The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.

FEES AND EXPENSES

THE earliest fees established by the University were not for college students at all, but for the boys and girls in the Branches, which were really high schools or academies (see Part I: Branches). In November, 1837, the Regents fixed the annual fee for these students at ten dollars a year, except in Detroit and Monroe where the charge was fifteen dollars (R.P., 1837-64, p. 25). The fees actually collected, however, ranged from three dollars to ten dollars a term, depending on the course or curriculum pursued — the high rate being charged for individual instruction in music. School terms consisted of thirteen, fourteen, or fifteen weeks each.

When the University opened its doors to students of collegiate grade, the fees were the same as those which are shown in the first entry of the accompanying tables.* The faculty, in December, 1841, reported that each college student had paid an admission fee of ten dollars and was paying a "tax" for incidental expenses of about two dollars and fifty cents a term. The latter must have been identical with the charge of five to seven and one-half dollars a year, mentioned in early catalogues as the fee for room rent and janitor service. The faculty also reported that at this time board could be secured at from one and one-half to two dollars a week, washing was "from three to six shillings a dozen," and students paid up to one dollar and a half a cord for firewood.

It may be noted that the admission fee of ten dollars was not officially established by the Regents until October, 1842, although the faculty had been collecting it in the meantime. Tuition at the time was gratuitous. This was undoubtedly because the legislative act of 1837, providing for the organization of the University, specified that no charge for tuition should be made to citizens of the state. Consequently, when it was decided to collect a fee from each student, the expression "annual payment" was used, and the Regents' resolution distinctly states that this money was to defer incidental expenses. In 1880-81 the term "annual fee" was substituted for the words "annual payment."

The principle of charging higher fees to students not residents of Michigan was begun in the year 1865. In June, 1863, the finance committee of the Regents made a lengthy report on this subject, stating that the fact that all students, whether residents of Michigan or not, paid the same fees had been used to the injury of the University in the legislature (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 1043-50). Although Page  1762the committee recommended that an admission fee of twenty dollars be charged to residents of other states and twenty-five dollars to residents of foreign countries, no action was taken until March, 1865, and then the legislation applied only to the admission or matriculation fee. A differentiation was not made in the annual fees until 1877-78.

Until well after the turn of the century, University of Michigan fees remained remarkably low. From 1882-83 the schedule provided one fee for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and another, somewhat higher, which was uniform for the various professional schools. Such increases as were made during this period were usually voted upon by the Regents — in motions to increase all fees. In October, 1883, President Angell reported: "The fees have been raised in this University twice in the last eight years. In 1877 the annual fee and the diploma fee were each increased five dollars. In 1882 the annual fee for non-resident students in the Literary Department was again increased five dollars and in the Professional Schools ten dollars" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 596). In 1913-14 occurred a revision of the schedule whereby the library, the outdoor physical education fee, and the medical service or infirmary fee, all of which had been charged separately, were incorporated in the annual fees (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 709-11).

Another general study of the question took place in March, 1920, when a new schedule was adopted for the year 1920-21. In connection with the increases made at this time the Regents studied

