The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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The Buildings and Lands

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Administration Building

AT THE November, 1943, meeting of the Board of Regents, Professor Lewis M. Gram, Director of Plant Extension, presented a Postwar Public Works Program for the University of Michigan. He was assisted in its preparation by John C. Christensen, Controller, and Walter M. Roth, then Assistant Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds.

This program recommended the construction of a "General Service Building housing the business, administrative, and public service departments of the University." It was provided at the time that the University Broadcasting Service would also be housed in the new building. The estimated total cost was $1,310,000.

The proposed site was on the west side of State Street immediately south of Newberry Hall. Such a building of necessity required the closing of Jefferson Street from Maynard Street to State Street and the removal of Morris Hall at the southwest corner of State and Jefferson streets, at one time the home of Dr. Charles de Nancrède, who had been Professor of Surgery. This house, later used as St. Mary's Chapel, was at the time of its removal the headquarters of the University Bands and the Broadcasting Service. Also removed were three houses on the south side of Jefferson Street, owned by the University, a large rooming house and a residence on the northeast corner of Jefferson and Maynard streets, a service station on the northwest corner of State and Jefferson streets, and two small frame buildings immediately south of Newberry Hall. The Mimes Theater was sold for the price of its removal.

The architects selected by the Regents were Harley, Ellington and Day, of Detroit, to whom the contract was awarded in December, 1944. The general contract was awarded to Bryant and Detwiler, of Detroit. The first spadeful of earth was turned in June, 1946, by Regent R. Spencer Bishop, who unfortunately did not live to see the completion. The building received its first occupant in December, 1948. The total construction costs of the building when finished were $2,275,067.00. Including construction, the total for furniture and equipment, architectural and engineering fees, land and land improvements amounted to $2,463,127.06.

At a meeting of the Board of Regents on November 3, 1945, the building, which had previously been referred to as the General Service Building, was designated as the Administration Building.

The mass move to the building was made from eight campus units: University Hall, Mason Hall, South Wing, Haven Hall, Angell Hall, the Rackham School of Graduate Studies, North Hall, and Barbour Gymnasium. University Hall, center of student service activities for many decades, was vacant of permanent personnel for the first time since 1872. In June of 1871 the very first official act of President James B. Angell had been to lay the cornerstone of University Hall, the structure that united the two wings (Mason Hall and South Wing). When he reached Ann Arbor, President Angell found on the campus the wings of University Hall, a Law Building, a Medical Building, a small Chemical Laboratory, and the four original houses for the professors. The entire faculty numbered only thirty-five men.

Like the University Hall of those early years, the Administration Building is, in a physical sense, the front door of the University. Almost all of the institution's new students enter its portals Page  1570within a few hours or days after they reach Ann Arbor; the undergraduate students take their needs there many times during their campus careers; visiting educators and business personnel find under its roof many of the University staff members whom they come to see.

The building is an imposing five-story face brick and stone structure. It extends for 282 feet along South State Street, across from Angell Hall. The edifice is shaped like a very shallow "U" with wings extending 116 feet toward the west on both extremities.

Within its walls are modern facilities for some 285 staff personnel. The activities which the building houses can be broken down into five general groupings: general administrative services (Regents, President, and other officials of the University and their staffs); students' services (Office of Student Affairs, deans of Men and Women, residence hall offices, admission and registration, etc.); the Extension Service (Correspondence Study, Adult Education); the business services (Cashier's Office, Purchasing Department, Accounting Department, and Investment Office); and the other services to the public (Information Services and News Service, etc.).

All of the student services are on the first floor to ensure maximum ease of handling the heavy flow of student traffic. The main entrance leads through a vestibule and the elevator lobby to a spacious student lobby. To the rear is a broad entranceway opening to a large parking area behind the building. The upper floors are laid out for offices in a system which affords flexibility to the space assignments.

In the basement is a lunch room, a shipping and receiving area below the upstairs dock, and adequate space for the sorting and handling of United States and campus mail. On the fourth floor in the north wing is a lecture room, with capacity for seventy-five people, which fills a dual role: educators and other visitors preview films from the Audio-Visual Center's library; other small University group meetings are also held there.

Because the building is, in effect, a large office building, a maximum amount of window space affording natural light was incorporated in the design. Throughout the edifice all of the windows and window sills are of aluminum construction — no exterior painting was required and the maintenance costs are low. The interiors, which are acoustically treated, feature fluorescent lighting.

In common with other new structures on the campus, the Administration Building offices are painted in eye-pleasing colors that were selected after careful study of the room's exposure to sunlight. The exterior brick is a light salmon color. The sculpture on the exterior is the work of Marshall Fredericks, of Birmingham, Michigan.

Four self-operating elevators are placed strategically to accommodate the traffic. Two are just inside the front entrance and, to the delight of student users, move in the direction desired with unusual speed — at a rate of some 550 feet per minute. They operate under collective control with an electric eye as a safety feature to retard closing on an unwary arm or leg.

Above the front entrance, just to the left of the marble, stone, and steel façade, is a huge electric clock — eleven feet in diameter — with stainless steel hands.

Alumni Memorial Hall

The idea of an alumni memorial hall on the campus originated from a desire to honor those University men who had fallen in the Civil War. In 1864 a committee Page  1571of the Society of the Alumni of the University of Michigan (the organization which represented the graduates of the Literary College) was formed to co-operate with the faculty in raising funds for a suitable monument. In 1865 this organization voted to erect a memorial chapel, to cost about $25,000. Under the chairmanship of Thomas M. Cooley, subscriptions totaling about $10,000 were secured during the following years, but then the matter seems to have been dropped.

Not until June 17, 1903, was the subject revived, when William N. Brown proposed for discussion the building of a University alumni hall. A committee was appointed, consisting of William N. Brown, Andrew C. McLaughlin, and Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, with Professor M. L. D'Ooge as chairman. In 1904, however, Judge Claudius B. Grant appeared as the chairman, and under his direction the committee secured from the Regents the promise of a site at the southwest corner of the campus, and the assurance that the University would take over the maintenance of such a building, if erected. In addition, subscriptions in the amount of $18,000 were received. It was thereupon voted to undertake the project. The Alumni Association was then a well-organized, united body, representing the entire University, and its efforts culminated finally in the construction of Alumni Memorial Hall on the corner of South University Avenue and State Street.

Much difficulty was experienced in determining just what the function of such a building should be. As early as 1897 the University Librarian, Raymond C. Davis, had complained about the crowded condition of the Library Building, caused by the fact that the University's art collections were housed there. He suggested that the alumni provide a building, to be known as "Alumni Hall," which would furnish not only the necessary art gallery, but also quarters for the Graduate School.

The Alumni Memorial Committee of 1904, however, thought in terms of a memorial. The building was intended to provide a room containing "the names by classes of all who have served in the wars of their country, either in the naval or military departments, perpetuated in marble or bronze" (Mich. Alum., 1903-1904, p. 221). The building was also to serve as a meeting place for alumni and former students.

This committee, formed in January, 1904, consisted of Claudius B. Grant ('59), chairman, Hoyt Post ('61), Edward W. Pendleton ('72), George H. Hopkins ('71l), William N. Brown ('70l), Victor C. Vaughan ('78m), and Martin L. D'Ooge ('62). Clarence M. Burton ('73, hon. '05), Charles B. Warren ('91, hon. '16), and Franklin H. Walker ('73) became members later.

The question of the use of the building was complicated by the fact that, at about the same time, a committee was formed to conduct a campaign for the Michigan Union. The usefulness of this project and the obvious need for it made a strong appeal, and many argued that the Memorial Committee and the Union Committee should combine their objectives in a plan for one building. Those who were approached for contributions, scattered as they were over the length and breadth of the country, found the two campaigns confusing and suspected a duplication of effort.

The Michigan Alumnus undertook more than once to point out the distinction, and in December, 1904, published a statement by the Memorial Committee revealing an enlargement of the memorial idea and explaining the uses to which the building would be devoted. It was intended to commemorate not only those students and faculty who had participated Page  1572in past wars but also those who might serve in future wars. In addition, the building was to house the offices and assembly hall of the Alumni Association and to provide rooms for undergraduate and faculty social gatherings. Provided sufficient funds were obtained, it was also to contain a large auditorium on the ground floor for the general use of the University. The Memorial Committee even offered to provide rooms for the activities of the Michigan Union.

The students, in general, opposed the memorial idea, dubbing the proposed building "D'Ooge's Palace" and "The Mausoleum." As the campaigns proceeded it became evident, however, that the memorial project was the more popular among the alumni, for the funds grew rapidly. The Memorial Committee was greatly stimulated in January, 1904, by a gift of $10,000 from Ezra Rust, of New York, the largest single subscription of the campaign. Although the original goal had been $100,000, in 1905 the amount proposed was raised to $250,000.

In 1905 the Regents appointed a committee to co-operate with the Memorial Committee. Plans for a building "direct simple, and dignified," to cost unfurnished, about $175,000, were submitted by the architects, Donaldson and Meier, of Detroit. This plan, which made provision for use of the building as an art gallery, was accepted.

In June, 1907, the Regents appropriated the sum of $50,000 toward the project, with the understanding that the alumni would contribute $132,000. The building was to house the University's art collections, thus providing much needed relief for the Library.

The contract was given to Koch Brothers, of Ann Arbor, in September, 1907. The cornerstone was laid by Judge Grant in June, 1908. The building was completed in 1910 and dedicated with appropriate exercises held in University Hall on May 11. It was officially presented to the University by Judge Grant and was received for the University by Regent Walter H. Sawyer.

Alumni Memorial Hall is an impressive stone building marked by a flight of steps leading up to four great classical pillars at the front. Great bronze doors open directly into the main lobby and statuary hall. There are also two side entrances. The building is approximately 115 by 150 feet, with 41,025 square feet of floor space.

Much credit for the success of the enterprise must be given to Judge Grant, long a prominent figure in University affairs; later he became a Regent of the University and a justice of the state Supreme Court. All of the members of the Memorial Committee, however, had worked hard and contributed much personally toward the success of the project. As a result of their labors a sum of $128,135.64 was contributed by 1,500 subscribers, and the building was completed and furnished at a cost of $195,885.29.

Four of its rooms were named for the four largest donors, as follows: the large main gallery for Ezra Rust, the south upper gallery for Dexter M. Ferry, the north upper gallery for Simon T. Murphy, and the lower north front room for Arthur Hill. The south front room was called the Alumni Room.

Since there was still some discrepancy between the total cost and the money available, the committee continued its work until all but $3,999 of the obligation was paid. This last sum proved to be a thorn in the flesh. In 1912 the Memorial Committee asked to be released from its personal guaranty, and in 1915 the Alumni Association asked the Board of Regents to assume this debt, since they had no means of meeting it. They pointed out that to start another campaign Page  1573among the alumni for money would only interfere with the drive for funds being carried on by the Michigan Union. The Regents declined to act, and the indebtedness was not wiped out until all the obligations of the Alumni Association were paid, with the assistance of the University, in 1934.

A number of gifts were received for the new building. Three members of the Memorial Committee, Burton, Walker, and Hill, gave, respectively, furniture, rugs, and a life-size bronze bas-relief portrait of the first President, Henry Philip Tappan. Hill also gave $5,000 for a similar likeness of President Emeritus Angell. Both were the work of the distinguished sculptor, Karl Bitter.

The uses to which Alumni Memorial Hall has been put in succeeding years have followed in general the intentions of the Memorial Committee. It houses the headquarters of the Alumni Association and the Michigan Alumnus and contains the Museum of Art and the Alumni Catalog Office. Its social function was, in the course of time, reduced to the use of a large room in the basement for the University Club, a faculty organization which later moved to quarters in the Union.

The building's chief usefulness to the University has been as a center of art activities. It was opened officially upon the occasion of an art exhibit, sponsored by Charles L. Freer, which included many items from his famous collection of American and Oriental art, now in the Freer Gallery in Washington. From the time of its organization until 1949 the Department of Fine Arts held classes in this building. The department still maintains a study hall there. The Ann Arbor Art Association held annual exhibits in Alumni Memorial Hall for many years and scheduled some six or eight other exhibits each year. The Museum of Art was given quarters in the building in 1946, when it was separated from the Museum of Archaeology.

Anatomical Laboratory

One of the first anatomical laboratory buildings in this country was the laboratory authorized by the Board of Regents in 1887 and completed in 1889 (see Part V: the Department of Anatomy). It stood south of the first Medical Building, on the east side of the campus.

The erection of this laboratory was the result of a long-standing demand for better facilities for the study of anatomy, which had been emphasized since the days of Dr. Moses Gunn, who became Professor of Anatomy in 1849 and set up what must be regarded as the first laboratory in the University. In fact, for a time the first Medical Building was known as the Laboratory Building.

The legislature, however, made no provision for the Anatomical Laboratory Building, and it was erected through an appropriation from the general fund. At the October, 1887, meeting of the Regents President Angell announced:

It having been found advisable to furnish in the medical building ampler accommodations for the physiological and microscopical laboratories, we were forced to erect a new building for our anatomical work, and to make large changes in the medical building. This has entailed an expense for which no provision has been made by special appropriation. But the necessity was so pressing that the wisdom of the step cannot be questioned. We gain the great incidental advantage of securing improved sanitary conditions for the medical building by the removal from it of all the work of dissection. Never before was it so well fitted for its purpose as it is now.

(R.P., 1886-91, p. 157.)

It was not until 1889 that a legislative appropriation of $7,958.63 defrayed the cost of its construction. The architect was Gordon W. Lloyd, of Detroit, and Page  1574the contractor for it was William Biggs.

In April, 1889, Regent Whitman, chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, reported:

Your Committee on Buildings and Grounds beg leave to submit the following report of M. E. Cooley, Superintendent of the Construction of the Anatomical Laboratory, and the New Boiler House. The work has been done in a workmanlike manner, and to the satisfaction of your Committee…

(R.P., 1886-91, pp. 298-99.)

The Annual Announcement of the Department of Medicine and Surgery for the year 1889-90 also reported, "The Anatomical Laboratory recently erected for the accommodation of the classes in practical anatomy, is admirably adapted for this purpose; the rooms are large, well lighted, and well ventilated."

The actual cost of the building was given as $6,535.95. This figure doubtless did not include the furnishings provided for in the legislative appropriation. The building was an unpretentious structure of brick with stone trim, containing the laboratory room on the second floor and a small dissecting room and the washrooms on the first floor. It was approximately 35 by 50 feet. It was torn down when the work in anatomy was removed to the West Medical Building, which was completed in 1903.

James Burrill Angell Hall

Foremost in the building program inaugurated by President Burton in 1920 was provision for a new main structure for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, since the space provided by old University Hall had become inadequate. Classes were being held wherever rooms could be found: in an old abandoned public school building known as West Hall on the west side of State Street, the basement of Tappan Hall, Alumni Memorial Hall, Newberry Hall, Hill Auditorium, the Law and Medical buildings, the Natural Science Building, and the Library.

Consultations after classes were generally impossible because of the continuous use of classrooms. Some courses were not offered at all because of lack of space while others were given in more than one building. This condition existed in spite of the fact that the larger rooms in Mason Hall and in the South Wing had been divided by partitions so that the total numbers of rooms had been doubled. Had Bertrand Russell known these facts when he visited the campus in 1924, he probably would not have made the remark, with which he was later credited, to the effect that he had never met an American educator "who was not more interested in buildings than in education."

It was felt that inasmuch as the University had grown up around the Literary College and because the College serves all other departments, the new building should be the central structure on the campus. It should not only be large but, in the words of President Burton, "It [should] be beautiful, dignified, and commanding. It [should] help to give unity and form to the entire Campus." A classic design was, therefore, decided upon as being more in harmony with existing buildings, namely Alumni Memorial Hall, the President's House, the Clements Library (then in process of construction), and Hill Auditorium.

The discussion as to the site turned on the desire to preserve old University Hall as a relic of the early days. At first the Regents favored retention of the oldest part, Mason Hall, with the new building surrounding it, but further discussion brought a change of mind, and the decision was reversed. The site on which it stood had become too valuable to permit the preservation of the old building, and the retention of a part Page  1575of it would have made it impossible to work out satisfactory lighting conditions for the new. Thus, even in the early 1920's University Hall was destined in the course of time to bow its way out.

Angell Hall, extending for 480 feet along State Street, was completed in 1924 at a cost of $1,077,000. Only the first two sections, comprising the long façade, were erected as originally projected. In his design, the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit, followed a severely classical precedent in the entrance portico with its eight great Doric columns surmounting a wide esplanade of steps across the front. The building consists of a basement and four stories, with an extra section above the top floor, which provides a small observatory. When completed the building provided 152,000 square feet of floor space. In addition to the offices and classrooms of the various departments and the office of the Dean of the College, a number of rooms were also designated for special purposes, such as the study hall and the Mathematics Library. For some years the President and other officers of the University also occupied offices on the first floor.

Restrained sculptural details on the exterior suggest the functions of the building. Thus, on panels in the spandrels between the main columns appear among other motives the owl, the book, and the lamp of learning; larger panels at the sides present figures in bas-relief emblematic of philosophy and the arts. Over the main door another relief incorporates devices traditional to learning and treats decoratively the inscription on the University seal, "Artes, Scientia, Veritas." Ulysses Ricci, of New York, was the sculptor for this motto. The planting and approaches were prepared by the landscape architects, Pitkin and Mott, of Cleveland, Ohio.

The entrance lobby, finished in travertine marble, is attractive and spacious and well adapted to the purposes of the building. Its classical details are echoed in the rich ceiling decorations, the work of the Di Lorenzo Studios, of New York, the firm which was responsible for the decoration of the General Library and the Clements Library.

The general plan of the building provided for a grouping of departments so that, in the words of Dean John R. Effinger, "… each department may develop its own spirit," with those having common interests adjacent to each other. A desire was also expressed by Dean Effinger that a measure of the spirit of old University Hall might be preserved by placing somewhere that noble phrase from the Ordinance of 1787, which has thrilled so many generations of students and which many had unconsciously learned from seeing it in the auditorium in the old building: "Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." This quotation was carved in stone high over the façade of the new building.

At the request of the faculty of the College and of the Student Council, the Regents, in December, 1924, named the building James Burrill Angell Hall. When the Mason Hall and Haven Hall units were added in 1952 the north and south ends of Angell Hall, which had been left bricked up in anticipation that the completion of the building would extend them, were refinished in limestone.

Architecture Building

For twenty-one years after a curriculum was re-established in architecture in 1906 instruction was carried on in accommodations provided in the West Engineering Building. An office for Professor Page  1576Emil Lorch, head of the department, one large office for the staff, and adjacent drafting rooms for students were on the second floor of the west wing. The beginnings of the Architecture Library were maintained in the Engineering Library on the second floor. The classes in freehand drawing and projection drawing met in the single large skylighted room on the fourth floor at the north end of the north wing, quite remote from the main quarters of the school. Lecture courses for architecture were included each semester in the scheduled assignment of classrooms in the Engineering Building. The East Engineering Building had not as yet been built.

When the enrollment growth of the department after World War I made these accommodations entirely inadequate, added drafting room space and two large offices were obtained through the remodeling of the second and third floors of the old Engineering Shops Building, unofficially renamed "The Parthenon." The Parthenon was linked to the regular drafting rooms and offices in the West Engineering Building by a second-story enclosed bridge. This bridge was termed "The Bridge of Sighs," but it more or less satisfactorily united second-floor activities. When Eliel Saarinen, the distinguished Finnish architect, was Visiting Professor in 1923, he was assigned the room at the end of the west wing for his hand-picked graduate class. Much of the student circulation over the bridge to the Parthenon went, mainly on tiptoe, through this studio.

In the early 1920's, with the postwar increase in enrollment, the need for a separate and sizable building became obvious. Following the recommendations of Professor Lorch, the Regents in 1924 passed a resolution approving a request to the legislature for an appropriation of $400,000 for an architecture building.

As a result of the University's request, the legislature in 1925 appropriated $400,000 for the purchase of a site and the construction of a building for architecture "in accordance with plans and specifications as prepared by Emil Lorch and Associates and as approved by George D. Mason" (R.P., 1923-26, p. 909). Mason, long an outstanding architect in Detroit, had led the campaign for the building.

Through this preliminary period, Professor Lorch had made many studies of the facilities needed for the growing school. He had worked with the University authorities, members of the legislature, the Detroit Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, and the building industry. Emil Lorch and Associates, Architects, began the preparation of complete plans immediately upon approval of the building project by the legislature. The term "Associates" included George M. McConkey ('14e) and Harold A. Beam ('22). Professor McConkey has been a member of the staff since 1911, and Harold Beam has long been associated with the Great Lakes Steel Corporation in Wyandotte, Michigan. In 1926, the Buildings and Grounds Committee was authorized to advertise for bids on the plans and specifications then prepared. The contract was awarded to the Weber Construction Company of Bay City and construction was begun on October 1, 1926.

The site chosen was the south half of the block bounded on the north by South University Avenue, on the west by Tappan Street, on the south by Monroe Street, and on the east by Haven Avenue. The north half of the stated block was occupied by the Martha Cook Building and its extensive and well planted grounds. It was assumed by the architects that the main entrance of the new building would be on Haven Avenue. Although the property was then considered by some observers to be remote, it Page  1577was faced on three sides by University buildings. The site of the Architecture Building was purchased from private owners at a cost of $137,717.50. When completed the building with its equipment was valued at $515,106.

In the construction of the building some changes were made in the interests of economy but in general it proceeded as planned. The department moved into its new quarters in September, 1927. At that time the building was usable, but construction was not completed until June, 1928. Because of building costs the appropriation from the state proved insufficient, but gifts from alumni and friends made it possible to retain features which otherwise would have been omitted. Mr. George D. Mason was a staunch backer in this situation, and Mr. George G. Booth made a substantial contribution for equipment and the purchase of art objects. The building industry in the state contributed certain materials and provided others at reductions in cost.

The Architecture Building is L-type in plan along the east and north sides of the property, the projected plan for long-time development being that of a quadrangle, with wings on the west and south sides to be added eventually. The wing running north and south is 168 feet long and that running east and west is 111 feet long. The building has 76,223 square feet of floor space.

The structure is without basement, and each of the wings is four stories in height. The tower is the main vertical circulation, supplemented by the south stairway on Monroe Street. Externally, the wall surface material is brick, and the sloping roofs are slate. Although the structural frame is mainly of steel, there are many piers and modulated wall surfaces so that the general effect is to some extent monumental. The north side of the wing running east and west is largely of glass, providing light for the large drafting rooms on the lower three floors. At the fourth-floor level and for the fifth-floor studio these large windows are arched.

The entrance lobby at the ground-floor level of the tower is finished in limestone, with tiled floor. It is somewhat formal in character and aims to express not only its function but by its character to speak for the profession housed in the building. This lobby opens directly to the adjacent architecture auditorium, the principal public room on this level, which seats more than 350 people. Originally, the hall extending south to the Monroe Street entrance was a spacious exhibition area equipped with glazed cases in open alcoves for exhibition purposes. The wing running to the west at this ground-floor level was a single large drafting room for freshman architecture students. It is paralleled and served by a corridor leading to the west entrance.

At the head of the main stairway on the second floor are the administrative offices. In the wing running to the south the major part is the Architecture library. This is an impressive room forty by ninety feet, architecturally the most admired room in the building. At the third-floor level the space over the library, measuring 3,600 square feet, was designed as an exhibition room rising thirty feet through the fourth-floor level. Twenty-five years ago the galleries of museums and art institutions such as the Metropolitan Museum in New York and the Art Institute in Chicago, featured lofty halls and permanent exhibitions of full-size replicas of historical elements of architecture, equestrian groups of sculpture, and similar items. The lower wall spaces and the standing screens in this room provided space for exhibitions of architectural drawings and paintings. As to the use of the wing running Page  1578to the west, the second and third floors follow the pattern of the first floor, namely, that of the large drafting room, but without corridor. At the fourth-floor level are fully equipped studios for drawing and painting. The building originally provided nine faculty offices along the west side of the south wing, and at the south end of the building on Monroe Street were eight classrooms with blackboards, two on each floor.

At the time of its completion in 1928, the facilities of the Architecture Building were outstanding among the architecture schools of the United States. It provided handsomely for the student body and faculty of that day and permitted a certain amount of expansion. The drafting rooms were well equipped with drafting tables and the drawing and painting studios with easels and tables. In general, however, the furnishings were inadequate, and for many years the classroom benches were of varying vintage that had been discarded elsewhere on the campus. The library, for example, was provided with overhead lighting fixtures discarded by the General Library. These make-shift arrangements served for many years, and a miscellaneous collection of tables and chairs of the kitchen-chair type were used as the library tables and as seating furniture. Faculty office furniture was obtained soon after the building was erected and still serves satisfactorily as far as the limited number of items is adequate.

In the early years after the building was occupied, the open site space comprising the entire southwest area of the block was developed as a formal garden, with a sunken square in the center focused on a central column. Flagged walks and rows of clipped evergreen hedges outlined this space. Through the efforts of Professor Lorch and friends of the school a number of fragments of architecture were purchased or donated and appropriately placed on the axes of the garden about the sunken court, or against the walls of the main building. Those of particular interest are fragments of American buildings illustrating by example the range and sequence of architectural development in this country. The arrangement aimed to make the open space agreeable, to relate it to the existing building, and to suggest the quadrangle which would appear upon completion of the whole structure. In 1954 it was necessary to erect a temporary research laboratory of unistrut construction in the garden. Not long after the occupation of the building Haven Avenue was closed as a street, and its place was taken by a mall with a broad sidewalk, thus depriving the Architecture Building of its main entrance by a street approach.

To meet the pressure of growth in size, coming to a climax in the years immediately after World War II, many changes had to be made in the effort to obtain every possible square foot of teaching space. Equally demanding in the use of space has been the growth of the Visual Arts curriculum. When the building was constructed architecture was almost the only concern of the school. Through the years, however, instruction in decorative design has gradually become a degree program in the visual arts, which now has more than two-fifths of the entire enrollment in the College. The developing emphasis on art teacher education exerts added pressure. Landscape Architecture was transferred to the College in 1939, and, although a small unit, it has required a certain amount of space. Over the past six years, architectural research has become an activity of growing interest for staff and students. Integrated with the curriculum in architecture, it, Page  1579too, requires space for analytical studies, drafting, the construction of mock-ups, and the testing of assemblies.

Thus far no violence has been done to the basic structure of the Architecture Building as the result of these developing needs, but many elements have been modified. On the ground floor the freshman drafting room has been divided into three sections, none of which is now used for instruction in architecture. This division provides in approximately equal areas for sculpture, general shop, and ceramics, disciplines not available in 1928. The installation for ceramics is permanent in character and represents a considerable investment. In the east wing of this floor the exhibition alcoves have had to give way to permanently enclosed faculty offices. The auditorium has been provided with adequate, permanent seating and is now equipped for film as well as for lantern-slide projection. It is used as a University auditorium in the evenings, mainly for movies. The two south classrooms are used for architectural research.

The second floor is least changed. The administrative offices for the College, however, have been remodeled, eliminating the storage vault, and accommodating an office for the assistant dean, an administrative function not foreseen when the building was erected. Another office has been gained on this floor by enclosing a large alcove opposite the double doors to the library.

Soon after World War II the large exhibition room on the third floor was converted into a single drafting room. Its extreme height is uneconomical, but the floor space is in active use. At this level, as on the floor below, an office was built in. The fourth floor alone remains unchanged. The large studio of nine hundred square feet, twenty-three feet high at the fifth-floor level, was originally thought of as a suitable studio for a distinguished visiting designer, painter, or sculptor, who might there carry on creative work while meeting students as an artist in residence. This room is now regularly filled to capacity with classes of students in painting. The sixth-floor room of twelve hundred square feet area, a considerable climb in these days of elevators, was, for more than twenty years, filled with stored casts and other art objects. Under the pressures of present necessity, it is now a photographic studio with darkrooms and like facilities.


The earliest demands for recreational facilities on the part of University of Michigan students were answered by the transformation, in 1858, of a manual exercises building, erected in 1856 (R.P., 1856, p. 650) and used as a drill room, into a gymnasium of sorts with apparatus which consisted of a few bars, poles, ropes, and rings. This building, which stood near the site of the heating plant on the east side of the campus proper, was used only in warm weather, as it was erected on poles sunk in the ground and had a tanbark floor. In 1868, however, these facilities were increased with the construction by the class of 1870 of a "gymnasium in embyro," near the center of the campus behind the Museum, and to the south of South Wing of University Hall. This structure was described as "two uprights with a crossbeam and ropes dangling from eye-bolts." A third recreational center, provided in 1885, was the Old Rink, later to become the Armory, which was fitted up as a gymnasium.

In the meantime, demands for outdoor play facilities had already been met. In early times informal play was limited to that corner of the campus where later Page  1580Waterman Gymnasium was built and to the old Fair Grounds, now Burns Park, in the southeast part of the city. The University first recognized the need for athletic facilities in 1865, when the Board of Regents appropriated $50 for the care of a cricket field and $100 for the same purpose in the following year.

Because the playground on the campus was wholly inadequate and the Fair Grounds unsatisfactory, since they were not adapted to college games and not subject in any way to University control, the Regents in 1890 purchased for $3,000 the south ten acres of what is now Ferry Field and made necessary improvements by grading and drainage. This original field, called Regents' Field, included a quarter-mile track with a 220-yard straightaway on the north side and inside the track a baseball diamond and football gridiron.

In 1902 Dexter M. Ferry, of Detroit, donated to the University an additional seventeen acres to the north of the old field, and the combined tract was called Ferry Field. In 1904 the brick wall was constructed on three sides of it, and in 1906, through the gifts of Mr. Ferry, the gates and ticket offices at the northeast corner of the field were added. Later expansion to the west of the original acquisitions and to the south below the wall has enlarged the entire plot to approximately eighty acres.

Football games were played on the first gridiron, which ran east and west on the original Regents' Field, until 1906. Wooden stands to accommodate 400 persons were put up in 1893, but these burned in 1895 and were then rebuilt to seat 800. A grounds-keeper's house was also erected, and stands seating 1,500 along the straightaway of the running track were constructed. By various stages facilities were expanded, and a record crowd of 17,000 was accommodated at the final football game on the old Regents' Field in the fall of 1905.

In 1906 the site of intercollegiate activities on Ferry Field was shifted to the north part of the field. A new gridiron running east and west, with a quarter-mile cinder track around it, was built there. The baseball diamond was also moved north to the present site of Yost Field House. Wooden stands were erected beside the new gridiron, but in 1914 those on the south side were moved, part of them to the baseball field, and the first unit in the construction of a contemplated U-shaped concrete stadium was begun.

Only the south unit of the concrete stadium, first used in the fall of 1914, was ever completed. It was designed after a study had been made of similar stands in other universities, and at that time it was considered one of the best bleachers in the country. It provided seats for 13,600 people and was constructed at a cost of $100,000. The north and west sides of the old field were occupied by the wooden stands, which were kept covered during those seasons of the year when they were not in use. These stands, which seated approximately 46,000 persons, proved far from adequate, however, in that they did not begin to accommodate the huge football crowds attracted to the intercollegiate games after 1920, and, as a result, a strong movement developed favoring the erection of a larger stadium.

The site of the Stadium includes more than fifteen acres and provides a practice fairway on the east side. The first football game was played there in 1927.

The crowded condition of Waterman Gymnasium as the result of increased demands on the part of the Physical Education Department created an urgent need for added facilities, particularly for intercollegiate competition, and in 1922 Fielding H. Yost, Director of Intercollegiate Athletics, was appointed Page  1581chairman of a committee to investigate the possibility of a gymnasium on Ferry Field. Final action approving such a building was taken later that year with the acceptance of plans by the Board in Control of Athletics and the erection in 1923 of Yost Field House at a cost of $563,168.

The Field House, which made it necessary to move the baseball diamond and stands about 150 feet west of their old site, replaced the previous club house, erected in 1912 to provide locker and shower facilities previously available only at Waterman Gymnasium. In 1928-29 forty tennis courts (clay, concrete, and asphalt) for intercollegiate and intramural play were constructed on Ferry Field.

The importance of physical education for women was early recognized by the erection of Barbour Gymnasium, as an addition to Waterman Gymnasium, in 1896-97. The building was made possible largely by a gift of property, valued at the time at $25,000, from Levi L. Barbour, of Detroit, a Regent of many years' standing. This particular gift, as it developed, was only partly used for the erection of the women's gymnasium. The women's athletic field was purchased in 1908 as the result of two gifts, one of $1,500 from the Honorable Peter White ('00) and one of $3,000 by Senator Thomas W. Palmer ('49), of Detroit, and was named Palmer Athletic Field. The original field comprises almost seven acres west of Lloyd, Mosher-Jordan, and Stockwell halls. It affords facilities for outdoor track, including two cinder tracks and jumping pits; a hockey field used also for soccer, lacrosse, and golf practice; an outdoor picnic site with fireplace; sixteen tennis courts, twelve clay and four cement; a putting green with an adjacent court used for volleyball or croquet; space for horseshoes and quoits; and an elevated terrace used for instruction in the various sports.

In 1955 the athletic plant of the University of Michigan covered approximately 235 acres and was valued at approximately $6,000,000. Plant expansion of more than two million dollars had been accomplished since 1921, when Yost became Director of Intercollegiate Athletics. From 1941, when Herbert O. Crisler (Chicago '22) became Director, more than $3,000,000 has been spent on plant expansion. This was made possible mainly by revenues of the department itself.

(New) Athletic Administration Building

Work on the University of Michigan's new Athletic Administration Building was begun in August, 1954. The building is being financed out of athletic receipts derived principally from football. It is expected to cost approximately $365,000.

The new building, on the corner of State and Hoover streets, has an area of approximately 19,400 square feet and houses a modern streamlined ticket department, offices for the administrative staff and director, quarters for coaches in all sports, as well as the athletic publicity department. It was completed in the spring of 1955.

The architects were Giffels and Vallet, Inc., of Detroit, and the Henry de Koning Construction Company of Ann Arbor, held the construction contract.

The former Athletic Administration Building will be occupied by the staff of the Men's Physical Education Department.

(Old) Athletic Administration Building

The old Athletic Administration Building on South State Street near the Page  1582main entrance to Ferry Field and just north of Yost Field House is now occupied by the staff of the Men's Physical Education Department. Erected in 1912 as an athletic field clubhouse, it was the first of the modern buildings constructed on the enlarged Ferry Field. It measures 57 by 64 feet and has a floor space of 8,249 square feet. It is built of brick and stone in an attractive modified English Tudor style.

Before the erection of Yost Field House and the Intramural Sports Building, almost all athletic activities were centered in this clubhouse. It was fitted out with showers at the rear, locker rooms at each side, and had a large lecture room on the second floor. With the construction of Yost Field House the original function of the building changed. In 1925 extensive alterations were made in the interior arrangement at a cost of $26,000.

Barbour Gymnasium

In 1894, shortly after the completion of Waterman Gymnasium for the men of the University, the erection of a gymnasium for women was undertaken.

The campaign for the new building was conducted mainly by the Women's League, which had been organized in 1890. For a number of years every organized effort of the women of the University was directed toward raising funds for this gymnasium. Regent Charles Hebard ('79m) raised $10,000 and John Canfield, of Manistee, gave $5,000. Among the gifts was a transfer of $711 from the Mary J. Porter Fund, one of the first alumnae contributions to the University. Altogether, almost $21,000 was raised during the period from 1892 to 1897. To this sum the Regents added approximately $20,500. The total cost of the building, which was occupied in 1896, was $41,341. The architect was John Scott and Co., and the contractor Henry Carew and Co.

In December, 1895, Regent Levi L. Barbour, of Detroit, gave the University several lots in Detroit which, according to the original intention of the donor, were to be used for an art building. At the meeting of the Regents in January, 1898, however, it was moved by Regent Fletcher that "in view of the generosity of Ex-Regent Barbour in giving property valued at $25,000 to aid in the erection of the Woman's Building on the campus, that hereafter the building be known as the Barbour Gymnasium." Apparently, there was some verbal agreement that a part of this gift should be considered as a gift to the women's building rather than toward an art building.

Barbour Gymnasium, containing 35,456 square feet, was built as a part of the Waterman Gymnasium building, and the two gymnasiums were connected by doors which could be thrown open on special occasions, such as the University Senate receptions and the annual Junior Hop, which for years were held in the two buildings.

Originally, all of the first-floor space, with the exception of the gymnasium, was used as parlors and as offices for the Dean of Women and the Department of Physical Education for Women. The building at first was used frequently for large social occasions.

The offices of the Dean of Women were moved to the Administration Building when it was opened in 1948; the Department of Physical Education for Women continued to be housed on the first floor, which was renovated. A well-equipped corrective room occupied a part of this space.

The gymnasium is about 90 feet square. The running track has long since been condemned. The kitchen was remodeled into staff rooms.

The Sarah Caswell Angell Hall on the Page  1583second floor was condemned as a theater in the middle 1920's, and its seating capacity was limited to 250 several years before the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater was completed; it is now used for instruction in dancing. The basement also houses a fencing room and a record room.


The University Coliseum building, which stands on Hill Street at the corner of South Fifth Avenue, about three blocks from the University's Athletic Field, is used during the winter as a student skating rink. It was purchased by the Board in Control of Physical Education in 1925 and adapted for skating and hockey at a total cost of $104,837. The development of this property was a part of the general program in physical education for the student body inaugurated at the time that the Stadium and the intramural Sports Building were erected and the Women's Athletic Field was developed.

The Coliseum is a large steel and concrete structure. In 1949-50 the ice rink was remodeled at a cost of approximately $235,000 to provide a seating capacity of 3,500. Since the building became University property, it has been in use throughout the winter months for skating and for intercollegiate hockey matches.

The Golf Course and the Golf Service Building

The University of Michigan Golf Course was opened on September 26, 1930. It contains approximately 165 acres. The land is valued at $178,367, and the buildings at $165,478. Completed in 1950, the University's modern clubhouse was constructed at a total cost of $273,500.

Facilities for both male and female golfers have been provided in the new edifice, with separate locker and showerroom installations. Two hundred and fifty lockers have been built for the men and fifty for the women. In the basement of the structure practice nets have been set up. A spacious lounge and snack bar are included in the facilities on the first floor.

Most impressive of all the advantages of the new building, however, are the eleven rooms on the second floor. It has been the practice of Coach Oosterbaan to isolate the football team after its final practice of the week. The players now have the advantages of the clubhouse at their disposal. The comparatively distant location from the campus of the clubhouse assures the players of a night of complete rest. Previously, they were often affected adversely by the pep rallies and snake dances which wound excitedly by their quarters in the Field House.

The building has an area of approximately 20,800 feet. The architect was Douglas D. Loree, of Ann Arbor, and the general contractor the Henry de Koning Construction Company. A unique feature is the terrace which looks over the course, one of the most beautiful in the state. In addition, the golf clubhouse has provided local golf fans as well as students with modern, beautiful, and serviceable facilities that could be expected only in a private country club.

In the spring of 1955 a new nine-hole course adjacent to the present 165-acre course was opened, at a cost of approximately $12,000.

Sports Building

With the construction of a second field house on Ferry Field, provision for intramural sports was made for the entire student body. Just as the neighboring Yost Field House provides for intercollegiate athletics, the Sports Building affords ample facilities not only for the development of the individual Page  1584student but also for interclass athletics, particularly basketball, indoor tennis, squash, handball, and various forms of track athletics, boxing, wrestling, and swimming.

The building, which stands on Hoover Avenue at the north end of Ferry Field, was completed in 1928. Its construction began in 1927.

The intramural Sports Building extends for 415 feet along the street and is 110 feet wide. Thus, it is somewhat longer but not as wide as Yost Field House and is similar in architecture. It is a long brick building in Lombard Romanesque style, simple in general outline, which is, however, broken by tremendous monumental entrances on either side, extending above the general line of the roof; these divide the building into two wings, of which the shorter extends to the east. Immense arched windows give ample light for the various sports carried on in the building. Provision was made for more than four thousand lockers for the use of students and faculty.

To the left of the entrance on the first floor of the shorter wing is a large room almost 100 feet long, designed especially for boxing and wrestling. This room also contains a beautiful tiled swimming pool, 75 by 35 feet, completely equipped with adjacent lockers and showers. The longer wing at the west is taken up on the first floor by fourteen handball courts and thirteen squash courts. On the second, or main floor, the central section is occupied by the administrative offices of the Department of Intramural Athletics. A completely equipped auxiliary gymnasium on the east side was designed for faculty use. The wall between this room and the room which houses the swimming pool can be raised for swimming meets, permitting the installation of seats for as many as 960 spectators. A vast gymnasium 252 feet long, large enough for four basketball courts, occupies the full length of the west wing. A special feature is the floor of heavy maple laid over an underfloor of two by sixes. The building is effectively soundproofed. It was designed by Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, of Detroit, and the Palmer Construction Co. held the contract; it was completed at a cost of more than $743,000.

The Stadium

Michigan's football Stadium was completed in the fall of 1927 and forms one of the most satisfactory and practical football fields in existence. Its designation is in reality a misnomer since it is of the amphitheater or bowl type of construction, rising only slightly above the ground level on the east side.

The site of the structure was decided upon in the spring of 1926, and plans for construction were made during the following summer. Increased interest in the record of Michigan's football team, resulting at almost every game in an attendance much larger than the old stands on Ferry Field were able to accommodate, eventually led the Board in Control of Athletics to consider expansion of the University's athletic facilities. As the result of a report presented in January, 1926, by a University committee under the chairmanship of Professor Edmund E. Day, later president of Cornell University, a plan was developed for the reorganization and expansion of the athletic facilities of the University. Thus, the Stadium was only one part of a broader program which included the construction of the Sports Building and the Women's Athletic Building and the development of the University Golf Course and the Women's Athletic Field.

To finance this extensive program, bonds were sold to alumni and to friends of the University, giving them preferred Page  1585seats at all games for a period of years, these bonds to be retired progressively as the receipts warranted. The total improvements cost amounted to more than $2,000,000, of which the cost of the Stadium represented $1,183,545.

The site for the Stadium was a matter of some discussion, but eventually property, including some sixteen acres and 119 city lots, was acquired on South Main Street just across the Ann Arbor Railroad tracks from Ferry Field. This area was purchased by the Board in Control of Athletics for $239,000, including the cost of some lots which were taken under condemnation proceedings. The right of the Board in Control of Athletics to acquire land by this means was upheld by the state Supreme Court during the course of the negotiations. The site formed a gentle slope rising from the valley of the old Allen's Creek near the Ann Arbor Railroad to the level of South Main Street.

In considering plans for the Stadium it had been decided, in accordance with the recommendation of the Day committee, to make it a place to hold football games under the most favorable circumstances, with no emphasis upon monumental construction. Accordingly, a bowl type of structure was chosen which took advantage of the natural characteristics of the terrain so that the Stadium rests in the soil of the hillside instead of being enclosed within high concrete walls. The structure is above ground only on the east side, the only wall being on this side; on the west the top seats are level with the street, with some seventy rows of seats, seating 85,753 originally, stretching down to the playing field. A series of steps on either side of the main entrance leads to a wide areaway for the players.

The architects, instead of designing the structure in the form of a perfect ellipse, as in the Yale Bowl, provided for sides parallel to the playing field, bringing the spectators much closer to the side lines. This feature alone — the proximity of the seats to the playing field — has made Michigan's Stadium one of the most satisfactory in this country. The Stadium is 756 feet long and 586 feet wide and includes fifteen and one-half acres.

The strategically placed entrances and exits around the entire upper edge and in the center of the east side have also made it possible for crowds to disperse rapidly; in fact, the exact time for emptying the Stadium is thirteen minutes. To care for the throngs which come to Ann Arbor on football days, parking facilities have been supplied on all sides of the Stadium, and special city traffic regulations permit street parking during the games. Locker and shower room facilities for home and visiting teams are provided under the east side of the stands. A press box was erected over the west side of the Stadium. It affords room for five radio booths and 250 newspaper correspondents. The box was designed by Bernard L. Green ('91e) of the Osborn Engineering Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, and was built by James Leck and Company, of Minneapolis, general contractors. A new press box is now being built.

In 1949-50 additional steel seats were erected at the top of the Stadium at a cost of $304,340, making the total seating capacity 97,239.

Waterman Gymnasium

Waterman Gymnasium was completed in 1894 after years of appeals and effort on the part of students. An elaborate report on the subject of a gymnasium was presented to the Regents by a committee of the University Senate in 1870 (R.P., 1864-70, pp. 7-22), and for a time a grant by the Board seemed possible. Unfortunately, the necessary funds were not available, and all appeals for a Page  1586special appropriation were refused by the legislature. In 1878 a concerted student movement had developed through the reorganization of an earlier Football Association which became the Athletic Association of the University, an incorporated society which had as its principal objectives the building of a gymnasium and the establishment of a trust fund for the moneys raised for that purpose. By 1883 the sum totaled some $4,000, which amount was greatly increased by the time the building was actually erected ten years later.

The first step toward the construction of the gymnasium came through a gift, in 1891, of $20,000 from Joshua W. Waterman, of Detroit, on condition that other donors should contribute a like amount (P.R., 1891, p. 13). President Angell was able to report in 1894 that $42,705, including Mr. Waterman's original gift, was available for the construction of a gymnasium, to which was added $6,095, the amount of the fund originally raised for a gymnasium by previous student efforts; this was used for equipment.

Although the erection of the building was contemplated in 1892, the financial stringency of the period limited the amount of the subscriptions, and in order to complete it the Regents found it necessary, eventually, to add a contribution of $14,000. The total cost was $65,134.14 (R.P., 1891-96, p. 516). The architect was E. W. Arnold. The gymnasium has a frame of structural ironwork enclosed within a shell of brick walls, with skylights in the ceiling. Its dimensions were 150 by 90 feet, and a shallow wing along the south side provided offices for the director and rooms for medical examinations. A balcony was devoted to a running track of fourteen laps to the mile. The basement was occupied almost entirely by a locker room and showers.

With the growth of the University, the gymnasium proved inadequate. Plans for enlargement were accordingly prepared, providing for an addition making it 248 feet long, with corresponding additions in the locker room and shower facilities and a track of ten laps to the mile in the balcony. These additions, which were completed by the University Department of Buildings and Grounds in 1916, gave the building a total floor area of 57,000 square feet.

Plans for the additions also provided for a swimming pool, a change in the entrance, and the addition of more office and examination rooms, but funds were not available. In 1924, however, a number of alterations were made in the wing devoted to offices for the Department of Physical Education.

Women's Athletic Building

The Women's Athletic Building on Palmer Field was erected in 1928 as part of the program in physical education for women undertaken by the University Board in Control of Physical Education two years earlier. For some years the athletic activities of the women of the University had been centered at Palmer Field, an uneven and rather hilly tract of land south of the hospitals and the Observatory. With the development of the extensive athletic program for the entire University, which took place with the erection of the Stadium and the intramural Sports Building, provision was made for the women by leveling Palmer Field and erecting a suitable field house on it.

The Women's Athletic Building, on Forest Avenue, at the east end of North University Avenue, was constructed at a total cost of $154,000. It has two stories and a basement, and a floor area of 27,387 square feet. Designed by the Ann Arbor architects, Fry and Kasurin, it is built of red brick with white pillars at Page  1587the front, in a simple Georgian tradition. The building is used as an athletic club, where social occasions may be combined with active sports participation. The big terrace which overlooks the playing fields is provided with colorful umbrellas, tables, and chairs.

The first floor houses the main office for the distribution of sports equipment, the main lockers, dressing rooms, showers, and the equipment-storage room. In the basement is a four-lane bowling alley, a sixty-foot rifle range, and ten indoor golf cages.

Women's Swimming Pool

The dedication of the Women's Swimming Pool Unit on April 17, 1954, marked the completion of one important project in the over-all plan for a new and modern women's athletic building, which is planned to meet the needs and interests of students in a present-day program of physical education.

As early as 1923 recommendations for a women's pool had appeared in the annual reports of Dr. Margaret Bell, chairman of the Program of Physical Education for Women, and in 1928-29 provisional plans for a swimming pool were submitted to the Board in Control of Atheltics. In 1937, upon receiving the approval of the Board of Regents, the Women's Athletic Association sponsored a drive for funds. Many student organizations and alumnae groups contributed to the project. By 1940 about $10,000 had been accumulated in gifts or pledges. By the time construction of the Pool began approximately $28,000 had been donated to the Women's Athletic Association fund.

In November, 1949, the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics advised the Regents that they were prepared to begin construction of the pool "at an estimated cost of $775,000" provided the University would furnish the necessary site and maintenance (R.P., 1948-51, p. 574).

The site chosen was the west part of the block facing Forest Avenue between Geddes and North University avenues. This area, except for three University-owned houses, was occupied by private dwellings. Authorization was given for appraisal of those properties not owned by the University, and within a year the site had been secured. Eight houses were removed before construction could begin. In September, 1950, the Regents approved a contract with Alden B. Dow, of Midland, Michigan, and Kenneth C. and Lee Black, of Lansing, Associated Architects.

In February, 1951, Dr. Bell was appointed chairman of the Planning Committee for the Women's Gymnasium and Swimming Pool. H. O. Crisler, Fritzie Gareis, Marie D. Hartwig, Matthew Mann, and Elmer D. Mitchell were the other members of the committe, which was to work with Lynn Fry and Oscar Cartwright of the staff of the College of Architecture and Design of the University.

The preliminary plans for the Swimming Pool Unit were accepted by the Regents in October, 1951. The Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics informed the Board of Regents that it could furnish $853,000. In April the Regents granted the architects permission to complete, within the $1,116,000 budget, final plans and specifications, providing a total seating capacity of approximately 800. As soon as construction was authorized the Board in Control passed the following resolution:

Whereas, It appears that after application of approximately $30,000.00 now in the "pool fund" of the Women's Athletic Association, after making certain changes in the plans to reduce costs, and after giving effect to certain other adjustments outlined by the Director, the total cost to the Board Page  1588under the Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., proposal will amount to approximately $1,006,000.00; and

Whereas, … the Board finds itself in a position to commit approximately $1,000,000.00 of its funds to the construction of the swimming pool unit:

Now, therefore, be it Resolved that:

(1) The Board approves the proposal submitted by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., and recommends its acceptance;

(2) The Director is authorized and directed to inform the Board of Regents and the Officers of the University that this Board will make available, as needed, approximately $1,000,000.00 for the construction of the swimming pool unit; and …

(4) The Director is authorized and directed to continue consultation and negotiation with the contractor and the architects with a view to accomplishing further reductions in cost not involving changes in the size of the building

(R.P., October, 1952, p. 621).

Ground breaking exercises were held on October 25, 1952. Among those present were President Harlan Hatcher, Dr. Margaret Bell, Regent Vera Burridge Baits, H. O. Crisler, Mrs. Lola Jeffries Hanavan ('12), of Detroit, chairman of the Alumnae Building Committee, Professor Laurie Campbell, and Miss Nancy Fitch ('53), a past president of the Women's Athletic Association. In April, 1954, dedication ceremonies, highlighting the completion of the building took place. President Harlan Hatcher presided; Mrs. Vera B. Baits represented the Regents and the administration. Others included H. O. Crisler, representing the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics; Mrs. James A. Lafler, representing the alumni; Mrs. Lola Jeffries Hanavan; Dr. Margaret Bell; Deborah Bacon, Dean of Women; Susan Riggs, retiring president of the Women's League, and Marion Swanson, president of the Women's Athletic Association. In presenting a portrait of Dr. Bell to the University on behalf of the students and alumnae Mrs. Hanavan said:

These ceremonies today climax years of patient effort and fond hopes. It is said that into every accomplishment goes the record of some great personality, someone who has selflessly devoted himself to that undertaking. … Into this building has gone the personality of a great woman, a great teacher, and a great physician.

A water show by the women's swimming group followed the official ceremony. In all, four performances were given during the two-day event, with approximately 3,000 persons in attendance.

The new building is modern in design, of red brick construction. Inside are two spacious lobbies, with cream and green mosaic rubber tile floors, attractive furnishings and plants. Two locker rooms, with facilities for 724 persons, are furnished with hair dryers, full length mirrors, and private dressing booths. A conference room and a check room are also available. In the instructors' office is an FM radio and phonograph and underwater speakers and microphones connected with a public address system which can be switched to all parts of the building.

The pool room includes a grandstand area with seating for more than 700 persons, a six-lane pool basin, 75 by 44 feet, surrounded by a wide tile runway, high and low diving boards, outlets for television cameras and sound apparatus, and a window through which underwater swimmers may be observed.

The building was opened on March 10, 1954, for the first formal swim. Built at a cost of $1,070,000, it is serving the growing needs of the Women's Physical Education Department and other University and community groups. It is used not only for scheduled classes but for corecreational swimming by students and University staff members. Elementary and intermediate swimming classes are offered as well as diving, synchronized Page  1589swimming, life saving, water safety instruction, and competitive swimming.

Yost Field House

Yost Field House was the first of the three great structures which have made Ferry Field one of the finest college athletic fields in this country. The building, 365 feet long and 165 feet wide, extends along State Street on the east side of Ferry Field. It was built in 1923 and was designed for indoor track events and intercollegiate sports, particularly football, baseball, basketball, and track athletics. It provides a total floor space of 87,386 square feet, comprising one great room with a dirt floor, 300 by 160 feet, and a space 63 feet high entirely clear of obstacles.

To afford facilities for year-round training, it was necessary that the building be of huge dimensions, with a complete football gridiron. It was constructed after designs by Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, of Detroit, at a total cost, fully equipped, of $563,168. While the building is exceedingly simple in design, relieved only by long rows of tall windows at the sides and ends, it follows the spirit of the Italian Romanesque in its decorative details. Despite its size and massive qualities and the necessity of adaptation to its function, the architects were able to make it both impressive and dignified.

Yost Field House is, in reality, a building erected over an immense playing field which permits room for a seventy-five-yard dash at the center and an eight-lap running track around the balcony. A portable basketball floor on which intercollegiate contests are held is set up each winter in the center of the main floor. Down each side are seats for the accommodation of some 7,500 spectators. Fixtures for a second balcony were installed, but this balcony has not been constructed. At the north end are locker rooms, showers, training-room and equipment-room facilities for all freshmen, varsity, and sports participants on Ferry Field; offices; and a boiler and fan room for heating purposes. A laundry for athletic equipment of all types was also installed.

From the date of its dedication on November 10, 1923, the building justified its construction, affording ample opportunity for practice in football and baseball during winter weather. It is also used for varsity basketball games, while the track facilities enable aspirants for the team to begin practice early in the spring. Even batting practice for baseball is conducted on the huge field.

Yost Field House was built with the proceeds from the earnings of the athletic program. It was named by the Board in Control of Athletics in honor of Fielding Harris Yost, coach of the football teams from 1901 to 1924 and Director of Intercollegiate Athletics from 1921 until his retirement in 1941.

Automotive Laboratory

The old Automotive Laboratory in the West Engineering Annex was out of date many years ago and several attempts were made to obtain new facilities. The latest efforts, which met with success, were begun in January, 1953, when a brochure was prepared outlining the requirements for a new automotive laboratory. The publication was prepared in consultation with leaders of the automotive industry in Detroit, who contributed much valuable time and information to the project.

The final requirements were submitted to the University administration in time Page  1590to be included in the request for funds in the spring of 1953. As a result, $72,000 was appropriated by the legislature for the preparation of plans for this new facility. A contract was placed in 1953 with Giffels and Vallet, Inc., of Detroit, as architects for the building, which was to house equipment for instructional and research problems in internal combustion power plants of the reciprocating and turbine types, chassis and body engineering, and allied subjects. Provision was made for offices and graduate research rooms, as well as for a large open area in which various types of work may be carried out. The North Campus was approved as the site for the building in January, 1954. The complete designs and specifications were presented in September, 1954.

The legislature appropriated the sum of $750,000 in May, 1954, to begin construction. An additional amount of $1,028,000 was appropriated in June, 1955, to complete the structure, making a total in appropriations of $1,850,000.

The building is of reinforced concrete, two stories in height at the north test cell end and three stories on the south end, where the garages and offices are.

It has a total floor area of 62,000 square feet. There is no basement under the test cells. The structure has been faced with ceramic and glass panels in aluminum frames; it has a brick facing on the west side, on the dynamometer section, and on the two ends. A construction contract was placed with the O. W. Burke Company in October, 1954.

The equipment to be housed in the building consists of internal combustion engines of all types, fuel rating engines, gas turbines and jet engines, fuel flow and metering devices, facilities for accessory testing, such as starters and electrical and fuel injection systems, supporting instrumentation of modern types, such as dynamometers, and all forms of recording and control devices. It is estimated that equipment for this laboratory will cost approximately $1,250,000.

Burton Memorial Tower

The first suggestion of a campanile for the University appeared in May, 1919, in an editorial in the Michigan Alumnus. The writer lamented the necessity of removing the clock and chimes from the tower of the old Library Building to the Engineering Shops Building where, he feared, the bells could no longer be heard for any distance. He expressed the hope that eventually a new clock tower might be "set high in the center of the Campus, to be at once a landmark and a thing of beauty" and suggested that the need for such a campanile offered opportunity to some alumnus who might desire to leave a memorial "at once practical and beautiful."

President Burton, in his Commencement address of 1921, gave further life to this idea by suggesting the erection of a tower to serve as a memorial to the 236 University of Michigan men who had lost their lives in World War I. He envisioned a campanile tall enough to be seen for miles, suggesting that it stand at the approximate center of an enlarged campus as evidence of the idealism and loyalty of the alumni. As a result of President Burton's suggestion, the directors of the Alumni Association were authorized to consider ways and means for the construction of such a building.

The proposal that the tower serve as a memorial to Michigan alumni who had lost their lives in World War I failed to meet with general approval. After President Burton's death in 1925, a suggestion was made by Shirley W. Smith, Secretary of the University, that no more fitting memorial to President Burton Page  1591could be devised than the campanile and chimes which he had always hoped for. This idea found immediate favor with the alumni, and plans for a campaign were formulated under the general direction of the Alumni Association. The University of Michigan Club of Ann Arbor made the erection of the tower part of its contribution to the Ten-Year Program, while each of the classes which had graduated during President Burton's regime undertook to raise funds for the carillon. In this program it was estimated that some 18,000 graduates would be approached and a total of $89,000 raised.

A plan of organization was developed, but the onset of the depression caused the temporary abandonment of the plan, and it was not until Charles Baird gave the carillon of fifty-three bells to the University in 1935 that the matter of the tower was again revived (see Part VI: The University Musical Society and The School of Music).

Several sites were suggested as possibilities for the carillon, including the roof of Angell Hall and the tower of the Michigan Union. These all proved impracticable, and it became evident that the construction of a bell tower would be the only solution. The University, however, did not have sufficient funds for the erection of such a building, although the Murphy and Hegeler Music Building funds were transferred to the Tower Fund by the directors of the University Musical Society, and the Regents supplemented this nucleus by other available funds held in trust. The University of Michigan Club of Ann Arbor undertook to raise the $25,000 still necessary to complete the tower.

It was determined that the proposed tower should be of practical as well as aesthetic value; otherwise, University funds could not be used for its construction. Moreover, it was to be built near the center of the developing campus and the proposed School of Music building, since the classrooms in the tower were to be used by that School. These considerations resulted in the eventual choice of the site adjacent to Hill Auditorium.

The Burton Memorial Tower was erected during the 1935-36 school year and was formally dedicated on December 4, 1936. Simple in general outline, it is built of Indiana limestone with long shallow buttresses extending to the top and emphasizing its height. The tenth floor, on which the bells are housed, was designed to provide opportunity for visitors to view the surrounding terrain from the terrace between the outer screens and the inner screens protecting the bells and the playing mechanism. Access to the bell chamber is designated at times on a sign board at the entrance to the Tower. The bell chamber which is forty feet high, with an observation floor above, is designed to offer the largest possible openings for the sound of the carillon. Its floor is 120 feet from the ground; the over-all height of the Tower is 212 feet. It is 41 feet 7 inches square, contains a basement and ten floors, and 19,848 square feet of floor space. Albert Kahn, of Detroit, was the architect. The final cost of the Tower was $243,664.61.

Immediately below the bell chamber are the offices and practice studio of the carilloneur; the mechanism for control of the clock and the "Cambridge Quarters" played automatically on five of the large bells is also on this floor; the seven stories below contain some forty classrooms, practice rooms, and divisional music library, all utilized by the School of Music. On the first floor are the offices of the University Musical Society. An elevator services the first eight floors of the Tower.

This rather unusual use of the Tower was made possible through the novel plan of its construction. Instead of thick Page  1592masonry walls, the building is constructed as a reinforced concrete shell faced with limestone. This affords a much larger floor area and ensures a more rigid structure.

Inscribed on the walls in the entrance foyer are the names of the many alumni and friends of the University who contributed to the erection of the building.


The Biological Station

The University Biological Station was established in 1909 on the shore of Douglas Lake in Cheboygan County. For twenty years it shared with the surveying camp the use of the fourteen-hundred-acre Bogardus Tract, obtained partly by gift and partly by purchase from Colonel and Mrs. Charles Bogardus, of Pellston, Michigan, in 1908. Here the Biological Station and the surveying camp, first named Camp Bogardus and later Camp Davis in honor of Professor Joseph Baker Davis, for many years Associate Dean of the College of Engineering, operated side-by-side. In 1929 after Camp Davis was moved to Jackson, Wyoming, the entire tract was occupied by the Biological Station.

Through gifts from alumni and purchases by the University, but mainly through gifts of tax-delinquent land from the state of Michigan, the area of the Bogardus Tract has been increased until in 1954 it totaled more than 8,850 acres, situated in Cheboygan and Emmet counties, with frontage on both Douglas and Burt lakes. During the period 1930-50 a large part of the barren and cutover area was planted to various types of pines. With plantings and protective supervision, most of the tract is regaining natural forest condition.

The central and western parts of the Biological Station contain most of the buildings and retain the general layout established by Camp Davis during its twenty years of occupancy under the directorship of Professor Clarence T. Johnston of the Department of Civil Engineering. Originally a colony of tents, the surveying camp was soon laid out, with streets, sidewalks, fifty single-room residence cottages, five classrooms, a caretaker's residence, a garage, a covered harbor, two shops, a kitchen and two dining rooms, a recreation building, and other smaller structures. All of these buildings had steel-covered wooden frames, and most of them had concrete floors. An electrical distribution system, a well and gravity pressure water system, and a sewage system were installed.

