The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.

SCHOLARSHIPS

THE scholarship story at the University of Michigan covers a period of almost one hundred years. Emphasis in this article has been placed on the origin of the many kinds and types of scholarships now in existence at the University. These are supported by gifts from individuals, companies, alumni groups, and students; others are provided by tax funds. In type, they vary from those with the very general eligibility bases of character, academic performance, and need to those designated for students who are members of particular families or who live in specified geographical areas. Others are for students engaged in certain fields of study or for those who must meet special eligibility requirements set up by the donors.

The first mention of scholarships in the Regents' Proceedings, in March, 1858, reads as follows: "A communication was received from the President and Academical Faculty relative to the establishment of scholarships, which, on motion of Regent McIntyre, was laid on the table" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 733). At the Regents' meeting of June 24, 1858, the following minutes are recorded: "The memorial of Professor [Andrew D.] Page  1850White relative to the establishment of scholarships was taken from the table. On motion of Regent Baxter the proposition was accepted and the scholarships established" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 746). The "proposition," which was made by a citizen of Michigan, offered to provide $100 on condition that the Regents would vote a similar sum to establish four scholarships of $50 each for competition among entering students. The Regents' Proceedings does not disclose the name of the "citizen of Michigan" who provided the necessary funds. The next mention of scholarships occurred at the meeting of September 29, 1858, when, on motion of Regent Baxter, it was "Resolved, that Professor White be requested to designate the name[s] of the remaining scholarships established at our last session" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 760).

Two of these scholarships, named respectively for President Theodore Dwight Woolsey, of Yale, and President Henry Barnard, of Wisconsin, were awarded for the best examinations in the subjects required for admission to the Classical Department of the University and the other two, named for Douglas Houghton and John D. Pierce, were given to successful competitors in the scientific branches. At a meeting of the Regents on September 20, 1866, however, a motion by Regent Johnson to the effect that prizes for scholarships be discontinued was adopted (R.P., 1864-70, p. 182).

For a long time after 1866 the University offered no scholarships whatsoever, and finally, when others appeared in the record they came as the result of private gifts and not by action of the Regents. The "Scholarship Fund of the Class of '94" was established in 1894 by a gift of $2,000 from that class to be used as loans for the benefit of needy and worthy undergraduates in the Literary Department (R.P., 1891-96, p. 304). This, the first of many class scholarships, memorials, and loan funds established by University classes, by June 30, 1956, had a principal of $14,940. During the school year, 1955-56, sixty-six loans totaling $12,861 were made from this particular fund. Five classes which completed work prior to 1894 also have scholarship or loan funds established after that date.

In his "Annual Report," submitted to the Regents in October, 1894, President Angell noted that it would be desirable for the University to have a number of endowments which would produce fellowships of $400 or $500 annually. He commented: "By the aid of such fellowships Harvard, Cornell and Chicago are constantly drawing some of our most promising graduates to their halls" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 399). Apparently, this recommendation bore fruit, as at the February 21, 1895, meeting, a resolution was passed "that the thanks of this Board be returned to the Parke, Davis & Co., of Detroit, for their gift of five hundred dollars to endow a scholarship in Chemistry for the coming year" (R.P., 1891-96, p. 409). This was the first gift from a corporation to the University for scholarship purposes. Such gifts now number in the hundreds and total many thousands of dollars each year.

In April, 1895, the sum of $25,000 was received from Mrs. Clara Harrison Stranahan of Brooklyn, New York, for the purpose of endowing scholarships in memory of her father, Seth Harrison, for the benefit of his descendants. In the school year 1956-57, three descendants received aid through the Seth Harrison Scholarship Fund. A complete genealogical table of the Harrison family, maintained in the office of the President of the University, shows that these students are in the sixth generation removed from Seth Harrison. While the terms of eligibility for this scholarship are limited, the scholarship is virtually always in use.

In 1895 Mr. Henry Phillips, of Philadelphia, Page  1851founded the Phillips Scholarships, intended as rewards for the best entrance examinations in Greek. This endowment has furnished a remarkable example of the difficulty experienced by a benefactor in foreseeing the future. At the time Mr. Phillips made the gift, Greek was commonly taught in the high schools, and entrance examinations were much more important than they have since become. At the present time almost all students entering the University of Michigan do so either by certification of their preparatory schools or by transfer from some other college, and most students of Greek begin the study of the subject after they have entered college. Consequently, it became necessary for the Regents, in order to carry out the donor's intention, to seek the aid of the courts. As a result the Phillips Scholarships are now awarded on the basis of a special examination, preferably in both Greek and Latin, but, if Greek is not presented, in Latin alone. This was one of the earliest scholarships designed to aid students who are proficient in certain fields. Largely as a result of this experience, the University recommends to prospective donors that the Regents be permitted to exercise discretion in the use of funds if, with unforeseen future changes, it becomes impracticable or inexpedient to pursue the precise course laid down by the donor. The general tenor of the donor's original intention is, of course, always followed.

