RESIDENCES FOR WOMEN
Adelia Cheever House
Adelia Cheever House, formerly at 516 E. Madison Avenue, was the fifth women's residence to be donated to the University. The gift was the culmination of years of hospitality offered to students by Judge Noah Wood Cheever ('63, '65l) and Mrs. Adelia Cheever who had occupied the residence since 1879.
After the death of Judge Cheever in 1905 the property was given to Miss Pamela Noble, a sister of Mrs. Cheever. Upon her death it was conveyed to the University to be used as a residence for women.
In June of the same year the sum of $7,000 was appropriated for repairs and alterations, and an additional $7,500 was set aside for furnishings. The house was opened in September, 1921, and was operated on a co-operative basis.
In December of the same year Professor E. C. Goddard offered, on behalf of himself and "certain other alumni" to purchase the lot adjoining on the east, and to provide thereon a cottage for additional dormitory facilities. The rentals from this cottage would, he felt, in time pay for the erection of the cottage after which they would serve to establish scholarships or loan funds for University women. It was the intent of Professor Goddard and his associates that the building and land should in due course be deeded to the University if the plan worked out according to expectations.
Instead of building the cottage, in March, 1922, Professor Goddard asked the Regents to donate the building at 619 Haven Avenue, acquired by the University when they secured the site for the University High School Building. The Board agreed to this proposal and ordered that the house be removed to the lot adjacent to the Adelia Cheever House on condition that all expenses of removal would be borne by others than the University and that no change would be made in the original proposal other than that those who were giving the University the lot and the additional quarters for women students should have the benefit, for the project, of the dwelling itself (R.P., 1920-23, p. 408).
Adelia Cheever House provided for twenty-five girls and Pamela Noble Cottage for twelve. The two buildings, of frame construction, set well back from the street, were surrounded by a wide lawn. In the basement was a recreation room, the gift of Professor and Mrs. Goddard in 1930.
The house and cottage, along with other houses in this block, were razed in 1949 to clear the site for South Quadrangle. Page 1712The name was perpetuated, however, when the home of Walter C. Mack was bought by the University in January, 1947, for $55,000 and designated as the new Adelia Cheever House. Only minor changes were necessary to make the residence ready; girls moved into it in the fall of 1949.
This new house, of brick, is situated well back from the street and has a beautifully landscaped lawn. The first floor includes a large living room, dining room, kitchen, and the director's suite. Twenty-nine girls are housed on the two upper floors; there is also a large dormitory which is used for sleeping. The basement contains a large recreation room.
Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall
A new women's residence hall, later named for Alice Crocker Lloyd ('16), was opened for occupancy at the beginning of 1949. The building, which now houses more than five hundred girls, had not yet been completed so that only 284 students could be accommodated at that time. Women living temporarily in Victor Vaughan House and those living at Willow Run were given priority in selecting residents for the dormitory.
In April, 1945, the Regents appointed a committee to study the necessity of new residence halls for women, and in May of the same year this committee was authorized to develop a plan for financing the construction of a new women's unit to be situated between the Observatory and Mosher-Jordan Halls. These plans were approved in October with authorization to borrow the necessary funds (R.P., 1945-48, pp. 59-60).
Although ground was broken on March 11, 1946, the building was not completed until June, 1949. Delays in receiving material because of nationwide building programs retarded construction, and, to ensure housing for returning veterans, materials and supplies were directed toward the other projects under the contract. There was also a shortage of labor at that time.
Clare Ditchy, of Detroit, was the architect, and Knoll Associates, of New York City, were responsible for the interior decoration and the design of the furniture. The contractor was the George A. Fuller Company, of New York City. The cost of construction was $2,984,357.
Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall is modern in design, six stories in height, with a flat roof, and is constructed of red brick with limestone trim. The building is comprised of four different houses, interconnected, each having its own lounge, birch wainscoted dining room, typing cubicles, laundry facilities, music room, and study hall. All meals served in the four dining rooms, however, are prepared in the spacious kitchen which occupies the first floor of the building. The street-level second floor is devoted to the lobby, the house directors' suites, individual house lounges, and the main lounge, which has a marble fireplace and library. Rest rooms, cloakrooms, and a mammoth telephone switchboard, which services the three residence halls on Observatory Street, are also on this floor. Elevators and ample bathroom facilities have been provided.
The student rooms are furnished with blond birch furniture, and draperies of a solid color, either red, yellow, or blue, frame spacious windows and contrast with the light gray of the walls. Occupants furnish hangings, bedspreads, and rugs. The four separate house lounges were decorated in yellow and brown, black and gold, brown and green, and red and gray, while the main lounge was multi-colored.
In the beginning one of the four houses was restricted to graduate students. In 1953, because of the increasing Page 1713number of undergraduate women, it was necessary to remove this restriction, and the capacity of the residence hall was increased to 572. This was accomplished by assigning students to rooms designed for staff and by remodeling some single rooms and a few double rooms. The work was carried out by the Henry deKoning Company, of Ann Arbor.
The four units, or houses, were named Sarah Caswell Angell, Alice Freeman Palmer, Mary Louisa Hinsdale, and Caroline Hubbard Kleinstueck, to honor four women who were prominent in the history of the University: Sarah Caswell Angell, the wife of James B. Angell, President of the University from 1871 to 1909, was particularly interested in student welfare and was one of the founders of the Women's League. Alice Freeman Palmer ('76), one of the first women students to receive a degree from the University, was president of Wellesley College, served on the Massachusetts Board of Education, and was the first Dean of Women at the University of Chicago (1892-95). Caroline Hubbard Kleinstueck ('75, M.A. '76), a resident of Kalamazoo and the first woman to receive a master's degree from the University, was a leader in woman suffrage and in Michigan alumnae projects and a generous contributor to the building of the Michigan League and to other University enterprises. Mary Louisa Hinsdale (Adelbert '85, A.M. Michigan '90, Ph.D. '12), a native of Ann Arbor, gained recognition in the field of education after completing her studies at the University. She served as a teacher and educational administrator in Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan schools and, later, became a lecturer in American history and government in Grand Rapids Junior College.
The following memorial announcing the death of Dean Lloyd on March 3, 1950, appeared in the Regents' Proceedings for March, 1950:
The death of Alice Crocker Lloyd, on March 3, 1950, terminated a supremely useful and exemplary life which had been dedicated with unquestioning devotion to the welfare of the women students of the University of Michigan. For four years Miss Lloyd was one of the group of Advisers of Women Students, and since 1930 she had occupied the highly responsible and important office of Dean of Women. A native of Ann Arbor, brought up in one of its most honored homes, and having shared the experiences of student life on our campus as a member of the Class of 1916, she came into the service of the University with a knowledge of its ideals and a sympathetic insight into the difficulties faced by its students in solving their academic and personal problems. Her mature wisdom and her quiet graciousness made her a well-nigh perfect counselor for our young women, who found in her a friend upon whose constancy they could rely and whose nobility of character they could admire and emulate. The Regents of the University of Michigan acknowledge the great loss suffered by the institution through her untimely death, and share with Dean Lloyd's family and with her countless friends the sorrow occasioned by her loss.
(R.P., 1948-51, p. 787.)
In March, 1950, the Regents received a statement from the Board of Governors of Residence Halls, memorializing the work of Dean Lloyd as a member of that Board from its inception until her death on March 3, 1950, and confirmed the following resolution:
"Resolved, That the Board of Governors of Residence Halls recommend to the Regents for their consideration that the late Dean Lloyd be honored and memorialized by naming the new women's residence Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall" (R.P., 1948-51, p. 786).
The name of Alice Crocker Lloyd became a permanent part of the University at the formal dedication ceremonies of Lloyd Hall in Hinsdale Lounge on Page 1714December 3, 1950. President Ruthven spoke in behalf of the University, and Regent Vera B. Baits reviewed Dean Lloyd's career and contribution to the women of the University of Michigan. The memorial gifts included a portrait bust of Dean Lloyd, a memorial library, a special bookplate, and a silver tea service, purchased by the student residents of the hall of the class of 1950.
The purchase of Alumnae House was a part of the larger movement toward residence halls which took form in an active campaign for funds by the Women's League. In 1914 the Detroit Association of University of Michigan Women launched a campaign to raise money for a women's residence hall at the University and the Women's League requested that the Detroit Association take over their fund begun for this purpose and raise the balance. It was hoped to reach a goal of $50,000.
Claire Mabel Sanders ('04), whose untiring efforts in the first drive to raise funds for Alumnae House were largely responsible for the success of the venture, was the first campaign manager.
At the time of World War I the Detroit Association voted to discontinue the campaign and recommended that the funds collected be used to purchase a house in Ann Arbor which could be organized on a co-operative basis, to aid self-supporting girls. As a result, in 1917, the house at 1227 Washtenaw, the former home of Professor Jacob Reighard, was purchased for $5,600, $2,000 to be paid down, the balance to be carried as a mortgage at 6 per cent interest. The property was deeded to the Regents under these conditions. The Detroit Association assumed the responsibility of meeting the interest on the mortgage and of paying it when due. It was first occupied by students in September, 1917, and the name Alumnae House was made official in January, 1918.
The extension of Forest Avenue in 1926 required removal of Alumnae House, and the girls living there were moved to the adjoining residence at 1219 Washtenaw, of historical interest as the former home of the late Judge Harriman. The building was renovated as a home for the sixteen residents, and the grounds were attractively landscaped. In 1944 the house was renamed the Mary Markley House.
The cost of the building was $16,000; the site, $27,523; and the equipment, $7,673, a total of $51,196. This property was to be used "definitely and permanently for the purposes of a residence hall for women," and it was stated that should the Alumni Association ever desire to erect a larger dormitory on the site they would be at liberty to do so. (For further history of the house see Mary Markley House.)
Betsy Barbour House
In 1917 the University announced a gift from the Honorable Levi L. Barbour ('63, '65l), for many years a Regent of the University, of $100,000 and several parcels of land, to be used for the construction of a dormitory for women in memory of his mother:
Whereas, The Hon. Levi L. Barbour, of Detroit, Michigan, a former member of this Board, has again evidenced his great interest in the University of Michigan and his abundant generosity in providing for its welfare, and has proposed to give to it the sum of one hundred thousand dollars … for the establishment and maintenance of a women's residential hall,
Now, Therefore, Be it Resolved, That the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan does hereby accept, with gratitude, Page 1715the gift of the Hon. Levi L. Barbour, of Detroit, Michigan, of the sum of $100,000, consisting of money obligations and securities, that the Treasurer of the University be authorized and directed to take over said securities when they have been duly assigned and transferred to the Board, and to attend to the collection of all moneys which are due, or may become due thereon, and that the proceeds be used for the purpose of constructing, furnishing, and equipping, upon property owned or to be acquired by the Board of Regents of the University, a residential hall for women, which shall be known as "Betsy Barbour House"; and that the administration of the affairs of said residence be delegated by this Board to a board of governors consisting of five women, two of whom shall reside in Ann Arbor, and two of whom shall reside in the City of Detroit or elsewhere outside Ann Arbor; two of whom shall be appointed by this Board for two years and two for four years, and every two years thereafter two members shall be appointed for four years from names to be submitted by members of said board of governors. The fifth member of said board shall be the Dean of Women of the University, ex officio.
(R.P., 1914-17, p. 783-84.)
Later, lots in Detroit were given to the University by Mr. Barbour and sold as agreed for $5,000 to provide additional funds for the completion of the dormitory.
Regent Barbour had traveled extensively before World War I, and in his travels he came in contact with two brilliant Chinese girls whom he brought back with him and sent to the University to be educated. One of these girls developed tuberculosis and died. Mr. Barbour investigated living conditions on campus and found them decidedly inferior. It became his dream to build an ideal dormitory, and he immediately made plans for the construction of such a building.
Albert Kahn, of Detroit, was selected as the architect. Because of the war, however, it was decided, in February, 1918, to postpone the construction of the dormitory. It was not until August, 1919, that a contract for $80,700 was signed with the W. E. Wood Company, of Detroit, providing only for the enclosed structure and not for its completion.
The building was finally completed and opened for the use of University women in October, 1920. By that time Mr. Barbour was too ill to make the trip from Detroit, and he never saw the dormitory actually occupied, but it was dedicated to his mother, and he took great pains to see that her favorite antique rocker was placed in the small reception room on the first floor.
The Regents' Proceedings for March, 1921, announced:
The Secretary filed a report detailing the cost of the erection and furnishing of the Betsy Barbour House in accordance with the agreement with former Regent Levi L. Barbour … [showing] the cost of the building as $167,568.95 and the furnishings as $42,171.16, total $215,340.11. Against these expenditures were total proceeds from Mr. Barbour's gifts applicable to the purpose, of $178,635.40 and the sum of $20,000 appropriated by the Regents on February 20, 1920.
