizations, and individuals. In some cases restrictions have been placed on the use of the funds by the donors. Students eligible to benefit must be from certain classes or colleges, and Page  1861sometimes the interest which a loan may draw is fixed.

Student loan funds are administered by a committee consisting of the dean of students as chairman, the dean of women, and two representatives of the business staff. Each applicant files with this committee a completed questionnaire which requires him to state his need for a loan and includes a budget form to be filled out giving information concerning income and personal expenses. Sometimes a student is required to appear before the committee so that the members may talk with him about his needs before they make a decision on his request. In making a loan the committee takes into account the moral character of the applicant, his scholastic record and possibilities, and his sense of financial responsibility.

Student Employment. — Although both the Michigan League and the Student Christian Association for years had maintained very successful student employment bureaus and each year succeeded in providing part-time work for hundreds of students, before the appointment of Joseph A. Bursley as Dean of Students in February, 1921, there was no official University office where students might apply for employment. In July of that year Bursley set up a Student Employment Bureau, with Mrs. Mary L. Stewart in charge, for the purpose of helping students to find outside work which would enable them to earn, in part, their way through the University. Jobs, ranging from manual labor to highly skilled technical work, were found to fit the talents of the students.

After 1934 for several years thousands of Michigan students were aided by the National Youth Administration, a governmental agency which was established during the depression. The Office of Student Affairs was responsible for the Student Employment Bureau until 1947, when it was transferred to the Personnel Office, which now handles all matters of student employment.

THE MICHIGAN UNION OPERA

THE story of the Michigan Union Opera is so closely interwoven with the Michigan Union that it has become a part of the history of that organization. The Opera was a natural development of the county fairs and minstrel shows staged so often during the years when the students were engaged in securing funds for the creation and operation of a Union building.

The first Opera, "Michigenda," was staged at the Athens (Whitney) Theater in the spring of 1908. The Michigan Union, first housed in the old Judge Cooley home on State Street, opened its doors in the fall of 1907. From that time until 1929, with the exception of the war year, 1918, the Opera was presented yearly with an all-male cast. In that year, however, because of the drop in men's enrollment, the production, "Let's Go," written by Al Weeks, with music by Earl V. Moore, included women in the cast.

The Michigan Union is indebted to the Opera for its very existence, as it was the profits from this activity which kept the Union out of financial difficulties in its first trying and formative years. The first two Operas netted enough money to purchase the ground on which the Union now stands, and subsequent shows helped to pay off the bonds on the building itself. During the first twenty-three Page  1862years of its history, the Opera played before capacity audiences totaling approximately 400,000 persons, and a gross income of $812,258 resulted in a net profit of $147,760.

In the 1920's five hundred students tried out each year for cast, chorus, committees, and orchestra. Such support could not help but benefit the Michigan Union. It was the Union which staged the Opera, so that working for the Opera was working for the Union.

By 1920 the scope of the Opera had broadened to include seven Ann Arbor and fifteen out-of-town performances. The Opera was usually scheduled so that the cast could make out-of-town tours in Christmas or spring vacation. In addition to the box-office receipts, success made itself felt in other ways. The public loved the gay tunes, with their witty lyrics, the farcical plots, and comic dialogue. Above all, the bizarre sight of husky males tripping lightsome dance steps in garish female attire and make-up brought howls from the audience. It was burlesque comedy, often "corny," sometimes crude, but always funny. Performances were given for alumni groups in other Michigan cities. From there it was just a step to Broadway — and a success that failed.

Each new production was bigger, more lavish, and more expensive than the last. Each year saw larger and larger amounts of money invested. A full-time director was hired and experts retained at considerable fees to coach specialty features.

Until the year 1912, the Opera was presented by the Michigan Union. Then Mimes, a subsidiary dramatic association of the Union, was organized, and thereafter the production was under its auspices. Earl Moore, Phil Fletcher, Matt Blish, and Homer Heath organized Mimes not solely for honorary purposes, but to give continuity to the Opera productions. Membership was elective, and only those students who had shown ability in some branch of Opera activity were considered. Dramatics and the writing of plays and music were encouraged during the college year for the benefit of the Opera. In 1922 the old building in the rear of the Union was remodeled into the Mimes Theater, and here, until 1931, Mimes also presented plays for the benefit of students, faculty, and townspeople.

The first five Opera productions, "Michigenda," in February, 1908, "Culture," in December, 1908, "Koanzaland," in 1909, "Crimson Chest," in 1910, and "Awakened Rameses," in 1911, played only to Ann Arbor audiences. The sixth, "Contrarie Mary," in 1913, was invited by the alumni to play in Chicago and was so well received that "Model Daughter" was demanded in 1914. This was the beginning of the annual Opera trip. "All that Glitters," in 1915, "Tres Rouge," in 1916, and "Fool's Paradise," in 1917, also played in Michigan cities during the spring vacation. "Let's Go," in 1918, visited Camp Custer at Battle Creek, Kalamazoo, and Detroit. "Come on Dad," 1919, "George Did It," 1920, and "Top O'Th' Mornin'," 1921, also played only to Michigan audiences. "Make It for Two," the sixteenth annual production, was also given in 1921, and "In and Out" appeared during Christmas vacation of 1922 before audiences in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.

The Opera reached its zenith in 1923, the first banner year. "Cotton Stockings" played in Ann Arbor, Toledo, Cleveland, Buffalo, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Chicago, Grand Rapids, Saginaw, Flint, Bay City, and Detroit. The production, presented before audiences totaling 40,000 persons, grossed $91,791, with a resultant profit of $30,318. The Michigan Union Opera Page  1863holds the record for an amateur production given at the Metropolitan Opera House of $6,000 for one performance. "Tickled to Death," 1924, played only in the Middle West, but in 1925 "Tambourine" again made the trip to the East. "Front Page Stuff," 1926, "Same to You," 1927, "Rainbow's End," 1928, and "Merrie-Go-Round," 1929, all went on extensive tours.

By 1930 the Opera was a "dead pigeon," killed by an almost fantastic combination of bad luck and success. On New Year's Eve, 1929, the most costly Opera of all met with a howling blizzard in New York City. The show played to an almost empty theater, and the troupe left New York with empty pockets. The depression halted further performances until 1934-35, when an attempt was made to revive the Opera, but the production, which did not merit the support of the student body, resulted in a loss of approximately $850. No more operas were given until 1940, when All-American Tommy Harmon starred as Jimmy Roosevelt in "Four Out of Five," presented at the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The Union Finance Committee provided a budget, and the four evening performances and one matinee were well attended. Once again the company came to a halt after playing "Take a Number" four days after Pearl Harbor. Seven years elapsed before the Opera gave another production, "Froggy Bottom," in 1949. The show was good enough to draw sell-out crowds for all four performances, a success well earned by two and onehalf years of hard work on the part of students determined to put the Opera back on its feet.

"Go West, Madam," presented in April, 1951, at the Detroit Music Hall and sponsored by the University of Michigan Club of Detroit, was the thirty-first production of the Opera. "Flim Flam," directed by Fred Evans, was presented in 1955, in Detroit and Flint, as well as in Ann Arbor.

Few students of the present generation know that many popular Michigan songs were written by students for the Michigan Union operas. "College Days" is from "Koanzaland"; "When Night Falls Dear" from "Michigenda"; "The Friar's Song" from "Contrarie Mary"; and "Men of the Maize and Blue" from "Tres Rouge." In this respect it is interesting to note that Earl V. Moore ('12), composer of four Operas, is now Dean of the School of Music. Abraham J. Gorney ('17, '19l), another composer, writes popular music, and Roy D. Welch in 1935 became chairman of the Department of Music at Princeton University. Former Opera composers are not the only Opera men who have achieved prominence in music. Chase B. Sikes ('17), now Chase Baromeo, leading man of "Tres Rouge," became a famous basso of the Metropolitan Opera Company, and Barre Hill ('25), leading man of "Tickled to Death," became a member of the Chicago Opera Company. During its first twenty-three years the Opera had only six directors. Hal Stephens staged the first three, Bert St. John the next five, Eugene Sanger the ninth, Charles P. Morgan the tenth and eleventh. Collaborating with Roy Hoyer, for many years leading juvenile with Fred Stone, in the arrangement of the dancing, E. Mortimer Shuter was responsible for twelve.

Page  1864

THE JUNIOR GIRLS' PLAY

THE Junior Girls' Play, presented annually by women students, developed from an informal entertainment into a full-length musical comedy. For more than fifty years the play has been a campus tradition, symbolic of college life and friendships, and its performances have highlighted the junior year for thousands of participants. The first Junior Girls' Play, on April 11, 1904, comprised a series of sketches on the "College Career of Buster Brown," a take-off on "seniority." Men's costumes were largely from Dean Jordan's husband's wardrobe. Presented in Sarah Caswell Angell Hall in Barbour Gymnasium, the performance was part of the entertainment at the annual party given by the junior women in honor of the graduating seniors. Only a handful of juniors took part in the play itself. The next year (1905) "Every Senior," an original morality play, was given, followed by "Alice in Seniorland" (1906), and "Don Quixote, the Coed Knight" (1907), which was written by Elinor Demmon Tealdi. All of these plays were parodies of familiar classical books. In 1908 two playlets were presented: "Coedenda" and "Michiguse," a parody on "Michigenda," the first Union Opera, which had been produced earlier in the same year.

From 1909 to 1920 an additional performance of the Junior Girls' Play was given for those attending the annual Women's Banquet, sponsored by the Women's League and the Collegiate Alumnae. (The first performance has always been presented exclusively for the senior women.) During this period the play came to be closely tied to the activity program of the Women's League. "Eds and Co," given in 1909, was a look into the University life of the year 1950. "Martiagan," in 1910, included clever imitations of certain popular members of the faculty. The 1911 play was a Mother Goose farce. In 1912 the present form of a complete musical comedy was initiated. "In Old Bagdad" was written by two junior women, and, for the first time, the music for the Junior Girls' Play was composed by a man — Earl V. Moore ('12), now Dean of the School of Music. The 1913 Junior Girls' Play took the form of two playlets, "The Realm of Dreams" and "Daily Life," in which abundant opportunity was found for the customary jokes on the seniors. "The Treasure of Toule" was staged in 1914, with Moore directing the orchestra.

Several important changes marked the 1915 production, "The Comeback." An orchestra of University women provided the music for the play, the first of a series of ten Junior Girls' Plays directed by Professor John L. Brumm of the Department of Journalism. For the first time also, the "male" lead was allowed to wear a real tuxedo. A performance was given in Toledo, at that time the longest trip taken by a Junior Girls' Play cast.

"The Yankee Yogi" was presented in 1916. The second performance was "open to the public," which meant that, for the first time, men were permitted to attend. It had been planned to repeat the play after the Women's Banquet, but because of the announcement of President Angell's death, the performance was postponed until the following week. It was also given later in Detroit under the auspices of the Detroit Association of University of Michigan Women.

The 1917 play, "Felicia Finesses" was a satire on college men. It met with decided success, as did "Meddling with Mars" (1918). Beginning in 1919, the play was staged in the local Whitney Page  1865Theater. In accordance with tradition, the senior women, donning their caps and gowns for the first time, met for the Senior Supper and marched in a body to the Whitney Theater to see "Gold," a musical allegory. The performance received the following accolade from Professor Louis A. Strauss, Chairman of the Committee on Student Affairs:

The Junior Girls' Play, an institution much older than the Union Opera, was especially noteworthy this year. With the handicap of a far smaller field of talent to draw from, and under the necessity of rigid economy in production the Junior Play in some respects puts the Opera to shame. It is written, composed, and presented exclusively by the girls of the junior class, under the direction of a member of the faculty. Given in compliment to the Senior Girls, and restricted in attendance to the alumnae and women students, it is assured of a sympathetic audience …

The annual play is characterized by a freshness of motivation and a boldness and delicacy of fancy that we seek in vain in the Union Opera. From this it must not be supposed that the play is academic or highbrow. It has abundance of local color, sparkle of fun, dancing, and diverting comedy. But the whole has a savor of thorough-going dedication to an enterprise above the common, and it loses nothing in zest by its remotness from the ordinary. When the women of the University hold their revels, they do not forget that they are University women."


(MS, "Report of the Committee on Student Affairs," 1918-19.)

During the 1920's there was such interest in the project that it became increasingly difficult to eliminate tryouts; different girls were selected to make up each dancing and singing chorus. This was also the period when the campaign for funds for the Michigan League Building gained impetus. Large contributions were made from the profits of the Junior Girls' Play "Patricia Passes" (1920). "Selina Sue" (1921) and "Scepters and Serenades" (1922) were highly successful, both artistically and financially.

As the play increased in popularity and the staging became more polished, requests increased to open the performance to the public. With the exception of the 1916 play and the out-of-town showings, the audience was still restricted to women students and alumnae. Each year requests were presented to the Committee on Student Affairs asking permission for the men to attend. The committee, however, argued that "opening the play to the public would change its character as a social institution on the Campus, modify its standards, and impair one of the most distinctive features of University life at Michigan …" (Mich. Alum., 28 [1921-22]: 742).

After the 1922 performance, the entire cast signed a petition asking to give a public performance for the benefit of the Michigan League. When the petition was denied, a resolution was passed at an impromptu mass meeting of more than two hundred University women, demanding to know whether women had been admitted with the full rights granted to the men or with special restrictions. As a result, in 1923, four performances were given of "Jane Climbs a Mountain" — the twentieth annual Junior Girls' Play and the first of a long series to be viewed by the entire campus.

Six performances were given of "Thank You, Madam" (1924), which set a record with 150 in the cast. Amy Loomis ('22) directed "Castles in Spain" (1925) and "Becky Behave" (1926). For the first time in many years, "Eight 'Til Eight" (1927) was directed by one of the junior women — Phyllis Loughton ('28), and a special performance was given in Orchestra Hall in Detroit. Minna Miller served as director of "For the Love of Pete" (1928), a satire on intellectualism contrasted with intelligence. In 1929 the Page  1866final play presented in the Whitney Theater was "Forward March, a Musical Travesty on War and Women."

The activity before production was an important factor in the success of each play. Work really began in the fall when the book was written. Casting was done before Christmas, and rehearsals started immediately after the first of the year. Committees were elected to construct scenery, apply make-up, and prepare costumes:

Perhaps … the first night audience, which consisted mostly of the women of the Senior Class, was the only one of the week which thoroughly appreciated how much of an accomplishment was represented by that smooth rising of the first curtain. To the average theater-goer it meant nothing more than another event added to the long list of campus dramatic offerings; but to the Senior girls who had been through the mill it meant the culmination of eleven weeks of intense work, annoying disappointments, obstacles overcome — and the between semesters holiday sacrificed to the cause.


(Mich. Alum., 30[1923-24]: 693-94.)

The year 1930 began a new era in the history of the Junior Girls' Play. Since then all Ann Arbor performances have been given in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater in the Michigan League Building. A more limited scale of production reflected the economic depression of that period.

"State Street," the first play presented in the new building, with Amy Loomis as director, was received enthusiastically. The following years brought "Came the Dawn" (1931), "No Man's Land" (1932), "Love on the Run" (1933), "Gangs All There" (1934), and "Tune in on Love" (1935). In 1936 the Central Committee authored "Sprize." The next year, an all-campus competition was closed when "Feather in His Cap" was chosen as the 1937 Junior Girls' Play. The 1938 play was "The Mulberry Bush," a mythical comedy; this was the first and only year that men appeared in the cast. "Pig-in-the-Poke" (1939), "HiFalutin'" (1940), and "Jumping Jupiter" (1941) were all highly successful. The directors included Amy G. Loomis, Harriet Brazier, Russel McCracken, Sarah Pierce, and Richard McElvey.

The years during World War II were filled with radical changes. In 1942 an extra performance of "No Questions Asked," a musical revue, was presented at Fort Custer. In the next two years the play was not given; the juniors sold war bonds and stamps as their class project. Skits were presented at a Junior-Senior Stunt Night in 1943, but even the Senior Supper was discontinued in 1944. This has been the only break in the continuity of the performances.

In 1945 the Junior Girls' Play was back on the boards with "Take It from There." "There's Room for All" (1946) was a satire on the housing problem, and the plot of "The Best Years" (1947) included a view of each era since the admission of Madelon Stockwell to the University in 1870. "Make Mine Michigan" (1948) was a campus satire, while "Fate of the Union" (1949) predicted the future. In 1950 "The Real McCoy" was straight from the hills; "It's the Payoff" was presented in 1951. Each year a junior woman was chosen to serve as director.

Of recent years the plot has included fewer male characters, until by 1957 there were no parts where girls had to dress and act as men. "Heavenly Daze" (1952), "Vanity Flair" (1953), "Tickled Pink" (1954), "Cock-a-Hoop" (1955), "Rising High" (1956), and "Live It Up" (1957) comprise the remaining shows. The last play had a professional director, Theodore Heusel, as well as a student director. Each Junior Girls' Play has tried to outdo the others in catchy tunes, smooth production, and ticket sales.

Page  1867The work of producing the Junior Girls' Play is a year-long process. The Central Committee is chosen by the League Interviewing and Nominating Committee in the spring. The committee chairmen begin work on a scenario immediately, and the author must complete the script over the summer. In the fall the junior women sign up with the committees on which they would like to serve; scenery is planned and constructed; costumes are designed; publicity releases scheduled, and posters drawn. Cast tryouts are held after the intersession; even when a professional director supervises the production, there is also a student director who gains practical experience. A student treasurer, working closely with the social director of the Women's League, supervises budgets and expenditures. Five weeks of rehearsal lead to the culmination — the rising curtain. Although four performances are given each spring, it is still opening night — Senior Night — which gives the greatest meaning to the Junior Girls' Play.

THE MEN'S GLEE CLUB

A GLEE Club may have existed as early as 1846. Combined with a string instrument group, it is mentioned in the Palladium for 1859-60 as Les Sans Souci organization. In the following years the Palladium lists the Amateur Musical Club, University Choir, Sophomore Glee Club, Senior Glee Club, Cremona Club, Sophomore Aeolians, Amphionic, and Minstrels. Several fraternities organized serenading clubs in the late 1860's.