In 1900 a gift from Margaret E. Hunt, of Detroit, established the Margaret Smith Hunt Scholarships for students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. This gift, which consisted of certain parcels of land in California, was given with the understanding that the land should be retained until after the death of donor and then sold in order to provide funds with which to establish scholarships (R.P., 1896-1901, pp. 546-56). The lands were sold in 1952, and the scholarship fund is now active. The Lucinda Hinsdale Stone Supplementary Loan Scholarship Fund was established in 1904 as the result of a gift from the Michigan State Federation of Women's Clubs, in honor of Lucinda Hinsdale Stone, the first woman to receive an honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the University. The fund is available for loans or for outright grants to women students who face financial emergencies. The original gift of $3,000 has increased until by 1956-57 the principal was $7,449. The first instance of financial aid made available to students by students was the Alice Freeman Palmer Scholarship Fund established in May, 1905, by the Student's Lecture Association. The original gift of $800 has now grown to a sum exceeding $16,000.

In 1917 Levi L. Barbour ('63,'65l), of Detroit, Michigan, gave $50,000 with which to establish the Levi Barbour Oriental Girls Scholarship Fund to enable young women from the Orient to attend the University of Michigan. The principal was increased by further gifts from Mr. Barbour and a bequest at the time of his death in 1926. The fund, which is administered by a special committee, by 1956 had increased to $466,597.

Known at the time it was established in 1918 as the Chicago Association of University of Michigan Alumnae Association Scholarship, and renamed in 1949 the Louise Fairman Scholarship, this endowment fund constituted the first scholarship aid provided by the alumni. Today many alumni and alumnae clubs give assistance to deserving students through locally raised scholarship funds, most frequently providing expenditures on a year-to-year basis. Club officials nominate candidates to the Committee on University Scholarships, which appoints the award winners.

The will of LaVerne Noyes, of Chicago, Page  1852who died in July, 1919, provided that the income from his estate should be used to pay tuition in full or in part for United States citizens, without regard to sex, religion, or political party, who had served in the United States Army or Navy in World War I and been honorably discharged or who were descended by blood from someone who had served. For a number of years the trustees of the LaVerne Noyes estate granted scholarships from this fund, and then in December, 1937, by the gift of $69,600 the trustees established the LaVerne Noyes Foundation to provide scholarships in accordance with the terms of Mr. Noyes's will. Applicants for this scholarship are required to exhibit an honorable discharge or other official document which will establish the military service of the father or grandfather. Some twenty to twenty-five undergraduate students at the University receive tuition grants through this program each year.

Typical of the funds set up during the period from 1920 to 1930 was the D.A.R. War Memorial Scholarship established in 1924 for residents of Michigan. Candidates must be deemed worthy of financial assistance by the Committee on University Scholarships. Other funds begun in this decade were the Joseph Baker and Mary R. Davis Scholarship given in 1922 to help students majoring in geodesy and surveying. The Cornelius and Margaret Donovan Scholarship assists engineering students who are working their way through the University. The Simon Mandlebaum Scholarship, established in 1929, provides six annual scholarships for male students, three in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and three in the College of Engineering. The Stephen Spaulding Scholarship, established in 1926 by the parents of Stephen Spaulding, who died in that year while attending the University, is available to members of Beta Theta Pi fraternity. The Collegiate Sorosis Award, given in 1927 by the husband and children of Maude Merritt Drake, provides an award for the member of the Collegiate Sorosis sorority who gives greatest promise of developing into a fine type of womanhood, and the Agnes C. Weaver Scholarship is for the benefit of medical and premedical students.

The American Indian Scholarships were established by the Regents in 1932 at "the formal request of the Secretary of the Interior, and in recognition of the fact that by the Treaty of Fort Meigs, September 29, 1817, the Indian tribes of this vicinity deeded to the 'College of Detroit,' of which the University of Michigan is the successor, three sections of land [comprising 1,871 acres], which was the first benefaction made to this institution" (R.P., 1929-32, pp. 947-48). Five scholarships are provided each year to cover the semester fees of American Indian students, who may be enrolled in any division of the University. Proof of American Indian ancestry must be established through the United States Office of Indian Affairs, the Department of the Interior, or through other acceptable sources. Applicants, who may be of either sex, are recommended on the basis of worthiness, need, and ability.