(R.P., 1920-23, p. 163.)
Betsy Barbour House is situated next to Helen Newberry Residence on State Street, across from Angell Hall. It is constructed of light red brick with white trim and is distinguished by a glass-enclosed porch along the eastern end. The main floor is devoted chiefly to large living rooms with smaller connecting lounges, a dining hall, and offices, in addition to several student rooms. The upper floors are devoted entirely to student rooms.
The reception rooms on the first floor contain many pieces of furniture from Regent Barbour's old home in Detroit. He also bequeathed a valuable library and many paintings and objects of art Page 1716collected by him on his many travels, in addition to pictures and certain gifts for the girls' rooms.
Interior decoration and equipment of kitchens were planned by Mrs. J. R. Effinger and Mrs. Julius Schlotterbeck in co-operation with Dean Jordan and Miss Eleanor Sheldon, the first director of Betsy Barbour House.
Betsy Barbour House provided living accommodations for eighty-one girls in sixty-nine single and six double rooms. The need of additional housing for women made it necessary to increase the capacity of the house by 1954 so that 116 girls were accommodated in the building. In 1953 the large single rooms were made into double rooms. The remodeling resulted in thirty-two single and forty-two double rooms which were refurnished in 1953-54.
Fletcher Hall, originally a men's dormitory on Sybil Street near the Intramural Sports Building, was erected in 1922-23 by a group of alumni, organized under Michigan state laws as the Dormitories Corporation. The group intended to finance a series of such dormitories, but the plan was never realized. One-half of the common stock in the corporation was to be held by the Alumni Association, thus giving it practical control of the building, and the first subscriptions were obtained with this understanding. Because the directors of the Association, however, were unwilling to assume this responsibility, an alumni committee was accordingly elected to serve as trustees of the building. Stock amounting to some $120,000 was sold.
Fletcher Hall was named in honor of the Honorable Frank W. Fletcher ('75e), who had been for many years a Regent of the University. The building, which has a floor area of 18,123 square feet, accommodated 124 students in double rooms. The corporation paid $5,800 for the site and spent approximately $115,000 on construction.
Difficulties in the management of the building developed almost from the beginning. The rooms proved too small for two students and the site of the building, which was some distance from the campus, combined with a lack of proper supervision, led to serious problems in social administration. It was also found necessary to lower the price scale until eventually a room could be had for as little as $2.50 a week.
In part as a result of this lowered income and in part because of the depression of the early 1930's the corporation eventually found itself unable to pay the bonds as they fell due. As a result of these financial and administrative difficulties the University in 1933 was practically forced to take over the building, which was acquired at a receivers' sale for less than $13,000, the University paying the back taxes and minor expenses of receivership.
Since that time, the management of the building has rested with the University. It was also found desirable to convert all rooms to singles and reduce the number of residents to fifty-eight, less than half the number which the original corporation had planned to accommodate. Extensive repairs were also necessary when the building became the property of the University. These included a complete renovation of the building and the construction of a suite of rooms for a director. The area in the basement originally used for a kitchen and dining room was made over into a lounge, recreation room, and a laundry. Separate contracts were let to replace all linoleum floors and to install weather stripping and fly screens at windows. By 1944 it became necessary to replace the plumbing lines and while that work was Page 1717being carried on the shower rooms and toilet facilities were remodeled and modernized. The work was done by the Plant Department. Between 1933 and 1940 all of the original furniture was replaced and built-in wardrobes replaced the freestanding old wooden wardrobes.
To complete the physical changes in the building, a major job of rehabilitation was undertaken in the summer of 1954. In an effort to provide more housing within the existing residence halls system a plan was worked out to convert the single rooms of Fletcher Hall into suites for three students, thereby increasing the capacity to eighty. In each pair of adjacent single rooms the door to the corridor from one was walled up and a door installed between the two rooms. Closet space was built into the inner room which became the bedroom, and the outer room was used for study. The toilet facilities were also expanded and a small kitchen, for the preparation of light meals, was constructed in a part of the recreation room. This work was accomplished by the Henry deKoning Company of Ann Arbor at an expense of $97,657. At the same time new furniture costing $16,132 was obtained for all the new suites. The valuation of Fletcher Hall as shown in June 30, 1955, was $130,226, and furnishings were valued at $28,928.
Fletcher Hall has provided low-cost housing from the time it was acquired by the University. Men occupied the building until the summer of 1943 when trainees of Armed Forces were quartered there for a period of one year. Men students returned to Fletcher Hall in the fall of 1944 and continued to use the building until the fall of 1954, when it was assigned to women because of the scarcity of women's housing. In planning for the rehabilitation of Fletcher Hall the use of the building was given prime consideration so that with a minimum of alterations it could be used for either men or women.
The Delta Zeta House at 1824 Geddes Avenue was purchased in May, 1953, by the University for use as a women's co-operative house, similar to Adelia Cheever and Henderson houses. The Delta Zeta Sorority, whose financial condition prevented its continuance on the campus, offered the house for sale to the University. It was purchased for $54,000 including the furnishings. Approximately $5,000 was spent on miscellaneous decorating and remodeling the kitchen to make it ready for the fall of 1953.
Prior to ownership by the Delta Zeta Sorority the residence, built by Alfred E. Jennings, a mining engineer, had been used for some years as a men's rooming house. The house is a three-story brick structure with a commodious and pleasant living room on the first floor and a large entrance hall with an open staircase leading to the second-floor balcony. The house director has a suite on the first floor. The dining room and kitchen are in the basement, and the upper two floors accommodate twenty-six girls.
Helen Newberry Residence
In the summer of 1913 the University received from Mrs. Henry N. Joy, Truman H. Newberry, and John S. Newberry a gift of $75,000 for the erection of a residence hall in memory of their mother, Helen Handy (Mrs. John S.) Newberry (R.P., 1910-14, p. 751). The money was given with the understanding that although the property would belong to the Student Christian Association, the hall would be built and administered by the University.
The following letter was written by Page 1718Shirley W. Smith, Secretary of the University, to Judge Lane on June 26, 1913:
My dear Judge Lane:
I take pleasure in giving you formal notice that at the meeting of the Regents held June 24th, the Regents accepted with gratitude the proposal of the Newberry Estate to furnish $75,000 for the erection of a women's dormitory under the conditions named in your communication to the Board…
The building site fronted on Maynard Street touching the northwest corner of the lot on which Newberry Hall stands, and directly west of land owned by the University, fronting on State Street. In March, 1914, the Regents granted permission for the use of a strip of land not to exceed fifteen feet, out of the University's lot just mentioned, and the dormitory, as built, stands upon this land to that extent. In March, 1915, the trustees of the Student Christian Association proposed to deed Newberry Residence to the University, to be operated as a residence hall for women, with the attached condition that the net income from its operation, after paying operating expenses and upkeep, should be paid to the Student Christian Association for the maintenance of its work for the women of the University. The deed, filed with the Regents in June, 1915 (R.P., 1914-17, pp. 186-88) set forth these conditions and provided that a breach of them would entitle the Student Christian Association to a reconveyance of the property. Thus, the University held title to a building built partly on its own land and partly on land acquired for the dormitory, the profits from the operation of which were to be paid over to the Student Christian Association. Such a set of conditions with the best of good will on both sides could not help but give rise to misunderstanding.
Newberry Residence was operated by the University from the summer of 1915, and after the first year heat and electricity were furnished. In the meantime Newberry Hall was used less and less for Student Christian Association purposes, and in 1921 it was rented to the University to provide classrooms. Lane Hall had been built and was the center of most of the Student Christian Association activities. Negotiations were opened in December, 1921, with a proposal by the trustees of the Student Christian Association to sell Newberry Hall to the University. In June, 1922, the Secretary was directed to take steps to see that the terms of the gift of the Residence were complied with as from the date of the gift, and the Regents declared that they could not, in view of the state of the University's funds, accept a proposal made by the Student Christian Association for settling the matter.
In the spring of 1924 (R.P., 1923-26, pp. 196, 219) a new committee was authorized to conclude negotiations. The agreement provided for payment of $25,000 on or before June 30, 1925, with interest, by the University, in return for which the University received full ownership of Newberry Residence, and the Student Christian Association relinquished entirely its interest in the earnings of the building. The University also received a strip of land one rod wide, of considerable value, running along the south side of its land on State Street in front of Newberry residence; this strip also bounds the Newberry Hall lot on the north.
Kahn and Wilby, of Detroit, were the architects for the residence, and the C. H. Christman Co., of Lansing, was given the general contract. The total cost of the building and land, in addition to approximately $12,000 for furnishings, amounted to $75,000.
The residence accommodated seventy-nine girls until the middle 1940's, and Page 1719more women were housed each year until by 1954 the number was 118. In 1953 some of the rooms were remodeled to care for the additional numbers. The work was done by the Henry deKoning Company, of Ann Arbor, for $27,966. New furnishings were purchased for the rooms at a cost of $6,643.
Helen Newberry Residence, which is across the street from Angell Hall, faces State Street but is separated from it by landscaped lawn. It comprises four floors and a basement and has a floor area of 29,166 square feet. The building, of hollow tile construction, is semifireproof and has a white stucco exterior. The entrance was originally at the center of the building, and a reception room and a lounge were at either side of the hallway which led to the dining room. These rooms were arranged so that the doors could be opened for receptions and dances. In 1934, when the building was remodeled, the main entrance was moved to the north side opposite the central staircase, and a sun porch was constructed across the front of the building. The guest room at the right of the new entrance was taken over by the assistant to the director in 1950. The office across the hall serves as a post office and contains a switchboard for Helen Newberry Residence and Betsy Barbour House. The first floor also contains a director's suite, an office, two student rooms, the dining room, and an open porch on the south sometimes used for sun-bathing. A well-arranged serving kitchen and a suite for the dietitian are at the rear of the building.
In the basement are the kitchen, a staff dining room, the laundry, a storage room, a recreation room, and two suites for staff members. The building has twenty-five single rooms, forty-five double rooms, and one triple room on the second, third, and fourth floors. A new elevator was installed in 1937. In 1940 new fixtures were provided, and tile walls and floors were laid.
Madelon Louisa Stockwell Hall
The building expansion plans of the University gained impetus in September, 1938, when announcement was made of a grant by the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works (PWA), making possible a new $1,000,000 dormitory for women. The offer "in the amount of 45 per cent of the cost of the project upon completion …, but not to exceed in any event, the sum of $450,000," was formally accepted by the Regents on October 18, 1938 (R.P., 1936-39, p. 714). The University's share was obtained through the sale of revenue bonds, which were retired over a period of years by the net earnings of the dormitory.
The new residence hall, a continuation of the development of housing for women begun eight years earlier in 1930 with the building of Mosher-Jordan Halls, was erected at the corner of North University Avenue and Observatory Street, between Mosher-Jordan Halls and the Women's Athletic Building. The construction of the building was reported to have been through the efforts of Regents John D. Lynch and Edward C. Shields. The residence forms a rightangle L, with wings extending approximately 250 feet along each of the two streets.
C. William Palmer, of Detroit, was appointed as architect, and Walbridge Aldinger Company, a Detroit firm, was awarded the construction contract in February, 1939.
Madelon Louisa Stockwell Hall, opened in February, 1940, is named in tribute to Mrs. Charles K. Turner, née Madelon Louisa Stockwell (Albion '62, Michigan '72, A.M. hon. ibid. '12), the first woman to be admitted to the University. Page 1720Miss Stockwell came to the University to pursue advanced work in Greek, and Elizabeth Farrand (History of the University of Michigan) says of her, "It is gratifying that the first woman who entered the institution as a student was fitted in every way to satisfy the expectations of the friends of the new movement, and allay the fears of such as had looked upon it with alarm." Mrs. Turner died June 7, 1924, in Kalamazoo at the age of seventy-nine years. At her death the University received a bequest of $10,000, to be used for the education "of three or more women students.'"
Architecturally considered, Stockwell Hall bears its necessary mass well. The building is five stories in height and is constructed of brick with limestone and timber trim. By use of angles and planes in its roof and outer wall construction, monotony has been avoided, and a harmonious combination of materials has been achieved. Two steeply peaked roof sections in each wing flank the central façade of the main entrance, which faces the exact corner of the two streets at an angle to the two wings. Within the right angle formed by the wings is one of Stockwell Hall's intrinsically unique features — a semicircular section two stories in height in which on the ground or first floor are the two dining rooms, each with its own serving room, and the kitchen, laundry, an area for storing luggage, and two corridors of student rooms.