The University Glee Club had seven members in 1868-69. This group gave a series of concerts in different cities of the state, beginning at Jackson, in February, 1870. More than one hundred students "formed an excursion party to attend the debut of the club, and we are informed that the pleasure of the trip was enhanced by special railroad accommodations and fine weather" (Michigan Book, p. 137). The Jackson Citizen had this to say of the concert: "The Concert of the Glee Club of the University of Michigan, last night, was a splendid musical treat. The members composing it have fine natural voices, in the main, which they have well cultivated. That the large audience before them was pleased was testified by repeated applause." The club gave twenty-six concerts that season, and "everywhere the alumni were enthusiastic and hospitable. By wearing University caps the glee club gave to some persons the impression that they were members of a fire-company, while others took them to be Arabs travelling with Forepaugh's circus."

The Chronicle noted in 1873 an entire absence of musical organizations and suggested that each class form a glee club. A renewal of interest took place in 1876 and the Glee Club made a successful tour, visiting Detroit, Jackson, and Eaton Rapids, but in 1878 the group again became dormant.

The University Glee Club was revived in 1884, this time without break to the present — 1957. Soon after the time of its revival it became one of the most important student societies. It was supplemented in 1889-90 by the University Banjo Club and a few years later by a second organization, the University Mandolin Club.

In 1890 Albert A. Stanley became director of the Glee Club, and under his Page  1868leadership the club acquired a national reputation and began its series of long concert trips to Chicago, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Salt Lake City, Los Angeles, Buffalo, Rochester, Albany, and New York City. By 1928 the club had visited forty states. Dr. Earl V. Moore followed Dr. Stanley in the directorship, and the succeeding directors have been Theodore Harrison, David Mattern, and, since 1947, Professor Philip Duey.

Professor Duey, the present director, has added considerably to the prestige of the group. He was formerly a member of the famed "Revelers Quartette." He arranges much of the music sung by the club, and some of his arrangements, known as the Michigan Glee Club Series, are being published by the Boston Music Company.

In the fall of 1951 the club gave a combined concert with the Glee Club of Cornell University and since then has given joint concerts with the glee clubs of other universities. During the summer of 1955 the Glee Club made a four-week concert tour of Europe. Sixteen concerts were given in The Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, and France. The tour began with a command performance before Queen Juliana of The Netherlands. The club has appeared on the Ed Sullivan "Toast of the Town" television show, and it has recorded a group of college songs for Decca records.

Members are drawn from nearly all the colleges of the University, about half being enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Past members include Stuart Churchill, of Fred Waring fame, Chase Baromeo, formerly a basso with the Metropolitan Opera Company, and Thomas Dewey, former governor of New York, who was also business manager of the club. The club is student-managed and self-perpetuating, and the student officers are responsible for the concert tours and other activities.

THE GIRLS' GLEE CLUB

THE Girls' Glee Club was organized in 1902-3, with Lily Virginia Lyon ('03) as president and Mrs. George Hastreiter as director. Seventeen members were listed in the Michiganensian of that year. Isobel Stellwagen ('05; Mrs. James A. Hurst), was the second president, and her interest and enthusiasm helped to keep the modest organization alive and contributed greatly to its progress. Dean of Women Myra B. Jordan, by arousing interest in the group, aided in establishing the young women singers on the campus.

By the time of Mrs. Hastreiter's resignation in 1905, the club had become an established campus organization, and for that reason Professor Albert A. Stanley, of the School of Music, deemed it advisable to have a member of the music faculty as director of the Glee Club. Nora Crane Hunt accordingly undertook the work and continued it until 1933. The membership averaged slightly more than twenty until 1912-13, when the number increased to forty-one. From that year until the 1920's the size of the club varied but little. An active membership of about seventy was customary during the next decade, but by 1932-33 there had been a slight decrease. In 1940 the club had about sixty members.

There was no large concert hall in the early 1900's, but in those days an appearance in University Hall or even at a tea party in Barbour Gymnasium, then the center of women's activities, was as exciting as an appearance is nowadays in Page  1869Hill Auditorium. The Girls' Glee Club gave frequent concerts in Michigan cities and also sang at Ohio State and Ohio Wesleyan universities.

The first radio program given by the group antedated the establishment of a regular University broadcasting service. A crude studio for the purpose was installed in University Hall. In the early 1930's, by way of contrast with its humble beginnings, the Girls' Glee Club was selected to represent college musical organizations on a program of the National Broadcasting Company. Marjorie McClung ('31, M.Mus. '32), who later studied voice in Vienna and took part in the famous summer music festival at Salzburg in 1938, was the soloist on this program.

Margaret Martindale ('34), who was student director in 1932-33, the last year of Miss Hunt's term of service, became director in 1933-34. So outstanding was her work that Professor Earl V. Moore, of the School of Music, invited the club to appear that year on an afternoon concert of the May Festival. The name "Stanley Chorus" was adopted on this occasion in honor of the late Professor Stanley, who had contributed so long and so effectively to the development of music in Ann Arbor (see Part VI: The University Musical Society and the School of Music). Achilles Taliaferro succeeded Miss Martindale upon her graduation, and he in turn was succeeded, in 1936-37, by University Carillonneur Wilmot F. Pratt. When Pratt went on leave of absence in 1937-38 Thor Johnson, then Instructor in Music Literature, became Director.

The group met in Burton Tower every Thursday night of the school year. Candidates for membership were required to prove their ability in tryouts, which were open to women students of all the schools and colleges on the campus. The year's program consisted of one or two Ann Arbor concerts (usually given in connection with the Little Symphony series), at least one out-of-town appearance, and two or three local radio broadcasts.

The old name "Girls' Glee Club," under which the organization had been known, was resumed in 1937-38. In succeeding years the club was directed by Professor Marguerite Hood, Mrs. Samuel D. Estep, and Professor Maynard Klein.

In 1953, by agreement with the Michigan League, the Dean of Women, and Dean Earl Moore, the club was discontinued. Its activities have been largely absorbed in the Michigan Choir, the Arts Chorale, and the Michigan Singers, the organizations developed in recent years by Professor Klein.

COMEDY CLUB

AFTER the sporadic attempts at such dramatic productions as the Menaechmi of Plautus by the University Dramatic Club in the late 1880's and early 1890's, the Comedy Club was organized, about 1896, by Norman Hackett and others.

The new club usually chose its plays from the least expensive successes of the day, though the emphasis was placed on social rather than strictly dramatic ends. It became a closed corporation, entrance to which was gained more often by dramatic friendships than dramatic ability. There were some talented members, however, and annual performances given during J-Hop weekends were considered one of the dramatic as well as social events of the year. The presentation of such plays as The Private Secretary, APage  1870Night Off, All the Comforts of Home, and A Scrap of Paper was of that period.

The deficiencies of the club were apparent enough not only to members of the faculty but to students as well. In 1907 Professor Louis A. Strauss rewrote the club's constitution, stipulating that henceforth members were to be chosen for their dramatic ability by competitive tryouts to which any student on the campus was invited. Moreover, a student on the campus could not take part in a public performance if his academic standing was not satisfactory.

As a result of this reorganization the new club earnestly tried to choose plays of literary merit conditioned, naturally, by the limitations of its members as well as by the popular texts of the day. This standard was responsible for the presentation of George Farquhar's The Recruiting Officer rewritten from the original by Professor Strauss. Its curtain was raised in the "new" Whitney Theater and had the distinction of being the first campus production to play there. In 1909 James Barrie's The Admirable Crichton was given. After Barrie's play came Gogol's The Inspector, marking its second performance in the United States. This unprecedented high standard of production continued until the war, with The Title Mart by Winston Churchill (1911), The Magistrate by Pinero (1912), Money by Bulwer Lytton (1913), The Scarecrow by Percy Mackaye (1914), Pomander Walk by Stuart Lewis Parker (1915), and James Barrie's The Professor's Love Story (1916). Then the United States entered the war and the Comedy Club tried to give the campus something in a lighter vein. Even though its membership and resources were greatly diminished, it succeeded in putting on Jerome K. Jerome's Miss Hobbs and Mason's Green Stockings.

The end of the war gave the club increased vitality and with it came a period of excellent production under the direction and advice of Professors J. Raleigh Nelson and Herbert A. Kenyon. In 1920 Professor Nelson staged Alice Sit-by-the-Fire. The next year brought Graham Moffat's quaint Scotch comedy, Bunty Pulls the Strings. Shaw's Pygmalion in 1922 was followed by A. A. Milne's Mr. Pim Passes By (1923) and Walter Hackett's Captain Applejack.

Comedy Club's principal interest had again become a dramatic rather than a social one. Biweekly meetings were held for the study of new plays and the presentation of at least one act of them. At this time the club staged its plays at the Mimes Theater rather than at the Whitney. This increased activity brought A. A. Milne's Red Feathers, Shaw's The Admirable Bashville, James Barrie's A Well Remembered Voice (1925), Shaw's You Never Can Tell, Megrue's Tea for Three, Shaw's Great Catherine (1926), T. F. Fallon's The Last Warning, and Sutton Vane's Outward Bound. The year 1928 saw performances of Meet the Wife by Lynn Starling, Dulcy by George Kaufman and Marc Connelly, and The Constant Wife by Somerset Maugham, and 1929 The Jest by Sem Benelli and Diplomacy by Sardou.

In the spring of 1929 Comedy Club had the distinction of inaugurating the newly opened Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The play was Clemence Dane's Granite. This was followed by numerous other presentations in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater, such as Molnar's Olympia (1930), John Lewis Brumm's The Strait Jacket, and the old French farce Pierre Patelin (1931). Anthony and Anna, Meet the Wife, and the good old melodrama Streets of New York were the program for 1932, followed by Meet the Prince, Murray Hill, and Three Times the Hour by Valentine Davies, a former Comedy Club president.

In its last few years Comedy Club had Page  1871gradually become overshadowed by Play Production. In 1934 Vincent Wall's Late Love, and The Last of Mrs. Cheney and the Playboy of the Western World were produced with much artistic but little financial success. In 1935 Raymond Van Sickle's Why Minnie Boggs! made expenses but not enough to pay off bills that had been accumulating. Comedy Club had no alternative. It was compelled to turn out its floodlights and drop its curtain. Comedy Club is now a thing of the past, but it made dramatic history on the campus of the University of Michigan.

Many names connected with Comedy Club have become famous: Phyllis Povah, Robert Henderson, Warren Parker, Norman Hackett, Phyllis Loughton, Valentine Davies, Amy Loomis, Richard Kendrick, Allan Hanley, the stagehand who became Governor Comstock, and many others. The good work of the Comedy Club was spurred on by such men as Professors Louis A. Strauss, J. Raleigh Nelson, Herbert A. Kenyon, and Oscar J. Campbell. It was not unrecognized work either, for Alla Nazimova, Arthur Wing Pinero, Raymond Van Sickle, and the late Sir Ben Greet are among those who have expressed their praise for the work of the club. It was a gallant and a gay history.

THE BANDS

AUTHENTIC information as to the exact date when the Michigan Band was formed is not available, because it developed as a student organization with few written records and was not accorded official recognition until it had been in existence for almost fifty years. The first reference to a band at the University is found in a quotation by a graduate of the class of 1845. He mentioned that "the University Band of nine pieces assisted to a great extent in the singing at the chapel services."

In 1858 Les Sans Souci, a musical organization composed of some fifteen students who made ensemble music their hobby, was organized. It was this group that first took the name of the Michigan Band. It is recorded that in the office of Robert A. Campbell, Treasurer of the University from 1911 until 1931, there was an old sepia photograph of six be-whiskered individuals with instruments no longer used except in concert bands. The picture, dated 1859, is obviously of this group. (For the text identifying the picture's battered obverse, see Mich. Alum., August 11, 1934, p. 509.) This organization, whose music was derived from flutes, wind instruments, and some string instruments, was in truth more of an orchestra than a band, but it is the first such University group of which there is any knowledge.

The Palladium of 1873 contained an advertisement for the "University Brass Band." A sketch shows some sixteen members playing "over-the-shoulder" model Civil War instruments. Uniforms were of the Union Army Civil War type. The following names were listed: J. W. Whitmore, leader; W. Hayman, H. W. Gelston, W. Buzzle, D. Buzzle, Beaman, W. Williams, F. A. Maynard, Charles Warren, Tuthill, and Harry Perley. Orchestrion Hall was given as headquarters.

Football fans will be interested in the fact that as early as the 1880's a volunteer student group began making appearances at Michigan football games. Much of the early data on the Band has Page  1872been lost, however. Irving K. Pond ('79), who played first drum (a fine Prussian instrument now in the Stearns Collection in Hill Auditorium) during the season of 1878-79, has contributed much valuable information on the early history. Unfortunately, all too little is known about the Band between the time of the Civil War and the turn of the century.

According to a short history written by Henri P. dePont ('02), who played the cornet, the first genuine University Band was organized in the fall of 1896. DePont, who was in charge of the project, was assisted by Dan F. Zimmerman, George Levin, and Roy P. Warren. A collection was taken to buy music, and the first rehearsal was held in Harris Hall. Warren was elected director and DePont manager. (The roster of the Band for the year 1899 is printed in the Mich. Alum., September, 1926.) During the first few months the Band had a difficult time finding places to rehearse. It met in Ann Arbor High School, Harris Hall, over Calkins Drug Store on State Street, and downtown over stores on Main Street.

Although still entirely a student organization and only partly recognized by the Athletic Association, the Band began playing regularly at football games in 1897, making its first public appearance at the Washington's Birthday exercises in University Hall on February 22, 1897. The Athletic Association at this time carried out a successful campaign for funds for the Band, which played for all of the spring games and in the fall of 1897 accompanied the team to Detroit. On that occasion the Band numbered thirty men. The Band became a regular feature of the games and was subject to the call of the Athletic Association, playing for all athletic events, both outdoors and indoors. It still had no regular rehearsal hall, and because of mobilization for the Spanish-American War, it was necessary to hire musicians from outside the University for 1898-99.

In 1898 the Athletic Association raised money for new uniforms. The blouse was of dark blue with "UM" on the collar and a braided front, trousers of regulation cavalry with one-half-inch yellow stripe, cap Army style with gold braid and side buttons and a lyre embroidered on the front. About this time the fencing and boxing room in Waterman Gymnasium was turned over to the Band for rehearsals.

The Band's first appearance in full uniform was on November 24, 1898, when Michigan won against Chicago on Marshall Field in Chicago. The Band which played for the Athletic Association dances in Waterman Gymnasium from 1899 through 1902 was made up entirely of students, the need for "hired" musicians having passed. "The class of music was of the best; marches ran into the fourth and fifth grades; short concert numbers were well selected; and heavy overtures were of high class" (Mich. Alum., 32 [1925-26], p. 749).

The first bandstand was erected on the campus in 1909. At this time the Regents voted to appropriate $50 for the purchase of music and uniforms upon condition that the sum of $100 each should be contributed to the Band by the Students' Council and by the Athletic Association (R.P., 1906-10, p. 471). In 1910 the Regents appropriated $100 for "music, uniforms, etc." on condition that the Band should give frequent evening concerts on campus during the months following spring recess and should furnish the music required by the University for the ceremonies of Commencement Week. It was duly noted that "the payment of the $100 is not to be made until after the service during Commencement Week shall have been satisfactorily rendered" (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 667-68). This is the first indication of the policy of having the Page  1873University Band play at Commencement, a tradition which has continued to the present time.

According to Earl V. Moore, Dean of the School of Music, during the years 1908-12 the University Band, as such, was directed by "Ike" Fischer. "Ike," although never a student, conducted a student dance band at Granger's on the site of the present University TV studios on Maynard Street. He gathered a group of musicians and other interested students at MacMillan Hall (site of the present Methodist Church on the corner of State and Huron streets), passed out uniforms and music, and then proceeded to march this Saturday afternoon football band down to old Ferry Field.

In 1913 a request from the Student Council and the Board in Control of Athletics asking for an appropriation of $1,500 "for support of a proper University of Michigan Band" was denied by the Board of Regents, but in January, 1914, the Band received its first official financial assistance from the University in the form of an allotment of twenty-five dollars per member for thirty student members. This was intended primarily as compensation for time spent playing at Commencement activities. It was further provided "that the Band should be under the regulation of the University Senate Committee on Non-Athletic Organizations, so far as the scholarship of band members is concerned" (R.P., 1910-14, p. 909). Thus, in 1914, the Band gained official recognition and became a unit of the University.

An indication of the growing importance of the Band in University life and relations can be gained from the Regents' Proceedings of January, 1914: "On motion of Regent Hanchett the sum of $250.00 was added to the appropriation in the budget for the support of the University Band with the understanding that this sum was to be used, in connection with the University School of Music, for securing a first-class leader for the band" (R.P., 1914-17, p. 229). Thus, in 1915, Captain Wilfred Wilson became the first permanent conductor of the University of Michigan Band. As was customary with instructors in music during this period, Wilson was expected to supplement his salary from the University by giving private lessons to music students.

In 1915 the Band included about thirty pieces, but its activities were still on a rather indeterminate level. After two more years the Band had increased to forty, and cape-style uniforms, combining maize and blue, appeared for the first time.

During the 1920's the Band was in the embarrassing position of a large organization with no actual provision for its care. Robert Campbell succeeded in raising $1,500, part from the Regents and part from the Athletic Association, and this, together with sums derived from a few concerts, was used to refurnish and reorganize the Band, which became a unit of seventy pieces.

Another problem arose, however, when the student body ceased to patronize the periodic concerts, and the musicians were forced to "pass the hat" on the campus, provide a pail for donations outside the Ferry Field gate, and hold tag days whenever it was desirable to take the Band to an "away" football game. Such financing arrangements became impossible in time, and Mr. Campbell requested the Board of Regents to establish the Band as an integral unit of the University, supported by appropriation each year. He was refused, but after gaining the support of the Athletic Association, permission was finally granted and a plan evolved whereby fifty cents from each student's tuition was set aside for the maintenance of the Band (R.P., 1923-26, p. 706).

Page  1874During the years of World War I, the Band, under Wilson's direction, participated in Liberty Bond drives and other patriotic campaigns. Typical of these was the fifth Liberty Loan drive in 1918. The Band, composed of sixty-five members, traveled to Saginaw and Detroit by rail and provided the major attraction in the state bond campaign, making numerous concert and parade appearances. In 1922 the Band inaugurated the first of a series of annual spring concert tours, which have continued intermittently to the present time. In April, during spring vacation, the group also appeared in Saginaw, Muskegon, Lansing, and Kalamazoo.

Captain Wilson continued as conductor of the Michigan Band until 1926, when Norman Larson was appointed conductor. He came to Michigan from Minnesota, where he had been active in music education. He, in turn, was followed by Nicholas D. Falcone, who assumed the conductorship in 1927.

