FEES AND EXPENSES
THE earliest fees established by the University were not for college students at all, but for the boys and girls in the Branches, which were really high schools or academies (see Part I: Branches). In November, 1837, the Regents fixed the annual fee for these students at ten dollars a year, except in Detroit and Monroe where the charge was fifteen dollars (R.P., 1837-64, p. 25). The fees actually collected, however, ranged from three dollars to ten dollars a term, depending on the course or curriculum pursued — the high rate being charged for individual instruction in music. School terms consisted of thirteen, fourteen, or fifteen weeks each.
When the University opened its doors to students of collegiate grade, the fees were the same as those which are shown in the first entry of the accompanying tables.* The faculty, in December, 1841, reported that each college student had paid an admission fee of ten dollars and was paying a "tax" for incidental expenses of about two dollars and fifty cents a term. The latter must have been identical with the charge of five to seven and one-half dollars a year, mentioned in early catalogues as the fee for room rent and janitor service. The faculty also reported that at this time board could be secured at from one and one-half to two dollars a week, washing was "from three to six shillings a dozen," and students paid up to one dollar and a half a cord for firewood.
It may be noted that the admission fee of ten dollars was not officially established by the Regents until October, 1842, although the faculty had been collecting it in the meantime. Tuition at the time was gratuitous. This was undoubtedly because the legislative act of 1837, providing for the organization of the University, specified that no charge for tuition should be made to citizens of the state. Consequently, when it was decided to collect a fee from each student, the expression "annual payment" was used, and the Regents' resolution distinctly states that this money was to defer incidental expenses. In 1880-81 the term "annual fee" was substituted for the words "annual payment."
The principle of charging higher fees to students not residents of Michigan was begun in the year 1865. In June, 1863, the finance committee of the Regents made a lengthy report on this subject, stating that the fact that all students, whether residents of Michigan or not, paid the same fees had been used to the injury of the University in the legislature (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 1043-50). Although Page 1762the committee recommended that an admission fee of twenty dollars be charged to residents of other states and twenty-five dollars to residents of foreign countries, no action was taken until March, 1865, and then the legislation applied only to the admission or matriculation fee. A differentiation was not made in the annual fees until 1877-78.
Until well after the turn of the century, University of Michigan fees remained remarkably low. From 1882-83 the schedule provided one fee for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and another, somewhat higher, which was uniform for the various professional schools. Such increases as were made during this period were usually voted upon by the Regents — in motions to increase all fees. In October, 1883, President Angell reported: "The fees have been raised in this University twice in the last eight years. In 1877 the annual fee and the diploma fee were each increased five dollars. In 1882 the annual fee for non-resident students in the Literary Department was again increased five dollars and in the Professional Schools ten dollars" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 596). In 1913-14 occurred a revision of the schedule whereby the library, the outdoor physical education fee, and the medical service or infirmary fee, all of which had been charged separately, were incorporated in the annual fees (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 709-11).
Another general study of the question took place in March, 1920, when a new schedule was adopted for the year 1920-21. In connection with the increases made at this time the Regents studied
|L. S. and A.||Eng., Arch., Med., Homeop. Med., Phar., Dent.||Law|
|L.S.A., Grad., Ed.,* B.Ad., For. & Con.||Eng., Arch., Phar.||Med., Homeop. (until 1922-23)||Law||Dentistry|
|L.S.A., Grad., Ed., B.Ad., For. & Con.||Eng., Arch., Phar.||Med., Homeop. (until 1922-23)||Law||Dentistry|
|L.S.A., Ed., Grad., B. Ad., For. & Con., Pub. Health., Soc. Wk.||Eng., Pharm., Arch. & Des.||Medical||Law||Dentistry||Music||Nursing||Public Health Grad.|
|1936-37||$ 55||$ 75||$ 60||$ 80||$110||$175||$ 70||$100||$110||$150||$ 40|
|1944-45 — Music fees increased to include Applied Music.|
|1945-46 — Public Health and Nursing nonresident fee appears in schedule. Medical and Dental fee equalized.|
|1946-47 — Institute of Social Work fee appears in schedule. Engineering, Pharmacy, and Architecture and Design fees equalized with those in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.|
Of changes affecting only special groups of students, perhaps the most important was that made in 1922 concerning the fee for part-time students, who could elect not more than five hours in any semester upon the payment of an annual fee of twenty-five dollars. The President's Report for 1921-22 states: "Such students, if entering the University for the first time, must also pay the usual matriculation fee and they must understand that the part-time fee of twenty-five dollars covers only the usual privileges of study and tuition" (P.R., 1921-22, p. 155). Important changes made since 1922 were the introduction of semester fees in 1933 and the incorporation of the matriculation and diploma fees in the semester fees in 1935-36.
