The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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Part VIII

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The Michigan League

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The Libraries

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Page  1369

THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

The University Library to 1941

THE history of the General Library of the University of Michigan begins almost with that of the University itself. The Reverend John Monteith, President of the Catholepistemiad or University of Michigania, mentions in his diary that a part of the little University building erected in Detroit in 1817 was occupied by a Detroit library.

In the Act of 1837, which provided for the organization of the University in Ann Arbor, it was stipulated that as much as was necessary of the moneys received from student fees should be expended in keeping the buildings in good condition; the balance was to be used for the increase of the Library. Although no money was forthcoming from this source for the Library the Regents in 1837 "elected" the Reverend Henry Colclazer to the position of librarian (R.P., 1837-64, p. 7). He held his office, which must have been a sinecure, until 1845. During the next eleven years the librarian's duties were assumed for brief periods by various members of the faculty.

A year after Colclazer's appointment the Regents passed a resolution commissioning Dr. Asa Gray, who had been appointed Professor of Botany and who had asked for a year abroad prior to taking up his teaching duties, to buy books:

That Dr. Asa Gray, Professor of Botany in the University of Michigan, in his contemplated tour in Europe be requested to purchase a library for the University of Michigan, that the sum of five thousand dollars be appropriated and placed in his hands to carry that object into effect, … and that fifteen hundred dollars be advanced to Doctor Gray for defraying the expenses which he may incur in the execution of the commission hereby confided to him.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 56.)

Further resolutions specified the classes of books to be purchased and requested Gray "to embody his observations of a scientific, literary, and philosophical character … in the form of a report, to be laid before the Board of Regents on his return home."

As a result of this commission Gray, through George Palmer Putnam,* purchased 3,400 volumes "embracing the various departments of history, philosophy, classical literature, sciences and arts, (and) jurisprudence, …" The Regents' committee on the Library reported that a large proportion of these books consisted of works which could not be obtained in America, while many of the editions were scarce and rare in Europe.

The list of books bought, which was printed as a state document (Joint Doc.) in 1841, has been compared with the catalogues, and most of the books have survived a century of active use and are still in the Library.

The commission given Gray did not represent all the activities of the Regents in regard to the Library, for in 1838 they ordered a copy of Rafn's Antiquitates Americanae, and in 1839 they paid $970 for a copy of Audubon's Birds of America, which is still in the University collections.

It is also worthy of note that the first gifts to the University, as far as known, took the form of books. In 1840 Dr. C. W. Borup, of La Point, on Lake Superior, Page  1370donated a set of Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexikon, which is still in the Library. "An ancient Runic book," given in 1844, by Alexandre Vattimare, a librarian in New York, has never been fully identified.

After this auspicious beginning little was done for the Library until President Tappan, shortly after his arrival, appealed to the citizens of Ann Arbor for funds with which to buy books. As a result $1,515 was subscribed in 1854, and during the year "by donation and purchase" 1,200 volumes were added. As early as 1847 the Regents had begun to make regular appropriations for the Library. In 1865, $1,000 was set aside for the General Library, $500 for the Law Library, and $400 for the Medical Library. This was increased to $5,000 a year in 1877, and by 1891 the appropriation was $15,000 for a two-year period. The Librarian reported in June, 1877, that the collection consisted of 23,909 volumes and 800 pamphlets, with an average annual increase of about 800 volumes.

During the University's early years in Ann Arbor there was no regularly assigned room for the Library. Books were kept wherever convenient. In 1840 it was resolved "that the Building Committee be authorized to provide temporary shelves in one of the Professors' houses at Ann Arbor for the Library" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 140). In November, 1841, it was resolved "that the Librarian be authorized to remove the Library to one of the large rooms in the Main Building" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 202). At this time the Committee on the Library reported:

The books of which a catalogue has been printed, belonging to the University, have been carefully preserved in temporary cases, prepared for them, in one of the houses for Professors. Since the organization of the Faculty, it has been judged best that measures should be taken for the purpose of giving the Institution the advantages appropriately accruing to it from the possession of the Library. Rules and regulations have therefore been prepared, with the co-operation and concurrence of the Faculty and Librarian, for the purpose of rendering those advantages available. The following are the regulations which for the present have been adopted:

    Regulations for the Library.
  • 1. The Librarian or his Assistant shall keep the key of the Library and shall permit none but the Regents of the University and members of the Faculty to enter the Library except in his company.
  • 2. The Librarian shall keep a catalogue of the books of the Library and an account of all books borrowed therefrom, including the name of the borrower and the time of delivery of the book.
  • 3. The Library shall be open for the delivery of books once a week on such day and hours as the Librarian may appoint when all the students of the University may enjoy its privileges under the restrictions which follow.
  • 4. No book shall be loaned to students except such as may have been distinctly specified by the Faculty as suitable for such use.
  • 5. No student shall receive more than two volumes at a time nor retain a volume longer than two weeks, without renewal, nor lend, nor carry it out of his room except to return it to the Library. A volume may be renewed only once except by special permission of a Professor.
  • 6. A student not returning a volume in his possession within two weeks, shall incur a penalty of twenty-five cents and an additional penalty of fifty cents for every additional week of delinquency, which penalty shall be paid to the Librarian before such student shall have any further use of the Library.
  • 7. Borrowers of books from the Library are forbidden to write or mark in them or to turn down a leaf.
  • 8. All damages done to books shall be estimated by the Librarian and shall be promptly paid. If a volume shall be lost or Page  1371destroyed, the borrower shall pay for the whole set or replace it.
  • 9. Such books as by reason of their great value or scarcity could not easily be replaced, shall not be loaned but shall be kept for consultation in the Library.
  • 10. No person visiting the Library shall be allowed to take down or put up a volume without permission of the Librarian or his assistant.
  • 11. Any violation of these rules will be punishable by fine or exclusion from the use of the library.

It has been thought altogether impracticable and inappropriate to the use and design of the College Library that it should be rendered a circulating Library for the benefit of the surrounding population, and therefore books are not to be loaned but as above prescribed. Yet it is a matter under consideration by the Committee whether it would not be proper to instruct the Faculty and Librarian to afford access to the Library during the presence of the Librarian at such fixed time to be designated by him, to such as may desire to consult any of the authors, it being understood that no work whatever is to be carried out of the Library by such visitants or readers.


(R.P., 1837-64, pp. 195-96.)

Eventually, the growth of the University and of the Library itself, made necessary a more adequate arrangement, and in 1856 the Library was installed in what were for the time commodious quarters in another part of North College (old Mason Hall), remodeled "for the accommodation of the Library and Museum." For the first time a reading room was provided, the books were placed on shelves, and a daily service was inaugurated.

John L. Tappan, a son of President Tappan, was put in charge in 1856, and became in effect the first Librarian of the University. According to a report by a later Librarian, Raymond C. Davis, an extraordinary demand for library books "seemed to spring into existence." This gratifying result was due in part to the installation of a card catalogue, one of the first in America. The completion of the Law Building (old Haven Hall) in 1863 made possible the removal of the Library to the quarters in which it remained for twenty years. In 1880 Acting President Frieze reported:

It is to be regretted that the department (of Law), by the intrusion of the University Library, is still deprived of the use of a large portion of the building originally intended for its exclusive accommodation. I hope that the necessity for this kind of trespass will soon be removed.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 580.)

In the same year Dean T. M. Cooley of the Law School stated:

Two important interests have long suffered from comparative neglect when University funds were being appropriated. One of these is the University Library, which has now for some fifteen years been imperfectly accommodated with what was intended to be, and should have been, only temporary quarters, in the Law Building…

The great and paramount need of the University at this time, in our opinion, is better accommodations for the University Library. For this purpose a building specially designed for the Library is required. Its erection would accommodate and advantage every professor and every student in every school of the University, and would enable the library to be protected and increased…


(P.R., 1879-80, pp. 60-61.)
In 1880 the Library Committee, representing the various departments of the University, reported:

2. The large increase in the number of students and in the number of subjects taught in the various Departments of the University has, in a corresponding degree, increased the use of the General Library. The tables and alcoves are so crowded as to cause great inconvenience and discomfort to both students and Faculties. In fact, it is simply impossible to accommodate the number of persons now needing to use the Library.

Page  13723. The growth of the University just mentioned, and particularly the large increase in the number of those studying for second degrees, make well-nigh indispensable an immediate outlay of several thousand dollars for books. In answer to inquiries addressed to heads of departments in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, we find that very few subjects can be assigned for theses, on which there is any adequate apparatus for study in the General Library. The growing importance of this department of our work should not be overlooked.

4. The newly added departments of Pedagogy and Music, as well as several new Courses in Literature, Science, and Art, — all create an additional demand for books.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 600.)

The legislature, in response to the solicitation of the Regents in 1881, appropriated $100,000 for a new library. Though there was some delay the new structure, which was to be used by many generations of students, was ready for occupancy in 1883. It stood in the center of the campus, where its twin towers, one on either side of a semicircular apse which enclosed the reading room, were perhaps the most striking feature of the campus. The east tower contained the University clock and Westminster chimes, which marked the quarter hours. For many years this building proved adequate, but eventually a further enlargement was necessary. In 1899 the bookstacks were extended to a capacity of 200,000 volumes.

When President Tappan was removed in 1863, his son John L. Tappan ceased to be Librarian. His place was filled temporarily by Datus Chase Brooks ('56, A.M. '59), Assistant Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature. In 1864 the Reverend Andrew Ten Brook (Madison [Utica, N.Y.] '39), who had been Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy from 1844 to 1851, was made Librarian. Ten Brook was the first historian of the University, and his book on American State Universities and the University of Michigan, published in 1875, is a mine of information on the University's earliest years in Ann Arbor. He resigned as Librarian in 1877 to be succeeded by Raymond Cazallis Davis (A.M. hon. '81), who had joined the Library staff in 1868.

Davis was born at Cushing, Maine, June 23, 1836. He came to Ann Arbor in 1855, one of many young men attracted to the University of Michigan from New England in the fifties and sixties. Because of illness he did not graduate with his class. In 1868, however, he was made Assistant Librarian of the University, holding the post until 1872, when he returned to Maine. In 1877 he was recalled to the University as Librarian, a position he filled until 1905 when he was made Librarian Emeritus. He died in 1919 at the age of eighty-two.

He was a lovable man, devoted to his task as Librarian, spending himself freely for many years, and accomplishing much with small means. The records of the Library Committee, all in his handwriting, the well-planned and executed card catalogues, the collection purchased with rare skill and meager funds testify to his effectiveness as a Librarian. Generations of students knew him as a kindly and friendly mentor, always willing to help them and guide them to the reading of good books.

In 1878 Davis joined the American Library Association and was long associated with its work, being a life member. He was one of the early co-operators in Poole's Index and in other joint undertakings. He early inaugurated a course in practical bibliography which he continued to give until age forced him to cease teaching.

In 1890, though with less than 90,000 volumes in its collections, the General Page  1373Library for more than a decade had been the strongest Library in this country, west of Cornell. Davis reported:

There were in the Libraries of the University, Sept. 30, 1890, 74,599 volumes, 14,907 unbound pamphlets, and 571 maps; in the Law Library 10,218 volumes; in the Medical Library 4,146 volumes and 996 unbound pamphlets; and in the Library of the Dental College, 500 volumes.

During the year 260 periodicals have been regularly received, as follows: In the General Library, 184; in the Medical Library, 56; in the Law Library, 7; and in the Library of the Dental College, 13.


(R.P., 1886-91, p. 467.)

In 1891 the policy of supporting the Library by a series of special appropriations from the legislature came to an end. With the increase of the general tax from one-twentieth to one-sixth of a mill in 1893, the Regents fixed the annual appropriation for the Library at $15,000 annually.

Davis began a policy of securing capable assistants. It is not generally known that Professor Fred Newton Scott, later so well-known to students of English, was Assistant Librarian from October, 1888, to October, 1889. Frederick Parker Jordan ('79) held the same post from 1889 to 1922. He became Assistant Librarian in 1889 and Associate Librarian in 1920. He had charge of the preparation of books for the shelves, and subsequently he took over the entire burden of classification. Trained as a philologist at the University and in Germany, Jordan brought to his seemingly routine work an extensive knowledge of languages, a wide acquaintance with classical and modern literature, and a long experience which rendered his services extraordinarily valuable to the Library. Byron A. Finney ('71) was Reference Librarian from 1891 to 1916. Anderson Hoyt Hopkins (Ph.B. '92) was Assistant Librarian from 1892 to 1895, when he left to help in the organization of the John Crerar Library in Chicago.

Under Davis gifts of important special collections were made to the Library. In 1870 Philo Parsons of Detroit bought and presented to the University the library of Professor Karl H. Rau of Heidelberg, a valuable collection of books and pamphlets relating principally to the science of political economy. Mr. Parsons also paid for the continuation of several of the serial publications contained in the collection, and added still other works. In 1898 the Parsons Collection contained 4,325 bound volumes and 5,000 pamphlets.

The gift of the McMillan Shakespeare Collection from James McMillan in 1883 was perhaps even more important. Though funds for keeping it up by additions of newer materials have been insufficient, this collection is one of the important Shakespeare collections for scholarly research in this country. The valuable Goethe Collection, fathered by Professor Calvin Thomas, of the Department of German, and largely the gift of the German citizens of Michigan, while smaller than the Shakespeare Collection, has also been of much service. The private library of Dr. Edward Dorsch, of Monroe, Michigan, also added during Davis' term as Librarian, and the small but very valuable private collection of W. W. Murphy, long Consul-General of the United States at Frankfurt-am-Main, were notable acquisitions.

In 1896 the University established its own bindery, set up in the Library under the superintendence of William Charles Hollands. From modest beginnings this bindery grew to considerable size. (The printing which had earlier been a function of the bindery was transferred to the Press Building in the early nineteen thirties.) By 1940 the establishment had specially designed quarters in the northeast corner of the basement of the Page  1374present Library Building and still profited from Mr. Hollands' supervision, notwithstanding his partial retirement from active duty in 1929. It was not until 1944, when Mr. Hollands was eighty-two, that the Regents relieved him of all duties and responsibilities, though continuing his salary and commending "his long, expert, and devoted service to the University."

The two decades from 1890 to 1910 were marked by slow growth in the book stock of the General Library. Careful selection was a necessary result of strictly limited funds for book purchases, but the most careful selection could not meet the problems presented by an expanding curriculum, an enlarged faculty, and a student body growing by the proverbial leaps and bounds. Noticeable also was the growing pressure caused by increased reading for research work being carried on by faculty and graduate students. The policy of extensive purchase of periodical sets begun by Dr. Vaughan for the Medical School and so amusingly described by him in his autobiography, A Doctor's Memories (pp. 205-6), was followed in other disciplines, particularly in the Literary College and in the nascent Graduate School.

The Coyl and Ford-Messer bequests proved to be a great boon to the Library. Though small ($10,000 and $20,000, respectively) from the standpoint of a later day, these two endowments enabled the Library to purchase sets and journals which could not otherwise have been acquired. The income of the Coyl Fund, the gift of Miss Jean L. Coyl, of Detroit, in 1894, in memory of her brother, Colonel William Henry Coyl, was devoted chiefly to the purchase of expensive books and sets in the field of the arts and archaeology. The Ford-Messer Fund was established in 1894 by Dr. Corydon L. Ford, for many years Professor of Anatomy in the Medical School. The income from this fund was used mainly to buy sets of the publications of the major European learned societies and academies. Unfortunately, as these purchases grew in number, and as the current subscriptions for the annual additions to these transactions and proceedings were charged to these funds, the income became practically mortgaged. The Coyl and Ford-Messer funds, however, continue to yield each year most happy and beneficent fruits to the Library. Already the total income expended has far surpassed the original sums received as endowments and has added steadily through the years materials of prime importance to University study.

The contribution of Edward Lorraine Walter, long an energetic and most influential teacher of French, should not be forgotten. After his tragic death in the sinking of "La Bourgogne" in 1898, Professor Walter's private library was given to the University in 1900. It continues to be very useful, furnishing many sound editions of the French and Italian classic and modern writers. To many of the older men on the faculty his bookplate with his favorite motto recalls a beloved teacher. Many collections, the fruit of ripe judgment gained in years of University life, have enriched the Library. These include the philosophical library of Professor George Sylvester Morris, presented by his widow in 1896, and added to generously in later years by gifts of money.

The practice of reserving certain books, frequently several copies of each title, for the use of classes began at Michigan in the autumn of 1889, when Professor Francis W. Kelsey arranged for about a hundred and fifty books to be held on shelves near the loan desk for the use of the students in his well-attended course in Roman Archaeology and Antiquities. From this modest Page  1375beginning, regarded as a great innovation at the time, the practice grew until by 1915 it became evident that special provision would be required for outside reading in connection with undergraduate courses. Two rooms had been provided in the building erected in 1881-83 for the use of advanced students: the East Seminary Room for history and the West Seminary Room for classics. Thus, a beginning was made in that differentiation of service to groups within the University which has so marked the developments in recent years.

With the advent of Theodore Wesley Koch (Pennsylvania '92, A.M. Harvard '94) as Librarian, a period of rapid development began for the Library. After service at the Library of Congress and at Cornell, where he published a large and detailed catalogue of the Willard Fiske Dante Collection, Koch was appointed Assistant Librarian at the University of Michigan in 1904, becoming Chief Librarian the following year when Davis became Librarian Emeritus. He held the post until the summer of 1915, when serious illness compelled him to resign. Later, he became librarian of Northwestern University.

The Library Building was enlarged in 1910 by the addition of bookstacks at the south. A part of the space formerly occupied by the Art Gallery was also set aside for stacks. The remainder was made into a Graduate Reading Room for advanced students including those of the Medical School. The south part of the Gallery, which was used for stacks, presents a novel architectural solution of a most difficult problem. The original cast iron stacks were not designed to carry the weight of additional stories, hence trusses were used to bear the weight of the two floors. The trusses themselves were supported by columns of brickwork embedded in the walls. The additional shelving thus ingeniously installed was completely filled by 1915.

In 1900 the General Library counted 258,633 volumes and for its size was unquestionably one of the best in America. By June, 1915, the number of volumes had grown to 352,718. Funds had never been large, and only constant care and supervision of expenditure had kept the Library properly supplied with books.

Certain innovations of importance brought about by Koch put the Library in line with modern practice. The Reading Room on the first floor was furnished with a large and carefully selected collection of reference books, and the students were given the privilege of "borrowing books from the General Library for use in their own rooms." In early days the reference collection had been meager in the extreme — a few dictionaries, atlases, and encyclopedias contained in a small case in the center of the room. To these were added some three thousand books of reference placed in cases against the outer walls of the semicircular Reading Room, available for consultation by any reader. How great this change was can be understood only by those who as students had to apply for reference books at the loan desk. Home use of books by students soon grew to large proportions. The privilege has been valued and has been very little abused.

Byron A. Finney joined the staff as Reference Librarian in 1891, and it was found possible after 1900 to add to the Library staff a small number of professionally trained librarians. A Catalogue Department was created, and later an Order Department. It is noteworthy that before the end of the nineteenth century, the Library had been arranged on the Dewey Decimal System, and before 1910 the use of printed cards bought from the Library of Congress had been thoroughly established. Subject cataloguing had been introduced by Hopkins and Jordan Page  1376before 1895. Shelf-lists for inventory purposes were begun equally early. Technically, the Library's methods were in conformity with modern practice, but the force was always too small to permit the application of these methods with full satisfaction either to the Library staff or to the University.

Further service to advanced students was attempted in the upper Reading Room following the removal of the art collections to Alumni Memorial Hall after it was completed in 1910. The limitations of the Library Building, however, prevented any considerable enlargement of the service in either direction.

Perhaps the most significant of various changes and improvements was the adoption in 1913 of the principle of segregating rare and costly books in the Rare Book Rooms, with consultation rooms adjoining the storage space. This was accomplished with some difficulty by enclosing the southern half of the third floor of bookstacks and providing metal doors and metal window coverings. The principle was undoubtedly sound, but implementation was difficult because the more valuable books were locked up, and every time they were needed it was necessary to apply at the loan desk or the Librarian's office. Until 1917 it was not possible to provide special service for the rare books, to keep the room open, and to give expert supervision. Professor Isaac N. Demmon ('68, M.A. '71), who had been instrumental in acquiring many of the rare books for the Library, was made Curator, and Miss Eunice Wead (Smith '02, New York State Library School [Albany] '03, A.M. Michigan '27), Assistant Curator. On Professor Demmon's death in 1920, Miss Wead, later Associate Professor of Library Science, was made Curator, resigning in 1924 to become Assistant Librarian of the William L. Clements Library of American History.

A new building was imperatively needed long before the insistent efforts of President Hutchins finally secured from the Legislature of 1915 an appropriation of $350,000. The sum was far too small. The legislature added $200,000 and later provided another $65,000 for furniture and equipment. Only the genius of the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit, an expert in concrete construction, permitted building with this comparatively modest sum a structure which, despite great increases in the student body, in the faculties, in the number of books, and in the service itself, proved to be adequate for two decades. The architect was obliged to keep the old bookstacks, which were weakly built but fireproof, and to limit his designs. Before the plans had passed beyond the stage of preliminary sketches, Koch's illness resulted in his resignation, and William Warner Bishop was called from Washington to succeed him in September, 1915.

The University of California, early in the century, had built a library of stone embodying a central stack, a large reading room on the second floor across the front of the building, offices, and special reading and study rooms situated on either side of the main entrance. Harvard, in 1915, because of its greater need for book storage and for space for diverse classes of readers, had carried the principal features of this design much further. Kahn, in developing the design, used the central axis for the approach of readers and the delivery of books to the main loan desk. The design is simple in the extreme, and years of experience have shown it to be thoroughly workable. The cruciform stack with a book conveyor in the center provided a means of rapid service along the shortest possible lines.

A faculty committee composed of Professors Wenley and Demmon and Dean Guthe aided the Librarian and the architect in perfecting the designs finally Page  1377carried out in the building. Professor John F. Shepard represented the University in practical details of construction. The University owes a great debt to his unwearying labors, ingenuity, and practical sense. The architect also brought to his task great experience and a resourcefulness unmatched among his colleagues (see Part VIII: The General Library Building). The new stack units at right angles to the old stack were built first, and the Library services were housed in them temporarily while the old structure in front of and beside the bookstacks was torn down. Begun in April, 1917, before World War I was declared, work on the building lagged owing to lack of men and materials. The Library was finally dedicated on January 7, 1920. Meantime, the west bookstack, furnished with concrete floors, was used for reading rooms, while the east bookstack housed the Order Department and the cataloguing staff, as well as the books which had been stored in those parts of the old building torn down to make room for the new structure.

Between 1910 and 1920 the number of volumes grew from 270,998 to 430,000. In the next decade the total reached 765,516, and the accessions in 1938 reached the million mark. This rapid growth is by no means unusual. In fact, the major university libraries of the country have all grown with equal or greater speed. The significance of the large additions to the University Library lies in their character fully as much as in their size. Files of important journals and newspapers, such as the London Times from 1817 to date; imposing series of transactions of learned societies both general, as the great European academies, and special, as the Japan Society of London; monumental works of fundamental importance in research, such as Pertz, Monumenta Germaniae Historica and the Humboldt-Bonpland Voyage; rare books, such as the Shakespeare and incunabula collections; and highly valuable special collections, best typified perhaps by the Vignaud Collection, have marked the increase as the years have gone by. While much ephemeral material and much of secondary importance has of necessity been acquired, the bulk of the great additions is of enduring value, much of it printed on the older paper stock which is fairly permanent. By the end of the academic year 1940, the stacks of the main Library Building were practically filled, despite the establishment of several additional "departmental" libraries.

One great factor in maintaining the high level of acquisition was the addition of two more trust funds. Another lay in the richness and size of certain gifts of books and of money for their purchase. The Octavia Williams Bates Fund with a principal of approximately $17,000 became available in 1917. This fund has been devoted to purchases of important and valuable books and sets in certain fields, chiefly the publications of museums and libraries, the writings of the Renaissance humanists, and of valuable books in archaeology and the arts. Few continuations have been permitted to burden this fund; thus, its usefulness has not been circumscribed in emergencies. The Silas Wright Dunning Fund will ultimately have a capital of more than $250,000. It has been used to establish a great collection of publications of French and Belgian local academies and societies. This field was chosen in agreement with the library of the University of Minnesota, which had gathered similar publications of the Scandinavian countries and those Baltic regions once under Scandinavian control, and with the John Crerar and New-berry libraries of Chicago, which agreed to gather German and Austrian society publications of a local and general character. By means of interlibrary loans this material is serviceable in all four Page  1378libraries and in others as well. Both the Bates and the Dunning funds are the gifts of alumni. Other funds have been raised by certain alumni groups and classes for the endowment of book purchases by the Library.

Perhaps of even greater value have been the gifts by alumni and others of the fruits of their own collecting in special fields. In 1914 Dean C. Worcester gave his Philippine Collection, which included many unpublished manuscripts. He also gave a large sum of money to be used in adding to the collection.

Regent William L. Clements not only gave his extraordinary collection of Americana to the University but also a beautiful building in which to house it; he also presented many valuable books to the General Library. For more than twenty years Clements was chairman of the Library Committee of the Regents, giving freely of his experience and knowledge. Much of the successful development of the Library since 1910 is owing to his guidance and aid. While technically he did not give the Henri Vignaud Library to the University, it was bought by the Regents in 1922, after inspection by the Librarian, upon Clement's urging. His gift of money to arrange and catalogue this valuable addition almost equaled the purchase price. The Americana in the Vignaud Collection provided the Clements Library with an indispensable critical apparatus and thousands of books second in importance only to the great treasures Clements had already secured; the remainder of the collection came to the General Library. The Vignaud library was particularly rich in the European philosophical writings of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in books on geographical discovery, and in the older works on anthropology. There were also some thousands of pamphlets which were arranged for binding by Dr. George E. Wire. Every year adds to our sense of the value of these materials, gathered in a long lifetime spent chiefly in the service of the United States in its Paris embassy.

Another Regent whose benefactions have enriched the Library was Lucius L. Hubbard, of Houghton. Serving on the Library Committee with Regent Clements for years, he became thoroughly familiar with the Library's needs and its work. In 1923, some time before his retirement from the Board, Dr. Hubbard gave the Library a remarkable collection of imaginary voyages, which naturally included the two most famous in English literature, Robinson Crusoe and Gulliver's Travels. The Crusoe collection is unusually large and complete, from an exceptionally fine copy of the first edition of 1719 to recent illustrated editions. It contains a long series of British editions, another series of American editions, and translations into many languages. It includes in a dozen languages an outstanding lot of "Robinsonades," imitations of Defoe's famous classic. The Gulliver collection includes not only large and ordinary paper copies of the first edition (1726) but a number of collected editions of Swift's works, gathered by Mr. Hubbard in the course of his studies on the bibliography of Gulliver's Travels. It also includes a long sequence of editions and translations. Other imaginary voyages, chiefly in English, Dutch, and German, figure in the collection. Regent Hubbard also gave the Library a group of books which he called "Men and Manners in America." This consists of impressions of European travelers to America and covers a period from the end of the American Revolution to the end of the Civil War. By his direction these have not been kept separately but have been incorporated in the Library's general collections, distinguished only by a special bookplate.

Two physicians have greatly aided the Page  1379Library by gifts of books gathered with care over long years. Dr. Lewis Stephen Fisk Pilcher, of Brooklyn, one of the foremost surgeons of the country, in 1926 presented the greater part of his private library of important older medical works. This collection, which serves to trace the history of surgery and anatomy, contains many unusual and rare works. Later, the Library received the Haass collection of incunabula in the field of internal medicine, given in honor of the memory of Ernest William Haass, of Detroit, by his brother, Walter Ferdinand Haass. This collection, selected by Professors R. S. Warthin and C. V. Weller of the Medical School, although small, containing only twenty-eight volumes, is very choice. Dr. Warthin had previously secured from Regent Peter White, of Marquette, a fund with which certain very important works in the history of medicine were bought. Dr. Le Roy Crummer, of Los Angeles, built generously on these foundations by adding books from his private library. His gift was later enlarged by his widow. He began with an extraordinary series of editions of the Regimen Sanitatis of the Salerno School, followed this by an almost complete collection of editions of the various writings of Sir Thomas Browne of Norwich, and then gave more than one thousand books, most of them very rare and all of them significant in the history of medicine. Taken together, these gifts form a notable foundation for a study of medical history.

It is, however, important to observe that none of these special gifts which have so greatly enriched the Library carried with it any provision for endowment. An effort has been made to add to the collections in Shakespeare, Carlyle, Goethe, and others by drawing upon the various book funds at the disposal of the Librarian and of the department concerned. The lack of sufficient funds earmarked for this purpose has greatly reduced with the passage of time the value for research purposes of many of these special collections.

Failure to note the debt of the Library to faculty members would be inexcusable. Ziwet, Beman, Scott, Taylor, Warthin, as well as Morris and Wenley, are only a few of the Michigan benefactors whose gifts of books still serve the University.

The total of important gifts which the Library has received is impressive. Each year among the thousands of volumes there are many of prime value. Among alumni of the University who have made a practice of securing unusual items for the Library should be mentioned Colonel Thomas M. Spaulding who, with Mrs. Spaulding, not only has given the Library a book fund endowment for the Stephen Spaulding Collection in history in memory of their son but has also presented more than a thousand books, among them many incunabula, a large collection on Hawaii, and many illustrative of the history of the military art.

Funds for purchase have likewise grown steadily, though suffering a reduction after 1932 through the depression years. Earlier purchases were carefully selected works. With easier means the character of the selection has not greatly changed. Permanent value has been sought, to the exclusion of the trivial or temporary. The various departments and individuals selecting books have spent their money carefully. The fashion of the last sixty years in the world of learning has been periodical publication in highly specialized journals and in transactions of societies. These the Library has sought and obtained in large numbers. Perhaps a third, certainly a fourth of its bulk lies in bound newspapers, transactions of learned societies, general and technical periodicals, series of monographs, university publications, and the serial publications of governmental bodies. Page  1380The emphasis on collecting periodicals of all sorts and in many fields marks the greatest change from the Library of an earlier day.

In its early years the Library failed to gather systematically the publications of governments. Long a depository of the documents published by the United States, the Library made little attempt to secure the publications of other governments or of the several states of our own country. Much of this material, so valuable for the social sciences, can be secured only at the time of issue and generally only from the office of publication, but seldom through the ordinary book trade. Early in 1915 a beginning was made in securing the British parliamentary papers. Imperfect but still fairly complete files dating from the beginning of the century were bought in London, and subscriptions were entered for the complete series. A systematic attempt was made in 1917 to get back issues of publications of the state of Michigan. This effort was successful largely through the co-operation of the State Library and through the personal exertions of James H. Russell. A beginning was made at that time in procuring files of Canadian, French, and German official documents, partly by way of exchange. For some years the success of the Documents Section of the Order Department in gathering the publications of American states and cities has been marked. There is still room for great development in this field. Research work in certain of the social sciences depends in large part on this material.

The card catalogues of the Library have necessarily become intricate and numerous. The public catalogue in the second-floor corridor and the official catalogue in the Catalogue Department record under author and subject and, when desirable, under title as well, all books owned by the University. The shelf-list kept in the Classification Department is also a systematic catalogue by subjects, maintained for purposes of inventory. Each outlying library is furnished with a shelf-list and catalogue prepared in the Library. In 1940 there were over two thousand trays in the public catalogue, containing more than one and three-quarter million cards.

The card catalogue was used here before 1870, following the then novel system begun at Harvard College Library. Of course, all the cards were written by hand. For two decades this simple catalogue of author cards sufficed. About 1890 subject cards began to be made. Later, typewritten cards were introduced, and, after 1900, printed cards from the Library of Congress. The growth of the Library after 1900 resulted in an excessive cataloguing burden. After 1915 numerous changes in the cataloguing staff reduced the quality of the cataloguing despite vigorous efforts on the part of the senior cataloguers. By 1920 it was painfully evident that a recataloguing task would be necessary.

The Library originally used a "fixed location" system of arrangement of its books. Each book was given a number which showed the floor of the bookstack, the range of shelves, the section in the range, and the shelf on which the book belonged. This method was fairly satisfactory until the shelves or sections were filled, when it was necessary to begin a new group in another place. Systems of "relative" location which numbered the books according to prepared schedules and made the shelving a matter of convenience, came into vogue in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The Dewey Decimal classification was by far the best known and most widely accepted of these systems. Though designed originally for the library of Amherst College, this system proved better Page  1381adapted to the needs of public libraries than to those of large university libraries. A great many improvements were made to adapt the system to the needs of the University of Michigan Library. Unfortunately, these changes made it impossible to apply the modern European expansions of the decimal system.

In 1924 work was begun on recataloguing and reclassifying the Library in accordance with the system of the Library of Congress, already in use in many large university libraries, and in 1926 the Regents provided a force of specially trained people under the direction of the Assistant Librarian, Rudolph H. Gjelsness (North Dakota '16, B.L.S. Illinois '20) to carry on this task (see Part IV: Department of Library Science). This work by 1940 had progressed to a point where more than three-quarters of the books had been arranged on the new system and each book recatalogued. It would have been an easy task merely to change the numbering and arrangement of the books. But to carry out a thorough and systematic recataloguing has taken time. Every advantage has been taken of the cooperative cataloguing of the larger libraries of the country, thus incorporating the cards for many extensive and intricate monograph series. The Library of Congress deposits in the Library a complete set of its printed cards. In this file, up to World War II, were placed cards from various other libraries, European as well as American, thus creating an unrivaled bibliographic apparatus of great value in research as well as in cataloguing. The collection of books in the field of bibliography was greatly enlarged and strengthened. The Catalogue and Reference departments were equipped as well as or better than other libraries of a comparable size.

In the nineteen thirties all of the libraries organized as part of the General Library system — those of the professional schools as well as those of more restricted scope, such as Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy — were furnished with separate complete card catalogues. The books were, of course, also recorded in the central catalogue. The contents of the Law and Clements libraries were gradually represented in the General Library catalogues.

In 1917 the Library purchased a photostat camera and the necessary equipment for making photographic reproductions on a large scale. Its first undertaking in this field was the Kentucky Gazette. This, the first newspaper issued west of the Allegheny Mountains, was published at Lexington, Kentucky, from 1787 on. The entire eighteenth-century series of this newspaper, an invaluable source for the student of the political and economic history of the Ohio Valley, was photostated and furnished in bound form to subscribers. Regent Clements underwrote the enterprise. The Lexington Public Library lent its file, a volume at a time, for photographing. Missing numbers were supplied in part from other sources, though some pages have never been discovered. The Detroit Gazette from 1817 to 1830 was reproduced later, chiefly from the files in the Burton Collection in the Detroit Public Library, and in the Buffalo Public Library. These two newspaper reproductions were made without cost to the University, save for supervision, the subscriptions covering the entire expense. By 1940 the Library owned two photostat machines which produced more than 30,000 prints annually, about two-thirds of which were made for various units and offices on the campus. It is fitting to take note of the care with which this work has been done and the excellence of the workmanship, which is under the direction of Mrs. Page  1382Alvina M. Woodford. This department of the Library is self-supporting.

Of the various collegiate and departmental libraries of the University, the largest, the Medical Library, housed in the main Library Building, in 1940 numbered more than 61,194 volumes. In addition, there were, in 1940, three libraries in the College of Engineering and one each in the College of Architecture, the School of Dentistry, the School of Business Administration, and the School of Forestry and Conservation. As new buildings afforded space, the libraries of Natural Science, Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy were also established. Reading rooms with modest book collections in Angell Hall served the departments of Economics and Mathematics and the needs of the graduate students in the departments of Philosophy, Education, History, and Political Science. The ancient and modern languages were taken care of in the main Library Building. A determined effort was made to offer direct library service for different groups of readers having common interests, allowing the Main Reading Room, the Periodical Room, and the loan desk to give service of a more general type.

The Main Reading Room has been equipped with ten thousand volumes for reference work of a general character. The more highly specialized reference work centers in the departmental libraries. Books and journals for all the libraries in the system are purchased, bound, catalogued, and classified in the General Library Building by the Library staff. An organized distribution service takes books to and from the departmental libraries. Circulation is permitted in most of these libraries.

In 1916 Superintendent of Public Instruction Fred L. Keeler pointed out the need for a Library Extension Service, primarily to aid the high schools of the state. Begun very modestly, this service has grown to large proportions, serving 100,000 individuals in 1940. It provides pamphlets and magazines on topics of current interest to schools, clubs, granges, societies, colleges, and individuals. It has gathered, arranged, and sent out thousands of pamphlets, newspaper clippings, and other materials. The service has drawn heavily on the knowledge and experience of experts on the campus for aid and counsel. By its "Alumni Reading Lists" and other publications, aided by the Bureau of Alumni Relations, Library Extension has rendered help to thousands of alumni at home and abroad. The work has been done on a modest annual budget, but it has grown into an indispensable part of the Library's services.

It is not generally known how valuable and how numerous are the Library's book rarities. Aside from special collections, the Library has in its Rare Book Rooms hundreds of first and early editions of British and American authors, hundreds of rare and early books, including those printed before 1501, in addition to manuscript collections of importance, such as the Lucius Lyon papers (now transferred to Clements Library). Any book printed in less than three hundred copies goes into the Rare Book Room, as do most books printed before 1550. Modern private presses and limited editions, historic bindings, and a modest group of prints are only a few of the collections represented. A Curator of Rare Books and an Assistant Curator oversee the collections and perform a great variety of bibliographical services. The University also owns more than a thousand specimens of the Elzevir Press including the famous Copinger Collection.

The Library inaugurated, in 1927, a Department of Manuscripts and Papyri. Page  1383The papyri collection in 1940 numbered more than ten thousand pieces and the manuscripts more than eight hundred, of which two hundred were Greek or Latin. The basis of the manuscript collection was the purchase, in 1922 at a sale in London, of the greater part of the Greek New Testament manuscripts of the library of the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. Professor Kelsey secured the funds for this and other purchases of manuscript material. Many of the additions were purchased by him in the Levant and in Europe with funds given by various friends of the University. A large share of the papyrus collection resulted from the University's excavations in Egypt; many others were bought in London in conjunction with the British Museum. Scholars working on these collections have published a large part of them in the University's Humanistic Series. There is a Curator of Manuscripts and Papyri and a special study room for work on these documents.

The Map Collection, which in 1940 numbered more than fourteen thousand maps and atlases, is housed in cases on the third floor of the Library and is adequately indexed for purposes of quick reference. The extraordinary collection of rare maps and facsimiles in the Clements Library requires the backing of an adequate collection of modern maps in the General Library.

Another special group is the University of Michigan Collection of writings of faculty and alumni. Were it better known among the alumni, it would undoubtedly be larger. No article, pamphlet, or book by, or photograph of, an alumnus or professor which comes into the Library has been allowed to escape this collection. With no funds set aside for building it up, it has grown chiefly by gift. It is arranged on a separate classification scheme, the writings of each class in the several colleges and schools being kept together. In addition, every effort has been made to complete the files of official and student publications, a task far more difficult than would at first appear. Harvard still has the only known copies of some of the earliest official publications of this University.

The Library has had a somewhat unusual relation to the various governing bodies of the University. For many years, until 1934, there was a Library Committee of the Regents which exercised an active and wholesome influence on the Library's growth and expansion. The long services of Regents Clements and Hubbard on this committee merit grateful remembrance. For years the Library's budget was prepared by the Librarian in consultation with this committee, and the chairman appeared, generally with the Librarian, before the Finance Committee of the Regents to present the budget. The presence on the Board of such distinguished book collectors as Regents Hubbard, Clements, and Beal unquestionably was favorable to an understanding of library needs. At the same time, the Library Committee of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts for many decades apportioned the book funds voted by the Regents to the Library, caring for general needs as well as for those of individual departments and giving the Librarian counsel on general matters of administration. The growth and extension of the Library's services to other colleges, however, inevitably went beyond the knowledge and experience of a committee from a single faculty. When the Regents' Library Committee was discontinued, it was necessary to establish another body to take its place. Accordingly, the University Council, in 1933, voted to recommend the creation of a Council of the General Library, consisting of four members of the Senate, with the Librarian as chairman. The Page  1384Council proved a valuable aid to the Library administration.

In 1938, the entire stock of books owned by all the libraries of the University passed a million volumes. This figure did not include unbound pamphlets, maps, or materials as yet uncatalogued. Annual accessions were 32,863, a smaller figure than that reached in the several years before 1932.

In 1940 there were ten reading and study rooms, seating about one thousand readers, in the General Library. In addition, there were thirteen collegiate and departmental libraries, besides the Law Library, the Clements Library, and the Bureau of Government Library. Service was given in most of these libraries from twelve to fourteen hours daily. After 1920 the Main Reading Room and the Periodical Reading Room were open from two to nine on Sunday. In the academic year 1939-40, between 5,000 and 5,500 readers used the General Library each day. At least 2,000 more used the outlying departmental libraries. Thus, more than 7,000 readers used the libraries daily.

The University Library, 1941-53

During the quarter-century of growth just described, the University was served by one of the great leaders in American librarianship, the author of the account above. Since no history of the Library's operations can be complete without some reference to his contribution, this record begins with a brief account of his career.

William Warner Bishop ('92, A.M. '93, LL.D. Oberlin '30, D. Litt. National University of Ireland '37) began his academic life as a classical scholar. After serving in 1893-94 as Professor of Greek at Missouri Wesleyan College, he accepted an appointment as Instructor in New Testament Greek and Assistant Librarian at Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, Illinois, where he remained until 1898. Dr. G. E. Wire, the Librarian, finding him an excellent assistant, gave him a thorough training in library procedures, especially in cataloguing. In 1898 he obtained a one-year fellowship at the American School for Classical Studies in Rome. While resident there he had access to the Vatican Library and was greatly assisted in his studies by Father Franz Ehrle, S.J., the Prefect. His subsequent career in librarianship, before his return to Michigan in 1915, was as follows: Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, Librarian and Instructor in Latin, 1899-1902; Princeton University Library, Head Cataloguer, 1902-4, Reference Librarian, 1904-7; Library of Congress, Superintendent of the Reading Room, 1907-15.

At the date of Dr. Bishop's appointment, the total number of volumes in the University Library was 352,718; the annual book appropriation was $32,000; the staff numbered thirty, with a salary appropriation of $26,774, and a minimum salary rate of $450. When he retired in 1941, the Library holdings had risen to 1,134,052 volumes and the budget appropriation to $216,685, of which more than a third — in addition to substantial trust funds — was available for book purchases; the staff numbered 118, with a minimum salary of $1,034.

Other parts of this Survey describe Dr. Bishop's role in the planning and building of the General Library and the William L. Clements Library, as well as in the development of summer session courses in library methods into the Department of Library Science, which he long directed as chairman. He also initiated a project for improved library service to dental schools, obtaining a grant of $6,000 for this purpose from the Carnegie Corporation in 1929. He was an early and intelligent advocate of the Page  1385application of techniques of microphotography to library problems and received another generous Carnegie grant for this purpose in 1940. In 1916 he sponsored the organization of a Department of Library Extension, encouraging steadily the expansion of its activities in ways which benefited both the University and the state. He established a General Library Series as a part of the University's program of publications in 1919 and began the printing of cards produced by the Catalogue Department and their sale to subscribing libraries in 1925. Under his direction the enormous work of changing from the Dewey to the Library of Congress system of classification was begun and largely carried to completion.

To no responsibility did Dr. Bishop devote himself more energetically, however, than to the improvement of the Library's resources for study and research. In September, 1921, he was sent to Europe by the Regents on a book-buying trip to take advantage of the fall in book prices caused by the economic conditions resulting from the war. He purchased there, at a cost of about $27,000, 9,200 volumes, many of them very valuable and until then almost unobtainable. The results of his journey to Europe in November, 1922, when he negotiated for the purchase of the library of the historian Henri Vignaud have already been described. Throughout his administration he was untiring in his efforts to build up a large and well-balanced book collection. Many generations of scholars will benefit from his industry, his learning, and his extraordinary understanding of the needs of the entire University community.

In addition to his remarkable achievement in strengthening the University Library and extending its services, Dr. Bishop found the time and energy to participate in many activities of national and international importance. The scope and value of these endeavors are summarily recorded in the preamble to resolutions adopted by the Board of Regents on the occasion of his retirement, from which the following passage is excerpted:

His career has been coextensive with the greatest period of growth of the libraries of America and with the development of librarianship as a necessary concomitant. In his earlier years he learned much from the founders of the modern science of librarian-ship who were his older colleagues and friends; subsequently his genuine scholarship, his marked administrative abilities, his qualities of leadership, and the human traits which have endeared him to many friends made him, in turn, one of the great librarians of America and of the world. He was elected President of the American Library Association in 1918-1919; he became the chief consultant of the Carnegie Corporation in its widespread enterprises of aid to libraries and library personnel; his advice was sought on almost every occasion when a large library building was being planned; and his influence extended to other countries, notably when he was invited to aid in organizing the library of the League of Nations and in reorganizing the Vatican Library. Well-deserved recognition of Dr. Bishop's unique place as a Nestor among American librarians has come to him from all parts of the world, in the form of honorary memberships and fellowships in learned societies and through honorary degrees conferred upon him by leading universities and colleges; the International Federation of Library Associations, representing the library workers of the world, has made him its honorary president. The University of Michigan has indeed been fortunate, during the past twenty-six years, to have commanded the skillful and loyal services of this distinguished alumnus in one of the key positions of its staff…


(R.P., 1939-42, p. 652.)

Dr. Bishop continued his active interest in Library affairs after his retirement, completing and revising his Checklist of American Copies of "Short-Title Catalogue" Books, and contributing articles, Page  1386some of them autobiographical, to library journals. He died on February 19, 1955.

Dr. Bishop's successor, Warner G. Rice (Illinois '20, Ph.D. Harvard '27), Professor of English, came into office in September, 1941. He was fortunate in having as his associates a group of loyal and experienced department heads. Special mention must be made in this connection of Miss Gertrude Maginn, long Dr. Bishop's assistant, and Mr. Samuel W. McAllister ('16, A.M. '22, B.S. Columbia Library School '28), whom Dr. Bishop had chosen as Assistant Librarian in 1931, and who became Associate Director in 1941. Skilled and experienced in many branches of library operations, Mr. McAllister proved especially expert in the management of library services.

The system of libraries which the new Director was appointed to administer included the General Library, which housed separately catalogued collections in its four Graduate Reading Rooms, the Library Science Study Hall, and the Medical Library; the collegiate libraries of the College of Architecture, the School of Dentistry, the School of Education, the College of Engineering (served by two collections, one in the East and one in the West Engineering Building), and the School of Forestry; in addition, departmental libraries located in the Astronomical Observatory, at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory at Lake Angelus, in the Chemistry Building (for Chemistry and Pharmacy), in the University Hospital (as a branch of the Medical Library), in Angell Hall (for Economics, Insurance, and Mathematics), in the Natural Science Building, in the University Museums, and in the Physics Building. There were more than a score of office collections, some recorded and some not, in the Hospital, the West Medical Building, and other places. Operating under other administrations were the Law Library, the Business Administration Library, the Bureau of Government Library, the Clements Library, the Michigan Historical Collections, and the Transportation Library.

During the period of World War II and the years of University expansion which followed it, a number of new branches of the General Library were established. During the autumn of 1941 a Music Library was opened in the Burton Tower; in the following winter a Detroit branch, organized for students in the Graduate Study Center and in the Curriculum of Social Work, began service to readers in the Rackham Educational Memorial Building. In 1943-44 another collection for the convenience of extension and Graduate Study Center registrants was made available in Grand Rapids, through the co-operation of the Public Library and that of the Grand Rapids Junior College, which contributed space and facilities for its operation. During the nineteen forties service of this kind was extended to Flint and Saginaw, and later, through the lending of books from a special reserve collection under the jurisdiction of the Library Extension Department, to additional centers where University courses were offered, to the National Music Camp at Interlochen, and to other camps established for summer teaching. A very serviceable library building was provided in 1950 at the Biological Station to accommodate the books in use there.

The Public Health Library was opened in the School of Public Health in the summer of 1943. As interest in Japanese studies increased during the war years it was found necessary to consolidate the social science collections in the Graduate Reading Rooms on the fourth floor of the General Library Building and to transfer the collection of Far Eastern books to the west room, Page  1387which was entirely remodeled and enlarged for the Center for Japanese Studies in 1952. More temporary were the Vocational Guidance Library in the Rackham Building for those counseling veterans, and the collections at Willow Run for students living there. A Fine Arts Library was opened in Tappan Hall in 1949, and with the completion of the new Mason Hall in 1952 a Social Science Library was put into operation, partly for the accommodation of Social Work collections which had been moved from Detroit to the General Library when the headquarters of the School of Social Work was transferred to Ann Arbor in 1951. A consolidation of the Forestry and Natural Science collections was effected in 1953, when an enlarged Library room on the third floor of the Natural Science Building was opened for students in the natural sciences and the School of Natural Resources.

In 1947 the Bureau of Government Library, which had grown rapidly from small beginnings (chiefly under the energetic and expert guidance of Mrs. Ione Dority [Jones]), became a part of the General Library system. This collection, which had expanded to some 20,000 items, was almost totally destroyed in the fire which ruined Haven Hall in June, 1950. During the following winter remnants supplied a nucleus for a new Bureau of Government Library in the basement of the Rackham Building, where the collections were rapidly built up again under the direction of Miss Margery Owen, who succeeded Mrs. Dority in the autumn of 1950.

The Transportation Library, like the Bureau of Government Library, was first developed as a separate unit, though always with the assistance of Dr. Bishop. Credit for this Library's establishment is chiefly due to John Stephen Worley, whose appointment as Professor of Transportation Engineering was made in October, 1922. Keenly aware of the inadequacies of bibliographical guides in the field of transportation and of existing collections, Professor Worley proceeded to build on the foundation provided by a generous gift of his own, augmented by materials contributed by Professor Henry E. Riggs and by Mr. Robert B. Rifenberick of Detroit.

At the beginning emphasis was on the collection of railroad histories and reports. Welcome support soon came from sources outside, as well as within, the University. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company and Mr. Henry V. Doherty contributed more than a thousand volumes in 1925 and 1926. Sums aggregating more than $25,000 were presented, at different times, by the Reo Motor Car Company, the Hudson Motor Car Company, Mr. Alex Dow, Mr. Edsel Ford, Mr. Charles S. Mott, Professor Worley, and others. After an absence from the University from 1925 to 1927, when Professor Walter C. Sadler assumed responsibility for collecting materials and soliciting gifts, Professor Worley returned to Ann Arbor and was appointed chairman of the Executive Committee of this Library. Under his energetic direction it grew rapidly, reaching, within the next twenty years, an estimated size of 100,000 items, comprising not only books, serials, and pamphlets, but manuscripts, photographs, color lithographs, prints, etchings, oil paintings, and models, as well. Notable among the manuscripts are those collected by Charles Ellet, Jr. (1810-62), a prominent engineer who brought together materials covering a long period in the development of transportation and economic life in this country. The Library also owns the manuscript notes of the American inventor and engineer Oliver Evans (1755-1819), who in 1785 wrote extensively on the probable nature of the coming railway. In its possession are the Page  1388only scale drawing of the DeWitt Clinton locomotive, which in 1831 drew the first passenger train in America, and a scale drawing of the first passenger car operated west of the Allegheny Mountains — that used by the Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad in 1836. Subjects of such nationwide interest as the surveys and opening of the Pacific and other transcontinental railways, and of important though shorter railway, canal, and road systems are well represented. Supplemental histories of many smaller local enterprises contribute to a true picture of the industry as a whole. There is much material, both pictorial and descriptive, on sailing vessels, steamboats, and airplanes, and there are prints and printed descriptions of mechanically driven road vehicles from almost the date of the beginning of printing.

As unexpected as it was gratifying has been the discovery that among the colored lithographs, woodcuts, engravings, etchings, and oil paintings incorporated into the collections are many of artistic value. Thus, the Library's eleven woodcuts of mechanically driven road vehicles of the year 1516 are appraised as being among the finest wood engravings in existence. Among the artists represented by prints are Dürer, Burghmaier, Bingham, Pennell, Cruikshank, Daumier, and Kuhler. There are lithographs by Ackermann and by Currier and Ives.

The scope of the Transportation Library is wide enough to include not only materials representing the history of transportation in the United States, but also that of Canada, England, France, and other countries. Printed and pictorial materials are supplemented by a comprehensive bibliography; and the aims of the founder to represent, and to supply information about, all phases of transportation for the assistance of research workers have been generously carried out. The Library has amply proved its value both to scholars in its special field and to students of history, sociology, economics, business administration, and law as well.

Upon the retirement of Professor Worley, Professor Roger Morrison became chairman of the Executive Committee of this Library and continued to enlarge its resources. As these grew, the need for making them more readily accessible by systematic cataloguing and classification became apparent. The aid of the General Library was consequently offered with this end in view. Gradually, members of the staff of the Transportation Library were transferred to the General Library budget, and after the death of Professor Morrison in 1952, Mr. Alfred N. Brandon was appointed to take charge, under the general supervision of Mr. F. Ridlen Harrell, Associate Divisional Librarian in the Engineering Libraries. Mr. Brandon performed his work well, reorganizing the collections in ways which increased their usefulness, and the physical arrangements of the rooms in the East Engineering Building assigned to the Library were greatly improved by the installation of fluorescent lights and steel stacks.

The histories of the Bureau of Government Library and the Transportation Library illustrate a process by which collections, first developed through the enthusiastic devotion, the special interests, and the special knowledges of individuals have come naturally into the University Library system as they increased in scope and usefulness.

The resourcefulness, the energy, and the enthusiasm of university scholars, of collectors, and of friends of the Library, so admirably employed in these instances, have been applied to the advantage of the University in many fields. Page  1389The history of the Mathematics Library provides an excellent illustration.

A beginning was made in 1861, when Mrs. B. Ticknor presented mathematical books which had belonged to her husband, Dr. B. Ticknor, a retired medical officer of the United States Army and a resident of Ann Arbor. In 1865 approximately a score of mathematical books were purchased; apparently the first journal to be acquired was the Bulletin de l'école des hautes études, which began publication in 1870. In 1871 Mr. Philo Parsons gave a fine collection of mathematical works from the library of Professor Karl H. Rau of the University of Heidelberg. Ten years later, through the generosity of E. C. Hegeler, Crelle's Journal was acquired. Later, Mr. Hegeler gave a collection of mathematical models costing $500.

To Professor W. W. Beman, a member of the Department of Mathematics from 1871 to 1922, the University is indebted for several thousand volumes, including valuable sets of journals. Alexander Ziwet, another member of the staff, was a benefactor on an even larger scale. To a gift of some 30,000 books and pamphlets, including a magnificent collection on mechanics and a first edition of Newton's Principia, Professor Ziwet added a bequest of more than $20,000 "for scientific purposes." Other rare items have come, more recently, from Professor William H. Butts, whose interest was in Newton, the history of calculus, and analytic geometry; and Mr. Tracy W. McGregor of Detroit made possible the acquisition of an outstanding collection of Arabic and Persian manuscripts and printed books on mathematics, subsequently supplemented by Turkish books and manuscripts on the same subject.

During the last quarter century, the scholar most active in seeking out gifts, in studying catalogues, in initiating negotiations with dealers, and in drawing the attention of librarians and colleagues to the needs and opportunities of the Mathematics Library, was Professor Louis C. Karpinski, a distinguished historian of mathematics. To his zeal, his wide knowledge both of books and the book trade, and his devotion to the Library, the University owes an enormous debt. Through his efforts largely, and those of the colleagues whom he stimulated, Michigan has come to possess an extraordinarily full and rich collection of journals, classical treatises, and works covering the history of mathematics, astronomy, and science. It is unquestionably a leader in this department of learning.

Remarkable progress in another area came more swiftly, as a result of special needs and circumstances. The University's interest in Far Eastern affairs grew steadily in the years before World War II. In this time of crisis, accordingly, Michigan was able to offer assistance to the nation through the establishment of a school for the instruction of military personnel in the Japanese language and in Japanese civilization. This work, conducted with marked success, led to the founding, as hostilities ended, of a Center for Japanese Studies with a field station at Okayama. As a natural consequence, Japanese books began to flood the General Library during the late forties. The special problems which they presented were finally met by the transfer of Far Eastern collections to a Graduate Reading Room, and the employment in 1951 of Mr. Godfrey R. Nunn, a graduate of the School of Oriental Studies of the University of London to take charge of cataloguing. By 1953 there were 50,000 volumes of Japanese, Chinese, and Korean books in this collection. The leading part in the program of acquisitions was taken by Professor Robert B. Hall, who was also instrumental Page  1390in making Michigan a participant in the Human Relations Area Studies project centered at Yale, and thus in bringing a set of the project's valuable files to the Library.

In other departments of learning, other faculty members have worked unselfishly to the advantage of the Library. For many years Professor Harley H. Bartlett has advised concerning purchases of important botanical items, has acted as the University's agent in making purchases abroad, particularly in South America, and has deposited in the Rare Book Rooms items which he has collected in the Far East. The late Professor William H. Hobbs brought together, largely at his own expense, an extraordinary group of titles relating to Arctic and Antarctic exploration; these, with autographed portraits of explorers and his large scientific library, he bequeathed to the University. Professor Albert Hyma assisted in the selection of titles in Renaissance history and was instrumental in obtaining for Michigan many books from the library of Father Gabriel Richard; Professor Josselyn Van Tyne repeatedly located and urged the buying of books for the remarkable collection on ornithology which he has built up in the Museums; and Professors Harold E. Wethey and H. T. David have been active in their fields of fine arts and music, respectively. After his retirement, President Emeritus Alexander G. Ruthven added to earlier gifts from his fine library additional volumes of great importance in the natural sciences.

More than passing mention should be made, too, of Miss Agnes Inglis, who, in the course of her long association with the Library, demonstrated most effectively how dedication to a purpose, hard work, and persistence can accomplish much even when financial support is meager. By soliciting aid from many sources, Miss Inglis enlarged the Labadie collection from a small, though valuable, nucleus to a remarkably rich and sizable body of material, much of it fugitive and difficult to bring together, on radical and liberal movements, the organization of labor, and similar topics. Important purchases like Der arme Teufel have been financed, while valuable accessions have come from donors such as Mrs. A. W. Diack, Mrs. Hans Buck, and Mrs. Edwin L. Grimes; from labor unions like the UAW; from Shaker groups and other "communities"; and from many correspondents abroad. Particularly strong on the American side, this collection is proving serviceable to students of political science, economics, sociology, and history.

Though a great deal of time and effort was applied to the organization and operation of wartime projects the Library continued an orderly program of accessions steadily through the nineteen forties. Particular attention was given to subjects already mentioned, especially when circumstances required the creation of new divisional libraries. Enlarged budget appropriations for books and periodicals matched increasing costs; and the endeavor to keep collections well balanced was on the whole successful.

Much of the responsibility for a well-balanced acquisition program fell upon Mr. Rolland C. Stewart, Chief Bibliographer, who worked diligently and expertly at the task of book selection and exhibited excellent judgment in recommending purchases through a period when business operations were often extremely difficult. The Order Department, under the capable direction of Miss Cordelia L. Haagen, operated in a highly effective manner.

From the beginning of the war there was difficulty with the procurement of books and journals from the USSR. This continued after hostilities were over and Page  1391extended to China and other Communist countries. Books from western Europe were often hard to obtain on account of military actions, the dislocation of the book trade, and the hazards of shipment, but by the end of the decade fairly normal conditions had been restored. New problems arose when requests were received for publications originating in the countries of North Africa and the Near East. These were solved in part, at least, by the gradual extension of the Joint Acquisitions Project, a plan for co-operative buying sponsored by the Association of Research Libraries. Under the terms of an agreement to which most of the major academic libraries in America subscribed, the Project aimed to bring as many titles of research interest as possible to this country by alloting those in specified subject fields to particular institutions.

Through the buying of rare materials and antiquarian titles, strength was added to a notable degree to the Library's collections of incunabula; astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and the history of science; English literature (especially of the Renaissance), Shakespeare, and the dramatists; fine arts, especially of Spain, Latin America, and the Orient; music history and musicology; ornithology, botany, and zoology. In co-operation with the William L. Clements Library, due attention was also paid to American literature, history, and travel.

Donors were numerous. By gift and bequest, thousands of valuable titles were received from the academic libraries of members of the University, e.g., Dean Joseph A. Bursley, Dean Mortimer E. Cooley, Professor Henry H. Higbie, Dean G. Carl Huber, Dean Hayward Keniston, Professor Thomas A. Knott, Dean Edward H. Kraus, Professor Frank Leverett, Professor Moritz Levi, Professor Walter C. Sadler, Dean Herbert C. Sadler, Professor Albert Stanley, Dr. E. R. Sunderland, Professor Morris P. Tilley, Dr. Henry Vaughan, Dr. Marcus Ward, Professor William H. Worrell, and Dean Clarence S. Yoakum.

Individual benefactors from outside the University's staff likewise were remarkably generous. In 1943 the library of Major Fenton R. McCreery of Flint was offered to the University by Major McCreery's sisters, Mrs. Matthew Davison and Mrs. Jerome H. Remick. Among the rarities thus acquired was a set of Viscount Kingsborough's Antiquities of Mexico, chronicles of the French and Spanish conquerors, Charlevoix' histories of Santo Domingo and Paraguay, and copies of the Spanish Royal Academy dictionary (1791) and Ambrogio Calepino's polyglot dictionary (Venice, 1778).

Other good friends of the University made equally notable gifts. Mr. E. Epstean presented a valuable collection on photography in 1942. In 1943 Mr. Louis Kahn sent to the Architecture Library volumes bequeathed by Albert Kahn. About the same time Mr. and Mrs. V. V. McNitt presented a fifteenth-century edition of C. Plinius Secundus and a fifteenth-century antiphonal on vellum in memory of Robert B. McNitt. Toward the conclusion of the war in Europe, Captain Rowland M. Myers dispatched the first consignment of books and journals which he had brought together in Germany. His gifts, continuing for several years, reached an impressive total, and brought to the Library a great deal of interesting Nazi propaganda and party literature. The bequest of Dr. William W. Newcomb included 250 beautifully illustrated volumes on butterflies. Mr. Stuart H. Perry, in addition to gifts of books, presented, over the years, extraordinarily valuable volumes containing photomicrographs Page  1392of meteoric irons, accompanied by descriptive letterpress and beautifully bound.

In 1947 Ellen van Volkenburg and Maurice Browne began shipment to Ann Arbor of 800 volumes in the fields of modern British and American literature, along with photographs, letters, documents, costume designs, and other materials relating to the theater, with which they had long been associated as actors and producers. Another gift which enriched Library resources in modern drama and the history of the stage was a part of the excellent library of Mr. Daniel L. Quirk of Ypsilanti; he, like the Brownes, had played an important part in the development of the Little Theater movement. Of extraordinary interest, too, are the books and manuscripts of the distinguished poet Arthur Davison Ficke, presented by Mrs. Ficke. Robert B. Brown, Curator of Books in the Clements Library, turned over to the Rare Book Rooms his extensive and valuable collection of James Branch Cabell in 1949; two of his colleagues, Mr. F. L. D. Goodrich and Mr. Colton Storm, were equally generous.

Detroit collectors and booklovers have been mindful of the University's needs. Orla B. Taylor, after many other benefactions, gave the Library many books representing his interests in genealogy and in Napoleon, and bequeathed his collection of Mark Twain and American humorists. Dr. O. O. Fisher lent valuable volumes, including a First Folio of Shakespeare, for use and display and presented a leaf from the Gutenberg Bible; Mr. Charles Feinberg not only lent materials from his Whitman collection for exhibition, but also gave a Whitman item of great interest. In 1951 John W. Watling bequeathed his fine library of works by and about Anthony Trollope.

Until his death in 1954, William C. Hollands, for many years Superintendent of the University Bindery, continued to present annually Bibles and prayer books for the William T. Hollands Memorial Collection, and materials relating to Masonic affairs.

Of particular importance, because of their range of subjects and value, are the gifts of Colonel Thomas H. Spaulding, who has applied himself more consistently and purposefully than any other individual to supplementing the University's resources by private purchases. By 1943 the Rare Book Rooms could report that incunabula received from him totaled one hundred; he has presented many more since that time. Among his gifts of manuscripts are Islamic and Latin items, as well as many in English of various dates, e.g., papers of General William Lee, written between 1789 and 1825, and copies of letters of William Pitt, private and diplomatic correspondence relating to the Spanish War, 1758-61. Colonel Spaulding's major concern has been with early military history, and the University has become pre-eminent in this field. A catalogue of Early Military Books in the University of Michigan Libraries, compiled by Colonel Spaulding and Professor L. C. Karpinski, was published in 1941.

A useful adjunct to the University's printed books is found in its stock of microprint, microcards, and microfilm, principally acquired during the last decade. The development of microcopying processes was accelerated during the war. Research workers then demanded reproductions of books and articles at short notice; librarians, benefiting by new technological developments, were forced to the consideration of space-saving methods by the impossibility of enlarging their buildings, and as a consequence the use of reading machines received a new impetus, and much thought was given to a variety of book-reproduction projects. Dr. Bishop, always forward-looking in this matter, Page  1393was one of the early sponsors of a plan for the provision on microfilm of titles listed in the Short-Title Catalogue — a scheme put into operation by Mr. Eugene Power of University Microfilms.

After the battle of Britain brought home to scholars everywhere the danger in which invaluable manuscript collections stood, University Microfilms undertook the difficult task of reproducing selected documents belonging to British libraries, under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies and with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation. In this matter the University co-operated generously — the staff of the Middle English Dictionary contributing to the work of selection, and the Library assuming responsibility for the cataloguing of the films as they were processed. Begun in March, 1944, this work was carried through to completion by Miss Frances Hamman under a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, which also provided the University with a set of positives duplicating the negatives deposited at the Library of Congress.

Runs of important periodicals otherwise unattainable were also acquired on microfilm, and film copies were gradually substituted for newspaper files. The publication of American doctoral dissertations on film, begun by Mr. Power, was supported by the Graduate School and the Library, which became responsible for the cataloguing of these theses, in co-operation with the Library of Congress. Microcards also came into use, especially in the Engineering Libraries and other units where technical reports could be most easily made available and preserved in this form. A subscription was also entered for the British Sessional Papers in microprint. University libraries frequently lent copies of scarce titles for reproduction in microcopy form, and co-operated also in an elaborate program for the issuing of important sets and single volumes by the lithoprint process, which was carried forward by the Ann Arbor firm of J. W. Edwards and which has made widely available such indispensable works as The Library of Congress Catalog, The British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books, and the works of Mozart.

Maps also have proved an increasingly important complement to book collections, and in this department the Library has grown with remarkable speed during the years 1943-53. Most of the accessions, which now exceed 62,000, have come from the Army Map Service, which made the General Library a depository; numerous gifts and purchases supplemented the maps thus obtained.

Library co-operation, on an extensive scale, long advocated but difficult to put into practice, was given great impetus during the war years, especially as the requirements of industrial and technical, as well as of academic, research increased, and the deficiencies of library holdings, surveyed on a national basis, were brought to light. The staff of the Library engaged in a variety of bibliographical projects designed to improve the situation. Michigan supported from the first the Joint Acquisitions Project set in motion by the Association of Research Libraries — a plan intended to ensure the purchase, and the distribution to selected libraries, of copies of all publications useful for research. The Midwest Inter-Library Center opened its storage library in Chicago in October, 1951, but the University did not enter into formal association with the Midwest libraries interested in the storage of books and the initiation of a regional acquisitions program. Plans were being made to store books in a separate building on the campus.

Phonograph records constitute another body of material which has shown a remarkable increase. Since the establishment Page  1394of the Music Library in the Burton Memorial Tower, thousands of records have been purchased and have been much used for teaching and research. Records require special cataloguing, storage, and servicing techniques. These have been swiftly and efficiently perfected.

While the University was enlarging its own resources by the means just described, it was mindful of its responsibilities to other institutions which had fared badly by reason of war damage. Generous in gifts of duplicates through the United States Book Exchange and in exchanges sent directly to many libraries abroad, Michigan took a special interest in the rehabilitation of the University of the Philippines, which was demolished in the battle for Manila. The staff of the Library played a major part in the collection, selection, packing, and shipment of usable books to this institution, contributing from its stock many thousands of duplicates and other titles no longer needed. In the first six months of 1947 not less than twenty-six tons of material were thus dispatched, and other consignments followed. In recognition of this aid a special section bearing the name of Joseph Ralston Hayden is planned for the new library of the University of the Philippines built at Diliman. In this way fitting honor will be paid a Michigan Professor of Political Science who served as Vice-Governor in the Philippines during the administration of the Honorable Frank Murphy. Subsequently, the Catalogue and Order departments of the General Library, in co-operation with the Bureau of Government, assumed the burden of selecting, processing, and shipping an entire reference library to Manila for use in the Institute of Public Administration set up as a branch of the University of the Philippines at Manila under the direction of Michigan scholars and at the expense of the federal government.

Less obvious to the average library user than the increasing size of book collections is the gain in library resources resulting from sound practices of cataloguing and bibliographical research which add to the availability of materials for scholarly use. During the period under review, Miss Margaret I. Smith and her well-trained staff in the Main Reading Room consistently supplied reference aid of the highest order, handled an increasing load of interlibrary loans and requests for books from agencies outside the University, and compiled many special bibliographies. Their efforts were ably seconded by divisional librarians, including Miss Sue Biethan and Miss Helen Wolter in the Medical Library, Miss Ella Hymans in the Rare Book Rooms, Mrs. Elinor Husselman in the Department of Manuscripts and Papyri, Miss Ellen Theurer and Mr. F. Ridlen Harrell in Engineering, Miss Hilda Rankin in Dentistry, along with many others whose names will be gratefully remembered by generations of Michigan students and scholars.

The General Library has long had reason to pride itself on its recording of books, serials, and other printed matter, and especially on its Public Catalogue, which has steadily approached more and more closely the ideal of a union catalogue in which all titles owned by the University can be found, with their locations. As the total number of cards in this catalogue has increased, the corresponding growth in the records of divisional libraries has tested both the capacity and the resourcefulness of the Catalogue Department — ingenuity being necessary if the special requirements of each unit are to be successfully met.

Fortunately, two unusually able chief cataloguers directed the work of their associates. Miss Esther A. Smith, who retired in 1947 after more than forty Page  1395years of service, and her successor, Miss Ella M. Campbell, who retired in the fall of 1953, demonstrated in their own work, and achieved in that which they supervised, the highest professional standards. The Library, in addition to keeping up to date with its ordinary accessions and to continuing the great task of reclassification, was able to assume new responsibilities for books in alphabets other than Roman (e.g., Russian, Chinese, Japanese) and to co-operate with the Library of Congress in important cataloguing programs, including the handling of dissertations on microfilm and the British Manuscripts Project. The Department regularly made cards also for microfilmed Short-Title Catalogue books as well as for other series issued by University Microfilms and perfected methods for dealing with music, phonograph records, slides, and other special collections.

From October, 1948, until the summer of 1952, chief responsibility for the processing departments was in the capable hands of Victor Schaefer (A.B.L.S. '31, A.M.L.S. '34), who returned as Assistant Director. Mr. Schaefer's knowledge of the campus, his experience and resourcefulness, and his systematic, business-like approach to problems resulted in successful solutions for many of them. He left Michigan to become Librarian at Notre Dame University.

The operations of the Library Extension service (a unit which, like the Catalogue Department, performs much of its work unseen by the University public) expanded and diversified at a steady rate. Miss Edith Thomas, the founder of the Department and the person chiefly responsible for its development into an agency of commanding importance, was incapacitated by illness in 1947 and died two years later. Her colleague, Mrs. Lalah Tasch, and her successor, Miss Clover Flanders, successfully carried forward the Library Extension program, co-operating with campus and outstate groups in the arranging of conferences and exhibits, sending out quantities of materials, supervising the provision of books for the University's extension classes and the libraries at the University's summer camps and stations, and administering the Edith Thomas Book Project for children, which was supported until 1954 by the Children's Fund of Michigan. Service to schools, not only through the book project (which provided up-to-date children's literature in areas not well served by organized libraries) but also through aid given the Michigan High School Forensic Association and school libraries was made more effective in 1948 by the appointment of Mr. Ralph Hansen, Jr., who devoted a large share of his time to visiting school libraries in co-operation with the Bureau of School Services. His experiences as a consultant led to the compilation of a manual, Aids for the School Librarian, which has proved its worth. Mr. Hansen was succeeded in 1950 by Mr. Kenneth Vance, who further enlarged the services performed in conjunction with the Bureau.

Library use showed a steady decline during the war years, a rapid rise during the late nineteen forties, and another decline in the early fifties, in rough correspondence with University enrollments. In general, however, the burden on all service departments, and especially upon the Circulation Department, increased, the demands of students in the graduate and professional schools and from new research groups attached to the University requiring particular attention. Through a period made trying by the difficulties of maintaining a sufficiently large and adequately trained staff, Miss Fredericka B. Gillette, Chief Circulation Librarian, carried on with energy and patience. After her retirement Page  1396at the end of 1945 she was succeeded by Mr. Horace A. Tollefson, and after his resignation in 1946 by Mr. Fred Dimock, both of whom had been brought up in the Department. Under their direction, many improvements were made in details of routine, while useful innovations in the instruction of readers in the use of the Library were introduced. For 1953-54 circulation of books from the General Library for home use amounted to 123,768 volumes; including the branches it was 343,340 volumes.

Despite extraordinary effort, skill, and ingenuity, all departments of the Library were greatly handicapped by the lack of sufficient space for the proper performance of their duties — a situation which worsened as the years went on. From the time of its completion Dr. Bishop had foreseen that the General Library Building would soon prove too small. The distribution of collections in divisional libraries was a natural, a necessary, and a moderately successful method of meeting the problem of growth; but the system of divisional libraries developed, in great measure, by improvisation rather than by generous and systematic plan, with the result that the branches soon became congested. The storage of "little-used materials," a scheme born of necessity and undertaken on a piecemeal basis, was gradually put into effect, books, newspapers, and serial publications being transferred to attics, basements, and other undesirable locations as these could be found. A large and reasonably convenient storage area was at length provided in empty stacks in the Business Administration Library; but it was obvious that these could be used for a short time only. In addition to the inconvenience of bringing books from remote widely scattered locations for the use of readers, there was necessarily a considerable expense and labor involved in the changing of records. The need for a modern library with adequate stack space was thus made not only evident but pressing, especially as the inadequacy of facilities affected not only the storage of books but the convenience of readers, who as their numbers increased were more and more crowded and uncomfortable.

Whatever could be done to remedy this state of affairs was done. Small additions were made to divisional libraries; some space for new libraries and reading rooms (usually much less than was asked for) was assigned in new buildings planned for the campus. The Director, in preparation for the enlargement of library quarters, participated in the deliberations of a group of University librarians who, with the aid of a Carnegie grant, applied themselves to the study of library buildings, criticized the plans devised for new libraries, conferred with architects, and investigated all developments in the field. In August, 1946, Michigan obtained a federal loan, to be expended in planning an extension to the General Library. The firm of Albert Kahn Associates was employed; and with the aid of Mr. Lynn Fry, the University architect, the staff of the Library, assisted by the Library Council, labored painstakingly to perfect, under the conditions set, a workable scheme. Complete plans were ultimately drawn, and approved, for the extension of the existing building on the east, south, and west, with the raising of the stack tower. In 1952, however, this project was finally discarded. For it there was substituted in 1953 a plan to erect a storage library on the North Campus. This met, in part, the difficulty of finding space for books; but the larger problem of getting really adequate accommodations for readers, for Library operations, and for book collections Page  1397in constant use remained. The expedient suggested, but not immediately feasible, was the construction of an undergraduate library.

On July 1, 1953, Professor Rice resigned as Director of the Library in order to give full time to the Department of English, of which he had been appointed chairman. In August, Frederick H. Wagman (Amherst '33, Ph.D. Columbia '42) succeeded him as Director.

In June, 1954, the Library holdings amounted to 2,304,434 books and pamphlets. This figure included 697,949 unbound items not hitherto included in the record under the previous method of counting acquisitions.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, Charles K.Historical Sketch of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1876.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
Gray, Jane L., ed., The Letters of Asa Gray. London: Macmillan, 1893.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Michigan. Joint Documents, 1841, No. 9, pp. 420-69 (Detroit).
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1954.
Ten Brook, Andrew. American State Universities: Their Origin and Progress. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke and Co., 1875.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings… Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Vaughan, Victor C.A Doctor's Memories. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1926.

THE LAW LIBRARY

THE history of the Law Library dates from the establishment of the Law School in 1859. In June of that year, having in mind the Law Department that was to open the following October, the Regents appropriated $2,000 for the purchase of law books. That any books were actually bought before the department opened seems unlikely. It is more probable that the first Law Library was composed of a small collection of about 350 volumes donated by Judge Thomas M. Cooley, and duly accepted by the Regents in October, 1859. This first collection is said to have included ten volumes of Michigan Reports, the reports of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and those of some of the New England states.

The original collection was housed in a room in the building that became the South Wing of University Hall. This same space was later occupied by the offices of Controller John C. Christensen and Vice-President Shirley Smith. The room was furnished with a rough deal table and a few wooden chairs and was heated by a box stove. Here the collection remained until 1863, when it was moved to the Law Building, which had just been completed. By 1931 the collection occupied all of the third floor and most of the second. In June of that year the Library was moved to the handsome new building donated by William W. Cook. The William W. Cook Legal Research Building, which forms a part of the Law Quadrangle, now houses the law collection and is probably the largest building in the world devoted exclusively Page  1398to a law library. It has accommodations for 500 readers in the main study room; carrells in the stacks for graduate students; and approximately eighty studies for members of the faculty, visiting lawyers and judges, and research workers.

In 1860 the Regents appropriated a sum "not to exceed $10" for the publication of a circular requesting the donation of law books. In that same year the Regents granted fifteen dollars "to pay for the services of … [a] Law Librarian," and during the ensuing years various small sums were appropriated for books. Members of the Law School faculty frequently requested additional aid for the Library, but their requests, although invariably granted, were so modest that no very great improvement to the Library resulted. The necessity for a large collection of books seems not to have been appreciated fully at the time. With a collection of about 1,000 volumes, the Law faculty in its Announcement of 1861 was able to say: "A well selected and very useful law library has been purchased and arranged for the use of students."

Whether as a result of the ten dollars spent for advertisement in 1861 or for some other reason, the Library in 1866 received a gift of almost 800 volumes from the Honorable Richard Fletcher, formerly a justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Court. Justice Fletcher had no connection with the University, and seems to have been moved entirely by his admiration for this institution. In return for his gift he received a copy of a resolution by the Regents which read in part:

Your Committee hail this beginning of liberal things toward this growing seminary of learning. The wise foresight which laid the foundations of a University in the wilderness has already deserved and will receive the applause of the world; but we yet need the contributions of private munificence, in order to secure and perfect the glorious work so well begun. We would manifest our appreciation of Judge Fletcher's donation, and perpetuate his memory by engraving it upon the history of the University of Michigan.


(R.P., 1864-70, p. 139.)

Between the time of the Fletcher gift in 1866 and the year 1885 the Library increased to more than 4,000 volumes. In 1885 a gift of 5,000 volumes that is said to have more than doubled the size of the collection was received from Christian Buhl, a Detroit businessman. From the same donor came a bequest of $10,000 in 1894. The condition of the Library at the time of the Buhl gift is well set out in a letter of thanks written by the Law School faculty to the donor. The letter said in part:

We have worked under great disadvantages in being confined for the students' means of reference to a comparatively small collection of works of prime necessity. We have never had the facilities needful for the extended study of jurisprudence in the library. Our own work has had to be done by the aid of other libraries, and members of our classes who wished to follow out and verify doctrines fully, have had to do much of that work elsewhere.

President Angell was even more specific. In his letter to Mr. Buhl he said:

To show you that it [the collection] will be of great use to us, I may say that it will fill many sad gaps in our Law Library. How serious these gaps are I almost hesitate to say. But the truth is that although we have law students from all over the Union, there are thirty States and Territories which are absolutely unrepresented by a single volume of Reports. The Canadian Reports and the Irish Reports are wanting, and our English Reports and U. S. Circuit Court Reports are very defective. More text-books are also needed. Many other serious wants might be specified.

It is interesting to note that after the Buhl gift was received the students held a mass meeting at which they drew up resolutions thanking the donor.

Page  1399The first law librarian was a student, Isaac Marston, who later became a justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan. Other law students who served as librarians in the early days were Levi L. Barbour, later Regent and benefactor of the University, and William R. Day, who afterwards became a justice of the United States Supreme Court. The main duties of the student-librarian in those days were to open and close the Library and to keep order in the reading room. The librarian had no part in the selection of books. He was a custodian, pure and simple. It was not, in fact, until 1883 that a permanent librarian was appointed, with the title of Assistant Librarian, who was to give his full time to the care of the law collection. Several years later, in 1889, this first full-time Librarian, Joseph Hardcastle Vance ('61l), was saddled with additional duties. He was "to render such assistance as may be required by the Law Faculty, to the Dean of the Law Department, in the matter of the correspondence of that Department, and to the Law Faculty in connection with the Moot Court Cases."

Joseph H. Vance served until 1899, when Judge Victor Hugo Lane ('74, LL.B '78) was appointed Librarian. Vance continued to hold the title of Assistant Librarian until his death in 1900.

In 1901 Lane very wisely procured the appointment of a trained Assistant Librarian, Gertrude E. Woodard, a woman of unusual ability and tireless energy. She started an accurate record of accessions — the first the Library had ever had; she also began work on the Library's first catalogue. In addition to those duties Miss Woodard did all of the ordering, assisted in the selection of materials, and worked at times at the reference desk.

Unfortunately, much important material readily procurable in the first two decades of the present century was rejected by the faculty on the ground that there was no room to shelve it — material which is now unobtainable. Judge Lane, although he continued as Librarian until 1926, devoted most of his time to teaching and research and took little active part in the administration of the Library. Nevertheless, he did render valuable assistance in building up the collection, which increased during the twenty-six years of his administration from about 18,000 to 55,000 volumes. A large part of the credit for the development of the Library during this period must go to Dean Henry M. Bates, who had been at one time librarian of the Chicago Law Institute, and who brought with him to Michigan a genuine appreciation of the value of research material in a library. Although his own time was, of necessity, given largely to teaching and to the administration of the Law School, he showed from the beginning a keen personal interest in the development of the law collection, and saw to it that his colleagues obtained the materials necessary for their research.

In 1925, Hobart R. Coffey (Ohio State '18, LL.B. Michigan '22, J.D. ibid. '24) was appointed Assistant Law Librarian. He had spent the preceding year as a Carnegie fellow in international law at the University of Paris, and by action of the Regents was permitted to remain in Europe for another year to fit himself better for the work of Law Librarian. He spent the year 1925-26 at the universities of Berlin and Munich studying foreign and international law, preparing bibliographies, and locating and purchasing foreign materials for the Law Library.

On his return to Ann Arbor in 1926 Coffey was made Law Librarian and Assistant Professor of Law, succeeding Judge Victor Lane. In 1927 his title was changed to Professor of Law and Law Librarian, and in 1944 he was made Director of the Law Library.

Page  1400During the early period of development of most American law libraries little attention seems to have been given to the importance of statutory material. Judicial decisions were regarded as law, but the same could hardly be said for the acts of legislatures. At Michigan no effort to collect statutes seems to have been made before 1886. In that year the Dean was able to secure as gifts the latest compilations of statutes for about one-fourth of the states. No organized effort was made to secure the early statutes or session laws of the states until almost twenty years later. By that time many of the old laws had become very scarce, and copies could be acquired only at considerable cost in effort and money. The accession records for the period show, however, that all statutory material was selected with the greatest care and discrimination. One may regret that more money could not have been provided for staff and books in those early days, but at the same time one must admit that somehow the foundations were laid for a truly great collection.

Although Harvard began to collect foreign law materials as early as 1841, our Law Library seems to have had few, if any, books dealing with foreign law until about 1897, when part of the Buhl bequest is said to have been used for the purchase of foreign material. The accession records, which began in 1900, reveal that the "foreign material" referred to was books (principally statutes and court decisions) for England and her colonies. Because of the common-law background of most British possessions we should today scarcely regard their legal materials as "foreign." No works on German, French, or Italian law appear in our accession records until the first two decades of the twentieth century, and there were very few of those. Even as late as 1920 the foreign law collection occupied only a few shelves in the workroom of the order department.

Between 1920 and 1925 three large foreign libraries were purchased: the Star Hunt Collection of Spanish and Mexican Law; the Heinrich Lammasch Collection, devoted largely to international law; and the Viollet Collection, which for the most part related to French law and legal history. In 1929 the Library acquired the collection of private international law which formerly belonged to Professor Antoine Pillet of the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris. In 1935 we acquired the library of Professor Francesco Carrera, eminent criminologist, of the University of Pisa. All of these purchases greatly enriched the Library.

No attempt seems to have been made to acquire an international law section until about 1919, when Edwin De Witt Dickinson was added to the staff of the Law School. Professor Dickinson, whose main interest had been public and private international law, immediately recognized the inadequacy or, in fact, the almost total lack of books and documents in his field. He prepared bibliographies and want lists and was instrumental in helping the Library to acquire many of the important and fundamental source materials in international law and relations. The systematic effort begun in 1919 has been continued through succeeding years and has resulted in the University's having the most complete collection to be found west of the Atlantic seaboard. It has attracted scholars not only from this country but from many other parts of the world.

Professor Joseph Horace Drake, a member of the Law School faculty from 1907 to 1930, had a lively interest in both Roman and Comparative Law. In 1923-24, while on a leave of absence in Europe, spent principally in Germany Page  1401and France, he helped the Library to acquire its first important materials from those countries. In the following three decades great emphasis was placed on the acquisition of the constitutions, codes, laws, and judicial decisions of all important foreign countries. To find this material and arrange for its purchase the Director of the Library made several trips to the various countries of Europe, including the Soviet Union, two trips to Mexico and Central America, and one to the Caribbean and South America. The foreign law section of the Library is now one of the outstanding collections of the world.

After 1926, the Library staff was gradually increased, new methods were introduced, and plans were made and carried out for the development of the Library on a scale which had become necessary owing to the greatly expanded needs of the School. As of 1954 the staff consisted of twenty full-time and twenty-three part-time employees.

When the present Director took over the administration of the Library in 1926 the collection numbered about 55,000 volumes. In 1954 the figure was approximately a quarter of a million. Serial publications currently received number more than three thousand. The annual increase in books is now approximately ten thousand volumes.

The achievements of a library can rarely be attributed solely to the wisdom and competence of the director. Without generous support from the administration and without a competent staff most libraries would make little progress. Although the Law Library was never well supported during the first sixty years of its history, appropriations for books and staff over the past thirty years have been reasonably adequate. A small amount of support from trust funds has supplemented the regular University appropriations. Dean E. Blythe Stason has continued the wise policies of his predecessor, Dean Henry M. Bates, and has seen to it that the Library has received its fair share of the funds available to the School.

No sketch of the Library would be complete without some mention of the staff members who, while working quietly behind the scenes, have contributed so much to the achievements of the Library. Of these staff members, Gertrude E. Woodard, already mentioned, was outstanding. She was succeeded as Assistant Law Librarian by Elizabeth Beal Steere ('10, A.M.L.S. '30) who served until 1918. Miss Steere was followed by Blanche E. Harroun who occupied the position until 1924, when she was succeeded by H. Rebecca Wilson ('21, A.M.L.S. '28). She served until 1927. In 1928 Esther Betz ('15, A.M.L.S. Michigan '29) was appointed Assistant Law Librarian and has continued in that position until the present time. Bessie Margaret Johnson (Park College '17), Chief Reference Librarian, has served since 1929; H. Rebecca Wilson returned as Chief Order Librarian in 1931. Catherine Maria Campbell ('15, A.M. '24), Chief Catalogue Librarian began her work in the Library in 1924.

The Law Library is part of the University Library system, but from the moment of its establishment it has been autonomous, operated as a part of the Law School, with its own administration and staff. The Director reports to the Dean and faculty of the Law School. He is aided by a committee of the Law School faculty and a staff of technically trained assistants. With the General Library and all other libraries on the campus there has existed from the earliest times the closest co-operation.

The Law Library is maintained primarily as a research collection, which means that practically any volume that the Library owns can be made available Page  1402to the reader on a few minutes' notice. Circulation outside the building is limited to a small part of the collection which is not of a strictly reference character.

While the Library is intended to serve the research and teaching needs of the Law School, it is open not only to the students and faculty of the University generally, but to lawyers and other members of the public who have a legitimate use for legal materials. Lawyers now come from all parts of the country to use the extraordinary collection of books and documents available.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Lane, Victor. MS, Law Library.
Law Library Accession Books.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1954.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-64. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.

THE WILLIAM L. CLEMENTS LIBRARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY

THE William L. Clements Library of American History had its origin in the collecting activities of William Lawrence Clements ('82, LL.D.hon. '34), who served as a Regent of the University from 1910 through 1933. Influenced by Professors Thomas M. Cooley and Moses Coit Tyler, Regent Clements retained a deep interest in American history and literature, at the same time pursuing a successful business career in Bay City, Michigan. Upon graduation he joined the firm founded by his father, which became known as the Industrial Brownhoist Corporation, manufacturer of heavy cranes and railroad equipment, and later succeeded his father as president of the company.

In the 1890's Regent Clements began collecting books. He found a fellow enthusiast who abetted him in Aaron J. Cooke, a Bay City merchant and one-time city librarian, who also had a passion for American history. From 1903, with the purchase of Mr. Cooke's library, Clements' hobby became his absorbing interest. He devoted himself to gathering rare books relating to America, printed before 1800. His collection covered the period of discovery and exploration of the New World, the early settlement of North America, the Indian wars, colonial disputes, the American Revolution, and the beginnings of our federal government. The second decade of the twentieth century saw the dispersal at auction of some remarkable libraries gathered by distinguished collectors. Regent Clements made noteworthy acquisitions from the sales of books belonging to such Americans as Robert Hoe, George Brinley, Samuel L. M. Barlow, Marshall C. Lefferts, and from the Huth, Rowfant, Devonshire, Bridgewater, and Britwell Court libraries in England.

As a Regent of the University and an ardent alumnus, Clements formed a warm friendship with Claude H. Van Tyne, at that time chairman of the Department of History, whose interest in American history coincided with that of Clements. As a collector Clements enjoyed the friendship of scholars elsewhere and of eminent antiquarian booksellers. As his private library grew, he began to think of its ultimate preservation and future use. He was a builder and a connoisseur, and he wanted to share his fruits with others. The example Page  1403of other collections given to universities was before him, and affection for his own alma mater was not lacking. In 1921 he offered to the University his collection of about 10,500 books and atlases, and the Shelburne manuscripts, and announced that he would build a proper building on the campus to house them. A gift agreement was drawn up in 1922 by which the University pledged itself to maintain the building, to provide an adequate staff, and to furnish an annual sum for the acquisition of additional rare Americana.