The immense lounge on the second floor directly above the dining area joins the two wings of the building. Through the ample windows of this section, residents dining or enjoying the comforts of the lounge have a fine view of Palmer Field and the city below. The roof over the lounge, enclosed by a parapet wall, provides an excellent place for sunbathing. The second floor also houses the main offices and a corridor of student rooms in each wing. At one end of the lounge is a well-stocked library and at the other end, a recreation room. There is also a sun room in each wing on the first and second floors and at the center of the building on the third, fourth, and fifth floors. Kitchenettes, in which girls may prepare light lunches and do their pressing, are also provided. There are two elevators.
The lounge is furnished with blue carpeting and a grand piano and has two large fireplaces. The furniture is of Duncan Phyfe, Chippendale, and Queen Anne periods. The student rooms are furnished with a desk, a desk chair, a desk lamp, a dresser with mirror, and a bed for each occupant. Each room also has one easy chair and a floor lamp.
In 1954 Stockwell Hall provided accommodations for 426 women in single, double, and triple rooms. The completion of half of the fifth floor, which was not provided for in the original plans, increased the capacity, and some single rooms were converted into doubles, and a few double rooms were made into triples. The work was done by the Henry deKoning Company, of Ann Arbor, at an expenditure of $16,912.
At the time of World War II labor shortages made it necessary to close the kitchen in Mosher-Jordan Halls. Because the Stockwell Hall kitchen required less labor to operate, approximately 800 girls had their meals served to them, cafeteria style, at Stockwell Hall from September, 1943, until June, 1946.
Martha Cook Building
The Martha Cook Building was erected as a residence for women in 1915 as the result of a gift from William Wilson Cook ('80) in honor of his mother, Martha Walford Cook. As early as 1911 Mr. Cook had already made the University Page 1721a gift of $10,000 toward a proposed residence for undergraduate women (R.P., 1910-14, p. 96). In his letter of presentation to the Regents, on February 10, 1914, Mr. Cook wrote:
In memory of my mother, Martha Cook, I will build a Women's Dormitory Building for the use of women exclusively … on land now owned by you, on condition that the occupants shall have sole and exclusive charge of its income, expenses and management (subject to the approval of a woman or board of women appointed by the Regents); and, on the further condition that the University shall at times hereafter furnish heat, light and power for the building free of charge, and shall not derive any income from such building; and on the further condition that so much of the surplus income or profit from the building shall be used by the occupants for furniture, furnishings, works of art and improvements in or to the building as they deem best, and the remainder, if any, at the end of each year shall be set aside as a fund to be used in the following year to give lower or free rates in the building to such under-graduates or post-graduates as the President of the University and the Dean of Women may designate from time to time.
The deed of gift was signed in February, 1914, and the building was occupied with the opening of the school year in the fall of 1915. In selecting residents emphasis has always been on scholarship and campus leadership.
The land, occupying almost a block between Tappan and South University avenues, was purchased by the University, in March, 1913, but the beautiful garden which lies to the east is a further evidence of Mr. Cook's foresight and generosity. The Condon home, facing on South University Avenue, formerly occupied this site, and the family had an attractive and extensive garden thoroughly enjoyed by the residents of the Martha Cook Building. Mr. Cook obtained the deed to the property in 1917 and presented it as a gift to the University in 1918 with the understanding that the University would maintain it for the use of Martha Cook students and their friends. When the house was vacated in 1921, it was removed, and, under the supervision of Mr. Samuel Parsons, of New York City, the entire property was replanted as a garden. The magnolia trees and the rare Japanese locust (Cladrastis lutea) were left where they stood in the Condon garden. The cement terrace which extends along the east side of the building overlooks the garden. The natural teakwood tables, chairs, and benches with which it is equipped were a special gift from Mr. Cook in the spring of 1916. To the south of the building is the tennis court, completed in June, 1918. It was laid out on property purchased by Mr. Cook for this purpose in 1917.
York and Sawyer, architects, of New York City, designed the dormitory, and the Fuller Construction Company, also of New York, was in charge of its erection. The building cost $260,000 and has a floor area of 63,234 square feet. The informal dedication of the building took place in November, 1915.
Architecturally, the Martha Cook Building is reminiscent of late English Gothic and early Renaissance periods. The exterior with its pointed arches, traceried windows, deep buttresses, and battlemented roof of slate and copper is pure English domestic Gothic, inspired by the best work at Cambridge and Oxford. The red brick with its special cross bond, and the limestone window facings are admirably suited to the architectural design. The Gothic entrance with the niche as a central feature is particularly beautiful. The statue of Portia was an added gift in June, 1918.
The style of the interior varies from Tudor Gothic to Early Renaissance, and the details of the furnishings extend to Page 1722Jacobean or later periods. The variety has been blended into an effective whole.
Upon entering the vestibule, one sees first a beautiful Tudor Gothic pierced screen. The entrance lobby, with its oak panels and molded ceiling of the Elizabethan period, opens into a long, cloistered corridor, with floor of marble and red flagged paving, high oak paneled walls of the Tudor period, and majestic, groined, Gothic ceiling — white ribs against blue vaulting. At the far end of this gallery is the statue of the Venus de Milo, a replica of the original.
To the right of the entrance are the offices, and opposite are an apartment for the Director and a guest room. Beyond is the reception room known as the Red Room, furnished in crimson and gold. This room, which measures 18 by 39 feet, has a vaulted ceiling and plaster frieze reproduced from a sixteenth-century English manor house. The ceiling design is an interesting combination of the English rose and French fleur-de-lis, known as "wagon head ceiling." The woodwork is in butternut, and the moldings and general details are reproduced from measured drawings of antique woodwork. The hangings are of red damask and the furniture of the Jacobean period. The room has an open fireplace of Botticino marble. Beyond the reception room is the living room, called the Blue Room because the University colors of blue and gold predominate. It measures 30 by 56 feet and has elaborately carved paneling of Burma teakwood and a plaster ceiling, a replica of one in Sir Paul Pindar's House at Bishopgate, which now forms a part of the collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum at South Kensington. At either end of the room is a fireplace with a stone facing in the form of a Gothic arch. The handsomely carved and inlaid arched head panelings of the mantels form an impressive background for the bust of Mr. Cook, which was placed there as a memorial to the donor, following his death. The furnishings of the room include three blue and gold oriental rugs and upholstered furniture of Jacobean design. Farther along the main corridor is the dining hall, paneled in oak and with beamed firred ceiling of fifteenth-century design. The stone mantel has an arched opening, and the motto of the building is carved in the stone. The small round dining tables are of oak. Beyond the dining room are the serving rooms and quarters for the staff.
A mezzanine floor at either end of the building provides space for seven or eight student rooms. Most of the students, however, are accommodated on the second and third floors, with an additional fifteen on the fourth floor. The student rooms, for the most part, are single and arranged in suites with a few double rooms. Each room is equipped with a full-length mirror, dresser, desk, chair, and a tea table of gumwood. The furniture is finished a light brown. A small guest wing on the fourth floor, in addition to a guest room on the first floor, affords provision for visitors. Each floor is provided with telephone, shower room, and a kitchenette, and the fourth floor has a storage room for extra clothing.
The building is essentially the same today as when it was built, with the exception of the kitchen, in which equipment has been modernized. The plumbing system has been renovated within the last four years. Care was taken to see that the bathrooms, with their white tile, marble walls, and original imported china fixtures, were preserved. This work was done by the Plant Department at a cost of $68,900.
Mary Bartron Henderson House
Financing of a co-operative dormitory for women, "modeled somewhat on Page 1723the lines of … Alumnae House" was adopted as its major Alumni Ten-Year Program project by the Alumnae Council on October 16, 1937.
It was proposed that the new dormitory be named the Mary Bartron Henderson Memorial House in memory of Mary Bartron Henderson, director of the campaign committee which made possible the erection and opening years of management of the Michigan League, and for many years a leader in alumnae circles (see Part VIII: The Michigan League).
Before her death Mrs. Henderson had made a special investigation of the possibility of additional co-operative housing for women, where through cooperative effort and self-help, the student's living costs could be reduced to a minimum. Her work in this field as well as her outstanding contribution toward the erection of the Michigan League prompted the naming of the new residence for her.
In January, 1938, the Regents approved and enacted the following request signed by Mrs. Lucile B. Conger, Executive Director of the Alumnae Council:
At the October meeting of the Alumnae Council it was unanimously voted to raise funds for the building of a co-operative house for women students… to be a memorial to Mrs. Mary B. Henderson. The Council therefore requests of the Regents permission to open with the University treasurer an account which shall be known as the Henderson Memorial Fund, and in which shall be deposited all gifts sent to the Council for this purpose.
(R.P., 1936-39, p. 435.)
By 1945 the alumnae had accumulated the sum of $45,880, invested in bonds. It had been intended originally that the project would provide for the construction of a new building. In 1944-45, however, as the alumnae and the University continued to plan for the residence, it was realized that increasing building costs made it advisable to buy a well-constructed house which would lend itself advantageously to remodeling on a functional basis. Accordingly, upon the recommendation of the Council, the former home of Dean G. Carl Huber at the corner of Hill Street and Olivia Avenue was purchased.
The site originally selected and approved by the Regents was adjacent to Mosher-Jordan Halls to the north. Under the revised University plans for the immediate construction of new housing units, however, it was decided to use this land for the new women's residence hall. When the Regents designated this site for the dormitory they agreed to provide the alumnae with another site for the Mary Bartron Henderson House. As a result the University participated in the purchase to the extent of $12,500. The total price paid for house and lot amounted to $27,500.
The expansion contemplated could not be accomplished at the time the house was bought, but in order to assist the University in the housing shortage, Henderson House was opened on a temporary basis in the fall of 1945, with fifteen girls instead of the expected twenty-five. A house director was also in residence. Slight remodeling took place at the time the house was acquired.
In 1946 the architectural firm of Colvin and Heller of Ann Arbor was employed to draw up plans for remodeling the house, and $600 was paid for its work. The first plans were not carried out, and in 1950 a new contract with the firm, then changed to Colvin and Robinson, was entered into. The R. E. Davis Construction Company, of Ann Arbor, was awarded the construction contract in the amount of $72,810. The remodeling provided a suite on the first floor for the director. Alterations on the second floor, and an addition to the third floor resulted in space for twenty-nine girls in fourteen rooms. The kitchen and the Page 1724dining area on the first floor were modernized and enlarged.
When Mary Markley House was closed in 1950, in addition to contributing $20,000 to the remodeling fund, Mary Markley House gave furniture, dishes, silverware, linens, and books from the Mary Markley library for the future Alice Crocker Lloyd Library. The alumnae of the University in 1950 established a goal of $10,000 to provide funds for a library and study-room addition to Henderson House in memory of Alice Crocker Lloyd.
In December, 1953, the Regents, on the recommendation of the Board of Governors of Mary Bartron Henderson Memorial House, changed the name to Mary Bartron Henderson House.
Mary Markley House
In May, 1944, on request of the Alumnae Council, the designation of the dormitory previously known as Alumnae House was changed to Mary Markley House in honor of Mary Elizabeth Butler Markley ('92), one of the first women to graduate from the University and widow of Joseph L. Markley, who was for many years chairman of the Department of Mathematics. Mrs. Markley had always taken an active part in alumnae affairs and even in her eighties continued to be interested in the house.
Mary Markley House faced many difficulties at the time of World War II. It was too small to be operated efficiently, and by 1950, although maintenance and repair had been kept to a minimum, the house was in debt. It was also in poor condition. In April, 1950, therefore, with the approval of the Board of Patronesses of Mary Markley House and the Executive Board of the Alumnae Council, the following recommendations were approved:
- 1. That the Mary Markley House be closed as of the end of the current semester.
- 2. That a payment of not more than $20,000 from the Mary Markley House Building and Equipment Reserve for Repair and Replacement and the General Residence Halls Reserve, to the Mary Bartron Henderson Memorial House fund, be approved in recognition of the fact that Mary Markley House was presented to the University by the alumnae and the alumnae are desirous to complete the Henderson House;
- 3. That authorization be given for the completion of final plans and specifications for the Henderson House with an anticipated expenditure of not more than the sum of money in hand, including the above mentioned $20,000, for that purpose;
- 4. That the name Mary Markley be remembered in the naming of future women's housing facilities;
- 5. That the members of the Mary Markley Board be recommended for their faithful services and relieved of duty as of the close of the current semester.
(R.P., 1948-51, p. 809.)
Thus, there came to an end Alumnae House, subsequently, Mary Markley House. (The old house at 1219 Washtenaw still stands and is used as the accounting office for the Engineering Research Institute.) The financial aid which it provided toward the completion of an enlarged and more modern Henderson House will be of lasting benefit to the women who seek co-operative housing on the campus.
In 1928, at the September 21 meeting of the Regents, plans for a dormitory to house 500 women, outlined by an alumni committee of which Mason Pittman Rumney ('08e) was chairman, were adopted by the Board, a scheme of financing its construction was approved, and immediate bids from contractors were authorized.