The Biological Station was established through the initiative of Professor Jacob E. Reighard of the Department of Zoology (see Part IV: The Biological Station) and George P. Burns of the Department of Botany and was directed during the first years by Reighard. In the beginning, using two log buildings of the abandoned Bogardus railroad grading camp as laboratories and tents as cottages, the members of the Biological Station endured a rugged life. During the first twelve summers meals were obtained at the surveying camp dining room.

Under the directorship of Professor George La Rue, at the Biological Station in the years 1920-29 were constructed fifteen laboratory and other general service buildings and thirty-seven residences, all single-room houses with asphalt roofing and siding on wooden frames, and with concrete floors.

After the removal of Camp Davis to Jackson, Wyoming, the enlarged camp was laid out with two streets paralleling the lake shore, connected by five cross streets and radiating roads. A large administration building with offices, store, dining room, and kitchen, and two large laboratory buildings, one with two and the other with four rooms, all of concrete Page  1593and steel construction, were added. During the next ten years the camp and buildings were adapted to efficient use. An additional faculty house, of log construction, a forestry building, a saw mill, and a laboratory-area lavatory building were erected, and electricity was extended to the eastern part of the tract.

The enlargement of the plant introduced a period of increased interest on the part of students and research workers in outdoor biology and a consequent expansion of the scientific program. Enlargement of the physical plant again became necessary, but was delayed because of unfavorable economic conditions and World War II. Since 1945, under the directorship of Professor Alfred H. Stockard, steady progress has been made. By 1955 three more faculty houses of log construction, a large shop-garage, an adequate library, an animal house, a water-heater building, a laundry, a chemical storage building, and three community shower and lavatory buildings, all of concrete block construction, and a duplex guest house had been erected. In addition, during this period the caretaker's house was enlarged; one other building was equipped with showers; twelve faculty houses, seven investigator houses, three guest houses, and the three-unit health service were renovated and equipped with bathrooms; a new well was drilled; and the electrical system and sewerage system were modernized. All of the laboratories were renovated, and three buildings released by new construction were converted into laboratories. The kitchen was re-equipped with modern electrical appliances, and the dining room and store were refurnished. Numerous pieces of general and scientific equipment were acquired, including the purchase of twenty-seven boats of various sizes and the construction of a 35-foot cabin work cruiser adequate for use on the Great Lakes.

The scientific program at the Biological Station has been expanded as the plant has been improved. Teaching fields and research activities have been broadened and intensified until the major groups of plants and animals and the major types of environment now are included in the teaching and research program. In 1955 the fields of interest numbered eight in zoology, seven in botany, and one in forestry. The number of scientific books and articles based on work at the Station by 1955 numbered more than 850.

The Station has 148 buildings occupying a thirty-acre campus on a tract of 8,850 acres, with equipment and other facilities adequate for 250 summer residents and the teaching and research needs for 150 students, faculty, and other scientific workers.

Davis Engineering Camp

Before 1874 all University surveying instruction had been given at Ann Arbor. Professor DeVolson Wood had repeatedly requested establishment of a camp for advanced work in surveying. In the spring of 1872, when his requests were not granted by the Regents, Wood resigned.

He had six instruments at his disposal in 1871. These had been acquired from year to year since the early 1850's, when the first course in surveying was offered. A Buff and Berger transit 177 and a Gurley transit without number, a Green transit theodolite without number, a Stackpole level, an Eckel and Imhoff 178, and a Buff and Berger dumpy level were acquired prior to 1865. Four compasses and a Burt solar had also been acquired before 1865. An aneroid barometer manufactered in Philadelphia was purchased during the early 1860's, a Würdemann transit theodolite in 1871, a Page  1594Blunt transit in 1879, and Eckel and Imhoff transits 301 and 879 in 1873.

Joseph Baker Davis came to the University in 1872. The surveying camp was established by Davis in 1874, and the first session, attended by twenty-four students, was held at Whitmore Lake, Washtenaw County, in May and June of that year. The Clifton House provided food and shelter. An Eckel and Imhoff plane table and two Philadelphia rods were purchased in 1874. Davis had no assistants. The camp continued to run for four weeks during May and June of each year until 1900. From 1900 through 1908 the period was six weeks, and in 1909 became eight weeks.

Among the sites used for the camp in the early years were Thornapple Lake, Barry County; Simpson Lake, Crawford County; Village Green, Unadilla, Livingston County; Clear Lake, Jackson County; Maple River, Clinton County; Appleton's Lake, Livingston County; Old Mission, Grand Traverse County; Clam Lake, Antrim County; Frankfort, Benzie County; Carp Lake, Leelanau County; Fountain Point, Carp Lake, Leelanau County; Glen Lake, Leelanau County.

In February, 1908, $2,500, or so much thereof "as might be necessary," was appropriated for the purchase of a camp site for the surveying class in the field and $1,000 for moving the camp and fitting it up for use. The President named Regent Carey and Professors J. B. Davis and M. E. Cooley a committee to select the site.

In June, 1908, the following letter was received from Colonel and Mrs. Charles Bogardus, presenting to the University 1,400 acres of land at Douglas Lake for the consideration of $2,500 appropriated by the Regents. This sum was so small in relation to the size and value of the land, that the site has always been regarded as a gift:

Pellston, Mich., June 3, 1908

Hon. Henry W. Carey, Regent of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan:

My Dear Sir — After thinking over the matter of the needs of the University of lands, water frontage, etc., having certain essential requirements as expressed so clearly to Mrs. Bogardus and myself at our house last evening by Dean Cooley, Professor Davis, and yourself, and that in your opinion we have lands possessing all these requirements, and the further examination of those lands today proving, as your Committee tells me, that said lands are exceptionally well adapted — in fact, as they say, "ideal for purposes needed by the University"; and realizing that benefits to these young people will be of lasting value to themselves, to this and to the other states and countries they represent, and that the "cherished hopes" of your Committee may be realized for the acquirement of about fourteen hundred acres, mapped by them today, as their desideratum, and that the good work you contemplate may begin at once with ample grounds, therefore, Mrs. Bogardus and myself will accept your appropriation of Twenty-five Hundred Dollars in part payment, and it gives us great pleasure to ask you to kindly accept from us, as a gift to the University, the difference between the Twenty-five Hundred Dollars and the real value of this property.

You insisted that a value should be placed upon the property, which we much dislike to do, it being largely a gift. However, we should think approximately Twenty-five Thousand Dollars would be a low value for it; a part of it would not be priced or disposed of at all for other purposes…

Very sincerely yours,

Chas. Bogardus

Hannah W. Bogardus

Thus, the University acquired 1,441 acres in T. 37 N., R. 3 W., in Cheboygan County, on Douglas Lake. On motion of Regent Hill, it was voted that this property be named The Bogardus Engineering Camp of the University of Michigan.

In October, an additional sum of Page  1595$1,100, making $2,100 in all, was appropriated to move the camp from Burdickville to Douglas Lake. The Board appropriated $2,500 for the purchase of additional land desired in the development of the camp in January, 1909. In July, 1914, Regent Hubbard reported that he had secured options on five hundred and twenty acres of land adjoining the camp.

The President's Report for 1920-21 reported:

The Douglas Lake region is as favorable for field work in surveying as it is delightful in its climate. The tract of 3,200 acres, situated between Douglas and Burt lakes, affords with its hills and valleys, partly in woods and partly in clearings, excellent opportunities for practice in land, railroad, and canal surveying, and coast, geodetic, and topographic work. It is planned to add other parcels of land which will extend the tract completely around the east end and along the north shore of Douglas Lake; and further embrace Burt Lake to the east and west of the University's present shore line. These additional lands should be acquired as early as possible to prevent their occupation by summer residents, and to give the greater scope desired for the work without trespassing. During the past nine years permanent improvements have been made at Camp Davis having an estimated value of $7,244. As the labor involved was contributed by staff and students, the cost to the University has been only the $698 expended for materials. Through the camp fee of $10, which goes to the support of the camp, equipment amounting to $6,719 has been purchased. Thus the plant, exclusive of land, has cost to date in direct outlay $15,637; or, including staff and student labor (contributed), $22,881…

(P.R., 1920-21, pp. 191-92.)

In 1916 the name of the camp was changed to Davis Engineering Camp in honor of Joseph Baker Davis. At the March meeting of that year the Board voted that hereafter the lands owned by the University between Douglas and Burt lakes should be designated as the "Bogardus Tract." In the same year the sum of $3,750 was set aside for the purchase of 750 more acres on Douglas Lake adjoining the camp.

In 1928, Professor C. T. Johnston, who had been in charge of the camp since 1912, with Professors Carey, Brodie, and Bouchard, went to northwestern Wyoming under instructions to select a new site for the camp. Such a site was found in the valley of the Hoback River, seventy-five miles south of Yellowstone National Park. A complete report was presented, and the Regents approved the purchase of 120 acres of the land in February, 1929, for $2,500.

During the spring recess Bouchard, McFarlan, Young, Bonin, Johnston, and six student assistants went to Douglas Lake, where camp equipment was crated and shipped to Victor, Idaho. The twelve students who attended arrived in June. Instruction was delayed for two weeks in order that the students might assist in construction. During the summer fourteen buildings, all 14 by 14 feet, the keeper's house, a kitchen, dining room, the instrument room, a shop, and a storehouse were completed. A connecting road was built and a water system, a modern sanitary system, and a power plant were installed.

From 1938 to 1951 the field work in surveying and in geology was united at Camp Davis. Since 1951 instruction in geology has been limited to engineering geology.

In 1940 two new buildings were constructed, a residence cabin and a large laboratory and recreation building measuring 28 by 40 feet, named Johnston Hall. Three additional cabins were built in 1947.

In 1949, $4,000 was appropriated for necessary construction work and other items needed for the successful conduct of the camp. In 1950, $4,000 more was appropriated to provide funds for operating Page  1596expenses during the summer of 1950, $1,500 of this amount to be used for surveying equipment, $1,500 for geology equipment, and $1,000 for refrigeration.

Camp Filibert Roth

Soon after the establishment of the School of Forestry and Conservation in 1927 it was decided that the organization of summer instruction in forestry should be undertaken without delay. Accordingly, in 1928, Professor Robert Craig, Jr., was assigned the task of finding a suitable site for a camp in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

As a result of the summer's investigation, Beaver Lake Basin in Alger County was selected for the proposed development. Because of the complicated ownership of the Basin and financial limitations, the University was not able to obtain immediate possession of it. At the suggestion of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, it was decided to use a temporary site generously offered by that company.

The University opened its first forestry camp in June, 1929, at an abandoned logging camp eight miles west and south of Munising in Alger County, and one mile south of the Eight-Mile Corner on the road between Munising and Forest Lake. It was named Camp Filibert Roth in honor of Professor Filibert Roth, one of the pioneers in forestry in the United States and head of the Department of Forestry at the University of Michigan from 1903 until his retirement in 1923. Robert Craig, Jr., was appointed Director and continued in that position through 1947, when he was succeeded by Associate Professor John Carow.

The available buildings left much to be desired. They were a group of abandoned tar-paper shacks. The only source of water was a well 165 feet deep with a hand pump which required seventeen strokes to bring the first water to the surface. Washing and bathing accommodations consisted of the open-air "shelter" afforded by two buildings which joined each other at right angles. Benches with buckets of water from the well were the only equipment. When camp closed in the fall, everything had to be packed in boxes and hauled into Munising for storage in the paper mill. The mattresses were rolled, tied, and stored in the mothproof compartments in which the mill kept its woolen supplies.

In the fall of 1934 another inspection was made of some of the sites considered in the earlier survey. One of these was in Iron County on the west side of Golden Lake, some fifteen miles west of Iron River, where the Von Platen-Fox Company had built an unusually good set of camp buildings in the hope that some club or organization would use them after logging was completed. A careful inspection of the camp and the surrounding area led to the decision that the site had the natural advantages to make it a desirable permanent location.

The camp was on a beautiful lake entirely surrounded by timber, mostly hardwoods, but interspersed with some conifers. The buildings already there were large enough to meet immediate needs with a minimum of remodeling. The area around the camp would grow in value because it had been logged on a selective basis. In the meantime, the students could learn much from such a demonstration situation. It was within the boundaries of the Ottawa National Forest, and the Michigan Department of Conservation was active there, thus making it possible to observe how the state handles its forestry problems. There were also many wood-using industries within easy reach.

Through the interest and generosity Page  1597of M. J. Fox, president of the Von Platen-Fox Company, 10 acres were obtained. Purchases of 90 acres in 1942 from the Von Platen-Fox Company and of 114 acres in 1943-44 from the Lindahl Brothers of Iron River brought the area owned by the University to its present total of 214 acres.

The move from Alger County to the beautiful new site in Iron County was made in June, 1935. The buildings at that time consisted of a cookhouse, three bunkhouses, a shop, two garages, a large barn, one cottage, and a small office. The cookhouse was used with little alteration. One bunkhouse was converted into a classroom, and the other two were used as dormitories. The two garages were remodeled, the smaller one being used as an instrument room and the larger as a camp "Michigan Union." The only construction undertaken that first year was of a new toilet and a central washroom. The latter had an elevated tank into which the boys pumped lake water by hand, thus affording "running water." There were also a small stove and a system of pipes to provide both hot and cold water for washing. Kitchen and drinking water came from a shallow well. Although no trouble could be traced to the water, its use was never officially approved by the Iron County health authorities.

When the 1942 building program was begun, Professor Frederick O'Dell of the College of Architecture and Design was employed to draw plans for the new buildings. After 1943 the University Plant Department took over this work, which has since been under the immediate direction of Robert Aitken. The first student cabin was built in 1942.

The student cabins, of which there are eighteen, measure approximately 13 by 32 feet. Each includes three rooms, a small bedroom across each end and a study room in the center. Each bedroom has a double-deck bed and adequate shelves and cupboards for its two occupants. There are also two full-sized windows, one at either end of the room, and two 12-by-18-inch windows so placed that one comes about even with the top of each deck of the bed.

The study room has five full-sized windows on one side and three windows and a door on the other, all adequately screened. A large study table is on either side of the room, and over each table is a fluorescent light fixture with two 40-inch tubes. Against one bedroom wall are two large bookcases, and at the other end of the room is a wood-burning space heater. The bedrooms are lighted with incandescent lights.

The floors are of matched hard maple, and the window and door frames are of pine. The walls are finished with No. 2 common shiplap. The outsides of the cabins are covered by vertical cedar slabs, and seams are calked with asbestos roof cement.

Five faculty cabins fully equipped for family living have been built along the lake front north of the camp. As a result, faculty families are independent of the camp mess hall and kitchen. These cabins are of the same general construction as the student cabins but vary in size.

In 1944 a telephone line was brought eight miles from Beechwood, and in 1946 Wisconsin Power and Light Company put in electric power lines, also from Beechwood. The buildings are all electrically lighted, and the caretaker's house and faculty cabins have electric refrigeration and water-heating.

In 1952 the much-needed kitchen-dining room was finished in time for the summer session. It has a seating capacity of about 116. Bottled gas is used for cooking and water-heating, and there is a large electrically operated walk-in cooler. A hot-air wood furnace is used Page  1598for general heating. The basement has excellent living quarters for the kitchen personnel and also affords ample space for food storage and kitchen laundry.

It has been the aim of instruction at the camp to make it as practicable as possible, using the laboratory facilities afforded by the extensive forest areas in the vicinity.

Camp Filibert Roth has grown in a surprisingly short time from a few tarpaper shacks in the cutover slashings to a beautifully situated and strictly modern camp; from thirteen students in 1929 to seventy-three in 1950 (the largest enrollment to date). There are now twenty-eight new buildings.

Camp Killarney

Camp Killarney, an anthropology camp of the University, established in 1939, was situated about two miles from the village of Killarney in Rutherford Township, Manitoulin District, Ontario, Canada.

One of the major research interests of the Museum of Anthropology deals with Michigan Indian history and its relation to the Indian cultures of the Great Lakes area. This work was made possible by grants from the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. During the first two years the work was carried on as a research project, the field staff being made up of students who received travel expenses and did the work of excavation and survey, without instruction and without credit. Formal instruction for credit (six hours) was begun in 1940. Instruction was in archaeological field methods, archaeology of the Great Lakes region, the pertinent geology of the same region, and human osteology; credit was given on the basis of performance in the field, and a mid-term and a final examination. To 1954, about eighty students from various universities, both men and women, have taken the course. All have been anthropology majors. The seasons of 1943-45 were without formal instruction, and a very small personnel continued the work for about a month each summer. After 1946 there was an average of seven students every summer. They were housed in tents with wooden floors, and received all expenses except laundry and personal items, and did all the work of excavation, exploration, and survey in return for their expenses.

The work has resulted in the acquisition of a large mass of archaeological data and several hundred thousand specimens, now in the Museum of Anthropology. Several publications have been issued, and a comprehensive scientific report is being prepared on the early history and prehistory of the Manitoulin District.

Work in the Manitoulin District began first on Manitoulin Island. Camp Killarney is on the mainland, twenty-five miles east of the east end of Manitoulin Island. The project was begun by agreement with officials of the National Museum of Canada at Ottawa, and many specimens have been turned over to that Museum, and to the Royal Ontario Museum at Toronto.

The buildings included two log cabins and a pump house. The larger of the cabins measures 18 by 28 feet, has an eight-foot ceiling with a loft, and double pine flooring. There are two windows on each long side and an enormous stone fireplace at one end. This cabin was built in 1941 at a cost of $700. It serves many purposes, being used as a kitchen and dining room as well as for study, recreation, and as an office for the director. The other cabin measures 12 by 16 feet and has single pine flooring. Built in 1947 at a cost of $350, it is used as a laboratory, study hall, and for storage. The pump house, built in 1948 at a cost of $75, is 9 by 6 feet and 7 feet in height Page  1599without windows. It is built of squared timber frame and has planed siding and and a cement floor. The larger cabin was built with Rackham funds and the other buildings with funds supplied by the Summer Session budget. The camp was discontinued in 1954.

The University Fresh Air Camp

The University of Michigan Fresh Air Camp is situated twenty-four miles northwest of Ann Arbor, on Patterson Lake, which is one of a chain of seven small lakes near Pinckney, Michigan. The camp property comprises about three hundred acres of virgin hardwood adjacent to the George Reserve, in the Pinckney State Recreation Area near the state-owned Waterloo Recreational project. The camp is one of the best equipped of its type in the country. At present there are twenty-six permanent buildings, including a main lodge, women's dormitories, classrooms, cabins, a workshop, and a modern health unit. Boats, tents, and camping and sports equipment are available.

The camp serves a four-fold purpose: for children with behavior problems, a service to referral agencies, a training center for students, and a recreation camp for University students. For the camper it is a vacation camp. Every effort is made to give each boy all the fun that camping and outdoor life provide. Campers are selected on the basis of their need for the type of program offered. While the camping experience becomes a part of the boy's year-round socio-educational program he is never aware of the treatment aspects. The fundamental purpose of the Fresh Air Camp is to provide an outstanding camping experience for boys who, by reason of economic limitations and behavior aberrations, would not otherwise have a camping opportunity. The core of the program is the mental hygiene approach of utmost respect for the individual boy's personality.

About 240 boys between the ages of seven and fourteen come to camp each summer. Each boy is sent by one of some twenty-five co-operating school, social, and casework agencies. Each agency works with the boy before he comes to camp and selects him because of his need for specialized camping. The agency provides the camp with extensive material on the boy, his problems, and his background. When he goes home, the agency continues treatment, utilizing the record made of his camp behavior.

The boys themselves present a wide range of behavior problems. Some are having difficulties in school, some in the home, and some in the community at large. Occasionally, the camp represents merely the opportunity for the "regular boy" to be away from the pressures and stress of an unfortunate environment. Most often, however, the boys have already developed symptoms of maladjustment, sometimes severe and deeply rooted.

Some of the children come from institutional placement or foster homes. Many are the products of broken homes. Some have records as delinquents. As a consequence of their backgrounds, these boys present problematic behavior in a far higher incidence than would be true in the usual camp. Many times they are very difficult to manage. At all times they present a challenge to the insight and ingenuity of the adult. Of course, there are positive aspects. No counselor leaves camp without having experienced the satisfaction of seeing a boy respond favorably to healthful treatment and express his need for real affection. Often the attachment of a boy for camp and for counselor does not end with the close of the season, but continues for years.

Such boys give the student an opportunity Page  1600to telescope, into one brief summer, contact with a variety of personality types. Although the camp's therapeutic objective is to help the boy as much as possible, there is no expectation of complete treatment, yet on occasion surprising improvement takes place. The counselor must be tireless in his efforts to build a program which serves the need of the boys and must at all times relate to the boy in a nonpunitive fashion.

The Fresh Air Camp is, for the camper, a vacation camp. He comes for fun and expects to do the things which camp life offers. The diagnosis, study, or research carried on by the staff cannot interfere with his good time.

The camp serves the referral agencies and the campers, through the agencies, by submitting carefully compiled reports of a diagnostic nature on each camper.

As a training center the camp offers opportunities to fifty students for study of individual and group behavior on an undergraduate and graduate level. These students are able to earn as many as eight hours of credit for courses in sociology, education, psychology, social work, and physical education.

The instructional staff is constantly at hand to interpret and to help the counselor with behavior problems. The counselor is never alone. At every stage he works within a framework so that the situation will be one of learning and creativity. While much is compressed into the intense, brief period of nine weeks, it is done with plan and purpose for the student's advantage. The type of child attending the camp facilitates this learning. The staff's help and support make possible the student's rapid introduction to therapeutic relationships.

All staff members share the simple facilities of camp life. The men counselors sleep in cabins with the campers when on duty, and the women counselors are housed in separate dormitories. The counselors are responsible for sharing such work as may be necessary to keep the quarters and facilities in order.

The Fresh Air Camp is now in its thirty-fourth season. In 1921 a group of University students under the leadership of Lewis C. Reimann ('16) began a volunteer project to give city boys a camping opportunity. The University Summer Session in 1937, offered the counselors a series of graduate courses related to the camp program. The camp was officially accepted by the Board of Regents in June, 1944.

In January, 1946, the Fresh Air Camp was placed in the University's Institute for Human Adjustment in order that its program might be integrated with the other professional activities of that agency. The University provides the funds for the educational aspects of the camp. Other expenses such as food, equipment, and maintenance continue to be borne by social agencies and friends of the camp.

The directors since Mr. Reimann have included George G. Adler, F. N. Menefee, William C. Morse, and Edward J. Slezak. Control of the policies is vested in a University committee composed of representatives of such units as the School of Social Work. Various student groups are also represented.

Geography Camp

Camp Cusino, near Singleton, in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan has been maintained by the University since 1950 in order to provide field-work opportunities in geography. Professor Kenneth C. McMurry has been in charge of the camp. The state deeded ten acres to the University for the purpose, with a clause of reversion to the state in the event the University no longer has use for the Page  1601property. Summer work in geography had formerly been conducted in Wilderness Park, near Mackinaw City, and elsewhere.

Geology Camp

The Geology Camp from 1937 to 1951 was at Camp Davis, in Wyoming. Field work was carried on in 1952 at Marquette, Michigan. In 1953 the Geology Summer Field Course was moved to Boulder, Colorado.

National Music Camp

Established in 1928 as a summer home for the National High School Orchestra, the National Music Camp at Interlochen, Michigan, has greatly expanded its activities and services to the profession. Because the camp offers valuable laboratory facilities in music education, the University, in 1941, granted regental approval for giving courses for University credit there. The University Division of the camp is a branch of the University Summer Session, and the courses offered are given by the School of Music, the School of Education, the College of Architecture and Design, and the Department of Speech. Administrative responsibility is shared by the Director of the Summer Session, the deans of the schools of Music and Education, the College of Architecture and Design, the head of the Department of Speech, and the administrative officers of the camp. Courses are offered for credit in the same manner and with the same academic degree or transfer credit value and status as are the courses in Ann Arbor. The faculty of the University Division is made up of members of the regular teaching staff of the University, supplemented by teachers from other colleges and universities, including artist performers in the field of piano, voice, and orchestral instruments. Teachers are also provided for courses in radio, dance, art, camp counseling, and recreational leadership.

Speech Improvement Camp

A camp-clinic for the correction of speech disorders in boys and young men was conceived as an ideal to achieve three purposes: (1) To remove the boy from influences contributing to the factors of cause; (2) to provide a well-regulated program integrating intensive speech correction methods, personal counseling, and physical education; (3) to promote a carry-over of new speech habits used successfully in the classroom situation to the boy's life outside of class.

It was not intended that an out-of-door camping program of itself would necessarily contribute to speech improvement. Yet those intangibles of camping that teach normal young people to live with others, to acquire self-confidence, and to accept responsibility are obviously potential advantages to a boy overcoming a speech defect.

The camp has been restricted to boys and young men for two valid reasons. In the first place, since the camp serves a wide age group, eight through twenty-four, the daily program is easier to organize and conduct than it would be in a coeducational camp, and in the second place, some 70 per cent or more of speech problems occur in boys.

The camp was established as a private venture by John N. Clancy (Notre Dame '21, A.M. Michigan '37) and Mrs. Clancy in 1932. They are presently camp director and camp mother. The first enrollment numbered four campers, all from Michigan. The annual attendance in recent years has numbered approximately ninety-six campers from more than twenty states. About half of the campers are stutterers. Boys with other speech handicaps include those with Page  1602mild cerebral palsy, the hard-of-hearing, and others with postoperative cleft palate, voice, articulation, and language problems.

Throughout seventeen years of private ownership the camp was affiliated with the University and worked in close cooperation with the University's Speech Clinic and with the Department of Speech. In 1949 the camp was purchased by the University through a generous gift by the Kresge Foundation. In February of that year the following resolution was adopted by the Regents:

Resolved, That the executive officers be authorized to proceed with the purchase of Shady Trails Camp, … and that the Secretary be directed to express to the Kresge Foundation the sincere appreciation of the Board of Regents for a gift of $66,000 which is to be applied toward the purchase of the speech correction camp.

(R.P., 1948-51, p. 279.)

The Regents officially designated the camp "University of Michigan Speech Improvement Camp" although the popular name of "Shady Trails Camp" was continued. An appropriate plaque recognizing the generosity of the Kresge Foundation was installed in the main lodge.

Since the camp was acquired it has operated as a unit of the Summer Session. The camp management is responsible to an Executive Committee appointed by the Regents.

The camp, some 275 miles from Ann Arbor, is on Grand Traverse Bay about twenty-five miles northwest of Traverse City, on M-22 between the villages of Omena and Northport. It is a premise of the camp to remove a boy from the environment in which he has met with failure, and distance from home discourages frequent visits. As camps go, the site is comparatively small, slightly more than twenty-six acres with 1,325 feet on the bay. The camp program does not include many of those features of a recreational camp that require space, such as horseback riding, and thus far its site has been ample. The enrollment is divided into six age groups. Each group of sixteen campers is housed in a modern cottage with five sleeping rooms, living room with natural fireplace, and doublebathroom facilities. Each of the groups has the undivided attention throughout the eight-week session of three speech correctionists and a physical director (two physical directors for each of the two youngest groups).

The camp is modern and well equipped. It has a supervised water front for beginners and advanced swimmers. There is also a supervised athletic plant with junior and senior softball diamonds, basketball, volleyball, badminton, and tennis courts. The buildings, in addition to the six cottages for campers, include the lodge, containing the dining room, kitchen, and offices, a cottage for the women on the staff, the director's cottage, a cottage for visiting staff, the laboratory, an infirmary, the cook's cottage, the activities building, and a combination pump and storehouse. All buildings are comparatively new, having been erected since 1947. The University's investment in the physical plant is approximately $110,000.

The camp has contributed a rich experience in training speech correctionists through a course, Internship in Speech Correction, offered to a group of twelve graduate students each summer by the Department of Speech. Like other internships, this is a work-study program with emphasis on working with the camper. The camp draws its replacement of major staff in speech correction from its interns. The chief interest, however, is the rehabilitation of speech handicapped boys and not teacher training. In 1953 ninety-seven campers (one more than the camp's normal capacity Page  1603were in attendance. The gross income of the camp was the largest in the camp's history.

In its various departments the staff rarely has a member younger than twenty-one years of age and, other than the administrative members, rarely one more than thirty. The staff has developed the philosophy and the camp spirit which have led to a successful program and desired results. Many staff members of past seasons have distinguished themselves in their professions.

There are well-rounded programs of clinical and camp activities in groups small enough to allow adequate individual instruction and large enough to give experience in the group situation. Classes and programs are planned to provide for personal growth of the individual and for use of newly learned speech patterns in practical everyday living.

The resident staff approximates forty members, including twenty speech correctionists, ten counselors, a registered nurse, a camp mother, three secretaries, the director, and two assistant directors. This staff is assisted by a visiting staff of consultants (physicians, psychologists, speech pathologists) from the University of Michigan and from other major universities and colleges. The "service" staff (cooks and helpers) numbers ten members.

In 1954-55 the University Executive Committee for the camp included Dr. James H. Maxwell, Professor of Otolaryngology, Professor G. E. Densmore, chairman of the Department of Speech, Fedele F. Fauri, Dean of the School of Social Work, James R. Hayward, Associate Professor of Dentistry and Head of Oral Surgery of the University Hospital, and John N. Clancy, Assistant Director of the Speech Clinic and Director of the Camp.

The Campus and Lands

The first land to belong to the University after its establishment in Ann Arbor by the Act of 1837 was the tract of 40.3 acres constituting the original campus. One of the factors which influenced the legislature in locating the University at Ann Arbor was the promise of the Ann Arbor Land Company to donate a site for the new institution. The six persons who were first associated in this company are named in a circular, entitled "Articles of Agreement and Association of the Ann Arbor Land Company, Instituted September 15, 1836"; they were Captain Charles Thayer, William S. Maynard, Elijah W. Morgan, Dr. Samuel Denton, Augustus Garrett, and Daniel B. Brown. With the exception of Garrett, all were early and prominent citizens of Ann Arbor. William Maynard at one time served as mayor, and Samuel Denton, as Regent and Professor, played an important part in the establishment of the University.

The actual selection of the campus property took place at the first meeting of the Board of Regents, which met in Ann Arbor on June 5, the day appointed by Governor Mason, and continued throughout the sixth and the seventh. On June 5 a committee consisting of Lieutenant-Governor Edward Mundy, of Ann Arbor, General Isaac E. Crary, and John F. Porter was appointed, and to it was referred the Act to provide for the organization of the University and also the Act to provide for its location "in or near the village of Ann Arbor." On June 6 this committee reported as follows:

That they have, in company with the other Regents, examined several points, with the view of selecting a site for the University Buildings, and recommend that that forty acres contemplated by said act to be selected by the Regents as a site for said buildings, be located upon the farm called the Nowland Page  1604farm, commencing near the fence upon the brow of the hill near the river, bounded westerly by State Street, extending easterly about seventy rods to the center of the ravine, and extending southerly about ninety-one rods for quantity.

(R.P., 1837-64, p. 5.)

The report was laid on the table, and the next day, June 7, Denton submitted, as an amendment, the following resolution:

That the University be located on lands bounded and described as follows, — On the north by the road leading to Judge Fletcher's, the width of the Rumsey farm (so-called), west by State Street, east by lands of Judge Fletcher, on the old east line of said Rumsey farm, and south for quantity.

(R.P., 1837-64, p. 8.)
This resolution was carried by the small margin of one vote. Regents Denton, Wilkins, Mundy, Crary, Lyon, and Adam voted for it, and Messrs. Porter, Whittemore, Farnsworth, Mason, and Pitcher against it. It will be noted that the two Ann Arbor members, Denton and Mundy, were in favor of the site which was finally decided upon.

The area described in the resolution adopted, however, did not contain the campus as finally laid out, although it overlapped a good part of it. If this plot had been retained the original campus would have reached to Washington Street on the north, through which at that time ran the road to Ypsilanti. The road at this point angled toward the southeast so that the north border of the campus would not have been square. On July 18, 1838, the Regents appointed Chief Justice Fletcher and Dr. Denton, both of Ann Arbor, a committee, to effect an exchange of lands with the trustees of the Ann Arbor Land Company so that the site of the University would be a right-angled parallelogram. This was done by cutting off some of the north part of the plot and adding to the south part; the result was the present campus. Judge Fletcher and Dr. Denton at the same time were directed to cause a street 100 feet in width to be laid out "on the line" on each side of the University site and to see that these streets were properly recorded. We know them as North, East, and South University avenues, and State Street.

As the campus had originally been a farm, many traces were left of its original use. Ten Brook said:

The remains of a peach orchard were upon it, and years afterward some professors' families were supplied with fruit from these trees; while the whole ground around the buildings, as late as 1845 and 1846, waved with golden harvests of wheat, which the janitor had been allowed to grow, for the … purpose of putting the ground in a proper condition to be left as a campus.

(Ten Brook, p. 145.)

Trees were an early problem and remained one for years, for much of the early planting seems to have been unsuccessful. In April, 1840, the Regents appropriated $200 to be expended under the direction of Douglass Houghton in planting trees on the University grounds, and in the 1840's it is recorded that fruit trees and shrubbery were furnished for the gardens of the Professors' Houses. Hinsdale mentions that in the same year the Board of Visitors urged that trees be planted, "but its exhortations were not then heeded." He also speaks of the planting of trees in 1854 by Dr. Edmund Andrews, who was then Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds as well as Demonstrator of Anatomy in the Medical College. Dr. Andrews laid out the grounds according to a new plan; with the assistance of citizens, professors, and students, he caused the campus to be surrounded by two parallel rows of trees. The citizens set out a row of trees entirely around the campus on that side of the street opposite to it; the professors and students provided a similar row on Page  1605the side of the street next to the campus. One thousand trees were planted within the college grounds. Five hundred were already set out when the plan was made, and the Regents were asked to purchase the remaining five hundred (Farrand, p. 137).

Most of these trees died, but in 1858 a more successful attempt at landscaping was made. With the coming of the young Andrew D. White, who was appointed Professor of History and English Literature in 1857, the first effective effort for the improvement of the campus began. In his Autobiography White describes the campus when he arrived as "unkempt and wretched." He says:

Throughout its whole space there were not more than a score of trees outside the building sites allotted to the professors; unsightly plank walks connected the buildings, and in every direction were meandering paths, which in dry weather were dusty and in wet weather muddy.

..... Without permission from anyone, I began planting trees within the University enclosure; established, on my own account, several avenues; and set out elms to overshadow them. Choosing my trees with care, carefully protecting and watering them during the first two years, and gradually adding to them a considerable number of evergreens, I preached practically the doctrine of adorning the campus. Gradually some of my students joined me; one class after another aided in securing trees and in planting them, others became interested, until, finally, the University authorities made me "superintendent of the grounds," and appropriated to my work the munificent sum of seventy-five dollars a year. So began the splendid growth which now surrounds those buildings.

(I: 282-83.)

His example apparently was infectious, for the citizens of Ann Arbor resumed their tree-planting efforts around the outside of the campus in the spring of 1858, while a group of sixty trees received as a gift from Messrs. Ellwanger and Barry, of Rochester, New York, was set out inside. The seniors of 1858 left a memorial of concentric rings of maples about a native oak in the center of the campus, which has since become known as the Tappan oak. The juniors set out another group to the east, and Professor Fasquelle planted a number of evergreens east of the north wing to balance a similar group of Professor White's at the south. The maples outside the walk on State Street were also the gift of Professor White and were balanced by a similar row of elms on the inside, given by the faculty of the Literary Department. In 1864 the steward reported that there were 1,370 trees, in all, on the campus.

Water was an even more pressing problem, since the earliest buildings were residences for professors, and the first academic building, Mason Hall, was used as a dormitory for students. This was before the days of city water mains, and the Regents at once had several wells dug. The Building Committee's reports for January and November, 1839, mention two, the second of which was near the Professors' Houses on the south side of the campus. Two others were dug in 1840 and 1845, respectively. In 1847 the faculty recommended that a well be dug near Mason Hall for the use of the students. The Report of the Faculty for August, 1847, states:

A well for the use of the students near the University Building is much needed. It is highly inconvenient for the students to bring the water from so great a distance and doubly inconvenient for the Officer to have gates continually opened and gardens trodden by a constant train of applicants at the well.

(R.P., 1837-64, p. 381.)
Apparently the students had been using one of the wells dug for the convenience of the professors.

Page  1606The Building Committee, consisting of Lieutenant-Governor Mundy, Judge Fletcher, and Chancellor Farnsworth (the latter was replaced by John J. Adam), appointed on March 3, 1838, was "to fix upon and recommend … a plan for the University buildings" (R.P., 1837-64, p.39). Their story in itself is a most interesting one, involving an agreement with two architects at once, the acceptance of the plan of Alexander J. Davis to erect a main building, and the reconsideration of this action barely three months later, accompanied by the decision, in January, 1839, to build four Professors' Houses.

An interesting old map of Ann Arbor, published by D. A. Pettibone in 1854, shows the central avenue with the Professors' Houses in place, a row of seven buildings along State Street, and the Medical Building at the center of the east side of the campus where later it was actually built. A few walks appear. The State Street front before the row of college buildings is labeled "Open Lawn," and the eastern third of the campus, with the Medical Building in the center, is marked "Botanic Garden." The so-called Professors' Monument is shown directly back of the Medical Building. The map also shows an elevation of the "West Front Michigan University," with the three central buildings of the row. The one to the left is Mason Hall, completed in 1841, and the one to the right the South College Building. The central building, from its churchlike spire, was apparently intended to be a chapel, but was never built in this form.

An article on this old map and picture, printed in The Michigan Alumnus of April 19, 1923, suggests that the arrangement and elevations might perhaps come from the first plan for the University buildings, prepared by Alexander J. Davis, of New York, but since that time Mr. Davis' drawings for the University of Michigan have been placed with his other papers in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and some of them have been published. Furthermore, the copy of the floor plan of the main building, which was sent to Governor Mason, was also discovered at Lansing and Regent Beal presented it to the University. From these materials it is easy to see that the elevations on the Pettibone map were not from Davis' original plan, which called for an elaborate building in the Gothic style very different from the plain architecture of Mason Hall or of the chapel which is shown on the map between it and the South Wing.

It is quite possible, however, that the Pettibone map preserves for us a set of plans which were prepared during the winter of 1840-41. On October 7, 1840, the Regents instructed the Building Committee to employ Mr. Harpin Lum "during the coming winter" when he would not be occupied in superintending the construction of the University Building (Mason Hall) to prepare and draw "such plans and profiles, building drafts, etc., as may be necessary … for the full execution of the general plan adopted for the University Buildings." That Mr. Lum did so is shown by an entry in the minutes of the meeting of April 16, 1841, whereby the drafts and plans for the college buildings which Lum had prepared in accordance with the vote of October 7, 1840, were accepted and he was directed to have them framed and deposited in the Library.

The Professors' Monument with the inscriptions on its base commemorating Professors Joseph Whiting, Douglass Houghton, Charles Fox, and Samuel Denton has had an interesting history. In September, 1845, the Regents resolved:

That one hundred and fifty feet square of land midway between a line running north Page  1607and south, across the University Grounds between the Professors' Houses and the east side of the Grounds and midway between the north and south lines of the Grounds be set apart for a cemetery for the University.

(R.P., 1837-64, p. 325.)

If his family consented, Professor Whiting, who had died the previous July, was to be reburied there. An appropriation was made for a monument to him, which was actually erected, for the Regents' Proceedings record that William E. Peters was paid $130.48 for the "tombstone," and, although it was first placed in the center of the space designated as a cemetery and is so shown on the Pettibone map of 1854, the campus cemetery never became a reality. The Professors' Monument has been moved five times during its history. In 1856 it was moved about ten rods due north to get it out of the way of the first Chemical Laboratory. In 1869 it was transported still farther north across the walk from what is now the northwest corner of the West Medical Building. In 1884 it was brought to the intersection of the campus walks in front of the Library, and in 1890 it was placed on the south side of the Library near its southwest corner. Then in 1918 it was brought around to the east side of the Library Building to within a hundred yards of its original site.

Until 1850 the only buildings on the campus were Mason Hall, the South College Building, later called South Wing, and the four Professors' Houses. At this time the old Medical Building was erected, and six years later the first Chemical Laboratory, which stood directly back of it, was built.

The first addition to the original university lands was the site of the Observatory, acquired in 1853. For many years the old campus and the Observatory lot were the total land holdings of the University. Before 1900 the sites of the Convalescent Hospital (1889-90) and of the South Department of the University Hospital (1899) had been added; the old University Hospital was built on the former and the Homeopathic Hospital on the latter. In 1890, also, the first tracts making up the present Ferry Field were acquired.

After 1900 the land holdings of the University grew rapidly so that the original 40.3 acres, by June 30, 1954, had expanded to 18,535 acres, of which 1,007 acres were in or near Ann Arbor.

The growth of the campus and the acquisition of other lands resulted, in general, in the development of four areas: (1) the property surrounding the original campus, (2) the University Hospital complex, (3) the athletic plant, and (4) the North Campus. In addition, a large group of lands, most of which are outside of Ann Arbor, provides botanical gardens, forestry farms, and summer camp sites.

Chemistry and Pharmacy Building

The University Chemistry and Pharmacy Building is on the north side of the campus, east of the Mall which extends from the General Library to the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. It occupies the site of the first University Hospital, which incorporated one of the four Professors' Houses, the first buildings on the campus.

The original Chemistry Laboratory, later occupied by the departments of Pharmacology and Economics, was completed in 1856 and gradually expanded until the department moved into new quarters in 1909. Construction of a new Chemistry Building was approved by the Regents at their meeting of June 5, 1908. The Building Committee was authorized to prepare plans for the Page  1608building, the cost of which was not to exceed $225,000. This amount was insufficient to complete the building as designed, however, and the plans were revised by the architects, Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, of Detroit. This delayed construction until October of the same year. The final cost of the building, completed in 1910, was $271,000.

This structure is 230 feet in length and 130 feet in width, with a floor area of 114,600 square feet. It comprises two interior courts separated by a central wing or crossbar. An addition, designed by Louis Kingscott and Associates and built by Bryant and Detwiler, was completed in 1949. It was made an integral part of the original structure. The addition has one light court and consists of a basement and four floors; it has approximately the same amount of usable floor space as the original part. The building in 1954 was valued at $3,205,000 and the equipment at $521,000.

The building is four stories high with a basement under the new part, and is constructed of buff Bedford limestone and brick in varying shades of light brown. It is fireproof with reinforced concrete columns and floors and hollow brick and cinder-block partitions. It was one of the first buildings on the campus to employ the construction system of regularly spaced concrete piers.

In general, the arrangement of the complete building consists of three long corridors, one on the east and one on the west side of the older part and one on the east side of the new part; these corridors connect the large laboratories occupying the north and south ends of the building. The long west corridor (000) is connected to the central one (200) by a corridor (100) across the middle of the older part, and the long central one (200) is connected to the east one (500) by two corridors (300 and 400) on each side of the light court in the new part.

On the first floor, in addition to an amphitheater with a seating capacity of 290 in the south court of the older part, there are three lecture rooms with seating capacities of 131, 144, and 230, as well as two smaller classrooms. The offices of the College of Pharmacy and the Prescription Laboratory are on the east (500) corridor, and a large introductory pharmacy laboratory is at the southeast corner of the building. The dock for loading and unloading supplies is adjacent to the large receiving and shipping room of the Chemistry Store Department on the 300 corridor and the offices of the Chemistry Stores Department on the 500 corridor. The remainder of the first floor is used for work in physical chemistry — offices, research rooms, and four large laboratories including one which is specially equipped for teaching electrochemistry. The dispensing room on the 500 corridor handles student supplies for physical chemistry and pharmacy. Facilities for electrochemistry, comprising a general laboratory, research rooms, and instructors' offices, occupy the outside tier of rooms along the west corridor.

On the second floor, are the offices of the Department of Chemistry in the center of the 000 corridor. The well-equipped library, is at the south end of the older part of the building. It accommodates 108 readers and contains about 15,000 bound volumes. Four large laboratories devoted to organic chemistry occupy the north end of the building, and one large research laboratory for organic chemistry and a large pharmacy laboratory are in the southeast corner. Most of the remaining rooms on the second floor are for members of the staff of the College of Pharmacy, for research in pharmaceutical chemistry, and for faculty and student research in organic chemistry. A departmental glassblower and a dispensing room for supplies for organic Page  1609chemistry and for quantitative analysis courses and some pharmacy classrooms are on this floor.

Six large laboratories on the third floor are for the several courses in analytical chemistry, including qualitative, quantitative, and instrumental analysis; semimicroanalysis is taught in a smaller laboratory. Rooms for analytical balances are adjacent to the laboratories. Also on this floor are a lecture room seating about ninety, a College of Pharmacy laboratory for pharmacognosy, research laboratories for pharmacy, and a room where approximately thirty teaching fellows in chemistry have office space. Four rooms are devoted to studies involving radioactivity — one in which to teach students how to handle and use such materials, one, the "hot-lab," where experimental work with the more radioactive substances can be performed safely, and two rooms equipped with instruments for measuring the activity. The work of the dispensing room on this floor is directed toward supplying the reagent shelves of the student laboratories in the building.

General chemistry is taught in five large laboratories, qualitative analysis in two, and graduate research students occupy the eighth large laboratory on the fourth floor. A small laboratory is devoted to courses in advanced inorganic chemistry. A number of rooms are assigned to equipment and research work connected with electron diffraction and X-ray studies.

The basement under the east part of the building houses the units which heat the oil-filtered air supplied to the newest part of the structure. Electrical supply rooms and large areas for storage of glass equipment, chemicals, and other supplies handled by Chemistry Stores are also there. The College of Pharmacy has an area in the basement for equipment for the manufacturing pharmacy processes, and the Department of Chemistry also has its shops for the fabrication and repair of research apparatus there. A number of small laboratories in this area are used for research work; these include space for high-pressure equipment, special distilling columns, and other equipment for organic chemistry research. Two of the laboratories are designed for work requiring controlled temperature and humidity conditions. One is refrigerated for work which requires low temperatures, and several are lined with copper-coated paper to reduce electrostatic effects.

The main service lines enter through tunnels underneath the building and are distributed by means of accessible riser stacks from which they fan out to the separate rooms. In the new part of the building, the hoods are exhausted by fans in a penthouse. The motors on the exhaust system are two-speed and maintain a continual air flow at all times. Two water stills, one in the older and one in the newer part, furnish distilled water to the building and are connected so that in an emergency either one could supply the whole building.

William L. Clements Library Building

In May, 1921, Regent William L. Clements, of Bay City, entered into an agreement with his fellow Regents to give his collection of rare books to the University and to construct a building on the campus to house them. Land was provided on South University Avenue next to the President's House, and an old faculty house, one of the original buildings on the campus, was demolished to make way for the new structure.

The new building was planned by Albert Kahn, of Detroit, under the direction of Regent Clements. The latter specified a style of architecture in vogue Page  1610in northern Italy when Columbus left Genoa to plan his epoch-making voyage. As a result, the building is Italian Renaissance in general style, executed in Indiana limestone. In front a planted terrace leads to three rounded archways that open on a loggia with vaulted ceilings in blue and gold mosaic.

Bronze grilled doors give entrance to the Library's main room, which measures 35 by 90 feet. This room is lined with bookcases surmounted by fumed oak paneling two stories high. The curved ceiling was painted in vivid colors by Thomas di Lorenzo, of New York City. Two alcoves project at either end to enclose the loggia. The floor is covered with broadloom carpeting and furnished with upholstered chairs, sofas, and tables of eighteenth-century design. Four exhibition cases are placed in the center of the room, which is lighted by three large and two small chandeliers.

Beyond the main room are two offices, a reading room, and the rare book room. The last was built like a bank vault for greater protection against fire and theft. The tall oak doors are metal lined, and steel shutters may be pulled down over the windows. This room, also carpeted, is furnished with period chairs and tables and contains an unused fireplace with black marble hearth. This rear half of the building has a second story of three rooms — two for manuscripts and one for bibliography — and a balcony of five alcoves overlooking the main room.

The basement, or lower library, contains several rooms for maps, newspapers, reference works, lounge, rest rooms, and custodian's quarters. Fans in the attic blow washed warm air, properly humidified, throughout the building.

The building and its furnishings were estimated at the time of construction to cost about $200,000, but the final cost was considerably more. The cornerstone was laid on March 31, 1922, and construction was by the Owen, Ames and Kimball Company of Grand Rapids. In December, 1922, Mr. Clements entered into a definitive gift agreement with the Regents, setting forth what he conceived to be the duties of the University in maintaining the building, in providing a staff, and in enlarging the holdings of the William L. Clements Library of American History.

The new Library was dedicated on June 15, 1923, with exercises in Hill Auditorium. The addresses on that occasion and the address by William Warner Bishop at the laying of the cornerstone, were compiled and published by the University in book form: The Dedication of the William L. Clements Library of Americana at the University of Michigan.

The name William L. Clements Library is engraved along the top of the façade of the building. On either wing, made by the projecting alcoves, are short inscriptions, composed by Professor Ulrich B. Phillips, to fit the available spaces. One reads: "In darkness dwells the people which knows its annals not"; and the other: "Tradition fades but the written record remains ever fresh."

Couzens Hall

In June of 1923 the Regents accepted a gift from the Honorable James Couzzens, of Detroit, United States Senator from Michigan, of a sum "up to six hundred thousand dollars" for "the construction of a building for the housing of student … and graduate nurses" (R.P., 1920-23, p. 822).

The President's Report for 1922-23 recorded, "The need of a Nurses' Home, and the desirability of its very speedy erection has been too often pointed out in the past to be enlarged upon here… The Home is an indispensable part of the Hospital, and should by all means be Page  1611ready when the new Hospital building is opened." Later, in the same report, it was stated:

The gift … is the largest presentation made to us in the course of the year… Without the facilities properly to house its nurses the new Hospital would be placed at such a disadvantage that it could never be operated as we would wish to see it. It is interesting to note that the announcement of this gift seems already to be having its effect. Applications for admission to the Nurses Training School of the Hospital received during the summer in which this Report is written show a substantial increase, which is extremely gratifying and testifies to the fact that the provision of this fine Home will add immensely to the attractiveness and success of the courses for nurses. Senator Couzens' appreciation of the need in which we stood and his very generous aid at this critical point have won him the gratitude of all the friends of the University.

(P.R., 1922-23, p. 170.)

Albert Kahn, of Detroit, was chosen as the architect for the building, and H. G. Christman Company, of Detroit, was awarded the contract at an estimated amount of $600,000 in January, 1924.

Excavation for the building was begun in November of the same year, and in August, 1925, the dormitory was completed at a cost of $622,724.76.

In 1925-26 the Michigan Alumnus reported that owing to lack of funds only the bedrooms could be furnished at that time, but the Regents authorized the expenditure of $15,000 from the Woodward Avenue Lease Fund for furnishings and equipment (R.P., 1923-26, p. 623).

The building afforded a gross floor area of 87,262 square feet and had approximately 250 student rooms, most of them singles, with a few doubles, accommodating about 260 girls. The four-story residence, constructed of dark red brick with white trim, consisted of a center section and two wings in the form of a letter "H."

The basement contains facilities for instruction — an amphitheater, faculty offices, laboratories, classrooms, an assembly hall, and also a game room. In addition to student rooms, on the first floor are a lobby, the reception rooms, the living room, and a library; the lobby, living room, and library are beautifully paneled in walnut. The two upper floors are devoted entirely to student rooms.

At the rear of the building, overlooking a beautiful garden and, beyond that, the women's athletic field, are sun porches, one on each floor.

An addition to the building and remodeling of the present structure were completed in 1955, for which Ralph R. Calder was selected as architect. The building will now provide accommodation for 530 girls. The work is estimated to cost $1,754,000. The construction contract was awarded to Spence Brothers of Saginaw.

School of Dentistry Building

The School of Dentistry was established in 1875, the same year in which the Homeopathic Medical School was organized, and both schools were given quarters in the westerly of the two Professors' Houses which faced North University Avenue. For more than thirty years the Dental School was forced to shift from one building to another, but as a result it has the distinction of having occupied three of the four original Professors' Houses, which were the first buildings on the campus.

By 1877 the first quarters were crowded, and in June of that year the Regents authorized the removal of the College "from the building which it now occupies to the building occupied by Professor Frieze" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 133). This was the easterly of the two original Professors' Houses which faced South University Avenue at approximately Page  1612where the Clements Library now stands. The Committee on Buildings and Grounds was instructed to refit and arrange this building for the use of the Dental College and to have it ready for occupancy by October 1. The remodeling was not to cost more than $1,000.

The School continued to grow rapidly, and in October of 1878 the Regents authorized the immediate construction of a "permanent" addition. This move was prompted by the fact that the laboratory room, with facilities for eighteen students, was actually being used by thirty, and ten more were unprovided for. At the same time, the lecture room, with seating capacity for about fifty students, was regularly attended by fifty-five, and there was prospect of an early increase to sixty-five or seventy, so the addition authorized, therefore, was to provide a new laboratory and lecture room. The old lecture room was made into a dental museum, facilities for which were completely lacking. The Regents decided that the need was so pressing that favorable action by the legislature must be anticipated (R.P., 1876-81, pp. 304, 417). The new rooms were ready for use by winter of the year 1878-79, and the legislature justified the confidence of the Regents by appropriating $3,250 for the purpose.

In 1885 Dean Taft reported urgent need of more room for the Clinical or Operative Department; conditions had been crowded for several years, and at that time there were six chairs in the lecture room and twenty-eight chairs in the operating room. The lecture room also, he complained, was "too small, and of the wrong shape." He asked for an amphitheater with a seating capacity of 125 and presented to the Board of Regents a sketch of a plan for a building which would be two stories in height, with the lecture room on the second floor and the first floor devoted to classrooms, reading rooms, work in metallurgy, and other special work (R.P., 1881-86, pp. 562-63). He suggested that such a building might well be erected as an addition to the west end of the present building and estimated its cost at $2,542. Nothing was done at the time, however. In 1888 the Regents passed a resolution acknowledging the "extreme necessity" of more room but stating that "the way does not seem to be open at present, as it is deemed unwise to anticipate appropriations."

Relief was finally provided in 1891 when the University Hospital was removed from the easterly of the two Professors' Houses facing North University Avenue. During the summer of 1891 this building was overhauled and prepared for the use of the Dental School. The new quarters proved satisfactory, and the School found itself able to provide "with ease" for the increasing number of students.

The growth of the School continued, however. In 1903 President Angell stated that an entirely new building was needed for the Dental Department "which is wretchedly housed" (R.P., 1901-6, p. 225), and in 1905, when the Regents sought the services of Dr. W. D. Miller, of Berlin, as Dean, they assured him that a new dental building would be erected as soon as possible.

In 1906 Donaldson and Meier, architects, were requested to draw up plans and specifications for a new building, and in April of the following year the plans were accepted, and bids were authorized. In June the property on the east side of North University Avenue, adjacent to the Homeopathic Hospital, was purchased for the site (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 142-43). It was to cost not more than $18,500, and the three buildings then standing on the site were moved to vacant lots which the University proposed Page  1613to buy for $3,500. Later, $115,000 was set aside from the building fund for the erection of the new Dental Building. Construction was begun in 1907 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 158).

In September, 1908, President Angell reported that the Dental Building, which was almost ready for occupancy, would be one of the finest in the entire country (R.P., 1906-10, p. 349). It was occupied in October, 1908, but formal dedication exercises did not take place until May, 1909. More than sixty clinics were conducted by dentists from various parts of the country, with more than two hundred alumni in attendance. The formal exercises, held in the main amphitheater, were opened with an address by President Angell, followed by a banquet in Barbour Gymnasium.

The contractors were Koch Brothers, of Ann Arbor, whose bid totaled $84,988; changes in the plans, however, brought the figure to $90,259.82 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 170). Ultimately, most of the original amount of $115,000 was used. The value of the equipment in 1913 was given as more than $29,000.

In 1922-23 an addition to the Dental Building was built by John Bollin Company of Detroit. The contract price, subject to adjustment, was $67,800, and an additional amount of $44,226 was set aside for costs of services to be provided by the Buildings and Grounds Department. The building was enlarged to the north by an extension of 38 feet 5 inches, under the supervision of state architect Lynn W. Fry at a cost of $128,296. This increased the total floor space by 19,248 square feet and brought the cost of the building to $326,500. The valuation of the Dental Building in 1954, including the Kellogg Foundation Institute, is $674,110.

The structure, which consists of two stories and a basement, is 167 by 119 feet and has a gross floor area of 64,971 square feet. The basement is of dressed Bedford limestone; the upper walls of red vitreous brick are trimmed with Bedford limestone, and the roof is red flat tile. The building, which is fireproof, is heated from the central heating plant. Ventilation is supplied by two large fans in the attic and by separate vent pipes in every room. A humidifying system for the clinic is in the basement.

The basement contains large locker rooms for both men and women, as well as a dental materials laboratory, book vault, storeroom, photographic rooms, and a small lecture room.

The main floor is devoted to the library and reading room, administrative offices, the office of the stock and dispensing clerk, the dental bacteriology laboratory, and the temperature rooms. On the north side of the main floor are a lecture room, prosthetic laboratory, and the freshman and sophomore technic laboratories, each of which contains a large preparation room and storage rooms for the students' work.

A double stairway of marble and iron leads to the second floor, where a waiting room for patients occupies a central space. To the right are the X-ray Laboratory and Oral Surgery demonstration room, and to the left is an amphitheater, an examination and appointment room, and two rooms for the Department of Crown and Bridge Prosthesis. The entire north half of the floor is devoted to an operating room, 72 by 166 feet, well lighted by skylights and large windows, and equipped with 133 dental chairs. A gallery, ten feet wide, in the rear of the room is used for departmental offices and for special clinic work.

Although there has been no addition to the Dental Building since 1923, there have been several alterations since 1941. In 1942 the two technic laboratories on the first floor were rehabilitated under the terms of a gift from the W. K. Page  1614Kellogg Foundation. An amount of $113,000 was granted by the Foundation "for alterations and purchase of equipment for the undergraduate technical laboratories of the School of Dentistry and for the purchase of technical and clinical instrument outfits to be used by undergraduate dental students" (R.P. 1939-42, p. 887).

The entrance to the Dental Building was remodeled with funds donated by the members of the dental class of 1917. This gift was presented in honor of Dr. Marcus L. Ward, former Dean of the School of Dentistry, and suitable plaques were erected. The entrance was dedicated in June, 1947.

After the construction of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute the Oral Surgery clinic was moved to new quarters in that building. This allowed an expansion of the X-ray Laboratory into that part of the Dental Building formerly used for oral surgery. The dental classes of 1918 and 1923 presented a gift of approximately $4,500 to remodel the X-ray Laboratory and to purchase new equipment. At the reunion of these classes in June, 1948, the laboratory was dedicated as a memorial to Dr. U. G. Rickert, formerly Professor of Diagnosis, Dental Therapeutics, and Radiology, who died on October 21, 1938.

The most significant change in the Dental Building took place in 1949, when the main operating clinic on the second floor was completely rehabilitated. New dental chairs, units, and cabinets were installed for the use of the clinic classes. The cost of this project was $295,000, and the clinic now contains ninety-four chairs, which are shared by junior and senior students on alternate days. There are also thirty-nine chairs for the use of dental hygienists. The clinic of the Dental Building is one of the most modern and well equipped to be found in the world.

Since 1950 several areas of the building have been remodeled to allow most efficient use of the available space for present instructional needs. In 1950 the Dental Materials Laboratory was expanded, and the West Laboratory was remodeled to allow a capacity of 185 student benches. In 1952 the West Lecture Room was replaced with a Prosthetic Laboratory containing the most recent types of equipment. At this time the men's locker room was also modernized and expanded. In 1953 the Crown and Bridge Laboratory adjoining the main clinic was remodeled, and the Examination Room was enlarged.

East Engineering Building

In April, 1920, the Regents received a communication from Dean Cooley "dealing with … the presumptive need for additional space and equipment" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 915). The following November they agreed, in accordance with their building program, to go ahead with construction of engineering shops and laboratories, which would require an appropriation of $750,000. To prevent confusion it was decided that the new structure would be named the East Engineering Building and that the older engineering building on the southeast corner of the campus would be designated the West Engineering Building. The new building was ready for use at the beginning of the 1923-24 school year.

The East Engineering Building, on East University Avenue south of East Hall, is shaped in general like a "U," with a front of 190 feet on East University Avenue and two wings, separated by a court, each 223 feet in length, running back to Church Street. In plan it follows the unit construction of the later buildings on the campus with regularly spaced reinforced concrete piers, affording Page  1615a maximum of light and space. The building has four floors, with a full-height basement under each wing and a storage basement under the front section. It contains 177 rooms and has a gross floor area of 167,800 square feet.

The architects for the East Engineering Building were Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, and the contractor was H. G. Christman. The building was constructed for $639,190.81. It is built of brick and stone with an ornamental terra-cotta and brick cornice.

In general, the departments which had been housed in the old Engineering Shops and the rapidly developing branches of chemical and metallurgical engineering, transportation engineering, aeronautical engineering, metal processing, and engineering research found new and adequate quarters in the new structure, occupying sections of the building through several floors. Such grouping of the various branches of engineering permits practical co-operation among the departments.

The East Engineering Building includes eleven recitation rooms, fifty-seven laboratories, thirty-one offices, seven shops, three drafting rooms, two libraries, and five locker rooms. The largest single room, the foundry, has an area of 6,193 square feet. In addition to these rooms, a darkroom, a museum, and storage rooms are also provided. The upper floors of the north wing are occupied by the general Chemical Engineering Laboratory, special laboratories for gas, oil, and fuel analysis and smaller rooms for special research problems in such fields as paints, textiles, and electrochemistry. Extending from the basement to the third floor is the Swenson Evaporator Laboratory. The remainder of this wing is devoted to transportation engineering, general classrooms, offices, the Transportation Library on the first floor, and laboratories in the basement.

In the south wing, the upper floors accommodate the various Production Engineering laboratories, with special rooms for heat treatment of metals and for electric furnaces. The basement of this wing contains a wind tunnel used for experimental work in aeronautical engineering, in addition to offices and a drawing room.

Construction of the East Engineering Building addition (a new south wing) was begun in the summer of 1946 and was completed in time for use at the beginning of the school year 1947-48, at a cost of $1,545,000. This addition afforded relief from the crowded conditions resulting from the heavy enrollment following World War II. It provided eighteen classrooms, as well as laboratories and offices for the departments of Aeronautical Engineering and Electrical Engineering. The latter was moved to the addition from the West Engineering Building.