Annual Fees, 1847-1932
L. S. and A. Eng., Arch., Med., Homeop. Med., Phar., Dent. Law
Catalogue Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1847-48 $.. $.. $.. $.. $.. $..
1859-60 5 .. 5 .. 5 ..
1864-65 5 5 5 5 5 5
1866-67 10 10 10 10 10 10
1874-75 15 20 15 20 15 20
1877-78 20 25 20 25 20 25
1882-83 20 30 25 35 30 50
1894-95 25* 35 30 40 30 40
1895-96 30 40 35 45 35 45
1905-6 30 40 45 55 45 55
L.S.A., Grad., Ed.,* B.Ad., For. & Con. Eng., Arch., Phar. Med., Homeop. (until 1922-23) Law Dentistry
Catalogue Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1910-11 $30 $40 $45 $55 $45 $55 $55 $65 $55 $75
1913-14 42 52 57 67 57 67 67 77 77 107
1917-18 44 64 59 89* 102 122 69 79 109 129
1921-22 82-77 107-102 97-92 122-117 142-137 202-197 107-102 127-122 142-137 127-122
1926-27 93 118 108 133 188 268 118 138 208 268
1929-30 98 123 113 138 193 273 123 143 213 273
1931-32 98-103 123-128* 113-118 138-143 200-205 300-305 123-128 143-148 225-230 300-305
Page  1763Semester Fees, 1932-56
L.S.A., Grad., Ed., B.Ad., For. & Con. Eng., Arch., Phar. Med., Homeop. (until 1922-23) Law Dentistry
Catalogue Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1932-33 $50 $62 $57 $70 $100 $150 $62 $72 $113 $150
1935-36 55 75 60 80 110 175 70 100 110 150
L.S.A., Ed., Grad., B. Ad., For. & Con., Pub. Health., Soc. Wk. Eng., Pharm., Arch. & Des. Medical Law Dentistry Music Nursing Public Health Grad.
Year Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres. Mich. Nonres.
1936-37 $ 55 $ 75 $ 60 $ 80 $110 $175 $ 70 $100 $110 $150 $ 40
1940-41 60 100 65 120 125 200 80 125 115 160 $ 60 $100 40
1945-46 65 110 70 130 140 225 90 140 140 210 130 200 40 $ 60 $100 $150
1950-51 75 200 75 200 145 275 105 225 145 275 145 250 55 120 105 225
1955-56 100 235 100 235 220 385 140 275 220 385 165 290 100 235 165 330
1944-45 — Music fees increased to include Applied Music.
1945-46 — Public Health and Nursing nonresident fee appears in schedule. Medical and Dental fee equalized.
1946-47 — Institute of Social Work fee appears in schedule. Engineering, Pharmacy, and Architecture and Design fees equalized with those in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
the fees of other institutions, and it may be said that the general policy has been to keep the rates at Michigan in line with those charged by other state universities. The fees which made up the schedule in 1920-21 included not only the Library, outdoor physical education, and Health Service charges but also the annual dues of the Michigan Union and the Michigan League, and, since these were not the same at this time, for a number of years it was necessary to collect different amounts from the men and the women.

Of changes affecting only special groups of students, perhaps the most important was that made in 1922 concerning the fee for part-time students, who could elect not more than five hours in any semester upon the payment of an annual fee of twenty-five dollars. The President's Report for 1921-22 states: "Such students, if entering the University for the first time, must also pay the usual matriculation fee and they must understand that the part-time fee of twenty-five dollars covers only the usual privileges of study and tuition" (P.R., 1921-22, p. 155). Important changes made since 1922 were the introduction of semester fees in 1933 and the incorporation of the matriculation and diploma fees in the semester fees in 1935-36.

The tables showing student expenses from year to year are in the main a reflection of general social and economic conditions. Very little was paid in pre-Civil War times as compared to necessary disbursements nowadays, but low prices were generally current then, and living conditions much simpler and more crude than they are today. After it was decided to discontinue the dormitory system, the Catalogue for many years quoted rates at which board and room could be obtained in private homes. From 1870 the cost of board in "eating clubs" was also given. The fact that this form of statement has changed in recent years indicates a change in student customs. Nowadays comparatively few students board and lodge with private families. Eating clubs have given way to Page  1764cafeterias and restaurants, and dormitories, again a feature of life at Michigan, house many students.

A noticeable rise in prices took place after the Civil War. The first of a number of studies of student expenditures was made in 1870-71, and the Catalogue for that year states that an average of such expenses over the preceding seven years had been three hundred and sixty-two dollars. Leveled off at three hundred and seventy dollars, this was the official estimate as late as 1907. In that year a further rise in prices began, reaching the peak at about the time of the stock market collapse in 1929.

The 1920's also show a decided increase in room rents, reflecting the room shortage at that time. The enrollment of the University increased markedly at the end of World War I, and during the administration of President Burton an active building program was carried out which involved the acquisition by the University of a number of tracts near the campus and the removal of houses in which rooms had been rented to students. A tendency for families to prefer apartments rather than houses, in which few rooms would be available for student lodgings, was also growing during this period. New dormitories have helped to relieve the situation, but there is, nevertheless, still a shortage of approved housing accommodations near the campus, and students have been forced to seek rooms farther and farther away.