The William L. Clements Library was dedicated and opened in June, 1923. The building, two stories high, is Italian Renaissance in style and executed in Indiana limestone (see Part VIII: The William L. Clements Library Building). The interior bears little resemblance to the conventional library.

At the dedication ceremonies Regent Clements spoke of his gift as being a new kind of library, saying:

It must not be supposed that this library is for the use of the undergraduate, or for others who have not exhausted the facilities of the General Library. It is primarily a library for advanced research on the part of scholars already well equipped, rather than a library to serve as a vehicle of instruction for either the undergraduate or the ordinary graduate student. Above this is independent investigation, deep and exhaustive, of historical facts.

One scholar assured him that the Library justified its existence if it had but three readers — of the right kind — in a year. He never let it be forgotten that his collection comprised a very particular kind of library quite apart from its special content. In 1923 he published a book descriptive of the library — The William L. Clements Library of Americana.

Administration of the Library was put in the hands of a Committee of Management composed of the president of the University, the donor during his lifetime, the director of the General Library of the University, the senior professor of American History, and two members-at-large, known for their interest in American history. Regent Clements was promptly elected chairman of the committee and never missed a meeting. After his death in 1934, the committee remained five in number. William Warner Bishop, Director of the General Library and one of Regent Clements' friends, served until his retirement in 1941. Professor Claude H. Van Tyne served until his death in 1930. Members with their dates of service on this committee include presidents of the University: Marion Leroy Burton, 1923-25, Clarence Cook Little, 1925-29, Alexander Grant Ruthven, 1929-51, Harlan Hatcher, 1951-; librarians of the University: William Warner Bishop, 1923-41, Warner G. Rice, 1941-53, Frederick H. Wagman, 1953-; professors of history: Claude H. Van Tyne, 1923-30, Verner W. Crane, 1930-; members-at-large: George Parker Winship, 1924-33, Tracy McGregor, 1933-37, Lawrence Reynolds, 1937-; William S. Mason, 1924-37, James O. Murfin, 1937-40, John W. Watling, 1942-51, Renville Wheat, 1952-.

The Library opened without a director. Regent Clements wanted a scholar in American history who regarded books with the zest of a collector; he did not insist upon a graduate of a library school. His old friend and adviser, George P. Winship, librarian at Harvard, called his attention to Randolph Greenfield Adams (Pennsylvania '14, Ph.D. ibid. '20, LL.D. Albion '38), assistant professor of history at Trinity College, North Carolina (now Duke University). Clements went to see the young man. He was undoubtedly struck by the fact that here was a man with a doctor's degree in history, whose dissertation Page  1404had been on the American Revolution, and who spoke the language of a book collector and reciprocated his enthusiasm for rare books. Clements recommended Adams for the appointment; it was tendered; and Adams arrived in Ann Arbor in October, 1923. He served as Director until his death in January, 1951. He also held the appointment of Professor of History.

Adams, a Philadelphian by birth and schooling, was born in 1892. During his early life he was a neighbor to A. Edward Newton, the eminent bibliophile who communicated to many others his enthusiasm for book collecting. Adams spent the summer of 1914 touring Europe. He held a fellowship in history at the University of Chicago in 1916-17 and served with the American Expeditionary Forces from 1917 to 1919. While studying for his doctorate he completed his Political Ideas of the American Revolution (1922, reprinted 1939) and wrote A History of the Foreign Policy of the United States (1924).

In carrying out the policies of the Committee of Management and the wishes of Regent Clements, Adams early recognized the fact that his task would be "one of mediating between being hospitable and being careful," and he intended to make his mistakes, he said, in the matter of hospitality rather than in the matter of care. The University students were puzzled by the existence on the campus of a library not meant for their use, and many professors were annoyed at not being able to make class assignments in the books or to take out any of the material on loan. The requirements for admission appeared to be bars. The public service concept of the public library had grown so strong that it was difficult for the University community to realize that books are not durable goods and that many of the Library's holdings were irreplaceable. Professors who had worked at similar institutions elsewhere did not find the rules irksome. Adams stood his ground and projected the unpopular idea that his first duty was to the material of which he had custody and that his duty to patrons was secondary. Some of his ideas were incorporated in a brochure The Whys and Wherefores of the William L. Clements Library (1925).

Both Clements and Adams agreed that in addition to its fundamental purpose of stimulating research in American history and American historical bibliography, the Library existed to inspire the art of book collecting. For the first few years of his tenure, Adams spoke and wrote frequently on the merits of book collecting as a hobby, the debt that scholars owe to collectors, and the treatment that librarians should accord them.

At the dedication of the building the only statement Regent Clements made which turned out not to be true was his opening remark: "This day and hour mark the conclusion of a book-collector's career." Bereft of his beloved books, he did not stop collecting. He turned his attention to historical manuscripts. Knowing that the papers of the principal figures who had shaped this country and won its independence were for the most part already in eastern libraries, he wondered about the correspondence of the British officials who had ruled or misruled the American colonies and conducted the unsuccessful effort to suppress revolution. Having already acquired the papers of Lord Shelburne, prime minister during the peace negotiations of 1782-83, he returned to the British field in the ensuing decade and assembled a series of manuscript collections as remarkable for their integration as for their separate importance.

The time was fortunate. Coincident with his search, high taxes, made necessary by World War I, forced many old Page  1405English families to sell off their libraries and the contents of their muniment rooms. Thus, he was able to obtain the papers of Lord George Germain, colonial secretary throughout the Revolution; of William Knox, his undersecretary; of Alexander Wedderburn, attorney general; of John Lee, solicitor general, who handled Loyalist claims; of Viscount Sydney, secretary of war; and of the two British peace commissioners, Richard Oswald and David Hartley.

On the military side he acquired the papers of General Thomas Gage, commander-in-chief of His Majesty's forces in North America, 1763-75; of Sir Henry Clinton, commander-in-chief, 1778-82; and of Sir John Vaughan, commander in the West Indies. From Germany he obtained the papers of Baron von Jungkenn, war minister of Hesse-Cassel, containing letters from the Hessian officers employed in the Revolutionary War by the British.

The pre-Revolutionary period was illuminated by the papers of Admiral George Clinton, governor of New York, 1743-53; of Sir Peter Warren, naval commander who took Louisburg in 1745; of Sir William Mildmay, commissioner of claims growing out of the Treaty of 1748; of John Wilkes, liberal friend of the Colonies; and of George, Marquess Townshend, lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1767-72.

Regent Clements extended his interest through the War of 1812 and was able to secure the papers of the first and second Viscounts Melville, who served as secretary of war and first lord of the admiralty, respectively; of John Wilson Croker, secretary of the admiralty, 1809-30; of the Earl of Sheffield, privy councilor; and of Baron Brougham, member of parliament and lord chancellor. On the American side of the Revolution, he purchased the largest collection extant of General Nathanael Greene's papers, covering the Southern campaign.

Several of the smaller collections were sent at once as gifts to the Library for arranging and cataloguing, the others going to Bay City, where Mr. Clements enjoyed studying them and where he employed a private librarian to work on them. Between visits to Ann Arbor he pored over catalogues and attended auctions in the East. His enthusiasm and his interest in the Library never diminished. He died suddenly on November 6, 1934, and was buried in Forest Hills Cemetery in Ann Arbor.

The passing of so staunch a friend and so generous a benefactor of the University did not go unnoticed by his fellow regents. At their December meeting they incorporated into the minutes a tribute to him that said in part:

Regent Clements commanded the respect of his associates not only by his capacity for constant and loyal friendship but also by his integrity and ability and by that appreciation of intangible, but real, values which expressed itself in his idealism, his delight in the beautiful, and his active interest in history and the assembling of its underlying records.


(R.P., 1932-36, p. 508.)

After his death the manuscripts and books in his house at Bay City were purchased by the Library with generous assistance from the McGregor Fund, of Detroit. Meanwhile, for a dozen years the Library had been adding to its holdings by means of the book fund provided by the University. Books, maps, and prints were regularly acquired. Newspaper runs and manuscript collections were less frequently offered, but these also were obtained from time to time. In the period, 1936 to 1948, however, the book fund was used almost entirely for installment payments to the Clements estate for the collections mentioned above.

Growth of the Library brought about the normal changes to be expected in a Page  1406dynamic institution. The offices provided for the history professors were repossessed, and in 1931 Adams, for administrative purposes, organized the Library into three divisions and appointed a curator for each division. The Division of Printed Books (including newspapers and broadsides), which spread over the three floors of the building, was the largest. The Division of Manuscripts filled two rooms on the second floor. The Division of Maps (atlases and sheet maps) occupied part of the lower Library. Prints were in the Division of Manuscripts and later in the Division of Maps. The three curators, a secretary, an assistant in the Division of Printed Books, and a part-time student helper comprised the staff under the Director.

Elizabeth Beal Steere ('10, A.M.L.S. '30) was appointed Assistant Custodian in 1925. She became Assistant Director and Curator in 1936, but resigned in 1945 to do rehabilitation work among veterans of the war. She and her successive assistants catalogued all the new acquisitions, arranged the books in the Library, solved bibliographical problems, and served readers. After a year's interim under Francis L. D. Goodrich ('03, M.A. '16, B.L.S. N. Y. State Library School '06, M.Ed. hon. Michigan State Normal '36), Professor and Librarian Emeritus of the College of the City of New York, the division was placed under the charge of Robert Benaway Brown ('37, Ph.D. '51), who was appointed Curator of Printed Books in 1946. Goodrich continued as Bibliographical Consultant until 1953. Brown served until his death in 1950. More detailed cataloguing practices were introduced, and the first shifting of books in the cases became necessary. Brown's assistant, Georgia Campbell Haugh (Jamestown College '33, A.M.L.S. Michigan '48), became Curator in 1951. Edna Vosper ('23, B. Litt. Oxon. '27) was employed in 1928 as Manuscripts Assistant in the Library. She became the first Curator of Manuscripts in 1936 and devised a new system of cataloguing letters for scholarly use. She resigned to join the staff of the National Archives in the same year, and Howard H. Peckham ('31, A.M. '33), who became Assistant Curator of Printed Books in 1935, succeeded her. He received the immense bulk of manuscripts from the Clements estate and organized them. He also published the Guide to the Manuscript Collections in the Clements Library (1942). On his resignation in 1945, Colton Storm (Oberlin '30) who had been appointed Curator of Maps in 1942, became Curator of Manuscripts, and the next year Curator of Manuscripts and Maps. When he was promoted to Assistant Director in 1948 the division was placed under Margaret Elizabeth Larson (Delaware '45, Ph.D. Michigan '53). William Sterling Ewing ('35, A.M.L.S. '49) was appointed Curator in 1951, and he brought out a revised Guide to the Manuscript Collections in 1953.

The Map Division in 1934-35 was separately administered by James Clements Wheat ('09, M.S. '10), a nephew of Regent Clements. When Wheat could no longer give time to the work, Lloyd Arnold Brown ('33) was appointed Curator in 1935. He inaugurated certain practices which he described in a manual on The Care of Old Maps. When he was appointed director of the Peabody Library in Baltimore in 1942, he was succeeded by Colton Storm. The Manuscript Division was not separately administered after 1948 until Christian Brun (Washington '48, A.M.L.S. Michigan '52) was appointed Assistant Curator in 1952.

Adams liked to give his curators a free hand in their work, but he expected expert knowledge from them. He encouraged them to correspond with inquiring Page  1407scholars and to utilize the materials in their custody as a means of advertising the Library among research workers.

Three or four exhibitions a year of Library materials were offered to the public, and the building remained open for visitors on Saturday and Sunday afternoons. Pamphlets explaining the exhibitions, printed for important displays, also served to publicize the unusual holdings of the Library in the subject fields concerned. Student reporters, newspaper feature writers, and the University radio station all found "stories" of interest to the general public. Scholars from other universities soon exceeded those from the University of Michigan in making use of the source material. Historical monographs, bibliographical essays, biographies, magazine articles, edited letters, and historical novels emanating from work done at the Library testified to its riches. Invited audiences heard distinguished scholars speak at the Library or met eminent University visitors at teas.

In 1931 Adams was appointed state chairman of the George Washington Bicentennial Commission, giving the Library a role in the national celebration in 1932. Several pamphlets were issued by the Library, and Adams spoke frequently on the man who had been his boyhood hero. In 1937 the University observed its centennial in Ann Arbor. An aroused interest in the history of the University had prompted formation of the Michigan Historical Collections in 1935, under Professor Lewis G. Vander Velde of the Department of History. Adams offered quarters in the Library in 1936 and immediately began buying rare Michigan items to strengthen the new collections, which outgrew the space and moved to the Rackham Building in 1938.

In 1937 Adams was named Rosenbach Fellow in Bibliography, to deliver three lectures at the University of Pennsylvania early in 1938. He spoke on Henry Harrisse, bibliographer; George Brinley, book collector; and Thomas Jefferson, librarian. The lectures were published in 1939 under the title of Three Americanists.

Having contributed several articles to the Dictionary of American Biography from source materials in the Library, Adams was asked to serve on the Advisory Council for the Dictionary of American History, the first volume of which appeared in 1940. Early in the same year he was called by President Roosevelt to serve as a member of a committee to advise him concerning the future disposal of his papers, his naval collection, and the memorabilia that every president accumulates. Out of the discussion emerged the plan for the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial Library at Hyde Park, which is administered as a branch of the National Archives.

In 1939 Albert H. Greenly, of Hoboken, New Jersey, presented to the Library his collection of books on Abraham Lincoln, amounting to nearly 1,000 titles. These books, contemporary and modern rarities, including many early campaign biographies, were kept as a separate unit. Subsequently, both Mr. Greenly and the Library enlarged the collection. In 1942 William A. Vawter II and his son, William A. Vawter III, of Benton Harbor, Michigan, gave the Library a collection of books and manuscripts on Theodore Roosevelt, including the President's own writings and books about him and his many interests. The collection numbered 582 pieces and a small group of Roosevelt letters. The Vawters have continued to enlarge the collection.

In 1944 John W. Watling and Mrs. Herbert C. Ely, of Detroit, established a fund in memory of Mr. Ely for the purchase Page  1408of books on early American drama. Further contributions have been made to the fund, and thus, a choice collection of plays has been acquired.

Adams' annual reports record the growth of the Library, as they deal almost exclusively with the more important or spectacular acquisitions. The titles and collections mentioned also exemplify the kind of material the Library was created to secure.

In his twentieth report (1942-43) Adams made several observations about the Library:

If there is one thing we have learned it is this: quantitative measurements misrepresent the aims and accomplishments of an institution such as this … we lay less emphasis on the number of pieces added per annum and upon circulation statistics, than is common in the reports of all public libraries and most of the university and college libraries…

Likewise in an ordinary public library report, one finds statistics and data on what the librarian and his staff have done to stimulate the use of the library. This, as we conceive it, is not one of our functions. We are part of a great University. This University has nearly a thousand men and women teachers whose principal function it is to stimulate its students to want to read books…

In its conception, this Library was to be a connoisseur's library, available to all serious investigators. The original and present collections actually cover a period of nearly five hundred years, but for an excellent reason we have tended to restrict our purchases (not our gifts) to the earlier period of American history. The reason is this: we have conceived it to be one of our functions to help the University of Michigan overcome the handicap of being born four hundred years too late. After all, printing was invented, and America was discovered, in the fifteenth century — while the University of Michigan was not founded until the nineteenth century.

In his report for the year 1944-45, Adams mentioned the visit to the Library of Sir John Forsdyke, director of the British Museum, accompanied by Mr. Henry Thomas, the keeper of printed books in that institution:

At a little reception given to these gentlemen in the Library, we received a formula for which we have long sought. Said Sir John: 'The function of the Clements Library is to collect the archetype.' That, as we understand it, justifies us in what we have been doing these twenty-three years. We are not satisfied with facsimiles, photographs, or microfilms. We strive to acquire the originals from which these useful copies may be made.

In 1947 an organization of friends of the Library was developed and named the Clements Library Associates. This group received authorization from the Regents, who appoint the governing body, an executive committee consisting of two members from the Library's Committee of Management and three other members of the Associates. The organization now has more than five hundred members, who receive all Library bulletins and are invited to Library events. Later, the publishing of an annual gift book, a reprint, was inaugurated for them. Their dues and contributions provide the Library with additional funds for acquisitions. In the first six years of the existence of the Associates purchases were made amounting to more than $20,000. Storm served the executive committee as its first secretary.

The completion of payments to the Clements estate from the book purchasing fund in 1948, the diverse interests represented by the Associates, and the postwar growth of the University caused the Library to expand its field of collecting. Regent Clements had concentrated on the early periods through the War of 1812. From time to time a rare item of later date was added. Adams found that he could secure donations of middle nineteenth-century books from collectors who had little interest in the earlier centuries. Page  1409He continued to insist on rare Americana, but he sought to remove any restrictions on date, particularly after the late Senator Vandenberg presented his copy of the United Nations Charter of 1945. Consequently, the Library forged ahead with acquisitions on the anti-slavery movement, overland narratives, Texas and the Mexican War, sporting books, Confederate imprints, and highlights of the late nineteenth and even early twentieth centuries. The Committee of Management did not halt the acquisition of such material, but it did not endorse a statement of policy that made room for material of more recent date. The new development was the subject of much fruitful discussion, without conclusion.

The Director's health became a matter of growing concern in 1949. His working day was shortened, but in the fall of 1950 he entered the University Hospital. His condition did not respond to treatment, and on January 4, 1951, he died. Other changes were in store for the Library. President Ruthven retired in 1951, and John W. Watling, a member of the Committee of Management and chairman of the executive committee of the Associates, died. Storm as Assistant Director carried on the administrative work of the Library during the difficult interim.

Adams' value to the Library can hardly be overstated. Chosen by Mr. Clements for the position, he worked closely with him for eleven years. He carried on with his contagious enthusiasm, quick perception, amazing knowledge of rare books, and insistence upon the special role of the Library. In January, 1951, the Board of Regents adopted a resolution that said in part:

Under his guidance the Clements Library has attained, and maintained, the position envisioned for it by its donor as the repository of a unique collection of rare books and original documents relating to certain phases of American history and as a center for the researches of historians. Dr. Adams' rare personal qualities have contributed to this end… His acumen and scholarly judgment were usefully exercised in directing the acquisitions of the many additions to the Library which have been made since Mr. Clements' death, and his unfailing cordiality has given it an atmosphere of hospitality all too uncommon in an institution whose treasures must of necessity be jealously protected and safeguarded.


(R.P., 1948-51, p. 1174.)

The Clements Library Associates established in his memory a Randolph G. Adams Lecture, to be given each fall. The series opened auspiciously in October, 1952, with Luther H. Evans, librarian of Congress, as the speaker. The next year Lawrence Clark Powell, librarian of the University of California at Los Angeles, addressed the Associates and their friends.

In 1952 the Committee of Management took up the task of re-examining the relationship of the Library to the University and of filling the vacant directorship. The new President of the University, Harlan Hatcher, had taken his place as chairman of the committee. Renville Wheat, Detroit attorney and a nephew of Mr. Clements, was appointed to succeed Mr. Watling. It was recognized that an era in the Library's growth had come to an end and that more active responsibility must be taken by the Committee of Management. The Library was firmly established as a distinct and distinguished institution; the first director had shaped it according to the ideals of the founder and had fathered its dynamic growth. The committee proceeded slowly to orient its new members, to consult members of the Department of History and others, and to make sure of its own feelings and expectations about the Library in the Page  1410University complex. In the summer of 1953 the Regents appointed Howard Henry Peckham, director of the Indiana Historical Bureau, who had formerly served the Clements Library as Curator of Manuscripts, as the second Director.

Surveys of the Library's holdings in certain fields revealed that serious lacunae in the early period still existed. Potentialities of the Library's growth and use were discussed. The capacities of the building were reviewed. Cognizance was taken of the fact that the book fund remained at the same figure as was originally granted in 1923, despite the great increase in prices of rare Americana.

Out of the committee's long deliberations and the recommendations of the Director, an acquisitions policy statement was framed: from University funds the Clements Library would collect the contemporary documentation on all aspects of American life, not merely political and military history, up to 1830, the terminal date to be subject to review from time to time. Frederick H. Wagman, the new Director of the University Library, co-operated by offering to transfer to the Clements Library early rare Americana not in special collections. An advisory committee on acquisitions was appointed from the faculties of those departments interested in the holdings of the Clements Library to advise the Director on desirable acquisitions in the fields of which they had expert knowlledge.

In 1953-54 Mrs. Hubert S. Smith, of Bay City, gave her husband's collection of rare books and manuscripts on Anglo-American naval affairs to the Library. Mr. Smith had been a neighbor of Regent Clements and a fellow collector. This important gift consisted of five hundred manuscripts and three hundred books, in addition to certain items that could be sold in order to provide funds for further purchases.

At the end of 1953 the William L. Clements Library held approximately 35,000 books, 200,000 manuscripts, and 25,000 maps, in addition to newspapers and prints.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, Randolph G.The Whys and Wherefores of the William L. Clements Library. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1925.
Clements, William L.The William L. Clements Library of Americana at the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1923-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1923-54.
"William Lawrence Clements,"Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XXI.
Page  [1411]

The University of Michigan Press

Page  [1412]
Page  1413

THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS

In June, 1858, the Regents of the University of Michigan placed $200 at the disposal of the President for the publication of Tables of Victoria (an asteroid), by Professor Francis Brünnow, the first Director of the University Observatory. If they had at the same time established a university press to issue the book, it would have been the first university press in this country. As it is, this action may be regarded as the earliest episode in the history of the present University of Michigan Press, and as significant of the publishing policy of the University, through whatever agency its books have been issued; for that policy has very definitely been to publish works of a scholarly character.

It was almost a half century later before any further action of a significant and lasting nature was taken in the field of University publication. This was the establishment in 1902 of the standing committee of the University Senate on publication of University studies. There was, to be sure, a certain amount of publication in the intervening years; much of it, however, was of a semiofficial nature, presumably not subsidized by the University, and that to which the University itself put its name was for the most part its catalogues, pamphlets containing commencement addresses, and occasional anniversary volumes, such as the proceedings of the semicentennial celebration of 1887 and of the quarter-centennial of Dr. Angell's presidency in 1896.

A listing of the semiofficial publications issued in the latter part of the nineteenth century has been included by Esther Anne Smith in her bibliography, University of Michigan Publications Containing Material of a Scientific or Learned Character (1922), which forms the second volume of the General Library Publications. Several among them are noteworthy for their length of life and the distinction of those who contributed to them. The Publications of the Michigan Political Science Association, for example, appeared in six volumes between 1893 and 1905, and numbered Thomas M. Cooley, Henry Carter Adams, Harry B. Hutchins, Fred M. Taylor, B. A. Hinsdale, and Richard Hudson among its authors. Nine Contributions to Rhetorical Theory, edited by Fred Newton Scott, were issued between 1895 and 1918, the last three being published by the University itself. Two series of Philosophical Papers, dated between 1886 and 1888, bore such names as George Sylvester Morris, Calvin Thomas, W. H. Payne, Henry Sewall, John Dewey, Alexander Winchell, and E. L. Walter on their title pages. There were also a short-lived Michigan University Medical Journal (1870-73), and the Bulletin of the Electro-therapeutic Laboratory (1894-97), and some of the departments began during this period the practice of collecting in annual volumes the papers which their members had published in the professional journals. The most lasting of all these publications, however, was that which still survives as The Michigan Technic; it began (1882-85) as Selected Papers Read before the Engineering Society of the University of Michigan, became The Technic in 1888 and The Michigan Technic in 1902.

Desultory as it was, this publishing activity on the part of the faculty is evidence that by the turn of the century the time had come for a more definite and permanent arrangement. Professor Francis W. Kelsey deserves much of the credit for what was then done. At the Regents' meeting of July, 1900, he presented Page  1414a statement to the effect that it would be expedient for the University to publish a series of works to be written by certain professors. This was referred to a committee and nothing more about it appears in the record. At the University Senate meeting of May, 1902, however, the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts submitted a proposal to establish a series of University Studies, and on motion of Professor Kelsey a committee, including President Angell and Professors W. Beman, H. S. Carhart, and R. M. Wenley, was appointed to study the question and make a report. This report, presented to the Senate on June 2, 1902, included two resolutions, which the Senate adopted. The first of them was to the effect that "it is expedient for the University to issue a series of publications in separate volumes to appear from time to time, when, in the judgment of a committee of the Senate appointed to consider the worth of the papers presented, suitable matter is offered through members of the faculties and when provision is made by the Regents, or otherwise, to meet the expenses of the publication." The second stated that the papers offered through Professor Kelsey were suitable for a volume, and that as the means of publication were provided Professor Kelsey should be authorized to proceed with the publication, which was to be under the title "University of Michigan Studies" with a suitable subtitle — a form which has ever since been retained for the Humanistic Series and the Scientific Series, though under arrangements made later the other series form subtitles under the general heading "University of Michigan Publications."

The committee authorized by the first of these resolutions was announced by President Angell in December, 1902, as consisting of Professors M. L. D'Ooge, V. C. Vaughan, I. N. Demmon, A. G. Canfield, and R. M. Wenley, and in the spring of 1903, with President Angell and Professor Kelsey also present, it authorized the publication of Volume I of the Humanistic Series in the form in which it later appeared. As the Standing Committee on Publication of University Studies, this committee is listed in the University catalogues from 1908-9 through 1914-15. In 1912-13 President Harry B. Hutchins' name is included as chairman and Professor Kelsey took the place of Professor D'Ooge, who had just retired; but otherwise the original members continued to serve throughout the committee's existence.

Volume I of the Humanistic Series was published in 1904. Most of the earlier volumes of this series, and in fact many of the later ones, were published with funds given to the University for the purpose, but in 1906, when the second volume of the series was in preparation, the Regents appropriated $350 — later increased to $500 — from University funds to aid in the project, and this precedent was followed, although not consistently, in the publication of several succeeding volumes. It was at least a foreshadowing of the provision made in University budgets of later years for the support of scholarly publication.

The Standing Committee on Publication of University Studies continued to sponsor the books issued by the University until June, 1913, when its functions were transferred by the Regents, on recommendation of the Senate, to the Executive Board of the newly organized Graduate School. By this time six volumes of the Humanistic Series had appeared, the seventh was in preparation, and the first three volumes of a second series — History and Political Science — had been published in the successive years 1911, 1912, and 1913. The first of this latter series, Dr. Mary L. Hinsdale's A History of the President'sPage  1415Cabinet, was underwritten to the extent of $450 by Regent William L. Clements.

Graduate School management of University publications lasted until 1930, when the University Press was formally established, and thereafter, until March, 1935, the Executive Board retained the responsibility for accepting or rejecting scholarly manuscripts. In November, 1913, the Regents clarified their action giving the Executive Board of the Graduate School the authority formerly exercised by the Senate Committee on Publication of University Studies by stating that it was to be interpreted (a) as referring to all scholarly publications published or distributed under the auspices of the University or of any of its departments, (b) as entrusting to the Executive Board the ultimate financial and editorial management of such publications, including the solicitation of funds, the execution of contracts with authors and publishers, and the distribution and sale of publications, and (c) as including the control of existing funds and the general management of publications which had previously appeared.

Under this charter the two already existing series were continued, and several new ones began. The first volume of the Scientific Series appeared in 1914, the first of the Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters in 1921, the Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology in 1924, the Language and Literature Series in 1925, and the Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museums in 1928. For many years, following an arrangement made by Professor Kelsey, University of Michigan publications bore the imprint of the Macmillan Company and were listed in Macmillan catalogues; after 1908, however, the General Library handled the stock and sales.

In 1922 the University acquired its first full-time editor of scholarly publications, in the person of Dr. Eugene S. McCartney, a competent classical scholar who had completed both his undergraduate course and his study for the Ph.D. at the University of Pennsylvania and who had taught at the University of Texas, Northwestern University, and elsewhere. Increasing deafness influenced Dr. McCartney to give up teaching in favor of editorial work, and for thirty-two years the scholarly publications had the advantage of his singular appreciation for consistency of form and nicety of expression.

The Regents' statement concerning the extent of the powers granted to the Graduate School in connection with publications implies that in addition to the series sponsored by the University itself there were others for which departments of the University were responsible. This was indeed the case. The Michigan Technic, with its beginnings in 1882, could be called the oldest of these, except that it is primarily a student-managed publication; the Michigan Law Review, established in 1902-3, is edited jointly by faculty and students. The Publications of the Observatory of the University, which date from 1912, is a departmental publication, and so too are the two series sponsored by the Museum of Zoology, the Occasional Papers and the Miscellaneous Publications. Both of these series were founded by Dr. Bryant Walker, Mr. Bradshaw H. Swales, and Dr. W. W. Newcomb, the former in 1913 and the latter in 1916, and by 1954 more than 560 Occasional Papers and 87 Miscellaneous Publications had been issued. The Publications of the General Library had their beginning in 1919 and include eight volumes. After 1920 a number of other departmental series came into existence, which will be enumerated later.

It was largely because of the multiplication Page  1416of departmental publications that the University of Michigan Press was created in 1930. The General Library stocked and sold all the publications sponsored by the University itself, but orders for the departmentally sponsored books and pamphlets were filled at a dozen or more museum, school, or departmental offices, a situation which caused great inconvenience whenever a single order included items in different series. President Ruthven summarized the existing difficulties in his proposal for the establishment of the Press, which was submitted to the Regents February 7, 1930, and was approved by them:

For several years there have been suggestions on the Campus and from the alumni that the University of Michigan should establish a press. There has been considerable misunderstanding as to what was meant by the term and several of its advocates have not been able to distinguish between the three functions of a publishing concern, the managerial, including contracts, distribution, and so forth, the editorial, and the printing. I am not in favor of having a printing plant at the University. The experience of publishing houses goes to show that the work can be done as economically by contract and that there is endless trouble with a printing establishment.

On the other hand, there is great need for better organization of our publishing activities. New bulletins are started and old publications are discontinued and brought to life again with no one to supervise numbering, general style, and cost.

I suggest that the University immediately organize its publications under the general name, The University of Michigan Press, and that Dr. Frank E. Robbins be given the additional title of Managing Editor, with the understanding that he will have general supervision of University publications, with duties similar to those of managing editors in the various publishing houses, and that details of organization will be worked out later.

I am convinced that a simple organization of this kind, which will permit us to use the caption The University of Michigan Press, and which will co-ordinate the large number of publications now being issued, will very much improve the conditions now prevailing.


(R.P., 1929-32, pp. 185-86.)

The organization which evolved and was approved by the Regents in April, 1931, placed the affairs of the Press in the charge of an administrative committee of five (the Managing Editor, the Vice-President and Secretary of the University or his representative, and three faculty members appointed by the President), of which the Managing Editor was the executive officer. Its function was "to promote publication by and in behalf of the University, to determine policies relative to publications, to supervise all publication … and to approve all expenditures for publication…" The Executive Board of the Graduate School was to continue providing for the scholarly publications in its budget, and to retain its function of accepting or rejecting manuscripts, but the editing, manufacture, and publication of the books were to be supervised by the Administrative Committee of the Press. Since for the first time the Official Publications were brought under the same management as the others, a Committee on Official Publications was provided to take charge of them, consisting of the Registrar, the Managing Editor of the Press, and a faculty representative. It was further provided that the Alumni Press — a rather short-lived organization sponsored by the Alumni Association — might under certain conditions affiliate itself with the University Press and that departmental publications should be reported annually to the Administrative Committee of the Press, but might otherwise be managed and produced as before, except that the Press would be expected to take charge of their distribution.

Page  1417This arrangement made the University Press primarily a co-ordinating and distributing agency, since important functions with regard to scholarly publications still remained with the Executive Committee of the Graduate School, and the editorial office of official publications continued to be a part of the Registrar's organization. Eventually, however, both these functions became the sole responsibility of the Press. Full responsibility for scholarly publications came first, in March, 1935, when Graduate School affairs were being reorganized in consequence of the death of Dean G. Carl Huber. The Press at that time was given the powers held by the Executive Board of the School, and the Committee on Scholarly Publications was created as the final authority to rule on the acceptability of manuscripts. The editorial office of official publications remained in the Registrar's charge until September, 1945, when it became definitely a part of the Press. Appropriate rearrangements of the budget accompanied both these changes.

At the time of the transfer of the office of official publications in September, 1945, the organization of the University of Michigan Press as a whole was modified in certain particulars. The Managing Editor's title became Director; the Administrative Committee became the Executive Committee, composed of the Director of the Press, the Vice-President in charge of business and finance (or his representative), the Director of the Library, the chairmen of the committees on official and scholarly publications, and two appointed members; and the functions of the two committees, on scholarly and official publications respectively, were defined. The membership of the Committee on Scholarly Publications was stated to be the Director of the Press and the Dean of the Graduate School, ex officio, and six faculty members representing language and literature, fine arts, social science, physical science, biological science, and the health sciences, respectively; these latter are customarily nominated by the corresponding divisions, or in default of a divisional organization by the divisional committee on research projects set up by the Graduate School.

The physical quarters of the Press and its predecessors have evolved in much the same way as the Press itself. Before the arrival of Dr. McCartney the editorship of the Humanistic Series, the most ambitious and almost the only series sponsored by the University, fell to Professor Francis W. Kelsey, and the editorial office, such as it was, was Professor Kelsey's own office, at first in the old Library Building and after 1909 in the southeast corner of the basement of Alumni Memorial Hall. When the Graduate School Office was moved from Room 9, University Hall, to a suite on the first floor of Angell Hall in 1924, Dr. McCartney was given a small room at the north end of this suite, a few years later moving to a room on the fourth floor of the same building, which he and his assistants occupied until 1952; at that time much more commodious quarters were provided for them in the east side of the basement of the Rackham Building.

The editing of official publications was, prior to its assumption by the Press, a function of the Registrar, performed in the Registrar's Office in University Hall. As more members of the Registrar's staff were assigned to editorial work, more adequate quarters were found in a basement room in Angell Hall. After several years in this location, the office was moved in 1946 into the University Press Building at 311 Maynard Street. Since 1936 Walter A. Donnelly has had charge, as Editor of Official Publications. Mr. Donnelly, who entered Page  1418the service of the University as Instructor in Rhetoric in 1924, became Editor of Museums Publications in 1929 and since 1936 has divided his time between these and the official publications.

The Press Building just mentioned came to the University in April, 1931, as the gift of Mr. Dexter M. Ferry, Jr., of Detroit, an alumnus who has taken great interest in the publishing activities of the University and who has most generously assisted them on numerous occasions. An additional gift by Mr. Ferry, together with an allocation from University funds, permitted remodeling of the building during the ensuing months. Mr. Ferry's letter stated that it was his intention that this building should house both the University Press and the Alumni Press; the latter, however, was discontinued by the Alumni Association before it could take its place in the building, and the general scheme of remodeling, therefore, was to provide on the first floor for the University's printing plant (previously in the basement of the General Library) and on the second floor for the editorial offices, storage space, and mailing room of the University Press. It was not until 1937-38, however, that the mailing room was completely outfitted and all, or nearly all, University publications could be stocked and distributed from the Press Building. Mr. Edward E. Lofberg, Superintendent of the University's Printing Office, at that time took over the supervision of sales and continued to perform this function until 1955. Similarly, it was not at once convenient to move the editorial offices away from their campus associations, and for a period Professor E. D. Mitchell was permitted to use a room on the second floor of the building for the editing of a journal in the field of recreation and camping. The suite of four rooms prepared for editorial use, however, was eventually occupied by the Office of Official Publications.

The University's support of scholarly publication was at first, as already indicated, sporadic and in small amounts appropriated to help finance specified books; gradually this was superseded by the present policy of appropriations regularly carried in the University budget for salaries of editorial personnel, current expense, and the "Scholarly Publications fund," which defrays printers' bills and certain other expenses incident to the production of books. The first sign of a change in policy was the inclusion of an item of $1,300 in the 1920-21 budget of the Graduate School for publication expenses; though the School had previously received budget appropriations, mostly of minor amounts, for the production of certain books, this was the first time that the item took on a general character. No appropriation was made in 1921-22, but in 1922-23 the amount was substantially increased, to $12,000, and thereafter it became a regular fixture of the budget, varying in amount with the prevailing circumstances and in due time transferred from its Graduate School heading to that of the University Press.

No university press, if it is truly representative of the best scholarly work of its sponsoring institution, can succeed without the aid of benefactors; this is certainly true of the University of Michigan Press and its predecessors. The first four volumes of the Humanistic Series were published at the expense of the authors, with the exception of the appropriations, already mentioned, made by the Regents, but from this point until quite recently outside contributions have supported this series. The funds for Volume V, for example, came from Mr. William H. Murphy, of Detroit, and some thirty members of the Congregational Page  1419Church of Ann Arbor, and the later volumes were thus financed: Volume VI, $350 from the Regents, the balance from Regent Peter White and the author; Volume VII, $350 from the Regents, the balance from Mr. J. M. Longyear and the author; Volumes VIII, IX, X, Mr. Charles L. Freer; Volume XI, Mr. William H. Murphy; Volume XII, Mr. Freer, Mr. Murphy, and Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan; Volumes XIII, XXI, the Freer Research and Publication Fund; Volumes XIV, XV, Mr. William H. Murphy; Volume XVI, Mrs. E. W. Pendleton; Volume XXIII, Mr. H. C. Hoskier, the author. In 1929-30 the General Education Board made an appropriation of $250,000 for work in the advanced humanities, a good share of which was utilized in the publication in the Humanistic Series of studies resulting from the University's program of excavation and research in Egypt and other parts of the Near East. In whole or in part Volumes XVII-XX, XXII, and XXIV-XLII were thus financed, with aid from the funds provided by Mr. Horace H. Rackham in the case of Volume XXV. Mr. W. B. Shaw, in his study of the support given the University from sources other than public funds or student fees between 1817 and 1934, lists a total of $60,978.43 in contributions to the Humanistic Series from 1904 to 1931; this does not include the General Education Board's appropriation, the Freer Fund, or Mr. Rackham's gift.

The History and Political Science Series, again according to Mr. Shaw, was aided by donors to the extent of $989.45 between 1912 and 1931; this includes the gift by Regent Clements already mentioned.

Aid to publication has also come from several endowments. The Publications of the Observatory are in part supported by the income of two such funds, the Lawton Publication Fund of $4,000, which came in 1919 from the bequest of Frances A. Lawton, of Jackson, and the Orlando B. Wheeler Fellowship and Publication Fund in Astronomy, established in 1928 in the amount of $15,000 by Mrs. Wheeler in memory of her husband, a member of the Class of 1862 and a former member of the Observatory staff. The Charles L. Freer Research and Publication Fund, now amounting to more than $185,000, was provided as a bequest from Mr. Freer in 1920. The legal publications have been most substantially aided by two funds established by Mr. William W. Cook, namely the William W. Cook Michigan Law Review Fund of $14,339.41, which came as a gift in 1924, and the W. W. Cook Endowment, of $2,144,260.33, resulting from a bequest in the donor's will, in 1930. The latter fund may be used for research, book purchases, and various other purposes, as well as publication. Similarly, the Horace H. Rackham Fund, which came in 1935 as a gift from the trustees of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, has generously aided University publication; the governors of the fund are accustomed to maintain an item of about $8,000 a year in their annual budgets for this purpose. The Charles S. Mott Foundation, of Flint, which in 1938-39 gave $50,000 in support of the Bureau of Reference and Research in Government (now called the Bureau of Government), thereby made possible the publication of several titles among the Michigan Governmental Studies and the Michigan Pamphlet series.

The gift of the Press Building by Mr. Dexter M. Ferry, Jr., has been mentioned, but this is by no means the only indication of Mr. Ferry's generous interest in the University's publishing activities. His contributions have made Page  1420possible the publication of a considerable number of books outside of the regular series — for example, Folklore from the Schoharie Hills by Emelyn E. Gardner, Chariton's Chaereas and Callirhoe, translated by W. E. Blake, and John Mix Stanley and His Indian Paintings, by W. Vernon Kinietz, all of which were Fifty Books of the Year selections, the great Dictionary of the Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, compiled by Morris P. Tilley, and The University of Michigan: An Encyclopedic Survey. There have been others, and beyond the contributions in money made by Mr. Ferry his sympathy with the University's problems and ambitions, as related to publishing, has afforded much comfort and encouragement to those who have been actively engaged in the work.

The University of Michigan Press has been a member of the Association of American University Presses since 1937, the year in which that Association, which had its beginnings during the 1920's in the informal meetings of representatives of some of the older presses, began to take on the aspect of a national university press organization. The Press had become one of the participants in University Books, Inc., a subsidiary of Farrar and Rinehart organized as an agency for the sale of university press books, and in the year named the clients of this corporation, meeting in New York, joined with the earlier group and have continued to meet with them ever since. University Books, Inc., unfortunately, had only a brief existence, from 1936 to 1938, but the Association has taken substantial form and flourished. Besides its yearly conferences, it has supported the Educational Directory (addressograph lists of numerous categories of scholars, most useful for direct mail advertising), has arranged co-operative exhibits at the meetings of learned societies, and has carried on various other co-operative projects for the benefit of its members. The Press has been represented at all the meetings of the Association since the first and has taken part in all of its activities.

There follows a summary of University Press publications as of 1954, exclusive of the announcements, registers, reports, and miscellaneous items which are classed as "Official," but including the titles published by predecessor organizations which are customarily listed in its catalogues.

    UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS
    • General Series
    • Humanistic Series. Oldest of existing series, established in 1904. Forty-nine volumes have been published; beginning with Vol. VI they have been of quarto size and most of them have been beautifully illustrated with collotypes.
    • Humanistic Papers. Unofficially used to describe four or five books, not constituting a regularly authorized series, on humanistic subjects, the publication of which was arranged by Professor Francis W. Kelsey. Discontinued.
    • History and Political Science Series, 1911. Nineteen volumes published.
    • Scientific Series, 1914. Nineteen volumes published.
    • Archaeological Reports, 1931. Three published; not a formally recognized series, but issued in uniform format.
    • Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, 1921. Thirty-nine volumes published; the last sixteen are also available in paper-covered parts.
    • Language and Literature Series, 1925. Twenty-six volumes published.
    • Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museums, 1928. Two volumes published.
    • Fine Arts Series, 1935. Two volumes published.
    • Facsimiles of Manuscripts, 1913. Facsimiles of the Freer manuscripts of the Old and New Testaments; three volumes published for deposit in approved libraries; not for sale.
    • Page  1421Publications in Mathematics, 1944. Paper covers; two volumes published.
    • Linguistics Series, 1945. Four volumes published.
    • Contributions in Modern Philology, 1947. Paper covers; twenty published.
    • Studies in American English, 1948. Two volumes published.
    • The University of Michigan: An Encyclopedic Survey. Nine parts; paper covered, to form four volumes in cloth; seven parts issued.
    • Middle English Dictionary, 1952. Issued in 124-page paper-covered parts; four have appeared. The complete work will run to about 8,000 pages.
    • Michigan Mathematical Journal, 1952. Two issues a year.
    • The Jerome Lectures, 1933. Three volumes published.
    • Books not in series. More than sixty titles have been issued outside of the regularly established series.
    • Departmental Series
    • Museum of Anthropology
      • Occasional Contributions, 1932. Fifteen published.
      • Anthropological Papers, 1949. Nine published.
    • Department of Astronomy
      • Publications of the Observatory of the University of Michigan, 1912. Nine volumes published.
    • English Language Institute
      • Publications, 1943. One published.
    • Engineering Research Institute
      • Bulletins, 1926. Thirty-seven published.
      • Circulars, 1927. Six published.
      • Reprints, 1927. Sixteen published.
      • Special Publications, 1951. Five published.
    • Medical School and University Hospital
      • University of Michigan Medical Bulletin, 1934. Nineteen volumes; a monthly periodical, originally called University Hospital Bulletin.
    • College of Architecture and Design
      • Architecture and Planning Series, 1952. Two volumes published.
    • School of Business Administration, Bureau of Business Research
      • Michigan Business Studies, 1926. Eleven volumes. Each volume consists of five studies.
      • Michigan Business Reports, 1938. Twenty-two issued.
      • Michigan Business Papers, 1937. Twenty-five published.
      • Michigan Business Cases, 1934. Issued in loose sheets; discontinued in 1949.
      • Michigan Business Review, 1949. Bimonthly periodical; distributed gratis. Five volumes published.
    • School of Education
      • School of Education Bulletin, 1929. Twenty-four volumes published. A periodical for distribution gratis, monthly from October to May.
      • Monographs in Education, 1939. Three published.
      • Bulletins of the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research, 1920. At least 158 issued, some in mimeographed and some in printed form. The first printed Bulletin was No. 55 (1923) and the last No. 158 (1948). Series now discontinued.
      • Special Studies of the Department of Vocational Education, 1923. Nine volumes published.
    • Law School
      • The Michigan Law Review, 1902. Periodical; monthly, November-June. Fifty-one volumes published.
      • Law Series, 1935. Seven published.
      • Michigan Legal Studies, 1932. Fifteen volumes published.
      • The Thomas M. Cooley Lectures, 1948. Five volumes published.
      • Summer Institute Series, 1949. Five volumes published.
      • Legislative Research Publications, 1952. One volume.
    • School of Natural Resources
      • Bulletins, 1930. Fourteen published.
      • Circulars, 1938. Two published.
    • School of Nursing
      • Manual of Nursing Procedure, 1949. Issued in parts; forty-six published.
    • Institute of Public Administration, Bureau of Government
      • Michigan Governmental Studies, 1938. Thirty published.
      • Page  1422Michigan Pamphlets, 1939. Twenty-four published.
      • Michigan Governmental Digest, 1946. Four published.
      • Papers in Public Administration, 1948. Eight published.
      • Bulletins, 1923. Six published; discontinued in 1928.
      • New Series Bulletins, 1932. Eight published. Discontinued.
    • School of Public Health
      • Public Health Economics, 1944. Ten volumes published. A monthly (except September) periodical.
      • Research Series, 1945. Six volumes published.
    • School of Social Work
      • Institute of Social Work Studies, 1947. One published.
    • William L. Clements Library of American History
      • Bulletins, 1924. Sixty-two published.
      • The Quarto, 1943. Twenty-seven issues.
    • Michigan Historical Collections
      • Bulletins, 1947. Five published.
    • University Herbarium
      • Contributions, 1939. Eight published.
    • Institute of Human Biology
      • Contributions, 1936. Sixty-eight published.
    • Center for Japanese Studies
      • Bibliographical Series, 1950. Four published.
      • Occasional Papers, 1951. Four published.
    • Museum of Paleontology
      • Contributions, 1924. Eleven volumes published; twelfth in progress; most volumes contain ten papers issued separately.
    • Museum of Zoology
      • Occasional Papers, 1913. 560 published.
      • Miscellaneous Publications, 1916. Eighty-seven published.
      • Michigan Handbooks, 1925. Five published.
      • Circulars, 1932. Two published.
    • Office of the Vice-President in Charge of Educational Policies
      • Administrative Studies, 1940. Two published, series discontinued.
    • Department of Fine Arts
      • Ars Islamica, 1934. Sixteen volumes published; originally sponsored by the Research Seminary in Islamic Art of the Institute of Fine Arts. Discontinued in 1952.
    • Bureau of Industrial Relations
      • Reports, 1937. Five issued.
      • Bulletins, 1936. Nineteen published.
    • General Library
      • Publications, 1922. Eight published.
    • Institute for Social Research
      • Survey Research Center Series, 1950. Twelve volumes published.
      • Research Center for Group Dynamics Series. Three published.
    • Social Science Research Project
      • Reports, 1947. Fourteen published.

Dr. Robbins retired in June, 1954, and in September was succeeded by Mr. Fred D. Wieck as Director of the Press.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1890-1909, 1920-1953.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1953.
Robbins, Frank E."The First Duty of a University Press."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 45 (1939): 141-45.
University Press booklists.
Official Publications

Catalogues. — When on August 8, 1843, the Regents "Resolved, That the Executive Committee be authorized to publish a Catalogue of the Faculty and Students of the University with the prerequisites to admission, together with the Course of Studies pursued therein, — in pamphlet form" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 268), there was initiated a series which has continued unbroken to the present day. Copies of this first catalogue are rare, but the one in the University Library is not "unique" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 268, n.), as at least two others are known to exist.

The title page of this catalogue reads University of Michigan. Catalogue of thePage  1423Officers and Students in the Department of Arts and Sciences. 1843-4. Ann Arbor, Printed at the Michigan Argus Office, 1843. Its sixteen pages carry the names of the Board of Regents, Librarian, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Board of Visitors, Executive Committee, Faculty and Students; "A Statement of the Course of Instruction, Expenses, etc. in the University of Michigan," and the "Preparatory School." The course of study is presented in a table on a single page.

The general title Catalogue of the Officers and Students continues, with one or two slight variations, through the academic year 1870-71. Changes occur in other parts of the title, as in 1848-49, when the "Department of Arts and Sciences" becomes the "College of Arts and Sciences." The catalogue for this year contains an announcement of the projected opening, in the autumn of 1849, of the Department of Medicine. Appended, with special title page, but continuous paging is the Catalogus Senatus Academici et Eorum Qui Munera et Officia Gesserunt, Quique Primi Gradus Laurea Donati Sunt in Universitate Michiganensium. MDCCCXLVIII. A similar Catalogus Senatus Academici dated 1852 was appended to the catalogue of 1851-52. These were succeeded in 1860 by the General Catalogue of Officers and Graduates from … 1837 to 1860. Another General Catalogue appeared in 1864 and in 1871 the Catalogue of the Academic Senate of the University of Michigan, and of Those Who Have Received Its Regular and Honorary Degrees. For 1837-1890, 1837-1901, 1837-1911, the title is again General Catalogue, but for 1837-1921 it is Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties.

In 1850-51 the name of the College of Arts and Sciences is dropped from the title of the annual catalogue, for the Department of Medicine and Surgery is now included. In 1851-52, however, two catalogues were published: Catalogue of the Officers and Students in the College of Arts and Sciences and Catalogue of Officers and Students in the College of Medicine and Surgery. Again in 1852-53 the College of Medicine issued a catalogue, although the Catalogue of the Corporation, Officers and Students in the Departments of Medicine, Arts and Sciences included material on the Department of Medicine.

On April 22, 1852, the Regents "Resolved, That in future but one General Annual Catalogue embracing both Literary and Medical Colleges shall be published by the Faculties or students with the sanction or assistance of the Board" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 512). With the catalogue for 1853-54, the names of the departments no longer appear in the title.

The early catalogues seem to have been prepared sometimes by a committee of students (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 380, 399, 512) and sometimes by the faculty (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 433, 445, 461, 524, 958). The 1852-53 catalogue of the College of Medicine and Surgery reads "Published by the Class." Until 1855 the majority were printed in Detroit, though four (1843-44, 1849-50, 1853-54, 1854-55) and an Abstract of the Annual Catalogue … for the Year 1855 were printed in Ann Arbor, and the Catalogue for 1847-48 in Troy, New York. With that for 1855-56, the catalogues bear the imprint of the University.

The catalogues for 1866-67 and 1867-68 were exhausted before the demand for them was satisfied, and supplementary "brief announcements" were issued, without titles. By 1871-72 the catalogue had grown to eighty-four pages. At this time the title was changed to Calendar of the University of Michigan. In 1914-15 it was again changed to Catalogue of the University of Michigan. In the 1919-20 issue, "With Announcements for 1920-21" was added to the cover title, although Page  1424the title page remained unchanged. With 1925-26 and 1926-27 "Announcements" on the cover title was changed to "General Information." Until 1922-23 all catalogues included a list of students. For this year there were two issues, one "Complete Without Register of Students" (cover title) and one including the register. On May 15, 1923, the Regents adopted the following resolution submitted by the Conference of Deans:

That hereafter the University Catalogue be published in two sections; one section to contain the usual matter found in the Catalogue with the exception of the register of students and to be known as the University Catalogue, the other section to repeat the faculty list and include the list of graduates of the preceding year, and the register of students enrolled during the year concerned, and to be known as the Register of Students; each section to be issued as a separate bulletin.


(R.P., 1920-23, p. 801.)
In 1925-26 and 1926-27 Catalogue and Register were not only issued separately, but also under one cover, which bore the title Catalogue and Register.

In 1919 the "desirability of appointing a University Editor who should be in charge of all printed matter issued by the University" was called to the attention of the Regents, who declined to make the appointment (R.P., 1917-20, pp. 654, 748). In May, 1925, however, the Board adopted the recommendation of a committee from the Deans:

The various University announcements and bulletins and the University catalogue should be edited under the supervision of the Registrar. It might be advisable to have a committee on publications, appointed by the President to act in conjunction with the Registrar in this matter.


(R.P., 1923-26, p. 610.)
In April, 1926:

The Board approved the action by the Committee on Publications … recommending the issuance of a general information bulletin in place of the general catalogue, and the binding together in one volume each year, in such number of volumes as the files require, of (a) this bulletin of general information, (b) the announcements of the several schools and colleges, and (c) the register of students.


(R.P., 1923-26, pp. 865-66.)
In November of this same year the Board acceded to the Registrar's request for a delay of one year in putting this plan into effect (R.P., 1926-29, p. 67). It was therefore the catalogue for 1927-28 which appeared in the new form, and under the cover title General Register. Since 1929-30 the cover title has been General Register Issue. This General Register appears in two volumes, and is made up of 16 to 20 parts, each part with its own title page.

With the establishment of the University of Michigan Press in 1930, the Committee on Official Publications of the Press was given charge of all official publications of the University, the editorial work under the above committee continuing in the Editorial Division of the Registrar's Office until 1945, when this editorial staff was also transferred to the Press.

Announcements. — In the earlier years many brief announcements were issued, usually with only caption titles, and often with no date. The latter can sometimes be supplied. University of Michigan, published about 1855, is a brief announcement or prospectus. In 1859 the opening of the Law Department was announced in University of Michigan. The Law Department. English in the University is signed by Moses Coit Tyler and Isaac N. Demmon, March 18, 1878. The Professorship of the Science and Art of Teaching is dated 1879, and Michigan University, Chair of the Science and Art of Teaching, 1880. This same year appeared Instructions to Applicants for Higher Degrees, and in 1881 or 1882 Circular for Preparatory Schools. An Page  1425Announcement to Preparatory Schools, giving "certain important changes in the requirements for admission," was issued in December, 1888, and a Supplementary Announcement to Preparatory Schools in May, 1889.

Two interesting announcements are Examinations for Admission to be Held in Chicago, Saint Louis, and Cincinnati, in 1882, and Examinations for Admission to be Held in Chicago, St. Louis and Dubuque, in 1885. In 1883 the University system was described in Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Circular of Information Relating to the University System. A Circular of Information in 1884 or 1885 gives statistics of Michigan as compared with institutions such as Cornell, Yale, and Harvard. Announcement to College Graduates Intending to Study a Profession and Studies Leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology appeared in 1885, and in 1889 Electrical Engineering.

Announcements have been issued by schools, colleges, and departments usually from their earliest years. These are the announcements, which, with the Bulletin of General Information and Register have formed the General Register. The titles have varied: Announcement, Annual Announcement, General Announcement, and many of them include List or Register of Students.

The first announcement of the Department of Medicine and Surgery was the Primary Announcement of the Course of Lectures … 1850-51. Those for 1860-61 to 1862-63, and 1865-66 were joint announcements of the "Departments of Medicine and Surgery, and Law." No announcements have been found for either the Department of Medicine or the Department of Law for 1863-64, 1864-65, and from 1866-67 to 1874-75. Beginning with the session of 1875-76 the announcements of the College of Medicine and Surgery, as it was then called, have continued without break. For the Department of Law there is a complete series from 1883-84 to date.

The announcements of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts appeared in a general Announcement from 1871-72 to 1874-75. Separate announcements have been issued continuously since 1878-79. Frequent supplements appear under varying titles, as Supplementary Announcement, Scheme of Lectures and Recitations for the First [or Second] Semester, Announcement for the First [or Second] Semester, Special Announcement.

The "School" of Pharmacy issued an announcement or prospectus about 1870 bearing the caption Department of Pharmacy in the University of Michigan and about 1873 another, School of Pharmacy. From 1880-81 the series is complete. The First Annual Announcement of the Dental College is for 1875-76. None has been found for 1876-77 to 1878-79. The Homeopathic Medical College issued an Annual Announcement from 1875-76 to 1921-22, with apparent lapses for 1878-79, 1880-81, 1887-88, and 1895-96. The School of Mines, which opened in September, 1875, issued a First Annual Announcement for 1875-76. No other has been found. Beginning with the academic year 1879-80 the name School of Mines was dropped, and the courses were included in the Catalogue under the Department of Literature, Science, and Arts.

The Department of Engineering issued its first announcement for the year 1895-96. Since 1898-99 this has borne the title General Announcement. Supplements, Program and Hours of Work, Schedule of Work, Second Semester, Special Announcement, First [or Second] Semester, have appeared almost from the beginning. Since 1905-6 a Special Announcement for each semester has appeared with considerable regularity. The Program of Hours and Work for the Year 1900-1901 is the only announcement Page  1426found for this year. From 1910 to 1915, and in 1917, the Department of Architecture issued announcements under varying titles: Announcement, Announcement. Work by Students, Programs of Study. Work by Students, and Bulletin. Work by Students. Since 1932-33 the College of Architecture has issued an Announcement.

For 1883-84 and 1887-88 appeared undated announcements with the caption Courses of Study for Graduates, Department of Literature, Science and the Arts. The Graduate School has issued its announcements since 1892-93. From 1921-22 to 1926-27 two annual publications were issued, a General Announcement and Announcement of Studies. Other schools have issued announcements since their organization. The School of Business Administration issued a Preliminary Announcement 1924-1925.

Special announcements concerning single subjects or groups of subjects have been issued by nearly every school and college.

President's Report. — Dr. Henry P. Tappan made his first report to the Board of Regents on November 15, 1853, covering the year 1852-53. The title page reads Report to the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, made November 15th, 1853, by Henry P. Tappan, D.D., Chancellor of the University and President of the Board. Ann Arbor, Cole and Gardiner, Printers, 1853. From this time reports were made annually until the last one submitted by Dr. Angell, for the year ending September 28, 1909.

Reports for 1853-54 to 1908-9 were printed in the Proceedings of the Board of Regents, that for 1859-60, however, being an Abstract from the President's Annual Message instead of the full report. From 1853-54 to 1883-84 the President's Report forms a part of the Regents' Report to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and from 1884-85 to 1895-96 the President's reports, together with the financial reports and accompanying documents, were submitted as the Annual Report … to the Superintendent of Public Instruction. These were all printed in the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Separate issues are available for all except the reports for 1853-54, 1854-55, 1856-57 to 1864-65, and 1868-69. The Regents ordered five hundred extra copies of the report for 1864-65 (R.P., 1864-70, p. 180), but none has been found on the campus.

Interesting documents often accompany the President's Report, as well as appropriation bills and acts of the Legislature, and lists of appointments and of students. To the report for 1864-65 is appended the "Annual Statement for the President … on the Cabinets of Geology, Zoology and Botany." In 1865-66 and 1866-67, this report appears as "Statement …" and in 1868-69 as "Report of Operations in the Museum … in the Department of 'Geology, Zoology and Botany,' and the Department of 'Archaeology and Relics.'" These reports are by Professor Alexander Winchell. "Reports from the Deans of the Professional Schools and from the Professors of the Department of Literature, Science and the Arts" are appended to the reports for 1871-72, 1873-74, 1878-79, and 1879-80. From 1872-73 to 1908-9 the "Report of the Finance Committee" is appended. This report includes, from 1881-82 to 1891-92, the report of the treasurer. From 1892-93 to 1899-1900, and from 1907-8 to 1908-9 the report of the treasurer only accompanies the President's Report. From 1900-1901 to 1906-7 a "Financial Statement" made by the Finance Committee of the Board of Regents forms the appendix. "Financial Statement" continues to appear on the title page for Page  14271907-8 and 1908-9, though the report of the treasurer is actually appended.

With the report for 1875-76 is Professor William H. Pettee's "Report on the School of Mines" and an "Outline of the Educational System of Michigan" by Professor Henry S. Frieze. "Report of the Dean of the School of Political Science" (Charles Kendall Adams) accompanies 1881-82, and with 1882-83 to 1908-9 (except for 1891-92) was issued "Examinations for Degrees" (after 1896-97 "Examinations for Higher Degrees"), which lists the candidates and the titles of their theses. Reports on the summer session by John O. Reed are appended to 1902-3 to 1904-5. These appendices do not always appear with the President's reports in the Regents' Proceedings. The President's Report for 1898-99 was also issued, without the appendices, as Supplement to the University News Letter, No. 36, November 16, 1899.

Dr. Harry B. Hutchins, during his administration, discontinued the practice of making an annual report. After his retirement he began the preparation of a summary report for the period 1909 to 1920 (P.R., 1920-21, p. 5), but this was never completed.

Dr. Marion L. Burton resumed the practice, his first report covering the year 1920-21. Reports of general administrative officers, deans, and directors are appended to this report and continue so to the present time.

Official Publication. — In 1900, in order to take advantage of the low rates on second-class mail matter, as established in 1894, the University began to issue its administrative publications in a single series called University Bulletin. New Series. Two separate bulletins were given the numbering Volume I, No. 1. As the month of publication was omitted it is impossible to tell from the bulletins themselves which was actually the first. With Volume I, No. 2, the month (in this case May) was added and thereafter appears, with rare exceptions, on each bulletin. The titles University Bulletin. New Series and University of Michigan Bulletin. New Series were used interchangeably until 1927, when with Volume XXIX, No. 8, August 20, 1927, the title became Official Publication, and the New Series was dropped.

Catalogues, announcements, and reports issued since 1900 bear the title, volume, and number of the University Bulletin or Official Publication.

The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review

The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review is published by the Alumni Association of the University of Michigan as a special issue of the Michigan Alumnus. Its establishment, in March, 1934, was the result of a long series of efforts, beginning in 1910, when the Editor of the Alumnus, at that time a monthly, recommended editorially that the magazine become a weekly with a supplementary quarterly issue.

This project was subsequently advocated by the General Secretary, Wilfred B. Shaw, in several annual reports to the Alumni Association, but the conservatism of the alumni for many years had led to a general disapproval of the plan.

Eventually, in 1921, the weekly was established, but no action was taken at that time upon the projected quarterly. Meanwhile, the matter had been favorably considered by President Burton in his first annual report. A committee was appointed at a conference of the deans, which submitted a report that was adopted by the Regents on May 26, 1923, and by the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association on March 29, Page  14281924. The result was the appointment of a provisional editorial committee to study the problem, with the understanding that publication was to begin in the fall of 1925. The members of this committee were Professors Fred N. Scott, Oscar J. Campbell, Louis A. Strauss, Dr. Frank E. Robbins, and Wilfred B. Shaw.

With this favorable action it seemed that the way was open for the project, but the committee was not in entire agreement on the form the publication should take, some of the members being of the opinion that the proposed review should be purely literary, paying for such articles as were published at regular rates. This was the tenor of the report presented by the committee, which was approved at the triennial meeting of the alumni held at Detroit in June, 1925. The directors of the Alumni Association, however, felt that the magazine should concern itself more directly with the life and thought of the University, and hesitated in view of the expense involved. The result was that no action was taken, and publication was again indefinitely postponed.

Not until the spring of 1934 was the question again raised, this time by President Alexander G. Ruthven, who recommended a further study of the question to determine whether or not the publication of a quarterly could be made a part of the program of the Alumni Association. He advocated an editorial policy which should concern itself closely with the University, relying on faculty and alumni authors rather than on paid contributors as suggested in the earlier plan.

The result was a progressive change in the general publication schedule of the Michigan Alumnus, which permitted the inclusion of a quarterly issue in the program. The number of issues was reduced from thirty-six to twenty-six, permitting weekly issues during the fall, fortnightly issues during the rest of the college year, and monthly issues in the summer. This left sufficient funds for the publication of the Quarterly Review as a regular part of the general Alumnus program.

The first issue appeared in March, 1934, with Wilfred B. Shaw, Director of Alumni Relations, as Editor of the four annual numbers, and with T. Hawley Tapping editing the other issues of the Michigan Alumnus.

Mr. Shaw continued as Editor, and also as illustrator, until his retirement in January, 1951. He was succeeded as Editor by Dr. Frank E. Robbins, the Director of the University Press, who has continued to edit the Quarterly since his retirement from the Press in 1954.

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The Museums and Collections

Page  [1430]
Page  1431

THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUMS

THE University Museums consist of four teaching and research units, a Section of Exhibits, and a service unit of librarian, artist, craftsman, receptionist and information clerk, secretary, and superintendent of the building. Each of the four museums — the Museum of Zoology, the Museum of Paleontology, the Museum of Anthropology, and the University Herbarium — comprises a notable collection in its particular field, and a staff of specialists is responsible for the care, growth, arrangement, and productive use of the collection in research and teaching. Such museums, designed as tools in the biological sciences, document our growing knowledge of the tremendous diversity and yet orderliness of organic life by providing a repository of authentically determined and naturally arranged specimens. They are used for reference by the naturalist, the conservationist, and other workers in cognate fields and provide essential data for continuing study on the related problems of the evolution, distribution, and classification of organisms (see the separate articles on these museums).

The research and teaching collections are necessarily detailed and huge. They require extensive series with attached technical data and involve problems of preparation, compact storage, and arrangement that fit them for the use of the special student rather than the general public. A special Section of Exhibits staffed by scientifically trained specialists and equipped to present a less detailed but clear and accurate account of the data and principles of natural history is thus an essential part of the Museums' contribution to general education.

The exhibits occupy the entire second, third, and fourth floors of the Washtenaw Avenue wing of the Museums Building and a series of wall cases in the rotunda. The rotunda exhibits are a frequently changed series of topical displays arranged to show some phase of the work of the research museums, the sequence of techniques used in the construction of a new exhibit, or material of current interest in conservation or natural history.

The exhibits on the second floor form the Hall of Evolution and are arranged to illustrate the sequence of life through the geological ages. In large part the exhibits are actual fossils, but much use is made of reconstructions and models, and of dioramas that represent past geological ages in three-dimensional scenes with typical animals and plants shown as though alive in their ancient habitats. Many of the exhibits are of special interest because they are also a part of the research and teaching collections of the Museum of Paleontology, and many of the skeletal preparations and restorations were made by or under the direction of Michigan's great paleontologist and teacher, Ermine C. Case. The Guide to the Hall of Evolution facilitates their use and enjoyment.

On the third and fourth floors are modern animals and plants, with dioramas and cases given to Michigan's early Indian populations and cultures. The native fauna and flora of Michigan on the third floor show the wealth and variety of our state's wild life and enable the nature lover to observe at close range named specimens of the forms he has seen out-of-doors. The more elaborate exhibits of the fourth floor, by means of dioramas and selected groups of specimens and models, present important relationships and interdependencies Page  1432that govern the lives of animals and plants in nature. Some of these illustrate important correlations by which a particular organism and its special problems of existence in nature are recognized; others are concerned with the mechanisms that underlie important but intricate and subtle biological processes, and many are able to include something of the aesthetic appeal that is a very real part of natural history.

Mention should also be made of the Animal House situated between the two wings of the main building. A convenient arrangement of out-of-door cages is connected with individual shelters within a small central brick building. Surrounded by a narrow moat and guard rail, this structure houses a collection of Michigan mammals that attracts both adult and juvenile visitors. An adjacent Reptile Pit is for the display of living frogs, turtles, and snakes.

Although the present organization and title of the University Museums date from 1928, when the several units were brought together in the newly erected University Museums Building, the idea of university museums of natural history and the establishment of the first collections go back to the legislative acts of 1837 providing for the University of Michigan: "The Board of Regents shall have authority to expend so much of the interest arising from the University Fund as may be necessary for the purchase of Philosophical and other apparatus, a library and Cabinet of Natural History" (Mich. Laws, S.S., 1837). In the same month of that year the newly appointed Board of Regents at their first meeting created a committee "On the Library, Philosophical Apparatus, and Cabinet of Natural History" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 4), and at the second meeting Regent Schoolcraft submitted the following resolutions, which were adopted:

Resolved, That the Committee on the Library, Philosophical Apparatus, and Cabinet of Natural History, be directed to inquire into the following subjects.

First. The expediency of employing, at the earliest practicable period, a suitable agent to visit Europe for the purpose of procuring the necessary Philosophical Apparatus and standard books for the University.

Second. The propriety of instituting such inquiries and taking such preliminary steps as may be proper, to lay the foundation of a suitable collection of specimens for the University Cabinet, in the various departments of Natural History.

Third. Of calling the attention of the Executive to the propriety of directing the State Geologist to secure the large mass of native copper on the shores of Lake Superior for the University Cabinet, and of recommending that the expense of its transportation be paid out of the University Funds.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 17.)

The interest of the University in a "Cabinet of Natural History" is evinced by the promptness with which the idea was put into effect. Although construction of the first University buildings in Ann Arbor did not begin until 1840 and the first classes did not meet until the fall of 1841, steps to acquire the Library and the Cabinet of Natural History and to purchase "Philosophical Instruments" were taken almost immediately.

Asa Gray, who had received an appointment as Professor of Botany and Zoology in 1838 and who was planning a trip to Europe, was given $5,000 for the purchase of books abroad. He resigned soon after his return from Europe, but among the 3,400 books that were obtained was a notable selection suitable to complement and be used in conjunction with the Cabinet of Natural History.

In 1838 an extensive and highly esteemed mineralogical collection was purchased for $4,000 from Baron Lederer of Austria and, at about the same time, the newly formed Geological Survey of Michigan made the University a repository Page  1433for geological, mineralogical, botanical, and zoological specimens collected in exploration of the state.

At the close of the year 1840 a committee of the Regents could report to Michigan's Superintendent of Public Instruction that "extensive and valuable collections in geology, mineralogy, botany and zoology, made within the geographical area of Michigan, by the state geologist and his exploratory corps" had been added to the nucleus formed by the Lederer Collection and that "one of the professors' buildings has been temporarily appropriated to the reception of the cabinet of natural history, which has been provided, or is in the process of accumulation, for the use of the professors and students in its various departments" (Mich., Senate Doc., 1841, p. 401).

It is evident that there was a clear appreciation of the role natural history collections should play as a part of the University; this interest and the financial provision made for such collections from the meager resources then available was perhaps an augury of the generous support and high repute Michigan's natural history museums were later to achieve in both research and teaching. It was well for the perpetuation of the museum idea that this initial concept so promptly resulted in a very respectable nucleus of actual collections, for the concrete existence of the collections was several times to serve as the chief thread of continuity between periods of active progress.

When classes began, Dr. Abram Sager, who had been appointed Professor of Botany and Zoology after the resignation of Asa Gray, was in charge of the biological collections and was responsible for them from 1842 until 1855, the year in which he gave up the chair of Botany and Zoology to devote himself entirely to his duties as a professor in the Medical Department. Sager was closely associated with Houghton in the first Geological Survey of Michigan, and his appreciation of the need for carefully preserved and well-documented specimens in biological study is indicated in the Second Annual Report of the State Geologist (1839): "It must be obvious to every reflecting mind, that no well directed or availing efforts can be made, either to improve the advantages or to avert the evils growing out of our connections with the animal world, without an intimate knowledge of their structures, capabilities and habits. Destitute of this knowledge, we but strike in the dark, and are more likely to impair than improve our interests." In Ruthven's estimate: "The collections show that throughout the time of his connection with the University Sager gave much thought to the Museum. In fact the collections obtained through him, and his services to the institution, give him the right to be considered the founder of the Museum" (Rept. of the Curator…, 1910, p. 8).

The coming of Henry Philip Tappan as the first President of the University brought strong support of the idea of museums as a part of a university. Through his influence and reputation the young Museum first received recognition and important assistance from the administrators and naturalists who were then guiding the Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum. Tappan's preface to the Catalogue of the Trowbridge Collection of Natural History in the Museum of the University of Michigan and the included letter of transmittal from Professor Henry are well worth quoting in full:

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The History of the Trowbridge Collection of Natural History, the Catalogue of which is here published, cannot be better given than by transcribing the letter of Professor Henry, the distinguished Secretary of the Smithsonian Page  1434Institution, accompanying the donation.

Lieut. Trowbridge was elected Professor of Mathematics in the University of Michigan soon after his return from the Pacific Coast. Before, however, he had any intimation of the intention of the Board of Regents, he had already decided upon the disposition of this valuable collection.

We felicitated ourselves that we had gained at the same time a Professor of rare ability, acquirements, and promise, united to the finest moral and social qualities, and a rich addition to our Museum.

The Professor remained with us only long enough to endear himself to us, and to make us regret his loss. He was appointed Professor, May, 1856; he resigned his professorship, June, 1857, recalled to the service of the coast survey by the urgent friendship and appreciation of Dr. Bache.

The Museum to which he has contributed so largely will always preserve this splendid memorial of his attachment to his native State and his devotion to science.

But the benefits we have received through him are not confined to this collection. The letter of Professor Henry assures us of the permanent friendship and co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution. Within a few months past we have had substantial proofs of this in new donations of great value.

The Regents of the University are thus encouraged to put forth an enlightened zeal in the cause of science, and will endeavor to build up, in this young University of the North-West, a great and well-ordered Museum that shall reflect honor upon the State and justify the liberal patronage of the Smithsonian Institution.

Henry P. Tappan, President
University of Michigan,
May, 1861.

Letter of Prof. Henry
Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, April 1, 1859.

Dear Sir: —

I have the honor to forward, under the care of Mr. Kennicott, a collection of specimens of Natural History, chiefly of North America, as a donation from the Smithsonian Institution to the Museum of the University of Michigan. This collection is intended in part to discharge an obligation which the Institution is under to Lieut. W. P. Trowbridge, recently a Professor of Michigan University, and late of the U. S. Army. This gentleman, during his period of duty on the Pacific Coast of the United States, devoted all his leisure time to the collection of objects of Natural History, and with such success as to identify his name with the history of discovery in the Zoology of Western America. A large number of the vertebrate animals of that portion of the continent were first brought to light by him, and of quite a considerable proportion, no other specimens than his have as yet been added to any Museum. In view of the fact that the researches of Lieut. Trowbridge were prosecuted almost entirely at his own expense, it was considered but an act of justice on the part of the Institution to promise as full a series of his collections as could be spared to any public Institution which he might designate, and that would take the necessary steps for their preservation. He has selected the University of his native State as the recipient of this favor, and it gives us pleasure to transmit the first portion of the series in question, with additions from other collections belonging to the Institution. Many of the specimens are of great rarity, and not to be found at present in any Museum but that of the Smithsonian Institution. Additional collections will be forwarded from time to time, as the specimens are properly identified and labelled by the various gentlemen who now have them in charge.

The labor of selecting, labelling, and cataloguing the collection has been performed, under the direction of Prof. Baird, by Mr. Kennicott, who has been diligently occupied in the work for several months. In the collection sent, it is believed that the University of Michigan will possess a very valuable series of American animals, both on account of the great rarity of many of the specimens, and the accurate identification of the species.

It is hoped that this collection will be rendered constantly available in the course of instruction in your important Institution, and that it will be the means of diffusing a Page  1435knowledge of Natural History among the educated youths of our country.

We shall be happy to continue in any way in our power to co-operate with you, in accordance with the objects of this Institution, in "the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men."

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Joseph Henry, Secretary.

Dr. Tappan, President Univ. of Mich.
Ann Arbor, Mich.

There is evidence that Tappan's plans for the new University, outlined to Lieutenant Trowbridge in 1855 or early 1856 when the latter visited the University on his return from the Pacific Coast, led Trowbridge to designate Michigan as the repository of this collection. The Mr. Kennicott who prepared and catalogued the collection and brought it to Ann Arbor was the brilliant young naturalist, Robert Kennicott, who was to die in 1866 in his early thirties in the Yukon. Kennicott left for an expedition along "MacKenzie's River, Hudson Bay Territory," soon after his delivery of the Trowbridge Collection; he was commissioned by a joint Smithsonian and University of Michigan grant and a contribution from the Audubon Club to make a collection of "Specimens in natural history from the northwest" (Winchell).

Alexander Winchell was appointed Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany in 1855, and the Museum was under his direction until his resignation in 1873. During this time there was continued growth and much progress in administration and organization. In 1863 Winchell prepared a Report, Historical and Statistical, on the Collections in Geology, Zoölogy and Botany in the Museum of the University of Michigan, which was published by the University in 1864. The collections at the time of this report contained 26,000 geological and paleontological, 12,500 zoological, and 8,000 botanical specimens. In addition to the Trowbridge Collection, the birds obtained by Kennicott, and the large collections from the Michigan Geological Survey of 1859-60, there are listed the Charles A. White Collection of some 2,000 fossils; a collection of fossils made by Rominger under an appropriation from the Board of Regents; the purchase of the Rominger European collection of fossils; and a long series of small but valuable accessions from alumni, students, and other friends of the University.

For several years after Winchell's resignation the Museum received scant attention or support. Winchell's successors in the professorship of natural science were occupied by teaching duties and had little time for and apparently little interest in the Museum. Responsibility for the collections was undertaken by Mark W. Harrington, Assistant Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany in 1873-74 and "Assistant Professor in charge of Zoology and Botany," 1874-77. Harrington, whose own career was to be in mathematics and astronomy, had been an assistant for several years under Winchell, with duties divided between teaching, the Museum, and the Michigan Geological Survey.

The Museum's "Journal" of accessions and activities for these years bears dreary testimony to the plight of a collection without direction or plan. The impetus of alumni interest from Sager's and Winchell's time brought in a dwindling number of valuable and useful accessions, but they had little relevance to one another or to any definite goal and were intermingled with a miscellany of curiosities that had little claim to curatorial time or museum space.

In 1876, however, the Museum began another period of marked development and was strongly influenced by the growing interest in the geographic distribution of animals. In that year Joseph Beal Page  1436Steere was appointed Assistant Professor of Paleontology and Curator of the Museum, to become in 1877 Assistant Professor of Zoology and Paleontology and Curator of the Museum and in 1879 Professor of Zoology. Steere in 1875 had just returned from the first of the series of tropical expeditions that were to bring huge collections of South American and Philippine accessions to the Museum and, incidentally, to lay the foundation for the major role that the University of Michigan was to play in education and administration in the Philippines. He had always been intensely interested in natural history and as an undergraduate had spent much time in the Museum as a student and volunteer worker under Winchell. His imagination and enthusiasm had also been greatly stimulated by the then recent The Naturalist on the River Amazon by Henry W. Bates. Immediately after his graduation from the Law Department in 1870, with financial aid from Rice A. Beal, a wealthy resident of Ann Arbor, he set out alone on an expedition that was to carry him up the Amazon and along several of its tributaries, across the Andes into Peru and Ecuador and from there across the Pacific to the Philippines, Formosa, and the Moluccas. He returned to Ann Arbor by way of the Suez, and in London, at the British Museum, he began a long continued friendship and collaboration with Philip L. Sclater, Alfred Russel Wallace, R. Bowdler Sharpe, Albert Günther, and other eminent zoologists of the time.

The Beal-Steere Collection that resulted from this first expedition comprised 60,000 zoological and 1,156 botanical specimens and much archaeological and anthropological material. In the summer of 1879 Steere made a second visit to the Amazon, this time in company with three of his students, and in 1887-88 took a year's leave of absence to conduct a second expedition to the Philippines, again with a group of students.

The revived interest in the Museum with the large accessions of the Beal-Steere Collection led to the erection of the first University Museum Building, now the Romance Language Building. This was ready for use in 1880-81, and the natural history collections which had been housed (largely stored) in the North Wing of old University Hall were moved into the new building, and opened to the public.

With the provision of a special Museum Building, the Board of Regents adopted a set of rules that concerned all University collections:

  • I. The various illustrative collections belonging to the University are arranged in the following museums:
    • (1) The Museum of Fine Arts and History;
    • (2) The Museum of Natural History;
    • (3) The Museum of Applied Chemistry;
    • (4) The Museum of the Department of Medicine and Surgery;
    • (5) The Museum of the Homoeopathic Medical College;
    • (6) The Museum of the College of Dental Surgery.
  • II. The president of the University shall have the general supervision of the relations of the museums to each other and to the University; and he shall have power to decide all questions affecting these relations, his decisions to be subject to revision by the Board of Regents.
  • III. The Professors in charge of the instruction in Mineralogy, Geology, Botany, and Zoölogy shall be the Curators of the corresponding collections in the Museum of Natural History; the Professor of Zoölogy shall also have charge of the collections illustrating Archaeology and Ethnology.…
  • IV. For the Museum of Natural History there shall be a Custodian appointed, who shall perform, under the direction of the Curators, the duties with which Custodians of similar Museums are ordinarily charged. He Page  1437shall also, when required, assist the several Professors, who make use of the collections in the Museum at their lectures.
  • V. It shall be the duty of each of the Curators mentioned in III to make an annual report to the President of the University on the condition of the collection or the Museum under his charge; which reports or the substance thereof, shall be embodied by the President in his annual report to the Board of Regents. (R.P., 1881-86, p. 292.)

As Ruthven wrote in 1910:

There could hardly have been a worse arrangement than this, as far as the Museum of Natural History was concerned, for the curators were entirely independent of each other and no custodian could be expected to hold the departments together and insure the uniform development of the different collections. This is shown by the results. The professors of geology largely ignored the collections in their charge, which gradually deteriorated until they could hardly have been in a worse condition. On the other hand, fortunately for the zoological and anthropological collections, the professors of zoology continued to take a keen interest in their department in the Museum, and the collections have grown steadily in numbers and value.


(Rept. of the Curator…, 1910, pp. 10-11.)

The new building of 1880-81, which had been erected for the natural history collections, also provided several classrooms in geology and paleontology and quarters for two notable gifts to the University. In 1885 the Chinese government presented the University with material that had formed the Chinese exhibit at the New Orleans Exposition in 1884-85. As much of this collection as there was space to display formed a popular exhibit for the forty years the building continued to house the Museum. In 1900 the great collection of musical instruments brought together by Frederick Stearns, of Detroit, "to illustrate the development of musical instruments in many lands," and presented by him in 1899, was placed on exhibition in the Museum, where it remained until its removal to the newly erected Hill Auditorium in 1914.

In 1894 Jacob E. Reighard succeeded Steere in the professorship of zoology and was thus, by the Regents' ruling of 1882, also in charge of the zoological and archaeological and ethnological collections. It soon became evident that the rapid growth of the Zoology Department under Reighard and of the Museum under Steere had made it impractical for both to be directly administered and cared for by the "Professor in charge of instruction." Accordingly, in 1895 Reighard's title was changed to Professor of Zoology and Director of the Zoological Laboratory and Museum, and Dean C. Worcester was appointed Assistant Professor of Zoology and Curator of the Zoological Museum. Neither Reighard nor Worcester was primarily interested in the Museum. This was a period when morphology was in the ascendancy as a zoological discipline, and Reighard was an enthusiastic and productive student of morphology. A natural history museum had little relevance to a research and teaching program centered about morphological problems, and its directorship was a responsibility rather than an opportunity.

Soon after his appointment to the curatorship, Worcester was given leave to study the policies and operation of some of the outstanding eastern museums and visited the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, Peabody Museum at Yale, the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and the National Museum at Washington. On his return he proposed a policy for the University Museum that was approved by the Regents (R.P., 1891-96, pp. 545-53). Essentially, this policy was to devote the resources and activities of the Museum to: (1) exhibits for the instruction and entertainment of Page  1438the public and (2) the development of illustrative and study series. Worcester pointed out the need for extensive and detailed collections of the Michigan biota but felt that this was a function of the state rather than of the University and suggested that the Museum should be taken over by the state.

As a result of this viewpoint and policy, the period from 1894 to 1903 was one in which the Museum had little part in the educational or research program of the University. When Worcester left the University in 1898, his successor in the department gave full time to instruction, and Herbert E. Sargeant was appointed a part-time curator of the Museum without teaching assignment. Sargeant devoted his attention largely to exhibits, and numerous small but excellent habit groups of Michigan animals were made under his direction by Norman A. Wood. Wood had been employed originally as a taxidermist to mount the birds of the Steere Collection and was eventually to win recognition as an outstanding authority on Michigan ornithology; he became Curator of Birds under Ruthven.

The appointment of Charles C. Adams as Curator in 1903 brought a new impetus and direction to the Museum. To Adams, museum collections were tools for ecological and faunistic research. The zoological collections were reorganized, inventoried, and more adequately catalogued for scientific use, and an active exploration of the natural history of Michigan and its biotic relationships was begun. Adams enlisted the aid of several gifted and enthusiastic amateur naturalists of Michigan and with their help was able to conduct or send parties of staff members and students for organized field work to parts of Michigan that were biologically little known. The Museum was again concerned with University teaching, particularly with instruction that centered about the curators' special research interests and the planned objectives of the Museum. Adams revived the annual reports of the Museum inaugurated by Winchell.

Before Adams resigned in 1906 to become the director of the Cincinnati Museum, he had discovered an enthusiastic protégé in a young graduate student, Alexander G. Ruthven, who led biological expeditions to Isle Royale and the Porcupine Mountains. In 1906 Ruthven received his doctorate in zoology with a pioneering study of geographic distribution as a factor in animal evolution and was appointed Curator to succeed Adams. Thus began the long career of constructive planning and leadership that was to give the Museum of Zoology its status as a research and teaching institution and establish the University Museums as a functional part of the University.

Until 1913 the Museum remained, at least in theory, a part of the Zoology Department, and the reports of the Director of the University Museum were transmitted formally by Reighard, Professor of Zoology and Director of the Zoological Laboratory and Zoological Museum. This discrepancy in the designation of the Museum is particularly apparent in the last report (1911-12) to be formally transmitted by Reighard in which the title was Report of the Head Curator of the Museum of Natural History. Then, in 1913, the Regents recognized the Museum as a separate unit of the University, renamed it the Museum of Zoology, and appointed Ruthven Director. This was a formal recognition of the trend that had begun with Steere and received increasing impetus from Adams and Ruthven. All three had made or were making enthusiastic and highly productive use of the Museum for teaching and research, and, since all were zoologists, the Museum had come to Page  1439have preponderantly zoological collections and research interests. Ruthven's first Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology (1912-13) reviews the varying departmental interests and events that contributed to the history of the Museum between 1882 and 1913:

A history of the museum to the close of the fiscal year 1909-1910 was printed in the annual report for that year. Since that time important changes in the organization have taken place, making it advisable to complete the history to date.

It is evident from the published reports that the founders of the museum had broad and comprehensive views of what its scope should be, and a similarly broad plan underlaid the reorganization that took place when the institution was installed in the new building — in 1882. Unfortunately the plan of administration adopted when the museum was reorganized was not conducive to a general and equal growth of the departments. The university professors of the natural sciences represented in the museum were by virtue of their positions curators of the various collections, and no provision was made for a director who should be responsible for the general development of the institution. The result of this arrangement was that each department went its own way and was developed or neglected according to the interests of the persons in charge, growth was naturally greatest in the department in which most interest was exhibited, and the zoological collections soon came to be of most importance and to require most of the facilities.

For many years the collections in the Museum of Natural History were those of zoology, anthropology and geology, the botanical and mineralogical collections being housed with the respective departments and devoted to class use. From 1895-1913 the zoological department was in charge of the Professor of Zoology (Jacob Reighard), as director, and a curator who also acted a[s] custodian of the other collections. In 1909 the geological collections were taken over by the Department of Geology, so that since that date the museum has consisted only of the collections of zoology and anthropology, and to properly designate its restricted scope the Board of Regents, at the March meeting, 1913, changed the name of the institution from the Museum of Natural History to the Museum of Zoology.

Whatever may be said of the advisability of this restriction of the scope of the museum it is apparent that it has taken place gradually and naturally, as the result of a lack of interest in the museum on the part of most of the men in charge, and that the change in name is simply a formal recognition of the conditions. At the same time it should be recognized that the reduction in the number of departments will have the distinct advantage of making the museum more efficient, since the facilities are only sufficient to permit of the successful development of one or two fields of natural science.

Another important change in the organization was made this year in the transferring of the directorship of the museum from the professor of zoology to the head curator. This distinctly separates the museum from all other departments in the university, placing it upon the same footing as the General Library, and definitely fixes the responsibility for its development upon the person directly in charge.

Such general museum exhibits and services as already existed were maintained, and the Museum of Zoology continued the custodianship of the growing anthropological and archaeological collections, including the Chinese exhibition, but both space and budget were limited, and active development of an exhibit program was impossible until an adequate building and financial support could be provided. The years from 1913 to 1928 were, however, a period of growth of the separate natural history collections, and notably so for the Museum of Zoology under Ruthven. Between 1913 and 1927 its active full-time staff grew from five to fourteen, its collections more than quadrupled and were organized into six major "divisions," each with a full-time curator, and two series of publications based on Page  1440the Museum's researches were established.

Almost equally important was the staunch friendship of the group of influential amateur naturalists who were early attracted by the Museum's program of studies, and as honorary curators and associates were active in counsel, research, and support. Among them were Bryant Walker and Bradshaw H. Swales of Detroit, and Dr. William W. Newcomb of Ann Arbor, whose financial aid made possible the first Museum publications and many of the earlier expeditions, and Calvin Goodrich of Toledo, Ohio, and E. B. Williamson of Bluffton, Indiana, who resigned from successful careers as a newspaper editor and a banker, respectively, to devote full time to notable studies on the Museum's collections of mollusks and dragonflies.

An unavoidable result of the rapidly accelerating growth was that the old building became increasingly inadequate, and the collections began to overflow into whatever available space could be found. A few rooms in the Natural Science Building and some attic rooms in the Medical Building and in University Hall were made available, and finally three houses acquired by the University in its purchase of property for University construction were pressed into service. None of the space was permanent, much of it (like the old Museum building itself) was both inadequate in facilities and in protection from fire, and the whole arrangement was far from efficient.

The pressing need for adequate quarters was also accentuated by the development of the other natural history collections and their organization into separate research museums. In 1921 the Herbarium was created by the merger of the plant collections in the Museum of Zoology and those in the Department of Botany. In 1922 the Museum of Anthropology was organized as an independent unit, and the extensive paleontological collections were formally organized in the Museum of Paleontology. The need for more adequate quarters was clearly recognized in the early 1920's, and by 1925, when the legislature appropriated $900,000 for a museum building and equipment, plans for the organization of the new University Museums were well under way.

The new building was finally ready for occupancy in 1928, and the Museums of Zoology, Anthropology, and Paleontology and the University Herbarium were housed in a functionally planned and admirably appointed building. Ruthven had given many years of thought to a university museum and the role it should play. He and his staff had carried on the researches and amassed the carefully selected and pertinently documented collections that were bringing the Museum an international reputation. The University Museums' attainment of academic status and financial support was pre-eminently his accomplishment, and the new building reflected both his concept of what a university museum building should be and the detailed planning that only a trained museum staff could provide. The excellence of this planning is perhaps best shown by the fact that today, twenty-five years after completion, the Museums Building remains a model for the combined storage and active use of large research collections. Even the crowding and overflow that twenty-five years of growth would entail were foreseen; the plans provided and space was reserved for a now greatly needed addition that would be integral with the present building. Extensive provision was also made for a renewed and modern program of exhibits and a technical service staff to meet the common needs of the several units.