A small laboratory, equipped for research work in explosives and chemical smokes, was erected on the roof of the East Engineering Building in 1941. In 1947 an Illumination Laboratory, which provided natural illumination for the study of such needs in schools, factories, and houses, was also constructed on the roof of the building. Another small structure, to be used as an instructional and research laboratory for work in meteorology, was built upon the roof in 1954.

East Hall

East Hall, of brick construction with two floors and a basement, containing twenty-nine rooms, including 10 classrooms and a study hall in the basement, has 20,194 square feet of floor space. Erected in 1883 as a public school building, it was designated as the Tappan School. In 1922 the University offered to Page  1616purchase this building from the Board of Education of the City of Ann Arbor. In September "a price of $76,200 was agreed upon for the purchase … of all the property known as the Tappan School buildings and grounds … out of the general funds of the University." An allowance of $2,000 was made for alterations and repairs to adapt the building for use by University classes during the year 1922-23 (R.P., 1920-23, p. 572).

This building has been used continuously for classes and offices. By 1955 offices of the Engineering English Department were located there, and the classrooms for the courses in English and mathematics. The building is on East University Avenue, just north of the East Engineering Building.

East Medical Building

The East Medical Building stands at the angle formed by the junction of East University and Washtenaw avenues. Shaped somewhat like a "V," with a short arm facing on Washtenaw, a longer one on East University, and a blunted end at the angle formed by these streets, it rises five stories above street level. Dark red brick, faced with white stone trim, emphasizes its straight unadorned lines and helps achieve harmony with the East Engineering Building just to the south. The main entrance is on East University Avenue, in a section marked by four great engaged Corinthian pillars, with a smaller entrance on the Washtenaw side and two delivery entrances from the court.

The first steps toward construction of the building came in 1923, when the University requested the legislature for a general building appropriation of $7,277,000, of which $2,990,000 was to complete the new Hospital. On March 15 and 16 of that year the entire lawmaking body came to Ann Arbor to survey the campus and to listen to a plea for funds from President Burton. Subsequently, the legislature appropriated $3,800,000 for the building program for the biennium, the sum of $2,300,000 to be used for the completion of the University Hospital. Provision, however, for a new medical building was also made.

Ground was broken for this addition to the Medical School late in October, 1923, and the work, for which the University Buildings and Grounds Department acted as contractors, proceeded according to the plans drawn up by the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit. The building, which was ready for occupancy eighteen months later, on February 15, 1925, cost $858,283.32 and provides 184,658 square feet of floor space, including space used on the roof.

The basement floor has two large rooms, one containing refrigerating machinery and an electrical switchboard, the other a completely equipped morgue. The first floor of the west wing includes research rooms for anatomy and quarters for the animals needed in the work, as well as rooms for photographic and wax-plate equipment. Also on this floor are rooms for receiving, refrigerating, embalming, and preserving bodies. On the northeast side is stored material for the Department of Bacteriology with rooms equipped with special lighting for bacteriological research. In addition, space has been allotted for photographic rooms, a general research room for advanced students, and quarters for the Pasteur Institute. The section joining the two arms of the building is taken up by classrooms and a large lecture room.

A general laboratory for introductory work in physiology occupies the second floor of the west wing, with accessory Page  1617rooms for individual work in respiration and mammalian physiology. The second and third floors of the northeast wing are devoted chiefly to general bacteriological laboratories and accessory rooms, with private rooms for the use of instructors and laboratories for advanced bacteriology and parasitology.

The space between the wings has a large laboratory with additional rooms for general histology on the second floor, and on the third floor this part of the building houses a general laboratory for gross anatomy for students in dentistry and physical education. Rooms for galvanometric studies, used by the general class in physiology for special work in X ray, are in the west wing of the third floor, and laboratories for advanced work in physiology, with additional research rooms, occupy the remainder of this section of the building.

On the fourth floor west wing provision has been made for the director's laboratory and, adjoining it, a secretary's office. Just to the north are a library, presented to the Medical School by Dr. Warren F. Lombard, Professor of Physiology (1892-1923), and the main research rooms of the Department of Physiology. Near the end of this corridor a large classroom, formed by a bay, is used jointly by the Physiology and Anatomy departments. The main Anatomical Laboratory for medical students, with accessory rooms, is at the junction of the wings; the northeast wing contains additional research rooms for the Department of Anatomy, as well as facilities for the study of embryology and comparative neurology. Quarters are also provided for special work in anatomy for juniors and seniors.

Animal quarters and rooms for work on animals occupy almost the entire fifth floor, with individual kennels opening on wide runways where the dogs may exercise. Preparation of human bone material is also carried on in specially designated rooms on this floor.

Economics and Pharmacology Building

In his report of December, 1855, President Tappan stated: "In respect to buildings, the true principle is to build as little as possible… It will be necessary, however, to erect a Chemical Laboratory for the analytical course. Such a building will probably cost from two to three thousand dollars" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 618).

In May, 1856, the Regents authorized construction of the first chemical laboratory at the University. In his report of October, 1856, President Tappan described it as "unquestionably … unsurpassed by anything of the kind in our country." It was situated on the site of the present Pharmacology Building. A. J. Jordan was architect for the structure, while Professor Silas H. Douglas, of the Department of Chemistry, superintended the construction. The total cost of the building, which provided 3,142 square feet of floor space, was about $6,000.

This building was one of the first in the world to be devoted exclusively to laboratory instruction in chemistry, and probably the first in this country, since such instruction at that time was being given at both Harvard and Yale in certain rooms set aside for the purpose. It was a one-story structure, consisting of three rooms in which there were twenty-six laboratory tables.

In 1861 the Regents adopted a plan proposed by Professor Douglas for an enlargement, appropriating $2,000 for the purpose. Another addition was constructed in 1866, but in the following year President Haven reported that the Page  1618building was still too small, and in 1868 a third addition was made, which made possible 135 tables. In 1874 President Angell announced the completion of a fourth addition, a wing 95 by 30 feet, stating that as many as one hundred students at a time had been forced to wait for tables, and asserting that there was a need for more instruction in metallurgy and assaying. He added that all of the additional space now provided would be used at once. In 1880 a Laboratory of General Chemistry was set up, and a fifth addition, in the form of a second story, was made to the building. This construction was done under the supervision of Regent Andrew Climie. Meanwhile, the School of Pharmacy, which had been developed within the Chemical Laboratory, had been growing, and in 1888, although congestion had been relieved by transferring the work in hygiene to the building constructed for the laboratories of Hygiene and Physics, President Angell stated that there was urgent need for further enlargement of the building. A sixth addition was, therefore, completed in 1890, the state legislature having appropriated $21,000 for the purpose. It was added to the west end of the building. The architect was E. W. Arnold, of Detroit. The addition provided tables for eighty students, three lecture-rooms, and a pharmaceutical and chemical museum. The cost of the additions and of the original building, including some of the equipment, through 1890 totaled $55,845. Between 1895 and 1900 a Laboratory of Physical Chemistry was set up in the building, and the seventh and last addition was constructed in 1901. The building now had 362 tables. In 1903 the West Medical Building was completed, and the laboratory work in physiological chemistry was removed to it.

The building, because of its additions, is very irregular in plan, with a main section (Pharmacology) on the north which includes the old first laboratory of 1856, and an L-shaped wing on the south. The building has a maximum dimension from north to south of 160 feet and from east to west of 180 feet.

Although the principal purpose for which the building was constructed was to provide laboratory space for work in analytical chemistry, it was later used for organic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and chemical technology as well, and, until 1890, for electrotherapeutics. Later, the Hygienic Laboratory in the West Medical Building became headquarters for the work in physiological chemistry, but one laboratory, providing facilities for forty-eight students, was maintained in the Chemical Building. During the year 1896-97 more than 600 students received instruction in the laboratories of this building.

In 1909, with the completion of the new Chemistry Building, these laboratories were all moved, and the southern wing of the old Chemical Laboratory, which is in effect a separate building, was taken over by the Department of Economics, while the Department of Pharmacology occupied the northern wing. The basement of the southern section was transformed into an accounting laboratory and, until 1924, the second floor was used as a library.

With the erection of Angell Hall, provision was made for an economics-mathematics library on the third floor. The quarters in the Economics Building vacated by the library were thereafter used as a statistical laboratory, while the rear part of the pharmacology section was utilized as laboratory space for special research projects.

First Buildings

Mason Hall. — The first department of the University to be established was Page  1619the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, in 1841. Mason Hall, the first University building devoted to instruction, in the beginning was known as the University Building. In the course of a few years it was supplemented by an identical structure, placed on the same line but separated from it by a gap of about 150 feet, known as the South College Building. Later, these two buildings were joined by a large central structure, and the completed building was called University Hall, the earlier buildings becoming North Wing and South Wing, respectively.

On March 3, 1838, almost a year after the institution had been established in Ann Arbor, a building committee was appointed by the Regents, consisting of Lieutenant-Governor Edward Mundy, Chief Justice William A. Fletcher, and Chancellor Elon Farnsworth; the latter was replaced by Regent John J. Adam in January, 1839. This committee was directed "to fix upon and recommend … a plan for the University buildings," to prepare estimates, to make contracts for materials, and to deal with the question of employing an architect. In connection with this duty, the committee became involved in a curious misunderstanding, the story of which is told by Mr. Mundy, the chairman, in a report dated November, 1838, and presented to the Board on the following April 13 (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 82-83).

On advice, the committee through Mundy opened negotiations with Ammi B. Young, of Vermont, inviting him to visit Michigan with the prospect of being employed as architect. Young, who was engaged at that time in the erection of the Customs House in Boston, could not give full acceptance to the invitation, but offered, nevertheless, to produce a set of plans. On May 15, 1838, therefore, the committee, by letter, gave him a description of the site and commissioned him to furnish them with a design.

Mundy, during that summer, went to New Jersey. While there, he received a letter, dated July 19, from Judge Fletcher which asked him to consult with an entirely different architect, Alexander J. Davis, of New York, from whom the Regents expected a plan, and to ask him to visit Ann Arbor as soon as he could. Calling upon Mr. Davis, Mundy was informed that "a correspondence had existed between himself and one of the members of the Board, to whom anterior to the appointment of this Committee had been given authority to procure a plan for the buildings" (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 82-83). Davis appears to have observed all the professional proprieties, for he told Mundy that Young had, in a letter to him, expressed a willingness to relinquish his connection with the affair. Young, however, later wrote Mundy that he "had expended much time and study upon the designs for the University buildings, that he had completed the most difficult part, the designing … and forwarded … his bill for three hundred dollars …" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 83). Who had engaged the services of Davis, however, does not appear. At any rate, Davis, and not Young, became the first architect for the University of Michigan.

From Davis the University got prompt action. On September 16, 1838, the plan which he drew up was unanimously adopted, and it was determined to begin construction of "the Main Building and eight sections of the North Wing." It was voted to pay Davis $600 and to appoint Isaac Thompson, of Connecticut, as builder. One set of plans which Davis drew is deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York; the set which was submitted for the approval of Governor Mason, after many vicissitudes, found its way back to the archives of the University. These plans call for a Page  1620Gothic structure very different from the severe style of the building finally erected (Mason Hall).

In Alexander J. Davis* the Regents had selected one of the most distinguished American architects of the midnineteenth century; he designed many buildings of national importance. The transaction, however, was doomed to be ill-fated, and his plans, although adopted and still in existence, were never carried out. Exactly what was said and done during the interval between September, 1838, and January, 1839, we do not know, because of the absence of explanatory documents. Although brick was purchased, the actual building, apparently, was not begun, and the action was rescinded as being "premature."

The plan for the original building, Mason Hall, was submitted on April 8, 1840. To take the place of the plans drawn by Alexander J. Davis, the Regents on April 7, 1840 (R.P., 1837-64, p. 128), directed the Building Committee to "procure and report to this Board tomorrow, a plan for a principal Building …, together with the estimates of the expenses for erecting and completing the same." The report, which was forthcoming and adopted by the Regents on the next day, was signed by Harpin Lum, the contractor for the Professors' Houses. This first building was completed in 1841, in time for the opening of college in the fall. The four Professors' Houses had been occupied in 1840.

The final plan was very different from the design presented by Alexander J. Davis, the first architect appointed by the Regents. His sketches, now preserved in the Metropolitan Museum, show an elaborate brick building in the so-called Gothic style of that period. This plan, although first approved by the Board of Regents, was finally rejected because of the opposition of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, John D. Pierce, who deemed it altogether too expensive. Whether Mr. Davis had a hand in designing the building actually erected is not known, although in some of its details it recalls other buildings designed by him. Isaac Thompson, who was associated with Davis, superintended the construction of two of the Professors' Houses; he was replaced by Harpin Lum, who not only completed the first two, but also the second two and the main building. In view of the fact that the plans for the main building were not submitted to the Regents until April, 1840 (whereas the Davis plan was adopted as early as September 16, 1838), and Thompson had been dismissed in July, 1839, it is possible if not probable that the design was worked out by Lum in conjunction with the Building Committee of the Board of Regents.

The structure, designed to be used for the most part as a dormitory, was 110 feet long, 42 feet wide, four stories high, and of brick construction with stucco facing. It provided 18,575 square feet of floor space. The plans called for thirty-two studies, each with a wood-room, and sixty-four bedrooms, each with a closet. Later, alterations were made to provide for classrooms as well as dormitories. Directly behind the building was a wood-yard, from which the students secured their own fuel. The cost of the building, according to Lum's estimate, was $16,000. Originally, the brick exterior was to have been painted, but after receiving favorable reports concerning stuccoing "in New Haven and elsewhere" by a Mr. Gill, the Regents decided to stucco the Professors' Houses, and it was felt that the Main Building should conform in appearance. The Page  [unnumbered]

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The Michigan Creed
Page  [unnumbered]Page  1621builders are said to have mixed the stucco with skim milk in the hope that this would be more durable.

It would be easy to assume, today, that this first building was of cheap construction, evidence of an attempt to save at every turn, but those who were concerned with the matter at the time appear to have felt very differently. Thus, the Board of Visitors reported in 1841-42:

The plan and profile of the University buildings as marked out and adopted by the Board of Regents, will, when completed, present an imposing spectacle, worthy of the great objects for which they are designed… The age in which we live could not make a more noble and acceptable donation to the age which is to follow, than will be presented by these splendid monuments of taste and art, … The material, style and finish of these buildings [those already completed], combining convenience, solidity and elegance, are creditable to the architect, and well adapted for the uses for which they were designed.

(Rept. Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1841-42.)

Again in 1849 the college buildings were described as "admirably finished, after the most approved plan, the result of long experience and observation on the part of the college officers."

The students' quarters consisted of three-room suites or apartments, each with two bedrooms and a common study room. Originally, the building was divided into two sections, each a complete and separate unit consisting of sixteen apartments opening on a central stairway. A tutor, who occupied an apartment on the first floor, presided over each of the sections. The necessity of providing classrooms upset this scheme, since it seems to have been tried out only once, at a time when Andrew Ten Brook, who later became Professor of Philosophy, served as tutor. The faculty strongly and repeatedly recommended the adoption of this plan, but the eventual decision on the part of President Tappan to abandon the dormitory idea in order to secure more classroom space prevented its ever being put into operation.

In April, 1843, the Board of Regents named the building Mason Hall, in the following resolution:

Resolved, That as evidence of the feeling with which this Board cherishes the memory of the late Stevens T. Mason, by whom it was originally organized, the cottage edifice, now in use at Ann Arbor and known as the "Main Building," shall henceforth be called "Mason Hall."

(R.P., 1837-64, p. 264.)
The name was not used, however, for many years, perhaps because at the time there was no need for a special designation for the one University building. It has been suggested, too, that, in view of the growing feeling concerning abolition, the fact that Governor Mason was a Southerner may have militated against the popular acceptance of the name.

The South Wing. — In January, 1847, the Regents decided to erect a second building, since additional accommodations were needed for a chemical and medical laboratory and for recitation rooms, as well as for the housing of students. The new building was to be "similar in its dimensions and general plan to the principal building now in use," and Kearsley and Owen were appointed a committee of two to carry out the plans for the building. It was completed in 1848-49, costing approximately $13,000, and was known as South College. The Regents' committee again recommended, in July, 1848, that the first building be called Mason Hall and that the new or South building be named Pitcher Hall for Dr. Zina Pitcher, a member of the first Board of Regents, and one of the founders of the Medical School. These recommendations, however, were laid on the table. In 1913 a communication was received from the Page  1622Sarah Caswell Angell. Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, requesting permission to place a tablet on the north building (called North Wing of University Hall) and asking also that the building be known thereafter "by the title by which it is said to have been originally designated, … 'Mason Hall.'" After looking into the records, the Regents consented, and the name again was formally adopted in July, 1913.

Thus, the first two units of what later became University Hall were designed solely for dormitories, to be conducted under a tutorial system. The immediate necessity for space, however, reduced the dormitory function to three-fourths of each building. The other fourth was devoted to lecture and recitation rooms, a chapel, library, and rooms for the Mineralogical Cabinet and the two literary societies.

In their report for 1850, the Board of Visitors noted that sixteen rooms in the "dormitory buildings" were unoccupied. Finding the doors to these rooms unlocked, they inspected them, and complained that they found evidence that the wood closets had been used for sawing and splitting wood, much to the damage of the floors, and of the ceilings directly below, from which much plaster had fallen. They were greatly surprised that such a practice should have been allowed in the University. They also thought it a great oversight that someone had not been provided to make the beds and keep the premises neat. The students were sweeping the dirt from their rooms into the halls, whence it was removed by the janitor once or twice a week.

The academic uses to which these two buildings were put varied from time to time. The Chemical Laboratory for Dr. Douglas was set up in the North Wing, probably in 1844. In 1848 it was moved to the South Wing, where it remained until the erection in 1850 of the first Laboratory Building, which eventually became known as the Medical Building. On one occasion the location of the faculty room and a janitor's room in the North Wing was the cause of much embarrassment. The doors to the two rooms, which were directly opposite each other, stood open. A rope was stretched from doorknob to doorknob. It was, of course, the janitor who climbed through the window and solved the problem.

In 1856, at a cost of $3,500, the entire central part of the North Wing was renovated and equipped, according to plans by Jordan and Anderson, architects, to house the Library and the Museum. The contractor was William Gibbings. This coincided with a decision to abandon the dormitory plan altogether and to encourage the students to find rooms in the town. The new arrangements provided a gallery around the room devoted to the Library, in which, and in rooms opening from it, the Museum and the art exhibits were displayed. The Mineralogical Cabinet was placed in the north half of the gallery, with the geological collections in the south half; the Fine Arts collection, begun in 1855 by Professor Frieze, was accommodated in three adjacent rooms.

The fourth floor apparently continued in use for a time as dormitory rooms. The last one on the campus, on the second floor in the south end of the North Wing, "directly under the bell," was occupied as late as the year 1870-71. Its various tenants acted in the capacity of caretaker for the Museum. The Chapel appears to have occupied the space, on the main floor at one end of the North Wing, that normally would have accommodated two student suites. When the Law School was established in 1859, the Law Library also had to be housed in the Library room, and this arrangement continued until the completion of the Law Building in 1863, when both the Law and the Literary College libraries were moved Page  1623to the new building. After the Museums Building was completed in 1880-81 the central part of the North Wing was renovated to provide classrooms. In the spring of 1899 the little room that had been attached in 1862 to the north end of the North Wing to house Randolph Rogers' statue of "Nydia" was cut away, and replaced by a bay window.

The first professorship in engineering was established in 1853, and much of the nonlaboratory instruction in this subject was given in South College until 1890. The Law Department also had quarters in this building. In 1861 a large room on the ground floor was given over to military drill. After removal of the engineering courses to the easterly of the two Professors' Houses facing South University Avenue in 1891, South College appears to have been devoted largely to classrooms, particularly in the natural sciences, with the Treasurer's offices occupying the ground floor. On the morning of May 28, 1913, a fire broke out in the Botanical Laboratory at the south end of the top floor, causing part of the roof to collapse, and resulting in damage estimated at approximately $47,000, including injury to, or loss of 2,692 books belonging to the Library, as well as a part of the University Herbarium. The Treasurer's records escaped harm. Restoration of the building was promptly voted by the Regents, and plans were incorporated for its use after the impending removal of the Biology Department to the new Natural Science Building.

University Hall. — The decision, in 1870, to ask the legislature for an appropriation for a new University building, appears to have been the result of repeated urgings on the part of Acting President Henry S. Frieze. In a report to the Regents in March of that year, he dwelt at some length on the need for a more perfect union "of the three grand departments of the institution," including both faculty and students. It was to further this end that the University Senate had been formed, and on November 17, 1869, at the suggestion of Regent E. C. Walker, a new anniversary, "University Day," was inaugurated. This day was celebrated only twice, in 1869 and in 1870. "It created strife rather than union" (Farrand, p. 208). The great need of the University, however, in Dr. Frieze's judgment, was "an audience room … suitable for all … occasions, … as well as for … exhibitions and annual commencements." He said: "The University has no roof under which to assemble her various Departments. She has a family of a thousand children without a shelter" (R.P., 1870-76, p. 25). At the same time he stressed the shortage of classrooms.

He pursued the subject further in his annual report of September, 1870, "Certainly no Union School District in this State would think it creditable, either to its enterprise or humanity, to shut up its youth in such rooms as the Academic Department of the University is now compelled to occupy." A further argument may well have clinched his case. The admission of women into the University had not given rise to the evils apprehended but it had presented an unconsidered problem. With no adequate space for the young men, how could room also be found for young women? Dr. Frieze said:

Any one who should witness the difficulty the large classes of this department find in moving along the narrow "gang ways," up and down the narrow stair cases of this building, a movement which must take place at almost every hour of the day, would hesitate to expose young ladies to all this embarrassment and discomfort.


You have believed it a duty to comply with the request of the Legislature, urged upon you by repeated majorities in both houses, and undoubtedly reflecting the will of the people. You can now in all fairness ask the Page  1624Legislature to furnish you with the buildings necessary to make their request effectual, and to carry out their wishes.

(R.P., 1870-76, pp. 76-77.)

The Regents accordingly agreed to approach the legislature, and that body almost unanimously voted an appropriation of $75,000. This action, following the establishment of the principle of the mill tax in 1867, marked a new era in the history of the support of higher education by the state. It was decided that the new building, "with its front of 347 feet, and its dome rising to a height of 140 feet from the ground" (R.P., 1870-76, p. 203), affording 61,903 square feet of floor space, should be a connecting link between the old North and South College buildings, making the whole one large University building. The name "University Hall" was probably adopted by the Regents at their meeting in June of 1871. After consideration of plans submitted by several architects, E. S. Jenison, of Chicago, was chosen as architect. The original plans showed a monumental archway above the main entrance and a dome which the Regents deemed "inexpedient." The dome, however, was retained in a modified form, rising approximately 60 feet above the building, 140 feet above the ground, and with a diameter of 30 feet.

The design provided for a chapel on the north side of the main floor, with a seating capacity of 550; across on the south side was the President's office, with a waiting room for ladies at the east side. The main feature of the building, however, was the large auditorium on the second floor, which seated 3,000 people — 1,700 on the main floor, and 1,300 in the encircling elliptical gallery. The building also provided eleven lecture rooms as well as offices for the Regents, the faculty, and the steward. This plan proved more expensive than expected, and the legislature was called upon for an additional $25,000, bringing the total cost to $105,459.61.

The cornerstone of the new building was laid on Commencement Day, June 28, 1871, which was also the occasion of the first official appearance of the recently elected President, James Burrill Angell. Two years later, on the evening of November 5, 1873, the dedication ceremonies took place, although the Chapel and lecture rooms had been in use since October of the preceding year. Thirty-four hundred people crowded into the new auditorium to hear addresses by Regent George Willard, the Honorable D. Bethune Duffield, of Detroit, and President Andrew D. White, of Cornell University, formerly a member of the University of Michigan faculty.

Criticism of various sorts arose during the construction of the building. Some people objected to making it a part of the two original college buildings, while others did not like the construction materials. The writer of an editorial in the Chronicle of September, 1871, said:

Every one must regret that a building, over which we have been more puffed up than any other college in the country and which would have been worth over one half million dollars, had to be built of brick and stuccoed; but the amount of capital and the style of the old buildings left no choice in the matter.

The opinion was also prevalent that the quality of the materials was poor.

There was, too, a strong reaction against the appearance of the building. A very caustic editorial in the Chronicle of May, 1875, was directed chiefly against the dome. The sight of it "would have caused Michael Angelo to hang his head in shame." The writer remarked that it should always be viewed from the State Street side if one would get an impression of its beauty and grandeur as Page  1625"it shows at a great disadvantage from the rear." Reference was also made to the "pepper boxes" ornamenting the roof. Of this last criticism the Regents took notice and in 1879 ordered the removal of "the two circular corner turrets and the two turrets at the base of the dome," and provided for the finishing of "the said corners and said sides in conformity with the style of said dome." They also ordered the removal of the balustrade which bordered the roofs of the two wings (R.P., 1876-81, p. 398).

Finally, widespread fear arose that the self-supporting roof of the auditorium would not bear the weight of the great dome, which was estimated at 112,000 pounds. DeVolson Wood, Professor of Civil Engineering, reviewed the plans in detail, made independent calculations of the strains, and wrote two articles, which were published in the Chronicle, reassuring the public as to the safety of the building. After the dedicatory ceremony, the Chronicle (5[Nov., 1872]: 42.) noted: "The seats were full, but no signs of weakness could be detected, … The acoustic properties of the hall, we are happy to say, are excellent."

Regardless of its physical qualities, however, the erection of University Hall was of great moral significance. President White's dedicatory address, which made a profound impression, was an argument for state-supported colleges, and Acting President Frieze, in his annual report for the year 1870-71, referring to the almost unanimous vote of the legislature appropriating money for the new building, said:

If it is reasonable to regard the Legislature as representing the sentiment of the people, I think we may now feel assured that the University has at length reached that period which we have always desired to see, when it should be recognized and accepted by the citizens of the state as a genuine state institution, not only such by the organic laws of the state, but in the estimation of the people, and in their cordial sympathy and support.

(R.P., 1870-76, p. 113.)

Immediately upon completion, the new building became the center of all University activities. In 1894 the Columbian Organ, built by Farrand and Votey, of Detroit, and valued at $25,000, which had been used in Festival Hall during the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, was purchased by the University Musical Society and installed in University Hall. The instrument was promptly named the Frieze Memorial Organ. With this began a series of vesper services, held twice weekly, at which a chorus of 100 voices, under the direction of Professor Stanley, sang. The spring of 1894 also witnessed the first of the long series of May Festivals which have been held since that time.

Early apprehensions concerning the weight of the dome increased, and in November, 1895, the Regents ordered the Committee on Buildings and Grounds either to repair or to remove it if this seemed desirable. Subsequently, after representatives of the H. George and Company, of Detroit, had inspected it, it was finally decided that the old dome should be removed. This was accomplished during the Christmas holidays of 1896, and plans for a new roof were prepared by Spice and Rohn, architects. The new dome was of iron, much smaller, and consequently less expensive, a fact which was sadly noted by an alumnus writing in 1899, "The mighty dome which we used to point out and look at fondly on our walks about the neighboring country has gone, and its place can never be taken in our hearts by its diminutive and bubble-like successor" (Michigan Alumnus, 6[Oct., 1899]:6). But he added that while it was inspiring to view the old dome in a tempest, to sit beneath Page  1626it, because of its many leaks, was damaging to body, raiment, and character.

At the time the roof was being recon-structed, the incline of the floor of the auditorium was lowered twenty-two and one-half inches, and the seats were replaced by opera chairs. As the Chapel exercises were gradually discontinued, the Chapel became a general assembly room, known as Room C, and was used for class meetings.

Once more in the early 1900's fears were entertained for the safety of those sitting in the gallery of the auditorium. The enthusiastic stamping of feet which greeted William Jennings Bryan when he spoke in the hall in 1902 led a member of the faculty to warn the audience that this was dangerous; he said, "The building shows its age. Its woodwork and floors are becoming dry and lifeless." The Inlander also called attention in 1905 to the shaking of floor, seats, and gallery during a performance of "David Garrick" by Leland T. Powers.

After the completion of Hill Auditorium in 1913, old University Hall ceased to be the center of University gatherings. The Frieze Memorial Organ was moved to the new building in 1913-14, and the seating capacity of the old auditorium was restricted to 1,500. Six years later, it was reduced still more in size in order to provide six additional classrooms, and what remained was used for classes in dramatics. In 1930 further use of the auditorium was prohibited on the grounds of safety. Later, all of the first floor and much of the second floor of the building were used as general University offices. The old Chapel became offices for the Dean of Students and the Registrar, and the rooms once occupied by the President were incorporated in the University's business offices.

The structure was removed to make way for the new Mason Hall and Haven Hall additions in 1950.

The Professors' Houses. — The first houses on the campus were those belonging to the former occupants of the land. These, however, were removed, and the earliest University buildings to take their places were the four Professors' Houses, built at about the same time as, but shortly before, Mason Hall.

Twenty thousand dollars was appropriated in 1839 for "such buildings as the necessities of the University may at present require." These "necessities" were stated to be "four buildings for the use of the Professors of the University"; they were to be used also for the storage of the "Cabinet of Natural History, the Library, the Philosophical Apparatus and other general purposes of the University" until the "main buildings" could be finished. At this time the contract with Messrs. Davis and Thompson was canceled, and a new one was made with Mr. Thompson, as superintendent of building operations, which remained in force until August 14, 1839. In February, 1839, on Thompson's advice, the contract to erect the remaining two houses and to finish the two already begun was given to Harpin Lum.* July 1, 1840, was the date specified for their completion. The first payment on this contract was made to Mr. Lum on February 11, 1839, and the final settlement on November 12, 1840, but as only two warrants were drawn on this account after May 20 it is probable that most of the work was completed by the summer of 1840.

It is not known who drew the plans for the four Professors' Houses. They are not included in Davis' preserved papers and in style are quite unlike the buildings Page  1627which he actually designed. The Regents' Proceedings state simply that the Building Committee, on February 11, 1839, "presented a plan for the buildings directed to be constructed … which plan was adopted." Since Isaac Thompson was superintendent of building at this time, it seems likely that he may have made the necessary drawings; the houses resembled in some respects, notably their porticos, a style not infrequently found in his native state, Connecticut. Business connections appear to have existed between Mr. Thompson and Mr. Davis, and the latter, in turn, was associated with Ithiel Town, of New Haven. On the other hand, Harpin Lum was capable of drawing building plans.

The contracts which the building committee made for the erection of these houses amounted in each case to $7,712.50 or $30,850 for the four. Each afforded about 4,800 square feet of floor space and measured 36 by 44 feet in size. Attention was given by the Regents to their location as well as to many details of their construction.

On February 11 a resolution was adopted which directed that an avenue one hundred feet in width should be run through the center of the campus from north to south and that the Professors' Houses should be situated in pairs on either side of this avenue, two on the north and two on the south side of the grounds. This location was adopted, but the avenue was never actually laid out nor opened, and on November 26, 1839, the resolution was rescinded.

When the Professors' Houses were completed in the fall of 1840, one of them was used temporarily as a library. Wood-houses, cisterns, and barns were provided for each. The occupancy of the houses by the professors apparently began in 1840. One is referred to as Dr. Douglass Houghton's house as early as March of that year (R.P., 1837-64, p. 127). From 1840 until 1845, when Professor Joseph Whiting died, Professors Houghton, George Palmer Williams, and Whiting were the tenants; for the first three years one of the houses apparently stood vacant except as it may have been used for miscellaneous purposes. It was probably this house, in the basement of which the janitor, Patrick Kelly, was permitted to live, which in October, 1843, was rented to Governor Alpheus Felch and occupied by him until May, 1846. Mrs. Whiting continued in residence until May, 1846, when she left for Buffalo and the Agnews took over her house. Professor Whedon lived in the Felch house, probably, until 1852, when Erastus O. Haven succeeded him in its tenancy. In 1852 the four houses were occupied by President Tappan and Professors Williams, Boise, and Haven, respectively. Upon Haven's resignation as Professor in 1856, his place was taken by Professor W. P. Trowbridge, and from 1858 through 1860 by Professor Andrew D. White. Professor Frieze began his long tenancy of one of the University Houses in 1861, and Mr. James Clements, father of Regent William Lawrence Clements, rented another of them, at least in 1861-62. Others who lived in the houses at various times were Mrs. Helen E. Putnam and Professors L. D. Chapin, Alexander Winchell, G. B. Merriman, and Benjamin F. Cocker. It is difficult to determine the years of the various tenancies and impossible to designate here the specific house occupied by each individual.

The use of the Professors' Houses for other purposes was early discussed. In 1861 it was proposed to use one for hospital purposes and another to house the Law Department, and in 1869, it was proposed to use the northwest dwelling for instruction in engineering. These proposals were all rejected. In 1869, however, the northeast house was taken over Page  1628for use as a University Hospital. Additions were made to it, both at that time and later. In 1876 two wooden pavilions 114 by 30 feet were built onto the rear of the old house, and in 1879 an amphitheater, matron's quarters, and kitchen and dining room were added. It continued in use as a hospital until 1891. From 1891 to 1908 the School of Dentistry used this building until it was removed for the erection of the Chemical Laboratory in 1909-10.

From 1875 to 1877 another of the Professors' Houses, that to the northwest, was used as the first home of the School of Dentistry. An addition to this building also was made, and in 1879 it became the hospital of the Homeopathic Medical College. Thus, it was used until 1899, when, on the removal of the Homeopathic Hospital to new quarters, its wooden extension was taken over by the Department of Pathology for three years, thereafter, from 1903 to 1915, by the Department of Psychology. The southeast residence was occupied by the College of Dentistry from 1877 until 1891. In that year a large brick addition was made to the building, and for the next thirty years it was occupied by the School of Engineering and was known as the Old Engineering Building. It was torn down in 1921-22 to permit the erection of the Clements Library, the southeast corner of which falls upon the site of the old Professor's House.

The fourth Professor's House, the southwest one of the group, is the only one which throughout the years has preserved its original purpose. It is now, as it has been since the time of President Tappan, the President's House, although the many additions which have been made to it in the interval since its erection have changed its appearance. It was not until President Angell came in 1871 that a hot-air furnace was installed. The chief alterations, however, were the addition of a one-story kitchen wing in 1864, the library wing, designed by E. W. Arnold, in 1891, the sun room, sleeping porch, and a further extension of the kitchen wing, including a garage, at the time of President Burton's arrival in Ann Arbor in 1920, and in 1933, the study which was added at the northeast corner. The house as originally built was a square two-story structure. The President's House was lighted by gas from about 1858, when gas was first introduced in Ann Arbor, until 1891, when the house was wired for electricity.

The iron fence surrounding the grounds, erected during President Angell's administration, was removed during President Burton's occupancy of the house.

Food Service Building

The Food Service Building on the corner of Glen and Huron streets was occupied in April, 1948. The combined building and equipment have involved a total outlay of $1,450,000. The building was constructed without the aid of appropriation by the state, the funds having been provided from a combined bond issue for residence hall refinancing and new construction.

The building serves as a centralized storage depot and processing point for food served in all University eating places except the Union. In the 1930's, when University residence hall facilities were increased, the need of a central receiving, distributing, and fabricating unit for food became apparent. As a temporary expedient the facilities of the Hospital Store, which was already providing food for the Hospital, were enlarged to service the residence halls. Further dormitory expansion after World War II overtaxed the limited Hospital facilities, and the need for the Food Service Building became imperative.

Page  1629The building is of reinforced concrete and red brick, with limestone trim, modern and attractive in appearance. Designed by Kalamazoo architects Louis C. Kingscott and Associates, it contains two floors and a basement, and the center section is designed to accommodate two additional stories when necessary. There are approximately 63,200 square feet of floor space in the building, and the over-all dimensions are approximately 120 by 220 feet.

Approximately 15,000 square feet of the total area are devoted to twenty-seven refrigerated rooms from 10 by 10 to 22 by 60 feet. The operation of these refrigerators, which are cork-lined, requires the use of nineteen large water-cooled compressors which operate at alternate intervals to assure equal wear on each unit.

The receiving entrance is at the front of the building, and the shipping dock is at the rear. The first floor contains the administrative offices, the receiving department, the bakery, the meat department, and the ice cream room. The building is equipped with a pneumatic tube system for sending messages from one floor to another and with an intercommunicating system.

The administrative offices, near the main entrance, are occupied by the manager, the food buyer representing the University Purchasing Department, the chief dietitian of the residence halls, and other staff.

The bakery, which covers an area of about 9,000 square feet, contains two refrigerated rooms for storing supplies and retaining dough temporarily. It is equipped with the most modern devices available and is designed on a production line basis so that the dough is prepared and mixed at one end, and the finished products come out of the ovens at the other end.

Across the corridor from the bakery is the meat department, which covers an area of 4,000 square feet and includes a well-equipped, modern butcher shop. Six refrigerators occupy more than half the area of this department.

At the end of the corridor is the ice cream room which occupies about 600 square feet and includes storage for flavors, a main room for the freezer, and two refrigerated rooms.

All incoming merchandise is delivered to the receiving dock. There is a platform scale for miscellaneous use as well as an overhead scale for weighing meat. Three tractor-trailers can be accommodated simultaneously. An electrically operated overhead door can be closed during inclement weather. Merchandise is unloaded from a freight car siding directly into the building. Overhead tracks for handling meat also lead into the building from the receiving dock and the freight car entrance. Meat is placed on hooks at the time of unloading and moved on these tracks directly into refrigerators near the receiving area. Mechanical lift trucks save much rehandling of canned goods, sugar, potatoes, and flour. As merchandise is unloaded both from freight cars and large trucks it is stacked directly on pallets (wooden platforms) which can be picked up, transported, and set down by the lift trucks anywhere in the building. Two heavy duty elevators, one at each end of the building, facilitate the movement of merchandise between the three floors.

The top or second floor is used entirely for storage of canned goods, paper goods, frozen fruits, flour, vegetables, and sugar. Four large refrigerators, each covering an area of 1,125 square feet, will accommodate fourteen freight car loads of frozen foods. The "flour room" is refrigerated and air conditioned.

The basement floor has further storage facilities for staples, canned goods, fresh fruits, and vegetables. It also contains Page  1630two compressor rooms, the mechanical equipment room, and the shipping department. There are, in all, twelve refrigerated rooms on this floor.

The shipping department at the rear of the building contains space for preparation of orders, an area for completed orders awaiting delivery, a storage area for trucks, and a shipping dock which will accommodate four trucks at a time. This entire area is enclosed, and two electrically operated doors can be closed during inclement weather or in non-operating periods.

Since the building was completed in 1948 much time and effort have been devoted to study of improved methods. The outstanding improvement after the building was occupied resulted from the utilization of the pallets described above. Much has been accomplished by the installation of other modern labor-saving equipment.

Forestry Lands

Eber White Woods. — In 1915 the Eber White tract of forty-three acres on West Liberty Road was purchased by the Regents and for many years occupied an important place in the instructional and investigational activities of the School. This area, a part of the former Eber White estate, was named the Eber White Woods.

Previous cuttings had been restricted, so that many of the older trees were still standing. In 1917 a plan to manage the area under the selection method was adopted, and cutting took place at five-year intervals on each of the ten compartments, with the result that there was an increase in the total volume of growing stock and in the percentage of the more valuable species as well as an improvement in the average quality of the trees. Cutting averaged about a cord an acre each year.

Because of the location of the tract, on the immediate outskirts of the city, many people felt that it would serve its greatest permanent use as a community forest and park for the people of Ann Arbor. This led in 1946 to its being given to the Ann Arbor Board of Education, with the understanding that its continued use by the University would be permitted.

The Saginaw Forest. — When the Forestry Department was established, one of the immediate needs was for land on which instruction and research in forestry operations could be carried out. The need was met by Arthur Hill, of Saginaw, a lumberman and Regent, who purchased an eighty-acre tract, two miles west of Ann Arbor, in 1903 and deeded it to the University, with the stipulation that it be used as a forestry demonstration and experimental area. The deed also specified that the official name should be "The Saginaw Forestry Farm." By 1919 the development of the plantations had reached such a stage that the name "farm" seemed inappropriate, so it was changed by the Regents, at the request of the Department of Forestry faculty, to "The Saginaw Forest."

Planting of the cleared parts began in the spring of 1904 and was completed in 1915. Later, some of the species proved to be unsuited to the sites on which they had been planted. Other species suffered serious damage from insects and diseases. Most of these unsuccessful plantations have been clear cut, and the areas have been replanted with different species. A few have been kept because of their demonstration value.

The total area of experimental plantations is fifty-five acres, with the balance of the area occupied by the lake, swamp, natural second-growth, roads, buildings, and a small arboretum. Most of the Page  1631plantings are now so far advanced that the history of their development furnishes much information that can serve as a guide for future operations in reforestation in southern Michigan. Even the failures have been valuable in this respect.

During the summer and fall of 1915, a stone cabin was built for tools and materials and as a shelter for classes and work-crews in inclement weather. It was unfortunate that the need for a caretaker's residence could not have been foreseen, so that a design better suited to the present use of the building could have been adopted. In 1947 the building east of the cabin was erected as a garage and to furnish supplementary living and storage space.

In the hearts of many of the older alumni there is much sentiment for the old "Forestry Farm." It was there that they struggled with grub hoes and spades to establish the first plantations, while arguing vigorously as to the feasibility of starting forests in such an artificial way. There they enjoyed the fellowship of the annual "Camp Fire" in the fall and of the weekend-long "Field Day" in the spring. On the hillside back of the present cabin, they sat and listened to the inspirational talks of "Daddy" Roth. A short distance from the cabin, a large stone with an appropriate bronze tablet was erected by the students in 1927 as a memorial to Professor Filibert Roth, the first head of the Department of Forestry.

Most of the tract of eighty acres consists of level to gentle slopes, with a few short, steep slopes. Toward the north end is Third Sister Lake, covering eleven acres, with about six acres of swamp around the west and south sides. A deep ravine runs southeasterly from the lake to the mid-point of the east boundary. The bulk of the soil is Miami loam.

Stinchfield Woods. — A gift of $10,000 from Mrs. Annie Tillson Stinchfield of Detroit, in memory of Jacob and Charles Stinchfield, made it possible in 1925 to purchase land for Stinchfield Woods. With the funds provided by Mrs. Stinchfield, and a small appropriation by the University, almost 320 acres in two separate tracts south of Portage Lake, about fifteen miles from Ann Arbor, were acquired. The westerly part, described on the acquisition map as the Bell tract, had an area of eighty acres, whereas the eastern tract contained approximately 240 acres.

In 1946 the Peach Mountain tract was purchased from the State Department of Conservation, and in 1949 the Carr tract of sixty acres, the Gardner tract of ninety acres, and the Ford and Pustay tracts of forty acres each, were added. Purchase of the Losey tract brought the area of the tract to almost 780 acres.

Across the Huron River to the east and bordering on the Strawberry Lake Road lies another University-owned property of 207 acres known as the Newcomb tract. This was purchased in 1929 for $30,000 from William W. and Esther M. Newcomb as the site for the Astronomical Observatory. Pending its use for this purpose, the administration of the land was handled by the Department of Zoology. For almost nineteen years the Newcomb tract was used chiefly for ornithological and limnological observations. During that period some plantations were established and cared for by the School of Natural Resources, and in 1949 the School was assigned the management of approximately eighty acres of the tract, including the farm buildings which are now used as headquarters for Stinchfield Woods and which are occupied by the assistant to the Manager of Forest Properties. Adjoining the Newcomb tract Page  1632on the east is the Murdock tract of thirty-three acres purchased in 1951. The Newcomb and Murdock tracts are considered part of Stinchfield Woods so that the total area now embraces 890 acres.

The eastern part of the original purchase in 1925 consisted of 165 acres of cleared land and seventy-five acres of severely grazed hardwoods. The soil varies from sand and gravel to clay, but the prevailing type is Bellefontaine sandy loam, which is of low value for crop production. When the area was acquired most of the cleared land was no longer cropped but did furnish some poor pasturage. Planting of the open land began in 1925 and was completed in 1940. Several cuts to remove trees of poor quality or of low-value species have been made in the hardwood stands on these two tracts, and some small, poorly stocked areas have been clear cut and replanted with pines. Black and white oaks and several species of hickory predominate heavily. Some seedling reproduction of white ash, black cherry, and sassafras has occurred in places, and some sprouting has resulted from the cuttings. Small areas have been underplanted with hard and Norway maples.

On the Peach Mountain tract were sixty acres of heavily grazed hardwoods and eighty-seven acres of cleared land when the land was acquired. One improvement cut has been made in the hardwood area, and planting of the open land was begun in 1946 and completed in 1952. With the exception of some scattered red cedar, there is practically no natural seedling reproduction. The tower of the University's broadcasting station is on Peach Mountain, and the School's sawmill is a short distance below the tower. Public access to the top of Peach Mountain is provided for in an agreement with the State Conservation Department.

The Carr tract is made up of forty-seven acres of hardwood and thirteen acres of old field. Improvement cuts in the hardwood area were made in the winters of 1950-51 and 1951-52. Site quality on parts of this area is very low for hardwoods. White ash reproduction is good in some places, but seedlings of other species are practically lacking. The cleared land was planted with conifers in 1952.

The Gardner, Pustay, Losey, and Ford tracts consist mostly of old fields with small areas of poor, over-grazed hardwoods. Until August, 1952, the Pustay tract was subject to a lease under which gravel could be removed. Another gravel lease of ten acres on the Ford tract expires when the gravel is exhausted.

The part of the Newcomb tract controlled by the School of Natural Resources consists of nineteen acres of hardwoods, fifty-one acres of old fields, and ten acres around the buildings, partly used as a nursery. A 15-acre field growing up to sumac, hawthorn, and poor Scotch pine, naturally seeded-in from trees planted to the west in 1915, was planted with conifers in 1950. The Murdock tract is completely wooded with a hardwood stand of potentially good quality.

There is a large variety of wildlife on the area. The greatest attraction is the deer which between 1945 and 1949 increased to such proportions that an open season was declared in the county. Other game animals and fur-bearers are rabbits, grey and fox squirrels, fox, woodchucks, badgers, raccoons, opossums, weasels, and an occasional coyote. Of the game birds, ruffed grouse and pheasants are present. Occasionally quail are seen. Songbirds, hawks, and owls comprise the remainder of the bird population.

Some wildlife management practices have been introduced with beneficial results. Multiflora roses have been Page  1633planted along the exterior fence lines as a source of food and cover for wildlife and also to provide a permanent stockproof fence that will not require maintenance. Since 1947 squirrel and raccoon den trees have been preserved.

The senior Forestry class of 1942 established a fund for the purchase of a portable sawmill. With contributions from the Forestry Club, succeeding senior classes, and alumni, a fund was built to about $2,000. With this amount on hand the University contributed enough to make possible the purchase and installation of the mill.

The building was constructed entirely by students, and the material came largely from the forest properties of the School. One notable exception is the corner posts and the posts around the doors, which are of wood from Chile brought here by a graduate student from that country. The equipment was also installed by student labor, and the building and installation were completed in the spring of 1947. The first lumber was cut in the fall of 1947.

A small nursery was begun on the Newcomb tract in the spring of 1949 immediately east of the caretaker's house. Each spring the establishment of seed beds and transplanting of older stock are done, as required work, by the class in artificial forestation. Water for irrigation through the overhead sprinkler system is pumped from the Huron River.

General Library Building

For many years the old library building, with its semicircular apse and twin towers, was adequate for the needs of the University. It stood at the center of the campus, and throughout a period of thirty-seven years the life of the University revolved around it. Eventually, however, it became too small and too crowded and because it was partly of wooden construction it offered a grave fire hazard to the University's book collections which were increasing in value every year. In January, 1915, therefore, the Regents asked the legislature for an appropriation of $350,000 to build a new library building. This request was granted, but the amount proved to be inadequate, and in 1919 an additional $200,000 was appropriated to which the Regents added $65,000, the final cost of the building and equipment being $645,000.

In 1915 William Warner Bishop became Librarian. He gave extended study, based on his long experience as a professional librarian, to the type of building which would best fill the needs of a rapidly growing university. The design evolved by the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit, in co-operation with Bishop, followed the plan of the University of California and the Harvard libraries and included many features unique at that time.

The contract for the construction was authorized by the Regents at their June, 1916, meeting. The University Buildings and Grounds Department served as general contractor, and Professor John F. Shepard represented the University as superintendent of construction. The Library was dedicated at exercises held in Hill Auditorium on January 7, 1920. Bishop, as Librarian, and Kahn, as architect, spoke preceding the principal address by R. R. Bowker, of New York, editor of the Library Journal.

The Library Building, which stands on the site of the first Library, is 177 feet long, 200 feet deep, and four stories high, with two bookstacks built at right angles to the old stacks, which were retained in the new structure. The two "new" stacks, the first part of the building to be crected, were used as reading and study rooms as well as for library administration during the construction of the main part of the building Page  1634By utilizing the old stacks, some $150,000 was saved, and it was possible to delay moving the books until the new stacks were ready to receive them. The old fireproof bookstacks were five stories high; the eight floors of new stacks on either side are so constructed that they may be extended to fifteen stories, bridging the old stacks by girders carried on specially designed columns.

The gross floor area of the Library Building is given in the University records as 151,206 square feet. It was so designed that the books were housed in the center and rear, with the reading rooms in front and special reading rooms and workrooms at the side. This brought the focal point for the delivery of books to the center of the building, where a book carrier was installed to take them to the delivery corridor on the second floor.

The building is constructed entirely of reinforced concrete and employs a system of regularly spaced concrete piers which afford an unusual amount of light as well as the necessary strength and protection against fire. These advantages were obtained at twenty-five cents a cubic foot, a very small cost, even in that period. Further protection from fire was secured by enclosing the stairways in the stacks with glass and steel, with every other floor cut off from those above and below. The stacks in the "new" part at either side were designed for workrooms as well as for book storage, and 122 cubicles or carrells containing shelves and tables for the use of research workers were provided. In the stacks are the Rare Book Rooms, and distributed among the carrells and book shelves are specially constructed cases for the folio material.

The basement of the building houses a receiving room, machinery room, and staff quarters; it also accommodates one study hall.

On the first floor the wide main entrance hallway, with floors and walls of marble, is attractively decorated in a Pompeian motif and lined with exhibition cases in which various selections from the Library are shown.

At the right of the main entrance is a large study hall. On the east side of the main hall are the offices and workrooms of the ordering, classifying, and cataloguing departments of the Library. This room affords flexibility of arrangement and avoids congestion. On the first floor, near the west entrance, there is also a lecture room, while beyond, on the lower floor of the west stack wing, is the study hall and library for graduate students registered in the Department of Library Science.

Broad marble staircases on either side of the hall lead to the main delivery corridor on the second floor, the heart of the Library, which contains the card catalogues, the circulation desk, and the delivery counter. An elevator is also available.

Opposite the delivery counter on the north side of the building, is the main reading room, which measures 175 by 50 feet, and is 50 feet high at the center of the barrel-vaulted ceiling. Huge windows 9 feet wide and 19 1/2 feet high afford ample light. The room seats about 300 readers. The general lighting system is indirect, with lights over the study tables and above the bookcases which line the walls. These bookcases contain a careful selection of reference books, available to all readers for consultation. In the lunettes above the windows at either end of the reading room are frescoes by Gari Melchers, "The Arts of War" and "The Arts of Peace," painted in 1893 for the Manufactures Building at the World's Fair in Chicago, and later presented to the University.

The administrative offices of the Library are at the east end of the delivery corridor, and at the west end Page  1635is a periodical reading room. On the third and fourth floors, three graduate reading rooms with libraries of 8,000 volumes are open to students. The fourth floor, in addition to the graduate reading room for history and political science and several seminar rooms, also houses the library and reading room of the Center for Japanese Studies. The seminar rooms on these two floors are used by the Department of Library Science and also, because of the shortage of classrooms, by other departments of the University as well. The Library Extension is also housed on the third floor. Altogether the Library, with its study halls, seminar rooms, and carrells, has seats for 1,000 readers.

Edwin S. George Reserve

A tract of land, comprising approximately 1,250 acres in Putnam and Unadilla townships in Livingston County, Michigan, twenty miles northwest of Ann Arbor, was given to the University in April, 1930, by Colonel Edwin S. George of Detroit. In presenting this gift the object of the donor was twofold: to make a definite contribution to education and to enable youth "to come in contact with the out-of-doors." Specifically, it was his intention to "further visual education in the natural sciences and for the purpose of preserving and demonstrating the native fauna and flora to the end that students interested in zoology, ornithology, botany, nature study and nature sketching, landscape studies, parks in the broad natural sense, or ecology, may here find material for observation and satisfy and develop the love for God's out-of-doors, — Nature" (R.P., 1929-32, p. 235).

The Reserve was to be administered by the Regents, who agreed to make it available to nature study groups and to provide a curator and such assistants as necessary "for the proper protection and care of the animals and plants, to provide for the upkeep of the necessary fences, buildings, and equipment, and to assume the expense of such planting, road building, and other developments as may be considered advisable" (R.P., 1929-32, pp. 235-36).

The Board adopted the following resolution in April, 1930:

Resolved, That the Regents of the University of Michigan with deep realization of its significance to the educational advantages of the State throughout the future accept with deep gratitude the Edwin George Reserve of the University of Michigan as tendered to this Board by the donor in his communication herein above appearing under date of April 4, 1930.

(R.P., 1929-32, p. 237.)

The Edwin S. George Reserve, protected from the ravages of man, is becoming of increasing importance owing to the gradual reduction of other natural areas for study within a reasonable distance of the University of Michigan. The Reserve is characteristic of many of the glaciated areas of southeastern Michigan. Rolling hills, steep slopes, and wooded ridges are intermingled with marshes and swamps. Numerous ponds, five permanent springs, and a small bog lake add to the types of aquatic environments. This out-of-door laboratory is protected by a firebreak and is enclosed with six miles of seven-foot, dogtight fence. A system of roads and trails enmeshes the whole. Facilities include houses for the curator, the custodian, and three student families. A modern, all-weather, four-man laboratory built with the proceeds derived from the sale of excess deer provides living and research quarters for investigators.

The Reserve was administered for many years directly by the Museum of Zoology. In August, 1950, the Board of Regents appointed the Director of the Page  1636Museum of Zoology as the Director of the Edwin S. George Reserve and chairman of an Executive Committee representing the various groups and fields interested in the use of the Reserve for research.

Colonel George never lost interest in the Reserve. Individual gifts of additional lands have increased the area to over 1,335 acres. Grants of money have supported field work, permitted publication of finished research, and paid for improvements of the physical lay-out. An Edwin S. George Reserve Fellowship Fund was endowed in 1941 to provide some financial support for outstanding and deserving students conducting research on the Reserve.

Gordon Hall

In 1841-43, on a hill west of the village of Dexter, Judge Samuel W. Dexter built a large, soundly constructed mansion of twenty-two rooms, in the Greek revival style. In 1950 this beautiful old house and the surrounding seventy acres were given to the University by Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick, of Chicago, granddaughter of Judge Dexter. The Regents' Proceedings for December, 1950, records:

The Regents accepted, with grateful thanks to the donor, the property known as Gordon Hall, and the surrounding seventy acres, together with $86,000 from Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick (Mrs. Stanley McCormick), of Chicago, the daughter of the late Judge Samuel William Dexter… It is estimated that alterations and improvements may cost $60,000 and that a four-car garage will cost in the neighborhood of $5,000.

(R.P., 1948-51, p. 1140.)

The house had had many uses. For years it had been used as a church; at one time, it served as many as four or five denominations, each holding services at scheduled hours. It had also housed Dexter's first post office, Judge Dexter carrying the mail on horseback to and from Ann Arbor. A unique feature of the building was a four-story tower; one story had housed each of Judge Dexter's four daughters. This tower, not a part of the original structure, was removed. The house was then rehabilitated and remodeled into four apartments for faculty members. Each apartment included two bedrooms, a bath, living room, and kitchenette. Authorization was given by the Regents in February, 1951, for a cost contract in a maximum amount of $79,253 to the Kurtz Construction Company of Ann Arbor. Preliminary work was begun in March, 1951, and the building was occupied in September of the same year.

The historical significance of the house is increased by the fact that Judge Dexter was prominent in the state's early history. He was Washtenaw's first circuit judge and one of the first Regents of the University. He was a publisher of the first newspaper in Washtenaw County, called the Emigrant, and served as minister without pay in many Unitarian churches. He was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 1792, and came to Michigan in 1824, buying from the government considerable acreage in Scio Township, a few miles west of Ann Arbor. Part of this property became the village of Dexter.

Certain county, state, and national historical societies opposed the conversion of the mansion into apartments because of its historical importance and the fact that it is a prime example of Greek revival architecture and advocated, instead, that the house be made into a museum. President Ruthven emphasized, however, that the home was being remodeled to serve as faculty housing at the request of Mrs. McCormick and that "the exterior of the main section of the house would be preserved in keeping Page  1637with its place as one of Washtenaw County's historical spots."

Most experts believed, however, that Gordon Hall's artistic merit was even more important than its historic value. Its exceptional grace and symmetry for years had won it mention by picture and description in many studies of American architecture. Because of its architectural and historical importance, drawings and photographs of the building were made for permanent record in the Library of Congress.

Harris Hall

Harris Hall, first called Hobart Hall, was built by St. Andrew's Episcopal Church in 1887. To obtain a home or a center for the activities of the Hobart Guild of Episcopal students, contributions and bequests were secured through the efforts of Bishop Samuel S. Harris, and the building at the northwest corner of State and Huron streets, constructed at a cost of $31,000, was formally dedicated in April, 1887 (The Michigan Book, pp. 90-91).

In 1946 the church leased it to the University for a seven-year period, with privilege of renewal for another seven years, for use as classrooms by the University School of Music, specifically the Band and Wind Instrument Department.

Extensive remodeling was done at that time. Practice studios were built in the basement, principally for wind instruments. The main floor was remodeled to include a comfortable lounge, a library, a uniform room, and an equipment room.

The building is still owned by the Episcopal Student Foundation, although the land on which it stands belongs to the church.

(Old) Haven Hall

Old Haven Hall was for sixty years the home of the Law School of the University. During that period it was twice remodeled to provide for the increasing enrollment. The original building was completed in 1863, and the law lecture hall was dedicated in October of that year with an address by Judge Thomas M. Cooley. The School, or Department of Law, was established in 1859. During the intervening four years classes had been held in the old Chapel in the north wing of University Hall, and the Law Library was housed in the Library room.

Owing to the rapid growth of the Law Department, it soon became apparent that more ample quarters would be necessary, and an effort was made to raise special funds for the erection of a law building. A subscription campaign proved unsuccessful, however, and the $15,000 eventually expended in the construction of the building was advanced from University funds.

The building, which was 70 by 90 feet in size, originally served not only for instruction in law, but also contained the University Chapel (until 1873) and the Library (until 1883).

The successive space increases for the use of the Law Department proved insufficient, however, and in 1893 the building was enlarged at a cost of $30,000. These much needed improvements, which included the addition of more class and lecture rooms and the erection of a brick tower on the northwest corner of the building, facing State Street, gave some relief, but within five years a further expansion became necessary. This time the improvements were much more extensive, totaling $65,000, and resulted in the construction of the building as it was from 1898 until 1950. While many of the rooms in the old building were retained, the exterior was completely altered to form a rectangular building 208 feet long, with 67,800 square feet of floor space, faced with sandstone on the first story and with Page  1638light-pressed brick on the upper two stories. The tower was removed, and a new wing was added which provided two lecture rooms in addition to the old lecture room on the first floor. Offices for the Dean and the Secretary were in the north wing, and a series of offices for other staff members occupied the central front of the building. A room for the Regents was also included in the south wing. Here the Board met regularly for more than thirty-five years, until the removal of the Law School to Hutchins Hall, when the Regents took over the room in Angell Hall adjacent to the President's office.

On the second floor the Law Library occupied the entire south wing of the old Law Building, with a series of special offices at the front. Lecture rooms, offices, and consultation rooms made up the remainder of the second and third floors.

In 1898 President Angell reported:

The Law Department is now housed in a fine building, fitted with modern conveniencies, and having ample accommodations for one thousand students. In 1892, the growth of the Department had been such that the original building had become inadequate, and a large addition was constructed. In 1895, a third year was added to the course, and soon thereafter the requirements for admission were materially increased… The enrollment of last year was seven hundred and sixty-seven, an increase of one hundred and eighty-one over the enrollment of the year previous. Enlarged accommodations became a necessity, and during the year the Board discussed and finally adopted plans that involved practically the reconstruction of the old building and an addition thereto that would more than double its capacity. The plans were so made and have been so carried out that the old building is completely lost in the present structure, which presents the appearance of an entirely new edifice… The building is provided with a fan system of heating and ventilation and is lighted by electricity. For the money expended, about $65,000 including the furnishing, the results are more than could reasonably have been expected at the time the work was undertaken.

(R.P., 1896-1901, pp. 302-4.)

With the completion of Hutchins Hall in 1933 the old Law Building entered a new period of existence. It was renamed Haven Hall in honor of Erastus O. Haven, President of the University from 1863 to 1869, and was made available for the use of several departments of the University. Seven of the rooms in the old building were assigned to the Department of History and an equal number to the Department of Sociology. The former offices of the Dean and Secretary of the Law School were assigned to the Extension Division, while the room occupied by the Law Library became a study hall for students and the Bureau of Government Library, with the adjacent suite of offices occupied by the Bureau of Government. The rooms at the north, on the second floor, were assigned to the Department of Journalism.

Haven Hall became one of the main buildings of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. It was destroyed by fire on June 6, 1950.

Health Service Building

The University Health Service Building, completed in 1940, is on Fletcher (formerly Twelfth) Street adjacent to the W. K. Kellogg Institute and across the street from the Michigan League. The building was erected as the result of action by the Regents in August, 1938, applying to the government for PWA funds to aid in financing its construction (R. P., 1936-39, pp. 638-40). President Ruthven announced in November of the same year, on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the establishment of the Health Service, that the government had granted the usual 45 per cent of the cost of the building. The University's Page  1639share was raised through the issue of $225,000 worth of Health Service bonds and the addition of $75,000 from the Health Service Reserve Fund.

Under the original plan the government was to contribute the sum of $213,750, which was later raised to $232,830, the University bearing the somewhat larger remainder of the cost. The site and building are valued at $380,718, bringing the total value of the building, site, and equipment to $572,557.07.