An astute and learned musician, Falcone received his early musical training at the Roseto School of Music in Italy under the guidance of the famous Donatelli brothers. At the urging of Michel Conversa, a friend who gave instruction in wind instruments at Michigan, he came to Ann Arbor and, in 1913, was hired to play in the University Commencement Band under the direction of Carl Fischer. It is interesting to note that included in the obligations of the Commencement period of that time were a concert on the Library steps on Friday night, playing for raising the flag at 7:00 A.M. on Saturday morning, playing for the graduates as they marched from the Library to old Ferry Field, and playing for the Commencement processional and recessional. Falcone recollects that he had to transpose the entire concert and other music because the instruments of the University were in "high pitch."

In the mid 1920's the Marching Band, which played for all home games, had still another responsibility. Falcone recounts that in 1927, during all "away" games, the Band was required to form in the Michigan Union ballroom, where there was a huge blackboard with the various gridiron markers painted on its surface, together with a telegrapher and a key. As the game progressed, the telegrapher received word of the various passes, plays, and kicks, and these were duly posted on the "chalk gridiron." The Band played before the game, during time-outs, at half-time, and, of course, whenever a Michigan touchdown was scored. The Band at this time numbered about ninety-six and formed in eight files twelve ranks deep. In the early years of Falcone's tenure, freshmen were not permitted to play in the University Concert Band, but they were used in what was called the Reserve, or second Band.

In 1929, when freshmen were admitted to membership in the regular University Band, the Marching Band participated in an unusual experience. The Michigan team played both Mount Union College and Ypsilanti Normal on the same day, and the Marching Band was required to appear at both games. The Band at this time rehearsed in Morris Hall for two hours on Wednesday evenings. At the conclusion of the football season an additional rehearsal was held on Saturday afternoons from 2:30 to 5:00 P.M.

The Marching Band, after 1929, made at least two out-of-town trips each year. Formations were of the letter type such as "Yost," "Mich," and "M." The letters were always formed on the march and were seldom presented in a static position. It is believed that the Michigan Band formed the first script "Ohio" on the field, and a picture, dated 1931, is available as proof of this feat. In the typical half-time show of this era the Band entered at midfield, executing a column right at midfield, marched to the goal line, counter-marched, formed a Page  1875letter, marched the letter the length of the gridiron to the opposite goal, counter-marched, formed a Michigan letter which was marched back to midfield, where the alma mater song of the opposing school and the "Yellow and Blue" were performed, whereupon the Band left the field.

In 1930 the old uniform consisting of a cape with gold braid across the chest was discarded in favor of the coat-type uniform with yellow Sam Browne belts. The year 1932-33 was an important one in the history of the Bands for it marked the first time that women were permitted to play in the Concert Band.

The following are two typical Concert or Symphonic Band (the titles are interchangeable) programs of the 1930's:

    March, 1931
  • Overture to Phédre
  • Wotan's Farewell
  • Danse Macabre
  • Fantasia de Concerto
  • L'Arlésienne Suite No. 2
  • Bolero — Ravel
    March, 1932
  • Rosamunde Overture
  • Caucasian Sketches
  • Concerto No. 2 in E Flat Major — Weber
  • The Pines of Rome
  • Les Préludes

In 1934-35, owing to Mr. Falcone's failing health, Bernard Hirsch, a graduate student, was in charge of the University Bands.

Professor William D. Revelli, who was appointed Conductor of Bands in 1935, came to Michigan from Hobart, Indiana, where for ten years he had been director of music in the public schools of that city. While at Hobart his school bands won five consecutive national championships and received national recognition. University Band headquarters at that time were in Morris Hall, just north of the Michigan Union, on a site now occupied by the present Administration Building. The building was shared with the University Broadcasting Service.

From 1937-38 the University Bands improved constantly in every particular. Because of the reputation of Professor Revelli and his national prominence as a band conductor, the number of talented players who applied for admission to the Bands increased each year, the quality of music improved, and the finished performance far surpassed that of previous Michigan Bands. The physical resources of the Bands increased each year. Bass clarinets, alto clarinets, bassoons, oboes, French horns, and euphoniums were purchased to increase the instrumentation, and the library was enlarged by the acquisition of the finest in symphonic band repertory. Four concerts were given in Hill Auditorium in 1937-38, and the Band also appeared at Kalamazoo, Sturgis, and at the Chrysler Institute of Engineering commencement exercises in Detroit.

One trip was made in 1937 to Evanston, Illinois, to attend the Northwestern-Michigan game. A comparatively short trip to Chicago for approximately 120 men at that time cost about $2,200, and a trip to New York or Philadelphia, about $4,200. In that year the Marching Band had approximately 125 men, and the first Concert Band, under Revelli's direction, numbered ninety.

In the 1930's a member of the Army R.O.T.C. staff assisted Revelli in drilling the Marching Band during the football season, a custom which was prevalent in universities during that period. In 1936 and 1937 the drum major of the Marching Band was Robert Fox, and Major Richard Coursey was the drillmaster. In the following year Fred Weist was drum major of the Marching Band. From 1937 to 1939 Major Walter B. Fariss was drillmaster and assisted Revelli with the Marching Band as the membership increased to 120 in 1937. From 1938 to 1939 the drum majors of the Marching Page  1876Band were John Sherrill and Gilbert Stephenson.

In the years 1940-43 the position of drillmaster was held by Major Robert N. Kunz, Major John Lohla, and Captain Leonard W. Peterson, with Robert Commanday and James Roberts, student drillmasters. The post of drum major was occupied by John Sherrill, James Kennedy, and Lynn Stedman.

A special instructor was appointed in 1946 to assist Professor Revelli and also to serve as a member of the Wind Instrument faculty of the School of Music and the Department of Bands. In this capacity, Harold Ferguson became Instructor in Brass Instruments and Assistant Director of University Bands. Mr. Ferguson assisted Revelli in drilling the Marching Band and was also a teacher of trombone in the School of Music; Lynn Stedman continued as drum major. In this year, also, Harris Hall, at the corner of State and Huron streets, formerly the guild hall of St. Andrews Episcopal Church, was leased by the University and remodeled as headquarters for the University Bands and the Wind Instrument Department. In March, 1946, the Symphony Band presented the grand concert at the annual convention of the North Central Division of the Music Educators' National Conference at Indianapolis, Indiana.

The year 1947 was memorable because it marked the first appearance of the Michigan Marching Band in the famous Rose Bowl at Pasadena, California. Under the leadership of Revelli and Ferguson, the Band, with Drum Major Noah Knepper, made numerous appearances on its way to and from this nationally famous New Year's Day football game.

Jack Lee served as Assistant Conductor of Bands under Revelli from 1948 until 1952. In 1948-49 Fred Breidenbach was drum major of the Marching Band. In this year also, Lambda chapter of Tau Beta Sigma (Women's National Honorary Band Sorority) was established at Michigan.

The Marching Band, in 1949, adopted a new uniform — dark blue in color, with the word michigan in gold braid on each sleeve. This uniform was augmented with a gold plume on the cap, gold shoulder epaulets, a blue and gold short cape, white cotton gloves, a yellow tie and breast pocket handkerchief, white cross belt in West Point style with a brass breast and waist plate, and white spats.

On November 14, 1949, Revelli inaugurated the first Band Day, which was held in the Michigan Football Stadium. Here twenty-nine picked bands from high schools throughout the state, with approximately 1,800 members, performed in mass half-time ceremonies at the game. In addition to playing several selections, the bands formed such words and initials as "Sousa" and "U.S.A." on the gridiron.

The University of Michigan and the Michigan Bands were hosts in March, 1950, to the sixteenth Annual Convention of the American Bandmasters' Association. Several concerts were presented, and many famous bandsmen such as Edwin Franko Goldman, Henry Fillmore, and Karl L. King appeared in the rôle of guest conductor with the Michigan Symphony Band. In addition, the Symphony Band visited cities in Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan.

The Marching Band was increased to 135 members in 1950. Dick Smith was drum major, and Sam Szor and Floyd Zarbock were the twirlers. During this year a film short entitled "Here Comes the Band," featuring the Marching Band, was produced by R.K.O.-Pathé Pictures and received both national and international release. In 1951 the Marching Band, with the same drum major Page  1877and twirlers, made its second appearance in the Rose Bowl at Pasadena, California, and in addition, performed at various points throughout the country. This trip, as was the previous Rose Bowl trip in 1947, was financed by the Buick Motor Corporation. The Buick tradition of sponsoring one trip each year began in 1937 and has continued to the present time.

Dr. Edwin Franko Goldman appeared once more as guest conductor with the Symphony Band in April, 1951. The Symphony Band was invited in March, 1952, to present the grand concert for the Music Educators' National Conference at the Philadelphia Academy of Music. The Symphony Band also appeared at other cities in Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio.

In 1952 George Cavender was appointed Assistant Conductor of Bands. "Band Day" had grown to include 103 bands, which appeared on the gridiron during the half-time intermission, with Paul Yoder as guest conductor. In January at the Midwestern Conference in 1953 LeRoy Anderson appeared as guest conductor with the Symphony Band in Hill Auditorium. In this year the Band visited cities in Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois.

The Marching Band had increased to 146 members by 1953, with Floyd Zarbock as drum major and William Modlin and "Champ" Patton as twirlers. This was the year that Edwin Franko Goldman added another to the list of "Michigan Musical Heritages," when he composed the march entitled "Michigan." The University dedicated the Edwin Franko Goldman room in Harris Hall on May 18, 1954. Here are preserved manuscripts, autographed pictures of many of the world's greatest musical artists, and other musical memorabilia, given to the University by Dr. Goldman.

The "postgame" show was introduced by the University of Michigan: In addition to the regular pregame and half-time shows, the Band presented special postgame programs which often attracted as many as sixty to seventy thousand people. In 1954, for the first time, the Marching Band used co-drum majors, Victor Walton and "Champ" Gurdon Patton, with twirlers Joseph Brown and William Modlin. The musical program of Band Day consisted entirely of works written by Dr. Goldman, who again appeared as guest conductor. In February the Symphony Band toured Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana. In Elkhart, Indiana, the Symphony Band presented the grand concert at the national convention of the American Bandmasters' Association. In the spring of this year, musical history was made when the Michigan Symphony Band became the first "Big Ten" band to appear in formal concert in Boston Symphony Hall, and in Carnegie Hall, New York City. Other cities visited by the Symphony Band on the spring tour in this year included Painesville, Ohio, Springfield, Massachusetts, East Weymouth, Massachusetts, East Providence, Rhode Island, Hartford, Connecticut, and, in New York state, Buffalo, Elmira, Endicott, and Schenectady.

On October 15, 1955, the Michigan Bands presented the largest massed band ever assembled at one time anywhere in the world: 171 bands, with a combined membership of 11,500 members, assembled on the gridiron for colorful half-time ceremonies. Membership in the Marching Band had grown to 165 members; "Champ" Patton was drum major, with Joseph Brown and William Modlin twirlers. In the same month, for the first time in television history, the Marching Band was featured in a special program on N.B.C. television on the "Dave Garroway" and "Home" shows. Page  1878In 1956, while Revelli was on sabbatical leave, Assistant Conductor George Cavender was in charge of University Bands.

Varsity Night, the all-campus talent show sponsored by the University Bands, has become one of the traditions of the Michigan campus and is the major fundraising event staged annually to assist the Bands financially. First conceived in 1939 by Ernest Jones, who was student business manager of the Band and an editor of the Michigan Daily, Varsity Night has grown to include such names as Ferde Grofe, Morton Gould, and Robert Q. Lewis on its distinguished roster of participants.

In the history of bands at Michigan, the position of student business manager has always been an important one. In the early days, he was the "right hand" of the conductor in many of the administrative details concerned with the Band. Among these men the following should be mentioned: George Hall, Ernest Jones, Don Chown, Glen Yarberry, James B. Hause, George Irwin, Stewart Park, Warren Bellis, Donald S. Lewis, Charles M. Hollis, Maynard Hall, Carl Snyder, Paul Liddicoat, Charles Hills, Bernard Leutholtz, and Carmen Spadaro.

By 1956 the Marching Band had grown to 175 members with Drum Major "Champ" Patton and twirlers John Kinkendall, Joseph Brown, Gary Kocher, and Gary Klickard. Marching shows were performed around such themes as the Civil War, melodies of Rogers and Hammerstein, "Roman Holiday" (based on the homecoming theme), and the theme songs of various famous bandleaders. In December, 1956, the Symphony Band was chosen to present the grand concert for the biennial meeting of the College Band Directors' National Conference in Chicago, Illinois. The Symphony Band also visited cities in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.

Many members of the University administrative staff have provided administrative and sometimes financial guidance and counsel for the Bands. Robert Campbell, University Treasurer, is the first-mentioned faculty adviser, and he served until 1919. He was succeeded by Herbert G. Watkins, Secretary of the University, adviser until 1945, and by Walter B. Rea, Dean of Men, adviser until 1952. James B. Shortt, Assistant to the Director of Public Relations, became faculty business manager in 1953 and has continued in this position.

Believing that a university band should serve not only as a musical inspiration but also as an educational force, Revelli organized the Midwestern Conference in 1936. At these the University Symphony Band appeared in formal concerts and clinics, forums, demonstrations, and panels on which leading musical authorities in the country were presented to the conductors of the state. Because a great need existed for a clinic to feature marching band information, Revelli, in 1948, organized the National Band Conductors' Conference, which meets each July and is open without charge to conductors across the nation. Believing also in the value of contests and festivals in the life of the students and in the training of bands, Revelli reorganized the State Band and Orchestra Festival in 1936 and urged the development and establishment of the State Solo and Ensemble Festival.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Michigan Alumnus, 1926-36.
Palladium, Univ. Mich., 1873.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1906-46.
Page  1879

THE STUDENT LECTURE ASSOCIATION

THIS organization, long the center of extracurricular cultural activities in the University community, was formed in 1854, probably in emulation of the successful lecture course of the Detroit Young Men's Society during the preceding winter. In letters preserved by Samuel H. White, now in the University archives, there is some inconclusive evidence that the moving spirits among the founders were members of the Alpha Nu Literary Society. White was secretary of the Student Lecture Association in 1854-55, and president both of it and of Alpha Nu in 1855-56.

The first lecture presented was by President Tappan, who spoke early in January, 1855, on "The Spirit of Literature." The first season was not markedly successful, despite the popularity of the main attraction, Bayard Taylor; in 1855-56, however, nine lecturers were secured, among them Taylor, Horace Mann, and Ralph Waldo Emerson. This was the first of a long series of courses averaging about ten numbers each, with a large proportion of nationally known speakers, some of whom returned as many as a half dozen times. Before 1885 the Student Lecture Association had brought to Ann Arbor, besides a host of less remembered celebrities, Theodore Parker, Wendell Phillips, Horace Greeley, Carl Schurz, Artemus Ward, John B. Gough, P. T. Barnum, L. J. R. Agassiz, Anna Dickinson, Theodore Tilton, Charles Sumner, Mark Twain, Edwin L. Godkin, Bret Harte, and Matthew Arnold. Beginning with 1868-69, moreover, the Student Lecture Association usually offered one or more musical numbers, and in October, 1876, it presented, at an expense of $1,000, a celebrated symphony orchestra directed by Theodore Thomas. This and many other offerings of the Association are landmarks in the cultural history of the University.

The most vigorous period of the Student Lecture Association was that before the Civil War, when lecturing was less a business than a means of satisfying a widespread anxiety for self-improvement. The enduring strength of the organization is demonstrated, however, by the way in which it weathered the rivalry of the Students' Liberal Lecture Association, founded in 1867 as a protest against a course overburdened with partisan political addresses by Greeley, Tilton, and Phillips, and by its survival in the face of downtown competition from Hill's Opera House (later the Whitney Theater), which was offering lectures as well as plays in the 1870's and 1880's.

The constantly rising cost (the average expense per number grew from $48.12 in 1862-63 to $324.63 in 1881-82) made it increasingly difficult for the officers of the Association to obtain a well-rounded course. After 1875 they came to depend more and more upon musical numbers, and the courses reflect a country-wide decline in lecturing proper. With the formation of the University Musical Society (see Part VI: The University Musical Society) a part of the function which the Student Lecture Association had served passed into other hands. From 1885 on, however, it was becoming less and less important to the life of the campus, in part because of the intellectual self-sufficiency which developed with the University, in part, perhaps, because of the development of a more varied extracurricular life.

By far the largest number of lectures presented by the Student Lecture Association may be classified as lay sermons, on ethical or moral subjects. The most representative use of this type of lecture Page  1880was that by Emerson, who in 1856 expressed his willingness to speak for $25, if the Association was "easily able" to manage that much. For him, as for a number of others, lecturing was a duty, not a livelihood. Less earnest lecturers spoke on literature, on travel, on history, on politics and foreign affairs; some were frankly and bravely humorists, and a few took science for their theme. Year by year, the programs reflected the intellectual fashions and preoccupations of the nation at large, as well as gradual changes in its taste. Abolition, reconstruction, women's rights, civil service, the Coast Survey, the Atlantic cable, Arctic exploration, Darwinism, Shakespearean actors, Arnold's notions on literature and science, western humor, and the operettas of Gilbert and Sullivan — all found a place on the capacious platforms of the Methodist Church or University Hall.

In its days of prosperity, the Student Lecture Association served more than one useful purpose. For a number of years, beginning about 1868, it provided sums of money to stock the library with current newspapers and magazines. In 1876 the officers were able to spend $1,450 for a grand piano for the stage of University Hall. In 1880 the Association was helping with the gymnasium fund.

Yet its greatest service, perhaps, was one which did not depend on showing a profit: the introduction of callow youth to a world of gaslights and opera glasses, of oratory and classical music and brief but magnificent glimpses of vistas more sophisticated even than the great circle of University Hall. Thus, one member of the class of '70 writes of an evening when Olive Logan lectured "on the foibles of her sex and in the midst of her talk gave an ocular demonstration. Throwing back her bustle to its fullest she pranced across the pulpit in the 'Grecian bend.' It 'brought down the house,' and almost threatened the Association with censorship." And one member of the class of '80 tells of playing a concert waltz by Chopin on the same program with Eduard Remenyi, the famous violinist: "A further incident of the evening not forgotten is how, coming to the rear of the stage after a performance, Remenyi was veiled down his front with horse-hair shed from his violin bow." Many another alumnus has treasured such memories of Ann Arbor, and it is safe to say that for many generations of Michigan men and women the Student Lecture Association was an integral part of education, in the larger sense of the word.