An organization that had been approved Page  1441by the Regents in 1925 was put into full operation. Ruthven became Director of the University Museums as well as Director of the Museum of Zoology, with supervision of the Museums Building, its common services, and the interrelations of the four independent museums. Each of these museums had its own staff and director and was free to work out its own co-operative arrangement with the teaching departments in its particular discipline, while all shared as museums the common problems that came with the responsibility for the curatorial care of active research and teaching collections. The responsibility for the revived exhibit program was for some years left to the individual museums. With the occupancy of the new building, Crystal Thompson, a former staff member of the Museum of Zoology, was recalled from Amherst, where she had gone to develop the Amherst College Museum, to be Curator of Extension Work and Exhibits in the Museum of Zoology. She developed exhibits and loan collections in zoology and initiated both the exhibit of Michigan fauna on the third-floor balcony and the Hall of Biological Principles on the fourth floor. At the same time the paleontological exhibits were organized as the Hall of Evolution under the direction of Ermine C. Case, the Director of the Museum of Paleontology.

In 1929 Ruthven resigned the directorship of the Museum of Zoology to accept the presidency of the University but retained the directorship of the University Museums until the increasing burden forced him to relinquish all direct relations with the Museums in 1936, when Carl Eugen Guthe, Director of the Museum of Anthropology, was appointed Director of the University Museums. Guthe resigned the directorship of the University Museums and of the Museum of Anthropology in 1944 to accept the directorship of the New York State Museum at Albany, where he succeeded Charles C. Adams, who had been Ruthven's predecessor as Curator of the University Museum. Upon Guthe's resignation a somewhat different plan of administration was adopted for the University Museums. The functions of the director were transferred to an Operating Committee comprised of the directors of the four museums (and, from 1944 to 1950, of the Director of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology).

In 1947, in a reorganization of the exhibits program, the position of prefect of exhibits was established to provide a supervisor responsible to the Operating Committee for the combined exhibit program of the four University Museums. Irving G. Reimann was brought from the Buffalo Museum of Science to assume this position, and funds were provided for a small but efficient staff of technicians, artists, and docents. The results of this program are now increasingly evident as each year has shown good progress in the number and quality of the exhibits.

In the accounts of the constituent museums are described the parts which each has played in the development of the University Museums. The year 1928 marked the beginning of a new era of opportunity and productivity for them. As collections grow, questions of selectivity and direction become increasingly important. Accessions which at an earlier stage filled important needs for taxonomic or distributional representation must be scrutinized in the light of whether the additional data they provide justify the space they occupy and the time their processing entails. The existing collections, the maturing concepts of cognate fields, and the proposed research and teaching problems of the staff become increasingly important in shaping the policies and Page  1442utilizing the opportunities peculiar to university museums.

As Ruthven wrote in taking formal leave of his staff and colleagues in the Museum of Zoology: "The Museum is not finished. It never can be if it is to be a functioning unit of the University. My earnest hope is that it will grow and change with the times and serve science and the University with increasing effectiveness" (A Naturalist in a University Museum).

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, Charles C.Report of the Curator of the University of Michigan Museum to the Board of Regents … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1903-4.
Catalogue of the Trowbridge Collection of Natural History in the Museum of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Published by the University, 1861.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
Gaige, Frederick M.Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1930-33.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Michigan. Laws of Michigan.Special Session of 1837, No. IV. June 21, 1837.
Michigan. Senate Documents. 1841.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1954.
Reighard, Jacob. MS, Correspondence, 1894-1903.
Reighard, Jacob. MS. Report of the Head Curator, The Museum of Natural History, Univ. Mich., 1912.
Rogers, J. Speed. Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1947-54.
Ruthven, Alexander G.A Naturalist in a University Museum. Ann Arbor, 1931.
Ruthven, Alexander G.Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology. Univ. Mich., 1914-29.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Winchell, Alexander. Report, Historical and Statistical, on the Collections in Geology, Zoölogy and Botany, in the Museum of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Published by the University, 1864.

THE HERBARIUM

FROM 1837 to 1854. — From the beginning of the University, collections in the field of natural history received much attention. At the first meeting of the Board of Regents in Ann Arbor on June 5, 1837, a committee "on the Library, Philosophical Apparatus, and Cabinet of Natural History" was appointed consisting of Edward Mundy, John F. Porter, and Elon Farnsworth. At the November meeting Henry R. Schoolcraft introduced a resolution directing the committee to look into: "The propriety of instituting such inquiries and taking such preliminary steps as may be proper, to lay the foundation of a suitable collection of specimens for the University Cabinet, in the various departments of Natural History" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 17).

It is not certain when the first collection of plants was received. It was probably part of the material obtained in the first Geological Survey of Michigan in 1838 under the direction of the state geologist, Douglass Houghton. The survey was authorized by an act of the legislature (Act No. 49, 1838) that specified:

Specimens shall be collected and preserved in the following manner, to wit: first, the state shall be supplied with single and good specimens; second, if more similar specimens than one can be found, sixteen more, if possible, shall be procured, to be distributed by the regents amongst the university and Page  1443its branches.… To entitle the university and its branches to any of the benefits of this act, of the aggregate amount herein appropriated, four thousand dollars shall be refunded to the state treasury from the university fund, … and within one month from the passage of this act, the regents of the university shall file in the office of the secretary of state their assent to the provisions thereof.

The Regents, however, passed the following resolution:

Resolved, That the Regents feel it their duty to withhold their assent to the appropriation contemplated by the Act of the 22d March, 1838. Yet they hereby pledge themselves for the erection of such buildings as may be necessary and otherwise to provide for the preservation of such specimens as may be collected under said Act and at any time intrusted to their care.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 45.)

Nevertheless, the collections from the survey apparently came to the University, for in the Proceedings of the Regents for January, 1840, is the statement: "Your Committee further recommend that Dr. Houghton be authorized to place a part, if not the whole, of the specimens in geology, mineralogy, and zoology, now in his hands, belonging to the State, in the University buildings under the charge and control of the Board of Regents."

Although botanical specimens were not mentioned these doubtless were also in Houghton's charge at that time. The Regents had previously authorized the renting of a room for Houghton and had provided that one of the four buildings intended as homes for the professors should be used to house "the Cabinet of Natural History … and for other general purposes," until the main buildings should be completed (R.P., 1837-64, p. 70). The custodianship of the University was finally validated by an act of the legislature, in 1846, in which it was stated:

The various specimens of geology, mineralogy, zoology, botany and all other specimens pertaining to natural history belonging to the state, and now deposited in the University buildings be, and the same are hereby transferred to the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, …

Although the survey began in 1838, most of the plants were collected in 1839, when the two most southern ranges of counties were surveyed. John Wright, with the assistance of George H. Bull, was given charge of the botanical phase. Wright stated that between 800 and 900 species were examined and approximately 9,000 specimens were collected. During other years, some plants were collected by members of the survey, especially by Douglass Houghton and Abram Sager, although they were mostly concerned with other phases of the survey.

In 1838 Asa Gray was appointed Professor of Botany and Zoology. He was never in residence, however, during his short tenure and probably had no part in the development of the botanical collections. In 1839, Douglass Houghton was appointed Professor of Geology and Mineralogy without salary, and the natural history specimens were placed under his supervision. In 1841 the collections were moved to the Main Building, later designated Mason Hall, which had just been completed. From correspondence between Zina Pitcher and Silas H. Douglass in 1846, the latter apparently had some supervision of the collections immediately following Houghton's death in 1845. The letters indicate that Douglass was advised by Pitcher and George P. Williams, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, both of whom were interested in the botanical collections. In a letter to Douglass, Pitcher stated that Asa Gray, at Harvard, had consented to revise the determinations and classification of the botanical specimens, Page  1444with the proviso that he should retain a set. It seems doubtful, however, that this was done since the Gray Herbarium does not contain specimens or records of such a transaction, and the early collections of the University Herbarium do not bear annotations by Gray. The only record of an addition to the botanical collection is a letter (Oct. 3, 1846) from Regent Pitcher mentioning the gift of his private herbarium of Michigan plants.

On the resignation of Asa Gray in 1842, Abram Sager was appointed Professor of Botany and Zoology without salary until he should be engaged in instruction (see Part III: The Department of Botany). Although he probably was not in residence until 1848 he may have assisted Houghton with the collections. In 1855 he resigned this position to devote his entire attention to the professorship of obstetrics and physiology which he had also held from 1850. Because of his early training under Torrey and Eaton he had developed a strong interest in botany and zoology. He was associated with Houghton in the first Geological Survey, giving most of his attention to zoological phases. When he took up his duties at the University, the natural history collections were one of his major responsibilities. In the available records there is no evidence that any important botanical collections were added under his direction. He must have been actively interested in botany, however, since, in 1866, he gave his herbarium of 1,200 species to the University (Winchell, "Museum Rept.," 1866). This interest continued even after his resignation of the professorship of botany and zoology, and in 1874 he presented 100 plants which he had collected in Florida and South Carolina while in the South for his health.

From 1855 to 1880. — In 1855 Alexander Winchell (Wesleyan '47, LL.D. ibid. '67) transferred from the professorship of physics and civil engineering to the professorship of botany, zoology, and geology. Under his direction the Natural History Museum developed a definite organization. From 1863 to 1873 annual reports were published, and in 1870 a daily journal was begun which was continued until 1880. There is, therefore, considerable information available concerning the activities of the Museum for this period. During the early part there were only a few additions to the botanical collection. In 1859 and 1860 the Geological Survey of the state was continued under Winchell's direction. In 1860 N. Winchell was employed as botanist, and the northern shores of the Lower Peninsula and the islands at the head of Lake Huron were surveyed. The University received about 300 entries and 1,000 specimens of plants from this survey. In 1863 the Museum contained a collection of 1,500 species from Michigan, 400 from the southern states, and 225 from Germany. As already mentioned, Professor Sager presented his herbarium to the University in 1866. In 1867 Josiah T. Scovell collected about fifty species of plants on an expedition to the mining region of Lake Superior and in 1868 Albert E. Foote ('67m), Assistant in the Chemistry Laboratory, organized an expedition to Lake Superior which spent considerable time on Isle Royale and added 275 species, numbering about 350 specimens, to the Herbarium.

In 1868 two students graduated from the University who later played important parts in the development of the Museum. Both Mark W. Harrington and Joseph Beal Steere, as seniors, had helped in the Museum without compensation (Winchell, "Rept.," 1868). Mark Walrod Harrington ('68, A.M. '71, LL.D. '94) upon graduation was appointed Assistant in the Museum, and Page  1445for two years, as part of his duties, he catalogued the Herbarium, collected and identified specimens, and prepared collections for exchange. The following statement is from Winchell's report of 1871:

Mr. M. W. Harrington, the efficient regular Assistant in this Department for the past three years, having attached himself to the Government Expedition to Alaska, it is my plan to secure in his place, two or three energetic and aspiring young men, who will count the educational advantages of the position a large part of the just compensation for their services. Messrs. E. L. Mark, A.B., & J. F. Eastwood, A.B., have already entered upon duty under this arrangement.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 142.)

In 1871 and 1872 Harrington was in Alaska as astronomical aid for the United States Coast Survey. He did not neglect the botanical opportunities which were offered, but his collection of plants went to the Smithsonian Institution, although the University later received a set. On his return in 1872 he collected in the vicinity of San Francisco and brought the specimens back to the University.

In September, 1870, Joseph B. Steere sailed on a trip which lasted for five years, during which time he collected extensively in the Amazon Valley, on the coast of Peru and Ecuador, and in the East Indies, China, and the Philippines. His botanical collections totaled about 1,156 specimens.

Between 1868 and 1873 other important additions included the herbarium of Dr. George L. Ames, containing 17,500 specimens, presented by his wife, and that of Houghton, containing 9,000 specimens, presented by his widow. Collections were also received from J. T. Scovell, Colorado, from G. W. Ramage, Texas and Louisiana, from Joseph C. Jones ('72, A.M. '75), from the north shore of Lake Superior, and from Charles J. Kintner ('70), California. In 1873 Winchell reported the botanical collection as totaling 6,491 entries and 36,385 specimens.

On Winchell's resignation in 1873, Eugene Woldemar Hilgard (Ph.D. Heidelberg '53) was appointed Professor of Mineralogy, Geology, Zoology, and Botany. He, however, served only two years. Mark Harrington had been promoted to Assistant Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany in 1873, and was largely responsible for the development of the collections in the Museum from 1873 to 1876. Many of the collections were obtained through exchange. The herbarium of Adams Jewett, containing 2,500 specimens, was received from his son H. S. Jewett. A large addition of German plants was acquired by a gift from S. S. Garrigues and a collection was obtained through President Angell from Professor Paul Reinsch, of Germany. Other important collections were received from Howard Shriver, Virginia, J. F. Eastwood, West Virginia, J. F. Joor, Louisiana and Texas, J. Clark Moss, Colorado, J. G. Lemmon, California, and from W. H. Dall and Marcus Baker, Alaska. Cryptogams received more attention than hitherto. Ferns were given by George E. Davenport, A. B. Lyons, Mrs. Mary O. Rust, and Miss Fannie Andrews. The Steere collections added important mosses and ferns. The Reinsch collection contained many mosses, and the Garrigues herbarium added numerous fungi. In addition, a collection of one hundred New England fungi was purchased from Byron D. Halsted.

In 1875 Harrington had charge of studies in Olmsted, Dodge, and Steele counties for the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. In the report of this survey, N. H. Winchell states: "Professor Harrington … was compensated only by the payment of Page  1446his field and traveling expenses. He also had the privilege of retaining such botanical specimens as he could gather, for the purpose of enlarging the already magnificent collection of plants in the Museum of Michigan University."

Apparently, there was much local interest in botany in Ann Arbor at this time. Harrington acknowledges volunteer help provided in the Herbarium by Miss E. C. Allmendinger, Miss Catherine M. Watson, Miss Louisa M. Reed, Professor John F. Eastwood ('71, Ph.D. '87), and Neddie Tyler ("Journ. Mus.," 1875, p. 92). For a number of years, Miss Mary H. Clark, who with her sisters conducted a seminary for young ladies in Ann Arbor, had been developing a herbarium. Alexander Winchell, in his report of the flora of the state in 1861, acknowledged his indebtedness to her for numerous records. Miss Elizabeth C. Allmendinger not only developed a herbarium but also published a list of the plants within a radius of four miles of Ann Arbor, listing 848 species. These collections were later given to the University.

In 1876 Harrington was granted leave of absence to study abroad. He took ferns from the Steere collection with him to Kew, where he finished his identifications, and in 1878 the result of his study appeared in the Journal of the Linnean Society (16: 25-37). This is apparently the first research paper based on botanical collections of the University to be published by a member of the faculty.

Harrington resigned in 1877 to take a position as professor of astronomy and mathematics in China. Volney M. Spalding ('73, Ph. D. Leipzig '94), who had been appointed Instructor in Zoology and Botany in 1876 to assist while Harrington was abroad, continued in this position following the latter's resignation. In 1876 Joseph Beal Steere ('68, '70l, Ph.D. hon. '75) was appointed Assistant Professor of Paleontology and Curator of the Museum. Spalding apparently had charge of the botanical collections under Steere's direction. In 1879 Steere was given the title of Professor of Zoology and Curator of the Museum, and Spalding was made Assistant Professor of Botany, apparently continuing in charge of the Herbarium. From 1876 to 1881 there were very few additions to the botanical collections, although more specimens from the Steere expedition were received. Harrington returned to the University in 1879 as Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory, but his interest in botany continued. In 1879 Spalding reported that Professor Harrington "performed much gratuitous labor … upon plants which had been secured to the University through his instrumentality" and that he had contributed several collections of plants to the Herbarium.

From 1881 to 1920. — In 1881 there was a reorganization of the Museum. The Regents adopted regulations in which it was stipulated that the professor in charge of instruction in each subject should be curator of the corresponding collection in the Museum of Natural History. Spalding, who was made acting Professor of Botany in 1881, consequently became Curator of the botanical collection. In the same year a Museum building was completed, and the natural history collections, with one exception, were moved from Mason Hall. The Herbarium remained under the care of the Botany Department in Mason Hall. The Regents' Proceedings of 1881, however, specifically included the botanical collection as part of the Museum of Natural History.

There was no provision for a supervising director of the Museum as a whole. Each curator was independent and was required to make an annual report to the President of the University Page  1447concerning the collection under his charge. These reports were not published, and only one of Professor Spalding's has been found ("Rept.," 1886, Angell Papers). How long Professor Spalding as Curator continued them is not certain. President Angell cites items from the curator's reports until 1887, when they probably ceased. That there had been such a requirement was apparently forgotten, since, in 1918, Professor Newcombe transmitted the report of J.H. Ehlers to President Hutchins with comments concerning the desirability of annual reports and the statement that "the enclosure is, I believe, the first report that the Phanerogamic Herbarium has ever made" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 428).

In 1904 Spalding resigned, and in 1905 Frederick Charles Newcombe ('90, Ph.D. Leipzig '93), who had been a member of the Botany Department since 1890, was appointed Professor of Botany. In 1905 Charles Albert Davis (Bowdoin '86, Ph.D. Michigan '05) was appointed Curator of the Botanical Herbarium. Davis had given considerable attention to the flora of Michigan while a professor at Alma College from 1887 to 1901. He had been Instructor in Forestry and a graduate student at the University from 1901 to 1905, and had served as Curator from 1905 to 1908 at a salary of $200. In 1908 Forest Buffen H. Brown (Michigan '02, Ph.D. Yale '18) was Curator of the Herbarium and also Curator of the Botanical Garden. The larger staff of the Botany Department, with varied specializations, resulted in an increased interest in the Herbarium, and in 1912 Calvin Henry Kauffman (Harvard '96, Ph.D. Michigan '07) was appointed Curator of the Cryptogamic Herbarium, and Henry Allan Gleason (Illinois '01, Ph.D. Columbia '06), Curator of the Phanerogamic Herbarium. Both were also on the staff of the Botany Department. The Herbarium at this time was housed in a room on the fourth floor of the South Wing of University Hall. Owing to lack of space a part of the collection was stored in bundles in the attic. A disastrous fire in 1913 destroyed this material, and damage from water and smoke necessitated discarding part of the remainder. In 1915 the Botany Department moved to the newly erected Natural Science Building, where the phanerogamic collection occupied a room on the third floor and the cryptogamic collection a room on the fourth, the two being connected by a spiral stairway. In 1916 John Henry Ehlers ('99, Ph.D. '14), Instructor in Botany, succeeded Gleason as Curator of the Phanerogamic Herbarium.

There are only a few records of accessions for this period. In 1886 a gift of $100 from Joseph B. Whittier, of Saginaw, made possible the purchase of Ellis' North American Fungi. In 1887 a set of plants from the Lake Superior region was received from Frank E. Wood. In 1894 Collins, Holden, and Setchell's Phycotheca Boreali-Americana, Briosi and Cavara's Funghi Parasiti, and Seymour and Earle's Economic Fungi were purchased. A gift of 2,000 plants collected by Lewis Foote while engaged on the United States Lake Survey was received in 1903.

In addition to the herbaria in the Department of Botany another botanical collection developed in the University. Since, in 1913, only the collections of zoology and anthropology were housed in the Museum of Natural History Building, the title was changed to the Museum of Zoology. In 1912 Charles Keene Dodge ('70), of Port Huron, who had been active in the botanical phases of the Biological Survey of the state, was placed in charge with the honorary title of Associate Curator of Botany in the Museum of Zoology, without salary. Mr. Page  1448Dodge contributed 5,000 species of plants to initiate the collection. In 1918 Dodge died, leaving his herbarium of 35,000 specimens to the Museum, and Cecil Billington was appointed Honorary Curator to supervise the collection. This herbarium was maintained as a separate collection until 1921. Among other accessions received during this period were Rocky Mountain plants from Edgar M. Ledyard, Nevada plants from the Walker-Newcombe expeditions, ferns from A. A. Hinkley, and Michigan specimens from Cecil Billington.

The botanical collections of the University for the most part increased as the result of investigations concerning the flora of Michigan. Under Professor Spalding cryptogams first received special attention. Spalding and Fanny Elizabeth Langdon ('96, M.S. '97), Instructor in Botany, studied the myxomycetes in the vicinity of Ann Arbor. Lorenzo N. Johnson, Instructor in Botany from 1892 to 1896, added many specimens to the Herbarium. He sent specimens to Ellis and Peck who described a number of species from them. Ill health resulted in his resignation in 1896, and his death followed a year later at Boulder, Colorado, terminating prematurely a very promising career. Studies by Harriet L. Merrow added many specimens of parasitic fungi, especially rusts. Adrian J. Pieters ('94, Ph.D. '15) and Julia Snow were responsible for the botanical phases of a biological investigation of Lake St. Clair (1893) and western Lake Erie (1898), under the direction of Jacob E. Reighard of the Department of Zoology. James Barkley Pollock (Wisconsin '93, Sc.D. Michigan '97) and C. H. Kauffman published papers on Michigan fungi in the Reports of the Michigan Academy of Science for 1905 and 1906, and until 1918 Kauffman continued to publish annually papers listing fungi previously unreported for the state.

In 1905 the legislature passed a bill providing that a biological survey of the state, in addition to the Geological Survey, be made under the direction of the state geologist. Alexander G. Ruthven was appointed chief naturalist of the survey in 1907. Most of the funds available for it were used to help support studies by various biologists. The University of Michigan co-operated in these investigations, and part of the collections were received by the University. In 1904 an expedition visited Isle Royale and the Porcupine Mountains, Ontonagon County, under Ruthven. In 1905 a party from the University visited Isle Royale, and W. P. Holt was responsible for the study of the flora. In 1906 Charles Albert Davis published results of his research with peat in Michigan and in the same year he studied the flora of the Walnut Lake area, Oakland County, as part of the biological investigations. The publication in 1918 of Kauffman's Agaricaceae of Michigan was not only a comprehensive treatment of the group for the state but was also one of the most outstanding for North America.

Kauffman was in Sweden in 1908 to obtain information concerning agarics from the area in which Fries's studies were made. Often accompanied by students, he extended his investigations to various parts of the United States. He was in the Lake Placid area of New York in the summer of 1914, in Olympic National Forest, Washington, in 1915, near Harlan, Kentucky, and Elkmont, Tennessee, in 1916, and in Leal, Colorado, in 1917. During World War I, in 1918 and 1919, he was on leave serving in the Plant Inspection Service of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. During this time he made many collections in Maryland and Virginia, and in the summer of 1920 collected at Tolland, Colorado.

H. A. Gleason prepared a monograph Page  1449of the Vernonieae for the North American Flora. In 1913-14, while on leave of absence, accompanied by B. E. Quick, he studied and collected plants in the Far East.

From 1921 to 1929. — In 1921 the various botanical collections, the phanerogamic and cryptogamic herbaria in the Department of Botany, and the herbarium in the Museum of Zoology were united in the Herbarium of the University of Michigan, which was given a separate budget. Kauffman was appointed Director and Curator of Cryptogams and John H. Ehlers, Curator of Phanerogams. Both were also members of the staff of the Department of Botany. Cecil Billington was given the title of Honorary Curator. He maintained an active interest in the Herbarium and contributed money for assistantships and field studies. In 1926 May V. Cannon, who had served for a number of years as Assistant, resigned and was given the title of Honorary Custodian of Basidiomycetes in recognition of her services to the Herbarium, and Bessie Bernice Kanouse (Michigan '22, Ph.D. '26) was appointed Curator and Assistant to the Director. Frances J. Thorpe (Ellsworth '14, M.A. Michigan '25), who had been an Assistant since 1924, was appointed part-time Research Assistant in 1929 and devoted her attention to studies of bryophytes and the care of the collection. In 1928, the new Museums Building having been completed, the Herbarium moved to its present quarters on the fourth floor of the research wing.

The study of the flora of Michigan continued to be a major investigation. Ehlers was on the summer session faculty at the Biological Station on Douglas Lake and continued the study of the phanerogamic flora of that area. Annotated lists of the higher plants for the region were published by Gates and Ehlers in 1924, 1927, 1930, and 1948. Billington published several papers concerning flowering plants. Kauffman, in addition to studies in the Ann Arbor area, spent the summer of 1927 in the Upper Peninsula accompanied by Bessie B. Kanouse and A. H. Povah, and, with his students, continued investigations there in 1929. Kanouse published results of studies of the Leptomitaceae and Blastocladiaceae in Michigan.

Kauffman spent some of his summers in field studies in other parts of the country, usually accompanied by students. In 1921 he stayed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and in 1924, at Elkmont, Tennessee, and Hot Springs, North Carolina. He collected at Mount Gretna, Pennsylvania, near his boyhood home, in 1924 and 1926. With John H. Ehlers, in 1922, studies were carried out in the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming, at Copeland, Idaho, and in the Oregon National Forest. Accompanied by Kanouse in 1923, investigations were continued in the Medicine Bow National Forest. In 1925 he worked at Lake Quinault, Washington, and in the Siskiyou National Forest, Montana, and at Grand Lake, Colorado. Kauffman published twenty papers concerning fungi, especially the Agaricaceae. Monographs of the genera Cortinarius and Inocybe were prepared for the North American Flora. He also published concerning the genera Armillaria, Lepiota, Clitocybe, Gomphidius, Flammula, and Paxillus for the United States. Kanouse was engaged in studies of the Phycomycetes and published concerning the families Blastocladiaceae, Leptomitaceae, and Pythiomorphaceae, and species in the genera Mucor, Pythium, and Saprolegnia.

In 1929 the Herbarium contained 184,712 specimens in the classified collections and approximately 75,000 which had not been distributed. In addition to Page  1450the specimens resulting from the studies described above, important collections were received through gifts, exchanges, and purchases. Only a few can be mentioned here. Howard A. Kelly gave his herbarium of fungi and lichens, and the library facilities of the Herbarium were greatly increased by a gift from him of an extensive library especially rich in rare and important mycological publications. He also donated 831 paintings of fungi, mostly by L. C. C. Krieger and E. M. Blackford.

In 1929, with financial help from Dr. Kelly, the lichen library and herbarium of Professor Bruce Fink of Miami University were purchased, increasing the material available in this group by 16,760 specimens. Joyce Hedrick (Mrs. Volney H. Jones) who had been Professor Fink's assistant, was appointed Research Assistant for lichens. Specimens of fungi from West Virginia, collected by Nuttall, were received. A number of exsiccatae were added. Important collections of grasses were received from A. S. Hitchcock and Mrs. Agnes Chase of the Department of Agriculture. The Alaskan collections of Ynes Mexia were purchased. The tropical American flora was represented through the collections of Chickering, Mexia, and Stevens. Hawaiian collections of Degener were obtained. Among the collections received from other botanists in the University were the materials resulting from the study of the genus Rosa by Eileen Erlanson, the collection obtained by Carl O. Erlanson on the MacMillan expedition into the Arctic, and collections resulting from a study of the Sumatran flora by H. H. Bartlett.

From 1930 to 1953. — In 1930, because of the illness of Professor Kauffman, Edwin Butterworth Mains ('13, Ph.D. '16), of Purdue University, was appointed Acting Director and, following Kauffman's death in 1931, he became Director. William Randolph Taylor (Pennsylvania '16, Ph.D. ibid. '20) of the University of Pennsylvania was appointed Curator of Algae in the same year, and both also were appointed as professors in the Department of Botany. The investigations of Kauffman concerning the Agaricaceae developed facilities which offered unusual opportunities for a continuation of research in the group. In consequence Alexander Hanchett Smith (Lawrence Coll. '28, Ph.D. Michigan '33), who had studied with Kauffman, was appointed Research Assistant in 1932. He became Botanist in 1945, and was made Professor of Botany in the Literary College in 1950.

In 1930 arrangements were made between the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the University of Michigan for a biological survey of the Mayan area of Central America. Consequently, in 1935, Cyrus Longworth Lundell (Southern Methodist University '32, Ph.D. Michigan '36) was appointed Assistant Curator. In 1939 Ehlers reached the retirement age, and Lundell succeeded him as Curator of Phanerogams and Ferns. Lundell resigned in 1944 to accept a position at Southern Methodist University and was succeeded in 1946 by Rogers McVaugh (Swarthmore '31, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '35), who was also appointed Associate Professor in the Department of Botany and in 1951 was promoted to Professor. Betty Robertson [Clarke] was Assistant Curator on a part-time basis in 1944 and 1945.

Frances Thorpe resigned in 1935, and William Campbell Steere ('29, Ph.D. '32), Instructor in Botany, was appointed Research Associate in the Herbarium to further research in the bryophytes and to supervise the development of the collection. He was made Curator of Bryophytes in 1945, and was also chairman of the Department of Botany when he resigned in 1950 to accept Page  1451a position at Stanford University. The lichens continued to be supervised by Joyce Hedrick Jones, who was made Assistant Curator on a part-time basis in 1944.

World War II interrupted investigations. W. C. Steere was on leave of absence, engaged in explorations in Colombia and Ecuador for quinine-producing plants for the Board of Economic Warfare. C. L. Lundell was on leave of absence in connection with exploration for rubber-producing plants in Mexico. E. B. Mains, in addition to his duties as Director of the Herbarium, served as acting chairman of the Department of Botany during the absence of H. H. Bartlett.

The researches of the Herbarium have continued in floristics, phytogeography, and taxonomy. The results have been published in 329 articles and nine books. The study of the flora of Michigan has been one of the major activities of the staff. The Biological Station has served as a center for research in the northern part of the Lower Peninsula, by John H. Ehlers and Rogers McVaugh for flowering plants, by W. C. Steere for bryophytes, and by A. H. Smith for fungi, all having been on the summer session staff of the Biological Station for various periods. Other areas receiving special attention have been Sugar Island and the shores of Lake Huron and Lake Michigan for flowering plants by Rogers McVaugh, and Sugar Island and the Keweenaw Peninsula for bryophytes by W. C. Steere. Fungi have been studied in the Harbor Springs, Munising, and Marquette areas and in the Keweenaw Peninsula by E. B. Mains, and in the Tahquamenon area by A. H. Smith. During this period forty-seven papers giving results of the studies of Michigan flora have been published in various journals, and data from Michigan collections have been included in many others. In addition, the publications Liverworts of Southern Michigan by W. C. Steere, and Common Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms of Southeastern Michigan and Puffballs and Their Allies in Michigan, both by A. H. Smith, deserve special mention.

The biological survey of the Mayan area by the Carnegie Institution and the University placed special emphasis on tropical American botany. In 1931 Harley H. Bartlett worked along the Belize River and the northern edge of the Mountain Pine Ridge of British Honduras and around Uaxactún, Guatemala, in 1932 Steere visited central Yucatán, and in 1933 Lundell was in British Honduras and the region around La Libertad, Guatemala. During the summer of 1936 Mains and Lundell investigated the flora of the high-rain forest and the Mountain Pine Ridge in the southern part of the El Cayo district, British Honduras. In 1937 Lundell studied the flora of the Río Moctezuma Valley, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, and in 1938 he visited Yucatán and Quintana Roo, Mexico. The results from these expeditions have appeared in more than thirty-five papers in various publications and in twenty-one papers in two volumes entitled The Botany of the Maya Area. Although co-operation with the Carnegie Institution was terminated in 1939, investigations of the flora of tropical America have continued. Steere studied the bryophytes of Puerto Rico while exchange Professor at the University of Puerto Rico in 1939-40 and published concerning the bryophytes of El Salvador, Colombia, and Ecuador, in addition to those of the Mayan area. Rogers McVaugh is engaged in a study of the phanerogamic flora of Jalisco, Mexico, and spent parts of 1949, 1951, and 1952 in field studies in that state.

Investigations concerning flowering plants include monographic studies of Page  1452the Celastraceae, Polygonaceae, Myrsinaceae, and Rutaceae by Lundell. He contributed the treatments of the Rutaceae, Celastraceae, Theophrastaceae, and Myrsinaceae for the "Flora of Panama" (to be published by the Missouri Botanical Garden) and initiated the preparation of the Flora of Texas, spending parts of the years 1940-42 in field studies in Texas.

McVaugh has been engaged in a study of the genus Prunus in North America. Field investigations were made in Texas and New Mexico in 1947, in southeastern United States in 1948, and in Michoacán, Jalisco, and other states in Mexico in 1949. He is also engaged in monographic studies of the Campanulaceae and Myrtaceae and has prepared the treatments of the Rosaceae for "Flora of Panama," the Myrtaceae for "Flora of Peru," and the Campanulaceae for Arizona Flora and for Flora of Texas. With Joseph H. Pyron he published the Ferns of Georgia. Studies have been made by him concerning early botanical explorations in North America.

Investigations of the bryophytes have been made for many areas in North America. Frances Thorpe reported concerning the bryophytes collected by Erlanson and Koelz in Greenland. Steere published a number of papers on the bryophytes of the Hudson Bay region and the Canadian eastern Arctic. In 1948 he headed a party supported by the Botanical Gardens of the University and the Navy to Great Bear Lake in the Canadian western Arctic. He studied the distribution pattern of mosses in Alaska in 1949, and he has published concerning species from Little Diomede Island in Bering Strait. Results of investigations concerning the phylogeny and distribution of mosses have been reported in papers concerning the Cenozoic and Mesozoic bryophytes of North America and Pleistocene mosses of Louisiana and Iowa. Steere also prepared the treatments for the families Calymperaceae and Erpodiaceae and the genera Didymodon, Barbula, and Tortula for Grout's Moss Flora of North America.

W. R. Taylor engaged in investigations concerning the taxonomy, morphology, and reproduction of algae. The results of his studies on the Atlantic coast have been published in the Marine Algae of the Northeastern Coast of North America. Other investigations have included studies concerning the marine algae of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, the Straits of Magellan, the coasts of Peru and Chile, the Marshall Islands, Java, and the Philippines. Taylor has also published studies of fresh-water algae of Isle Royale, Michigan, Newfoundland, Guatemala, and Colombia. He was a member of two Hancock expeditions, in 1934 to the Galapagos Islands and the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Central America, and in 1939 to the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Central America. In 1946 he was in the Marshall Islands engaged in botanical studies in connection with the "Crossroads" atomic bomb project of the U. S. Navy on Bikini. The results have been published in Plants of Bikini and Other Northern Marshall Islands. In 1949 he was on sabbatical leave engaged in a study of the marine algae of Bermuda.

The emphasis in the investigations of A. H. Smith has been on the large group of fleshy fungi, the Agaricaceae. His monograph North American Species of Mycena appeared in 1947 and his general treatment of fleshy fungi, Mushrooms in Their Natural Habitats, in 1949. The genera Cantherellus, Collybia, Cortinarius, Galerina, Kuehneromyces, Leucopaxillus, Lepiota, Lyophyllum, Melanoleuca, Nematoloma, Psathyrella, Pseudocoprinus, Rhodopaxillus, Rhodophyllus, Tricholoma, and Xeromphalina have received Page  1453extensive study. Dark-spored species are being studied in culture to obtain data concerning their development and genetics and to evaluate taxonomic characters. Field studies have been made in eastern North America: in northern New York in 1934, at Lake Timagami, Ontario, in 1935, and in the Great Smoky Mountains in 1938; in Pacific Coast states in 1935, in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon in 1941, in Idaho and Oregon in 1946, in Mt. Rainier National Park in 1948 and 1952, and in Wyoming in 1950. Smith has collaborated with L. R. Hesler in studies concerning fleshy Basidiomycetes of the southeastern United States and with Rolf Singer in investigations of the Agaricaceae of South America.

In other investigations of fungi, E. B. Mains, through facilities furnished by the Botanical Gardens (see Part III: The Botanical Gardens), has studied the host specialization of species of rusts and powdery mildews. Resistant varieties and selections of wheat, delphinium, and phlox to their powdery mildews and of snap-dragons and iris to their rusts were discovered. The inheritance of resistance of wheat to powdery mildew and of snap-dragons to rust has been reported. From taxonomic investigations of the Uredinales papers concerning the genera Spumula, Tegillum, Chaconia, Skierka, Ctenoderma, Maravalia, Bitzea, Scopella, Blastospora, and Angiopsora have been published. The genus Hydnum and the family Geoglossaceae have been studied. During the past fourteen years entomogenous fungi have received major attention, and results of investigations concerning the genera Cordyceps, Hirsutella, Gibellula, Hymenostilbe, Akanthomyces, Insecticola, Tilachlidium, and Synnematium have been published. Field studies were made in New Hampshire in 1938 and 1939, in Colorado in 1940, and in Montana and Washington in 1941.

Investigations of Phycomycetes have been continued by Bessie Kanouse, who has published concerning Saprolegnia parasitica and the genus Endogone. Major emphasis has been on the Discomycetes, especially of Michigan and of northwestern United States. Her publications include treatments of Gelatinodiscus, Pseudocollema, Otidea, Plectania, Helvella, and Morchella.

Joyce Hedrick Jones has published papers concerning the lichens of the American tropics, Michigan, the northwestern United States, and Alaska. She also revised Fink's manuscript of The Lichen Flora of the United States for publication.

Owing to the increase in the collections, space in the Museums Building became insufficient, and in 1947 the collections of algae and bryophytes were moved to the Museums Annex. This, however, did not provide enough space for the distribution of all identified specimens in the classified collections so that it has been necessary to store approximately 150,000 specimens. The classified collections in 1954 contained 123,479 fungi, 39,750 lichens, 14,999 algae, 57,475 bryophytes, and 249,725 vascular plants, a total of 485,428 specimens. They provide materials not only for the studies of the staff of the Herbarium but also for other biological investigations of the University. In addition, between ten and thirty-six loans of 600 to 7,500 specimens a year have been made to aid in researches at other institutions.

Accessions to the collections have been obtained from researches of the Herbarium and from those of the staff and graduate students of the Department of Botany. An average of 5,800 specimens a year has been received through exchange. A number of accessions have been gifts, the most important being the herbarium of Parke, Davis and Company, Page  1454of Detroit, of 27,264 specimens. The University also received the company's botanical library containing many rare publications. Purchases for the most part have been limited to a few exsiccatae.

The Parke-Davis herbarium added collections of vascular plants of Farwell from Michigan, of Bigelow, Heller, Rusby, Nash, and Lemmon from the United States, of Rusby, Bang, Morong, and Triana from South America, of Pringle, Palmer, Orcutt, von Tuerckheim, and Schaffner from Mexico and Central America, of Teysmann, De Vriese, Korthals, Duthie, Hooker, and Wallich from the East Indies and India, of Heller from Hawaii, and of Boissier, Schimper, Schweinfurth, Schlechter, and Burchell from the Levant and Africa. An important herbarium of the plants of the Indiana dunes was received as a bequest of Marcus W. Lyon, Jr. Other accessions were collections of Muller, Wiggins, Shreve, Gentry, and Matuda from Mexico, of Krukoff, Dusén, and Jansson from Bolivia and Brazil, of Hassler from Paraguay, of Bartlett from Argentina, of Koelz from northern India, of Clover from Arizona, and of Tharp, Cory, and Whitehouse from Texas.

From the duplicates of bryophytes in the Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden more than 4,000 specimens were obtained, including paratypes of Hooker, Wilson, Mitten, and Underwood. Collections of Drummond, Polunin, Soper, and Potter added accessions from the North American Arctic. The herbarium of F. M. Pagan added 2,512 Puerto Rican specimens. Other accessions were collections of Standley and Steyermark from Guatemala and of Bartlett from Sumatra, the Philippines, and Formosa.

Among the accessions of marine algae were those of Setchell and Gardner from the west coast of North America, of B. M. Davis from New England, Jamaica, and California, of Bøygesen from the Danish West Indies, of Wormersly from southern Australia, and of Bartlett from the Sulu Sea and Haiti.

Additions of fungi included collections of J. J. Davis from Wisconsin, of Hesler from Tennessee and North Carolina, of Burke from Alabama, of Baxter from Alaska, of Whetzel from Bermuda, of Holway from South America, of Singer from Argentina, of Sammuelson from Sweden, of Stevens from Hawaii and the Philippines, of Cheo from China, and of Hiratsuka and Kobayasi from Japan and eastern Asia. Among the gifts were the herbarium of A. H. Povah, which added specimens from Michigan and elsewhere in North America, and several important exsiccatae and the herbarium of P. M. Rea of fleshy fungi of California. A gift of duplicates from the Farlow Herbarium added lichens from tropical America, China, and the Canadian eastern Arctic. Among other accessions of lichens were collections of Polunin, Lepage, Dutilly, and Gardner from Canada, of Pringle and Matuda from Mexico, and of Herre from the Philippines, and Lojka's Lichenotheca Universalis.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Catalogue, Univ. Mich., 1846-1940.
Douglass, Silas H. Papers, MS, Letters. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Harrington, Mark W."Report to E. W. Hilgard for the Year Ending 1874."Proceedings of the Board of Regents, 1874, pp. 359-77.
Harrington, Mark W."Report to the President for the Year Ending 1875."Proceedings of the Board of Regents, 1875, pp. 476-79.
Harrington, Mark W."Memorial Address on the Life and Service of Alexander Winchell LL.D." Ann Arbor: Published by the University, 1891.
MS, "Journal of the Museum of the University of Michigan in the Department of Geology, Zoology & Botany and the Department ofPage  1455 Archaeology and Relics. Journal B. 1870-1880."
Mains, Edwin B."Calvin Henry Kauffman. 1869-1931."Phytopathology, 4 (1932): 271-75; and Mycologia, 24 (1932): 265-67.
Mains, Edwin B. Reports of the Director of the University Herbarium, MSS, 1931-1953.
Michigan, Laws, Act 49, 1838; Act 122, 1846; Act 250, 1905.
Newcombe, F. C."A Quarter Century of Botany at Michigan."Mich. Alumnus, 21 (1915): 477-80.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1871-1952.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents, … 1864-1953.
Reed, Howard S."Volney Morgan Spalding."Plant World, 22 (1919): 14-18.
Ruthven, Alexander G.Report of the Curator of the University Museum to the Board of Regents. Univ. Mich. 1909-10.
Ruthven, Alexander G."Reports upon the Progress of the Biological Work of the Michigan Biological Survey."Rept. Mich. Acad. Science, 1910-13.
Ruthven, Alexander G."Reports of the Director of the Museum of Zoology."Univ. Bull. n.s., 1913-18.
Ruthven, Alexander G."Reports of the Chief Naturalist."In R. C. Allen, "Biennial Report of the Director."Mich. Geol. Biol. Surv. Publ., 19 (1914), 22 (1916).
Spalding, Volney. "Report to the President, 1886." Angell Papers, Mich. Hist. Coll. Univ. Mich.
Winchell, Alexander. First Biennial Report of the Progress of the Geological Survey of Michigan Embracing Observations on the Geology, Zoology and Botany of the Lower Peninsula. 1861. 339 pp.
Winchell, Alexander. Report of Operations in the Museum of the University of Michigan … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1873.
Winchell, N. H.Fourth Annual Report of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. 1876. 162 pp.
Wright, John. "Report of the Botanist of the Geological Survey to Douglass Houghton."Documents of the Michigan House of Representatives, 1839. No. 23: 380-507.

THE FRANCIS W. KELSEY MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY

THE archaeological collections at the University of Michigan owe their origin and development to Francis W. Kelsey, Professor of the Latin Language and Literature at the University from 1889 to the time of his death in 1927. During his long and distinguished service to the cultural life of the University, Professor Kelsey was both zealous and discriminating in the acquisition of archaeological material to illustrate the life and times of the ancient Mediterranean World. No separate museum was organized to care for these collections, but they were administered by Professor Kelsey and his very competent assistant and colleague in the Latin Department, Dr. Orma Fitch Butler.

It was not until the autumn of 1928 that definite steps were taken to organize a museum for the care, exhibit, and study of the archaeological collections, which, by this time, had increased markedly, due mainly to the acquisition of objects from the field excavations in Egypt, organized by Professor Kelsey in 1924. Thus a Museum of Classical Archaeology was established as a unit in the group of the University Museums. John G. Winter, Professor in the Department of Latin and Greek, served as Director of the Museum from the time of its inception until his retirement in February, 1951. Dr. Orma Fitch Butler was Curator until the time of her death in 1938.

In the autumn of 1940 the Museum became a separate administrative research unit of the University under the name Museum of Art and Archaeology. In 1946 it became the Museum of Archaeology, on the establishment of a Museum of Art as a separate unit in the University. Early in 1953 the present name, Francis W. Kelsey Museum of Page  1456Archaeology, was adopted by the Board of Regents in honor of its distinguished founder.

Prior to 1924 collections now in the Museum were acquired by purchase and by gift. The first of the purchases by the University was of a collection of 109 objects, including lamps, vases, and building materials, from the Musée Lavigerie in Carthage in 1893. They were duplicate specimens of antiquities gathered from various excavations in and around Carthage, over a period of some forty years, by R. P. Delattre, of the Order of the White Fathers. At the time, Professor Kelsey was on leave of absence from the University, studying numerous archaeological sites in the Mediterranean world. A warm and lasting friendship sprang up between the American scholar and the priest of the Hill of Byrsa. As a lasting reminder of the kindness shown him, Professor Kelsey assigned accession number one in the Museum records at the University to a fragment of an ancient Roman lamp included in the purchased collection. It was the discovery of this lamp that had induced Father Delattre in the early years of his life in North Africa to undertake the careful excavations of Roman sites at ancient Carthage.

On this same trip Professor Kelsey obtained from dealers, mainly in Rome, Sicily, Capri, and Tunis, 1,096 other archaeological specimens, building materials, pottery, terracotta figurines, lamps, painted stucco, glass, tombstones from Pompeii, and one Latin inscription. Thus began the collections at the University of Michigan of original archaeological specimens from Mediterranean lands. Previously, only casts or photographic representations of ancient objects had been available for use as illustrative material in teaching in the departments of Latin and Greek.

The next acquisition of antiquities occurred in 1898 through the services of Professor C. L. Meader of the University, who was then a Fellow in Christian Archaeology at the American School of Classical Studies in Rome. This was a miscellaneous collection of 387 objects, mainly lamps, lamp handles, pottery, and some glass.

In the following year Professor Duane Reed Stuart, who was a student in the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, purchased for the University a collection of thirty-four lamps. They were specimens of types that originated in various parts of the Greek world and had been collected by Professor Rhoussopoulos of the University of Athens.

The end of the century marked the successful conclusion of negotiations that had been carried on for some time for the purchase of a part of the famed Canon de Criscio collection of antiquities. The remainder was acquired later. The history of this collection is described hereinafter by Dr. Orma Fitch Butler.

In 1900-1901 Professor Kelsey was on leave of absence from the University of Michigan to serve as annual professor at the American School of Classical Studies in Rome. He availed himself of this opportunity to arrange for the purchase of various groups of antiquities. They were valuable additions to the collections in the fields of Roman archaeology, architecture, economics, religion, and history. Among them were 463 brick stamps and ninety specimens of makers' stamps on Arretine pottery. Also included were thirty-three ex-votos that had been found near an ancient temple of healing at Veii in Etruria.

With wise foresight Professor Kelsey procured for the University at this time also an outstanding collection of ancient building materials that had been gathered together from ancient Roman and Greek sites. Numerous small, but important, antiquities were obtained, among them a bronze Lar from an Page  1457ancient house shrine, a mason's plumb bob, lead water pipes, most of them bearing stamped inscriptions, lamps, and decorative terracottas.

In the years before World War I, some additions were made to the Museum collections. As the War brought an end to study and research abroad as well as to the importation of antiquities from Mediterranean countries, Kelsey gave increased consideration to the possibilities of actual field work of excavation after the war at some ancient site in the Near East. The factor that caused special attention to be focused on such a project at this time was the study of papyri documents of Greco-Roman Egypt, which had come to the University some years earlier from the Egypt Exploration Society of London and Oxford.

Thus the two aims that Professor Kelsey had in view when he was granted leave of absence from the University from 1919 to 1921 were to purchase objects for the collections and to investigate the possibilities of excavations at Greco-Roman sites. He visited the countries bordering the eastern Mediterranean from Italy to Asia Minor, Syria, and Palestine, and then went south and west throughout North Africa, with special attention to Greco-Roman sites in Egypt.

During this period the Museum collections were enriched by several purchases and gifts. Fragments of Arretine ware and Rhine Valley pottery and some Roman glass were purchased from the Cologne Museum. Among the acquisitions were ancient lamps from Palestine and alabaster bowls, head rests, toilet articles, beads, and fine linen from the Egypt Exploration Society Excavations. Through the kind services of Mr. G. F. Allmendinger of Ann Arbor, funds were procured from the Michigan Millers' Association for the purchase of a fine Roman mill, a large storage jar, and several small objects of bronze which had been found in the excavations of a villa a short distance to the north of Pompeii. The Paul Gottschalk collection of 130 vases, mainly from ancient Greek sites in Italy, was also purchased at this time.

The year 1924 marked the establishment at the University of the Near East Research Fund, which was the culmination of years of planning and preparation on the part of Kelsey (see hereinafter the Institute of Archaeological Research). The fund, created by private gifts, made it possible to acquire antiquities both by purchase and by excavations in the field at Roman and Greco-Roman sites.

In 1919 Professor Kelsey had noted on his visit to the Province of Fayoum, Upper Egypt, that the ancient city sites, from which so much valuable papyrological evidence had come to the world of scholarship, were being rapidly and ruthlessly destroyed, with little or no care taken to recover the antiquities or to record archaeological data. These ancient hills had become the source of excellent fertilizer (sebbakh), so necessary for the expanding acreage of cotton in Egypt. This situation caused Kelsey upon his return to Ann Arbor in 1921 to redouble his efforts to obtain funds for the systematic excavation of a Roman site in Egypt. The account of the excavations in the Near East is appended.

During this visit to Egypt Kelsey arranged for the purchase of a large collection of antiquities, mainly of the Greco-Roman period, that had been gathered together by Dr. David L. Askren, a long-time resident of Medinet el Fayoum. Especially noteworthy in this group were the ancient glass and ostraca. The collection included also wood, bronze, pottery, lamps, and terracotta figurines, in all 549 pieces.

Since the establishment of the Museum in 1928, acquisitions have continued to be made by purchase and by Page  1458gift, as well as by excavations. Several groups of ostraca were purchased during the years when field work was being carried on in Egypt. In addition an important collection of seventeen ostraca from Egypt was presented to the University by F. C. Skeat of the British Museum, London.

During the 1920's the Museum received several valuable gifts from H.C. Hoskier, of New York, Honorary Curator of the Museum. In the group were small bronzes and amulets from Egypt, a collection of 119 ancient Roman and Ptolemaic Egyptian coins, all in excellent condition, and several pieces of Greek, Etruscan, and Cypriote pottery.

The antiquities from the sites excavated in Egypt, Karanis, Dimé, and Terenouthis constitute the major part of the collections in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology. The Egyptian government has been extremely generous with the University in the division of antiquities. The ancient written documents recovered from the excavations, the papyri and the ostraca, were granted export to the University for study and publication. The ostraca have been studied and published and returned to the Department of Antiquities in Cairo. As the studies on the papyri are completed they too will be returned to Egypt.

The antiquities from the excavations represent and illustrate every phase of life and living in a Roman town in Egypt. They range from the tiniest bead and amulet, used for personal adornment or as charms, to the large earthenware jars used for the storage of grain and fodder and the heavy stone milling pots and olive presses. Each group of objects is a study in itself, the glass, pottery, wood used in building and in making household articles of furniture or tools and implements, terracotta figurines and lamps, sculpture and household objects of stone, such as mortars and pestles, basketry, objects of bronze, bone, and faïence, textiles, harness and rope, jewelry, grains and seeds, toys, gaming pieces, coins that were lost or stored away for safekeeping, and scores of miscellaneous objects that were common in every household in those days. From Terenouthis the Museum has an unusual collection of grave stelae of the pre-Christian period, which are particularly important since they can be dated by the coins found with them.

The architecture and the topography of the sites have been recorded in the survey maps. From these and the photographs it is possible to reconstruct accurately the physical appearances of the cities throughout their various levels of occupation.

The coins in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology number into the many thousands. By far the greater proportion has come from the University's excavations in Egypt and Iraq, but previous to the opening of the field work in the Near East, the numismatic collections at the University were already large and important. The acquisitions in this field date back to 1880. They have been classified by the names of their donors or of those who established the collections.

The earliest collection was that of Abraham S. Richards, to be followed in the succeeding years up to 1919 by the Dorr, Fritchie, Dattari, Harsha, and Eastman collections. One of the largest, the Dattari Collection of Roman imperial coins of Egypt, Late Roman imperial coins, and coins of Alexander of Macedon, was acquired through the kind offices of Mr. Charles L. Freer. It was presented to the University by Mr. Giannino Dattari, a friend of Mr. Freer, in 1914.

The numismatics section of the Museum contains not only valuable Greek Page  1459and Roman coins from various parts of the ancient world, but also medieval and modern coins of Europe and coins and currency of the United States. By the purchase of the Lockwood Collection a large group of United States coins and many specimens from various European countries and the Orient were acquired. The gift of the Hoskier Collection, referred to earlier, was an especially important acquisition. The Kelsey Collection, acquired by purchase and by gift, consists mainly of Greek, Roman, and Late Roman types. A gold nugget, used as an early coin of the Philippines, was presented by Santiago Artiaga, an alumnus of the University.

In the spring of 1952 Dr. Robert W. Gillman of Detroit presented a collection of Palestinian antiquities that had been gathered together by his father, when he was American consul in Jerusalem (1886-91). Besides Egyptian scarabs and beads, the group contains Palestinian, Greek, Roman, and Crusader coins. It is a notable addition to the Museum, since it includes many early and rare Jewish and Crusader coins.

Mrs. Edward Dwight Pomeroy of Jacksonville, Florida, presented a large collection of European and American coins and currency. Recent gifts by Mr. and Mrs. Abd el Lateef Ahmed Aly, Dr. Bessie B. Kanouse, Mr. Harvey L. Sherwood, and the Reverend Mr. Kilford, have served to fill in gaps in the Museum collections.

In addition to the coins the Museum has in its care a number of medals. They were struck as commemorative of special occasions and presented to the University.

In the autumn of 1943 the University received a remarkable historical collection of European and American arms, together with a few Oriental pieces. The gift, known as the Arthur G. Cummer Memorial Collection of Arms, was presented by Mrs. Cummer. Both Mr. and Mrs. Cummer had been students at the University of Michigan. The collection is especially rich in short arms, such as dueling pistols in pairs. Since that time several individual gifts of arms have been made by Clayton G. Bredt, Jr., Lou R. Crandall, Miss Helen H. Hanley, Mrs. Fred Harris, Howard Ideson, J. G. Roberts, Alexander G. Ruthven, and Miss Eunice Wead. At the close of World War II, in 1949, several hundred captive enemy guns were received from U. S. government arsenals. Special exhibits of the arms have been made from time to time, and the entire collection is available to interested groups, especially for study connected with the military contingent at the University.

Of special interest in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology are the textiles, chiefly Roman, Coptic, and Islamic from Egypt. The specimens of weaving, linen and woolen cloth and carpets from the excavations at Karanis, are of particular importance, in the matter of dating and design. Throughout the years purchases have been made to supplement the collections of Coptic and Islamic textiles. Noteworthy among these was the purchase in 1939 from the estate of H. A. Elsberg of a number of Coptic and Egypto-Arab textiles. A few examples of European textiles were presented to the Museum at that time by the Elsberg estate. Other gifts to the Museum were two embroidered caps of the Coptic period by A. E. R. Boak, several Peruvian textiles by Miss Helen Ladd, an excellent example of Swedish linen by Miss Ruby Holmstrom, and a specimen of oriental embroidery by Miss Isabelle Stearns. In 1953 a purchase of 1,166 textiles from Egypt of the late Roman, Coptic, and early Islamic periods greatly enlarged the collections.

In the field of classical antiquities Page  1460few additions have been made since the time of the early acquisitions by Professor Kelsey, but in the late 1930's the University received a gift of particular importance, the Esther Boise Van Deman bequest. This gift consisted of 216 objects, collected by Miss Van Deman ('91) during the many years when she was associated with the American School of Classical Studies in Rome. The objects are not large in size, but they were chosen by Miss Van Deman with discriminating care and thought as to their archaeological value.

Among the other contributions that have come to the Museum are pottery and photographs from the estate of Mrs. M. L. D'Ooge, Greek pottery on exchange from the National Museum in Athens, pottery, bronzes, lamps, and building materials from Mrs. Grace G. Beagle, Oliver P. H. Kaut, Robert Y. Larned, Mrs. Charles W. Lobdell, Eugene S. McCartney, Miss Carrie Patengill, Jean Paul Slusser, and Mrs. Stuart Baits. Recently, the Museum received a group of potsherds of Roman and Tudor Britain from A. F. Norman, Sir Edward Whitley, and University College, Hull, England.

The large and valuable group of prints and negatives, made by George R. Swain for the Near East expedition, has been incorporated into the Museum records and files. Photographs and slides of classical and archaeological interest have been presented by William W. Bishop, the estate of Mrs. M. L. D'Ooge, James E. Dunlap, E. C. Overbeck, and W. H. Worrell.

The Coptic collections were enlarged in 1953 by twelve wooden seals presented by Dr. Aziz S. Atiya. In that year Dr. O. O. Fisher presented the twenty-three volumes of the first edition of the publication resulting from the work of the scholars who accompanied Napoleon on his expedition to Egypt.

Miscellaneous gifts to the Museum include a group of a hundred terracotta figurines from Egypt by Peter Ruthven, Roman glass, a dice box, a hand mill of granite from Egypt, and an excellently preserved spearhead of bronze from China, by A. E. R. Boak, a number of Greek and Coptic papyri by Dr. Moldenke of Detroit, a papyrus fragment from Mrs. Standish Backus, and Palestinian pottery and lamps by W. H. Worrell.

Purchases have been made of gnostic gems and amulets, chiefly from Egypt, pottery, sculpture in stone and wood of pre-Dynastic and Dynastic Egypt, stelae and textiles of the late Roman and Coptic periods, and textiles of Islamic Egypt. A small bronze statuette, said to have come from a tomb near the Kermanshah Pass in northwestern Persia, was also acquired by purchase.

In 1945 the Department of Oriental Languages and Literature at the University turned over to the Museum a collection of Babylonian clay tablets and seals. A recent gift to the Museum was an ikon of St. Demetrius, presented by Mrs. James Inglis. It is signed by the artist, Joannes Charalampos, and dated March 27, 1757. It is an excellent example of late Byzantine style.

Apart from antiquities the Museum has been the recipient of other gifts and transfers of property. Two bookcases, originally the property of the first President of the University, Dr. Henry Tappan, are now part of the Museum equipment. They had been presented to the University by Regent Junius E. Beal in 1927. They were part of the furnishings in the Regents' Room in Angell Hall until the time of the transfer of offices to the Administration Building in 1949. Two exhibit cases, formerly in the President's House on the campus, along with candelabra and wall brackets that had once been the property of Dr. Page  1461Tappan, were transferred to the Museum in 1951.

The Museum is continuing to build up a small reference library for the studies and research that are carried on within the Museum. Many books and periodicals from the library of Professor Kelsey were presented to the Museum by his heirs. The bequest of Orma Fitch Butler, the first Curator of the Museum, added some nine hundred volumes of particular value. Other donors who have made presentations of books and periodicals include Randolph G. Adams, Abd el Lateef Ahmed Aly, Zaky Aly, Floyd Ames, Santiago Artiaga, A. E. R. Boak, Campbell Bonner, Clayton R. Bredt, Jr., Mrs. R. Bishop Canfield, W. W. Gower, Miss Dorothy Markham, Miss Kathleen O'Doughlin, Frank E. Robbins, Alexander G. Ruthven, Peter Ruthven, Mrs. W. R. Taylor, John G. Winter, the General Library, the Michigan Historical Collections, the Museum of Anthropology, the Egyptian Embassy, the French Embassy, and the Commissioner for Archaeology in the Sudan.

The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology presents exhibits of the collections, conducts research, and prepares the results for publication. The antiquities from the excavations in the Near East form the main basis for the exhibits. They are arranged and documented with labels to present a logical account and sequence of various phases of life and living in the ancient past. Special consideration is given in the exhibits to the general needs of students. The storerooms and workrooms of the Museum are available for research by advanced students and scholars. Special exhibits are arranged from time to time for groups studying certain limited phases of ancient life.

The vast amount of original material in the Museum precludes the necessity of arranging loan exhibits, unless they happen to be intimately associated with research work. Such a loan exhibit was arranged during 1952-53 of the Fisher papyrus of the Book of the Dead, a document of fundamental importance in the study of ancient Egyptian life. At times the Museum has arranged and sent loan exhibits to other museums and schools.

The Museum building, Newberry Hall, is one of the oldest on the campus. The interior has undergone extensive changes and rehabilitation in order to adapt it to the needs of a museum. It is crowded and not fireproof, but care and caution have been taken, as far as possible, to safeguard the collections.

Although the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology is designated as a research unit, members of the staff have given both undergraduate and graduate instruction. The collections in the Museum are at all times available to graduate students, several of whom have availed themselves of the opportunity to use this original source material as bases for doctoral dissertations.

The main publications of the Museum have been in the Humanistic Series of the University. This series is described elsewhere in this Part (see University Press). Volumes XXXIV, XLII-XLIV, and XLVII in this series, by various authors, are devoted to papyri and ostraca from Karanis and Dimé. Volumes XXV, XXX, and XXXIX contain the reports of the excavations at Karanis and Dimé. Volume XXXI deals with Ancient Textiles from Egypt in the University of Michigan Collections, by Lillian M. Wilson. Roman Glass from Karanis Found by the University of Michigan Archaeological Expedition in Egypt, 1924-29 by D. B. Harden is Volume XLI, Parthian Pottery from Seleucia on the Tigris by Neilson C. Debevoise is Volume XXXII. StampedPage  1462and Inscribed Objects from Seleucia on the Tigris and Coins from Seleucia on the Tigris by Robert H. McDowell were published as Volumes XXXVI and XXXVII. Figurines from Seleucia on the Tigris by Wilhelmina van Ingen is Volume XLV. The gnostic gems in the Museum collections have been described by Campbell Bonner and have been published in articles in various journals and in Volume XLIX of the Humanistic Series, titled Studies in Magical Amulets, Chiefly Graeco-Egyptian.

Special archaeological reports on Tel Umar, Iraq, the site of Seleucia, and on Sepphoris in Palestine by Leroy Waterman have been published in the University of Michigan Studies. From time to time articles dealing with parts of the collections have been published by scholars in archaeological and philological journals.

The staff of the Museum consists of a director, two curators, a technician, and a secretary. Student assistants are engaged on a part-time basis. The staff of the Museum in 1954 consisted of E. E. Peterson, Director; Louise A. Shier, Curator; and Elinor M. Husselman, Curator.

The Institute of Archaeological Research

Although scholars from the University of Michigan even before World War I had participated in various archaeological researches in the classical lands, the real beginning of Near East research came in the years immediately following the war, when Francis W. Kelsey, Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, secured leave of absence and, with the aid of funds contributed by friends of the University, proceeded in 1919-20 and in the succeeding years to visit Europe for the purpose of making purchases for the University of Michigan collections. Among the results of his activities was the acquisition of such valuable materials as the Baroness Burdett-Coutts' Biblical manuscripts, which were bought at the auction in London, the Oriental manuscripts from the library of the former Sultan Abdul Hamid, and the beginnings of the remarkable group of Greek papyri from Egypt which have been assembled in the University of Michigan Library (see Part VIII: Papyri). The first papyrus purchase was made in the spring of 1921. In the next year, a further important purchase of papyri was made, consisting of 139 legal documents, most of which were presented to the University by its alumnus, John Wendell Anderson ('90l), of Detroit, in the name of the law class of 1890. Numerous later additions have made the Michigan collections one of the largest and most valuable in the world.

Shortly after Commencement time in 1923, the late Horace H. Rackham, of Detroit, made his first gift for research in the humanities (see Part I: Gifts). It amounted to $100,000, payable over two years, and at Mr. Rackham's request the donor's name was not announced at the time. The first expedition which was made possible by Mr. Rackham's donation set out in the spring of 1924 (see Part VIII: Archaeological Excavations). Transportation was furnished in the form of a Dodge sedan presented by Mr. and Mrs. Howard B. Bloomer, of Detroit, and a Graham truck presented by the firm of Graham Brothers. Professor Kelsey was appointed Director of the Research Staff, with George R. Swain, of Ann Arbor, as Associate Director in Charge of Transportation and Photography. Professors Arthur E. R. Boak, of Michigan, Thomas Callander, of Queen's University, David M. Robinson, of Johns Hopkins University, and H. G. Evelyn White, of Leeds University, were chosen Page  1463to take charge of field work. Enoch E. Peterson and Orlando W. Qualley, two advanced students in the classical departments, were included as fellows of the expedition. The remainder of the staff consisted of Hussein S. Feizy, of the University of Michigan, interpreter and surveyor, and Professor Kelsey's son, Easton T. Kelsey, who went as chauffeur. Unfortunately, Professor White's untimely death that summer prevented his actually taking part in the work.

The expedition divided into two sections, one of which began work at Karanis in Egypt, and the other at the site of Antioch in Pisidia, the modern Yalovatch. Professor Robinson was in charge of the latter site, and Sir William Ramsay, to whom the original permit for excavation had been issued by the Turkish government, was also present. Numerous interesting finds were made on this site, including a large early Christian basilica. Another important find was a considerable portion of the famous inscription recording the deeds of Emperor Augustus, copies of which were placed in various cities of the empire. Professor Boak was in charge of the first work at Karanis, which went on for more than ten years and was terminated in the spring of 1935. Without producing any finds of a sensational nature, the excavations in Egypt for the first time completely laid open for scientific study a city of Greco-Roman times. Kelsey himself, besides visiting both sites of excavation, directed a photographic study of Caesar's European battlefields and initiated other archaeological studies in Europe which were carried on by various fellows, including Miss Anita Butler and Miss Mary Pearl.

At the time when Mr. Rackham's first gift for research in the Near East became available, Kelsey turned to his colleagues for counsel. An informal committee which came to be called the Advisory Committee on Near East Research was assembled and held a number of meetings with Professor Kelsey and made decisions with regard to the general policies to be followed. The committee, when first formed in January, 1924, consisted of President Marion LeRoy Burton, Deans John R. Effinger and Alfred H. Lloyd, Professors A. E. R. Boak, Campbell Bonner, J. G. Winter, and H. A. Sanders, Dr. F. E. Robbins, and Librarian W. W. Bishop.

In 1925 a small expedition was sent to the site of ancient Carthage in North Africa and some excavating was done, but for various reasons it was thought inexpedient to proceed with further work there. The excavations at Karanis, however, as noted above, were continued from year to year, from 1926 under the direction of Enoch Ernest Peterson.

The death of Professor Kelsey in the spring of 1927 was a great shock to all his friends, but the impetus which his energy had given to Near Eastern studies did not abate. In the circumstances it was necessary that the advisory committee take over the general direction of activities, and under the new name of the Committee on Near East Research it was given specific authority by the Board of Regents to do so. In the spring of 1931 a further step was taken by organizing the Institute of Archaeological Research of the University of Michigan, the personnel of which was identical with that of the former committee, with the addition from time to time of certain other members and with the replacements which were made necessary by the deaths of President Burton, Dean Effinger, and Dean Lloyd. Professor Benjamin D. Meritt was a member of the Near East committee and of the Institute during his stay at the University, and was succeeded by Professor Clark Hopkins. In addition, Professors Leroy Waterman and William H. Worrell, of the Department Page  1464of Oriental Languages and Literatures, together with Dr. Carl E. Guthe, Director of University Museums, were added.

In 1929-30 great assistance was given to the research work of the Institute by an appropriation of $250,000, spread over a period of five years, from the General Education Board. This was intended rather for work carried out in Ann Arbor than for field excavations. The most tangible result of this activity was in the line of publication. No less than sixteen volumes were added to the Humanistic Series published by the University (see Part VIII: University Press), ranging from the publications of the results of excavation at Karanis, various volumes of papyri and ostraca, and Meritt's work in Athenian epigraphy to books on Egyptian textiles and Parthian pottery.

In the meantime, the Institute of Archaeological Research had undertaken the sponsorship of the excavations independently begun by Leroy Waterman at Tel Umar in Iraq. Waterman's researches and reasoning led him to identify the ancient Seleucia on the Tigris as a site which had been from almost immemorial antiquity an important center of trade and population. His first excavations began in December, 1927, on behalf of the American School of Oriental Research in Baghdad, with funds which were supplied by the Toledo Museum of Art. In the next year the University of Michigan and the Toledo Museum of Art shared the sponsorship of the work, the University furnishing the field direction, and this continued through the third season, that of 1929-30. In 1930-31 financial support was received from both the Toledo Museum of Art and the Cleveland Museum of Art. The latter institution provided the funds for the season of 1931-32. Work then lapsed because of the economic depression at home, but in 1936-37 another expedition was sent out under the direction of Professor Clark Hopkins.

These various campaigns resulted in the uncovering of a large block of dwelling houses and, in the final season, in the discovery of two temple sites. It is generally acknowledged by Oriental scholars and archaeologists that the site is an exceedingly promising one, but it has not proved possible for the University to plan for its thorough investigation.

Archaeological Excavations

Africa and Asia Minor. — In the spring of 1924 the University of Michigan began its first field work in the Near East. For many years the University had been slowly, but definitely, augmenting its valuable archaeological collections illustrative of ancient history. Of first importance among them were the papyri from Greco-Roman Egypt, acquired mainly by Francis W. Kelsey. The study of the papyri and the other archaeological material at the University led to the conclusion that further field work was necessary to illustrate and supplement the knowledge already gained. A very generous grant of funds by Horace H. Rackham in 1923 furnished the means for this undertaking.

Plans were laid to conduct reconnaissance operations in three countries, in three widely separated areas which were once part of the Roman Empire, namely, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Tunisia in North Africa. It was the plan of the Committee on Near East Research in charge of the work at the University to conduct trial excavations for one season and then, from the results obtained, to determine the most profitable field in which to continue investigations. Data gathered from excavations on the sites of Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, of Carthage in Page  1465North Africa, and of Karanis in the Province of Fayoum, Upper Egypt, were compared and evaluated. The result was that, after the first year, the committee decided to devote its resources to the work of excavation in Egypt.

The results of the first season's efforts in Egypt were of the utmost importance. Not only were many valuable papyri recovered from the excavations, but also other archaeological material, which could be assigned to a definite date and place and would therefore be of inestimable value for the study of life and society in Greco-Roman times. Another factor which influenced the decision of the committee was the very favorable and helpful attitude towards the excavations on the part of the Egyptian government and its efficient Department of Antiquities.

Antioch. — For his field operations in Asia Minor, Professor Kelsey chose as director Professor David M. Robinson, of the Johns Hopkins University. Acting upon the advice of the eminent Anatolian scholar, Sir William Ramsay, who had spent many years in research in the Near East, representations were made to the Turkish government for permission to excavate a site, called Sizma, near Konia. Pending completion of arrangements necessary for the organization of the work at Sizma, the University accepted the invitation of Sir William to assist him in the excavation of Pisidian Antioch, near Yalivadj, in Sparta Vilayet, for which he held a permit from the Turkish government. From May through August of 1924 the University conducted excavations on the site of Antioch and simultaneously in July and August completed trial explorations at Sizma.

These excavations were concerned mainly with the site of Roman Antioch which served as a military base of operations for the war conducted by the consul, Quirinius, later governor of Syria, against the Homanadenses; here too, the Apostle Paul had first preached to the Gentiles.

There had perhaps been an earlier Phrygian sanctuary on the site, dating probably from the early third century before the Christian Era. We know that as early as 189 b.c., however, Antioch was made a free city by the Romans. Though under Roman sovereignty, it retained its Greek characteristics even up to the time of its last king, Amyntas, who was killed in the wars against the brigands in the Taurus Mountains in 25 b.c. At that time the entire Province of Galatia came more closely under the personal supervision of Augustus, and it is just this period in the history of Antioch, under the Early Empire, that was the chosen field of investigation by the University. The site of the earlier Greek city has not been definitely determined.

Sir William and Lady Ramsay had visited and explored the site several times prior to the spring of 1924. As early as 1914 they had made a most remarkable discovery in the eastern portion of the hill of some sixty fragments in marble of a Latin inscription. The fragments proved to be parts of a copy of the famous inscription, set up in bronze in Rome, in front of the mausoleum of Augustus, and called Res Gestae Divi Augusti. The inscription in Rome has been lost, but its contents are known from a copy set up in Ancyra, the modern Angora, and therefore called the Monumentum Ancyranum. In like manner Antioch set up a copy of this inscription, to commemorate the deeds of the Emperor Augustus among the subject peoples in this eastern outpost of Roman civilization.

As a further contribution to this memorable document, the University recovered some two hundred additional fragments in the course of the excavations in 1924. Hitherto, according to Ramsay, no Page  1466fragments of the Preface or of the first seven chapters had been found at Antioch. With the discoveries made by the University, we now have fragments, not only of the Preface and of every chapter, but also of the four appendices, which serve to fill lacunae in the Monumentum Ancyranum.

Ever since the first fragments of this inscription were found at Antioch, there had been considerable conjecture as to its exact position in ancient times. Some scholars held the view that at Antioch, as at Angora, the inscription must have been cut on the walls of a public building. A complete clearance of the area in which these fragments were found revealed that in all probability the inscription had been carved on four pedestals, the faces of which were three meters in front of the Propylaea. The expedition had discovered the Propylaea, situated at the top of a broad, stone stairway, which led up from a stone-paved area, the Tiberia Platea, to a temple erected against the eastern hill.

This stairway consisted of about a dozen steps some twenty-two or twenty-three meters across. Enormous masses of sculptural and architectural fragments of the Propylaea were found lying in confusion on the steps. Here were found architrave blocks, cornices, spandrels and voussoirs of the three arches, slabs of sculpture in relief, drums of engaged Corinthian columns, and enormous, magnificently carved capitals. The bases on which once stood the pedestals bearing the Res Gestae and which indicated the locations of the piers of the arches were also uncovered. They had doubtless fallen because of successive earthquake shocks or were deliberately demolished by later inhabitants of that region, desirous both of destroying the monuments of an earlier regime and of procuring stone for their own building operations. A portion of the architrave was found containing the holes into which the bronze letters of an inscription had originally been fitted. It is quite possible that the name of Augustus was mentioned on this block signifying the dedication of the Propylaea to him. Though the site had been badly stripped of stone by the inhabitants of the modern village of Yalivadj, yet so many fragments of the Propylaea were found that it is possible to make an accurate reconstruction of this triumphal archway, here dedicated to a deified emperor.

Of the temple itself, whose podium had been cut from the living rock of the hill, not one stone was found in situ. A very accurate reconstruction of it can be made, however, based on evidence gathered from the architectural blocks that were found, some scattered about the temple area proper and others built into the walls of the houses of the nearby modern village. Some few meters behind the temple the natural rock of the hill had been cut to the height of several meters to form a nearly semicircular wall enclosing the east end of the temple area. In front of this wall was a two-story colonnade, Ionic above and Doric below. Shops had doubtless been located along the base of this wall.

In front of the Propylaea, to the west, was uncovered a large area paved with stone. From a long Latin inscription found here, it was learned that this was the Tiberia Platea, that is, the Square of Tiberius. Another inscription furnished the information that the square between the Propylaea and the temple was called Platea Augusta.

In the pavement in the center of the Square of Tiberius was a large, circular slab of stone. Bronze letters had once been fitted into the matrices of this stone and, from the holes left, Robinson was able to reconstruct the inscription. It recorded the fact that "T. Paebius Asiaticus, son of Titus, of the tribe Sergia, Page  1467an aedile for the third time, paved this square at his own expense."

To the west of the paved area were found the ruins of a building which was probably a Byzantine church. Nearby was recovered a marble head of Augustus, a cast of which is now in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University. No traces could be found of the remainder of the figure.

In the northwestern section of the city a Christian basilica was discovered. The floor of the nave was paved with a colored mosaic, containing four inscriptions, two of which mention Bishop Optimus, who became Bishop of Antioch about 375-81.

At the very close of the season a large monumental gateway was uncovered in the southwestern part of the site. Behind it had been a fountain, decorated with dolphins. The gateway, almost fifty meters wide, consisted of a large central arch, flanked by a smaller arch on either side. It rose to a height of twelve or thirteen meters. The enormous blocks used in the construction of the gateway lay strewn around in great confusion, due, no doubt, to earthquakes. Several of the architrave blocks which were recovered had been inscribed with bronze letters fitted into matrices. A dozen of these letters were found, several of them in situ, which mentioned a certain C. Iulius Asper (inscribed as C.IVL.ASP). In like manner there was found the name of a certain Pansinianus, known from other inscriptions found in the city by Ramsay.

Antioch had received its water supply from springs in the hills situated several miles to the north of the city. Many of the massive arches, supporting the stone watercourse, still exist. Practically the entire length of this aqueduct was explored.

In addition to the numerous building blocks of stone, many of them beautifully carved with figures in relief, numerous fragments of statues were found. Noteworthy among these was a draped statue of Victory, perhaps a copy of an earlier fifth-century Greek original. Coins, fragments of glass goblets, fragments of small stone altars, and other objects of interest were also uncovered in the course of the excavations.

Sizma. — It was necessary in July to curtail the work at Antioch in order to devote some time to the investigations at Sizma. Numerous trial trenches were dug, but no ancient buildings were discovered. Heaps of slag, ashes, and refuse from the smelting of cinnabar in ancient times, led Robinson to conclude that there may have been a settlement of miners here and that their houses had been built of adobe and consequently had not survived. In the debris were found many potsherds and some thirty vases of red, black, and brown hand-molded ware. It was Robinson's opinion that these dated about 2500 b.c. Numerous bone astragali, querns, pestles, and broken lamps were also recovered. Near the surface was found an inscription which contained a reference to the Zizimmene Mother, a title under which the goddess Cybele was here worshipped, but no traces were found of a sanctuary dedicated to this divinity. Numerous inscriptions of a late Roman date came to light in the surrounding territory.

Besides the persons mentioned above as associated with the actual excavations in Asia Minor, the staff included the following: Francis W. Kelsey, George R. Swain, Frederick J. Woodbridge, Horace Colby, Easton T. Kelsey, Feizy Bey, and Enoch E. Peterson.

Carthage. — In the spring of 1925 the Washington Archaeological Society decided to conduct an investigation on the site of ancient Carthage in North Africa. Acting upon the recommendation of Professor Francis W. Kelsey, who had acceded Page  1468to the request of the society to serve as General Director in the field, arrangements were made to conduct a thorough preliminary reconnaissance of the site. The aim was to ascertain both the prevailing working conditions and, from the archaeological evidence recovered, to determine whether or not it would be advisable to invest large sums of money for a complete clearance of the site, or parts of it.

In addition to support from the Near East research fund of the University of Michigan, the society received special contributions from the University of Rochester and from Mr. William F. Kenny, of New York. During the three months, March, April, and May, of 1925, there were associated with Professor Kelsey in the field work the following staff, some of them serving as assistants in special investigations for short periods and others connected with the general work during the entire campaign: the Abbé J.-B. Chabot, Orma F. Butler, Nita Butler, the Reverend Père A. Delattre, and Messrs. Ralph M. Calder, William Douglas, George F. French, Donald B. Harden, William E. Hayes, Horton O'Neill, Enoch E. Peterson, Byron Khun de Prorok, Gerard Rey de Vilette, Edward R. Stoever, George R. Swain, Robert R. Swain, Columbus C. Wells, Frederick J. Woodbridge, and Henry S. Washington.

Owing to the fact that practically the entire terrain which marks the site of ancient Carthage had been parceled out into building lots, and that much of it had already been occupied, any attempt to excavate the entire site was found to be prohibitive in expense, unless the government should see fit to expropriate the land as a national archaeological park. For this reason no extensive general excavation could be carried out, and detailed investigations were limited to a small area which had been purchased some years earlier by Byron Khun de Prorok. This was later enlarged by the purchase of land by the Washington Society, making altogether an irregular plot of ground, some sixty-three meters long, varying in width from fifteen to twenty-eight meters, which was the site of an ancient burial ground, consecrated to the goddess Tanit.

As early as 1921 this section, near the ancient harbor, had come under the surveillance of government officials in Tunis. From time to time in Tunis there had appeared limestone stelae with Punic inscriptions and symbols associated with the cult of Tanit. This finally came to the attention of certain public officials interested in antiquities. They investigated the matter and succeeded in definitely tracing them to their place of origin. The property was purchased and trial excavations were conducted with funds furnished by the Service des Antiquités.

It was in this plot of ground that extensive excavations were carried out during the season of 1925. Investigations were conducted in a restricted but typical area in this section to the very lowest stratum resting on the limestone bedrock. Unmistakable evidences were found of three distinct levels of archaeological remains. No ruins of an actual temple or shrine, dedicated to the goddess Tanit, were found in any level. Dedicatory stelae, set in the earth like tombstones of a cemetery, and cinerary urns with their contents were almost the only antiquities recovered in this area.

In the lowest stratum stelae were not found, but thirty-one cinerary urns were recovered, dating from the seventh and eighth centuries b.c. The urns were found spaced about a meter apart, each one carefully protected by a cairn of small stones, piled around and on top of it. A layer of black earth covered the cairns to an average depth of fifty centimeters. On top of this there was, in turn, a layer of yellow clay seven centimeters Page  1469in thickness. Above this was the second archaeological level, which averaged in depth from one and one-half meters to two meters. In the second level no cairns were found, only urns and stelae. The urns were arranged in groups and above each group a dedicatory stone had been erected. The third or top level consisted of urns only. They were placed in the earth, which had accumulated among the stelae of the second level to a depth of about a meter. To judge from fragments of pottery and Hellenistic lamps found in the filling, these deposits belonged to the period just preceding 146 b.c. The stelae were of various types; some had Punic inscriptions, others bore symbols sacred to Tanit.

More than eleven hundred urns were recovered in the excavations in 1925. A preliminary examination was made of the contents of a few of them. They contained charred bones of young children, lambs, goats, and small birds. With the bones in the urns of the lowest level were also found rings, bracelets, earrings, beads, amulets, and objects of gold, silver, bronze, and iron.

Along the northern edge of the area a Roman vault of a later period was uncovered. It had been built over earlier stelae, which were left undisturbed in their original position in the floor of the vault. Near the southern edge were found the ruins, perhaps of a temple, of the Roman period. The site has not been fully cleared, and owing to peculiar local conditions the matter must be left to governmental agencies.

Karanis. — In the autumn of 1924 the University of Michigan undertook field operations in Egypt which continued, without interruption, until August, 1935. During that time J. L. Starkey of London, England, served as Director for the first two seasons and was then succeeded by E. E. Peterson of the University. Associated as members of the staff in the field work at Karanis and Dimé, for varying periods during the eleven years of activities, were the following: Professor A. E. R. Boak and Messrs. L. Amundsen, D. C. Caskie, J. A. Chubb, H. Falconer, S. Golovko, R. Haatvedt, D. B. Harden, A. G. K. Hayter, F. B. Joslin, E. T. Kelsey, E. D. Line, G. Loud, O. W. Qualley, C. C. Roberts, P. Ruthven, V. B. Schuman, E. Swain, I. Terentieff, and S. Yeivin.

At the beginning of operations the Egyptian government granted to the University concessions to excavate two sites in the Province of Fayoum — Karanis, now known as Kôm Aushim, fifty-nine kilometers southwest of the Great Pyramid, and Soknopaiou Nesos, now called Dimé, some forty kilometers west of Karanis.

Karanis had been badly destroyed by the natives before the University began its systematic and scientific excavation of the site. Enough remained, however, buried beneath the sands of the desert, to enable the gathering of ample and accurate topographical evidence for the preparation of detailed maps of the city, both of the various buildings, public and private, including two temples, and of the general plan of the city in all the levels of occupation, throughout its six or seven hundred years of existence from the third century b.c. to the early fifth century a.d. Simultaneously, with the gathering of topographical evidence, exact knowledge was also acquired of the numerous objects found in the excavations. Now, for the first time in the history of archaeological research in Greco-Roman Egypt, it has become possible to identify and date the objects, apart from papyri, ostraca, and coins, that definitely belong to this period in ancient history. Hundreds of antiquities, scattered throughout the museums of the world, either undated or assigned to a very long, indefinite period, can now be classified Page  1470correctly, both as to time and place, by comparison with the objects recovered by the University of Michigan excavations in Egypt.

The entire site of Karanis has been completely and thoroughly surveyed. Triangulation and topographical charts have been prepared, which cover territory even beyond the confines of the city at its greatest extent. All architectural evidence uncovered has been noted on the proper maps at the proper levels. No reconstructions have been made that could not be substantiated beyond the question of a doubt by evidence found in the actual excavations.

In addition to the triangulation chart, topographical maps, and one general map of the excavated areas in the eastern section (scale, 1:1000), 133 other maps, illustrating all levels and sections, have been prepared. Throughout the years of field work, some seventy thousand levels alone were computed in the survey of Karanis, together with other measurements, totaling into the hundreds of thousands. In addition, hundreds of photographs have been taken, showing architectural and topographical details to supplement and illustrate the data recorded on the maps and plans.

Of major importance among the objects recovered in the excavations at Karanis were the papyri. Letters, business documents, and literary fragments became all the more valuable as historical source material by very reason of their discovery at definite locations and levels.

The coins of Karanis are very numerous, more than twenty thousand having been recovered from one house alone. The ostraca are extremely valuable for the close dating of levels and are important source material for the study of the economic life of Karanis.

One of the most perplexing problems that has hitherto confronted archaeologists has been the proper classification of glass from Egypt. Now it is possible to assign correct dates and provenance to the various types known to have come from Egypt. The same problem applies to pottery to an even greater degree, for it was found in greater abundance and was common over a longer period of time than the glass. One of the most important contributions which the University of Michigan excavations in Egypt have given to the history of this period is the accurate information on the use of wood, both in building and in the making of smaller objects of daily household use.

Dimé. — The site of Dimé, much smaller than that of Karanis, was thoroughly surveyed before excavations began. Although the site was in a very inaccessible part of the desert it had been badly ravaged by the diggers for fertilizer. Topographical and triangulation charts were prepared for the entire site. Two sections of the hill were chosen for special, detailed investigation, in which excavations were carried out down to bedrock, in certain places through as many as four levels of occupation. Seventeen maps on a large scale were prepared for the special sections under excavation.

The papyri and ostraca were among the most important objects recovered at Dimé. Especially noteworthy among these were some papyri with seals intact. A considerable number of the ostraca were Demotic. No complete specimens of glass and remarkably few fragments were found. Very little basketry and few wooden objects were recovered.

The excavations at Dimé showed that the city must have continued in existence from about the middle of the third century b.c. to the early third century a.d. Undoubtedly the collapse of the irrigation system and the decline in importance of the crocodile cult in Fayoum account for the early abandonment of this site.

Page  1471Terenouthis. — In 1935 the Egyptian government granted a concession to the University to excavate Terenouthis, now known as Kôm Abou Billou. It lay on the edge of the western desert accessible from the Nile Valley only by a camel and donkey trail, some ten miles southwest of the modern village of Kafr Dawud. Its utter destruction at the hands of modern treasure hunters and diggers for fertilizer precluded any lengthy campaigns on that site. In fact, there is no Greco-Roman site in Egypt that has not been almost completely ruined by the peasants of modern Egypt. The soil covering these ancient ruins furnishes excellent fertilizer for the cotton crops, and for that very reason the Egyptian government has allowed these mounds to be ruthlessly destroyed.

The main part of the work at Kôm Abou Billou was devoted to a clearance of a cemetery, which was very late Roman and early Coptic. An important and large group of limestone grave stelae was found. Beads, amulets, and jewelry, along with pottery, lamps, terracotta figurines, and some glass, were the principal objects recovered in the excavations. Some coins were found which are of especial value in dating the stelae and pottery. Hitherto it has been impossible to date the stelae and pottery found in this part of Egypt.

The results of the University of Michigan excavations in Egypt are of outstanding importance. Not only have they laid bare the plan of a town, to the very minutest detail in house construction and decoration, but they have also peopled these houses and temples, these streets and passageways, by revealing the very objects used long ago in daily life. We have seen the letters these people wrote to one another, the accounts they kept in business transactions, the kinds of food they ate, the grain they planted in their irrigated plots of land, the cloth they wove to make their garments, the wooden boxes in which they stored their treasures, the glass that must have been highly cherished, the pottery that served as common household ware, the toys that delighted the hearts of their children, the lamps that gave such feeble light and so much smoke, staining black the niches in their housewalls, and the paintings, all of some religious significance, with which they sometimes adorned their houses. We have seen the very temples in which they worshipped, now in ruins, mute reminders of a cult that even then was in decay. The people who wrote and read the papyri, which have become so valuable as source material for the history of this period, are revealed to us as a living people in a living town.

Seleucia on the Tigris. — Field work was begun at Seleucia on the Tigris, in Iraq, under the directorship of Professor Leroy Waterman in November, 1928, after a season of preliminary exploration. The expedition was sponsored jointly by the Toledo Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the University of Michigan. Robert H. McDowell served as Field Director.

Seleucia was founded by Seleucus Nicator, one of the generals of Alexander the Great. After Alexander died at Babylon in 323 b.c., Seleucus secured for himself the Middle East from the Mediterranean to India. He located his new city near an ancient trading center. It became the capital of the Seleucid empire, and was one of the centers of Greek civilization in the third century b.c.

In 141 b.c. the Parthians under Mithradates conquered the city. They were probably of Iranian stock from somewhere north of Persia. The Parthians made Seleucia their western capital. Prosperity came to Seleucia through trade and commerce. Sea-going ships came up Page  1472the river direct from India, Africa, and Arabia. On land, caravan routes from the East converged on Seleucia from Central Asia, China, India, and Persia, and continued west to ports on the Mediterranean coast.

Four levels of occupation were found in the excavations, dating approximately from 290 b.c. to 200 a.d. Seleucia is now a group of mounds covering some five square miles, about twenty miles south of the modern city of Baghdad. The average height of the mounds is twenty-five feet above the present level of the plain. The Tigris has changed its bed since ancient times, and the river is now several miles away from the ruins.

Owing to the vast extent of the mounds the work of the first two seasons was to a large extent exploratory. Systematic excavation was carried on, however, at a point nearest to the Tigris and resulted in the uncovering of a Parthian villa in Level I (115/20 a.d. to approximately 200 a.d.) and a date wine and molasses factory in Level II (about 69/70 a.d. to 115/20 a.d.). Aerial photographs of the ruins were also secured during the first two seasons through the British Royal Air Force. The gridiron pattern of streets of the Hellenistic city was visible on the photographs, particularly over the central parts of the site.

One of the city blocks (technically known as Block B) was selected for excavation. It was near the center of the mound and was approximately 450 feet long and 250 feet wide. Excavation showed that the entire block consisted of a single great house. During seasons 1930 to 1932, work, for the most part, was concentrated on Block B and resulted in the clearing of the first three levels.

After the 1931-32 season the financial effects of the depression were felt, and the field work of the expedition was discontinued. Work toward publication of the results of the excavations, however, was energetically carried on at the University of Michigan.