The site upon which the building stands was acquired, for the most part, by purchase from private owners and by condemnation. At the January, 1939, meeting of the Regents, plans submitted by the architect, L. J. Sarvis, of Battle Creek, were approved, and the Regents ordered the architects and engineers to proceed with construction.

The building, which was occupied in April, 1940, is similar in general design to the Kellogg Institute, which adjoins it; the two buildings thus form a harmonious unit. Both buildings are of red brick with stone trim.

The Health Service has four floors, an area more than three times that of the former Health Service Building, and twice the number of beds. Service quarters, such as dining rooms and kitchen, storage, linen and sewing rooms, and statistical workroom, in addition to pharmacy and allergy preparation stations, are on the ground floor, below the front surface level. The main entrance to the building is through large glass doors to the first floor, on which services most frequently needed are provided. On this floor is the lobby, with information desk and a section devoted to active records, business, and administration. Nearby is the drug dispensary, the staff room, and toward the rear of the building, along the main corridor, the offices of the dispensing nurse, an office for the supervising nurse, and a lecture room. Offices and examination rooms for general medical advisers, as well as a waiting room for patients, extend north along the main corridor. The stairway is easily visible from the entrance, and an elevator is accessible.

On the second floor, opening from a corridor which extends the entire length of the building, are offices for special services including mental hygiene, allergy, physical therapy, eye, ear, nose and throat, dentistry, and dermatology. The quarters of the surgery unit on this floor include offices and rooms for dressings, instruments, and operations performed without general anaesthetics, These are conveniently served by a dumbwaiter from the pharmacy below.

The rear extension on this floor is devoted to the radiographic and fluoroscopy department, with waiting rooms, film storage, film reading rooms, and basal metabolism tests. In the northeast section is the main laboratory with media kitchen and sanitation laboratory.

The sixty-bed infirmary on the third floor has an isolation ward at the north end, which is effectively cut off from the other rooms. It has separate furnishings and facilities for sterilization of trays and other articles. The remainder of this floor is made up mostly of double and single rooms with separate toilet and locker facilities. There are two small wards. Centrally situated on this floor is a nurses' station, and at the head of the stairway is a small waiting room. A section on the northeast side is specially equipped for disturbed or especially ill patients.

The fourth floor has quarters for resident physicians and orderlies, and a sun deck. Unfinished space provides for storage.

(Old) Heating Plant

The building near the southeast corner Page  1640of the campus, used until 1942 as the Reserve Officers' Training Corps headquarters, was originally the central heating plant of the University. From the central station the first tunnel system, of brick, was extended to the various buildings on the old campus. The conduit was 5 ½ by 6 ½ feet high. The floor was of Portland cement, and workmen could pass from one end to the other in making repairs.

The structure was built of cut stone in 1894 at a cost of about $57,000. In June of that year Regent Butterfield submitted the following resolution, which was adopted:

Resolved, That the proposition of A. Harvey's Sons Manufacturing Company, Limited, to construct a central heating plant on the University grounds for the sum of $44,150, be accepted, provided the said Harvey's Sons Manufacturing Company will make amended specifications, execute a contract, and give the required bonds and guarantees, all of which must be satisfactory to the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, and no liability shall attach to the University until all the necessary papers are executed. At which time the Committee on Buildings and Grounds are hereby authorized to proceed with the work, make estimates and authorize the payment of the same, and in all ways to act for the Board of Regents in the erection and completion of said works.

(R.P., 1891-96, pp. 314-15.)

The system must have proved to be highly satisfactory for in April, 1895, the following resolution was adopted:

That the Board of Regents commend the Heating Plant put in for the University by A. Harvey's Sons, of Detroit, as a work worthy the examination of practical and scientific men interested in such work and as a model to be copied by similar institutions and others requiring heating plants for detached buildings.(R.P., 1891-96, p. 422.)

The building had a gross floor area of 17,235 square feet and measured 85 by 93 feet. The smokestack connected with this old heating plant was a campus landmark for many years. It was originally 125 feet high, but the upper part was removed in 1924. After the erection of the present heating and power plant on Washington Street, the old heating plant building was used for some time as an engineering laboratory, but in 1923 it was turned over to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps as a center for their activities.

Heredity Clinic Building

The Heredity Clinic occupies a two-story wooden building, originally a private residence, that was moved to its present site in the court at 1135 East Catherine Street at the time of the University "building boom" which occurred during President Burton's term of office. It is not known just where the building stood when it was a private home, but probably on East University Avenue, either on the site of the present East Engineering Building or on that of the School of Education. For a number of years this building was the interns' residence for University Hospital. After the construction of a more adequate interns' residence north of the Hospital, the old frame building was unoccupied for a year or more before being assigned in 1941 to the Heredity Clinic. Although the wood construction is a constant fire hazard to the valuable clinic records and although the building is badly crowded and not well adapted for clinic purposes, it has provided space and shelter for this unit during its early years.

Hill Auditorium

In 1894 Professor Stanley and two other members of the University Musical Society met and determined that something must be done to secure an adequate auditorium for the University. By January, Page  16411895, a set of plans for a new building had been drawn. For years these plans were submitted to various people who were considered possible donors.

In 1904 Arthur Hill ('65e), whose first term as Regent began in 1901, became interested in the project. In March of that year the Regents approved a plan for trying to secure outside assistance. The response was discouraging, and Regent Hill inserted a provision in his will, setting aside $200,000 to be used for such a building. He informed no one of what he had done, and his intent was not discovered until his will was made public. The University received his bequest in 1910 (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 815-16).

The auditorium was constructed on the site of the old octagonal Winchell house on North University Avenue. It was the fourth fireproof structure to be erected by the University. Completed in 1913, it cost, unequipped, approximately $282,000. Including equipment, the total amounted to $347,600. The contractor was James L. Stuart, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The massive and plain brick exterior of the building is relieved by the color scheme of dull reds and browns, with limestone trim. It measures 171 by 174 feet and contains 71,914 square feet of space.

The parabolic interior, with its balcony and gallery and its immense platform which has a seating capacity of 300, is impressive. When built, Hill Auditorium seated 4,300 people. On the second floor just back of the gallery, is a large recital and lecture hall, which has a seating capacity of about 400 and which would be ideal for a small concert hall. At present, however, it is used to house the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments. A bronze relief of Regent Hill was placed in the foyer by Mrs. Hill. In 1913 the Frieze Memorial Organ was moved from University Hall to Hill Auditorium, and a new front was provided for it at a cost of $2,500. In 1928 this organ was replaced by a new and modern instrument, but the name was retained.

The dedication of Hill Auditorium took place on June 25, 1913 (Alumni Day). President Angell presented the building in behalf of the Hill estate, and Regent Clements accepted it for the University. Governor Ferris represented the state, and Senator Charles E. Townsend delivered the main address.

Upon the completion of the auditorium a new problem arose with which the Board of Regents wrestled for years — namely, what restrictions should be placed upon its use. Should religious services be permitted? Should collections be taken, or subscriptions solicited? What of political addresses? The following excerpt from the will of Regent Hill reveals his wishes regarding the general use to be made of the building:

That the said sum of Two Hundred Thousand ($200,000) Dollars be expended in the erection of an auditorium for the gathering of the students and college body, and their friends, on large occasions such as graduating exercises and musical festivals; the property to be controlled by the proper officers of the University, and I request that it be open to the people of Ann Arbor, among whom I have enjoyed both when a student and during my connection with the Board of Regents a generous hospitality, upon such occasions and under such terms as shall seem reasonaable and right to the Regents of the University.

(R.P., 1906-10, p. 815.)

From the first, the Regents permitted the use of the building for religious services of a nonsectarian character, or for those representative of all the churches. The taking of subscriptions and pledges has never been permitted, and for years the Regents were reluctant to have the building used for the raising of money. This restriction has been somewhat relaxed since 1922.

As early as November, 1913, the Upper Peninsula Education Association requested Page  1642quested that Hill Auditorium be open to the free discussion of all topics. The Regents set up a committee to study the question, and in April, 1914, concluded that "the use of Hill Auditorium for free discussion of all topics is not now necessary nor expedient" (R.P., 1910-14, p. 966). In pursuance of this policy, they denied former Governor Sulzer, of New York, the privilege of speaking on prohibition in 1916 and refused to permit a series of lectures on the League of Nations in 1919. In 1923 a request that former Attorney General George W. Wickersham, representing the League of Nations Non-Partisan Association, be permitted to speak in the auditorium was also denied.

In December, 1920, the Regents adopted the following resolution, in an effort to make their policy more explicit:

Resolved, That the use of Hill Auditorium may be granted to student organizations for lectures or addresses by prominent men on topics of the day, under guarantee that during such addresses there shall be no violation of recognized rules of hospitality, nor advocacy of the subversion of government or of the state, and that such meetings shall be in spirit, and in expression, worthy of this University.

(R.P., 1920-23, p. 79.)

In May, 1924, at the request of the Regents, the several Deans of the University presented suggestions, arrived at in conference with the President, concerning the auditorium. Their report, which follows, was adopted as the policy of the Board.

  • 1. No addresses shall be allowed which urge the destruction or modification of our form of government, by violence or other unlawful methods, or which advocate or justify conduct which violates the fundamentals of our accepted codes of morals.
  • 2. Speeches in support of particular candidates of any political party or faction ordinarily shall not be permitted. The discussion of matters of public interest relating to our political, legal, economic, and general social institutions, if conducted in the right way, by proper persons, is of the very essence of education and is of as much importance as a discussion of any subject in the whole field of knowledge. It will not do to say that there shall be no discussion before our students of matters of public concern by intelligent, well-qualified, and honorable persons.

(R.P., 1923-26, p. 302.)

Two primary considerations, size and acoustics, were taken into account in designing Hill Auditorium. The University needed an auditorium which would seat approximately 5,000 people, but at the same time it was necessary that every seat be so situated that even a whisper from the stage could be heard. Throughout the country auditoriums noted for their acoustic properties were found to be much smaller than the one proposed for the University.

Hugh Tallant, of New York, was consulting engineer. It was decided that the exterior should be similar to that of the typical theater and that the interior should be shaped like a paraboloid of revolution. This plan made possible a sufficient intensity of sound so that every word from the stage could be heard in the most distant parts of the auditorium. Within a limited range of fifty feet, for instance, this occurs directly; beyond this range, reflected sound must be employed to supplement direct sound. Reflected sound must not be diffused, however, and it must arrive at the ear of the auditor within the necessary fraction of a second after the arrival of the direct sound in order to avoid confusion and echo. The curved surface served to prevent diffusion, and tardiness of arrival was avoided by preventing any reflected sound from traveling more than seventy feet farther than the direct sound. Unwanted reflections were avoided by padding the rear walls and the rear part of the side walls. The audience was calculated as padding for the floors. Provision for resonance was limited to the platform. Page  1643The design for this provided for a wood floor over a concrete slab, with a six-inch air space intervening.

As John T. N. Hoyt ('91), chief engineer for the architect, Albert Kahn, said, the principles to be observed were simple, but the execution of the plan so that every seat would have the proper acoustics was immensely difficult. The results, on the whole, were gratifying. Some difficulty was experienced because of an echo in the upper gallery, and in 1921 experiments were made to eliminate this. To prevent sounds from penetrating the auditorium from without, a combination of solid brick exterior wall, four-inch air space, and four-inch hollow brick interior wall was used. The roof was tiled.

In 1949 renovations were made and new seating was put in. The auditorium now has 4,200 seats. During the past year, 1954-55, the Frieze Memorial Organ has been rebuilt and reconditioned by the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company of Boston. Tonal changes have been made, the mechanism has been renewed, and a new console has been installed.

Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial

Unique among University buildings is the Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial in Detroit, thirty-eight miles from the University campus. Situated in the city's famed Art Center, close to the Detroit Institute of Arts, this beautiful structure is the center for extension classes and other University activities in the metropolitan area.

The building is unique, also, in that it is owned and occupied jointly by the University of Michigan and the Engineering Society of Detroit, which grew out of the Detroit Association of Graduate Engineers of the University of Michigan, founded in the 1890's.

Ownership of such a building in Detroit makes it possible for the University to be host at conferences, meetings, and other educational activities in the metropolitan area as it is for similar affairs in Ann Arbor.

The chain of circumstances that led to this unprecedented arrangement began in the middle 1930's. The Detroit Engineering Society had for some time, through a representative committee, discussed conditions under which it would be possible for the group to receive aid from the Horace H. and Mary A. Rackham Fund under the will of Horace H. Rackham. A delineation of the aims of the Detroit Engineering Society and a review of its past activities indicated that its purposes coincided with many of those for which the Rackham Fund had been established.

After discussion with trustees of the Rackham Fund, the Detroit Engineering Society reincorporated itself in April, 1936, as the Engineering Society of Detroit. Among the objectives outlined by the reorganized Society were those of providing a meeting place that would enable it to implement its educational aims, and "to co-operate with educational institutions by investigating candidates for scholarships and fellowships in engineering and applied science, and by supporting scholarships, special instruction, or research."

The Horace H. and Mary A. Rackham Fund created a $500,000 trust for the benefit of the Engineering Society, and a trustee organization was incorporated as the Rackham Engineering Foundation.

Within three months after its reorganization, the Society's membership had reached 1,000, and it became apparent that an adequate headquarters building would require additional funds. Early in 1937 the Rackham Fund presented the Society with a second grant of $500,000 for the purpose of erecting and furnishing such a building. Late in 1937, Mrs. Mary A. Rackham made a personal gift of $500,000 as an addition to the original trust fund. Further studies were then Page  1644undertaken as to building plans, but the project moved slowly.

At about this time a proposal was made to the Engineering Society that the University and the Society co-operate in planning and building a memorial structure to Horace H. Rackham, to house both the facilities of the Engineering Society and those needed by the University for the administration and execution of its graduate and extension program in Detroit.

The suggestion of co-operation with the University was accepted in principle by the Engineering Society, whose membership was now more than 3,000, and a period of joint planning began. After further study to determine the best possible arrangements for both parties to the proposed partnership, the Engineering Society held a special meeting in December, 1938, to explain the building plan. About 93 per cent of those voting in the letter ballot which followed favored the idea and indicated support of the project. Early in 1939 the Foundation appointed a committee to talk with the University. At the same time negotiations were begun with a view to purchasing the half block on Farnsworth Avenue between Woodward Avenue and John R Street, a piece of property which President A. G. Ruthven hoped that D. M. Ferry, Jr., an alumnus of the University, might sell to the University at a moderate figure.

In March, 1939, the Regents accepted an anonymous gift of $500,000 (from Mrs. Rackham) "to purchase land and to construct, equip and furnish a building in the City of Detroit … to serve as a headquarters for and to house the activities of the University of Michigan in said City of Detroit, including classroom work under the direction of its Extension Service and also of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies" (R P., 1936-39, pp. 878-80). This building was to be adjacent to or adjoining the building to be constructed by the Rackham Engineering Foundation for the Engineering Society of Detroit.

The donor further specified that "instruction shall be given in said building … (1) For students who cannot or may not wish to attend the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor for the full period needed for the completion of a required course; (2) For younger professional men who may wish to improve themselves in their chosen line of work; (3) For adults who desire to continue their general education." The University was to "maintain said building in first class condition at all times." It was stipulated also that the gift of $500,000 would be withdrawn unless the trustees of the Rackham Fund added at least another $200,000 from the Fund by June 30, 1939. A gift of $500,000 was made to the University by the trustees of the Fund in May of that year and accepted by the University Regents at their second May meeting.

Plans for the new building were approved in November, 1939, the University and the Engineering Society having agreed to adopt President Ruthven's suggestion of a central auditorium and banquet hall flanked by two equal wings. It was decided that the Society would have one wing and the University would have the other wing and the central part. This meant that the University would own two-thirds of the property and building and the Engineering Society one-third, the money to be invested by each in about the same proportion. The University and the Society worked out an agreement concerning the joint use of the banquet hall and the auditorium in the University's section of the building.

Harley and Ellington, Detroit architects, were selected to design the memorial structure. Plans were submitted that harmoniously reconciled the diverse requirements Page  1645of the two rather complex organizations that were to occupy it.

After seeing the design and viewing the site, Mrs. Rackham felt, however, that more land was needed to afford the building a proper setting. Consequently in January, 1940, she advised the University and the Engineering Society that she was giving them, jointly, $750,000 for the purchase of the southern half of the block and for landscaping. The design of the building was then adjusted to the enlarged site, which consisted of the entire block bounded by Woodward, Farnsworth, and East Warren avenues and John R Street. This gift was accepted by the University and the Rackham Engineering Foundation in a joint agreement that provided for the relocation of the dividing line and reaffirmed the operating agreement originally approved a year and a half earlier.

In April, 1940, though it was still not possible to let contracts for the building itself, the University and the Foundation reached an agreement to raze the buildings already on the site. Another two and a half months elapsed before the construction bid of the W. E. Wood Company, of Detroit, was accepted by both parties. This proposal called for erection of the building on a cost plus fixed fee basis.

Ground was broken on July 1, 1940, and the cornerstone was laid on December 20 of the same year. The completed building was presented to its joint owners on January 28, 1942, by the trustees of the Rackham Fund at a formal dedication ceremony held in the main auditorium of the new building. Dr. Bryson D. Horton, chairman of the trustees of the Rackham Fund, presented the memorial building to its joint owners. President Alexander G. Ruthven accepted the building for the University of Michigan, and Dr. Harvey M. Merker, president of the Engineering Society of Detroit, accepted on behalf of the Society.

The total construction bill from the W. E. Wood Company was $1,297,246.66, approximately $17,500 below the estimate. Of this, the University's cost was $750,057.55, the Engineering Society's $547,189. The building and land together cost the University $1,244,000 and the Engineering Society $710,000. The University put the balance of its $1,500,000 into a reserve fund for equipment.

Architecturally, the Rackham Memorial was designed to harmonize with other structures in the Detroit Art Center: the Detroit Public Library and the Detroit Institute of Arts. The Rackham Memorial combines classical conceptions of architecture with modern influences, and the result is a pleasing blend of traditional and modern lines.

Structurally, the building is of reinforced concrete, with the exterior of three basic materials. The facings and the ornamental sculptures which enhance it are of white Georgia marble. Dark granite forms the spandrels between the windows. Cast bronze ornaments enrich these spandrels, and the same metal is used for window frames and grilles, doors, and incidental trim throughout.

The building is 404 feet long on its northern exposure, which faces on Farnsworth Avenue, and extends 65 feet in depth on the ends to 150 feet in the center. The center section presents a curving façade, with two ornamental pylons flanking the main portal, which is approached by a wide flight of steps. To the right, facing the building from the street, is the University wing, with that of the Engineering Society on the left. Each wing is entered through a subordinate portal.

Sculptures by Marshall Fredericks, then of the Cranbrook Academy, add to the impressiveness of the exterior of the building. Surmounting the four piers of Page  1646the main portal are four sculptured reliefs symbolizing the purposes of the Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial. Other reliefs about the building further illustrate its purpose.

The main auditorium, which is in almost constant use for University lectures, concerts, and other programs, for meetings and functions of the Engineering Society, and for community and civic programs of an educational nature, is situated in the center section of the building. It is reached through the Memorial Lobby, a large foyer directly within the main portals of the building.

Facing the doors as one enters is the bronze Horace H. Rackman memorial plaque, centered on the inner wall of the lobby. It is mounted on a background of creamy polished marble, on which is a tribute to the humanitarian life of Mr. Rackham.

The Main Auditorium has a seating capacity of 1,000 and is so constructed that all have an equal opportunity to see and hear perfectly. The public address system is of unusual flexibility, and the stage is large and excellently designed. Although not intended for theatrical productions, it has been used for that purpose. Screening facilities and a completely equipped projection room are provided. The stage is fully equipped for scientific demonstrations.

On the ground floor level, directly below the Memorial Lobby, is the foyer to the banquet hall, which is also used by both occupants of the building. Although this banquet hall is on University property, it is managed by the Engineering Society, since the University has no facilities in the building for handling and serving food. The room, with a banquet capacity of 650 persons, is serviced from a completely equipped kitchen at the rear; it is also used for classes, lectures, and meetings and as an exhibition hall as well as for luncheons and dinners. It serves, too, as a supplementary auditorium for meetings which tax the capacity of the main auditorium, since it has built-in connections to the public address system on the first floor.

The University's wing of the building is devoted to offices and classrooms. The offices occupy approximately half of the main floor, with classrooms and a lounge occupying the remainder. The ground floor of the University wing houses three large classrooms, one furnished with drawing tables, a lecture room, a science classroom with tiered seats so that all students may have a view of the demonstration platform, a studio classroom used for radio and television technique classes, and a seminar room. On the second floor are nine classrooms, a seminar room, and the library. As need has arisen through the years, some of the classrooms on all three floors have done double duty, serving as offices by day and as classrooms during the evening.

The Detroit Branch of the University of Michigan Library is a spacious, highceilinged room with a mezzanine providing additional study space. Tall windows line the gently curving front of the room (part of the curving façade of the central section of the building), offering a view of the Detroit Institute of Arts and Woodward Avenue.

All classrooms are furnished with specially constructed walnut desks or with tablet armchairs. The radio studio is equipped with broadcasting facilities (though it has no transmitter), and is isolated from the rest of the building. All the necessary aids to visual education, including projectors of various types, maps, and charts, are furnished for the use of classes.

The Rackham Educational Memorial was dedicated and opened in a war-time atmosphere. The programs of the University Extension Service immediately reflected this. When the building was Page  1647designed it was believed that ample room had been provided in the University's section for the expansion of programs. Within a year after the building was in use, however, demands for classes in war training programs were so great that space had to be rented from the Engineering Society. Many classes were offered in the Engineering, Science, and Management War Training Program sponsored by the United States Office of Education, as well as others in languages, including Chinese and Japanese.

The demand for instruction did not slacken after the war emergency was over, but was diverted into new channels. More than a hundred courses are offered each semester, and usually it is necessary to arrange for at least one of the larger classes to be held in the Engineering Society's section of the building. Enrollments have increased steadily and average between three and four thousand each semester.

The University offers various types of courses at the Rackham Memorial. Among the most important programs are those for students in engineering, education, and business administration. Classes in education and other subjects of interest to teachers were the first to be given in Detroit when a group of educators petitioned the University in 1913 for courses that would enable them to accumulate credits toward degrees without coming to the campus for the entire program. This service for teachers grew rapidly, but it entered a new period of expansion when the Rackham Memorial was opened and the University had its own classroom and library facilities. A qualified graduate student may elect courses for residence credit, Detroit having been designated as a Residence Center for Graduate Study by the University's Graduate School in 1935. In order to meet the requirements for a master's degree, however, the student is required to spend at least one summer session in full-time residence on the campus. In 1950 a program leading to a master's degree in engineering mechanics was established in Detroit in response to requests from engineers who could not attend classes on the campus.

An extensive program of graduate-level courses in business administration is offered each semester. Much of the work for an advanced degree in this field may be done in Detroit. Credit courses are also offered on the undergraduate level, although no complete programs in any one field or for any one year are available. Many courses are elected by persons who are more interested in course content than in academic credit.

Classes in still another category are those designed for persons who are interested primarily in work that will lead to increased effectiveness and advancement in professional or business fields, but who do not wish academic credit. Extensive programs are offered each year in insurance, business subjects, and real estate, often with the sponsorship of groups interested in establishing standards in businesses that approach the professional attitude.

The Rackham Educational Memorial has served as a center for educational and civic meetings from the time it was opened. The Detroit staff of the Extension Service has made every effort to see that activities at the building fit into the cultural pattern of Detroit.

In addition to offering a varied program of courses, arranged in so far as possible to meet the needs of the area, the University sponsors many projects and conferences at the building. Many more programs are held each year with the cooperation of such groups as the Detroit public schools, the Detroit Public Library, and Wayne University, all located in Detroit's Art Center. Building facilities are sometimes available also to Page  1648other institutions and organizations.

From time to time University concerts and other programs are presented in the main auditorium. The building is also used occasionally by the University of Michigan Club of Detroit and by the Detroit Association of University of Michigan Women.

Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies Building

One of the most beautiful and impressive of the University buildings is the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, situated on the north side of the campus at the north end of the Mall. This building, designed to be a center for the general activities of the Graduate School, was given to the University in 1935 by the trustees of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, together with a generous endowment which affords graduate facilities enjoyed by few other universities (see Part VI: The Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies).

The Regents accepted this gift in September, 1935, in accordance with certain terms partly indicated below (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 683-87). Included in the total benefaction, which eventually amounted to more than $10,000,000, was an appropriate site, a building to be known as the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, and a substantial endowment for carrying on graduate work and research. Administration of the funds and of the building is in the charge of a Board of Governors, of which the president of the University is chairman.

The endowment fund amounts to more than $7,000,000, the income of which is used for research projects, publications, and fellowships. The income of $1,000,000 is assigned to research on arthritis. Included in the above is the sum of $1,000,000 generously provided by Mary A. Rackham, which, together with an additional $900,000 from the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, is allotted to sociological research administered through the Institute of Human Adjustment.

The site chosen for the Graduate School comprises the two city blocks bounded by East Huron, Fletcher (formerly Twelfth), East Washington, and Thayer streets. It was necessary to remove thirty buildings before actual construction could begin. Ground was broken in May, 1936. The cornerstone was laid on October 30 of the same year, and two years later, in June, 1938, the building was formally dedicated. After presentation by Bryson D. Horton, chairman of the trustees of the fund, and acceptance on behalf of the University by President A. G. Ruthven, the building was dedicated to the two great branches of learning, the sciences and the humanities. Smith, Hinchman and Grylls were the architects; the W. E. Wood Company held the construction contract; and Pitkin and Mott, landscape architects, laid out the grounds. The total cost of the building, including equipment, amounted to $2,500,000.

The building, which is 196 by 250 feet, is constructed of Indiana limestone with a granite base course; the window and door frames are of bronze, and the roof is of copper. The floor area totals 155,410 square feet.

The main entrance, on the south side of the building, is approached by a broad terrace of granite steps with flagstone paving, and planted areas at either side. The Graduate School is on a direct line with the University Library, and the area between the two has been developed as a landscaped parkway known as the Mall. Three pairs of bronze and glass doors give access to an entrance Page  1649hall, measuring 31 by 109 feet, with a floor of green and purple-gray slate laid in a rectangular pattern. The plaster walls are painted a Pompeian red, with a black marble base and trim, and the beamed ceiling is blue-green with stenciled decorations in polychrome and gold to harmonize with the gold and bronze lighting fixtures. Tables and benches of ebonized wood with blue-green leather cushions harmonize with three pairs of blue-green bronze-studded leather doors which open into a second lobby and from there into the main lecture hall.

The lecture hall is a semicircular room 100 feet deep and 29 feet high, with a lecture platform on the north and an arcade opening into the lobby on the south, giving access to six aisles which radiate toward the platform. Approximately 1,200 seats, upholstered in terra-cotta velour, are so arranged that one may take a place without requiring the occupants of other seats to rise. The floor is carpeted in dark blue, with terra-cotta walls and ebonized wood trim, while the flat ceiling is of a lighter blue with a pattern of overlapping radiating circular bands in gold leaf and polychrome. The unique lighting system is effected through a series of small openings in the ceiling which permit cones of light to spread over the room.

The elevated stage provides a speaker's stand, seats for eighteen, stairways to a robing room below, and a control pit for the public address system. Above the stage is a motion-picture screen covered with draperies, and, completing the facilities, a projection booth with equipment for electrical amplification of lectures, reception and transmission of radio broadcasts, sound on film, record reproduction, and television and microscopic projection.

On the east side of the building, on the main floor, are the administrative offices of the Graduate School, including a large waiting room, the business office, record room, and staff rooms. On the west are offices and conference rooms, the Graduate School Board Room, and at present offices for the Institute of Public Administration, the English Language Institute, and the Institute for Human Adjustment. These rooms have painted plaster walls, wood trim, and linoleumcovered floors. Two of the offices have walnut-paneled walls, and eight are carpeted. At each end of the entrance hall are checkrooms, retiring rooms, and stairways leading to the ground-floor corridors.

At either side of the doors to the lecture hall are monumental stairways of travertine leading to the second floor. Entrances to the elevators are on the landings of these staircases. The northern part, or rear, of the second floor is taken up by the upper part of the lecture hall, while on the south front of the building there is a high-ceilinged study hall 31 by 105 feet, with alcoves 22 by 40 feet at either end for books and periodicals. The study hall has twelve-foot wainscot of Appalachian oak, continued in a lighter shade of brown to the ceiling. The ceiling is divided by five great coffers in polychrome and gold, and from three are suspended chandeliers in antique green and gilt. These are supplemented by lamps on the study tables. The large study tables and chairs of oak harmonize with the wood wainscot. An abundance of natural light is afforded by five large windows which open toward the Mall.

The second floor has a circular foyer twenty-six feet in diameter, lighted from above. The color scheme of the foyer, dark terra-cotta red and travertine, is continued throughout the corridors which lead to the men's lounge on the east and the women's on the west. On the north wall of the foyer there is a portrait plaque in bronze, modeled by Page  1650Carleton Angell of the University Museums. The following inscription on the plaque was written by Professor John G. Winter:

    Horace H. Rackham 1858-1933
  • Poverty did not embitter him nor wealth affect the simplicity of his life and the even tenor of his way.
  • His mind moved always on a high plane, serene and noble, and his vision extended to the problems of human suffering and happiness everywhere.
  • His broad humanitarianism and his pervading wisdom remain a living force, his memory a refreshing inspiration.

The lounges, at either end of the second floor, measure 26 by 69 feet and have two alcoves, each 17 by 28 feet, for writing and music. The men's lounge is furnished in rather heavy Chippendale and Queen Anne mahogany and walnut, with modified Georgian lighting fixtures of brass and pewter. In the women's lounge the lighting fixtures are gray-green and gilt, while the furniture is lighter Chippendale and Duncan Phyfe. Near the entrance to each lounge there is a small kitchen and serving room. Completing the rooms on this floor two council or committee rooms, approximately 15 by 20 feet, adjacent to the lounges, provide for student and faculty group meetings.

The east, south, and west parts of the mezzanine floor are taken up by the upper part of the high rooms on the second floor, while the north part is devoted to eight workrooms. In addition, there are two small but perfectly appointed lecture rooms, each accommodating fifty persons. The lecture rooms are carpeted and contain theater-type chairs, light-proof shades, and projection facilities. Trusses over the lecture hall pass through the mezzanine floor, and the inside spaces between these trusses have been adapted as exhibition rooms, the two central ones of approximately 30 by 52 feet and the end ones 25 by 47 feet. The former are connected by two doors in the separating wall. Twelve-foot-wide corridors, which lead to the end rooms, provide additional space for exhibits. The exhibition rooms and corridors have linoleum-covered floors and are painted a neutral gray; the walls are of wood covered with fabric to permit the hanging of pictures.

The third floor is much smaller, with an area only about half as large as that of the lower part of the building, the south part being occupied by the upper part of the great second-floor study hall. In the center there is a small circular amphitheater, sixty feet in diameter, which seats 250 persons. A laboratory table fully equipped for demonstrations can easily be seen from all parts of the room because of the steep inclination of the seats. Behind this table is a motion-picture screen with sound equipment, controlled from a booth on the north side. The walls of the room are of an acoustical material in medium brown, banded horizontally with bronze molding. The ceiling consists of a series of concentric steps which lead to an illuminated dome.

Also on the third floor there is an assembly room 63 by 26 feet, which can be extended by pushing back the folding cloth doors of the alcoves at either end. Decorations and furnishings of all three rooms are in a Pompeian style, with yellow and gray the predominating colors.

At the east and west sides of this floor are conference rooms 28 by 36 feet, carpeted in mottled gray, and with pin-grained oak paneling. The connecting corridors between have rubber-tile floors and plaster walls painted in a neutral color. These are furnished with settees and chairs and from them doors open to a large tiled roof terrace with deck-style Page  1651furnishings. Facilities for serving tea or light refreshments are available on this floor.

A basement floor extends underneath the entire building. Two inclined ramps lead down to this floor from East Huron Street on the north, joining in a driveway under the lecture hall. This provides a sheltered automobile approach for guests at social and other functions and parking space for the administrative staff. This part of the building has insulated walls and ceiling.

From the driveway metal doors on the south open into a U-shaped corridor, and on the north wall a small passageway leads to the robing room under the lecture hall stage. Rooms for heating, ventilation, and for other mechanical equipment as well as workrooms and storage rooms open from the corridor. The ground floor houses the Michigan Historical Collections, with stacks and administrative offices. The Collections occupy six rooms. Various other laboratories and offices also are housed on this floor.


The Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center

The building occupied by the Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center of the Department of Radiology was conceived as a result of conversations in the spring of 1952 between Dr. F. J. Hodges, chairman of the Department of Radiology, and Dr. John C. Bugher, Director of the Division of Biology and Medicine of the Atomic Energy Commission. Dr. Bugher proposed a program of evaluation of clinical treatment of the cancerous diseases using teletherapy radioisotope units. Initially, it was planned to employ cobalt-60, and when cesium-137 could be separated it was to be used in a second teletherapy unit. One factor which interested the AEC was that since 1934 an organized recording of results of cancer treatment has been made at the University Hospital; this provided a rich background of standard high voltage X-ray treatment results to compare with results obtained with teletherapy units.

As a result of these discussions, and with the consent of the University, a formal research proposal was submitted to the AEC in May, 1952. This was approved in August, 1952, and was formally signed on December 22, 1952.

During the discussions preceding the submission of the formal research proposal, the AEC announced that it could no longer support major construction at university sites. Since the radiation therapy quarters in the Department of Radiology were entirely inadequate for housing teletherapy units, the project could not have been undertaken without new and larger quarters. This problem was discussed with Dean Furstenberg and the Executive Committee of the Medical School in April, 1952, and permission was granted to request financial aid of the Phoenix-Memorial Project. An initial grant of $75,000 from the Alice Crocker Lloyd Memorial Fund of the Phoenix-Memorial Project restricted to cancer research and $15,000 from unrestricted Phoenix Project funds formed the nucleus of the construction cost. The balance was provided by the University Hospital, the Medical School, and the general fund of the University. Authorization was given by the University in April, 1953, to complete final plans and accept bids. Ground-breaking ceremonies took place on July 14, 1953, and the building was completed and occupied in April, 1954. The first cobalt-60 source, 1903 Curies, was delivered and installed in February, 1955. The Center was appropriately dedicated on March 26, 1955.

Page  1652The Center is situated in the area south of the corridor connecting the Main Hospital and the Kresge Medical Research Building. The entrance is from the south wall of the corridor. Except for a penthouse for mechanical equipment, the building is below ground level. The Center will be used solely as the radiation therapy division of the Department of Radiology, providing facilities for the examination and treatment of patients and for related teaching and research activities.

The building was designed by Black and Black, of Lansing, Michigan, and was constructed by the Jeffress-Dyer Company of Washington, D.C. The planning was done in a series of conferences attended by the architects, Mr. Fry, Dr. Hodges, Dr. Lampe, and administrators of the University Hospital.

The structure consists of 6,600 square feet of floor space underground and 600 square feet in the penthouse above grade. The walls, floor, and ceiling are of poured high-density concrete. There are twenty-three rooms and three corridors. The five treatment rooms are appropriately shielded with lead and concrete to prevent radiation transmission to other parts of the building. The Center is provided with a class and staff conference room, examining and dressing rooms for patients, a room for radium storage and handling, a physics laboratory, a room for records and statistics, and an attractive entrance lobby. With the exception of the inner walls of the two large rooms designed to contain teletherapy units, the inner partitions are constructed of cinder block, with plaster in some areas. The treatment rooms, dressing rooms, and toilets have ceramic tile floors; other flooring is of asphalt tile. Most of the ceilings are covered with acoustical tile.

The estimated cost of the building was $250,000. The name Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center was designated by the Regents in honor of the late Dean of Women, Alice Crocker Lloyd.

Children's Psychiatric Hospital

The Children's Psychiatric Hospital was completed in December, 1955. Swanson Associates, of Bloomfield Hills, were the architects, and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., of Washington, D. C., were awarded the contract in the amount of $2,151,804. Construction was begun in the spring of 1954.

The new hospital will ultimately be a part of a total children's medical center with a planned 291-bed capacity. Built to harmonize with the Outpatient Clinic and the Kresge Medical Research Building, the Children's Psychiatric Hospital accommodates seventy-five children ranging in age from six to fifteen years.

There are four wards, three for sixteen children each, and a convalescent ward of twenty-seven beds. Each of the four units is independent in terms of the living plan for the children, and each ward has its own nursing and auxiliary staffs, dining room, and play rooms.

All walls in the living quarters are tiled, floors are of Gibraltar, and windows are louvre type with inside screens. Through careful use of colors, drapes, and other decorations, as warm as possible a tone has been provided.

All wards have three types of accommodations, four-bed dormitories, two-bed dormitories, and some single rooms. In addition, two detention rooms are provided in each ward to handle acute outbursts and allow for brief isolation when necessary.

Special features in each ward include a large playroom for active games, a smaller playroom for quiet games and music, a snack bar for evening use, and a group therapy room for special evening Page  1653projects. Special planning has gone into dining room construction and service. Children eat at tables planned for five children and one adult. Service is family style from platters on the tables when children sit down to eat. This allows for some degree of self-selection which is important to children. In the past it was found that when an unwished for food was presented, it was more throwable than eatable and mealtimes could be hectic.

The Children's Psychiatric Hospital has been designed around a total program that includes all aspects of special care which have been found to have therapeutic value. Because severely disturbed children may dislike school as a result of experiences in community schools, the hospital is geared to provide specially planned schooling in small groups. Six remedial reading rooms in the school area are provided to help overcome reading disabilities, common in disturbed children. One floor is devoted to classrooms and shops. There are five of each.

To take care of recreational needs there is a fully equipped gymnasium and a swimming pool. There is also a 100-seat auditorium equipped for movies, plays, and other entertainment in which the children themselves participate.

Other recreation facilities include a large playground with facilities for baseball, volley ball, slides, swings, sand piles, a wading pool, and other resources.

Each child in the hospital has a minimum of three hours a week with a psychiatrist in training.

Direct psychotherapy is practiced off the ward, away from the living area. Each child sees his doctor by regular appointment in the doctor's office — he is in effect attending a clinic separate from his home within the hospital.

Kresge Medical Research Building

In November, 1949, the Regents accepted "with grateful appreciation" a gift of $3,000,000 from the Kresge Foundation for the construction and equipment of a medical research building (R.P., 1948-51, p. 532). The Kresge gift, one of the largest single gifts ever received by the University, covered the construction costs of the Medical Research Building and of the laboratory furniture for some units in the building. Additional funds in the amount of $500,000 were received from private sources for furnishing certain laboratories and for purchase of special research equipment.

In planning the research building the faculty committee kept in mind three major objectives: to provide physical facilities for a continuing program of medical research, to facilitate a training program for a carefully selected group of men and women having research ambitions and aptitudes, and to bring together theory and practice through a close relationship between research, clinical care of patients, and medical education.

All research conducted in the Kresge Building is under the supervision of the Medical School faculty. Funds for research are received primarily from foundations, individuals, industry, and agencies interested in aiding the progress of medical science.

Giffels and Vallet, Inc., Detroit, and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, New York, were the architects and engineers for the building. Jeffress-Dyer of Washington, D. C., was the contractor. Ground was broken on January 17, 1951, and the dedication ceremonies held on completion of the building took place on May 15, 1954. Designed to permit a flexible arrangement of laboratories and equipment so that constantly changing needs or programs may be met, the Page  1654Kresge Building stands just west of University Hospital. It is 50 feet wide and 300 feet long and consists of five levels, containing 128 laboratory units, and twenty-eight animal units, as well as office, conference, shop, locker, mechanical equipment, and storage areas.

Laboratory areas have been so designed that they may be divided into individual units as small as ten feet wide by eighteen feet deep, each complete with all necessary services. These small units may be combined to form a single large laboratory whenever necessary. Likewise, a central hood exhaust system has been constructed which permits a hood to be placed in every twenty-foot laboratory or in every other ten-foot unit.

Animal quarters have been constructed on the top level of the building. These are air conditioned and have a special exhaust system to establish a standard environmental condition for research laboratory animals. The rooms are equipped with large sinks and have floors and walls of tile, permitting easy cleaning. A special kitchen has been built for preparation of food for laboratory animals, and the special animal cage washing unit permits efficient, automatic washing and sterilizing of cages.

Details of laboratory equipment, of course, will be constantly changing as research methods and objectives change. Several unusual and interesting laboratories have been constructed in the building, to meet the needs of research studies now underway. For example, there is a shielded electroencephalography area, a soundproof room with vibration-proof floor, walk-in cold rooms, incubator rooms, and an isotope laboratory.

The electroencephalography laboratories are room-sized copper boxes, the metal shielding serving to eliminate electrostatic interference. The machines are connected to the subject in the shielded room by means of a shielded cable. Extreme caution was taken to assure that the sheet copper in the walls of these rooms was completely insulated from the concrete and plaster of the walls in which it was placed. Significant progress is being made in this new field of investigation.

Equally painstaking was the construction of the Soundproof Laboratory, which is a room within a room. Its vibration-proof floor is supported by an independent foundation, and this room is also shielded electrostatically. The Soundproof Room is used in investigations of speech and hearing problems.

The Kresge Building is connected with University Hospital by means of a passageway. Between these two buildings is the new Alice Lloyd Radiation Therapy Laboratory, in which radiological therapy and research are being concentrated. There are no facilities for housing patients in the Kresge Building, but there is a close relationship between many of the research studies and the clinical care of patients.

The business administration of the building is under the general direction of the administrative staff of the University Hospital.

The major research facilities within the Building include special laboratories in dermatology, intestinal diseases, hypertension, metabolic and endocrine disorders, arthritis, anticoagulants, allergy, nervous system research, isotope studies, cancer serology, surgical techniques, immunology, kidney function, toxicology, and acoustics.

The Old University Hospital Buildings

The old University or "Catherine Street" Hospital included a group of some twenty buildings, large and small, the first of which was erected in 1891; Page  1655these were successively enlarged and added to until the completion of University Hospital in 1925. For many years the Medical Department had occupied, as a makeshift, a building on the campus, developed from one of the old professorial residences in 1876, with the intention of tearing it down after a few years of use (the Campus Pavilion Hospital, 1876-91; see Part V: The University Hospital). At the time of its construction modern methods of asepsis were unknown.

By 1890, however, the University's pioneer step in lengthening the medical course to four years, the prospective increase in the requirements for graduation, and the additional clinical courses made a new hospital imperative. The legislature in 1889 already had appropriated $50,000 for a new hospital unit to consist of two buildings, one, about 190 by 75 feet, to be used by the Homeopathic Department of Medicine, and one, about 235 by 60 feet, for the "regular" Medical School. Toward the construction of this hospital the city of Ann Arbor also contributed $25,000. These grants, as events proved, were far too small. Nevertheless, the two buildings provided 104 beds, of which the Homeopathic College had forty and the Medical School sixty-four.

The buildings were finally erected, after numerous modifications of the original plans, at the opposite sides of a ten-acre lot on Catherine Street, overlooking the Huron River. Construction was begun on the "regular" Hospital in 1890; it was occupied in 1891, and formally opened in January of the following year. The Homeopathic Hospital was not opened until 1892. Each building consisted of three stories, in addition to a basement, which was used for storage and other hospital uses, but these basements were so cut up that, in the words of Dr. Reuben Peterson in his "The History of the University of Michigan Hospital," they "resembled rabbit warrens."

The architects for the two buildings were Chamberlain and Austin, of Boston, and the contracts for their construction were carried out through the University Committee on Buildings and Grounds. At the time they were erected there had been comparatively little experience in hospital construction and this fact, as well as the limitations necessitated by the small appropriation, laid the buildings open to criticism in many respects. Dr. Peterson related that there were no classrooms, no teaching laboratories, and no preparation rooms, and that patients had to be prepared for operations in the bathrooms. The administration offices took up valuable space needed for other things. It may be said, however, that these buildings and those subsequently erected, faulty as they were, represented a great improvement over the facilities available before their construction, both for teaching and for care of the sick.

An amphitheater of the old-fashioned type was included in each Hospital, "a small pit from the center of which arose a steep central aisle with rows of uncomfortable wooden benches on either side" (Peterson). In these amphitheaters, for many years, operations and demonstrations were carried on before the students. The buildings also had two wards as well as a few private rooms; the space in the regular Hospital soon became so crowded that extra beds had to be provided.

At the rear, between the two buildings, a small heating plant was erected because the hospitals were too far away to be connected with the University heating system. This plant was used until 1897, when a much larger one, later used as the Wood Utilization Laboratory, was erected at the rear of the entire group of Page  1656buildings. The old heating plant was enlarged in 1897-98 at a cost of $10,000 to provide a dining room, dormitory, and laundry for twenty nurses. This new construction extended to the south of the old heating plant, occupying the space between the two buildings.

In 1901 Mrs. Love M. Palmer, wife of Dr. Alonzo B. Palmer, the first Professor of Anatomy, gave the University $20,000 for a building to be devoted to the care of children in the University Hospital and $15,000 for the endowment of it. The Regents added $5,000 to the original bequest (R.P., 1901-6, p. 224). This building was erected in the form of a special ward, measuring about 50 by 100 feet at the front of the building. It was completed in 1903 and after 1917 a part of it was used as an orthopedic ward. It served for some years as a tuberculosis ward after the opening of University Hospital in 1925 and later became the Radiation Laboratory.

In 1900, after the construction of the new Homeopathic Hospital (now North Hall), near the corner of North University and Washtenaw avenues, the old Homeopathic Hospital was taken over by the regular Medical School and became the Medical Ward, while the other building became the Surgical Ward. A long, narrow passageway was built in 1900 connecting these two buildings, crossing the Palmer Ward and the nurses' residence between them. From this passageway various subsidiary buildings extended which were designed for use as a bakery, an office for social service, and a housekeeper's room. A small office building was erected in 1896 for the use of the superintendent, and the space thus saved was used for much needed laboratories. This office building was enlarged in 1918. From 1925 it was used for school and recreational purposes by the Social Service Department, and later by the Red Cross. The old Homeopathic Hospital Building, later the Medical Ward, was burned to the ground in February, 1927.

The erection of a building for the departments of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology at a cost not exceeding $14,000 was approved by the Regents in November, 1905. Despite this favorable action, however, it was not until 1909 that the Regents directed the Buildings and Grounds Committee to work out a plan for such a building, and at the July meeting of that year the sum of $25,000 was voted for its erection. This amount was exclusive of equipment, purchased later for $9,600. The final cost of the building, completed in 1910, was $33,000. Known as the Eye and Ear Ward, this building was approximately 50 by 100 feet, with a floor area of 17,112 square feet, and stood at the rear of the main group of hospital buildings to which it was connected by a covered passageway. From the beginning these quarters were seriously limited, but a few extra rooms for patients, seriously ill, were thus provided as well as a limited space for the sectional teaching of students. With the opening of the new Hospital in 1925, the building was rearranged to care for maternity patients.

Provision for maternity cases in the Hospital was first made when they were temporarily housed in Palmer Ward after its erection in 1903. This, however, was a makeshift arrangement, and in January, 1905, the Regents approved the use of a building, originally moved from North University Avenue for use as a contagious hospital. This old house, which stood on the west side of the Hospital site behind the Medical Ward Building, with another which was moved to an adjacent site in 1908, served the Department of Obstetrics for many years, although neither of these buildings was at all adapted to the purpose it Page  1657was to serve. They have since been razed as fire hazards.

At the time the Catherine Street Hospitals were erected in 1891, a small shack on the property, just behind the Homeopathic Hospital, was taken over and used as a laundry. With the removal of the heating plant to a new building in 1897, the laundry was moved into a new building, and at a cost of $200 the old building was fitted up as a separate contagious disease hospital and equipped with furniture for an additional sum of $36.15.

Here cases of diphtheria, smallpox, and scarlet fever were cared for until 1914, when the city of Ann Arbor, gave the University the money for a Contagious Disease Hospital. Conditions in the first little building had been very bad, but no steps were taken to remedy them until a smallpox epidemic developed in Ann Arbor in 1908 and the patients had to be isolated in a building hastily prepared for the purpose. The city of Ann Arbor gave $25,000, which amounted to the cost of the building without its equipment, for the twenty-four bed Contagious Disease Hospital, which was erected in accordance with plans designed by J. H. Marks, then Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds (see Part V: The University Hospital). This hospital was designed for treatment under one roof of patients with various kinds of contagious diseases, at that time a radical departure in the treatment of such cases which, however, proved eminently practical and satisfactory. The building, completed in 1914 and measuring approximately 40 by 100 feet, was erected in an isolated spot well to the east of the entire Hospital group of buildings.

By 1914 the need for adequate quarters for the house physician and interns in the Hospital had become a pressing one, and the first interns' home was adapted from a residence moved to a site at the rear of the hospitals. An appropriation of $2,500 was made by the Regents for this purpose in March, 1912, and a further addition to the building was authorized in 1917. The building, which accommodated about fourteen men, was later used by the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology. A nurses' home, known as the Pemberton-Welsh Residence, was also erected in 1921. This was a two-story wooden building, about 160 by 45 feet, which housed seventy-five graduate nurses. The design and construction of this building were carried out entirely by the Buildings and Grounds Department.

In addition to the buildings composing the Hospital group, the state of Michigan, in 1901, authorized the erection of a Psychopathic Hospital, just to the east of the Hospital buildings. This building, completed in February, 1906, was the first University psychiatric hospital and clinic in the country. While the cost of the building was borne by the state, the University also appropriated about $8,000 to make it fireproof. It accommodated forty patients. In its plan and equipment it was essentially an observation hospital. On the first floor were the offices and a small classroom. The wards were at either end of the building on the first and second floors.

The last addition to the rather extensive group of buildings which comprised the old Hospital group proper was a separate twenty-five bed Dermatology Ward, authorized by the Regents in December, 1917, and erected in 1918 at a cost of $7,445. It was removed in 1932.

With the completion of the Hospital in 1925, the old Hospital buildings were no longer needed for the purposes for which they had been designed. Many of the buildings, however, have been used as convalescent wards and as other adjuncts to the Hospital. The old Psychopathic Hospital for some time was occupied by Page  1658the School of Public Health, and the old Office Building was used by the Red Cross.

Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital

The new Outpatient Clinic of the University was built at a cost of $3,836,717 with funds appropriated by the state. In March, 1949, the Regents agreed that a bill be introduced in the legislature "to include a request for the funds necessary to construct the addition to the General Library and the Medical Outpatient Clinic" (R.P., 1948-51, p. 284). In November of the same year the Board adopted a resolution that the University request the legislature for a capital improvements appropriation for 1950-51, covering the construction of the Outpatient Clinic in the amount of $2,800,000 (R.P., 1948-51, p. 574).

A request for an increased appropriation was made early in 1951, and the legislature accordingly, in June, 1951, granted $1,500,000 for the building. As a result the authorized contract cost was increased from $2,900,000 to $3,726,800. Skidmore, Owings and Merrill were appointed as architectural consultants for the building and the firm of Giffels and Vallet, Inc., as architects. A contract for the construction of the superstructure was executed with Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., of Washington, D.C.

Construction was begun in September, 1950, and completed in January, 1953. The structure is a seven-story addition to the main building. It houses twenty-one clinics formerly scattered throughout odd corners of the University Hospital and is now capable of serving three times the 250,000 annual patient capacity of the old Clinic.

The new clinics are designed to provide faster and better service as well as comfort and convenience for patients not confined to hospital beds. In addition to the twenty-one specialty clinics there are 196 examining rooms, six classrooms, and ample space for the administrative staff. On each level are comfortable waiting rooms. The Pediatrics and the Psychiatry clinics have their own waiting rooms.

With the opening of the building the Hospital began a twenty-four-hour-a-day emergency service. The air-conditioned emergency suite consists of a receiving room, four minor operating rooms, a first aid room, and a cast room, with X-ray facilities adjacent.

General services for all patients are on the second level, which is the ground floor at the main entrance. Here is the reception desk where patients present letters of referral from their doctors. Nearby is the registration area, with individual booths for interviewing patients. Next is a general laboratory area for routine examinations. Also on this floor is the pharmacy unit at which patients may have prescriptions filled and the Central Appointments Office.

Like all units of the Medical Center, this building is used in the education of medical and nursing students. The classrooms are equipped for film and X-ray projection. Another important teaching facility is the Nutrition Clinic, where patients are taught the dietary principles necessary in treatment of certain diseases. The Heredity Clinic, formerly in a frame building behind the main Hospital, has been moved to the Outpatient Building and has quarters on the first level.

The Outpatient Clinic Building measures 125,340 square feet. It is 60 by 231 feet. It is built of reinforced concrete and light brick and is modern in style. In addition to the basement, there are approximately 500 rooms on the seven floors. A bridge 140 feet long connects the Page  1659Clinic Building with the Main Hospital on three levels.

The Thomas Henry Simpson Memorial Institute for Medical Research

The Simpson Memorial Institute stands as the result of a $400,000 bequest to the University by Mrs. Catherine Simpson, of Detroit, in memory of her husband (R.P., 1923-26, p. 478). The building is on Observatory Street opposite the University Observatory and south of the University Hospital. According to the terms of Mrs. Simpson's bequest $150,000 was to be used for the construction and equipment of the building, and the remaining sum of $250,000 was to be invested in securities; it was intended that the income from these would pay the salaries of members of the staff, and it was agreed that expenses for heat, light, repairs, and administration of the new building would be borne by the University so that the income from the bequest could be used solely for research purposes. The primary subject for research, as stipulated by the donor, was the study of pernicious anemia and its treatment. Other disorders affecting the blood are also being investigated.

Construction began on June 3, 1925, with Albert Kahn as architect and Henry L. Vanderhorst as contractor. Dedication exercises were held on February 10, 1927. The cost of building and equipment eventually amounted to $202,867.85. The building is approximately 75 by 45 feet and affords 17,830 square feet of floor space.

The Institute, a beautiful four-story granite building, on a site overlooking the reaches of the Huron River Valley, is a few hundred feet from the entrance to the University Hospital. Broad steps lead up to the front entrance, through which one enters a handsomely furnished walnut-paneled lobby. Also on the first floor are offices for the Director and secretaries, a library, and a conference room. Many of the furnishings of the first floor were given to the University by Mrs. Simpson. A gift of books for the library was made in 1926 by Dr. Lemuel W. Famulener, of St. Luke's Hospital, New York City.

The second floor is devoted to the laboratories and offices of the junior staff members. On the third floor are accommodations for ten patients, nursing office, diet kitchen, and treatment and utility rooms. A lecture room, photographic room, and quarters for animals are on the two basement floors.

Since its establishment the Institute has been closely affiliated with the Medical School and with the University Hospital. In addition to research, the activities of the staff include consultations concerning patients referred by their attending physicians or by members of the hospital staff, and instruction of medical and postgraduate students.

In accepting the Institute at the dedication exercises, President Little referred to it as "a living memorial where through the years to come men and women will be enabled to search for ways in which human suffering may be decreased in order that happiness and freedom from pain which is so characteristic of Youth may be made more sure." He added: "No gift that the University will ever receive can have about it more delicate and beautiful sentiment than the untiring and personal attention that the donor has bestowed upon the Simpson Memorial Institute." During the twenty-seven years the Institute has been in existence, active research has been carried on in various fields of hematology. Almost 2,500 patients have been admitted Page  1660and cared for, and the yearly visits to the outpatient service total more than 2,000.

University Hospital Building

For many years before World War I plans for increasing the hospital facilities of the University had been discussed. It was not until 1917, however, that the legislature made a first appropriation for the new building, in the amount of $350,000. Two years later a second appropriation of $700,000 brought the total to $1,050,000, although $35,000 of this amount was set aside for an additional unit to the Homeopathic Hospital.

At first it was planned to construct the new hospital in units or sections, costing about $350,000 each, as the money was appropriated, but this did not prove feasible. Entrance of the United States into World War I delayed the progress of the building, but in May, 1919, plans were submitted by the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit, and were accepted by the Regents. The sum of $59,320 was set aside by the Regents in June, 1919, to cover the cost of the land required for the site, on Ann Street directly across from the Observatory. In the fall of that year contracts for the construction of the exterior shell of the building were let, with the expectation of completing the building through later appropriations on the part of the legislature. Thompson-Starrett Company held the contract for the work in masonry, cut stone, structural steel parts, and the rough carpentry; the University Department of Buildings and Grounds had charge of the heating, ventilating, plumbing, and electrical work.

In addition to the funds already provided the legislature had appropriated an additional $540,644 to complete existing contracts. Progress on the new building continued through 1920 and 1921, and in the fall of the latter year the first part of the construction was completed. No further funds were available at that time, however, and work was stopped. In 1923 the legislature made another appropriation of $2,300,000 to complete the hospital, the final cost of which was $3,395,961.

Construction of the building was resumed in the fall of 1923, with Professor John F. Shepard appointed Supervisor of Plans early in 1924, to work with the architect and contractors. Dr. Christopher G. Parnell, Director of the Hospital from 1918 to 1924, had also worked with the architect in the fundamental planning of the building. In June and July of 1924 bids were received, and the major contracts let for the completion of the building. From that time work progressed rapidly until patients were moved from the old Hospital to the new building early in August, 1925.

The gross floor area of the Hospital comprises 434,445 square feet. The main building is 460 feet over-all from east to west and 400 feet from north to south, when the Neuropsychiatric Institute is included.

With the completion of the building Michigan had a Hospital worthy of the state and of the University, adequate for the needs of the people and for the training of medical students and nurses. The Hospital, built on the system of regularly spaced piers, is of fireproof construction throughout and contains two miles of corridors and ten acres of floor space. At the present time it provides 744 beds. It was estimated that of the total cost of the building more than $400,000 was spent for equipment.

In general design the building, constructed of light sand-colored brick with stone trimmings, is in the shape of a double Y, with the lower ends forming the main corridors and the upper angles of the Y forming the wards at either end. Page  1661Directly in front of the building is a three-story administration building, constructed entirely of Indiana limestone, while to the rear is the surgical wing, with the Neuropsychiatric Institute, completed in 1939, just beyond. All of these sections are connected by corridors to the main Hospital, so that they really form integral parts of it. This unusual design provides maximum light and air for all the rooms and wards on the nine floors of the Hospital. Of these nine stories all are completely or in part available for patients. Floors below the first level are used for services such as kitchens, stores, dining rooms, cafeterias, and clothes storage.

On the roof are a recreation center and school department for crippled children and a poliomyelitis Respirator Center. The surgical wing contains a pathological museum, two amphitheaters, bacteriological, clinical, and serology laboratories, a library, eleven operating rooms, and ninety-two private rooms for patients. In the main part of the Hospital there are 652 beds including ten wards of eighteen beds each. The remainder are in smaller ward and semi-private accommodations. Adjacent to each ward and forming the ends of the two Y's are attractively furnished sun rooms.

The sixth floor provides facilities for treating 95 children. The fifth floor is reserved for treatment of neurological, neurosurgical, medical, and eye diseases. Men's and women's surgery for the most part occupies the third floor. The fourth floor is devoted to treatment of orthopedic, urologic, and ear afflictions. The second floor is devoted to internal medicine and metabolic diseases. The X-ray department occupies about 100,000 square feet on the ground floor and has complete facilities for diagnosis. Treatment facilities are quartered in the Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center Unit. One of the large amphitheaters is equipped with a special device by means of which 200 students may hear a patient's heart sounds at the same time. All departments of the hospital and clinics are connected with a central record room where histories of the patients are filed.

The Administration Building, which forms the main entrance to the Hospital, contains on the second floor the general offices, including those of the Director, Dr. A. C. Kerlikowske, the Associate Director, Dr. Roger B. Nelson, and other administrative personnel. On the same floor are the hospital personnel office, and the administrative offices for the Dietetic and Nursing departments. Just below, on the first floor, are the general admission and financial and business offices of the Hospital. The third floor is occupied by the Social Service Department as well as by the medical and financial statistical section.

In 1931 two additional stories were added to the main section of the Hospital under a 1929 appropriation of $250,000 from the legislature, to which $28,000 was added by the state and the University. These two floors, which added 98 beds to the capacity of the Hospital, are devoted to the care and treatment of tuberculosis. Incorporated in the addition were a light therapy room and a number of laboratories. This addition formed the final link in the chain of treatment of pulmonary diseases in Michigan, providing students with an adequate teaching laboratory. Altogether it added 35,787 square feet to the Hospital.

Interns' Home

The Interns' Home, which was completed in December, 1939, is connected with the Hospital by an underground passageway. The building consists of three floors in addition to the ground floor; it is so planned that it may be Page  1662extended by adding two stories without impairment of its proportions and design. An elevator shaft, not utilized at the present time, has been provided in case of expansion.

Care was taken to place the recreational facilities of the building as far as possible from the living quarters, so as to avoid disturbing those who must sleep while others are engaged in leisure-time activities.

The ground floor contains the trunk room, a photographic darkroom, a recreation room covering 2,000 square feet and adjoined by a kitchen, and a handball court. On the first floor, at the right of the main entrance, is a reception room; on the east side of the second floor a lounge room, with paneled walls and built-in bookcases, affords a magnificent view of the Huron River and surrounding country.

The bedrooms, the majority of which are single rooms, have ample closet space and private lavatories. In addition, there are shower rooms, with marble shower stalls and marble wainscoting on each floor. Sixty-one interns are accommodated in these rooms. The building measures 39 by 154 feet and furnishes 23,295 square feet of floor space. It is equipped with a loudspeaker system extending to all corridors and to the handball court and the recreation and lounge rooms.

Neuropsychiatric Institute

In 1938-39 the Neuropsychiatric Institute was built as an additional wing directly behind the Surgical Wing of University Hospital. It is connected with the Hospital by the use of corridors on each floor. The building stands on a sharp decline and is only five stories high, so that it is lower than the Hospital proper. Funds for this building were first provided by the legislature in 1929, in the so-called Hartman Act, when a total of $330,000 was appropriated, but this sum was never made available. Some years later, in 1937, $400,000 was again appropriated, and with this fund, plus an additional sum of $56,000 from the University Hospital Fund, the Institute was built.

The Neuropsychiatric Institute contains approximately eighty-five beds, of which one-third are for adolescents for whom a part of the second floor is reserved. The sub-subbasement contains rooms for physiotherapy and hydrotherapy equipment as well as a gymnasium. The subbasement floor is mainly for the work in occupational therapy; a lecture room seating 140 persons can be used for recreation and entertainment, and there is also a neuropathological laboratory. The basement and ground floors are used for the care and treatment of additional patients, while the first floor houses the offices of the outpatient department. The architect of the Institute was Albert Kahn, designer of the main Hospital, and the contractor for the erection of the building was Jerome A. Utley, of Detroit. This building is 212 feet by 53 feet, with a total floor area of 65,830 square feet.