Because the University had never had many scholarships for entering freshman students, the Board, in May, 1931, with funds provided by an appropriation, established the Michigan Alumni Undergraduate Scholarships and authorized that a number, not to exceed fifty, should be granted for the year 1931-32. Candidates were nominated by the University of Michigan Alumni Clubs of the state, and the holder of such a scholarship received full tuition for the freshman year. In succeeding years the Regents continued these scholarships and eventually, if satisfactory academic work was Page  1853maintained, they become renewable for the sophomore, junior, and senior years. Each alumni club in the state, depending on its size had the privilege of recommending from one to three candidates for this program.

At the July, 1943, meeting, the Regents established the University List Scholarships, whereby a scholarship becomes available for a graduate of each secondary school on the accredited list of the University. Qualifications for these scholarships include academic ability, desirable personal characteristics, good citizenship and health, and need of financial assistance. This program greatly increased the number of students entering the University with tuition assistance.

About a year later, in October, 1944, the Regents merged the University List Scholarship plan and the Michigan Alumni Undergraduate Scholarships into a single scholarship program known as the Regents-Alumni Scholarships. These grants are open to graduating seniors, one in each of the accredited high schools of the state. In addition, a number of awards at large are made annually to provide for those communities where more than one well-qualified candidate applies. In the selection procedure, the applicants write a competitive examination and are interviewed by University alumni who submit individual evaluations of each candidate. The scholarships cover semester fees and are renewable for the normal duration of the undergraduate program in which the student is enrolled. Five hundred and forty-six Regents-Alumni Scholarship awards were made in 1956.

At the May meeting of 1941, the Regents, upon recommendation of the Conference of Deans, established the Michigan Public Junior College Scholarships, which provide tuition based upon the enrollment of each of the public junior colleges in the state. These scholarships, covering tuition for the junior year and renewable for an additional year, provide scholarships for each 200 students, or a major fraction thereof, enrolled in the public junior colleges. Candidates, who must be citizens of the United States and residents of Michigan, are nominated to the Committee on University Scholarships by the officials of the respective junior colleges.

The Scholarship Division of the Office of Student Affairs, established by the Board in 1947, administers most of the scholarships which are not designated for a particular school or college. This division also prepares a bulletin summarizing information about scholarships, fellowships, and awards.

The Bomber Scholarship, supported by funds raised by students during the years of World War II, was one of the first to be administered by the new office. It was intended, originally, to provide tuition for students who had had their education interrupted because of war service. When the United States Congress passed the G. I. Bill, the Bomber Scholarship, in the form of grants of $100 a semester, was set up to give supplementary assistance to deserving veterans. Several hundred students received assistance through this program between 1947 and 1952.

The Elmer Gedeon Memorial Scholarship, established in 1951 by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics in memory of "M" letter winners who lost their lives in World War II, is open to undergraduate men students showing: moral character and good citizenship; scholastic ability and intellectual capacity and achievement; physical ability; and capacity and promise of leadership and success. It is the intention of the Board that these scholarships shall not be awarded to the recipients as athletes, but that candidates must be Page  1854well-rounded young men possessing the necessary qualities. The scholarships, which vary in amount according to individual need, range in value from $200 to $1,500 a year, and are renewable for three years if the holder maintains a B average.

In 1955 the Michigan Alumni Fund Nonresident Freshman Scholarship program, designed to pay the difference between instate and outstate fees, was established. Candidates are nominated by out-of-state University of Michigan clubs throughout the United States and territories. Fifteen awards were made in 1955 and twenty in 1956. These scholarships are renewable for four years if the student maintains a satisfactory average.

The General Motors Corporation College Scholarship plan was instituted in 1955. By this plan five entering freshmen receive scholarships, varying from $200 to $1,500 a year, based upon the financial need of the family of each winner. In 1955 the National Merit Scholarship Program tested more than 60,000 high school seniors and announced 504 awards to take effect in September, 1956. Students winning Merit Scholarships may attend the college of their choice. Nine of the winners elected to attend the University of Michigan. Other corporate groups including the Lockheed Aircraft Company, the Detroit Edison Company, the Consumers' Power Company, and the Argus Camera Company established scholarships available to students entering the University of Michigan between 1950 and 1956.