The Association came to an end in 1912, its function of providing lecturers being taken over by the Oratorical Association, reorganized in recent years as the University Lecture Course, and long managed by Professor Carl G. Brandt.

DEBATING

INTEREST in public speaking and debating existed almost from the first days of the University, and regular instruction was offered long before the establishment of the Department of Elocution and Oratory in 1892 (see Part IV: Department of Speech). Before that time, some training in elocution had been given by Professor Moses Coit Tyler in combination with his work in English literature. Later, in 1872, President Harry Burns Hutchins, then Instructor in Rhetoric and History, organized the Junior Debate, which was Page  1881held between various sections of the Junior Class. In 1876 this debate was continued by his successor, Isaac Newton Demmon, who was to become in a few years Professor of English Literature. In the next decade, under his guidance, debating became a popular pastime among the students, as evidenced by the formation of many debating societies. The great increase in the work in composition and public speaking which came with the broadening of the course of study in 1878, however, led to the abandonment of these debates, and instruction in the subject fell to a low ebb until Professor Thomas Clarkson Trueblood came in 1884 to give one-third of his time to the work. His success in this field eventually led to his appointment as Professor of Oratory in 1892, and under his direction debating enjoyed a brilliant career.

But if the powers that be were slow to recognize the desire of the students for instruction in public speaking, there were many more or less unofficial avenues for those who desired to give vent to their oratorical impulses. Two opportunities existed almost from the first, the old literary societies and the class exhibitions and Commencement programs. The first literary society, Phi Phi Alpha, was organized in 1842, to be followed by Alpha Nu. Adelphi was not formed until shortly after the demise of Phi Phi Alpha in 1860. The traditional programs of these societies were largely orations, essays, and concluding debates in which were debated such momentous questions as:

  • "Resolved: That the benefits of novel reading will compensate for its injuries.
  • Resolved: That we have sufficient evidence for belief in ethereal spirits.
  • Resolved: That brutes reason.
  • Resolved: That woman has as much influence in the nation as man.
  • Resolved: That students should not form matrimonial engagements while in college."

These societies also maintained literary papers. Phi Phi Alpha had the "Castalia," Alpha Nu, the "Sybil," and Adelphi, "The Hesperian." In 1868 they established a series of prize contests, debates for sophomores and juniors, and orations for seniors. For these, first and second prizes were awarded at public exhibitions, which never failed to arouse great interest. This traditional emphasis on public speaking was maintained consistently until the 1920's, and many distinguished alumni of the University were numbered among the contestants.

Although Alpha Nu and Adelphi rendered great service to the University, they were not the only student organizations which had public speaking as their reason for existence. Others which have come and gone are remembered only by their own student generation and by the heavy weight of their classical names. Such were a multitude of debating clubs which sprang up in the 1860's under such impressive titles as "Homotrapezoi," "Philozetian," "Panarmonian," or, in the Law Department, the less pretentious "Douglas," "Clay," and "Lincoln" societies, the forerunners of the Jeffersonian and Webster societies. A latter-day organization was the long-popular "Toastmaster's Club," which aimed to perpetuate the doubtful joys of afterdinner oratory. Other means of self-expression were those formal exhibitions of which the long-popular annual Junior Exhibition was the most prominent. Later, the only vestige of student participation in programs of this character was in the annual Class Day exercises.

Another organization which stimulated interest in platform speaking was the Students' Lecture Association, which for many years was one of the most successful undergraduate enterprises. It was Page  1882organized in September, 1854, and continued for almost sixty years to bring distinguished and sometimes, judged by latter-day standards, undistinguished speakers before student audiences. It ceased to exist in 1912, but only after the broadening interests of the University began to attract to Ann Arbor many prominent visitors, while at the same time the multiplication of other forms of entertainment lessened the attractions of the traditional lecture course.

That the privilege of hearing some of these speakers was not always properly appreciated is shown by the comments of the editor of one of the local papers on a lecture by Emerson: "The subject of the lecture was 'Human Beauty,' rather a singular subject, it strikes us, from so homely a man as Mr. Emerson. Mr. Emerson is not a pleasing speaker — in fact, is an awkward speaker, and yet he demands the utmost attention of every hearer."

From 1889, under Trueblood's direction debating enjoyed a brilliant career. With the gradual organization of the Department of Elocution and Oratory, public speaking and debating came to have a recognized place among student activities. Matches at that time were confined to rivalry between the Department of Law and the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the final contest of the season was regarded as a gala occasion.

Intercollegiate debates and contests were organized to stimulate student interest. These were first inaugurated by the Michigan Oratorical Association which, soon after its establishment in 1889, at Professor Trueblood's instigation invited neighboring universities to form an Oratorical Union — an annual intercollegiate oratorical contest, open only to undergraduates. Invitations were sent to Oberlin, Wisconsin, Northwestern, and Cornell universities. With the exception of Cornell these were the colleges which formed the Northern Oratorical League, established in 1890.

In the next two years the universities of Chicago and Iowa were added to the list of opponents. Minnesota joined in 1897. Interest in the subject at this time was very keen; the opening of the debating season often found as many as sixty to one hundred contestants trying out for positions on the team. In 1895 debating was placed under the auspices of the Oratorical Association, an arrangement which assured it a definite place on the campus.

In 1896, under the guidance of Professor Trueblood, the Central Debating League was formed for the purpose of encouraging intercollegiate debating among the major universities. Michigan, Chicago, and Northwestern were the first members of this league. Arrangements were made to hold semifinal matches, followed by a final debate, in order to determine which league team was the winner. The first Central Debating League contest, in 1896, was won by the University of Michigan. The following years saw both Wisconsin and Minnesota as members of the league at various times. The University of Michigan held and won its first intersectional debate in 1896, with the University of Pennsylvania. By 1900 the University had won seven of its first ten debates, the last five victories having been consecutive.

In 1907, in order to replace the previous single-team arrangement, two debating teams were established for each university. With each university upholding both sides of the question, the University of Michigan won both of the final debates of the league contest. In 1914 the new Midwest Debating League was formed. The University entered two teams in this league and won both of the final debates. It was now participating in two leagues, with four teams. At the Page  1883close of the period ending in 1920, the University had established a record, having won forty-two of its sixty-four intercollegiate debates. Twenty-four debates had been won unanimously and only four lost. In 1920-21 women were admitted to the University debating teams. In 1925 the first Women's Debate League was formed, with the University of Indiana and Ohio State University as our opponents.

The University of Michigan participated in and won its first international debate, against Oxford University in 1924, and in 1926 was invited to send representatives to England to take part in a series of debates. This was the first time a university west of New York had been accorded such an honor. While in England the University won four of the five debates in which it participated.

The Western Conference Debate League was formed to supplant the other two leagues in 1926. It included all the "Big Ten" schools except the University of Chicago, which was to enter at a later date. Both the women's and men's debating teams of each university were members of the league. Participation in the regular program of this league constitutes the University's present system of debate. Today, there is participation in national and regional student congresses sponsored by Delta Sigma Rho, and also an invitational tournament held each spring in Ann Arbor. Other activities include individual debates held at this and other universities and many appearances before service clubs, high schools, and community audiences. Various styles of debating are now employed with a type of cross-question debating being used most frequently. Since World War II, approximately eighty University of Michigan students have participated each year in debate activities.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-56.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1864-1956.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York, 1920.
The Adelphi House of Representatives

On March 6, 1857, an organization known as the Literary Adelphi made its appearance on the campus, with Cushman Kellogg Davis ('57, LL.D. '86), later United States Senator from Minnesota, as its first president. Though the year 1857 marks the first appearance of the name Adelphi, the society indirectly traces its origins to an earlier date, for in the year 1861 the Literary Adelphi, through a unification with Phi Phi Alpha, which was founded in 1842 and expired in 1861, leaving its library and other effects to Adelphi, came into the heritage of the oldest student organization at the University and the first forensic society in the state.

Since its origin many changes have marked the growth of the organization. From a society with strong literary tendencies, at whose early meetings a literary magazine called "The Hesperian" was read and discussed, the Adelphi has emerged. In the year 1914-15 the name was changed to the Adelphi House of Representatives. The plan of having each member represent a state in the Union was instituted, and meetings were patterned after sessions of the House of Representatives in Washington. The emphasis was mainly on forensic activities, with debates, discussions, and outside speakers on its program.

Among the year's highlights on the Adelphi program were the traditional debate with Alpha Nu, in which freshman members of each society contended, the stump debate with Sigma Rho Tau, usually Page  1884on some humorous subject, the joint meeting with the Athena Literary Society, and as a culmination to the year's activities, the annual banquet held at the Michigan Union, at which awards and honors were bestowed.

Former members of Adelphi include such men as the late William Wilson Cook ('80, '82l), donor of the law buildings and of Martha Cook Building and Ira Waite Jayne ('05), former presiding judge of the Circuit Court of Wayne County, Detroit.

The Adelphi House of Representatives was one of the few extracurricular activities open to first-semester freshmen, and shared with Alpha Nu the privilege of establishing its own policies without a faculty adviser.

Athena Literary Society

The first women's debating society at the University owes its existence to the inspiration of Vera Andrus ('19, A.M. '21). Originally called the Girls' Oratorical League, it was organized with twenty charter members on the evening of November 5, 1917, which was the day that the state of New York voted for woman suffrage by a majority of ninety-four thousand. A few weeks later the name was changed to Athena Literary Society. The zeal of Thomas C. Trueblood, then Professor of Oratory and in charge of the public speaking instruction, and that of Ray K. Immel, Instructor in Oratory, brought about recognition of the society's charter by the University.

The Athena Literary Society met weekly during the school year — first in the old Alpha Nu room in University Hall, then in Barbour Gymnasium, later in Room 302, University Hall, and finally in the Athena room on the fourth floor of Angell Hall. Occasionally, meetings of the society were adjourned in order to attend lectures or recitals by famous speakers or artists such as Ethel Leginska, Professor Trueblood, William Jennings Bryan, Catherine Breshkovsky, and Jane Addams.

The threefold purpose of the organization was to provide a practice forum for public speaking, a society through which women could try out for intercollegiate debates (in 1917 all debate tryouts were held through Adelphi and Alpha Nu), and for the study of parliamentary usage.

The early history of the Athena Literary Society is replete with "first times." Its members attended a meeting of the Adelphi House of Representatives and a meeting of Alpha Nu in December, 1917, the first times that women had been admitted to the sessions of either group. In the same month three Athena members, Victoria Adams, Vera Andrus, and Ruth Huston, tried out in Adelphi for the annual debate of the Midwest Debate League on the cabinet-parliamentary form of government for the United States. This was the first time women had tried out for the varsity debate squad. In May, 1918, the first woman timekeeper in University debate circles was furnished by the Athena Literary Society, and in the same month the society participated actively in the oratorical elections, hitherto an exclusively masculine affair.

The example of the Athena Literary Society led to the founding of the Portia Literary Society in 1923 and to the founding of five similar organizations at other universities, including Delta Chapter at South Dakota in 1931. From 1924 to 1931, Athena and Portia held an annual series of debates for the Lillian B. Huston trophy, which was won permanently by Athena.

A few subjects of debate indicate how closely Athena women followed the trend of the times. The subject in 1918 was Page  1885"Woman Suffrage and Democracy"; in 1921, "The Kansas Industrial Plan"; in 1922, "Merchant-Marine Subsidy"; in 1924, "The Bok Peace Plan"; in 1926, "United States Claims in China"; and in 1929, "The Emergence of Women from the Home" and "The University Auto Ban."

THE STUDENTS' CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION

THE University was never intended to be a sectarian school, but from the beginning leaders of the various churches were active in its faculty and administration, and it had a distinctly religious atmosphere. John Monteith, a Presbyterian clergyman, and Gabriel Richard, a Roman Catholic priest, were appointed as the first two professors of the University of Michigania in 1817. Almost twenty years later, in 1836, shortly before Michigan became a state, John D. Pierce, a Presbyterian home missionary, was appointed as the first State Superintendent of Public Instruction. In January, 1837, Pierce submitted a plan for a state school system, including provision for a university, which was to be the basis for the Organic Act of March 18, 1837, under which the University was organized.

When the University was opened to students in 1841, the two professors who constituted the faculty were George P. Williams and Joseph Whiting, both clergymen. By 1845 the Reverend Andrew Ten Brook, three doctors of medicine, and a tutor in Latin and Greek had been added. Three of the five principals of the branches (see Part I: Branches) were clergymen. In the next two years the Reverend Daniel D. Whedon and the Reverend J. Holmes Agnew were appointed, and by 1848 the Board of Visitors consisted of five clergymen. The Reverend George Duffield, D.D., was a regent and for many years had great influence and prominence in University affairs. Although the first Board of Regents did not include a clergyman, by 1852 eleven of forty-four men who had served as regents had been clergymen. Until 1852 each full resident professor in turn was expected to serve for a year as president of the faculty. Thus, Professors Whiting, Williams, Ten Brook, Whedon, and Agnew, all clergymen, had held this office. Dr. Tappan, the University's first President, and his successor, President Haven, continued the clerical succession.

The University early recognized its responsibility for the "morals of its students" and required them to attend prayers daily in the College chapel. The first Catalogue (1843-44) announced: "Every student is required to attend public worship on the Sabbath, at such one of the Churches in the village of Ann Arbor, as his parent or guardian may direct." In his plan for the "Organization of the University" President Tappan said:

In the University, it is designed to organize all the Faculties with the exception of the Theological, which will be left to the different denominations. It is hoped, however, that schools of Theology will be established at Ann Arbor. In some departments of Theological science it may be possible for the different denominations to unite in establishing common professorships. In others they will naturally choose to have separate professorships.


(Cat., 1854-55, p. 24.)
Page  1886This statement continued to appear in successive catalogues until 1863. Other members of the faculty, notably Professors Boise, Ford, Frieze, Palmer, Olney, and later, President Angell and Charles Kendall Adams, were greatly interested in and gave strong support to the religious life of the University and to those organizations fostering religion.

From the early days of the University a student-conducted Sunday morning prayer meeting was held in the old chapel. In 1845 the Union Society of Missionary Inquiry was founded with a three-fold purpose: to study the condition of the heathen, to give the seniors a chance to spread themselves, to place the young ladies of Ann Arbor under religious influence (Monthly Bull., March 11, 1898, pp. 19-21).

Professor Ten Brook remembers the founding in this way:

It was, I think, during the college year 1846-47 that a representative of the students, Mr. T. R. Chase of the class of 1849 called on me for counsel in regard to the organization of a society with a religious purpose among the students of the University; and in reply to his questions I outlined to him the constitution of the Society for Missionary Inquiry then existing at Madison University. This was the society the researches and spirit of whose members had long been so fruitful in supplying missionaries for both the foreign and home field[s], the former from that branch of the body known as the Eastern Association, while another division called the Western Association was made up of men destined to our Western frontier settlements.


(Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 47 [1941]: 145.)
As a result of the interview an organization with the general name of the Society of Inquiry was established.

In the beginning the organization was vigorous and Christian, but by 1856-57 the monthly meetings were devoted to "papers on geographical, historical, ethnological, and similar subjects. These were given at times in a flippant way and by persons irreligious and even immoral." Some students became "pained and disgusted at what seemed to them to be a travesty upon religious subjects and withdrew from the society" (Spence, MS, p. 2). The offices of the organization became the spoils of college politics, and the society expired in the fall of 1857.

Those who had been dissatisfied with the Society of Inquiry met frequently for prayer and conference in the home of Mrs. Elizabeth K. Spence, whose sons, Adam K. and Edwin A., were among the interested students. Mrs. Spence told them about a new organization, the Young Men's Christian Association, which was active in several cities in the development of Christian faith and character. A committee was formed, and the organization of the Young Men's Christian Association was completed in January, 1858. Adam K. Spence, later a professor at the University, was its first president.

The Michigan association was perhaps the first college Y.M.C.A. in the country, though there is a possibility that a student Y.M.C.A. was formed at Cumberland University before January, 1858. The Virginia group, founded in October, 1858, however, affiliated with the national organization and has remained in that relationship throughout its history, while the Michigan Association, though related from time to time with the national Y.M.C.A., has only occasionally conformed to the "Y" pattern.

The Peninsular Phoenix for January, 1858, records the event: "The Missionary Society of Inquiry has been dissolved by mutual consent of its members, and a new organization effected … having in view nearly the same general purpose on a more extensive plan. The procuring of a room to be delivered to their use, and the collecting of a library of religious Page  1887books are among the very praiseworthy contemplations of this society." In the same account the first program of the organization is described: "An address is to be delivered every fourth Sabbath by one of its members at some one of the churches in town. The first of these given was at the Congregational Church on December 20, 1857 by Henry A. Humphrey" (Penin. Phoenix, Jan., 1858, p. 17). Additional programs included Sunday morning religious meetings and student-led prayer meetings and discussions.

The early meetings of the Association were held in a room on the third floor in the South Wing of University Hall. It was in this room that Professor C. Ford proposed the organization of the Christian Library Association to which he later gave a generous collection of books. For many years after its establishment in May, 1858, in the University Catalogue its purpose is stated: "[To procure] by donation, and purchase without expense to the University, a Free Circulating Library of moral and religious works, for the use of all members of the University." The library, which eventually included about 1,500 volumes, later became part of the S.C.A. library.

In 1859-60 a new constitution was written in which the name of the organization was changed to Students' Christian Association (Constitution [of] Oct. 1859. In Minute Book, 1860-69). Agitation for the admission of women to the University began in the 1850's, and in 1858 the Regents appointed a committee to study the matter. Although the first woman, Madelon Louisa Stock-well, was not admitted until 1870 the daughters of some of the professors are believed to have attended classes before that time. The leaders of the Y.M.C.A. had expressed themselves in favor of the admission of women and seem to have changed the name of their organization, both as a means of giving emphasis to their position and in order to be prepared in the event that women students were to appear on the campus. When, in 1870, the Misses Hemingway, Knight, Hapgood, and Hall became members of the S.C.A. they were welcomed as "Christian and beloved brethren of this Association" (Chronicle, 2, Nov. 5, 1870). Four years later, the feminine contingent became a real influence as it was joined by Miss Maria Mosher who, in 1896, was to become the first Dean of Women at the University, Miss Alice Freeman (Mrs. George Herbert Palmer, later president of Wellesley College), and the Misses Mary Marston, Andrews, and Case.