Women's Hospital

In October, 1945, the Board of Regents approved a recommendation to ask the legislature for an appropriation of $1,000,000 for the construction of a maternity hospital (R.P., 1945-48, p. 119). The building was authorized early in 1946.

Ground was broken in March, 1947. Then, at the joint request of the Senate Finance and House Ways and Means committees, after $100,000 had been spent the work had to be suspended owing to lack of funds. It was not until May, 1948, that an economy-conscious legislature finally provided $1,645,000 Page  1663for the building. Yet no single unit in the University building program was ever more desperately needed than the Women's Hospital. The old building, erected in 1904 for other purposes, was outmoded, ramshackle, and overcrowded and was properly termed "a disgrace to the state" by former Governor Kim Sigler.

Construction was resumed in June, 1948, and completed in January, 1950. The total appropriation for the Hospital was $1,750,000, of which $100,000 was set aside for furnishings. The final cost was $1,725,000.

In accordance with the University Hospital's dual purpose as an educational center for medical and nursing students, as well as a hospital proper, the new Women's Hospital unit combines outpatient and inpatient service with facilities for the teaching of obstetrics and gynecology. There are also facilities for research in large and well-equipped laboratories.

Open house was held early in February, 1950. All patients and babies were transferred from the old Maternity unit and admitted to the new Women's Hospital on February 14, 1950.

Situated just east of the main Hospital, this beautiful brick building accommodates seventy-seven mothers and eighty-two babies, in contrast to the old structure where only thirty-five mothers and thirty babies could be taken care of.

The obstetric outpatient clinic, on the main floor, includes six examining rooms, two offices for doctors, an infants' examining room, and a special waiting room for mothers returning for the postnatal care of the babies. On the east side opposite the entrance, are a staff room, a classroom, a library, and laboratories. Also on the main floor is the Norman R. Kretzschmar Galens Memorial Room. This beautiful lounge for medical students was furnished with funds provided by the Galens Society and by associates of Dr. Kretzschmar, who died on May 5, 1943.

The building houses obstetrical patients and babies on the second and third floors and gynecological patients on the third floor. The modern delivery-room section on the second floor includes nurses' station, six labor rooms, two delivery rooms, and one operating room.

The delivery rooms have stainless delivery and operating tables, which were installed at a cost of about $1,000 each. In the ceilings are flush panel lights, and one wall of each delivery and operating room is of opaque glass block to provide complete illumination. The delivery rooms have explosion-proof electric switches, automatic clocks and special timing apparatus, and ducts for automatically piped-in oxygen and air pressure. This section also includes a "scrub" area for doctors and a utility room for sterilizing instruments.

The central east-west corridor connecting the delivery room section to the east part of the building, which contains many of the rooms for patients, has decentralized nurseries. These are situated so that the mothers are housed in four-bed or private rooms at each side of the rooms where the babies are cared for. Patients in these rooms can watch their babies through connecting windows, an arrangement to keep mothers and babies together from the earliest possible moment.

The second floor also has a laboratory, a treatment room, a four-bassinet nursery for premature babies, a room where mothers are instructed in the care of babies, a nursing station, and a special waiting room for harried fathers.

The third floor of the Hospital contains twenty-one rooms for forty-six patients and four nurseries equipped with thirty bassinets. The wards and all of the rooms are decorated in soft shades of Page  1664blue, green, yellow, and tan, a welcome departure from the customary clinical white color scheme. Each bedroom has self-adjustable beds and special lighting and signal facilities.

The fourth floor, which is devoted to housing for doctors on call and for medical and postgraduate students, has accommodations for sixteen persons, as well as a lounge and kitchenette.

Industrial Engineering Laboratory

The Industrial Engineering Laboratory, a wooden structure, immediately south of the R.O.T.C. Building and adjacent to the West Engineering Building, was built in 1943 to provide necessary laboratory space for the administration of courses relating to the war effort. Funds were made available through appropriation by the State Administrative Board, and the building was completed, after a delay of several months in obtaining critical materials, at a cost of approximately $7,500. The floor area is 4,828 square feet.

Until 1947 the building was used by the Electrical Engineering Department as an Electronics Laboratory. At that time the Electrical Engineering Department moved to the East Engineering Building addition, and alterations were made to provide quarters for an industrial laboratory.

Inglis House

In October, 1950, it was announced by President Ruthven that Mrs. Elizabeth H. Inglis had given her house, known as "The Highlands," at 2301 Highland Road, to the University. Mrs. Inglis was the widow of James Inglis, a Detroit industrialist and an honorary alumnus of the University, who died in March, 1950. Mr. Inglis was founder and chairman of the Board of the American Blower Company of Detroit. Under the terms of her husband's will the property was to have been given to the University at the time of her death, but because she was leaving Ann Arbor Mrs. Inglis decided to make the gift at this time (R.P., 1948-51, p. 1304).

The Inglis estate comprises eight and one-half acres north of Geddes Avenue and east of the University Arboretum, which it adjoins. From the height on Highland Road the house commands a sweeping view of wooded hills on the north side of the river. The four-story, twelve-room home, with its landscaped gardens and scenic grounds, is valued at $200,000.

The house, built in 1927, is of irregular brick and stone construction. It contains on the first floor a library, the laundry, and a boiler room. On the second floor are a combination living and dining room, a kitchen, coffee room, and a three-car garage. The master bedroom, two guest rooms, and maids' quarters are on the third floor, and on the fourth is another large bedroom. The property also includes a caretaker's cottage, a greenhouse workshop, and a pump house. A well, 170 feet deep, supplies water for an extensive irrigation system in the gardens.

The home, at present, is being used as a guest house for official visitors to the University and for meetings of University groups. A resident hostess is in charge of the house.

W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry

The first graduate dental student in the United States or Canada was enrolled Page  1665in the School of Dentistry of the University of Michigan in 1894. In the years that followed, the faculty of the School of Dentistry evidenced great interest in graduate and postgraduate programs in dentistry, and instruction in these two areas of dental education was offered as far as the limited facilities of the School of Dentistry permitted. The W. K. Kellogg Foundation, shortly after its establishment in 1930, began the development of a health program in accordance with the charter of the Foundation. Those dentists who co-operated in the program were found to be keenly desirous of obtaining postgraduate instruction in the various phases of dental practice. Thus, the Foundation became interested in a need of the dental profession which had been a source of increasing concern to the School of Dentistry. Since the School of Dentistry had been offering postgraduate instruction for many years, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, in 1937, provided funds which amplified the teaching facilities of the School in an effort to meet the growing demands of the dental profession for postgraduate study (see Part VII: The School of Dentistry). This instructional program was, however, distinctly limited in its scope because of the inadequacy of the physical equipment required for postgraduate teaching.

The Kellogg Foundation, in co-operation with the School of Dentistry, formulated a plan to erect a building specially designed for that purpose. In August, 1938, President Ruthven presented to the Board of Regents a proposal of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation offering to give 55 per cent of the cost of an addition to the School of Dentistry, on condition that the Public Works Administration provide 45 per cent of a total cost of $400,000. Ultimately, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation granted $236,500 for the building and the Public Works Administration $209,835. Thus, the total cost of construction was $446,335 (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 784, 955).

Mr. Lewis J. Sarvis, of Battle Creek, was the architect for the building, which was erected at the corner of North University Avenue and Fletcher Street, adjacent to and connected with the existing School of Dentistry. The old residence known as the Prettyman house, on the west side of the School of Dentistry, was demolished in the fall of 1938, and work was immediately begun on the new building.

The general work contract was awarded to the O. W. Burke Company, although additional contracts were made for the foundations and footings, the electrical work, and the plumbing, heating, and ventilating. The dental equipment was purchased from the Ritter Dental Manufacturing Company. During the spring of 1940 the building was completed and on April 3 it was dedicated in connection with the annual homecoming of the School of Dentistry.

In January, 1940, the building was officially named the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry (R.P., 1939-42, pp. 187-88).

From an architectural viewpoint the building is an outstanding contribution to the University campus. In it are combined maximum efficiency with simplicity and beauty of design, and it is an ideal educational unit. The building is a full three-story structure which extends north and south for 200 feet and is approximately 100 feet in its east-west dimension. The entire exterior is dominated by large windows that provide maximum daylight to all rooms. Between the Institute and the Dental Building is a court, 50 by 54 feet in size, which gives the inner rooms on all three floors the same excellent lighting as the exterior rooms.

The main entrance to the building faces west, and broad stone steps lead Page  1666up to the outer doors of beautiful copper grill work. Another short flight of steps, flanked by marble wainscoting, leads to a spacious and impressive main lobby, which is paneled in American walnut. From this foyer a broad, marble, central staircase, dividing before a large panel of glass brick, ascends to the second floor, and lateral stairways descend to the basement.

On the corridor, to the right of the foyer, are the administrative offices of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute, a faculty conference room, and a seminar room. On the east and west corridor leading to the Dental Building are the dental caries research laboratories, a small lecture room, and a seminar room. To the left of the foyer a wide arch opens directly into a waiting room for children. This leads into the clinics and laboratories which are used in the teaching of dentistry for children and orthodontics.

On the second floor the central west part of the building is devoted to clinics and laboratories for partial denture prosthesis, and across the hall, facing on the inner court, are similar facilities for complete denture prosthesis. On the north side are specially adapted facilities for the clinical and laboratory teaching of operative dentistry, root surgery, periodontia, and ceramics. The entire south section of this floor consists of a series of operating rooms and private consultation offices designed for the department of oral surgery.

On the basement floor, on the south, are a seminar room and two laboratories devoted to oral pathology. On the court there is a large beautifully appointed auditorium which will accommodate 280 people. The north side of the basement accommodates locker rooms, seminar rooms, an instrument storage room, and research rooms for the Department of Orthodontics.

On each of the three floors there is direct communication between the Institute and the School of Dentistry through continuous halls on the south and by direct openings on the northwest corner of the Dental Building.

Facilities of the Institute are adapted primarily to graduate and postgraduate instruction in dentistry. All undergraduate teaching, with the exception of oral surgery and dentistry for children, is conducted in the Dental Building. Originally, an exhibition hall was in the north part of the basement. This was remodeled in 1947 to provide an additional seminar room, a storage room, and the instrument room. In the summer of 1952, the small lecture room on the first floor was expanded to seat 100, rather than 55, students. This necessitated a reduction in the size of one seminar room.

The Institute is unique in dental education and offers the most adequate facilities for graduate and postgraduate dental teaching to be found anywhere in the world.

Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology Building

The only building which was designed and built for the use of any of the sections of the Institute of Human Biology is the Vertebrate Biology Building north of the court at 1135 East Catherine Street. Constructed of inexpensive brick and tile, it was erected for the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics from a special appropriation of $20,000 made by the Board of Regents in 1930 (R.P., 1929-32, p. 372). Horace W. Feldman, who was then the Director, moved his stocks of mammals into this building as soon as it was completed in 1931. The western exterior wall was left unfinished in the expectation that an addition would be constructed later. An outdoor room of concrete and Page  1667wire screen, measuring 20 by 30 feet, was erected later at the east. In addition to animal rooms, a food-mixing room, a cage-washing room, a technique laboratory, the psychological testing rooms, offices, and a seminar room and library, the Vertebrate Biology Building also houses the Institute shops. In these shops are repaired and constructed animal cages, traps, and experimental equipment of many kinds, much of it employing electronic circuits.

Lamont-Hussey Observatory

The Lamont-Hussey Observatory may be said to have had its beginning as early as November, 1902. At this time, Hussey in conjunction with Aitken was carrying on an extensive double-star program at the Lick Observatory at Mt. Hamilton, California, and during a visit from Robert Patterson Lamont they had their first conversation concerning the desirability of sending a large telescope to the Southern Hemisphere for the measurement of southern double stars and for the extension of the double-star survey to the south celestial pole.

In October, 1905, Hussey came to the University of Michigan as Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory. In April, 1908, on meeting with Lamont in Chicago, he spoke again of his desire to proceed with the preparation of plans for a 24-inch refracting telescope for the Southern Hemisphere, and Lamont contributed $1,000 with which to begin drawings.

In April, 1909, Hussey visited the United States Naval Observatory to inspect its 26-inch refractor and to collect data for the design of the 24-inch refractor. In February, 1910, Lamont authorized placing the order for the glass, and in March, 1910, under Hussey's direction, plans and drawings for the mounting were begun by Samuel Pierpont Langley.

From June, 1911, to September, 1916, Hussey was Director of the La Plata Observatory in Argentina, as well as Director of the University of Michigan Observatory, agreeing to this co-operative arrangement with the idea that it would offer an opportunity to select a site with favorable observing conditions for the proposed refractor. That plan was never realized, however, and Hussey terminated his directorship of the La Plata Observatory in 1916.

During his South American sojourn, however, plans went forward for the southern refractor. In 1910 a contract for a 24-inch objective was given to the Alvan Clark and Sons Corporation. Then followed much delay and disappointment in obtaining glass suitable for such an objective. Not until August, 1922, did Hussey hear of a pair of disks from which could be ground a 27-inch objective. Lamont authorized the purchase of the disks, which arrived at McDowell and Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in April, 1923. The grinding of the objective was under the direct supervision of the chief optician, J. B. McDowell, and after his death the work was completed by Hageman. The objective arrived in Ann Arbor on January 27, 1925. The mounting for the refractor had been made at the Observatory Shop in Ann Arbor under the direction of the chief instrument maker, Henry J. Colliau.

During the summer of 1925 the 27-inch telescope was fully assembled and temporarily mounted on the Observatory grounds at Ann Arbor for the final testing, which proved the objective to be of excellent quality and the mechanical parts satisfactory; subsequent performance in South Africa amply bore out this designation.

In September, 1923, in conference Page  1668with Lamont, Hussey decided upon South Africa rather than Australia as the site, and in October, 1923, he left Ann Arbor for South Africa, where he tested various sites. As a result Bloemfontein, the capital of the Orange Free State, was selected.

In September, 1926, the refractor was shipped to Bloemfontein. Professor and Mrs. Hussey, accompanied by Richard A. Rossiter and family, followed on October 9. Professor Hussey's unexpected death in London on October 28, 1926, brought a tragic ending to his hopes, but it was decided that the project should go forward under the immediate supervision of Rossiter, who arrived in Bloemfontein on November 28, 1926.

The exact location of the building on Naval Hill, a site within the city limits of Bloemfontein and about two miles north and three hundred feet above the business section, was decided upon by Rossiter, and the plans for it were made by W. S. Lunn, engineer, of Bloemfontein. The construction was let to W. H. Birtand Sons, a local firm there, and another Bloemfontein company, Gillespie and Son, erected the dome. A bid of about $21,800 was accepted for the construction. Two gifts from Lamont, one of $25,000 for the dome, and the other of $27,000 for the construction of the building, were formally accepted by the Regents. Gifts from the city of Bloemfontein amounted to between $5,000 and $6,000. The steel dome, 56 feet in diameter and weighing fifty-eight tons when crated for shipment, and an observing chair of light steel, 27 feet high, were constructed by the J. W. Fecker Company of Pittsburgh and shipped in 1927. Many favors were extended by the municipality of Bloemfontein, including a free site, road construction, water and power at cost, and a residence for Rossiter at a rent of a dollar a year.

The building, of pressed red brick, consisted of a telescope room and a north and a south wing. The central part was covered by the large dome for the refractor. The south wing contained the library, three offices, a restroom, a storeroom, and a darkroom. The north wing provided quarters for the caretaker and for garage and storage purposes. The building was completed in February, 1928, and the telescope was erected for the beginning of the regular observing program in May, 1928.

The Observatory was officially named "The Lamont-Hussey Observatory," a fitting tribute to Hussey's lifelong ambition and Lamont's benefaction. It was formally dedicated on April 28, 1928, with guests officially representing the Orange Free State, the city of Bloemfontein, and the Boyden Station of Harvard University.

The financial support of the Lamont-Hussey Observatory from its beginning until June, 1933, came chiefly from Lamont. The records indicate that during the period from June, 1908, to November, 1927, Lamont contributed towards this project a total of $132,959.62 (R.P., 1926-29, p. 445). Subsequent gifts have undoubtedly increased his contributions to approximately $150,000. Every assistance has been given by the government of the Union of South Africa and that of the Orange Free State as well as by the municipality of Bloemfontein. From 1933 to April, 1937, the University of Michigan assumed the full financial responsibility. Then came the arrangement with the government of the Union of South Africa for the operating expenses for the five-year period, April, 1937, to March, 1942, amounting to about $25,000: 80 per cent to be furnished by the Union of South Africa, and 20 per cent by the municipality of Bloemfontein, without changing in any respect the status of the Observatory Page  1669and the rights of the University of Michigan. The University retained full ownership of the building, of its equipment, of the observing program, and of results secured. Never was there an agreement drawn up that demonstrated a greater liberality or a more genuine scientific spirit and attitude. Since that period, the support has been carried jointly by the University of Michigan and the municipality of Bloemfontein.

An important adjunct to the Lamont-Hussey Observatory for a period of approximately three years was the use of a 10 ½-inch objective prism camera, under co-operative arrangement with the Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories. This telescope, owned by Mt. Wilson and sent to the southern station in December, 1948, was used in the Michigan-Mt. Wilson southern H-alpha survey for a period of three years, ending in August, 1951. The plans for the additional building necessary to house this instrument were drawn up by Karl G. Henize, with the contract let to a local builder, H. A. Poole. It was erected about sixty feet to the southeast of the main building, and was constructed of brick covered with plaster. The cost of this temporary structure was about $3,000. The program was financed in its entirety by a grant to the University Observatory from the Rackham Fund.

Although the Observatory was officially closed in December, 1953, the big refractor has been in use during the summer of 1954 for the study of the planet Mars at its close approach, by astronomers from the Lowell Observatory at Flagstaff, Arizona.

Lane Hall

At the turn of the century the Students' Christian Association, the Young Women's Christian Association, and the Young Men's Christian Association all flourished and were vigorously supported in the University. As early as 1897 an effort to bring these organizations together had proved unsuccessful.

For many years the Y.M.C.A. had rented Sackett and McMillan Halls, on State Street three blocks north of the campus, from the Presbyterian Church, but with the increasingly large scope of the work in religious education, social service, and missions, a new home for the Y.M.C.A. was badly needed. A site at the southwest corner of State and Washington streets was purchased, and in October, 1911, the Michigan Alumnus (18:12) announced: "The new building will contain dormitories for 75 to 100 men, offices, reading rooms, and bowling alleys. Shower baths and plunges will be included in the equipment. A large banquet hall will fill a long-felt need of the Association. The structure will be … four stories in height."

About a year later John D. Rockefeller offered to give $60,000 toward the project provided the Association could raise a like sum by October 1, 1915. The Alumnus for October, 1915, announced that alumni and friends had been able to raise the required subscription of $60,000, which was added to Mr. Rockefeller's gift. Plans for the construction were immediately underway, but were not, however, as ambitious as those first made. Otis and Clark, Chicago architects, were awarded the contract, and Professor John R. Allen of the Engineering College, a member of the Board of Directors of the S.C.A., superintended the erection of the building for the Association. The cornerstone was laid on May 16, 1916.

The structure was of colonial design and measured 100 by 50 feet. The cost of the building was about $70,000. An additional $30,000 for the site and $10,000 for the furnishings brought the total to $125,000.

Page  1670Lane Hall, named in honor of Judge Victor H. Lane, a member of the Law School faculty and for many years president of the Y.M.C.A., was formally opened on March 2, 1917, with addresses by President Harry B. Hutchins, Professor Leroy Waterman, the Reverend Lloyd Douglas of Ann Arbor, and Mr. N. C. Fetter, secretary of the Y.M.C.A. In the basement were two offices, a large club room, classrooms, and apartments for janitors and a caretaker; the main floor was devoted to the Board room, offices, five studies for student pastors, and a library; the second floor contained an auditorium seating 450 people and equipment for motion-picture projection in the gallery opposite the platform, a kitchen, dining rooms, four classrooms, two guest rooms, and a private bath for guests.

A gradual decrease in the effectiveness of the student religious organizations became evident, however, particularly in the early years following World War I. Other agencies expressed student interests more effectively, especially such social centers as the Union and the League, while many of the services which had been performed by the student associations were taken over by the churches and by the University. Lane Hall, nevertheless, continued as a center for the religious life of the men, although control of the building passed to the Student Christian Association, under which both the Y.M.C.A. in Lane Hall and the Y.W.C.A. in Newberry Hall carried out their programs. This arrangement continued until 1936, when the student organizations were discontinued and the Student Religious Association was created by the Board of Regents. The trustees of the Student Christian Association transferred the two properties, Lane Hall and Newberry Hall, to the Board of Governors of the new organization, the Student Religious Association, with the title resting in the Regents of the University.

At the present time the Student Religious Association has its headquarters in Lane Hall, with offices for the different religions and denominations under the charge of a Co-ordinator, DeWitt C. Baldwin, who is a University officer.

The Law Quadrangle

The four buildings comprising the Law Quadrangle: the Lawyers Club, the John P. Cook Dormitory, the Legal Research Building, and Hutchins Hall, were constructed during the decade 1923-33 on two city blocks purchased by the University, and facing on South University Avenue and State Street. The buildings themselves were given to the University by William W. Cook ('80, '82l), of New York City (see Part V: The Law School). Mr. Cook had first planned to endow a professorship of the law of corporations, but eventually this plan was merged in the more comprehensive and munificent gift which made possible the development of the Lawyers Club and the Law Quadrangle.

In the latter part of President Hutchins' administration, Mr. Cook had tentatively agreed to provide a dormitory for freshman students and had even acquired land for that purpose, the site of the University Museums Building on Washtenaw Avenue. This project however, was finally dropped and, when President Hutchins suggested that the Law School needed a new building and more adequate equipment, Mr. Cook was immediately interested. In 1920 a plan was prepared by members of the Law School staff and submitted to Mr. Cook for the erection of a Law School building, to include a library and dormitory. It also provided for a proposed endowment, the income to be used for the Page  1671development of legal research and graduate work.

Mr. Cook's response was prompt and generous, and a series of discussions took place between him and President Hutchins. It had first been proposed to place the buildings upon the lot on Washtenaw Avenue already purchased, but this proved too small for the purpose. In 1920 Mr. Cook, Dean Henry M. Bates, and the architects, York and Sawyer, of New York, decided upon a four-building project, embracing practically all the features of the plan as finally executed. The memorandum as agreed upon was incorporated, almost word for word, in that part of Mr. Cook's will, drawn the same year, which made provision for his benefactions to the University.

In accordance with this plan, the first part of the Quadrangle to be completed (1924) included the group of buildings comprising the Lawyers Club with its lounge, recreation room, offices, guest rooms, dining hall, and kitchen, and the residence hall facing on South University Avenue. In 1930-31 the John P. Cook Dormitory was erected, and in the summer of 1931, after the death of the donor in June, 1930, the beautiful and impressive William W. Cook Legal Research Building was ready for occupancy. Finally, in the early fall of 1933, Hutchins Hall, which contains the administrative offices and lecture, class, and seminar rooms of the Law School, was also completed.

Starret Brothers, of New York, were the contractors for the Lawyers Club, and the James Baird Company constructed the other buildings in the Quadrangle.

The Club buildings, with 127,347 square feet of floor space, form a magnificent Quadrangle open only at the southeast corner. A great central tower on the north side, rising some sixty-five feet, with the passageway beneath, constitutes a formal entrance to the Law School. Flagstone walks inside the Quadrangle connect the various buildings, and a generous planting of elms, arbor vitae hedges, and blue myrtle, which has grown remarkably, supplements the architectural features. Outside the Quadrangle evergreens of various types add color and individuality. The landscape design was the work of Jacob Van Heiningen of the firm of Pitkin and Mott, of Cleveland.

In their general style the buildings recall the Tudor Gothic of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge and the Inns of Court in London, although the demands of modern life and academic programs have necessitated many departures from English precedent. The group as a whole is constructed of Weymouth seam-faced granite, with trim of Indiana limestone.

Although the dormitories resemble those of English colleges, in accordance with modern needs and practice the windows were made much larger to afford more light, a procedure which modern heating methods permit. The Tudor Gothic style of the buildings is modified in many ways by Renaissance influence, for example, by an arcade of Doric columns leading from the northwest entrance along the side of the Lawyers Club. The dining hall resembles closely the chapels at Eton College and King's College, Cambridge; the lounge in the Lawyers Club just to the north is distinctly Renaissance in style.

The architectural details to be observed throughout are a feature of the Quadrangle as a whole. Over most of the entrances to the main buildings, as well as over many of the interior doorways, are carved texts taken from many sources, some from the will of Mr. Cook and others from the writings of great jurists. The seals of the various states are carved upon the towers and ends of the Legal Research Building, while the seals Page  1672of American and European universities and colleges form a decorative feature of the stained glass windows. On the beams of the great dining hall are carved the heads of famous jurists. In the first-floor corridors of Hutchins Hall is a series of stained glass cartoons portraying humorously various problems with which the law is confronted.

The Lawyers Club

As already mentioned, the first group of buildings of the Law Quadrangle to be built were those comprising the Lawyers Club itself, the first section of the dormitories, and the dining hall; these extend for some 275 feet along State Street. The tower, containing suites of student rooms, is surmounted by four turrets connected by an ornamental stone railing capped by Byzantine spires.

In the corner of the group, facing South University Avenue and State Street, is the Lawyers Club building proper, of which the principal feature is the great lounge on the first floor, largely Renaissance in spirit, with high-vaulted plastered ceiling and floor of wide white oak fastened with dowels. The walls are of dark oak paneling with a huge fireplace at the east end. Tapestries add to the attractiveness of the room, which is used as a general headquarters by the students living in the Quadrangle. Above, eight well-furnished and comfortable guest rooms provide accommodations for visiting lawyers who wish to utilize the research facilities of the Law School. Below the main lounge are a large game room and cloak rooms.

A lobby connects the lounge with the Tudor Gothic dining hall to the west. This magnificent room is 140 feet in length and 34 feet wide, and accommodates 300 men at heavy oak refectory tables. The hammer-beamed ceiling, 50 feet above the floor, is sustained by beams carved from old oak ship-timbers. The walls are of Indiana limestone with beautiful dark oak paneled wainscoting, above which are eighteen large windows of cathedral glass with English Gothic tracery. The floor is inlaid with marbles of different hues.

On the exterior, turrets mark each corner of the building, while massive oak-bound studded doors open on the court and into the connecting lobby. Beyond the dining hall are large, well-equipped kitchens.

On the walls of the lobby are two rare tapestries, one of the Renaissance period, the other medieval, presented by Mr. Cook. The floor of the lobby is brown tile, as are the floors of the stairs and halls of the dormitories. On either side of the lobby are the administrative offices of the Quadrangle and a faculty dining room with beautiful furnishings and ornamental fireplace.

The dormitory wing extends for two blocks eastward from the Lawyers Club Building on South University Avenue for 445 feet. Its peaked and gabled roof is covered with vari-hued slate shingles. Chimneys in groups of four rise above the nine sections, each of which has a separate entrance marked by medieval lanterns bearing the section letter in the glass. Water is available in each room, and there is a bathroom for each section. This first part of the dormitory provides accommodations for 197 men.

The John P. Cook Building

The John P. Cook Building was opened for occupancy in the fall of 1930. It houses 152 men, thus affording rooms in the entire Quadrangle for 352 students. This second unit, extending from the east wing of the Lawyers Club on South University Avenue 212 feet southward along Tappan Street, follows closely the architectural style of the Lawyers Club, with the same general arrangement of the sections. The rooms are somewhat larger, however, and the appointments slightly better. This section, which contains an Page  1673additional floor, was built as a memorial to Mr John P. Cook, the donor's father, and near the center of the building is a memorial room to him, with carved, paneled oak walls and stained glass windows. The room contains a full-length portrait of him by the artist, Henry Caro-Delvaille.

The William W. Cook Legal Research Building

Of the Law Quadrangle group the William W. Cook Legal Research Building is easily the most striking. It is in harmony with the other buildings of the group although more massive in general design. The main part forms one vast paneled library 244 feet long, 44 feet wide, and 50 feet high, with seating capacity for 500 persons. The exterior of the building is marked by four massive pinnacled towers, which, with the long row of arched and traceried windows extending the length of the building, emphasize the essential Gothic spirit of the architectural scheme and, at the same time, impart a rugged and individual beauty to the building.

An archway of carved stone at the entrance leads into a vestibule whence one may proceed directly to the main reading room or go down to the lounges and smoking rooms in the basement. The reading room gives an impression of architectural and decorative splendor. The ceiling is its most beautiful and interesting feature. Constructed of large plaster medallions paneled and decorated in blue and gold, it has heavy tie-beams running across it at the ends of which are carved figures which hold escutcheons bearing coats of arms of various heraldic designs. The stone walls are paneled in a carved oak to the height of 15 feet, above which high windows of tinted glass, bearing seals of the colleges and universities of the world, cast a soft light. The room has recessed bookshelves for 10,000 volumes of statutes, reports, digests, and encyclopedias. Long narrow alcoves opening off the main room also contain bookshelves holding about 20,000 volumes.

Immediately above the reading room, or the floor corresponding to the ninth-stack level, are thirty-two offices for the use of visiting lawyers, members of the faculty, and research workers. One of these rooms contains the private library of the donor, William W. Cook, arranged as nearly as possible as it was in his New York home and with the original furniture and decorations.

At the rear of the main reading room is the delivery desk from which passages give access to the tiers of stackrooms. This part of the building, of separate construction, was originally six book levels in height, and held approximately 210,000 volumes. In 1955 the stack structure was increased to ten levels with a total book capacity of approximately 350,000 volumes. In this structure there are 64 carrels and 31 offices for faculty members and graduate students. From level seven a bridge leads across to the third floor of Hutchins Hall, where the administrative offices of the Law School are situated. A connecting passageway from the basement of the library also leads to the basement and first floor of Hutchins Hall.

Hutchins Hall

With the construction of Hutchins Hall which was opened to classes in the fall of 1933, the present Law Quadrangle was completed. This building was named, in accordance with Mr. Cook's desire, for Harry B. Hutchins, Dean of the Law School from 1895 to 1910 and President of the University from 1909 to 1920. It stands on the northeast corner of Monroe and State streets with entrances on both streets. The building, which affords about 104,000 square feet of floor space, has two wings, one extending for 190 feet on State Street and the other for 230 feet on Monroe Street, with corridors running Page  1674the length of the wings on each of the four floors and classrooms and seminar rooms opening from them. On the first two floors these corridors are finished in lime-faced brick with floors of sound-absorbing tile. On the first floor, extending north and east, they enclose a charming court and give access to the main Quadrangle entrance to the building, as well as to the Legal Research Building.

Constructed with a view to future expansion, Hutchins Hall has, in all, nine classrooms seating from fifty to 265 students each, and four seminar rooms seating from twelve to thirty-five students. A reading room on the second floor, with adjoining stacks to hold 3,000 volumes, is large enough to seat 220 students. These classrooms are especially well adapted to their purpose, with rubbertiled floors in various color patterns and special acoustics.

The faculty and administrative offices on the third floor provide accommodations for the dean and the secretary as well as committee rooms, general offices, and a spacious lounge. The offices on this floor all have convenient access to a staff library which is equipped with stacks for 25,000 volumes. There are also offices on the fourth floor including those of the Michigan Law Review.

An appropriately furnished alumni room on the first floor contains class pictures, beginning with the class of 1873; these are displayed on specially constructed racks. On the second floor is a practice courtroom furnished with jury box, witness box, judge's bench, and benches for sixty auditors, modeled after those found in the court of the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench in England.

The final cost of Hutchins Hall was $1,191,074.29. The final value of the various buildings of the Law Quadrangle, including equipment and books, is $8,643,370. This is exclusive of the endowment and other gifts given by Mr. Cook to the University.

As far as is known, Mr. Cook never saw any of the buildings his generosity had made possible. His only reason for not visiting the University was that it "might spoil his dream."

The Old Library Building

The University's first Library Building, erected with an appropriation of $100,000 secured from the legislature in 1881, was planned as a combination art gallery and library. Construction, under the direction of Ware and Van Brunt, architects (later Van Brunt and Howe), and James Appleyard, of Lansing, contractor, began in 1881. On November 22, 1883, the building was ready for occupancy, and on the twelfth of the following month formal dedication ceremonies were held. In 1898 an addition was made to the bookstacks at a cost of $13,450, increasing the capacity to 200,000 volumes.

The old Library Building was long a landmark on the campus. Its twin towers were conspicuous everywhere, and the curving red brick walls of the great reading room formed a unique architectural feature. The east tower contained the University clock and a peal of five bells striking the Westminster chimes on the quarter hours. These bells, scrapped for old metal in World War II, were given to the University by E. C. Hegeler, J. J. Hagerman, and President Andrew D. White of Cornell University.

Within the building the delivery desk was situated along the diameter of the semicircle formed by the reading room, and behind it were the stackrooms of fireproof steel and brick construction. The reading room was furnished with reading desks and swivel chairs, which in later years became very worn and unstable. The women sat on one side Page  1675of the room and the men on the other. At either end of the delivery desk were the library offices.

The second floor housed the University's art collections, principally the collection given the University by Henry C. Lewis, of Coldwater, in 1895. This collection, which included many original works, as well as copies of paintings in European galleries, filled every inch of space in the room formed by the sloping roof above the main reading room. A part of the semicircular area where the roof came close to the floor was walled off, and the curved passageway thus formed, which possessed peculiar acoustic properties, was long known as the "Whispering gallery." Two seminar rooms, one in history and English, and one in the classics, were situated on either side of the main art gallery.

Eventually, this first Library Building was officially declared to be unsafe and the Board of Regents, in 1915, appealed to the legislature for a new one. At first it was planned to enlarge the old building; this proved impracticable, however, because of its inflammable character, since the beams in the ceiling of the main reading room, the stairways, much of the frame of the structure, and the entire roof were of wood. The only parts of the old Library Building to be retained in the new one were the bookstacks which were fireproof, although too weakly built to permit raising their height to the level of the new structure.

McMath-Hulbert Observatory

The McMath-Hulbert Observatory of the University of Michigan is near Lake Angelus, about five miles north of Pontiac and fifty miles northeast of Ann Arbor. The buildings reflect the purpose and spirit of the Observatory as well as its history. The administration and office building and the three units in which the observational work is centered are functional in design and unified in purpose. They were constructed in the 1930's as the program of the Observatory expanded and as the various donors made possible new construction and equipment. The Observatory is concerned entirely with solar research, and its program is based on a battery of varied but unified solar observations, studied and analyzed by a team of experienced astronomers. The buildings and the instruments that they house have been designed and constructed to carry out this program.

The oldest building in the group is the dome that now houses the 24-inch reflecting telescope. It was in this dome, in July, 1930, that the McMath-Hulbert Observatory began operations (see Part III: The McMath-Hulbert Observatory). The development of the Observatory and its evolution from smaller equipment preceded this date. The first building and its original 10 ½-inch reflector, both of which were designed and constructed by the three men who established the Observatory — Robert R. McMath, Francis McMath, and Judge Henry S. Hulbert — were given by deed to the University on December 15, 1931. The original building, of concrete block, is octagonal and is surmounted by a dome 16 feet in diameter. The dome frame is of steel construction with an inner and an outer skin of wood separated by a 3-inch air space. The outer skin is covered with a treated waterproof canvas laid in white lead, which gives excellent temperature control. The base of the instrument pier is a concrete monolith, 4 by 6 feet, completely isolated from surface tremors. Although the original 10 ½-inch reflector has been replaced by a telescope with a mirror 24 inches in diameter, the building is essentially the same as when first constructed.

The widespread scientific interest in the Page  1676early motion pictures and in continuous records of solar activity led to plans for the construction of a second building, a solar tower, where the techniques and methods which had been used in the initial studies of the sun could be further developed and put into practice on every clear day. With the help of President Ruthven, $20,000 was secured from the Rackham Fund as an initial grant for this new project. After inspection of other solar installations and consultations with astronomers at the Mount Wilson Observatory and with H. D. Curtis, of the University of Michigan, it was deemed wise to try to build a truly major solar instrument. The cost of such a project greatly overran the initial grant, but a very substantial gift from McGregor Fund of Detroit and generous contributions from a number of individuals made the building of the 50-foot tower and its spectroheliographs possible. This extension of the Lake Angelus plant was begun in 1935. The tower was completed and in operation June 30, 1936.

The 50-foot solar tower consists of an observing room surmounted by two concentric towers and a spectrograph well dropping 31 feet into the earth beneath. A small office and an underground photographic darkroom complete the installation. The octagonal observing room at the foot of the tower proper is built of cement blocks and is approximately 28 feet in diameter. The outer tower, which serves as a windbreak and sunshade for the inner tower, and as the mechanical support of the dome, is 16 ½ feet in diameter. It is made of onequarter-inch steel plates with all joints riveted. The inner tower is 6 feet in diameter and is made of one-quarter-inch steel plates welded together. Since the two towers are structurally separate, the outer tower shields the instrumentbearing inner tower from shock and vibration. Both towers are surmounted by a single steel dome 17 ½ feet in diameter, actually the hemispherical bottom of a standard water-tower tank turned upside down.

For three years the instruments installed in the dome and in the 50-foot tower were in continuous use. Their success in the simultaneous recording of prominence motions in three dimensions and in the light of different elements showed the great desirability of adding still another simultaneous record, that of the energy changes in prominences and other solar features. In order to provide these new observations and to care for the rapidly expanding program of solar research, plans were drawn up for a new 70-foot tower telescope and for an office building. The latter was to include office space for the staff, a library, darkrooms, laboratory facilities, and a suitably equipped instrument shop. In September, 1939, McGregor Fund of Detroit made a grant of $100,000 to the University, and Dr. and Mrs. Robert R. McMath deeded the necessary land, so that the above plans could become a reality. The new installations were dedicated on May 25, 1940. They are known as the McGregor Tower and Building in memory of Tracy W. McGregor, the founder of McGregor Fund, who had a lifelong interest in astronomy.

The new building and tower are to the north of the two earlier structures. The McGregor Building, constructed of cement block, is two stories in height and covers an area of 5,600 square feet. It includes all of the facilities envisaged in the original plans. The McGregor Tower rises some 70 feet from the ground on a site at the southeastern corner of the McGregor Building. This tower follows the general plan of the 50-foot tower, with two separate, concentric steel towers. The lateral dimensions Page  1677were adjusted to be compatible with the increased height of the new tower. There is no well beneath the 70-foot tower. Instead, the light is sent horizontally through openings in the towers to spectrographs inside the McGregor Building.

In January, 1954, construction of a 50-foot focal length vacuum spectrograph was begun. The need for this special instrument, which had been demonstrated over the years, arises from the fact that a spectrograph with a long light path suffers from seeing difficulties as does a telescope when used in a dome. The spectrograph has an outer steel shell of ¼-inch steel plates 4 feet in diameter and 53 feet long. It utilizes to the fullest possible extent the superb diffraction gratings now made under the supervision of Dr. Horace W. Babcock, of Mount Wilson, and the great improvements in photoelectric detection tubes which were primarily the result of World War II. Substantial grants in aid were made by McGregor Fund, the Detroit Edison Company, and the Arthur Curtis James Foundation of New York.

Throughout this extensive building program it was unnecessary to secure the services of an architect. All of the buildings were designed and the construction supervised by Robert R. McMath, Director of the Observatory. From the time the Observatory was deeded to the University until the present, the buildings have been occupied exclusively by the regular and auxiliary members of the Observatory staff. The property has been cared for by a local caretaker now in the employ of the University of Michigan Plant Department.

From the preceding description of the manner of growth of the Observatory it is clear that the cost of the buildings cannot be determined accurately. Much of the material and many of the services were donated. It is therefore impossible to give even an estimate of the cost.

The equipment of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory is extensive and varied. The principal instruments are: 24-inch Reflecting Telescope; 50-foot Tower Telescope (Telescope focal lengths of 50, 40, 20, or 6 feet and spectrograph with focal lengths of 15 and 30 feet; Stone Radial-Velocity Spectrograph); McGregor Tower Telescope (spectrographs of Littrow and Pfund type, echelle grating, infrared spectrograph with lead sulfide cell as sensitive element); vacuum spectrograph; densitometers for intensity measurement of films and plates; instruments for the measurement of position on motion picture films; Lyot and Baird type monochromatic filters; Perkin-Elmer Infrared Spectrometer; shop equipment; fundamental machine tools of rather large size.

Madelon Pound House

Madelon Pound House, the large three-story residence at 1204 Hill Street, long the home of Thomas C. Trueblood, Professor-Emeritus of Public Speaking, provides additional facilities for the University's International Center. The house was purchased from the Trueblood estate by the University in 1951 and renovated for the use of the Center with funds provided by Arthur Pound ('07), well-known author of Slingerlands, New York, and his wife, Madelon Paterson Pound. The house was named in honor of Mrs. Pound by the Board of Regents and dedicated in October of the same year.

It is used for meetings and recreation and special projects of the Center. The number of foreign students in attendance at Michigan had more than tripled since the 1930's, and the new facilities were intended to ease long overcrowded conditions Page  1678in the main unit in the south wing of the Michigan Union.

The first floor, in addition to an apartment set aside for the use of the Pounds when they are in Ann Arbor, has two adjoining drawing rooms which are used for smaller meetings of faculty, students, or community groups, particularly for social activities of foreign women students. The library of the International Center is also housed on the first floor.

Two of the four units on the second floor provide space for the International Center's English Language Service, which helps students from foreign countries improve their ability to speak and to read the English language. Two other rooms on the second floor are used as the Special Projects section of the Center. The Chinese student aid program and its related services to Chinese teachers and researchers, administration of the Iraqi and other student funds, United States government intercultural programs, and similar activities will be carried on in this section.

The third floor has been remodeled to provide an apartment for a staff member who will supervise activities at the house; no living accommodations for students, however, are provided in the building. The kitchen and a recreation room are in the basement.

Mason and Haven Halls (Angell Hall addition)

The extraordinary increase in enrollment immediately after World War II, with a corresponding increase in staff, made the need for additional classroom and office space acute. Accordingly, the Regents in the spring of 1946 authorized Vice-President Robert P. Briggs to make application to the Federal Works Agency for funds to prepare plans for an addition to Angell Hall. The sum of $60,000 was received for this purpose from the Federal Works Agency in July, 1946, and the Regents selected the architectural firm of Smith, Hinchman and Grylls of Detroit to draw up preliminary plans (R.P., 1945-48, p. 475).

In its initial stages, the planning proceeded on the assumption that the new building or buildings would replace six old structures which had been condemned as fire hazards: Haven Hall, the Economics Building, University Hall, Mason Hall, South Wing, and the Romance Language Building. At that time this represented a potential loss of sixty-five classrooms and 142 offices. Dean Hayward Keniston of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts proposed that these buildings be replaced by four separate structures: an addition to Angell Hall, a foreign language building, a human relations building, and an institutional relations building. These were to provide a total of about 140 classrooms and 250 offices.

These proposals, however, were regarded as much too ambitious, and it was thought wiser to consider the removal of only three buildings, Mason Hall, University Hall, and South Wing. The necessity for a more thorough study of the needs of the College was apparent, and James H. Robertson, of the Department of English, was appointed by the College to analyze the requirements of the various departments and to prepare a report, which was submitted in July, 1948. Throughout the summer and early fall, Associate Dean Lloyd S. Woodburne, Mr. L. Fry, and the architects held frequent meetings in an attempt to arrive at a design which would provide as much space as possible.

The original plan to enlarge Angell Hall by the addition of wings at the ends with an adjoining wing running north and south to enclose a central court was abandoned. The enormous increase in Page  1679building costs made such a plan prohibitive, if the proposed addition were to conform to the architectural style of Angell Hall. In fact, it became apparent that if anything like the needed classroom and office space were to be provided, the traditional plan of combining both faculty offices and classrooms in the same structure would have to be abandoned. The ceiling height for classrooms is considerably greater than that necessary for offices. Consequently, the inclusion of both offices and classrooms in the same structure is hardly economical. It was, therefore, decided to house some offices and classrooms in an office building with smaller offices and lower ceilings, and to build a second structure to include only the classrooms. The Executive Committee of the College agreed to this plan with some reluctance. but it was realized that the convenience of having offices close to classrooms was less important than the loss of space would be, with the current construction costs, under the traditional arrangement.

In October, 1948, the Regents, in their request to the legislature for appropriations for capital improvements, included a request for $3,750,000 for an addition to Angell Hall. In December of that year, the Regents appropriated $52,500 to complete the cost of plans and specifications which had been begun with the $60,000 from the Federal Works Agency.

The preliminary designs were approved in January, 1949, and the architects, Smith, Hinchman and Grylls were authorized to proceed with the preparation of the final plans and specifications. These called for an F-shaped structure with the two shorter arms adjoining the east side of Angell Hall. The addition comprised a four-story classroom section, including space for a study hall, two auditorium units, each containing two lecture halls, and an eight-story office building, the total amounting to approximately 190,000 square feet.

The legislature failed to appropriate funds for the building in the spring of 1949, and construction was therefore postponed. Action was precipitated, however, the following year by the destruction of Haven Hall by fire in June, 1950. Immediate application was then made to the legislature and in House Bill No. 32 the legislature appropriated the sum of $1,500,000 for the Angell Hall addition with the understanding that the total cost of the complete program would not exceed $4,000,000 (R.P., 1948-51, p. 923). In the meantime prices had risen, and the plans prepared in 1948 were revised in an attempt to bring the cost of the structure within the sum approved by the legislature. One auditorium unit was eliminated, and the other was redesigned to contain four lecture halls. Costs were also pared by other modifications in interior construction.

Vice-President Briggs was authorized by the Regents to let contracts for the demolition of Mason Hall, University Hall, and, if necessary, South Wing. After a restudy of the space needs of the College, the Executive Committee requested the administration to permit both Mason Hall and South Wing to stand. As the plans called for the addition to Angell Hall to be built on much of the space occupied by Mason Hall this request was denied, and these buildings were razed. Their elimination resulted in the loss of twenty classrooms, 120 offices, and the space occupied by the Bureau of Government Library, a total of about 167,000 square feet.

The Regents awarded the contract for the new construction to Bryant and Detwiler Company, and excavation was begun before the rubble from the old Page  1680buildings had been cleared away.

It soon became apparent that it would be difficult to hold the cost to the $4,000,000 figure. At the request of the Regents, the legislature increased the total appropriation for the new buildings to $4,784,403 (R.P., 1948-51, p. 1304).

In the early stages of planning the Angell Hall addition, it was provided that the building would house all the social science departments of the College. The reduction of space in the building, however, as a result of increased building costs and the dislocations produced by simultaneous elimination of Haven Hall, Mason Hall, University Hall, and South Wing required some modification in the original plans. Haven Hall had housed the departments of History, Sociology, Journalism, and the Bureau of Government Library. The Department of Philosophy and the academic counselors for freshmen and sophomores had been in Mason Hall. The Institute for Social Research occupied most of the space in University Hall, while South Wing housed teaching fellows in mathematics and Romance languages, as well as the Romance Languages Laboratory. It became necessary, therefore, to consider a rather general redistribution of space in Angell Hall, as well as in the new building.

After much study of the situation, the Executive Committee of the College, in March, 1951, recommended to the administration the following allocation of space in the office section of the addition: the first and second floors to the Department of English, the third floor to the Department of History, the fourth floor to the Department of Political Science, the fifth floor to the Department of Sociology, and the sixth and seventh floors to the Department of Psychology. A conference room on the ground floor was assigned to each of these departments.

Most of the third floor of the classroom section of the addition was allocated to the Department of Psychology for student and research laboratories, including the Vision Research Laboratory, and two rooms on the ground floor were set aside for the Psychology Instrument Shop. The Department of Journalism, the Language Laboratory, and the English Language Institute were assigned space on the first floor.

The buildings were finally completed in the late spring of 1952, and the various departments moved in during the summer. The Regents decided to retain the old names, Mason Hall and Haven Hall, assigning the former to the classroom section and the latter to the office building. The four large auditoriums were named Angell Hall Auditoriums A, B, C, and D. On September 26, 1952, the buildings were formally dedicated in an appropriate ceremony on the steps of the General Library.

Haven Hall, when completed, included 188 offices, housed 175 members of the faculty in addition to teaching fellows and secretarial staff, and contained 53,999 square feet. Mason Hall comprises, in addition to a study hall and laboratories, forty-one classrooms and twenty offices, and has a total area of 121,548 square feet. The Auditoriums, A, B, C, and D, seat 350, 258, 200, and 196, respectively, and have a total area of 25,474 square feet.

The total cost of the addition, $4,734,324, was distributed approximately as follows: construction, $3,989,307; architectural and engineering costs, $239,633; land improvement and utilities, $214,471; equipment, $290,913.

Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (First Engineering Building)

The early records of the University give little information regarding the Page  1681location of the rooms used for the different subjects taught in the 1850's and 1860's. Professor Charles S. Denison who taught engineering students from 1872 to 1913 says in one of his published articles: "For many years the engineering classes occupied three or four rooms … in old South Wing of University Hall, built in 1848-1849, rooms formerly used for student dormitories in the early days." It may be assumed that these same rooms were used by Professor Alexander Winchell, 1853-54, Professor William Guy Peck, 1855-57, and Professor DeVolson Wood 1857-72. It is certain that the engineering classes were held in South Wing in the 1870's and 1880's.

On July 1, 1880, the Regents tabled "for the present" a request from Assistant Professor J. B. Davis of the Department of Civil Engineering for "the sum of twenty-five hundred and fifty … dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary … for the purpose of erecting a suitable building, and preparing to give practical tests and instruction in … the various materials used in the constructive arts" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 548). In January, 1881, the Legislative Committee of the Board of Regents asked the legislature for an appropriation of $2,500 for a mechanical laboratory (R.P., 1881-86, p. 10).

In July Regent Shearer reported for the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, recommending that the building formerly used for a joiner's shop be turned over to the Department of Civil Engineering for use as a mechanical laboratory. The following September the joiner's shop was rejected as unsuitable, and the matter of locating and erecting a brick building for the mechanical laboratory was referred to the Committee on Buildings and Grounds and the Department of Civil Engineering "with power to contract for the same, by said committee, at a cost not to exceed $1,500, chargeable to said appropriation" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 137). In October, 1881, Acting President Frieze advised Professor Cooley that the appropriation of $2,500 for an engineering laboratory would revert to the state if not used before December 31 of that year. In November the Regents authorized the Committee on Buildings and Grounds "to expend one thousand dollars, from the special appropriation for the department, in apparatus and fittings for the new Mechanical Laboratory" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 164).

Professor J. B. Davis acted as architect for the building, which was begun in December, 1881, and completed in time for the second semester. This first engineering building situated on the southeast corner of the campus, facing north, was a mechanical laboratory or shop of frame construction, sheathed inside and out with brick. It was 24 by 36 feet and housed a foundry, forge, shop, and engine-room on the ground floor, and the pattern and machine shop on the second floor. Much of the work inside the building, such as doors, work benches, and coalbins was done by University workmen and by students taking the course in mechanical laboratory (R.P., 1881-86, pp. 241-42).

The first item of equipment to be bought for the shop was a four-horsepower vertical fire-box boiler and steam engine. Wrought-iron shafting was furnished at less than cost, and an old lathe, which had previously been scrapped, was removed from the basement of University Hall to the shop. To complete the Laboratory, the forge was built, an anvil and tools were purchased, and a twenty-four inch cupola was installed.

The building was heated by an old stove on the second floor next to the chimney. A pail of water, which froze overnight, was kept on the stove, and as the ice melted and the water evaporated, it formed a combination vapor system. Page  1682The foundry was at the east end of the first floor, with the cupola adjacent to the central brick chimney. The forge occupied the west end of the first floor. Woodworking and machine tool laboratories were on the second floor.

The first little Engineering Shop was at once overcrowded, and in 1883 a small wooden building, which originally stood where the old Physics Building now stands and which had been used by the contractor for the Library as a carpenter shop, was given to the Department of Mechanical Engineering. This was moved to the west side of the original engineering shop building and used for wood-working and pattern-making. The moving and fitting up of the shop was done at a cost of $600.

These buildings continued in use until 1887, when the little "Scientific Blacksmith Shop" was sold and removed from the campus to make room for an addition to the Engineering Laboratory which was begun in 1885.

Michigan League Building

Soon after the Michigan Union was completed, the Women's League of the University undertook to secure the funds necessary for the erection of a women's building. In February, 1921, a communication was received by the Regents from Mrs. W. D. Henderson, secretary of the Alumnae Council of the Alumni Association, requesting approval of a million-dollar campaign to raise funds for a women's building (R.P., 1920-23, p. 129). This was approved and President Burton addressed the opening meeting in Hill Auditorium in October, 1921. Of the amount secured by 1927, it was planned to use $600,000 for construction, $150,000 for furnishings, and $250,000 as an endowment. Heat and light were to be furnished by the University.

The Regents in 1921 agreed to furnish the site if the alumnae could raise $500,000 or more to construct and endow the building. In 1927, the sum of $350,000 was appropriated by the legislature for the purchase of a site (R.P., 1926-29, p. 279).

The first large gift was made by Robert Lamont ('96), of Chicago, for the establishment of a memorial to the League's first president, Mrs. Ethel Hussey. A gift of $50,000 from Gordon Mendelssohn, of Birmingham, provided the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater, a memorial to Mr. Mendelssohn's mother. The New York state alumnae contributed $15,000. Gifts were made by alumnae from all parts of the world. Chinese women alumnae in Tientsin sent antique tapestries made from a royal Manchu dynasty robe. Oriental rugs, vases, silver services, pianos, and many other furnishings were donated by alumnae.

Life memberships in the Michigan League were also included in the plan for raising funds. Various organized alumnae groups assumed the responsibility for raising definite quotas over a five-year period.

At the December meeting of the Regents in 1921, the location of the League had been fixed as the block bounded by North University and Washington streets, covering the area between the Mall and Fletcher (Twelfth) Street. The final cost of this site was $332,105.23. In May, 1927, Mrs. Henderson informed the Regents that the million-dollar fund would be completed by June and that work on the building could be begun. The breaking-ground ceremonies took place on Saturday, June 18, 1927, with Dr. Eliza Mosher, the first Dean of Women, turning the first shovelful of earth. On May 4, 1929, the building was formally opened. Dedication ceremonies were held on June 14, 1929, in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater.

Mrs. Mary Bartron Henderson ('04) Page  1683was the driving force behind the construction of the Michigan League. At the time of her death in April, 1937, the Regents announced:

Her name will forever remain associated, in the history of this institution, with the organization of the alumnae and the campaign which resulted in the building of the Michigan League, to which she devoted herself tirelessly and loyally. From 1926 to 1931, when she was the Executive Secretary of the Alumnae Council, Mrs. Henderson was the leader of the building campaign through its most critical period to its completely successful conclusion, and thereafter she remained chairman of the building fund until all the payments on the League had been made. The University is gratefully aware that, though this splendid addition to the facilities came as the result of the united efforts of many, the executive ability, the abounding energy, and the courage of Mary Bartron Henderson were indispensable factors in the success of the enterprise. The Regents, therefore, once more make record of their lasting gratitude for the extraordinary service rendered by Mary Bartron Henderson to her University, and express to her surviving family their heartfelt sympathy.

(R.P., 1936-39, p. 224.)

The architects for the Michigan League were Pond and Pond, Martin and Lloyd, the same firm of architects which had designed the Union; Lovering and Longbotham were responsible for the construction.

The Michigan League Building gives the impression of being a low, somewhat rambling structure; in reality it rises five floors above street level and is compactly built. It is constructed of soft red brick with white stone trim, and the many details, such as dormer and casement windows, alcoves, and balconies, lend variety to the general design without overembellishing it. The building is divided into three parts: the central section, containing the tower, the lounges, main concourse, offices, kitchens, and, on the fourth floor, bedrooms; the wing bordering North University Avenue, which includes the dining rooms, the ballroom, and a meeting room; and the northern wing, devoted almost entirely to the theater, checkrooms, workrooms for making costumes and scenery, and the linen supply closet. The northern and southern wings partly enclose a court on the east side of the building, forming a charming garden bounded on the street side by a high brick wall.

The most frequently used entrance is the south side entrance, which is approached by a circular drive. The main entrance, facing the Mall, directly across from Hill Auditorium, gives access to a spacious lobby, and on either side of the double entrance doors, two steps above the floor level, are alcoves, equipped with desks, chairs, and lamps. The lobby itself is comfortably furnished. Opposite the door, on the east side of the lobby, is the central information desk. From the main lobby, steps ascend to a corridor on the south, on the right of which are a ladies' lounge, a checkroom, conference room, and the Alumnae council office, while on the left side, near the south door of the building, are entrances to the cafeteria, one of the most popular campus eating places. Here the ample serving counters are separated from the dining room section by a wall of wood and glass, and the dining room itself, large, cheerful, and well-lighted, occupies most of the southern half of this wing.

Branching north from the main lobby is another corridor, on the left side of which are public telephone booths, a suite of rooms for the undergraduate offices of the League, and, at the far end, the lobby of the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. On the right side of this corridor are the offices of the Drama Season and the business manager of the League.

Page  1684Just to the right of the main desk a staircase ascends to the concourse on the second floor, a room similar in size and arrangement to the first floor lobby, but more richly furnished. On either side are large lounges, the one on the north being named in honor of Ethel Fountain Hussey; the other, furnished by Grand Rapids alumnae, is known as the Hazel Whitaker Vandenberg Room. Both have fireplaces and are provided with grand pianos and comfortable chairs and sofas. Tall windows break the long lines of the paneled walls. To the left, at the top of the stairs, is the Michigan Room, and, to the right, another lounge, the Kalamazoo Room. Just beyond this lounge is the Ann Arbor Room, sometimes used as the Student-Faculty Lounge. Beyond the Michigan Room to the south is a large beautiful ballroom, with arched ceiling and stained glass windows.

At the north, or opposite end, of the second-floor corridor are the entrances to the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The beautiful small theater has a main floor, balcony, boxes, and an orchestra pit, at either side of which rounded steps ascend to the stage. The lower walls are paneled in walnut, with white plaster above. The theater, which has a seating capacity of approximately seven hundred, is in use almost every day during the academic year. The Drama Season presentations are given here in the spring, and the Play Production classes also make regular use of its facilities.

At either end of the long second-floor hall, staircases lead to the third floor, containing the Henderson Room, the Listening Rooms, and meeting and rehearsal rooms. On this floor is also the Jessie Horton Koessler Library, a restful, low-ceilinged room, furnished with comfortable lounging chairs, as well as with sturdy tables and straight chairs conducive to study.

The fourth floor provides bedrooms for guests of League members and for alumnae. These rooms were completed through gifts of various alumnae groups. At the end of the corridor is the Cave, a room equipped for informal meetings. The fifth floor, consisting of one large room, is used as a dormitory for women.

The basement houses a "snack bar." Two murals painted by students of the College of Architecture and Design decorate two of the walls. This room is used by the students from early morning until late evening.

Michigan Union Building

The Michigan Union Building is the successor to an earlier Union clubhouse, a remodeled residence built originally by Judge Thomas M. Cooley, long a member of the University's law faculty. This spacious old residence, a rambling fieldstone structure, with pointed gables, stood on State Street at the end of South University Avenue, an ideal site for such a building as the projected Michigan Union. The necessary alterations were made by Professor Emil Lorch, of the Department of Architecture, and the building proved reasonably well adapted to the early needs of the Union.

The first Union had a large dining room on the first floor, a smaller one at the side, a large lounge, a game room, and a kitchen. The second floor housed the billiard room, a reading room, a room for the directors, and an apartment for the steward. The building, which was opened for the use of the students in November, 1907, served the needs of the University for almost nine years.

The growth of the student body and the increasing importance of the Union made an expansion of its facilities imperative, and early in 1916, the first building was torn down to make way for a new Michigan Union. Two adjacent lots, upon which dwellings were then Page  1685standing, were acquired; one of these houses was the old home of the architects of the new Union, Allen B. and Irving K. Pond, of Chicago. This was moved to the rear, and, with a rough frame building which had been erected in 1912 for student social affairs and dances, served as temporary headquarters while the new building was in the course of construction.

Plans for the Union as prepared by Irving K. Pond ('78e) were on a scale heretofore unknown for club houses in American colleges and universities. These called for a building some 250 feet long and approximately 200 feet wide, dominated by a massive tower. It had long been recognized by all who were interested in the project that only a building of this size would be adequate for such a large student body. Within the building, facilities were provided on a correspondingly large scale, including ample lobby room on the first floor, a large number of dining rooms of various sizes with well-equipped kitchens, and about sixty sleeping rooms for alumni on the upper floors.

Estimates speedily grew from $300,000 to $1,000,000, of which $100,000 was set aside for furnishings and $250,000 as an endowment. By 1916 the building committee for the Union had sufficient funds in hand to proceed with construction, and at commencement of that year President Hutchins turned the first shovelful of earth. Owing to wartime difficulties, however, the building was not ready for use by the students until 1919, although, with the aid of a loan of $260,000 from the Michigan War Preparedness Board, it had been sufficiently completed to be used as a barracks for the Students' Army Training Corps; during this emergency it served as a dormitory for 800 men and as a mess hall for some 4,000.

Sufficient funds were finally raised through further contributions, memberships, and a loan, secured by subscriptions, to complete the building. The University Buildings and Grounds Department as contractors were responsible for its construction. The gross floor area before subsequent additions was 166,370 square feet.

On March 26, 1920, the Union and its grounds were deeded to the University, at which time the cost of the building was stated as "upwards of $1,150,000," with subscriptions aggregating a little more than that amount. The Regents, in accepting the deed, however, did not bind the University to assume any further debts for the Union.

Two parts of the Union were left unfinished, the swimming pool and the library on the second floor. An extensive campaign among students and alumni eventually secured the $40,000 sufficient to finish the pool which measures 30 by 75 feet and is situated on the south side of the basement, with a gallery entrance from the first floor corridor. The pool, one of the most beautiful in the country, is served with chemically purified water.

In June, 1923, Mrs. Edward W. Pendleton, of Detroit, gave $21,500 for the completion of the library as a memorial to her husband ('72), and in 1925, the new room, paneled in oak, was ready for student and alumni readers. Portraits of President Angell and President Hutchins, as well as one of Mr. Pendleton, for whom the library was named, were hung on the walls. Mrs. Pendleton also made the University a gift of Mr. Pendleton's library and an additional $1,000 with which to buy books.