In the fall of 1956 the Educational Testing Service, which is supported by a large group of sponsors, offered the Scholarship Qualifying Test, and on October 24, 1956, 67,000 high school seniors throughout the nation competed. The University of Michigan is one of the many colleges and universities which will use the scores from this test in considering freshman scholarship applicants. The College Scholarship Service, a division of the Educational Testing Service, provides forms and procedures for use in determining the financial need of scholarship applicants. The University used this service for the first time in 1956-57.

Virtually all scholarships given at the University of Michigan have a need factor. The Horace H. Rackham Undergraduate Scholarships are an exception. This fund provides awards to worthy young men who combine academic ability, fine character, and athletic ability in their qualifications. Applicants are not required to supply financial information. Annually, about five awards of $500 a year are made through this program.

From the very beginning of the scholarship program at the University in 1858, gifts and appropriations have increased until 4,640 students received a total of $1,448,843 through undergraduate scholarships and graduate fellowships in 1955-56. Some $600,000 of these funds came from endowment income. Another $475,000 was provided from the general funds of the University. Foundations provided about $200,000 and industry another $300,000. The balance came from miscellaneous sources.

Graduate School Scholarships. — The State College Scholarships in the Graduate School were established by the Board of Regents in 1912 for graduates of the various accredited colleges in the state (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 365-66). Nomination of a candidate is made to the Dean of the Graduate School by the faculty of the college from which the student comes. In 1933 University Scholarships, the stipend of which covers registration fees only, were established in the Graduate School by the Regents. Properly qualified graduates of any accredited college or university may apply for Page  1855these, and selections are made primarily on the basis of scholastic achievement rather than pecuniary need.

In February, 1938, a little more than three years after beginning their support of graduate fellowships, the trustees of the Rackham estate made a gift to the University to be designated as the Horace H. Rackham Fund for Undergraduate Scholarships. This fund is administered by a small committee, of which the Dean of the Graduate School is chairman. Eligibility requirements for these scholarships are quite similar to those for the Rhodes Scholarships, namely, high scholastic ability, moral character, leadership, and physical ability.

In November, 1953, the Regents established the Herbert Boynton Scholarship Fund, made possible through a generous gift to the University from the estate of the late Herbert E. Boynton. It was the desire of the donor that the income from the endowment be used to provide scholarships for worthy members of the junior and senior classes in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and for graduates of that College who are in the Graduate School. On the basis of enrollment of qualified students, one-fourth of the income from this Fund is allocated for graduate scholarships covering registration fees only. The Herbert E. Boynton Scholarships were awarded for the first time in the academic year, 1954-55.

The Barbour Scholarships

President Ruthven has characterized the University of Michigan's Barbour Scholarships for Oriental Women as a unique possession. In the long list of scholarships and fellowships for foreign students in the United States nothing comparable in number and widespread influence can be found. Some 212 women have been provided University training, qualifying them to return for lives of service in their homelands. They come from a dozen countries, spanning Asia to Istanbul. Their service literally encircles the globe: they are in Hawaii, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, India, Syria, and Turkey, with a few in Europe and a number in the United States.

The generous gifts of Levi Lewis Barbour to his alma mater were chiefly in the interest of women — a gift of property in Detroit, which led to the naming of Barbour Gymnasium in his honor, Betsy Barbour House, and the Barbour Scholarships. He was also instrumental in establishing the Office of Dean of Women and in selecting the first incumbent and was ever the champion of education for women, although he had no sisters or daughters, and his wife was an invalid. But he had a New England mother of great courage and inspiration who was completely devoted to her family. His desire was to raise the standard of the home and of society by educating women as well as men. Mr. Barbour, who was graduated from the University in 1863, and from the Law School two years later, was Regent of the University from 1892 to 1898 and from 1902 to 1908.

While traveling in the Orient, Mr. Barbour was impressed with the remarkable work of three women trained in medicine at Michigan: two Chinese, Mary Stone, '96m, and Ida Kahn, '96m, and one Japanese, Tomo Inouye, '01m. He saw a need and an opportunity — Oriental women scientifically and broadly trained at Michigan could return to their homes for a life of service. He began to plan for the scholarships that bear his name. His main purpose was beautifully though briefly expressed in a letter to President Hutchins: "The idea of the Oriental girls' scholarships is to bring Page  1856girls from the Orient, give them an Occidental education and let them take back whatever they find good and assimilate the blessings among the peoples from which they come."