In 1936-37 another expedition was sent into the field under the directorship of Professor Clark Hopkins with Robert H. McDowell again serving as Field Director. During this season work was continued on Block B, and some houses of the fourth or Hellenistic level (about 290 to 143 b.c.) were cleared. A topographical survey was conducted with the help of new air maps, and a general plan of the site and the location of some of the more important buildings was established. Excavation of two of the most important temple areas was begun.

As a result of the excavations the University of Michigan has an outstanding collection of Parthian and Seleucid coins, architectural plaster, terracotta figurines, pottery, and other objects of everyday use. What is more important, knowledge of the Hellenistic and Parthian periods in Mesopotamia has been greatly extended.

Results of the excavations have been published in two preliminary reports and in four volumes in the Humanistic Series of the University of Michigan.

Among the members of the excavation staff at Seleucia at one time or another were the following: William C. Bellingham, Robert J. Braidwood, Neilson C. Debevoise, Henry Detwiler, Harry G. Dorman, Jr., Clarence S. Fisher, Clark Hopkins, Franklin P. Johnson, Robert H. McDowell, Mrs. McDowell, N. E. Manasseh, Frederick R. Matson, Jr., A. M. Mintier, Richard M. Robinson, A. Saarasalo, Charles Spicer, Jr., Leroy Waterman, Mrs. Leroy Waterman, and Samuel Yeivin.

Sepphoris, Palestine. — In the au tumn of 1930, funds having been given by a friend of the University, Harry B. Earhart, for excavation in Palestine, Professor Leroy Waterman, already in Page  1473the Near East, visited Palestine and secured the concession to excavate at the modern Arab village of Saffuriyye (ancient Sepphoris), situated four miles northwest of Nazareth, and the capital of Galilee in the days of Jesus. The area of the site most available for excavation consisted of the grounds of the village school, and work could accordingly only be carried on during the long summer recess of the school. As a result, work was begun in the summer of 1931 and was continued during the months of July and August with a staff of five men, including Dr. Clarence S. Fisher of the American Schools of Jerusalem, N. E. Manasseh and Samuel Yeivin of the Seleucia staff, together with Fadeel Sabba, a Palestinian, as photographer.

The chief architectural results consisted of the discovery and partial excavation of a very well-built Greco-Roman theater on the northeast slope of the citadel hill, capable of seating from four to five thousand persons, and of the ruins of an early Christian church which was a part of a larger monastic building. Pottery, coins, and small household objects of daily use were recovered, some of which are in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology.

The two months' work on the site was only a beginning. It was hoped to make Sepphoris an alternate-season site with Seleucia, but the depression prevented its realization. The main results of the work done at Sepphoris are described in The Preliminary Report of the University of Michigan Expedition at Sepphoris, Palestine, in 1931.

The De Criscio Collection

The University of Michigan owes its good fortune in acquiring the valuable De Criscio collection of Roman antiquities to the loyalty and vision of one of its alumni, the late Walter Dennison ('93, Ph.D. '98), who was the first man from the University of Michigan to hold a fellowship in the American School of Classical Studies in Rome. Dennison served his alma mater as Instructor of Latin from 1897 to 1899 and as Junior Professor of Latin from 1902 to 1910. Those who knew him well remember the accurate scholarship and the gentle spirit which informed all his teaching.

When Dennison was in Europe in 1896-97 collecting material for his work on Latin inscriptions he searched in all available places for unpublished material. Finally he learned of a private collection at the home of the Abate Giuseppe de Criscio of Pozzuoli, Italy. Father de Criscio, to give him his English title, was a member of a noble Roman family. In his youth he had been given a broadly liberal education, with the result that he brought to his work as a parish priest a wide acquaintance with and a deep interest in history, archaeology, and numismatics. Instead of losing interest in these pursuits as he became absorbed in his parish work, he kept up his studies and published many articles dealing with many phases of these subjects.

This devotion was aroused in part by the natural conditions which obtained in the parish over which he presided. The little town of Pozzuoli, founded by the Greeks in the sixth century b.c., was taken over by the Romans during the Punic wars. Later it became an important seaport and commercial center, particularly for the trade with Egypt. Lying as it does in the center of the great volcanic area north of Naples, it has often been showered with volcanic ash. Changes in level, caused by variations in subterranean pressure, have also taken place. As a result of all this, it is impossible to open the soil in Pozzuoli without unearthing the remains of earlier civilizations. The parishioners knew their priest's fondness for antiquities and notified him Page  1474immediately when such discoveries were made. He soon became the possessor of a large collection and maintained what might be called a small museum in his own home.

When Dennison learned of the existence of this collection he asked Father de Criscio for permission to look over the inscriptions which formed a large part of the material. This the kindly priest gladly granted, took the young American into his own home during his stay in Pozzuoli, and gave him permission to publish those inscriptions which had not already appeared in the Corpus or the Ephemeris Ephigraphica. During Dennison's stay Father de Criscio confided to him his regret that on his death his collection must of necessity be scattered since none of his family was interested in it. Dennison at once realized the great opportunity this offered the University of Michigan and wrote to Professor Kelsey to the end that, if possible, steps might be taken to secure this material.

Although times were still hard as the result of the depression of 1893, Kelsey began working on the problem with his usual vigor. In order to assure himself that the material was valuable, he asked William W. Bishop, who was then a Fellow at the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, to copy all of the inscriptions in the collection. When these copies reached the United States it at once became evident that the inscriptions contained a wealth of material on the provincial cursus honorum and on the imperial fleet of Misenum across the harbor. An effort was made to find some friend of scholarship who would come to the aid of the University and make the purchase possible. Henry P. Glover, of Ypsilanti, who had done much for his community, provided the necessary funds, but added the proviso that his name was not to be associated with the gift.

As a result of Mr. Glover's generosity there came to the University in 1899 some two hundred and fifty inscriptions on marble, several ash urns, some inscribed lead water pipes, and a few pieces of glass and bronze. The last were a personal gift to Mr. Dennison from Father de Criscio, but, with the generosity which characterized him, Dennison insisted on turning these over to the University also, to enrich its collections.

All of the objects arrived in good condition. This was due in great measure to the kindness of the museum authorities at Naples, who not only allowed some very valuable pieces to be sent abroad but also sent an experienced person to oversee the packing. In a letter to Dennison, Kelsey wrote, "I am surprised that the Government allowed the exportation of certain of the blocks, but the successful outcome of this aspect of the negotiations must be credited to Professor Mau."

In 1905, nine more inscriptions and several inscribed tiles, an incense altar, four tegulae suspensurae, for supporting the hollow floors of baths, a limestone wellhead, and a marble bath basin, were obtained from Father de Criscio.

Six years later the good father passed away, in the eighty-sixth year of his life. After some years his widowed sister, who had been his housekeeper, wrote to Mr. Dennison, unaware that he too had died in 1917, a victim of pneumonia, and offered to sell the residue of her brother's collection to the University. This letter was sent on to Professor Kelsey, who at once took up with President Burton the problem of securing the necessary funds. When this was done, the purchase was completed and the shipment of the material to Michigan was looked after by Professor John G. Winter, who was on leave in Italy in 1923.

In this third lot, the University secured some six hundred objects, among Page  1475them seven inscriptions, several pieces of marble relief-work, many fine specimens of blackware, several large storage jars, and many small objects. This material is of great value, as it shows the nature of the objects in daily use by the people of a small provincial town, and the University is fortunate in having been able to acquire it. The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, which has custody of the collection, will keep alive the memory of the good priest who collected these objects, as well as the memory of others whose devotion and generosity brought the De Criscio collection to the University.

Papyri

Papyri were first acquired by the University of Michigan in 1920 through the initiative of Francis W. Kelsey, who traveled to Egypt in the spring of that year with B. P. Grenfell of Oxford (England) to purchase papyri with joint funds supplied by the British Museum, the University of Wisconsin, and the University of Michigan. In the following year, E. A. Wallis Budge, Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum, at the request of Professor Kelsey, bought another lot of papyri for the contributing institutions, among which were now included the universities of Oslo and Geneva and Cornell University. From this time until his death in 1927 Kelsey was untiring in his efforts to augment the Michigan collection, and since his death funds, donated by interested alumni or appropriated for the purpose by the Board of Regents, have been used to acquire additional papyri as they have become available. Moreover, the many papyri which were discovered at Kôm Aushim and Dimé in the Fayoum in the course of excavations conducted by the University of Michigan in Egypt from 1924 to 1935 were loaned by the Egyptian government to the University for study and publication.

The collection now comprises 4,832 inventory numbers, and 2,090 additional numbers have been assigned for reference purposes to the papyri from Kôm Aushim and Dimé. In the early years each piece was given a separate number, but subsequently the rapid growth of the collection made it advisable to form groups of the less significant fragments, and only complete pieces and the more important fragments received separate numbers. The total includes a certain number of waxed tablets, of which several are remarkably well preserved.

Greek is the language of the large majority of the texts, but other languages are represented in varying proportions — Demotic, 150; Coptic, 500; Arabic, 150; and Latin, 50. Approximately 500 papyri have literary texts, and these include classical authors, with Homer predominating, Biblical and patristic authors, and fragments from works of magical, mathematical, astrological, astronomical, and medical content (see Part IV: Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures). The rest of the papyri bear official documents, petitions, legal instruments, accounts, lists, memoranda, receipts, and private letters. They range in date from the third century b.c. to the eighth century a.d.

The collection is housed in the General Library of the University but is under the care of a curator of the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology. Many papyri have been mounted between sheets of glass so that they may be studied without risk of injury; most of them, however, are kept within folders and are preserved from exposure in steel cases. Frequently, with the permission of the librarian, papyri have been exhibited for interested visitors and members of learned societies.

The Humanistic Series of the University of Michigan Studies at present includes Page  1476eleven volumes containing editions of papyri. Numerous other texts have been published in periodicals. Among the more interesting and important groups are the following: more than one hundred papyri from the well-known Zenon archive of the third century b.c.; about two hundred documents of the first century a.d. from the ruins of the record office of the ancient village of Tebtunis; thirty well-preserved leaves of a third-century codex of the Epistles of Paul; thirty-one leaves of a third-century codex of the Shepherd of Hermas; two tax rolls of unusual length, which were compiled at the ancient Karanis in the second century a.d.; a number of Greek and Coptic magical texts; a poorly preserved but valuable Coptic codex containing Ecclesiastes and the Gospel of John in the Fayoumic dialect; a remarkably fine group of Coptic private letters, and a small group of large and for the most part well-preserved Byzantine documents in Greek and Coptic from Aphrodito.

THE MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY

THE Museum of Anthropology grew out of the general museum development at the University of Michigan. One of the earliest specimens to become a part of the Cabinet of Natural History was a Chippewa birch-bark canoe, which was sent from Lake Superior to Ann Arbor about 1840 by Douglass Houghton, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, who was in charge of the University's natural history collections.

During the 1800's a division of anthropology was not recognized as such in the natural history collections, although stray pieces and small groups of specimens were added from time to time. The first significant systematic collection was made by Joseph Beal Steere in the course of his famous trip of 1870 to 1875 up the Amazon, across the Andes and the Pacific, and through southeastern Asia. Steere collected archaeological and ethnological, as well as botanical and zoological, specimens in the regions he visited, thereby greatly increasing the anthropological materials of the University. Other expeditions by Steere and his associates added to the holdings. Steere was in charge of all the natural history collections from 1876 until 1894, when he resigned. One of Steere's students, Assistant Professor Dean C. Worcester, was appointed Curator of the zoological and anthropological collections in 1895. He was given a leave of absence in 1898 to go to the Philippines, where he had visited previously as a member of one of Steere's field parties, and resigned in 1900.

An accession of interest and importance was the Chinese government exhibit at the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition at New Orleans in 1884-85. This collection of Chinese craftsmanship was given to the University through President James B. Angell's contacts with the Chinese government. For many years a part of this gift was on exhibit in the old Museum Building. It now forms one of the valuable collections in the Museum's Division of the Orient.

In the spring semester of 1892 the University of Michigan offered its first instruction in anthropology. This was, significantly, a museum laboratory course in American archaeology. Two students were registered, and they prepared exhibits in the Museum, assembled Page  1477the anthropological collections of the University, and conducted independent investigations. The outstanding resources were a group of Danish neolithic implements, Professor Steere's South American and southeast Asia specimens, and the materials of Michigan prehistory. In the next few years, under the leadership of Harlan I. Smith, an inventory was made of Michigan prehistoric sites and collections. This initial impetus for scientific study was not continued, and the next continuing program was begun in 1922.

Dean Worcester in 1922 returned to Ann Arbor to obtain support for an archaeological expedition to the Philippines to investigate cave sites containing great quantities of Chinese porcelains. Professors Francis Kelsey and Alexander G. Ruthven supported his program and requested that Carl Eugen Guthe ('14, Ph.D. Harvard '17) lead the expedition with funds contributed anonymously by Horace H. Rackham. Guthe agreed to lead the party if a Museum of Anthropology were established to house the material so collected and to make possible the necessary research. This expedition of three years' duration resulted in the acquisition of the most valuable single collection in the Museum of Anthropology.

In 1922, with the reorganization of the University Museum, the Museum of Anthropology was recognized. In this same year the School of Homeopathy was abolished, and the Dean, Wilbert B. Hinsdale (Hiram College '75, M.D. Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College '87), who was thereby retired, was made Custodian in charge of the Collections in Michigan Archaeology. These were included by the Regents in the Museum's Division of Anthropology, of which Guthe was made Associate Director. Hinsdale and the collections under his immediate supervision were housed in the old Museum Building; Guthe and the large collection from the Philippines were quartered in the basement of Angell Hall from 1925 to 1927.

Guthe prepared his first annual report of the Museum of Anthropology to the Regents for the year ending June 30, 1927, and was made Director in 1929. He is primarily responsible for the present organization of the Museum, and its research interests were crystallized while he was in charge. He left the University in 1944, and in 1946 he was succeeded by James Bennett Griffin (Chicago '27, Ph.D. Michigan '36) as Director.

It is interesting to note in historic perspective the origin of the Department of Anthropology at the University. In the spring of 1928 E. F. Greenman, who was then associated with Hinsdale in the Division of the Great Lakes, resigned, and the funds allocated for him as a Museum staff member were transferred to the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, plus an additional sum, to provide for an instructor in the new Department of Anthropology. Again in 1930 funds were transferred from the Museum budget to that of the department when an assistant professorship was established.

When the Museum of Anthropology moved to the fourth floor of the University Museums Building on its completion in 1928 there were five major rooms for collections, seven rooms for offices, a library, and a receiving room. One large range was transferred to the Visual Education section of the Museums, and an office, originally provided for visiting scientists, served as the office of the Department of Anthropology for more than twenty years. During the twenty-six years which have passed since the present quarters were occupied, the holdings of the Museum have increased to the point where considerable ingenuity is necessary in order to provide for the Page  1478annual collection increase, in spite of the fact that from its inception the Museum has emphasized quality in research rather than quantity, and specialized research rather than size. At present some specimens are housed in a temporary building at Willow Run while others are in the Museums basement. The addition of cabinets in the fourth-floor corridor has materially assisted storage. Each of the four active ranges and offices are equipped with laboratory facilities, which include connections for hot and cold water, gas, electricity, and compressed air. The ranges are furnished with insect- and dust-proof filing cases especially designed to care for anthropological material, in which every kind of specimen, from arrowheads and potsherds to weapons and clothing, may be immediately available for examination and study. Various accessories to the collections, such as maps, notes, reports, catalogues, publications, and negative records are also easily available. In addition to the collections, the Museum has maintained and is responsible for a large number of slides for instruction and research. As a result of the wide interests and diversified teaching program of the department, in which the Museum of Anthropology staff participates, this slide collection is one of the largest and most effective in existence. A photographic center is now being prepared, and this will be a most valuable research and teaching aid.

The administrative head of the Museum, the director, is responsible for the collections and research program of the several divisions. When the Museum of Anthropology was formally organized five divisions were recognized. The four functioning ones are the Division of the Great Lakes, the Division of the Orient, the Division of Archaeology, and the Division of Ethnology. Unfortunately, no provision was made for a curator of physical anthropology, and in 1930 the room assigned to this phase of anthropological research was turned over to the Exhibit Section of the University Museums.

The Great Lakes Division deals with the anthropological resources of the state of Michigan and those regions of other states and of Canada which border on the Great Lakes and is interested in the study of the historic Indian tribes of the area as well as its archaeology. It is the only properly qualified unit in Michigan devoted to the scientific study of the Indian inhabitants of the state and it has the only comprehensive collections in this field. It serves also as the depository for the Society for Michigan Archaeology.

W. B. Hinsdale was in charge of the Great Lakes Division from 1922 until his death in 1944. During this time he was active in archaeological work throughout the state and was responsible for the first systematic attempts to organize and record the prehistory of Michigan. In 1924 Emerson Frank Greenman (Michigan '23, Ph.D. '27) was appointed Assistant in Anthropology. He made numerous excavations until in 1928 he left the University to become Curator of Archaeology of the Ohio State Museum. In 1935 he returned to the Great Lakes Division of which he has been Curator since 1945. During the middle and late 1930's the archaeological program of this division was concentrated in southeastern and eastern Michigan, resulting in a number of publications dealing with the late ceramic Indian cultures of the state. Field work in the Manitoulin district of northern Lake Huron was also carried on each summer from 1938 to 1954 and served as a summer training school for students of archaeology. As a result of this Page  1479program, Greenman has made a number of unusual contributions to the early prehistory and geology of the Great Lakes area as well as to the late ceramic and historic cultures.

Closely connected with the program of the Great Lakes Division were the studies in the ethnohistory of the Indians of the Great Lakes area by W. Vernon Kinietz, carried on from 1935 to 1942 through grants from the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. His publications, particularly The Indians of the Western Great Lakes, 1615-1760 (an Occasional Contribution of the Museum of Anthropology), have been of unusual value to anthropologists, historians, and to educators.

The Division of the Orient was established to care for Far Eastern anthropological collections presented to the University by the government of China and by private individuals and for those obtained as a result of the three-year excavation program in the Philippines. The present University program in Japan is adding to the collections of the division. The long-standing interest and participation of the University of Michigan in the affairs of the Far East makes this unit of the Museum of Anthropology particularly valuable.

The first active curator of the Division of the Orient was Benjamin March, who served from 1933 until his untimely death in 1934, when the University lost an outstanding student of Chinese culture and art. B. A. deVere Bailey served as Assistant in this division from 1936 to 1941. In 1942 Mrs. Kamer Aga-Oglu began her research and curatorial work and has concentrated her attention on the outstanding Chinese export ware collected by Guthe in the Philippines. Her publications have served to call attention to the importance of this collection in the study of Chinese culture and to the nature of Chinese trade in southeast Asia.

The Division of Archaeology has valuable research collections from Europe, Africa, Mexico, and South America, but most of the material is North American in origin. Since the establishment in this division of the Ceramic Repository for the Eastern United States in 1927, under the auspices of the National Research Council, particular emphasis has been upon the archaeology of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. The Repository was conceived as a central sherd library for representative prehistoric ceramic materials from the region east of the Rocky Mountains and north of the Gulf of Mexico. Research on the prehistory of this area was carried on and the collection was strengthened from 1933 to 1940 with the support of E. Lilly of the Indiana Historical Society. James B. Griffin held a fellowship in the Museum for work on these ceramic materials from 1933 to 1936, when he became Research Associate and Assistant Curator of Archaeology. These ceramic collections have become the most comprehensive in existence. Their value is augmented by a large photographic and note file on all phases of the prehistory of the eastern United States. When Griffin was made Director in 1946 it was necessary to add a staff member in the Division of Archaeology. Albert Clanton Spaulding (Montana '35, Ph.D. Columbia '46) was appointed Associate Curator of Archaeology in 1947 and is now a Curator in the Division of Archaeology. His research program has dealt with Mississippi and Missouri Valley archaeology, with one field season in the Aleutians.

The Division of Archaeology has been engaged since 1950 in a survey of the prehistory of the Mississippi Valley from Page  1480the mouth of the Illinois River to Memphis, Tennessee. This is a strategic area for American archaeology, and the data obtained in this work are of interest and importance to many prehistorians. An earlier program in which Griffin collaborated with archaeologists at Harvard and at the American Museum of Natural History was concentrated in eastern Arkansas and northwestern Mississippi. The results of this work have been published by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University.

The Division of Ethnology houses specimens from various areas of the world, the majority being of North American origin, Little effort is made to develop these collections, for to do so would require space and staff far beyond foreseeable needs or facilities. This division contains the Ethnobotanical Laboratory, an outstanding center for the identification and interpretation of plant materials utilized by the American Indian.

The Division of Ethnology may be said to have begun functioning in 1929 when Melvin Randolph Gilmore (Cotner College '04, Ph.D. University of Nebraska '14) became its first Curator. Because of his botanical training and deep interest in the ability of the Indians to take advantage of the flora, Gilmore was instrumental in establishing in 1938 the Ethnobotanical Laboratory as a major research interest of the division. Upon Gilmore's death in 1940 Volney Hurt Jones (Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas '29, M.A. New Mexico '31), Assistant in the Laboratory since 1933, was put in charge, and it has been largely through his efforts as Curator that this unique research unit has become so effective. As a result of the years of operation of the Laboratory, extensive collections have been obtained of the varieties of cultivated crops in use in the New World before European colonization. More than 350 reports have been issued to individuals and to institutions which have submitted material for identification.

The Museum of Anthropology is responsible for two series of publications. They are issued at intervals as opportunity permits. The contributions are prepared by staff members and associates and include descriptions of museum collections, field work, results of research in various anthropological fields, and discussions of field and museum techniques. The Occasional Contributions from the Museum of Anthropology, with fifteen numbers issued, began in 1932, and the Anthropological Papers, of which nine numbers have appeared, began in 1949. These two series have called attention to the work and collections of the Museum throughout the scholarly world. In addition, the Museum has sponsored individual publications, of which the Archaeological Atlas of Michigan by W. B. Hinsdale and The Fort Ancient Aspect by J. B. Griffin are perhaps the best known.

The Museum has been and is an effective training area for students interested in anthropological research. The availability of the collections, particularly in the field of American archaeology, has made it possible for undergraduate as well as graduate students to participate in the research programs. The opportunity has enabled them to receive training in the study and analysis of anthropological materials, a feature which many schools have not provided, and to publish papers. These resources of the University have attracted advanced students whose primary interest has been in American archaeology. Twenty-five active professional anthropologists have received a significant amount of their training in the Museum.

Page  1481
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Guthe, Carl E."Museum Growth Is Interesting Story."Mich. Alum., 36 (1929): 211-14.
Smith, Harlan I."Work in Anthropology at the University of Michigan."University Record, 1894, pp. 98-100.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1870-1954.

THE MUSEUM OF ART

THE University early showed a concern with the fine arts by mentioning them in its founding documents of 1817 and 1837. Shortly after the middle of the nineteenth century authentic beginnings were made both in the teaching of art history and in the assembling of an art collection. In 1852 a Detroit portrait painter, Alvah Bradish, was given the title of Professor of the Theory and Practice of the Fine Arts (see Part III: The Department of Fine Arts). Beginning in 1858 he gave a series of lectures on art history, but within a few years his appointment was discontinued. The founding of the collections was the work of a classical scholar, Professor Henry S. Frieze, who came to the University in 1854. During the thirty-five years of his service he proved himself a teacher of wide understanding and deep humanism. He had a particular enthusiasm for music as well as an interest in the plastic arts, and it was largely through his efforts that the musical organizations were created which have played so important a part in the artistic life of the University (see Part I: Frieze Administration).

In 1855 Professor Frieze purchased in Europe a collection of art objects with which to illustrate the lectures he was subsequently to give on painting, sculpture, and architecture. These materials, the nucleus of the Museum of Art and Antiquities, consisted largely of engravings, photographs, and plaster or terracotta copies of classical sculptures. Professor Frieze, who served as Curator of the Collections until his death in 1889, believed it important to obtain plaster casts of Hellenistic and Roman sculpture, and it was through his personal influence that the Class of 1859 presented to the University a full-sized reproduction of the Laocoön group.

The collections in art and archaeology, together with others in zoology and anthropology, were at first housed in the old South Building (South Wing of University Hall). In 1858 they were removed to the North Building (Mason Hall), where they remained for twenty-five years. In the same year Professor Frieze issued a Descriptive Catalogue of the Museum of Art and Antiquities in the University of Michigan; a revised edition of this was authorized by the Regents in 1862, although there is no record of its actual publication. A later Catalogue of the Museum of Art and History in the University of Michigan by Professor Frieze came out in 1876. Although the words Museum of Art occur in the titles of both catalogues it is probable that the editor was construing art largely in terms of Greco-Roman history and culture. In view of the fact that the collections were begun as an adjunct to the Department of Latin, this was to be expected. The materials in art and archaeology, continuing to increase through the decades, remained under the curatorship of classical scholars as late as 1911, when the Department of Fine Arts was established.

The first important original work to come to the University was the life-sized Page  1482marble "Nydia" by the American sculptor Randolph Rogers. Rogers had spent his boyhood in Ann Arbor, and later, in Rome, had risen to eminence as one of the leading figures in the American classical revival. In the fall of 1859 a group of local citizens formed the Rogers Art Association and by giving concerts, lectures, and festivals managed by 1862 to raise funds to secure shipment of the marble replica of this popular work from Rome, where it had been carved during the previous year. The remainder of the cost of the "Nydia" was defrayed by gifts from alumni and friends of the University and also by admission fees to the room in the North Wing of University Hall in which the figure was on display.

From an early date the University seems to have been receptive to the art of portraiture. In 1859 the Board of Regents passed a resolution inviting the President and the incumbents of full professorships to place their portraits, without expense to the University, in the Gallery of Fine Arts. Again, in 1861 there was a resolution inviting the Honorable Lewis Cass, Governor Austin Blair, and the four Judges of the Supreme Court "to make a donation of their portraits to be placed in the Gallery of Fine Arts of the University." No results seem to have come of these resolutions, but through the years portraits of faculty members have been given the University, many of them as memorials from outgoing classes.

Donations of art or of archaeological material, including various collections of replicas and reproductions, were received from early times. In his catalogue of 1876 Professor Frieze was able to list some 1,789 items, of which the greater number were photographs, engravings, or casts. In the 1880's Randolph Rogers gave to the University most of the contents of his studio in Rome, including about ninety original models for his own works. Doubtless as a result of the fairly loose control exercised in the care of the University's art collections, and also because of the inadequate and scattered character of the space available for storage, almost all of these pieces were to disappear without record in the course of the next half century.

Serious plans were, however, made for accommodating the art works belonging to the University. When the Library was built in 1883, it was designed in part as a repository for the collections, which were by then impressively large. The entire third floor of the building constituted a kind of art museum: there was a gallery for pictures and another for sculpture, and in smaller rooms were housed the collections of prints, coins, and other objects. In 1898 the Library was extended, doubling the stack space and the size of the art gallery. Even so, a great many paintings had to be hung on the walls of the rotunda reading-room.

In 1884 a major bequest of paintings and sculptures was made to the University by Henry C. Lewis, a wealthy citizen of Coldwater, Michigan. This collection, which was not transferred to the campus until 1895, formed perhaps two-thirds of the contents of a private art gallery which this enterprising merchant had built up in the course of repeated visits to Italy and to the cities of the Atlantic seaboard.

There appear to have been in all approximately 430 paintings and thirty works of sculpture, many being copies. A group of portraits of eminent nineteenth-century men and women was included in the collection, together with a few good portraits of an earlier day. The general tone of the Lewis collection is best described by mentioning a few of the pictures which still claim attention: "The Twins" by W. A. Bouguereau, "The Retreat" by Adolf Schreyer, "Courtyard Page  1483in the Sultan's Palace" by Benjamin Constant, and, of distinctly higher quality, "Lafayette and Madame Roland" by Jean Jacques Hauer. In the American group the important work "Boyhood of Lincoln" by Eastman Johnson, has become, possibly, the best known painting in the University's possession. A canvas of regional and historical interest is the large "Attack on an Emigrant Train" by Charles Wimar, mid-nineteenth-century St. Louis painter.

After the death of Professor Frieze in 1889, another classical scholar, Martin Luther D'Ooge ('62, Ph.D. Leipzig '72, LL.D. Michigan '89, Litt. D. Rutgers '01), Professor of Greek, became Curator, serving until 1911. In 1892 Professor D'Ooge brought out a Catalogue of the Gallery of Art and Archaeology in the University of Michigan; in a revised edition of this publication in 1902 appeared the first listing of the Lewis Collection; in 1906 a second revision followed.

With the rapid development of the University, it became impractical to try to house the overgrown art collections in the Library, and the construction of Alumni Memorial Hall was partly intended as a remedy for this difficulty. The exact nature and purpose of this building had been a matter of considerable controversy, and the structure which finally emerged was a compromise between the requirements of the Alumni Association and the needs of the University for appropriate space in which to exhibit its collections. The building was completed in 1910, and in the summer of that year the materials in art and archaeology were moved into it. A sculpture gallery occupied the central part of the basement, and a small room nearby was given over to archaeology. The entire second floor, with its three sky-lighted galleries, one large and two small, was planned for the display of paintings.

The Department of Fine Arts was established in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1911, and space was at once found on the main floor of Alumni Memorial Hall for its offices and classrooms. The new incumbent, Herbert Richard Cross (Brown '00, Harvard '01, A.M. ibid. '02), Assistant Professor of Fine Arts, was made Curator of the Art Collection and retained this responsibility until his resignation in 1922. At that time Bruce M. Donaldson (Princeton '13, A.M. ibid. '15) became the departmental head and served as Curator until his death in 1940. In 1928 the Museum of Classical Archaeology was created; exhibition rooms were found for it in Newberry Hall, and in the spring of the following year most of the archaeological material was removed from Alumni Memorial Hall to quarters in that building and in Angell Hall. John Garrett Winter (Hope '01, Ph.D. Michigan '06), Professor of Latin, was made Director and continued in this capacity when, after a further reorganization in 1940, it was renamed the Museum of Art and Archaeology.

Although the Lewis bequest was the largest art collection ever to come to the University, many smaller groups of art objects have been donated at various times. Among these in the years between 1916 and 1946 were collections bearing the names of Wetmore, Todd, Ryerson, Cross, and Stearns. In 1939-41 an important gift of 158 Siamese and Chinese ceramic and bronze objects was received from Mr. and Mrs. Edwin L. Neville; the collection was formed while Mr. Neville was minister to Thailand. In 1940 the Warren P. Lombard collection of 388 works of American graphic art was presented by Professor and Mrs. Alfred H. White. In 1942 an important group of ten art objects, which included three large sixteenth-century Flemish tapestries and an early Renaissance processional Page  1484cross, was given to the University by Baroness Maud Ledyard von Ketteler, originally a citizen of Detroit and subsequently the widow of a former German minister to China who had been killed in the Boxer Rebellion.

As the University grew larger and more complex, title to many art objects came to be specifically vested in particular units or departments. Thus, with the passage of the years, considerable holdings of Oriental arts and crafts were acquired by the Museum of Anthropology. The College of Architecture and Design gradually built up a collection of its own, which included classical, Oriental, modern European, and American art in the fields of sculpture, pottery, glass, textiles, rugs, painting, and graphic design. The Clements Library collection included several paintings, one a work of importance, a version of Benjamin West's "The Death of General Wolfe." The Michigan Historical Collections acquired several fine early drawings and paintings by the mid-nineteenth century painter, J. F. Cropsey. Valuable art objects were specifically given to the Law Department, the Michigan League, the Michigan Union, and to particular student residence halls. These, presumably, never will be within the curatorship of the Museum of Art.

After the opening of Alumni Memorial Hall the University had at its disposal an adequate amount of gallery space, some of which it utilized to display parts of the art collections. It was several decades later, however, before it assumed responsibility for organizing and promoting a serious program of art exhibitions.

Such a program was instituted in 1911 by an outside organization, a town and gown group called the Ann Arbor Art Association, which had been founded by several art-conscious faculty members and citizens. On the evening of May 11, 1910, Alumni Memorial Hall was dedicated, and a reception was held to open a magnificent exhibition of Oriental and American art, of which all the Far Eastern works and a few of the Western paintings were loaned from the collection of Mr. Charles L. Freer, of Detroit. This project was jointly sponsored by the Alumni Memorial Committee and the Ann Arbor Art Association. Thereafter, for several decades the Art Association sponsored in the same building a series of exhibits of great interest and value to the University and to the local public. It performed a function which the University itself might well have assumed. The Board of Regents took cognizance of this by granting to the Ann Arbor Art Association, in 1922-23 and for several years thereafter, an annual subsidy of $500.

With the establishment in 1929 of the Division of Fine Arts, renamed the Institute of Fine Arts in 1936, a certain number of art exhibitions of a special nature were originated and displayed on University initiative and with University funds. Most of these were shown in the galleries of the Rackham Building, which had been dedicated in 1938.

Upon the recommendation of a special committee, appointed in March, 1945, to survey the situation of the fine arts at Michigan, a division was made, on July 1, 1946, between the two parts of the Museum of Art and Archaeology, and the Museum of Art came into being as a separate administrative unit of the University, with quarters assigned to it in Alumni Memorial Hall. The Museum of Archaeology continued to occupy Newberry Hall.

On the same date the staff of the new Museum of Art took up its duties. The Director, Jean Paul Slusser ('09, A.M. '11), was chosen from the faculty of the Page  1485College of Architecture and Design. As Professor of Drawing and Painting he continued his teaching and administrative work in the College on a part-time basis, while serving half-time as Director of the Museum. Over a period of years he had taken an active part in the exhibition and collecting programs of the Ann Arbor Art Association, and this experience, as well as his training in art history and his earlier journalistic contacts with the New York art market, provided him with certain qualifications for his task as Museum administrator. Helen B. Hall ('26, A.M. '29), who was appointed Curator of Paintings, had a background in art history and had acquired, while serving with the Institute of Fine Arts, a command of the processes of cataloguing art materials as well as some practical experience in planning and installing exhibitions. In 1953 her title was changed to the broader one of Curator.

The function of the Museum of Art as defined by the Regents was "to be the collection, conservation, study, and exhibition of works of art." Stated in a still simpler way, its purpose was to give students at the University of Michigan direct acquaintance with original works of art. It aimed to illustrate, both by the use of its own collections and by borrowed or rented material, the work carried on at the University in the theory, practice, and history of the visual arts. Originally, the Museum was given custody of the extensive and evergrowing collection of slides and photographs which was part of the basic equipment for teaching fine arts, and a special curator was appointed to have charge of it. After three years it was found more feasible to turn over this material to the Department of Fine Arts. During these initial years of the Museum's existence the staff made every effort, with the materials at hand, to create an organization which would take its place as a working unit in the art life of the University.

The first step was to put the physical equipment into better condition. A partition was thrown across West Gallery in Alumni Memorial Hall to create an exhibition gallery from that part of the large room not currently needed as a lecture hall. Later, in 1952, when lectures were discontinued in the building, the Museum took over that space and converted it into two galleries, a moderately large one for general exhibition purposes, and a smaller one for Oriental art. The Department of Fine Arts meanwhile converted the area formerly occupied by the Museum into a study room for prints and photographs. Both of the Museum galleries, together with the two small ones north and south of the rotunda, were redecorated in neutral tones of pale gray or off-white.

After operating for three years under crowded conditions in a basement room, the Museum staff was provided with a suite of offices on the main floor of Alumni Memorial Hall; here enough space was found for a study room and for the storage of prints and small objects. The basement room continued to be utilized for storage, shipping, and for general work.

From the outset a vigorous exhibition program was undertaken as one of the principal functions of the Museum. Exhibitions averaged seventeen a year, or almost two for each month of the regular academic session. Many of the displays were rented, but two or three every year were created by the Museum staff, sometimes with the collaboration of specialists in the units dealing with the history or practice of art.

The necessity of determining the most effective uses for the collections soon Page  1486became apparent. As many as possible of the paintings which, with the passage of time, had become scattered about the campus, were returned to Alumni Memorial Hall to be inventoried and reconditioned. An appraisal was made of the collections, and the paintings of the greatest importance were hung, if space could be found for them, or held in reserve to be shown whenever possible. A certain number of paintings and sculptures, many of which were copies, were adjudged as of no aesthetic or instructional value, and, with the permission of the Regents, were sold. About 200 objects, both in painting and in sculpture, were disposed of, and the sum realized was applied toward purchasing new works for the collections. Portraits of faculty members, whenever possible, were allocated to appropriate departmental offices or libraries, and a few decorative but relatively unimportant paintings of landscape or figure subjects were hung in the lounges or common rooms of student residence halls.

A beginning was made in building up the collections. A tentative plan for making accessions was drawn up, which laid out wide objectives in the field of graphic art and more limited ones in the areas of modern painting and sculpture. In 1947 the Regents granted a small annual sum for acquisitions, and since then, within the limitations of his budget, the Director has made purchases of basic items in these three fields. Gifts, meanwhile, have continued to enrich the collections.

Among the recent donors of notable art works have been Carl F. Clarke, Mr. and Mrs. Province M. Henry, Mr. and Mrs. Roger L. Stevens, and Mr. and Mrs. Harry L. Winston. In 1955 the Museum received the final installment of the most important bequest of art objects ever to come into the University's possession. This was the collection of Mrs. Margaret Watson Parker formerly of Grosse Pointe; in its entirety it totalled 679 items, comprising paintings, sculpture, graphic art, textiles, furniture, and works of decorative art.

In 1950 the Museum of Art began the publication of an illustrated Bulletin, of which one issue has appeared each year. It consists of scholarly articles contributed by the Director, the Curator, and by specialists in the Department of Fine Arts or elsewhere, relating to recent accessions or to significant objects in the Museum collections. Distributed to libraries and museum officials throughout this country and abroad, it is a first step in fostering relations between the Museum and a potential body of friends and benefactors.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bulletin of the Museum of Art, Univ. Mich., 1950-53.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1850-1909, 1920-53.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1953.
Page  1487

THE MUSEUM OF PALEONTOLOGY

THE Museum of Paleontology had its origin in the Cabinet of Natural History provided for in 1837 at the first meeting of the Board of Regents. The fossils earliest acquired for the cabinet were collected on Isle Royale by Douglass Houghton, the first state geologist of Michigan and one of the first appointees to the faculty of the University.

The early paleontological collections were received as a result of a clause in the act of the state legislature in 1838 creating the Michigan Geological Survey, which provided that duplicate specimens should be deposited at the University. Another and equally important factor in the development of paleontology was the ability and influence of Alexander Winchell.

The Museum of Paleontology at Michigan reflects to a great extent the personalities of three men: Alexander Winchell, 1855 to 1873 and 1879 to 1891; Carl A. Rominger, 1860 to 1907, and Ermine Cowles Case, 1907 to 1941. In the interval between Houghton's death in 1845 and Winchell's appointment in 1855 Abram Sager, who filled the chair of zoology and botany, appears to have been in charge of the paleontological collections. Winchell was the first appointee to the chair of geology after Houghton.

Winchell's published appraisal of the fossil specimens received from the first Michigan Geological Survey indicates his concern for the paleontological collections of the Museum:

They embraced however but a limited number of fossils and most of these were in an imperfect state of preservation… The paucity of fossils in this collection is naturally attributable to two good causes: first, the remarkable fewness of fossiliferous outcrops, especially at that period in our municipal history, and second, the nature of the methods by which surveys were prosecuted at that stage of scientific development.


(Report, 1864, p. 4.)

From sources other than the Geological Survey Winchell records among the principal accessions to the Museum prior to his appointment:

T. R. Chase, Esq., of Cleveland, Ohio, an alumnus of the University, presented a fine collection of coal-plants from the coal mines of northern Ohio; to which he added in June, 1863, a small lot of fossils, finely preserved, from Kelly's Island, Lake Erie.

Prof. Abram Sager, M.D., has given the Museum … a magnificent specimen of Syringopora from this State.


(Winchell, 1864.)

The Cabinet of Natural History was first placed in one of the professors' houses. In 1856 a dormitory room in (old) Mason Hall was remodeled to accommodate the Library and Museum (R.P., 1856, p. 649). Since other collections of the University besides natural history were included in the Museum it was necessary in 1862 to appropriate the North Room of Mason Hall for the Museum. The Library was moved in 1863, providing increased room for the natural science collections. These were moved into the first Museum Building (the present Romance Language Building) when it was completed in 1881. When the Natural Science Building was opened in 1915 the paleontology collections were placed in the basement and first-floor rooms of the Geology Department's section. In 1928 the University Museums Building, at the corner of Washtenaw and North University avenues, was erected, and the Museum of Paleontology was housed in its present quarters on the first floor of the Washtenaw Avenue wing. Provision was made Page  1488for two laboratories and classrooms, a preparation room, offices for the curators, and ranges for the collections.

Alexander Winchell (1855-91). — Although Alexander Winchell (Wesleyan '47, LL.D. ibid. '67) was a man of broad interests and, like most university professors of his time, taught a wide variety of subjects, his chief interest and most important contributions were in the field of paleontology. It is said that as a teacher he was skillful in imparting his own knowledge and in training others to habits of observation and investigation. Besides his many scientific contributions he published a number of popular books on geological subjects. Of these, his work World Life (1883) shows the most research and thought and was at that time probably the only book in the English language covering in a systematic manner the entire field of earth history.

One of Winchell's teaching devices and his sense of humor are illustrated by the following story told by a student of the class of 1861:

In the spring in the botany class we had brought in specimens of flowers from a surviving cabbage to a dried-up mullein stalk, and now in the geology class we were to bring in specimens of rocks, each to make his specimen the text for what he knew about geology. A more nondescript assortment of "specimens," before or since, probably never was collected. McGbrought in a chunk of coal; J. C. Ja mosaic set in a finger ring; J. A. Pa piece of chalk. The range of specimens were all of the same ilk. One boy in particular brought in a piece of putty, and Professor Winchell told him to put it back again in his hat where it belonged. These pranks were in a measure tolerated, and the professor still continued to teach and stimulate as with rare ability.


(Utley and Cutcheon.)

In June, 1888, Mary Emilie Holmes received her Doctor of Philosophy degree under Alexander Winchell. She was the first woman to receive a doctorate in geology at the University and the second to receive a doctorate in the University. The members of her committee were Alexander Winchell, J. B. Steere, Henry Sewall, W. H. Pettee, and V. M. Spalding. Her thesis on The Morphology of the Carinae upon the Septa of Rugose Corals was printed by Bradlee Whidden, Boston, in 1887. Following the title page is this tribute: "To Prof. Alex. Winchell, L.L.D. in Grateful Acknowledgment of Faithful Instruction, of Judicious Counsel and of Timely Words of Inspiration This Paper Is Respectfully Inscribed by His Pupil."

Winchell was in charge of the Museum from 1855 until the time of his resignation in 1873. In 1864, 1865, and 1866, Carl Rominger (M.D. Tübingen '44) was Assistant Curator of the Museum and was employed to make collections in natural history.

The most notable collections of fossils acquired by the Museum during this period (1855 to 1873) were those from the Michigan Geological Survey under Winchell's direction, the Steere Collection from Brazil and Peru, the C. A. White collection, the Rominger collection, part of the E. A. Strong collection, and the General Custer collection.

The Museum benefited greatly as a result of Winchell's position as state geologist and director of the Survey. Owing largely to his efforts the Geological Survey was re-established in 1859. In his first "Report of Progress," he discusses the successive geologic formations, describes outcrops observed at various localities, and lists the fossils recognized. In regard to the specimens acquired by the Museum, Winchell (1864, p. 9) said: "The products of the survey embrace specimens of rocks and fossils from all the formations occurring south of the Sault Ste. Mary, among Page  1489which are very many species new to science — one hundred and fifty of which have recently been described by the writer while descriptions of others are soon to be published."

With the outbreak of the Civil War, appropriations for the Survey were discontinued and were not renewed until 1869, when the legislature established a Board of Survey with power to select geologists and perform other necessary acts. Winchell was again made Director, and undertook the investigation of the Lower Peninsula, with the assistance of his brother, N. H. Winchell, M. W. Harrington, E. A. Strong, A. M. Wadsworth, C. B. Headley, A. O. Currier, and J. H. Emerson. Carl Rominger was appointed paleontologist on the Michigan Geological Survey in 1871. After Winchell's retirement he was appointed by the board to work on the Lower Peninsula and was assigned a study of the Paleozoic rocks and their associated fossils.

The C. A. White Collection of geological and zoological specimens was purchased in 1863 for $500. The geological collection consisted of 1,223 entries: 939 American fossils, 63 European fossils, and 16 rocks. Winchell described it briefly as follows: "This collection is remarkable for two things: 1st, the large number of beautifully preserved crinoids which it contains, and 2nd, the number of its original or type specimens. The fossils in this collection probably double the number previously in the possession of the University." Charles A. White, of Burlington, Iowa, had in 1860 described in considerable detail the rocks and their included fossils in the vicinity of Burlington. He was state geologist of Iowa from 1866 to 1869 and subsequently was paleontologist on surveys of the federal government and with the National Museum. He donated several other collections of fossils to the Museum subsequent to the sale of his original one.

The General Custer and Steere collections were received in 1873. The former consists chiefly of Upper Cretaceous fossils from the Yellowstone and Musselshell valleys. Winchell recorded that the Steere Collection included 77 entries of fossils and 1,068 specimens. The E. A. Strong Collection was acquired in several installments. Mr. Strong was superintendent of the public schools in Grand Rapids and was later head of the Department of Physics and Chemistry in the State Normal School at Ypsilanti. As noted above, he assisted Winchell on the Michigan Geological Survey in 1869. Winchell's report of 1873 on the Museum contains the following entry in the list of accessions: "Prof. E. A. Strong, Grand Rapids. Upper Helderberg Fossils — 15 entries, 32 specimens, from Onondaga County, N. Y." Shortly after Strong's death in 1920, the Museum secured from his daughters a collection of fossils containing specimens that had served as the basis for a paper Strong published in 1872.

After Winchell's first period on the faculty, the paleontology collections were under succeeding professors of geology, who usually also held the chairs of zoology and botany. Winchell was succeeded in 1873 by E. W. Hilgard, who resigned in 1875, and W. H. Pettee took charge of the geological work. Their time was taken up largely by teaching duties and the Museum was mostly under the direction of Mark W. Harrington, who was Instructor and Assistant Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany from 1872 to 1876.

In 1876 Joseph Beal Steere was appointed Assistant Professor of Paleontology and Curator of the Museum. This was the first time that paleontology had been officially recognized apart from geology in a University title. That year a course in paleontology was offered for Page  1490seniors in the Polytechnic School. In 1879, when Winchell was reappointed to the faculty as Professor of Geology and Paleontology, Steere was promoted to Professor of Zoology.

In 1883 the Regents authorized the purchase of a mastodon head found in Ohio, at a sum not exceeding $115 and stipulated that it was to be deposited in "the General Museum building."

The activities of the Museum staff in the field of paleontology after Winchell's return to the University are summarized briefly in several of President Angell's annual reports. In 1883 he said: "The paleontological specimens are arranged in biological order. During the year the whole collection of fossil plants has been investigated and arranged. A few valuable gifts have been received. Cases are needed for some of the largest specimens, which are suffering from exposure" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 394). The following year he noted: "A few additions have been made to the Museum of General Geology and Paleontology. But it is very desirable that we have the means of making additions, especially of vertebrate remains, to our collections. Large supplies of desirable specimens are found in our western territories. For the lack of these our special students are suffering seriously in the prosecution of their work here." In the annual report for the year ending September 30, 1885, it is recorded that "in the palaeontological department the entire collection of the proboscidian remains have been investigated, arranged and labeled by Dr. Winchell, and much work has been done by him in a careful study of the difficult group of the stromatophoridae. A large part of our specimens have been better arranged and labeled, and the larger part of Dr. Rominger's valuable collection has been received on deposit. It is greatly to be desired that this collection should be permanently secured for the University" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 604).

To Winchell is given the credit for organizing the Museum as a distinct department. He originated the first system of catalogues, including two for geological and paleontological accessions: (1) a Journal in which are entered the date of every acquisition, its nature, and the source whence obtained; (2) a Geological Register in which the names of specimens are written opposite the serial numbers extending from one upwards, and opposite these the locality, formation, source of acquisition, date of acquisition, collector, and place in the Museum of each specimen. He inaugurated the custom of submitting annual reports to the Board of Regents. Several of these were published separately, and others are in the Regents' Proceedings. They are among the principal sources of information on the development of the Museum. Winchell served as secretary of the Board of Regents from 1854 to 1856.

When first appointed to the faculty in 1853, Winchell was Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering. In 1855 his title was changed to Professor of Botany, Zoology, and Geology. Among the many courses he offered there were several in paleontology. Winchell's earliest publication in Michigan paleontology, dealing with fossils from the Marshall sandstone, appeared in the American Journal of Science in 1862. During his first period of tenure on the faculty, he published some twenty papers on the geology and paleontology of Michigan.

After Winchell's death, a course in General Paleontology was offered by Israel C. Russell, Professor of Geology from 1892 to 1906. H. E. Sargeant was appointed part-time Curator in the Museum in 1898. He was succeeded in 1903 by Charles C. Adams, who served until 1906, when Ruthven became Curator. Ruthven continued in that capacity until Page  14911913, when the name for the collections of zoology and anthropology was changed to the Museum of Zoology, and his title became Director of the Museum of Zoology.

Carl Ludwig Rominger (1861-1907). — Although Carl Ludwig Rominger was officially connected with the Museum as Assistant Curator for only two years (1864-66), his industry in and devotion to paleontology left an indelible impression on the progress of that science in the University and in the state. He lived in Ann Arbor for forty-seven years and was state geologist of Michigan from 1870 until 1884.

His contributions to the Museum were made in several ways. His collection of invertebrate fossils from Europe was acquired by the Museum, he donated several other collections made in this country, he studied the corals of Michigan which became the property of the University, he collected for the Museum, and after his death his son and daughters presented his papers and several boxes of fossils.

The acquisition of the Rominger Collection by the Museum is a lesson in patience and perseverance. A contemporary paleontologist (Clark, Hall, p. 453) characterized Rominger as "a gentle, keen, generous and obstinate geologist with abilities of a high order…" Rominger seems to have wanted his collection to be in Ann Arbor where he could work on it, yet be needed whatever money it would bring. At a meeting of the Board of Regents on March 29, 1864, "President Haven announced that Dr. Carl Rominger had offered to place in the University Museum a very choice collection of fossils from Europe, provided that the Regents would furnish suitable cases for the arrangement of the same." The following day the Committee on the Museum having seen the specimens reported that it was a very valuable collection and "having ascertained the Doctor's willingness to let them remain in the University a number of years, recommend that the same be received subject to the direction of the President."

At the September, 1864, meeting of the Board of Regents, Haven said:

Several cases have been made to receive a large and excellent collection of fossils, gathered in Europe, by Carl Rominger, M.D., Assistant Curator of the Museum of Geology, Zoology and Botany. The University has the use of this rich and rare collection now gratuitously, and I recommend that it be purchased, if it can be for a reasonable price, and made a permanent part of the Museum.

Four years later, in a report to the president Winchell wrote: "I beg respectfully again to call attention to the Rominger Collection. In courtesy to Dr. Rominger some definite action should be taken without further delay."

At the next meeting of the Regents, on December 22, 1868, the following resolution was adopted: "Resolved, That this Board heartily appreciates the value of Dr. Rominger's Collection of Fossils now in the University Museum, and that it is very desirable to secure the same for the University as soon as the state of our finances will permit."

After another year the committee recommended "the purchase of Dr. Rominger's Collection, at the price named, $1,500, and that such terms with regard to time of payment be made as can be agreed upon." This report was adopted. However, nine years later in 1888 the committee was authorized to enter "into a contract with Dr. Rominger, by which, on payment semi-annually of one hundred and twenty-five dollars ($125) from January 1st, 1888, by the University to Dr. Rominger, the latter binds himself to keep his palaeontological collection in the University Page  1492Museum; and not to sell it without giving us one year's notice. The University may at any time terminate the leasing of the collection and may purchase the collection at any time for a sum not exceeding five thousand dollars."

In December, 1891, the motion was carried to authorize the Executive Committee to purchase the Rominger Collection for $5,000, and in January, 1892, it was reported that Rominger's collection had been purchased. The committee believed that the price was very low and concluded that the Museum's paleontological collections had been "doubled in amount and trebled in value as a result of Dr. Rominger's collection. It contains collections from this country and Europe… A valuable suite of Canadian trilobites at present being studied in Washington by the U.S.G.S. is to be included, also Russian bryozoa, from which several hundred thin sections have been prepared." The Rominger Collection in 1866 contained 2,500 entries and 6,000 specimens (R.P., 1866, pp. 168-80). Thus, after twenty-eight years' delay, title to the Rominger Collection passed to the University of Michigan.

As state geologist for fourteen years Rominger prepared his most lasting contribution to the geology and paleontology of Michigan. In Volume III of the Survey publications, Part I is devoted to the "Geology of the Lower Peninsula" and Part II to the "Fossil Corals." He emphasized the faunal assemblage characteristic of successive strata and concluded that "in the fossils we have always an infallible guide, in cases where lithological and stratigraphical characters would leave us in an inextricable perplexity, regarding the position of certain strata." The assemblage of fossil corals gathered by Rominger to illustrate his work is probably the finest collection of this group of organisms from the Devonian of North America.

In a letter of 1878 (Clark, Hall, p. 453) Rominger described his simple but productive mode of working, as follows:

In the quiet way I prosecute my work, with small expense to the State, I find no opposition and everybody lets me go my own course, but I think the case would be different as soon as I would claim assistants and increase of appropriations. Fortunately I do not believe that with assistants I could work more successfully than I do at present, therefore I need no larger appropriations and have in all things my own way, not to the disadvantage of the State.

Rominger moved to Ann Arbor in 1860, and the first record of his connection with the Museum is in 1861 when "on motion of Regent Johnson the sum of $75 was appropriated to pay Dr. Rominger for services rendered in the Museum" (R.P., 1861, p. 967). Winchell's report to the President for the year 1864-65 records the accession from Rominger of a small lot of fossils, supposed to be from Rockford, Illinois.

On June 27, 1865, the Regents received a communication from Winchell, "in relation to the enlargement and improvement of the Museum and the employment of Dr. C. Rominger as Curator of the Museum of Geology, Zoology and Botany, to be charged with the duty of laboring for the increase and preservation of the collections in this department." Rominger continued as Assistant Curator, however, but his salary was increased to $200 per annum. A sum of $300 was appropriated "for the purpose of employing Dr. Rominger to make collections in Natural History, for the use of the Museum, in accordance with the plan proposed by Dr. Rominger in his paper, and to be approved by the President and Professor Winchell" (R.P., 1865, p. 123). With this sum he made twelve collections, comprising 320 Page  1493species of fossils from Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian strata in Indiana, New York, Michigan, and Ontario. Nevertheless, in September, 1866, the Committee on the Museum recommended that his salary as Assistant Curator of the Museum be discontinued.

Rominger's distinction brought many prominent geologists and paleontologists to Ann Arbor. His collections of European and American invertebrates are still among the best in the Museum of Paleontology. They have furnished the basis for numerous studies by succeeding investigators.

Ermine Cowles Case (1907-41). — The development of vertebrate paleontology at the University of Michigan began with the appointment of Ermine Cowles Case (Kansas '93, Ph.D. Chicago '96) as Assistant Professor of Historical Geology and Paleontology in 1907. Winchell and Rominger had been interested primarily in invertebrate fossils, which occur in great numbers in the rocks of Michigan, but Case was trained in vertebrate paleontology. Vertebrate fossils are relatively rare in Michigan so that under his influence the emphasis changed not only from invertebrate to vertebrate paleontology but also from the fossils occurring in Michigan to those of the western and southwestern United States.

The vertebrate fossil collections of the Museum grew rapidly by Case's untiring efforts. In his laboratory he was constantly engaged in preparing and studying specimens. He led field parties in the West and Southwest nearly every summer, collecting for the University some of the finest specimens of Triassic amphibians and reptiles to be found in any museum in the world. Although early amphibians and reptiles were his chief field of interest, his researches included many other groups of animals which ranged in age from Devonian to Pleistocene. Fishes from Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Texas, turtles from Montana and Wyoming, birds from South Dakota, and mammals from Michigan and Maryland received his careful study.

Many of the vertebrate specimens were prepared for study or exhibit by William H. Buettner, vertebrate preparator in the Museum from 1915 to the present. He accompanied Professor Case on most of his collecting trips to the western United States from 1917 to 1938. His first preparation room on the campus was in the basement of the old Pharmacology Building, but he subsequently moved in October, 1915, to a room in the basement of the Geology section of the new Natural Science Building. One of Buettner's first jobs was to help move the Geology Department to the Natural Science Building. As he was crossing the campus, carrying the relief globe of the world on his shoulder, he passed President Angell on the walk. The President stopped and remarked: "You must be a very strong young man to carry the world on your shoulders."

In 1911 Professor Case had "Curator of the Paleontological Collection" added to his title. He was promoted in 1912 with the title Professor of Historical Geology and Paleontology. In 1921 he succeeded Willian H. Hobbs as Director of the Museum of Geology (changed to Museum of Paleontology in 1928).

Under Case's leadership the teaching of paleontology expanded with the growth of the University. George M. Ehlers ('13, Ph.D. '30) was appointed Instructor in Geology in 1919. He developed courses in invertebrate paleontology.

The Museum of Geology first had a separate budget in 1926-27. The staff in that year consisted of E. C. Case, Director, W. H. Buettner, Preparator, M. S. Chang, Assistant, and Mary E. Cooley, Cataloguer. When the name was changed to Museum of Paleontology Page  1494and the collections were moved to the Museums Building the staff consisted of Professor Case as Director and Curator of Vertebrates, Assistant Professor G. M. Ehlers as Curator of Paleozoic Invertebrates, and Mr. W. H. Buettner as Preparator. It was soon augmented however by the appointment of Lewis Burnett Kellum (Johns Hopkins '19, Ph.D. ibid. '24) as Curator of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Invertebrates in 1928 and Chester A. Arnold (Cornell '25, Ph.D. ibid. '29) as Curator of Paleobotany in 1929. With the exception of Arnold, who was on half time in the Botany Department, the salaries of the curatorial staff were entirely on the Geology Department budget.

Among the first vertebrates placed on exhibit in the Museum after Case was appointed to the faculty were three skulls: the giant beaver, Castoroides ohioensis, a large carnivorous reptile, Dimetrodon incisivus Cope, and a huge amphibian Eryops megacephalus Cope, of the early ages of the world. The beaver skull mount was assembled from two specimens found at different places in Michigan. The reptile skull was part of a collection made by Case from the Permian of Texas in 1908 on a co-operative expedition of the Department of Geology and the American Museum of Natural History. The amphibian skull was collected in the same area at another time. Another exhibit installed about the same time was a series of bones and teeth illustrating the evolution of the horse. The specimens were obtained on exchange from the American Museum.

In 1911 Case wrote: "The department of geology is making extensive plans to continue the collection and installation of vertebrate fossils in the Museum, a phase of geological work in which the University is far behind other institutions."

In the summer of 1912 Case discovered the Brier Creek Bone Bed in Archer County, Texas. It contained "by far, more bones than any known accumulation of the same age." More than 1,500 specimens of separate bones were recovered, and many times that number were present. That year the Board of Regents added $300 to the budget of the Department of Geology "to cover the salary of an assistant giving ninety hours per month for ten months to the preparation of vertebrate fossils collected by the expedition in charge of Professor E. C. Case during the past summer."

Among the many specimens collected from the Brier Creek Bone Bed the following summer (1913) there were several basicranial regions of the Permian or Permo-Carboniferous reptiles, Dimetrodon and Edaphosaurus. Also numerous large foot bones of a character different from those of Dimetrodon or the cotylosaur Diadectes were found associated with the spines of Edaphosaurus and with large claws. From this Case concluded that "the foot of Edaphosaurus was of goodly size and armed with sharp claws well fitted for digging in the soft earth or vegetation, tearing open rotten logs and overturning rocks in search of food." A composite mount of the skeleton of Edaphosaurus cruciger Cope was subsequently made from bones of various individuals of the same size all recovered from the Brier Creek Bone Bed.

Also from the very abundant material collected from the Brier Creek Bone Bed sufficient bones of the right size were selected to mount a nearly complete skeleton of Dimetrodon incisivus Cope, the "fin-backed lizard."

Three specimens of exceptional interest and value were presented to the University by Chase S. Osborne in 1914: an egg of the extinct, giant, flightless bird of Madagascar, AepyornisPage  1495maximus; a skeleton of the extinct pygmy hippopotamus from the Pleistocene deposits of Madagascar; and an adult specimen of the common hippopotamus of South Africa shot by Mr. Osborne while hunting. Mr. Osborne obtained these specimens on a trip around the world in 1913.

From the bluffs along the north side of Chaleur Bay, New Brunswick, the Museum obtained in 1916 the little armored fish called Bothriolepis, so ancient that it is doubtful whether it can really be called a fish. It lived in the Devonian period some 300 million years ago, almost at the beginning of backboned life. From these ancient rocks Case collected specimens of the air-breathing lung-fish, ancestor of one of the most persistent of the lines of life upon the earth. Its descendants live, but little changed, in the waters of western Australia, Egypt, and Paraguay today.

The University of Michigan expedition to the Bad Lands of South Dakota in 1917 recovered an excellently preserved shell of the large land turtle Stylemys nebracensis Leidy, the skull of a great browsing animal, Titanotherium, which took the place of the elephant in those older days, the skull and a part of the skeleton of one of the ancestral pigs, as large as a small pony, and probably one of the most terrible animals of the period. While examining the Triassic Dockum beds of western Texas in the summer of 1919, Case collected the almost complete thoracic shield of a large labyrinthodont, which he described and figured as a new species.

Another remarkable specimen was collected in 1917 and 1919 near the crossing of the Blanco River on the road from Spur, in Dickens County, to Crosby-town, in Crosby County, Texas. It consisted of the skull, most of the vertebral column, much of the dorsal armor and a curious pair of curved spines, belonging to a new phytosaurian reptile, near the ancestral crocodile. Case described and figured it under the name Desmatosuchus spurensis. A glass case was built especially to exhibit it.

In 1920 Case discovered an amphibian skull in the breaks of Sand Creek in Crosby County, Texas. The undistorted skull was unique in the perfect preservation of the bones and the minutiae with which the osteological details could be traced. He named it Buettneria perfecta.

The Museum also acquired in 1920 a tooth of the Dipnoan genus Ceratodus which is of special scientific interest as the first occurrence of the genus recorded in North America. Case discovered it in the Dockum beds of Crosby County, Texas. It was the only fish tooth found in a collection of several hundred teeth. He and Buettner also brought back the major part of the presacral part of the vertebral column of a small dinosaur. The bones were in their natural position, but had been somewhat crushed and rotted before fossilization. In the laboratory they were mounted on a plaque just as they occurred in the rock.

In a survey of the paleontological collections in the University in 1921, Case said:

The paleontological collections in the Museum of the department of Geology have been gathered to illustrate the history of the earth and the origin and development of life… The collections have steadily grown since their start by purchase, by exchange, by gift and by continued collection… One of the most important steps in advance was the institution, some ten years ago, of expeditions by members of the department, directed to definite localities with the object of procuring material to fill gaps in the series and obtain material for student use.


(Mich. Alum., 27: 292.)

From the great tar pits of Rancho la Brea near Los Angeles, California, the Page  1496University obtained a great wolf and the skeleton of one of the sabre-tooth tigers. A specimen referred to the amphibian genus Ostodolepis was obtained on exchange from the University of Chicago about 1912. It was enclosed in a nodule of hard calcareous red sandstone which required more than a month's time of chiseling with a needle under a binocular microscope, to extricate. Case identified it as Ostodolepis brevispinatus Williston and stated that in all probability it came from the same locality and geological horizon as the type specimen which was also contained in a block of red sandstone from Wilbarger County, Texas.

The party from the Museum in the summer of 1924 collected an incomplete skull of an Eocene crocodilian from the lower beds of the Wasatch formation of Tatman Mountain in the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming. It is particularly valuable in that it preserves the major part of the dentition. Case described it as Allognathosuchus wortheni.

In the following year (1925) Case and Buettner returned to a locality in Crosby County, Texas, where they had collected in 1920. Buettner discovered there a nearly complete pelvis of a large phytosaur with only the right ilium missing. In preparing and mounting the specimen in the laboratory, they discovered that the right ilium found on the earlier expedition fitted exactly into the otherwise complete pelvis. The association of the skull found in 1920 and pelvis added considerably to their scientific value.

The 1927 expedition to Texas was especially rich in the museum specimens recovered. The first member of the reptilian order Cotylosauria known to occur in the Triassic of North America was found by Buettner near Walker's Tank in Crosby County. Professor Case named it Trilophosaurus buettneri. The specimen is the anterior part of the lower jaw of a small cotylosaur. On the same expedition Case and Buettner collected a very complete cranial region of a large phytosaur, probably of the genus Leptosuchus, from the Upper Triassic beds of Howard County, Texas.

In April, 1928, in Case's first published account of the expedition to Texas in 1927 he referred to it as "the expedition of 1927 from the Museum of Geology," but in November, 1928, he spoke of it as "the expedition from the Museum of Paleontology." The title of the Museum of Geology was changed in May, 1928, to Museum of Paleontology.

Near Ostischalk, about twenty-three miles southeast of Big Springs in Howard County, the 1927 expedition recovered an almost complete skull, lacking the jaws, of a new form of phytosaur, Brachysuchus megalodon. In 1929, he and Buettner revisited the site and found, within 100 feet of the spot where the skull had been recovered two years before, the nearly complete lower jaw of the same specimen.

The 1931 expedition to Scurry County, Texas, recovered a large amount of material of the stegocephalian, Buettneria bakeri, which later was used for teaching, research, and exhibit in the Museum. In Potter County the field party recovered two nearly complete skulls of phytosaurs, Leptosuchus studeri Case and Brachysuchus megalodon Case, and a large part of the tail of a small dinosaur of the genus Coelophysis.

One of the most valuable specimens in the Museum is the skull of the reptilian dicynodont Kannemeyeria erithrea Haughton, collected by Henry F. Donner in 1931 from the Permian of South Africa. Donner, a student assistant at the University's astronomical observatory at Bloemfontein, had been commissioned by Case to collect fossils from some of the well-known vertebrate Page  1497localities in South Africa. His account of the circumstances under which he found this specimen follows:

Upon arriving at Lady Frere I learned that a German was there collecting for the University of Munich and had been there for over two weeks. I thought there would be no hope for me and decided to leave the next day. In the P.M. however, my Friend in Lady Frere and I went to look around in a small hill about a mile from town where he had found many bone fragments. Here we noticed a little knob of rock about the size of a golf ball. I chipped the top off with my pick and saw bone which I took to be the snout. I had pleasant visions of a nice skull behind this and behind the skull a beautiful skeleton buried under the hill. We started digging away around it and the more we dug the more it looked like a skull so we hurried back to the house to get more tools and a Native boy and by dark had the nice big skull removed. The next morning I returned with the boy and we dug all about the spot but found no more so had to be content with collecting all the bone fragments scattered about the spot which probably belong to the skull. A few hours after we left the German arrived at the spot and learned that he was not the only one collecting. Later I met him and he showed me his collection which I envied very much. When I showed him my skull he was very disappointed that I had arrived. He said it was the best one he had seen and if I had only waited a day longer he would have had it as it was the only place he had not visited. This luck encouraged me so I stayed a few days but only found a tooth in this same hill and a bone about one mile north of this spot.

The skull of a new fossil hawk from the Oligocene beds of South Dakota was the most important find of the 1932 expedition from the Museum of Paleontology. Another fortunate discovery of this season was a specimen of the land turtle Stylemys with the bones of the feet, most of the limbs, the girdles, the neck, and the tail preserved.

In the summer of 1933, a joint expedition from the Museum of Paleontology and the Museum of Comparative Zoology spent some weeks in the Permo-Carboniferous beds of north-central Texas. In the course of the work, Buettner discovered a slab containing sixteen skulls of the amphibian Trimerorhachis. In the laboratory seven were removed, four of these were sent to the Museum of Comparative Zoology and three were used for detailed study. The balance of the slab was placed on exhibit. Near Dundee, in Archer County, Buettner collected the remains of many small fish from the Permian, Wichita formation. By piecing the fragments together, Case was able to reconstruct the skeleton. It proved to be a new paleoniscid fish, Eurylepidoides socialis.

It is always a satisfaction to recover an anatomically complete skeleton of a form that has previously been known only from fragmentary material. Such good fortune came to the expedition from the Museum in 1938 when a nearly complete turtle skeleton in the Upper Cretaceous, Lance beds, near Fort Peck, Montana, was found. The party was engaged in the excavation of a dinosaur when a visitor, Mr. Ralph Nichols, of Salmon, Idaho, discovered a turtle in a sand deposit approximately 100 feet above the bed in which they were working. Case subsequently identified it as a species of the genus Eubaëna.

The summer of 1938 was the last of Case's expeditions in search of fossils. That summer the Museum's field party, consisting of Case, Buettner, and John A. Wilson, collected the great semiaquatic dinosaur, Anatosaurus (previously called Trachodon), which was to become the most spectacular exhibit in the Hall of Evolution in the Museum. It was found in the Hell Creek beds of Upper Cretaceous age near Fort Peck, Montana. The removal of the bones took two months, and more than four tons Page  1498of material was shipped to the Museum. It took three years of Buettner's time in the laboratory to prepare and mount the specimen for exhibit.

Numerous vertebrate fossils from Michigan were brought to the Museum of Paleontology during the Case period. Nine mammoths (two from Eaton County and one each from Newaygo, Livingston, Montcalm, Lenawee, Cass, Ionia, and Wayne counties), and fifteen mastodons (three from Berrien County, two each from Lenawee and Jackson counties, and one each from Washtenaw, Eaton, Monroe, St. Joseph, Shiawassee, Genesee, Wayne, and Saginaw counties) were received. In August, 1915, the Museum acquired a nearly complete skull of the extinct musk ox Symbos cavifrons. It is the most perfect skull of the fossil musk ox in existence. The specimen was found about three miles northeast of Manchester, Michigan. Specimens of armored fish of Devonian age were collected in 1930 at Rockport in Alpena County. The subocular plate of another Devonian arthrodire, Dinicthys, from Squaw Basin, in Alpena County, was given to the Museum in 1933. Remains of a Pleistocene horse (Equus) found in Reety Park in Manistee were purchased in 1934.

As a result of the geologic expeditions under the direction of L. B. Kellum, the Museum received large collections of invertebrate fossils from Mexico during this period. The Museum also acquired by gift three other important collections from Mexico: the East Coast Oil Company Collection in 1928, the Ohio-Mexico Oil Company Collection in 1933, and the Barker Collection of Foraminifera in 1937.

Other collections which should be mentioned either because of their size or the perfection of preservation or the rare occurrence of the specimens, are: the Day Collection, purchased before 1928; the Ford-Mitchell Collection of Recent and fossil crania and teeth, transferred from the Dental School to the Museum of Paleontology in 1928; the Hinshaw Collection, given to the Museum between 1926 and 1931 by H. H. Hinshaw of Alpena, Michigan; the Stuart Perry Collection, given to the Museum in 1931 by Stuart H. Perry of Adrian, Michigan; the Elliott Collection given by Mr. Willian J. Elliott of Spur, Texas, between 1934 and 1947; the Pettyes Collection, purchased in 1936; and the Gilbert O. Raasch Collection, purchased in 1938.

The series, Contributions from the Museum of Geology, was inaugurated in 1924 to provide a medium for the publication of papers based upon material in the Museum. The name of the series was changed in 1928 to Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology. Case was largely responsible for starting the new series. He and other members of the Geology Department had earlier published papers based on specimens in the Museum in the Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, in Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, and in scientific journals outside the University. The series was financed at first by the Graduate School. In 1938 the Committee on Scholarly Publications assumed this responsibility.

The Period Since 1941. — Since 1940 the Museum of Paleontology has been reorganized on a basis to promote its functions in the University. There has been continued growth of the collections, expansion of the staff, increase in the number of courses offered, a broadening and change in emphasis of the research program. Installation of public exhibits in paleontology has been transferred to the Section of Exhibits in the University Museums. Control of publication of the Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology has been placed in the hands of the Page  1499director and curatorial staff of the Museum. Field work has been established on a more continuing basis. In fourteen years, 10,770 catalogued items have been added, making a total of 33,040. Many thousands more have been accessioned and await study before being catalogued.

Upon the retirement of E. C. Case in 1941, L. B. Kellum was appointed Director of the Museum of Paleontology. The same year, the Board of Regents recorded and approved the transfer of the Museum of Paleontology from the Department of Geology in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, to a status similar to that of the other University museum units. Members of the Museum staff teaching in the Geology Department were placed on half time in the Museum and half time in the Department, thus clearly defining their responsibility to the curatorial and teaching functions. In September, 1941, Joseph Tracy Gregory (California '35, Ph.D. ibid. '38), a member of the staff of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, was appointed half-time Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology and half-time on the teaching staff of the Geology Department. Like that of E. C. Case his work had been on Permian and Triassic fossils in Texas. After one year he was drafted into the armed forces and was on leave from August, 1942, to April, 1946. After resuming his teaching and curatorial duties he resigned in June to accept an assistant professorship at Yale University. The vacancy thus created was filled in 1946 by the appointment of Claude William Hibbard (Kansas '34, Ph.D. Michigan '41) as Assistant Professor of Geology and Associate Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology. Hibbard's training and experience had been chiefly in late Cenozoic mammals. His research activities have continued mainly on Cenozoic stratigraphy and paleontology of the High Plains. His annual field trips to western Kansas and adjoining states have added an enormous number of small vertebrates and some larger ones to the Museum's collections. Many publications by Hibbard and his students have resulted from the study of this material. He was promoted to Curator in 1949.

William G. Fargo, of Jackson, Michigan, was made Honorary Curator of Paleozoology in 1943, in recognition of his work on the Pliocene Mollusca of Florida and his continued interest in and co-operation with the Museum. He identified the Museum's large collection of marine Pliocene Mollusca from the Caloosahatchee formation of Florida and deposited in the Museum many identified specimens from the St. Petersburg fauna. Mr. Fargo was the only honorary curator in the Museum of Paleontology.

The appointment of Erwin Charles Stumm (George Washington '32, Ph.D. Princeton '36), Associate Curator of Paleozoic Invertebrates, on a full-time basis in July, 1946, reflected a new policy of the University with regard to the Museums. The creation of the Advisory Board of the University Museums in 1945 had brought into the administration of the Museums a new group of University officers. They rejected the older theory that each division of the Museums should have a single curator, with an assistant of transient employment, and proposed that the Museums should offer a truly professional career to the members of the staff. Stumm's appointment was the first full-time academic appointment in the Museum of Paleontology. His research on the Museum's collections was chiefly on Paleozoic invertebrates from Michigan, including brachiopods, cystoids, trilobites, and corals. He was promoted to Curator of Paleozoic Invertebrates in 1952. Ehlers Page  1500and he published a number of papers on the corals of the Traverse Group in Michigan. They figured and redescribed many type specimens in the Winchell and Rominger collections.

With the growth of the oil fields of Michigan there developed a need for geologists trained in micropaleontology who could recognize, by means of their fossil content, the formations penetrated by the drill and determine the depths to possible producing horizons. In response to this need and to promote the development of the natural resources in the subsurface of the state, Robert Vernon Kesling (Ph.D. Illinois '49) in 1949 was appointed Associate Curator in the Museum, half-time in the Museum and half-time as Assistant Professor in the Geology Department. Kesling's field of specialization was the subclass Ostracoda of the Crustacea. He built up the Museum's collections in this group of organisms, and his research led to the discovery of many new species and genera. His many publications on the Ostracoda of Michigan are exquisitely illustrated with his own line drawings and superb photography. He was promoted to Curator of Micropaleontology in 1955.

Professor Emeritus E. C. Case continued his research in the Museum for nearly ten years after his retirement. In this period he completed a monograph on the Stegocephalia, published a paper on the parasphenoid bone in the vertebrate skull, and prepared a catalogue of the type and figured specimens of vertebrate fossils in the Museum of Paleontology. His final publication, entitled "The Dilemma of the Paleontologist," appeared in 1951. In it he explained that the contribution of the vertebrate paleontologist to the study of evolution is limited by the fact that only the hard parts of animals are ordinarily preserved in fossils and that the preservation of even these parts is imperfect. He might well have considered his own contributions to the stratigraphy and paleoecology of the past, where the paleontologist is on much firmer ground and where he has obtained more substantial and lasting results.

During this period the Museum received some notable collections. In 1940 the Hood Museum transferred to the Museum of Paleontology a large collection of invertebrate fossils which Alexander Winchell or his heirs had sold to Alma College. With it were two catalogues in Winchell's handwriting. Among the items listed were fossils collected by E. A. Strong at Taylor's Quarry, Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1871, and at Wilmington, Illinois; fossils collected by Rominger at Widder, Canada West, in 1865; and fossils collected by C. A. White at Burlington, Iowa, and elsewhere. The great majority of the specimens, however, had been collected by Winchell himself.

Besides the large collections of fossils made by the curators during their own field investigations, the Museum received by gift, exchange, and purchase many others, including a skeleton of Rhynchosaurus from the Triassic of southern Brazil, secured in 1942 on exchange from the Museum of Comparative Zoology; several collections of identified marine mollusks from the Pliocene and Miocene formations of Florida given by William G. Fargo, of Jackson, Michigan; in 1944 the collections of Roy L. Coville, a former student of the University of Michigan and former head of the Industrial Arts Department of the State Teachers College, Dickinson, North Dakota, consisting of well-preserved fossil plants and vertebrate animals from the Bad Lands of western North Dakota. In 1944 the Museum purchased four large silicified cycadoids from the Lower Cretaceous of Texas.

Vertebrates from Michigan are especially important records. Those acquired since 1940 include the remains of five Page  1501mammoths (from Midland, Lenawee, Barry, Washtenaw, and Shiawassee counties) and ten mastodons (three from Shiawassee County, two from Berrien County, and one each from Livingston, Genesee, Sanilac, Washtenaw, and Lenawee counties).

Other collections acquired in this period, which should be mentioned, are: the Raymond R. Hibbard Collection received by exchange between 1927 and 1954; the Southworth Collection purchased between 1935 and 1947; the Humphrey Collection, the gift of William E. Humphrey, between 1940 and 1954; the Reimann Collection, the gift of Irving G. Reimann, between 1947 and 1953; and the E. P. Wright Collection, given between 1952 and 1954 by Mr. and Mrs. Edward Poultney Wright of Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan.

The Hall of Evolution in the University Museums Building is devoted almost entirely to paleontological exhibits. The planning, preparation, and installation of these were the responsibility of the Museum of Paleontology prior to 1947, when Irving G. Reimann was appointed Prefect of Exhibits in the University Museums. The great duck-bill dinosaur skeleton collected in 1938 was installed in 1940-41. A large and beautifully preserved ammonite, Placenticeras meeki Boehm, from the Cretaceous of South Dakota, was made a complete exhibit in 1941-42. The pelvis of a dinosaur collected by the American Museum of Natural History in Wyoming was given to the University in 1939 and displayed in 1942-43. An exhibit of Oligocene insects in Baltic amber was also planned and installed in that year. A titanothere exhibit occupying two sections of the vertical cases was arranged in 1943-44. It consisted of a skull collected by Case in 1917 from the Bad Lands of South Dakota, a lower jaw from Wyoming received on exchange from the American Museum of Natural History, a complete pelvis collected near Orella, Nebraska, in 1936, and a small-scale restoration of the animal made by the Museum's artist.

The vertical mount of the Owosso mastodon which had been in preparation since 1944, was placed in the center of the hall in 1946-47. The Alcove of Fishes and the Alcove of Fossil Plants were completely rearranged by curators in the Museum of Paleontology in 1946 and 1947.

The principal change in the exhibits, which began in 1947, was the use of dioramas to show the animals as they appeared in life and the use of color to make exhibits more attractive. This reduced the space available for fossils on exhibit, and few actual fossilized specimens have been installed in the last eight years.

Prior to his retirement Professor Case was the sole member of the Editorial Board of the Contributions. In 1942 President Ruthven, on recommendation of the Committee on Scholarly Publications, appointed G. M. Ehlers, C. A. Arnold, and L. B. Kellum, chairman, members of the board. There has been no change in the membership since. In 1952 the Committee on Scholarly Publications was relieved of all responsibility for the Contributions, and funds for publication were appropriated by the Board of Regents to the Museum of Paleontology.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Case, Ermine C."A Census of the Determinable Genera of the Stegocephalia."Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., N.S., 35 (1946), Pt. 4: 325-420.
Case, Ermine C."An Endocranial Cast of a Phytosaur from the Upper Triassic Beds of Western Texas."Journ. Comp. Neurol., 45 (1928), No. 1: 161-68.
Case, Ermine C.Contrib. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich.,Page  1502 Vol. II, Nos. 4, 6, 11, 12; Vol. III, Nos. 1, 5, 8, 9, 11; Vol. IV, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14; Vol. V, No. 6; Vol. VI, Nos. 1, 10; Vol. IX, No. 5 (1925-51).
Case, Ermine C.Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., Nos. 12, 62, 82, 101 (1915-21).
Case, Ermine C.Papers Mich. Acad. Sci., Vol. 4: 419-24; Vol. 20: 449-54 (1924-35).
Case, Ermine C."Something about the Paleontological Collections in the University."Mich. Alum., 27 (1921), No. 5: 292-300.
Case, Ermine C."The Bloomfield Hills Mastodon."Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci., No. 4 (1935).
Case, Ermine C."Valuable Specimens Recently Added to the Paleontological Collections of the University."Mich. Alum., 21 (1915), No. 5: 248-50.
Clark, John M.James Hall of Albany, Geologist and Paleontologist 1811-1898. Albany, 1921.
Ehlers, George M., , and William E. Humphrey. "Revision of E. A. Strong's Species from the Mississippian Point Au Gres Limestone of Grand Rapids, Michigan."Contrib. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich., 6 (1944), No. 6: 113-30.
In Memoriam Edwin Atson Strong. Ypsilanti: Published by the Faculty of the Michigan State Normal College, 1920.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1940.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Utley, Henry M., , and Byron M. Cutcheon, Comp. The Class of Sixty-One, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1902.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, Acquisition Register. Current numbers 7869-9095.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, A. Winchell's Collection. Serial numbers 1-4875.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, Museum of the University of Michigan. Geology. Vol. I. Serial numbers 1-7868.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, Register of Stella Cabinet Belonging to Alexander Winchell. Vol. II, Feb. 1, 1885. Serial numbers 4876-7006.
Winchell, Alexander. Report, Historical and Statistical, on the Collections in Geology, Zoology and Botany in the Museum of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1864.
Winchell, Alexander. Report of Operations in the Museum of the University of Michigan in the Department of Geology, Zoology and Botany, and the Department of Archaeology and Ethnology. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1873.

THE MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY

THE Museum of Zoology is a research and teaching unit of the University for the study of the evolution, distribution, and systematic relationships of animals. Its collections comprise some 50,000 mammals, 110,000 birds, 130,000 reptiles and amphibians, 2,100,000 fish, 2,500,000 insects, and 2,000,000 mollusks, with the accompanying data essential for study. The collections are as notable for the wealth and accuracy of their field data as for the excellence of their representation of the respective groups, and they have given the Museum an international reputation as a center for graduate teaching and research in natural history.

The Museum occupies the first, second, and third floors and much of the basement in the north wing of the University Museums Building. The collections are housed in fireproof ranges designed for safe storage and ready access to any individual specimen or desired series. Complementing the ranges are staff offices and study rooms, aquarium and live-rooms, preparation rooms, divisional libraries, and a seminar and classroom, an over-all area of some 46,000 square feet. The staff includes a director and eleven curators, as well as research and student assistants, an artist for the illustration of its publications, and a small secretarial staff. The curators and the director have academic status in the Department of Zoology, and their duties are more or less equally divided between curatorial work, research, and teaching. These functions, indeed, are not separable in any real sense. The extensive collections and the data that accompany them are the essential tools for both research and teaching, and so long as they are in use require a continuing Page  1503curatorial process which, if it is at all competent, depends upon current as well as completed research.

The teaching is largely but not exclusively graduate. In addition to directing the doctoral studies of some thirty to forty students, staff members give courses and seminars in mammalogy, ornithology, herpetology, ichthyology, entomology, malacology, and systematics and supervise individual studies, which any qualified student may elect.

The Museum of Zoology is one of the University's oldest units for specialized research. Although its official existence as a separate unit dates from as late as 1912-13, its modern existence began in 1903, as a direct descendant of the University Museum of Natural History provided for in the enabling act of 1837. The transformation of the old Cabinet and later Museum of Natural History into a Museum of Zoology came in large part from the cumulative enthusiasm and efforts of three great naturalists who were successively in charge of the zoological part of the natural history collections.

The first, Professor Joseph Beal Steere ('68, '70l, Ph.D. hon. '75), Curator of the Museum from 1876 to 1894, was a pioneer student of animal geography. His zoological explorations in South America, the Philippines, and parts of the Dutch East Indies brought the first large accessions of study materials as contrasted with those for exhibit, and gave the Museum of Natural History a strong zoological bent. The second man, Charles Christopher Adams (Illinois Wesleyan '95, Ph.D. Chicago '06, Sc.D. Illinois Wesleyan '20), was brought to Michigan in 1903 by Jacob Reighard, Steere's successor as Professor of Zoology, to be Curator in charge of the Museum, because Reighard's own interests were in other fields. Adams was one of America's pioneer students of ecology and faunal relationships, and it was due to his interest that attention was turned to a detailed study of the Michigan fauna and an analysis of its ecological and geographic history and relationships. He instituted a series of faunistic and ecological surveys of the state and stressed the fact that abundant specimens and detailed field data are essential for the development of scientific natural history. The third man was Alexander Grant Ruthven (Morningside '03, Ph.D. Michigan '06, LL.D. California '38, D.H.C. Catholic University of Chile '44), Adams' student and chief lieutenant in the zoological explorations of the state and in 1906 his successor as Curator of the University Museum. Ruthven's own researches related the data and problems of geographic distribution with those of ecological adaptation. He conceived of both as playing a part in racial differentiation and speciation. To him museum collections and data were one of the essential tools for deciphering the course and much of the mechanism of evolution, and a sine qua non for the construction of a systematics that could aspire to an accurate presentation of taxonomical relationships. Ruthven's twenty-three years of leadership — until 1929, when he resigned to accept the presidency of the University — were devoted to developing the Museum for this purpose and gave it its peculiar status as a university museum for research and teaching.

In 1909 the geological material was transferred to the Department of Geology, leaving only the zoological and anthropological collections in the custody of the University Museum. The anthropological specimens, although accumulating and cared for, were inactive, held in trust for a future museum of anthropology. In 1913 the Regents, in view of the restricted scope of the collections and the active interest in zoological research, formally recognized the Museum of Zoology as a separate administrative Page  1504unit, with Ruthven as Director. In reviewing this action in his Report for 1912-13, Ruthven stated:

This distinctly separates the museum from all other departments in the university, placing it upon the same footing as the General Library, and definitely fixes the responsibility for its development upon the person directly in charge.

The museum is now in position to pursue energetically the policy that has been adopted in recent years. Briefly, this policy requires that primary attention be given to the preservation of materials for the study of the Michigan fauna, that limited explorations be made outside of the state for the purpose of acquiring material for illustration and comparison, that schools and working naturalists in the state receive such assistance as can be rendered them, and that as much research work as possible be done on local problems and in the general fields in which the members of the staff have specialized.

The staff of the newly recognized Museum of Zoology consisted of Alexander G. Ruthven, Director, Norman A. Wood, Curator of Birds, Bryant Walker, Honorary Curator of Mollusca, William W. Newcomb, Honorary Curator of Lepidoptera, Arthur S. Pearse, Honorary Curator of Crustacea, Etta Van Horn, Administrative Assistant, Crystal Thompson, Scientific Assistant in Charge of Fish and Invertebrates, Helen Thompson, Scientific Assistant in Charge of Amphibians and Reptiles, Bradshaw H. Swales, Associate in Ornithology, Arthur W. Andrews, Associate in Entomology, and Charles K. Dodge, Associate in Botany. Wood, who was to become the dean of Michigan ornithology, began his association with the Museum in 1895 as a taxidermist, employed to mount the birds of the Steere Collection, but his innate abilities and rapid development as an ornithologist and field naturalist made his appointment as Curator of Birds a particularly happy one.

Helen Thompson, later Helen T. (Mrs. Frederick M.) Gaige, and Crystal Thompson had been associated with the Museum since 1911 as students of natural history and had won a place on the staff by their enthusiasm and competence. Walker, Newcomb, Pearse, Swales, Andrews, and Dodge held honorary appointments that recognized their deep interest in natural history and their enthusiastic response to the opportunity to share in a program of field and museum studies. Of these only Pearse was a professional zoologist, then at the beginning of an academic career that was to lead to professorships at Wisconsin and Duke and recognition in the development of ecology in America. Bryant Walker was a Detroit attorney who had already won as high a place in his avocation of malacology as in his profession as a corporation lawyer. Newcomb was a physician, living first in Detroit and then in Ann Arbor, with an enduring interest in the Lepidoptera; Swales, a Detroit and later a Washington, D. C., attorney, found time to carry on studies on the natural history of birds, and Andrews, a master cabinet-maker, became a serious student of the Coleoptera and for many years contributed greatly to a knowledge of the insect fauna of Michigan. Dodge, a customs collector at Port Huron, had made himself an authority on the botany of Michigan and had developed an extraordinary knowledge of plants in the field. He continued to add to knowledge of the Michigan flora until his death in 1918. This group of professionally competent amateurs who participated in the councils of the Museum took part in its program of studies and established a strong tradition of the peculiar worth of gifted and devoted amateurs in the maintenance of an esprit de corps and as associates in museum research.

Walker and Newcomb had been generous Page  1505in support of the earlier biological explorations carried on by Adams and Ruthven. The expeditions to Isle Royale and the Porcupine Mountains in 1904 and 1905 and the field work in 1907 in Iowa by Ruthven and Max Peet, in Dickinson County in 1909 and in Veracruz, Mexico, in 1910 by Ruthven and H. B. Baker were made possible by their financial support. These expeditions by Adams and Ruthven, the 1908 state-supported field work in Huron County, and the Mershon expeditions to the Charity Islands in Lake Huron in 1910-11 had an essential part in the emergence of the Museum of Zoology.

Its reorganization as a separate department was a stimulus to increased activity. Thanks very largely to the continued generous support of Walker, Newcomb, and Swales, field work in Michigan and in regions outside the state was carried out on an extensive scale. Expeditions were sent to the Maggie Basin in Nevada in 1912, to southern Illinois and to the Santa Marta Mountains of Colombia in 1913, to British Guiana and the Davis Mountains of Texas in 1914, to Schoolcraft County in Michigan in 1915, to the Davis Mountains again and to the Appalachians of North Carolina in 1916. George Shiras, of Marquette, provided for museum field work at Whitefish Point on Lake Superior in Chippewa County in 1912, 1913, and 1916, in Alger County in 1916, and, with Bryant Walker, supported field parties in Berrien County in 1917.