The Michigan Union is a four-story building with a basement and subbasement. It extends for a distance of 168 feet along South State Street and has a maximum depth of 230 feet. The main entrance, facing east under the great square tower, is approached by a broad Page  1686terraced walk. Cut in stone above the door are two figures representing the student and the athlete. On the first floor, between two great comfortably furnished lounges, is a wide hall leading to the main desk; a corridor to the left leads to the offices of the manager of the building and to the swimming pool gallery. Beyond the desk to the right a corridor with cloakroom and two small dining rooms on the left opens into the main dining room. The kitchens are at the rear. The main dining room, which accommodates more than 200 persons, has oak-paneled wainscoting and six pillars of gay-colored terra cotta set at intervals around the room. The floor is of tile in a basket weave design. Additional dining space is afforded by the adjoining terrace, which was at first left open, but later was enclosed to form a long, well-lighted room with windows running its entire length.

In 1926 a smaller dining room on the first floor was made possible through a gift of $5,000 by Charles M. Crowfoot. Another dining room of the same size was designated as a Founders' Room, with portraits of all who had been instrumental in carrying out the original plans for the Union incorporated in the paneling. These two small dining rooms are in constant use for meetings of faculty groups and organizations.

The side entrance to the building on the north, formerly known as the "ladies'" entrance, affords access to the lobbies, the dining rooms, and the ballroom on the second floor. A dining room on this side, originally reserved as a ladies' dining room, was later remodeled for general use and named in honor of Professor Henry Anderson, long an officer of the Union.

The subbasement houses the mechanical equipment for heating, lighting, and ventilating the building, and a complete refrigeration system. On the floor above, in the basement proper, are the locker rooms and the entrance to the swimming pool. On this floor also are the business and record offices of the Union, a large barber shop, and the Tap-Room, a completely equipped cafeteria with colorful furniture and tables. Bowling alleys, first installed in the basement, were later moved to a new addition to make way for a needed expansion of the Tap-Room. At the rear are kitchens and ample storage space and shops.

With the exception of the tower rooms, the upper floors of the Union are reached either by elevator or by stairs; one of the tower rooms is occupied by Michigamua, the senior student society which first worked for a Union building. On the second floor the front part of the building to the right is occupied by the Pendleton Library, while a great billiard room with twenty-two tables takes up the space on the left.

A beautiful ballroom or assembly hall, 50 feet wide, more than 100 feet long, and two stories high, is at the end of the corridor extending to the rear from the main second floor hall. This room will accommodate 1,500 persons at a meeting, 600 diners, or 350 couples at a dance. Adjacent are three private dining rooms with movable walls which may be rolled back to connect the rooms with the ballroom. Adjoining the dining rooms is a terrace similar to that on the first floor.

That part of the third floor not occupied by the upper parts of the ballroom and the reading room is devoted to dining rooms and office and committee rooms for student organizations. These meeting rooms are furnished with large tables and matching chairs.

The fourth floor is devoted almost wholly to guest bedrooms, with one large lounging room where returning alumni may gather to chat. A stairway leads to the roof of the tower which affords Page  1687a fine vantage point for viewing the campus and city.

Within a few years after the building was completed more office and tap-room space became necessary, and in the spring of 1930 an additional suite of offices, which provided 4,972 more feet of floor space, was added on the south to provide for the general manager as well as for the student officers of the Union, who had previously had their offices on the third floor.

Two new wings to the south were completed in 1936 and 1938. The first, providing quarters for the University Club as well as fifty-four additional rooms for guests, afforded more than 90,000 more square feet of available space. This wing runs parallel to the main structure, while the other, with frontage on Madison Street, houses the International Center and affords eighty additional guest rooms. The first unit measures 142 by 145 feet, while the other to the south is 50 by 160 feet.

Immediately behind the Union, bordering on Madison and Thompson streets, are the residence halls of the West Quadrangle, which are connected with the basement and first floor of the Union by means of corridors.

A new $2,900,000 addition, begun in 1954-55, will provide additional cafeteria space, dining rooms, music rooms, and a student workshop.

Mimes Theater Building

When the old home of Judge Thomas M. Cooley was purchased and remodeled in 1906-7 to serve as the first Michigan Union Club House, the activities of the Union were already extensive. In 1912, therefore, an addition 60 by 120 feet was built to care for student needs and to accommodate the influx of alumni expected to return for the celebration of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the University in June of that year. Four years later, in 1916, the Cooley residence was torn down and work on the present Union Building was begun. The addition, however, which had been used for the most part as a dining room and ballroom, was moved to a site north of the Union to serve as temporary headquarters for the Union while the new building was under construction.

In 1921, after part of this addition had been destroyed by fire, the beams supporting the dance floor were opened at one end and a stage was constructed. Seats from old University Hall were installed to complete remodeling of the building as a theater. In The Michigan Alumnus for October, 1921, it was reported:

Work on transforming the old Union building into a little theater has been progressing rapidly during the last few weeks and it is expected that the stage will be ready for the opera rehearsals next week. The new theater will be known officially as the "Union Playhouse."

The completion of this playhouse will be another demonstration of the need for a campus theater. At the present time there are five organizations besides the Union which give at least one play during the year. Some of these have been given in Hill Auditorium, some of them in Sarah Caswell Angell Hall, but the proper stage facilities for dramatic work are lacking.

The new Union theater will have a seating capacity of 400 and a stage large enough to take care of standard size scenery. From wall to wall the stage measures 50 feet and is 30 feet deep. The opening is 28 by 16 feet, approximately the standard size. Three dressing rooms, a costume room under the stage, and a screened orchestra pit large enough to seat fifteen people have been provided. The floor of the building has been elevated so as to provide good vision from any part of the house.

These alterations cost the Union approximately $3,500.

For a number of years this theater Page  1688was used for Union productions. In February, 1922, it was taken over by the Mimes Society, a student dramatic organization which was under Union auspices. Here rehearsals were held for the annual Union operas.

Play Production classes, using old University Hall as a laboratory, were forced to move, because the building was condemned as a fire-trap. New quarters, therefore, had to be found for these Speech Department courses, and, as a result, the Regents rented the Mimes theater from the Union and presented it to the Speech Department, primarily for the use of the Play Production courses. It was formally opened as a Laboratory Theater on December 1, 1930.

Alterations to the building were made at this time so that, in addition to the stage and auditorium, the Laboratory Theater provided a Green Room designed to be used as a lobby or reception room or, on occasion, as a classroom. Two offices were constructed in the rear part of the building. In the basement were two more classrooms, make-up rooms, and a storage room. The Laboratory Theater, however, in its turn, only a year or so later was condemned as a fire hazard and boarded up.

With the construction of the Michigan League in 1930, however, the work in Play Production was moved to the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The old theater building was finally razed to make way for the parking lot and drive behind the new Administration Building.

Morris Hall

Morris Hall, at one time headquarters of the University Broadcasting Service and the University Band, was situated on State Street on the southwest corner of Jefferson Avenue directly across from the campus. It had been the home of Professor George S. Morris who came to the University in 1870 and served for many years as head of the Department of Philosophy. For some time after Professor Morris' death in 1889 his family continued to occupy the residence. Eventually, however, it passed to other hands and was finally bought in 1915, as a site for a Catholic chapel.

In President Burton's report for the year 1922-23 the University's need of this site was mentioned, with the observation that it was not fair either to the Church or to the interests of the University that an elaborate structure should be placed on this corner. The Regents, therefore, in September 1922, entered into negotiations for the purchase of the property, which was eventually acquired by the University for $118,950. In 1924 the building was named Morris Hall, in honor of Professor Morris, and a room was set aside for archaeological material. The structure was poorly adapted for museum purposes, however, and at just about this time Newberry Hall was acquired by the University to house the archaeological collections.

An appropriation of $4,300 was made by the Regents in October, 1928, to adapt Morris Hall as a studio for broadcasting, for rehearsals of the University Band, and for other musical activities. Changes made in the building which had a frontage on State Street of 40 feet and was 85 feet long, included the construction of two studios separated by a glass partition, a smaller one with perfect acoustic facilities for ordinary broadcasts, and a larger studio to serve as an auditorium and for auditions and band rehearsals.

The building was torn down to make way for the Administration Building.

Mortimer E. Cooley Building

The Mortimer E. Cooley Building, usually called the Cooley Memorial Laboratory, or, simply, the Cooley Building, Page  1689was the first structure to be erected on the University's North Campus. It seems appropriate to record some of the events that led to the acquisition of this campus site and to sketch briefly the proposed development of the area.

In the late 1940's the facilities available to the Engineering Research Institute had become inadequate to cope with the increasing demands for government-sponsored research. Therefore, the Executive Committee of the Institute voted on March 7, 1949, to make certain funds accumulated in one of the Institute's accounts available to finance a building "which could properly house the Institute," and on March 11, Dean I. C. Crawford, chairman of the committee, transmitted a proposal to this effect to the University Committee on Plant Extension.

On July 14, 1949, at a meeting of the Engineering Research Council (which had just superseded the Executive Committee), the Vice-President in charge of business and finance, Mr. R. P. Briggs, mentioned the possibility of purchasing property away from the campus, but close to Ann Arbor, since the acquisition of a building site close to the Engineering buildings was extremely costly and would make future expansion very difficult. In the same month, Professor C. T. Larson, a member of the Council, addressed a communication to Assistant Provost J. A. Perkins, chairman of the Council, advocating "conscious decentralization" of University activities and the development of a "University Research Center" through expansion of facilities outside the Ann Arbor city limits.

Before the end of the year, December 16, 1949, Vice-President Briggs was authorized by the Regents "to purchase a parcel of land, comprising eighty-eight acres, lying to the north and west of the Huron River and east of the Municipal Golf Course, with the understanding that negotiations are to continue for the purchase of further properties in that area…" (R.P., 1949, p. 585). The Regents formally approved this purchase on February 24, 1950, and in October of the same year they authorized the acquisition of two additional parcels of land, one of some seventy-one, and the other of about fifty-seven acres, both adjoining the original eighty-eight. (It is interesting to note that purchase of seventy-one acres of Arborcrest property, originally laid out and planted for cemetery purposes, yielded the many beautiful evergreens which now adorn several buildings on the old campus, including the West Engineering Building.)

About two weeks prior to the formal approval of the purchase of the first tract of land, the Engineering Research Council devoted an entire meeting to the space problems of the Institute. Vice-President Briggs, who had been invited to the meeting together with Provost J. P. Adams, indicated that the Council "should consider moving the Engineering Research Institute to the environs of Ann Arbor, where land was not at a premium and where there would be ample opportunity for expansion." One member of the Council, Professor G. Granger Brown, "advised that he had been studying the idea of moving certain instructional laboratories, as well as research laboratories, off the campus." He had in mind moving primarily those laboratories in which students spend half-day periods, for this "would have the advantage of permitting continued integration of instruction and research…"

Exactly one year from the day when the Regents authorized the first land purchase, they initiated the negotiation of "an appropriate architectural contract with Cornelius L. T. Gabler, of Detroit, for the construction of a research facility to be provided from funds of the Engineering Page  1690Research Institute in the amount of $750,000," in accordance with a resolution of the Engineering Research Council submitted to the Regents and adopted by them on November 18, 1950 (R.P., 1950, pp. 1128-29).

Anticipating a continuing increase in student enrollment and an expanded program of research activities, both undirected and sponsored, and activated by a desire to keep the teaching and research functions of the University closely integrated, the Regents decided to entrust the over-all planning of the new campus to an architectural firm of national reputation. Hence, they empowered Vice-President W. K. Pierpont, who had succeeded Mr. Briggs in February, 1951, to enter into a contract with Eero Saarinen and Associates, of Birmingham, Michigan, to act as consultants in the development of the new campus, now commonly called the North Campus (R.P., 1951, p. 1297).

Saarinen and Associates, after many conferences with University administrators, presented long-range plans. The North Campus was conceived to embrace an engineering research area consisting of about seventy-five acres, as well as several other areas set aside for distinct educational functions. Of the total area, amounting to more than 378 acres, one section has since been reserved for apartments for married students and staff.

The first building to be begun and completed on the North Campus is the Mortimer E. Cooley Building, named so in honor of Mortimer Elwyn Cooley, Dean of the College of Engineering — the name was changed twice during his deanship — from 1904 to 1928, one of the outstanding personalities in the field of engineering. Since he was responsible to a large degree for the establishment of the Department of Engineering Research (Engineering Research Institute), it was appropriate that the first building constructed for Engineering Research Institute activities should bear his name. About a total of $100,000 contributed during his lifetime by friends, colleagues, and former students to the Mortimer E. Cooley Foundation, and after his death to the Cooley Memorial Fund, was added to the various sums, totaling $1,045,000, from various reserve funds of the Institute.

The Cooley Building, situated at the southeastern end of the area set aside for engineering research, was dedicated on October 24, 1953, climaxing the Engineering Centennial celebration. The building is of reinforced concrete, brick-faced and flat-roofed. The major portion of the front, which faces south, consists of Thermopane windows set in aluminum sash. The over-all dimensions are approximately 243 by 56 by 27 feet high (from base grade). At the north side near the east end there is a projection, 49 by 25 feet, approximately 18 feet deep (the top just extending above grade level), which houses heating facilities that presently serve two additional buildings and are sufficient to serve several more to be built in the future. The general contractor was Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., of Washington, D. C., and Ann Arbor.

A special feature of the Cooley Building is a structurally isolated room, 18 by 24 by 16 feet high, near the southeast end of the building. The walls, floor, and ceiling of this room — it is really a building within a building, since it rests on its own footings — are of high-density concrete, so that a fairly loud, sharply uttered sound reverberates up to thirty seconds. This "Reverberation Room" was constructed for noise-reduction investigations carried on by the Sound and Infrared Group, which occupies space on all three floor levels, amounting to about 20 per cent of the total space available for research.

Page  1691About 55 per cent of the total laboratory area is used by the Electronics Defense Group, which carries on important research in communication engineering.

The other research activities presently housed in the Cooley Building are nuclear power development (5 rooms), development of shock mounts for tank fire control instruments (1 room), and study of blast loads on buildings (1 room).

The total number of research workers employed in the various laboratories is about 120, of whom virtually all are engaged in classified research. The major part of the building's laboratory equipment has been supplied by the federal government. The building also is the headquarters of the College of Engineering Industry Program, which is administered by Professor H. A. Ohlgren as an Institute project.

The Cooley Building, having been planned as the nucleus of a sizable research area, has two lobbies, two lounges, two conference rooms, and an auditorium, which are available for informal conferences and for meetings.

The furnishings of all the conference facilities except the auditorium were presented by various alumni, groups of alumni, and friends of the University.

In the west end of the basement is an auditorium — seating capacity 125 — which was furnished with Institute funds. It is provided with a projection booth and a large door behind the screen and blackboard area and is equipped with a public address system and a motor-operated autotransformer for control of overhead lighting. Near the entrance to the auditorium is a plaque honoring Professor A. E. White, Director of the Institute from its inception until his retirement in 1953, when he was succeeded by Professor R. G. Folsom.

To the west of the Cooley Building is the Phoenix Memorial Laboratory, constructed with some of the funds donated by alumni and friends of the University for research in peacetime applications of nuclear energy, and to the south is the Library Service and Stack Building, which serves as a storage facility for little-used library materials and also houses the University Bindery. A pedestrian tunnel is to connect the Cooley and Phoenix buildings, since some of the research activities in the two buildings will be closely related, especially after completion of the nuclear reactor, which will adjoin the Phoenix Building.

Presently under construction are the Automotive Laboratory, being built with state-appropriated funds, and four aeronautical research laboratories, for the construction of which Engineering Research Institute funds are being used. The Automotive Laboratory is a short distance north of the Cooley Building, and the aeronautics buildings, some distance northeast.

Museums Annex (Old Health Service Building)

In 1921, when the Health Service was made a unit of the new Division of Hygiene and Public Health, the need for more space than that provided by the remodeled dwelling on Ingalls Street which then housed it became imperative. As a result, in July, 1922, the Health Service took over the building which had served as the Children's Ward of the old Homeopathic Hospital.

This building, which had been constructed at a cost of $32,322.41 in 1919, was erected by the Department of Buildings and Grounds and consisted of three floors approximately 40 by 70 feet, with a total area of 11,795 square feet. For about eighteen years, or until April, 1940, the Health Service occupied this building. In 1928, because a larger staff, Page  1692improved service, more space, and more adequate equipment were badly needed, funds were made available which permitted expansion on the ground floor of the former Homeopathic Hospital. This space was used for a small waiting room, two physicians' offices, and extended facilities for physiotherapy. New furniture, modern equipment, and X-ray facilities were also installed.

The entrance to the main building opened into a hall, on the left side of which were three offices for doctors and one for the dispensing nurse. Farther down the hall, opposite the entrance, was a large main room containing the business office and files for student records. Opening off this room, at the east, was a patients' waiting room and, surrounding it, on the north and west, were offices and examination rooms for the various Health Service physicians.

Just inside the main entrance a stairway led to a second-floor room occupied by the nurse supervising the infirmary. At the east end of the building was a ward for women students and on the west, a ward for men.

The basement, which was partly above ground, housed the X ray, pharmacy, and cashier's offices at the front, and a laboratory at the rear. The basement was connected by a corridor with the basement of the old Homeopathic Hospital, which housed the eye, ear, nose, and throat and allergy clinics of the Health Service. At the rear were a dietitian's office, dining rooms, and a kitchen.

With the completion of the new Health Service Building in 1940, the old Health Service was taken over by the University Museums and named the Museums Annex.

The larger part of the space, comprising the entire second floor and some rooms on the third floor and in the basement, houses the Institute for Fisheries Research of the Michigan Department of Conservation, which formerly occupied very congested quarters in the University Museums Building. The remaining space is used by the Great Lakes Laboratory of the United States Fish and Wild Life Service, the University Herbarium, the Museum of Paleontology, and the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology, for much needed supplementary research facilities. Until it was discontinued in the spring of 1942, the University unit of the Michigan WPA Museums Project had its headquarters in the Annex. Since then, these rooms have been used by the office of the University Museums.

Natural Science Building

The teaching of the sciences has been emphasized from the very beginning in the curriculum of the University of Michigan. This emphasis led, eventually, to a serious lack of space for classrooms and laboratories. Accordingly, in 1913 the Regents asked the legislature for an appropriation of $375,000 for a Natural Science Building, which was granted. Plans for the proposed building, prepared by Albert Kahn, of Detroit, the architect, were accepted in October, 1913 (R.P., 1910-14, p. 815). Construction began four months later, in May, 1914, under the contractors, Irwin and Leighton, of Philadelphia, and the building was completed in the latter part of 1915. Throughout the period of construction Professor John F. Shepard, of the Department of Psychology, acted as the representative of the University in overseeing the details of design and equipment. The eventual completion of the building and the construction of a botanical conservatory measuring 30 by 60 feet on the southeast corner represented a final cost of $408,000.

The departments accommodated include Botany, Geology, Mineralogy, Page  1693and Zoology, and the School of Natural Resources and the Natural Resources Library. Formerly, the Department of Psychology was also housed in the building.

The building stands on the south side of North University Avenue, directly across from Hill Auditorium, on the site of the old Homeopathic Medical School, which had incorporated the westernmost of the two professors' residences on the north side of the campus. It is separated from the Chemistry Building by the Mall which extends from the General Library Building to the Rackham School of Graduate Studies.

The Natural Science Building is constructed of dark red tapestry brick with trim of light terra-cotta and stone. Practically the only ornamentation is provided by patterns in the brick. The building, carefully designed with its essential purpose as a laboratory building in view, was a pioneer in University construction, since the architect, Albert Kahn, utilized a newly developed system employed successfully in the construction of large factories, the use of regularly placed steel and concrete piers to support the building, making all the rooms exactly the width of the spaces between the piers or multiples of that space. The walls between the piers are utilized entirely for windows, thus affording a maximum amount of light. The building is almost square in shape, except for one corner which is cut off to leave room for the campus diagonal walk. In this corner is the amphitheater, which seats 482 persons, and above it the Natural Resources Library. The total floor space comprises approximately 155,000 square feet, divided among 270 rooms.

Upon entering the building from North University Avenue the section occupied by the Department of Zoology lies to the right. To the left of the entrance are the offices and laboratories of the Department of Mineralogy and, farther down the hall to the eastern entrance, is the section devoted to the Department of Geology. Also on the east side is the School of Natural Resources, while on the southeastern corner, extending along the south side to the amphitheater, are the classrooms and laboratories of the Department of Botany. Special stairways in each of these sections simplify access from one floor to another for each department. An elevator is available for moving heavy apparatus.

From either the front (north) or east entrance low broad stairways lead into long, terrazzo-paved corridors extending the length of the building on each side. There are entrances at either side of the southwest part of the building occupied by the auditorium, which in daytime is lighted by skylights and is furnished with complete equipment for the demonstration of experiments. Five tables can be set up singly or in a group and are equipped for electricity, gas, compressed air, and water installations. For many years the Natural Science Auditorium was used for special lectures and other University functions which are now given in other auditoriums.

The building contains numerous laboratories, all equipped with specially adapted laboratory furniture: acid-proof tables, specially designed sinks, and other features. Most of the laboratories are of three or four units, and the offices and research laboratories of the faculty are of one or two units. Many of the classrooms are equipped for picture projection. On the northeast corner of the second floor are the two connected museums of the Department of Mineralogy and Geology. There is an aquarium room with troughs and tanks, enabling the Department of Zoology to carry on experiments in aquatic life. In 1930 an animal house was erected in the central court.

Page  1694The building is valued at $868,600, including the $210,000 cost of rehabilitation, which was carried on chiefly in the library section in 1953-54.

Newberry Hall

Newberry Hall, situated on State Street directly across from Angell Hall, was built in 1890-91 as headquarters for the Students' Christian Association of the University. This organization was established in the winter of 1857-58 and continued to flourish for many years, with a large proportion of the student body active in the work of the organization. At the celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Association in 1883, the need for suitable quarters was vigorously set forth. It was not until July 1, 1887, that funds were available to begin the construction of a building. Members of the faculty, students, and citizens of Ann Arbor contributed the sum of $2,500 to purchase the site, and this, together with an extra sum of $1,700, made up the original contribution. Albert E. Jennings ('89) had taken the field as a canvassing agent, and as a result sufficient funds were raised to justify the Board of Directors in undertaking the erection of the building. The cornerstone was laid on May 26, 1888, but delays in construction followed owing to the expansion of the original plans, and it was not until June, 1891, that the building was dedicated. With its furnishings, the completed building represented a total cost of $40,000, which sum included a gift of $18,000 from Mrs. Helen H. Newberry, of Detroit. In recognition of this support it was named Newberry Hall in honor of her husband, John S. Newberry ('47). Several contributions of $1,000 were made by Detroit citizens, and $2,600 was raised by the women of Ann Arbor, largely through an art loan exhibition which was held in the partly completed building. In a contemporary account of this exhibition it was estimated that "two million dollars worth of valuables" was displayed.

The new building contained rooms for general social headquarters for the Students' Christian Association as well as offices and committee rooms and an auditorium on the second floor. It was substantially built of native field stone, in the prevailing Romanesque style of the period, developed under the influence of the architect, H. H. Richardson, of Boston. The plans were prepared by Spier and Rohn, architects, of Detroit. It has a frontage on State Street of 58 feet and extends 90 feet to the rear.

Following a reorganization in 1904-5, Newberry Hall became the center of the Young Women's Christian Association, under the general direction of the board of the Students' Christian Association, which still continued to hold the title to Newberry Hall. The building gradually decreased in usefulness, and at the June meeting of the Regents in 1921, the Students' Christian Association offered it to the University for classes on condition that the expense of repairs and the cost of heating be borne by the University (R.P., 1920-23, p. 210). In July, 1921, the Regents appropriated $2,000 for repairs and equipment of Newberry Hall, which provided three classrooms and a large lecture room. At the June meeting of 1922 the Board authorized payment of $2,400 to the Association for rental of the building as of September, 1921. The University continued to rent it for classes in history, English, and philosophy and in 1928 took it over on a lease from the Students' Christian Association and adapted it for use as a museum under the Department of Classical Studies.

In a subsequent reorganization, following the establishment of a Student Page  1695Religious Association in 1937, the Board of Directors of the old S.C.A. transferred the property to the University.

In 1953 the museum, which had become a separate unit, was named the Francis W. Kelsey Museum of Archaeology.

North Hall

The building now known as North Hall was built in 1899-1900 to house the Homeopathic Medical College of the University. In June, 1899, the following resolution was adopted by the Board of Regents:

Resolved, That if the city of Ann Arbor will give the Board of Regents the property known as the Smith place, opposite the northeast corner of the Campus, the Board will erect thereon a hospital for the Homeopathic Department. Said hospital shall not cost less than $50,000, and work on same shall be begun at once.

(R.P., 1896-1901, p. 381.)

In September, 1899, the President and Secretary of the University were authorized to accept from the city of Ann Arbor the deed to this propery, comprising five acres, for the hospital site. Ground was broken and the stone hauled in November, 1899. Stanton and Kirby were appointed as the architects for the building, which was completed late in 1900. The exercises incident to the formal opening of the Hospital were held on December 6, 7, and 8, 1900. The building, which has a total floor area of 48,465 square feet, cost $80,306.50. At the time of completion it had a maximum capacity of one hundred and forty beds, and it was announced that this would afford "ample clinical facilities for years to come."

The ground plan of the building is in the general form of the letter "T." Each end of the top of the letter was a ward, and the base was occupied by the operating and clinic rooms. In all, the building contained six wards and about twenty private rooms. It extended back over the brow of a hill, which made it possible to have a basement and a subbasement, above the ground level. It had a frontage of 200 feet and was constructed of granite and gray pressed brick, with a red tiled roof. When the hospital was opened the following description appeared in the Michigan Alumnus for November, 1900:

The broad corridors, wide windows and glistening red oak woodwork make an attractive interior. At the end of each hallway are double glass doors opening into a ward, each … intended for sixteen beds. At the front of each ward is a large sun parlor, to be used as a sitting room by patients able to leave their beds. Admirable forethought has taken care that there be no square corners or angles to catch dust and germs…

The plumbing attracts instant attention. It is elaborate and thoroughly modern. The Sturtevant heating system is … guaranteed to change the air in the entire building every five minutes. The steam for the heating is carried from the University heating plant, a quarter of a mile distant…

The operating rooms are up to date in every respect. The surgical amphitheatre is finished in gray marble and is a model of beauty and utility…

The site is peculiarly well adapted to the purpose. It is directly across the street from the University grounds and is on the street car line. The five acres of land and fine residence make up the grounds and house of what for generations has been one of the finest estates in the city.

The Hospital was housed in this building until the Homeopathic Medical College was discontinued in 1922.

In May, 1926, the building was designated by the Regents as "South Department Hospital." The old hospital group of buildings, on Catherine Street, was designated "Convalescent Hospital."

The Regents' Proceedings for September, Page  16961940, notes that "in view of the fact that the South Department of the University Hospital, so-called, is no longer used for hospital purposes but is occupied by the University Extension Service, the Naval R.O.T.C. unit … the building was redesignated as North Hall."

From 1949 to 1951 the Army R.O.T.C. and the Air Force R.O.T.C. were also housed in the building. The Army R.O.T.C., however, moved to the Temporary Classroom Building in 1951. The building since 1940 at various times has also housed the American Red Cross and the Audio-Visual Education Center.

The Old Engineering Building

In 1891 a building on the site where Clements Library now is was made available for engineering classes. The oldest part of this building had been one of the four Professors' Houses from 1841 to 1877, Professor Frieze having been the last occupant. In 1877 the residence was altered and refitted for the Dental School, and in 1878 a wing was added at the east. When, in 1891, the Dental School moved to larger quarters on the north side of the campus, the building was enlarged toward the north and a third story added. The entrance was changed to the west side of the new part, and the word "Engineering" was placed over the doorway, the east wing remaining as before. There were fifteen classrooms and several offices in this building, which continued in use until 1922. After 1904 it was called the Old Engineering Building.

The Old (First) Medical Building

The Old Medical Building, long a landmark on the east side of the campus, was one of the earliest University buildings. Preliminary action was taken in January, 1847, when it was resolved "that a building be erected upon the University Grounds similar in its dimensions and general plan to the principal building now in use, that suitable rooms for a Laboratory, Lectures, Anatomical Dissections, etc., for the use of the Medical Department be prepared in one section of said building … (R.P., 1837-64, p. 365). The sum of $5,000 was appropriated for the purpose and $3,000 more was set aside in 1848 when the completion of the building was finally authorized. It was occupied in 1850, and the total cost upon completion of the exterior in 1852 was $9,991.84 (see Part V: The Medical School).

Constructed under the supervision of Professor Silas H. Douglas, a member of the first medical faculty, who at that time also served as Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, this building was the center of medical instruction on the campus for more than fifty years. While there is no record of an architect, it is probable that the plans were prepared under Douglass' direction, in cooperation with Jonathan Kearsley, at that time chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents.

During the period of its construction, it was known as the Laboratory Building, apparently in order to secure a better insurance rate and also to distinguish it from the South University Building (South Wing of University Hall), which was under construction at about the same time. The new building was 92 feet in length, 42 feet in width, and three stories high. It contained laboratories and lecture rooms, particularly a large lecture room on the second floor with a small dome above to admit light. A striking feature of the building was the portico on the east side with four tall Greek columns of brick and stucco construction, the capitals of which were designed and cast in Detroit.

Page  1697The Medical Department of the University was opened immediately upon the completion of the new building and from the first grew so rapidly that by 1864 an addition was necessary. In January, 1864, the Regents considered how they might enlarge the building. An examination of the finances of the institution showed that it could not be done without incurring debt. An appeal was made to the citizens of Ann Arbor, who responded by a gift of $10,000, raised by a general tax. The cost of the addition, according to Farrand, was $20,000. This four-story structure at the west end of the building was 60 feet square, thus more than doubling the classroom and laboratory space. It had offices and two large lecture rooms or amphitheaters, each containing seats for 600 persons. The top floor provided a new and enlarged dissecting room. For more than half a century all the pre-clinical medical work on the campus was carried on in this building and in the small Anatomical Laboratory Building, which was completed in 1889 just to the south of the Medical Building.

It was not until the West Medical Building, for many years known as the New Medical Building, was completed in 1903 that the old building which had served the University since the opening of the Medical School was superseded. The rear wing, as a matter of fact, proved so dangerous and ill-adapted that on the completion of the new building it was no longer used for classes. Later, however, permission was given for the continued use of the first-floor laboratories, and for some years the older east section was used. On August 12, 1911, a fire of unknown origin broke out on the third floor of the rear wing, which practically destroyed the west half of the building. The old front part was saved, only to be razed in 1914, to the regret of all the medical alumni of the University, who had already raised funds to save the building and adapt it for modern conditions of instruction. This proved impracticable, however, particularly in view of the fact that, with the expansion of the University and the erection of new buildings, the land upon which it stood had become extremely valuable. Randall Laboratory of Physics stands upon the site of the Old (First) Medical Building.

Chase S. Osborn Preserve

A valuable tract of land in Chippewa County in the Upper Peninsula, approximately three hundred miles north of Ann Arbor, including all of Duck Island and a part of Sugar Island, was the gift of Chase Salmon Osborn, Michigan's thirty-ninth governor (1911-13) and Regent of the University from 1908 to 1911, and his son, Colonel George Augustus Osborn. The gift was tendered in the following communication which was presented to the Board of Regents by President Ruthven in the fall of 1929:

I shall be happy to deed my so-called Duck Island Preserve of over three thousand acres to the University. There shall be no restrictions except a life tenancy of Duck Island containing about one hundred sixty acres. My library of several thousand books, some of which are rare, goes with the gift. It is now stored in a fireproof godown. This property is impressive and beautiful and has unusual versatile value. There are more than ten miles or over sixty thousand feet of water front. It is blocked solid for five miles. This message shall be your authority to ask the Regents to act in the matter. Deed shall follow. Title is perfect. Name and other considerations can be discussed later.

The Regents accepted this offer in the following resolution:

Resolved, That we, the Regents of the University of Michigan, accept with gratitude the splendid gift of over 3,000 acres of land, including a part of Sugar Island and some small adjacent islands, with the several Page  1698buildings thereon and a library of several thousand books, offered to the University by the Honorable Chase S. Osborn under the conditions that the gift be recorded as a joint gift from Chase S. Osborn and George Augustus Osborn and that Dr. Chase S. Osborn reserves a life tenancy of Duck Island.

Resolved, That this land shall for the present be used principally for research and instruction in the natural sciences and forestry; and

Resolved, That the land be known as the Chase S. Osborn Preserve of the University of Michigan …

(R.P., 1929-32, p. 54.)

Duck Island is about twenty miles below Sault Ste Marie on the so-called "old channel" of the historic and rarely beautiful St. Mary's River. This secluded island was for many years the home of Michigan's former governor. When first occupied by him, the island was accessible only by water. Duck Island proper is narrow and less than a mile long and is separated from Sugar Island by a narrow channel which widens in the shelter of the two islands into a pleasant and relatively calm bay. From the north side of this bay a trail winds northward through a pine grove to the buildings erected and occupied by Governor Osborn. A few yards to the right of this trail and just short of the building site is a small plot of ground returned by the University to the Osborn estate. Here, beneath a huge granite boulder and in sight of the waters he so loved, the Governor is buried.

The path beyond bends upward to the top of a small and partially cleared knoll where the buildings in which the governor lived and entertained his guests are situated. The two most interesting cabins on Duck Island are of log construction. The larger of the two, Big Duck, was reserved for Mr. Osborn's guests. It consists of a large living room with fireplace, beds in the corners which can be curtained off at night, and a small dining room and kitchen in the rear. Little Duck, the smaller of the two cabins, containing only one room, about fifteen by eighteen feet, was occupied by Governor Osborn during his periods of residence on the Island. A few paces farther north and entirely separated from Little Duck is the governor's private bedroom, a small room of post and bark construction, large enough to shelter only the log and balsam bough bed used by Mr. Osborn. The shelter protected him against the severe frosts of Michigan's autumns.

Situated between Big Duck and Little Duck, and somewhat closer to the east channel, is a concrete fireproof library building, constructed by the governor to house his private collection of several thousand volumes (many of them irreplaceable), voluminous correspondence, and other manuscript materials. After his death, the University transferred many of the books to the General Library, and the manuscripts to the Michigan Historical Collections.

A trail leads southwest from the building site to the east side of the bay, and to the channel which separates Duck Island from Sugar Island. This channel, once navigable, gave access to a small and sheltered lake below the lower tip of Duck Island, which provided anchorage for the governor's boats. Over the years the channel has been partially closed by a beaver dam, and at this point there is a foot passage from one island to the other.

The trail bends slightly to the eastward and continues across Sugar Island to the Gander, a large cabin of modern log construction, which provides, in addition to a pleasant lounge, comfortable sleeping and cooking facilities. The Gander is used by the University to house investigators working on the Preserve. Not far to the south and west is the dwelling occupied by the caretaker of the Preserve.

More than 85 per cent of the total land Page  1699area is well wooded. The remainder consists of old clearings — disappearing evidences of earlier logging and farming ventures. The forest tract is largely "second growth" but of large pole. Much of the tract has not been heavily lumbered in recent years. More than half of the tract is mixed lowland hardwoods and conifers in which soft maple, balsam, fir, white birch, spruce, and aspen predominate. There are also upland hardwoods, with a fine showing of white birch, sugar maple, yellow birch, and red oak. Other forest types are the mixed hemlocks and hardwoods, white and Norway pine, swamp conifer characterized by spruce, balsam, fir, and cedar, and the lowland hardwoods with stands of black ash, balm of Gilead, and elm. The entire area is remarkable for the profusion and intermingling of tree species, of which there are about twenty in number.

Commercial cutting for the production of wood pulp was undertaken by the University during World War II. These operations have been discontinued and in all probability will not be reopened. In its natural state the Preserve offers excellent opportunities for research and demonstration. Even though well suited to commercial forest production under sound forestry management, it is believed that much of the area is more valuable for other purposes. Beyond its aesthetic and recreational values, the tract can become a sample primitive forest and wild-life habitat unexcelled for biological and other scientific studies.

The area is secluded. Transportation facilities are not especially encouraging, and consequently University activities have been limited to occasional field explorations and some research in the biological sciences. The islands are both attractive and inviting. A bridge across the St. Mary's River just south of the city of Sault Ste Marie, making the area more accessible, suggests a host of University activities which could be administered to advantage among the now remote beauties of the Osborn Preserve.

Phoenix Memorial Laboratory

On June 9, 1955, the Phoenix Memorial Laboratory, situated on the North Campus, was dedicated. The laboratory is a tangible manifestation of the Michigan Memorial-Phoenix Project, the University's war memorial research project devoted to study of the peacetime implications and applications of atomic energy.

The Phoenix Project itself was created on May 1, 1948, by action of the Board of Regents, on recommendation of its War Memorial Committee (R.P., 1945-48, pp. 1261-62). The project draws its financial support primarily from students, alumni, and friends of the University. This support totaled about $7,500,000 when the drive for funds was completed.

As the research program on peacetime implications and applications of atomic energy began to take shape and gain momentum, it was apparent to the Preliminary Planning Committee of the project that a laboratory with special facilities was needed. Research on atomic energy involves the handling of large amounts of radioactive materials and the use of high intensity radiation sources. Such work can be carried out safely and adequately only in facilities designed for the purpose.

On March 14, 1951, an informal committee on building plans was appointed by Dean Ralph A. Sawyer, then chairman of the Preliminary Planning Committee, and later Director of the entire project. The building committee, consisting of Professors H. B. Lewis, D. G. Marquis, and Dean G. G. Brown, reported on March 22, 1951, recommending Page  1700the construction of a laboratory, "to provide facilities for work in the field of atomic energy, that the planning be co-ordinated with plans for the Engineering Research Institute and the Cooley Memorial and incorporate suitable features as a Phoenix Memorial."

The new Executive Committee of the Phoenix Project, at its meeting of October 20, 1951, Dean Sawyer presiding, authorized the construction of a memorial building, and a building committee was appointed to draw up and submit plans.

On January 11, 1952, it was announced that Cornelius Gabler, of Detroit, architect for the Engineering Research Laboratory, had been selected as the architect for the Phoenix Memorial Laboratory. Professor Henry J. Gomberg, newly appointed Assistant Director of the Project, was named chairman of the building committee. Later, William Parkinson, of the Department of Physics, and Alfred S. Sussman, of the Department of Botany, were added to make a committee of three. Edward R. Baylor, of the Department of Zoology, was appointed in August. The first task of the committee was to decide upon the research facilities which the building should provide.

The problems involved in properly accommodating radiation research proved to be difficult, particularly since many of the requirements were new and there was little literature or experience to draw on for guidance. The committee received excellent support and assistance from many faculty and staff members, however, in particular, from H. R. Crane, of the Physics Department, W. W. Meinke, of the Chemistry Department, L. E. Brownell, of the Chemical Engineering Department, G. M. Ridenour, of the School of Public Health, who is also the University's Radiological Safety Officer, A. H. Emmons, Associate Radiological Safety Officer, J. V. Nehemias, and many others.

The final plan for the laboratory resulted in a three-story building of reinforced concrete, brick, and glass about 180 feet long, 57 feet wide, 27 feet above grade on the west side and 40 feet above grade on the east side. A greenhouse of a unique inverted-V roof design extends about 40 feet south from the southwest corner of the main building to which the greenhouse is connected by corridor.

The first floor, as can be seen from the dimensions, is below grade on the west side. At the north end of the building, this "below-grade" area extends to the west, providing a large underground room. All the heavy radiation work is housed on the lower floor, particularly at the north end in the below-grade area.

From the south end of the lower floor, a visitor passes, on the right-hand side, the following rooms: (a) A clothes change area in which regular street attire may be exchanged for special protective clothing if needed. In a health physics monitoring station both personnel and clothing are checked for radioactive contamination on return to the clothes change area. (b) A radiation measurements laboratory in which equipment is available for highly accurate measurement of radioactivity in small samples and specimens. (c) A radioactive materials handling and preparation area in which radioactive materials and specimens are prepared for easy handling and subsequent measurement. Included in this room is a walk-in type hood large enough to accommodate a small machine or a moderate-sized animal, such as a dog. (d) A radiochemistry laboratory with complete facilities for carrying out all chemical analyses and synthesis procedures using radioactive materials with activities up to several Curies.

On the left hand side, there is: (e) A service area for the heating, ventilating, and electrical equipment. (f) Extending, back into the ground beyond the building Page  1701line is a heavily shielded room in which a new type of particle accelerator is to be built. (g) A high flux gamma source housed in a special room with the walls of high density concrete 3 feet thick. The source itself, consisting of about 2,500 Curies of Cobalt-60 is housed in a 20-foot deep water tank when not in use. The source is used for studies on the effects of radiation. (h) Two large caves designed for handling up to 10,000 Curies of gamma emitters. The inside of the caves provides a work area 6 by 10 feet. The cave walls are 3 feet thick and of a high density concrete surfaced with sheet steel three-eighths of an inch thick. The walls of each cave are pierced by three windows of special high density glass permitting complete visual surveillance of the work in the caves. The actual handling of material inside the caves is carried on through manipulators, operated from the outside; these are capable of reproducing most motions and actions of the human hand.

In addition, there are special decontamination and waste cleanup facilities and special underground storage pits for radioactive materials. A 14-ton hydraulic lift brings heavy shielded casks containing radioactive materials from ground level down into the cave area or vice versa. Eventually, the north wall will be breached, and openings will provide direct access to the new Ford Nuclear Reactor now under construction.

The second floor of the building provides free access to the public and contains the memorial lobby, administrative offices, conference room, library, and shops. The library has been dedicated to George Mason, former president of American Motors, whose efforts in obtaining financial support for the project "helped transform a dream into reality."

The third floor is not finished but will eventually contain laboratories devoted to studies in the life sciences. Projected facilities to be provided when money is available include microbiology and biochemistry laboratories, an aquarium, an animal room, an operating room, hot and cold rooms, tracer level counting rooms, and a special installation for microradiation detection.

In February, 1954, the De Koning Construction Company, of Ann Arbor, was awarded the construction contract. The original budget was for $1,500,000, which included finishing the first floor completely, and the lobby on the second floor. The contract was later expanded to cover some changes and completion of the second floor installations. The new budget total is $1,626,111.17.

Although not yet quite completed, the building was occupied in July, 1955, when the Midwest Universities Research Association set up headquarters for their study group on new accelerator design and began construction of a model, capable of accelerating electrons to two million electron volt velocities, of a new proposed twenty-five billion electron volt proton accelerator. Requests for use of the building facilities have come in rapidly and will be fulfilled in keeping with the policy of open research devoted to furthering the peacetime use of atomic energy.

The new Phoenix Memorial Laboratory will provide radiation research facilities which have no equal in any nongovernment laboratory in the country. With the new Ford Research Reactor, the University will have facilities and equipment for study in all aspects of atomic energy. It is expected that the new Ford Nuclear Reactor which will complete the building will be dedicated during the spring of 1956.

Portage Lake Observatory

The research and instrumentation programs of the University of Michigan Observatory have undergone steady evolution, in step with, and often leading, progress Page  1702in the field of astronomy. Shortly after his appointment to the directorship in 1946, Professor Leo Goldberg initiated planning for a new telescope which should be of the wide-field class suited especially to research on questions of galactic and extragalactic structure. Instruments of the Schmidt design were coming increasingly into use at major observatories, and the Director and staff realized the desirability of adding a large telescope of this type to the equipment of the Observatory. Opportunity for investigations of a kind new to the Observatory programs would thus be combined with facilities for training graduate students in the use of the latest in telescopic developments.

It was estimated that an instrument of requisite power, with the necessary buildings, would require an outlay of $260,000. In June, 1947, the Board of Regents appropriated $150,000 adding $10,000 six months later. At an early stage in the planning, McGregor Fund of Detroit, already a generous contributor to the construction and support of the McMath-Hulbert Solar Observatory, offered the sum of $100,000, a gift accepted by the Regents in January, 1948. The final cost proved to be within a small percentage of the estimate.

A Schmidt-type telescope of the desired size, designed and constructed by the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, had been in successful operation for several years at the Case Institute of Technology's Warner and Swasey Observatory. By contracting with the Warner and Swasey Company for all mechanical parts of an identical telescope, the expenses incidental to drawing up a new design were eliminated. This duplication, incidentally, represents the closest approach to "mass-production" of large telescopes in the history of modern astronomy.

Since the Warner and Swasey Company had discontinued their optical department, the exacting work of grinding and figuring the 36-inch spherical mirror, 24-inch correcting plate, and two 24-inch objective prisms of four-and six-degree refracting angle, respectively, was carried out by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation of Norwalk, Connecticut. The pyrex mirror blank was quickly provided through the kindness of Dr. J. A. Anderson of Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories, suitable replacement in due time being undertaken by the University of Michigan. The correcting plate blank is Pittsburgh plate glass, and the blanks for the objective prisms were obtained by Mr. Perkin from Chance Brothers Ltd., in England. In view of the delays normally encountered in obtaining large optical disks, procurement of these was unusually expeditious.

It was mandatory that a rural site be chosen for the new instrument, yet one that would be conveniently accessible from the campus. Peach Mountain, fifteen miles from Ann Arbor, had earlier been selected for proposed observatory expansion, and a reservation of more than 600 acres had been acquired by the University for work in forestry and biology. Within this forested area, well protected from encroachment by private and commercial building, a suitable clearing was chosen, not far from the University radio transmitter tower.

Two buildings were required, one to house the telescope, the other to provide accommodations for observers. Plans for both were drawn up by the Ann Arbor firm of Colvin and Heller, acting in close consultation with the Observatory staff. Both buildings combined efficient design with a simplicity of style suited to the woodland surroundings. The Observatory proper, of sand-colored brick, carries the telescope at the second-floor level; the first floor is given over to garage space and to auxiliary electronic equipment for the telescope Page  1703drive. A small but well-equipped basement darkroom is supplemented by an auxiliary dark-closet opening off the working area of the telescope. The dome, an important adjunct of a large telescope which requires careful engineering, was constructed by the Paterson-Leitch Company of Cleveland after the designs of the Warner and Swasey Company.

The staff building, a one-story brick structure, includes a commodious, comfortably furnished room which serves as library, working space, and lounge; two bedrooms with sleeping accommodations for four persons; and a well-equipped kitchen. The basement, in addition to the usual service equipment, houses a small workshop, and has ample space for expansion of laboratory and storage facilities.

Construction of the Observatory Building was contracted to A. P. W. Hewitt, Inc., and the staff building was erected by Kurtz Building Company, both of Ann Arbor.

Ground was broken in August, 1948, and the telescope was put into operation on the night of February 2, 1950. Formal dedication ceremonies were held on June 24, 1950, at the conclusion of a two-day symposium on "The Structure of the Galaxy," attended by a distinguished group of American astronomers. In conformance with a suggestion by Judge Henry S. Hulbert, then president of McGregor Fund, the telescope was named in honor of Dr. Heber Doust Curtis, Director of the University of Michigan Observatories from 1930 to 1942. The name chosen for the Observatory is derived from its site overlooking Portage Lake.

Continuous improvements, major and minor, have been made in the Curtis Schmidt telescope as need arose. The most important modification is a variable-frequency, electronically controlled diurnal drive, designed and constructed at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory. In 1952 a program of photoelectric photometry and spectrophotometry was initiated and is carried on parallel with the programs of direct and spectroscopic photography.

The telescope, buildings, and location are considered eminently satisfactory and constitute a notable milestone in the long history of the University of Michigan observatories.

Radiation Laboratory Building

The headquarters of the Institute of Human Biology are housed in a building which was originally part of the old University Hospital. In fact, the north wing of this building is the oldest part still standing of any of the old Hospital group. The wing was constructed in 1891, and a later addition to the south was called the Palmer Ward, a name sometimes in later years attached to the whole building. For many years the first floor of the wing served as a dining room, and most of the second floor was divided into small rooms for patients. In 1950 the old dining room was divided into offices and laboratories for the Institute, part of the cost being provided from research grants and part by University funds. In 1951 and 1952 the rooms on the second floor were also refinished and fitted as offices and laboratories. In addition to the main offices of the Institute, the north wing provides space for the section of Community Dynamics, Assortative Mating Study, and Hereditary Abilities Study. In the attic experiments are presently being conducted on the heredity of the behavioral characteristics of small animals.

Harrison M. Randall Laboratory of Physics

Among the buildings projected in the plan of construction inaugurated by President Burton in 1921 was a new building Page  1704for the Department of Physics. For many years this department, which was one of the oldest in the University, had carried on its program in very limited quarters. The need for a new building was therefore acknowledged as one of the paramount needs of the University, and the Committee of Five created by President Burton placed the building in the first group planned in the new program. In thus inaugurating a University building policy it was decided by the Regents and the Committee that the buildings for the use of the "humanities" would be erected whenever possible in the south and west sections of the campus, while those for the "sciences" would be grouped in the north and east (R.P., 1920-23, p. 278-79).

Professor John F. Shepard, of the Department of Psychology, who for many years was Supervisor of Plans for University buildings, Dean John R. Effinger, of the Literary College, and Professor Harrison M. Randall, of the Department of Physics, were chosen as members of the committee for the proposed Physics Building. The plans of Albert Kahn, of Detroit, the architect, were accepted in January, 1922.

It was decided to erect the building on East University Avenue between the West Engineering and West Medical buildings, on the site formerly occupied by the old Medical Building, which had been razed in 1914. It was estimated that the cost of construction and equipment would amount to $600,000; only a part of the building, however, was to be erected immediately. In the meantime the Regents provided, in October, 1922, for the manufacture in the University Shops and in the Physics Shop of certain equipment needed for advanced research in the new building at a cost of $25,000. It was recognized that a physics laboratory was rather like a new library, in that it would be quite useless until equipped with apparatus, the character and completeness of which measured the usefulness of the building.

President Burton asked the State Administrative Board in January, 1923, for an appropriation of $450,000, the estimated total cost of the first unit of the building, including equipment, and this was granted. It was also arranged that the construction should be done by the University's Department of Buildings and Grounds. The building, as carried on the University inventory in 1954, is valued at $463,774, and the equipment (including that in the West Physics Building) is valued at $343,820.

The building was ready for use in 1924. The President's Report for 1922-23 explained its function in the following words: "It will, as has been previously explained, be primarily a laboratory for advanced classes and for research for teachers and graduate students."

The building is simply constructed of reinforced concrete carried on regularly spaced piers and faced with brick. It has four stories as well as three basements, and is an example of an unusual method of construction for buildings of this type. It had been planned to erect a building of five stories in the restricted area assigned to it, but this did not conform to the campus plan, especially in view of the lower height of the neighboring buildings. The only solution seemed to be to go one story farther underground. As much of the work in a physics laboratory is carried on in darkened sound-proof rooms, this departure was not open to serious objection, especially since it offered the decided advantage of greater freedom from vibration and greater uniformity in temperature. A second and lower subbasement was later added to the plan, making three floors below the level of the ground. Fortunately, the location in the sand and gravel bed was ideal for such construction, offering advantageous draining facilities. Moreover, the value of the Page  1705sand and gravel removed compensated in good part for the unusual expense of the excavation. The building as constructed without the final unit is L-shaped, with a wing of 135 feet extending along East University Avenue. The main wing extends 146 feet from the east to the campus entrance. Both of these wings are 60 feet wide.

The greater part of the building is occupied by laboratories and research rooms for intermediate and advanced work, as well as offices for the staff. Considerable space is devoted to the practical applications of physics, the projects being supervised by staff members under the Engineering Research Institute. In all, there are 121 rooms, fifty-three of which are available for research purposes, while some of them are adapted for special problems. A part of the second floor of the campus wing houses the physics library.

There are two recitation rooms on the first floor and two on the second. One of these (Room 1041) seats seventy-two and serves as a small lecture room.

Inside the building, but on a separate foundation, with separate walls, is a small two-story brick building, completely enclosed, planned and used continuously from the beginning as a sound laboratory. The part on the second basement level is a reverberation room with smooth sound-reflecting walls, and the upper segment is sound proofed with highly absorbing walls. This unique facility has made possible a significant program of studies in noise reduction.

A large room two stories high was provided in the east wing, including part of the first and second basements. The original plan was to equip it for high voltage X rays, but this was never carried out. In recent times this room has proved extremely valuable as the location for a high energy synchrotron.


East Quadrangle

The aid received from the federal government in the building of West Quadrangle and Victor C. Vaughan House paved the way for the erection of Stockwell Hall and East Quadrangle. Professor Lewis M. Gram, Director of Physical Plant Extension, submitted a communication to the Regents on August 22, 1938, proposing the construction of the Health Service, a women's dormitory (Stockwell Hall), and an addition of two floors to the University Hospital. The Regents acted favorably on this proposal and added a fourth project for a men's dormitory to accommodate 410 men and to make an addition to the University Power Plant. Application to Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works was authorized, and the grant amounting to $630,000 for the men's dormitory and Power Plant alterations was accepted October 29, 1938. The Public Works Program provided for a federal grant amounting to 45 per cent of the cost.

Morrison and Gabler of Detroit were selected as architects, and preliminary plans and specifications were approved at the December, 1938, meeting of the Regents. The all-trades contract was awarded to the Bryant and Detwiler Company of Detroit in the amount of $647,817 on February 24, 1939.

The project (PWA Project Docket, Michigan 1714-F) became known almost immediately as East Quadrangle. It is on the north half of the block bounded by East University, Hill, Church, and Willard streets. Some difficulty was encountered in obtaining some of this property; however, the Cuyahoga Wrecking Company of Cleveland, Ohio, succeeded in completing the demolition without any serious delay to the general contractor. The fireproof building has a brick exterior with limestone trim, is four Page  1706floors in height, and contains 143,977 square feet. In plan it has an inner court completely surrounded to form a hollow square and is divided into four houses with no intercommunication except through the court. Two dining rooms for two houses each and the kitchen are on the first floor, south side. At either end of the commons running along the dining rooms are entrances from East University Avenue (main entrance) and Church Street. Each house has its own lounge, recreation room, study room, and suites for resident advisers and associate advisers. As originally designed there were 167 double rooms and 114 single rooms providing accommodations for 398 students.

The houses, in honor of former professors at the University, were named: Burke Aaron Hinsdale House (the west unit facing East University Avenue), Charles Ezra Greene House (the north unit facing Willard Street), Moses Coit Tyler House (the east unit facing Church Street), Albert Benjamin Prescott House (the south unit). Hinsdale House until the beginning of World War II was used as a house for graduate and professional students.

East Quadrangle was formally accepted by the Regents on March 1, 1940, and was opened to students in the fall of 1941. The completed cost of the project was $1,083,551.

The war years left their mark in East Quadrangle through its use as a housing unit for enlistees of the Military Intelligence Department, the Army Air Force, and Army Engineers. The first indications of the military atmosphere came in the fall of 1942, when a group of forty freshmen R.O.T.C. students elected to live in East Quadrangle in barrack style under the direction and supervision of the chairman of the Department of Military Science and Tactics. They became known as the Steuben Guards and continued their role under Army discipline until the end of the semester, when East Quadrangle was vacated to make room for the Army groups, specializing in the study of the Japanese language and in training as weather observers. These contractual arrangements with the armed forces continued until July 1, 1945, when two of the houses were released for civilian use, and later on January 1, 1946, all government contracts at East Quadrangle were terminated. The four houses soon filled up with freshmen and returning war veterans.

With prospects of a large enrollment following the war the Regents authorized a study of residence halls expansion in January, 1945. It was decided to proceed with plans for financing additional housing units, one of which was an addition to East Quadrangle.

Immediate steps were taken to purchase the property in the south half of the block, and Andrew Morison was appointed as the architect. The George A. Fuller Company was given the contract for the construction as part of a cost plus fixed fee managerial contract under which other campus buildings were being constructed. Ground was broken in May, 1947, and the first two houses (Henry Clay Anderson and Charles Horton Cooley) were ready for occupancy in the fall of 1947. Joseph Ralston Hayden and Louis Abraham Strauss houses were completed just before the Christmas recess. The dining services for the addition were completed and ready for use when the residents returned from the holidays. The names given to the houses were those of former distinguished members of the faculty. The new houses were filled beyond capacity by students who had been given housing accommodations at Willow Run. The complete capacity of East Quadrangle including the addition was 924, but because of the extreme shortage of housing three men were assigned Page  1707to each double room and two to single rooms, thus 1,480 men were accommodated in the fall of 1948.

The addition, of 153,039 square feet, is "U" shaped and is attached to the original building at the south end of the kitchen wing, forming two open courts facing East University Avenue. The architecture is similar to that of the original building. The completed cost of the project was $2,304,964. As in the original building each house has its own lounge and recreation rooms. Suites are also provided for the advisers, and an office for the addition is adjacent to the entrance on East University Avenue. The residents of the four houses eat in two dining rooms on the first floor.

The great demand for housing for women led to a decision to assign Tyler and Prescott houses to women in the fall of 1952. The opening of South Quadrangle and the return to a more normal housing situation for men gave impetus to the decision. This move caused great concern to the men of East Quadrangle, who had just nicely begun to re-establish their customs and house organizations following the war. It was a great disappointment to them and especially to those who were displaced by this turn of events. The girls were received with some reluctance; however, it was not long before their acceptance was complete and they became a part of the East Quadrangle organization. The "coed" residence hall thus established by necessity has become popular with the residents and has been instrumental in the planning of a future residence for men and women. Properly designed and administered with consideration for the activities of both men and women it should prove to be a forward step in the advancement of the Michigan House plan.

As the University enrollment began to increase the necessity for additional housing became critical. In order to provide some relief the capacity of East Quadrangle was increased to 1,050 in 1953, by making permanent triple rooms of large doubles and double rooms of large single rooms. The work was carried on by the Henry deKoning Company, of Ann Arbor at a cost of $65,393.

South Quadrangle

During Christmas vacation of 1950 the University announced that work on a new men's dormitory would begin as soon as weather permitted. The South Quadrangle, planned by the architect Andrew Morison and constructed by Bryant and Detwiler Company, of Detroit, was opened in the fall of 1951 (R.P., 1948-51, p. 618).

The building is situated on a 2.93-acre site bounded by State, Madison, Thompson, and Monroe streets. It has 347,263 square feet of space within its brick and limestone exterior. There are 33 triple rooms, 507 double rooms, 101 single rooms, a guest suite, and 14 suites for staff personnel. Its normal occupancy is 1,232 men students. The total cost was approximately $5,600,000.

The South Quadrangle gives students the intimacy of life in a small college and the stimulating atmosphere of autonomous families residing within a larger neighborhood community. The basic unit in the Michigan House Plan is the individual house. There are seven in this building. Each house is composed of two floors and each floor has two wings. Thus, each house contains eight families of about twenty men. In a house there is a house director who is primarily concerned with the health and well-being of the students. The resident adviser, a member of the faculty, is responsible for the academic tone of the house. He acts as counselor to individual students, as adviser to student organizations, and as sponsor of the house programs. Staff assistants, Page  1708usually graduate and professional students, live in each of the eight wings of the dormitory.

On the top level, or penthouse, are sun decks, a large study room, and a "ham" radio station. On the ground floor are five sound-proof rooms for those who wish to practice music, the South Quadrangle Council room, a suite of photographic rooms, two ping-pong and card rooms, a wired radio broadcasting station, and a library with adjoining study and typing room.

A snack bar, called the "Club 600" (from the address, 600 Madison Avenue) provides snacks and soda fountain service for the residents and seats 350. Parcel post, laundry, and dry-cleaning service are handled within the building, and student mail is distributed through individual combination lock boxes.

Food is prepared in a central kitchen and is served at two double cafeteria counters for four dining rooms, all on the first floor. One of the dining rooms is divided by means of a plastic curtain so that the entire room can be used for social functions.

Paneling in the first floor lobbies is oak and in the dining rooms wild cherry planking has been used. Furnishings are modern in design and are constructed of birch wood in a natural finish.

A common lounge for residents and a parlor for women are in each end of the main floor, and four automatic elevators service the upper floors. Each house has its own lounge in addition to a small powder room for women and a laundry for use of the residents.

In accordance with the Michigan House Plan tradition all seven houses have been named in honor of former distinguished teachers and scholars on the University faculty: Professors Fred Manville Taylor, economics; Moses Gomberg, chemistry; G. Carl Huber, medicine; Francis W. Kelsey, music and archaeology; Jesse Siddall Reeves, political science; Fred Newton Scott, English and journalism; and Claude Halstead Van Tyne, American history.

Reeves, Scott, and Van Tyne houses were not open until the beginning of the spring semester of 1952.

West Quadrangle

Allen-Rumsey House, the first unit of West Quadrangle, was constructed in 1937. The architectural firm, Lane, Davenport and Meyer, of Detroit, designers of an addition to the Union, developed a residence hall plan in connection with the Union expansion. Working drawings for the first unit of the dormitory were prepared by them, and in December the Regents authorized the sale of revenue bonds in the amount of $185,000 to provide funds for equipment and construction. The building contract was awarded to the H. B. Culbertson Company on January 21, and the Buildings and Grounds Department was authorized to do the mechanical trades work. The total cost was recorded in the 1938 Financial Report as $181,212, which included land and equipment costs. The dormitory was named in commemoration of John Allen and Elisha Rumsey, reputed cofounders of the city of Ann Arbor. The dormitory provided housing for only 114 men in spacious double rooms and was ready for occupancy in the fall of 1937. Meals were provided for these residents in one of the private dining rooms of the Michigan Union.

Through the efforts of Regent Lynch and Regent Shields a proposal including a grant from the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works of the federal government was acted on by the Regents by mail vote in July, 1938. The proposal contemplated the completion of the residence hall development of which Page  1709Allen-Rumsey House was the first unit and the construction of another residence hall to accommodate medical students. This expansion was made possible by an outright grant of 45 per cent of the project cost by the federal government. The remaining 55 per cent of the cost was to be borne by the University through the sale of bonds. A resolution authorizing the application to the Public Works Administration was approved in July, 1938, and in August the Regents accepted the Public Works Administration grant amounting to $945,000. At the same time they authorized the sale of bonds in the amount of $1,477,000 to finance the University's share of the project. Included in this bond issue was $177,000 to cover the refunding of the outstanding bonds on Allen-Rumsey House.