On June 22, 1917, Mr. Barbour appeared before the Board of Regents and presented to the University a foundation of $50,000 to establish scholarships for young women from Oriental countries. The amount was increased several times during his life, and his residuary estate raised the assets of the foundation to approximately $650,000.

The memorandum of agreement designated a committee in charge of the scholarships consisting of "the President of the University, the Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the Dean of Women, and the Dean of the Medical School." Instruction was provided for applicants not fully prepared to elect the University courses required. So rapid was the development of women's education in the Orient and at the University that eleven years later a majority of the Barbour scholars were graduate students and, upon petition, the Board of Regents added to the committee the Dean of the Graduate School.

In 1920, according to a letter to Mr. Barbour, "the Committee decided to appoint some person with a personal knowledge of conditions in the Far East. One of the instructors in Astronomy has been thought of for the work." Accordingly, W. Carl Rufus, who retired as Professor of Astronomy and Secretary of the Barbour Scholarships in 1946, was drafted.

Mr. Barbour lived to see his dream rapidly being realized. When he died in 1925, the total number of appointees had reached nearly sixty, of whom twenty-five attended the University during 1924-25, the number he had hoped to see. Many had visited him in his home and those in America at the time of his death attended his funeral in Detroit as a group and were present at a memorial service at Betsy Barbour House in Ann Arbor. On the latter occasion one of the Chinese Barbour Scholars was called upon to respond extemporaneously. She expressed the sincere appreciation of the entire group and pledged the consecration of their lives to the development of education for women in the Orient. She was Dr. Yi-fang Wu, who became president of Ginling College.

Among the scholars who had returned to the Orient at that time was another future college president, Dr. Lucy Wang, of Hwa Nan College, formerly at Foochow. The committee takes pride in the fact that the presidents of the two colleges for women in China were Barbour Scholars, trained at Michigan. Scores of other leaders in education, medicine, and social service indicate that Mr. Barbour's anticipations have rapidly come to full realization.

To announce the scholarships in the Orient and to develop a method of securing applications and making appointments were the chief problems first faced by the committee. Letters were sent to Michigan alumni in the Orient, to government officials, and to educational institutions admitting women.

Advisory Barbour Scholarship committees, whose chief function was to accept applications, certify the academic credentials, pass judgment on general qualifications, and make recommendations, were appointed in several Oriental countries. In some other countries selected institutions or individuals acted as special advisers.

The transformation of the first Barbour Scholar, Kameyo Sadakata, a tiny and timid Japanese schoolgirl, into a well-trained pediatrician required eleven years. After several months in Mr. Barbour's home she matriculated for premedical courses in September, 1915, and entered the Medical School three years later.

Determination and persistence finally Page  1857won for her the coveted M.D. degree in 1924. She devoted an additional year to special work in pediatrics in the laboratory of Dr. D. M. Cowie.

Of the 212 appointees up to 1941, approximately one-half were Chinese, one-fifth Japanese, with Indians, Filipinos, and Koreans making up the large majority of the others. Turkey, Siam, Sumatra, Arabia, Malaya, Syria, Hawaii, and Bulgaria have also been represented. Applications and inquiries have also been received from Jews, Armenians, Singhalese, and natives of islands of the Pacific. In 1938 at the Kuling Conference of China's leading women, there were fifty-four women representing thirteen provinces, among whom were eight Michigan graduates including seven Barbour Scholars. The People's Political Council, with a membership of 214, has fourteen women members, including two Barbour Scholars, Mrs. C. L. Lo (née Wei-djen Djang), wife of the president of National Central University, and Dr. Wu.

Among the seventy-five applicants for the year 1928-29 was a young woman from a high-class Kashmiri Brahmin family, Miss Sharkeshwari Agha, with a B.A., M.A., and LL.B. from the University of Allahabad, who was the principal of a high school in that city. At the meeting of the committee to make the awards she was appointed. During two years at Michigan she specialized in education and received another M.A. degree. She left in 1930. Miss Agha has served on a number of national committees and as secretary of the All-India Women's Conference for Education and Social Reform. She became a member of the court of Allahabad University, supreme controlling body of that organization.

In the Osaka Mainichi, October 10, 1930, was an article in Japanese, translated in part as follows: "A Korean-born Young Woman, the beautiful Miss Whang-Kyung Koh, will be Graduated with the Degree, Bachelor of Law, from Doshisha University next spring. As she is the first woman of her race to graduate from this university, the event is as marked as the appearance of a red flower in the midst of green foliage."