Malcolmson and Higginbotham, of Detroit, were chosen as the architects, and sketches were prepared under the Page 1725direction of Alexander L. Trout ('05, '10e) for the building, to stand just east of the Women's Athletic Field on Observatory Street.
At their meeting on April 24, the Regents approved the plan in general as follows:
Resolved, That the Regents approve in principle the plan of financing the construction of dormitories stated in a communication dated April 16, 1928, from E. J. Ottaway, President of the General Alumni Association of the University, provided that the earnings of the dormitories as estimated are satisfactory to them and in the opinion of the Regents will be sufficient to pay the expense of operation, of upkeep of the buildings and grounds, of renewal of equipment and furnishings, and to pay the principal and interest of the bonds as they mature; and further provided that plans and specifications of the buildings, character of construction, the furnishings, equipment, management, and plan of control of the dormitories meet with their approval.
(R.P., 1926-29, pp. 548-49.)
A part of the site was bought by the Detroit alumni, and the remainder was purchased by the Regents after condemnation proceedings. The project contemplated the leasing of this land to the Guardian Trust Company, of Detroit, which would finance the erection of the building and, in turn, release the contemplated property to the University.
The prospect of building such a large dormitory, however, caused a serious controversy between the landladies of Ann Arbor, their sympathizers, and the University. The landladies feared that their rooms would be left empty and their means of livelihood thus endangered. The new dormitory, which was intended to house five-hundred girls, was criticized as being too large, and the proposed site was considered "too far away from campus."
A petition signed by fourteen citizens protesting the building of the dormitory was presented to the Regents in October, 1928. A committee was approved by the mayor to study the economic effect on the city of the building of such a dormitory and in general of the continuation of the University's building plans. A committee composed of Regents Sawyer, Beal, and Clements was appointed to confer with the mayor's committee and to furnish any information available and pertinent to the subject (R.P., 1926-29, p. 842). The contracts entered into by the University and the Guardian Trust Company, of Detroit, were loaned to Frank DeVine, counsel for the citizens' movement, to be examined.
The construction contract between Pehrson Brothers of Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the University was signed in the fall of 1928 for $505,821.14. The mechanical trades work was undertaken by the Plant Department. In order to satisfy both the University and the Guardian Trust Company, the cost of the building had to be reduced to $950,000, $50,000 lower than the original figure of $1,000,000, because the trust company was willing to loan only $850,000, and this sum plus $100,000 which the Detroit Alumnae Association had guaranteed to raise represented the total amount available. In order to meet the specifications, changes were made in the interior; these, however, did not change the appearance of the exterior.
Mosher-Jordan Halls, designed to accommodate 442 women, were completed and ready for occupancy at the beginning of the 1930-31 school year. A formal opening and reception were held in January, 1931. The total cost of the building, which has a floor area of 137,242 square feet, was $797,640.
The building, in accordance with the following resolution, was named in honor of the first two deans of women, Eliza M. Mosher and Myra B. Jordan:
Resolved, That the new women's dormitory project be designated as follows in Page 1726honor of the first two deans of women of the University: —
The north unit shall be designated the Eliza M. Mosher Hall in honor of Dr. Eliza M. Mosher, Dean of Women from 1896 to 1902. The south unit shall be designated the Myra B. Jordan Hall in honor of Mrs. Myra B. Jordan, Dean of Women from 1902 to 1922 and Dean Emeritus since 1922. The two units shall be jointly administered as the Mosher-Jordan Halls.
(R.P., 1929-32, p. 157.)
The location of the building has particular advantages. Situated on Observatory Street overlooking the Women's Athletic Field, it is only a six-minute walk from the main campus. The building faces east and west. The architecture is an adaptation of Collegiate Gothic, carried out in Colonial face brick, with trim of Indiana limestone. The topography of the site made possible a sunken garden on the Observatory Street side and terraces sloping to Palmer Field on the other. The building is of fireproof construction, five stories high, and is so planned that it forms two complete units or residence halls, identical in arrangement, the only difference being in arrangement of the living rooms.
Each of the dining rooms, of which there are four opening on the terraces, is on the first or ground floor, which, because the building stands on a hill, is downstairs from the main entrance. In the beginning one wing of this floor was set apart for members of the staff and another was reserved for graduate students. Later, because of the increasing enrollment, it became necessary to use this space for the housing of undergraduates.
The second floor is on a level with Observatory Street, and entrance is gained by small bridges which span the sunken garden. On the right and left of the entrances are two reception rooms, which in recent years have been used as offices by the resident directors. Each hall has a lobby, with tile floor and oak-paneled walls. Here, too, are the mail and information desks, and the elevators. There are four living rooms, two at right angles to each lobby. The first and more formal of these living rooms is several steps lower than the entrance floor so that the space intervening between it and the lobby forms a miniature stage which may be used for small dramatic productions and recitals. This first large living room has an enormous stone fireplace, soft carpets, comfortable chairs, beautiful carved tables with softly shaded lamps, and a grand piano. Along the west side is a book nook, from which French doors open on an enclosed porch. The second living room, which also has a large fireplace and casement windows on three sides, projects upon the terrace and is more informal in character. On this floor, opening from the corridors running to the center of the building, are a number of student rooms and the directors' suites.
The third, fourth, and fifth floors are devoted to student rooms. These also have casement windows, grouped in various ways, with ledges of shaded tiles. Great care has been taken to provide for convenience and quiet. Acoustical plaster was used in the corridors as well as in the living and dining rooms. Each of the upper floors has a sunroom and a kitchenette with ironing equipment. Laundries for student use are on the ground floor.
By 1953, 425 women were housed in Mosher-Jordan Halls. Increased enrollment made it necessary to increase this number by making double rooms out of singles and triples out of doubles. In addition, the staff corridor and guest rooms were taken over, thus increasing the capacity to 490 women. The work was done by the Henry deKoning Construction Page 1727Company, of Ann Arbor. Including some new furnishings for the remodeled rooms, the cost was $20,286.
In 1921, at the time of the purchase of the site at the corner of South University and East University avenues for the University High School, the University also acquired for $12,000, as a part of this property, a house which had been owned by the First Presbyterian Society of Ann Arbor. A few years later, in 1927, the President and the Secretary expressed their approval of a three-year plan for the operation of this house as a University dormitory, and authorized the purchase of furniture and equipment, funds for which were to be repaid as a loan. In addition, the University was to receive a fixed monthly payment as rent. The house was first used for graduate women in 1930 and was put on the regular list of houses approved by the dean.
University House, of frame construction, had a floor area of 6,016 square feet and furnished accommodations for 14 graduate women. Its use as a residence was discontinued in 1949.
Victor C. Vaughan House
At their June meeting of 1938, the Regents agreed to enter into a revenue bond arrangement for a dormitory for medical students, which was to be on a financially self-liquidating plan (R.P., 1936-39, p. 562). In July they authorized the President and Secretary to apply to the government for aid in financing the construction of this dormitory as well as of several others for undergraduate men. An arrangement was also made with the Ann Arbor Trust Company which prepared to buy from the University $1,300,000 of an issue of dormitory revenue bonds, the proceeds of which sale, combined with the anticipated $945,000 grant from the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, were to be used to build dormitories, providing housing and dining facilities, as well as all necessary equipment and furnishings. The Regents committed the University to a thirty-year bond issue which together with the federal grant, if secured, would provide the funds for the building of the dormitories (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 599-601). It was further resolved that the Regents borrow the sum of $1,477,000 through the issuance and sale of dormitory bonds. This sum included an amount of $177,000 for the refunding of the bonds on the previously built Allen-Rumsey House. The proceeds of the bond sale were to be used for the construction of the Union and medical dormitories and the refinancing of Allen-Rumsey House as part of the Union dormitories.
The site was on University land at the corner of Glen Avenue and Catherine Street overlooking the Huron River Valley. The medical ward of the Homeopathic Hospital, destroyed by fire in 1927, formerly occupied this site. The dormitory was named in honor of Dr. Victor Vaughan, formerly Dean of the Medical School.
Vaughan House, facing Ann Street, is five floors in height. It has a brick and limestone exterior and is of fireproof construction throughout. At the left as one enters at the second-floor level are the offices and a suite for the dietitian and on the right facing the office is a spacious well-furnished lobby with an adjoining small reception room. Directly ahead are the open stairs leading to the lower floor and to their left is the second-floor student corridor. A section of the library is devoted to a book collection which was a gift from the children and wife of Professor Alfred O. Lee. Dr. Lee Page 1728taught the History of Medicine to premedical students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In addition to the collection of histories of medicine, a collection of works of physicians who had turned to writing in other fields is included.
On the lower floor is a large paneled lounge comfortably furnished. A long circular davenport provides for leisurely hours in front of the fireplace. At either end of the lounge are two small card rooms, and the dining room adjoins at the rear. A recreation room, laundry, and the kitchens complete this floor plan. In the basement adjacent to the trunk room is the darkroom for photographic work. The upper floors have space for 149 in single rooms, double rooms, and in suites for two and three.
In 1943, Victor C. Vaughan House was vacated to provide quarters for specialized army medical and dental groups, which continued their occupation of the house until the fall of 1945, when it was reopened for civilian use. During the war some of the fraternity houses were leased by the University to supplement housing for women. As these leases were terminated a shortage of facilities for women was created, and a decision was made to move them into Vaughan House in the fall of 1945. By the beginning of 1946 the veterans were returning to the University in such numbers that the girls living in Vaughan House had to be relocated in other women's housing. In 1946-47 as many as 240 men were living in the house under emergency conditions. The housing situation for men was relieved somewhat when the addition to the East Quadrangle was opened. Housing conditions for women became worse, however, and in the fall of 1948, in anticipation of the opening of a new women's residence hall in the spring of 1949, a group of women who were to form the nucleus of the residents of the new dormitory were assigned to Vaughan House. The men of Vaughan House thus displaced were moved to the University-owned residence at 730 Haven Street (later to become Adelia Cheever House) and in the spring of 1949 they moved back to Vaughan House. As the University enrollment grew, another large residence hall for men (South Quadrangle) was constructed. This made it possible again to supplement the housing for women by readmitting them to Vaughan House. The men living there moved to South Quadrangle as a group in the fall of 1951, and women have lived in Vaughan House since that date.
It should be noted that Victor C. Vaughan House was constructed as a residence for medical students. At the close of World War II, with the return of veterans in great numbers, it was decided that Vaughan House would not be available for medical students until such time as the demand for undergraduate housing lessened.
There have not been many changes in the building since its construction. As in all other residence halls, the capacity of Vaughan House was expanded in the summer of 1953. Suites which normally accommodated two students were converted into suites for three which increased the capacity from 138 to 149.
Romance Language Building
The building now used for Romance languages was originally the University Museum. It was built during the year 1880-81 and housed the natural history and anthropological collections of the Page 1729University until the construction of the new Museums Building in 1928. The plans for the old Museum, which were prepared by Major William Le Baron Jenney, Professor of Architecture and Design, were submitted to the Regents and approved in July, 1879. The building, which is of brick with stone trim, stands on State Street between Angell Hall and Alumni Memorial Hall. It comprises four stories and is approximately 120 by 50 feet, with a total floor area of 25,275 square feet. The final cost of construction was $46,041.
In his annual report for 1878-79 President Angell stated: "The new Museum Building will enable us to store and display our collections much better than has heretofore been possible, and will relieve us of the solicitude we have so long felt concerning their safety." He added, however: "The sum placed at our disposal will not be adequate to furnish the lecture rooms which ought to be connected with the Museum" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 418). In 1890 he suggested the desirability of adding a series of laboratories at the east side of the building. Nothing came of this plan.
During subsequent years, when the building was used as a museum, many defects in its construction developed. Built without a basement, the ground floor settled and a new one had to be installed. In 1894 the original roof proved too heavy and was replaced with "a makeshift affair fastened together with so curious a system of trusses and bolts" that classes from the Department of Architecture were accustomed to visit it. The building also was inadequate in point of space. Only one floor and half of another could be used for exhibits; there was also a shortage of storage room, which necessitated the use of an abandoned elevator shaft for this purpose; moreover, the building was very badly lighted for the display of exhibits.
These difficulties in the use of the building as a museum became increasingly obvious. By 1923 it was reported that at least 75 per cent of the specimens possessed by the University were kept in storage because of inadequate facilities for display and that some of the collections had not been unpacked since 1878. The risk of fire to the collections, which were valued in 1923 at $2,000,000, was serious. The result was that while the Museum was still housed in this building the University was forced to decline many valuable collections.
These continually increasing problems did not come to an end until the new University Museum was constructed. The old building, because of its advantageous position on the campus, was assigned to the Department of Romance Languages. Extensive alterations, including the construction of classrooms at a cost of about $20,000, were carried out, as far as possible, with fireproof materials. The building, which was painted a light gray, contains the offices and classrooms of the Department.