In 1913, through the support of Walker, Swales, and Newcomb, the Occasional Papers, the Museum's first scientific series, was begun. In the same year Frederick Mahon Gaige ('14) was added to the staff as Scientific Assistant in Charge of Insects, and in 1914 George R. LaRue of the Department of Zoology was made Honorary Curator of Parasitic Worms. In 1916, with the support of Walker, Swales, and Newcomb, the second scientific series of the Museum, the Miscellaneous Publications, was established. This year is also memorable for the appointment of Edward Bruce Williamson (Ohio State '95) as Honorary Curator of Odonata. Williamson, a banker and horticulturist of Bluffton, Indiana, was a student of the dragonflies. Like Bryant Walker he was an amateur who had achieved an international reputation as an authority in his field, and, like Walker, he contributed greatly to the Museum's growing scientific reputation.

In 1916-17 much progress was made toward the present organization of the Museum into divisions: a Division of Birds and Mammals with Wood as Curator and Swales as Honorary Associate Curator in Ornithology; a Division of Reptiles and Amphibians with Ruthven as Curator and Crystal Thompson and Helen T. Gaige as scientific assistants; a Division of Insects with Frederick M. Gaige as Curator, Newcomb as Honorary Curator of Lepidoptera, Williamson as Honorary Curator of Odonata, and Andrews as Honorary Associate Curator in Entomology; a Division of Mollusks with Mina Winslow as Scientific Assistant in charge and Bryant Walker as Honorary Curator; a Division of Crustaceans with Pearse as Honorary Curator; a Division of Parasitic Worms with LaRue as Honorary Curator; and a Division of Botany with Dodge as Honorary Associate Curator. Such provision as could be made for a collection of fishes was for the time assumed by the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians.

The next year Mrs. Gaige was made Assistant to the Director, and three new honorary associate curators were appointed: Cecil Billington, of Detroit, in botany, Calvin Goodrich, of Toledo, in mollusks, and James Speed Rogers, of Page  1506Guilford College, North Carolina, for the order Diptera. In 1919 Miss Winslow was made Curator of Mollusks, Mrs. Gaige became Assistant Curator of Reptiles and Amphibians as well as Assistant to the Director, and Lee R. Dice was brought in as Curator of Mammals. The earlier Division of Birds and Mammals was split into separate divisions of Birds and of Mammals, with Wood and Swales now responsible for the bird collection. In 1920 a Division of Fishes was created. Carl L. Hubbs, following Walter N. Koelz, took over the then modest collection of fishes that had been cared for by the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians — a collection accumulated chiefly through the work of Professor T. L. Hankinson, Professor Jacob Reighard, and Walter N. Koelz.

In 1921 the Section of Botany was transferred to the newly formed University Herbarium. This left the Museum with six major divisions — Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians, Fishes, Insects, and Mollusks, each with a full-time curator — and with two minor divisions that were essentially repositories for incidental collections of Crustacea and parasitic worms.

The growth of the collections, which had been continuous since the inauguration of the early surveys by Adams in 1903, began to accelerate markedly with reorganization of the Museum of Zoology in 1913. The intensive investigation of Michigan's fauna had continued with more emphasis on ecological relationships and correlation with the detailed physical and historical geography of the state. Each of the divisions was also studying the distribution and ecological relationships of particular groups or faunas and sending field parties on expeditions into South America, Central America, Mexico, the mountain and desert regions of the western United States, such peculiarly isolated faunal areas as the Davis Mountains of Texas and the Olympics of Washington, and present and former river drainage systems of North America. Much work was also done by staff members in collaboration with special biological surveys of other states, and all of this added to the growth of the collections and to their increasing adequacy for research and teaching.

By 1920 the old Museum Building was outgrown and an overflow into other quarters began. Several rooms in the Natural Science Building were made available for the Division of Fishes, but these were soon inadequate, and "annexes" helped to meet the increasing need for space — part of the third floor of the Old Medical Building and a succession of frame houses acquired by the University in plans for campus expansion.

In 1925 the legislature appropriated funds for a University Museums Building. This was not ready for occupancy until 1928, but the congestion in the old Museum Building and its annexes was made more endurable in the knowledge that adequate quarters were in prospect.

Both Adams and Ruthven thought of collections as essential tools for the investigation of an important group of broadly related problems: the bearing of geography and geological history on present and past distribution of animal species and faunas; the interaction in nature between animal populations and the kind and availability of habitats suitable for their needs. This was an aspect of natural history of common importance to many fields of theoretical and applied biology, but badly limited by the dearth of truly extensive and sufficiently documented collections of actual specimens. Because of the multiplicity of animal forms and their intricate patterns of distribution and interrelationship, the amassing of adequate collections can at best be only a gradual process, and, because of its Page  1507complexity, can proceed only by alternating the study of collections at hand with fresh excursions afield to fill discovered gaps in collections and data.

This concept loomed large in maintaining the support that had come from Walker, Williamson, and other honorary curators and had long been one of Ruthven's basic teachings. His essays on "Geography in Museums of Zoology," "Systematic Zoology in Museums," "The Relation of the Museum to the High Schools and Grade Schools of the State," and "Some Considerations Pertinent to the Development of a Museum Policy," in his Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology for the years 1920-26, attest this broadly conceived idea of the role of a University museum.

The years 1925-28 were especially busy ones. In addition to the nearly normal programs of expeditions, research, and curatorial work, the translating of long-developed ideas of specimen ranges, live rooms, aquaria, divisional libraries, and laboratory-offices into working plans, and the designing of the special equipment and of the uniquely accessible shelving for the huge reptile and amphibian and fish collections were completed, and 1928 brought the huge task of installing the collections in their new quarters.

The new building, which included space for the University Herbarium, the Museum of Anthropology, the Museum of Paleontology, and a Section of Exhibits, as well as for the Museum of Zoology, was a notable example of pleasing highly functional museum planning and construction. The needs of the growing Museum of Zoology for the ensuing twenty-five years were, on the whole, admirably anticipated, and only within the past few years has the Museum again begun to feel the limitations of increasingly crowded quarters.

The fiscal year 1927-28 was marked by a number of important changes in staff. Ruthven was appointed to the newly created post of Director of University Museums, Gaige was made Assistant Director of the Museum of Zoology and Mrs. Gaige Assistant to the Director of University Museums. All of these appointments were in addition to those previously held. New personnel included Josselyn Van Tyne, Assistant Curator, Bird Division, Grace Eager, Museum Artist, William G. Fargo, of Jackson, Honorary Curator of Birds, and William P. Harris, of Grosse Pointe, Honorary Associate Curator of Mammals. The year also brought the loss by death of Bradshaw H. Swales, Honorary Associate Curator of Birds since 1912.

The next year was Ruthven's last as Director of the Museum of Zoology. His appointment to the directorship of the University Museums had been a part of the long-planned organization of natural history museums in the University, and had been conceived as an extension of his extraordinarily fruitful development and administration of the Museum of Zoology; but in the same month (June, 1928) in which the new Museum was formally dedicated the Regents asked him to act as Dean of Administration for the University. In June, 1929, following the resignation of President Little, the Regents requested that he "divest himself so far as possible, for the present, of his responsibilities centering about the Museum and the Department of Zoology" and that he "allow his resignation as Dean of Administration, which he had desired to have the Board consider, to lie upon the table" (R.P., 1926-29, p. 1017). Then, in October of 1929, he was asked to accept the presidency of the University.

Ruthven hoped to keep his close association with the Museum, and he retained his positions, Director of University Museums and Curator of Reptiles Page  1508in the Museum of Zoology, as long as there was any hope that the duties of the presidency could be lightened sufficiently to allow a part-time return to herpetological research and museum policies. Instead, he was soon faced with the problems of University administration in a great depression and then in World War II.

The problem of filling the directorship of the Museum of Zoology was chiefly one of persuading Gaige to accept administrative duties at the expense of his research and concern with the Insect Division. He had been associated with the Museum since 1908, and had been a member of many of its expeditions. He had been Curator of Insects since 1916 and had not only assisted Ruthven in the development of the Museum, but his extraordinarily broad knowledge of natural history, its literature and workers, and his unselfish loyalty to the Museum made his appointment in November, 1929, a happy one.

Gaige's first Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology for the year ending June, 1929, issued early in 1930, lists the following staff:

    Museum Faculty
  • Alexander G. Ruthven, Director of University Museums
  • Frederick M. Gaige, Director of Museum of Zoology
  • Helen T. Gaige, Assistant to Director of University Museums
  • Geneva Smithe, Secretary of University Museums
  • Crystal Thompson, Curator of Department of Visual Education
  • Kimber C. Kuster, Librarian
  • Morley W. Williams, Superintendent of Building
    Scientific Staff
    • Division of Mammals
    • Lee R. Dice, Curator
    • William P. Harris, Jr., Associate Curator
    • Adolph Murie, Assistant Curator
    • Ruth D. Svihla, Assistant
    • Division of Birds
    • Norman A. Wood, Curator
    • Josselyn Van Tyne, Assistant Curator
    • William G. Fargo, Honorary Curator
    • Walter E. Hastings, Custodian of Birds' Eggs
    • Division of Reptiles and Amphibians
    • Alexander G. Ruthven, Curator of Reptiles
    • Helen Thompson Gaige, Curator of Amphibians
    • Howard A. Kelly, Honorary Curator
    • Norman E. Hartweg, Assistant
    • Division of Fishes
    • Carl L. Hubbs, Curator
    • Walter Koelz, Assistant Curator
    • Laura C. Hubbs, Cataloguer
    • Division of Insects
    • Frederick M. Gaige, Curator
    • E. B. Williamson, Research Associate
    • Samuel A. Graham, Research Associate
    • William W. Newcomb, Honorary Curator of Lepidoptera
    • Sherman Moore, Associate Curator of Lepidoptera
    • James Speed Rogers, Associate Curator of Diptera
    • Arthur W. Andrews, Associate Curator of Coleoptera
    • Ada Olson, Assistant
    • Division of Mollusks
    • Mina L. Winslow, Curator
    • Calvin Goodrich, Assistant Curator
    • Bryant Walker, Honorary Curator
    • Ruth Morris, Assistant
    • Division of Crustaceans
    • Edwin P. Creaser, Assistant in Charge
    • Division of Annelids
    • Frank Smith, Honorary Curator
    • Division of Parasitic Worms
    • George R. LaRue, Research Associate
    • Division of Protozoans
    • Dora S. Lemon, Custodian
  • Page  1509
      Division of Extension
    • Crystal Thompson, Curator
    • Technical Staff
    • Carleton W. Angell, Sculptor, University Museums
    • Grace Eager, Artist
    • James Wood, Preparator
    • A. Russell Powell, in charge of shop
    • Elsa Hertz, Telephone and Information Clerk

Of the eleven divisions listed in the report, the first six — Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians, Fishes, Insects, and Mollusks — were strongly entrenched with extensive and rapidly growing research collections, full-time staffs, and expanding research and teaching programs. With the exception of the Fish Division their origins had antedated the organization of the Museum into divisions.

The divisions of Crustaceans, Annelids, Parasitic Worms, and Protozoans were set up as tentative trials of the feasibility of establishing such collections without continued curatorial care, solely with the interested collaboration of honorary curators. The Division of Crustaceans owed its origin to Professor A. S. Pearse of the Zoology Department, an interest and collaboration that continued for several years after Pearse left Michigan. In 1929 the division was reactivated with the appointment of Edwin P. Creaser, a graduate student of crayfishes, as Assistant in Charge. He was promoted to Curator in 1933 and resigned in the same year. No further curatorial appointments were made. During and following Creaser's curatorial activity the crustacean collection grew considerably. It remained inactive, however, and in 1950 the Museum obtained permission of the Regents to present it to the National Museum, where it is assured of continued accessibility to workers in this group.

The divisions of Annelids, Parasitic Worms, and Protozoa had an even briefer existence than that of Crustaceans, and none survived the interest and collaboration of their honorary curators or custodians. The collection of parasitic worms built up by Professor George R. LaRue and his students, of the Department of Zoology, was transferred to the Bureau of Parasitology, Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland. This was done at LaRue's request when, in 1949, he retired and moved to Beltsville to continue his studies in helminthology.

The Division of Extension was later combined with the Department of Visual Education and transferred to the University Museums. Both extension and visual education were under the direction of Crystal Thompson and formed the basis for the present Section of Exhibits of the University Museums.

The year 1930 was notable for the gift of the Edwin S. George Reserve to the University. The Reserve, a tract of approximately two square miles of rolling knob-and-basin topography with extensive areas of woods, old fields, marshes, and swamps, providing a wide range of animal and plant habitats of southern Michigan, was accepted as a native wildlife preserve to be administered by the Museum of Zoology. It has proved a magnificent laboratory in natural history not only for the study of an abundant natural biota but as an area where field studies may be carried on safe from the interference of fires, tillage, trespass, or change of ownership.

Gaige's directorship extended from 1929 until August, 1945, through the difficult depression years of the 1930's and World War II. Although he never lost his distaste for the routine forms and minutiae of administration he carried on as Director through the academic disruption of the war years, but a few weeks Page  1510after the final surrender of Japan he resigned both the directorship and the curatorship of the Insect Division. Mrs. Gaige resigned as Curator of Amphibians on the same date, and the double loss was severely felt by the entire Museum. Gaige's outstanding contributions as Director had been his loyal support of his staff and the example of his extraordinarily broad knowledge of natural history. The friendship and moral and material support that he and Mrs. Gaige gave to so many beginning and often uncertain younger naturalists became a tradition to a whole generation of museum students. William H. Burt, Curator of Mammals and chairman of the Museum's Executive Committee, served as administrative head from the time of Gaige's resignation until 1947, when James Speed Rogers, ('15, Ph.D. '31), Honorary Associate Curator of Diptera since 1918, a former student of both Ruthven and Gaige, and Professor of Biology at the University of Florida since 1922, was appointed Director.

The account of the Museum since 1929 can best be related in a brief review of the divisions.

Mammals. — The establishment of a separate division for mammals dates from 1919, when Dr. Lee Raymond Dice (Stanford '11, Ph.D. California '15) was appointed Mammalogist and took over the mammal collection that until then had been the responsibility of the Curator of Birds. The first objectives set by Dice were the rounding out of the modest and rather random collection and intensive field work on the mammals of Michigan. This was soon supplemented by field work in other areas pertinent to the needs of the collection and to the interests of the curator, and special attention was given to the hares, rabbits, and coneys.

In 1927 the enthusiastic co-operation of William P. Harris, of Grosse Pointe, was recognized by his appointment as Honorary Associate Curator, a relationship that continued to be a most happy one for the Museum. His studies on the North American squirrels and the generous sponsorship he has given through the Harris Fellowship in Mammalogy, the purchase of specimens, and the support of expeditions have greatly aided the division. In 1931 Philip M. Blossom was appointed Honorary Associate Curator. He contributed materially to the stature of the Museum, particularly in his work in the Southwest on desert mammals.

Dice became particularly interested in the bearing of genetics and ecological factors on the evolutionary relationships of wild mammal populations and increasingly preoccupied with his own important researches in these fields. Breeding stocks of wild rodents were established to test the inheritance of characters used in systematics, and a long series of breeding experiments was planned and carried out on crosses between taxonomically distinct races and species. This work was greatly furthered by the gift of the breeding stocks studied by Sumner at the University of California at La Jolla, and by close co-operation with the Laboratory of Mammalian Genetics.

In 1929 Adolph Murie (Concordia '25, Ph.D. Michigan '29), who had taken his doctorate in mammalogy under Dice, was appointed Assistant Curator and took over much of the responsibility for the general mammal collection. He was succeeded by Seth B. Benson in 1934-35, and Benson by William Henry Burt (Kansas '26, Ph.D. California '30) in 1935.

In 1934 Dice was also made Director of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics, and in 1938 he resigned as Curator of Mammals to direct the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics. Burt was made Page  1511Curator of Mammals, and Dice became Honorary Associate Curator, a position he continued to hold until 1946.

In 1938 Emmet Thurman Hooper (California '33, Ph.D. '39) was appointed Assistant Curator of Mammals, becoming Associate Curator in 1946. Under Burt and Hooper the division has continued to expand and to maintain an active program. Burt's own researches and those of his students have been chiefly in the ecology of wild populations, especially the behaviors associated with home ranges and other manifestations of territoriality. Hooper's studies have centered chiefly about the derivation and relationships of the mammal fauna of Mexico, particularly the geographic factors in speciation and evolution.

Much of Burt's and Hooper's concern has been to add to the knowledge and appreciation of Michigan's mammal fauna and resources, a project that has been popularly summarized in Burt's The Mammals of Michigan.

Birds. — The bird collection had been the special concern of Norman A. Wood in the days of the old Museum when Wood was employed as a taxidermist for the birds of the Steere Collection. Adams recognized Wood's ability and intimate knowledge of birds and gave him the responsibility for ornithology in the expeditions to the Porcupine Mountains and Isle Royale. Under Ruthven, Wood carried on studies of migration at Point Pelee, Ontario, and continued to be responsible for both ornithological field work and the care of the bird collection, a status that was officially recognized by his appointment as Curator in 1911.

The division was also fortunate in the support it continued to receive from honorary curators and other collaborators. Bradshaw H. Swales was Honorary Curator from 1912 until his death in 1928, Walter E. Hastings, Custodian of Birds' Eggs from 1921-32, and William G. Fargo, Honorary Curator from 1927 to 1943. Fargo, a civil engineer, has since 1926 given much support to the division by his own field work, the purchase of extensive collections, and generous financial aid for expeditions. Other longtime collaborators and generous sponsors were Dr. Max M. Peet of the University's surgical staff, an enthusiastic student and collector of birds since his early student days, A. D. Tinker, of Ann Arbor, and the Michigan Department of Conservation.

Josselyn Van Tyne (Harvard '25, Ph.D. Michigan '28) was appointed Assistant Curator in 1928 and Curator in 1931; in 1933 Wood, after some forty years of continuous studies, chiefly on the birds of Michigan, was made Curator Emeritus. William Pierce Brodkorb (Illinois '33, Ph.D. Michigan '36) was appointed Assistant Curator in 1936, a position he held until 1946. He was succeeded by Joseph James Hickey (New York Univ. '30, Ph.D. Michigan '49). After Hickey's resignation George Miksch Sutton (Bethany College, '23, Ph.D. Cornell '32) was appointed Curator, half time, reserving the remainder of his time for his bird paintings and illustrations. In 1949 Sutton resigned the curatorship to devote himself to his illustrations and research but remained as Research Consultant until he resigned in 1952 to accept a professorship at the University of Oklahoma. In 1949 Robert W. Storer (Princeton '36, Ph.D. California '49) was appointed Assistant Curator.

The collections of the Bird Division have been guided largely by three chief objectives: the development and maintenance of an exhaustive and precisely documented representation of Michigan and North American birds, an adequate synoptic collection of the families and genera of the birds of the world, and the Page  1512establishment of strong research collections in those groups of especial interest to the staff. Much attention is also given to assembling adequate skeletal and other anatomical series needed for the critical revision of familial and intergeneric relationships.

Even so brief a review of the Bird Division would be remiss if it failed to stress the indefatigable work of Van Tyne in building up the increasingly adequate research collection and the outstanding ornithological library that so greatly facilitates the work of the division. An exceptional series of gifts has contributed greatly to the growth of the division. Among the more notable gifts have been the Walter Koelz collection of 3,350 specimens, one of the many important gifts of William Fargo; the huge collection of Dr. Max M. Peet, extraordinarily rich in many rare species and series, the gift of Mrs. Max M. Peet; the Shufeldt collection of Mexican birds; and the extensive collections made in Costa Rica by Paul Slud.

Reptiles and Amphibians. — The cold-blooded vertebrates had received scant attention in the Museum prior to the Isle Royale expeditions of 1904 and 1905, when Ruthven began an intensive study of Michigan herpetology. By 1910 he had the enthusiastic collaboration of Helen Thompson (later Mrs. F. M. Gaige) and Crystal Thompson. They had accumulated sufficient collections and data by 1912 to publish the first Herpetology of Michigan, in which forty-four species of reptiles and eighteen of amphibians were recorded from the state.

Although the concern with Michigan fauna continued to be a primary interest of the division, explorations were carried much farther afield. The Maggie Basin of Nevada was visited in 1912, and in 1913 the expedition to the Santa Marta Mountains of Colombia initiated the series of trips to northern South America, Central America, and Mexico that were to give the Museum notable collections of a rich neotropical fauna on which Ruthven, Mrs. Gaige, and their students were to base a long series of important papers.

By 1917, when the organization of the Museum into divisions was begun, the reptile and amphibian collections were already extensive and important, and the Museum had acquired a reputation as a strong center of herpetological research. In 1918 Mrs. Gaige was made Assistant Curator, and in the same year Frank N. Blanchard began a doctoral problem under Ruthven on the kingsnakes of the genus Lampropeltis. This was the beginning of a program of graduate teaching and research in which a large proportion of the American workers in herpetology of the present generation were trained.

The excellence and efficiency of this training, and Ruthven's ability to keep in touch with it so long after he had become President of the University, owed much to the long and close co-operation between Ruthven and Mrs. Gaige. In 1927 Ruthven became Curator of Reptiles and Mrs. Gaige Curator of Amphibians, an arrangement that recognized Mrs. Gaige's share in the work and research of the division. Within a little more than a year, however, it was necessary for Mrs. Gaige to assume curatorial care of the entire division and to take increasing responsibility for much of the direction of graduate instruction.

Norman Hartweg ('30, Ph.D. '34) was added to the staff as Assistant Curator in 1934 and became Associate Curator in 1942. In 1945, after Mrs. Gaige's resignation, Hartweg was given charge of the division and was made Curator in 1946. In 1947 Charles Frederic Walker (Ohio State '30, Ph.D. Michigan '35), formerly associate professor at Ohio State University, became Associate Curator.

Both Hartweg and Walker obtained Page  1513their doctorates under Ruthven and Mrs. Gaige, and they have continued the old traditions as far as has been practicable with an expanding teaching program and an ever-growing collection. Hartweg's primary research interests have been largely with turtles, Walker's with the amphibians, but their students' researches have included almost the entire taxonomic range of herpetology.

Fishes. — The small fish collection accumulated over the years was augmented in 1919 by the gift from the U. S. Fish Commission of some 3,000 specimens from the Great Lakes region, consisting largely of whitefishes collected by Walter Norman Koelz (Olivet '15, Ph.D. Michigan '20) in furtherance of his monographic study of that group. Koelz was appointed Curator of Fishes by the Regents in December, 1919, but left the following March to take a position with the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. Carl Leavitt Hubbs (Stanford '16, Ph.D. Michigan '27), a student of Charles Henry Gilbert and protégé of David Starr Jordan at Stanford, assumed the curatorship in July, 1920, and the present Division of Fishes, with its unrivaled collection of North American freshwater fishes and excellent synoptic representation of other faunas, is largely a monument to his untiring energy, enthusiasm, and ability.

There was no room for another collection in the overcrowded old Museum Building. Instead, temporary and often makeshift quarters were found. Two rooms provided in the new Natural Science Building in 1919 were outgrown by 1921, and the collections were moved to the Museum Annex, a frame house on East University Avenue, then into rooms in the old Medical Building, and once more into the Natural Science Building. In spite of handicaps the collections grew rapidly. The first concern was to build up the Michigan collection, and the first two years were devoted to this objective.

Of the more than 50,000 specimens accessioned for 1922-23, some 18,000 were taken by Hubbs in California, a large collection was obtained in North Dakota by T. L. Hankinson, Professor at the Michigan State Normal College and a long-time collaborator, and approximately 20,000 specimens from Michigan or the Great Lakes were received through the co-operation of the United States Bureau of Fisheries and by the field work of Hubbs and his students. Hubbs had remarkable success in obtaining active co-operation from other individuals and institutions, in large part because of the essential aid he provided in making taxonomic determinations and the sound practical suggestions which he was able and willing to give to workers on fishery problems and surveys. As a consequence the division became a repository for many of the collections made by state surveys, the Great Lakes section of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, and many independent workers. The co-operation with the Michigan Department of Conservation and the Great Lakes Division of the Bureau of Fisheries has continued to be especially close and important.

In 1925 Jan Metzelaar (Sc.D. Amsterdam '19), fishery expert for the Michigan Department of Conservation, was made Honorary Custodian of Michigan Fishes, in recognition of his work with the Fish Division since 1923. This continued until his untimely death, by drowning, in 1929 while engaged in fishery investigations. In 1927 Mrs Laura C. Hubbs received appointment as Cataloguer of Fishes, in view of her work as a volunteer, and in 1929 Walter Koelz returned as Assistant Curator of Fishes.

Hubbs organized the Institute for Fisheries Research in 1930 under the sponsorship and with the support of the Michigan Department of Conservation and was its director until 1935, as well as Curator of the Fish Division.

Page  1514Koelz resigned as Assistant Curator to accept the post of Ichthyologist in the Institute, and Carroll Willard Greene ('25, Ph.D. '34) was made Assistant Curator.

Hubbs's broad interest in the evolution and systematics of fish had brought him in contact with the problem of hybridization in nature, a question of great theoretical importance in systematics and evolution and one that is particularly pertinent and pressing in ichthyology. In 1927 he began a series of breeding experiments to test the possibilities, limits, and results of crossing taxonomically distinct forms, experiments that were soon expanded to the capacity of the aquarium room in the new building. The long series of aquarium investigations, in which Mrs. Hubbs and his graduate students were important collaborators, was supplemented by extensive and detailed analyses of hybridization in nature, based upon studies of many extensive series and of ecological and geographic factors. These investigations, continued until 1944, resulted in a number of publications of marked importance in general systematics and evolutionary theory as well as in fish taxonomy.

The studies on hybridization did not lessen the other activities of the division. The collections continued to expand with attention both to taxonomic representation and to the correlation of distribution with present and former drainage systems. Staff and student publications on this accumulating material appeared as reports on regional faunas and on ecological and geographic distribution, as descriptions of new forms and groups, and as taxonomic revisions of genera and families.

In 1930 Greene resigned as Assistant Curator and was replaced by John Greeley (Cornell '25, Ph.D. ibid. '30), until 1934, when he became ichthyologist for the New York Department of Conservation. He was replaced by Miltion Bernhard Trautman, who resigned in 1939 to accept a post with the Franz Theodore Stone Laboratory at Put-in-Bay, Ohio. The position of Assistant Curator was not continued after Trautman's resignation; instead, provision was increased for graduate assistantships. Hubbs resigned in 1944 and accepted a professorship of biology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at La Jolla, California, having served twenty-four years as Curator of Fishes. In that time the collections had grown from 5,000 to almost 2,100,000 specimens, the Museum had become the outstanding center for the systematics of North American fishes, and more than forty graduate students had received training in ichthyology or fishery biology.

Reeve Maclaren Bailey ('33, Ph.D. '38), who had been assistant professor at Iowa State College and head of the Iowa Fisheries Research Unit, was appointed Associate Curator to replace Hubbs in 1944, and William Alonzo Gosline III (Harvard '38, Ph.D. Stanford '41) was added to the staff as Assistant Curator in 1945. Bailey was promoted to Curator in 1948, and, also in 1948, when Gosline resigned to accept a professorship in zoology at the University of Hawaii, Robert Rush Miller (California, '38, Ph.D. Michigan '44), formerly associate curator at the National Museum, was appointed Associate Curator.

Both Bailey and Miller were trained in the Hubbs tradition, having completed their doctorates under his direction. They have continued the program of staff and student research based upon the rich store of material and have carried on extensive field explorations to fill gaps in geographic, ecological, and taxonomic coverage.

Insects. — The organization of this collection dates from 1913, when Frederick M. Gaige became the Assistant in Page  1515Charge of Insects. Two honorary appointments had already been made in entomology: Dr. William W. Newcomb, Honorary Curator of Lepidoptera in 1909, and Arthur W. Andrews, Associate in Entomology in 1912. Both Newcomb and Andrews were enthusiastic students of Michigan insects and were eager to help build up the Museum's collections as soon as the specimens could be assured of proper care. Aside from a small series of Michigan moths, butterflies, and beetles contributed by Newcomb, Andrews, and other members of the Detroit Natural History Club, there were a few incidental collections of insects made by earlier Museum field parties, some remnants of the old Beal-Steere collections of the 1870's, an extensive collection of Philippine insects presented to the Museum by Professor E. M. Ledyard of the University of the Philippines, and the ants taken by Gaige in the 1912 expeditions to the Charity Islands in Lake Huron and the Maggie Basin in Nevada.

In 1913, however, two immediate objectives were established. One was an adequate representation of the Michigan insect fauna, the other a comprehensive collection of the ants, the group which Gaige had chosen for his own research. As a member of the 1913 and 1914 expeditions to Colombia and British Guiana, respectively, Gaige began the Museum's extensive collections of neotropical ants. The Newcomb expedition to the Davis Mountains of Texas in 1914 paid especial attention to securing ants, Lepidoptera, and beetles, and in 1915 the field party sent to Schoolcraft County in the Upper Peninsula included three entomologists in addition to Gaige and Andrews.

In 1916 a Division of Insects was created with Gaige as Curator, and E. B. Williamson was appointed Honorary Curator of Odonata. Williamson was a well-known amateur authority on the Odonata; he had already given much help in the determination of the dragonfly material and shared the Museum's great interest in the neotropical fauna. The general pattern for the development of the division was beginning to take a definite form. The ants and dragonflies were to be studied on a world-wide basis with especial attention to North America and the neotropical region. For other insects the special concern was to be the Michigan fauna. Both goals were ambitious ones and were necessarily planned as accumulative projects. The most rapid progress on the Michigan fauna was in the butterflies and moths, beetles, and various conspicuous families of other orders, such as the cicadas, bumblebees, robberflies, and horseflies, in which the cordial co-operation of outside specialists such as W. T. Davis, T. H. Frison, and J. S. Hine was available. The accession of specimens was not, of course, limited to the above groups. Insects of nearly all orders were collected and preserved with the proper field data, to be stored unworked for the day when a competent investigator would undertake their study, and several such workers were in time found or trained. In 1918 J. Speed Rogers, who as a member of the Schoolcraft expedition of 1915 had begun the study of the craneflies, was made Honorary Associate Curator of Diptera. T. H. Hubbell, as a student Aid in Entomology, 1919-22, developed an enduring interest in the Orthoptera that was to result eventually in the Museum's outstanding research collection in that group. At about that time, Roland F. Hussey, a student in the Department of Zoology, began work on the Hemiptera and as a member of several field expeditions and by much collecting about Ann Arbor developed a very respectable representation of the Michigan Hemiptera. Melville T. Hatch, another student of entomology in the Department of Page  1516Zoology and a specialist in the Coleoptera, collected intensively about Ann Arbor and in Cheboygan County and gave much aid in the determination and arrangement of the beetle collection.

The rapid growth of the division brought difficulties. Despite the small size of an individual insect the material was beginning to overflow all available space in the old Museum. Fortunately, several of the honorary curators were able to provide quarters for their rapidly growing accessions until the new museum building became available, and for several years perhaps less than half of the annual accessions were actually deposited in the Museum. In 1926 Sherman Moore, an engineer of the United States Lake Survey, was made Honorary Associate Curator of Lepidoptera. He had already given much attention to the collection and to the study of moths and butterflies of the Great Lakes region, and eventually (1952) was to complete the critical determination and arrangement of the extensive collection of Michigan Lepidoptera.

The year 1929-30 brought many important changes, one of them unforeseen and unplanned. Gaige was made Director of the Museum of Zoology while still holding his curatorship, an increasing responsibility that gradually brought an end to his work on ants. E. B. Williamson, who had retired from his profession as a banker, accepted a full-time position as Research Associate in Odonata, and Professor Samuel A. Graham was appointed honorary Research Associate. The years 1928-33 were notable for the tremendous development of the Odonata collections and active research on this group. Williamson's own private collection, perhaps the most extensive in North America, was given to the Museum, and the combined collections were further expanded by an energetic program of field work. Leonora K. Gloyd was made Assistant in Odonata, and in 1932 Justin W. Leonard began his doctoral problem under Williamson's direction on a group of the neotropical dragonflies.

Williamson's death in 1933 was a severe loss to the division. Mrs. Gloyd, who continued to care for the collection until 1938, completed one of Williamson's unfinished papers and carried on a number of studies of her own. Leonard completed his doctoral dissertation in 1937 under Gaige's direction.

In 1935 T. H. Hubbell was made Honorary Associate Curator of Orthoptera in recognition of his already important research and the extensive collection of North American Orthoptera he was establishing in the Museum.

From the mid-thirties until 1946 the division was concerned chiefly with the development of the Michigan collections. Particularly intensive studies were carried on at the Edwin S. George Reserve, with Sherman Moore, Wilbur MacAlpine, W. F. Lawler, G. W. Rawson, W. C. Stinson, and J. H. Newman, working on Lepidoptera, Andrews on Coleoptera, Irving J. Cantrall on the Orthoptera, Rogers on the craneflies, and George Steyskal on the higher Diptera. All of these men except Cantrall and Rogers were members of the Detroit Natural History Club or its successor, the Detroit Entomological Club, and competent amateur specialists in the groups they studied. Irving James Cantrall ('35, Ph.D. '40), a graduate student who was engaged on a doctoral problem on the ecology of the Orthoptera under Hubbell, in 1949 became Curator of the Reserve. The extensive collections of Orthoptera and of craneflies grew rapidly, but were to a large extent either in the laboratories of their nonresident honorary curators or in compact storage in the Insect Division. From the date of Gaige's resignation in 1945 until January Page  15171, 1947, the division was in the charge and under the efficient care of Ada L. Olson, Senior Technical Assistant in Entomology, who maintained cooperation with the honorary curators and other collaborators.

In July, 1946, Professor Theodore Huntington Hubbell ('21, Ph.D. '34), of the Department of Biology of the University of Florida, was appointed Curator of Insects, effective January 1, 1947, and under his direction marked progress has been made in reorganizing the collections, determining a great backlog of unworked material through the aid of specialists, and meeting the problems of expanding collections and limited storage facilities. J. Speed Rogers, in his research and teaching, since 1947 has been a member of the division and has shared with the curator responsibility for active resumption of staff and student research on insects. Although emphasis is on the Orthoptera and craneflies, graduate students are carrying on studies in ants and dragonflies. A system of summer curatorships has been established, whereby recognized specialists can be brought to the University to study and arrange the Museum's collections in insect groups outside the competence of the resident or honorary staff. This makes authoritatively determined specimens available for reference and teaching and leads to the publication of research papers based on the Museum's collections. Dr. F. N. Young of Indiana University has spent two summers on the water beetles, Dr. Roland F. Hussey of the University of Florida two summers on the Hemiptera, and Mrs. Leonora K. Gloyd of the Illinois Natural History Survey a summer on the Odonata. The collection of Odonata again has been greatly augmented. In 1951-52, the Museum acquired the huge collection of dragonflies and the magnificent Odonata library of Dr. Clarence H. Kennedy of Ohio State University. The combined Williamson and Kennedy collections form an unrivaled archive of dragonfly taxonomy and distributional data and, though at present relatively inactive, constitute the chief of the Museum's outstanding research series of insects, the others being the Orthoptera, craneflies, and ants.

Mollusks. — A mollusk collection had existed since the Beal-Steere expedition of the 1870's but, except for a few gifts of small and miscellaneous lots of specimens, was dormant until 1903. Then, with the inauguration of a vigorous program of field work by Adams, a steady influx of material began. The renascent Museum soon attracted a series of gifts, notably from and through Bryant Walker of Detroit, an amateur student of mollusks who had gained an international reputation as an authority on the North American land and fresh-water fauna.

In 1909 Walker was made Honorary Curator of Mollusca and in 1912 was given an honorary degree in recognition of his outstanding contribution to a knowledge of the classification and distribution of North American mollusks. Mina Winslow (Smith '13, M.A. Michigan '16) was added to the staff as Scientific Assistant in 1916, and the formal organization of the collections was begun.

Another skilled amateur student, Calvin Goodrich of Toledo, Ohio, in 1917 was made Honorary Associate Curator. A Division of Mollusks was set up in 1918 with Miss Winslow as Curator, and through the generosity of Mr. Goodrich, Miss Doreen Potter was employed as a student assistant in the division. Policies for the development of the division included the amassing of a collection of Michigan mollusks with attention to local and ecological distribution, the development of a synoptic representation of the mollusk fauna of Page  1518the world, and the accumulation of ample series in the groups selected for intensive study.

Both Walker and Goodrich had an important part in the researches of the division and produced a notable series of important papers on the classification and distribution of North American mollusks. Miss Winslow was largely concerned with the Michigan fauna, and, in addition to much important work on faunal lists and bibliographies, she added materially to a knowledge of the state's fauna and its distribution. She also gave attention to the synoptic collection of the world fauna and by visits to European museums and an expedition to South Africa arranged many important exchanges and made extensive additions to the collection.

Miss Winslow resigned in 1929, and Goodrich, who had recently retired from newspaper work, was made Curator; Henry van der Schalie, then a graduate student in malacology, was appointed Assistant. That year also brought an end to Walker's long collaboration in the researches of the division and to his even longer career as a malacologist. Goodrich's first report as Curator of Mollusks (in the Report of the Director for 1929-1930) ends with the following paragraph:

Because of illness, Dr. Bryant Walker — for the only twelve months in forty-one years — has been unable to add to his writings upon mollusca. Dr. Walker's first paper, written in collaboration with Mr. C. E. Beecher, appeared in the Proceedings of the Ann Arbor Scientific Association for 1875-76, and in 1879 he published the first of his several catalogues of Michigan mollusks, but it was not until 1889 that he began upon the scarce interrupted begetting of papers.

Walker never fully regained his health and died in May, 1936. His collections and library were willed to the division: 100,000 lots of shells and 1,500 volumes. This bequest was a major factor in giving the division its outstanding position as a center for research and instruction in malacology.

In 1931 Allan F. Archer began graduate work in mollusks under Goodrich and served as a voluntary assistant in the division until 1936, when he completed his doctorate and was appointed Assistant. He resigned in 1937 to accept a Rackham fellowship. In 1934 Henry van der Schalie (Calvin College '29, Ph.D. Michigan '34) was made Assistant Curator. On Goodrich's retirement in 1944 with the title of Curator Emeritus, van der Schalie was made Curator. His curatorship has been marked by important changes in the division. The program of graduate teaching has been greatly expanded, and a course and a seminar in malacology have been established. He and his students have continued to develop the collection but with several important changes in emphasis. There is concern with life histories and ecology, a revival of interest in the Michigan fauna, and active collaboration with public health agencies in relation to control of snail-borne diseases.

Publications. — The publications of the Museum of Zoology are in two main series — the Occasional Papers and the Miscellaneous Publications — made possible by funds donated by Walker, Swales, and Newcomb. The Occasional Papers, begun in 1913, are based principally on the Museum collections. The papers are issued to libraries and specialists. More than 570 have appeared. The Miscellaneous Publications are monographic studies and other contributions not within the scope of the Occasional Papers. More than ninety have been published. Other Museum publications are in the Michigan Handbook Series.

Page  1519
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, Charles C.Report of the Curator of the University Museum … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1903-6.
Ark, The. Ann Arbor: Museum of Zoology, 1922-32.
Gaige, Frederick M.Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1929-34.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1954.
Rogers, J. Speed. Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1947-54.
Ruthven, Alexander G.A Naturalist in a University Museum. Ann Arbor: Privately Printed, 1931.
Ruthven, Alexander G.Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1913-29.
Ruthven, Alexander G.Report of the Head Curator of the University Museum … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1907-12. (Title varies.)
The University Museums Building of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1929.

THE MINERALOGICAL COLLECTIONS

THE mineral collections of the University of Michigan had an unusual beginning. One of the first acquisitions by the Board of Regents, purchased in 1838 for $4,000, was the Baron L. Lederer Mineral Collection, consisting of about 2,600 specimens, chiefly from European countries. Thus, before there were any students or classrooms, the University had a mineral collection. In spite of our knowledge concerning this early beginning, a period of sixty years followed about which very little is known. Record books still exist, in which the various items of the Lederer Collection were catalogued, and in which succeeding acquisitions were listed.

Many of the early entries bear the names of Douglass Houghton (A.M. and M.D. Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. '29), the first to be appointed Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in 1839, and of Silas Hamilton Douglass (A.M. hon. Vermont '47), who succeeded Houghton after his death. The name of Alexander Winchell (Wesleyan '47, LL.D. ibid. '67), Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany, occurs many times. One record book lists the mineral collection of Theodore N. Chase, with more than two hundred entries. The name Van Vechten appears repeatedly, especially in connection with minerals from California.

When Edward Henry Kraus (Syracuse '96, LL.D. ibid. '34, Ph.D. Munich '01) first came to the University in 1904 as Assistant Professor of Mineralogy, the mineral collections were in the basement of Tappan Hall, where the Mineralogy Department was housed. The six large cases in which the main collection was displayed were not new at that time. These same cases still contain the major part of the minerals which are on public display in Room 2071 of the Natural Science Building.

After 1900 there was a steady growth in the collections, including mineralogical, petrological, and crystallographic specimens. In addition to the general systematic collection, various special collections are worthy of mention. These include the Frederick S. Stearns Collection of Gems, given to the University in 1931-32, and valued at $10,000. This consists of both cut and uncut material. A part of it is on display with other gem material in a special case. The W. R. Candler Collection of Agates is on view in one of the second-floor corridor cases. Of particular interest are several hundred meteorites given over the years by Page  1520Stuart H. Perry, of Adrian. Some of the larger specimens are on exhibit. A fine collection of polished slabs of domestic and foreign marbles and other rocks and a remarkable collection of sulfur and associated minerals from Sicily are also worthy of mention. A unique collection of antarctic rocks, both from the Byrd Antarctic Expedition (1928-30) and others, is not on display, but is available for research and classroom use.

Various individuals have been interested in the mineral collections, and have done much to improve them. Lucius Lee Hubbard, state geologist (1883-99) and Regent of the University of Michigan (1911-33), was very active in his support of the collections, both in his official capacity as Regent, and as a donor of many fine specimens from the copper country in northern Michigan. William Bennett Colburn, formerly of Detroit, did much to improve the arrangement of the collections. He also was the donor of many specimens and was helpful in obtaining the Stearns Collection of Gems for the University. He was given the title of Honorary Associate Curator in 1933.

When the Geology Museum in the Natural Science Building was discontinued in 1943, many specimens of minerals and rocks were turned over to the Department of Mineralogy. These made a very fine addition to the mineral collections.

During the course of a recent investigation of micas, sponsored by the United States Signal Corps, an outstanding collection of analyzed specimens of micas from all over the world has been acquired.

Field trips to various localities by members of the staff have resulted in many acquisitions. Important among these were the specimens collected by E. William Heinrich (Iowa State '40, M.S. Harvard '42, Ph.D. Harvard '47), Associate Professor of Mineralogy and Curator of the Mineralogical Collections, while in Europe in 1950. At the same time he arranged exchanges with various European institutions which resulted in the addition of specimens from many important European countries.

A large part of the collections is not on display, chiefly because of lack of space. This material, however, is available for study and research. In addition, thousands of rock and mineral specimens are used in the teaching program. These include special collections housed in the lecture rooms, where they are easily available for demonstration, and much larger collections used in the laboratories.

In addition to the mineral and rock specimens, the collections include many crystal models. Large glass models of all possible crystal forms and cardboard models illustrating the crystal forms observed on common minerals are available for lecture demonstration. More than a thousand small wooden models are available in the laboratory for the study of crystallography.

The collections also include many thin sections of rocks and minerals, including ores and polished specimens for study with the microscope; lantern slides, both black and white and in color, illustrating many different phases of mineralogy; and numerous photographs. Of special interest among the latter are a series of scenes of diamond recovery in the early days at Kimberley.

Page  1521

THE STEARNS COLLECTION OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

The Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments, which comprises some 1,500 pieces, is housed in the second-floor lobby of Hill Auditorium. Until new or different accommodations can be obtained the collection may be visited only during such times as the building is open for public functions.

The main body of the collection was a gift from Frederick Stearns (1831-1907), a Detroit manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, whose philanthropy greatly benefited the University over a period of many years. The instruments were first offered to the University in October, 1898, and the gift was gratefully accepted by the Board of Regents at their January, 1899, meeting:

Resolved, That the thanks of this Board be returned to Frederick Stearns, Esq., of Detroit, for his gift to the University of his very valuable collection of musical instruments, which represent the musical art of several centuries and of many lands, and that we have pleasure in complying with his request to place the collection in a fire-proof room in the Museum.

Resolved, That we also thank Mr. Stearns for the further gift of new cases in which to install the collection.


(R.P. 1896-1901, p. 342.)

At that time, the exhibit numbered 904 pieces and was described as "one of the best classified collections in the possession of any institution or individual in any country" (Angell Papers, Vol. 24). Stearns estimated the value of his instruments to be at least $25,000. Since the collection was established, it has been enlarged by further gifts from Stearns and other individuals.

The collection, first exhibited in the University Museum, was moved to Hill Auditorium in 1914. During the next several years Professor Albert A. Stanley (1851-1932) performed a monumental task in developing the present display, reclassifying the instruments, and publishing a catalogue of the collection. The exhibit has remained almost untouched since Stanley's time.

Although the group was once considered one of the world's most important instrument collections, its reputation has diminished in recent years. Lack of upkeep, of use, and of important additions has contributed to this.

The collection is often criticized for its failure to include "genuine" antiques and outstanding instruments of certain types. It should be noted that Stearns's intention was to illustrate the evolution of musical instruments and to present the amazing varieties and forms that were created by peoples from the past. That Stearns was not primarily concerned with establishing a museum of priceless antiques is revealed in his letter of presentation. He stated: "While none of the instruments is of especial interest historically … the collection very completely represents all classes, genera, and species" (Angell Papers, Vol. 24). Although Stearns succeeded admirably in his aim, some of the pieces which were accumulated are frankly freaks, curiosities, or hybrids, a fact which he himself recognized.

Outstanding among the instruments is an early seventeenth-century Italian octavina (No. 1334), designated as "Spinetta. Eighteenth century." Professor Stanley's description says, "The instrument proper lifts out of the beautifully decorated case. An artistically cut rose ornaments the sounding board. Compass: three octaves and one note… Page  1522This beautiful instrument was at one time erroneously attributed to the celebrated maker, Hans Rücker, of Antwerp." This octavina was restored in 1950 by John Challis, a famous American harpsichord maker. At present, it is the only keyboard instrument in the collection in condition to be used for performance. A letter by Challis, included with the instrument on its return to the display, provides further description and documentation:

Like many old musical instruments, this one has been through many repairs done by often times unskilled or careless workmen. Fortunately, no serious damage was done to it and the results of bungling workmanship could be removed and carefully restored.

The instrument is of Italian workmanship style and wood. It was constructed around 1600. The outer ornamental case is of recent construction (c. 1900). It [has been] carefully cleaned and covered with two coats of varnish to protect the painting and gilding.

The sides and soundboard of the instrument itself are made of Italian cypress. Several replacements had to be made where earlier repairs were badly done. The keys of boxwood and walnut are mostly original some having been replaced by earlier workmen. The old jacks were so badly damaged that they were not usable. New ones had to be made.

Certain compromises in the interest of future upkeep and stability in the American climate were considered advisable such as drilling the tuning pins, long hitch pins, and keying the fragile corner joints of the instrument.

No name or date of the original maker could be found on either interior or exterior of the instrument. Craftsmen's names in those days were considered of little interest or value.

This instrument is a virginal or spinet and more accurately called an octavina because it is to be tuned an octave higher than regular pitch. Modern pitch of A-440 fits its scaling and stringing.

[Signed]

John Challis
1 August, 1950

Catalogue descriptions of other instruments worthy of note include:

  • 768. OLIPHANT. Carved ivory.....France The surface is covered with beautiful carvings, including medallion portraits of Francis I, Henry II, and Francis II. It has a cup mouthpiece. It is too large to have served as an actual hunting horn.
  • 1037. LIUTO.....Italy Pear-shaped body of fluted strips of red wood. Flat sound-board, with ornamented rosette sound-hole. The neck — flat and inlaid with ivory — bends at an acute angle. Nine pairs of fine wire strings. A type made familiar by the great Italian painters.
  • 1277. VIOLINO.....Italy This differs from the usual type in that the strings are tightened by a metal device. A similar device in use on other bowed instruments may have suggested its application, but whether by the maker whose name appears below, or by some other, is an open question. Signed — "Nicolaus Amatus, Cremonen. Hieronyme filius antonii nepos, fecit, 1670."
  • 1296A. VIOLA D'AMORE.....Italy, or France This beautiful instrument, of the seventeenth century, exhibits the rare workmanship characteristic of early Italian and French makers, and is the choicest example of its type in the Collection. The top of the body — with C sound-holes — is purfled with ivory and ebony inlay, and the back carries a representation of a shepherdess surrounded with scroll-work designs. The curved peg-box ends in a carving of a man's head. Six bowed strings run over a finger-board of ebony, inlaid with boxwood in an artistic design, to a tail-piece of like material and decoration. Six sympathetic strings occupy their usual positions.

The most popular single piece, an automatic clarinet player (No. 644) from Germany, more logically belongs Page  1523in a mechanical exhibition. This curiosity, once the property of J. P. Barnum, is one of the many mechanical music-makers created by nineteenth-century technicians. Stanley comments:

The original gay habiliments vanished in the fire which destroyed its home, Barnum's Museum, New York, and, as the mechanism was wrecked, it is impossible to give any information as to its repertoire. The brass clarinet, in three sections, is 36 cm. long, and the diameter of the bell is 12.5 cm. The wind was furnished by a bellows run by clock work, which also governed the movement of the keys, of which two are in the bell section.

Friedrich Kaufman, of Dresden (1785-1866), invented a number of such automatic players, and it is probable that this automaton was made by his son, Friedrich Theodor (1823-1872), who developed the Orchestrion — in 1851 — from an earlier instrument devised by his father.

The collection still successfully accomplishes its main objective: to exhibit musical instruments of all times and all peoples. In particular, the primitive types and the brass and woodwind groups are well represented. The recent growth of musicological studies has created an interest in the principal performance mediums of past ages and, in turn, in the collection itself. As a consequence certain weaknesses, such as the lack of viols and certain keyboard instruments, have become apparent. The chief needs are playable pieces of the following kinds: viols (all sizes), vielles, viola d'amore, clavichord, and a piano suitable for performance of late eighteenth-century music. The acquisition of these would aid in restoring the Stearns Collection to a position of importance and usefulness.

Future plans call for the adoption of more modern methods of display and for the reconditioning of most of the instruments, at least of their visual features. When this is accomplished, special exhibits can be inaugurated so that this valuable resource will be more useful as an educational force in the University and in the community.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The James B. Angell Papers, MS, Vols. XV, XXII, and XXIV.
Guide to the Michigan Historical Collections. 2 vols. Detroit, 1941-42.
In Memoriam Frederick Stearns. [n.p., 1907?]
MS, Letter from John Challis, dated August 1, 1950.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1901.
Stanley, Albert A.Catalogue of the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1918. Second edition in 1921.
Stanley, Albert A."The Value of a Collection of Musical Instruments in University Instruction,"Proceedings of the Music Teachers' National Association, III (1908): 78-95.
Stanley, Albert A. Papers.Page  [1524]
Page  [1525]

The School of Public Health

Page  [1526]
Page  1527

THE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

The early movement for the development of a teaching program in public health at the University was engendered largely by the Michigan State Board of Health, which was established by the legislature in 1873. A pioneer in preventive medicine, Dr. Henry Brooks Baker (M.D. Bellevue '66, A.M. hon. Michigan '90), the first secretary of the State Board, undertook to acquaint the people of Michigan with the new discoveries of Pasteur and Koch, which materially contributed to the prevention of disease and to the promotion of positive health. Two years before Koch discovered the tubercle bacillus in 1882, Baker introduced throughout the Michigan school system a simple textbook on physiology which explained that tuberculosis is a communicable disease, spread largely through intimate contact within the family group. Baker's views were not without scientific grounds. Some fifteen years before, in 1865, the French physician Villemin had succeeded in producing lesions of tuberculosis in healthy animals through the introduction of infected sputum from tuberculous animals and humans. Basing his action upon this evidence Baker made a pioneer contribution to the education of the native Michigander, with the result that for many years, until the advent of the automotive age which brought new increments into the population, Michigan enjoyed one of the lowest death rates of any state in the Union.

The State Board of Health, recognizing the importance of education and research as a means of controlling illness, memorialized the Board of Regents with the result that in 1887 the first full-time professorship of hygiene was established at the University with quarters in the Chemistry Building. The chair of Hygiene and Physiological Chemistry was occupied by Victor Clarence Vaughan (Mount Pleasant College [Mo.] '72, Ph.D. Michigan '76, '78m, LL.D. ibid. '00), who at the same time became Director of the Hygienic Laboratory. The appropriation for the Laboratory Building, the first of its kind in the United States, was made by the legislature in 1887, and it was opened in the fall of 1888. Until the turn of the century the Laboratory served not only as the center for training medical students and public health personnel, but also carried on the diagnostic services and research activities for the Michigan State Board of Health.

Meanwhile, largely through the interests of Dr. Vaughan and Dr. Frederick Novy ('86, Sc.D. '90, '91m, LL.D. Cincinnati '20), who, in 1902, became Professor of Bacteriology, an interest developed in the new science of immunology. With an understanding of the mechanism with which nature protects the body against the common communicable diseases, Henry Sewall (Wesleyan '76, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '79, M.D. Denver '89, M.D.hon. Michigan '88, Sc.D.hon. ibid. '12) undertook with noteworthy success to immunize pigeons against snake venom. By gradually increasing the dosage, Sewall, who was Michigan's first Professor of Physiology, gradually increased the resistance of pigeons to this poison until lethal doses could be administered without harm. This pioneer work formed the foundation on which the European colleagues of the Pasteur and Koch schools developed diphtheria antitoxin, first announced in 1893 as the specific treatment for the dread disease.

From 1887 until 1916 the program was Page  1528under the direction of the Hygienic Laboratory and the professor of hygiene in the Medical School (see Part V: The Medical School).

The first degree in hygiene was granted in 1897 to Edna D. Day. Until 1916 the medical degree was a fixed requirement for the master's degree in public health. The master of science in hygiene and public health was granted to three more physicians in 1911 and to one each in 1912, 1913, and 1914. In 1913 and again in 1914 a master of arts degree was given. Thus, during seventeen years of medical school supervision (1897-1916), nine master's degrees were conferred in the field of public health.

From 1916 to 1941 the graduate degree was offered through the Graduate School. This period in public health at Michigan has been admirably reviewed by Dr. John Sundwall (Chicago '03, Ph.D. ibid. '06, M.D. Johns Hopkins '12), Director of the Division of Hygiene and Public Health from 1921 to 1941 (see Part VI: The Division of Hygiene and Public Health).

In 1941 the present phase of the public health program began. The Rockefeller Foundation, having made a survey of the need for training centers for public health personnel in the United States, joined with the W. K. Kellogg Foundation in providing funds for a new building and equipment and a contribution toward the operation of the newly authorized School of Public Health (R.P., 1939-42, pp. 705-6). The building was dedicated in the fall of 1943. At this time Professor Henry Frieze Vaughan ('12e, Dr.P.H. '16) was appointed the first Dean of the School and chairman of the Department of Public Health Practice. In establishing the School the Board of Regents in its By-laws of July 18, 1941, charged the faculty with the responsibilities of the professional education and training of persons who have chosen public health work as a career, the teaching of hygiene and preventive medicine in the units of the University which request such instruction, and the advancement of research in the field of public health and preventive medicine.

In order to discharge these obligations and at the same time maintain relative simplicity in organization, the School was divided into three major departments: Public Health Practice, including public health administration, public health economics, health education, public health dentistry, public health nursing, physiologic hygiene, mental health, and nutrition; Epidemiology, including public health laboratory practice, with special reference to the newer knowledge concerning the various communicable diseases and public health statistics; and Environmental Health, including public health engineering and industrial health. Soon thereafter the Department of Tropical Diseases was authorized, and at a later date the Department of Public Health Statistics was established; both of these had largely functioned in the beginning under the Department of Epidemiology.

Since 1941 the School has offered as its major degree the master of public health for graduates in medicine, dentistry, and engineering, and for those with a bachelor's degree and either graduate work or a satisfactory experiential background in fields which lead to career work in public health, such as public health nursing, public health statistics, health education, sanitary science, nutrition, and laboratory services. All candidates for the degree of master of public health must possess satisfactory backgrounds in the natural, physical, and social sciences.

Authorization of the degree of doctor of public health as well as of the master's degree was transferred by action of the Page  1529Regents to the School of Public Health in 1941. For the doctor of public health, candidates must be graduates of an approved medical school, have completed courses leading to the degree of master of public health or its equivalent, and have completed one or more years of distinctive field experience in public health work.

Since the doctor of public health degree is reserved for candidates with a previous doctorate, beginning with the school year 1947-48 programs of study leading to the doctor of philosophy and doctor of science degrees for those with other professional backgrounds were established in the Graduate School. The areas provided for include epidemiology, public health laboratory practice, tropical diseases, public health statistics, public health economics, and sanitary science.

The bachelor's degree in public health nursing and the certificate for public health nurses which previously had been granted by the School of Education were transferred to the School of Public Health. Shortly thereafter, in keeping with practice in other educational institutions, the granting of the certificate was discontinued.

In February, 1950, the Regents approved the establishment of an undergraduate program leading to the degree of bachelor of science in public health. Provision was made for training in the fields of nonmedical administration and sanitary science. The purpose of these programs of study has been to meet the increasing demand for personnel to serve the federal, state, and local health departments as administrative associates and as sanitarians. With due regard for the limitations imposed by lack of a degree in medicine, the trained nonmedical health administrator functions as an administrative associate in public health agencies. The new emphasis upon heart disease, cancer, mental illness, hospital construction and maintenance, adult health, and medical care programs poses new problems of an administrative character, and trained personnel is needed for their solution. In addition, the voluntary health agencies of industry, labor unions, and other nongovernmental associations, such as the Blue Cross and Blue Shield medical care plans, need trained technical assistants, individuals who have a broad background, including a minimum of what is essential and basic in public health work. A curriculum in sanitary science has been provided by the School at both the graduate and undergraduate level. There has been an acute need for qualified people trained at the latter level. Local and state health departments, as well as the United States Public Health Service, employ persons with this educational preparation as general sanitarians or for specific tasks, such as milk and food sanitation, housing, industrial hygiene, or insect and rodent control; as technical assistants for stream pollution or industrial waste investigations; as laboratory analysts; or as assistants in other phases of environmental work.

Admission requirements for the undergraduate degree include (a) satisfactory completion of a minimum of sixty credit hours of work in required and elective courses, (b) an honor-point-hour ratio of at least 2.5, that is, a scholastic average at least halfway between C and B, and (c) a satisfactory total record of achievement. The two years of preparatory work may be obtained in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts of this University or in another college of equal standing. The work in the third and fourth years is divided almost equally between the basic courses in public health and additional courses in the sciences, sociology, and government. The public health Page  1530courses include health administration, vital statistics, epidemiology, environmental health, public health economics, and a few elective courses. Between the third and fourth years there is a required period of supervised field work. The W. K. Kellogg Foundation, in 1950, made a grant of $200,000 with which to support this undergraduate program over a period of five years.

Special attention was given in 1950 to the need for personnel in the field of industrial health. With the General Motors Corporation providing fellowships for trainees, two programs of study were adopted. The first offers a two-year fellowship in co-operation with the Medical School and a hospital in Michigan which is serving as one of the decentralized units for continued medical education. The student spends the equivalent of one year in the hospital on a rotating residency, nine months at the School of Public Health, and three months in field work in General Motors plants and with the State Health Department. The trainee is admitted to candidacy for the master of public health degree. The second plan, which does not as yet contemplate offering a degree, extends for twelve months, during which time the trainee attends the School of Public Health for four months, taking the basic courses during the first semester, and then spends eight months in selected General Motors plants, receiving field training under direction and in co-operation with the School of Public Health.

The field of industrial health is an extremely important one. The program of study embraces several of the functional activities of the School, with special emphasis on human biology and physiology and on environmental health. While interest in industrial health developed in this country largely because of the surgical and medical care required under compensation laws, during the past twenty or thirty years the field has broadened to include a generalized health program for the employed, both in the place of business and in the home. The expansion of interest makes it necessary that all the disciplines of public health practice and preventive medicine be offered in an adequate training program. It is to this end that the courses, as they have been established in the Medical School and in the School of Public Health, have been brought together in a co-ordinated teaching program.

By 1953 the University had granted 63 doctorates, 1,263 master's degrees, 344 bachelor's degrees, and 313 certificates in public health, a total of 1,983 degrees and certificates.

In accordance with an agreement approved by the Regents in September, 1941, the Kellogg Foundation appropriated $25,000 a year for five years for postgraduate courses. At the close of this period University funds were provided for their continuation. The courses which are designed to acquaint professional public health workers with the current expansion of knowledge and the development of new techniques in their several fields, serve the needs of many other groups whose interests and occupations border closely upon health conservation. This project has definitely set a pattern for national and international health programs, as for example, the furtherance of local health units, the control of dental caries, the application of public health statistics to new fields, such as home accident prevention and population studies, the furtherance of the new approach to sanitation as a way of life, and consideration of air pollution, noise, and other industrial and community hazards of the environment.

Since the first noncredit course was given in May, 1942, fifty-four courses Page  1531with a registration of 6,000 have been offered.

With the opening of the new building of the School the First Inter-American Conference on Professional Education was held in November, 1943. The meeting took place under the auspices of the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau in cooperation with the newly established Association of Schools of Public Health, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, and the Office of the Co-ordinator of Inter-American Affairs. There were in attendance about forty delegates from schools which provide professional education in public health at graduate level (in contradistinction to the teaching of hygiene and preventive medicine to medical students, dentists, and the like). The United States and Canadian schools represented included Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Johns Hopkins, North Carolina, Minnesota, Toronto, Vanderbilt, and Michigan. Guests were also present from Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay. The conference dealt with interrelated problems of public health education in the various countries, the teaching of preventive medicine, the pooling of inter-American resources, exchange of professorships, study tours, the publication of an outline of training facilities, the promotion of research facilities, the need for special vocabulary, and the distribution of literature.

In general, the teaching programs emphasize instruction for students whose major interest is in the field of public health, whether enrolled in the School of Public Health, the Graduate School, or some other unit of the University; instruction for students whose interest in public health is secondary to their major interest, for instance medical and dental students and those in the fields of education, nursing, and pharmacy; and instruction in the field of continued education or postgraduate studies for individuals whose training and interest in public health varies but for whom organized courses, usually on a short-term basis, are desirable.

Grave public health problems existed just before the entry of the United States into World War II: the necessity of finding a substitute for quinine, the supply of which had been almost eliminated owing to the occupation of Malaya and the Philippines by the enemy; the need of an effective vaccine for influenza to prevent the repetition of the catastrophe of World War I, with its high mortality from this disease; and the training of physicians, engineers, and others to serve in the protection of health in occupied countries so that it would be possible for industry to secure such basic materials as rubber and tin from Central and South America. The School participated in all these programs. Thomas Francis, Jr. (Alleghany College '21, Sc.D.hon. ibid. '41, M.D. Yale '25, M.S.hon. ibid. '41), who became Professor of Epidemiology and chairman of the Department of Epidemiology in 1941 and Henry Sewall Professor of Epidemiology in 1947, has served continuously since 1941 as chairman of the Influenza Commission of the Armed Forces. It is through the activities of this commission, the Virus Laboratories of the School serving as pilot station, that a successful vaccine was prepared with which the armed forces of the United States and England were protected against influenza. The vaccine, with certain modifications, is now used for the civilian population.

Lowell Thelwell Coggeshall (Indiana '22, A.M. ibid. '23, M.D. ibid. '28, LL.D. ibid. '48), who became Professor of Epidemiology in 1941, conducted the studies in malaria control. More than 3,000 drugs were tested at the University for prophylactic and therapeutic Page  1532activity as possible substitutes for quinine. Dr. Coggeshall was granted a leave of absence in 1942 in order to organize malaria control for Pan American Airways, and he played a major role in the air transport service which extended to South America, Africa, and the Near East. In addition, and at the request of the War Department, the School provided instruction for personnel who served the civilian populations in North Africa, Italy, France, Germany, and Japan, and thus, as the war progressed, materially contributed to the rehabilitation of the health facilities in these countries.

Again, beginning in 1941, the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis made a major contribution to the Virology Laboratory for the study of the mode or modes of transmission of poliomyelitis and the means whereby this disease might be controlled and ultimately eradicated. This work was also under the direction of Dr. Francis. With the assistance of others, including Harold E. Pearson (Stanford '33, M.D. ibid. '38), Gordon Campbell Brown (Ohio State '34, Sc.D. Johns Hopkins '42), and Jonas Edward Salk (College of the City of New York '34, M.D. New York University '39, Sc.D.hon. Michigan '55), much new data with which to approach the problem of poliomyelitis has been provided. The laboratory studies have been continuous and intensive; field studies which have been made during epidemic periods have extended, geographically, from Michigan to Texas and North Carolina. Assistant Professor Salk resigned from the University in 1947 and subsequently pursued this work at the University of Pittsburgh Medical School. The successful poliomyelitis vaccine which he developed was evaluated under the direction of Dr. Francis, in the greatest mass experiment in the field of medicine ever undertaken.

In November, 1945, the Regents authorized the establishment of a Bureau of Public Health Economics under the direction of Nathan Sinai (D.V.M. San Francisco College '15, M.S.P.H. Michigan '24, Dr. P. H. ibid. '26), who came to the University as Instructor in Hygiene and Public Health in 1924 and became Professor of Hygiene and Public Health in 1932. While primarily a teaching unit providing instruction for those who are concerned with problems of medical care, this Bureau has carried on extensive studies in widely separated areas. Noteworthy are the research activities centered in the voluntary health insurance plan which provides comprehensive physicians' services in Essex County and Windsor, Ontario. This plan is sponsored by the local medical society which furnishes care for 130,000 subscribers. Principal interest has centered in a study of the utilization of services by subscribers in a situation in which the unique barrier to the receipt of physicians' care has been removed. Administrative and statistical control of techniques as applied to this fee-for-service plan has been objectively studied, together with other details of this distinctive voluntary health insurance service. The Bureau has also conducted extensive surveys of the program for senior citizens of the state of Washington, of medical care programs employed by industry in Hawaii, and of many medical and hospital programs in Michigan and nearby states. Dr. Sinai has designed a health audit or evaluation schedule for the health services conducted by the World Health Organization, applicable to all projects of this organization throughout the world. The Bureau, since 1944, has published a digest which serves as a teaching medium and which through its wide circulation keeps public health and medical and allied personnel acquainted with programs Page  1533dealing with health economics as they develop. Solomon Jacob Axelrod (Dartmouth '34, M.D. Jefferson Medical College '38, M.P.H., Michigan '49), Associate Professor in Public Health Economics, who joined the faculty in 1950, has contributed materially to the teaching and research programs. As an indication of the importance given to the synthesis of the health and social sciences, the staff includes members who represent the fields of social psychology and sociology.

While it is impossible to outline all of the interesting research and study programs which have been developed at the School, it is appropriate to mention a few. In 1949 fundamental research in stream analysis, sponsored by the National Council for Stream Improvement of the Pulp, Paper and Paperboard, Industries, Inc., was transferred to the University, under the direction of Clarence Joseph Velz (Minnesota '24e, M.S.P.H. Columbia '33), who in that year became chairman of the Department of Public Health Statistics. The purpose of this project is to define the natural purification characteristics of streams to serve as a basis for pollution abatement. These studies are developed usually as a co-operative effort of the industry and the regulatory agencies. Research carried on under this project has led to new statistical techniques for evaluation of hydrologic and biologic characteristics leading to fuller utilization of water resources. These investigations have taken place in widely spread areas of the United States.

With a research grant from the United States Public Health Service and with subsequent assistance from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, a study of the causes of home accidents was begun in 1951. Injuries and accidents are becoming one of the most important causes of disability and death. While preventive programs are under way dealing with accidents on public carrier and other means of transportation, including the family automobile, little has been done to determine the conditions which surround the serious injuries and accidents which occur in the home and its environment. The study in Washtenaw County has provided a base line, and through the co-operation of the United States Public Health Service and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, a program including at least eight of the major state health departments is under way. It is believed that accident prevention can be furthered by the same basic control procedures that have been applied so effectively in the struggle against tuberculosis and in the eradication of diphtheria and typhoid fever.

Increasingly, since 1900, we have learned to survive through the sanitary control of our environment. Research and teaching in this aspect of public health work have been a joint undertaking of the School and the National Sanitation Foundation, the latter incorporated in Michigan, in 1944, as a nonprofit foundation with headquarters at the School of Public Health. The work of the Foundation was begun through a mutual understanding on the part of national leaders of industry and business and leaders in the field of public health. The basic research in sanitary science which is keeping pace with American invention and production, the development of uniform sanitation standards available to manufacturers and to health authorities, and the educational program to promote sanitation are all discussed in the publications of the National Sanitation Foundation.

Public health practices vary in time as well as place, and the new products of research must be tested, evaluated, and reconciled. The administrator of a successful public health program must Page  1534utilize the varied contributions of biology, medicine, dentistry, sanitary science, and nursing together with those of the social sciences, business administration, and general education. Public health is essentially concerned with the manner in which conditions harmful to health arise, decline, or recur in a population. It aims to establish the factors which govern these occurrences and directs efforts toward their control. Basically, therefore, the scope and influence of public health depend upon the successful synthesis of the biological and social sciences. Thus, the work of the School of Public Health has been continuously enriched by association with other units of the University. Many of the courses in the School are provided for public health students by faculty members from other units. Although designed and staffed to accommodate from 180 to 200 students of its own, the School provides service for 1,200 to 1,500 students in the University. The teaching of preventive medicine in the Medical School, of community health and personal hygiene in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and of courses in the School of Education and the Graduate School, offers an example of the inter-relationship and mutual interest which have been developed in the University.

Public health practice can no longer be considered as limited to the prevention of communicable disease, laboratory studies, and like activities. Public health embraces the total health of all people in society, individually and collectively, and is concerned primarily with community organization for self-protection against controllable or preventable causes of illness and accidents. The public health student must be trained to exercise leadership in health programs; he must have a broad understanding of the physical, biological, and social forces which influence man's relations to his fellow men and to his environment.

The School has enjoyed co-operation with local, state, and federal health agencies, especially the Michigan Department of Health, the Detroit Department of Health, and the several teaching centers in Michigan and Ohio. In addition, assistance has been rendered by such agencies as the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, and the several units of the federal government — the Public Health Service of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Medical departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force.

Among members of the faculty who served the School subsequent to July, 1941, and who have since severed their connection with the University, the following deserve special mention: Marguerite Franklyn Hall, G. Howard Gowen, Raymond Lee Laird, Charles F. McKhann, George H. Ramsey, John J. Hanlon, Marion Isabel Murphy, Odin W. Anderson, Mary P. Connolly, William J. Morrow, Herbert R. Morgan, and John D. Morley.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Public Health, 1941-55.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-55.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1887-1955.
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The Institutes

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Page  1537

THE INSTITUTE OF HUMAN BIOLOGY

THE Institute of Human Biology is a research unit of the University of Michigan dedicated to the discovery of fundamental principles of biology which may be of importance to man and in the application of biological principles to human affairs. Special attention is given to the solution of problems requiring the services of research teams, the maintenance of breeding strains of vertebrates, or many years of detailed measurement of populations and of communities. The results of the investigations are made available through publications, personal advice to families and to professional workers, and the training of graduate students.

The Institute is supported in part from the regular budget of the University. Certain of its larger research projects, however, are supported by grants from sources outside the University. Much help is also given by small and large gifts from persons who are interested in the research and public-service programs of the Institute.

No formal administrative subdivisions of the Institute are recognized. Instead, the program is organized around research teams. Many of the staff members serve at the same time on two or more teams. The internal organization of the Institute is consequently very informal.

The mode of heredity of racial characters and the factors which control the evolution of races and species receive special attention in the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology. The experimental animals are for the most part the small rodents of the North American genus Peromyscus, which sometimes are called deermice or white-footed mice. The colony averages about 5,000 living animals. More than 125,000 individual mice have been reared to marking age since our studies of this genus were begun. The numerous pedigreed strains which are maintained provide facilities for a wide variety of investigations.

One major program is concerned with the heredity and adaptive value of racial characters. In Peromyscus certain races have been shown to exhibit characters which are adaptive in relation to color of the soil or to other features of the habitat. Another major program considers the heredity of epilepsy and related behavioral disorders. In several strains an affected individual can be induced to have a convulsive seizure by exposure to high-pitched sounds. In one strain certain chemical odors induce convulsions. In other strains whirling types of behavior, tremors, or ataxic gait are inherited.

Research and counseling in the field of medical genetics are conducted by the Heredity Clinic, which acts as an outpatient clinic of the University Hospital. Any person who has a problem in family heredity may come directly to the Clinic for advice. Physicians, dentists, probate judges, ministers, priests, social workers, and other persons responsible for the public welfare also may refer families to the Clinic for advice about heredity. No fees are charged, but a charge may be made for examinations or hospital services which are required. An average of about 250 kindreds a year is accepted for study and advice.

Among the research projects now being conducted by the Clinic are those which deal with the rate of mutation of the genes responsible for multiple polyposis of the colon and for neurofibromatosis, with the heredity of various defects of the eye, with the genetics of various anemias, and with the effects of Page  1538atomic radiation in producing mutations in man.

The biogeographic investigations being conducted by the Institute are directed primarily toward an analysis of the geographic patterns displayed by reptiles and amphibians in the Central American isthmian region. Much is to be learned, through a study of the distribution of extant forms, concerning faunal movements and faunal origins of the various elements that characterize the great continental areas to the north and south of the isthmian link. A no less important phase of the work centers around the development of a concept of regionality. As Central America appears to lend no definite support either to the life-zone or to the biotic-area regional concepts, some new approach to the problem must be developed.

The Community Dynamics Section has as its major objective the analysis of the structure, organization, controlling mechanisms, and evolution of ecologic communities, including those which have been modified by man or in which man is a conspicuous member. Much activity of the Section is centered at the Edwin S. George Reserve, where a long-term investigation of the animal and plant life of an abandoned field is being conducted. It is proposed later to apply to studies of human communities the principles and techniques derived from this investigation of a natural community.

Numerous other investigations have been conducted by the Institute. Special mention may be made of those on the genetic effects of the atomic bombs on the Japanese peoples, in which the Institute has co-operated with the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. An important series of studies, supported by the American Cancer Society and by the Atomic Energy Commission, deals with the rate of mutation for certain characters in human populations. Other extensive research is concerned with the effects of assortative mating on the heredity of a city population. The relation of heredity to human special abilities is still another major project.

The Institute is not a teaching unit, but some members of the staff, through the teaching departments, offer instruction in such subjects as zoogeography, animal geography, history of zoology, ecologic communities, human communities, physical anthropology, and human genetics. Staff members offer courses in particular phases of biology. Members of the staff also direct the research of students who are candidates for the doctorate in certain aspects of genetics, ecology, or biogeography.

Annual Reports, of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology to 1949-50 and of the Institute of Human Biology thereafter, have been issued since 1945. Seventy-two numbers of the Contributions from the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology (… Vertebrate Genetics between 1936 and 1942) have been published through 1955. A series of Papers of the Institute of Human Biology has recently been authorized. The Circulars of the Institute contain material of temporary value.

Each of the several units which compose the Institute of Human Biology has had an independent history, and the names of some of them have been changed from time to time.

Laboratory of mammalian genetics. — The history of the Institute goes back to the time of President Clarence Cook Little, who, when he became President of the University in 1925, brought with him a number of strains of laboratory mice which he had been using for studies of animal genetics. The Board of Regents made a small appropriation for support of his research (R.P., 1923-26, p. 671). Other funds were supplied by sources outside the University. The studies of Dr. Little and his associates Page  1539were largely concerned with the heredity of the domestic house-mouse, Mus musculus, and of a related species, Mus bactrianus, from China, particular attention being given to inherited susceptibility and immunity to cancer.

In September, 1927, the "President's Laboratory" was officially designated the "Laboratory of Mammalian Genetics (in co-operation with the Cancer Research Fund," R.P., 1926-29, p. 322). At this time Alvalyn Eunice Woodward (Rochester '05, Ph.D. Michigan '18) and Leonell Clarence Strong (Allegheny '17, Ph.D. Columbia '22) were made Research Associates in the Laboratory. Assistants and fellows were added. Both Horace Wenger Feldman (Purdue '21, Sc.D. Harvard '25) and Lee Raymond Dice (Stanford '11, Ph.D. California '15) were made honorary research associates. Quarters were provided in the East Medical Building. When Little resigned in 1929 and founded the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory in Maine, Strong and most of Little's other associates went with him, and all their breeding stocks of mice were transferred to the Jackson Laboratory.

Laboratory of vertebrate genetics. — After Little's resignation studies of mammalian genetics were continued at the University by Feldman and Dice. Stocks of house-mice and house-rats had been brought to the University from Bussey Institution, Harvard University, by Feldman when he became Instructor in Zoology in 1927. To enable him to continue his studies of the heredity of these mammals he was given laboratory space in the Natural Science Building. Later, he expanded his research with certain stocks of the deermouse (Peromyscus) and of the woodrat (Neotoma). His work was at first supported by the Department of Zoology and by the Faculty Research Fund.

When Jan Metzelaar (Sc.D. Amsterdam '19) became Fisheries Expert of the Michigan Department of Conservation in 1923, he brought with him from Holland a stock of pigeons which he was using in heredity studies. In 1925 he was made a Special Investigator in the Division of Birds of the Museum of Zoology. His work was supported in part by the Museum of Zoology, in part by grants from the Faculty Research Fund, and in part from his own pocket. Temporary pens for the pigeons were constructed behind the Museum of Zoology Annex at 539 East University Avenue. Later, the pigeons were moved to the second floor of a frame building on Church Street; on the first floor were rabbits which were being studied by Dice and his students. When this building was torn down in 1927, the pigeons were moved to specially constructed flight cages and pens near Glen Avenue. After the death of Metzelaar by drowning in October, 1929, the pigeon investigations were taken over by Feldman.

Pigeons evidently could not be classed as mammals and consequently the Laboratory of Mammalian Genetics was, in January, 1930, redesignated the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics (R.P., 1929-32, p. 160). In May of the same year Feldman was appointed Director of the Laboratory.

Section of mammalian research. — Studies of variation and heredity of the mice of the genus Peromyscus were begun in 1923 by Dice, who at that time was Curator of Mammals in the Museum of Zoology. In that year twelve deermice were brought from northern Michigan, and these became the ancestors of a thriving stock. Other stocks were acquired in the following years. The animals at first were kept in the old Museum Annex, a former dwelling house then occupied by the divisions of Mammals and of Fishes of the Museum of Zoology and now replaced by the East Engineering annex. In November, 1923, when the Division of Mammals was Page  1540moved to the second floor of Morris Hall, at the corner of State and Jefferson streets, the mice were also moved to that building.

Stocks of deermice and a few chipmunks, pikas, cottontails, and jack-rabbits were brought by Dice from expeditions to Colorado in 1924 and 1925. For a time a stock of "singing" house-mice was also kept. Other stocks of Peromyscus were collected locally or were secured from other sources, and the number of cages of mice rapidly increased.

The space available in Morris Hall for rearing experimental animals having become overcrowded, the live mice were transferred in May, 1926, to a large room on the fourth floor of old University Hall, which had been condemned as a fire hazard. Although University Hall was not well adapted for keeping live mammals, any space at all was welcome. The floor of the room assigned as a Peromyscus laboratory, for instance, was of wood, and the cracks formed a favorable habitat for fleas. There was much difficulty in providing effective mouse-proofing, with the result that some professors on the lower floors of the building complained about escaped mice which invaded their sanctuaries. Only a single wash basin was available for washing the cages. The building had no elevator, and all food had to be carried up three flights of stairs. These stairs were long and steep, for the ceilings were high and the distances between floors were great. Fortunately, Hertler Brothers, who supplied most of the rolled oats and other animal food, had as their delivery man a powerful fellow, who said he was lazy. This man objected to making the many trips needed to carry up the numerous 100-pound sacks of mouse food. Consequently, he usually carried two sacks at a time up these long flights of stairs! For a time, also, a University track man was employed as a part-time student assistant. He made a habit of taking a 100-pound bag of food or other supplies on his shoulder and running all the way up the stairs to the fourth floor. He said it helped his "wind." The elderly janitors, however, who had to carry the garbage cans of debris from the mouse rooms down these stairs, were very unhappy about their task. They were delighted when the mice were moved in February, 1928, from the fourth floor of University Hall to two large laboratories in the newly completed Museums Building.

The rabbits, which for a time had been kept in Morris Hall, were moved in May, 1926, to the first floor of a wooden building, a former residence, on Church Street, just north of the East Engineering Building. The second floor of this building at that time was already occupied by the pigeons. A student investigator, Wallace Grange, and his wife lived for a time in several basement rooms. When this building was torn down in 1927, the investigations of rabbit genetics were discontinued and the stocks were disposed of.

A valuable group of stocks of Peromyscus was received in 1930 by gift from Francis B. Sumner of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California. Dr. Sumner was the first to use Peromyscus on a large scale as a laboratory animal for studies of variability within and among populations. Because of a change in policy in his institution he was forced to give up his research on this animal (Science, 72, 1930: 477-78). All his stocks were transferred to the University of Michigan for further study by Dice.

Until 1932 the expense of keeping the live Peromyscus and other experimental animals which were under study by Dice and his students had been borne in part by the Division of Mammals in the Museum Page  1541of Zoology and in part by grants from the Faculty Research Fund, the National Research Council, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In July, 1932, a special budget in mammalian research was created under the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics, through transfer of funds from the Museum of Zoology and from a small additional appropriation by the Board of Regents.

Laboratory of vertebrate biology. — In April, 1934, Dice was appointed Director of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics, replacing Feldman, who resigned in June. The budget for mammalian research at this time became merged with that of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics. Frank H. Clark (Maine '24, Ph.D. Harvard '34) was appointed Research Associate in the Laboratory in July, 1934. The stocks of house-mice, rats, and pigeons kept by Feldman were disposed of. Some strains of house-mice, brought by Clark from the Bussey Institution, were kept until he had completed his study of them. The stocks of live Peromyscus were moved late in 1934 from the Museums Building to the Laboratory building.

Professor Dice continued as Curator of Mammals in the Museum of Zoology and his salary was paid by the Museum until 1938, when the budget of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics included part and later all of it.

William Franklin Blair (Tulsa '34, Ph.D. Michigan '38) became Research Associate on a half-time basis in the Laboratory in 1937, replacing Clark, who left the University. At the same time Elizabeth Barto (Montana '30, A.M. Oregon '32) became Secretary and Research Assistant.

The research program of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics had come to include studies of animal ecology and behavior, which could not properly be called genetics. In recognition of this broadening of its interests, the Board of Regents in March, 1942, changed the name of the unit to Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology (R.P., 1939-42, p. 910).

The expense of expeditions to collect breeding stocks of small mammals and to study the characters of the environments under which the various races and species live in nature was borne from 1924 to 1939 mostly by special grants from the Carnegie Institution of Washington, in which Dice was a Research Associate. Other funds for expeditions to collect breeding stocks were given by the Museum of Zoology, the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics, the Faculty Research Fund, and by Bryant Walker, William P. Harris, Jr., Gustavus D. Pope, Philip M. Blossom, and others. Many valuable stocks have come also by donation from former students and other persons interested in these studies.

The years of World War II were difficult for the Laboratory as they were for all other units not contributing directly to the war effort. Blair was on leave with the Army from March, 1943, to April, 1946. All other able-bodied male graduate students who might have served as research assistants were also drafted. With the help of women student assistants, however, it was possible to keep alive the more important breeding strains of Peromyscus and to prepare as specimens those individuals which it was most essential to preserve for later study. During this period young women performed practically all the work of the Laboratory, including feeding and watering the animals, cleaning the cages, preparing specimens, and keeping records. Elizabeth Barto was made a Junior Biologist in 1943 and placed in charge of the operations of the Laboratory, while the Director devoted almost all of his attention to the Heredity Page  1542Clinic. All field work was discontinued, and the stocks of live mice were reduced to the lowest level of safety. Through the devoted services of Miss Barto and her assistants the Laboratory suffered no serious loss of breeding stocks.

Studies of the genetics of butterflies were inititated in March, 1946, when William Hovanitz (California '38, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology '43) was appointed a Collaborator in the Laboratory. He was made Assistant Biologist in September, 1946, following the resignation of Blair, who took a position at the University of Texas. Hovanitz left the University in July, 1948, and the studies of butterflies were abandoned.

William B. McIntosh (Virginia Polytechnic Institute '46, Ph.D. Michigan '54) was appointed Research Associate in 1951 and since then has been in charge of the operations of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology. He became Junior Biologist in 1952.

Philip Moss Blossom, of Los Angeles, California, was actively associated with Dice during the early 1930's in field work in Arizona and Sonora. These studies resulted in a monograph on desert mammals by Dice and Blossom, published by the Carnegie Institute of Washington. Blossom has continued to assist in the work of the Laboratory by collecting breeding stocks in the field and by gifts of much needed laboratory equipment. In recognition of his assistance in 1949 he was given the title of Collaborator in the Laboratory.

Among those who have co-operated from time to time with the Laboratory in studies of Peromyscus and other organisms special mention should be made of Marion T. Hall, Claude W. Hibbard, Clement L. Markert, A. D. Moore, Curtis L. Newcombe, William Prychodko, and Frederick E. Smith.

Animals which exhibited serious defects of behavior were detected from time to time in the colony of Peromyscus maintained in the Laboratory. Whirling types of behavior, sometimes referred to as "waltzing," appeared in stocks from Florida, Iowa, Washington, and other states. Convulsive types of behavior (epilepsy) appeared in stocks from Washington, Arizona, and New Mexico. Strains of Peromyscus exhibiting such defects were developed, and it has been demonstrated that many of these defects are inherited. Research grants from the National Institute of Mental Health of the United States Public Health Service since 1951 have provided for an expansion of these studies.

Research conducted in this Laboratory over the past quarter century has included numerous descriptions of the variability of body dimensions and of pelage colors within populations and within races of Peromyscus. It has been demonstrated that the racial characters of these mammals are inherited, supporting the previous conclusions of F. B. Sumner. Races of the same species are generally completely interfertile, but distantly related species usually will not cross. Closely related species sometimes will cross with difficulty, but the male offspring may be sterile. The pelage colors characteristic of the several races of these animals have been shown to be correlated with the color of the soil on which the animals live. On pale desert soils the animals are mostly pale, and on dark soils they are dark. It also has been shown experimentally that individuals closely matching the color of the soil on which they are exposed have a better chance of escaping capture by owls than have individuals of the same kinds which are conspicuous against their soil background. Length of tail has also been shown to be an adaptive character among these animals. Races which inhabit forests have longer tails than do prairie forms.

Fish genetics. — An aquarium room Page  1543for fishes was provided in the Museums Building, which was completed in 1928, as part of the equipment of the Museum of Zoology. Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Curator of Fishes, at that time began studies of the genetics of fishes, with particular attention to the hybridization of races, species, and genera. In recognition of his work in this field in 1932 he was given the added title of Research Associate in Vertebrate Genetics. His studies were supported in part by the Museum of Zoology, in part by grants from the Faculty Research Fund, and, beginning in 1939, in part from the budget of the Laboratory. Professor Hubbs resigned in July, 1944. Karl Frank Lagler, of the Department of Zoology, became a Research Associate in the Laboratory in January, 1945. With support from the Laboratory budget he carried on laboratory investigations of the genetics of the Johnny darter (Boleosoma nigrum) in collaboration with Reeve M. Bailey, Curator of Fishes in the Museum of Zoology. These studies were terminated in 1949.

Ralph O. Hile, of the Great Lakes Laboratory of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, served from 1946 to 1951 as a consultant in fish genetics with the title of Research Associate.

Section of biogeography. — Laurence Cooper Stuart ('30, Ph.D. '33) in July, 1939, was appointed a Research Associate of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics and was given a small budget for studies of reptile genetics. His salary continued to be paid through the Museum of Zoology, however, until July, 1946, when he was given the rank of Assistant Biologist in the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology. He was promoted to Associate Biologist in 1951. The experiments in reptile genetics were later given up, chiefly because of the difficulties of getting the animals to breed in the laboratory and because of their slow rate of growth.

For many years Stuart has devoted most of his attention to the biogeographic relations of the reptile and amphibian fauna of Guatemala, a region of high topographic and biotic diversity. On this subject he has published a number of monographs and shorter papers.

Heredity clinic. — As certain inherited types of behavioral defects exhibited by Peromyscus, particularly the inherited types of epilepsy, appear somewhat similar to those which occur in man, it was logical to consider the investigation of the heredity of epilepsy and of other defects in man. On application from Professor Dice the Board of Governors of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies in 1940 granted funds to initiate studies in human heredity. Under this grant, Charles William Cotterman (Ohio State '35, Ph.D. ibid. '40) was appointed Research Associate in 1940. After consultation with the officers of the Medical School and the University Hospital it was decided to open a Heredity Clinic. The Board of Regents, in March, 1949, established the Department of Human Heredity in the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology and authorized it to conduct the Heredity Clinic in close co-operation with the University Hospital (R.P., 1939-42, pp. 580-81).

A frame building at 1135 East Catherine Street was made available by the Hospital, and the Clinic was opened to the public on November 12, 1941. Claude Nash Herndon, Jr., served as medical officer in charge, with the title of Research Associate, from September, 1941, to March, 1942. In this emergency of the war years Harold F. Falls ('32, M.D. '36), of the Department of Ophthalmology, agreed to assist. He was appointed Research Associate in April, 1941, and placed in charge of the Clinic on a part-time basis. Avery Ransome Test (California '24, Ph.D. ibid. '37) was appointed half-time Research Assistant Page  1544in 1942 and continued to serve until 1947. Byron Orville Hughes was appointed Research Associate in 1941 in recognition of his services as a consultant in matters dealing with physical anthropology.

Cotterman was drafted into the Army in December, 1942, and served until March, 1946. To assist with the work of the Clinic during these years temporary and part-time appointments were made. Among those who assisted were Allan C. Barnes, Winifred S. White, Mary Jane Lagler, Max A. Finton, Maurice T. Fiegelman, and William T. Kruse. Sidney Halperin was appointed Research Associate in October, 1947, but left the University in January, 1948.

James V. Neel (Wooster '35, Ph.D. Rochester '39, M.D. ibid. '44) was appointed Assistant Geneticist in May, 1946, and placed in charge of the work in human genetics. He was inducted into the Army in August of the same year. Dr. Falls again assisted in this emergency and served during Neel's absence. When Neel returned in April, 1948, he was promoted to Associate Geneticist.

Charles Cotterman resigned his position as Associate Geneticist in the Clinic in October, 1950. Anne V. Miller served as Junior Geneticist from September, 1950, to June, 1951. William J. Schull was added to the staff as Junior Geneticist in September, 1951, and T. Edward Reed, also as Junior Geneticist, in September, 1952. Frank W. Crowe and Franklin Martin, Jr., served as Research Associates on a part-time basis from 1951 to 1953 to assist Dr. Neel in studies, supported by the Atomic Energy Commission, on spontaneous mutation rates in human populations.