With the appointment of Dr. Haven, later bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as President of the University in 1863, great impetus was given to the Student Christian Association. A room was provided and comfortably fitted out on the first floor of the South Wing, and although far too small for the purpose this remained the home of the Association for many years. After the Civil War a period of great activity occurred in the history of the Association. A "Historical Sketch of the S.C.A.," written in 1898 by Professor Martin L. D'Ooge, a former clergyman and vigorous supporter of the Association, contributed greatly to the knowledge of the first forty years of its life.

The Association first became affiliated with the national Y.M.C.A. movement in 1866. Professor Spence, as a delegate to the national conferences, was a leader in the effort to gain full status and recognition for college groups, an effort which was finally successful in 1870 (Shedd, pp. 113-16).

In the same year, 1866, students in the professional schools began to participate in the program, and for many years the elaborate structure of the group included vice-presidents from the Literary, Medical, Page  1888Law, Engineering, Pharmacy, Homeopathic, and Dental departments, in addition to the president, a vice-president for men and another for women, a secretary, a treasurer, and, after 1880, a managing editor and business manager for the Monthly Bulletin. The Association was controlled and directed by the students, with the faculty taking active part. As its purpose became increasingly evangelistic, a third constitution, dated 1864, moved the organization farther away from its earlier literary and academic purpose. The new program included the making of "a united effort for their own religious improvement and the welfare of others."

Although the admission of women in 1870 gave fresh impetus to the organization, their presence also brought new problems. Four women represented the Michigan Student Christian Association at the state Y.M.C.A. convention of 1883. Soon thereafter, Mr. L. D. Wishard, the international secretary of the Y.M.C.A., visited Ann Arbor, hoping to persuade the students in the local group to join the national Y.M.C.A. He met with the groups separately, and the women agreed to "set the men free" for the greater benefits of the state and national relationship with the Y.M.C.A., which could not be continued if the group operated on a coeducational basis. The men were unwilling, however, and it was also feared that the women were too few to support a separate organization. Both students and faculty urged that the S.C.A. continue coeducationally, with separate committees for special occasions. Repeated appeals from the national office met with no success over the next twelve years.

In the meantime, the organization flourished. There was no Michigan Union, no Michigan League, no dean of men, nor dean of women, no counselors in religion nor workers with foreign students. The S.C.A. was the most active student organization on the campus, and it extended its work into all departments of the University. According to the Bulletin of March, 1889, the program included the following weekly meetings:

  • Sunday — University Chapel, 9:15 to 10:15 a.m.; University Hospital, 2:15 to 3:00 p.m.; Homeopathic Hospital, 2:30 to 3:15 p.m.; Bible Classes, 12; Pharmaceutical Department Prayer Meeting, 2:30 to 3:00 p.m.
  • Monday — Literary Department, Freshman Class Prayer Meeting. Sophomore Class Prayer Meeting in Alpha Nu Hall. Junior Class Prayer Meeting in Adelphi Hall.
  • Tuesday — Law Department Prayer Meeting. Homeopathic Prayer Meeting in Adelphi Hall, 6:45 to 7:15 p.m.
  • Wednesday — General Association Prayer Meeting. Business meeting following.
  • Thursday — Medical Department Prayer Meeting. Dental Department Prayer Meeting in Alpha Nu Hall.
  • Friday — Special meetings.

In addition to meetings on the campus, S.C.A. students led religious meetings for hospital patients and residents in the County Home, and later, they addressed meetings in other towns and cities.

The outstanding occasion of the year was the annual address delivered in University Hall on a Sunday evening by one of the country's prominent religious leaders. The churches of the city joined with the Association in this meeting. A large audience also responded to the weekly Sunday morning service, held in the University Chapel, and usually addressed by some member of the faculty. The first address each year was given by President Angell, whose welcoming words and wise counsel were not soon forgotten by those who heard him. Other addresses, such as one by Professor Henry S. Frieze, in 1889, on the "Restoration of Church Unity," made a deep impression on the students.

Page  1889The S.C.A. Monthly Bulletin, first published in 1880, enjoyed a vigorous life for more than twenty years. It contained religious and devotional materials, articles, poems, news, and reports of addresses. In 1897 it became the weekly paper of the University. The last known issue is dated April 25, 1902. During one period more than a thousand copies of the Bulletin were printed each month for campus distribution (Mich. Alum., 4 [1897-98]:303).

In the expanding University, many needs, first seen and met by the S.C.A., were later to become official services of the University of functions of other student organizations. The forerunner of the present Orientation Week was the New Students' Social, which was attended by great numbers and attempted to introduce new students to the life of the University. A new Students' Handbook, a guide to the campus and to Ann Arbor published annually from 1886 to 1937 by the S.C.A., was continued for several more years under the Student Religious Association. It became known as the "Freshman Bible," and the twenty-fourth edition, in 1909, was distributed to more than 5,000 students.

The Employment Bureau, also begun in 1886, was an important part of the program for thirty-five years, and at its peak in 1919-20, 2,414 jobs with a value of $95,400, were found for more than 600 students. In his 1907 report to the Regents, President Angell said: "The Students' Christian Association has of late years rendered great service to our students by assisting the newcomers in finding … employment, by which they may earn enough to pay a portion of their expenses. During the last year they aided in finding employment for 595 persons."

In those days most out-of-town students came by train, and all were met by S.C.A. members. In 1879 and after, the prestige of the Association was further enhanced by its work in finding rooms for students; more than 2,000 rooms were listed in 1909. In the same year the S.C.A. began the custom of keeping a card directory of all students; this later became the Student Directory. Sex hygiene lectures were given each year for new men students.

At the quarter-centennial celebration of the Association in 1883, the need for more adequate facilities was expressed, and an urgent appeal was made for a building fund. The membership had grown to more than three hundred in that year. Various church bodies adopted resolutions favoring the move, and a sketch was made of a modest one-story structure. In 1886 William H. Walker ('87) raised an initial fund, and the next year Alfred E. Jennings ('89) took over the campaign that resulted in a new and enlarged building plan. President Angell laid the cornerstone on May 26, 1888, and the remaining funds were collected in time for the dedication, free from debt, on Sunday, June 21, 1891, of Newberry Hall. The building was named in honor of Judge John S. Newberry ('47) whose widow, Mrs. Helen H. Newberry, had given $18,000 of the total cost of $40,000. The lot, directly across State Street from University Hall, had been purchased a few years earlier for $2,500, donated by faculty, students, and Ann Arbor residents.

Shortly after the dedication President Angell stated: "I desire to commend most heartily the endowment of the Students' Christian Association. For more than forty years it has been the chief organization through which religious work among the students has been carried on. Its aim is to care for your sons and daughters. Its work has become so large that it greatly needs some permanent endowment" (Letter, MS, sent over Dr. Angell's signature in campaign of 1891-93). Such an endowment was never found, and the lack of it was a Page  1890major source of difficulty during the later years of the organization.

One of the great student enthusiasms of the nineteenth century was Christian foreign missions. The S.C.A. grew increasingly interested until, in 1882, the Mission[ary] Band was formed. In 1889 the S.C.A. subscribed $850 to send its own missionary, Dr. James S. Grant ('89m), who had been medical vice-president of the Association. Arrangements were made which supported his work in China for many years. Later, Oscar Roberts and his wife went out as S.C.A. missionaries to Africa. Other projects were supported in Turkey. The Mission[ary] Band eventually affiliated with the national Student Volunteer Movement.

In 1896 the Bulletin published a list of seventeen who were looking forward to life service in foreign missions. President Angell, in 1901, gave the names of sixty-five graduates of the University, most of them from the Medical Department, who had served as foreign missionaries.

In 1910 Charles F. Shaw ('11e), offered to give $10,000 and his services for engineering work in Basra in the Persian Gulf if the S.C.A. would send a doctor with him. The students enthusiastically accepted the offer, and, in 1911, Dr. Hall G. Van Vlack ('10m) and his wife sailed, to be followed two years later by Miss Minnie Holzhauer, a graduate of the Nursing School (Michigan Daily, April 15, 19, 1915). Much of the story is told on scattered pieces of letterhead which reads, "Michigan in Arabia — An Industrial and Medical Mission in Busrah, Arabia — Supported by Students, Alumni and Faculty of the University of Michigan — Under the Auspices of the Students' Christian Association of the University of Michigan — Busrah, Persian Gulf." Schools were begun, providing the foundation for a school system to include higher education, a hospital was built, public health instruction was taken over, and construction was begun on a warehouse and a block of shops (The Busrah Mission, Correspondence file, M.H.C.).

The students contributed almost $12,000 during the first five years (Mich. Alum., 22 [1915-16]: 342). By 1916 World War I had forced Shaw to leave Basra, and Van Vlack's letters record a tragedy of war and plague and of an American doctor with no funds either to continue his work or to come home (Correspondence, Van Vlack to W. H. Tinker, 1916). The source of support — student interest in the mission project — had been pre-empted by the tense international situation and by the financial requirements of a new building. Student missionary interest at Michigan was strong and vital but relatively shortlived as compared with the efforts at other universities (Vincent, MS).

In 1885 a Ministerial Band was formed, patterned after the Mission[ary] Band — its purpose to secure greater personal consecration to the Christian ministry and to arouse a deeper interest in its calling. It was vigorous and active for many years and was later called the Divinity Band.

The continuing efforts of the national Y.M.C.A. to divide the S.C.A. in order to establish a Y.M.C.A. and a Y.W.C.A. bore some fruit in 1895, when a small group of men was stimulated by John R. Mott to build their own organization (Mich. Alum., 1 [1894-95]:106-7). Two years later, however, a proposal that the S.C.A. become the parent organization, with separate branches for men and women, was defeated, and in 1901 a University Y.W.C.A. was formed. All three organizations flourished for a time, and it may have been wise to divide the work since the S.C.A. structure had become increasingly complex and the membership Page  1891had grown to more than a thousand. At that time it was the largest college association in the country.

Financial problems, already acute, since no endowment had been found to provide for the maintenance of Newberry Hall and its staff, were increased as three Christian associations looked to the same sources for funds. Therefore, in November, 1904, the 1897 plan was adopted. The S.C.A. became the parent organization which held the property. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. became the program groups, with the women centering their work in Newberry Hall and the men renting quarters from the Presbyterians in Sackett and MacMillan halls.

The work prospered, but a gradual change in emphasis can be noted in contemporary accounts. During the first forty years many service activities were developed, but the primary program emphasis was on the chapel services, Bible study, and addresses by religious leaders. After the merging of the three groups, the prayer meetings, the chapel services, and the Monthly Bulletin, which for most of its life had been a religious journal, were discontinued. While the weekly Sunday service was still well-attended, the major share of effort was put into the Freshman Handbook, the rooming agency, the employment bureau, the Student Directory, sex hygiene lectures, and other secular projects. The unique function of the Christian Association was no longer the heart of its program.

The vitality of the organization, however, necessitated enlarged facilities. Sackett and MacMillan halls were too small and were soon to be reclaimed by their Presbyterian owners. A lot was purchased on the corner of State and Washington streets in 1909, and for a few years the inadequate space provided by a house on the premises was supplemented during the first weeks of the fall semester by a large tent.

The move toward a new building was not without its hazards. In 1911 accusations by a local minister and a faculty member received much publicity. They charged that the Y.M.C.A. was conflicting with church activities, that it taught a theology not in accord with modern scholarship, that its officers influenced new students to avoid certain courses and professors, and that its program and projected clubhouse were in direct conflict with the newly constructed and organized Michigan Union (Michigan Daily, Nov. 29, 1911). Amid noisy conjecture the "Y" leaders and the local ministry quietly solved their difficulties by rescheduling "Y" meetings and by co-ordinating the work of the Y.M.C.A. with the work of the various churches.

The prominence of the dispute had aroused student discussion concerning the importance of the "Y." The old feeling that the national Y.M.C.A. had forced itself upon the campus was revived with the charge that the local group was not student-controlled, and, for the first time, Y.M.C.A. sponsorship of the many campus services was questioned. "Y" officials stated that the new building would house religious activities and that it would not duplicate the facilities of the Union, but because the program included many service functions and relatively few which were primarily religious in character, people were not convinced. The issue was widely debated, and while it had no immediate effect upon the program, it can now be seen as the first hint that the strength of the Y.M.C.A. had passed its peak at Michigan.

A campaign for building funds was carried on in 1915 under the leadership of Wellington H. Tinker, general secretary of the local Y.M.C.A. John R. Page  1892Mott, head of the international organization, provided much support, referring to the campus group as the "oldest, the largest, and the strongest of any student Christian Association, not only in America, but in the world" (Letter, Mott to Tinker, Jan. 12, 1912). With Dr. Mott's help Tinker obtained a subscription of $60,000 from John D. Rockefeller on the condition that this amount be matched from other sources within a specified time. A total of $128,000 was raised, and, after delays caused by wartime shortages and further assurances that there would be no conflict with "the broader functions of the Union," the building was opened on March 2, 1917. It was named Lane Hall in honor of Judge Victor H. Lane, Professor of Law, who had served as president of the Association and as chairman of the Y.M.C.A. Board of Trustees. Women were soon included in the program. Newberry Hall was vacated and rented to the University, thus providing the Association's major source of income for several years.

Preceding a postwar decline from which the organization never recovered, the peak year for the Association was 1915-16. Thirty-five hundred handbooks were distributed, 1,500 letters were sent to prefreshmen, 3,493 jobs were secured for students, and the sex hygiene lectures were sponsored for all men. Bible classes and other religious meetings were held regularly; 803 new members were added; twenty-one deputations were sent to fifteen nearby communities; delegations attended state and national conferences; and $2,800 was raised for the Busrah Mission project. New projects included the book exchange and English Language classes for foreign students, the former now operated by the Student Government Council and the latter by the English Language Institute.

Work with foreign students on the Michigan campus was inaugurated by the S.C.A. as it conducted language classes, welcomed and housed the Cosmopolitan Club, which included students from all lands, provided office space for national clubs as they organized, and gave a Thanksgiving Dinner for foreign students in the Union Ballroom. The first campus directory of foreign students was also compiled by the S.C.A. At the end of World War I and in the years immediately following, three major influences upon the program of the Association were the increasing importance of the churches in student religious activity, the degree to which the service functions of the S.C.A. were taken over by the Michigan Union, the League, and the University, and the effects of the war itself.

The churches had recognized their responsibility for their students at an early date. By 1891 student guilds had been established by the Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Congregational, Unitarian, and Roman Catholic churches. The earliest work was established by the Methodist Church in 1879. Several had their own buildings for student work, including the Methodist Stalker Hall, the Presbyterian Sackett and MacMillan halls, and the Episcopal Hobart Hall, later to be known as Harris Hall in recognition of the service which Bishop Harris had rendered to the student work of the church. It was not until 1911, as already mentioned, that a feeling of competition between the churches and the S.C.A. became evident, and this was soon resolved. The church groups, which grew rapidly after the war, began to look to the S.C.A. as the clearing house for religious activity on the campus.

Wellington H. Tinker, whose tenure as general secretary had included the peak program years of 1912-16, the rise and decline of the Busrah Mission, and the building of Lane Hall, resigned in 1917, and the Association was left without Page  1893adequate professional leadership. During the war Lane Hall was turned over to the Y.M.C.A. International Committee to provide "Y" facilities and program for military trainees on the campus, thus breaking the continuity of the campus Association. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. ceased to exist, and the properties and program responsibility were turned back to the S.C.A. Thomas St. Clair Evans, who had successfully worked out systems in which the work of the churches was co-ordinated with S.C.A. activity at Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania, was brought to Ann Arbor as S.C.A. secretary. In 1919 Evans arranged for the ministers who worked with students to have offices in Lane Hall and to form, with him, a board responsible for conducting religious work among students. In 1920 Evans encountered mounting student opposition to the nonstudent control of religious affairs, but it was his position that the S.C.A. was there to serve the churches rather than to be the expression of student interest in religion. Student interest lagged, however, and the pastors decided to conduct work from their own buildings. Thus, the S.C.A. was left to find its place in a campus situation in which its uniqueness as the major campus religious organization had been irretrievably lost.

Evans changed the name of the Association from Students' Christian Association to Student Christian Association, perhaps because the possessive form was no longer applicable. To bolster sagging interest, campus-wide elections were held for S.C.A. offices, but this served only to recruit officers with little personal interest in the purposes of the organization. During this period Orientation Week had replaced the S.C.A. welcome to freshmen, the Student Directory was taken over as a student publication, the rooming list and employment bureau went to the Office of Student Affairs, and the "Y" social events were replaced by the Union and League parties. At least two of the church groups and certain discontented students were not in agreement with Evans and his plan to place the S.C.A. under the control of the denominational interests.

The coming of President Burton in 1920 gave impetus to a desire for student initiative and control. Evans resigned in 1921, and the next two years saw little activity because of the all-campus election of officers and the lack of professional program assistance. In 1923 Harold C. Coffman was appointed as general secretary, and with the help of President Burton he was able to wipe out the debt, which had reached $48,000. President Burton died just as the new program was getting under way. His successor, President Little, attempted to return the Association to the students, with no secretary, no property, and no debt. This plan elicited little enthusiasm from the students. For ten years the burden of debt had been too heavy for them. The attempt, under Evans, to merge the student work budget of the S.C.A. with that of the churches had resulted in loss of control to the churches. In the same way aid from the administration was given with every good intention, but with no student voice in determining the pattern. Student workers became few, and those who remained tried to find activities in student life to justify continuance of their work. They had some success but popular response was meager.

Certain important events stand out in sharp contrast against the general decline of interest and activity. Monthly religious meetings were held in Hill Auditorium in 1921-24 before the largest college audiences in the country. One of the most useful activities begun by the S.C.A. was the Fresh Air Camp, conceived in 1919 by Evans and Lewis C. Page  1894Reimann ('16), with the first camp conducted at a temporary site in 1921. Students and officers of the S.C.A. acted as big brothers to 130 neglected boys. It is a far move from that first camp in rented tents to the present-day permanent camp on Patterson Lake, with comfortable cottages and halls erected by the generosity of numerous friends. The camp is now operated by the University for the benefit of underprivileged boys and the training of students who combine a summer of counseling with a directed learning experience.