School of Business Administration Building
The first suggestion or reference to the proposed School of Business Administration in a public document seems to be in a report entitled "Postwar Public Works Program for the University of Michigan," dated October 1, 1943. A building for the School of Business Administration appears as Project 23 in this report, with a suggested expenditure of $600,000. The first money appropriated by the state for the building was $1,800,000, approved by Governor Kelly on February 18, 1946.
The site, authorized by the Regents in July, 1945, was in the block surrounded by Monroe, Tappan, Hill, and Haven Page 1730streets and was purchased at the time construction was begun, the building occupying approximately the north half of the block. Ten private dwellings were removed for its construction, which began in August, 1946. Money to complete the building was appropriated in 1947.
The cornerstone was laid on May 24, 1947, with addresses by President Alexander G. Ruthven, Provost James P. Adams, and Dean Russell A. Stevenson. The south wing, the library, and the administrative offices were occupied in the fall of 1948, and the remainder of the building in February, 1949.
Lee Black and Kenneth C. Black, of Lansing, Michigan, were the architects. The latter was chiefly responsible, and this building was his first on the Michigan campus. Since its construction, however, he has served as architect for the Alice Lloyd Radiation Therapy Laboratory, for alterations to the Neuropsychiatric Institute and the University Hospital, and for the Women's Swimming Pool.
The general contractor was Bryant and Detwiler, of Detroit; R. L. Spitzley Company, of Detroit, was responsible for the plumbing, heating, and ventilating, and the electrical contractor was John H. Busby, of Detroit. The total actual cost was $2,715,000, including almost $299,000 for land and land improvements plus $95,000 for furniture and equipment.
The School of Business Administration Building contains 1,811,000 cubic feet, and consists of a classroom and laboratory wing on the south, a library and lecture wing on the east, and an office tower on the northwest corner. The structural framework is of reinforced concrete to the fourth-floor level, above which the faculty office tower is of structural steel construction. The exterior is of brick with double-hung aluminum windows.
The library seats approximately 380 students and has stack space for some 100,000 volumes. There are thirty class, laboratory, and lecture rooms, with seating capacity ranging from seventeen for small seminar rooms to 192 for the two largest lecture rooms. The standard classroom, of which there are thirteen, seats forty-nine students. Five lecture rooms, the smallest seating eighty-two, are constructed without windows in order to facilitate the use of visual education programs. One of the two student lounges is equipped with a kitchenette, and a faculty lounge on the ninth floor of the tower is similarly equipped.
All classrooms, laboratories, and lecture rooms are equipped with strip tables of metal or wood which are permanently fastened to the floor. Chairs are metal and are movable. Two of the laboratories have underfloor ducts for electrical outlets so that automatic business machines can be plugged in at any desired location. All classrooms and lecture rooms are provided with recesses equipped with rods, coat hangers, and racks for hats and books. Furnishings in the principal student lounge have been provided by student contributions and earnings from activities of the student council. Furnishings for the faculty lounge have been provided by subscriptions by faculty and alumni of the School.
Although the building has been used primarily by the School of Business Administration, parts of it have been made available for classes to the School of Education, the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the Extension Service.
School of Music Building
The "Ann Arbor School of Music" was opened in September, 1881, and classes were conducted in a building at Page 1731the corner of State and Huron streets. Later in the same year it became a division of the incorporated "University" Musical Society. Because of insufficient resources, however, the School did not flourish, and in 1890 a special committee was appointed to discuss its reorganization.
In December, 1891, Professor William H. Pettee, who was active in the early program of the Musical Society, announced: "The University Musical Society has all the power it needs to proceed to the establishment of a School of Music," and it was resolved that a school of music be established "as soon as the necessary financial support could be secured." It was proposed that $6,500 to cover expenses, payable over a three-year period, should be guaranteed by subscription. In January, 1892, the committee reported that one hundred subscriptions of sixty-five dollars each had been obtained, whereupon the Board of Directors passed a resolution establishing the "University School of Music," which opened for instruction in October, 1892, in rooms rented in Newberry Hall. The rented rooms were inadequate, however, and it was proposed that the School of Music be moved to Main Street. This proposal was not favorably received, and in 1893 a group of Ann Arbor business men and townspeople formed the School of Music Building Association. About two hundred individuals and firms subscribed for approximately six hundred shares of stock at $25.00 each, aggregating a total of $25,000. With this money the site at 325 Maynard Street was bought and the building was constructed. Wesley Howe was the architect and builder.
In the years 1913 and 1916 alterations were made to the building under the supervision of Lewis H. Boynton, architect.
In 1925 the Building Association gave the title to the University Musical Society, and the School of Music Building Association was dissolved. The Society transferred the title to the University in 1929 when the School of Music was made a definite unit of the University.
In the Regents' Proceedings for April, 1929, the value of the property was given as $106,393.
School of Public Health Building
The School of Public Health Building on Observatory Street was erected at a cost of $534,000. The building was a gift to the University from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation which gave the University approximately $400,000 for the purpose; the Rockefeller Foundation which made a grant of $300,000 more; and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis which gave another $50,000.
Construction was begun in May, 1942, and the building was completed and occupied late in 1943. It was designed by Lewis Sarvis to meet the needs of the School and is unique among buildings housing public health institutions because of the opportunity it affords for co-ordinating classroom work, research programs, and field experience.
The U-shaped building, of brick and glass construction, is three stories high and has 200 rooms. The front part contains classroom and administrative offices, a large circular library with pine paneling, a circular auditorium seating 200 persons, and seminar rooms. The building also has a health education museum; an outdoor class and recreation room on the roof; and a kitchen and a dining room for the staff.
The wings, two stories in height, are devoted to research. The north wing contains the department of industrial health on the first floor and public health engineering on the second. In the south wing are the virus disease laboratories, Page 1732where the work in poliomyelitis, influenza, and the parasitic diseases such as malaria, is carried on. In the east wing is the media department where materials for growing disease organisms are prepared and where the animals for experimentation are housed. In connection with the animals there is an ultramodern kitchen, an operating room, and X-ray equipment.
The greatest precautions were taken to provide for segregation and against contamination in designing the building, which was carefully planned to fulfill every requirement in the study of modern public health education.
Student Publications Building
The editorial offices of the principal student publications under the Board in Control of Student Publications and the printing facilities for the Michigan Daily are housed in the Student Publications Building at 420 Maynard Street, across from Betsy Barbour and Helen Newberry residences. In December, 1926, the Regents authorized the Board in Control of Student Publications to acquire property of approximately 132 feet on Maynard Street for the erection of a student publications building (R.P., 1926-29, p. 113). In January, 1931, plans for the proposed building were presented by the President. The building, completed in 1932, was designed by Pond and Pond, of Chicago, and was constructed by Lovering and Longbotham, of St. Paul, Minnesota. Edson R. Sunderland of the Law School was supervising business manager of the project.
The land was purchased and the building was constructed and equipped entirely out of profits from student publications. The total cost of the land was $60,000, and the cost of the building was $74,000. A capital investment of almost $300,000 is represented in the land, building, and equipment — considered the finest college newspaper plant in the country. Replacement cost, as of 1954, would be about $600,000.
The exterior of the building, which has a street frontage of 125 feet and is 50 feet deep, is of red brick with a white stone entrance similar to that of the Michigan Union and the Michigan League, which were designed by the same architects.
On the first floor is a large conference room and an editorial office shared by Gargoyle, the humor magazine, and Generation, the arts magazine. The largest area, however, is devoted to the modern printing plant, including a composing room with four linotype machines, a Ludlow machine, a Fairchild photoelectric engraver, and other equipment; the pressroom housing the $70,000 Goss Unitube rotary press, casting machines, and paper storage; and the darkroom.
The second floor houses the editorial and business offices of the Michiganensian, the yearbook, and a combined business office for all publications. The remainder of the large area is devoted to the editorial and business staffs of The Michigan Daily and contains a small office for the senior editors and a large city room with space for both business and editorial staff operations.
When the building was first occupied, because of lack of funds with which to replace them, the old counters, furniture, and typewriters were brought over from the former quarters in the Ann Arbor Press Building. In the summer of 1937 the offices were completely equipped with new typewriters and with new desks, chairs, tables, filing cases, and counters.
Tappan Hall, built in 1893-94, was designed by the architects Spier and Rohns, of Detroit, and Dietrick Brothers, also of Detroit, whose bid totaled $25,465, were responsible for the actual construction. In May, 1894, on motion of Regent Barbour, the Regents named the new recitation building in honor of President Tappan. A month later it was ready for occupancy.
The structure, of red brick with stone trim, is near the southwest corner of the main campus, just behind Alumni Memorial Hall and west of the President's residence. The building, which measures approximately 75 by 111 feet, has a floor area of 23,142 square feet. The rooms have been so divided and subdivided that now, including the basement, the building provides about twenty-eight offices and classrooms.
For a time Tappan Hall was used as a recitation building for classes in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; a large lecture room on the second floor was devoted to the special use of classes in history and economics. At one time President Angell's class in International Law was held in this room. For many years certain sections of Tappan Hall were reserved for courses in education, while parts of the building were assigned to various departments of the Literary College.
For some time the administrative offices of the School of Education, as well as the Appointment Bureau for Teachers, were in this building. In 1930, however, the School of Education transferred to its new buildings, and Tappan Hall was turned over to the School of Business Administration. The large room at the south end of the second floor was used as the Business Administration Library. When this School moved into its own building in 1948 the Fine Arts and German departments of the Literary College occupied most of the building.
University Elementary School Building
The University had been interested in the problems of elementary and preschool education for some years prior to the erection of the Elementary School Building in 1929-30. For several years a branch of the Merrill-Palmer School, of Detroit, which had been maintained in Ann Arbor in a building provided by the University, had afforded practical training to students in child care and education. As the significance of this new development in the field of education became increasingly apparent, the erection of a building to continue and expand the program was proposed. At the June meeting of the Regents in 1927 the Board was notified that the state of Michigan had appropriated the sum of $1,100,000 for a site and for the construction of a laboratory elementary school. This amount, however, was subsequently reduced to $800,000.
Preparation of plans for the proposed building by the architectural firm of Malcomson and Higginbotham, of Detroit, was immediately authorized, and at the October, 1929, meeting the contract was let for its construction. The building was first occupied in September, 1930, and was formally accepted from the contractors, Spence Brothers of Saginaw, Michigan, by the Regents at their November meeting in 1930.
The Elementary School was erected, in effect, as a continuation of the University High School Building, which had been completed in 1923-24, so that the two practically form one building, although the newer section differs in some respects in design and construction Page 1734from the earlier High School Building.
The Elementary School stands on the northwest corner of East University Avenue and Monroe Street, filling the block completely to the parkway. The building is constructed of brick with stone trim and has two wings, which, with the wings of the University High School at the north, form an attractive court used as a children's playground. The building provides more than 95,000 square feet of floor space. In 1954 the building was valued at $561,000.
The Elementary School provides for the education of children between the ages of two and twelve years, taking them from nursery school through the sixth grade. It is equipped with complete facilities for the instruction of young children and has adequate provision for administrative officers and for the training of graduate and undergraduate students and other workers in child development.
From the time of the opening of the School until 1942 it was not used for student teaching for undergraduates. The policy was then changed because of the increasing shortage of teachers in the elementary field and because of an increased interest in elementary education among students at the University. Currently about one hundred students a year do their student teaching in the University Elementary School.
On the first-floor, passages from an attractive tiled lobby lead to the library, kindergarten rooms, a gymnasium, a small auditorium, a health unit, and rooms where the younger children take naps and have their luncheons.
Many facilities in the way of books, play, and special instructional material are provided in specially designed rooms. The second floor contains classrooms for grades two through six and for college classes, as well as offices and laboratories for the study of growth records and for the examination of the children. In general, aside from the suite of offices of the School of Education, the first floor is used for the younger children, while the second floor is devoted to the instruction of the older boys and girls. A number of rooms are equipped with observational balconies for use in the instruction of students. A third-floor playroom and a play court on the roof complete the facilities above the ground level.
When the building was constructed a full basement was excavated but left in rough form. The basement served primarily as storage space for a period of years. During World War II it became for a time the headquarters for the supply department of military units at the University. As the need for space has increased the interior of the basement has been reconstructed in a substantial fashion and now houses a Guidance and Counseling Laboratory, a Reading Improvement Service, a Group Dynamics Laboratory, and the offices of the University of Michigan Fresh Air Camp. A part of the space is devoted to an inactive collection of books transferred from the University Library because of crowded conditions there and to a collection of school textbooks of historic interest. The basement also provides space for a property room for the stage productions of the University High School.