The program of research and public service carried out by the Heredity Clinic was supported for seven years almost entirely by grants from the Board of Governors of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. By this time the value of the Clinic had been well demonstrated. Beginning with the year 1947-48, a part of the support of the Clinic was provided through the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology, and in 1949-50 the entire support was so provided. It is to be emphasized that the grants for the beginning period of nine years by the Graduate School made the development of the Heredity Clinic possible.

Section of community dynamics. — Ecological studies of animals in nature had been conducted in the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology over a period of years by Dice, Blair, and their students and associates. With the desire to expand these studies Francis C. Evans (Haverford '36, D.Phil. Oxon '40) in 1948 was appointed Assistant Biologist. He promptly developed an intensive program of study of a particular old-field community situated on the Edwin S. George Reserve. In this research program he has been aided by numerous associates, of whom special mention should be made of Stanley A. Cain, Pierre Dansereau, Nelson G. Hairston, Mary Talbot, and George W. Thompson. In 1952 Evans was promoted to Associate Biologist.

Among the special accomplishments of this section has been the development of new methods for measuring and describing quantitatively the spatial distribution of the individual organisms which make up an ecologic community.

Institute of human biology. — The Institute of Human Biology was organized in July, 1950 (R.P., 1948-51, p. 832) as a research unit composed of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology, the Heredity Clinic, and associated units. At the same time the Institute was dissociated administratively from the University Museums group, to which it previously had been assigned. Dice became Page  1545the first Director of the Institute.

Assortative mating study. — The Assortative Mating Study, begun in 1950 as a five-year project, has been supported by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Its objective is to discover the effects on the heredity of a city population which may be produced by the tendency of persons with similar traits to marry more frequently or less frequently than would be expected by chance.

James N. Spuhler (New Mexico '40, Ph.D. Harvard '46), of the Department of Anthropology, joined the staff in 1950, with the rank of Research Associate and was placed in charge of the Study. He was called to active duty with the Naval Reserve for the period from July 1951, to December, 1952. During this time Dice was in charge of developing plans for the necessary measurements. Don J. Hager served from June to September, 1951, and developed the needed socio-economic questionnaires. Neil C. Tappen served as Research Assistant from July, 1951, to June, 1952, and Van T. Harris was Junior Biologist from October, 1951, to October, 1952, Philip J. Clark was appointed Junior Biologist in July, 1952. When Spuhler returned to the Institute in December, 1952, he was given the title of Associate Biologist.

Hereditary abilities study. — An intensive study of the heredity of human special abilities was begun in May, 1952, under a three-year grant from McGregor Fund of Detroit. The study was under the direction of Dice, assisted by an advisory group consisting of Clyde H. Coombs, Professor of Psychology, E. Lowell Kelly, Director of the Bureau of Psychological Services, Howard B. Lewis, chairman of the Department of Biological Chemistry, James V. Neel of the Heredity Clinic, and J. N. Spuhler. Pairs of identical and nonidentical twins were measured in the attempt to discover which abilities are hereditary. Measurements also were made of other characters of the same individuals in the search for correlations between mental abilities and biochemical or physical traits.

Steven G. Vandenberg was appointed Junior Psychologist in May, 1952. Benjamin W. White served also as Junior Psychologist from June to November, 1952. Harry Eldon Sutton was appointed Assistant Biologist in August, 1952, and placed in charge of the biochemical laboratory and of general operations. Philip J. Clark in July, 1953, was assigned part time to this study in addition to serving with the Assortative Mating Study.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1925-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1925-54.
Report … Institute of Human Biology (Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology to 1950), 1945-54.
Page  1546

THE CENTER FOR JAPANESE STUDIES

ONE of the many things that World War II taught Americans was the general inadequacy of their knowledge of critical areas outside their own country. Since the war the responsibilities of world leadership assumed by the United States have made more acute the need for Americans to acquire an understanding of the world around them. One result of this growing world consciousness has been an important new development in American higher education: the appearance of graduate training and research centers on the different foreign areas of the world. Such centers have been established in most of the major universities, the areas of specialization depending upon the resources and interests of each university. The University of Michigan's Center for Japanese Studies is one such program.

The University has for many years held a leading place among American institutions the curriculums of which have included training in the Far Eastern area. Some twenty years ago a small group of the faculty at Ann Arbor initiated the Program in Oriental Civilizations. Gradually, this broader program came to be more and more specialized on the Far East; the whole Orient proved to be too large a unit. By World War II the University had a nation-wide reputation in Far Eastern studies, and various area and language schools were assigned to it by the United States government. After the war Professor Robert B. Hall of the Department of Geography, under the auspices of the Social Science Research Council, made a survey of the foreign-area resources and interests of the different major universities of the country, recommending a plan for development on a national scale. He was instrumental in bringing the Center for Japanese Studies to Michigan in 1947 and has been its Director from the start.

The Center for Japanese Studies was made possible by generous grants from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. To these a supplemental annual grant is made by the University. The Viking Fund has been most helpful in supplying equipment for research in the field. The General Library and private donors have assisted in building up a library of Japanese materials.

The aim of the Center for Japanese Studies is fourfold: (1) to build at the University of Michigan a solid base in Japanese studies in terms of staff and library and other research and training resources, (2) to train a limited number of highly selected young men and women as specialists in the Japanese area, (3) to carry out a program of publication of research findings and research materials in the Japanese field, and (4) to maintain a continuing research program of investigation on the total structure of Japanese society.

The Center for Japanese Studies has its administrative offices in Haven Hall. A library, reading room, seminar, and work rooms are on the fourth floor of the General Library. The library, one of the major Oriental collections in the country, now numbers some fifty thousand volumes of which eight thousand are in Chinese and the rest in Japanese. It offers facilities to students and staff for complete research in the Japanese area. The Center also maintains in Japan a field station in the city of Okayama. This station, equipped with living quarters, cars, office equipment, photostat machines, provides all the essentials to students and staff to conduct firsthand observational studies in Japan proper.

The staff of the Center for Japanese Page  1547Studies consists of thirteen experts in the Japanese area. Each of these men is a member of a regular department of the University at the same time that he participates in the integrated training and research program of the Center. The staff members and their specialties in 1954 were Ronald S. Anderson (Japanese and comparative education), Richard K. Beardsley (anthropology, Japan and North Asia), James I. Crump (Chinese, early Sino-Japanese relations), John W. Hall (history), Robert B. Hall (geography, Director), Donald A. Holzman (Chinese, Buddhist and Japanese thought), Max Loehr (Chinese and Buddhist art), James M. Plumer (Japanese art), Charles F. Remer (economics), Hide Shohara (Japanese), Mischa Titiev (anthropology), Robert E. Ward (political science), Joseph K. Yamagiwa (Japanese language and literature). Godfrey R. Nunn is cataloguer in charge of the Oriental Library collection, and Yotaro Okuno is in charge of the Center's Japanese Library.

The Center accepts for training graduate students who can demonstrate a keen interest in the Japanese area. In this regard the Center has been most fortunate in attracting a number of the best men who received long and intensive Japanese language training in the wartime schools of the armed forces. The Center is also able to provide fellowships for a limited number of able students. The student, on entering, studies the Japanese language to attain competence in handling research materials.

He is required to complete a central integrated course, which extends through the academic year. In this he is given a broad and integrated view of Japanese society and of the Japanese land. He becomes familiar with the outstanding works on Japan in the different fields of interest. A program of specialized courses on Japan is laid out for each student according to his long-run interests. He is also required to participate in the continuing research seminar of the Center as long as he is on the campus. Here he uses research materials in the Japanese language, works with others on interdisciplinary research problems on Japan, is exposed to the entire range of Japanese bibliography, and absorbs something of the methodologies, points of view, and techniques of the several social science and humanistic disciplines. The master's degree is given when this program is completed.

The student then enters the program of the department of his major interest and there meets all departmental requirements for the Ph.D. degree. He, however, continues to participate in the Center's research seminar. He ultimately chooses a Japanese subject for his doctor's dissertation, but one which is completely acceptable to the department in question. For the better students a year or more of field work in Japan is arranged. This may be to secure data for dissertations or it may be a kind of internship after the work for the degree is completed.

The Center carries an average of fifteen to twenty students in its program each year. Since its establishment the total number entering the program has reached nearly a hundred. Of these, forty-four have received M.A. degrees and eight Ph.D. degrees. The graduates have entered all walks of life. The largest number have gone into government service. Others have become teachers, journalists, and businessmen.

As the research program of the Center is aimed ultimately at an understanding of the total structure of Japanese society, the work has had to be divided into a number of projects of manageable size. The central project involves a series of interdisciplinary community studies beginning at the small-village Page  1548level. In this program close co-ordination is maintained between the Center in Ann Arbor and members in the field. Field teams study intensively certain selected communities.

To record and make available the findings of field research, a cross-index file system is used which is a modified version of The Human Relations Area Files index adapted to the Japanese scene. All individual and group findings are recorded on 5 by 8 inch sheets, in triplicate, with notations for cross reference. One copy is filed in the Center's laboratory in Okayama, one copy is sent to the Center's library in Ann Arbor, and the third copy remains with the originator. All findings are available to all members of the Center. The Ann Arbor file is worked over by the research seminar and checked against existing literature, and criticisms and suggestions on it are sent back to the field. In Okayama the files are subject to constant discussion and are revised as new data become available.

In addition to the community study program the Center has used certain other methods of approach to its basic research goals. Public opinion and background surveys have been carried out extensively. A large-scale historical project has accumulated all types of documentary materials for a reconstruction of the background out of which modern Japan has emerged. Finally, each of the Center members going into the field has undertaken a personal study within the range of his particular disciplinary competence. Up to 1954 sixteen students and nine faculty members have been in the field. The co-ordination of all these varied approaches, it is believed, will result in greater understanding of Japan and Japanese society.

The Center publishes several scholarly series designed to aid the progress of Japanese studies in this country. The Center's Occasional Papers, four issues of which have been published by 1954, make available the preliminary findings of the Center's field workers. They also include selected translations of significant Japanese works. The Bibliographical Series, four issues of which have appeared by 1954, seeks to provide annotated guides to the basic Japanese research and reference materials in the standard disciplines.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, University of Michigan Center for Japanese Studies. Univ. Mich. Official Publication, Vol. 53, No. 7 (1951).
Hall, Robert B.Area Studies: With Special Reference to Their Implications for Research in the Social Sciences (New York: Social Science Research Council, 1947), Pamphlet No. 3.
Hall, Robert B."Japanese Studies at Ann Arbor and Okayama."Mich. Alumnus Quart. Rev., LVII (1951), No. 14.
Page  1549

THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH

THE Institute for Social Research is an agency of the University of Michigan engaged in a continuous program of research on problems concerning human behavior in social settings. It is organized on a University-wide basis, administratively independent of the teaching departments and schools, but closely allied with many of them through research, teaching, and professional interests. The Institute's objectives include the conduct of major research projects, assistance in the provision of professional training for advanced graduate students in the social sciences and allied professions, the publication and dissemination of studies, and assistance to and consultation with other persons and agencies engaged in research or action programs related to the scientific interests of the Institute.

The regular staff, early in 1954, consisted of about fifty research scientists, about sixty home-office clerical and administrative workers, and more than two hundred part-time field interviewers located throughout the country. The Institute during recent years has operated on a budget of approximately $800,000 a year, with support coming primarily through contracts with government agencies, private business firms, and similar organizations; through grants from research supporting foundations; and from compensation for certain services provided to other parts of the University.

The Institute through its scientific contributions has attracted world-wide attention and respect. Approximately one hundred scientific reports or interpretations of research are currently issued annually. It is visited each year by more than four hundred scholars and professional persons who wish to know more of its work or who desire consultation. Since much of the research relates to current problems and issues, there has been considerable notice of it in the daily press as well as in various scientific and professional journals. It is the major agency of its kind and is widely regarded as an important influence both in theoretical developments and in bridging the gap between theory and applications of theory to current social, political, economic, and business problems.

The history of the Institute for Social Research, like that of most institutions, is partly a reflection of the needs and opportunities of the times, and partly a creation of the individuals who saw the needs clearly and were able to give direction and organizational form to an agency designed to meet them. Thus, the Institute is a logical development resulting from the broadening of interest in the scientific approach to problems of human behavior, from the emergence of improved scientific theory and research methods during the 1930's and 1940's, and from the urgency of the problems which may ultimately be resolved through a better understanding of human behavior. The Institute is also a product of a few individuals who were able to lend their insight, their confidence in long-term objectives, and their immediate influence, to the practical problems of organization and financial support.

The Institute had its formal origin at Michigan when the Regents in June, 1946, established the Social Science Surveys Project to conduct research on public opinion. Later in the same year, the "project" became the Survey Research Center, with broadened objectives and with important subsidiary Page  1550functions in the areas of training and service. In 1948 the Research Center for Group Dynamics joined with the Survey Research Center. Together, these two units comprise the Institute for Social Research. Each of the Centers has its roots in events which occurred before their association at the University of Michigan.

The Survey Research Center grew out of an organization — the Division of Program Surveys — within the U. S. Department of Agriculture. This unit was formed in 1939 under the direction of Rensis Likert ('26, Ph.D. Columbia '32), present Director of the Institute, to conduct sample interview surveys required by the program of the Department of Agriculture. During World War II this group of scientists extended the range and variety of their work to include surveys for several government agencies on problems related to the support of the war effort. These included studies of public finance, civilian morale, public response to government policies, and agricultural productivity.

At the conclusion of the war the key members of this organization set for themselves new objectives with an emphasis on the conduct of research oriented toward the solution of more basic scientific problems than could be studied effectively within the frame-work of governmental administrative service. They determined to seek, as a group, association with an academic institution that offered greater freedom in choice of research objectives, greater effectiveness through association with a teaching faculty in the social sciences, and greater opportunities for contributions to the social sciences through teaching and publication.

The adoption by a university of such a research organization posed many problems. While it was to be self-supporting through contracts and grants, there was little precedent for the idea that adequate support could be obtained. Furthermore, the organization had interests which cut across such traditional areas of academic interest as economics, psychology, sociology, and political science and which did not seem to fit the established structure of most universities. There was some uncertainty as to whether its objectives as developed would coincide with those of a university. In retrospect, it seems quite logical: Michigan was one of the few institutions with experience in the administration of large-scale interdisciplinary research units, was exceptionally active in developing its social science program, and was able to provide the necessary housing and immediate financial support.

Negotiations were initiated by Rensis Likert, leader of the research group contemplating the move, and by Angus Campbell (Oregon '31, Ph.D. Stanford '36), now Director of the Center. Prominent in the early discussions during which the general character and purposes of the Institute for Social Research were formed were Vice-President Marvin L. Niehuss, Dean Hayward Keniston, Professors Donald G. Marquis, Robert Angell, I. L. Sharfman, and Provost James P. Adams. With the assistance of these men the plans for the establishment of the research unit were developed and recommended to the Regents.

The second of the Centers comprising the Institute, the Research Center for Group Dynamics, was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1945 by Professor Kurt Lewin, pioneer in the field of research on group life. From a time shortly before World War II Lewin had made substantial progress in developing experimental techniques for studying the functioning of groups in both laboratory and natural settings. He had succeeded in isolating different types of leadership and in Page  1551demonstrating their consequences for groups of various kinds. This work took him into such diverse activities during the war as those of the Office of Strategic Services, the Committee on Food Habits of the National Research Council, and agencies concerned with industrial productivity, national unity, and inter-group relations. From this experience Professor Lewin foresaw the scientific and social values to be gained by the establishment of a center which would be concerned simultaneously with basic scientific research on group life and with the utilization of research methods in the solutions of urgent social problems involving the relations among people in groups. Initial financial grants which permitted the establishment of the new Center were provided by the Field Foundation and the American Jewish Congress. The vision of two other men was especially important in creating the Research Center for Group Dynamics: Alfred J. Marrow, president of the Harwood Manufacturing Company, and Professor Douglas McGregor, then of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and subsequently president of Antioch College.

After Professor Lewin's death in 1947, his immediate staff members determined to continue their association in research and chose one of their members, Professor Dorwin Cartwright (Swarthmore '37, Ph.D. Harvard '40), to succeed Lewin as director. This event was made the occasion to reassess the suitability of such a center within an institution primarily concerned with the natural sciences and engineering. It was concluded that a university with stronger resources in the social sciences might provide a better base of operations, and with the consent of all parties, the Center was formally invited to transfer to the University of Michigan and to continue its work in association with the already-established Survey Research Center.

The Regents' Proceedings record approval of the establishment of the Social Science Surveys Project as follows:

The Board approved the establishment of the Social Science Surveys Project, which is a research and service project in the field of public opinion survey, on an experimental basis… It is understood that the project is to be under the supervision of a director, assisted by an executive committee, to be appointed by the Regents, and under the general jurisdiction of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies.


(R.P., 1945-48, p. 418.)
After this initial action, the plans for the new research unit were further developed and the Regents established the unit at their September, 1946, meeting:

The Survey Research Center is hereby established (effective August 1, 1946) as a research, service, and training project of the University.

The Center shall be under the direction of a Director assisted by an Executive Committee. The Director shall be appointed by the Board of Regents on recommendation by the President. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Dean of the Graduate School or a representative designated by him, the Director, who shall be chairman, and six additional members of the University Senate representing fields related to the activities of the Center, to be appointed by the Board of Regents on recommendation by the President.

The Executive Committee shall be responsible for the determination of general policy regarding the nature and scope of the research, service, and training activities of the Center, and in co-operation with the responsible officers of the teaching units and subject to their approval, for the co-ordination of the activities of the Center with the research and training functions of such units. The Committee shall be responsible for the recommendation of appointments of members of the staff of the Center and for recommendations related to its budget. The Committee shall also be responsible for the Page  1552approval of contracts for service to be rendered by the Center, with the understanding that such contracts must also have the approval of the Vice-President in charge of business and finance…

The Center is established with the understanding that its activities are to be financially self-supporting from the proceeds of contracts for service or from grants for research or training and that it will impose no burden upon the general funds budget of the University…


(R.P., 1945-48, p. 522.)

The decision to invite the Research Center for Group Dynamics is recorded in the Proceedings of the January, 1948, meeting of the Board of Regents, and one year later, with the Research Center for Group Dynamics already established at the University, the formal designation of the new and larger organization was prescribed:

On recommendation of Dr. Rensis Likert and the Executive Committee of the Survey Research Center, and with the approval of the General Committee of the Division of the Social Sciences, the Regents voted that the Survey Research Center and the Research Center for Group Dynamics are to be identified under the title Institute for Social Research, with Dr. Rensis Likert as Director. For the time being, the two projects will operate with separate designations within the Institute for Social Research, but it is expected that in due course their separate identities will merge.


(R.P., 1948-51, p. 234.)
In accordance with this action of the Board of Regents, the "By-Laws" of the University were amended to recognize the permanent status of the Institute for Social Research and to fix the essential characteristics of the Institute in relation to the University administrative structure:

Sec. 30. 15. Institute for Social Research. There shall be maintained an Institute for Social Research which shall be conducted for the purpose of research, service, and training.

The Institute shall be under the direction of a Director appointed by the Board of Regents on recommendation by the President and assisted by an Executive Committee. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Director ex officio, chairman; the Dean of the Graduate School ex officio, or a representative designated by him; and additional members of the University Senate representing fields related to the activities of the Institute, to be appointed by the Board of Regents on recommendation by the President. The appointed members shall hold office for three years each, the terms to be so adjusted that two vacancies shall occur each year.

The Executive Committee shall be responsible for the determination of general policies, regarding the nature and scope of the activities of the Institute and, in co-operation with the responsible officers of the teaching units, for the co-ordination of its activities with the research and training functions of such units. It shall also be responsible for recommendations relating to the appointment of members of the staff and the budget, and for the approval of contracts for service to be rendered by the Institute, provided that such contracts must also have the approval of the Vice-President in charge of business and finance.

All appointments to the staff of the Institute for Social Research shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.09 of these "By-Laws," and any collateral appointments in teaching units held by members of the staff of the Institute shall be without tenure, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by action of the Board of Regents. The activities of the Institute shall be financially supported from the proceeds of contracts for services rendered to organizations, agencies, or institutions outside of the University; or from grants for research or training. The Institute may be compensated for services rendered to the educational programs of teaching units and other agencies of the University.


(R.P., 1948-51, pp. 368-69.)

The intention that the Institute should be interdisciplinary and accessible to all schools and departments of the University, is implicit in the form of its organization. From the beginning Page  1553it was administratively separate from any one department or school, responsible directly to the chief academic officer of the University. This intention was strengthened and given vitality by the decision to have an Executive Committee composed of members drawn from a variety of relevant disciplines. Those serving on the Executive Committee, with their terms of office are as follows: G. Ackley (economics), 1947-51; R. C. Angell (sociology), 1946-53; K. E. Boulding (economics), 1951-56; A. L. Brandon, 1947 — ; A. W. Bromage (political science), 1946-55; E. M. Hoover (economics), 1946-47; R. Likert (ex officio), 1946 — ; D. G. Marquis (psychology), 1946-55; C. E. Odegaard, 1953-56; W. C. Olson, 1952-55; J. Perkins, 1949-50; D. M. Phelps (marketing), 1953-56; R. A. Sawyer (ex officio), 1946 — ; R. A. Stevenson, 1946-53; H. F. Vaughan, 1951-54; M. L. Niehuss, 1946-47.

Since the functions of the Executive Committee have included guidance on research objectives as well as administrative control, it has been important that its members have interests at least as broad as those of the Institute research staff. To strengthen the committee in this respect, the Regents in 1952 modified the "By-Laws" affecting the Institute to permit the expansion of the membership of the Committee from six members of the University Senate to a maximum of nine (in addition to the ex officio members).

Within the framework of organization and broad purpose outlined above, the Institute has moved steadily toward a definition of its activities, which in 1952, were stated as follows:

The aim of the Institute is to increase our understanding of social behavior through the utilization of scientific methods. Underlying this aim is the faith that scientific methods — in particular the use of quantitative measurement intimately linked with social theory — can make a major contribution to knowledge about social affairs and to human welfare. Diverse problems have been studied; all were chosen because of their basic theoretical significance, or immediate social implications. These problems, in general, have been sufficiently broad to require team research, and since human problems overlap traditional academic boundaries, the research teams usually have included persons from more than one scientific discipline.

A broad program of this kind must encompass a variety of activities. It is necessary to develop specialized research skills; so there must be constant training of personnel both for the staff of the Institute and for research in other agencies and at other locations. There must be a constant exchange of findings and methods with other researchers; this requires an active program of consultation, publication and exchange of communications, and contacts with colleagues. There must be research on the methods of research so that new and more complex problems may effectively be studied. It is necessary to develop procedures for the interpretation and application of research findings; this leads to the training of leaders and technicians in the use of the research results.

The objectives of the Institute thus include research, professional training for researchers, exchange of scientific information, research on methodology, and assistance in the application of research results.

The research activities of the Institute have been largely the activities of the two Centers. Of separate origin, and beginning with separate problems, methods, and personnel, each has continued its program with considerable autonomy but with the mutual benefit that comes from close association and from sharing of interests, scientific findings, and research skills. Angus Campbell has been Director of the Survey Research Center since 1948, and Dorwin Cartwright has been Director of the Research Center for Group Dynamics during the same period.

Survey research center. — The oldest of the integrated research programs Page  1554of the Survey Research Center is concerned with the dynamics of the major economic decisions made by consumers and businessmen. This program, under the direction of Professor George Katona (Ph.D. Göttingen '21), was undertaken in the belief that people's motives, levels of information, attitudes, and expectations influence their economic behavior, and that measures of attitudinal variables obtained in interviews with a sample of consumers or businessmen can provide important information relevant to past as well as to forthcoming trends in the economy. Data traditionally regarded as economic — incomes, profit, assets, debt, prices — can thus be supplemented by quantitative information on psychological and sociological factors. The major economic surveys of the Center are an annual series of studies known as the surveys of consumer finances, conducted for the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The ninth of these annual surveys is currently in progress. Further surveys have been carried out concerning specific economic decisions on purchases of houses, life insurance, savings bonds, stocks, and consumer goods both durable and nondurable. A series of studies made in 1951, 1952, and 1953 was concerned with attitudes toward inflation, spending, and saving, the origin of economic attitudes and the relation of these to economic behavior.

This work has been supported by various governmental organizations, private business firms, and foundations.

A second major program of research conducted by the Survey Research Center has been concerned with discovering some of the underlying principles applicable to the problems of organizing and managing human activity. This program was initially directed by Professor Daniel Katz (Buffalo '25, Ph.D. Syracuse '28) and later by Robert L. Kahn (Michigan '39, Ph.D. ibid. '52). In 1947 a ten-year program was outlined in this area, which provided for the study, in sequence, of a variety of functioning organizations to explore the social and interpersonal determinants of organizational effectiveness and employee satisfaction. Substantial projects have been conducted within this broad program in an insurance company, a railroad, a public utility, an automobile factory, a governmental administrative agency, a research agency, a household appliance factory, a professional society, four labor unions, and other similar organizations. An important aspect of this research is the experimental testing of concepts and hypotheses developed from earlier studies. One such experiment has involved the creation of contrasting organizations with respect to the level of decision-making and the effects of this difference on productivity and morale. Another has been concerned with the process of introducing change in organizational structure and of individual behavior.

One of the early and continuing interests of the Survey Research Center has been that of the perceptions, values, and behavior of the American people in their role as citizens. One of the first studies undertaken by the Center was an inquiry into public understanding and evaluation of certain aspects of the nation's actions in the field of foreign affairs. Subsequent research has been carried out in the broad area of public reaction to policy issues. In addition, there have been extensive investigations, using the sample interview method, of such diverse problems as: the social implications of atomic energy developments, the factors influencing voter decision in presidential elections, the sources and impact of information on public issues, and the role of large corporations in our society. Studies in this series have also concerned the needs and experiences of teen-age boys in relation Page  1555to organized group activity and the information and attitudes of the public in relation to atomic warfare. Work on these has been directed by Professor Angus Campbell, Burton Fisher (Yale, '38, Ph.D. ibid. '47), and Stephen B. Withey (Asbury College '41, Ph.D. Michigan '52).

Two important projects have been completed by the Center in the area of public health. One, conducted for the American Cancer Society, was concerned with public concepts of cancer and attitudes toward the disease, and was in part an appraisal of the effectiveness of the society's informational campaigns. The other, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, was an exploratory study of the public's concepts and values in the field of mental health; in a single community this focused upon factors associated with public readiness to recognize mental health problems and popular considerations in connection with choice of professional services for such problems. The Center has also provided special services in connection with a nation-wide field trial of a newly developed polio vaccine.

The Detroit Area study, established in 1951 as the result of a grant to the University from the Ford Foundation, has developed as a research and training facility available to faculty and to graduate students in the behavioral sciences. It has provided data to faculty members interested in research on human behavior and also has served the state of Michigan by means of socially useful data regarding its major metropolitan area. The first sample survey of the Detroit population concentrated on group membership and political behavior, the second on childrearing customs and attitudes, and the third on citizen attitudes toward civic and community organizations.

The scope and complexity of sample interview survey research has required a constant attention to problems of methodology, particularly in connection with sampling and data collection. The Center, since its origin, has maintained special sections to provide the necessary sampling and field services for projects and also to conduct research on methodology. Charles F. Cannell (New Hampshire '36, Ph.D. Ohio State '42) has been in charge of the work relating to interviewing methods, questionnaire construction, and other survey data-gathering problems. Roe Goodman (Friends University '31, M.S. Iowa State '44) and later Leslie Kish (City College of New York '39, Ph.D. Michigan '52) have had major responsibility for sampling, and have made significant contributions to the theory and practice of probability sampling.

Research center for group dynamics. — The Research Center for Group Dynamics has also organized its work in terms of integrated and continuing programs of research on selected scientific problem areas. This research rests on the conviction that there are principles of group behavior which can be established independently of the purposes or specific activities of the groups and that basic principles of group dynamics can be established which will aid in understanding the processes of group formation, change, and dissolution, and which will lead to an understanding of the determinants of intergroup relations and of interpersonal relations within groups. The direction of work in these programs has been shared by Professors Dorwin Cartwright and Ronald Lippitt (Springfield College '36, Ph.D. Iowa '40), and Associate Professors J. R. P. French, Jr. (Black Mountain College '37, Ph.D. Harvard '40), Alvin Zander (Michigan '36, Ph.D. ibid. '42), and Leon Festinger (City College of New York '39, Ph.D. Iowa '42).

One series of projects has been concerned with group productivity as a Page  1556focus for integrating the findings from various researches into a coherent conception of the determinants of group efficiency. Experiments and field investigations have aimed at developing ways of measuring group productivity and at exploring aspects of group organization and function related to it. An example of this is the study of the consequences of organizing individual motivations to produce upon a competitive as compared with a co-operative basis. Other studies in the series have been concerned with such problems as the perception of the leader's role and the formation of group standards as they are related to productivity.

As the functioning of a group is dependent upon the exchange of communications and the spread of influence within the group and between groups, the Center has given this area of study high priority. A major part of this work emerges from a study of group formation and communication within a housing project. The findings and hypotheses developed have led to a series of laboratory studies of the critical factors. Recent projects in this series have been concerned with the distortion of communication and perception when there are pressures toward uniformity, the influence of the leader and the group upon the opinions and performance of members, the factors determining the anchorage of opinion in a reference group, and the channels for spread of communication in groups having predetermined structure. Research in established social groups has permitted the verification of findings from laboratory experiments.

The problems of intergroup relations form the core of a third program of research. The objectives have been to seek out the sources of conflict, prejudice, and hostility between groups and to develop some understanding of the bases for more positive relations. The settings for research in this area have included fraternities (the modification of attitudes regarding discriminatory practices), communities (the reduction of hostilities between a housing project and the surrounding community), schools (relations among parents, teachers, and students) and an international conference (national and professional affiliations as they affect functioning).

Group processes are mediated not only by communication and spread of influence but also by social perceptions. These are interrelated phenomena which can be isolated from each other only for certain purposes of analysis and experimentation. The Center has given specific attention to the study of social perceptions — the factors that influence them and their effects on social behavior. In a field study of a formal organization, an investigation was made of how perception of membership with others in informal groups relates to readiness to communicate with others, to value their contributions, and to be attracted to activities with them. Specialized research on the nature of social perception has been undertaken. One project has examined the influence of a person's expectations and preconceptions upon his view of other people's behavior, and the secondary effects of such perception on subsequent personal interaction. The stability of these relationships has been investigated in a training workshop and in a classroom.

An important area of research has been that of developing methods for improving group functioning and of utilizing group processes in ways to maximize member adjustment. Exploratory studies are in process on the influence of basic personality characteristics on the type of participation in and learning from discussion groups. Another study has shown that children with a background of emotional maladjustment fail to perceive accurately what is expected Page  1557and appropriate in a new group and so become rejected and powerless. Experimentation is under way to test methods of helping rejected members become accepted. A comparative study of the development of group structure and social influence patterns in two contrasting summer camps has clarified some of the determinants of pathological group functioning. Two studies of training programs for personnel from other countries have dealt with the special dynamics of the "overlapping group membership" situation in which the learner faces conflicts in loyalty to the present situation and to his other reference groups.

The Center is aware that a distinction must be made between knowledge about optimal conditions for group functioning and knowing how to produce such conditions and for this reason has established a program of research upon the process of change itself. One of the methods most commonly used by groups to improve their own functioning, and on which the Center has conducted research, is to train "key" members holding responsible positions. In co-operation with the National Training Laboratory in Group Development, a series of studies has been conducted on various features of leadership training.

Other activities of the institute. — Although the Institute was established primarily as a research agency, it was recognized from the beginning that it would have other functions. Professional training has increasingly occupied the attention of the Institute. Initially, the Institute undertook to provide a few formal courses within the instructional programs of interested departments and schools. This work has expanded until there are eighteen staff members engaged in regular teaching of twenty-five courses in seven departments and schools. The Survey Research Center in 1948 established an annual Summer Institute in Survey Research techniques which attracts a number of professional students for intensive training. The Research Center for Group Dynamics has collaborated in sponsoring the annual National Training Laboratory in Group Development to acquaint leaders in various fields with techniques for dealing with problems of group functioning and interpersonal relations. The provision of research training and experience has been fostered particularly by the employment of advanced graduate students. Approximately fifty of these are currently on regular staff appointment, and thirty-one doctoral theses have been completed with the use of Institute facilities and data. The opportunities for training and research experience stemming from the Institute have been a factor in the emergence of the University of Michigan as one of the leading centers for graduate training in the social sciences.

The Institute was conceived as a research agency organized so as to permit dealing with major research problems regardless of the traditional disciplinary boundaries. Thus, projects which are broader in their orientation and methodological approach than would ordinarily occur within a single discipline have led to active collaboration by the Institute with various academic departments. Both the Institute and the departments have benefited by such collaboration.

The Institute has assumed that research results will have their full effect only if they are generally available. It has held to the practice of undertaking only those projects which are of general scientific and social interest, and, within the limits of its resources, of making public the main findings of all projects. Thirteen major research monographs and approximately 350 other documents and journal articles have been issued. Staff members participate broadly in public speaking and teaching activities Page  1558related to the reporting of research and maintain contacts with other individuals and agencies having interests in common with those of the Institute. Visiting scholars have access to research in progress. Human Relations, a quarterly journal edited jointly by the Research Center for Group Dynamics and the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in London, is now in its sixth year of publication.

The research of the Institute has been collaborated on and sponsored by a great variety of agencies. Most prominent have been the agencies of the federal and state governments that have sought the services of the Institute to conduct basic research relevant to their administrative problems. The Federal Reserve Board, the Office of Naval Research, the Civil Defense Administration, and the National Institutes of Health are among the agencies having continuous collaboration with the Institute over a span of years. Within Michigan the state government has worked with the Institute on problems of conservation and industrial development. Schools, churches, labor unions, and welfare agencies have been the location and the source of financial support for studies. Private business organizations have been prominent in the research work of the Institute, and continuing research partnerships have been developed with such firms as General Motors Corporation, Detroit Edison Company, and the Michigan Bell Telephone Company.

The growth of the Institute since its origin in 1946 has been reflected in its staff, facilities, and financial resources. From a nucleus of a dozen people who came to Michigan in 1946, and the six key members of the Research Center for Group Dynamics, who came in 1948, the staff by 1954 numbered more than three hundred persons. Housing has kept pace with this growth in staff and volume of work. At first housed in the basement of the University Elementary School, the Institute was transferred in 1949 to larger quarters in old University Hall; when this historic building was demolished in 1950 the Institute was moved to the building formerly known as West Hospital, at 1131 Catherine Street. For laboratory research the Institute has the use of special rooms equipped for observation of group activities and wired for the recording and transmission of sound.

The initial financial support of the Institute (then the Social Surveys Project) consisted of two contracts with government agencies, with the University providing some compensation for teaching and related services. Financial resources have been obtained at all times to keep the organization intact and productive. The total budget for 1946-47 was $233,863; for 1950-51, $852,711 and for 1952-53, $744,636.

The Institute is still a changing, adapting organization. Unexpected new ways to serve the broader objectives of the University have been found. The basic problems of integrating a research agency into a University community to best advantage are not entirely solved; the full advantage of programmatic research closely allied with instructional programs has not yet been realized. But with constant exploration of these problems, and with a conviction that a close alliance between teaching, research, and public service is desirable, it is expected that the Institute will serve an increasingly useful role within the University of Michigan.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1950-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents…, 1946-54.
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Television; The Broadcasting Service

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Page  1561

TELEVISION AT THE UNIVERSITY

ALTHOUGH television is growing rapidly, its potentials are still being explored. The University of Michigan, following the theory that this new medium of mass communication could be utilized for public enlightenment as well as for public entertainment pioneered in an effort to serve the TV audience by means of "Telecourses." The project began as an experiment, but the public response and encouragement turned the experiment into a success.

WWJ-TV, The Detroit News, and the University embarked on this venture in the fall of 1950. The station offered the University time on the air and the use of the station's production facilities for public service. The proposal was considered by administrative officials, the broadcasting committe, and by a special study committee of which Dean Hayward Keniston was chairman, and, in a matter of weeks, the offer was accepted.

Sunday afternoon at one o'clock was chosen as the most auspicious time for the broadcasts. WWJ-TV donated to the University the services of a studio production crew for three and one-half hours' camera rehearsal time, as well as a weekly sum of $100 to help meet expenses.

The first program was broadcast on November 5, 1950. U-M Television received more than 12,000 registrations from interested students in the first four years. Commercial ratings indicate that the program had an average weekly viewing audience of between 250,000 and 400,000 persons in this period.

The purpose of the program was to bring television college-type courses into the homes of adults who wished to continue their education. The newly established Television Office coined the word "Telecourse" to describe these courses. It was decided to divide the hour on the air into three twenty-minute segments. The first two were devoted to the courses, and the third "Teletour" served as the University's showcase by giving the people of the state behind-the-scenes glimpses of various aspects of the University.

Because of popular demand the format has since been changed and expanded. With the fall of 1952 the courses were extended to half an hour each; the "Teletour" part was retitled "Michigan Report" and was telecast at a different time.

Because of the limitations of broadcast time, it was recognized that much important and interesting material on the various subjects could not be included. Therefore, each of the professors was asked to prepare special supplementary material. Every week, before the program, registered students received supplements which gave the history and background information about the topic for a nominal fee of two dollars for fifteen-week courses and one dollar for the seven-week courses. The money was used by the University Extension Service to defray part of the administrative expense and the printing of the telecourse syllabi.

The following telecourses were offered in the first four years: Man in His World: Human Biology; Living in the Later Years: Hobbies Put to Work; Photography; Lands and Peoples of the Far East; Interior Design: The Home and Contemporary Living; Retailing and the Customer; Man in His World: Human Behavior; Democracy in Action: Parliamentary Procedures; Understanding the Child; Political Parties; Understanding Numbers: Their History and Page  1562Use; Exploring the Universe: The Solar System; Modern Physics; Understanding Our Natural Resources: Forests, Rocks, and Waters; Understanding Music: The Vocal Arts; Progress of Mankind: Prehistoric to Present; Creative Artists at Work; Food and Nutrition; Engineering: Building the Modern World; The Growing Baby; Lands and Peoples of Latin America; Theater Arts; American Business; Your Health and Modern Medicine; Fish and Fishing.

The telecourses at first were broadcast only over Station WWJ-TV, Detroit. State coverage was expanded in the spring of 1952 when Station WJIM-TV, Lansing, and WKZO-TV, Kalamazoo, began to carry the program by means of microwave relays. An additional adult education program was added to the schedule at about the same time. Specialists from the University's teaching staff traveled to Grand Rapids every Saturday for a half-hour show on WOOD-TV, called "Understanding Our World." This series, designed as a general information program, encompasses many areas of study, such as current events, child care, and psychology, applied to everyday life.

Programs had been presented earlier on WWJ-TV occasionally by Speech Department students of television production and acting. Since the spring of 1948, "On Camera" has included nine telecasts of dramas written and produced by students and one, "Down Storybook Lane," program for children. In the fall of 1953, the Speech Department and the Television Office introduced a series of noncommercial programs originating from University studios, which were telecast over the Ann Arbor station, WPAG-TV. The approximately two and one-half hours of weekly programs include adult education, stories for children, music, drama, sports, news, interviews with local personalities, and documentary features. The series is for purposes of student training, public service, and experimentation in TV techniques.

The first Television Office in 1950-51 was in Room 4200, Angell Hall. During the first year of operation, the Television Office was combined with the Speech Department-Radio Office. A room in the basement of the Administration Building was assigned to television for the staff artist. In 1951-52 the Television Office was given five rooms in the east wing of the South Quadrangle. A classroom at 229 Angell Hall was remodeled as a temporary Television Studio for closed-circuit operations in February, 1952. In the fall of that year the University leased the Dolph Funeral Home at 310-312 Maynard Street, and the offices were moved to that location. Remodeling of the building in the spring of 1953 necessitated moving the office to Room 225, Angell Hall for the summer of 1953, but upon completion of the Television Studio on Maynard Street in September, the offices and equipment were moved back to that address.

When television was first established at the University in 1950, personnel consisted of the Director of Television, Garnet R. Garrison, Production Assistant, Hazen J. Schumacher, Jr., Script Assistant, Robert Newman, and Secretary, Josephine B. Wenk. Three student assistants were used on production and graphics.

Full-time personnel as well as student production assistants was added over the four-year period until 1954, when personnel included ten full-time people and twenty-one student assistants. The full-time staff consists of the director, the production supervisor, the script editor, the studio technical supervisor, a studio engineer, a film technician, a principal clerk, a secretary, a stenographer-clerk, and an artist. The students act as film, production, studio, staging, engineering, Page  1563lighting, art, program, and office assistants.

Television facilities were secured through an initial appropriation of $75,000 for electronic equipment in 1951. In 1953, the Regents voted $69,150 for kinescope and associated equipment and $112,650 for building rehabilitation.

An application was filed with the FCC by the Regents for a noncommercial UHF television station operating on Channel 26 in May, 1953. The FCC in November, 1953, approved this application with the provision that no construction should be begun on an antenna site and structure until approved by the FCC with respect to safety to air navigation.

The first floor of the TV building consists of a studio measuring 42 by 44 feet, a scenery workshop, the control room, the master control room, film projection and kinescope room, dressing rooms, announcer's booth, and reception and public observation areas. The second floor includes space for offices, film editing and storage, graphic arts, and a conference room which also serves for public observation.

Air conditioning was a necessity in the studio and technical areas. The Television Studio itself is a "room-within-a-room," with walls constructed of one-foot cement blocks to enclose the actual studio area and make it soundproof.

The studio is equipped with three RCA image orthicon cameras, two microphone booms, several stand and portable microphones, a large dimmer switchboard for lighting control, and an elaborate system of supports for the lighting units. The studio control room houses the control and switching equipment for the three studio cameras, for a G.E. iconoscope film camera, and also accommodates a Gates audio console for controlling program sound. The master control room houses a master power supply, racks containing synchronizing generators, and the signal distribution and monitoring equipment.

The film and kinescope recording room houses the projection equipment which permits the televising of 16 mm. motion picture film, 2 by 2 slides, and 3 by 4 opaques and transparencies. In addition, there is the G.P.L. kinescope or video recorder. This machine produces 16 mm. sound motion picture films of television programs. Also in the control room area is an electronic workshop.

Page  1564

THE UNIVERSITY BROADCASTING SERVICE (WUOM)

THE many activities of the University Broadcasting Service are centered in the studios and offices which occupy the entire fifth floor of the Administration Building. Here programs originate for both immediate and delayed broadcast. Remote pick-ups may be fed into the central control room by wire from any campus location or, conceivably, from any spot in the United States. Some materials arrive through the mail in the form of tape and disc recordings and some come from other universities through the NAEB Tape Network.

These programs are disseminated from the fifth floor. Nearly all programs prepared by the Broadcasting Service are scheduled for broadcast on WUOM-WFUM. By means of a microwave "studio-transmitter-link" these are relayed from the campus to the main transmitter on Peach Mountain, some fifteen air miles away. Some programs are fed over telephone lines to nearby stations which contribute their time and facilities to the University as a public service. The WUOM signal itself is simultaneously picked up and rebroadcast in its entirety by the University's relay station in Flint, Michigan, WFUM, and certain programs are rebroadcast by student-operated "wired-wireless" stations in dormitories on campus.

Campus studios. — The facilities in the Administration Building include four modern, air-conditioned studios with adjacent control booths, a recording room, a music library with thousands of selections on tape and disc, and seven offices for the staff. An observation room which can accommodate thirty-eight people adjoins Studio A. All control booths are elevated so that the director of a show can have a clear view of the studio, and all are equipped with control panels, turntables, and talk-back equipment. The maintenance office contains equipment to monitor programs on the air. Over 200 tape recordings of WUOM programs are mailed out each week to stations throughout Michigan. Twice a year thousands of Teacher's Manuals and student books which are used in rural schools in conjunction with the University's "Radio Classroom" broadcasts are sent out, and monthly program bulletins go to some 9,500 addresses.

The penthouse on the Administration Building houses a unit of equipment designated as "REL #694." This is actually a radio station in itself and has its own call letters, KQA-61. By parabolic antenna atop the building, KQA-61 beams its signal on line-of-sight toward a special receiver at the transmitter on Peach Mountain. The use of this studio-transmitter microwave link has saved the station 86 per cent of the cost of the telephone line which was used earlier.

By means of a varying number of wire "loops," engineers are able to bring into the WUOM studios programs originating anywhere on the campus. One permanent loop connects the master control room with Hill Auditorium where the station maintains a small permanent studio. Others go to Auditorium A in the Angell Hall Annex, to the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater and to the Rackham Building, as well as to other classrooms and auditoriums. During the sports season, loops connect the WUOM studio to the football stadium and to the Yost Field House and the baseball stadium. Their use enables the Broadcasting Service to cover a wide variety of academic Page  1565and athletic events during the course of the school year.

Another ten circuits lead from WUOM's control room to the local office of the Michigan Bell Telephone Company. These facilities are used to feed University broadcasts directly to radio stations or networks anywhere in the United States. Frequent hookups are made with stations WJR, Detroit, and with WPAG and WHRV, Ann Arbor, and occasional campus broadcasts are fed directly to the national networks. In the 1952-53 and 1953-54 football seasons, live broadcasts of Wolverine football games were relayed to twenty or more stations throughout upper Michigan.

In the WUOM recording room are seven Ampex tape recorders and two Presto disc recorders. Two hundred and fifty tapes a week have been made in peak periods; the average for the fifty-two weeks of the year probably would not fall below 100. Although the majority of these recorded broadcasts go to Michigan stations, a few get far greater coverage. The Broadcasting Service is repeatedly called upon by the Voice of America to prepare special programs using the University's foreign students. The Department of the Air Force used interviews with University AFROTC cadets which were recorded at WUOM, on several of their nation-wide broadcasts. Special one-time broadcasts have been made for radio stations in Berlin, Frankfort, and Tokyo. When the University's Field Station at Okayama, Japan, celebrated its fourth anniversary, a special broadcast in the Japanese language was prepared for Radio Sanyo.

WUOM Transmitter. — Construction began on the main transmitter and tower in June, 1947, and the first broadcast was made one year later. A request to the Federal Communications Commission for increased power was granted on January 4, 1950. At that time WUOM went to 44,000 watts (effective radiated power). On April 5, 1955, the FCC granted approval to change the antenna and boost power to 115,000 watts.

The antenna is a Collins 37-M-12 bay ring type with deicers and has a gain of 12.7. It is mounted on the side of a guyed tower.

The transmitter building at the foot of the tower contains a General Electric BT-4-B transmitter, which consists of a 250-watt transmitter, 3,000- and 10,000-watt amplifiers.

Emergency facilities include a studio with microphone tape and disc units, standby STL receiver, and basic living accommodations.

The transmitter building and tower are on top of a hill in the University's Stinchfield Woods near Portage Lake. Owing to its height (400 feet above average terrain, a 400-foot tower, and the 12-bay ring type antenna) the WUOM signal dependably covers a one-hundred-mile radius around Ann Arbor.

WFUM, Flint. — Early in 1952 the Regents accepted the gift of Radio Station WAJL(FM), a 250-watt station at the Hurley Memorial Hospital in Flint, Michigan. On July 15, 1952, the station went on the air under the newly assigned call letters, WFUM. Since the installation of REL #722 receiving equipment, WFUM picks up and simultaneously rebroadcasts all programs carried by WUOM, thereby extending the listening area of the Broadcasting Service. Transmitting equipment at WFUM consists of a General Electric BT-1-A unit of 250 watt power, and a General Electric BY-2-B double bay antenna. The station has an effective radiated power of 400 watts, and broadcasts on a frequency of 107.1 megacycles.

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The Buildings and Lands

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Page  1569

THE BUILDINGS AND LANDS

Administration Building

AT THE November, 1943, meeting of the Board of Regents, Professor Lewis M. Gram, Director of Plant Extension, presented a Postwar Public Works Program for the University of Michigan. He was assisted in its preparation by John C. Christensen, Controller, and Walter M. Roth, then Assistant Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds.

This program recommended the construction of a "General Service Building housing the business, administrative, and public service departments of the University." It was provided at the time that the University Broadcasting Service would also be housed in the new building. The estimated total cost was $1,310,000.

The proposed site was on the west side of State Street immediately south of Newberry Hall. Such a building of necessity required the closing of Jefferson Street from Maynard Street to State Street and the removal of Morris Hall at the southwest corner of State and Jefferson streets, at one time the home of Dr. Charles de Nancrède, who had been Professor of Surgery. This house, later used as St. Mary's Chapel, was at the time of its removal the headquarters of the University Bands and the Broadcasting Service. Also removed were three houses on the south side of Jefferson Street, owned by the University, a large rooming house and a residence on the northeast corner of Jefferson and Maynard streets, a service station on the northwest corner of State and Jefferson streets, and two small frame buildings immediately south of Newberry Hall. The Mimes Theater was sold for the price of its removal.

The architects selected by the Regents were Harley, Ellington and Day, of Detroit, to whom the contract was awarded in December, 1944. The general contract was awarded to Bryant and Detwiler, of Detroit. The first spadeful of earth was turned in June, 1946, by Regent R. Spencer Bishop, who unfortunately did not live to see the completion. The building received its first occupant in December, 1948. The total construction costs of the building when finished were $2,275,067.00. Including construction, the total for furniture and equipment, architectural and engineering fees, land and land improvements amounted to $2,463,127.06.

At a meeting of the Board of Regents on November 3, 1945, the building, which had previously been referred to as the General Service Building, was designated as the Administration Building.

The mass move to the building was made from eight campus units: University Hall, Mason Hall, South Wing, Haven Hall, Angell Hall, the Rackham School of Graduate Studies, North Hall, and Barbour Gymnasium. University Hall, center of student service activities for many decades, was vacant of permanent personnel for the first time since 1872. In June of 1871 the very first official act of President James B. Angell had been to lay the cornerstone of University Hall, the structure that united the two wings (Mason Hall and South Wing). When he reached Ann Arbor, President Angell found on the campus the wings of University Hall, a Law Building, a Medical Building, a small Chemical Laboratory, and the four original houses for the professors. The entire faculty numbered only thirty-five men.

Like the University Hall of those early years, the Administration Building is, in a physical sense, the front door of the University. Almost all of the institution's new students enter its portals Page  1570within a few hours or days after they reach Ann Arbor; the undergraduate students take their needs there many times during their campus careers; visiting educators and business personnel find under its roof many of the University staff members whom they come to see.

The building is an imposing five-story face brick and stone structure. It extends for 282 feet along South State Street, across from Angell Hall. The edifice is shaped like a very shallow "U" with wings extending 116 feet toward the west on both extremities.

Within its walls are modern facilities for some 285 staff personnel. The activities which the building houses can be broken down into five general groupings: general administrative services (Regents, President, and other officials of the University and their staffs); students' services (Office of Student Affairs, deans of Men and Women, residence hall offices, admission and registration, etc.); the Extension Service (Correspondence Study, Adult Education); the business services (Cashier's Office, Purchasing Department, Accounting Department, and Investment Office); and the other services to the public (Information Services and News Service, etc.).

All of the student services are on the first floor to ensure maximum ease of handling the heavy flow of student traffic. The main entrance leads through a vestibule and the elevator lobby to a spacious student lobby. To the rear is a broad entranceway opening to a large parking area behind the building. The upper floors are laid out for offices in a system which affords flexibility to the space assignments.

In the basement is a lunch room, a shipping and receiving area below the upstairs dock, and adequate space for the sorting and handling of United States and campus mail. On the fourth floor in the north wing is a lecture room, with capacity for seventy-five people, which fills a dual role: educators and other visitors preview films from the Audio-Visual Center's library; other small University group meetings are also held there.

Because the building is, in effect, a large office building, a maximum amount of window space affording natural light was incorporated in the design. Throughout the edifice all of the windows and window sills are of aluminum construction — no exterior painting was required and the maintenance costs are low. The interiors, which are acoustically treated, feature fluorescent lighting.

In common with other new structures on the campus, the Administration Building offices are painted in eye-pleasing colors that were selected after careful study of the room's exposure to sunlight. The exterior brick is a light salmon color. The sculpture on the exterior is the work of Marshall Fredericks, of Birmingham, Michigan.

Four self-operating elevators are placed strategically to accommodate the traffic. Two are just inside the front entrance and, to the delight of student users, move in the direction desired with unusual speed — at a rate of some 550 feet per minute. They operate under collective control with an electric eye as a safety feature to retard closing on an unwary arm or leg.

Above the front entrance, just to the left of the marble, stone, and steel façade, is a huge electric clock — eleven feet in diameter — with stainless steel hands.

Alumni Memorial Hall

The idea of an alumni memorial hall on the campus originated from a desire to honor those University men who had fallen in the Civil War. In 1864 a committee Page  1571of the Society of the Alumni of the University of Michigan (the organization which represented the graduates of the Literary College) was formed to co-operate with the faculty in raising funds for a suitable monument. In 1865 this organization voted to erect a memorial chapel, to cost about $25,000. Under the chairmanship of Thomas M. Cooley, subscriptions totaling about $10,000 were secured during the following years, but then the matter seems to have been dropped.

Not until June 17, 1903, was the subject revived, when William N. Brown proposed for discussion the building of a University alumni hall. A committee was appointed, consisting of William N. Brown, Andrew C. McLaughlin, and Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, with Professor M. L. D'Ooge as chairman. In 1904, however, Judge Claudius B. Grant appeared as the chairman, and under his direction the committee secured from the Regents the promise of a site at the southwest corner of the campus, and the assurance that the University would take over the maintenance of such a building, if erected. In addition, subscriptions in the amount of $18,000 were received. It was thereupon voted to undertake the project. The Alumni Association was then a well-organized, united body, representing the entire University, and its efforts culminated finally in the construction of Alumni Memorial Hall on the corner of South University Avenue and State Street.

Much difficulty was experienced in determining just what the function of such a building should be. As early as 1897 the University Librarian, Raymond C. Davis, had complained about the crowded condition of the Library Building, caused by the fact that the University's art collections were housed there. He suggested that the alumni provide a building, to be known as "Alumni Hall," which would furnish not only the necessary art gallery, but also quarters for the Graduate School.

The Alumni Memorial Committee of 1904, however, thought in terms of a memorial. The building was intended to provide a room containing "the names by classes of all who have served in the wars of their country, either in the naval or military departments, perpetuated in marble or bronze" (Mich. Alum., 1903-1904, p. 221). The building was also to serve as a meeting place for alumni and former students.

This committee, formed in January, 1904, consisted of Claudius B. Grant ('59), chairman, Hoyt Post ('61), Edward W. Pendleton ('72), George H. Hopkins ('71l), William N. Brown ('70l), Victor C. Vaughan ('78m), and Martin L. D'Ooge ('62). Clarence M. Burton ('73, hon. '05), Charles B. Warren ('91, hon. '16), and Franklin H. Walker ('73) became members later.

The question of the use of the building was complicated by the fact that, at about the same time, a committee was formed to conduct a campaign for the Michigan Union. The usefulness of this project and the obvious need for it made a strong appeal, and many argued that the Memorial Committee and the Union Committee should combine their objectives in a plan for one building. Those who were approached for contributions, scattered as they were over the length and breadth of the country, found the two campaigns confusing and suspected a duplication of effort.

The Michigan Alumnus undertook more than once to point out the distinction, and in December, 1904, published a statement by the Memorial Committee revealing an enlargement of the memorial idea and explaining the uses to which the building would be devoted. It was intended to commemorate not only those students and faculty who had participated Page  1572in past wars but also those who might serve in future wars. In addition, the building was to house the offices and assembly hall of the Alumni Association and to provide rooms for undergraduate and faculty social gatherings. Provided sufficient funds were obtained, it was also to contain a large auditorium on the ground floor for the general use of the University. The Memorial Committee even offered to provide rooms for the activities of the Michigan Union.

The students, in general, opposed the memorial idea, dubbing the proposed building "D'Ooge's Palace" and "The Mausoleum." As the campaigns proceeded it became evident, however, that the memorial project was the more popular among the alumni, for the funds grew rapidly. The Memorial Committee was greatly stimulated in January, 1904, by a gift of $10,000 from Ezra Rust, of New York, the largest single subscription of the campaign. Although the original goal had been $100,000, in 1905 the amount proposed was raised to $250,000.

In 1905 the Regents appointed a committee to co-operate with the Memorial Committee. Plans for a building "direct simple, and dignified," to cost unfurnished, about $175,000, were submitted by the architects, Donaldson and Meier, of Detroit. This plan, which made provision for use of the building as an art gallery, was accepted.

In June, 1907, the Regents appropriated the sum of $50,000 toward the project, with the understanding that the alumni would contribute $132,000. The building was to house the University's art collections, thus providing much needed relief for the Library.

The contract was given to Koch Brothers, of Ann Arbor, in September, 1907. The cornerstone was laid by Judge Grant in June, 1908. The building was completed in 1910 and dedicated with appropriate exercises held in University Hall on May 11. It was officially presented to the University by Judge Grant and was received for the University by Regent Walter H. Sawyer.

Alumni Memorial Hall is an impressive stone building marked by a flight of steps leading up to four great classical pillars at the front. Great bronze doors open directly into the main lobby and statuary hall. There are also two side entrances. The building is approximately 115 by 150 feet, with 41,025 square feet of floor space.

Much credit for the success of the enterprise must be given to Judge Grant, long a prominent figure in University affairs; later he became a Regent of the University and a justice of the state Supreme Court. All of the members of the Memorial Committee, however, had worked hard and contributed much personally toward the success of the project. As a result of their labors a sum of $128,135.64 was contributed by 1,500 subscribers, and the building was completed and furnished at a cost of $195,885.29.

Four of its rooms were named for the four largest donors, as follows: the large main gallery for Ezra Rust, the south upper gallery for Dexter M. Ferry, the north upper gallery for Simon T. Murphy, and the lower north front room for Arthur Hill. The south front room was called the Alumni Room.

Since there was still some discrepancy between the total cost and the money available, the committee continued its work until all but $3,999 of the obligation was paid. This last sum proved to be a thorn in the flesh. In 1912 the Memorial Committee asked to be released from its personal guaranty, and in 1915 the Alumni Association asked the Board of Regents to assume this debt, since they had no means of meeting it. They pointed out that to start another campaign Page  1573among the alumni for money would only interfere with the drive for funds being carried on by the Michigan Union. The Regents declined to act, and the indebtedness was not wiped out until all the obligations of the Alumni Association were paid, with the assistance of the University, in 1934.

A number of gifts were received for the new building. Three members of the Memorial Committee, Burton, Walker, and Hill, gave, respectively, furniture, rugs, and a life-size bronze bas-relief portrait of the first President, Henry Philip Tappan. Hill also gave $5,000 for a similar likeness of President Emeritus Angell. Both were the work of the distinguished sculptor, Karl Bitter.

The uses to which Alumni Memorial Hall has been put in succeeding years have followed in general the intentions of the Memorial Committee. It houses the headquarters of the Alumni Association and the Michigan Alumnus and contains the Museum of Art and the Alumni Catalog Office. Its social function was, in the course of time, reduced to the use of a large room in the basement for the University Club, a faculty organization which later moved to quarters in the Union.

The building's chief usefulness to the University has been as a center of art activities. It was opened officially upon the occasion of an art exhibit, sponsored by Charles L. Freer, which included many items from his famous collection of American and Oriental art, now in the Freer Gallery in Washington. From the time of its organization until 1949 the Department of Fine Arts held classes in this building. The department still maintains a study hall there. The Ann Arbor Art Association held annual exhibits in Alumni Memorial Hall for many years and scheduled some six or eight other exhibits each year. The Museum of Art was given quarters in the building in 1946, when it was separated from the Museum of Archaeology.

Anatomical Laboratory

One of the first anatomical laboratory buildings in this country was the laboratory authorized by the Board of Regents in 1887 and completed in 1889 (see Part V: the Department of Anatomy). It stood south of the first Medical Building, on the east side of the campus.

The erection of this laboratory was the result of a long-standing demand for better facilities for the study of anatomy, which had been emphasized since the days of Dr. Moses Gunn, who became Professor of Anatomy in 1849 and set up what must be regarded as the first laboratory in the University. In fact, for a time the first Medical Building was known as the Laboratory Building.

The legislature, however, made no provision for the Anatomical Laboratory Building, and it was erected through an appropriation from the general fund. At the October, 1887, meeting of the Regents President Angell announced:

It having been found advisable to furnish in the medical building ampler accommodations for the physiological and microscopical laboratories, we were forced to erect a new building for our anatomical work, and to make large changes in the medical building. This has entailed an expense for which no provision has been made by special appropriation. But the necessity was so pressing that the wisdom of the step cannot be questioned. We gain the great incidental advantage of securing improved sanitary conditions for the medical building by the removal from it of all the work of dissection. Never before was it so well fitted for its purpose as it is now.


(R.P., 1886-91, p. 157.)

It was not until 1889 that a legislative appropriation of $7,958.63 defrayed the cost of its construction. The architect was Gordon W. Lloyd, of Detroit, and Page  1574the contractor for it was William Biggs.

In April, 1889, Regent Whitman, chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, reported:

Your Committee on Buildings and Grounds beg leave to submit the following report of M. E. Cooley, Superintendent of the Construction of the Anatomical Laboratory, and the New Boiler House. The work has been done in a workmanlike manner, and to the satisfaction of your Committee…


(R.P., 1886-91, pp. 298-99.)

The Annual Announcement of the Department of Medicine and Surgery for the year 1889-90 also reported, "The Anatomical Laboratory recently erected for the accommodation of the classes in practical anatomy, is admirably adapted for this purpose; the rooms are large, well lighted, and well ventilated."

The actual cost of the building was given as $6,535.95. This figure doubtless did not include the furnishings provided for in the legislative appropriation. The building was an unpretentious structure of brick with stone trim, containing the laboratory room on the second floor and a small dissecting room and the washrooms on the first floor. It was approximately 35 by 50 feet. It was torn down when the work in anatomy was removed to the West Medical Building, which was completed in 1903.

James Burrill Angell Hall

Foremost in the building program inaugurated by President Burton in 1920 was provision for a new main structure for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, since the space provided by old University Hall had become inadequate. Classes were being held wherever rooms could be found: in an old abandoned public school building known as West Hall on the west side of State Street, the basement of Tappan Hall, Alumni Memorial Hall, Newberry Hall, Hill Auditorium, the Law and Medical buildings, the Natural Science Building, and the Library.

Consultations after classes were generally impossible because of the continuous use of classrooms. Some courses were not offered at all because of lack of space while others were given in more than one building. This condition existed in spite of the fact that the larger rooms in Mason Hall and in the South Wing had been divided by partitions so that the total numbers of rooms had been doubled. Had Bertrand Russell known these facts when he visited the campus in 1924, he probably would not have made the remark, with which he was later credited, to the effect that he had never met an American educator "who was not more interested in buildings than in education."

It was felt that inasmuch as the University had grown up around the Literary College and because the College serves all other departments, the new building should be the central structure on the campus. It should not only be large but, in the words of President Burton, "It [should] be beautiful, dignified, and commanding. It [should] help to give unity and form to the entire Campus." A classic design was, therefore, decided upon as being more in harmony with existing buildings, namely Alumni Memorial Hall, the President's House, the Clements Library (then in process of construction), and Hill Auditorium.

The discussion as to the site turned on the desire to preserve old University Hall as a relic of the early days. At first the Regents favored retention of the oldest part, Mason Hall, with the new building surrounding it, but further discussion brought a change of mind, and the decision was reversed. The site on which it stood had become too valuable to permit the preservation of the old building, and the retention of a part Page  1575of it would have made it impossible to work out satisfactory lighting conditions for the new. Thus, even in the early 1920's University Hall was destined in the course of time to bow its way out.

Angell Hall, extending for 480 feet along State Street, was completed in 1924 at a cost of $1,077,000. Only the first two sections, comprising the long façade, were erected as originally projected. In his design, the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit, followed a severely classical precedent in the entrance portico with its eight great Doric columns surmounting a wide esplanade of steps across the front. The building consists of a basement and four stories, with an extra section above the top floor, which provides a small observatory. When completed the building provided 152,000 square feet of floor space. In addition to the offices and classrooms of the various departments and the office of the Dean of the College, a number of rooms were also designated for special purposes, such as the study hall and the Mathematics Library. For some years the President and other officers of the University also occupied offices on the first floor.

Restrained sculptural details on the exterior suggest the functions of the building. Thus, on panels in the spandrels between the main columns appear among other motives the owl, the book, and the lamp of learning; larger panels at the sides present figures in bas-relief emblematic of philosophy and the arts. Over the main door another relief incorporates devices traditional to learning and treats decoratively the inscription on the University seal, "Artes, Scientia, Veritas." Ulysses Ricci, of New York, was the sculptor for this motto. The planting and approaches were prepared by the landscape architects, Pitkin and Mott, of Cleveland, Ohio.

The entrance lobby, finished in travertine marble, is attractive and spacious and well adapted to the purposes of the building. Its classical details are echoed in the rich ceiling decorations, the work of the Di Lorenzo Studios, of New York, the firm which was responsible for the decoration of the General Library and the Clements Library.

The general plan of the building provided for a grouping of departments so that, in the words of Dean John R. Effinger, "… each department may develop its own spirit," with those having common interests adjacent to each other. A desire was also expressed by Dean Effinger that a measure of the spirit of old University Hall might be preserved by placing somewhere that noble phrase from the Ordinance of 1787, which has thrilled so many generations of students and which many had unconsciously learned from seeing it in the auditorium in the old building: "Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." This quotation was carved in stone high over the façade of the new building.

At the request of the faculty of the College and of the Student Council, the Regents, in December, 1924, named the building James Burrill Angell Hall. When the Mason Hall and Haven Hall units were added in 1952 the north and south ends of Angell Hall, which had been left bricked up in anticipation that the completion of the building would extend them, were refinished in limestone.

Architecture Building

For twenty-one years after a curriculum was re-established in architecture in 1906 instruction was carried on in accommodations provided in the West Engineering Building. An office for Professor Page  1576Emil Lorch, head of the department, one large office for the staff, and adjacent drafting rooms for students were on the second floor of the west wing. The beginnings of the Architecture Library were maintained in the Engineering Library on the second floor. The classes in freehand drawing and projection drawing met in the single large skylighted room on the fourth floor at the north end of the north wing, quite remote from the main quarters of the school. Lecture courses for architecture were included each semester in the scheduled assignment of classrooms in the Engineering Building. The East Engineering Building had not as yet been built.

When the enrollment growth of the department after World War I made these accommodations entirely inadequate, added drafting room space and two large offices were obtained through the remodeling of the second and third floors of the old Engineering Shops Building, unofficially renamed "The Parthenon." The Parthenon was linked to the regular drafting rooms and offices in the West Engineering Building by a second-story enclosed bridge. This bridge was termed "The Bridge of Sighs," but it more or less satisfactorily united second-floor activities. When Eliel Saarinen, the distinguished Finnish architect, was Visiting Professor in 1923, he was assigned the room at the end of the west wing for his hand-picked graduate class. Much of the student circulation over the bridge to the Parthenon went, mainly on tiptoe, through this studio.

In the early 1920's, with the postwar increase in enrollment, the need for a separate and sizable building became obvious. Following the recommendations of Professor Lorch, the Regents in 1924 passed a resolution approving a request to the legislature for an appropriation of $400,000 for an architecture building.

As a result of the University's request, the legislature in 1925 appropriated $400,000 for the purchase of a site and the construction of a building for architecture "in accordance with plans and specifications as prepared by Emil Lorch and Associates and as approved by George D. Mason" (R.P., 1923-26, p. 909). Mason, long an outstanding architect in Detroit, had led the campaign for the building.

Through this preliminary period, Professor Lorch had made many studies of the facilities needed for the growing school. He had worked with the University authorities, members of the legislature, the Detroit Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, and the building industry. Emil Lorch and Associates, Architects, began the preparation of complete plans immediately upon approval of the building project by the legislature. The term "Associates" included George M. McConkey ('14e) and Harold A. Beam ('22). Professor McConkey has been a member of the staff since 1911, and Harold Beam has long been associated with the Great Lakes Steel Corporation in Wyandotte, Michigan. In 1926, the Buildings and Grounds Committee was authorized to advertise for bids on the plans and specifications then prepared. The contract was awarded to the Weber Construction Company of Bay City and construction was begun on October 1, 1926.

The site chosen was the south half of the block bounded on the north by South University Avenue, on the west by Tappan Street, on the south by Monroe Street, and on the east by Haven Avenue. The north half of the stated block was occupied by the Martha Cook Building and its extensive and well planted grounds. It was assumed by the architects that the main entrance of the new building would be on Haven Avenue. Although the property was then considered by some observers to be remote, it Page  1577was faced on three sides by University buildings. The site of the Architecture Building was purchased from private owners at a cost of $137,717.50. When completed the building with its equipment was valued at $515,106.

In the construction of the building some changes were made in the interests of economy but in general it proceeded as planned. The department moved into its new quarters in September, 1927. At that time the building was usable, but construction was not completed until June, 1928. Because of building costs the appropriation from the state proved insufficient, but gifts from alumni and friends made it possible to retain features which otherwise would have been omitted. Mr. George D. Mason was a staunch backer in this situation, and Mr. George G. Booth made a substantial contribution for equipment and the purchase of art objects. The building industry in the state contributed certain materials and provided others at reductions in cost.

The Architecture Building is L-type in plan along the east and north sides of the property, the projected plan for long-time development being that of a quadrangle, with wings on the west and south sides to be added eventually. The wing running north and south is 168 feet long and that running east and west is 111 feet long. The building has 76,223 square feet of floor space.

The structure is without basement, and each of the wings is four stories in height. The tower is the main vertical circulation, supplemented by the south stairway on Monroe Street. Externally, the wall surface material is brick, and the sloping roofs are slate. Although the structural frame is mainly of steel, there are many piers and modulated wall surfaces so that the general effect is to some extent monumental. The north side of the wing running east and west is largely of glass, providing light for the large drafting rooms on the lower three floors. At the fourth-floor level and for the fifth-floor studio these large windows are arched.

The entrance lobby at the ground-floor level of the tower is finished in limestone, with tiled floor. It is somewhat formal in character and aims to express not only its function but by its character to speak for the profession housed in the building. This lobby opens directly to the adjacent architecture auditorium, the principal public room on this level, which seats more than 350 people. Originally, the hall extending south to the Monroe Street entrance was a spacious exhibition area equipped with glazed cases in open alcoves for exhibition purposes. The wing running to the west at this ground-floor level was a single large drafting room for freshman architecture students. It is paralleled and served by a corridor leading to the west entrance.

At the head of the main stairway on the second floor are the administrative offices. In the wing running to the south the major part is the Architecture library. This is an impressive room forty by ninety feet, architecturally the most admired room in the building. At the third-floor level the space over the library, measuring 3,600 square feet, was designed as an exhibition room rising thirty feet through the fourth-floor level. Twenty-five years ago the galleries of museums and art institutions such as the Metropolitan Museum in New York and the Art Institute in Chicago, featured lofty halls and permanent exhibitions of full-size replicas of historical elements of architecture, equestrian groups of sculpture, and similar items. The lower wall spaces and the standing screens in this room provided space for exhibitions of architectural drawings and paintings. As to the use of the wing running Page  1578to the west, the second and third floors follow the pattern of the first floor, namely, that of the large drafting room, but without corridor. At the fourth-floor level are fully equipped studios for drawing and painting. The building originally provided nine faculty offices along the west side of the south wing, and at the south end of the building on Monroe Street were eight classrooms with blackboards, two on each floor.

At the time of its completion in 1928, the facilities of the Architecture Building were outstanding among the architecture schools of the United States. It provided handsomely for the student body and faculty of that day and permitted a certain amount of expansion. The drafting rooms were well equipped with drafting tables and the drawing and painting studios with easels and tables. In general, however, the furnishings were inadequate, and for many years the classroom benches were of varying vintage that had been discarded elsewhere on the campus. The library, for example, was provided with overhead lighting fixtures discarded by the General Library. These make-shift arrangements served for many years, and a miscellaneous collection of tables and chairs of the kitchen-chair type were used as the library tables and as seating furniture. Faculty office furniture was obtained soon after the building was erected and still serves satisfactorily as far as the limited number of items is adequate.

In the early years after the building was occupied, the open site space comprising the entire southwest area of the block was developed as a formal garden, with a sunken square in the center focused on a central column. Flagged walks and rows of clipped evergreen hedges outlined this space. Through the efforts of Professor Lorch and friends of the school a number of fragments of architecture were purchased or donated and appropriately placed on the axes of the garden about the sunken court, or against the walls of the main building. Those of particular interest are fragments of American buildings illustrating by example the range and sequence of architectural development in this country. The arrangement aimed to make the open space agreeable, to relate it to the existing building, and to suggest the quadrangle which would appear upon completion of the whole structure. In 1954 it was necessary to erect a temporary research laboratory of unistrut construction in the garden. Not long after the occupation of the building Haven Avenue was closed as a street, and its place was taken by a mall with a broad sidewalk, thus depriving the Architecture Building of its main entrance by a street approach.

To meet the pressure of growth in size, coming to a climax in the years immediately after World War II, many changes had to be made in the effort to obtain every possible square foot of teaching space. Equally demanding in the use of space has been the growth of the Visual Arts curriculum. When the building was constructed architecture was almost the only concern of the school. Through the years, however, instruction in decorative design has gradually become a degree program in the visual arts, which now has more than two-fifths of the entire enrollment in the College. The developing emphasis on art teacher education exerts added pressure. Landscape Architecture was transferred to the College in 1939, and, although a small unit, it has required a certain amount of space. Over the past six years, architectural research has become an activity of growing interest for staff and students. Integrated with the curriculum in architecture, it, Page  1579too, requires space for analytical studies, drafting, the construction of mock-ups, and the testing of assemblies.

Thus far no violence has been done to the basic structure of the Architecture Building as the result of these developing needs, but many elements have been modified. On the ground floor the freshman drafting room has been divided into three sections, none of which is now used for instruction in architecture. This division provides in approximately equal areas for sculpture, general shop, and ceramics, disciplines not available in 1928. The installation for ceramics is permanent in character and represents a considerable investment. In the east wing of this floor the exhibition alcoves have had to give way to permanently enclosed faculty offices. The auditorium has been provided with adequate, permanent seating and is now equipped for film as well as for lantern-slide projection. It is used as a University auditorium in the evenings, mainly for movies. The two south classrooms are used for architectural research.

The second floor is least changed. The administrative offices for the College, however, have been remodeled, eliminating the storage vault, and accommodating an office for the assistant dean, an administrative function not foreseen when the building was erected. Another office has been gained on this floor by enclosing a large alcove opposite the double doors to the library.

Soon after World War II the large exhibition room on the third floor was converted into a single drafting room. Its extreme height is uneconomical, but the floor space is in active use. At this level, as on the floor below, an office was built in. The fourth floor alone remains unchanged. The large studio of nine hundred square feet, twenty-three feet high at the fifth-floor level, was originally thought of as a suitable studio for a distinguished visiting designer, painter, or sculptor, who might there carry on creative work while meeting students as an artist in residence. This room is now regularly filled to capacity with classes of students in painting. The sixth-floor room of twelve hundred square feet area, a considerable climb in these days of elevators, was, for more than twenty years, filled with stored casts and other art objects. Under the pressures of present necessity, it is now a photographic studio with darkrooms and like facilities.

THE ATHLETIC PLANT

The earliest demands for recreational facilities on the part of University of Michigan students were answered by the transformation, in 1858, of a manual exercises building, erected in 1856 (R.P., 1856, p. 650) and used as a drill room, into a gymnasium of sorts with apparatus which consisted of a few bars, poles, ropes, and rings. This building, which stood near the site of the heating plant on the east side of the campus proper, was used only in warm weather, as it was erected on poles sunk in the ground and had a tanbark floor. In 1868, however, these facilities were increased with the construction by the class of 1870 of a "gymnasium in embyro," near the center of the campus behind the Museum, and to the south of South Wing of University Hall. This structure was described as "two uprights with a crossbeam and ropes dangling from eye-bolts." A third recreational center, provided in 1885, was the Old Rink, later to become the Armory, which was fitted up as a gymnasium.

In the meantime, demands for outdoor play facilities had already been met. In early times informal play was limited to that corner of the campus where later Page  1580Waterman Gymnasium was built and to the old Fair Grounds, now Burns Park, in the southeast part of the city. The University first recognized the need for athletic facilities in 1865, when the Board of Regents appropriated $50 for the care of a cricket field and $100 for the same purpose in the following year.

Because the playground on the campus was wholly inadequate and the Fair Grounds unsatisfactory, since they were not adapted to college games and not subject in any way to University control, the Regents in 1890 purchased for $3,000 the south ten acres of what is now Ferry Field and made necessary improvements by grading and drainage. This original field, called Regents' Field, included a quarter-mile track with a 220-yard straightaway on the north side and inside the track a baseball diamond and football gridiron.

In 1902 Dexter M. Ferry, of Detroit, donated to the University an additional seventeen acres to the north of the old field, and the combined tract was called Ferry Field. In 1904 the brick wall was constructed on three sides of it, and in 1906, through the gifts of Mr. Ferry, the gates and ticket offices at the northeast corner of the field were added. Later expansion to the west of the original acquisitions and to the south below the wall has enlarged the entire plot to approximately eighty acres.

Football games were played on the first gridiron, which ran east and west on the original Regents' Field, until 1906. Wooden stands to accommodate 400 persons were put up in 1893, but these burned in 1895 and were then rebuilt to seat 800. A grounds-keeper's house was also erected, and stands seating 1,500 along the straightaway of the running track were constructed. By various stages facilities were expanded, and a record crowd of 17,000 was accommodated at the final football game on the old Regents' Field in the fall of 1905.

In 1906 the site of intercollegiate activities on Ferry Field was shifted to the north part of the field. A new gridiron running east and west, with a quarter-mile cinder track around it, was built there. The baseball diamond was also moved north to the present site of Yost Field House. Wooden stands were erected beside the new gridiron, but in 1914 those on the south side were moved, part of them to the baseball field, and the first unit in the construction of a contemplated U-shaped concrete stadium was begun.

Only the south unit of the concrete stadium, first used in the fall of 1914, was ever completed. It was designed after a study had been made of similar stands in other universities, and at that time it was considered one of the best bleachers in the country. It provided seats for 13,600 people and was constructed at a cost of $100,000. The north and west sides of the old field were occupied by the wooden stands, which were kept covered during those seasons of the year when they were not in use. These stands, which seated approximately 46,000 persons, proved far from adequate, however, in that they did not begin to accommodate the huge football crowds attracted to the intercollegiate games after 1920, and, as a result, a strong movement developed favoring the erection of a larger stadium.

The site of the Stadium includes more than fifteen acres and provides a practice fairway on the east side. The first football game was played there in 1927.

The crowded condition of Waterman Gymnasium as the result of increased demands on the part of the Physical Education Department created an urgent need for added facilities, particularly for intercollegiate competition, and in 1922 Fielding H. Yost, Director of Intercollegiate Athletics, was appointed Page  1581chairman of a committee to investigate the possibility of a gymnasium on Ferry Field. Final action approving such a building was taken later that year with the acceptance of plans by the Board in Control of Athletics and the erection in 1923 of Yost Field House at a cost of $563,168.

The Field House, which made it necessary to move the baseball diamond and stands about 150 feet west of their old site, replaced the previous club house, erected in 1912 to provide locker and shower facilities previously available only at Waterman Gymnasium. In 1928-29 forty tennis courts (clay, concrete, and asphalt) for intercollegiate and intramural play were constructed on Ferry Field.

The importance of physical education for women was early recognized by the erection of Barbour Gymnasium, as an addition to Waterman Gymnasium, in 1896-97. The building was made possible largely by a gift of property, valued at the time at $25,000, from Levi L. Barbour, of Detroit, a Regent of many years' standing. This particular gift, as it developed, was only partly used for the erection of the women's gymnasium. The women's athletic field was purchased in 1908 as the result of two gifts, one of $1,500 from the Honorable Peter White ('00) and one of $3,000 by Senator Thomas W. Palmer ('49), of Detroit, and was named Palmer Athletic Field. The original field comprises almost seven acres west of Lloyd, Mosher-Jordan, and Stockwell halls. It affords facilities for outdoor track, including two cinder tracks and jumping pits; a hockey field used also for soccer, lacrosse, and golf practice; an outdoor picnic site with fireplace; sixteen tennis courts, twelve clay and four cement; a putting green with an adjacent court used for volleyball or croquet; space for horseshoes and quoits; and an elevated terrace used for instruction in the various sports.

In 1955 the athletic plant of the University of Michigan covered approximately 235 acres and was valued at approximately $6,000,000. Plant expansion of more than two million dollars had been accomplished since 1921, when Yost became Director of Intercollegiate Athletics. From 1941, when Herbert O. Crisler (Chicago '22) became Director, more than $3,000,000 has been spent on plant expansion. This was made possible mainly by revenues of the department itself.

(New) Athletic Administration Building

Work on the University of Michigan's new Athletic Administration Building was begun in August, 1954. The building is being financed out of athletic receipts derived principally from football. It is expected to cost approximately $365,000.

The new building, on the corner of State and Hoover streets, has an area of approximately 19,400 square feet and houses a modern streamlined ticket department, offices for the administrative staff and director, quarters for coaches in all sports, as well as the athletic publicity department. It was completed in the spring of 1955.

The architects were Giffels and Vallet, Inc., of Detroit, and the Henry de Koning Construction Company of Ann Arbor, held the construction contract.

The former Athletic Administration Building will be occupied by the staff of the Men's Physical Education Department.

(Old) Athletic Administration Building

The old Athletic Administration Building on South State Street near the Page  1582main entrance to Ferry Field and just north of Yost Field House is now occupied by the staff of the Men's Physical Education Department. Erected in 1912 as an athletic field clubhouse, it was the first of the modern buildings constructed on the enlarged Ferry Field. It measures 57 by 64 feet and has a floor space of 8,249 square feet. It is built of brick and stone in an attractive modified English Tudor style.

Before the erection of Yost Field House and the Intramural Sports Building, almost all athletic activities were centered in this clubhouse. It was fitted out with showers at the rear, locker rooms at each side, and had a large lecture room on the second floor. With the construction of Yost Field House the original function of the building changed. In 1925 extensive alterations were made in the interior arrangement at a cost of $26,000.

Barbour Gymnasium

In 1894, shortly after the completion of Waterman Gymnasium for the men of the University, the erection of a gymnasium for women was undertaken.

The campaign for the new building was conducted mainly by the Women's League, which had been organized in 1890. For a number of years every organized effort of the women of the University was directed toward raising funds for this gymnasium. Regent Charles Hebard ('79m) raised $10,000 and John Canfield, of Manistee, gave $5,000. Among the gifts was a transfer of $711 from the Mary J. Porter Fund, one of the first alumnae contributions to the University. Altogether, almost $21,000 was raised during the period from 1892 to 1897. To this sum the Regents added approximately $20,500. The total cost of the building, which was occupied in 1896, was $41,341. The architect was John Scott and Co., and the contractor Henry Carew and Co.

In December, 1895, Regent Levi L. Barbour, of Detroit, gave the University several lots in Detroit which, according to the original intention of the donor, were to be used for an art building. At the meeting of the Regents in January, 1898, however, it was moved by Regent Fletcher that "in view of the generosity of Ex-Regent Barbour in giving property valued at $25,000 to aid in the erection of the Woman's Building on the campus, that hereafter the building be known as the Barbour Gymnasium." Apparently, there was some verbal agreement that a part of this gift should be considered as a gift to the women's building rather than toward an art building.

Barbour Gymnasium, containing 35,456 square feet, was built as a part of the Waterman Gymnasium building, and the two gymnasiums were connected by doors which could be thrown open on special occasions, such as the University Senate receptions and the annual Junior Hop, which for years were held in the two buildings.

Originally, all of the first-floor space, with the exception of the gymnasium, was used as parlors and as offices for the Dean of Women and the Department of Physical Education for Women. The building at first was used frequently for large social occasions.

The offices of the Dean of Women were moved to the Administration Building when it was opened in 1948; the Department of Physical Education for Women continued to be housed on the first floor, which was renovated. A well-equipped corrective room occupied a part of this space.

The gymnasium is about 90 feet square. The running track has long since been condemned. The kitchen was remodeled into staff rooms.

The Sarah Caswell Angell Hall on the Page  1583second floor was condemned as a theater in the middle 1920's, and its seating capacity was limited to 250 several years before the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater was completed; it is now used for instruction in dancing. The basement also houses a fencing room and a record room.

Coliseum

The University Coliseum building, which stands on Hill Street at the corner of South Fifth Avenue, about three blocks from the University's Athletic Field, is used during the winter as a student skating rink. It was purchased by the Board in Control of Physical Education in 1925 and adapted for skating and hockey at a total cost of $104,837. The development of this property was a part of the general program in physical education for the student body inaugurated at the time that the Stadium and the intramural Sports Building were erected and the Women's Athletic Field was developed.

The Coliseum is a large steel and concrete structure. In 1949-50 the ice rink was remodeled at a cost of approximately $235,000 to provide a seating capacity of 3,500. Since the building became University property, it has been in use throughout the winter months for skating and for intercollegiate hockey matches.

The Golf Course and the Golf Service Building

The University of Michigan Golf Course was opened on September 26, 1930. It contains approximately 165 acres. The land is valued at $178,367, and the buildings at $165,478. Completed in 1950, the University's modern clubhouse was constructed at a total cost of $273,500.

Facilities for both male and female golfers have been provided in the new edifice, with separate locker and showerroom installations. Two hundred and fifty lockers have been built for the men and fifty for the women. In the basement of the structure practice nets have been set up. A spacious lounge and snack bar are included in the facilities on the first floor.

Most impressive of all the advantages of the new building, however, are the eleven rooms on the second floor. It has been the practice of Coach Oosterbaan to isolate the football team after its final practice of the week. The players now have the advantages of the clubhouse at their disposal. The comparatively distant location from the campus of the clubhouse assures the players of a night of complete rest. Previously, they were often affected adversely by the pep rallies and snake dances which wound excitedly by their quarters in the Field House.

The building has an area of approximately 20,800 feet. The architect was Douglas D. Loree, of Ann Arbor, and the general contractor the Henry de Koning Construction Company. A unique feature is the terrace which looks over the course, one of the most beautiful in the state. In addition, the golf clubhouse has provided local golf fans as well as students with modern, beautiful, and serviceable facilities that could be expected only in a private country club.

In the spring of 1955 a new nine-hole course adjacent to the present 165-acre course was opened, at a cost of approximately $12,000.

Sports Building

With the construction of a second field house on Ferry Field, provision for intramural sports was made for the entire student body. Just as the neighboring Yost Field House provides for intercollegiate athletics, the Sports Building affords ample facilities not only for the development of the individual Page  1584student but also for interclass athletics, particularly basketball, indoor tennis, squash, handball, and various forms of track athletics, boxing, wrestling, and swimming.

The building, which stands on Hoover Avenue at the north end of Ferry Field, was completed in 1928. Its construction began in 1927.

The intramural Sports Building extends for 415 feet along the street and is 110 feet wide. Thus, it is somewhat longer but not as wide as Yost Field House and is similar in architecture. It is a long brick building in Lombard Romanesque style, simple in general outline, which is, however, broken by tremendous monumental entrances on either side, extending above the general line of the roof; these divide the building into two wings, of which the shorter extends to the east. Immense arched windows give ample light for the various sports carried on in the building. Provision was made for more than four thousand lockers for the use of students and faculty.

To the left of the entrance on the first floor of the shorter wing is a large room almost 100 feet long, designed especially for boxing and wrestling. This room also contains a beautiful tiled swimming pool, 75 by 35 feet, completely equipped with adjacent lockers and showers. The longer wing at the west is taken up on the first floor by fourteen handball courts and thirteen squash courts. On the second, or main floor, the central section is occupied by the administrative offices of the Department of Intramural Athletics. A completely equipped auxiliary gymnasium on the east side was designed for faculty use. The wall between this room and the room which houses the swimming pool can be raised for swimming meets, permitting the installation of seats for as many as 960 spectators. A vast gymnasium 252 feet long, large enough for four basketball courts, occupies the full length of the west wing. A special feature is the floor of heavy maple laid over an underfloor of two by sixes. The building is effectively soundproofed. It was designed by Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, of Detroit, and the Palmer Construction Co. held the contract; it was completed at a cost of more than $743,000.

The Stadium

Michigan's football Stadium was completed in the fall of 1927 and forms one of the most satisfactory and practical football fields in existence. Its designation is in reality a misnomer since it is of the amphitheater or bowl type of construction, rising only slightly above the ground level on the east side.

The site of the structure was decided upon in the spring of 1926, and plans for construction were made during the following summer. Increased interest in the record of Michigan's football team, resulting at almost every game in an attendance much larger than the old stands on Ferry Field were able to accommodate, eventually led the Board in Control of Athletics to consider expansion of the University's athletic facilities. As the result of a report presented in January, 1926, by a University committee under the chairmanship of Professor Edmund E. Day, later president of Cornell University, a plan was developed for the reorganization and expansion of the athletic facilities of the University. Thus, the Stadium was only one part of a broader program which included the construction of the Sports Building and the Women's Athletic Building and the development of the University Golf Course and the Women's Athletic Field.

To finance this extensive program, bonds were sold to alumni and to friends of the University, giving them preferred Page  1585seats at all games for a period of years, these bonds to be retired progressively as the receipts warranted. The total improvements cost amounted to more than $2,000,000, of which the cost of the Stadium represented $1,183,545.

The site for the Stadium was a matter of some discussion, but eventually property, including some sixteen acres and 119 city lots, was acquired on South Main Street just across the Ann Arbor Railroad tracks from Ferry Field. This area was purchased by the Board in Control of Athletics for $239,000, including the cost of some lots which were taken under condemnation proceedings. The right of the Board in Control of Athletics to acquire land by this means was upheld by the state Supreme Court during the course of the negotiations. The site formed a gentle slope rising from the valley of the old Allen's Creek near the Ann Arbor Railroad to the level of South Main Street.

In considering plans for the Stadium it had been decided, in accordance with the recommendation of the Day committee, to make it a place to hold football games under the most favorable circumstances, with no emphasis upon monumental construction. Accordingly, a bowl type of structure was chosen which took advantage of the natural characteristics of the terrain so that the Stadium rests in the soil of the hillside instead of being enclosed within high concrete walls. The structure is above ground only on the east side, the only wall being on this side; on the west the top seats are level with the street, with some seventy rows of seats, seating 85,753 originally, stretching down to the playing field. A series of steps on either side of the main entrance leads to a wide areaway for the players.

The architects, instead of designing the structure in the form of a perfect ellipse, as in the Yale Bowl, provided for sides parallel to the playing field, bringing the spectators much closer to the side lines. This feature alone — the proximity of the seats to the playing field — has made Michigan's Stadium one of the most satisfactory in this country. The Stadium is 756 feet long and 586 feet wide and includes fifteen and one-half acres.

