THE earliest endowed fellowship to be given regularly was the Elisha Jones Classical Fellowship, established on April 17, 1889, by Mrs. Catharine E. Jones in memory of her husband, Elisha Jones ('59, A.M. '62), a member of the faculty from 1870 until his death on August 16, 1888. The fellowship was supported by his widow from 1889 until 1900, and she had intended to endow it, but unfortunately was prevented from doing so by shrinkage of values in the estate. Nevertheless, the list of Elisha Jones Fellows was a notable one: 1889-91, Herbert F. De Cou ('88, A.M. '90), a brilliant archeologist who later met his death in northern Africa; 1891-93, Clarence L. Meader ('91, Ph.D. '00), until 1938 Professor of General Linguistics at Michigan; 1893-95, Walter Dennison ('93, Ph.D. '97), at the time of his death on March 18, 1917, Professor of Latin and Greek at Swarthmore College; 1895-97, Mary Gilmore Williams ('95, Ph.D. '97), Professor of Greek at Mount Holyoke College; 1897-99, Duane Reed Stuart ('96, Ph.D. '01), at the time of his death on August 29, 1941, Professor of Classics at Princeton University; and 1899-1900, Walter D. Hadzsits ('98, Ph.D. '02), who held a professorship at Smith College until he died in 1910.
The Buhl Classical Fellowships, given by Mr. Theodore D. Buhl in 1901, were continued annually by him during his lifetime, and maintained for a number of years by his son, Mr. Lawrence Buhl. Many holders of these fellowships have attained prominence as college or university teachers.
The second fellowship foundation at Michigan was the Angeline Bradford Whittier Fellowship in Botany, which dates from 1903. No others were received until 1910, when the Emma J. Cole Fellowship in Botany was established. In the same year, however, the Regents began the policy of providing stipends out of University funds for a limited number of fellows in the Graduate School. These are the so-called University Fellowships, which are still given. In 1912 the State College Fellowships in the Graduate School were initiated for graduates of the various colleges in the state, who are nominated by their own faculties. Subsequently, in 1927, the Regents established the Alfred H. Lloyd Fellowships in honor of Dean Alfred H. Lloyd (see Part IV: Department of Philosophy); these are given to outstanding candidates who already possess the Ph.D. degree and desire to continue research. In 1933 the University Scholarships in the Graduate School were established to assist outstanding seniors of the undergraduate schools and colleges of the University during their first year in the Graduate School. As in the case of the scholarships, the most numerous Page 1860additions to the list of fellowships have come in the last two decades.
When the Board of Governors of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies met for the first time in April, 1936, the trustees of the Rackham estate had already made provision for ten Horace H. Rackham Predoctoral Fellowships to be awarded annually. The first awards under this gift to the University were made for the second semester of 1934-35. At its first meeting, the Board of Governors voted to continue these ten fellowships and to add two Horace H. Rackham Postdoctoral Fellowships. These twelve fellowships have been continued each year. Periodically, the Board has increased the stipends of the Rackham Fellowships because of the rising cost of living and the increased stipend of similar fellowships in conformity with the original objective of making "these Fellowships, as was originally intended, the most attractive fellowships in the Graduate School."
In the fall of 1945, the Board of Governors set aside a fund for a third category of fellowships, namely, the Horace H. Rackham Special Fellowships for exceptionally promising graduate students whose studies were interrupted by the war. The need for these has naturally diminished with the passage of time.
In the course of its history the University has received many gifts for fellowship purposes and for immediate expenditures. An important class of benefactions of this kind consists of fellowships donated by industrial organizations, from which the University has many times benefited. Chemical engineering, highway engineering, chemistry, and pharmacy have been the commonest fields in which these fellowships have been established, and such concerns as the Allied Chemical and Dye Company, Consumers Power Company, Dow Chemical Company, the duPont de Nemours Company, Eli Lilly and Company, General Motors Corporation, Michigan Gas Association, Parke, Davis and Company, Procter and Gamble Company, Socony Vacuum Company, the Standard Oil companies, and the Upjohn Company have been frequent donors. The late Roy D. Chapin, of Detroit, for many years supplied funds for fellowships in highway engineering and highway transport, and the Carnegie Corporation has shown special interest in librarianship.