Freshman Rendezvous was begun in 1925. More than 150 prospective freshmen considered most promising for future leadership spent three days preceding Orientation Week at the Fresh Air Camp. Older students, graduates of past Rendezvous camps, acted as counselors, while the President of the University, various professors, and others participated in the program. The purpose was to impress upon this select group ideas and ideals deemed most helpful to them in making their influence upon the life of the University a constructive one. Rendezvous, which is open to all students as an introduction to the religious resources of the campus, is now conducted on a coeducational and recreational basis under the sponsorship of the Office of Religious Affairs, with the cooperation of other campus organizations.

The financial problem became more acute as the program no longer attracted subscriptions to the budget and as the depression approached. Homer C. Grafton, who had succeeded Coffman as secretary, resigned in 1929, and no successor was appointed. A student request for a secretary was rejected by the Board of Trustees in 1932 because of lack of funds, and the S.C.A., without full-time professional assistance, continued until its demise in 1937. The sale of Lane Hall was authorized in 1928, but never consummated.

Perhaps the greatest religious influence upon the lives of Michigan men from 1914 to 1932 was the Upper Room Bible Class, conducted every Saturday evening from seven to eight by Dr. Thomas M. Iden, affectionately called "Father Iden." During that period as many as a thousand men a year sat under his instruction. He was the author-editor of the Upper Room Bulletin, used by Bible classes in many other universities. In 1925 those who had participated in his classes subscribed $5,000 to send him around the world. His letters from many countries were collected and published upon his return. Later, subscriptions were raised to have his portrait painted; this now hangs in the Lane Hall library.

With the appointment of President Alexander Ruthven, in 1929, a different concept of the relationship between religion and higher education was introduced. In Ruthven's opinion a state university, which could not afford to be sectarian, could not, on the other hand, afford to neglect religion. In 1933, $2,500 was donated by the Earhart Foundation for the purpose of creating the position of Counselor in Religious Education (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 269-70). Additional money was added from other funds, and Dr. Edward W. Blakeman was appointed to the position. His responsibilities were to help the University to understand the religious problems of the student and to improve the facilities for his spiritual development, to be available daily for counsel, and to serve as mediator between the University and the various religious agencies and as adviser to the University on religious affairs. Among the developments of his office were the Student Parley — an annual week-end conference in which students and faculty exchange views, a conference in religion, in which outstanding religious leaders were brought together each summer, and the degree program in religion and ethics: The Page  1895University-sponsored activities supplemented the voluntary religious activity of the Christian Association.

It was apparent, however, that the S.C.A. could not continue to finance a program. Therefore, in 1936, the trustees of the Association transferred Newberry Hall and Lane Hall to the University without stipulation as to their future use but with the expressed hope that Lane Hall "may serve the purpose for which it was originally intended, that is, a center of religious study and activities for all students in the University" (R.P., 1936-39, p. 118). At the same time the Regents agreed to assume the responsibility for a program that would "tend to encourage student interest and study in the broader aspects of religious education and properly co-ordinated student activities in religious and allied fields." The activities of the Student Christian Association were turned over to a Board of Governors of Lane Hall, and the Student Religious Association was organized as a University-sponsored student program designed to include students of all faiths.

The Student Christian Association had spanned eighty years in the life of the University. It had grown from a small band of twelve to become the largest, possibly the oldest, college Christian Association in the world, and was unequaled as an example of student initiative and enterprise. Under its auspices were begun many projects now recognized as essential services of the University. It was inevitable that it could not remain the one major campus organization, even in the field of religion, in the face of great University expansion and decentralization. In the end it was its great success which caused it to assume financial burdens that it could not carry without an endowment which was never found. The independence which permitted it to be so creative in response to the needs of a growing and changing campus deprived it of the support and continuity to be gained from national and international affiliation. Thus, in January, 1937, eighty years from the month of its founding, the Students' Christian Association transferred its properties and its responsibility for the religious education of students to the University of Michigan.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angell, James B. Letters sent during building campaign for Newberry Hall, in 1891-93. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Annual Report, Students' Christian Association, 1916.
Bald, F. Clever. Letter to Walter Kayuski, Feb. 3, 1950.
Blakeman, Edward W. MS, "A Dynamic Michigan in Post-War Years." Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Busrah Mission, Letters from Hall G. Van Vlack to Wellington Tinker, 1915-16. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1843-55.
The Chronicle, II: 4.
D'Ooge, Martin L."On the Occasion of the Fortieth Anniversary of the Student Christian Association."Monthly Bull., 1880-1926.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
Goddard, E. C. MS, "The Students' Christian Association." Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Iden, Thomas M.Upper Room Letters from Many Lands. Ann Arbor: George Wahr Publ. Co., 1925.
Likert, Rensis, MS, I, SRA.
"M" Handbook, 1890-1926.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-44 (1894-1938).
The Michigan Daily, Nov. 29, 1911; Dec. 20, 1911. Supplement, April 15, 19, 1915.
Minute Book, Students' Christian Association, 1860-69; 1927-37.
The Monthly Bulletin, Vols. 4-19.
Page  1896Mott, John R. Letter to Wellington Tinker, Jan. 12, 1912. In S.C.A. Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
The Peninsular Phoenix, Vols. 1, 4, 6, Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1907-37.
Ruthven, Alexander G. Letter to Emory J. Hyde, Dec. 18, 1936. In Student Christian Association Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Shedd, Clarence Prouty. Two Centuries of Student Christian Movements. New York.
Spence, Adam Knight. MS. "A History of the Young Men's Christian Association at the University of Michigan." In Student Christian Association Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Spence, Mary Elizabeth. Letter to Walter Kayuski, April 20, 1948. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Ten Brook, Andrew. American State Universities, Their Origin and Progress. Cincinnati: R. Clarke and Co., 1875. Association Press, 1934.
Vincent, Lena. MS, "A Call from the Tents of Kedar." Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.

THE STUDENT RELIGIOUS ASSOCIATION

FROM the establishment of the Student Christian Association in 1858, the interest of the University in the religious life of the students was evident. Presidents Tappan and Haven provided University rooms for the organization and often addressed the student body at chapel and at other religious meetings. President Angell was active in soliciting funds for the building of Newberry Hall and later in seeking endowment for the Association. In recognition of services rendered the University, the Regents, in 1911, voted an annual payment to the Association of $500 (R.P., 1910-14, p. 267).

Both President Burton and his successor, President Little, had plans for saving the Association, when a depleted program, diminishing student interest, and lack of adequate endowment began to threaten its life. President Burton had been instrumental in wiping out a debt of $48,000 and in bringing about the appointment of a new general secretary, while President Little hoped to rebuild the organization by giving it back to the students in its entirety.

In 1934 President Ruthven created the position of Counselor in Religious Education as an expression of his belief that the University's concern for religion must be expressed within the educational scope of the University. Against this backdrop of assured administrative interest, the Student Christian Association trustees suggested that Lane Hall and Newberry Hall be transferred to the University and that the University accept responsibility for a student religious program. The transfer of properties took place in December, 1936 (R.P., 1936-39, p. 118). In March, 1937, a Board of Governors for the Student Christian Association was established, consisting of Dr. Raphael Isaacs, Professors Howard McClusky, William McLaughlin, Ferdinand Menefee, and Erich Walter, and alumni members Emory J. Hyde and James Inglis (R.P., 1936-39, p. 200). The name of the Student Christian Association was changed to Student Religious Association in May, 1937, in recognition of the fact that University sponsorship required the inclusion of all religions. From the first, the Board of Governors, which included two student members, represented the Catholic, the Protestant, and the Jewish faiths.

The constitution of the new Student Religious Association was approved by the Regents in July, 1937. The purpose of the Association was "to assist the student in recognizing the place of religion Page  1897in life; to help him in facing the real issues of the modern world; to counsel with him in developing a worthy sense of values; and to form such relationships with the religious forces represented in Ann Arbor as … contribute to the realization of these themes." The members of the Association included all who were interested.

It was clear from the beginning that no attempt would be made to establish a University church and that the work of the counselor in religious education, as well as curricular offerings in religion, was to be outside the jurisdiction of the Board of Governors.

When Kenneth W. Morgan was appointed, in 1937, as the first director of the Student Religious Association, the maintenance of the building had been a financial problem for many years. With a few students who had expressed an interest in the program, he began to work. The list of program activities in 1937-39 was an impressive one. As many as eighteen speakers were brought to the campus for lectures. A book-review group, music groups, and a choir were formed. A freshman Round Table, a Saturday luncheon discussion group, and special-interest groups, including one on anti-Semitism, were a part of the program. In addition, there were work holidays, a toy-lending library, the health service visit plan, student deputations to outlying communities, and the Bureau of Student Opinion, which played a large part in sampling student opinion at that time. Activities carried over from the days of the S.C.A. included the Freshman Handbook and Freshman Rendezvous, which in 1941 became a coeducational religious conference rather than the social orientation program for men, which it had been.

Perhaps the major event during the first two years was the series of lectures on "The Existence and Nature of God," given by Lord Bertrand Russell, Monsignor Fulton Sheen, and Dr. Reinhold Niebuhr. Attendance at these lectures ranged from 1,500 to 2,500.

The importance of the program under Morgan, however, lay in the philosophy of student work which he established and which has been followed by his successors. He believed strongly in the use of small groups in which all the members could participate. His methods included seminars, conferences, and personal counseling as well as lectures and the development of friendly relations with the local churches. Lane Hall, under his direction, became one of the most intellectually stimulating places on the campus.

It was not the purpose of the University at this time to encourage co-operation between religious groups, but to aid them in their work and to supplement it wherever possible. Morgan found that the work with Roman Catholic students was well established in its own center. Archbishop Mooney expressed a real interest in the University's program and a friendly relationship was established. The Jewish work was also in good hands. The Hillel Foundation building was inadequate, however, and so the facilities of Lane Hall were made available to the Jewish students for some of their activities. Several members of Hillel participated in the study of anti-Semitism carried on by the S.R.A., and Dr. Isaac Rabinovitz, Director of Hillel, led discussions in Lane Hall. Relations between Hillel and the Student Religious Association were most co-operative.

The development of the work with Protestant students paralleled to some extent that of the Catholics and the Jews. Some of the Protestant groups, although well equipped with buildings were not yet well staffed. This indicated that there was little co-operation among the Protestant groups. Morgan sought Page  1898to establish a co-operative relationship among them — because of the values in such co-operation and because it was not possible to have communication between Catholics, Protestants, and Jews until the Protestants had reached a point in their mutual development in which there could be a "Protestant" contribution.

Thus, the effort during the early years of the program consisted of making contributions to the religious organizations according to their various needs rather than attempting to build up a large degree of interreligious co-operation. The Inter-Guild Council was organized in November, 1937, as a council of Protestant student religious organizations. Inter-Guild conferences, held in the spring and fall, did much to improve relationships among the churches and between the University and the churches.

While the Inter-Guild Council operated as a student co-operative effort, in 1938, at Morgan's invitation, regular meetings of the Protestant ministers who worked with students were held. In February, 1939, an Advisory Board was formed, consisting of the Protestant ministers to students, the Catholic priests, the director of Hillel Foundation, and a layman from each of these organizations. This group met with the Board of Governors periodically to discuss the religious problems of the University and to clarify relationships between the University and the local religious groups. Co-operation was also maintained with the Christian Science student organization and with the local chapter of the Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, both of which met regularly at Lane Hall.

The problem of defining a state university's responsibility for campus religious affairs was ever present, and policy decisions had to be made without precedent from other campus situations. It was discovered, for example, that the S.R.A. could not maintain a contributing membership in the national Y.M.C.A., although this relationship made an important contribution to the work carried on in Lane Hall (Minutes of the Board of Governors [Minute Book], March, 1938). It was also decided that while a University building such as Lane Hall could be used by any of the religious groups for their own meetings, it would not be suitable for one group to hold a public meeting in the building strictly for the presentation of its own sectarian point of view.

World War II brought new problems. The program was continued insofar as possible with changes only where they proved to be necessary. Additional services were provided for the men in service and for those victims of the war who were in need of relief.

In the spring of 1942 Morgan resigned to serve in civilian public service, and the Regents decided that his position could not be filled at that time. An Advisory Board of students, faculty, and a member of the Board of Governors was appointed to work with Dr. Blakeman as adviser in directing the program of the Association. In reviewing his five years at the University, Morgan observed that in 1937 few girls had participated in S.R.A. activities, but by 1942 they were taking a natural place in the program, and although the number remained small, an increasing number of foreign students was noticeable. While the question of pacifism arose as a result of the war situation, this did not prove to be serious. The Board of Governors announced that the policy of the Student Religious Association would continue to be what it always had been — to encourage the discussion of any problem from the point of view of religion and that the discussion of moral and ethical views of the war was to be encouraged. The freedom with which such "unpopular" subjects was discussed, however, in such insecure times, contributed significantly to Page  1899the loss of Lane Hall's popularity as a center for student activity.

In November, 1942, William Muehl, a student in the Law School, and once S.R.A. president, was appointed as part-time acting Director. The significance of the work under Muehl's direction lay in two areas. While the program during the war was limited, still, with student aid, it was carried out. Moreover, with President Ruthven's support, Lane Hall was maintained as the religious center of the University when it might well have been taken over for war activities. The work, of course, was complicated by uncertainty concerning the future of the program and the various exigencies of the wartime situation. Student interest turned to some extent to more glamorous and patriotic activities and to the social aspects of the program rather than toward discussional activities concerned with attitudes and beliefs.

While the war resulted in a limited program, it also brought some significant advances in interreligious relationships. In March, 1943, a committee including the counselor in religious education, one rabbi, one priest, two Protestant ministers, and the director of the Association, was appointed to perform liaison duties between the military and the civic agencies — in this case the University and the churches. Thus began an experience in interreligious co-operation which was to mean much in the future development of interaction between the faiths.

The Board of Governors, in 1944, defined the position of the director as follows: (1) he was to be responsible for the organization and policy and for annual reports to the Board, (2) he was … free to discuss economic and religious problems within the Association although the emphasis was to be upon religion, (3) there was to be no attempt to win students from other religious groups, but to provide a program for the unchurched as well as for those affiliated with denominations, (4) the director would be available for counseling, and (5) he would not be concerned with promoting a large membership, but in providing a program in which students of various religious preferences would find something of interest.

Franklin H. Littell, who was appointed Director in 1944, faced many problems. For example Lane Hall was used by a number of nonreligious groups which had been moved into the building during the war. Littell established a policy which gave priority to student religious organizations, other recognized student groups receiving secondary consideration. While the early relationship with denominational organizations had been one in which the University provided services to them, a feeling of competition between University-sponsored work and the church-sponsored groups had arisen. Littell believed that students who did not belong to church groups should be provided for, but he also felt that each student should find his place eventually in a particular religious community. He, too, favored a strong inter-Protestant Council for the campus. The war had destroyed some of the gains which Morgan had made with Inter-Guild, but by 1945 the Council had been enlarged and was working on its constitution. At this time Littell urged the Protestant groups to form stronger affiliations with the Catholic and Jewish groups in an interreligious program. The Campus Religious Council, which was accredited as a body related to the Student Religious Association in August, 1945, represented a co-operative effort between the priest, the rabbi, the chairman of the Protestant student directors, and the director of Lane Hall. This group discussed important issues of religion and higher education.

Further stimulus was provided in 1945 by means of a Colloquium in Religious Education, carried on over a period of Page  1900several weeks, with research people from other universities participating. As a result the Council raised three questions: (1) What can a tax-supported institution do to establish the academic status of study in the various religions? (2) What can the University do to establish the professional status of the religious counselors? (3) What services and facilities can be supplied which will serve the unchurched students and deal responsibly and in a representative fashion with the student congregations? These questions represent the primary issues which have been raised over the years concerning the relationship of the University to the organized religious groups.

Inter-Guild, which had originally been a committee of the Student Religious Association and later a semi-independent agency, held its first independent convention in May, 1945, when a constitution and budget were proposed. At this time some of the Protestant groups were still not in a position to make a contribution to co-operative-Protestant student work. Within the next few years, however, owing perhaps partly to Littell's concern with this matter, the larger Protestant groups did provide well-trained staffs for their work. One of the results of the newly organized Protestant co-operation was the appointment in December, 1946, of Mrs. Christine Chambers as Protestant Consultant to Students from Other Countries.

The program under Littell's direction was based upon three well-defined principles. The first, called "intentional fellowship," was a method of working with small groups in which equal emphasis is placed upon the purpose for which the group is gathered and the dynamics by which individual identification with the group is accomplished. The second principle stated that the purpose of Lane Hall was to supplement and to complement the primary religious communities and to help the student to find his place in one of them. According to the third, no graduate of the University would be considered properly prepared as a citizen until he had acquired some understanding of faiths other than his own and some ability to work with people of other religions.

After the war, in order to re-establish the place of Lane Hall in the minds of students and faculty, lectures and luncheons were given. The program consisted of a Christmas Carol Sing, coffee hours designed to improve faculty-student relations, receptions, luncheon discussions, religious and work groups, a magazine called Insight, weekend retreats and conferences, and seminars. Littell was concerned about the lack of relationship between religion in the curriculum and extracurricular religious activities and felt that study of religion could never be successful at Michigan unless credit could be given for it. Leadership training included the training of student officers for interreligious activity and the conduct of various student initiative groups such as the World Student's Service Fund and Town Hall. Lane Hall and the S.R.A. also assisted in the relief program, which included the World Student Service Fund, Famine Relief, and other related projects.

By 1946 the growth of the Association and its related agencies had gone far beyond the provisions of the original constitution. The constitutional revision in the spring of 1947 made a greater distinction between the Association and Lane Hall, and thus gave the students more freedom to determine their own organization. In December, 1947, the Regents passed a new bylaw recognizing Lane Hall as the center for religious study and activities and placing it under the supervision of a Board of Governors. It was the duty of this Board to carry out a program designed to encourage student interest in religious study and to maintain co-operation on behalf of the Page  1901University with off-campus religious groups. The Board was to encourage and maintain within its jurisdiction the Student Religious Association as the student organization. This group, to be governed by its own constitution, would provide opportunity for student initiative and the development of extracurricular programs in religion. The Board was also to be responsible for appointments, budgets, and general supervision of programs and facilities.

While the new bylaw was a redefinition of the existing situation, the new constitution of the Association, passed in 1948, indicated that a closer relationship was developing between the religious centers and Lane Hall. Until this time, S.R.A. had been interreligious in the sense that it was open to all, and the Council included representatives of all faiths. In 1946-47 the Association considered its function to be largely that of working with students who were not interested in any church group. The Council, however, which consisted of representatives from almost all of the organized student denominational groups, formulated the policy and determined the program for the organization (Constitution of 1948). Those who were not members of church groups were welcome to participate, but the net result seems to have been that those not affiliated with student religious groups lost interest in an organization in which they had little part in determining policy and program. The new structure of the S.R.A. did, on the other hand, establish interreligious co-operation on the student level to parallel that on the professional level.