The Stewart-Kingscott Company, of Kalamazoo, was selected as architect. Property facing Madison Street, Thompson Street, and Cheever Court including property facing Jefferson Street to provide a large parking lot was purchased by the University and a demolition contract was awarded in October, 1938. The major contract covering architectural trades was awarded to Jerome A. Utley Company, of Detroit, and construction started in December, 1938. Other contracts were awarded to the R. L. Spitzley Company for heating, plumbing, and ventilating, the Central Electric Company for electrical work, and the Otis Elevator Company for elevators and dumb-waiters. In total these contracts amounted to $1,241,118.

West Quadrangle, as the building was named, was completed in record time. It was ready for occupancy at the beginning of the first semester of 1939-40 except for the dining area, which was completed and ready for use at the end of the fourth week of the semester. As all the room furniture had not been received, the residents had a difficult time on arrival. Lamps were several weeks late in arriving, and for a short period beds were made up on mattresses placed on the floor. In getting to the building post office and going to the Union, with which it is connected, students had to pick their way around tradesmen who were completing work in the dining area. It was all taken in good spirit even though, as the Director of Residence Halls stated in his annual report, "these unsettled conditions produced in many students the feeling that they were transients rather than permanent residents, and consequently some of them were restless, disturbed — and disturbing — during most of the University year."

West Quadrangle is of fireproof construction with a brick exterior and with limestone trim which blends with the exterior of the Michigan Union. It has an area of 264,663 square feet, excluding Allen-Rumsey House, and the completed cost as recorded in the Financial Statement for 1941 was $1,836,041, including equipment.

The building is an angular figure eight with two inner courts. The central part contains the dining area and separates the two courts with the main entrance on Thompson Street at one end and the entrance to the Union at the other. There are four dining rooms in the central part on two floors with the kitchen below them on the grade floor. Entrance to the south court is through a handsome wrought-iron gate named in honor of Regent James Murfin. The gate was a gift from various student organizations.

Space for 818 men in one hundred single rooms, 347 double rooms, and twelve two-room suites was provided in the completed structure, which with the inclusion of Allen-Rumsey House made a total of 932 residents. The new building was divided into seven houses, officially named as follows: the dormitory on the corner of Thompson and Madison Page  1710streets: Robert Mark Wenley House; the central dormitory on Thompson Street: Michigan House; the dormitory north of Michigan House: Henry Carter Adams House; the dormitory on the corner of Thompson and Jefferson streets: Chicago House; the northeast dormitory: Alfred Henry Lloyd House; the two eastern dormitories: Alexander Winchell House and George Palmer Williams House (R.P., 1936-39, p. 822).

Each house is set apart from the next by fire walls, so that there is no intercommunication between buildings except at the grade floor level. Each house has its own lounge, recreation room, study room, and suites for the resident adviser and associate adviser.

In 1952 the Donald Joel Brown Memorial Room, a beautiful library and music room in Lloyd House was dedicated by Mr. and Mrs. Meyer M. Brown as a memorial to their son, Donald Joel Brown, a freshman, who lost his life in an accident while returning to the University after the Easter holidays. Other public rooms include the Louis A. Strauss Memorial Library, which contains the library of the late Professor Louis A. Strauss, a radio station and studio, the West Quadrangle Council room, and a sending and receiving shortwave radio station.

House libraries were established in Wenley, Allen-Rumsey, Michigan, Winchell, and Adams houses through the contributions of the Elmira University of Michigan Club to a Residence Halls Library Fund. This project has received the highest commendation from the students and staff.

In 1953 permanent alterations were made to the building with the conversion of twenty-five single rooms to doubles, eighty-two double rooms to triple rooms, and arranging the suites for three instead of two students. With this expansion the total capacity of West Quadrangle, including Allen-Rumsey House, is 1,048. Henry W. deKoning Construction Company, of Ann Arbor, undertook the alterations at a cost of $40,884. Additional furnishings cost $17,225.

In the fall of 1954, with increasing enrollment, demands for housing for women made it necessary to use one of the houses of West Quadrangle for women. Chicago House was selected for its physical location with respect to the other houses and because the least number of returning residents would be effected. The women were well received by the male population, and before the year was out it became necessary for the girls to take turns in the four dining rooms. Late in the spring of 1955 it was decided that women would occupy Chicago House again for the first semester only of the coming school year. It was expected that the addition to Couzens Hall under construction would be ready for occupancy at the beginning of the second semester and that the girls in Chicago House would then be transferred back into women's housing.

Needless to say the moving of women into the sanctuaries of West Quadrangle men caused some consternation in the beginning. The University of Chicago alumni, who in preceding years had pledged themselves to contribute toward the cost of this unit, were considerably disturbed, for their goal had been to place young men from Chicago in this house. After considerable correspondence, long distance calls, and a visit with those most interested in Chicago by the Dean of Students and the Manager of Service Enterprises their whole-hearted co-operation was obtained. It was pointed out to them that this move was only temporary and that Chicago House would again house men as soon as the Couzens Hall addition was completed. Over a period of a few years the Chicago University of Michigan Dormitory Fund Page  1711accumulated $28,636 for the express purpose of aiding in the cost of construction of Chicago House, and it was named in recognition and acknowledgment of their contributions.

West Quadrangle, as did all men's residence halls, played an important part in the war effort. Late in the spring of 1942 a contract was negotiated with the federal government for quartering the Advance R.O.T.C. in Allen-Rumsey House. In the meantime another contract for West Quadrangle facilities was negotiated with the Navy Department, and 1,300 Navy enlistees moved in during the first week of July. The Navy continued its contract for the complete use of the facilities until the fall term of 1944, when two of the houses were returned to the University for civilian use. In January another house was allocated to civilians, and on March 1 two additional houses were vacated by the Navy. The contract was terminated on June 30, 1946, and West Quadrangle again became a residence hall for civilians in its entirety.


Adelia Cheever House

Adelia Cheever House, formerly at 516 E. Madison Avenue, was the fifth women's residence to be donated to the University. The gift was the culmination of years of hospitality offered to students by Judge Noah Wood Cheever ('63, '65l) and Mrs. Adelia Cheever who had occupied the residence since 1879.

After the death of Judge Cheever in 1905 the property was given to Miss Pamela Noble, a sister of Mrs. Cheever. Upon her death it was conveyed to the University to be used as a residence for women.

In June of the same year the sum of $7,000 was appropriated for repairs and alterations, and an additional $7,500 was set aside for furnishings. The house was opened in September, 1921, and was operated on a co-operative basis.

In December of the same year Professor E. C. Goddard offered, on behalf of himself and "certain other alumni" to purchase the lot adjoining on the east, and to provide thereon a cottage for additional dormitory facilities. The rentals from this cottage would, he felt, in time pay for the erection of the cottage after which they would serve to establish scholarships or loan funds for University women. It was the intent of Professor Goddard and his associates that the building and land should in due course be deeded to the University if the plan worked out according to expectations.

Instead of building the cottage, in March, 1922, Professor Goddard asked the Regents to donate the building at 619 Haven Avenue, acquired by the University when they secured the site for the University High School Building. The Board agreed to this proposal and ordered that the house be removed to the lot adjacent to the Adelia Cheever House on condition that all expenses of removal would be borne by others than the University and that no change would be made in the original proposal other than that those who were giving the University the lot and the additional quarters for women students should have the benefit, for the project, of the dwelling itself (R.P., 1920-23, p. 408).

Adelia Cheever House provided for twenty-five girls and Pamela Noble Cottage for twelve. The two buildings, of frame construction, set well back from the street, were surrounded by a wide lawn. In the basement was a recreation room, the gift of Professor and Mrs. Goddard in 1930.

The house and cottage, along with other houses in this block, were razed in 1949 to clear the site for South Quadrangle. Page  1712The name was perpetuated, however, when the home of Walter C. Mack was bought by the University in January, 1947, for $55,000 and designated as the new Adelia Cheever House. Only minor changes were necessary to make the residence ready; girls moved into it in the fall of 1949.

This new house, of brick, is situated well back from the street and has a beautifully landscaped lawn. The first floor includes a large living room, dining room, kitchen, and the director's suite. Twenty-nine girls are housed on the two upper floors; there is also a large dormitory which is used for sleeping. The basement contains a large recreation room.

Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall

A new women's residence hall, later named for Alice Crocker Lloyd ('16), was opened for occupancy at the beginning of 1949. The building, which now houses more than five hundred girls, had not yet been completed so that only 284 students could be accommodated at that time. Women living temporarily in Victor Vaughan House and those living at Willow Run were given priority in selecting residents for the dormitory.

In April, 1945, the Regents appointed a committee to study the necessity of new residence halls for women, and in May of the same year this committee was authorized to develop a plan for financing the construction of a new women's unit to be situated between the Observatory and Mosher-Jordan Halls. These plans were approved in October with authorization to borrow the necessary funds (R.P., 1945-48, pp. 59-60).

Although ground was broken on March 11, 1946, the building was not completed until June, 1949. Delays in receiving material because of nationwide building programs retarded construction, and, to ensure housing for returning veterans, materials and supplies were directed toward the other projects under the contract. There was also a shortage of labor at that time.

Clare Ditchy, of Detroit, was the architect, and Knoll Associates, of New York City, were responsible for the interior decoration and the design of the furniture. The contractor was the George A. Fuller Company, of New York City. The cost of construction was $2,984,357.

Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall is modern in design, six stories in height, with a flat roof, and is constructed of red brick with limestone trim. The building is comprised of four different houses, interconnected, each having its own lounge, birch wainscoted dining room, typing cubicles, laundry facilities, music room, and study hall. All meals served in the four dining rooms, however, are prepared in the spacious kitchen which occupies the first floor of the building. The street-level second floor is devoted to the lobby, the house directors' suites, individual house lounges, and the main lounge, which has a marble fireplace and library. Rest rooms, cloakrooms, and a mammoth telephone switchboard, which services the three residence halls on Observatory Street, are also on this floor. Elevators and ample bathroom facilities have been provided.

The student rooms are furnished with blond birch furniture, and draperies of a solid color, either red, yellow, or blue, frame spacious windows and contrast with the light gray of the walls. Occupants furnish hangings, bedspreads, and rugs. The four separate house lounges were decorated in yellow and brown, black and gold, brown and green, and red and gray, while the main lounge was multi-colored.

In the beginning one of the four houses was restricted to graduate students. In 1953, because of the increasing Page  1713number of undergraduate women, it was necessary to remove this restriction, and the capacity of the residence hall was increased to 572. This was accomplished by assigning students to rooms designed for staff and by remodeling some single rooms and a few double rooms. The work was carried out by the Henry deKoning Company, of Ann Arbor.

The four units, or houses, were named Sarah Caswell Angell, Alice Freeman Palmer, Mary Louisa Hinsdale, and Caroline Hubbard Kleinstueck, to honor four women who were prominent in the history of the University: Sarah Caswell Angell, the wife of James B. Angell, President of the University from 1871 to 1909, was particularly interested in student welfare and was one of the founders of the Women's League. Alice Freeman Palmer ('76), one of the first women students to receive a degree from the University, was president of Wellesley College, served on the Massachusetts Board of Education, and was the first Dean of Women at the University of Chicago (1892-95). Caroline Hubbard Kleinstueck ('75, M.A. '76), a resident of Kalamazoo and the first woman to receive a master's degree from the University, was a leader in woman suffrage and in Michigan alumnae projects and a generous contributor to the building of the Michigan League and to other University enterprises. Mary Louisa Hinsdale (Adelbert '85, A.M. Michigan '90, Ph.D. '12), a native of Ann Arbor, gained recognition in the field of education after completing her studies at the University. She served as a teacher and educational administrator in Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan schools and, later, became a lecturer in American history and government in Grand Rapids Junior College.

The following memorial announcing the death of Dean Lloyd on March 3, 1950, appeared in the Regents' Proceedings for March, 1950:

The death of Alice Crocker Lloyd, on March 3, 1950, terminated a supremely useful and exemplary life which had been dedicated with unquestioning devotion to the welfare of the women students of the University of Michigan. For four years Miss Lloyd was one of the group of Advisers of Women Students, and since 1930 she had occupied the highly responsible and important office of Dean of Women. A native of Ann Arbor, brought up in one of its most honored homes, and having shared the experiences of student life on our campus as a member of the Class of 1916, she came into the service of the University with a knowledge of its ideals and a sympathetic insight into the difficulties faced by its students in solving their academic and personal problems. Her mature wisdom and her quiet graciousness made her a well-nigh perfect counselor for our young women, who found in her a friend upon whose constancy they could rely and whose nobility of character they could admire and emulate. The Regents of the University of Michigan acknowledge the great loss suffered by the institution through her untimely death, and share with Dean Lloyd's family and with her countless friends the sorrow occasioned by her loss.

(R.P., 1948-51, p. 787.)

In March, 1950, the Regents received a statement from the Board of Governors of Residence Halls, memorializing the work of Dean Lloyd as a member of that Board from its inception until her death on March 3, 1950, and confirmed the following resolution:

"Resolved, That the Board of Governors of Residence Halls recommend to the Regents for their consideration that the late Dean Lloyd be honored and memorialized by naming the new women's residence Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall" (R.P., 1948-51, p. 786).

The name of Alice Crocker Lloyd became a permanent part of the University at the formal dedication ceremonies of Lloyd Hall in Hinsdale Lounge on Page  1714December 3, 1950. President Ruthven spoke in behalf of the University, and Regent Vera B. Baits reviewed Dean Lloyd's career and contribution to the women of the University of Michigan. The memorial gifts included a portrait bust of Dean Lloyd, a memorial library, a special bookplate, and a silver tea service, purchased by the student residents of the hall of the class of 1950.

Alumnae House

The purchase of Alumnae House was a part of the larger movement toward residence halls which took form in an active campaign for funds by the Women's League. In 1914 the Detroit Association of University of Michigan Women launched a campaign to raise money for a women's residence hall at the University and the Women's League requested that the Detroit Association take over their fund begun for this purpose and raise the balance. It was hoped to reach a goal of $50,000.

Claire Mabel Sanders ('04), whose untiring efforts in the first drive to raise funds for Alumnae House were largely responsible for the success of the venture, was the first campaign manager.

At the time of World War I the Detroit Association voted to discontinue the campaign and recommended that the funds collected be used to purchase a house in Ann Arbor which could be organized on a co-operative basis, to aid self-supporting girls. As a result, in 1917, the house at 1227 Washtenaw, the former home of Professor Jacob Reighard, was purchased for $5,600, $2,000 to be paid down, the balance to be carried as a mortgage at 6 per cent interest. The property was deeded to the Regents under these conditions. The Detroit Association assumed the responsibility of meeting the interest on the mortgage and of paying it when due. It was first occupied by students in September, 1917, and the name Alumnae House was made official in January, 1918.

The extension of Forest Avenue in 1926 required removal of Alumnae House, and the girls living there were moved to the adjoining residence at 1219 Washtenaw, of historical interest as the former home of the late Judge Harriman. The building was renovated as a home for the sixteen residents, and the grounds were attractively landscaped. In 1944 the house was renamed the Mary Markley House.

The cost of the building was $16,000; the site, $27,523; and the equipment, $7,673, a total of $51,196. This property was to be used "definitely and permanently for the purposes of a residence hall for women," and it was stated that should the Alumni Association ever desire to erect a larger dormitory on the site they would be at liberty to do so. (For further history of the house see Mary Markley House.)

Betsy Barbour House

In 1917 the University announced a gift from the Honorable Levi L. Barbour ('63, '65l), for many years a Regent of the University, of $100,000 and several parcels of land, to be used for the construction of a dormitory for women in memory of his mother:

Whereas, The Hon. Levi L. Barbour, of Detroit, Michigan, a former member of this Board, has again evidenced his great interest in the University of Michigan and his abundant generosity in providing for its welfare, and has proposed to give to it the sum of one hundred thousand dollars … for the establishment and maintenance of a women's residential hall,

Now, Therefore, Be it Resolved, That the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan does hereby accept, with gratitude, Page  1715the gift of the Hon. Levi L. Barbour, of Detroit, Michigan, of the sum of $100,000, consisting of money obligations and securities, that the Treasurer of the University be authorized and directed to take over said securities when they have been duly assigned and transferred to the Board, and to attend to the collection of all moneys which are due, or may become due thereon, and that the proceeds be used for the purpose of constructing, furnishing, and equipping, upon property owned or to be acquired by the Board of Regents of the University, a residential hall for women, which shall be known as "Betsy Barbour House"; and that the administration of the affairs of said residence be delegated by this Board to a board of governors consisting of five women, two of whom shall reside in Ann Arbor, and two of whom shall reside in the City of Detroit or elsewhere outside Ann Arbor; two of whom shall be appointed by this Board for two years and two for four years, and every two years thereafter two members shall be appointed for four years from names to be submitted by members of said board of governors. The fifth member of said board shall be the Dean of Women of the University, ex officio.

(R.P., 1914-17, p. 783-84.)

Later, lots in Detroit were given to the University by Mr. Barbour and sold as agreed for $5,000 to provide additional funds for the completion of the dormitory.

Regent Barbour had traveled extensively before World War I, and in his travels he came in contact with two brilliant Chinese girls whom he brought back with him and sent to the University to be educated. One of these girls developed tuberculosis and died. Mr. Barbour investigated living conditions on campus and found them decidedly inferior. It became his dream to build an ideal dormitory, and he immediately made plans for the construction of such a building.

Albert Kahn, of Detroit, was selected as the architect. Because of the war, however, it was decided, in February, 1918, to postpone the construction of the dormitory. It was not until August, 1919, that a contract for $80,700 was signed with the W. E. Wood Company, of Detroit, providing only for the enclosed structure and not for its completion.

The building was finally completed and opened for the use of University women in October, 1920. By that time Mr. Barbour was too ill to make the trip from Detroit, and he never saw the dormitory actually occupied, but it was dedicated to his mother, and he took great pains to see that her favorite antique rocker was placed in the small reception room on the first floor.

The Regents' Proceedings for March, 1921, announced:

The Secretary filed a report detailing the cost of the erection and furnishing of the Betsy Barbour House in accordance with the agreement with former Regent Levi L. Barbour … [showing] the cost of the building as $167,568.95 and the furnishings as $42,171.16, total $215,340.11. Against these expenditures were total proceeds from Mr. Barbour's gifts applicable to the purpose, of $178,635.40 and the sum of $20,000 appropriated by the Regents on February 20, 1920.

(R.P., 1920-23, p. 163.)

Betsy Barbour House is situated next to Helen Newberry Residence on State Street, across from Angell Hall. It is constructed of light red brick with white trim and is distinguished by a glass-enclosed porch along the eastern end. The main floor is devoted chiefly to large living rooms with smaller connecting lounges, a dining hall, and offices, in addition to several student rooms. The upper floors are devoted entirely to student rooms.

The reception rooms on the first floor contain many pieces of furniture from Regent Barbour's old home in Detroit. He also bequeathed a valuable library and many paintings and objects of art Page  1716collected by him on his many travels, in addition to pictures and certain gifts for the girls' rooms.

Interior decoration and equipment of kitchens were planned by Mrs. J. R. Effinger and Mrs. Julius Schlotterbeck in co-operation with Dean Jordan and Miss Eleanor Sheldon, the first director of Betsy Barbour House.

Betsy Barbour House provided living accommodations for eighty-one girls in sixty-nine single and six double rooms. The need of additional housing for women made it necessary to increase the capacity of the house by 1954 so that 116 girls were accommodated in the building. In 1953 the large single rooms were made into double rooms. The remodeling resulted in thirty-two single and forty-two double rooms which were refurnished in 1953-54.

Fletcher Hall

Fletcher Hall, originally a men's dormitory on Sybil Street near the Intramural Sports Building, was erected in 1922-23 by a group of alumni, organized under Michigan state laws as the Dormitories Corporation. The group intended to finance a series of such dormitories, but the plan was never realized. One-half of the common stock in the corporation was to be held by the Alumni Association, thus giving it practical control of the building, and the first subscriptions were obtained with this understanding. Because the directors of the Association, however, were unwilling to assume this responsibility, an alumni committee was accordingly elected to serve as trustees of the building. Stock amounting to some $120,000 was sold.

Fletcher Hall was named in honor of the Honorable Frank W. Fletcher ('75e), who had been for many years a Regent of the University. The building, which has a floor area of 18,123 square feet, accommodated 124 students in double rooms. The corporation paid $5,800 for the site and spent approximately $115,000 on construction.

Difficulties in the management of the building developed almost from the beginning. The rooms proved too small for two students and the site of the building, which was some distance from the campus, combined with a lack of proper supervision, led to serious problems in social administration. It was also found necessary to lower the price scale until eventually a room could be had for as little as $2.50 a week.

In part as a result of this lowered income and in part because of the depression of the early 1930's the corporation eventually found itself unable to pay the bonds as they fell due. As a result of these financial and administrative difficulties the University in 1933 was practically forced to take over the building, which was acquired at a receivers' sale for less than $13,000, the University paying the back taxes and minor expenses of receivership.

Since that time, the management of the building has rested with the University. It was also found desirable to convert all rooms to singles and reduce the number of residents to fifty-eight, less than half the number which the original corporation had planned to accommodate. Extensive repairs were also necessary when the building became the property of the University. These included a complete renovation of the building and the construction of a suite of rooms for a director. The area in the basement originally used for a kitchen and dining room was made over into a lounge, recreation room, and a laundry. Separate contracts were let to replace all linoleum floors and to install weather stripping and fly screens at windows. By 1944 it became necessary to replace the plumbing lines and while that work was Page  1717being carried on the shower rooms and toilet facilities were remodeled and modernized. The work was done by the Plant Department. Between 1933 and 1940 all of the original furniture was replaced and built-in wardrobes replaced the freestanding old wooden wardrobes.

To complete the physical changes in the building, a major job of rehabilitation was undertaken in the summer of 1954. In an effort to provide more housing within the existing residence halls system a plan was worked out to convert the single rooms of Fletcher Hall into suites for three students, thereby increasing the capacity to eighty. In each pair of adjacent single rooms the door to the corridor from one was walled up and a door installed between the two rooms. Closet space was built into the inner room which became the bedroom, and the outer room was used for study. The toilet facilities were also expanded and a small kitchen, for the preparation of light meals, was constructed in a part of the recreation room. This work was accomplished by the Henry deKoning Company of Ann Arbor at an expense of $97,657. At the same time new furniture costing $16,132 was obtained for all the new suites. The valuation of Fletcher Hall as shown in June 30, 1955, was $130,226, and furnishings were valued at $28,928.

Fletcher Hall has provided low-cost housing from the time it was acquired by the University. Men occupied the building until the summer of 1943 when trainees of Armed Forces were quartered there for a period of one year. Men students returned to Fletcher Hall in the fall of 1944 and continued to use the building until the fall of 1954, when it was assigned to women because of the scarcity of women's housing. In planning for the rehabilitation of Fletcher Hall the use of the building was given prime consideration so that with a minimum of alterations it could be used for either men or women.

Geddes House

The Delta Zeta House at 1824 Geddes Avenue was purchased in May, 1953, by the University for use as a women's co-operative house, similar to Adelia Cheever and Henderson houses. The Delta Zeta Sorority, whose financial condition prevented its continuance on the campus, offered the house for sale to the University. It was purchased for $54,000 including the furnishings. Approximately $5,000 was spent on miscellaneous decorating and remodeling the kitchen to make it ready for the fall of 1953.

Prior to ownership by the Delta Zeta Sorority the residence, built by Alfred E. Jennings, a mining engineer, had been used for some years as a men's rooming house. The house is a three-story brick structure with a commodious and pleasant living room on the first floor and a large entrance hall with an open staircase leading to the second-floor balcony. The house director has a suite on the first floor. The dining room and kitchen are in the basement, and the upper two floors accommodate twenty-six girls.

Helen Newberry Residence

In the summer of 1913 the University received from Mrs. Henry N. Joy, Truman H. Newberry, and John S. Newberry a gift of $75,000 for the erection of a residence hall in memory of their mother, Helen Handy (Mrs. John S.) Newberry (R.P., 1910-14, p. 751). The money was given with the understanding that although the property would belong to the Student Christian Association, the hall would be built and administered by the University.

The following letter was written by Page  1718Shirley W. Smith, Secretary of the University, to Judge Lane on June 26, 1913:

My dear Judge Lane:

I take pleasure in giving you formal notice that at the meeting of the Regents held June 24th, the Regents accepted with gratitude the proposal of the Newberry Estate to furnish $75,000 for the erection of a women's dormitory under the conditions named in your communication to the Board…

The building site fronted on Maynard Street touching the northwest corner of the lot on which Newberry Hall stands, and directly west of land owned by the University, fronting on State Street. In March, 1914, the Regents granted permission for the use of a strip of land not to exceed fifteen feet, out of the University's lot just mentioned, and the dormitory, as built, stands upon this land to that extent. In March, 1915, the trustees of the Student Christian Association proposed to deed Newberry Residence to the University, to be operated as a residence hall for women, with the attached condition that the net income from its operation, after paying operating expenses and upkeep, should be paid to the Student Christian Association for the maintenance of its work for the women of the University. The deed, filed with the Regents in June, 1915 (R.P., 1914-17, pp. 186-88) set forth these conditions and provided that a breach of them would entitle the Student Christian Association to a reconveyance of the property. Thus, the University held title to a building built partly on its own land and partly on land acquired for the dormitory, the profits from the operation of which were to be paid over to the Student Christian Association. Such a set of conditions with the best of good will on both sides could not help but give rise to misunderstanding.

Newberry Residence was operated by the University from the summer of 1915, and after the first year heat and electricity were furnished. In the meantime Newberry Hall was used less and less for Student Christian Association purposes, and in 1921 it was rented to the University to provide classrooms. Lane Hall had been built and was the center of most of the Student Christian Association activities. Negotiations were opened in December, 1921, with a proposal by the trustees of the Student Christian Association to sell Newberry Hall to the University. In June, 1922, the Secretary was directed to take steps to see that the terms of the gift of the Residence were complied with as from the date of the gift, and the Regents declared that they could not, in view of the state of the University's funds, accept a proposal made by the Student Christian Association for settling the matter.

In the spring of 1924 (R.P., 1923-26, pp. 196, 219) a new committee was authorized to conclude negotiations. The agreement provided for payment of $25,000 on or before June 30, 1925, with interest, by the University, in return for which the University received full ownership of Newberry Residence, and the Student Christian Association relinquished entirely its interest in the earnings of the building. The University also received a strip of land one rod wide, of considerable value, running along the south side of its land on State Street in front of Newberry residence; this strip also bounds the Newberry Hall lot on the north.

Kahn and Wilby, of Detroit, were the architects for the residence, and the C. H. Christman Co., of Lansing, was given the general contract. The total cost of the building and land, in addition to approximately $12,000 for furnishings, amounted to $75,000.

The residence accommodated seventy-nine girls until the middle 1940's, and Page  1719more women were housed each year until by 1954 the number was 118. In 1953 some of the rooms were remodeled to care for the additional numbers. The work was done by the Henry deKoning Company, of Ann Arbor, for $27,966. New furnishings were purchased for the rooms at a cost of $6,643.

Helen Newberry Residence, which is across the street from Angell Hall, faces State Street but is separated from it by landscaped lawn. It comprises four floors and a basement and has a floor area of 29,166 square feet. The building, of hollow tile construction, is semifireproof and has a white stucco exterior. The entrance was originally at the center of the building, and a reception room and a lounge were at either side of the hallway which led to the dining room. These rooms were arranged so that the doors could be opened for receptions and dances. In 1934, when the building was remodeled, the main entrance was moved to the north side opposite the central staircase, and a sun porch was constructed across the front of the building. The guest room at the right of the new entrance was taken over by the assistant to the director in 1950. The office across the hall serves as a post office and contains a switchboard for Helen Newberry Residence and Betsy Barbour House. The first floor also contains a director's suite, an office, two student rooms, the dining room, and an open porch on the south sometimes used for sun-bathing. A well-arranged serving kitchen and a suite for the dietitian are at the rear of the building.

In the basement are the kitchen, a staff dining room, the laundry, a storage room, a recreation room, and two suites for staff members. The building has twenty-five single rooms, forty-five double rooms, and one triple room on the second, third, and fourth floors. A new elevator was installed in 1937. In 1940 new fixtures were provided, and tile walls and floors were laid.

Madelon Louisa Stockwell Hall

The building expansion plans of the University gained impetus in September, 1938, when announcement was made of a grant by the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works (PWA), making possible a new $1,000,000 dormitory for women. The offer "in the amount of 45 per cent of the cost of the project upon completion …, but not to exceed in any event, the sum of $450,000," was formally accepted by the Regents on October 18, 1938 (R.P., 1936-39, p. 714). The University's share was obtained through the sale of revenue bonds, which were retired over a period of years by the net earnings of the dormitory.

The new residence hall, a continuation of the development of housing for women begun eight years earlier in 1930 with the building of Mosher-Jordan Halls, was erected at the corner of North University Avenue and Observatory Street, between Mosher-Jordan Halls and the Women's Athletic Building. The construction of the building was reported to have been through the efforts of Regents John D. Lynch and Edward C. Shields. The residence forms a rightangle L, with wings extending approximately 250 feet along each of the two streets.

C. William Palmer, of Detroit, was appointed as architect, and Walbridge Aldinger Company, a Detroit firm, was awarded the construction contract in February, 1939.

Madelon Louisa Stockwell Hall, opened in February, 1940, is named in tribute to Mrs. Charles K. Turner, née Madelon Louisa Stockwell (Albion '62, Michigan '72, A.M. hon. ibid. '12), the first woman to be admitted to the University. Page  1720Miss Stockwell came to the University to pursue advanced work in Greek, and Elizabeth Farrand (History of the University of Michigan) says of her, "It is gratifying that the first woman who entered the institution as a student was fitted in every way to satisfy the expectations of the friends of the new movement, and allay the fears of such as had looked upon it with alarm." Mrs. Turner died June 7, 1924, in Kalamazoo at the age of seventy-nine years. At her death the University received a bequest of $10,000, to be used for the education "of three or more women students.'"

Architecturally considered, Stockwell Hall bears its necessary mass well. The building is five stories in height and is constructed of brick with limestone and timber trim. By use of angles and planes in its roof and outer wall construction, monotony has been avoided, and a harmonious combination of materials has been achieved. Two steeply peaked roof sections in each wing flank the central façade of the main entrance, which faces the exact corner of the two streets at an angle to the two wings. Within the right angle formed by the wings is one of Stockwell Hall's intrinsically unique features — a semicircular section two stories in height in which on the ground or first floor are the two dining rooms, each with its own serving room, and the kitchen, laundry, an area for storing luggage, and two corridors of student rooms.

The immense lounge on the second floor directly above the dining area joins the two wings of the building. Through the ample windows of this section, residents dining or enjoying the comforts of the lounge have a fine view of Palmer Field and the city below. The roof over the lounge, enclosed by a parapet wall, provides an excellent place for sunbathing. The second floor also houses the main offices and a corridor of student rooms in each wing. At one end of the lounge is a well-stocked library and at the other end, a recreation room. There is also a sun room in each wing on the first and second floors and at the center of the building on the third, fourth, and fifth floors. Kitchenettes, in which girls may prepare light lunches and do their pressing, are also provided. There are two elevators.

The lounge is furnished with blue carpeting and a grand piano and has two large fireplaces. The furniture is of Duncan Phyfe, Chippendale, and Queen Anne periods. The student rooms are furnished with a desk, a desk chair, a desk lamp, a dresser with mirror, and a bed for each occupant. Each room also has one easy chair and a floor lamp.

In 1954 Stockwell Hall provided accommodations for 426 women in single, double, and triple rooms. The completion of half of the fifth floor, which was not provided for in the original plans, increased the capacity, and some single rooms were converted into doubles, and a few double rooms were made into triples. The work was done by the Henry deKoning Company, of Ann Arbor, at an expenditure of $16,912.

At the time of World War II labor shortages made it necessary to close the kitchen in Mosher-Jordan Halls. Because the Stockwell Hall kitchen required less labor to operate, approximately 800 girls had their meals served to them, cafeteria style, at Stockwell Hall from September, 1943, until June, 1946.

Martha Cook Building

The Martha Cook Building was erected as a residence for women in 1915 as the result of a gift from William Wilson Cook ('80) in honor of his mother, Martha Walford Cook. As early as 1911 Mr. Cook had already made the University Page  1721a gift of $10,000 toward a proposed residence for undergraduate women (R.P., 1910-14, p. 96). In his letter of presentation to the Regents, on February 10, 1914, Mr. Cook wrote:

In memory of my mother, Martha Cook, I will build a Women's Dormitory Building for the use of women exclusively … on land now owned by you, on condition that the occupants shall have sole and exclusive charge of its income, expenses and management (subject to the approval of a woman or board of women appointed by the Regents); and, on the further condition that the University shall at times hereafter furnish heat, light and power for the building free of charge, and shall not derive any income from such building; and on the further condition that so much of the surplus income or profit from the building shall be used by the occupants for furniture, furnishings, works of art and improvements in or to the building as they deem best, and the remainder, if any, at the end of each year shall be set aside as a fund to be used in the following year to give lower or free rates in the building to such under-graduates or post-graduates as the President of the University and the Dean of Women may designate from time to time.

The deed of gift was signed in February, 1914, and the building was occupied with the opening of the school year in the fall of 1915. In selecting residents emphasis has always been on scholarship and campus leadership.

The land, occupying almost a block between Tappan and South University avenues, was purchased by the University, in March, 1913, but the beautiful garden which lies to the east is a further evidence of Mr. Cook's foresight and generosity. The Condon home, facing on South University Avenue, formerly occupied this site, and the family had an attractive and extensive garden thoroughly enjoyed by the residents of the Martha Cook Building. Mr. Cook obtained the deed to the property in 1917 and presented it as a gift to the University in 1918 with the understanding that the University would maintain it for the use of Martha Cook students and their friends. When the house was vacated in 1921, it was removed, and, under the supervision of Mr. Samuel Parsons, of New York City, the entire property was replanted as a garden. The magnolia trees and the rare Japanese locust (Cladrastis lutea) were left where they stood in the Condon garden. The cement terrace which extends along the east side of the building overlooks the garden. The natural teakwood tables, chairs, and benches with which it is equipped were a special gift from Mr. Cook in the spring of 1916. To the south of the building is the tennis court, completed in June, 1918. It was laid out on property purchased by Mr. Cook for this purpose in 1917.

York and Sawyer, architects, of New York City, designed the dormitory, and the Fuller Construction Company, also of New York, was in charge of its erection. The building cost $260,000 and has a floor area of 63,234 square feet. The informal dedication of the building took place in November, 1915.

Architecturally, the Martha Cook Building is reminiscent of late English Gothic and early Renaissance periods. The exterior with its pointed arches, traceried windows, deep buttresses, and battlemented roof of slate and copper is pure English domestic Gothic, inspired by the best work at Cambridge and Oxford. The red brick with its special cross bond, and the limestone window facings are admirably suited to the architectural design. The Gothic entrance with the niche as a central feature is particularly beautiful. The statue of Portia was an added gift in June, 1918.

The style of the interior varies from Tudor Gothic to Early Renaissance, and the details of the furnishings extend to Page  1722Jacobean or later periods. The variety has been blended into an effective whole.

Upon entering the vestibule, one sees first a beautiful Tudor Gothic pierced screen. The entrance lobby, with its oak panels and molded ceiling of the Elizabethan period, opens into a long, cloistered corridor, with floor of marble and red flagged paving, high oak paneled walls of the Tudor period, and majestic, groined, Gothic ceiling — white ribs against blue vaulting. At the far end of this gallery is the statue of the Venus de Milo, a replica of the original.

To the right of the entrance are the offices, and opposite are an apartment for the Director and a guest room. Beyond is the reception room known as the Red Room, furnished in crimson and gold. This room, which measures 18 by 39 feet, has a vaulted ceiling and plaster frieze reproduced from a sixteenth-century English manor house. The ceiling design is an interesting combination of the English rose and French fleur-de-lis, known as "wagon head ceiling." The woodwork is in butternut, and the moldings and general details are reproduced from measured drawings of antique woodwork. The hangings are of red damask and the furniture of the Jacobean period. The room has an open fireplace of Botticino marble. Beyond the reception room is the living room, called the Blue Room because the University colors of blue and gold predominate. It measures 30 by 56 feet and has elaborately carved paneling of Burma teakwood and a plaster ceiling, a replica of one in Sir Paul Pindar's House at Bishopgate, which now forms a part of the collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum at South Kensington. At either end of the room is a fireplace with a stone facing in the form of a Gothic arch. The handsomely carved and inlaid arched head panelings of the mantels form an impressive background for the bust of Mr. Cook, which was placed there as a memorial to the donor, following his death. The furnishings of the room include three blue and gold oriental rugs and upholstered furniture of Jacobean design. Farther along the main corridor is the dining hall, paneled in oak and with beamed firred ceiling of fifteenth-century design. The stone mantel has an arched opening, and the motto of the building is carved in the stone. The small round dining tables are of oak. Beyond the dining room are the serving rooms and quarters for the staff.

A mezzanine floor at either end of the building provides space for seven or eight student rooms. Most of the students, however, are accommodated on the second and third floors, with an additional fifteen on the fourth floor. The student rooms, for the most part, are single and arranged in suites with a few double rooms. Each room is equipped with a full-length mirror, dresser, desk, chair, and a tea table of gumwood. The furniture is finished a light brown. A small guest wing on the fourth floor, in addition to a guest room on the first floor, affords provision for visitors. Each floor is provided with telephone, shower room, and a kitchenette, and the fourth floor has a storage room for extra clothing.

The building is essentially the same today as when it was built, with the exception of the kitchen, in which equipment has been modernized. The plumbing system has been renovated within the last four years. Care was taken to see that the bathrooms, with their white tile, marble walls, and original imported china fixtures, were preserved. This work was done by the Plant Department at a cost of $68,900.

Mary Bartron Henderson House

Financing of a co-operative dormitory for women, "modeled somewhat on Page  1723the lines of … Alumnae House" was adopted as its major Alumni Ten-Year Program project by the Alumnae Council on October 16, 1937.

It was proposed that the new dormitory be named the Mary Bartron Henderson Memorial House in memory of Mary Bartron Henderson, director of the campaign committee which made possible the erection and opening years of management of the Michigan League, and for many years a leader in alumnae circles (see Part VIII: The Michigan League).

Before her death Mrs. Henderson had made a special investigation of the possibility of additional co-operative housing for women, where through cooperative effort and self-help, the student's living costs could be reduced to a minimum. Her work in this field as well as her outstanding contribution toward the erection of the Michigan League prompted the naming of the new residence for her.

In January, 1938, the Regents approved and enacted the following request signed by Mrs. Lucile B. Conger, Executive Director of the Alumnae Council:

At the October meeting of the Alumnae Council it was unanimously voted to raise funds for the building of a co-operative house for women students… to be a memorial to Mrs. Mary B. Henderson. The Council therefore requests of the Regents permission to open with the University treasurer an account which shall be known as the Henderson Memorial Fund, and in which shall be deposited all gifts sent to the Council for this purpose.

(R.P., 1936-39, p. 435.)

By 1945 the alumnae had accumulated the sum of $45,880, invested in bonds. It had been intended originally that the project would provide for the construction of a new building. In 1944-45, however, as the alumnae and the University continued to plan for the residence, it was realized that increasing building costs made it advisable to buy a well-constructed house which would lend itself advantageously to remodeling on a functional basis. Accordingly, upon the recommendation of the Council, the former home of Dean G. Carl Huber at the corner of Hill Street and Olivia Avenue was purchased.

The site originally selected and approved by the Regents was adjacent to Mosher-Jordan Halls to the north. Under the revised University plans for the immediate construction of new housing units, however, it was decided to use this land for the new women's residence hall. When the Regents designated this site for the dormitory they agreed to provide the alumnae with another site for the Mary Bartron Henderson House. As a result the University participated in the purchase to the extent of $12,500. The total price paid for house and lot amounted to $27,500.

The expansion contemplated could not be accomplished at the time the house was bought, but in order to assist the University in the housing shortage, Henderson House was opened on a temporary basis in the fall of 1945, with fifteen girls instead of the expected twenty-five. A house director was also in residence. Slight remodeling took place at the time the house was acquired.

In 1946 the architectural firm of Colvin and Heller of Ann Arbor was employed to draw up plans for remodeling the house, and $600 was paid for its work. The first plans were not carried out, and in 1950 a new contract with the firm, then changed to Colvin and Robinson, was entered into. The R. E. Davis Construction Company, of Ann Arbor, was awarded the construction contract in the amount of $72,810. The remodeling provided a suite on the first floor for the director. Alterations on the second floor, and an addition to the third floor resulted in space for twenty-nine girls in fourteen rooms. The kitchen and the Page  1724dining area on the first floor were modernized and enlarged.

When Mary Markley House was closed in 1950, in addition to contributing $20,000 to the remodeling fund, Mary Markley House gave furniture, dishes, silverware, linens, and books from the Mary Markley library for the future Alice Crocker Lloyd Library. The alumnae of the University in 1950 established a goal of $10,000 to provide funds for a library and study-room addition to Henderson House in memory of Alice Crocker Lloyd.

In December, 1953, the Regents, on the recommendation of the Board of Governors of Mary Bartron Henderson Memorial House, changed the name to Mary Bartron Henderson House.

Mary Markley House

In May, 1944, on request of the Alumnae Council, the designation of the dormitory previously known as Alumnae House was changed to Mary Markley House in honor of Mary Elizabeth Butler Markley ('92), one of the first women to graduate from the University and widow of Joseph L. Markley, who was for many years chairman of the Department of Mathematics. Mrs. Markley had always taken an active part in alumnae affairs and even in her eighties continued to be interested in the house.

Mary Markley House faced many difficulties at the time of World War II. It was too small to be operated efficiently, and by 1950, although maintenance and repair had been kept to a minimum, the house was in debt. It was also in poor condition. In April, 1950, therefore, with the approval of the Board of Patronesses of Mary Markley House and the Executive Board of the Alumnae Council, the following recommendations were approved:

  • 1. That the Mary Markley House be closed as of the end of the current semester.
  • 2. That a payment of not more than $20,000 from the Mary Markley House Building and Equipment Reserve for Repair and Replacement and the General Residence Halls Reserve, to the Mary Bartron Henderson Memorial House fund, be approved in recognition of the fact that Mary Markley House was presented to the University by the alumnae and the alumnae are desirous to complete the Henderson House;
  • 3. That authorization be given for the completion of final plans and specifications for the Henderson House with an anticipated expenditure of not more than the sum of money in hand, including the above mentioned $20,000, for that purpose;
  • 4. That the name Mary Markley be remembered in the naming of future women's housing facilities;
  • 5. That the members of the Mary Markley Board be recommended for their faithful services and relieved of duty as of the close of the current semester.

(R.P., 1948-51, p. 809.)

Thus, there came to an end Alumnae House, subsequently, Mary Markley House. (The old house at 1219 Washtenaw still stands and is used as the accounting office for the Engineering Research Institute.) The financial aid which it provided toward the completion of an enlarged and more modern Henderson House will be of lasting benefit to the women who seek co-operative housing on the campus.

Mosher-Jordan Halls

In 1928, at the September 21 meeting of the Regents, plans for a dormitory to house 500 women, outlined by an alumni committee of which Mason Pittman Rumney ('08e) was chairman, were adopted by the Board, a scheme of financing its construction was approved, and immediate bids from contractors were authorized.

Malcolmson and Higginbotham, of Detroit, were chosen as the architects, and sketches were prepared under the Page  1725direction of Alexander L. Trout ('05, '10e) for the building, to stand just east of the Women's Athletic Field on Observatory Street.

At their meeting on April 24, the Regents approved the plan in general as follows:

Resolved, That the Regents approve in principle the plan of financing the construction of dormitories stated in a communication dated April 16, 1928, from E. J. Ottaway, President of the General Alumni Association of the University, provided that the earnings of the dormitories as estimated are satisfactory to them and in the opinion of the Regents will be sufficient to pay the expense of operation, of upkeep of the buildings and grounds, of renewal of equipment and furnishings, and to pay the principal and interest of the bonds as they mature; and further provided that plans and specifications of the buildings, character of construction, the furnishings, equipment, management, and plan of control of the dormitories meet with their approval.

(R.P., 1926-29, pp. 548-49.)

A part of the site was bought by the Detroit alumni, and the remainder was purchased by the Regents after condemnation proceedings. The project contemplated the leasing of this land to the Guardian Trust Company, of Detroit, which would finance the erection of the building and, in turn, release the contemplated property to the University.

The prospect of building such a large dormitory, however, caused a serious controversy between the landladies of Ann Arbor, their sympathizers, and the University. The landladies feared that their rooms would be left empty and their means of livelihood thus endangered. The new dormitory, which was intended to house five-hundred girls, was criticized as being too large, and the proposed site was considered "too far away from campus."

A petition signed by fourteen citizens protesting the building of the dormitory was presented to the Regents in October, 1928. A committee was approved by the mayor to study the economic effect on the city of the building of such a dormitory and in general of the continuation of the University's building plans. A committee composed of Regents Sawyer, Beal, and Clements was appointed to confer with the mayor's committee and to furnish any information available and pertinent to the subject (R.P., 1926-29, p. 842). The contracts entered into by the University and the Guardian Trust Company, of Detroit, were loaned to Frank DeVine, counsel for the citizens' movement, to be examined.

The construction contract between Pehrson Brothers of Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the University was signed in the fall of 1928 for $505,821.14. The mechanical trades work was undertaken by the Plant Department. In order to satisfy both the University and the Guardian Trust Company, the cost of the building had to be reduced to $950,000, $50,000 lower than the original figure of $1,000,000, because the trust company was willing to loan only $850,000, and this sum plus $100,000 which the Detroit Alumnae Association had guaranteed to raise represented the total amount available. In order to meet the specifications, changes were made in the interior; these, however, did not change the appearance of the exterior.

Mosher-Jordan Halls, designed to accommodate 442 women, were completed and ready for occupancy at the beginning of the 1930-31 school year. A formal opening and reception were held in January, 1931. The total cost of the building, which has a floor area of 137,242 square feet, was $797,640.

The building, in accordance with the following resolution, was named in honor of the first two deans of women, Eliza M. Mosher and Myra B. Jordan:

Resolved, That the new women's dormitory project be designated as follows in Page  1726honor of the first two deans of women of the University: —

The north unit shall be designated the Eliza M. Mosher Hall in honor of Dr. Eliza M. Mosher, Dean of Women from 1896 to 1902. The south unit shall be designated the Myra B. Jordan Hall in honor of Mrs. Myra B. Jordan, Dean of Women from 1902 to 1922 and Dean Emeritus since 1922. The two units shall be jointly administered as the Mosher-Jordan Halls.

(R.P., 1929-32, p. 157.)

The location of the building has particular advantages. Situated on Observatory Street overlooking the Women's Athletic Field, it is only a six-minute walk from the main campus. The building faces east and west. The architecture is an adaptation of Collegiate Gothic, carried out in Colonial face brick, with trim of Indiana limestone. The topography of the site made possible a sunken garden on the Observatory Street side and terraces sloping to Palmer Field on the other. The building is of fireproof construction, five stories high, and is so planned that it forms two complete units or residence halls, identical in arrangement, the only difference being in arrangement of the living rooms.

Each of the dining rooms, of which there are four opening on the terraces, is on the first or ground floor, which, because the building stands on a hill, is downstairs from the main entrance. In the beginning one wing of this floor was set apart for members of the staff and another was reserved for graduate students. Later, because of the increasing enrollment, it became necessary to use this space for the housing of undergraduates.

The second floor is on a level with Observatory Street, and entrance is gained by small bridges which span the sunken garden. On the right and left of the entrances are two reception rooms, which in recent years have been used as offices by the resident directors. Each hall has a lobby, with tile floor and oak-paneled walls. Here, too, are the mail and information desks, and the elevators. There are four living rooms, two at right angles to each lobby. The first and more formal of these living rooms is several steps lower than the entrance floor so that the space intervening between it and the lobby forms a miniature stage which may be used for small dramatic productions and recitals. This first large living room has an enormous stone fireplace, soft carpets, comfortable chairs, beautiful carved tables with softly shaded lamps, and a grand piano. Along the west side is a book nook, from which French doors open on an enclosed porch. The second living room, which also has a large fireplace and casement windows on three sides, projects upon the terrace and is more informal in character. On this floor, opening from the corridors running to the center of the building, are a number of student rooms and the directors' suites.

The third, fourth, and fifth floors are devoted to student rooms. These also have casement windows, grouped in various ways, with ledges of shaded tiles. Great care has been taken to provide for convenience and quiet. Acoustical plaster was used in the corridors as well as in the living and dining rooms. Each of the upper floors has a sunroom and a kitchenette with ironing equipment. Laundries for student use are on the ground floor.

By 1953, 425 women were housed in Mosher-Jordan Halls. Increased enrollment made it necessary to increase this number by making double rooms out of singles and triples out of doubles. In addition, the staff corridor and guest rooms were taken over, thus increasing the capacity to 490 women. The work was done by the Henry deKoning Construction Page  1727Company, of Ann Arbor. Including some new furnishings for the remodeled rooms, the cost was $20,286.

University House

In 1921, at the time of the purchase of the site at the corner of South University and East University avenues for the University High School, the University also acquired for $12,000, as a part of this property, a house which had been owned by the First Presbyterian Society of Ann Arbor. A few years later, in 1927, the President and the Secretary expressed their approval of a three-year plan for the operation of this house as a University dormitory, and authorized the purchase of furniture and equipment, funds for which were to be repaid as a loan. In addition, the University was to receive a fixed monthly payment as rent. The house was first used for graduate women in 1930 and was put on the regular list of houses approved by the dean.

University House, of frame construction, had a floor area of 6,016 square feet and furnished accommodations for 14 graduate women. Its use as a residence was discontinued in 1949.

Victor C. Vaughan House

At their June meeting of 1938, the Regents agreed to enter into a revenue bond arrangement for a dormitory for medical students, which was to be on a financially self-liquidating plan (R.P., 1936-39, p. 562). In July they authorized the President and Secretary to apply to the government for aid in financing the construction of this dormitory as well as of several others for undergraduate men. An arrangement was also made with the Ann Arbor Trust Company which prepared to buy from the University $1,300,000 of an issue of dormitory revenue bonds, the proceeds of which sale, combined with the anticipated $945,000 grant from the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, were to be used to build dormitories, providing housing and dining facilities, as well as all necessary equipment and furnishings. The Regents committed the University to a thirty-year bond issue which together with the federal grant, if secured, would provide the funds for the building of the dormitories (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 599-601). It was further resolved that the Regents borrow the sum of $1,477,000 through the issuance and sale of dormitory bonds. This sum included an amount of $177,000 for the refunding of the bonds on the previously built Allen-Rumsey House. The proceeds of the bond sale were to be used for the construction of the Union and medical dormitories and the refinancing of Allen-Rumsey House as part of the Union dormitories.

The site was on University land at the corner of Glen Avenue and Catherine Street overlooking the Huron River Valley. The medical ward of the Homeopathic Hospital, destroyed by fire in 1927, formerly occupied this site. The dormitory was named in honor of Dr. Victor Vaughan, formerly Dean of the Medical School.

Vaughan House, facing Ann Street, is five floors in height. It has a brick and limestone exterior and is of fireproof construction throughout. At the left as one enters at the second-floor level are the offices and a suite for the dietitian and on the right facing the office is a spacious well-furnished lobby with an adjoining small reception room. Directly ahead are the open stairs leading to the lower floor and to their left is the second-floor student corridor. A section of the library is devoted to a book collection which was a gift from the children and wife of Professor Alfred O. Lee. Dr. Lee Page  1728taught the History of Medicine to premedical students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In addition to the collection of histories of medicine, a collection of works of physicians who had turned to writing in other fields is included.

On the lower floor is a large paneled lounge comfortably furnished. A long circular davenport provides for leisurely hours in front of the fireplace. At either end of the lounge are two small card rooms, and the dining room adjoins at the rear. A recreation room, laundry, and the kitchens complete this floor plan. In the basement adjacent to the trunk room is the darkroom for photographic work. The upper floors have space for 149 in single rooms, double rooms, and in suites for two and three.

In 1943, Victor C. Vaughan House was vacated to provide quarters for specialized army medical and dental groups, which continued their occupation of the house until the fall of 1945, when it was reopened for civilian use. During the war some of the fraternity houses were leased by the University to supplement housing for women. As these leases were terminated a shortage of facilities for women was created, and a decision was made to move them into Vaughan House in the fall of 1945. By the beginning of 1946 the veterans were returning to the University in such numbers that the girls living in Vaughan House had to be relocated in other women's housing. In 1946-47 as many as 240 men were living in the house under emergency conditions. The housing situation for men was relieved somewhat when the addition to the East Quadrangle was opened. Housing conditions for women became worse, however, and in the fall of 1948, in anticipation of the opening of a new women's residence hall in the spring of 1949, a group of women who were to form the nucleus of the residents of the new dormitory were assigned to Vaughan House. The men of Vaughan House thus displaced were moved to the University-owned residence at 730 Haven Street (later to become Adelia Cheever House) and in the spring of 1949 they moved back to Vaughan House. As the University enrollment grew, another large residence hall for men (South Quadrangle) was constructed. This made it possible again to supplement the housing for women by readmitting them to Vaughan House. The men living there moved to South Quadrangle as a group in the fall of 1951, and women have lived in Vaughan House since that date.

It should be noted that Victor C. Vaughan House was constructed as a residence for medical students. At the close of World War II, with the return of veterans in great numbers, it was decided that Vaughan House would not be available for medical students until such time as the demand for undergraduate housing lessened.

There have not been many changes in the building since its construction. As in all other residence halls, the capacity of Vaughan House was expanded in the summer of 1953. Suites which normally accommodated two students were converted into suites for three which increased the capacity from 138 to 149.

Romance Language Building

The building now used for Romance languages was originally the University Museum. It was built during the year 1880-81 and housed the natural history and anthropological collections of the Page  1729University until the construction of the new Museums Building in 1928. The plans for the old Museum, which were prepared by Major William Le Baron Jenney, Professor of Architecture and Design, were submitted to the Regents and approved in July, 1879. The building, which is of brick with stone trim, stands on State Street between Angell Hall and Alumni Memorial Hall. It comprises four stories and is approximately 120 by 50 feet, with a total floor area of 25,275 square feet. The final cost of construction was $46,041.

In his annual report for 1878-79 President Angell stated: "The new Museum Building will enable us to store and display our collections much better than has heretofore been possible, and will relieve us of the solicitude we have so long felt concerning their safety." He added, however: "The sum placed at our disposal will not be adequate to furnish the lecture rooms which ought to be connected with the Museum" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 418). In 1890 he suggested the desirability of adding a series of laboratories at the east side of the building. Nothing came of this plan.

During subsequent years, when the building was used as a museum, many defects in its construction developed. Built without a basement, the ground floor settled and a new one had to be installed. In 1894 the original roof proved too heavy and was replaced with "a makeshift affair fastened together with so curious a system of trusses and bolts" that classes from the Department of Architecture were accustomed to visit it. The building also was inadequate in point of space. Only one floor and half of another could be used for exhibits; there was also a shortage of storage room, which necessitated the use of an abandoned elevator shaft for this purpose; moreover, the building was very badly lighted for the display of exhibits.

These difficulties in the use of the building as a museum became increasingly obvious. By 1923 it was reported that at least 75 per cent of the specimens possessed by the University were kept in storage because of inadequate facilities for display and that some of the collections had not been unpacked since 1878. The risk of fire to the collections, which were valued in 1923 at $2,000,000, was serious. The result was that while the Museum was still housed in this building the University was forced to decline many valuable collections.

These continually increasing problems did not come to an end until the new University Museum was constructed. The old building, because of its advantageous position on the campus, was assigned to the Department of Romance Languages. Extensive alterations, including the construction of classrooms at a cost of about $20,000, were carried out, as far as possible, with fireproof materials. The building, which was painted a light gray, contains the offices and classrooms of the Department.

School of Business Administration Building

The first suggestion or reference to the proposed School of Business Administration in a public document seems to be in a report entitled "Postwar Public Works Program for the University of Michigan," dated October 1, 1943. A building for the School of Business Administration appears as Project 23 in this report, with a suggested expenditure of $600,000. The first money appropriated by the state for the building was $1,800,000, approved by Governor Kelly on February 18, 1946.

The site, authorized by the Regents in July, 1945, was in the block surrounded by Monroe, Tappan, Hill, and Haven Page  1730streets and was purchased at the time construction was begun, the building occupying approximately the north half of the block. Ten private dwellings were removed for its construction, which began in August, 1946. Money to complete the building was appropriated in 1947.

The cornerstone was laid on May 24, 1947, with addresses by President Alexander G. Ruthven, Provost James P. Adams, and Dean Russell A. Stevenson. The south wing, the library, and the administrative offices were occupied in the fall of 1948, and the remainder of the building in February, 1949.

Lee Black and Kenneth C. Black, of Lansing, Michigan, were the architects. The latter was chiefly responsible, and this building was his first on the Michigan campus. Since its construction, however, he has served as architect for the Alice Lloyd Radiation Therapy Laboratory, for alterations to the Neuropsychiatric Institute and the University Hospital, and for the Women's Swimming Pool.

The general contractor was Bryant and Detwiler, of Detroit; R. L. Spitzley Company, of Detroit, was responsible for the plumbing, heating, and ventilating, and the electrical contractor was John H. Busby, of Detroit. The total actual cost was $2,715,000, including almost $299,000 for land and land improvements plus $95,000 for furniture and equipment.

The School of Business Administration Building contains 1,811,000 cubic feet, and consists of a classroom and laboratory wing on the south, a library and lecture wing on the east, and an office tower on the northwest corner. The structural framework is of reinforced concrete to the fourth-floor level, above which the faculty office tower is of structural steel construction. The exterior is of brick with double-hung aluminum windows.

The library seats approximately 380 students and has stack space for some 100,000 volumes. There are thirty class, laboratory, and lecture rooms, with seating capacity ranging from seventeen for small seminar rooms to 192 for the two largest lecture rooms. The standard classroom, of which there are thirteen, seats forty-nine students. Five lecture rooms, the smallest seating eighty-two, are constructed without windows in order to facilitate the use of visual education programs. One of the two student lounges is equipped with a kitchenette, and a faculty lounge on the ninth floor of the tower is similarly equipped.

All classrooms, laboratories, and lecture rooms are equipped with strip tables of metal or wood which are permanently fastened to the floor. Chairs are metal and are movable. Two of the laboratories have underfloor ducts for electrical outlets so that automatic business machines can be plugged in at any desired location. All classrooms and lecture rooms are provided with recesses equipped with rods, coat hangers, and racks for hats and books. Furnishings in the principal student lounge have been provided by student contributions and earnings from activities of the student council. Furnishings for the faculty lounge have been provided by subscriptions by faculty and alumni of the School.

Although the building has been used primarily by the School of Business Administration, parts of it have been made available for classes to the School of Education, the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the Extension Service.

School of Music Building

The "Ann Arbor School of Music" was opened in September, 1881, and classes were conducted in a building at Page  1731the corner of State and Huron streets. Later in the same year it became a division of the incorporated "University" Musical Society. Because of insufficient resources, however, the School did not flourish, and in 1890 a special committee was appointed to discuss its reorganization.

In December, 1891, Professor William H. Pettee, who was active in the early program of the Musical Society, announced: "The University Musical Society has all the power it needs to proceed to the establishment of a School of Music," and it was resolved that a school of music be established "as soon as the necessary financial support could be secured." It was proposed that $6,500 to cover expenses, payable over a three-year period, should be guaranteed by subscription. In January, 1892, the committee reported that one hundred subscriptions of sixty-five dollars each had been obtained, whereupon the Board of Directors passed a resolution establishing the "University School of Music," which opened for instruction in October, 1892, in rooms rented in Newberry Hall. The rented rooms were inadequate, however, and it was proposed that the School of Music be moved to Main Street. This proposal was not favorably received, and in 1893 a group of Ann Arbor business men and townspeople formed the School of Music Building Association. About two hundred individuals and firms subscribed for approximately six hundred shares of stock at $25.00 each, aggregating a total of $25,000. With this money the site at 325 Maynard Street was bought and the building was constructed. Wesley Howe was the architect and builder.

In the years 1913 and 1916 alterations were made to the building under the supervision of Lewis H. Boynton, architect.

In 1925 the Building Association gave the title to the University Musical Society, and the School of Music Building Association was dissolved. The Society transferred the title to the University in 1929 when the School of Music was made a definite unit of the University.

In the Regents' Proceedings for April, 1929, the value of the property was given as $106,393.

School of Public Health Building

The School of Public Health Building on Observatory Street was erected at a cost of $534,000. The building was a gift to the University from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation which gave the University approximately $400,000 for the purpose; the Rockefeller Foundation which made a grant of $300,000 more; and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis which gave another $50,000.

Construction was begun in May, 1942, and the building was completed and occupied late in 1943. It was designed by Lewis Sarvis to meet the needs of the School and is unique among buildings housing public health institutions because of the opportunity it affords for co-ordinating classroom work, research programs, and field experience.

The U-shaped building, of brick and glass construction, is three stories high and has 200 rooms. The front part contains classroom and administrative offices, a large circular library with pine paneling, a circular auditorium seating 200 persons, and seminar rooms. The building also has a health education museum; an outdoor class and recreation room on the roof; and a kitchen and a dining room for the staff.

The wings, two stories in height, are devoted to research. The north wing contains the department of industrial health on the first floor and public health engineering on the second. In the south wing are the virus disease laboratories, Page  1732where the work in poliomyelitis, influenza, and the parasitic diseases such as malaria, is carried on. In the east wing is the media department where materials for growing disease organisms are prepared and where the animals for experimentation are housed. In connection with the animals there is an ultramodern kitchen, an operating room, and X-ray equipment.

The greatest precautions were taken to provide for segregation and against contamination in designing the building, which was carefully planned to fulfill every requirement in the study of modern public health education.

Student Publications Building

The editorial offices of the principal student publications under the Board in Control of Student Publications and the printing facilities for the Michigan Daily are housed in the Student Publications Building at 420 Maynard Street, across from Betsy Barbour and Helen Newberry residences. In December, 1926, the Regents authorized the Board in Control of Student Publications to acquire property of approximately 132 feet on Maynard Street for the erection of a student publications building (R.P., 1926-29, p. 113). In January, 1931, plans for the proposed building were presented by the President. The building, completed in 1932, was designed by Pond and Pond, of Chicago, and was constructed by Lovering and Longbotham, of St. Paul, Minnesota. Edson R. Sunderland of the Law School was supervising business manager of the project.