It would appear that estimates printed in more recent catalogues are based on more careful studies of the situation than those made earlier. Obviously, early catalogues tended to repeat the same statements from year to year, and, while the rates given in the 1920's conform more closely to the current fees, the catalogues may have erred somewhat in failing to recognize that students who were

Average Annual Expense
Catalogue Total
1847-48 $ 70-100
1854-55 100
1857-58 125-150
1864-65 125-175
1870-71 362
1874-75 370, approximately
1907-8 400, approximately
1910-11 400-500
1915-16 500
1917-18 500 plus
1920-21 600 or more, average
1925-26 715-755*
1931-32 664 (men), 669 (women); nonresidents, 704-709 plus 150 for incidentals
1932-33 565-604 (nonresidents), plus incidentals
1935-36 347-387, economical schedule, 530-570, average schedule, plus incidentals
1937-38 530-570
1939-40 550-630
1941-42 855-975*
1944-45 750-840
1946-47 820-980
1948-49 820-1,030
1950-51 775-1,025
1951-52 885-1,105
1952-53 905-1,155
1953-54 955-1,205
1954-55 955-1,205
1955-56 1,025-1,295
forced to conserve their resources could by strict economy and by rooming in less desirable locations live at lower rates. More recent estimates, for this reason, have given both an economical and a so-called average schedule of expenses.

Special Fees

Fuel. — Wood was charged at cost in the early dormitories. The use of college buildings as dormitories was discontinued in the 1850's. Page  1765

Expenses for Board and Room Rent per Week
Year Room Board Board and Room
1847-48 $5.00-$7.50* ..... .....
1859-60 ..... ..... $2.00-$3.60
1867-68 ..... ..... 3.00- 6.00
1870-71 0.75- 2.00 $1.50- 2.00 3.00- 5.00
1905-6 0.75- 2.00 2.50- 3.00 3.50- 6.00
1910-11 0.75- 2.75 3.00- 4.00 3.50- 6.00
1915-16 1.00- 3.00 3.50- 4.50 4.00- 6.00
1917-19* 2.00- 4.00 4.00- 5.00 6.00- 8.00
1925-26 4.50 7.00 .....
1931-32 4.50 8.00 .....
1933-34 2.00- 4.00 3.50- 6.50 .....
Two-Semester Average Charge in Residence Halls
Year Room Board Board and Room
1936-37 $120 $195
1940-41 150 230
1945-46 170 340
1950-51* $560
1951-52 630
1952-63 650
1954-55 700
1955-56 750

Matriculation Fee. — Until 1880-81 this was called the "admission fee." In the beginning it was ten dollars for all students. The Catalogue of 1864-65 announces a change to ten dollars for residents of Michigan and twenty dollars for all others; that of 1866-67 gives the figures as ten dollars and twenty-five dollars, respectively. These rates were charged until 1935-36, when the matriculation fee was absorbed in the semester fee.

Diploma. — A general diploma fee of ten dollars, which appears in the 1882-83 Catalogue, was charged until 1935-36, when it was also absorbed in the semester fee. Previously, two dollars had been charged for a medical diploma (Cat., 1851-52); the teacher's certificate, two dollars, was first mentioned in the 1907-8 Calendar, Business Administration certificates in 1918-19, and Journalism and Geology certificates in 1922-23.

Deposits against Damage. — In the early years a deposit of one dollar was required of medical students.

Laboratory Fees. — These were first mentioned in the Calendar for 1880-81. "Demonstration courses" in Medicine at ten dollars per course were listed in catalogues from 1898-99 through 1915-16.

Summer Session Fees. — These fees first appeared in the Calendar of 1897-98. A ten dollar fee for a summer surveying course first appeared in the 1905-6 Calendar.

Gymnasium Locker Fees. — A fee of two dollars first appeared in the Calendar of 1898-99. A special Palmer Field fee of one dollar was charged in 1909-10. Beginning in 1912-13 an outdoor physical education fee of five dollars was charged for all students; this was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14. Locker fees are still charged.

Library Fees. — A fee of two dollars was charged law students, according to the Calendar of 1903-4, and all students from 1910-11; this was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14.

Health Service Fee. — A fee of two dollars (fifty cents for the summer session) was listed in the 1911-12 Calendar. This was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14.