The tables showing student expenses from year to year are in the main a reflection of general social and economic conditions. Very little was paid in pre-Civil War times as compared to necessary disbursements nowadays, but low prices were generally current then, and living conditions much simpler and more crude than they are today. After it was decided to discontinue the dormitory system, the Catalogue for many years quoted rates at which board and room could be obtained in private homes. From 1870 the cost of board in "eating clubs" was also given. The fact that this form of statement has changed in recent years indicates a change in student customs. Nowadays comparatively few students board and lodge with private families. Eating clubs have given way to Page 1764cafeterias and restaurants, and dormitories, again a feature of life at Michigan, house many students.
A noticeable rise in prices took place after the Civil War. The first of a number of studies of student expenditures was made in 1870-71, and the Catalogue for that year states that an average of such expenses over the preceding seven years had been three hundred and sixty-two dollars. Leveled off at three hundred and seventy dollars, this was the official estimate as late as 1907. In that year a further rise in prices began, reaching the peak at about the time of the stock market collapse in 1929.
The 1920's also show a decided increase in room rents, reflecting the room shortage at that time. The enrollment of the University increased markedly at the end of World War I, and during the administration of President Burton an active building program was carried out which involved the acquisition by the University of a number of tracts near the campus and the removal of houses in which rooms had been rented to students. A tendency for families to prefer apartments rather than houses, in which few rooms would be available for student lodgings, was also growing during this period. New dormitories have helped to relieve the situation, but there is, nevertheless, still a shortage of approved housing accommodations near the campus, and students have been forced to seek rooms farther and farther away.
It would appear that estimates printed in more recent catalogues are based on more careful studies of the situation than those made earlier. Obviously, early catalogues tended to repeat the same statements from year to year, and, while the rates given in the 1920's conform more closely to the current fees, the catalogues may have erred somewhat in failing to recognize that students who were
|1920-21||600 or more, average|
|1931-32||664 (men), 669 (women); nonresidents, 704-709 plus 150 for incidentals|
|1932-33||565-604 (nonresidents), plus incidentals|
|1935-36||347-387, economical schedule, 530-570, average schedule, plus incidentals|
Fuel. — Wood was charged at cost in the early dormitories. The use of college buildings as dormitories was discontinued in the 1850's. Page 1765
|Year||Room||Board||Board and Room|
|1870-71||0.75- 2.00||$1.50- 2.00||3.00- 5.00|
|1905-6||0.75- 2.00||2.50- 3.00||3.50- 6.00|
|1910-11||0.75- 2.75||3.00- 4.00||3.50- 6.00|
|1915-16||1.00- 3.00||3.50- 4.50||4.00- 6.00|
|1917-19*||2.00- 4.00||4.00- 5.00||6.00- 8.00|
|1933-34||2.00- 4.00||3.50- 6.50||.....|
|Year||Room||Board||Board and Room|
Matriculation Fee. — Until 1880-81 this was called the "admission fee." In the beginning it was ten dollars for all students. The Catalogue of 1864-65 announces a change to ten dollars for residents of Michigan and twenty dollars for all others; that of 1866-67 gives the figures as ten dollars and twenty-five dollars, respectively. These rates were charged until 1935-36, when the matriculation fee was absorbed in the semester fee.
Diploma. — A general diploma fee of ten dollars, which appears in the 1882-83 Catalogue, was charged until 1935-36, when it was also absorbed in the semester fee. Previously, two dollars had been charged for a medical diploma (Cat., 1851-52); the teacher's certificate, two dollars, was first mentioned in the 1907-8 Calendar, Business Administration certificates in 1918-19, and Journalism and Geology certificates in 1922-23.
Deposits against Damage. — In the early years a deposit of one dollar was required of medical students.
Laboratory Fees. — These were first mentioned in the Calendar for 1880-81. "Demonstration courses" in Medicine at ten dollars per course were listed in catalogues from 1898-99 through 1915-16.
Summer Session Fees. — These fees first appeared in the Calendar of 1897-98. A ten dollar fee for a summer surveying course first appeared in the 1905-6 Calendar.
Gymnasium Locker Fees. — A fee of two dollars first appeared in the Calendar of 1898-99. A special Palmer Field fee of one dollar was charged in 1909-10. Beginning in 1912-13 an outdoor physical education fee of five dollars was charged for all students; this was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14. Locker fees are still charged.
Library Fees. — A fee of two dollars was charged law students, according to the Calendar of 1903-4, and all students from 1910-11; this was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14.
Health Service Fee. — A fee of two dollars (fifty cents for the summer session) was listed in the 1911-12 Calendar. This was absorbed in the annual fee in 1913-14.