The strategically placed entrances and exits around the entire upper edge and in the center of the east side have also made it possible for crowds to disperse rapidly; in fact, the exact time for emptying the Stadium is thirteen minutes. To care for the throngs which come to Ann Arbor on football days, parking facilities have been supplied on all sides of the Stadium, and special city traffic regulations permit street parking during the games. Locker and shower room facilities for home and visiting teams are provided under the east side of the stands. A press box was erected over the west side of the Stadium. It affords room for five radio booths and 250 newspaper correspondents. The box was designed by Bernard L. Green ('91e) of the Osborn Engineering Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, and was built by James Leck and Company, of Minneapolis, general contractors. A new press box is now being built.

In 1949-50 additional steel seats were erected at the top of the Stadium at a cost of $304,340, making the total seating capacity 97,239.

Waterman Gymnasium

Waterman Gymnasium was completed in 1894 after years of appeals and effort on the part of students. An elaborate report on the subject of a gymnasium was presented to the Regents by a committee of the University Senate in 1870 (R.P., 1864-70, pp. 7-22), and for a time a grant by the Board seemed possible. Unfortunately, the necessary funds were not available, and all appeals for a Page  1586special appropriation were refused by the legislature. In 1878 a concerted student movement had developed through the reorganization of an earlier Football Association which became the Athletic Association of the University, an incorporated society which had as its principal objectives the building of a gymnasium and the establishment of a trust fund for the moneys raised for that purpose. By 1883 the sum totaled some $4,000, which amount was greatly increased by the time the building was actually erected ten years later.

The first step toward the construction of the gymnasium came through a gift, in 1891, of $20,000 from Joshua W. Waterman, of Detroit, on condition that other donors should contribute a like amount (P.R., 1891, p. 13). President Angell was able to report in 1894 that $42,705, including Mr. Waterman's original gift, was available for the construction of a gymnasium, to which was added $6,095, the amount of the fund originally raised for a gymnasium by previous student efforts; this was used for equipment.

Although the erection of the building was contemplated in 1892, the financial stringency of the period limited the amount of the subscriptions, and in order to complete it the Regents found it necessary, eventually, to add a contribution of $14,000. The total cost was $65,134.14 (R.P., 1891-96, p. 516). The architect was E. W. Arnold. The gymnasium has a frame of structural ironwork enclosed within a shell of brick walls, with skylights in the ceiling. Its dimensions were 150 by 90 feet, and a shallow wing along the south side provided offices for the director and rooms for medical examinations. A balcony was devoted to a running track of fourteen laps to the mile. The basement was occupied almost entirely by a locker room and showers.

With the growth of the University, the gymnasium proved inadequate. Plans for enlargement were accordingly prepared, providing for an addition making it 248 feet long, with corresponding additions in the locker room and shower facilities and a track of ten laps to the mile in the balcony. These additions, which were completed by the University Department of Buildings and Grounds in 1916, gave the building a total floor area of 57,000 square feet.

Plans for the additions also provided for a swimming pool, a change in the entrance, and the addition of more office and examination rooms, but funds were not available. In 1924, however, a number of alterations were made in the wing devoted to offices for the Department of Physical Education.

Women's Athletic Building

The Women's Athletic Building on Palmer Field was erected in 1928 as part of the program in physical education for women undertaken by the University Board in Control of Physical Education two years earlier. For some years the athletic activities of the women of the University had been centered at Palmer Field, an uneven and rather hilly tract of land south of the hospitals and the Observatory. With the development of the extensive athletic program for the entire University, which took place with the erection of the Stadium and the intramural Sports Building, provision was made for the women by leveling Palmer Field and erecting a suitable field house on it.

The Women's Athletic Building, on Forest Avenue, at the east end of North University Avenue, was constructed at a total cost of $154,000. It has two stories and a basement, and a floor area of 27,387 square feet. Designed by the Ann Arbor architects, Fry and Kasurin, it is built of red brick with white pillars at Page  1587the front, in a simple Georgian tradition. The building is used as an athletic club, where social occasions may be combined with active sports participation. The big terrace which overlooks the playing fields is provided with colorful umbrellas, tables, and chairs.

The first floor houses the main office for the distribution of sports equipment, the main lockers, dressing rooms, showers, and the equipment-storage room. In the basement is a four-lane bowling alley, a sixty-foot rifle range, and ten indoor golf cages.

Women's Swimming Pool

The dedication of the Women's Swimming Pool Unit on April 17, 1954, marked the completion of one important project in the over-all plan for a new and modern women's athletic building, which is planned to meet the needs and interests of students in a present-day program of physical education.

As early as 1923 recommendations for a women's pool had appeared in the annual reports of Dr. Margaret Bell, chairman of the Program of Physical Education for Women, and in 1928-29 provisional plans for a swimming pool were submitted to the Board in Control of Atheltics. In 1937, upon receiving the approval of the Board of Regents, the Women's Athletic Association sponsored a drive for funds. Many student organizations and alumnae groups contributed to the project. By 1940 about $10,000 had been accumulated in gifts or pledges. By the time construction of the Pool began approximately $28,000 had been donated to the Women's Athletic Association fund.

In November, 1949, the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics advised the Regents that they were prepared to begin construction of the pool "at an estimated cost of $775,000" provided the University would furnish the necessary site and maintenance (R.P., 1948-51, p. 574).

The site chosen was the west part of the block facing Forest Avenue between Geddes and North University avenues. This area, except for three University-owned houses, was occupied by private dwellings. Authorization was given for appraisal of those properties not owned by the University, and within a year the site had been secured. Eight houses were removed before construction could begin. In September, 1950, the Regents approved a contract with Alden B. Dow, of Midland, Michigan, and Kenneth C. and Lee Black, of Lansing, Associated Architects.

In February, 1951, Dr. Bell was appointed chairman of the Planning Committee for the Women's Gymnasium and Swimming Pool. H. O. Crisler, Fritzie Gareis, Marie D. Hartwig, Matthew Mann, and Elmer D. Mitchell were the other members of the committe, which was to work with Lynn Fry and Oscar Cartwright of the staff of the College of Architecture and Design of the University.

The preliminary plans for the Swimming Pool Unit were accepted by the Regents in October, 1951. The Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics informed the Board of Regents that it could furnish $853,000. In April the Regents granted the architects permission to complete, within the $1,116,000 budget, final plans and specifications, providing a total seating capacity of approximately 800. As soon as construction was authorized the Board in Control passed the following resolution:

Whereas, It appears that after application of approximately $30,000.00 now in the "pool fund" of the Women's Athletic Association, after making certain changes in the plans to reduce costs, and after giving effect to certain other adjustments outlined by the Director, the total cost to the Board Page  1588under the Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., proposal will amount to approximately $1,006,000.00; and

Whereas, … the Board finds itself in a position to commit approximately $1,000,000.00 of its funds to the construction of the swimming pool unit:

Now, therefore, be it Resolved that:

(1) The Board approves the proposal submitted by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., and recommends its acceptance;

(2) The Director is authorized and directed to inform the Board of Regents and the Officers of the University that this Board will make available, as needed, approximately $1,000,000.00 for the construction of the swimming pool unit; and …

(4) The Director is authorized and directed to continue consultation and negotiation with the contractor and the architects with a view to accomplishing further reductions in cost not involving changes in the size of the building


(R.P., October, 1952, p. 621).

Ground breaking exercises were held on October 25, 1952. Among those present were President Harlan Hatcher, Dr. Margaret Bell, Regent Vera Burridge Baits, H. O. Crisler, Mrs. Lola Jeffries Hanavan ('12), of Detroit, chairman of the Alumnae Building Committee, Professor Laurie Campbell, and Miss Nancy Fitch ('53), a past president of the Women's Athletic Association. In April, 1954, dedication ceremonies, highlighting the completion of the building took place. President Harlan Hatcher presided; Mrs. Vera B. Baits represented the Regents and the administration. Others included H. O. Crisler, representing the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics; Mrs. James A. Lafler, representing the alumni; Mrs. Lola Jeffries Hanavan; Dr. Margaret Bell; Deborah Bacon, Dean of Women; Susan Riggs, retiring president of the Women's League, and Marion Swanson, president of the Women's Athletic Association. In presenting a portrait of Dr. Bell to the University on behalf of the students and alumnae Mrs. Hanavan said:

These ceremonies today climax years of patient effort and fond hopes. It is said that into every accomplishment goes the record of some great personality, someone who has selflessly devoted himself to that undertaking. … Into this building has gone the personality of a great woman, a great teacher, and a great physician.

A water show by the women's swimming group followed the official ceremony. In all, four performances were given during the two-day event, with approximately 3,000 persons in attendance.

The new building is modern in design, of red brick construction. Inside are two spacious lobbies, with cream and green mosaic rubber tile floors, attractive furnishings and plants. Two locker rooms, with facilities for 724 persons, are furnished with hair dryers, full length mirrors, and private dressing booths. A conference room and a check room are also available. In the instructors' office is an FM radio and phonograph and underwater speakers and microphones connected with a public address system which can be switched to all parts of the building.

The pool room includes a grandstand area with seating for more than 700 persons, a six-lane pool basin, 75 by 44 feet, surrounded by a wide tile runway, high and low diving boards, outlets for television cameras and sound apparatus, and a window through which underwater swimmers may be observed.

The building was opened on March 10, 1954, for the first formal swim. Built at a cost of $1,070,000, it is serving the growing needs of the Women's Physical Education Department and other University and community groups. It is used not only for scheduled classes but for corecreational swimming by students and University staff members. Elementary and intermediate swimming classes are offered as well as diving, synchronized Page  1589swimming, life saving, water safety instruction, and competitive swimming.

Yost Field House

Yost Field House was the first of the three great structures which have made Ferry Field one of the finest college athletic fields in this country. The building, 365 feet long and 165 feet wide, extends along State Street on the east side of Ferry Field. It was built in 1923 and was designed for indoor track events and intercollegiate sports, particularly football, baseball, basketball, and track athletics. It provides a total floor space of 87,386 square feet, comprising one great room with a dirt floor, 300 by 160 feet, and a space 63 feet high entirely clear of obstacles.

To afford facilities for year-round training, it was necessary that the building be of huge dimensions, with a complete football gridiron. It was constructed after designs by Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, of Detroit, at a total cost, fully equipped, of $563,168. While the building is exceedingly simple in design, relieved only by long rows of tall windows at the sides and ends, it follows the spirit of the Italian Romanesque in its decorative details. Despite its size and massive qualities and the necessity of adaptation to its function, the architects were able to make it both impressive and dignified.

Yost Field House is, in reality, a building erected over an immense playing field which permits room for a seventy-five-yard dash at the center and an eight-lap running track around the balcony. A portable basketball floor on which intercollegiate contests are held is set up each winter in the center of the main floor. Down each side are seats for the accommodation of some 7,500 spectators. Fixtures for a second balcony were installed, but this balcony has not been constructed. At the north end are locker rooms, showers, training-room and equipment-room facilities for all freshmen, varsity, and sports participants on Ferry Field; offices; and a boiler and fan room for heating purposes. A laundry for athletic equipment of all types was also installed.

From the date of its dedication on November 10, 1923, the building justified its construction, affording ample opportunity for practice in football and baseball during winter weather. It is also used for varsity basketball games, while the track facilities enable aspirants for the team to begin practice early in the spring. Even batting practice for baseball is conducted on the huge field.

Yost Field House was built with the proceeds from the earnings of the athletic program. It was named by the Board in Control of Athletics in honor of Fielding Harris Yost, coach of the football teams from 1901 to 1924 and Director of Intercollegiate Athletics from 1921 until his retirement in 1941.

Automotive Laboratory

The old Automotive Laboratory in the West Engineering Annex was out of date many years ago and several attempts were made to obtain new facilities. The latest efforts, which met with success, were begun in January, 1953, when a brochure was prepared outlining the requirements for a new automotive laboratory. The publication was prepared in consultation with leaders of the automotive industry in Detroit, who contributed much valuable time and information to the project.

The final requirements were submitted to the University administration in time Page  1590to be included in the request for funds in the spring of 1953. As a result, $72,000 was appropriated by the legislature for the preparation of plans for this new facility. A contract was placed in 1953 with Giffels and Vallet, Inc., of Detroit, as architects for the building, which was to house equipment for instructional and research problems in internal combustion power plants of the reciprocating and turbine types, chassis and body engineering, and allied subjects. Provision was made for offices and graduate research rooms, as well as for a large open area in which various types of work may be carried out. The North Campus was approved as the site for the building in January, 1954. The complete designs and specifications were presented in September, 1954.

The legislature appropriated the sum of $750,000 in May, 1954, to begin construction. An additional amount of $1,028,000 was appropriated in June, 1955, to complete the structure, making a total in appropriations of $1,850,000.

The building is of reinforced concrete, two stories in height at the north test cell end and three stories on the south end, where the garages and offices are.

It has a total floor area of 62,000 square feet. There is no basement under the test cells. The structure has been faced with ceramic and glass panels in aluminum frames; it has a brick facing on the west side, on the dynamometer section, and on the two ends. A construction contract was placed with the O. W. Burke Company in October, 1954.

The equipment to be housed in the building consists of internal combustion engines of all types, fuel rating engines, gas turbines and jet engines, fuel flow and metering devices, facilities for accessory testing, such as starters and electrical and fuel injection systems, supporting instrumentation of modern types, such as dynamometers, and all forms of recording and control devices. It is estimated that equipment for this laboratory will cost approximately $1,250,000.

Burton Memorial Tower

The first suggestion of a campanile for the University appeared in May, 1919, in an editorial in the Michigan Alumnus. The writer lamented the necessity of removing the clock and chimes from the tower of the old Library Building to the Engineering Shops Building where, he feared, the bells could no longer be heard for any distance. He expressed the hope that eventually a new clock tower might be "set high in the center of the Campus, to be at once a landmark and a thing of beauty" and suggested that the need for such a campanile offered opportunity to some alumnus who might desire to leave a memorial "at once practical and beautiful."

President Burton, in his Commencement address of 1921, gave further life to this idea by suggesting the erection of a tower to serve as a memorial to the 236 University of Michigan men who had lost their lives in World War I. He envisioned a campanile tall enough to be seen for miles, suggesting that it stand at the approximate center of an enlarged campus as evidence of the idealism and loyalty of the alumni. As a result of President Burton's suggestion, the directors of the Alumni Association were authorized to consider ways and means for the construction of such a building.

The proposal that the tower serve as a memorial to Michigan alumni who had lost their lives in World War I failed to meet with general approval. After President Burton's death in 1925, a suggestion was made by Shirley W. Smith, Secretary of the University, that no more fitting memorial to President Burton Page  1591could be devised than the campanile and chimes which he had always hoped for. This idea found immediate favor with the alumni, and plans for a campaign were formulated under the general direction of the Alumni Association. The University of Michigan Club of Ann Arbor made the erection of the tower part of its contribution to the Ten-Year Program, while each of the classes which had graduated during President Burton's regime undertook to raise funds for the carillon. In this program it was estimated that some 18,000 graduates would be approached and a total of $89,000 raised.

A plan of organization was developed, but the onset of the depression caused the temporary abandonment of the plan, and it was not until Charles Baird gave the carillon of fifty-three bells to the University in 1935 that the matter of the tower was again revived (see Part VI: The University Musical Society and The School of Music).

Several sites were suggested as possibilities for the carillon, including the roof of Angell Hall and the tower of the Michigan Union. These all proved impracticable, and it became evident that the construction of a bell tower would be the only solution. The University, however, did not have sufficient funds for the erection of such a building, although the Murphy and Hegeler Music Building funds were transferred to the Tower Fund by the directors of the University Musical Society, and the Regents supplemented this nucleus by other available funds held in trust. The University of Michigan Club of Ann Arbor undertook to raise the $25,000 still necessary to complete the tower.

It was determined that the proposed tower should be of practical as well as aesthetic value; otherwise, University funds could not be used for its construction. Moreover, it was to be built near the center of the developing campus and the proposed School of Music building, since the classrooms in the tower were to be used by that School. These considerations resulted in the eventual choice of the site adjacent to Hill Auditorium.

The Burton Memorial Tower was erected during the 1935-36 school year and was formally dedicated on December 4, 1936. Simple in general outline, it is built of Indiana limestone with long shallow buttresses extending to the top and emphasizing its height. The tenth floor, on which the bells are housed, was designed to provide opportunity for visitors to view the surrounding terrain from the terrace between the outer screens and the inner screens protecting the bells and the playing mechanism. Access to the bell chamber is designated at times on a sign board at the entrance to the Tower. The bell chamber which is forty feet high, with an observation floor above, is designed to offer the largest possible openings for the sound of the carillon. Its floor is 120 feet from the ground; the over-all height of the Tower is 212 feet. It is 41 feet 7 inches square, contains a basement and ten floors, and 19,848 square feet of floor space. Albert Kahn, of Detroit, was the architect. The final cost of the Tower was $243,664.61.

Immediately below the bell chamber are the offices and practice studio of the carilloneur; the mechanism for control of the clock and the "Cambridge Quarters" played automatically on five of the large bells is also on this floor; the seven stories below contain some forty classrooms, practice rooms, and divisional music library, all utilized by the School of Music. On the first floor are the offices of the University Musical Society. An elevator services the first eight floors of the Tower.

This rather unusual use of the Tower was made possible through the novel plan of its construction. Instead of thick Page  1592masonry walls, the building is constructed as a reinforced concrete shell faced with limestone. This affords a much larger floor area and ensures a more rigid structure.

Inscribed on the walls in the entrance foyer are the names of the many alumni and friends of the University who contributed to the erection of the building.

CAMPS

The Biological Station

The University Biological Station was established in 1909 on the shore of Douglas Lake in Cheboygan County. For twenty years it shared with the surveying camp the use of the fourteen-hundred-acre Bogardus Tract, obtained partly by gift and partly by purchase from Colonel and Mrs. Charles Bogardus, of Pellston, Michigan, in 1908. Here the Biological Station and the surveying camp, first named Camp Bogardus and later Camp Davis in honor of Professor Joseph Baker Davis, for many years Associate Dean of the College of Engineering, operated side-by-side. In 1929 after Camp Davis was moved to Jackson, Wyoming, the entire tract was occupied by the Biological Station.

Through gifts from alumni and purchases by the University, but mainly through gifts of tax-delinquent land from the state of Michigan, the area of the Bogardus Tract has been increased until in 1954 it totaled more than 8,850 acres, situated in Cheboygan and Emmet counties, with frontage on both Douglas and Burt lakes. During the period 1930-50 a large part of the barren and cutover area was planted to various types of pines. With plantings and protective supervision, most of the tract is regaining natural forest condition.

The central and western parts of the Biological Station contain most of the buildings and retain the general layout established by Camp Davis during its twenty years of occupancy under the directorship of Professor Clarence T. Johnston of the Department of Civil Engineering. Originally a colony of tents, the surveying camp was soon laid out, with streets, sidewalks, fifty single-room residence cottages, five classrooms, a caretaker's residence, a garage, a covered harbor, two shops, a kitchen and two dining rooms, a recreation building, and other smaller structures. All of these buildings had steel-covered wooden frames, and most of them had concrete floors. An electrical distribution system, a well and gravity pressure water system, and a sewage system were installed.

The Biological Station was established through the initiative of Professor Jacob E. Reighard of the Department of Zoology (see Part IV: The Biological Station) and George P. Burns of the Department of Botany and was directed during the first years by Reighard. In the beginning, using two log buildings of the abandoned Bogardus railroad grading camp as laboratories and tents as cottages, the members of the Biological Station endured a rugged life. During the first twelve summers meals were obtained at the surveying camp dining room.

Under the directorship of Professor George La Rue, at the Biological Station in the years 1920-29 were constructed fifteen laboratory and other general service buildings and thirty-seven residences, all single-room houses with asphalt roofing and siding on wooden frames, and with concrete floors.

After the removal of Camp Davis to Jackson, Wyoming, the enlarged camp was laid out with two streets paralleling the lake shore, connected by five cross streets and radiating roads. A large administration building with offices, store, dining room, and kitchen, and two large laboratory buildings, one with two and the other with four rooms, all of concrete Page  1593and steel construction, were added. During the next ten years the camp and buildings were adapted to efficient use. An additional faculty house, of log construction, a forestry building, a saw mill, and a laboratory-area lavatory building were erected, and electricity was extended to the eastern part of the tract.

The enlargement of the plant introduced a period of increased interest on the part of students and research workers in outdoor biology and a consequent expansion of the scientific program. Enlargement of the physical plant again became necessary, but was delayed because of unfavorable economic conditions and World War II. Since 1945, under the directorship of Professor Alfred H. Stockard, steady progress has been made. By 1955 three more faculty houses of log construction, a large shop-garage, an adequate library, an animal house, a water-heater building, a laundry, a chemical storage building, and three community shower and lavatory buildings, all of concrete block construction, and a duplex guest house had been erected. In addition, during this period the caretaker's house was enlarged; one other building was equipped with showers; twelve faculty houses, seven investigator houses, three guest houses, and the three-unit health service were renovated and equipped with bathrooms; a new well was drilled; and the electrical system and sewerage system were modernized. All of the laboratories were renovated, and three buildings released by new construction were converted into laboratories. The kitchen was re-equipped with modern electrical appliances, and the dining room and store were refurnished. Numerous pieces of general and scientific equipment were acquired, including the purchase of twenty-seven boats of various sizes and the construction of a 35-foot cabin work cruiser adequate for use on the Great Lakes.

The scientific program at the Biological Station has been expanded as the plant has been improved. Teaching fields and research activities have been broadened and intensified until the major groups of plants and animals and the major types of environment now are included in the teaching and research program. In 1955 the fields of interest numbered eight in zoology, seven in botany, and one in forestry. The number of scientific books and articles based on work at the Station by 1955 numbered more than 850.

The Station has 148 buildings occupying a thirty-acre campus on a tract of 8,850 acres, with equipment and other facilities adequate for 250 summer residents and the teaching and research needs for 150 students, faculty, and other scientific workers.

Davis Engineering Camp

Before 1874 all University surveying instruction had been given at Ann Arbor. Professor DeVolson Wood had repeatedly requested establishment of a camp for advanced work in surveying. In the spring of 1872, when his requests were not granted by the Regents, Wood resigned.

He had six instruments at his disposal in 1871. These had been acquired from year to year since the early 1850's, when the first course in surveying was offered. A Buff and Berger transit 177 and a Gurley transit without number, a Green transit theodolite without number, a Stackpole level, an Eckel and Imhoff 178, and a Buff and Berger dumpy level were acquired prior to 1865. Four compasses and a Burt solar had also been acquired before 1865. An aneroid barometer manufactered in Philadelphia was purchased during the early 1860's, a Würdemann transit theodolite in 1871, a Page  1594Blunt transit in 1879, and Eckel and Imhoff transits 301 and 879 in 1873.

Joseph Baker Davis came to the University in 1872. The surveying camp was established by Davis in 1874, and the first session, attended by twenty-four students, was held at Whitmore Lake, Washtenaw County, in May and June of that year. The Clifton House provided food and shelter. An Eckel and Imhoff plane table and two Philadelphia rods were purchased in 1874. Davis had no assistants. The camp continued to run for four weeks during May and June of each year until 1900. From 1900 through 1908 the period was six weeks, and in 1909 became eight weeks.

Among the sites used for the camp in the early years were Thornapple Lake, Barry County; Simpson Lake, Crawford County; Village Green, Unadilla, Livingston County; Clear Lake, Jackson County; Maple River, Clinton County; Appleton's Lake, Livingston County; Old Mission, Grand Traverse County; Clam Lake, Antrim County; Frankfort, Benzie County; Carp Lake, Leelanau County; Fountain Point, Carp Lake, Leelanau County; Glen Lake, Leelanau County.

In February, 1908, $2,500, or so much thereof "as might be necessary," was appropriated for the purchase of a camp site for the surveying class in the field and $1,000 for moving the camp and fitting it up for use. The President named Regent Carey and Professors J. B. Davis and M. E. Cooley a committee to select the site.

In June, 1908, the following letter was received from Colonel and Mrs. Charles Bogardus, presenting to the University 1,400 acres of land at Douglas Lake for the consideration of $2,500 appropriated by the Regents. This sum was so small in relation to the size and value of the land, that the site has always been regarded as a gift:

Pellston, Mich., June 3, 1908

Hon. Henry W. Carey, Regent of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan:

My Dear Sir — After thinking over the matter of the needs of the University of lands, water frontage, etc., having certain essential requirements as expressed so clearly to Mrs. Bogardus and myself at our house last evening by Dean Cooley, Professor Davis, and yourself, and that in your opinion we have lands possessing all these requirements, and the further examination of those lands today proving, as your Committee tells me, that said lands are exceptionally well adapted — in fact, as they say, "ideal for purposes needed by the University"; and realizing that benefits to these young people will be of lasting value to themselves, to this and to the other states and countries they represent, and that the "cherished hopes" of your Committee may be realized for the acquirement of about fourteen hundred acres, mapped by them today, as their desideratum, and that the good work you contemplate may begin at once with ample grounds, therefore, Mrs. Bogardus and myself will accept your appropriation of Twenty-five Hundred Dollars in part payment, and it gives us great pleasure to ask you to kindly accept from us, as a gift to the University, the difference between the Twenty-five Hundred Dollars and the real value of this property.

You insisted that a value should be placed upon the property, which we much dislike to do, it being largely a gift. However, we should think approximately Twenty-five Thousand Dollars would be a low value for it; a part of it would not be priced or disposed of at all for other purposes…

Very sincerely yours,

Chas. Bogardus

Hannah W. Bogardus

Thus, the University acquired 1,441 acres in T. 37 N., R. 3 W., in Cheboygan County, on Douglas Lake. On motion of Regent Hill, it was voted that this property be named The Bogardus Engineering Camp of the University of Michigan.

In October, an additional sum of Page  1595$1,100, making $2,100 in all, was appropriated to move the camp from Burdickville to Douglas Lake. The Board appropriated $2,500 for the purchase of additional land desired in the development of the camp in January, 1909. In July, 1914, Regent Hubbard reported that he had secured options on five hundred and twenty acres of land adjoining the camp.

The President's Report for 1920-21 reported:

The Douglas Lake region is as favorable for field work in surveying as it is delightful in its climate. The tract of 3,200 acres, situated between Douglas and Burt lakes, affords with its hills and valleys, partly in woods and partly in clearings, excellent opportunities for practice in land, railroad, and canal surveying, and coast, geodetic, and topographic work. It is planned to add other parcels of land which will extend the tract completely around the east end and along the north shore of Douglas Lake; and further embrace Burt Lake to the east and west of the University's present shore line. These additional lands should be acquired as early as possible to prevent their occupation by summer residents, and to give the greater scope desired for the work without trespassing. During the past nine years permanent improvements have been made at Camp Davis having an estimated value of $7,244. As the labor involved was contributed by staff and students, the cost to the University has been only the $698 expended for materials. Through the camp fee of $10, which goes to the support of the camp, equipment amounting to $6,719 has been purchased. Thus the plant, exclusive of land, has cost to date in direct outlay $15,637; or, including staff and student labor (contributed), $22,881…


(P.R., 1920-21, pp. 191-92.)

In 1916 the name of the camp was changed to Davis Engineering Camp in honor of Joseph Baker Davis. At the March meeting of that year the Board voted that hereafter the lands owned by the University between Douglas and Burt lakes should be designated as the "Bogardus Tract." In the same year the sum of $3,750 was set aside for the purchase of 750 more acres on Douglas Lake adjoining the camp.

In 1928, Professor C. T. Johnston, who had been in charge of the camp since 1912, with Professors Carey, Brodie, and Bouchard, went to northwestern Wyoming under instructions to select a new site for the camp. Such a site was found in the valley of the Hoback River, seventy-five miles south of Yellowstone National Park. A complete report was presented, and the Regents approved the purchase of 120 acres of the land in February, 1929, for $2,500.

During the spring recess Bouchard, McFarlan, Young, Bonin, Johnston, and six student assistants went to Douglas Lake, where camp equipment was crated and shipped to Victor, Idaho. The twelve students who attended arrived in June. Instruction was delayed for two weeks in order that the students might assist in construction. During the summer fourteen buildings, all 14 by 14 feet, the keeper's house, a kitchen, dining room, the instrument room, a shop, and a storehouse were completed. A connecting road was built and a water system, a modern sanitary system, and a power plant were installed.

From 1938 to 1951 the field work in surveying and in geology was united at Camp Davis. Since 1951 instruction in geology has been limited to engineering geology.

In 1940 two new buildings were constructed, a residence cabin and a large laboratory and recreation building measuring 28 by 40 feet, named Johnston Hall. Three additional cabins were built in 1947.

In 1949, $4,000 was appropriated for necessary construction work and other items needed for the successful conduct of the camp. In 1950, $4,000 more was appropriated to provide funds for operating Page  1596expenses during the summer of 1950, $1,500 of this amount to be used for surveying equipment, $1,500 for geology equipment, and $1,000 for refrigeration.

Camp Filibert Roth

Soon after the establishment of the School of Forestry and Conservation in 1927 it was decided that the organization of summer instruction in forestry should be undertaken without delay. Accordingly, in 1928, Professor Robert Craig, Jr., was assigned the task of finding a suitable site for a camp in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

As a result of the summer's investigation, Beaver Lake Basin in Alger County was selected for the proposed development. Because of the complicated ownership of the Basin and financial limitations, the University was not able to obtain immediate possession of it. At the suggestion of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, it was decided to use a temporary site generously offered by that company.

The University opened its first forestry camp in June, 1929, at an abandoned logging camp eight miles west and south of Munising in Alger County, and one mile south of the Eight-Mile Corner on the road between Munising and Forest Lake. It was named Camp Filibert Roth in honor of Professor Filibert Roth, one of the pioneers in forestry in the United States and head of the Department of Forestry at the University of Michigan from 1903 until his retirement in 1923. Robert Craig, Jr., was appointed Director and continued in that position through 1947, when he was succeeded by Associate Professor John Carow.

The available buildings left much to be desired. They were a group of abandoned tar-paper shacks. The only source of water was a well 165 feet deep with a hand pump which required seventeen strokes to bring the first water to the surface. Washing and bathing accommodations consisted of the open-air "shelter" afforded by two buildings which joined each other at right angles. Benches with buckets of water from the well were the only equipment. When camp closed in the fall, everything had to be packed in boxes and hauled into Munising for storage in the paper mill. The mattresses were rolled, tied, and stored in the mothproof compartments in which the mill kept its woolen supplies.

In the fall of 1934 another inspection was made of some of the sites considered in the earlier survey. One of these was in Iron County on the west side of Golden Lake, some fifteen miles west of Iron River, where the Von Platen-Fox Company had built an unusually good set of camp buildings in the hope that some club or organization would use them after logging was completed. A careful inspection of the camp and the surrounding area led to the decision that the site had the natural advantages to make it a desirable permanent location.

The camp was on a beautiful lake entirely surrounded by timber, mostly hardwoods, but interspersed with some conifers. The buildings already there were large enough to meet immediate needs with a minimum of remodeling. The area around the camp would grow in value because it had been logged on a selective basis. In the meantime, the students could learn much from such a demonstration situation. It was within the boundaries of the Ottawa National Forest, and the Michigan Department of Conservation was active there, thus making it possible to observe how the state handles its forestry problems. There were also many wood-using industries within easy reach.

Through the interest and generosity Page  1597of M. J. Fox, president of the Von Platen-Fox Company, 10 acres were obtained. Purchases of 90 acres in 1942 from the Von Platen-Fox Company and of 114 acres in 1943-44 from the Lindahl Brothers of Iron River brought the area owned by the University to its present total of 214 acres.

The move from Alger County to the beautiful new site in Iron County was made in June, 1935. The buildings at that time consisted of a cookhouse, three bunkhouses, a shop, two garages, a large barn, one cottage, and a small office. The cookhouse was used with little alteration. One bunkhouse was converted into a classroom, and the other two were used as dormitories. The two garages were remodeled, the smaller one being used as an instrument room and the larger as a camp "Michigan Union." The only construction undertaken that first year was of a new toilet and a central washroom. The latter had an elevated tank into which the boys pumped lake water by hand, thus affording "running water." There were also a small stove and a system of pipes to provide both hot and cold water for washing. Kitchen and drinking water came from a shallow well. Although no trouble could be traced to the water, its use was never officially approved by the Iron County health authorities.

When the 1942 building program was begun, Professor Frederick O'Dell of the College of Architecture and Design was employed to draw plans for the new buildings. After 1943 the University Plant Department took over this work, which has since been under the immediate direction of Robert Aitken. The first student cabin was built in 1942.

The student cabins, of which there are eighteen, measure approximately 13 by 32 feet. Each includes three rooms, a small bedroom across each end and a study room in the center. Each bedroom has a double-deck bed and adequate shelves and cupboards for its two occupants. There are also two full-sized windows, one at either end of the room, and two 12-by-18-inch windows so placed that one comes about even with the top of each deck of the bed.

The study room has five full-sized windows on one side and three windows and a door on the other, all adequately screened. A large study table is on either side of the room, and over each table is a fluorescent light fixture with two 40-inch tubes. Against one bedroom wall are two large bookcases, and at the other end of the room is a wood-burning space heater. The bedrooms are lighted with incandescent lights.

The floors are of matched hard maple, and the window and door frames are of pine. The walls are finished with No. 2 common shiplap. The outsides of the cabins are covered by vertical cedar slabs, and seams are calked with asbestos roof cement.

Five faculty cabins fully equipped for family living have been built along the lake front north of the camp. As a result, faculty families are independent of the camp mess hall and kitchen. These cabins are of the same general construction as the student cabins but vary in size.

In 1944 a telephone line was brought eight miles from Beechwood, and in 1946 Wisconsin Power and Light Company put in electric power lines, also from Beechwood. The buildings are all electrically lighted, and the caretaker's house and faculty cabins have electric refrigeration and water-heating.

In 1952 the much-needed kitchen-dining room was finished in time for the summer session. It has a seating capacity of about 116. Bottled gas is used for cooking and water-heating, and there is a large electrically operated walk-in cooler. A hot-air wood furnace is used Page  1598for general heating. The basement has excellent living quarters for the kitchen personnel and also affords ample space for food storage and kitchen laundry.

It has been the aim of instruction at the camp to make it as practicable as possible, using the laboratory facilities afforded by the extensive forest areas in the vicinity.

Camp Filibert Roth has grown in a surprisingly short time from a few tarpaper shacks in the cutover slashings to a beautifully situated and strictly modern camp; from thirteen students in 1929 to seventy-three in 1950 (the largest enrollment to date). There are now twenty-eight new buildings.

Camp Killarney

Camp Killarney, an anthropology camp of the University, established in 1939, was situated about two miles from the village of Killarney in Rutherford Township, Manitoulin District, Ontario, Canada.

One of the major research interests of the Museum of Anthropology deals with Michigan Indian history and its relation to the Indian cultures of the Great Lakes area. This work was made possible by grants from the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. During the first two years the work was carried on as a research project, the field staff being made up of students who received travel expenses and did the work of excavation and survey, without instruction and without credit. Formal instruction for credit (six hours) was begun in 1940. Instruction was in archaeological field methods, archaeology of the Great Lakes region, the pertinent geology of the same region, and human osteology; credit was given on the basis of performance in the field, and a mid-term and a final examination. To 1954, about eighty students from various universities, both men and women, have taken the course. All have been anthropology majors. The seasons of 1943-45 were without formal instruction, and a very small personnel continued the work for about a month each summer. After 1946 there was an average of seven students every summer. They were housed in tents with wooden floors, and received all expenses except laundry and personal items, and did all the work of excavation, exploration, and survey in return for their expenses.

The work has resulted in the acquisition of a large mass of archaeological data and several hundred thousand specimens, now in the Museum of Anthropology. Several publications have been issued, and a comprehensive scientific report is being prepared on the early history and prehistory of the Manitoulin District.

Work in the Manitoulin District began first on Manitoulin Island. Camp Killarney is on the mainland, twenty-five miles east of the east end of Manitoulin Island. The project was begun by agreement with officials of the National Museum of Canada at Ottawa, and many specimens have been turned over to that Museum, and to the Royal Ontario Museum at Toronto.

The buildings included two log cabins and a pump house. The larger of the cabins measures 18 by 28 feet, has an eight-foot ceiling with a loft, and double pine flooring. There are two windows on each long side and an enormous stone fireplace at one end. This cabin was built in 1941 at a cost of $700. It serves many purposes, being used as a kitchen and dining room as well as for study, recreation, and as an office for the director. The other cabin measures 12 by 16 feet and has single pine flooring. Built in 1947 at a cost of $350, it is used as a laboratory, study hall, and for storage. The pump house, built in 1948 at a cost of $75, is 9 by 6 feet and 7 feet in height Page  1599without windows. It is built of squared timber frame and has planed siding and and a cement floor. The larger cabin was built with Rackham funds and the other buildings with funds supplied by the Summer Session budget. The camp was discontinued in 1954.

The University Fresh Air Camp

The University of Michigan Fresh Air Camp is situated twenty-four miles northwest of Ann Arbor, on Patterson Lake, which is one of a chain of seven small lakes near Pinckney, Michigan. The camp property comprises about three hundred acres of virgin hardwood adjacent to the George Reserve, in the Pinckney State Recreation Area near the state-owned Waterloo Recreational project. The camp is one of the best equipped of its type in the country. At present there are twenty-six permanent buildings, including a main lodge, women's dormitories, classrooms, cabins, a workshop, and a modern health unit. Boats, tents, and camping and sports equipment are available.

The camp serves a four-fold purpose: for children with behavior problems, a service to referral agencies, a training center for students, and a recreation camp for University students. For the camper it is a vacation camp. Every effort is made to give each boy all the fun that camping and outdoor life provide. Campers are selected on the basis of their need for the type of program offered. While the camping experience becomes a part of the boy's year-round socio-educational program he is never aware of the treatment aspects. The fundamental purpose of the Fresh Air Camp is to provide an outstanding camping experience for boys who, by reason of economic limitations and behavior aberrations, would not otherwise have a camping opportunity. The core of the program is the mental hygiene approach of utmost respect for the individual boy's personality.

About 240 boys between the ages of seven and fourteen come to camp each summer. Each boy is sent by one of some twenty-five co-operating school, social, and casework agencies. Each agency works with the boy before he comes to camp and selects him because of his need for specialized camping. The agency provides the camp with extensive material on the boy, his problems, and his background. When he goes home, the agency continues treatment, utilizing the record made of his camp behavior.

The boys themselves present a wide range of behavior problems. Some are having difficulties in school, some in the home, and some in the community at large. Occasionally, the camp represents merely the opportunity for the "regular boy" to be away from the pressures and stress of an unfortunate environment. Most often, however, the boys have already developed symptoms of maladjustment, sometimes severe and deeply rooted.

Some of the children come from institutional placement or foster homes. Many are the products of broken homes. Some have records as delinquents. As a consequence of their backgrounds, these boys present problematic behavior in a far higher incidence than would be true in the usual camp. Many times they are very difficult to manage. At all times they present a challenge to the insight and ingenuity of the adult. Of course, there are positive aspects. No counselor leaves camp without having experienced the satisfaction of seeing a boy respond favorably to healthful treatment and express his need for real affection. Often the attachment of a boy for camp and for counselor does not end with the close of the season, but continues for years.

Such boys give the student an opportunity Page  1600to telescope, into one brief summer, contact with a variety of personality types. Although the camp's therapeutic objective is to help the boy as much as possible, there is no expectation of complete treatment, yet on occasion surprising improvement takes place. The counselor must be tireless in his efforts to build a program which serves the need of the boys and must at all times relate to the boy in a nonpunitive fashion.

The Fresh Air Camp is, for the camper, a vacation camp. He comes for fun and expects to do the things which camp life offers. The diagnosis, study, or research carried on by the staff cannot interfere with his good time.

The camp serves the referral agencies and the campers, through the agencies, by submitting carefully compiled reports of a diagnostic nature on each camper.

As a training center the camp offers opportunities to fifty students for study of individual and group behavior on an undergraduate and graduate level. These students are able to earn as many as eight hours of credit for courses in sociology, education, psychology, social work, and physical education.

The instructional staff is constantly at hand to interpret and to help the counselor with behavior problems. The counselor is never alone. At every stage he works within a framework so that the situation will be one of learning and creativity. While much is compressed into the intense, brief period of nine weeks, it is done with plan and purpose for the student's advantage. The type of child attending the camp facilitates this learning. The staff's help and support make possible the student's rapid introduction to therapeutic relationships.

All staff members share the simple facilities of camp life. The men counselors sleep in cabins with the campers when on duty, and the women counselors are housed in separate dormitories. The counselors are responsible for sharing such work as may be necessary to keep the quarters and facilities in order.

The Fresh Air Camp is now in its thirty-fourth season. In 1921 a group of University students under the leadership of Lewis C. Reimann ('16) began a volunteer project to give city boys a camping opportunity. The University Summer Session in 1937, offered the counselors a series of graduate courses related to the camp program. The camp was officially accepted by the Board of Regents in June, 1944.

In January, 1946, the Fresh Air Camp was placed in the University's Institute for Human Adjustment in order that its program might be integrated with the other professional activities of that agency. The University provides the funds for the educational aspects of the camp. Other expenses such as food, equipment, and maintenance continue to be borne by social agencies and friends of the camp.

The directors since Mr. Reimann have included George G. Adler, F. N. Menefee, William C. Morse, and Edward J. Slezak. Control of the policies is vested in a University committee composed of representatives of such units as the School of Social Work. Various student groups are also represented.

Geography Camp

Camp Cusino, near Singleton, in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan has been maintained by the University since 1950 in order to provide field-work opportunities in geography. Professor Kenneth C. McMurry has been in charge of the camp. The state deeded ten acres to the University for the purpose, with a clause of reversion to the state in the event the University no longer has use for the Page  1601property. Summer work in geography had formerly been conducted in Wilderness Park, near Mackinaw City, and elsewhere.

Geology Camp

The Geology Camp from 1937 to 1951 was at Camp Davis, in Wyoming. Field work was carried on in 1952 at Marquette, Michigan. In 1953 the Geology Summer Field Course was moved to Boulder, Colorado.

National Music Camp

Established in 1928 as a summer home for the National High School Orchestra, the National Music Camp at Interlochen, Michigan, has greatly expanded its activities and services to the profession. Because the camp offers valuable laboratory facilities in music education, the University, in 1941, granted regental approval for giving courses for University credit there. The University Division of the camp is a branch of the University Summer Session, and the courses offered are given by the School of Music, the School of Education, the College of Architecture and Design, and the Department of Speech. Administrative responsibility is shared by the Director of the Summer Session, the deans of the schools of Music and Education, the College of Architecture and Design, the head of the Department of Speech, and the administrative officers of the camp. Courses are offered for credit in the same manner and with the same academic degree or transfer credit value and status as are the courses in Ann Arbor. The faculty of the University Division is made up of members of the regular teaching staff of the University, supplemented by teachers from other colleges and universities, including artist performers in the field of piano, voice, and orchestral instruments. Teachers are also provided for courses in radio, dance, art, camp counseling, and recreational leadership.

Speech Improvement Camp

A camp-clinic for the correction of speech disorders in boys and young men was conceived as an ideal to achieve three purposes: (1) To remove the boy from influences contributing to the factors of cause; (2) to provide a well-regulated program integrating intensive speech correction methods, personal counseling, and physical education; (3) to promote a carry-over of new speech habits used successfully in the classroom situation to the boy's life outside of class.

It was not intended that an out-of-door camping program of itself would necessarily contribute to speech improvement. Yet those intangibles of camping that teach normal young people to live with others, to acquire self-confidence, and to accept responsibility are obviously potential advantages to a boy overcoming a speech defect.

The camp has been restricted to boys and young men for two valid reasons. In the first place, since the camp serves a wide age group, eight through twenty-four, the daily program is easier to organize and conduct than it would be in a coeducational camp, and in the second place, some 70 per cent or more of speech problems occur in boys.

The camp was established as a private venture by John N. Clancy (Notre Dame '21, A.M. Michigan '37) and Mrs. Clancy in 1932. They are presently camp director and camp mother. The first enrollment numbered four campers, all from Michigan. The annual attendance in recent years has numbered approximately ninety-six campers from more than twenty states. About half of the campers are stutterers. Boys with other speech handicaps include those with Page  1602mild cerebral palsy, the hard-of-hearing, and others with postoperative cleft palate, voice, articulation, and language problems.

Throughout seventeen years of private ownership the camp was affiliated with the University and worked in close cooperation with the University's Speech Clinic and with the Department of Speech. In 1949 the camp was purchased by the University through a generous gift by the Kresge Foundation. In February of that year the following resolution was adopted by the Regents:

Resolved, That the executive officers be authorized to proceed with the purchase of Shady Trails Camp, … and that the Secretary be directed to express to the Kresge Foundation the sincere appreciation of the Board of Regents for a gift of $66,000 which is to be applied toward the purchase of the speech correction camp.


(R.P., 1948-51, p. 279.)

The Regents officially designated the camp "University of Michigan Speech Improvement Camp" although the popular name of "Shady Trails Camp" was continued. An appropriate plaque recognizing the generosity of the Kresge Foundation was installed in the main lodge.

Since the camp was acquired it has operated as a unit of the Summer Session. The camp management is responsible to an Executive Committee appointed by the Regents.

The camp, some 275 miles from Ann Arbor, is on Grand Traverse Bay about twenty-five miles northwest of Traverse City, on M-22 between the villages of Omena and Northport. It is a premise of the camp to remove a boy from the environment in which he has met with failure, and distance from home discourages frequent visits. As camps go, the site is comparatively small, slightly more than twenty-six acres with 1,325 feet on the bay. The camp program does not include many of those features of a recreational camp that require space, such as horseback riding, and thus far its site has been ample. The enrollment is divided into six age groups. Each group of sixteen campers is housed in a modern cottage with five sleeping rooms, living room with natural fireplace, and doublebathroom facilities. Each of the groups has the undivided attention throughout the eight-week session of three speech correctionists and a physical director (two physical directors for each of the two youngest groups).

The camp is modern and well equipped. It has a supervised water front for beginners and advanced swimmers. There is also a supervised athletic plant with junior and senior softball diamonds, basketball, volleyball, badminton, and tennis courts. The buildings, in addition to the six cottages for campers, include the lodge, containing the dining room, kitchen, and offices, a cottage for the women on the staff, the director's cottage, a cottage for visiting staff, the laboratory, an infirmary, the cook's cottage, the activities building, and a combination pump and storehouse. All buildings are comparatively new, having been erected since 1947. The University's investment in the physical plant is approximately $110,000.

The camp has contributed a rich experience in training speech correctionists through a course, Internship in Speech Correction, offered to a group of twelve graduate students each summer by the Department of Speech. Like other internships, this is a work-study program with emphasis on working with the camper. The camp draws its replacement of major staff in speech correction from its interns. The chief interest, however, is the rehabilitation of speech handicapped boys and not teacher training. In 1953 ninety-seven campers (one more than the camp's normal capacity Page  1603were in attendance. The gross income of the camp was the largest in the camp's history.

In its various departments the staff rarely has a member younger than twenty-one years of age and, other than the administrative members, rarely one more than thirty. The staff has developed the philosophy and the camp spirit which have led to a successful program and desired results. Many staff members of past seasons have distinguished themselves in their professions.

There are well-rounded programs of clinical and camp activities in groups small enough to allow adequate individual instruction and large enough to give experience in the group situation. Classes and programs are planned to provide for personal growth of the individual and for use of newly learned speech patterns in practical everyday living.

The resident staff approximates forty members, including twenty speech correctionists, ten counselors, a registered nurse, a camp mother, three secretaries, the director, and two assistant directors. This staff is assisted by a visiting staff of consultants (physicians, psychologists, speech pathologists) from the University of Michigan and from other major universities and colleges. The "service" staff (cooks and helpers) numbers ten members.

In 1954-55 the University Executive Committee for the camp included Dr. James H. Maxwell, Professor of Otolaryngology, Professor G. E. Densmore, chairman of the Department of Speech, Fedele F. Fauri, Dean of the School of Social Work, James R. Hayward, Associate Professor of Dentistry and Head of Oral Surgery of the University Hospital, and John N. Clancy, Assistant Director of the Speech Clinic and Director of the Camp.

The Campus and Lands

The first land to belong to the University after its establishment in Ann Arbor by the Act of 1837 was the tract of 40.3 acres constituting the original campus. One of the factors which influenced the legislature in locating the University at Ann Arbor was the promise of the Ann Arbor Land Company to donate a site for the new institution. The six persons who were first associated in this company are named in a circular, entitled "Articles of Agreement and Association of the Ann Arbor Land Company, Instituted September 15, 1836"; they were Captain Charles Thayer, William S. Maynard, Elijah W. Morgan, Dr. Samuel Denton, Augustus Garrett, and Daniel B. Brown. With the exception of Garrett, all were early and prominent citizens of Ann Arbor. William Maynard at one time served as mayor, and Samuel Denton, as Regent and Professor, played an important part in the establishment of the University.

The actual selection of the campus property took place at the first meeting of the Board of Regents, which met in Ann Arbor on June 5, the day appointed by Governor Mason, and continued throughout the sixth and the seventh. On June 5 a committee consisting of Lieutenant-Governor Edward Mundy, of Ann Arbor, General Isaac E. Crary, and John F. Porter was appointed, and to it was referred the Act to provide for the organization of the University and also the Act to provide for its location "in or near the village of Ann Arbor." On June 6 this committee reported as follows:

That they have, in company with the other Regents, examined several points, with the view of selecting a site for the University Buildings, and recommend that that forty acres contemplated by said act to be selected by the Regents as a site for said buildings, be located upon the farm called the Nowland Page  1604farm, commencing near the fence upon the brow of the hill near the river, bounded westerly by State Street, extending easterly about seventy rods to the center of the ravine, and extending southerly about ninety-one rods for quantity.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 5.)

The report was laid on the table, and the next day, June 7, Denton submitted, as an amendment, the following resolution:

That the University be located on lands bounded and described as follows, — On the north by the road leading to Judge Fletcher's, the width of the Rumsey farm (so-called), west by State Street, east by lands of Judge Fletcher, on the old east line of said Rumsey farm, and south for quantity.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 8.)
This resolution was carried by the small margin of one vote. Regents Denton, Wilkins, Mundy, Crary, Lyon, and Adam voted for it, and Messrs. Porter, Whittemore, Farnsworth, Mason, and Pitcher against it. It will be noted that the two Ann Arbor members, Denton and Mundy, were in favor of the site which was finally decided upon.

The area described in the resolution adopted, however, did not contain the campus as finally laid out, although it overlapped a good part of it. If this plot had been retained the original campus would have reached to Washington Street on the north, through which at that time ran the road to Ypsilanti. The road at this point angled toward the southeast so that the north border of the campus would not have been square. On July 18, 1838, the Regents appointed Chief Justice Fletcher and Dr. Denton, both of Ann Arbor, a committee, to effect an exchange of lands with the trustees of the Ann Arbor Land Company so that the site of the University would be a right-angled parallelogram. This was done by cutting off some of the north part of the plot and adding to the south part; the result was the present campus. Judge Fletcher and Dr. Denton at the same time were directed to cause a street 100 feet in width to be laid out "on the line" on each side of the University site and to see that these streets were properly recorded. We know them as North, East, and South University avenues, and State Street.

As the campus had originally been a farm, many traces were left of its original use. Ten Brook said:

The remains of a peach orchard were upon it, and years afterward some professors' families were supplied with fruit from these trees; while the whole ground around the buildings, as late as 1845 and 1846, waved with golden harvests of wheat, which the janitor had been allowed to grow, for the … purpose of putting the ground in a proper condition to be left as a campus.


(Ten Brook, p. 145.)

Trees were an early problem and remained one for years, for much of the early planting seems to have been unsuccessful. In April, 1840, the Regents appropriated $200 to be expended under the direction of Douglass Houghton in planting trees on the University grounds, and in the 1840's it is recorded that fruit trees and shrubbery were furnished for the gardens of the Professors' Houses. Hinsdale mentions that in the same year the Board of Visitors urged that trees be planted, "but its exhortations were not then heeded." He also speaks of the planting of trees in 1854 by Dr. Edmund Andrews, who was then Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds as well as Demonstrator of Anatomy in the Medical College. Dr. Andrews laid out the grounds according to a new plan; with the assistance of citizens, professors, and students, he caused the campus to be surrounded by two parallel rows of trees. The citizens set out a row of trees entirely around the campus on that side of the street opposite to it; the professors and students provided a similar row on Page  1605the side of the street next to the campus. One thousand trees were planted within the college grounds. Five hundred were already set out when the plan was made, and the Regents were asked to purchase the remaining five hundred (Farrand, p. 137).

Most of these trees died, but in 1858 a more successful attempt at landscaping was made. With the coming of the young Andrew D. White, who was appointed Professor of History and English Literature in 1857, the first effective effort for the improvement of the campus began. In his Autobiography White describes the campus when he arrived as "unkempt and wretched." He says:

Throughout its whole space there were not more than a score of trees outside the building sites allotted to the professors; unsightly plank walks connected the buildings, and in every direction were meandering paths, which in dry weather were dusty and in wet weather muddy.

..... Without permission from anyone, I began planting trees within the University enclosure; established, on my own account, several avenues; and set out elms to overshadow them. Choosing my trees with care, carefully protecting and watering them during the first two years, and gradually adding to them a considerable number of evergreens, I preached practically the doctrine of adorning the campus. Gradually some of my students joined me; one class after another aided in securing trees and in planting them, others became interested, until, finally, the University authorities made me "superintendent of the grounds," and appropriated to my work the munificent sum of seventy-five dollars a year. So began the splendid growth which now surrounds those buildings.


(I: 282-83.)

His example apparently was infectious, for the citizens of Ann Arbor resumed their tree-planting efforts around the outside of the campus in the spring of 1858, while a group of sixty trees received as a gift from Messrs. Ellwanger and Barry, of Rochester, New York, was set out inside. The seniors of 1858 left a memorial of concentric rings of maples about a native oak in the center of the campus, which has since become known as the Tappan oak. The juniors set out another group to the east, and Professor Fasquelle planted a number of evergreens east of the north wing to balance a similar group of Professor White's at the south. The maples outside the walk on State Street were also the gift of Professor White and were balanced by a similar row of elms on the inside, given by the faculty of the Literary Department. In 1864 the steward reported that there were 1,370 trees, in all, on the campus.

Water was an even more pressing problem, since the earliest buildings were residences for professors, and the first academic building, Mason Hall, was used as a dormitory for students. This was before the days of city water mains, and the Regents at once had several wells dug. The Building Committee's reports for January and November, 1839, mention two, the second of which was near the Professors' Houses on the south side of the campus. Two others were dug in 1840 and 1845, respectively. In 1847 the faculty recommended that a well be dug near Mason Hall for the use of the students. The Report of the Faculty for August, 1847, states:

A well for the use of the students near the University Building is much needed. It is highly inconvenient for the students to bring the water from so great a distance and doubly inconvenient for the Officer to have gates continually opened and gardens trodden by a constant train of applicants at the well.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 381.)
Apparently the students had been using one of the wells dug for the convenience of the professors.

Page  1606The Building Committee, consisting of Lieutenant-Governor Mundy, Judge Fletcher, and Chancellor Farnsworth (the latter was replaced by John J. Adam), appointed on March 3, 1838, was "to fix upon and recommend … a plan for the University buildings" (R.P., 1837-64, p.39). Their story in itself is a most interesting one, involving an agreement with two architects at once, the acceptance of the plan of Alexander J. Davis to erect a main building, and the reconsideration of this action barely three months later, accompanied by the decision, in January, 1839, to build four Professors' Houses.

An interesting old map of Ann Arbor, published by D. A. Pettibone in 1854, shows the central avenue with the Professors' Houses in place, a row of seven buildings along State Street, and the Medical Building at the center of the east side of the campus where later it was actually built. A few walks appear. The State Street front before the row of college buildings is labeled "Open Lawn," and the eastern third of the campus, with the Medical Building in the center, is marked "Botanic Garden." The so-called Professors' Monument is shown directly back of the Medical Building. The map also shows an elevation of the "West Front Michigan University," with the three central buildings of the row. The one to the left is Mason Hall, completed in 1841, and the one to the right the South College Building. The central building, from its churchlike spire, was apparently intended to be a chapel, but was never built in this form.

An article on this old map and picture, printed in The Michigan Alumnus of April 19, 1923, suggests that the arrangement and elevations might perhaps come from the first plan for the University buildings, prepared by Alexander J. Davis, of New York, but since that time Mr. Davis' drawings for the University of Michigan have been placed with his other papers in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and some of them have been published. Furthermore, the copy of the floor plan of the main building, which was sent to Governor Mason, was also discovered at Lansing and Regent Beal presented it to the University. From these materials it is easy to see that the elevations on the Pettibone map were not from Davis' original plan, which called for an elaborate building in the Gothic style very different from the plain architecture of Mason Hall or of the chapel which is shown on the map between it and the South Wing.

It is quite possible, however, that the Pettibone map preserves for us a set of plans which were prepared during the winter of 1840-41. On October 7, 1840, the Regents instructed the Building Committee to employ Mr. Harpin Lum "during the coming winter" when he would not be occupied in superintending the construction of the University Building (Mason Hall) to prepare and draw "such plans and profiles, building drafts, etc., as may be necessary … for the full execution of the general plan adopted for the University Buildings." That Mr. Lum did so is shown by an entry in the minutes of the meeting of April 16, 1841, whereby the drafts and plans for the college buildings which Lum had prepared in accordance with the vote of October 7, 1840, were accepted and he was directed to have them framed and deposited in the Library.

The Professors' Monument with the inscriptions on its base commemorating Professors Joseph Whiting, Douglass Houghton, Charles Fox, and Samuel Denton has had an interesting history. In September, 1845, the Regents resolved:

That one hundred and fifty feet square of land midway between a line running north Page  1607and south, across the University Grounds between the Professors' Houses and the east side of the Grounds and midway between the north and south lines of the Grounds be set apart for a cemetery for the University.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 325.)

If his family consented, Professor Whiting, who had died the previous July, was to be reburied there. An appropriation was made for a monument to him, which was actually erected, for the Regents' Proceedings record that William E. Peters was paid $130.48 for the "tombstone," and, although it was first placed in the center of the space designated as a cemetery and is so shown on the Pettibone map of 1854, the campus cemetery never became a reality. The Professors' Monument has been moved five times during its history. In 1856 it was moved about ten rods due north to get it out of the way of the first Chemical Laboratory. In 1869 it was transported still farther north across the walk from what is now the northwest corner of the West Medical Building. In 1884 it was brought to the intersection of the campus walks in front of the Library, and in 1890 it was placed on the south side of the Library near its southwest corner. Then in 1918 it was brought around to the east side of the Library Building to within a hundred yards of its original site.

Until 1850 the only buildings on the campus were Mason Hall, the South College Building, later called South Wing, and the four Professors' Houses. At this time the old Medical Building was erected, and six years later the first Chemical Laboratory, which stood directly back of it, was built.

The first addition to the original university lands was the site of the Observatory, acquired in 1853. For many years the old campus and the Observatory lot were the total land holdings of the University. Before 1900 the sites of the Convalescent Hospital (1889-90) and of the South Department of the University Hospital (1899) had been added; the old University Hospital was built on the former and the Homeopathic Hospital on the latter. In 1890, also, the first tracts making up the present Ferry Field were acquired.

After 1900 the land holdings of the University grew rapidly so that the original 40.3 acres, by June 30, 1954, had expanded to 18,535 acres, of which 1,007 acres were in or near Ann Arbor.

The growth of the campus and the acquisition of other lands resulted, in general, in the development of four areas: (1) the property surrounding the original campus, (2) the University Hospital complex, (3) the athletic plant, and (4) the North Campus. In addition, a large group of lands, most of which are outside of Ann Arbor, provides botanical gardens, forestry farms, and summer camp sites.

Chemistry and Pharmacy Building

The University Chemistry and Pharmacy Building is on the north side of the campus, east of the Mall which extends from the General Library to the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. It occupies the site of the first University Hospital, which incorporated one of the four Professors' Houses, the first buildings on the campus.

The original Chemistry Laboratory, later occupied by the departments of Pharmacology and Economics, was completed in 1856 and gradually expanded until the department moved into new quarters in 1909. Construction of a new Chemistry Building was approved by the Regents at their meeting of June 5, 1908. The Building Committee was authorized to prepare plans for the Page  1608building, the cost of which was not to exceed $225,000. This amount was insufficient to complete the building as designed, however, and the plans were revised by the architects, Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, of Detroit. This delayed construction until October of the same year. The final cost of the building, completed in 1910, was $271,000.

This structure is 230 feet in length and 130 feet in width, with a floor area of 114,600 square feet. It comprises two interior courts separated by a central wing or crossbar. An addition, designed by Louis Kingscott and Associates and built by Bryant and Detwiler, was completed in 1949. It was made an integral part of the original structure. The addition has one light court and consists of a basement and four floors; it has approximately the same amount of usable floor space as the original part. The building in 1954 was valued at $3,205,000 and the equipment at $521,000.

The building is four stories high with a basement under the new part, and is constructed of buff Bedford limestone and brick in varying shades of light brown. It is fireproof with reinforced concrete columns and floors and hollow brick and cinder-block partitions. It was one of the first buildings on the campus to employ the construction system of regularly spaced concrete piers.

In general, the arrangement of the complete building consists of three long corridors, one on the east and one on the west side of the older part and one on the east side of the new part; these corridors connect the large laboratories occupying the north and south ends of the building. The long west corridor (000) is connected to the central one (200) by a corridor (100) across the middle of the older part, and the long central one (200) is connected to the east one (500) by two corridors (300 and 400) on each side of the light court in the new part.

On the first floor, in addition to an amphitheater with a seating capacity of 290 in the south court of the older part, there are three lecture rooms with seating capacities of 131, 144, and 230, as well as two smaller classrooms. The offices of the College of Pharmacy and the Prescription Laboratory are on the east (500) corridor, and a large introductory pharmacy laboratory is at the southeast corner of the building. The dock for loading and unloading supplies is adjacent to the large receiving and shipping room of the Chemistry Store Department on the 300 corridor and the offices of the Chemistry Stores Department on the 500 corridor. The remainder of the first floor is used for work in physical chemistry — offices, research rooms, and four large laboratories including one which is specially equipped for teaching electrochemistry. The dispensing room on the 500 corridor handles student supplies for physical chemistry and pharmacy. Facilities for electrochemistry, comprising a general laboratory, research rooms, and instructors' offices, occupy the outside tier of rooms along the west corridor.

On the second floor, are the offices of the Department of Chemistry in the center of the 000 corridor. The well-equipped library, is at the south end of the older part of the building. It accommodates 108 readers and contains about 15,000 bound volumes. Four large laboratories devoted to organic chemistry occupy the north end of the building, and one large research laboratory for organic chemistry and a large pharmacy laboratory are in the southeast corner. Most of the remaining rooms on the second floor are for members of the staff of the College of Pharmacy, for research in pharmaceutical chemistry, and for faculty and student research in organic chemistry. A departmental glassblower and a dispensing room for supplies for organic Page  1609chemistry and for quantitative analysis courses and some pharmacy classrooms are on this floor.

Six large laboratories on the third floor are for the several courses in analytical chemistry, including qualitative, quantitative, and instrumental analysis; semimicroanalysis is taught in a smaller laboratory. Rooms for analytical balances are adjacent to the laboratories. Also on this floor are a lecture room seating about ninety, a College of Pharmacy laboratory for pharmacognosy, research laboratories for pharmacy, and a room where approximately thirty teaching fellows in chemistry have office space. Four rooms are devoted to studies involving radioactivity — one in which to teach students how to handle and use such materials, one, the "hot-lab," where experimental work with the more radioactive substances can be performed safely, and two rooms equipped with instruments for measuring the activity. The work of the dispensing room on this floor is directed toward supplying the reagent shelves of the student laboratories in the building.

General chemistry is taught in five large laboratories, qualitative analysis in two, and graduate research students occupy the eighth large laboratory on the fourth floor. A small laboratory is devoted to courses in advanced inorganic chemistry. A number of rooms are assigned to equipment and research work connected with electron diffraction and X-ray studies.

The basement under the east part of the building houses the units which heat the oil-filtered air supplied to the newest part of the structure. Electrical supply rooms and large areas for storage of glass equipment, chemicals, and other supplies handled by Chemistry Stores are also there. The College of Pharmacy has an area in the basement for equipment for the manufacturing pharmacy processes, and the Department of Chemistry also has its shops for the fabrication and repair of research apparatus there. A number of small laboratories in this area are used for research work; these include space for high-pressure equipment, special distilling columns, and other equipment for organic chemistry research. Two of the laboratories are designed for work requiring controlled temperature and humidity conditions. One is refrigerated for work which requires low temperatures, and several are lined with copper-coated paper to reduce electrostatic effects.

The main service lines enter through tunnels underneath the building and are distributed by means of accessible riser stacks from which they fan out to the separate rooms. In the new part of the building, the hoods are exhausted by fans in a penthouse. The motors on the exhaust system are two-speed and maintain a continual air flow at all times. Two water stills, one in the older and one in the newer part, furnish distilled water to the building and are connected so that in an emergency either one could supply the whole building.

William L. Clements Library Building

In May, 1921, Regent William L. Clements, of Bay City, entered into an agreement with his fellow Regents to give his collection of rare books to the University and to construct a building on the campus to house them. Land was provided on South University Avenue next to the President's House, and an old faculty house, one of the original buildings on the campus, was demolished to make way for the new structure.

The new building was planned by Albert Kahn, of Detroit, under the direction of Regent Clements. The latter specified a style of architecture in vogue Page  1610in northern Italy when Columbus left Genoa to plan his epoch-making voyage. As a result, the building is Italian Renaissance in general style, executed in Indiana limestone. In front a planted terrace leads to three rounded archways that open on a loggia with vaulted ceilings in blue and gold mosaic.

Bronze grilled doors give entrance to the Library's main room, which measures 35 by 90 feet. This room is lined with bookcases surmounted by fumed oak paneling two stories high. The curved ceiling was painted in vivid colors by Thomas di Lorenzo, of New York City. Two alcoves project at either end to enclose the loggia. The floor is covered with broadloom carpeting and furnished with upholstered chairs, sofas, and tables of eighteenth-century design. Four exhibition cases are placed in the center of the room, which is lighted by three large and two small chandeliers.

Beyond the main room are two offices, a reading room, and the rare book room. The last was built like a bank vault for greater protection against fire and theft. The tall oak doors are metal lined, and steel shutters may be pulled down over the windows. This room, also carpeted, is furnished with period chairs and tables and contains an unused fireplace with black marble hearth. This rear half of the building has a second story of three rooms — two for manuscripts and one for bibliography — and a balcony of five alcoves overlooking the main room.

The basement, or lower library, contains several rooms for maps, newspapers, reference works, lounge, rest rooms, and custodian's quarters. Fans in the attic blow washed warm air, properly humidified, throughout the building.

The building and its furnishings were estimated at the time of construction to cost about $200,000, but the final cost was considerably more. The cornerstone was laid on March 31, 1922, and construction was by the Owen, Ames and Kimball Company of Grand Rapids. In December, 1922, Mr. Clements entered into a definitive gift agreement with the Regents, setting forth what he conceived to be the duties of the University in maintaining the building, in providing a staff, and in enlarging the holdings of the William L. Clements Library of American History.

The new Library was dedicated on June 15, 1923, with exercises in Hill Auditorium. The addresses on that occasion and the address by William Warner Bishop at the laying of the cornerstone, were compiled and published by the University in book form: The Dedication of the William L. Clements Library of Americana at the University of Michigan.

The name William L. Clements Library is engraved along the top of the façade of the building. On either wing, made by the projecting alcoves, are short inscriptions, composed by Professor Ulrich B. Phillips, to fit the available spaces. One reads: "In darkness dwells the people which knows its annals not"; and the other: "Tradition fades but the written record remains ever fresh."

Couzens Hall

In June of 1923 the Regents accepted a gift from the Honorable James Couzzens, of Detroit, United States Senator from Michigan, of a sum "up to six hundred thousand dollars" for "the construction of a building for the housing of student … and graduate nurses" (R.P., 1920-23, p. 822).

The President's Report for 1922-23 recorded, "The need of a Nurses' Home, and the desirability of its very speedy erection has been too often pointed out in the past to be enlarged upon here… The Home is an indispensable part of the Hospital, and should by all means be Page  1611ready when the new Hospital building is opened." Later, in the same report, it was stated:

The gift … is the largest presentation made to us in the course of the year… Without the facilities properly to house its nurses the new Hospital would be placed at such a disadvantage that it could never be operated as we would wish to see it. It is interesting to note that the announcement of this gift seems already to be having its effect. Applications for admission to the Nurses Training School of the Hospital received during the summer in which this Report is written show a substantial increase, which is extremely gratifying and testifies to the fact that the provision of this fine Home will add immensely to the attractiveness and success of the courses for nurses. Senator Couzens' appreciation of the need in which we stood and his very generous aid at this critical point have won him the gratitude of all the friends of the University.


(P.R., 1922-23, p. 170.)

Albert Kahn, of Detroit, was chosen as the architect for the building, and H. G. Christman Company, of Detroit, was awarded the contract at an estimated amount of $600,000 in January, 1924.

Excavation for the building was begun in November of the same year, and in August, 1925, the dormitory was completed at a cost of $622,724.76.

In 1925-26 the Michigan Alumnus reported that owing to lack of funds only the bedrooms could be furnished at that time, but the Regents authorized the expenditure of $15,000 from the Woodward Avenue Lease Fund for furnishings and equipment (R.P., 1923-26, p. 623).

The building afforded a gross floor area of 87,262 square feet and had approximately 250 student rooms, most of them singles, with a few doubles, accommodating about 260 girls. The four-story residence, constructed of dark red brick with white trim, consisted of a center section and two wings in the form of a letter "H."

The basement contains facilities for instruction — an amphitheater, faculty offices, laboratories, classrooms, an assembly hall, and also a game room. In addition to student rooms, on the first floor are a lobby, the reception rooms, the living room, and a library; the lobby, living room, and library are beautifully paneled in walnut. The two upper floors are devoted entirely to student rooms.

At the rear of the building, overlooking a beautiful garden and, beyond that, the women's athletic field, are sun porches, one on each floor.

An addition to the building and remodeling of the present structure were completed in 1955, for which Ralph R. Calder was selected as architect. The building will now provide accommodation for 530 girls. The work is estimated to cost $1,754,000. The construction contract was awarded to Spence Brothers of Saginaw.

School of Dentistry Building

The School of Dentistry was established in 1875, the same year in which the Homeopathic Medical School was organized, and both schools were given quarters in the westerly of the two Professors' Houses which faced North University Avenue. For more than thirty years the Dental School was forced to shift from one building to another, but as a result it has the distinction of having occupied three of the four original Professors' Houses, which were the first buildings on the campus.

By 1877 the first quarters were crowded, and in June of that year the Regents authorized the removal of the College "from the building which it now occupies to the building occupied by Professor Frieze" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 133). This was the easterly of the two original Professors' Houses which faced South University Avenue at approximately Page  1612where the Clements Library now stands. The Committee on Buildings and Grounds was instructed to refit and arrange this building for the use of the Dental College and to have it ready for occupancy by October 1. The remodeling was not to cost more than $1,000.

The School continued to grow rapidly, and in October of 1878 the Regents authorized the immediate construction of a "permanent" addition. This move was prompted by the fact that the laboratory room, with facilities for eighteen students, was actually being used by thirty, and ten more were unprovided for. At the same time, the lecture room, with seating capacity for about fifty students, was regularly attended by fifty-five, and there was prospect of an early increase to sixty-five or seventy, so the addition authorized, therefore, was to provide a new laboratory and lecture room. The old lecture room was made into a dental museum, facilities for which were completely lacking. The Regents decided that the need was so pressing that favorable action by the legislature must be anticipated (R.P., 1876-81, pp. 304, 417). The new rooms were ready for use by winter of the year 1878-79, and the legislature justified the confidence of the Regents by appropriating $3,250 for the purpose.

In 1885 Dean Taft reported urgent need of more room for the Clinical or Operative Department; conditions had been crowded for several years, and at that time there were six chairs in the lecture room and twenty-eight chairs in the operating room. The lecture room also, he complained, was "too small, and of the wrong shape." He asked for an amphitheater with a seating capacity of 125 and presented to the Board of Regents a sketch of a plan for a building which would be two stories in height, with the lecture room on the second floor and the first floor devoted to classrooms, reading rooms, work in metallurgy, and other special work (R.P., 1881-86, pp. 562-63). He suggested that such a building might well be erected as an addition to the west end of the present building and estimated its cost at $2,542. Nothing was done at the time, however. In 1888 the Regents passed a resolution acknowledging the "extreme necessity" of more room but stating that "the way does not seem to be open at present, as it is deemed unwise to anticipate appropriations."

Relief was finally provided in 1891 when the University Hospital was removed from the easterly of the two Professors' Houses facing North University Avenue. During the summer of 1891 this building was overhauled and prepared for the use of the Dental School. The new quarters proved satisfactory, and the School found itself able to provide "with ease" for the increasing number of students.

The growth of the School continued, however. In 1903 President Angell stated that an entirely new building was needed for the Dental Department "which is wretchedly housed" (R.P., 1901-6, p. 225), and in 1905, when the Regents sought the services of Dr. W. D. Miller, of Berlin, as Dean, they assured him that a new dental building would be erected as soon as possible.

In 1906 Donaldson and Meier, architects, were requested to draw up plans and specifications for a new building, and in April of the following year the plans were accepted, and bids were authorized. In June the property on the east side of North University Avenue, adjacent to the Homeopathic Hospital, was purchased for the site (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 142-43). It was to cost not more than $18,500, and the three buildings then standing on the site were moved to vacant lots which the University proposed Page  1613to buy for $3,500. Later, $115,000 was set aside from the building fund for the erection of the new Dental Building. Construction was begun in 1907 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 158).

In September, 1908, President Angell reported that the Dental Building, which was almost ready for occupancy, would be one of the finest in the entire country (R.P., 1906-10, p. 349). It was occupied in October, 1908, but formal dedication exercises did not take place until May, 1909. More than sixty clinics were conducted by dentists from various parts of the country, with more than two hundred alumni in attendance. The formal exercises, held in the main amphitheater, were opened with an address by President Angell, followed by a banquet in Barbour Gymnasium.

The contractors were Koch Brothers, of Ann Arbor, whose bid totaled $84,988; changes in the plans, however, brought the figure to $90,259.82 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 170). Ultimately, most of the original amount of $115,000 was used. The value of the equipment in 1913 was given as more than $29,000.

In 1922-23 an addition to the Dental Building was built by John Bollin Company of Detroit. The contract price, subject to adjustment, was $67,800, and an additional amount of $44,226 was set aside for costs of services to be provided by the Buildings and Grounds Department. The building was enlarged to the north by an extension of 38 feet 5 inches, under the supervision of state architect Lynn W. Fry at a cost of $128,296. This increased the total floor space by 19,248 square feet and brought the cost of the building to $326,500. The valuation of the Dental Building in 1954, including the Kellogg Foundation Institute, is $674,110.

The structure, which consists of two stories and a basement, is 167 by 119 feet and has a gross floor area of 64,971 square feet. The basement is of dressed Bedford limestone; the upper walls of red vitreous brick are trimmed with Bedford limestone, and the roof is red flat tile. The building, which is fireproof, is heated from the central heating plant. Ventilation is supplied by two large fans in the attic and by separate vent pipes in every room. A humidifying system for the clinic is in the basement.

The basement contains large locker rooms for both men and women, as well as a dental materials laboratory, book vault, storeroom, photographic rooms, and a small lecture room.

The main floor is devoted to the library and reading room, administrative offices, the office of the stock and dispensing clerk, the dental bacteriology laboratory, and the temperature rooms. On the north side of the main floor are a lecture room, prosthetic laboratory, and the freshman and sophomore technic laboratories, each of which contains a large preparation room and storage rooms for the students' work.

A double stairway of marble and iron leads to the second floor, where a waiting room for patients occupies a central space. To the right are the X-ray Laboratory and Oral Surgery demonstration room, and to the left is an amphitheater, an examination and appointment room, and two rooms for the Department of Crown and Bridge Prosthesis. The entire north half of the floor is devoted to an operating room, 72 by 166 feet, well lighted by skylights and large windows, and equipped with 133 dental chairs. A gallery, ten feet wide, in the rear of the room is used for departmental offices and for special clinic work.

Although there has been no addition to the Dental Building since 1923, there have been several alterations since 1941. In 1942 the two technic laboratories on the first floor were rehabilitated under the terms of a gift from the W. K. Page  1614Kellogg Foundation. An amount of $113,000 was granted by the Foundation "for alterations and purchase of equipment for the undergraduate technical laboratories of the School of Dentistry and for the purchase of technical and clinical instrument outfits to be used by undergraduate dental students" (R.P. 1939-42, p. 887).

The entrance to the Dental Building was remodeled with funds donated by the members of the dental class of 1917. This gift was presented in honor of Dr. Marcus L. Ward, former Dean of the School of Dentistry, and suitable plaques were erected. The entrance was dedicated in June, 1947.

After the construction of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute the Oral Surgery clinic was moved to new quarters in that building. This allowed an expansion of the X-ray Laboratory into that part of the Dental Building formerly used for oral surgery. The dental classes of 1918 and 1923 presented a gift of approximately $4,500 to remodel the X-ray Laboratory and to purchase new equipment. At the reunion of these classes in June, 1948, the laboratory was dedicated as a memorial to Dr. U. G. Rickert, formerly Professor of Diagnosis, Dental Therapeutics, and Radiology, who died on October 21, 1938.

The most significant change in the Dental Building took place in 1949, when the main operating clinic on the second floor was completely rehabilitated. New dental chairs, units, and cabinets were installed for the use of the clinic classes. The cost of this project was $295,000, and the clinic now contains ninety-four chairs, which are shared by junior and senior students on alternate days. There are also thirty-nine chairs for the use of dental hygienists. The clinic of the Dental Building is one of the most modern and well equipped to be found in the world.

Since 1950 several areas of the building have been remodeled to allow most efficient use of the available space for present instructional needs. In 1950 the Dental Materials Laboratory was expanded, and the West Laboratory was remodeled to allow a capacity of 185 student benches. In 1952 the West Lecture Room was replaced with a Prosthetic Laboratory containing the most recent types of equipment. At this time the men's locker room was also modernized and expanded. In 1953 the Crown and Bridge Laboratory adjoining the main clinic was remodeled, and the Examination Room was enlarged.

East Engineering Building

In April, 1920, the Regents received a communication from Dean Cooley "dealing with … the presumptive need for additional space and equipment" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 915). The following November they agreed, in accordance with their building program, to go ahead with construction of engineering shops and laboratories, which would require an appropriation of $750,000. To prevent confusion it was decided that the new structure would be named the East Engineering Building and that the older engineering building on the southeast corner of the campus would be designated the West Engineering Building. The new building was ready for use at the beginning of the 1923-24 school year.

The East Engineering Building, on East University Avenue south of East Hall, is shaped in general like a "U," with a front of 190 feet on East University Avenue and two wings, separated by a court, each 223 feet in length, running back to Church Street. In plan it follows the unit construction of the later buildings on the campus with regularly spaced reinforced concrete piers, affording Page  1615a maximum of light and space. The building has four floors, with a full-height basement under each wing and a storage basement under the front section. It contains 177 rooms and has a gross floor area of 167,800 square feet.

The architects for the East Engineering Building were Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, and the contractor was H. G. Christman. The building was constructed for $639,190.81. It is built of brick and stone with an ornamental terra-cotta and brick cornice.

In general, the departments which had been housed in the old Engineering Shops and the rapidly developing branches of chemical and metallurgical engineering, transportation engineering, aeronautical engineering, metal processing, and engineering research found new and adequate quarters in the new structure, occupying sections of the building through several floors. Such grouping of the various branches of engineering permits practical co-operation among the departments.

The East Engineering Building includes eleven recitation rooms, fifty-seven laboratories, thirty-one offices, seven shops, three drafting rooms, two libraries, and five locker rooms. The largest single room, the foundry, has an area of 6,193 square feet. In addition to these rooms, a darkroom, a museum, and storage rooms are also provided. The upper floors of the north wing are occupied by the general Chemical Engineering Laboratory, special laboratories for gas, oil, and fuel analysis and smaller rooms for special research problems in such fields as paints, textiles, and electrochemistry. Extending from the basement to the third floor is the Swenson Evaporator Laboratory. The remainder of this wing is devoted to transportation engineering, general classrooms, offices, the Transportation Library on the first floor, and laboratories in the basement.

In the south wing, the upper floors accommodate the various Production Engineering laboratories, with special rooms for heat treatment of metals and for electric furnaces. The basement of this wing contains a wind tunnel used for experimental work in aeronautical engineering, in addition to offices and a drawing room.

Construction of the East Engineering Building addition (a new south wing) was begun in the summer of 1946 and was completed in time for use at the beginning of the school year 1947-48, at a cost of $1,545,000. This addition afforded relief from the crowded conditions resulting from the heavy enrollment following World War II. It provided eighteen classrooms, as well as laboratories and offices for the departments of Aeronautical Engineering and Electrical Engineering. The latter was moved to the addition from the West Engineering Building.

A small laboratory, equipped for research work in explosives and chemical smokes, was erected on the roof of the East Engineering Building in 1941. In 1947 an Illumination Laboratory, which provided natural illumination for the study of such needs in schools, factories, and houses, was also constructed on the roof of the building. Another small structure, to be used as an instructional and research laboratory for work in meteorology, was built upon the roof in 1954.

East Hall

East Hall, of brick construction with two floors and a basement, containing twenty-nine rooms, including 10 classrooms and a study hall in the basement, has 20,194 square feet of floor space. Erected in 1883 as a public school building, it was designated as the Tappan School. In 1922 the University offered to Page  1616purchase this building from the Board of Education of the City of Ann Arbor. In September "a price of $76,200 was agreed upon for the purchase … of all the property known as the Tappan School buildings and grounds … out of the general funds of the University." An allowance of $2,000 was made for alterations and repairs to adapt the building for use by University classes during the year 1922-23 (R.P., 1920-23, p. 572).

This building has been used continuously for classes and offices. By 1955 offices of the Engineering English Department were located there, and the classrooms for the courses in English and mathematics. The building is on East University Avenue, just north of the East Engineering Building.

East Medical Building

The East Medical Building stands at the angle formed by the junction of East University and Washtenaw avenues. Shaped somewhat like a "V," with a short arm facing on Washtenaw, a longer one on East University, and a blunted end at the angle formed by these streets, it rises five stories above street level. Dark red brick, faced with white stone trim, emphasizes its straight unadorned lines and helps achieve harmony with the East Engineering Building just to the south. The main entrance is on East University Avenue, in a section marked by four great engaged Corinthian pillars, with a smaller entrance on the Washtenaw side and two delivery entrances from the court.

The first steps toward construction of the building came in 1923, when the University requested the legislature for a general building appropriation of $7,277,000, of which $2,990,000 was to complete the new Hospital. On March 15 and 16 of that year the entire lawmaking body came to Ann Arbor to survey the campus and to listen to a plea for funds from President Burton. Subsequently, the legislature appropriated $3,800,000 for the building program for the biennium, the sum of $2,300,000 to be used for the completion of the University Hospital. Provision, however, for a new medical building was also made.

Ground was broken for this addition to the Medical School late in October, 1923, and the work, for which the University Buildings and Grounds Department acted as contractors, proceeded according to the plans drawn up by the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit. The building, which was ready for occupancy eighteen months later, on February 15, 1925, cost $858,283.32 and provides 184,658 square feet of floor space, including space used on the roof.

The basement floor has two large rooms, one containing refrigerating machinery and an electrical switchboard, the other a completely equipped morgue. The first floor of the west wing includes research rooms for anatomy and quarters for the animals needed in the work, as well as rooms for photographic and wax-plate equipment. Also on this floor are rooms for receiving, refrigerating, embalming, and preserving bodies. On the northeast side is stored material for the Department of Bacteriology with rooms equipped with special lighting for bacteriological research. In addition, space has been allotted for photographic rooms, a general research room for advanced students, and quarters for the Pasteur Institute. The section joining the two arms of the building is taken up by classrooms and a large lecture room.

A general laboratory for introductory work in physiology occupies the second floor of the west wing, with accessory Page  1617rooms for individual work in respiration and mammalian physiology. The second and third floors of the northeast wing are devoted chiefly to general bacteriological laboratories and accessory rooms, with private rooms for the use of instructors and laboratories for advanced bacteriology and parasitology.

The space between the wings has a large laboratory with additional rooms for general histology on the second floor, and on the third floor this part of the building houses a general laboratory for gross anatomy for students in dentistry and physical education. Rooms for galvanometric studies, used by the general class in physiology for special work in X ray, are in the west wing of the third floor, and laboratories for advanced work in physiology, with additional research rooms, occupy the remainder of this section of the building.

On the fourth floor west wing provision has been made for the director's laboratory and, adjoining it, a secretary's office. Just to the north are a library, presented to the Medical School by Dr. Warren F. Lombard, Professor of Physiology (1892-1923), and the main research rooms of the Department of Physiology. Near the end of this corridor a large classroom, formed by a bay, is used jointly by the Physiology and Anatomy departments. The main Anatomical Laboratory for medical students, with accessory rooms, is at the junction of the wings; the northeast wing contains additional research rooms for the Department of Anatomy, as well as facilities for the study of embryology and comparative neurology. Quarters are also provided for special work in anatomy for juniors and seniors.

Animal quarters and rooms for work on animals occupy almost the entire fifth floor, with individual kennels opening on wide runways where the dogs may exercise. Preparation of human bone material is also carried on in specially designated rooms on this floor.

Economics and Pharmacology Building

In his report of December, 1855, President Tappan stated: "In respect to buildings, the true principle is to build as little as possible… It will be necessary, however, to erect a Chemical Laboratory for the analytical course. Such a building will probably cost from two to three thousand dollars" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 618).

In May, 1856, the Regents authorized construction of the first chemical laboratory at the University. In his report of October, 1856, President Tappan described it as "unquestionably … unsurpassed by anything of the kind in our country." It was situated on the site of the present Pharmacology Building. A. J. Jordan was architect for the structure, while Professor Silas H. Douglas, of the Department of Chemistry, superintended the construction. The total cost of the building, which provided 3,142 square feet of floor space, was about $6,000.

This building was one of the first in the world to be devoted exclusively to laboratory instruction in chemistry, and probably the first in this country, since such instruction at that time was being given at both Harvard and Yale in certain rooms set aside for the purpose. It was a one-story structure, consisting of three rooms in which there were twenty-six laboratory tables.

In 1861 the Regents adopted a plan proposed by Professor Douglas for an enlargement, appropriating $2,000 for the purpose. Another addition was constructed in 1866, but in the following year President Haven reported that the Page  1618building was still too small, and in 1868 a third addition was made, which made possible 135 tables. In 1874 President Angell announced the completion of a fourth addition, a wing 95 by 30 feet, stating that as many as one hundred students at a time had been forced to wait for tables, and asserting that there was a need for more instruction in metallurgy and assaying. He added that all of the additional space now provided would be used at once. In 1880 a Laboratory of General Chemistry was set up, and a fifth addition, in the form of a second story, was made to the building. This construction was done under the supervision of Regent Andrew Climie. Meanwhile, the School of Pharmacy, which had been developed within the Chemical Laboratory, had been growing, and in 1888, although congestion had been relieved by transferring the work in hygiene to the building constructed for the laboratories of Hygiene and Physics, President Angell stated that there was urgent need for further enlargement of the building. A sixth addition was, therefore, completed in 1890, the state legislature having appropriated $21,000 for the purpose. It was added to the west end of the building. The architect was E. W. Arnold, of Detroit. The addition provided tables for eighty students, three lecture-rooms, and a pharmaceutical and chemical museum. The cost of the additions and of the original building, including some of the equipment, through 1890 totaled $55,845. Between 1895 and 1900 a Laboratory of Physical Chemistry was set up in the building, and the seventh and last addition was constructed in 1901. The building now had 362 tables. In 1903 the West Medical Building was completed, and the laboratory work in physiological chemistry was removed to it.

The building, because of its additions, is very irregular in plan, with a main section (Pharmacology) on the north which includes the old first laboratory of 1856, and an L-shaped wing on the south. The building has a maximum dimension from north to south of 160 feet and from east to west of 180 feet.

Although the principal purpose for which the building was constructed was to provide laboratory space for work in analytical chemistry, it was later used for organic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and chemical technology as well, and, until 1890, for electrotherapeutics. Later, the Hygienic Laboratory in the West Medical Building became headquarters for the work in physiological chemistry, but one laboratory, providing facilities for forty-eight students, was maintained in the Chemical Building. During the year 1896-97 more than 600 students received instruction in the laboratories of this building.

In 1909, with the completion of the new Chemistry Building, these laboratories were all moved, and the southern wing of the old Chemical Laboratory, which is in effect a separate building, was taken over by the Department of Economics, while the Department of Pharmacology occupied the northern wing. The basement of the southern section was transformed into an accounting laboratory and, until 1924, the second floor was used as a library.

With the erection of Angell Hall, provision was made for an economics-mathematics library on the third floor. The quarters in the Economics Building vacated by the library were thereafter used as a statistical laboratory, while the rear part of the pharmacology section was utilized as laboratory space for special research projects.

First Buildings

Mason Hall. — The first department of the University to be established was Page  1619the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, in 1841. Mason Hall, the first University building devoted to instruction, in the beginning was known as the University Building. In the course of a few years it was supplemented by an identical structure, placed on the same line but separated from it by a gap of about 150 feet, known as the South College Building. Later, these two buildings were joined by a large central structure, and the completed building was called University Hall, the earlier buildings becoming North Wing and South Wing, respectively.

On March 3, 1838, almost a year after the institution had been established in Ann Arbor, a building committee was appointed by the Regents, consisting of Lieutenant-Governor Edward Mundy, Chief Justice William A. Fletcher, and Chancellor Elon Farnsworth; the latter was replaced by Regent John J. Adam in January, 1839. This committee was directed "to fix upon and recommend … a plan for the University buildings," to prepare estimates, to make contracts for materials, and to deal with the question of employing an architect. In connection with this duty, the committee became involved in a curious misunderstanding, the story of which is told by Mr. Mundy, the chairman, in a report dated November, 1838, and presented to the Board on the following April 13 (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 82-83).

On advice, the committee through Mundy opened negotiations with Ammi B. Young, of Vermont, inviting him to visit Michigan with the prospect of being employed as architect. Young, who was engaged at that time in the erection of the Customs House in Boston, could not give full acceptance to the invitation, but offered, nevertheless, to produce a set of plans. On May 15, 1838, therefore, the committee, by letter, gave him a description of the site and commissioned him to furnish them with a design.