By 1945, the student religious groups were recognized student activities, and in 1946, John Craig was appointed as the first full-time professionally trained program director. Craig was succeeded in the fall of 1948 by DeWitt C. Baldwin, who, upon Littell's resignation in April, 1949, was appointed Director of Lane Hall and of the Student Religious Association. Baldwin also believed in informal education carried out in small groups and in weekend conferences and retreats, but he also advocated placing more of the program direction and initiative in the hands of the students. The S.R.A. program seems to have lost some of its intellectual appeal after the revision.

Under Baldwin intercultural activities as a means of approaching questions of religious distinctions and differences increased. Outings and seminars in comparative religions were included in the program, and summer experiences in work camps and human relations projects, both here and abroad, were emphasized. Baldwin was also instrumental in the formation of the Council for International Living, which resulted in the first international house for men at the University.

Relief projects begun after the war were continued and enlarged to include the placement of displaced persons. Two program assistants, William Miller and C. Bushnell Olmstead, were instrumental in carrying out this part of the program, both having had previous experience in working with refugee problems and world student relief operations.

Work with the Protestant groups through Inter-Guild had been increasingly turned over to the Protestant student directors. In 1954 Inter-Guild became the University Christian Federation in a slight constitutional revision, and in 1955-56 the Protestant Student Directors reorganized and became the Christian Federation Advisers. Each group is now composed of the same organizations, with each of the federation advisers devoting time to counseling and advising the Christian Federation Council and program.

One project of the Protestant directors, the Office of the Protestant Counselor for International Students, Page  1902has become firmly established. In December, 1949, Mrs. Chambers resigned, and Miss Doris Reed was appointed in her place. Miss Reed, now Mrs. Rumman, operates under the auspices of the Protestant Foundation for International Students, which in turn is supported by the United Church Women of the state, by the Protestant churches in Ann Arbor, and by the member groups of the University Christian Federation.

In 1953-54 the staff of Lane Hall prepared the manuscript for Chapter 3 of the pamphlet, And Crown Thy Good, a manual of interreligious co-operation on the college campus, published by the National Conference of Christians and Jews.

During the time that Baldwin has been with the University, a consistent attempt has been made to define more clearly the many and varied facets of the work. The Lane Hall and S.R.A. program had developed as the result of activities centered in a specific location. To this function had gradually been added the co-ordination of religious affairs and the co-operative enterprise involving all of the religious groups of the University. With Dr. Blakeman's resignation in 1949, his duties as a religious counselor to students were transferred to the Director of Lane Hall, and shortly thereafter those student religious workers deemed qualified were recognized by the University as members of the University Board of Religious Counselors. This function was also co-ordinated by the Director of Lane Hall. It became evident that the Regents' bylaw passed in 1947 was no longer an adequate description of the duties and function of the Lane Hall staff. Some clarification had taken place in April, 1949, when the Board of Governors issued a statement defining the relationship between Lane Hall and the curricular offerings in religion. The decision was that there should be no formal administrative or financial relationship between the two though an effective working relationship was to be encouraged.

In 1954 the title of the Director of Lane Hall was changed to Co-ordinator of Religious Affairs. James A. Lewis was appointed Vice-President for Student Affairs in 1954, and Lane Hall, as one of ten student service agencies under his jurisdiction, began a full-scale evaluation and reorganization resulting in a new bylaw, adopted by the Regents in May, 1956, establishing the Office of Religious Affairs. The purpose of the new office, which replaces the Lane Hall staff and the Student Religious Association, is to encourage religious growth of the student as an important part of educating the whole person. This purpose is implemented "through creating and facilitating relationships between the University and the religious resources available to it, including those provided by the churches and religious foundations, and through a program which (1) provides services to the instructional program of the University and (2) builds attitudes which recognize religion as a valid area of intellectual inquiry and as an appropriate resource for the student's growth to responsible citizenship" (Regents' Bylaw, 31.08).

Administratively, the Office of Religious Affairs is under the direction of the co-ordinator of religious affairs, who is responsible to the vice-president for student affairs and the Board of Governors for Religious Affairs. The Board of Governors has one additional member — the presiding officer of the Association of Religious Counselors. The other exofficio members are the vice-president for student affairs and the presiding officer of the Council of Student Religious Organizations.

The Association of Religious Counselors, which includes all who work as advisers to the religious groups, has replaced the Campus Religious Council as Page  1903the interreligious council. The Council of Student Religious Organizations, made up of representatives from the organized student religious groups, has replaced the Student Religious Association Council, and provides for co-operation between the groups rather than for a program of interreligious activity. The Office of Religious Affairs emphasizes the relevance of religion to the educational process, and the effective integration of the intellectual and practical aspects of religion. It stresses the religious foundations as the primary agencies providing religious resources to the University; therefore the major emphasis is no longer upon a program of University-sponsored religious activities centered in Lane Hall, although program is seen as a necessary part of co-ordination. Freshman Rendezvous is carried on with the co-operation of Panhellenic, Inter-Fraternity Council, Inter-House Council, Assembly Association, Inter-Coop Council, and the Council of Student Religious Organizations.

To a large extent program sponsorship has been replaced by a counseling service. The program staff works with a student-faculty advisory board which is made up of representatives from the major campus organizations, graduate students, faculty members, representatives of the freshman class, representatives from the Eastern faiths, and three student members of the Board of Governors for Religious Affairs. The co-ordinator sits as a member of the Committee on Program in Religious Studies of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, working especially with the selection of speakers for lectures in religion. This represents the first formal relationship between curriculum and extracurricular religious activity.

In order to establish wider relationships among students, the Office of the Co-ordinator has been moved to the Student Activities Building. The staff, which now includes four full-time professionally trained religious counselors, has embarked upon a year of experimentation preparatory to the full implementation of the new program.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annual Report, Student Religious Association, 1941-42.
Blakeman, Edward W., Letter to William McLaughlin, March 17, 1943.
Board of Governors of Lane Hall, "Tentative Statement Concerning the Contemplated Program in Religious Courses and the Functions of the Director of Lane Hall," April 18, 1949.
Campus Religious Council, Letter to William McLaughlin, January 8, 1946.
Constitution, Christian Federation Advisers, 1955.
Constitution, Student Religious Association, July, 1937; May 10, 1948.
Constitution, University Christian Federation, 1954.
Littell, Franklin H., "A Five Year Plan for Religion at the University of Michigan," March 19, 1946.
Littell, Franklin H., "Five Year Report of the Director," November 1, 1949.
Littell, Franklin H., "Proposals of the Director," April 3, 1945.
Littell, Franklin H., "Two Year Report, Inter-Guild," October 2, 1946.
Littell, Franklin H., "Two Year Report, Part Two, Student Religious Association and Lane Hall," November 1946.
Minute Books, Board of Governors of the Student Religious Association and Lane Hall, 1937-40, 1940-45, 1945-47, 1947-51, 1951-55, 1955-.
Morgan, Kenneth W., "Five Year Report, Student Religious Association," 1942.
Morgan, Kenneth W., "Two Year Report, Student Religious Association," 1939.
Muehl, William E., "Report of the Acting Director to the Board of Governors," 1942-43.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich. 1910-39.
Robinson, Allyn P., Ed., And Crown Thy Good, a Manual on Interreligious Co-operation on the College Campus. New York: National Conference of Christians and Jews. 1954.
Page  1904

THE BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS

AT a meeting of the University Senate on June 2, 1903, a report was made by Professor Volney M. Spaulding on behalf of a special committee on nonathletic student organizations, recommending that a board be created to regulate the U. of M. Daily, that it be authorized to acquire the stock, property, and good will of the paper, that the Board have full control of all questions pertaining to the paper subject to the Senate regulations, and that the board consist of seven members, four appointed from the Senate and three from the student body. These recommendations were adopted. The four Senate members of the first board were Professors Fred N. Scott, Allen S. Whitney, Alfred H. Lloyd, and Frank L. Sage.

At the first meeting of the newly formed Board in Control of the Michigan Daily on November 19, 1903, Professor Scott was elected chairman of the board, one of the student members was elected secretary, and Professor Lloyd was elected treasurer, and a constitution and bylaws for the board were adopted. In the same year the constitution was amended to provide for the election of the three student members of the board by the student body. At the third meeting of the board there was some discussion of the board assuming control of the Michiganensian, but nothing was done about it at the time.

On November 24, 1908, the University Senate changed the name of the board to the Board in Control of Student Publications and, except as regards the Michiganensian for 1908-9, its jurisdiction was extended to cover all periodical publications edited by members of the student body. In 1908 the board authorized the publication of the Gargoyle, in 1909 it took over the Student Directory, and in 1911 it took over control of the Wolverine, the summer session paper.

In the report of the treasurer of the board made on October 28, 1913, is to be found the first suggestion of a plan for a University-owned printing plant and offices for the student publications. At that time the board had $9,000 on hand. By 1915 this sum had grown to nearly $14,000, and to facilitate the accumulation of funds for obtaining a suitable building, the board petitioned the Regents for permission to turn over its funds for investment and safekeeping to the treasurer of the University. At this time the board was operating under a five-year contract made in 1914, by the terms of which the Ann Arbor Press printed the Daily and furnished office space for all of the student publications in its building on Maynard Street.

The board was incorporated in 1919 as a nonprofit corporation, consisting of seven members, four appointed by the president of the University from the University Senate and three elected by the students from the student body. The next year the publications moved into roomy quarters on the second floor of the Ann Arbor Press Building, where they remained until the Student Publications Building was completed. In 1922 it was decided to buy a flatbed press to be used for printing the Daily, at a cost of about $10,000, and in the same year an executive committee was appointed to consider definite plans for a new student publications building. Professors Edson R. Sunderland, Joseph A. Bursley, and Morris P. Tilley were appointed a committee Page  1905to purchase a site for the building.

Professor Scott retired from the board in 1927 after having served for twenty-four years as its chairman. His tolerant and sympathetic guiding hand had started the board on its successful career and had helped many generations of student editors. Professor Robert C. Angell was appointed to take his place, and Professor Tilley was chosen chairman.

In the fall of 1929, on the retirement of Professor Tilley, Professor Angell was chosen as chairman of the board. In 1930 plans for the new building, drawn by Pond and Pond, architects, were approved by the board. It was to contain office space for all of the student publications, but to have facilities to print only the Daily, since it was felt that the printing of the other publications could be done more advantageously by contract with commercial printers. In the following year the contract for the building was let, and it was ready for occupancy in the summer of 1932.

The first publication edited in the new building, the Summer Michigan Daily of 1932, was also the first publication to be directly under the control of the University administration. The plan provided that the managing editor and business manager of the Summer Daily should be full-time employees, not enrolled in the summer session, and that they should be responsible directly to the dean of the summer session. This made the Summer Daily the official organ of the summer session, and it was sent to all students enrolled for the summer, a part of the tuition fee being allocated for that purpose. A proposal that a subscription to the winter Daily be included in the tuition fee was rejected by the board in 1936, on the ground that such a move might tend to make the Daily more of a University organ, and thereby subject the administration to responsibility for what was said in the paper and reduce the responsibility resting on the student editors.

A committee on University publications of the Alumni Advisory Council held a meeting on May 7, 1932, at which it was pointed out that, whether the student editors liked it or not, the Daily was regarded by many as an official organ of the University. The committee advocated a somewhat stricter control by the faculty of the material included in the paper. As a result of the committee's recommendations, two alumni actively engaged in newspaper work were added to the Board in Control of Student Publications in the winter of 1933. The two men appointed to hold these positions were Lee A White of the Detroit News and Stuart Perry of the Adrian Daily Telegram.

In 1930 the board established scholarships for students who had worked for four semesters on any student publication and had during that time maintained a B average in their college work. At first these scholarships were for $100 apiece.

In the spring of 1932 Professor Louis A. Strauss was elected to take Professor Angell's place as chairman of the board. Professor Strauss retired from the chairmanship of the board after five years of service, at the end of the first semester of the year 1937-38, and was replaced by Professor William A. McLaughlin. In 1957 Professor John W. Reed was chairman, Maurice M. Rinkel was Business Secretary, Kenneth L. Chatters was Superintendent of Printing, and Werner J. Mattson was Office Manager.

At the time the board took over the management of the various publications, they were owned and operated by students, many of whom derived a considerable income from that source. For the first few years a policy was adopted of allowing the managing editors and business managers a percentage of the net Page  1906profits of the publication for the year. Later, a system of salaries was adopted, and a substantial number of salaried positions are provided on the various student publications.

It is the custom of the board to appoint the senior staffs of the various publications for the ensuing academic year at a meeting held in the spring. There is usually keen rivalry for these positions. The board considers all the information that it can obtain regarding the ability and capacity of the candidates, such as their experience on the publication, their college grades, the opinions of the outgoing senior staffs, the views of the candidates themselves regarding the problems involved in the positions, as shown by application petitions and personal interviews arranged by the different members of the board, and the promptness and efficiency of the candidates as shown by their records made on the publications and any other available data.

STUDENT ANNUALS

THE first of the annuals published by students was a pamphlet of four pages, The University Register, issued in June, 1857. This publication contained the names of the regents, faculty, graduates, students, and members of the literary and secret societies.

The University Register was shortly followed by The Palladium, an annual published by the secret societies, or fraternities as they are now called, which was to have a long and successful life before it was consolidated into The Michiganensian in 1897. The first number of The Palladium appeared at the end of the college year 1858-59 and for the first few years was only a four-page paper published semiannually. The Palladium contained lists of the members of the secret societies, each headed by a vignette, regents, faculty, and class officers, and during the years of the Civil War also published lists of the students serving in the Army. The annual gradually increased in size and improved in content until in 1896 it was a book illustrated with cuts and drawings and containing a considerable amount of literary material. In 1884 it acquired hard covers.

Seven fraternities co-operated in the first few issues of The Palladium and were listed in the book in the order of their founding at Michigan. These were Chi Psi, Beta Theta Pi, Alpha Delta Phi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Delta Phi, Sigma Phi, and Zeta Psi. They were joined in 1865 by Psi Upsilon and, although more groups were added later until the editorial board at one time numbered representatives of fifteen different fraternities, these eight were known as the original Palladium group, a distinction which still has some influence on the campus today.

Dissatisfied with their treatment in The Palladium, a group of antisecret society independents published the first number of The University Castalia in the spring of 1866. This annual published only five volumes, the last in 1870.

In the meantime, in 1867, the sophomore class published the first of a long series of annuals, edited by second-year students, called The Oracle, under the heading, "I am Sir Oracle, and when I ope' my lips, let no dog bark." The first issue was a pamphlet of eight pages, but by the turn of the century it had grown to about one hundred pages. Devoted principally to activities of the sophomore class, The Oracle was early a champion Page  1907of coeducation. In the year 1882 Fred N. Scott, later a member of the faculty and long a successful chairman of the Board in Control of Student Publications, was the managing editor of The Oracle. The board of editors of the annual, originally five, was later increased to ten members, chosen equally from the fraternity and independent factions, and in 1895 it included two women students. In 1900 The Oracle was severely criticized in The Michigan Alumnus, which stated that it was "a sort of tumor on college journalism, it serves no end… Save its thirty years of troubled past, it has nothing to recommend it." It passed out of existence soon after.

The first Student Directory was put out in 1879 by the Student Christian Association, which continued to publish it until 1909, when it was taken over by the Board in Control of Student Publications.

The students of the Law and Medical departments of the University published an annual in 1873 called The Sapphire, of which there was only one volume. This had a cover drawing characterized as libelous. In 1883 the women students of the University tried their hand at an annual to defend their interests and produced The Amulet, of which there were no further issues.

The University Castalia was revived in 1890 by the independent group on the campus under the name of The Castalian, which lasted until 1897 when it too was merged into The Michiganensian. Published yearly except in 1893 when its cuts were destroyed by fire, The Castalian contained interesting literary material and illustrations and none of the anti-fraternity material which colored most of the publications of the time. The issue of 1896 was particularly praised by The Michigan Alumnus as "the finest annual ever published by the University."

In 1894 the senior class of the Law School published an annual devoted to the fraternities, societies, and activities of the law students. In 1894 the book was called To Wit, and the last two issues, in 1895 and 1896, Res Gestae. The juniors of the Homeopathic Department issued a booklet, Phials, in one number in 1899.

In April, 1897, the first issue of The Michiganensian appeared, the result of a consolidation of The Palladium, The Castalian, and Res Gestae, representing the senior literary, engineering, and law classes. It has remained ever since the official student yearbook. Control of The Michiganensian was vested in the Board in Control of Student Publications in 1908, and since that time all of the editors and the business manager of the publication have been chosen annually by the Board. It was suggested in The Michigan Alumnus in 1900 that The Michiganensian "should be given more the character of a yearbook, should be paged and indexed, and made the Michigan reference book of the year, giving the names of the winners of the various University contests, lists of society members, etc." These suggestions have been gradually followed by the editors of the book. The history of The Michiganensian has been one of slow evolution, rather than of any marked alterations from year to year. In 1930 there was finally settled a controversy which had disturbed the editors of the "Ensian" ever since it took over The Palladium. Beta Theta Pi and Chi Psi both laid claim to having been the first fraternity founded on the Michigan campus and consequently to the place of honor as the first fraternity to be listed in the yearbook. By a contract of 1930 it was agreed that the two fraternities would be entitled to the position in alternate years, but this arrangement was soon dropped in favor of listing all fraternities in alphabetical order.

At the present time The Michiganensian is usually a profusely illustrated Page  1908book of some five hundred pages bound in durable covers. It includes articles and photographs on various aspects of the Schools and Colleges, on the various campus activities, and a section recounting the athletic achievements of Michigan teams during the year. Each senior has his picture in the book, and there are group pictures of the members of each fraternity and sorority and of Residence Hall groups. It has in all respects been made the comprehensive "Michigan reference book of the year" which the writer in the Alumnus hoped for in 1900.

STUDENT NEWSPAPERS

THE first student publication on the campus of the University of Michigan in the form of a student newspaper was The Peninsular Phoenix and Gazetteer published by secret society members during the college year 1857-58. Dealing for the most part with college matters, it was published three times during the year.