University High School Building
The University High School, on East University Avenue between South University Avenue and Monroe Street, was scheduled for completion in November, 1923. During that school year some University classes were housed in the building as an emergency measure, but it was not ready for occupancy until the fall of 1924. The site, part of which was later occupied by the University Elementary Page 1735School, was purchased from the Presbyterian Church for $71,000. The cost of the entire area, given as $148,092.73, was somewhat reduced, however, through the salvage of materials and houses which stood upon the site (P.R., 1921-22, p. 13).
The floor plans for the University High School Building submitted by the architects, Perkins, Fellows, and Hamilton, of Chicago, were approved at the January meeting of the Regents in 1922, and the architects were instructed to proceed with the working plans. The first design submitted was revised to bring the cost within the funds available. The contract was awarded to the H. G. Christman Company, of South Bend, Indiana, on April 28, 1922, for $338,000. Subsequent alterations in the construction became necessary in order to meet mounting building costs, and certain delays required the postponement of the formal opening of the School until September, 1924.
The new building was to be the first unit of a group of three, including the proposed Elementary School and a building for the School of Education, which together were to constitute one continuous structure. The subsequent erection of the Elementary School Building was the second step in the plan. The High School Building is 246 by 172 feet and comprises four floors which cover an area of 96,400 square feet. A parkway, formed by the closing of one block of Haven Avenue, separates it from the Architecture Building and the grounds of the Martha Cook Building. A certain degree of harmony among the three adjacent structures was achieved by the use of red brick with stone trim.
As one enters the building from the main entrance on East University Avenue, he finds the offices of the School at the right. On the left, off the main corridor, are three small rooms for offices and service rooms for student activities, and the Marshall Byrn Memorial Library, which houses books, teaching materials, and high-school text books in the field of vocational education. The library adjoins the industrial arts unit, which is entered from the main corridor and which includes a large room equipped as a general shop, a storage room for materials, and a classroom.
Off the main corridor are the generous quarters of the science unit, including separate laboratories for physics, chemistry, and biology. The last has a well-equipped greenhouse attached. The science unit also includes a general purpose classroom, a lecture room with terraced seating, an equipment storage room, and a departmental office.
Between the industrial arts and the science units a passageway leads to the boys' lockers and dressing room, which are connected by a stairway with the gymnasium on the third floor.
At the end of the main corridor is the Schorling Auditorium, seating 350 and named in honor of Raleigh Schorling, the first principal of the School. It is equipped with stage, lighting, and scenery facilities. In the corridor just outside the entrance to the auditorium, are display cases for exhibiting the work of the students.
On the second floor, immediately above the auditorium, at the end of the central corridor is the school library, a beautiful room 38 by 78 feet, which occupies two stories. On this floor over the industrial arts room is an exercise room used as a recreation room, and a small gymnasium, 35 by 90 feet. A unit for the girls' physical education department provides an office, dressing and locker rooms, and a health unit which includes an office for the school nurse and a room in which pupils may rest.
In addition to the rooms mentioned, on the second floor are eight classrooms, a room for women teachers, and, above Page 1736the main entrance to the building, the office of the Assistant Principal.
On the third floor the gymnasium, measuring 60 by 90 feet, opens off the main corridor to the south. Also on the third floor are the offices of the head of the Department of Physical Education and Health, with adjacent storage space for gymnasium equipment and supplies. In addition, the third floor provides office space for the Department of Modern Languages, the Mathematics Department, and the co-ordinator of student teaching, as well as nine classrooms and a men's staff room.
Adjacent to the University High School, on the first floor of the Elementary School Building is a well-equipped cafeteria for the use of teachers and students. The Elementary School also provides space (on the second floor) for the fine arts classes of the High School.
The fourth floor is not used by the High School but is the center of much of the work of the School of Education. Offices are provided on this floor for members of the School of Education staff, and there are also two classrooms used by classes in education. At the end of the corridor is the School of Education library. In addition, the fourth floor houses the Laboratory for Educational Psychology and a laboratory for instructional materials in the fields of vocational education.
The four floors of the building are connected by stair wells near the east and the west entrances to the building, and also by an elevator near the front entrance.
At the north side of the building, bounded on one side by East University Avenue and on the other by the parkway, is an outdoor playground measuring approximately 500 by 700 feet, which provides facilities for physical education classes and for intramural sports. On the northeast corner of the playground (1020 South University) is a house at one time used by the University as a dwelling for women students. It was assigned to the School of Education in 1949 to house such personnel and activities of the School of Education as it might serve advantageously. The basement and the first floor of the house were allocated to the University High School as a laboratory for homemaking classes. The basement was converted by the students of the High School into a recreation room.
University Laundry Building
The first University Laundry on campus, built in 1891 and later used as a contagious ward for the Hospital, was finally torn down in 1914. In 1897 what is now the Wood Technology Laboratory was then a part of the Hospital and housed the Laundry. In October, 1900, one may say almost that a new era began for the Laundry when it was voted that it be placed under the charge of the Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds and that all University work be done at the uniform market rate (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 602). In 1908 the sum of $400 was set aside for the purchase of a body ironer. A year later, the Buildings and Grounds Committee requested $850 to replace worn-out machinery. It appeared that this committee was taking its new responsibility seriously, inasmuch as the first request was followed by another for still more machinery to cost between $900 and $1,000 (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 219, 707).
In the meantime, more women were employed in the Laundry, and as early as 1903 they were given a substantial raise in wages. All the workers with the exception of the foreman received an increase of twenty-five cents a day for a ten-hour day (R.P., 1901-6, p. 187).
Page 1737About this time the University also purchased a new mangle and washer for a total of $1,368 (and the old mangle). The need of supplying the Laundry with soft water at once became apparent and was referred to the omnipotent Buildings and Grounds Committee. In June, 1904, the need of having a horse and covered wagon to help make deliveries became apparent and a request to this effect was granted on condition that the price be kept under $250 (R.P., 1901-06, p. 381).
By this time the Board was probably growing a little wary of the Laundry; expenses and upkeep were very high and the possibility of even returns a bit uncertain. In 1912 a decision to the effect that the University Hospital pay for transportation and laundry of state patients had its effects on the business of the Laundry (R.P., 1910-14, p. 467). The following year, on the very last day, there was a fire in the Laundry. An adjustment, however, was reached with the insurance company for some $2,896, and the old Laundry marched on into another year. Fires were seemingly not uncommon in this part of the University for again "on March 22, 1916, at about 5:30 p.m. fire again broke out in the laundry." An attempt to discover the cause brought no results. The damage done to the building cost the University $2,255. A settlement was effected through Mr. Robert Sutton, representing the insurance company, and Shirley W. Smith, Secretary, in the amount of $1,905.
In March, 1917, the Buildings and Grounds Committee was given authority to go ahead with the construction of a Laundry but not to contract without further action of the Board for more than the $20,000 which had been set aside in July. By June there was still talk about the Laundry, so evidently not much had been done about it since the preceding July. Another resolve was made in June, 1917, "that the Auditor-General … set aside out of the Accumulation of Savings Fund, the sum of $15,000 into the fund for the construction of a new Laundry building" (R.P., 1914-17, p. 805).
At last, in November, 1917, Superintendent Flook informed the Regents that the new Laundry had been completed and was ready for their inspection. The report also urged the necessary provision of a water-softening plant. Evidently nothing had been done about this matter although the subject had been discussed fourteen years earlier. The immediate desirability of having an automobile collection and delivery service for the Laundry was also urged. Obviously, the Laundry had increased in importance since the days when a horse and wagon had been humbly requested for deliveries.
The Laundry site cost the University $2,613. Inventory records indicate that on June 30, 1917, the cost of the building was $8,759, but on June 30, 1918, the completed cost was recorded as $34,425. The cost of the equipment for the Laundry amounted to about $7,320.
In 1926 the Board decided to authorize the enlargement of the Laundry at an expense not to exceed $15,000, to be met by University funds. An addition of 6,114 square feet was constructed at a cost of $16,221. In September of that year the Secretary filed a communication stating the circumstances under which he had authorized the addition to the Laundry Building, which was to be two stories in height instead of only one as had been planned. This action was informally approved (R.P., 1926-29, p. 43). It was not until 1930 that the Board directed that towel and laundry service be provided for students in Waterman Gymnasium in accordance with the recommendation of the Board in Control of Athletics, the expense to come from funds already provided in the budget of Waterman Page 1738Gymnasium. Each student was required to make a deposit of fifty cents which was refunded when he returned the last towel given him.
In 1934 the committee authorized the Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds to restore the 1933 wage scale so that each employee would receive an increase of two cents an hour; those who had been employed for five years received an additional one cent an hour. Since approximately 87 per cent of the work was charged to the Hospital, the expense ran to $4,000 a year. This action did not result in an increased budget but did increase the expense of running the Hospital.
Today the Laundry is one of the most modern plants in the country. It operates forty-eight hours a week and employs 170 people. The wash room is equipped with eleven automatic unloading washers, four semi-automatic washers, and six large extractors, six thermostatically controlled tumblers, and four large flat presses with airvent canopies to remove excess humidity. The finish department on the second floor contains fifty-two personal pressing machines, a four-drawer blanket machine, curtain stretchers, and a sewing and mending unit with six sewing machines.
In 1938 a second addition of 21,629 square feet was added on two floors along the south and west sides of the building at an expenditure of $67,684. Over a five-year period, beginning in 1949, practically all the equipment in the Laundry was replaced at a cost of $275,000 including installation by the Plant Department. In 1955 the finish department was air-conditioned for approximately $10,000.
At the present time the Laundry does about twelve tons of work a week which comes from the University Hospital, the Residence Halls, the Michigan Union, the Women's League, and any other department requiring laundry service excepting the Physical Education Department which operates its own laundry.
The first Laundry, a small frame building northwest of Palmer Ward, employed nine women who did all of the work by hand. When the Laundry was moved, in 1897, to the south end of Palmer Ward, it was the first laundry in this area to use steam, a labor-saving device which made possible a reduction of the staff to seven women. In 1900 it was again moved to the west end of the Boiler House, where it remained until it was transferred to its present location in 1917. At that time twenty people were employed in the Laundry. Oliver Aubro served as foreman from 1892 to 1921 and was followed by William V. Skopil, who held the position until 1936, when he was succeeded by Donald A. Callnin, the present Superintendent. In July, 1946, the Laundry, considered a major business department of the University, was given independent status and placed under the direction of W. K. Pierpont, then Assistant Controller. In February, 1951, the Regents established the office of Service Enterprises, and Francis C. Shiel was appointed Manager. The Laundry and several other departments were placed under the supervision of this office.
University Museums Building
By 1917, because of the growth of the several natural history museums it was evident that new quarters would have to be provided if they were to continue to develop. On the basis of estimates made by the University, the legislature of 1925 appropriated $900,000 for a museum building and equipment and in another act provided for the purchase of the necessary land for the site between North Page 1739University and Washtenaw avenues. The appropriation for the building became available in 1927; construction was begun in the same year; and the building was completed in the spring of 1928. Albert Kahn, of Detroit, was the architect; Spence Brothers, of Saginaw, held the general contract; and Randolph A. Wiese designed the equipment. The building cost $724,952 and has a gross floor area of 128,976 square feet.
The Museums of Anthropology, Zoology, and Paleontology and the the University Herbarium are housed in the building. Of these the Museum of Zoology is the largest and most diversified. In planning the building it was necessary to recognize differences in size, the rate of growth and activities, and the needs of the four museums. No attempt was made to provide for any of the other University collections.
The site chosen for the new building — the block bounded by Washtenaw, Geddes, Forest, and North University avenues — is interesting in its topography. Almost level along the Washtenaw Avenue side, it drops off to the east so that the garages in the basement of the north wing are only slightly below the grade of the street, and much of the basement is lighted by windows. The site is large enough to permit expansion of the building to more than twice its dimensions, and, with a change in one street, to three times the size of the part now erected. In addition to the garages, the basement, which extends the full length of the north wing, houses vaults for valuable specimens and volatiles, machine rooms, and a large storeroom.
The general plan for the building was largely determined by a general policy adopted after a study of existing institutions and the relations of a state university museum to science, education, the state, and the university. On the basis of this idea the several directors and curators prepared detailed plans, which the architect, Albert Kahn, used in preparing the final design, completed in December, 1926. The building is a modern adaptation of Renaissance masses and details and is particularly adapted to the expression of the functions of the building. The windows are smaller than in most of the campus buildings and do not exceed the columns in width. The sashes are steel with heavy members.