Mundy, during that summer, went to New Jersey. While there, he received a letter, dated July 19, from Judge Fletcher which asked him to consult with an entirely different architect, Alexander J. Davis, of New York, from whom the Regents expected a plan, and to ask him to visit Ann Arbor as soon as he could. Calling upon Mr. Davis, Mundy was informed that "a correspondence had existed between himself and one of the members of the Board, to whom anterior to the appointment of this Committee had been given authority to procure a plan for the buildings" (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 82-83). Davis appears to have observed all the professional proprieties, for he told Mundy that Young had, in a letter to him, expressed a willingness to relinquish his connection with the affair. Young, however, later wrote Mundy that he "had expended much time and study upon the designs for the University buildings, that he had completed the most difficult part, the designing … and forwarded … his bill for three hundred dollars …" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 83). Who had engaged the services of Davis, however, does not appear. At any rate, Davis, and not Young, became the first architect for the University of Michigan.

From Davis the University got prompt action. On September 16, 1838, the plan which he drew up was unanimously adopted, and it was determined to begin construction of "the Main Building and eight sections of the North Wing." It was voted to pay Davis $600 and to appoint Isaac Thompson, of Connecticut, as builder. One set of plans which Davis drew is deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York; the set which was submitted for the approval of Governor Mason, after many vicissitudes, found its way back to the archives of the University. These plans call for a Page  1620Gothic structure very different from the severe style of the building finally erected (Mason Hall).

In Alexander J. Davis* the Regents had selected one of the most distinguished American architects of the midnineteenth century; he designed many buildings of national importance. The transaction, however, was doomed to be ill-fated, and his plans, although adopted and still in existence, were never carried out. Exactly what was said and done during the interval between September, 1838, and January, 1839, we do not know, because of the absence of explanatory documents. Although brick was purchased, the actual building, apparently, was not begun, and the action was rescinded as being "premature."

The plan for the original building, Mason Hall, was submitted on April 8, 1840. To take the place of the plans drawn by Alexander J. Davis, the Regents on April 7, 1840 (R.P., 1837-64, p. 128), directed the Building Committee to "procure and report to this Board tomorrow, a plan for a principal Building …, together with the estimates of the expenses for erecting and completing the same." The report, which was forthcoming and adopted by the Regents on the next day, was signed by Harpin Lum, the contractor for the Professors' Houses. This first building was completed in 1841, in time for the opening of college in the fall. The four Professors' Houses had been occupied in 1840.

The final plan was very different from the design presented by Alexander J. Davis, the first architect appointed by the Regents. His sketches, now preserved in the Metropolitan Museum, show an elaborate brick building in the so-called Gothic style of that period. This plan, although first approved by the Board of Regents, was finally rejected because of the opposition of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, John D. Pierce, who deemed it altogether too expensive. Whether Mr. Davis had a hand in designing the building actually erected is not known, although in some of its details it recalls other buildings designed by him. Isaac Thompson, who was associated with Davis, superintended the construction of two of the Professors' Houses; he was replaced by Harpin Lum, who not only completed the first two, but also the second two and the main building. In view of the fact that the plans for the main building were not submitted to the Regents until April, 1840 (whereas the Davis plan was adopted as early as September 16, 1838), and Thompson had been dismissed in July, 1839, it is possible if not probable that the design was worked out by Lum in conjunction with the Building Committee of the Board of Regents.

The structure, designed to be used for the most part as a dormitory, was 110 feet long, 42 feet wide, four stories high, and of brick construction with stucco facing. It provided 18,575 square feet of floor space. The plans called for thirty-two studies, each with a wood-room, and sixty-four bedrooms, each with a closet. Later, alterations were made to provide for classrooms as well as dormitories. Directly behind the building was a wood-yard, from which the students secured their own fuel. The cost of the building, according to Lum's estimate, was $16,000. Originally, the brick exterior was to have been painted, but after receiving favorable reports concerning stuccoing "in New Haven and elsewhere" by a Mr. Gill, the Regents decided to stucco the Professors' Houses, and it was felt that the Main Building should conform in appearance. The Page  [unnumbered]

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The Michigan Creed
Page  [unnumbered]Page  1621builders are said to have mixed the stucco with skim milk in the hope that this would be more durable.

It would be easy to assume, today, that this first building was of cheap construction, evidence of an attempt to save at every turn, but those who were concerned with the matter at the time appear to have felt very differently. Thus, the Board of Visitors reported in 1841-42:

The plan and profile of the University buildings as marked out and adopted by the Board of Regents, will, when completed, present an imposing spectacle, worthy of the great objects for which they are designed… The age in which we live could not make a more noble and acceptable donation to the age which is to follow, than will be presented by these splendid monuments of taste and art, … The material, style and finish of these buildings [those already completed], combining convenience, solidity and elegance, are creditable to the architect, and well adapted for the uses for which they were designed.


(Rept. Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1841-42.)

Again in 1849 the college buildings were described as "admirably finished, after the most approved plan, the result of long experience and observation on the part of the college officers."

The students' quarters consisted of three-room suites or apartments, each with two bedrooms and a common study room. Originally, the building was divided into two sections, each a complete and separate unit consisting of sixteen apartments opening on a central stairway. A tutor, who occupied an apartment on the first floor, presided over each of the sections. The necessity of providing classrooms upset this scheme, since it seems to have been tried out only once, at a time when Andrew Ten Brook, who later became Professor of Philosophy, served as tutor. The faculty strongly and repeatedly recommended the adoption of this plan, but the eventual decision on the part of President Tappan to abandon the dormitory idea in order to secure more classroom space prevented its ever being put into operation.

In April, 1843, the Board of Regents named the building Mason Hall, in the following resolution:

Resolved, That as evidence of the feeling with which this Board cherishes the memory of the late Stevens T. Mason, by whom it was originally organized, the cottage edifice, now in use at Ann Arbor and known as the "Main Building," shall henceforth be called "Mason Hall."


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 264.)
The name was not used, however, for many years, perhaps because at the time there was no need for a special designation for the one University building. It has been suggested, too, that, in view of the growing feeling concerning abolition, the fact that Governor Mason was a Southerner may have militated against the popular acceptance of the name.

The South Wing. — In January, 1847, the Regents decided to erect a second building, since additional accommodations were needed for a chemical and medical laboratory and for recitation rooms, as well as for the housing of students. The new building was to be "similar in its dimensions and general plan to the principal building now in use," and Kearsley and Owen were appointed a committee of two to carry out the plans for the building. It was completed in 1848-49, costing approximately $13,000, and was known as South College. The Regents' committee again recommended, in July, 1848, that the first building be called Mason Hall and that the new or South building be named Pitcher Hall for Dr. Zina Pitcher, a member of the first Board of Regents, and one of the founders of the Medical School. These recommendations, however, were laid on the table. In 1913 a communication was received from the Page  1622Sarah Caswell Angell. Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, requesting permission to place a tablet on the north building (called North Wing of University Hall) and asking also that the building be known thereafter "by the title by which it is said to have been originally designated, … 'Mason Hall.'" After looking into the records, the Regents consented, and the name again was formally adopted in July, 1913.

Thus, the first two units of what later became University Hall were designed solely for dormitories, to be conducted under a tutorial system. The immediate necessity for space, however, reduced the dormitory function to three-fourths of each building. The other fourth was devoted to lecture and recitation rooms, a chapel, library, and rooms for the Mineralogical Cabinet and the two literary societies.

In their report for 1850, the Board of Visitors noted that sixteen rooms in the "dormitory buildings" were unoccupied. Finding the doors to these rooms unlocked, they inspected them, and complained that they found evidence that the wood closets had been used for sawing and splitting wood, much to the damage of the floors, and of the ceilings directly below, from which much plaster had fallen. They were greatly surprised that such a practice should have been allowed in the University. They also thought it a great oversight that someone had not been provided to make the beds and keep the premises neat. The students were sweeping the dirt from their rooms into the halls, whence it was removed by the janitor once or twice a week.

The academic uses to which these two buildings were put varied from time to time. The Chemical Laboratory for Dr. Douglas was set up in the North Wing, probably in 1844. In 1848 it was moved to the South Wing, where it remained until the erection in 1850 of the first Laboratory Building, which eventually became known as the Medical Building. On one occasion the location of the faculty room and a janitor's room in the North Wing was the cause of much embarrassment. The doors to the two rooms, which were directly opposite each other, stood open. A rope was stretched from doorknob to doorknob. It was, of course, the janitor who climbed through the window and solved the problem.

In 1856, at a cost of $3,500, the entire central part of the North Wing was renovated and equipped, according to plans by Jordan and Anderson, architects, to house the Library and the Museum. The contractor was William Gibbings. This coincided with a decision to abandon the dormitory plan altogether and to encourage the students to find rooms in the town. The new arrangements provided a gallery around the room devoted to the Library, in which, and in rooms opening from it, the Museum and the art exhibits were displayed. The Mineralogical Cabinet was placed in the north half of the gallery, with the geological collections in the south half; the Fine Arts collection, begun in 1855 by Professor Frieze, was accommodated in three adjacent rooms.

The fourth floor apparently continued in use for a time as dormitory rooms. The last one on the campus, on the second floor in the south end of the North Wing, "directly under the bell," was occupied as late as the year 1870-71. Its various tenants acted in the capacity of caretaker for the Museum. The Chapel appears to have occupied the space, on the main floor at one end of the North Wing, that normally would have accommodated two student suites. When the Law School was established in 1859, the Law Library also had to be housed in the Library room, and this arrangement continued until the completion of the Law Building in 1863, when both the Law and the Literary College libraries were moved Page  1623to the new building. After the Museums Building was completed in 1880-81 the central part of the North Wing was renovated to provide classrooms. In the spring of 1899 the little room that had been attached in 1862 to the north end of the North Wing to house Randolph Rogers' statue of "Nydia" was cut away, and replaced by a bay window.

The first professorship in engineering was established in 1853, and much of the nonlaboratory instruction in this subject was given in South College until 1890. The Law Department also had quarters in this building. In 1861 a large room on the ground floor was given over to military drill. After removal of the engineering courses to the easterly of the two Professors' Houses facing South University Avenue in 1891, South College appears to have been devoted largely to classrooms, particularly in the natural sciences, with the Treasurer's offices occupying the ground floor. On the morning of May 28, 1913, a fire broke out in the Botanical Laboratory at the south end of the top floor, causing part of the roof to collapse, and resulting in damage estimated at approximately $47,000, including injury to, or loss of 2,692 books belonging to the Library, as well as a part of the University Herbarium. The Treasurer's records escaped harm. Restoration of the building was promptly voted by the Regents, and plans were incorporated for its use after the impending removal of the Biology Department to the new Natural Science Building.

University Hall. — The decision, in 1870, to ask the legislature for an appropriation for a new University building, appears to have been the result of repeated urgings on the part of Acting President Henry S. Frieze. In a report to the Regents in March of that year, he dwelt at some length on the need for a more perfect union "of the three grand departments of the institution," including both faculty and students. It was to further this end that the University Senate had been formed, and on November 17, 1869, at the suggestion of Regent E. C. Walker, a new anniversary, "University Day," was inaugurated. This day was celebrated only twice, in 1869 and in 1870. "It created strife rather than union" (Farrand, p. 208). The great need of the University, however, in Dr. Frieze's judgment, was "an audience room … suitable for all … occasions, … as well as for … exhibitions and annual commencements." He said: "The University has no roof under which to assemble her various Departments. She has a family of a thousand children without a shelter" (R.P., 1870-76, p. 25). At the same time he stressed the shortage of classrooms.

He pursued the subject further in his annual report of September, 1870, "Certainly no Union School District in this State would think it creditable, either to its enterprise or humanity, to shut up its youth in such rooms as the Academic Department of the University is now compelled to occupy." A further argument may well have clinched his case. The admission of women into the University had not given rise to the evils apprehended but it had presented an unconsidered problem. With no adequate space for the young men, how could room also be found for young women? Dr. Frieze said:

Any one who should witness the difficulty the large classes of this department find in moving along the narrow "gang ways," up and down the narrow stair cases of this building, a movement which must take place at almost every hour of the day, would hesitate to expose young ladies to all this embarrassment and discomfort.

.....

You have believed it a duty to comply with the request of the Legislature, urged upon you by repeated majorities in both houses, and undoubtedly reflecting the will of the people. You can now in all fairness ask the Page  1624Legislature to furnish you with the buildings necessary to make their request effectual, and to carry out their wishes.


(R.P., 1870-76, pp. 76-77.)

The Regents accordingly agreed to approach the legislature, and that body almost unanimously voted an appropriation of $75,000. This action, following the establishment of the principle of the mill tax in 1867, marked a new era in the history of the support of higher education by the state. It was decided that the new building, "with its front of 347 feet, and its dome rising to a height of 140 feet from the ground" (R.P., 1870-76, p. 203), affording 61,903 square feet of floor space, should be a connecting link between the old North and South College buildings, making the whole one large University building. The name "University Hall" was probably adopted by the Regents at their meeting in June of 1871. After consideration of plans submitted by several architects, E. S. Jenison, of Chicago, was chosen as architect. The original plans showed a monumental archway above the main entrance and a dome which the Regents deemed "inexpedient." The dome, however, was retained in a modified form, rising approximately 60 feet above the building, 140 feet above the ground, and with a diameter of 30 feet.

The design provided for a chapel on the north side of the main floor, with a seating capacity of 550; across on the south side was the President's office, with a waiting room for ladies at the east side. The main feature of the building, however, was the large auditorium on the second floor, which seated 3,000 people — 1,700 on the main floor, and 1,300 in the encircling elliptical gallery. The building also provided eleven lecture rooms as well as offices for the Regents, the faculty, and the steward. This plan proved more expensive than expected, and the legislature was called upon for an additional $25,000, bringing the total cost to $105,459.61.

The cornerstone of the new building was laid on Commencement Day, June 28, 1871, which was also the occasion of the first official appearance of the recently elected President, James Burrill Angell. Two years later, on the evening of November 5, 1873, the dedication ceremonies took place, although the Chapel and lecture rooms had been in use since October of the preceding year. Thirty-four hundred people crowded into the new auditorium to hear addresses by Regent George Willard, the Honorable D. Bethune Duffield, of Detroit, and President Andrew D. White, of Cornell University, formerly a member of the University of Michigan faculty.

Criticism of various sorts arose during the construction of the building. Some people objected to making it a part of the two original college buildings, while others did not like the construction materials. The writer of an editorial in the Chronicle of September, 1871, said:

Every one must regret that a building, over which we have been more puffed up than any other college in the country and which would have been worth over one half million dollars, had to be built of brick and stuccoed; but the amount of capital and the style of the old buildings left no choice in the matter.

The opinion was also prevalent that the quality of the materials was poor.

There was, too, a strong reaction against the appearance of the building. A very caustic editorial in the Chronicle of May, 1875, was directed chiefly against the dome. The sight of it "would have caused Michael Angelo to hang his head in shame." The writer remarked that it should always be viewed from the State Street side if one would get an impression of its beauty and grandeur as Page  1625"it shows at a great disadvantage from the rear." Reference was also made to the "pepper boxes" ornamenting the roof. Of this last criticism the Regents took notice and in 1879 ordered the removal of "the two circular corner turrets and the two turrets at the base of the dome," and provided for the finishing of "the said corners and said sides in conformity with the style of said dome." They also ordered the removal of the balustrade which bordered the roofs of the two wings (R.P., 1876-81, p. 398).

Finally, widespread fear arose that the self-supporting roof of the auditorium would not bear the weight of the great dome, which was estimated at 112,000 pounds. DeVolson Wood, Professor of Civil Engineering, reviewed the plans in detail, made independent calculations of the strains, and wrote two articles, which were published in the Chronicle, reassuring the public as to the safety of the building. After the dedicatory ceremony, the Chronicle (5[Nov., 1872]: 42.) noted: "The seats were full, but no signs of weakness could be detected, … The acoustic properties of the hall, we are happy to say, are excellent."

Regardless of its physical qualities, however, the erection of University Hall was of great moral significance. President White's dedicatory address, which made a profound impression, was an argument for state-supported colleges, and Acting President Frieze, in his annual report for the year 1870-71, referring to the almost unanimous vote of the legislature appropriating money for the new building, said:

If it is reasonable to regard the Legislature as representing the sentiment of the people, I think we may now feel assured that the University has at length reached that period which we have always desired to see, when it should be recognized and accepted by the citizens of the state as a genuine state institution, not only such by the organic laws of the state, but in the estimation of the people, and in their cordial sympathy and support.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 113.)

Immediately upon completion, the new building became the center of all University activities. In 1894 the Columbian Organ, built by Farrand and Votey, of Detroit, and valued at $25,000, which had been used in Festival Hall during the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, was purchased by the University Musical Society and installed in University Hall. The instrument was promptly named the Frieze Memorial Organ. With this began a series of vesper services, held twice weekly, at which a chorus of 100 voices, under the direction of Professor Stanley, sang. The spring of 1894 also witnessed the first of the long series of May Festivals which have been held since that time.

Early apprehensions concerning the weight of the dome increased, and in November, 1895, the Regents ordered the Committee on Buildings and Grounds either to repair or to remove it if this seemed desirable. Subsequently, after representatives of the H. George and Company, of Detroit, had inspected it, it was finally decided that the old dome should be removed. This was accomplished during the Christmas holidays of 1896, and plans for a new roof were prepared by Spice and Rohn, architects. The new dome was of iron, much smaller, and consequently less expensive, a fact which was sadly noted by an alumnus writing in 1899, "The mighty dome which we used to point out and look at fondly on our walks about the neighboring country has gone, and its place can never be taken in our hearts by its diminutive and bubble-like successor" (Michigan Alumnus, 6[Oct., 1899]:6). But he added that while it was inspiring to view the old dome in a tempest, to sit beneath Page  1626it, because of its many leaks, was damaging to body, raiment, and character.

At the time the roof was being recon-structed, the incline of the floor of the auditorium was lowered twenty-two and one-half inches, and the seats were replaced by opera chairs. As the Chapel exercises were gradually discontinued, the Chapel became a general assembly room, known as Room C, and was used for class meetings.

Once more in the early 1900's fears were entertained for the safety of those sitting in the gallery of the auditorium. The enthusiastic stamping of feet which greeted William Jennings Bryan when he spoke in the hall in 1902 led a member of the faculty to warn the audience that this was dangerous; he said, "The building shows its age. Its woodwork and floors are becoming dry and lifeless." The Inlander also called attention in 1905 to the shaking of floor, seats, and gallery during a performance of "David Garrick" by Leland T. Powers.

After the completion of Hill Auditorium in 1913, old University Hall ceased to be the center of University gatherings. The Frieze Memorial Organ was moved to the new building in 1913-14, and the seating capacity of the old auditorium was restricted to 1,500. Six years later, it was reduced still more in size in order to provide six additional classrooms, and what remained was used for classes in dramatics. In 1930 further use of the auditorium was prohibited on the grounds of safety. Later, all of the first floor and much of the second floor of the building were used as general University offices. The old Chapel became offices for the Dean of Students and the Registrar, and the rooms once occupied by the President were incorporated in the University's business offices.

The structure was removed to make way for the new Mason Hall and Haven Hall additions in 1950.

The Professors' Houses. — The first houses on the campus were those belonging to the former occupants of the land. These, however, were removed, and the earliest University buildings to take their places were the four Professors' Houses, built at about the same time as, but shortly before, Mason Hall.

Twenty thousand dollars was appropriated in 1839 for "such buildings as the necessities of the University may at present require." These "necessities" were stated to be "four buildings for the use of the Professors of the University"; they were to be used also for the storage of the "Cabinet of Natural History, the Library, the Philosophical Apparatus and other general purposes of the University" until the "main buildings" could be finished. At this time the contract with Messrs. Davis and Thompson was canceled, and a new one was made with Mr. Thompson, as superintendent of building operations, which remained in force until August 14, 1839. In February, 1839, on Thompson's advice, the contract to erect the remaining two houses and to finish the two already begun was given to Harpin Lum.* July 1, 1840, was the date specified for their completion. The first payment on this contract was made to Mr. Lum on February 11, 1839, and the final settlement on November 12, 1840, but as only two warrants were drawn on this account after May 20 it is probable that most of the work was completed by the summer of 1840.

It is not known who drew the plans for the four Professors' Houses. They are not included in Davis' preserved papers and in style are quite unlike the buildings Page  1627which he actually designed. The Regents' Proceedings state simply that the Building Committee, on February 11, 1839, "presented a plan for the buildings directed to be constructed … which plan was adopted." Since Isaac Thompson was superintendent of building at this time, it seems likely that he may have made the necessary drawings; the houses resembled in some respects, notably their porticos, a style not infrequently found in his native state, Connecticut. Business connections appear to have existed between Mr. Thompson and Mr. Davis, and the latter, in turn, was associated with Ithiel Town, of New Haven. On the other hand, Harpin Lum was capable of drawing building plans.

The contracts which the building committee made for the erection of these houses amounted in each case to $7,712.50 or $30,850 for the four. Each afforded about 4,800 square feet of floor space and measured 36 by 44 feet in size. Attention was given by the Regents to their location as well as to many details of their construction.

On February 11 a resolution was adopted which directed that an avenue one hundred feet in width should be run through the center of the campus from north to south and that the Professors' Houses should be situated in pairs on either side of this avenue, two on the north and two on the south side of the grounds. This location was adopted, but the avenue was never actually laid out nor opened, and on November 26, 1839, the resolution was rescinded.

When the Professors' Houses were completed in the fall of 1840, one of them was used temporarily as a library. Wood-houses, cisterns, and barns were provided for each. The occupancy of the houses by the professors apparently began in 1840. One is referred to as Dr. Douglass Houghton's house as early as March of that year (R.P., 1837-64, p. 127). From 1840 until 1845, when Professor Joseph Whiting died, Professors Houghton, George Palmer Williams, and Whiting were the tenants; for the first three years one of the houses apparently stood vacant except as it may have been used for miscellaneous purposes. It was probably this house, in the basement of which the janitor, Patrick Kelly, was permitted to live, which in October, 1843, was rented to Governor Alpheus Felch and occupied by him until May, 1846. Mrs. Whiting continued in residence until May, 1846, when she left for Buffalo and the Agnews took over her house. Professor Whedon lived in the Felch house, probably, until 1852, when Erastus O. Haven succeeded him in its tenancy. In 1852 the four houses were occupied by President Tappan and Professors Williams, Boise, and Haven, respectively. Upon Haven's resignation as Professor in 1856, his place was taken by Professor W. P. Trowbridge, and from 1858 through 1860 by Professor Andrew D. White. Professor Frieze began his long tenancy of one of the University Houses in 1861, and Mr. James Clements, father of Regent William Lawrence Clements, rented another of them, at least in 1861-62. Others who lived in the houses at various times were Mrs. Helen E. Putnam and Professors L. D. Chapin, Alexander Winchell, G. B. Merriman, and Benjamin F. Cocker. It is difficult to determine the years of the various tenancies and impossible to designate here the specific house occupied by each individual.

The use of the Professors' Houses for other purposes was early discussed. In 1861 it was proposed to use one for hospital purposes and another to house the Law Department, and in 1869, it was proposed to use the northwest dwelling for instruction in engineering. These proposals were all rejected. In 1869, however, the northeast house was taken over Page  1628for use as a University Hospital. Additions were made to it, both at that time and later. In 1876 two wooden pavilions 114 by 30 feet were built onto the rear of the old house, and in 1879 an amphitheater, matron's quarters, and kitchen and dining room were added. It continued in use as a hospital until 1891. From 1891 to 1908 the School of Dentistry used this building until it was removed for the erection of the Chemical Laboratory in 1909-10.

From 1875 to 1877 another of the Professors' Houses, that to the northwest, was used as the first home of the School of Dentistry. An addition to this building also was made, and in 1879 it became the hospital of the Homeopathic Medical College. Thus, it was used until 1899, when, on the removal of the Homeopathic Hospital to new quarters, its wooden extension was taken over by the Department of Pathology for three years, thereafter, from 1903 to 1915, by the Department of Psychology. The southeast residence was occupied by the College of Dentistry from 1877 until 1891. In that year a large brick addition was made to the building, and for the next thirty years it was occupied by the School of Engineering and was known as the Old Engineering Building. It was torn down in 1921-22 to permit the erection of the Clements Library, the southeast corner of which falls upon the site of the old Professor's House.

The fourth Professor's House, the southwest one of the group, is the only one which throughout the years has preserved its original purpose. It is now, as it has been since the time of President Tappan, the President's House, although the many additions which have been made to it in the interval since its erection have changed its appearance. It was not until President Angell came in 1871 that a hot-air furnace was installed. The chief alterations, however, were the addition of a one-story kitchen wing in 1864, the library wing, designed by E. W. Arnold, in 1891, the sun room, sleeping porch, and a further extension of the kitchen wing, including a garage, at the time of President Burton's arrival in Ann Arbor in 1920, and in 1933, the study which was added at the northeast corner. The house as originally built was a square two-story structure. The President's House was lighted by gas from about 1858, when gas was first introduced in Ann Arbor, until 1891, when the house was wired for electricity.

The iron fence surrounding the grounds, erected during President Angell's administration, was removed during President Burton's occupancy of the house.

Food Service Building

The Food Service Building on the corner of Glen and Huron streets was occupied in April, 1948. The combined building and equipment have involved a total outlay of $1,450,000. The building was constructed without the aid of appropriation by the state, the funds having been provided from a combined bond issue for residence hall refinancing and new construction.

The building serves as a centralized storage depot and processing point for food served in all University eating places except the Union. In the 1930's, when University residence hall facilities were increased, the need of a central receiving, distributing, and fabricating unit for food became apparent. As a temporary expedient the facilities of the Hospital Store, which was already providing food for the Hospital, were enlarged to service the residence halls. Further dormitory expansion after World War II overtaxed the limited Hospital facilities, and the need for the Food Service Building became imperative.

Page  1629The building is of reinforced concrete and red brick, with limestone trim, modern and attractive in appearance. Designed by Kalamazoo architects Louis C. Kingscott and Associates, it contains two floors and a basement, and the center section is designed to accommodate two additional stories when necessary. There are approximately 63,200 square feet of floor space in the building, and the over-all dimensions are approximately 120 by 220 feet.

Approximately 15,000 square feet of the total area are devoted to twenty-seven refrigerated rooms from 10 by 10 to 22 by 60 feet. The operation of these refrigerators, which are cork-lined, requires the use of nineteen large water-cooled compressors which operate at alternate intervals to assure equal wear on each unit.

The receiving entrance is at the front of the building, and the shipping dock is at the rear. The first floor contains the administrative offices, the receiving department, the bakery, the meat department, and the ice cream room. The building is equipped with a pneumatic tube system for sending messages from one floor to another and with an intercommunicating system.

The administrative offices, near the main entrance, are occupied by the manager, the food buyer representing the University Purchasing Department, the chief dietitian of the residence halls, and other staff.

The bakery, which covers an area of about 9,000 square feet, contains two refrigerated rooms for storing supplies and retaining dough temporarily. It is equipped with the most modern devices available and is designed on a production line basis so that the dough is prepared and mixed at one end, and the finished products come out of the ovens at the other end.

Across the corridor from the bakery is the meat department, which covers an area of 4,000 square feet and includes a well-equipped, modern butcher shop. Six refrigerators occupy more than half the area of this department.

At the end of the corridor is the ice cream room which occupies about 600 square feet and includes storage for flavors, a main room for the freezer, and two refrigerated rooms.

All incoming merchandise is delivered to the receiving dock. There is a platform scale for miscellaneous use as well as an overhead scale for weighing meat. Three tractor-trailers can be accommodated simultaneously. An electrically operated overhead door can be closed during inclement weather. Merchandise is unloaded from a freight car siding directly into the building. Overhead tracks for handling meat also lead into the building from the receiving dock and the freight car entrance. Meat is placed on hooks at the time of unloading and moved on these tracks directly into refrigerators near the receiving area. Mechanical lift trucks save much rehandling of canned goods, sugar, potatoes, and flour. As merchandise is unloaded both from freight cars and large trucks it is stacked directly on pallets (wooden platforms) which can be picked up, transported, and set down by the lift trucks anywhere in the building. Two heavy duty elevators, one at each end of the building, facilitate the movement of merchandise between the three floors.

The top or second floor is used entirely for storage of canned goods, paper goods, frozen fruits, flour, vegetables, and sugar. Four large refrigerators, each covering an area of 1,125 square feet, will accommodate fourteen freight car loads of frozen foods. The "flour room" is refrigerated and air conditioned.

The basement floor has further storage facilities for staples, canned goods, fresh fruits, and vegetables. It also contains Page  1630two compressor rooms, the mechanical equipment room, and the shipping department. There are, in all, twelve refrigerated rooms on this floor.

The shipping department at the rear of the building contains space for preparation of orders, an area for completed orders awaiting delivery, a storage area for trucks, and a shipping dock which will accommodate four trucks at a time. This entire area is enclosed, and two electrically operated doors can be closed during inclement weather or in non-operating periods.

Since the building was completed in 1948 much time and effort have been devoted to study of improved methods. The outstanding improvement after the building was occupied resulted from the utilization of the pallets described above. Much has been accomplished by the installation of other modern labor-saving equipment.

Forestry Lands

Eber White Woods. — In 1915 the Eber White tract of forty-three acres on West Liberty Road was purchased by the Regents and for many years occupied an important place in the instructional and investigational activities of the School. This area, a part of the former Eber White estate, was named the Eber White Woods.

Previous cuttings had been restricted, so that many of the older trees were still standing. In 1917 a plan to manage the area under the selection method was adopted, and cutting took place at five-year intervals on each of the ten compartments, with the result that there was an increase in the total volume of growing stock and in the percentage of the more valuable species as well as an improvement in the average quality of the trees. Cutting averaged about a cord an acre each year.

Because of the location of the tract, on the immediate outskirts of the city, many people felt that it would serve its greatest permanent use as a community forest and park for the people of Ann Arbor. This led in 1946 to its being given to the Ann Arbor Board of Education, with the understanding that its continued use by the University would be permitted.

The Saginaw Forest. — When the Forestry Department was established, one of the immediate needs was for land on which instruction and research in forestry operations could be carried out. The need was met by Arthur Hill, of Saginaw, a lumberman and Regent, who purchased an eighty-acre tract, two miles west of Ann Arbor, in 1903 and deeded it to the University, with the stipulation that it be used as a forestry demonstration and experimental area. The deed also specified that the official name should be "The Saginaw Forestry Farm." By 1919 the development of the plantations had reached such a stage that the name "farm" seemed inappropriate, so it was changed by the Regents, at the request of the Department of Forestry faculty, to "The Saginaw Forest."

Planting of the cleared parts began in the spring of 1904 and was completed in 1915. Later, some of the species proved to be unsuited to the sites on which they had been planted. Other species suffered serious damage from insects and diseases. Most of these unsuccessful plantations have been clear cut, and the areas have been replanted with different species. A few have been kept because of their demonstration value.

The total area of experimental plantations is fifty-five acres, with the balance of the area occupied by the lake, swamp, natural second-growth, roads, buildings, and a small arboretum. Most of the Page  1631plantings are now so far advanced that the history of their development furnishes much information that can serve as a guide for future operations in reforestation in southern Michigan. Even the failures have been valuable in this respect.

During the summer and fall of 1915, a stone cabin was built for tools and materials and as a shelter for classes and work-crews in inclement weather. It was unfortunate that the need for a caretaker's residence could not have been foreseen, so that a design better suited to the present use of the building could have been adopted. In 1947 the building east of the cabin was erected as a garage and to furnish supplementary living and storage space.

In the hearts of many of the older alumni there is much sentiment for the old "Forestry Farm." It was there that they struggled with grub hoes and spades to establish the first plantations, while arguing vigorously as to the feasibility of starting forests in such an artificial way. There they enjoyed the fellowship of the annual "Camp Fire" in the fall and of the weekend-long "Field Day" in the spring. On the hillside back of the present cabin, they sat and listened to the inspirational talks of "Daddy" Roth. A short distance from the cabin, a large stone with an appropriate bronze tablet was erected by the students in 1927 as a memorial to Professor Filibert Roth, the first head of the Department of Forestry.

Most of the tract of eighty acres consists of level to gentle slopes, with a few short, steep slopes. Toward the north end is Third Sister Lake, covering eleven acres, with about six acres of swamp around the west and south sides. A deep ravine runs southeasterly from the lake to the mid-point of the east boundary. The bulk of the soil is Miami loam.

Stinchfield Woods. — A gift of $10,000 from Mrs. Annie Tillson Stinchfield of Detroit, in memory of Jacob and Charles Stinchfield, made it possible in 1925 to purchase land for Stinchfield Woods. With the funds provided by Mrs. Stinchfield, and a small appropriation by the University, almost 320 acres in two separate tracts south of Portage Lake, about fifteen miles from Ann Arbor, were acquired. The westerly part, described on the acquisition map as the Bell tract, had an area of eighty acres, whereas the eastern tract contained approximately 240 acres.

In 1946 the Peach Mountain tract was purchased from the State Department of Conservation, and in 1949 the Carr tract of sixty acres, the Gardner tract of ninety acres, and the Ford and Pustay tracts of forty acres each, were added. Purchase of the Losey tract brought the area of the tract to almost 780 acres.

Across the Huron River to the east and bordering on the Strawberry Lake Road lies another University-owned property of 207 acres known as the Newcomb tract. This was purchased in 1929 for $30,000 from William W. and Esther M. Newcomb as the site for the Astronomical Observatory. Pending its use for this purpose, the administration of the land was handled by the Department of Zoology. For almost nineteen years the Newcomb tract was used chiefly for ornithological and limnological observations. During that period some plantations were established and cared for by the School of Natural Resources, and in 1949 the School was assigned the management of approximately eighty acres of the tract, including the farm buildings which are now used as headquarters for Stinchfield Woods and which are occupied by the assistant to the Manager of Forest Properties. Adjoining the Newcomb tract Page  1632on the east is the Murdock tract of thirty-three acres purchased in 1951. The Newcomb and Murdock tracts are considered part of Stinchfield Woods so that the total area now embraces 890 acres.

The eastern part of the original purchase in 1925 consisted of 165 acres of cleared land and seventy-five acres of severely grazed hardwoods. The soil varies from sand and gravel to clay, but the prevailing type is Bellefontaine sandy loam, which is of low value for crop production. When the area was acquired most of the cleared land was no longer cropped but did furnish some poor pasturage. Planting of the open land began in 1925 and was completed in 1940. Several cuts to remove trees of poor quality or of low-value species have been made in the hardwood stands on these two tracts, and some small, poorly stocked areas have been clear cut and replanted with pines. Black and white oaks and several species of hickory predominate heavily. Some seedling reproduction of white ash, black cherry, and sassafras has occurred in places, and some sprouting has resulted from the cuttings. Small areas have been underplanted with hard and Norway maples.

On the Peach Mountain tract were sixty acres of heavily grazed hardwoods and eighty-seven acres of cleared land when the land was acquired. One improvement cut has been made in the hardwood area, and planting of the open land was begun in 1946 and completed in 1952. With the exception of some scattered red cedar, there is practically no natural seedling reproduction. The tower of the University's broadcasting station is on Peach Mountain, and the School's sawmill is a short distance below the tower. Public access to the top of Peach Mountain is provided for in an agreement with the State Conservation Department.

The Carr tract is made up of forty-seven acres of hardwood and thirteen acres of old field. Improvement cuts in the hardwood area were made in the winters of 1950-51 and 1951-52. Site quality on parts of this area is very low for hardwoods. White ash reproduction is good in some places, but seedlings of other species are practically lacking. The cleared land was planted with conifers in 1952.

The Gardner, Pustay, Losey, and Ford tracts consist mostly of old fields with small areas of poor, over-grazed hardwoods. Until August, 1952, the Pustay tract was subject to a lease under which gravel could be removed. Another gravel lease of ten acres on the Ford tract expires when the gravel is exhausted.

The part of the Newcomb tract controlled by the School of Natural Resources consists of nineteen acres of hardwoods, fifty-one acres of old fields, and ten acres around the buildings, partly used as a nursery. A 15-acre field growing up to sumac, hawthorn, and poor Scotch pine, naturally seeded-in from trees planted to the west in 1915, was planted with conifers in 1950. The Murdock tract is completely wooded with a hardwood stand of potentially good quality.

There is a large variety of wildlife on the area. The greatest attraction is the deer which between 1945 and 1949 increased to such proportions that an open season was declared in the county. Other game animals and fur-bearers are rabbits, grey and fox squirrels, fox, woodchucks, badgers, raccoons, opossums, weasels, and an occasional coyote. Of the game birds, ruffed grouse and pheasants are present. Occasionally quail are seen. Songbirds, hawks, and owls comprise the remainder of the bird population.

Some wildlife management practices have been introduced with beneficial results. Multiflora roses have been Page  1633planted along the exterior fence lines as a source of food and cover for wildlife and also to provide a permanent stockproof fence that will not require maintenance. Since 1947 squirrel and raccoon den trees have been preserved.

The senior Forestry class of 1942 established a fund for the purchase of a portable sawmill. With contributions from the Forestry Club, succeeding senior classes, and alumni, a fund was built to about $2,000. With this amount on hand the University contributed enough to make possible the purchase and installation of the mill.

The building was constructed entirely by students, and the material came largely from the forest properties of the School. One notable exception is the corner posts and the posts around the doors, which are of wood from Chile brought here by a graduate student from that country. The equipment was also installed by student labor, and the building and installation were completed in the spring of 1947. The first lumber was cut in the fall of 1947.

A small nursery was begun on the Newcomb tract in the spring of 1949 immediately east of the caretaker's house. Each spring the establishment of seed beds and transplanting of older stock are done, as required work, by the class in artificial forestation. Water for irrigation through the overhead sprinkler system is pumped from the Huron River.

General Library Building

For many years the old library building, with its semicircular apse and twin towers, was adequate for the needs of the University. It stood at the center of the campus, and throughout a period of thirty-seven years the life of the University revolved around it. Eventually, however, it became too small and too crowded and because it was partly of wooden construction it offered a grave fire hazard to the University's book collections which were increasing in value every year. In January, 1915, therefore, the Regents asked the legislature for an appropriation of $350,000 to build a new library building. This request was granted, but the amount proved to be inadequate, and in 1919 an additional $200,000 was appropriated to which the Regents added $65,000, the final cost of the building and equipment being $645,000.

In 1915 William Warner Bishop became Librarian. He gave extended study, based on his long experience as a professional librarian, to the type of building which would best fill the needs of a rapidly growing university. The design evolved by the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit, in co-operation with Bishop, followed the plan of the University of California and the Harvard libraries and included many features unique at that time.

The contract for the construction was authorized by the Regents at their June, 1916, meeting. The University Buildings and Grounds Department served as general contractor, and Professor John F. Shepard represented the University as superintendent of construction. The Library was dedicated at exercises held in Hill Auditorium on January 7, 1920. Bishop, as Librarian, and Kahn, as architect, spoke preceding the principal address by R. R. Bowker, of New York, editor of the Library Journal.

The Library Building, which stands on the site of the first Library, is 177 feet long, 200 feet deep, and four stories high, with two bookstacks built at right angles to the old stacks, which were retained in the new structure. The two "new" stacks, the first part of the building to be crected, were used as reading and study rooms as well as for library administration during the construction of the main part of the building Page  1634By utilizing the old stacks, some $150,000 was saved, and it was possible to delay moving the books until the new stacks were ready to receive them. The old fireproof bookstacks were five stories high; the eight floors of new stacks on either side are so constructed that they may be extended to fifteen stories, bridging the old stacks by girders carried on specially designed columns.

The gross floor area of the Library Building is given in the University records as 151,206 square feet. It was so designed that the books were housed in the center and rear, with the reading rooms in front and special reading rooms and workrooms at the side. This brought the focal point for the delivery of books to the center of the building, where a book carrier was installed to take them to the delivery corridor on the second floor.

The building is constructed entirely of reinforced concrete and employs a system of regularly spaced concrete piers which afford an unusual amount of light as well as the necessary strength and protection against fire. These advantages were obtained at twenty-five cents a cubic foot, a very small cost, even in that period. Further protection from fire was secured by enclosing the stairways in the stacks with glass and steel, with every other floor cut off from those above and below. The stacks in the "new" part at either side were designed for workrooms as well as for book storage, and 122 cubicles or carrells containing shelves and tables for the use of research workers were provided. In the stacks are the Rare Book Rooms, and distributed among the carrells and book shelves are specially constructed cases for the folio material.

The basement of the building houses a receiving room, machinery room, and staff quarters; it also accommodates one study hall.

On the first floor the wide main entrance hallway, with floors and walls of marble, is attractively decorated in a Pompeian motif and lined with exhibition cases in which various selections from the Library are shown.

At the right of the main entrance is a large study hall. On the east side of the main hall are the offices and workrooms of the ordering, classifying, and cataloguing departments of the Library. This room affords flexibility of arrangement and avoids congestion. On the first floor, near the west entrance, there is also a lecture room, while beyond, on the lower floor of the west stack wing, is the study hall and library for graduate students registered in the Department of Library Science.

Broad marble staircases on either side of the hall lead to the main delivery corridor on the second floor, the heart of the Library, which contains the card catalogues, the circulation desk, and the delivery counter. An elevator is also available.

Opposite the delivery counter on the north side of the building, is the main reading room, which measures 175 by 50 feet, and is 50 feet high at the center of the barrel-vaulted ceiling. Huge windows 9 feet wide and 19 1/2 feet high afford ample light. The room seats about 300 readers. The general lighting system is indirect, with lights over the study tables and above the bookcases which line the walls. These bookcases contain a careful selection of reference books, available to all readers for consultation. In the lunettes above the windows at either end of the reading room are frescoes by Gari Melchers, "The Arts of War" and "The Arts of Peace," painted in 1893 for the Manufactures Building at the World's Fair in Chicago, and later presented to the University.

The administrative offices of the Library are at the east end of the delivery corridor, and at the west end Page  1635is a periodical reading room. On the third and fourth floors, three graduate reading rooms with libraries of 8,000 volumes are open to students. The fourth floor, in addition to the graduate reading room for history and political science and several seminar rooms, also houses the library and reading room of the Center for Japanese Studies. The seminar rooms on these two floors are used by the Department of Library Science and also, because of the shortage of classrooms, by other departments of the University as well. The Library Extension is also housed on the third floor. Altogether the Library, with its study halls, seminar rooms, and carrells, has seats for 1,000 readers.

Edwin S. George Reserve

A tract of land, comprising approximately 1,250 acres in Putnam and Unadilla townships in Livingston County, Michigan, twenty miles northwest of Ann Arbor, was given to the University in April, 1930, by Colonel Edwin S. George of Detroit. In presenting this gift the object of the donor was twofold: to make a definite contribution to education and to enable youth "to come in contact with the out-of-doors." Specifically, it was his intention to "further visual education in the natural sciences and for the purpose of preserving and demonstrating the native fauna and flora to the end that students interested in zoology, ornithology, botany, nature study and nature sketching, landscape studies, parks in the broad natural sense, or ecology, may here find material for observation and satisfy and develop the love for God's out-of-doors, — Nature" (R.P., 1929-32, p. 235).

The Reserve was to be administered by the Regents, who agreed to make it available to nature study groups and to provide a curator and such assistants as necessary "for the proper protection and care of the animals and plants, to provide for the upkeep of the necessary fences, buildings, and equipment, and to assume the expense of such planting, road building, and other developments as may be considered advisable" (R.P., 1929-32, pp. 235-36).

The Board adopted the following resolution in April, 1930:

Resolved, That the Regents of the University of Michigan with deep realization of its significance to the educational advantages of the State throughout the future accept with deep gratitude the Edwin George Reserve of the University of Michigan as tendered to this Board by the donor in his communication herein above appearing under date of April 4, 1930.


(R.P., 1929-32, p. 237.)

The Edwin S. George Reserve, protected from the ravages of man, is becoming of increasing importance owing to the gradual reduction of other natural areas for study within a reasonable distance of the University of Michigan. The Reserve is characteristic of many of the glaciated areas of southeastern Michigan. Rolling hills, steep slopes, and wooded ridges are intermingled with marshes and swamps. Numerous ponds, five permanent springs, and a small bog lake add to the types of aquatic environments. This out-of-door laboratory is protected by a firebreak and is enclosed with six miles of seven-foot, dogtight fence. A system of roads and trails enmeshes the whole. Facilities include houses for the curator, the custodian, and three student families. A modern, all-weather, four-man laboratory built with the proceeds derived from the sale of excess deer provides living and research quarters for investigators.

The Reserve was administered for many years directly by the Museum of Zoology. In August, 1950, the Board of Regents appointed the Director of the Page  1636Museum of Zoology as the Director of the Edwin S. George Reserve and chairman of an Executive Committee representing the various groups and fields interested in the use of the Reserve for research.

Colonel George never lost interest in the Reserve. Individual gifts of additional lands have increased the area to over 1,335 acres. Grants of money have supported field work, permitted publication of finished research, and paid for improvements of the physical lay-out. An Edwin S. George Reserve Fellowship Fund was endowed in 1941 to provide some financial support for outstanding and deserving students conducting research on the Reserve.

Gordon Hall

In 1841-43, on a hill west of the village of Dexter, Judge Samuel W. Dexter built a large, soundly constructed mansion of twenty-two rooms, in the Greek revival style. In 1950 this beautiful old house and the surrounding seventy acres were given to the University by Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick, of Chicago, granddaughter of Judge Dexter. The Regents' Proceedings for December, 1950, records:

The Regents accepted, with grateful thanks to the donor, the property known as Gordon Hall, and the surrounding seventy acres, together with $86,000 from Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick (Mrs. Stanley McCormick), of Chicago, the daughter of the late Judge Samuel William Dexter… It is estimated that alterations and improvements may cost $60,000 and that a four-car garage will cost in the neighborhood of $5,000.


(R.P., 1948-51, p. 1140.)

The house had had many uses. For years it had been used as a church; at one time, it served as many as four or five denominations, each holding services at scheduled hours. It had also housed Dexter's first post office, Judge Dexter carrying the mail on horseback to and from Ann Arbor. A unique feature of the building was a four-story tower; one story had housed each of Judge Dexter's four daughters. This tower, not a part of the original structure, was removed. The house was then rehabilitated and remodeled into four apartments for faculty members. Each apartment included two bedrooms, a bath, living room, and kitchenette. Authorization was given by the Regents in February, 1951, for a cost contract in a maximum amount of $79,253 to the Kurtz Construction Company of Ann Arbor. Preliminary work was begun in March, 1951, and the building was occupied in September of the same year.

The historical significance of the house is increased by the fact that Judge Dexter was prominent in the state's early history. He was Washtenaw's first circuit judge and one of the first Regents of the University. He was a publisher of the first newspaper in Washtenaw County, called the Emigrant, and served as minister without pay in many Unitarian churches. He was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 1792, and came to Michigan in 1824, buying from the government considerable acreage in Scio Township, a few miles west of Ann Arbor. Part of this property became the village of Dexter.

Certain county, state, and national historical societies opposed the conversion of the mansion into apartments because of its historical importance and the fact that it is a prime example of Greek revival architecture and advocated, instead, that the house be made into a museum. President Ruthven emphasized, however, that the home was being remodeled to serve as faculty housing at the request of Mrs. McCormick and that "the exterior of the main section of the house would be preserved in keeping Page  1637with its place as one of Washtenaw County's historical spots."

Most experts believed, however, that Gordon Hall's artistic merit was even more important than its historic value. Its exceptional grace and symmetry for years had won it mention by picture and description in many studies of American architecture. Because of its architectural and historical importance, drawings and photographs of the building were made for permanent record in the Library of Congress.

Harris Hall

Harris Hall, first called Hobart Hall, was built by St. Andrew's Episcopal Church in 1887. To obtain a home or a center for the activities of the Hobart Guild of Episcopal students, contributions and bequests were secured through the efforts of Bishop Samuel S. Harris, and the building at the northwest corner of State and Huron streets, constructed at a cost of $31,000, was formally dedicated in April, 1887 (The Michigan Book, pp. 90-91).

In 1946 the church leased it to the University for a seven-year period, with privilege of renewal for another seven years, for use as classrooms by the University School of Music, specifically the Band and Wind Instrument Department.

Extensive remodeling was done at that time. Practice studios were built in the basement, principally for wind instruments. The main floor was remodeled to include a comfortable lounge, a library, a uniform room, and an equipment room.

The building is still owned by the Episcopal Student Foundation, although the land on which it stands belongs to the church.

(Old) Haven Hall

Old Haven Hall was for sixty years the home of the Law School of the University. During that period it was twice remodeled to provide for the increasing enrollment. The original building was completed in 1863, and the law lecture hall was dedicated in October of that year with an address by Judge Thomas M. Cooley. The School, or Department of Law, was established in 1859. During the intervening four years classes had been held in the old Chapel in the north wing of University Hall, and the Law Library was housed in the Library room.

Owing to the rapid growth of the Law Department, it soon became apparent that more ample quarters would be necessary, and an effort was made to raise special funds for the erection of a law building. A subscription campaign proved unsuccessful, however, and the $15,000 eventually expended in the construction of the building was advanced from University funds.

The building, which was 70 by 90 feet in size, originally served not only for instruction in law, but also contained the University Chapel (until 1873) and the Library (until 1883).

The successive space increases for the use of the Law Department proved insufficient, however, and in 1893 the building was enlarged at a cost of $30,000. These much needed improvements, which included the addition of more class and lecture rooms and the erection of a brick tower on the northwest corner of the building, facing State Street, gave some relief, but within five years a further expansion became necessary. This time the improvements were much more extensive, totaling $65,000, and resulted in the construction of the building as it was from 1898 until 1950. While many of the rooms in the old building were retained, the exterior was completely altered to form a rectangular building 208 feet long, with 67,800 square feet of floor space, faced with sandstone on the first story and with Page  1638light-pressed brick on the upper two stories. The tower was removed, and a new wing was added which provided two lecture rooms in addition to the old lecture room on the first floor. Offices for the Dean and the Secretary were in the north wing, and a series of offices for other staff members occupied the central front of the building. A room for the Regents was also included in the south wing. Here the Board met regularly for more than thirty-five years, until the removal of the Law School to Hutchins Hall, when the Regents took over the room in Angell Hall adjacent to the President's office.

On the second floor the Law Library occupied the entire south wing of the old Law Building, with a series of special offices at the front. Lecture rooms, offices, and consultation rooms made up the remainder of the second and third floors.

In 1898 President Angell reported:

The Law Department is now housed in a fine building, fitted with modern conveniencies, and having ample accommodations for one thousand students. In 1892, the growth of the Department had been such that the original building had become inadequate, and a large addition was constructed. In 1895, a third year was added to the course, and soon thereafter the requirements for admission were materially increased… The enrollment of last year was seven hundred and sixty-seven, an increase of one hundred and eighty-one over the enrollment of the year previous. Enlarged accommodations became a necessity, and during the year the Board discussed and finally adopted plans that involved practically the reconstruction of the old building and an addition thereto that would more than double its capacity. The plans were so made and have been so carried out that the old building is completely lost in the present structure, which presents the appearance of an entirely new edifice… The building is provided with a fan system of heating and ventilation and is lighted by electricity. For the money expended, about $65,000 including the furnishing, the results are more than could reasonably have been expected at the time the work was undertaken.


(R.P., 1896-1901, pp. 302-4.)

With the completion of Hutchins Hall in 1933 the old Law Building entered a new period of existence. It was renamed Haven Hall in honor of Erastus O. Haven, President of the University from 1863 to 1869, and was made available for the use of several departments of the University. Seven of the rooms in the old building were assigned to the Department of History and an equal number to the Department of Sociology. The former offices of the Dean and Secretary of the Law School were assigned to the Extension Division, while the room occupied by the Law Library became a study hall for students and the Bureau of Government Library, with the adjacent suite of offices occupied by the Bureau of Government. The rooms at the north, on the second floor, were assigned to the Department of Journalism.

Haven Hall became one of the main buildings of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. It was destroyed by fire on June 6, 1950.

Health Service Building

The University Health Service Building, completed in 1940, is on Fletcher (formerly Twelfth) Street adjacent to the W. K. Kellogg Institute and across the street from the Michigan League. The building was erected as the result of action by the Regents in August, 1938, applying to the government for PWA funds to aid in financing its construction (R. P., 1936-39, pp. 638-40). President Ruthven announced in November of the same year, on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the establishment of the Health Service, that the government had granted the usual 45 per cent of the cost of the building. The University's Page  1639share was raised through the issue of $225,000 worth of Health Service bonds and the addition of $75,000 from the Health Service Reserve Fund.

Under the original plan the government was to contribute the sum of $213,750, which was later raised to $232,830, the University bearing the somewhat larger remainder of the cost. The site and building are valued at $380,718, bringing the total value of the building, site, and equipment to $572,557.07.

The site upon which the building stands was acquired, for the most part, by purchase from private owners and by condemnation. At the January, 1939, meeting of the Regents, plans submitted by the architect, L. J. Sarvis, of Battle Creek, were approved, and the Regents ordered the architects and engineers to proceed with construction.

The building, which was occupied in April, 1940, is similar in general design to the Kellogg Institute, which adjoins it; the two buildings thus form a harmonious unit. Both buildings are of red brick with stone trim.

The Health Service has four floors, an area more than three times that of the former Health Service Building, and twice the number of beds. Service quarters, such as dining rooms and kitchen, storage, linen and sewing rooms, and statistical workroom, in addition to pharmacy and allergy preparation stations, are on the ground floor, below the front surface level. The main entrance to the building is through large glass doors to the first floor, on which services most frequently needed are provided. On this floor is the lobby, with information desk and a section devoted to active records, business, and administration. Nearby is the drug dispensary, the staff room, and toward the rear of the building, along the main corridor, the offices of the dispensing nurse, an office for the supervising nurse, and a lecture room. Offices and examination rooms for general medical advisers, as well as a waiting room for patients, extend north along the main corridor. The stairway is easily visible from the entrance, and an elevator is accessible.

On the second floor, opening from a corridor which extends the entire length of the building, are offices for special services including mental hygiene, allergy, physical therapy, eye, ear, nose and throat, dentistry, and dermatology. The quarters of the surgery unit on this floor include offices and rooms for dressings, instruments, and operations performed without general anaesthetics, These are conveniently served by a dumbwaiter from the pharmacy below.

The rear extension on this floor is devoted to the radiographic and fluoroscopy department, with waiting rooms, film storage, film reading rooms, and basal metabolism tests. In the northeast section is the main laboratory with media kitchen and sanitation laboratory.

The sixty-bed infirmary on the third floor has an isolation ward at the north end, which is effectively cut off from the other rooms. It has separate furnishings and facilities for sterilization of trays and other articles. The remainder of this floor is made up mostly of double and single rooms with separate toilet and locker facilities. There are two small wards. Centrally situated on this floor is a nurses' station, and at the head of the stairway is a small waiting room. A section on the northeast side is specially equipped for disturbed or especially ill patients.

The fourth floor has quarters for resident physicians and orderlies, and a sun deck. Unfinished space provides for storage.

(Old) Heating Plant

The building near the southeast corner Page  1640of the campus, used until 1942 as the Reserve Officers' Training Corps headquarters, was originally the central heating plant of the University. From the central station the first tunnel system, of brick, was extended to the various buildings on the old campus. The conduit was 5 ½ by 6 ½ feet high. The floor was of Portland cement, and workmen could pass from one end to the other in making repairs.

The structure was built of cut stone in 1894 at a cost of about $57,000. In June of that year Regent Butterfield submitted the following resolution, which was adopted:

Resolved, That the proposition of A. Harvey's Sons Manufacturing Company, Limited, to construct a central heating plant on the University grounds for the sum of $44,150, be accepted, provided the said Harvey's Sons Manufacturing Company will make amended specifications, execute a contract, and give the required bonds and guarantees, all of which must be satisfactory to the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, and no liability shall attach to the University until all the necessary papers are executed. At which time the Committee on Buildings and Grounds are hereby authorized to proceed with the work, make estimates and authorize the payment of the same, and in all ways to act for the Board of Regents in the erection and completion of said works.


(R.P., 1891-96, pp. 314-15.)

The system must have proved to be highly satisfactory for in April, 1895, the following resolution was adopted:

That the Board of Regents commend the Heating Plant put in for the University by A. Harvey's Sons, of Detroit, as a work worthy the examination of practical and scientific men interested in such work and as a model to be copied by similar institutions and others requiring heating plants for detached buildings.(R.P., 1891-96, p. 422.)

The building had a gross floor area of 17,235 square feet and measured 85 by 93 feet. The smokestack connected with this old heating plant was a campus landmark for many years. It was originally 125 feet high, but the upper part was removed in 1924. After the erection of the present heating and power plant on Washington Street, the old heating plant building was used for some time as an engineering laboratory, but in 1923 it was turned over to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps as a center for their activities.

Heredity Clinic Building

The Heredity Clinic occupies a two-story wooden building, originally a private residence, that was moved to its present site in the court at 1135 East Catherine Street at the time of the University "building boom" which occurred during President Burton's term of office. It is not known just where the building stood when it was a private home, but probably on East University Avenue, either on the site of the present East Engineering Building or on that of the School of Education. For a number of years this building was the interns' residence for University Hospital. After the construction of a more adequate interns' residence north of the Hospital, the old frame building was unoccupied for a year or more before being assigned in 1941 to the Heredity Clinic. Although the wood construction is a constant fire hazard to the valuable clinic records and although the building is badly crowded and not well adapted for clinic purposes, it has provided space and shelter for this unit during its early years.

Hill Auditorium

In 1894 Professor Stanley and two other members of the University Musical Society met and determined that something must be done to secure an adequate auditorium for the University. By January, Page  16411895, a set of plans for a new building had been drawn. For years these plans were submitted to various people who were considered possible donors.

In 1904 Arthur Hill ('65e), whose first term as Regent began in 1901, became interested in the project. In March of that year the Regents approved a plan for trying to secure outside assistance. The response was discouraging, and Regent Hill inserted a provision in his will, setting aside $200,000 to be used for such a building. He informed no one of what he had done, and his intent was not discovered until his will was made public. The University received his bequest in 1910 (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 815-16).

The auditorium was constructed on the site of the old octagonal Winchell house on North University Avenue. It was the fourth fireproof structure to be erected by the University. Completed in 1913, it cost, unequipped, approximately $282,000. Including equipment, the total amounted to $347,600. The contractor was James L. Stuart, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The massive and plain brick exterior of the building is relieved by the color scheme of dull reds and browns, with limestone trim. It measures 171 by 174 feet and contains 71,914 square feet of space.

The parabolic interior, with its balcony and gallery and its immense platform which has a seating capacity of 300, is impressive. When built, Hill Auditorium seated 4,300 people. On the second floor just back of the gallery, is a large recital and lecture hall, which has a seating capacity of about 400 and which would be ideal for a small concert hall. At present, however, it is used to house the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments. A bronze relief of Regent Hill was placed in the foyer by Mrs. Hill. In 1913 the Frieze Memorial Organ was moved from University Hall to Hill Auditorium, and a new front was provided for it at a cost of $2,500. In 1928 this organ was replaced by a new and modern instrument, but the name was retained.

The dedication of Hill Auditorium took place on June 25, 1913 (Alumni Day). President Angell presented the building in behalf of the Hill estate, and Regent Clements accepted it for the University. Governor Ferris represented the state, and Senator Charles E. Townsend delivered the main address.

Upon the completion of the auditorium a new problem arose with which the Board of Regents wrestled for years — namely, what restrictions should be placed upon its use. Should religious services be permitted? Should collections be taken, or subscriptions solicited? What of political addresses? The following excerpt from the will of Regent Hill reveals his wishes regarding the general use to be made of the building:

That the said sum of Two Hundred Thousand ($200,000) Dollars be expended in the erection of an auditorium for the gathering of the students and college body, and their friends, on large occasions such as graduating exercises and musical festivals; the property to be controlled by the proper officers of the University, and I request that it be open to the people of Ann Arbor, among whom I have enjoyed both when a student and during my connection with the Board of Regents a generous hospitality, upon such occasions and under such terms as shall seem reasonaable and right to the Regents of the University.


(R.P., 1906-10, p. 815.)

From the first, the Regents permitted the use of the building for religious services of a nonsectarian character, or for those representative of all the churches. The taking of subscriptions and pledges has never been permitted, and for years the Regents were reluctant to have the building used for the raising of money. This restriction has been somewhat relaxed since 1922.

As early as November, 1913, the Upper Peninsula Education Association requested Page  1642quested that Hill Auditorium be open to the free discussion of all topics. The Regents set up a committee to study the question, and in April, 1914, concluded that "the use of Hill Auditorium for free discussion of all topics is not now necessary nor expedient" (R.P., 1910-14, p. 966). In pursuance of this policy, they denied former Governor Sulzer, of New York, the privilege of speaking on prohibition in 1916 and refused to permit a series of lectures on the League of Nations in 1919. In 1923 a request that former Attorney General George W. Wickersham, representing the League of Nations Non-Partisan Association, be permitted to speak in the auditorium was also denied.

In December, 1920, the Regents adopted the following resolution, in an effort to make their policy more explicit:

Resolved, That the use of Hill Auditorium may be granted to student organizations for lectures or addresses by prominent men on topics of the day, under guarantee that during such addresses there shall be no violation of recognized rules of hospitality, nor advocacy of the subversion of government or of the state, and that such meetings shall be in spirit, and in expression, worthy of this University.


(R.P., 1920-23, p. 79.)

In May, 1924, at the request of the Regents, the several Deans of the University presented suggestions, arrived at in conference with the President, concerning the auditorium. Their report, which follows, was adopted as the policy of the Board.

  • 1. No addresses shall be allowed which urge the destruction or modification of our form of government, by violence or other unlawful methods, or which advocate or justify conduct which violates the fundamentals of our accepted codes of morals.
  • 2. Speeches in support of particular candidates of any political party or faction ordinarily shall not be permitted. The discussion of matters of public interest relating to our political, legal, economic, and general social institutions, if conducted in the right way, by proper persons, is of the very essence of education and is of as much importance as a discussion of any subject in the whole field of knowledge. It will not do to say that there shall be no discussion before our students of matters of public concern by intelligent, well-qualified, and honorable persons.

(R.P., 1923-26, p. 302.)

Two primary considerations, size and acoustics, were taken into account in designing Hill Auditorium. The University needed an auditorium which would seat approximately 5,000 people, but at the same time it was necessary that every seat be so situated that even a whisper from the stage could be heard. Throughout the country auditoriums noted for their acoustic properties were found to be much smaller than the one proposed for the University.

Hugh Tallant, of New York, was consulting engineer. It was decided that the exterior should be similar to that of the typical theater and that the interior should be shaped like a paraboloid of revolution. This plan made possible a sufficient intensity of sound so that every word from the stage could be heard in the most distant parts of the auditorium. Within a limited range of fifty feet, for instance, this occurs directly; beyond this range, reflected sound must be employed to supplement direct sound. Reflected sound must not be diffused, however, and it must arrive at the ear of the auditor within the necessary fraction of a second after the arrival of the direct sound in order to avoid confusion and echo. The curved surface served to prevent diffusion, and tardiness of arrival was avoided by preventing any reflected sound from traveling more than seventy feet farther than the direct sound. Unwanted reflections were avoided by padding the rear walls and the rear part of the side walls. The audience was calculated as padding for the floors. Provision for resonance was limited to the platform. Page  1643The design for this provided for a wood floor over a concrete slab, with a six-inch air space intervening.

As John T. N. Hoyt ('91), chief engineer for the architect, Albert Kahn, said, the principles to be observed were simple, but the execution of the plan so that every seat would have the proper acoustics was immensely difficult. The results, on the whole, were gratifying. Some difficulty was experienced because of an echo in the upper gallery, and in 1921 experiments were made to eliminate this. To prevent sounds from penetrating the auditorium from without, a combination of solid brick exterior wall, four-inch air space, and four-inch hollow brick interior wall was used. The roof was tiled.

In 1949 renovations were made and new seating was put in. The auditorium now has 4,200 seats. During the past year, 1954-55, the Frieze Memorial Organ has been rebuilt and reconditioned by the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company of Boston. Tonal changes have been made, the mechanism has been renewed, and a new console has been installed.

Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial

Unique among University buildings is the Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial in Detroit, thirty-eight miles from the University campus. Situated in the city's famed Art Center, close to the Detroit Institute of Arts, this beautiful structure is the center for extension classes and other University activities in the metropolitan area.

The building is unique, also, in that it is owned and occupied jointly by the University of Michigan and the Engineering Society of Detroit, which grew out of the Detroit Association of Graduate Engineers of the University of Michigan, founded in the 1890's.

Ownership of such a building in Detroit makes it possible for the University to be host at conferences, meetings, and other educational activities in the metropolitan area as it is for similar affairs in Ann Arbor.

The chain of circumstances that led to this unprecedented arrangement began in the middle 1930's. The Detroit Engineering Society had for some time, through a representative committee, discussed conditions under which it would be possible for the group to receive aid from the Horace H. and Mary A. Rackham Fund under the will of Horace H. Rackham. A delineation of the aims of the Detroit Engineering Society and a review of its past activities indicated that its purposes coincided with many of those for which the Rackham Fund had been established.

After discussion with trustees of the Rackham Fund, the Detroit Engineering Society reincorporated itself in April, 1936, as the Engineering Society of Detroit. Among the objectives outlined by the reorganized Society were those of providing a meeting place that would enable it to implement its educational aims, and "to co-operate with educational institutions by investigating candidates for scholarships and fellowships in engineering and applied science, and by supporting scholarships, special instruction, or research."

The Horace H. and Mary A. Rackham Fund created a $500,000 trust for the benefit of the Engineering Society, and a trustee organization was incorporated as the Rackham Engineering Foundation.

Within three months after its reorganization, the Society's membership had reached 1,000, and it became apparent that an adequate headquarters building would require additional funds. Early in 1937 the Rackham Fund presented the Society with a second grant of $500,000 for the purpose of erecting and furnishing such a building. Late in 1937, Mrs. Mary A. Rackham made a personal gift of $500,000 as an addition to the original trust fund. Further studies were then Page  1644undertaken as to building plans, but the project moved slowly.

At about this time a proposal was made to the Engineering Society that the University and the Society co-operate in planning and building a memorial structure to Horace H. Rackham, to house both the facilities of the Engineering Society and those needed by the University for the administration and execution of its graduate and extension program in Detroit.

The suggestion of co-operation with the University was accepted in principle by the Engineering Society, whose membership was now more than 3,000, and a period of joint planning began. After further study to determine the best possible arrangements for both parties to the proposed partnership, the Engineering Society held a special meeting in December, 1938, to explain the building plan. About 93 per cent of those voting in the letter ballot which followed favored the idea and indicated support of the project. Early in 1939 the Foundation appointed a committee to talk with the University. At the same time negotiations were begun with a view to purchasing the half block on Farnsworth Avenue between Woodward Avenue and John R Street, a piece of property which President A. G. Ruthven hoped that D. M. Ferry, Jr., an alumnus of the University, might sell to the University at a moderate figure.

In March, 1939, the Regents accepted an anonymous gift of $500,000 (from Mrs. Rackham) "to purchase land and to construct, equip and furnish a building in the City of Detroit … to serve as a headquarters for and to house the activities of the University of Michigan in said City of Detroit, including classroom work under the direction of its Extension Service and also of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies" (R P., 1936-39, pp. 878-80). This building was to be adjacent to or adjoining the building to be constructed by the Rackham Engineering Foundation for the Engineering Society of Detroit.

The donor further specified that "instruction shall be given in said building … (1) For students who cannot or may not wish to attend the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor for the full period needed for the completion of a required course; (2) For younger professional men who may wish to improve themselves in their chosen line of work; (3) For adults who desire to continue their general education." The University was to "maintain said building in first class condition at all times." It was stipulated also that the gift of $500,000 would be withdrawn unless the trustees of the Rackham Fund added at least another $200,000 from the Fund by June 30, 1939. A gift of $500,000 was made to the University by the trustees of the Fund in May of that year and accepted by the University Regents at their second May meeting.

Plans for the new building were approved in November, 1939, the University and the Engineering Society having agreed to adopt President Ruthven's suggestion of a central auditorium and banquet hall flanked by two equal wings. It was decided that the Society would have one wing and the University would have the other wing and the central part. This meant that the University would own two-thirds of the property and building and the Engineering Society one-third, the money to be invested by each in about the same proportion. The University and the Society worked out an agreement concerning the joint use of the banquet hall and the auditorium in the University's section of the building.

Harley and Ellington, Detroit architects, were selected to design the memorial structure. Plans were submitted that harmoniously reconciled the diverse requirements Page  1645of the two rather complex organizations that were to occupy it.

After seeing the design and viewing the site, Mrs. Rackham felt, however, that more land was needed to afford the building a proper setting. Consequently in January, 1940, she advised the University and the Engineering Society that she was giving them, jointly, $750,000 for the purchase of the southern half of the block and for landscaping. The design of the building was then adjusted to the enlarged site, which consisted of the entire block bounded by Woodward, Farnsworth, and East Warren avenues and John R Street. This gift was accepted by the University and the Rackham Engineering Foundation in a joint agreement that provided for the relocation of the dividing line and reaffirmed the operating agreement originally approved a year and a half earlier.

In April, 1940, though it was still not possible to let contracts for the building itself, the University and the Foundation reached an agreement to raze the buildings already on the site. Another two and a half months elapsed before the construction bid of the W. E. Wood Company, of Detroit, was accepted by both parties. This proposal called for erection of the building on a cost plus fixed fee basis.

Ground was broken on July 1, 1940, and the cornerstone was laid on December 20 of the same year. The completed building was presented to its joint owners on January 28, 1942, by the trustees of the Rackham Fund at a formal dedication ceremony held in the main auditorium of the new building. Dr. Bryson D. Horton, chairman of the trustees of the Rackham Fund, presented the memorial building to its joint owners. President Alexander G. Ruthven accepted the building for the University of Michigan, and Dr. Harvey M. Merker, president of the Engineering Society of Detroit, accepted on behalf of the Society.

The total construction bill from the W. E. Wood Company was $1,297,246.66, approximately $17,500 below the estimate. Of this, the University's cost was $750,057.55, the Engineering Society's $547,189. The building and land together cost the University $1,244,000 and the Engineering Society $710,000. The University put the balance of its $1,500,000 into a reserve fund for equipment.

Architecturally, the Rackham Memorial was designed to harmonize with other structures in the Detroit Art Center: the Detroit Public Library and the Detroit Institute of Arts. The Rackham Memorial combines classical conceptions of architecture with modern influences, and the result is a pleasing blend of traditional and modern lines.

Structurally, the building is of reinforced concrete, with the exterior of three basic materials. The facings and the ornamental sculptures which enhance it are of white Georgia marble. Dark granite forms the spandrels between the windows. Cast bronze ornaments enrich these spandrels, and the same metal is used for window frames and grilles, doors, and incidental trim throughout.

The building is 404 feet long on its northern exposure, which faces on Farnsworth Avenue, and extends 65 feet in depth on the ends to 150 feet in the center. The center section presents a curving façade, with two ornamental pylons flanking the main portal, which is approached by a wide flight of steps. To the right, facing the building from the street, is the University wing, with that of the Engineering Society on the left. Each wing is entered through a subordinate portal.

Sculptures by Marshall Fredericks, then of the Cranbrook Academy, add to the impressiveness of the exterior of the building. Surmounting the four piers of Page  1646the main portal are four sculptured reliefs symbolizing the purposes of the Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial. Other reliefs about the building further illustrate its purpose.

The main auditorium, which is in almost constant use for University lectures, concerts, and other programs, for meetings and functions of the Engineering Society, and for community and civic programs of an educational nature, is situated in the center section of the building. It is reached through the Memorial Lobby, a large foyer directly within the main portals of the building.

Facing the doors as one enters is the bronze Horace H. Rackman memorial plaque, centered on the inner wall of the lobby. It is mounted on a background of creamy polished marble, on which is a tribute to the humanitarian life of Mr. Rackham.

The Main Auditorium has a seating capacity of 1,000 and is so constructed that all have an equal opportunity to see and hear perfectly. The public address system is of unusual flexibility, and the stage is large and excellently designed. Although not intended for theatrical productions, it has been used for that purpose. Screening facilities and a completely equipped projection room are provided. The stage is fully equipped for scientific demonstrations.

On the ground floor level, directly below the Memorial Lobby, is the foyer to the banquet hall, which is also used by both occupants of the building. Although this banquet hall is on University property, it is managed by the Engineering Society, since the University has no facilities in the building for handling and serving food. The room, with a banquet capacity of 650 persons, is serviced from a completely equipped kitchen at the rear; it is also used for classes, lectures, and meetings and as an exhibition hall as well as for luncheons and dinners. It serves, too, as a supplementary auditorium for meetings which tax the capacity of the main auditorium, since it has built-in connections to the public address system on the first floor.

The University's wing of the building is devoted to offices and classrooms. The offices occupy approximately half of the main floor, with classrooms and a lounge occupying the remainder. The ground floor of the University wing houses three large classrooms, one furnished with drawing tables, a lecture room, a science classroom with tiered seats so that all students may have a view of the demonstration platform, a studio classroom used for radio and television technique classes, and a seminar room. On the second floor are nine classrooms, a seminar room, and the library. As need has arisen through the years, some of the classrooms on all three floors have done double duty, serving as offices by day and as classrooms during the evening.

The Detroit Branch of the University of Michigan Library is a spacious, highceilinged room with a mezzanine providing additional study space. Tall windows line the gently curving front of the room (part of the curving façade of the central section of the building), offering a view of the Detroit Institute of Arts and Woodward Avenue.

All classrooms are furnished with specially constructed walnut desks or with tablet armchairs. The radio studio is equipped with broadcasting facilities (though it has no transmitter), and is isolated from the rest of the building. All the necessary aids to visual education, including projectors of various types, maps, and charts, are furnished for the use of classes.

The Rackham Educational Memorial was dedicated and opened in a war-time atmosphere. The programs of the University Extension Service immediately reflected this. When the building was Page  1647designed it was believed that ample room had been provided in the University's section for the expansion of programs. Within a year after the building was in use, however, demands for classes in war training programs were so great that space had to be rented from the Engineering Society. Many classes were offered in the Engineering, Science, and Management War Training Program sponsored by the United States Office of Education, as well as others in languages, including Chinese and Japanese.

The demand for instruction did not slacken after the war emergency was over, but was diverted into new channels. More than a hundred courses are offered each semester, and usually it is necessary to arrange for at least one of the larger classes to be held in the Engineering Society's section of the building. Enrollments have increased steadily and average between three and four thousand each semester.

The University offers various types of courses at the Rackham Memorial. Among the most important programs are those for students in engineering, education, and business administration. Classes in education and other subjects of interest to teachers were the first to be given in Detroit when a group of educators petitioned the University in 1913 for courses that would enable them to accumulate credits toward degrees without coming to the campus for the entire program. This service for teachers grew rapidly, but it entered a new period of expansion when the Rackham Memorial was opened and the University had its own classroom and library facilities. A qualified graduate student may elect courses for residence credit, Detroit having been designated as a Residence Center for Graduate Study by the University's Graduate School in 1935. In order to meet the requirements for a master's degree, however, the student is required to spend at least one summer session in full-time residence on the campus. In 1950 a program leading to a master's degree in engineering mechanics was established in Detroit in response to requests from engineers who could not attend classes on the campus.

An extensive program of graduate-level courses in business administration is offered each semester. Much of the work for an advanced degree in this field may be done in Detroit. Credit courses are also offered on the undergraduate level, although no complete programs in any one field or for any one year are available. Many courses are elected by persons who are more interested in course content than in academic credit.

Classes in still another category are those designed for persons who are interested primarily in work that will lead to increased effectiveness and advancement in professional or business fields, but who do not wish academic credit. Extensive programs are offered each year in insurance, business subjects, and real estate, often with the sponsorship of groups interested in establishing standards in businesses that approach the professional attitude.

The Rackham Educational Memorial has served as a center for educational and civic meetings from the time it was opened. The Detroit staff of the Extension Service has made every effort to see that activities at the building fit into the cultural pattern of Detroit.

In addition to offering a varied program of courses, arranged in so far as possible to meet the needs of the area, the University sponsors many projects and conferences at the building. Many more programs are held each year with the cooperation of such groups as the Detroit public schools, the Detroit Public Library, and Wayne University, all located in Detroit's Art Center. Building facilities are sometimes available also to Page  1648other institutions and organizations.

From time to time University concerts and other programs are presented in the main auditorium. The building is also used occasionally by the University of Michigan Club of Detroit and by the Detroit Association of University of Michigan Women.

Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies Building

One of the most beautiful and impressive of the University buildings is the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, situated on the north side of the campus at the north end of the Mall. This building, designed to be a center for the general activities of the Graduate School, was given to the University in 1935 by the trustees of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, together with a generous endowment which affords graduate facilities enjoyed by few other universities (see Part VI: The Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies).

The Regents accepted this gift in September, 1935, in accordance with certain terms partly indicated below (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 683-87). Included in the total benefaction, which eventually amounted to more than $10,000,000, was an appropriate site, a building to be known as the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, and a substantial endowment for carrying on graduate work and research. Administration of the funds and of the building is in the charge of a Board of Governors, of which the president of the University is chairman.

The endowment fund amounts to more than $7,000,000, the income of which is used for research projects, publications, and fellowships. The income of $1,000,000 is assigned to research on arthritis. Included in the above is the sum of $1,000,000 generously provided by Mary A. Rackham, which, together with an additional $900,000 from the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, is allotted to sociological research administered through the Institute of Human Adjustment.

The site chosen for the Graduate School comprises the two city blocks bounded by East Huron, Fletcher (formerly Twelfth), East Washington, and Thayer streets. It was necessary to remove thirty buildings before actual construction could begin. Ground was broken in May, 1936. The cornerstone was laid on October 30 of the same year, and two years later, in June, 1938, the building was formally dedicated. After presentation by Bryson D. Horton, chairman of the trustees of the fund, and acceptance on behalf of the University by President A. G. Ruthven, the building was dedicated to the two great branches of learning, the sciences and the humanities. Smith, Hinchman and Grylls were the architects; the W. E. Wood Company held the construction contract; and Pitkin and Mott, landscape architects, laid out the grounds. The total cost of the building, including equipment, amounted to $2,500,000.

The building, which is 196 by 250 feet, is constructed of Indiana limestone with a granite base course; the window and door frames are of bronze, and the roof is of copper. The floor area totals 155,410 square feet.

The main entrance, on the south side of the building, is approached by a broad terrace of granite steps with flagstone paving, and planted areas at either side. The Graduate School is on a direct line with the University Library, and the area between the two has been developed as a landscaped parkway known as the Mall. Three pairs of bronze and glass doors give access to an entrance Page  1649hall, measuring 31 by 109 feet, with a floor of green and purple-gray slate laid in a rectangular pattern. The plaster walls are painted a Pompeian red, with a black marble base and trim, and the beamed ceiling is blue-green with stenciled decorations in polychrome and gold to harmonize with the gold and bronze lighting fixtures. Tables and benches of ebonized wood with blue-green leather cushions harmonize with three pairs of blue-green bronze-studded leather doors which open into a second lobby and from there into the main lecture hall.

The lecture hall is a semicircular room 100 feet deep and 29 feet high, with a lecture platform on the north and an arcade opening into the lobby on the south, giving access to six aisles which radiate toward the platform. Approximately 1,200 seats, upholstered in terra-cotta velour, are so arranged that one may take a place without requiring the occupants of other seats to rise. The floor is carpeted in dark blue, with terra-cotta walls and ebonized wood trim, while the flat ceiling is of a lighter blue with a pattern of overlapping radiating circular bands in gold leaf and polychrome. The unique lighting system is effected through a series of small openings in the ceiling which permit cones of light to spread over the room.

The elevated stage provides a speaker's stand, seats for eighteen, stairways to a robing room below, and a control pit for the public address system. Above the stage is a motion-picture screen covered with draperies, and, completing the facilities, a projection booth with equipment for electrical amplification of lectures, reception and transmission of radio broadcasts, sound on film, record reproduction, and television and microscopic projection.

On the east side of the building, on the main floor, are the administrative offices of the Graduate School, including a large waiting room, the business office, record room, and staff rooms. On the west are offices and conference rooms, the Graduate School Board Room, and at present offices for the Institute of Public Administration, the English Language Institute, and the Institute for Human Adjustment. These rooms have painted plaster walls, wood trim, and linoleumcovered floors. Two of the offices have walnut-paneled walls, and eight are carpeted. At each end of the entrance hall are checkrooms, retiring rooms, and stairways leading to the ground-floor corridors.

At either side of the doors to the lecture hall are monumental stairways of travertine leading to the second floor. Entrances to the elevators are on the landings of these staircases. The northern part, or rear, of the second floor is taken up by the upper part of the lecture hall, while on the south front of the building there is a high-ceilinged study hall 31 by 105 feet, with alcoves 22 by 40 feet at either end for books and periodicals. The study hall has twelve-foot wainscot of Appalachian oak, continued in a lighter shade of brown to the ceiling. The ceiling is divided by five great coffers in polychrome and gold, and from three are suspended chandeliers in antique green and gilt. These are supplemented by lamps on the study tables. The large study tables and chairs of oak harmonize with the wood wainscot. An abundance of natural light is afforded by five large windows which open toward the Mall.

The second floor has a circular foyer twenty-six feet in diameter, lighted from above. The color scheme of the foyer, dark terra-cotta red and travertine, is continued throughout the corridors which lead to the men's lounge on the east and the women's on the west. On the north wall of the foyer there is a portrait plaque in bronze, modeled by Page  1650Carleton Angell of the University Museums. The following inscription on the plaque was written by Professor John G. Winter:

    Horace H. Rackham 1858-1933
  • Poverty did not embitter him nor wealth affect the simplicity of his life and the even tenor of his way.
  • His mind moved always on a high plane, serene and noble, and his vision extended to the problems of human suffering and happiness everywhere.
  • His broad humanitarianism and his pervading wisdom remain a living force, his memory a refreshing inspiration.

The lounges, at either end of the second floor, measure 26 by 69 feet and have two alcoves, each 17 by 28 feet, for writing and music. The men's lounge is furnished in rather heavy Chippendale and Queen Anne mahogany and walnut, with modified Georgian lighting fixtures of brass and pewter. In the women's lounge the lighting fixtures are gray-green and gilt, while the furniture is lighter Chippendale and Duncan Phyfe. Near the entrance to each lounge there is a small kitchen and serving room. Completing the rooms on this floor two council or committee rooms, approximately 15 by 20 feet, adjacent to the lounges, provide for student and faculty group meetings.

The east, south, and west parts of the mezzanine floor are taken up by the upper part of the high rooms on the second floor, while the north part is devoted to eight workrooms. In addition, there are two small but perfectly appointed lecture rooms, each accommodating fifty persons. The lecture rooms are carpeted and contain theater-type chairs, light-proof shades, and projection facilities. Trusses over the lecture hall pass through the mezzanine floor, and the inside spaces between these trusses have been adapted as exhibition rooms, the two central ones of approximately 30 by 52 feet and the end ones 25 by 47 feet. The former are connected by two doors in the separating wall. Twelve-foot-wide corridors, which lead to the end rooms, provide additional space for exhibits. The exhibition rooms and corridors have linoleum-covered floors and are painted a neutral gray; the walls are of wood covered with fabric to permit the hanging of pictures.

The third floor is much smaller, with an area only about half as large as that of the lower part of the building, the south part being occupied by the upper part of the great second-floor study hall. In the center there is a small circular amphitheater, sixty feet in diameter, which seats 250 persons. A laboratory table fully equipped for demonstrations can easily be seen from all parts of the room because of the steep inclination of the seats. Behind this table is a motion-picture screen with sound equipment, controlled from a booth on the north side. The walls of the room are of an acoustical material in medium brown, banded horizontally with bronze molding. The ceiling consists of a series of concentric steps which lead to an illuminated dome.

Also on the third floor there is an assembly room 63 by 26 feet, which can be extended by pushing back the folding cloth doors of the alcoves at either end. Decorations and furnishings of all three rooms are in a Pompeian style, with yellow and gray the predominating colors.

At the east and west sides of this floor are conference rooms 28 by 36 feet, carpeted in mottled gray, and with pin-grained oak paneling. The connecting corridors between have rubber-tile floors and plaster walls painted in a neutral color. These are furnished with settees and chairs and from them doors open to a large tiled roof terrace with deck-style Page  1651furnishings. Facilities for serving tea or light refreshments are available on this floor.

A basement floor extends underneath the entire building. Two inclined ramps lead down to this floor from East Huron Street on the north, joining in a driveway under the lecture hall. This provides a sheltered automobile approach for guests at social and other functions and parking space for the administrative staff. This part of the building has insulated walls and ceiling.

From the driveway metal doors on the south open into a U-shaped corridor, and on the north wall a small passageway leads to the robing room under the lecture hall stage. Rooms for heating, ventilation, and for other mechanical equipment as well as workrooms and storage rooms open from the corridor. The ground floor houses the Michigan Historical Collections, with stacks and administrative offices. The Collections occupy six rooms. Various other laboratories and offices also are housed on this floor.

HOSPITALS

The Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center

The building occupied by the Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center of the Department of Radiology was conceived as a result of conversations in the spring of 1952 between Dr. F. J. Hodges, chairman of the Department of Radiology, and Dr. John C. Bugher, Director of the Division of Biology and Medicine of the Atomic Energy Commission. Dr. Bugher proposed a program of evaluation of clinical treatment of the cancerous diseases using teletherapy radioisotope units. Initially, it was planned to employ cobalt-60, and when cesium-137 could be separated it was to be used in a second teletherapy unit. One factor which interested the AEC was that since 1934 an organized recording of results of cancer treatment has been made at the University Hospital; this provided a rich background of standard high voltage X-ray treatment results to compare with results obtained with teletherapy units.

As a result of these discussions, and with the consent of the University, a formal research proposal was submitted to the AEC in May, 1952. This was approved in August, 1952, and was formally signed on December 22, 1952.

During the discussions preceding the submission of the formal research proposal, the AEC announced that it could no longer support major construction at university sites. Since the radiation therapy quarters in the Department of Radiology were entirely inadequate for housing teletherapy units, the project could not have been undertaken without new and larger quarters. This problem was discussed with Dean Furstenberg and the Executive Committee of the Medical School in April, 1952, and permission was granted to request financial aid of the Phoenix-Memorial Project. An initial grant of $75,000 from the Alice Crocker Lloyd Memorial Fund of the Phoenix-Memorial Project restricted to cancer research and $15,000 from unrestricted Phoenix Project funds formed the nucleus of the construction cost. The balance was provided by the University Hospital, the Medical School, and the general fund of the University. Authorization was given by the University in April, 1953, to complete final plans and accept bids. Ground-breaking ceremonies took place on July 14, 1953, and the building was completed and occupied in April, 1954. The first cobalt-60 source, 1903 Curies, was delivered and installed in February, 1955. The Center was appropriately dedicated on March 26, 1955.

Page  1652The Center is situated in the area south of the corridor connecting the Main Hospital and the Kresge Medical Research Building. The entrance is from the south wall of the corridor. Except for a penthouse for mechanical equipment, the building is below ground level. The Center will be used solely as the radiation therapy division of the Department of Radiology, providing facilities for the examination and treatment of patients and for related teaching and research activities.

The building was designed by Black and Black, of Lansing, Michigan, and was constructed by the Jeffress-Dyer Company of Washington, D.C. The planning was done in a series of conferences attended by the architects, Mr. Fry, Dr. Hodges, Dr. Lampe, and administrators of the University Hospital.

The structure consists of 6,600 square feet of floor space underground and 600 square feet in the penthouse above grade. The walls, floor, and ceiling are of poured high-density concrete. There are twenty-three rooms and three corridors. The five treatment rooms are appropriately shielded with lead and concrete to prevent radiation transmission to other parts of the building. The Center is provided with a class and staff conference room, examining and dressing rooms for patients, a room for radium storage and handling, a physics laboratory, a room for records and statistics, and an attractive entrance lobby. With the exception of the inner walls of the two large rooms designed to contain teletherapy units, the inner partitions are constructed of cinder block, with plaster in some areas. The treatment rooms, dressing rooms, and toilets have ceramic tile floors; other flooring is of asphalt tile. Most of the ceilings are covered with acoustical tile.

The estimated cost of the building was $250,000. The name Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center was designated by the Regents in honor of the late Dean of Women, Alice Crocker Lloyd.

Children's Psychiatric Hospital

The Children's Psychiatric Hospital was completed in December, 1955. Swanson Associates, of Bloomfield Hills, were the architects, and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., of Washington, D. C., were awarded the contract in the amount of $2,151,804. Construction was begun in the spring of 1954.

The new hospital will ultimately be a part of a total children's medical center with a planned 291-bed capacity. Built to harmonize with the Outpatient Clinic and the Kresge Medical Research Building, the Children's Psychiatric Hospital accommodates seventy-five children ranging in age from six to fifteen years.

There are four wards, three for sixteen children each, and a convalescent ward of twenty-seven beds. Each of the four units is independent in terms of the living plan for the children, and each ward has its own nursing and auxiliary staffs, dining room, and play rooms.

All walls in the living quarters are tiled, floors are of Gibraltar, and windows are louvre type with inside screens. Through careful use of colors, drapes, and other decorations, as warm as possible a tone has been provided.

All wards have three types of accommodations, four-bed dormitories, two-bed dormitories, and some single rooms. In addition, two detention rooms are provided in each ward to handle acute outbursts and allow for brief isolation when necessary.

Special features in each ward include a large playroom for active games, a smaller playroom for quiet games and music, a snack bar for evening use, and a group therapy room for special evening Page  1653projects. Special planning has gone into dining room construction and service. Children eat at tables planned for five children and one adult. Service is family style from platters on the tables when children sit down to eat. This allows for some degree of self-selection which is important to children. In the past it was found that when an unwished for food was presented, it was more throwable than eatable and mealtimes could be hectic.

The Children's Psychiatric Hospital has been designed around a total program that includes all aspects of special care which have been found to have therapeutic value. Because severely disturbed children may dislike school as a result of experiences in community schools, the hospital is geared to provide specially planned schooling in small groups. Six remedial reading rooms in the school area are provided to help overcome reading disabilities, common in disturbed children. One floor is devoted to classrooms and shops. There are five of each.

To take care of recreational needs there is a fully equipped gymnasium and a swimming pool. There is also a 100-seat auditorium equipped for movies, plays, and other entertainment in which the children themselves participate.

Other recreation facilities include a large playground with facilities for baseball, volley ball, slides, swings, sand piles, a wading pool, and other resources.

Each child in the hospital has a minimum of three hours a week with a psychiatrist in training.

Direct psychotherapy is practiced off the ward, away from the living area. Each child sees his doctor by regular appointment in the doctor's office — he is in effect attending a clinic separate from his home within the hospital.

Kresge Medical Research Building

In November, 1949, the Regents accepted "with grateful appreciation" a gift of $3,000,000 from the Kresge Foundation for the construction and equipment of a medical research building (R.P., 1948-51, p. 532). The Kresge gift, one of the largest single gifts ever received by the University, covered the construction costs of the Medical Research Building and of the laboratory furniture for some units in the building. Additional funds in the amount of $500,000 were received from private sources for furnishing certain laboratories and for purchase of special research equip