The land was purchased and the building was constructed and equipped entirely out of profits from student publications. The total cost of the land was $60,000, and the cost of the building was $74,000. A capital investment of almost $300,000 is represented in the land, building, and equipment — considered the finest college newspaper plant in the country. Replacement cost, as of 1954, would be about $600,000.

The exterior of the building, which has a street frontage of 125 feet and is 50 feet deep, is of red brick with a white stone entrance similar to that of the Michigan Union and the Michigan League, which were designed by the same architects.

On the first floor is a large conference room and an editorial office shared by Gargoyle, the humor magazine, and Generation, the arts magazine. The largest area, however, is devoted to the modern printing plant, including a composing room with four linotype machines, a Ludlow machine, a Fairchild photoelectric engraver, and other equipment; the pressroom housing the $70,000 Goss Unitube rotary press, casting machines, and paper storage; and the darkroom.

The second floor houses the editorial and business offices of the Michiganensian, the yearbook, and a combined business office for all publications. The remainder of the large area is devoted to the editorial and business staffs of The Michigan Daily and contains a small office for the senior editors and a large city room with space for both business and editorial staff operations.

When the building was first occupied, because of lack of funds with which to replace them, the old counters, furniture, and typewriters were brought over from the former quarters in the Ann Arbor Press Building. In the summer of 1937 the offices were completely equipped with new typewriters and with new desks, chairs, tables, filing cases, and counters.

Page  1733
Tappan Hall

Tappan Hall, built in 1893-94, was designed by the architects Spier and Rohns, of Detroit, and Dietrick Brothers, also of Detroit, whose bid totaled $25,465, were responsible for the actual construction. In May, 1894, on motion of Regent Barbour, the Regents named the new recitation building in honor of President Tappan. A month later it was ready for occupancy.

The structure, of red brick with stone trim, is near the southwest corner of the main campus, just behind Alumni Memorial Hall and west of the President's residence. The building, which measures approximately 75 by 111 feet, has a floor area of 23,142 square feet. The rooms have been so divided and subdivided that now, including the basement, the building provides about twenty-eight offices and classrooms.

For a time Tappan Hall was used as a recitation building for classes in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; a large lecture room on the second floor was devoted to the special use of classes in history and economics. At one time President Angell's class in International Law was held in this room. For many years certain sections of Tappan Hall were reserved for courses in education, while parts of the building were assigned to various departments of the Literary College.

For some time the administrative offices of the School of Education, as well as the Appointment Bureau for Teachers, were in this building. In 1930, however, the School of Education transferred to its new buildings, and Tappan Hall was turned over to the School of Business Administration. The large room at the south end of the second floor was used as the Business Administration Library. When this School moved into its own building in 1948 the Fine Arts and German departments of the Literary College occupied most of the building.

University Elementary School Building

The University had been interested in the problems of elementary and preschool education for some years prior to the erection of the Elementary School Building in 1929-30. For several years a branch of the Merrill-Palmer School, of Detroit, which had been maintained in Ann Arbor in a building provided by the University, had afforded practical training to students in child care and education. As the significance of this new development in the field of education became increasingly apparent, the erection of a building to continue and expand the program was proposed. At the June meeting of the Regents in 1927 the Board was notified that the state of Michigan had appropriated the sum of $1,100,000 for a site and for the construction of a laboratory elementary school. This amount, however, was subsequently reduced to $800,000.

Preparation of plans for the proposed building by the architectural firm of Malcomson and Higginbotham, of Detroit, was immediately authorized, and at the October, 1929, meeting the contract was let for its construction. The building was first occupied in September, 1930, and was formally accepted from the contractors, Spence Brothers of Saginaw, Michigan, by the Regents at their November meeting in 1930.

The Elementary School was erected, in effect, as a continuation of the University High School Building, which had been completed in 1923-24, so that the two practically form one building, although the newer section differs in some respects in design and construction Page  1734from the earlier High School Building.

The Elementary School stands on the northwest corner of East University Avenue and Monroe Street, filling the block completely to the parkway. The building is constructed of brick with stone trim and has two wings, which, with the wings of the University High School at the north, form an attractive court used as a children's playground. The building provides more than 95,000 square feet of floor space. In 1954 the building was valued at $561,000.

The Elementary School provides for the education of children between the ages of two and twelve years, taking them from nursery school through the sixth grade. It is equipped with complete facilities for the instruction of young children and has adequate provision for administrative officers and for the training of graduate and undergraduate students and other workers in child development.

From the time of the opening of the School until 1942 it was not used for student teaching for undergraduates. The policy was then changed because of the increasing shortage of teachers in the elementary field and because of an increased interest in elementary education among students at the University. Currently about one hundred students a year do their student teaching in the University Elementary School.

On the first-floor, passages from an attractive tiled lobby lead to the library, kindergarten rooms, a gymnasium, a small auditorium, a health unit, and rooms where the younger children take naps and have their luncheons.

Many facilities in the way of books, play, and special instructional material are provided in specially designed rooms. The second floor contains classrooms for grades two through six and for college classes, as well as offices and laboratories for the study of growth records and for the examination of the children. In general, aside from the suite of offices of the School of Education, the first floor is used for the younger children, while the second floor is devoted to the instruction of the older boys and girls. A number of rooms are equipped with observational balconies for use in the instruction of students. A third-floor playroom and a play court on the roof complete the facilities above the ground level.

When the building was constructed a full basement was excavated but left in rough form. The basement served primarily as storage space for a period of years. During World War II it became for a time the headquarters for the supply department of military units at the University. As the need for space has increased the interior of the basement has been reconstructed in a substantial fashion and now houses a Guidance and Counseling Laboratory, a Reading Improvement Service, a Group Dynamics Laboratory, and the offices of the University of Michigan Fresh Air Camp. A part of the space is devoted to an inactive collection of books transferred from the University Library because of crowded conditions there and to a collection of school textbooks of historic interest. The basement also provides space for a property room for the stage productions of the University High School.

University High School Building

The University High School, on East University Avenue between South University Avenue and Monroe Street, was scheduled for completion in November, 1923. During that school year some University classes were housed in the building as an emergency measure, but it was not ready for occupancy until the fall of 1924. The site, part of which was later occupied by the University Elementary Page  1735School, was purchased from the Presbyterian Church for $71,000. The cost of the entire area, given as $148,092.73, was somewhat reduced, however, through the salvage of materials and houses which stood upon the site (P.R., 1921-22, p. 13).

The floor plans for the University High School Building submitted by the architects, Perkins, Fellows, and Hamilton, of Chicago, were approved at the January meeting of the Regents in 1922, and the architects were instructed to proceed with the working plans. The first design submitted was revised to bring the cost within the funds available. The contract was awarded to the H. G. Christman Company, of South Bend, Indiana, on April 28, 1922, for $338,000. Subsequent alterations in the construction became necessary in order to meet mounting building costs, and certain delays required the postponement of the formal opening of the School until September, 1924.

The new building was to be the first unit of a group of three, including the proposed Elementary School and a building for the School of Education, which together were to constitute one continuous structure. The subsequent erection of the Elementary School Building was the second step in the plan. The High School Building is 246 by 172 feet and comprises four floors which cover an area of 96,400 square feet. A parkway, formed by the closing of one block of Haven Avenue, separates it from the Architecture Building and the grounds of the Martha Cook Building. A certain degree of harmony among the three adjacent structures was achieved by the use of red brick with stone trim.

As one enters the building from the main entrance on East University Avenue, he finds the offices of the School at the right. On the left, off the main corridor, are three small rooms for offices and service rooms for student activities, and the Marshall Byrn Memorial Library, which houses books, teaching materials, and high-school text books in the field of vocational education. The library adjoins the industrial arts unit, which is entered from the main corridor and which includes a large room equipped as a general shop, a storage room for materials, and a classroom.

Off the main corridor are the generous quarters of the science unit, including separate laboratories for physics, chemistry, and biology. The last has a well-equipped greenhouse attached. The science unit also includes a general purpose classroom, a lecture room with terraced seating, an equipment storage room, and a departmental office.

Between the industrial arts and the science units a passageway leads to the boys' lockers and dressing room, which are connected by a stairway with the gymnasium on the third floor.

At the end of the main corridor is the Schorling Auditorium, seating 350 and named in honor of Raleigh Schorling, the first principal of the School. It is equipped with stage, lighting, and scenery facilities. In the corridor just outside the entrance to the auditorium, are display cases for exhibiting the work of the students.

On the second floor, immediately above the auditorium, at the end of the central corridor is the school library, a beautiful room 38 by 78 feet, which occupies two stories. On this floor over the industrial arts room is an exercise room used as a recreation room, and a small gymnasium, 35 by 90 feet. A unit for the girls' physical education department provides an office, dressing and locker rooms, and a health unit which includes an office for the school nurse and a room in which pupils may rest.

In addition to the rooms mentioned, on the second floor are eight classrooms, a room for women teachers, and, above Page  1736the main entrance to the building, the office of the Assistant Principal.

On the third floor the gymnasium, measuring 60 by 90 feet, opens off the main corridor to the south. Also on the third floor are the offices of the head of the Department of Physical Education and Health, with adjacent storage space for gymnasium equipment and supplies. In addition, the third floor provides office space for the Department of Modern Languages, the Mathematics Department, and the co-ordinator of student teaching, as well as nine classrooms and a men's staff room.

Adjacent to the University High School, on the first floor of the Elementary School Building is a well-equipped cafeteria for the use of teachers and students. The Elementary School also provides space (on the second floor) for the fine arts classes of the High School.

The fourth floor is not used by the High School but is the center of much of the work of the School of Education. Offices are provided on this floor for members of the School of Education staff, and there are also two classrooms used by classes in education. At the end of the corridor is the School of Education library. In addition, the fourth floor houses the Laboratory for Educational Psychology and a laboratory for instructional materials in the fields of vocational education.

The four floors of the building are connected by stair wells near the east and the west entrances to the building, and also by an elevator near the front entrance.

At the north side of the building, bounded on one side by East University Avenue and on the other by the parkway, is an outdoor playground measuring approximately 500 by 700 feet, which provides facilities for physical education classes and for intramural sports. On the northeast corner of the playground (1020 South University) is a house at one time used by the University as a dwelling for women students. It was assigned to the School of Education in 1949 to house such personnel and activities of the School of Education as it might serve advantageously. The basement and the first floor of the house were allocated to the University High School as a laboratory for homemaking classes. The basement was converted by the students of the High School into a recreation room.

University Laundry Building

The first University Laundry on campus, built in 1891 and later used as a contagious ward for the Hospital, was finally torn down in 1914. In 1897 what is now the Wood Technology Laboratory was then a part of the Hospital and housed the Laundry. In October, 1900, one may say almost that a new era began for the Laundry when it was voted that it be placed under the charge of the Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds and that all University work be done at the uniform market rate (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 602). In 1908 the sum of $400 was set aside for the purchase of a body ironer. A year later, the Buildings and Grounds Committee requested $850 to replace worn-out machinery. It appeared that this committee was taking its new responsibility seriously, inasmuch as the first request was followed by another for still more machinery to cost between $900 and $1,000 (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 219, 707).

In the meantime, more women were employed in the Laundry, and as early as 1903 they were given a substantial raise in wages. All the workers with the exception of the foreman received an increase of twenty-five cents a day for a ten-hour day (R.P., 1901-6, p. 187).

Page  1737About this time the University also purchased a new mangle and washer for a total of $1,368 (and the old mangle). The need of supplying the Laundry with soft water at once became apparent and was referred to the omnipotent Buildings and Grounds Committee. In June, 1904, the need of having a horse and covered wagon to help make deliveries became apparent and a request to this effect was granted on condition that the price be kept under $250 (R.P., 1901-06, p. 381).

By this time the Board was probably growing a little wary of the Laundry; expenses and upkeep were very high and the possibility of even returns a bit uncertain. In 1912 a decision to the effect that the University Hospital pay for transportation and laundry of state patients had its effects on the business of the Laundry (R.P., 1910-14, p. 467). The following year, on the very last day, there was a fire in the Laundry. An adjustment, however, was reached with the insurance company for some $2,896, and the old Laundry marched on into another year. Fires were seemingly not uncommon in this part of the University for again "on March 22, 1916, at about 5:30 p.m. fire again broke out in the laundry." An attempt to discover the cause brought no results. The damage done to the building cost the University $2,255. A settlement was effected through Mr. Robert Sutton, representing the insurance company, and Shirley W. Smith, Secretary, in the amount of $1,905.

In March, 1917, the Buildings and Grounds Committee was given authority to go ahead with the construction of a Laundry but not to contract without further action of the Board for more than the $20,000 which had been set aside in July. By June there was still talk about the Laundry, so evidently not much had been done about it since the preceding July. Another resolve was made in June, 1917, "that the Auditor-General … set aside out of the Accumulation of Savings Fund, the sum of $15,000 into the fund for the construction of a new Laundry building" (R.P., 1914-17, p. 805).

At last, in November, 1917, Superintendent Flook informed the Regents that the new Laundry had been completed and was ready for their inspection. The report also urged the necessary provision of a water-softening plant. Evidently nothing had been done about this matter although the subject had been discussed fourteen years earlier. The immediate desirability of having an automobile collection and delivery service for the Laundry was also urged. Obviously, the Laundry had increased in importance since the days when a horse and wagon had been humbly requested for deliveries.

The Laundry site cost the University $2,613. Inventory records indicate that on June 30, 1917, the cost of the building was $8,759, but on June 30, 1918, the completed cost was recorded as $34,425. The cost of the equipment for the Laundry amounted to about $7,320.

In 1926 the Board decided to authorize the enlargement of the Laundry at an expense not to exceed $15,000, to be met by University funds. An addition of 6,114 square feet was constructed at a cost of $16,221. In September of that year the Secretary filed a communication stating the circumstances under which he had authorized the addition to the Laundry Building, which was to be two stories in height instead of only one as had been planned. This action was informally approved (R.P., 1926-29, p. 43). It was not until 1930 that the Board directed that towel and laundry service be provided for students in Waterman Gymnasium in accordance with the recommendation of the Board in Control of Athletics, the expense to come from funds already provided in the budget of Waterman Page  1738Gymnasium. Each student was required to make a deposit of fifty cents which was refunded when he returned the last towel given him.

In 1934 the committee authorized the Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds to restore the 1933 wage scale so that each employee would receive an increase of two cents an hour; those who had been employed for five years received an additional one cent an hour. Since approximately 87 per cent of the work was charged to the Hospital, the expense ran to $4,000 a year. This action did not result in an increased budget but did increase the expense of running the Hospital.

Today the Laundry is one of the most modern plants in the country. It operates forty-eight hours a week and employs 170 people. The wash room is equipped with eleven automatic unloading washers, four semi-automatic washers, and six large extractors, six thermostatically controlled tumblers, and four large flat presses with airvent canopies to remove excess humidity. The finish department on the second floor contains fifty-two personal pressing machines, a four-drawer blanket machine, curtain stretchers, and a sewing and mending unit with six sewing machines.

In 1938 a second addition of 21,629 square feet was added on two floors along the south and west sides of the building at an expenditure of $67,684. Over a five-year period, beginning in 1949, practically all the equipment in the Laundry was replaced at a cost of $275,000 including installation by the Plant Department. In 1955 the finish department was air-conditioned for approximately $10,000.

At the present time the Laundry does about twelve tons of work a week which comes from the University Hospital, the Residence Halls, the Michigan Union, the Women's League, and any other department requiring laundry service excepting the Physical Education Department which operates its own laundry.

The first Laundry, a small frame building northwest of Palmer Ward, employed nine women who did all of the work by hand. When the Laundry was moved, in 1897, to the south end of Palmer Ward, it was the first laundry in this area to use steam, a labor-saving device which made possible a reduction of the staff to seven women. In 1900 it was again moved to the west end of the Boiler House, where it remained until it was transferred to its present location in 1917. At that time twenty people were employed in the Laundry. Oliver Aubro served as foreman from 1892 to 1921 and was followed by William V. Skopil, who held the position until 1936, when he was succeeded by Donald A. Callnin, the present Superintendent. In July, 1946, the Laundry, considered a major business department of the University, was given independent status and placed under the direction of W. K. Pierpont, then Assistant Controller. In February, 1951, the Regents established the office of Service Enterprises, and Francis C. Shiel was appointed Manager. The Laundry and several other departments were placed under the supervision of this office.

University Museums Building

By 1917, because of the growth of the several natural history museums it was evident that new quarters would have to be provided if they were to continue to develop. On the basis of estimates made by the University, the legislature of 1925 appropriated $900,000 for a museum building and equipment and in another act provided for the purchase of the necessary land for the site between North Page  1739University and Washtenaw avenues. The appropriation for the building became available in 1927; construction was begun in the same year; and the building was completed in the spring of 1928. Albert Kahn, of Detroit, was the architect; Spence Brothers, of Saginaw, held the general contract; and Randolph A. Wiese designed the equipment. The building cost $724,952 and has a gross floor area of 128,976 square feet.

The Museums of Anthropology, Zoology, and Paleontology and the the University Herbarium are housed in the building. Of these the Museum of Zoology is the largest and most diversified. In planning the building it was necessary to recognize differences in size, the rate of growth and activities, and the needs of the four museums. No attempt was made to provide for any of the other University collections.

The site chosen for the new building — the block bounded by Washtenaw, Geddes, Forest, and North University avenues — is interesting in its topography. Almost level along the Washtenaw Avenue side, it drops off to the east so that the garages in the basement of the north wing are only slightly below the grade of the street, and much of the basement is lighted by windows. The site is large enough to permit expansion of the building to more than twice its dimensions, and, with a change in one street, to three times the size of the part now erected. In addition to the garages, the basement, which extends the full length of the north wing, houses vaults for valuable specimens and volatiles, machine rooms, and a large storeroom.

The general plan for the building was largely determined by a general policy adopted after a study of existing institutions and the relations of a state university museum to science, education, the state, and the university. On the basis of this idea the several directors and curators prepared detailed plans, which the architect, Albert Kahn, used in preparing the final design, completed in December, 1926. The building is a modern adaptation of Renaissance masses and details and is particularly adapted to the expression of the functions of the building. The windows are smaller than in most of the campus buildings and do not exceed the columns in width. The sashes are steel with heavy members.

The building is of buff Bedford limestone and maroon tapestry brick; the first floor, entrance façade, cornices, and spandrels are stone with contrasting brick throughout the body of the structure. The first story and parapet are variegated stone, the other stone being plain. A special feature is the reproduction of heads of pioneer American naturalists in relief on the spandrels between the third and fourth floors, on the entrance façade, and between the pilasters which repeat the entrance motif of each wing. The decorative motifs are principally animals, including mythological ones. The fourth-floor spandrels and stone plinths are ornamented with a series of these designs alternating on the spandrels with a conventional figure. Similar designs are on the carved main door lintel and jambs, on the bronze doors, iron grills, lobby and vestibule ceilings. The main entrance doors are perforated bronze.

On the entrance façade the parapet is continued upward to form an entablature which bears the inscription "University Museums" and Louis Agassiz's admonition: "Go to Nature; take the facts into your own hands; look and see for yourself." Two puma-like figures in black terrazzo, the work of Carleton W. Angell, stand at either side of the main entrance. The plan of the building consists of two wings meeting at an acute angle transected to form the entrance. The difficulty Page  1740of housing the working quarters and the exhibit rooms in the same building was solved by placing them in different wings.

The main entrance, at the corner of North University and Washtenaw avenues, opens into a vestibule and that in turn into a lobby. The lobby, which is two stories in height, with a balcony at the second-story level, opens directly to a broad staircase and the two wings. On the second floor balcony are the general offices, the library, and the map and mailing rooms.

The north wing, which is 298 feet long, contains the working quarters of the Museums of Zoology and Anthropology and the Herbarium. This wing has a northeast exposure and most of the laboratories and research rooms are on the north side. The south side of the north wing is given over to darkened ranges, to work rooms that do not require north light, and to aquarium rooms. The studios, which are on the fourth floor, are illuminated by skylights.

The first floor of the south wing, which is 238 feet long, contains laboratories, offices, ranges, and the preparation rooms of the Museum of Paleontology. Above this floor the south wing is devoted to exhibits. The second-floor exhibit hall is partly a single story and partly two stories in height, the two-story section being at the east end of the wing. The partial third floor and the fourth floor are each a single story in height. The third and fourth floors in this wing are suspended from the roof, thus doing away with columns in the second-floor hall.

The corridors of the north wing and the first floor of the south wing are closed at the lobby entrance by ornamental iron gates, so that the public is diverted to the exhibition halls at each level.

Built on the unit plan, of reinforced concrete with no load-bearing walls, the rooms may be rearranged, enlarged, or reduced in size, with little more expense than would be entailed in moving the equipment and removing or constructing curtain walls. There is but one fixed point — the entrance. From the entrance both wings can be extended to form a large quadrangle without departing from the style of architecture. The end walls, although finished, are temporary, and the structure is otherwise designed to be extended without remodeling.

The building is completely equipped for research, for instruction of graduate students, for public demonstrations, and for the preservation of research materials. To avoid the disadvantages of built-in systems, unit systems were adopted, as far as possible. The several divisions have improved types of laboratory tables and sinks, and each laboratory has gas, electricity, compressed air, and hot and cold water.

In the exhibition space the wall columns, which have been firred out to carry the plumbing, are treated as pilasters, and from these toward the middle of the wing, cases and screens are arranged to form alcoves, separated by a middle aisle eighteen feet wide.

The floors in the exhibition halls are of rubber tile, comfortable benches have been installed, and attractive rest rooms have been provided. In fact everything possible has been done to minimize "museum fatigue."

The large cases are movable and are built in five-foot units, which may be put together with or without division to form cases five, ten, fifteen, or twenty feet in length.

In the vestibule, lobby, and on the main stairs the walls are of polished Italian travertine marble — the floors badger gray and Tripoli pink Tennessee marble in attractive designs, and the ceilings of molded plaster, appropriately Page  1741decorated. The ornamental iron balcony and main stair railings are finished in verd antique and have bronze rails. The floors of the exhibit rooms, the halls, main offices, and library, have a covering of gold-black and black-gold rubber tile. The gates across the corridors of the floors devoted to research are of wrought iron, designed and executed by Mr. Roscoe Wood, and presented by Mr. Otto Hans.

University Observatory

In his inaugural address in December, 1852, President Henry P. Tappan appealed to the people of Michigan to take an interest in and to support the University. At the conclusion of his address Henry N. Walker, a prominent citizen of Detroit, asked the President how he might be of service, and Tappan suggested the raising of funds for an astronomical observatory.

A meeting was held in Detroit on December 29, 1852, for consideration of this project (Part III: The Astronomical Observatories at Ann Arbor). Tappan and others spoke in favor of it, with the result that the sum of $7,000 was raised immediately, the Honorable Henry N. Walker, General Lewis Cass, Henry Porter Baldwin, later Governor of Michigan, and Senator Zachariah Chandler, each subscribing $500, on condition that an additional $10,000 be obtained from other sources within a year. Walker took a leading part in the drive for funds, which eventually amounted to about $15,000, of which he gave $4,000. In honor of the citizens of Detroit, whose initial gifts made it possible, the Observatory was named "Detroit Observatory," and this name was used until 1931. The original building and instruments cost $22,000, of which $7,000 was supplied by the Board of Regents from University funds. Subsequently, the citizens of Ann Arbor contributed $2,500 and those of Detroit $3,000 for needed improvements.

In March, 1853, while President Tappan was in Europe, mainly in the interest of the Observatory, Walker, acting in concurrence with him, made arrangements with George Bird, of New York, to superintend the construction of the Observatory Building. Four acres of land, outside the city, on a hill overlooking the valley of the Huron River, were purchased as a site, at a cost of $100 per acre. The Regents in November, 1853, authorized the purchase of the remainder of the site for the Observatory, which was completed in the summer of 1854.

The building is used entirely by the Department of Astronomy. The central part is 33 feet square, and there are two wings, each 19 by 29 feet. The central part is surmounted by a revolving dome 21 feet in diameter and contains the pier for the 12-inch refractor. The east wing was designed for the meridian circle instrument and the west wing for a library and an office for the director.

A residence for the Director, added at the west side of this building in 1868, was considerably enlarged and improved in 1905-6. It connected with the Observatory through the library. What is now the principal building of the Observatory was begun in 1908 and completed in the following year, with the exception of such parts of the dome as could not be finished until the large reflecting telescope was installed. It joins the meridian circle room of the old original Observatory on the east in the same manner that the residence joined the library on the west, and has a frontage of 44 feet on the north, and is 112 feet from north to south. It ends at the south in a circular wall, 43 feet high, which supports the dome of the large reflecting telescope. The building has two stories and a basement, which is practically above the level Page  1742of the ground. On the main floor are the offices of the Director and Secretary, a classroom, clockroom, vault, and entrance and main halls. On the second floor are four offices and a darkroom. The basement contains rooms for laboratory, offices, and shop.

The dome for the reflecting telescope is 40 feet in diameter and has a slit eight and a half feet in width, which extends from the horizon of the instrument to a point two feet beyond the zenith. The base plate is made of heavy castings, carefully planed and fitted, and rigidly bolted together, to form a complete circle. The dome is covered with heavy copper plate, which is fastened directly to the steel frame. A double shutter closes the slit. It is opened and closed by an endless rope passing over a sheave, connected with the gears and cables which form the shutter-operating mechanism. The two halves of the shutter open and close simultaneously, and move parallel to each other.

The dome was constructed and erected by the Russell Wheel and Foundry Company of Detroit. This company, however, did not take care of the wheel work nor provide the guide rolls and the mechanism for turning the dome and for opening and closing the shutters. This was done by the Observatory instrument makers.

For the present main building and instruments, the Regents appropriated $15,000 in June, 1906, and an additional $25,000 later. This is the sum of two or more additional appropriations at unspecified dates previous to completion of the 37 ½-inch reflector in 1911, including a part of the cost of the telescope itself, as well as of the building. Much of the cost of the 37 ½-inch reflector does not appear as such, since it was in the form of labor, paid for in the salaries of the instrument-maker, H. J. Colliau, and his assistants.

No major alterations have been made either to the old Observatory or to the newer part (now the main building). The residence of the Director was completely renovated in 1946, when it was divided into three apartments. From 1868 until 1942 the Director's residence was tenanted by the incumbent Director and his family. After the death of Director Heber D. Curtis, in 1942, the residence was used from the autumn of 1942 to late 1946 as a dormitory for women. The division into three apartments followed. After 1946, the Director and members of the Department of Astronomy lived in the apartments. As staff members and Director successively moved to other residences, however, the apartments vacated were occupied by members of other departments. In 1954, when the extension of Couzens Hall was begun, the Observatory residence was torn down.

The original building contains the 12-inch refracting telescope and the meridian circle instrument, which have been continuously in operation since their installation in the 1850's.

The new part of the building contains the 37 ½-inch reflecting telescope, continuously in operation since its installation in 1911. Originally, a set of seismographs occupied a room in the basement. These instruments have been transferred to the Department of Geology.

(Old) University Press Building

Through action of the Regents in February, 1930, publication activities of the University were combined in one organization to be known as the University of Michigan Press. In April, 1931, a generous alumnus, Dexter M. Ferry, Jr., offered the University the two-story fireproof building at 311 Maynard Street. He said:

I understand that the publications of the Page  1743University have been organized under the name of "University of Michigan Press." It has been my thought for some time that these activities of the University have been greatly handicapped for lack of adequate facilities and unification, thereby not permitting it to keep pace with the possibilities of output of a university with the standing of the University of Michigan. It is my hope by this gift that not only may the present output be more satisfactorily handled but that the additional facilities and centralization may be an encouragement to further output, better quality and expansion of the University of Michigan Press idea.

(R.P., 1929-32, p. 607.)

The Regents promptly adopted the following resolution:

Resolved, That this Board accept with profound gratitude Mr. Ferry's generous gift, with the conviction that he has rendered to the University of Michigan a distinguished service in a field in which assistance is highly desirable and especially welcome …

(R.P., 1929-32, p. 608.)

The building had been erected in 1907 by Harry McClure, who was owner until 1931. It is 52 by 132 feet in dimension and was considered strong enough to carry an additional floor. One of the first buildings in Ann Arbor with reinforced concrete piers, it had for twenty-four years withstood the weight successively of a garage, a bowling alley, a miniature golf course, and the heavy machinery of a broaching factory and of a gasoline gauge plant.

It was remodeled under the direction of Professor Lewis M. Gram, for which purpose Mr. Ferry contributed an additional $5,000.

Early in 1932 the Printing Office was separated from the Binding Department and moved into the first floor of the University Press Building. The Printing Office was then and has continued to be a service enterprise for the University as a whole, producing a wide range of printed material for all units. The first Superintendent of Printing was Gustave Dicks, who supervised its activities until late 1934. Miss Edna Mulholland, Assistant Superintendent, then took over its management until June, 1935, when its present Manager, Edward E. Lofberg ('30), was appointed.

Coincidental with the expansion of printing facilities, book production under the aegis of the University Press was increasing rapidly. Sales of University publications were being handled in various places and a decision was reached in 1938 to centralize all of them. Stocks of all books and other publications were moved into the second floor of the University Press Building, and a mailing room was equipped for packaging orders. The manager of the Printing Office was charged additionally with operational activities of this new distribution center and with organization of a sales office for mail orders and direct purchases of University Press and departmental publications.

Both departments, the Printing Office and the Sales Office of the University Press, have expanded with the growth of the University, taxing to the limit the capacity of the once-ample quarters so generously provided by Mr. Ferry.

From 1931 to 1945, the offices on the second floor were used for various editorial purposes, including the editing of the Journal of Health and Physical Education and the Research Quarterly. From 1945 until 1956 the offices were occupied by the Official and Museums publications of the University Press. The building was sold in 1955 and plans were made for a new University Press Building on Maynard Street and for a new Printing Office building on the north campus.

University Storehouse and Shops

For years divisions of the Buildings and Grounds Department had maintained Page  1744shops in various parts of the campus. In April, 1912, the Board of Regents approved the construction of a storehouse and shops to cost approximately $25,000, an estimate that was increased later to $35,000. This first building was completed in 1914 at the corner of North University and Forest avenues. It was designed and built by the University Department of Buildings and Grounds and provided 4,670 square feet of floor space. It furnished accommodations for the office of the superintendent as well as for all of the divisions of the Buildings and Grounds Department, with the exception of the Laundry and the Power Plant. A part of the building was used for stock supplies, including an ample amount of materials for maintenance and new construction, as well as janitor and hospital supplies.

This first building soon proved inadequate for the operation of the department and for the storage and handling of materials, and provision was made for the construction of a building to be used specifically as a Storehouse Office Building and as a Storehouse and Shops addition. This was completed in 1922, at an estimated cost of $120,000.

The front or street-level part of the building (actually the second floor) contains an area of 31,417 square feet, while the shop addition to the rear and on the ground floor represents another area of 39,867 square feet. In all, 71,284 square feet of additional floor space were thus provided, and although the building was only three stories high, it was designed for expansion when more space became necessary. The Buildings and Grounds Department served as architect and contractor for the original building and also for the additions.

University Terrace

University Terrace, consisting of twelve buildings for married student veterans and their families, has a total of 276 furnished apartments. The first building was occupied on September 16, 1946, and ten of the remaining buildings were completed at various dates throughout the fiscal year, the last one in July, 1947.

The financing of the twelve apartment buildings was placed on a long-term basis separate from the term bank loan at first contemplated. For this purpose, in April, 1947, a new bond issue in the amount of $2,225,000 payable out of the net operating income of the University Terrace buildings was marketed (R.P., 1945-48, pp. 761-81).

The site, to the east of University Hospital and the School of Public Health, commands a view of the Huron River Valley. The buildings, of brick on cinder-block construction, although similar in design, are not identical in size or elevation. Most of the apartments are "zerobedroom" — that is, they consist of an extra-large living room with a sofa which can be converted to a bed, a dining area, a kitchenette, and a bath. Some of the apartments, however, have separate bedrooms. The furnishings, which are provided by the University, include a gas refrigerator, a four-burner gas stove with oven, dining table and chairs, sofa, desk, end tables, coffee table, and floor and table lamps. The furniture is bleached maple, and the walls are buff sand-finish plaster. The floors are asphalt tile, specially treated, and each kitchen has an exhaust fan.

The architect was Charles Noble, and the contractor, the George A. Fuller Company, of New York City, who did the work on a cost-plus-fee basis.

The policy by which assignment of students was made to the apartments was established by the Board of Governors of Residence Halls in conference with veterans and their representatives. Priority is given to full-time students who are veterans and residents of Michigan under the Regents' interpretation. Page  1745Each apartment is leased for a period of one year, with privilege of renewal for a second year. Because of the housing shortage the apartments may also be rented by married veterans on the University faculty.

On the new north campus, directly north of the Mortimer E. Cooley Engineering building in the area bordering on Plymouth Road, other apartments for married students and faculty are now under construction. The first apartments in this project were occupied in September, 1955. This development was constructed at a cost of $894,000 by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., Washington, D. C. It contains twelve two-bedroom, forty-eight one-bedroom, and forty bedroom and living room combined apartments. More units are now under construction.

Utility Services

The development of the heating, electric power and lighting, gas, and water systems of the University has been closely allied to the physical plant expansion and to the advancements in accepted practices in the field of the various utilities. From time to time the various systems have been extended, modernized, or rebuilt as conditions warranted, and every effort has been made to have them conform to the standard practices of the day.

In general, the development of the heating plant may be divided into three periods, that of heating the individual buildings by means of stoves, that of the development of small independent heating plants to service groups of buildings, and that covering the development of a central heating plant and distribution system.

The development of the lighting system may also be divided into stages: first, the period when oil lamps were the sole means of illumination; second, the era when the University had a gaslighting system; third, the period when the change was being made from gas lighting to direct-current electrical illumination; and fourth, the time of the transfer to alternating-current electrical illumination and a system, cross connected between the University and the local utility company, to provide for a maximum of service with the least possible interruption.

The water supply system has also developed through three distinct periods: first, the period of individual wells and pumps; second, that of a University owned and operated central supply system; and third, that of the abandonment of the individual system in favor of the central water distribution system of the city of Ann Arbor.

Heating. — The first University structures erected in 1840 and those added to the physical plant up to the year 1879 were heated by the then universal means of wood-burning stoves. In 1879 two heating plants were installed, and steam became the medium for heating the buildings. One of these heating units was erected just northeast of University Hall, and the other was housed in a lean-to addition built at the east end of the Chemical Laboratory, later known as the Pharmacology Building. The first of these two units provided for the heating of the Law Building, University Hall, the Library, the Museum, the Dental Building, and the Homeopathic Hospital. These structures formed a compact group of buildings in the west and north sections of the campus. The second unit provided for the heating of the Chemical Laboratory and the Medical Building in the eastern part of the campus.

With these first heating plants came the beginning of a central heating distribution system. The various buildings were connected to the heating plants by steam mains and return lines buried Page  1746underground and were insulated by log coverings, isolated from the hot pipes by cast-iron spreaders.

A third heating plant was constructed in 1883-84 to care for heating of buildings in the southeast section of the campus. This unit provided heat for the Engineering Building (one of the professor's houses of 1840 which had been enlarged and remodeled), the Engineering Shops, and the Physical Laboratory. Soon after the erection of this unit, the heating plant at the Chemical Laboratory was abandoned, and the Chemical Laboratory and the Medical Building were connected with this unit.

The Homeopathic Hospital was moved from the campus in 1891 to new quarters on Catherine Street. This was the beginning of a hospital group remote from the campus proper, and a heating plant was established to serve the first building and subsequent additions. The Hospital unit expanded rapidly and by 1897 the plant, which had become incorporated in the original structure, was abandoned for a larger, independent heating plant known as the Hospital Boiler House. This Boiler House and equipment were expanded at various times as new building loads were added.

By 1894 the number of buildings on the campus had so increased that it became necessary either to build additional plants or to abandon those then in service for one central plant and distribution system. The latter plan seemed best and the structure known as the campus Boiler House and an underground heating tunnel system were built. This unit, at the site of the heating plant constructed in 1883-84, necessitated a complete enlargement of the old unit, the construction of a heating tunnel system, and the erection of a new 125-foot brick chimney.

The tunnel system consisted of approximately 2,400 feet of horseshoe-shaped brick tunnel, 6 feet 10 inches high and 5 feet 6 inches wide, in which heating mains were installed to service all the campus buildings. Two new 150-brake horsepower water-tube boilers were provided, and these were augmented by boilers removed from the heating plant at the University Hall and later by those from the plant at the Chemical Laboratory.

This, the first central heating plant, was destined to serve the University for a period of twenty years. Many changes and additions to equipment had to be made in an effort to keep the plant abreast of the demands of the rapidly expanding physical plant. Auxiliary steel stacks were built at one time to serve those boilers remote from the chimney and to increase their output. Many other expediencies, such as the installation of heat control on radiators and the weather-stripping of windows, were introduced throughout the University buildings in an effort to keep them properly heated.

By 1911 it had become evident that drastic changes were required in the heating system. Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, a Detroit firm of architects and engineers, was commissioned to study the problem and to prepare plans for an adequate central heating plant. As a result of these studies, construction of the present Washington Street Heating Plant and its system of distribution tunnels began in 1912. The project was completed in 1914, and the new unit served all University buildings, with the exception of the Hospitals, until 1924.

The site selected for the plant was in the valley, popularly known as the "Cat Hole," leading from the northeast part of the campus to the Huron River. This location, between Huron and Washington streets and also between the campus and the hospitals, was of such elevation that heating tunnels servicing the two Page  1747areas could be set at grades to permit the return of condensate to the plant by gravity flow. This location also permitted the installation of a spur railroad with an electrically driven locomotive, which provided an economical means of hauling coal from the Michigan Central Railroad to the storage pile adjacent to the heating plant.

The heating plant was a steel framed, reinforced concrete and brick structure containing 1,202,000 cubic feet of space and providing more room than was actually necessary, in order to take care of future expansion. The original installation consisted of eight 400-brake horsepower vertical-tube boilers fired by stokers and equipped with modern safety and operating devices. The operating room of the plant contained an air compressor, boiler feed water heaters, direct-current generators, and a 500-kilowatt, Corliss-driven, alternating-current generator to which, within a short period of time, was added domestic water-heating and softening equipment, so that hot softened water could be supplied to the boilers and to all University buildings.

An electrical and heating substation was erected over the original brick heating tunnel on the campus proper. This substation was connected with the Washington Street Heating Plant by a reinforced concrete tunnel 8 feet wide, 10 feet high, and 900 feet long. It carried steam, hot water, and return mains together with concrete-enclosed vitreous ducts to house electrical distribution cables.

The Washington Street Heating Plant, with subsequent improvements and additions of equipment, served the University until 1924. During this ten-year period two 500-brake horsepower, vertical-tube boilers were added, and the electrical generating equipment was expanded by the addition of two steam turbine generators, one of 600 kilowatts and the other of 1,200 kilowatts.

The early 1920's saw a rapid expansion in the University's physical plant. During this period, approximately 25,000,000 cubic feet of building space were added, and this made it necessary to increase the heating plant facilities. In 1924 an addition was constructed extending the building 136 feet and adding 598,000 cubic feet of space. A new 250-foot radial brick chimney was erected, and the coal storage site adjacent to the plant was enlarged. This improvement consisted of the construction of a concrete enclosed and lined basin capable of holding 40,000 tons of coal. Two 1,000-brake horsepower, horizontal-tube boilers and increased equipment were provided for water softening and heating.

Much concrete heating tunnel was added to the distribution system at this time. Aside from connecting links to the sites of the new buildings, 1,920 feet of heating tunnel, extending from the campus Substation along East University Avenue to South University Avenue and west to Alumni Memorial Hall, and 2,000 feet of similar tunnel, between the heating plant and University Hospital, were constructed. The completion of this expansion program saw all major University buildings, including the University Hospital, connected with the central heating plant.

From 1923 to 1935, as the number of University buildings increased, the heating plant, as remodeled in 1923-24, was expanded by the installation of additional boilers, a 1,022-brake horsepower, Sterling-type boiler in 1929, and a similar unit in 1930-31. The original eight 400-horsepower units were discarded.

The PWA-University building program of 1939, which added 8,443,000 cubic feet of building space to the physical Page  1748plant, required further heating facilities. A new 1,505-brake horsepower, three-drum, Sterling-type boiler was purchased at this time and a general modernization took place. The operating pressures of the boilers were changed from 150 pounds to 200 pounds, and a 1,100 cubic foot per minute, electrically driven air compressor and a 4,000-kilowatt steam turbine electrical generator were acquired. The change in operating pressure made the two 500-horsepower boilers installed in 1919 obsolete, and they were removed from the line.

The heating plant in 1943 housed two 1,000-, two 1,022-, and one 1,505-brake horsepower boilers or a total of 5,549 rated boiler horsepower. These boilers are capable of being operated at rates varying from 150 to 300 per cent of their rated capacity, thus making a maximum total of 13,625-brake horsepower available for the steam loads of the University. This equipment not only heats 81,500,000 cubic feet of building space, but provides power for electrical generation during the heating seasons, heats all domestic hot water, and provides for laboratory and kitchen steam loads as required in the various buildings. In 1948 a 300,000 pound-per-hour steam generating unit was installed.

The central Heating Plant was connected in 1954 with 115 buildings by means of approximately four and three-fourths miles of tunnels and more than three-fourths of a mile of secondary heating lines to smaller structures. In 1953-54 the Heating Plant burned 107,337,508 pounds of coal and generated 1,158,193,130 pounds of steam.

Electric power and lighting. — The University buildings, between the years 1840 to 1867, were illuminated by individual kerosene lamps. A local artificial gas company was established in 1867, and at that time the University buildings were piped for gas illumination. This method served until 1897 when the first electrical generating units were installed in the campus Boiler House. Two direct-current, 75-kilowatt, 220-volt generators, driven by Ridgeway engines, together with distribution lines, were provided. Buildings were also wired at this time. This service was expanded in 1901 by the addition of a 300-kilowatt, engine-driven generator of similar design.

Developments in electrical power and lighting during the early years of the century were so rapid that, like the heating system, the facilities were soon overtaxed. In planning for the Washington Street Heating Plant, ample provisions were made to alleviate this condition. The plant, as equipped, contained a 500-kilowatt, alternating-current, Corliss-driven generator with foundations complete for two additional units. This unit operated at 2,300 volts and served the campus buildings through primary cables installed in a duct system in the tunnel leading from the heating plant to the campus Substation. From this point, power was distributed to the various buildings. In addition to the new alternating-current generator, two 150-kilowatt, 250-volt, direct-current motor generator sets were installed to furnish direct-current service to various campus buildings, laboratories, and equipment.

In 1917 a 300-kilowatt turbogenerator was installed to provide additional electrical energy. This unit was replaced shortly thereafter by a 600-kilowatt unit. The building program of the early 1920's called for additional electrical loads, and in 1924 a 1,250-kilowatt turbogenerator was bought.

The design of the turbogenerators was such that they were operated under a discharge pressure, the steam going directly into the heating mains. In 1925 arrangements were made with the Detroit Page  1749Edison Company which resulted in the construction of a switch house and transformer station interconnecting the University's generating capacity with that of the Detroit Edison Company. Since then electrical energy has been developed in proportion to the demands of the heating loads — the University delivering electrical energy to the Edison Company during the heating season and taking energy from the company when the heating load is reduced to a point below the electrical demands.

The 500-kilowatt, Corliss-driven generator, installed in 1914, was replaced in 1930 by a 2,500 kilowatt turbogenerator, the change making possible not only a greater generating capacity but also an increase in exhaust steam for heating purposes.

In 1939 the University's physical plant was extended, and the generating capacity of the heating plant was increased to compensate for this growth. A 4,000-kilowatt turbogenerator was installed. With this unit the four turbogenerators had a total generating capacity of 8,350 kilowatts.

The electrical distribution system originally installed in the heating tunnels was changed because of the effect of excessive heat on the cable insulation and the carrying capacity of the copper. The present distribution system is a series of concrete and fiber underground raceways, carrying primary distribution cables from the Heating Plant to various University buildings where they terminate in underground transformer vaults from which secondary service is supplied to the buildings.

In 1953-54 the plant generated 25,473,226 kilowatts of electricity, purchased 14,965,400 kilowatts, and used 36,813,846 kilowatts.

Water. — During the early history of the University, the problem of a water supply was critical. The location of the campus on one of the higher sections of the city, together with the pervious nature of the underlying earth strata, made it all but impossible to obtain water by means of wells. When steam became the means of heating, a source of water became more urgent. Several means to obtain it were evolved. Large cisterns were constructed at various points on the campus into which rain water from neighboring roofs was conducted. Water for boiler purposes was then pumped from the cisterns.

Another early method of providing water consisted of piping spring water from natural springs near the site of the present Stadium to a receiving well near the intersection of Hill and South State streets. From this point it was pumped to the campus. This supply was meager owing to the distance that the water had to be conveyed through the small wooden pipes then used and the very small differential of elevation between the source and the outlet.

In 1885 the city of Ann Arbor gave a private company a franchise covering a water works system. The University has since obtained its supply from this utility. The city of Ann Arbor purchased the system in 1914, and it has been operated by the municipality since that time.

Water service to the various University buildings has been taken from the nearest adequate supply mains and is individually metered at the buildings. The only exception to individual building or building group service is the supply of hot water. Hot water for all University buildings is furnished through the Washington Street Heating Plant and distributed in University-owned mains in the heating tunnels.

The principal source of water for the municipal system is from wells which produce relatively hard water. Provisions were made at the heating plant to soften the raw water for use in the Page  1750boilers and in the domestic hot water system. When the municipal system built a softening and filtering plant in 1938, the need for softening all hot water at the heating plant was eliminated. Water direct from the city's mains is now heated for domestic supply, and only that used for boilers is softened to a further degree.

Water for fire protection for University buildings was provided by two services — one by hydrants connected to the city's distribution mains and the other by a University-owned high-pressure fire system which was installed in 1914. This latter system was connected at various points with the city's distribution system by check valves. Owing to cross-connection features this arrangement was discontinued. The University's high pressure mains are now leased to the city for use as distribution mains, and the high pressure pumping equipment has been removed.

West Engineering Annex (The Old Automotive Engineering Laboratory)

Hardly had the first Engineering Building been completed when it was found that "the public [was] so thoroughly awakened to the need of men well trained to guide our great mechanical industries" that a new mechanical laboratory was required (R.P., 1881-86, p. 494). Plans for the new building were authorized by the Regents in June, 1885. In August of the same year the Committee on Buildings and Grounds reported that Gordon W. Lloyd, architect, had furnished the design for the laboratory and that J. L. Gearing and Sons was the lowest bidder at $9,387 (R.P., 1881-86, pp. 581-82).

The new building, of slow-burning mill construction with brick walls and timbered floors, was occupied in 1886. Three stories and an attic in height, it towered over the original building to which it was connected. The north doorway of this structure bore the inscription "Engineering Laboratory" with the date, 1885. Almost immediately, however, it was found necessary to enlarge this building by removing the original building and the carpenter shop. The Catalogue of the University for 1887-88 states:

The increasing demand for practical instruction in the engineering departments has made it necessary again to extend the facilities of this Laboratory. The new building, completed in 1886, has been enlarged by the addition of two wings, which nearly double its former capacity. The Laboratory now contains about 20,000 square feet of floor space.

The completed building — central part with tower and the west-wing one-story foundry room — was under contract to be finished by January 1, 1888; it contained offices, classrooms, drawing rooms, and laboratories. In the tower at a height of 70 feet was a water tank of 100 barrels capacity.

In the summer of 1900 the contract for the erection and completion (except plumbing) of another addition to the Engineering Laboratory was made with Henry Carew and Company, of Detroit, with the understanding that the work should be completed by October, 1900.

At this time both the east wing and west wing of the Engineering Laboratory were extended to the south, continuing the same design and the original red brick with sandstone trim. When the old Library was torn down the clock tower and the chimes were moved "to the Engineering Building, now the Automotive Laboratory." In 1942 these bells were donated to the World War II metal scrap drive.

The completed structure afforded 42,204 Page  1751square feet of floor space and was used continuously by the Engineering College, first as shops and then as classrooms, drawing rooms, automotive laboratory, and engineering research laboratories until razed in 1956.

West Engineering Building

"The Engineering Department, which is receiving this year a third more students than it had last year, must have more room at once," according to President Angell's report in October, 1901. On November 26, the Regents authorized a new engineering building to cost $100,000. In March, 1902, the Regents accepted plans and specifications prepared by Mason and Kahn, of Detroit, and authorized a contract not to exceed $120,000, which was awarded in June, 1902, to Charles Hoertz and Son, of Grand Rapids. The figure was $140,000, including provision for a tile roof.

Apparently, there was difficulty with the contract. In December the Regents voted "to put steel beams, ten feet apart, over ship tank in the new Engineering Building to carry the cement floors." In March, 1903, bids for the heating and plumbing were referred to the Building Committee with power to act, and in May it was decided to fireproof the entire roof at an additional cost of $2,127. In July, 1903, the building was still far from completed, and the Regents served notice on the contractor that "unless they proceed[ed] with the prompt completion of their contract, the Board of Regents [would] take into its own hands the completion of the building and charge the contractors with the expenses thereof."

The building was finally completed in September, 1904, at a total cost of $275,000, in addition to equipment estimated at $26,700. It was known from 1904 to 1923 as the New Engineering Building. It is of fireproof steel and reinforced concrete construction, with outer walls of brick and stone, with a gross floor area of 94,318 square feet.

The central pavilion, 57 feet wide at the front, faces the corner, its archway spanning the main diagonal walk at the southeast corner of the campus. In 1914, a bronze tablet, in memory of Professor Charles Simeon Denison, was placed inside this arch, known as the Denison Arch. Suggestion of the arch "had its origin in the fact that when the New Engineering Building was under construction, it was a serious problem how to dispose of the building without interfering with the diagonal walk … Professor Denison prepared a sketch showing the diagonal walk passing through the building. This was turned over to the architect and the idea was incorporated in the plans." The wing facing South University Avenue extends westerly 134 feet and is 64 feet wide. The east wing, facing East University Avenue, originally extended 224 feet and is 61 feet wide. The central pavilion and these two wings constitute the main part of the building and are four stories high. In addition, there was a 61-foot square extension to the west at the north end of the east wing, and a one-story extension 25 feet wide and 100 feet long to the north to provide adequate length for the Naval Tank on the first floor of the east side of this wing. The tank was later extended to 360 feet long, 22 feet wide, and 9 ½ feet deep.

In 1904 the ground floor of the entire south wing was devoted to laboratory work in electrical engineering, mainly direct current and alternating current machinery, with a separate laboratory for experimental work in telegraph and telephone. Directly above on the second and third floors of the south wing, provision was made for work in civil engineering.

Page  1752The east side of the east wing contains the Naval Tank, the first to be constructed in a university in this country. Steel rails at the sides of the tank form a track for an electrically driven traveler which may be run at different speeds towing ship models of various lengths and forms. A dynamometer mounted on the traveler measures the resistance developed by the model. On the west side of the east wing, on the ground floor, are the physical and cement testing laboratories. The west extension of the east wing houses the steam and hydraulics laboratories; a boiler room at the north was used for student work with high pressure steam.

A staircase at either side of the entrance from the archway leads to the upper floors. Directly over the arch, on the second floor, is West Engineering Library, 30 by 53 feet, with paneled ceiling and walls and arched alcoves. The library is equipped with two large fireplaces which add to the attractiveness of the room. The offices of the dean and secretary, adjacent to the library, also have fireplaces. The second floor was mainly classrooms and offices, except for the Mechanical Laboratory directly over the steam and hydraulic laboratory.

Mechanical design rooms and Engineering Mechanics occupied the third floor of the east wing. The work in naval architecture was also on the third floor, and a mold loft was provided for the naval architects above the Mechanical Laboratory on the third floor of the center wing. Engineering Drawing and Architecture occupied the fourth floor.

This new structure became seriously overcrowded almost immediately and plans for an addition were approved in July, 1908.

The addition constructed in 1909-10 extended the east wing along East University Avenue, providing a four-story structure the entire length of the Naval Tank, now 360 feet in length, with a four-story north wing extending westward at the north end. The architect was Albert Kahn and the contract was awarded to Koch Brothers of Ann Arbor for $73,063.

Occupied in 1910, this addition added approximately 63,000 square feet to the total structure, which was designated the West Engineering Building in 1923, when the East Engineering Building was under construction.

To meet the critical need for space at this time, the one-story wooden buildings erected for hospital wards on the north side of the campus, and later used by the Dental College, were moved near the north end of the New Engineering Building, for use, in part, by the Surveying Department. In 1919 this group of old buildings was removed, and the Department of Surveying was housed in various other buildings, including the Library, until 1928, when the department was moved into the rooms formerly occupied by the College of Architecture in the south wing of the West Engineering Building and the Engineering Laboratory of 1885, known as the Annex. The new north wing housed on the first floor the electrical laboratories which were moved from the south wing. The offices of the dean and secretary were moved from over the arch, adjacent to the library, to the northern end of the addition on the second floor. The third floor included a lecture room, seating approximately 350 students. The fourth floor was devoted to the Architectural Department and class and drawing rooms.

Upon completion of the East Engineering Building in 1923, Highway Engineering was transferred to the East Engineering Building, and automotive engineering occupied space vacated by the Shops on the first floor of the West Engineering Annex constructed in 1885. The upper floors of the Annex, connected to the West Engineering Building by an Page  1753enclosed bridge at the second-floor level, were taken over as drafting rooms for architecture until the College of Architecture moved into its own new building in 1927. At that time the Department of Geodesy and Surveying moved into the south wing of the West Engineering Building, and Engineering Drawing took over the space vacated by Architecture.

When the addition to the East Engineering Building was completed in 1947, Electrical Engineering was transferred to that building, and the space vacated at the north end of the east wing of the West Engineering Building provided for Sanitary Engineering and Hydraulic Laboratories and an extension of the Naval Tank. Offices for the staff in Mathematics were provided on the second floor, and Civil Engineering expanded into the area formerly occupied by Mathematics on the third floor. In 1953 Engineering Mechanics offices moved from the fourth floor to the second floor of the south wing, and Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering were provided with offices and a large drawing room on the fourth floor in the room originally occupied by the College of Architecture; the old mold loft on the third floor was converted into a storage room for the Engineering Library. In 1955 an elevator was installed at the north side of the Mechanical Laboratory, and an appropriation was made to modernize the electric power supply to the standard 110-volt system.

West Hall

In November of 1901 the Regents appropriated $16,000 for the purchase from the city of Ann Arbor of the old First Ward school building, which afterward was known as West Hall. This simple brick edifice, built in 1862-63, stood on State Street, very near the site where Betsy Barbour House was later erected. University Hall, which housed the classrooms of the Literary College, had become so overcrowded that immediate expansion was necessary, and to relieve this situation additional classrooms were made available in West Hall. Although it furnished only 9,824 square feet of floor space, West Hall accommodated classes in English, modern languages, and forestry. Later, the Department of Rhetoric of the Literary College was the sole tenant. Professor Fred Newton Scott's seminar room, with its famous round table, was situated on the second floor of this building.

In 1923, the Buildings and Grounds Department razed West Hall, behind which Betsy Barbour House had just been erected. The President's Report for 1922-23 stated:

[West Hall] was never planned for the use to which it was put and of course has never been suited to it. Even its venerable age has not brought it qualities such as to endear it to students and staff. Its creaking, splintered floors, its steep narrow staircases, its small rooms, its lack of office space, are all things of which its occupants are glad to be rid. It goes without saying that West Hall was a fire-trap.

West Medical Building

"The erection of this building is a debt handed down from the nineteenth century which we are trying to pay at the threshold of the twentieth: the erection of a home for the Department of Medicine and Surgery of this University… It represents the fulfillment of a long cherished wish, the final relief of long felt wants, the realization, partly at least, of plans entertained for years and prospects opening for a bright future" (Mich. Alum., 8: 197-205).

So spoke the Honorable Hermann Kiefer, Regent of the University and Page  1754chairman of the committee on the Department of Medicine and Surgery, at the laying of the corner stone of the West Medical Building on October 15, 1901.

The building is situated on the east side of the campus, just north of the original Medical Building. Spier and Rohns were the architects, and Koch Brothers were in charge of the erection of the building, the total cost of which was $167,000. It was first occupied in 1903. The building is rectangular, measuring 175 by 145 feet, with an inner court 75 by 45 feet which admits light to all parts of the building. The structure consists of a basement and three stories. The exterior is treated in the Renaissance style of architecture. The basement and first story are faced with dressed field stone, laid in course. The upper stories are of pressed brick of light buff color and mottled, with ornamental and molded brick for belt courses, arches and cornices. The two main ornamental entrances are on the east and west sides and are constructed of Bedford limestone. The vestibules are faced with dark red pressed brick. The interior of walls and nearly all partitions are finished with stock brick and coated with enamel paint. The floors and corridors throughout the building are of quarter-sawed Georgia pine, except in the case of the anatomical laboratories which have monolithic water-tight floors. The ceilings throughout are of wood. The general finish of the interior is of Louisiana red cypress.

The building was originally occupied by the departments of Anatomy, Histology, Pathology, Bacteriology, Physiological Chemistry, and Hygiene. In addition to the spacious laboratories of these departments, the building contained two large amphitheaters, two large recitation rooms, and a suite of rooms for executive purposes. Space was also provided for the anatomical and pathological museums. The building in 1955 houses the offices of the Medical School and the laboratories of the departments of Pathology and of Physiological Chemistry.

West Physics Building

The growth of the University in the years subsequent to the Civil War and the demand for special training in physics, particularly for students of engineering and medicine, made imperative a new physics building, which was authorized by the Regents in July, 1887, with an appropriation of $30,000 for the construction. At the October, 1887, meeting of the Regents the Committee on Buildings and Grounds reported that they had accepted the design of the architects, Pond and Pond, of Chicago, who had consulted with Professor Henry Smith Carhart and Dr. Victor C. Vaughan concerning the general room arrangement and the interior conveniences of the building. The contract for the construction was awarded to Daniel J. Ross for $26,973.99. The building, the third floor of which was to be used as a Hygienic Laboratory under the supervision of Dr. Vaughan, was completed in 1888. Out of the original appropriation an unexpended balance of $176.93 remained at the time of completion, which was used to purchase appliances for the Hygienic Laboratory.

On the completion of the West Medical Building in 1903, the Hygienic Laboratory was moved into the new quarters, leaving much needed room for further development of the Department of Physics. Even this expansion was found insufficient, however, and in 1905 another addition was made. Pond and Pond were the architects for the addition as well as for the main building. Koch Brothers of Ann Arbor were awarded the contract for the sum of $23,000 (R.P., 1901-6, p. 514). When completed it cost about $35,000.

Page  1755The Physics Building, which is of red brick, is 56 by 192 feet, comprises 18,497 square feet of floor area and is valued, exclusive of equipment, at $64,269. It is on the south side of the main campus, next to the Engineering Annex, between the General Library and the Clements Library. Included in the 1905 addition was a well-equipped lecture room accommodating 400 students, long used, until the erection of later buildings, as the one available, medium-sized auditorium on the campus. From about 1910 until 1925 the West Lecture Room was used for the daily summer session lectures under the charge of Dean Kraus.

At the present time the building provides space for the lectures, recitations, and laboratory classes in general physics and for two offices. There is also storage space for demonstration and laboratory apparatus; the physics instrument shop and the glassblower are also in this building.

Wood Technology Laboratory

In 1897 the Board of Regents authorized the Committee on Buildings and Grounds "to procure plans for enlarging the steam heating plant at the Hospitals so as to provide a dining room, laundry, and dormitories for the nurses in the Training School, at a cost not exceeding $10,000." The building, which was situated north of the other hospital buildings on Catherine Street, was used for this purpose for a number of years. A section of it was used for twenty years (1897-1917) as a laundry; later, the building became a clinical laboratory. Eventually, however, when the old hospitals were connected with the central heating plant of the University, this heating and power plant was abandoned, and in 1928 it was decided to remodel the west side of it as a wood utilization laboratory for the use of the School of Forestry and Conservation (R.P., 1926-29, p. 442). The sum of $8,300 was set aside for special repairs and alterations.

These changes included installation of a lumber-drying kiln provided with the necessary instruments and apparatus, a fully equipped wood-preserving plant designed to operate at pressures up to 200 pounds to the square inch, additional machinery and equipment for study of the mechanical and physical properties of woods and of the bonding of wood with adhesives, and improved facilities for the study of the structure of woods, with special reference to properties and industrial uses. The floor area occupied by the kiln and wood-preserving plant is approximately 40 by 70 feet, and there is ample working space around the units.

Since 1945 the building has undergone considerable remodeling, and there have been extensive additions of equipment. Total floor space now available is 15,400 square feet. The east end of the building was rehabilitated in 1946, and space provided for a finishing laboratory, a wood-machining laboratory, and for storage. New equipment for these two laboratories included a spray booth and accessory equipment and a complete assortment of power woodworking machines, namely, a planer, band saw, router, shaper, jointer, sanding machines, circular saws, borers, and drill press.

Alterations to the west end of the building in 1953-54 resulted in space for wood chemistry and in better facilities for work in wood anatomy, physical and mechanical properties of wood, and gluing. The major pieces of equipment in the gluing laboratory consist of two hot presses, a high frequency machine, a refrigerator for storing glues, a glue spreader and a cold press, together with appropriate testing equipment, while in the timber mechanics laboratory are two 60,000-pound universal testing machines, one mechanically and one hydraulically Page  1756operated, a toughness testing machine and various strain measuring devices and instruments. A weighing room is adjacent to the gluing and timber testing laboratories. Three large controlled temperature-relative humidity rooms, constructed in 1950, are in the basement.

The wood preservation laboratory contains two pressure cylinders and accessory working tank and pressure equipment. In addition, there is specially designed equipment for vacuum treating. The dry kiln, in the same laboratory, was remodeled in 1951 by the Standard Dry Kiln Company and is now of up-to-date design.

Additional remodeling in 1955 provided a fourth large, walk-in humidity room in the basement. At that time, an area 24 by 48 feet on the ground floor at the east end of the building, which formerly served as a garage, was incorporated into the laboratory. Metal-working and maintenance equipment including precision grinders, boring equipment, a lathe, and a milling machine are now housed in this area.