The building is of buff Bedford limestone and maroon tapestry brick; the first floor, entrance façade, cornices, and spandrels are stone with contrasting brick throughout the body of the structure. The first story and parapet are variegated stone, the other stone being plain. A special feature is the reproduction of heads of pioneer American naturalists in relief on the spandrels between the third and fourth floors, on the entrance façade, and between the pilasters which repeat the entrance motif of each wing. The decorative motifs are principally animals, including mythological ones. The fourth-floor spandrels and stone plinths are ornamented with a series of these designs alternating on the spandrels with a conventional figure. Similar designs are on the carved main door lintel and jambs, on the bronze doors, iron grills, lobby and vestibule ceilings. The main entrance doors are perforated bronze.
On the entrance façade the parapet is continued upward to form an entablature which bears the inscription "University Museums" and Louis Agassiz's admonition: "Go to Nature; take the facts into your own hands; look and see for yourself." Two puma-like figures in black terrazzo, the work of Carleton W. Angell, stand at either side of the main entrance. The plan of the building consists of two wings meeting at an acute angle transected to form the entrance. The difficulty Page 1740of housing the working quarters and the exhibit rooms in the same building was solved by placing them in different wings.
The main entrance, at the corner of North University and Washtenaw avenues, opens into a vestibule and that in turn into a lobby. The lobby, which is two stories in height, with a balcony at the second-story level, opens directly to a broad staircase and the two wings. On the second floor balcony are the general offices, the library, and the map and mailing rooms.
The north wing, which is 298 feet long, contains the working quarters of the Museums of Zoology and Anthropology and the Herbarium. This wing has a northeast exposure and most of the laboratories and research rooms are on the north side. The south side of the north wing is given over to darkened ranges, to work rooms that do not require north light, and to aquarium rooms. The studios, which are on the fourth floor, are illuminated by skylights.
The first floor of the south wing, which is 238 feet long, contains laboratories, offices, ranges, and the preparation rooms of the Museum of Paleontology. Above this floor the south wing is devoted to exhibits. The second-floor exhibit hall is partly a single story and partly two stories in height, the two-story section being at the east end of the wing. The partial third floor and the fourth floor are each a single story in height. The third and fourth floors in this wing are suspended from the roof, thus doing away with columns in the second-floor hall.
The corridors of the north wing and the first floor of the south wing are closed at the lobby entrance by ornamental iron gates, so that the public is diverted to the exhibition halls at each level.
Built on the unit plan, of reinforced concrete with no load-bearing walls, the rooms may be rearranged, enlarged, or reduced in size, with little more expense than would be entailed in moving the equipment and removing or constructing curtain walls. There is but one fixed point — the entrance. From the entrance both wings can be extended to form a large quadrangle without departing from the style of architecture. The end walls, although finished, are temporary, and the structure is otherwise designed to be extended without remodeling.
The building is completely equipped for research, for instruction of graduate students, for public demonstrations, and for the preservation of research materials. To avoid the disadvantages of built-in systems, unit systems were adopted, as far as possible. The several divisions have improved types of laboratory tables and sinks, and each laboratory has gas, electricity, compressed air, and hot and cold water.
In the exhibition space the wall columns, which have been firred out to carry the plumbing, are treated as pilasters, and from these toward the middle of the wing, cases and screens are arranged to form alcoves, separated by a middle aisle eighteen feet wide.
The floors in the exhibition halls are of rubber tile, comfortable benches have been installed, and attractive rest rooms have been provided. In fact everything possible has been done to minimize "museum fatigue."
The large cases are movable and are built in five-foot units, which may be put together with or without division to form cases five, ten, fifteen, or twenty feet in length.
In the vestibule, lobby, and on the main stairs the walls are of polished Italian travertine marble — the floors badger gray and Tripoli pink Tennessee marble in attractive designs, and the ceilings of molded plaster, appropriately Page 1741decorated. The ornamental iron balcony and main stair railings are finished in verd antique and have bronze rails. The floors of the exhibit rooms, the halls, main offices, and library, have a covering of gold-black and black-gold rubber tile. The gates across the corridors of the floors devoted to research are of wrought iron, designed and executed by Mr. Roscoe Wood, and presented by Mr. Otto Hans.
In his inaugural address in December, 1852, President Henry P. Tappan appealed to the people of Michigan to take an interest in and to support the University. At the conclusion of his address Henry N. Walker, a prominent citizen of Detroit, asked the President how he might be of service, and Tappan suggested the raising of funds for an astronomical observatory.
A meeting was held in Detroit on December 29, 1852, for consideration of this project (Part III: The Astronomical Observatories at Ann Arbor). Tappan and others spoke in favor of it, with the result that the sum of $7,000 was raised immediately, the Honorable Henry N. Walker, General Lewis Cass, Henry Porter Baldwin, later Governor of Michigan, and Senator Zachariah Chandler, each subscribing $500, on condition that an additional $10,000 be obtained from other sources within a year. Walker took a leading part in the drive for funds, which eventually amounted to about $15,000, of which he gave $4,000. In honor of the citizens of Detroit, whose initial gifts made it possible, the Observatory was named "Detroit Observatory," and this name was used until 1931. The original building and instruments cost $22,000, of which $7,000 was supplied by the Board of Regents from University funds. Subsequently, the citizens of Ann Arbor contributed $2,500 and those of Detroit $3,000 for needed improvements.
In March, 1853, while President Tappan was in Europe, mainly in the interest of the Observatory, Walker, acting in concurrence with him, made arrangements with George Bird, of New York, to superintend the construction of the Observatory Building. Four acres of land, outside the city, on a hill overlooking the valley of the Huron River, were purchased as a site, at a cost of $100 per acre. The Regents in November, 1853, authorized the purchase of the remainder of the site for the Observatory, which was completed in the summer of 1854.
The building is used entirely by the Department of Astronomy. The central part is 33 feet square, and there are two wings, each 19 by 29 feet. The central part is surmounted by a revolving dome 21 feet in diameter and contains the pier for the 12-inch refractor. The east wing was designed for the meridian circle instrument and the west wing for a library and an office for the director.
A residence for the Director, added at the west side of this building in 1868, was considerably enlarged and improved in 1905-6. It connected with the Observatory through the library. What is now the principal building of the Observatory was begun in 1908 and completed in the following year, with the exception of such parts of the dome as could not be finished until the large reflecting telescope was installed. It joins the meridian circle room of the old original Observatory on the east in the same manner that the residence joined the library on the west, and has a frontage of 44 feet on the north, and is 112 feet from north to south. It ends at the south in a circular wall, 43 feet high, which supports the dome of the large reflecting telescope. The building has two stories and a basement, which is practically above the level Page 1742of the ground. On the main floor are the offices of the Director and Secretary, a classroom, clockroom, vault, and entrance and main halls. On the second floor are four offices and a darkroom. The basement contains rooms for laboratory, offices, and shop.
The dome for the reflecting telescope is 40 feet in diameter and has a slit eight and a half feet in width, which extends from the horizon of the instrument to a point two feet beyond the zenith. The base plate is made of heavy castings, carefully planed and fitted, and rigidly bolted together, to form a complete circle. The dome is covered with heavy copper plate, which is fastened directly to the steel frame. A double shutter closes the slit. It is opened and closed by an endless rope passing over a sheave, connected with the gears and cables which form the shutter-operating mechanism. The two halves of the shutter open and close simultaneously, and move parallel to each other.
The dome was constructed and erected by the Russell Wheel and Foundry Company of Detroit. This company, however, did not take care of the wheel work nor provide the guide rolls and the mechanism for turning the dome and for opening and closing the shutters. This was done by the Observatory instrument makers.
For the present main building and instruments, the Regents appropriated $15,000 in June, 1906, and an additional $25,000 later. This is the sum of two or more additional appropriations at unspecified dates previous to completion of the 37 ½-inch reflector in 1911, including a part of the cost of the telescope itself, as well as of the building. Much of the cost of the 37 ½-inch reflector does not appear as such, since it was in the form of labor, paid for in the salaries of the instrument-maker, H. J. Colliau, and his assistants.
No major alterations have been made either to the old Observatory or to the newer part (now the main building). The residence of the Director was completely renovated in 1946, when it was divided into three apartments. From 1868 until 1942 the Director's residence was tenanted by the incumbent Director and his family. After the death of Director Heber D. Curtis, in 1942, the residence was used from the autumn of 1942 to late 1946 as a dormitory for women. The division into three apartments followed. After 1946, the Director and members of the Department of Astronomy lived in the apartments. As staff members and Director successively moved to other residences, however, the apartments vacated were occupied by members of other departments. In 1954, when the extension of Couzens Hall was begun, the Observatory residence was torn down.
The original building contains the 12-inch refracting telescope and the meridian circle instrument, which have been continuously in operation since their installation in the 1850's.
The new part of the building contains the 37 ½-inch reflecting telescope, continuously in operation since its installation in 1911. Originally, a set of seismographs occupied a room in the basement. These instruments have been transferred to the Department of Geology.
(Old) University Press Building
Through action of the Regents in February, 1930, publication activities of the University were combined in one organization to be known as the University of Michigan Press. In April, 1931, a generous alumnus, Dexter M. Ferry, Jr., offered the University the two-story fireproof building at 311 Maynard Street. He said:
I understand that the publications of the Page 1743University have been organized under the name of "University of Michigan Press." It has been my thought for some time that these activities of the University have been greatly handicapped for lack of adequate facilities and unification, thereby not permitting it to keep pace with the possibilities of output of a university with the standing of the University of Michigan. It is my hope by this gift that not only may the present output be more satisfactorily handled but that the additional facilities and centralization may be an encouragement to further output, better quality and expansion of the University of Michigan Press idea.
(R.P., 1929-32, p. 607.)
The Regents promptly adopted the following resolution:
Resolved, That this Board accept with profound gratitude Mr. Ferry's generous gift, with the conviction that he has rendered to the University of Michigan a distinguished service in a field in which assistance is highly desirable and especially welcome …
(R.P., 1929-32, p. 608.)
The building had been erected in 1907 by Harry McClure, who was owner until 1931. It is 52 by 132 feet in dimension and was considered strong enough to carry an additional floor. One of the first buildings in Ann Arbor with reinforced concrete piers, it had for twenty-four years withstood the weight successively of a garage, a bowling alley, a miniature golf course, and the heavy machinery of a broaching factory and of a gasoline gauge plant.
It was remodeled under the direction of Professor Lewis M. Gram, for which purpose Mr. Ferry contributed an additional $5,000.
Early in 1932 the Printing Office was separated from the Binding Department and moved into the first floor of the University Press Building. The Printing Office was then and has continued to be a service enterprise for the University as a whole, producing a wide range of printed material for all units. The first Superintendent of Printing was Gustave Dicks, who supervised its activities until late 1934. Miss Edna Mulholland, Assistant Superintendent, then took over its management until June, 1935, when its present Manager, Edward E. Lofberg ('30), was appointed.
Coincidental with the expansion of printing facilities, book production under the aegis of the University Press was increasing rapidly. Sales of University publications were being handled in various places and a decision was reached in 1938 to centralize all of them. Stocks of all books and other publications were moved into the second floor of the University Press Building, and a mailing room was equipped for packaging orders. The manager of the Printing Office was charged additionally with operational activities of this new distribution center and with organization of a sales office for mail orders and direct purchases of University Press and departmental publications.
Both departments, the Printing Office and the Sales Office of the University Press, have expanded with the growth of the University, taxing to the limit the capacity of the once-ample quarters so generously provided by Mr. Ferry.
From 1931 to 1945, the offices on the second floor were used for various editorial purposes, including the editing of the Journal of Health and Physical Education and the Research Quarterly. From 1945 until 1956 the offices were occupied by the Official and Museums publications of the University Press. The building was sold in 1955 and plans were made for a new University Press Building on Maynard Street and for a new Printing Office building on the north campus.
University Storehouse and Shops
For years divisions of the Buildings and Grounds Department had maintained Page 1744shops in various parts of the campus. In April, 1912, the Board of Regents approved the construction of a storehouse and shops to cost approximately $25,000, an estimate that was increased later to $35,000. This first building was completed in 1914 at the corner of North University and Forest avenues. It was designed and built by the University Department of Buildings and Grounds and provided 4,670 square feet of floor space. It furnished accommodations for the office of the superintendent as well as for all of the divisions of the Buildings and Grounds Department, with the exception of the Laundry and the Power Plant. A part of the building was used for stock supplies, including an ample amount of materials for maintenance and new construction, as well as janitor and hospital supplies.
This first building soon proved inadequate for the operation of the department and for the storage and handling of materials, and provision was made for the construction of a building to be used specifically as a Storehouse Office Building and as a Storehouse and Shops addition. This was completed in 1922, at an estimated cost of $120,000.
The front or street-level part of the building (actually the second floor) contains an area of 31,417 square feet, while the shop addition to the rear and on the ground floor represents another area of 39,867 square feet. In all, 71,284 square feet of additional floor space were thus provided, and although the building was only three stories high, it was designed for expansion when more space became necessary. The Buildings and Grounds Department served as architect and contractor for the original building and also for the additions.