The University Chronicle was first published in 1867. A biweekly of eight pages, it dealt with student problems and Michigan and general college news. The staff of The University Chronicle was equally divided between members of secret societies and independents. It was consolidated into The Chronicle in 1869.

The Chronicle, the first issue of which appeared in September, 1869, had been organized the spring before. The first number, of sixteen pages, included topical articles and items of general college news and announced itself as a forum for the discussion of campus matters. Finding this an insufficient field for its endeavors, it proposed to expand beyond purely college news in 1872 and accept literary contributions. This effort does not seem to have met with much success, however, for The Chronicle issues for the succeeding years differ in only minor respects from those before the plan was announced. Throughout its relatively long and successful life, the paper maintained a policy of frank and outspoken antagonism to the faculty and the Board of Regents of the University. The Chronicle was issued as a biweekly until 1877, when it was changed to a weekly. In 1883 it acquired a cover and increased its size to twenty-two pages. The issues of 1870, 1871, and 1872 were outstanding in the field of college journalism at that time. Originally edited by a board of eight editors, again divided between secret-society men and independents, in 1887 the size of the board was increased to twelve. In 1876 "The Chronicle Association" was incorporated, the right of voting for the editors was limited to members, and the membership was limited to students of the Literary Department. The Chronicle was consolidated into The Chronicle-Argonaut in 1890.

Having been left out of the organization of The Chronicle, the students in the professional departments started the publication of a sixteen-page biweekly of their own in 1879 called The University. It lasted for only two volumes.

As a result of a piece of political chicanery by the members, several fraternities were excluded from the vote for the editors of The Chronicle in 1882. These five fraternities then started a rival paper called The University Argonaut, which first appeared in October, 1882. Begun as a biweekly of twenty pages, it changed to an eight-page weekly in 1884. Until The University Argonaut was merged into Page  1909The Chronicle-Argonaut in 1890 as a result of further fraternity-independent trouble, the fraternities were divided in their allegiance to The Chronicle and The University Argonaut. As a result of the same battle over the control of The Chronicle which resulted in The University Argonaut, a paper was issued in May, 1882, called The Boomerang, which expired after one issue.

The Chronicle-Argonaut, published weekly, lasted only through the year 1890-91. After the decease of The Chronicle-Argonaut in the spring of 1891, the fraternities which had been represented on its board published for a short time in the fall of 1891 a weekly called The Yellow and the Blue.

In 1889 the nonfraternity editors of The Chronicle resigned from the board of editors and formed the Independent Association, which published the first issue of The U. of M. Daily in September, 1890. Although the original board of fourteen editors was composed entirely of antifraternity men, a few editors from fraternities were admitted in 1895-96. The first issue of the paper was of four pages, and the first volume contained 174 issues.

On the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of the founding of The U. of M. Daily in 1921, Ralph Stone ('92l), one of the founders and Regent from 1924 to 1940, said: "The avowed object of the Daily editors from the very start was to furnish the news of the University promptly and accurately, likewise to promote clean athletics and sound morals among the student body. It was a strenuous task to blaze the trail for the first two years, but the news service was complete and the Daily was a positive influence for good during the period of which I have knowledge from my connection with it."

While this high-minded attitude probably gained something from the thirty years of retrospect, there is no doubt that when the paper was founded it took considerable courage to attempt a daily publication. Under the leadership of Otto H. Hans, who was for four years the business manager of The Daily, and the managing editor in 1900-1901, several important changes were made in the paper. It was decided to abandon the Monday edition and print one on Sunday, because there was no campus news created on Sunday. Likewise, The Daily undertook delivery before breakfast. Both of these moves were innovations in college journalism. At the same time the column length was increased, making The Daily the largest student paper in the United States.

In the spring of 1901, a competitor to The Daily to be called The Varsity News was under consideration. After a survey of the advertisers, it was found that the town could not support two daily papers, so a consolidation was effected, resulting in the publication in the fall of 1901 of The Michigan Daily-News. This paper lasted for two years, and the last edition in the spring of 1903 announced the sale of the paper to the University Senate. The Board in Control of The Michigan Daily, as it was then called, changed the name of the paper to The Michigan Daily and again altered the page size.

With the change to University control of the paper, The Daily ceased to be the organ of a clique, as it had been accused of being previously and extended its sympathy to the whole University. Although it had been hoped by some members of the faculty who were opposed to the former management of the paper that the new Board in Control would exercise an effective censorship over the news columns, the board, under the leadership of Professor Scott, quickly made it clear that it had no intention of doing so, believing that a certain amount of responsibility was essential to the development Page  1910of the student editors and that the paper would lose favor with its student audience if it were known that the faculty were censoring it.

In 1907 it was declared by the Board in Control that it was the policy of the Daily "to steer along a safe course between becoming a mere bulletin board on the one hand and a modern newspaper on the other." One can imagine how the student editors felt about this pronunciamento.

With the summer session of 1910 a paper for the students of the summer was started, called The Wolverine. Edited by Lee A White, the paper featured campus life during the summer and appeared thrice weekly in the afternoons. It had no formal connection with the Daily, although it was mainly staffed by Daily men. In 1922 The Wolverine was changed to The Summer Michigan Daily and made a daily during the summer session.

The size of The Daily was increased from five to six columns and the page was made one inch longer in 1911, and new type and headlines were authorized. The Association of Eastern College Newspapers awarded to The Daily in 1916 its first prize for an editorial written by Verne E. Burnett, one of its editors for that year.

During the year that the United States was involved in World War I it was found to be almost impossible to get editors for the paper, most of those who had been chosen in the spring of 1917 having left school to join the Army. In this situation the Board in Control adopted the expedient of choosing a woman, Miss Mildred C. Mighell, as managing editor for the first time in the history of the paper. When the regularly chosen editor returned in January, 1919, however, he took over his position.

In the fall of 1920 the University authorities started publishing the "Official Bulletin" of the University in The Daily and at the same time paying for subscriptions to the paper for all of the members of the faculty. This policy has been followed ever since with the exception of a few days in the fall of 1931 when the faculty subscriptions were withdrawn by a University administrative officer because of a misunderstanding over some critical articles which had appeared in the paper.

In 1932 The Summer Michigan Daily was taken from the hands of the student editors and complete control vested in the dean of the summer session. Full-time editors were chosen for the paper, usually from the senior staff of the Daily for the preceding year, and the paper was sent to all students in the summer session, the subscription being added to the tuition fee. The first Summer Michigan Daily to be issued under this plan of professional editing was also the first edition of the Daily to be printed in the new Student Publications Building (see Part VIII: Student Publications Building). Coincidental with the move into the new building and the purchase of all new equipment was a change in the type face used both for the body type and the headlines. Instead of the hodgepodge of Cheltenham and any other type face that happened to be handy, The Daily adopted a uniform headline form of upper and lower case Bodoni type, following the type style set by the New York Herald-Tribune.

For many years the Daily has been one of the best, if not the best college newspaper in the country. Being a member of the Associated Press and the only morning newspaper printed in Ann Arbor, it has been able to combine on its front page a mixture of important national news with well-written and edited local and campus news. At various times it has carried on its editorial page the work of campus columnists of a very high Page  1911grade, although in recent years these have given way to nationally syndicated columns. In its early years the Daily was primarily concerned with news of campus sporting events, but, gradually, most of such material has been concentrated on a special sports page, only the most important sport results being given front-page space. Also in recent years a special page is sometimes given over to campus society news and articles of particular interest to women students.

In order to lessen the cut-throat competition among the underclassmen for the senior positions on the staff, the Board in Control has attempted many times to reorganize the staff so that advancement will be purely on a merit basis, and at the same time has tried to equalize the senior salaries so that this item will constitute less of a factor in the minds of the underclass editors. So far none of these experiments have proved completely successful, and the process of evolution of a satisfactory system is still going on. In 1956 there were almost 200 students on the staff of the Daily.

The paper is edited by a board of senior editors, headed by the managing editor. They are chosen annually by the Board in Control of Student Publications from the eligible juniors on the staff.

The number of pages in the paper depends on the amount of advertising obtained for the day. In the affluent days of the late 1920's, The Daily consisted not infrequently of sixteen pages, while during the depths of the depression of the early 1930's many issues contained only four pages. At the present time the majority of the papers are of eight pages, with an occasional six-page issue.

STUDENT MAGAZINES

ALTHOUGH not properly a literary magazine, the first student venture into the field of literary composition was the "Sibyl" of the Alpha Nu society, one of the early campus organizations. Handwritten because there were no available means of duplication and no necessity for it, the "Sibyl" was read aloud at the meetings of Alpha Nu. It contained poems and essays written by the members of the club. So far as can be ascertained from the University records, it lasted from May 24, 1844, until November 2, 1866.

During the year 1861 a literary magazine was edited by a board consisting of four editors, two from each of the two societies, Adelphi and Alpha Nu, the leading campus literary groups, which was called the University Quarterly.

The first number of The Michigan University Magazine appeared in June, 1867. A pamphlet of some forty-four pages, it was published monthly as an expression of student thought. While it lasted it was one of the best college reviews in the country. In order to avoid the factionalism marring most of the college publications then in existence, the board of editors of the magazine was equally divided between fraternity men and independents, chosen from the junior class on the Saturday before Class Day. It was merged in The Chronicle in 1869.

The next publication to set itself up frankly as a literary magazine was The Inlander, which was first published in the fall of 1890 by the seniors of the class of 1891 at the beginning of their senior year. In the first issue, the editors of The Inlander stated: "The Inlander, accordingly, Page  1912will make its sole and only end the bringing forth results of literary ability of a high order, and the fostering and encouragement of talent…" Having set themselves a high goal, the successive editors of The Inlander proceeded to live up to it remarkably well, and many works of merit were published in it before it finally succumbed from lack of support in 1907. During this incarnation The Inlander was published monthly. In 1903 control of The Inlander was put in the hands of the Quadrangle Club with faculty representation on the staff, and in 1905 it was made a biweekly Sunday supplement to The Daily.

Five years after the death of The Inlander the first number of a new campus literary magazine appeared, called The Painted Window. Taking its name from a poem printed as a prelude to the first number, The Painted Window carried on the cover of its too few issues a drawing of a Gothic stained glass cathedral window. In addition to poems, essays, and short stories, each issue carried a reproduction in black and white of some work of art. Edgar Ansel Mowrer, then of the Chicago News Bureau in Paris, was the business manager of the little monthly. The Painted Window was first published in March, 1912, and the last issue is dated March, 1913. In 1916 The Inlander was revived, subsidized by the Board in Control of Student Publications, but was discontinued again in 1918.

In the second semester of the college year 1920-21, a mimeographed paper entitled Whimsies made its bow on the campus. In an introductory essay headed "The Why of Whimsies" the editors explained that they would like their magazine to be to the campus what the Atlantic Monthly was to the country at large: "Whimsies makes no attempt to assume literary high-priesthood, or to pose as a defender of literature against barbarism." After the first few issues the magazine was printed and assumed a cover. In his report of the Board in Control of Student Publications for 1921, Professor Scott said of it: "Obviously, however, so spontaneous and unpretentious a magazine, especially when it is also of so high a grade of literary excellence, deserves to be encouraged." The editors included Yuki Osawa, Stella Brunt (Osborn), Dorothy Greenwald, and Halsey Davidson.

In 1924 the name of the magazine was changed to The Inlander, thus becoming the third incarnation of that Michigan tradition, although its tone continued to be that of the magazine of the early 1920's which it had succeeded, rather than that of the more ambitious magazine which first carried the Inlander name. In 1930 this latest attempt to revive The Inlander failed. Included in the last few issues of the magazine were reproductions of works of art.

Contemporary was the name of the next literary magazine to be published on the campus. It was authorized by the Board in Control in May, 1935, and publication was started the following fall. It lasted for only two years.

Campus, the first summer-session magzine began and ended in 1938. It contained short stories, cartoons, and photographs. A year later Perspectives made a short-lived appearance as a literary magazine.

The most recent student literary magazine is Generation. It is dedicated to the arts. Music, literature, drawing, and photography are presented and analyzed in its three issues a year.

Student Humor Magazines

The first attempt at a student humor magazine was Wrinkle, a biweekly which first appeared on October 13, 1893, under the heading, "Enjoy life while you live, for you will be a long time dead." Published by a stock company, Wrinkle soon lost its pretentions to being a biweekly Page  1913and frankly admitted that it was "published by the students every little while during the college year." Wrinkle, a highly successful magazine while it lasted, contained many excellent cartoons and much really humorous material. Of the special J-Hop edition of 1899, the managing editor of the Yale Record remarked that it was the best humorous college paper he had ever reviewed. Wrinkle died of inanition in 1905.

In December 1908, the Board in Control of Student Publications authorized Lee A White to publish a literary magazine and take 60 per cent of the profits of the first issue. The result of this permission was the first issue of the Gargoyle, which came out with a special J-Hop edition in February, 1909. For its first few issues Gargoyle considered itself a literary magazine, containing stories, articles, and pictures, and only the back part of the magazine was filled with humorous articles and jokes. By a process of evolution, however, Gargoyle soon became the campus humor magazine and has remained such up to the present time.

During Gargoyle's life as a publication there has occasionally been trouble because of the publication of questionable matter. The quality of the magazine has varied from year to year, depending on the ability of the managing editor. Although in some years it has been merely silly, in others it has followed the lead of good national publications and made a place for itself on the campus. In some years it has added sections on men's and women's clothes for campus wear and has had a music section devoted to the merits of dance orchestras.

Journals of Opinion

Before the turn of the century most of the student publications, lacking the specialization which appears today, were in a sense journals of opinion as, no matter what the form, the editors were not slow in voicing their views. Most, however, also served some other function. In November 1861, as an outgrowth of the feeling between the independents and members of the secret societies, a bitterly antisecret society magazine, The University Independent, was first issued. Only four numbers were printed before the name was changed in March, 1862, to University Magazine, of which there was only one issue.

In 1916, the Board in Control of Student Publications authorized the creation of a new magazine of student opinion on the campus to be called Chimes. The first number was placed on sale in November, 1919, and contained, among other things, a debate on the respective merits of the Washtenaw and State street fraternities and a criticism of the campus honor societies. Each number contained a dedication to some member of the faculty whose photograph was reproduced. In his report of the Board in Control of Student Publications for 1921 Professor Scott points out that Chimes had failed as a purveyor of pure literature but accomplished a useful purpose as an organ of opinion. In March, 1925, Chimes was changed to a Sunday supplement to the Daily, and in 1926 it was discontinued; Sunday supplements have been revived since World War II at various times.

In 1922-23 appeared the short-lived The Tempest, which adopted a truculent tone toward the University administration and was much influenced by H. L. Mencken.

In 1931 two journals appeared, both lasting for only a short time. One, Diagonal, proclaiming that "this is not a literary magazine," and taking a belligerent attitude toward campus affairs in general, severely criticized campus politics, pep meetings, and the "paternalism" of the University administration, but took time out to praise President Page  1914Ruthven. The other, The Student Socialist, was published by the Michigan Socialist Club with the avowed purpose of stimulating "student interest in the unsolved problems of American social life, stressing the new thought embodied in socialism." Adopting a radical platform, it attacked impartially the Daily, the R.O.T.C., Detroit millionaires, the American Red Cross, the American Medical Association, and the federal government.

Pictorial Publications

Two different attempts have been made to bring to the campus pictorial publications showing the students to themselves. Both were very short-lived. One, the Michigan Optic, was authorized in the fall of 1922. The other, Panorama, patterned after Life magazine, started publication in the fall of 1937 and lasted through five issues.

The Michigan Technic

The history of the Michigan Technic goes back to 1887, although a bound volume of "papers presented before the Engineering Society of the University of Michigan in 1882-1883" gives rise to the claim of the year 1882 as the date of founding of the publication. In early days every student was a member of the Engineering Society. This society published the Technic as an annual, containing the program of the society for the year, biographies of various faculty men, and authoritative technical articles written by faculty and students. These articles were from papers which had been presented before the society.

The magazine filled a real need in those days, which were before the advent of the numerous professional journals now published. Many papers which appeared were reprinted, to be used as reference material in courses then being taught. It was read by faculty, students, and alumni with great interest. Even today the contents of some of the old magazines are very valuable. As the College grew, the activities of the society increased, and the magazine grew also. From an annual, it became a semiannual, then a quarterly, and finally a monthly publication. It was published by the Engineering Society up to the time of the death of the society, in 1923. Then an independent student staff with a faculty Advisory Board took over the work of publication.

The organization of the Engineering Society provided for a chairman of the Technic Board, who was managing editor of the magazine. With the help of an editor, a business manager, and a small staff, the magazine was published. No faculty Advisory Board was listed until 1906, when Dean Mortimer E. Cooley, Professor George W. Patterson, and two alumni, Walter L. Stebbings and Ralph R. Tinkham, were appointed. A new board was appointed every year until a more permanent body was set up in 1914. This permanent board has continued to function up to the present.

The early staffs struggled along from year to year, keeping no permanent records. Continuity of policy was carried on by word of mouth and whatever experience could be transferred during the period of apprenticeship served by each member of the staff. If any attempts were made to bind the organization together or to record procedure, they must have met defeat, for there are no records.

The formation of Engineering College Magazines Associated, in 1921, was of importance to the Technic and to engineering college publications in general. This association, of which the Technic is a charter member, was formed for the purpose of improving the editorial quality, make-up, and appearance of the member magazines. The page size of the magazines was also standardized, as an Page  1915aid to securing advertising from nationally advertised products. Standards of quality were set up and awards were given as incentives to work toward better editorial content and attractive appearance. The great contribution of E.C.M.A. was in the securing of large advertisements for each magazine. These advertisements were handled through a commercial agency and entailed little work on the part of the staff of the individual magazine. A large amount of the revenue for the publication of the magazine came from these advertisements.

The Technic ran along in about the same way, growing in size and prosperity, until 1929 when the business depression ended most of the advertising. Circulation fell with advertising, leaving the Technic with very seriously curtailed revenues and, as a result, it operated at a loss for several years.

In a desperate attempt to stave off financial collapse, the staff of 1932-33, in composing the Articles of Management which were adopted February 21, 1933, took the first step toward binding the organization together. The Technic is now guided by a faculty Advisory Committee and a Student Publication Board.

The loss of revenue in the depression focused attention on the low student circulation, and ultimately on the editorial content of the magazine. Concentration on editorial quality brought the Technic several awards in different years in the E.C.M.A., including the awards for the best covers and for the "Best All-around Magazine."

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