She entered Michigan as a Barbour Scholar in the fall of 1931, earned an M.A. in economics in 1933, then specialized in sociology, completing the courses required for a doctorate and obtaining sufficient material for her dissertation. In 1935 she returned to her native land.

She obtained a teaching position, spent some time completing her thesis, and, with her sister, organized a social settlement near Seoul, the expense of which, including one full-time worker, was paid out of the sisters' salaries. In 1937 Miss Koh's Ph.D. in sociology was granted at Michigan. Dr. Koh became dean of the School of Home Economics and head of the Department of Economics at Ehwa College, Seoul, the only college for Korean women.

The first Barbour Scholar from Manila was Maria C. Lanzar. At Michigan Miss Lanzar specialized in political science. After receiving her Ph.D. in 1928 she returned to Manila as a member of the faculty in political science. She also served for several years as dean of women.

A new feature, the Barbour Fellowships, was established in 1928 to be awarded upon invitation to Oriental women of noteworthy achievement. They yielded a larger stipend than the scholarships and were intended to provide for a year's leave of absence with an opportunity to use the classrooms, libraries, and laboratories of the University for special investigation and research. Invitations were extended and accepted by ten fellows from 1928 to 1932, when the plan was temporarily discontinued.

Among the former Barbour Scholars a Page  1858large percentage is now in the United States. More than one hundred and fifty, however, are in their native lands carrying out Mr. Barbour's desire to raise the status of women in the home and society. Over one hundred are active in the field of education. In Japan most of our Barbour Scholars are connected with colleges for women.

Many Barbour Scholars have entered the field of medicine. The contributions of Barbour Scholars in the emancipation of women in the Orient have also been outstanding. Only one Chinese Barbour Scholar, as far as is known to the writer, had suffered from bound feet. That practice has passed away. To the Oriental, however, the custom was not as bad as the old American method of binding and distorting the waist. Only one scholar came directly from Indian purdah. She was accompanied from her seclusion to the secretary's office by an uncle; during the first interview, in spite of many attempts to hear her voice, the secretary could distinguish only a faint response, and she looked up but once. Not long afterward, she was a free individual able to say that her soul was her own. From suppression she came to the chairmanship of a nation's political council, from inferiority to recognition in medical and other learned societies.

A large number of former Barbour Scholars are engaged in religious work. From Japan, especially, many Barbour Scholars come from Christian mission schools and colleges, because these institutions give adequate preparation in English, while the government institutions in general do not. That gave rise to a question by a Japanese educator whether anyone not a Christian could apply. He appeared surprised to learn that among our Barbour Scholars are representatives of many Far Eastern religions and some who claim "no religion."

Barbour Scholars come under the same regulations as other women students and have been excellently provided for, probably better than Oriental men. During the earlier days some advocated that the Barbour Scholars should be assigned to the women's dormitories so that they could benefit by associating with American girls. The secretary's rejoinder was "so that the Americans may profit by the example of the Oriental girls."

The academic standard maintained by the Barbour Scholars has been uniformly very high; scarcely a failure has been recorded. A total of about three hundred academic degrees has been granted to Barbour Scholars, of which master's exceed one-half, doctor's, including M.D.'s, exceed one-quarter.

Many have been elected to honorary societies. Quite remarkably it seems, at least two have won honors in creative writing in English; major Hopwood awards have been granted to Man-kuei Li and to Celia Chao.

But one major object of Mr. Barbour's benefaction remains to be consummated. The Barbour Scholars have been designated as "ambassadors of goodwill." Their broad training and experience have developed a sympathetic understanding of other races. On the Michigan campus during two world wars, the Barbour Scholars have mingled with an equanimity which is even finer than the virtue of Oriental courtesy. The spirit of helpfulness has been frequently demonstrated as a representative of one belligerent nation welcomed a new scholar of an enemy race, assisted in introducing her to the intricacies of American university life, and successfully aided in guiding her through the labyrinth of new paths and the crossword puzzle of unfamiliar election cards and enrollment blanks to be sorted and signed. As they returned to their native lands these Page  1859women carried this spirit of international friendship and helpfulness.

Frank L. Huntley, Professor of English, succeeded Professor Rufus as Secretary of the Barbour Scholarship Committee in 1946. In 1949-50 the income of the fund was drastically cut when the Regents refinanced the principal. At present the fund amounts to about $450,000. When the income dropped it was necessary to curtail the number of scholarships from twenty-five to fifteen. Married women are now eligible. The scholarship pays tuition, fees, and a stipend of $1,000 an academic year.