University Terrace, consisting of twelve buildings for married student veterans and their families, has a total of 276 furnished apartments. The first building was occupied on September 16, 1946, and ten of the remaining buildings were completed at various dates throughout the fiscal year, the last one in July, 1947.
The financing of the twelve apartment buildings was placed on a long-term basis separate from the term bank loan at first contemplated. For this purpose, in April, 1947, a new bond issue in the amount of $2,225,000 payable out of the net operating income of the University Terrace buildings was marketed (R.P., 1945-48, pp. 761-81).
The site, to the east of University Hospital and the School of Public Health, commands a view of the Huron River Valley. The buildings, of brick on cinder-block construction, although similar in design, are not identical in size or elevation. Most of the apartments are "zerobedroom" — that is, they consist of an extra-large living room with a sofa which can be converted to a bed, a dining area, a kitchenette, and a bath. Some of the apartments, however, have separate bedrooms. The furnishings, which are provided by the University, include a gas refrigerator, a four-burner gas stove with oven, dining table and chairs, sofa, desk, end tables, coffee table, and floor and table lamps. The furniture is bleached maple, and the walls are buff sand-finish plaster. The floors are asphalt tile, specially treated, and each kitchen has an exhaust fan.
The architect was Charles Noble, and the contractor, the George A. Fuller Company, of New York City, who did the work on a cost-plus-fee basis.
The policy by which assignment of students was made to the apartments was established by the Board of Governors of Residence Halls in conference with veterans and their representatives. Priority is given to full-time students who are veterans and residents of Michigan under the Regents' interpretation. Page 1745Each apartment is leased for a period of one year, with privilege of renewal for a second year. Because of the housing shortage the apartments may also be rented by married veterans on the University faculty.
On the new north campus, directly north of the Mortimer E. Cooley Engineering building in the area bordering on Plymouth Road, other apartments for married students and faculty are now under construction. The first apartments in this project were occupied in September, 1955. This development was constructed at a cost of $894,000 by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., Washington, D. C. It contains twelve two-bedroom, forty-eight one-bedroom, and forty bedroom and living room combined apartments. More units are now under construction.
The development of the heating, electric power and lighting, gas, and water systems of the University has been closely allied to the physical plant expansion and to the advancements in accepted practices in the field of the various utilities. From time to time the various systems have been extended, modernized, or rebuilt as conditions warranted, and every effort has been made to have them conform to the standard practices of the day.
In general, the development of the heating plant may be divided into three periods, that of heating the individual buildings by means of stoves, that of the development of small independent heating plants to service groups of buildings, and that covering the development of a central heating plant and distribution system.
The development of the lighting system may also be divided into stages: first, the period when oil lamps were the sole means of illumination; second, the era when the University had a gaslighting system; third, the period when the change was being made from gas lighting to direct-current electrical illumination; and fourth, the time of the transfer to alternating-current electrical illumination and a system, cross connected between the University and the local utility company, to provide for a maximum of service with the least possible interruption.
The water supply system has also developed through three distinct periods: first, the period of individual wells and pumps; second, that of a University owned and operated central supply system; and third, that of the abandonment of the individual system in favor of the central water distribution system of the city of Ann Arbor.
Heating. — The first University structures erected in 1840 and those added to the physical plant up to the year 1879 were heated by the then universal means of wood-burning stoves. In 1879 two heating plants were installed, and steam became the medium for heating the buildings. One of these heating units was erected just northeast of University Hall, and the other was housed in a lean-to addition built at the east end of the Chemical Laboratory, later known as the Pharmacology Building. The first of these two units provided for the heating of the Law Building, University Hall, the Library, the Museum, the Dental Building, and the Homeopathic Hospital. These structures formed a compact group of buildings in the west and north sections of the campus. The second unit provided for the heating of the Chemical Laboratory and the Medical Building in the eastern part of the campus.
With these first heating plants came the beginning of a central heating distribution system. The various buildings were connected to the heating plants by steam mains and return lines buried Page 1746underground and were insulated by log coverings, isolated from the hot pipes by cast-iron spreaders.
A third heating plant was constructed in 1883-84 to care for heating of buildings in the southeast section of the campus. This unit provided heat for the Engineering Building (one of the professor's houses of 1840 which had been enlarged and remodeled), the Engineering Shops, and the Physical Laboratory. Soon after the erection of this unit, the heating plant at the Chemical Laboratory was abandoned, and the Chemical Laboratory and the Medical Building were connected with this unit.
The Homeopathic Hospital was moved from the campus in 1891 to new quarters on Catherine Street. This was the beginning of a hospital group remote from the campus proper, and a heating plant was established to serve the first building and subsequent additions. The Hospital unit expanded rapidly and by 1897 the plant, which had become incorporated in the original structure, was abandoned for a larger, independent heating plant known as the Hospital Boiler House. This Boiler House and equipment were expanded at various times as new building loads were added.
By 1894 the number of buildings on the campus had so increased that it became necessary either to build additional plants or to abandon those then in service for one central plant and distribution system. The latter plan seemed best and the structure known as the campus Boiler House and an underground heating tunnel system were built. This unit, at the site of the heating plant constructed in 1883-84, necessitated a complete enlargement of the old unit, the construction of a heating tunnel system, and the erection of a new 125-foot brick chimney.
The tunnel system consisted of approximately 2,400 feet of horseshoe-shaped brick tunnel, 6 feet 10 inches high and 5 feet 6 inches wide, in which heating mains were installed to service all the campus buildings. Two new 150-brake horsepower water-tube boilers were provided, and these were augmented by boilers removed from the heating plant at the University Hall and later by those from the plant at the Chemical Laboratory.
This, the first central heating plant, was destined to serve the University for a period of twenty years. Many changes and additions to equipment had to be made in an effort to keep the plant abreast of the demands of the rapidly expanding physical plant. Auxiliary steel stacks were built at one time to serve those boilers remote from the chimney and to increase their output. Many other expediencies, such as the installation of heat control on radiators and the weather-stripping of windows, were introduced throughout the University buildings in an effort to keep them properly heated.
By 1911 it had become evident that drastic changes were required in the heating system. Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, a Detroit firm of architects and engineers, was commissioned to study the problem and to prepare plans for an adequate central heating plant. As a result of these studies, construction of the present Washington Street Heating Plant and its system of distribution tunnels began in 1912. The project was completed in 1914, and the new unit served all University buildings, with the exception of the Hospitals, until 1924.
The site selected for the plant was in the valley, popularly known as the "Cat Hole," leading from the northeast part of the campus to the Huron River. This location, between Huron and Washington streets and also between the campus and the hospitals, was of such elevation that heating tunnels servicing the two Page 1747areas could be set at grades to permit the return of condensate to the plant by gravity flow. This location also permitted the installation of a spur railroad with an electrically driven locomotive, which provided an economical means of hauling coal from the Michigan Central Railroad to the storage pile adjacent to the heating plant.
The heating plant was a steel framed, reinforced concrete and brick structure containing 1,202,000 cubic feet of space and providing more room than was actually necessary, in order to take care of future expansion. The original installation consisted of eight 400-brake horsepower vertical-tube boilers fired by stokers and equipped with modern safety and operating devices. The operating room of the plant contained an air compressor, boiler feed water heaters, direct-current generators, and a 500-kilowatt, Corliss-driven, alternating-current generator to which, within a short period of time, was added domestic water-heating and softening equipment, so that hot softened water could be supplied to the boilers and to all University buildings.
An electrical and heating substation was erected over the original brick heating tunnel on the campus proper. This substation was connected with the Washington Street Heating Plant by a reinforced concrete tunnel 8 feet wide, 10 feet high, and 900 feet long. It carried steam, hot water, and return mains together with concrete-enclosed vitreous ducts to house electrical distribution cables.
The Washington Street Heating Plant, with subsequent improvements and additions of equipment, served the University until 1924. During this ten-year period two 500-brake horsepower, vertical-tube boilers were added, and the electrical generating equipment was expanded by the addition of two steam turbine generators, one of 600 kilowatts and the other of 1,200 kilowatts.
The early 1920's saw a rapid expansion in the University's physical plant. During this period, approximately 25,000,000 cubic feet of building space were added, and this made it necessary to increase the heating plant facilities. In 1924 an addition was constructed extending the building 136 feet and adding 598,000 cubic feet of space. A new 250-foot radial brick chimney was erected, and the coal storage site adjacent to the plant was enlarged. This improvement consisted of the construction of a concrete enclosed and lined basin capable of holding 40,000 tons of coal. Two 1,000-brake horsepower, horizontal-tube boilers and increased equipment were provided for water softening and heating.
Much concrete heating tunnel was added to the distribution system at this time. Aside from connecting links to the sites of the new buildings, 1,920 feet of heating tunnel, extending from the campus Substation along East University Avenue to South University Avenue and west to Alumni Memorial Hall, and 2,000 feet of similar tunnel, between the heating plant and University Hospital, were constructed. The completion of this expansion program saw all major University buildings, including the University Hospital, connected with the central heating plant.
From 1923 to 1935, as the number of University buildings increased, the heating plant, as remodeled in 1923-24, was expanded by the installation of additional boilers, a 1,022-brake horsepower, Sterling-type boiler in 1929, and a similar unit in 1930-31. The original eight 400-horsepower units were discarded.
The PWA-University building program of 1939, which added 8,443,000 cubic feet of building space to the physical Page 1748plant, required further heating facilities. A new 1,505-brake horsepower, three-drum, Sterling-type boiler was purchased at this time and a general modernization took place. The operating pressures of the boilers were changed from 150 pounds to 200 pounds, and a 1,100 cubic foot per minute, electrically driven air compressor and a 4,000-kilowatt steam turbine electrical generator were acquired. The change in operating pressure made the two 500-horsepower boilers installed in 1919 obsolete, and they were removed from the line.
The heating plant in 1943 housed two 1,000-, two 1,022-, and one 1,505-brake horsepower boilers or a total of 5,549 rated boiler horsepower. These boilers are capable of being operated at rates varying from 150 to 300 per cent of their rated capacity, thus making a maximum total of 13,625-brake horsepower available for the steam loads of the University. This equipment not only heats 81,500,000 cubic feet of building space, but provides power for electrical generation during the heating seasons, heats all domestic hot water, and provides for laboratory and kitchen steam loads as required in the various buildings. In 1948 a 300,000 pound-per-hour steam generating unit was installed.
The central Heating Plant was connected in 1954 with 115 buildings by means of approximately four and three-fourths miles of tunnels and more than three-fourths of a mile of secondary heating lines to smaller structures. In 1953-54 the Heating Plant burned 107,337,508 pounds of coal and generated 1,158,193,130 pounds of steam.
Electric power and lighting. — The University buildings, between the years 1840 to 1867, were illuminated by individual kerosene lamps. A local artificial gas company was established in 1867, and at that time the University buildings were piped for gas illumination. This method served until 1897 when the first electrical generating units were installed in the campus Boiler House. Two direct-current, 75-kilowatt, 220-volt generators, driven by Ridgeway engines, together with distribution lines, were provided. Buildings were also wired at this time. This service was expanded in 1901 by the addition of a 300-kilowatt, engine-driven generator of similar design.
Developments in electrical power and lighting during the early years of the century were so rapid that, like the heating system, the facilities were soon overtaxed. In planning for the Washington Street Heating Plant, ample provisions were made to alleviate this condition. The plant, as equipped, contained a 500-kilowatt, alternating-current, Corliss-driven generator with foundations complete for two additional units. This unit operated at 2,300 volts and served the campus buildings through primary cables installed in a duct system in the tunnel leading from the heating plant to the campus Substation. From this point, power was distributed to the various buildings. In addition to the new alternating-current generator, two 150-kilowatt, 250-volt, direct-current motor generator sets were installed to furnish direct-current service to various campus buildings, laboratories, and equipment.
In 1917 a 300-kilowatt turbogenerator was installed to provide additional electrical energy. This unit was replaced shortly thereafter by a 600-kilowatt unit. The building program of the early 1920's called for additional electrical loads, and in 1924 a 1,250-kilowatt turbogenerator was bought.
The design of the turbogenerators was such that they were operated under a discharge pressure, the steam going directly into the heating mains. In 1925 arrangements were made with the Detroit Page 1749Edison Company which resulted in the construction of a switch house and transformer station interconnecting the University's generating capacity with that of the Detroit Edison Company. Since then electrical energy has been developed in proportion to the demands of the heating loads — the University delivering electrical energy to the Edison Company during the heating season and taking energy from the company when the heating load is reduced to a point below the electrical demands.
The 500-kilowatt, Corliss-driven generator, installed in 1914, was replaced in 1930 by a 2,500 kilowatt turbogenerator, the change making possible not only a greater generating capacity but also an increase in exhaust steam for heating purposes.
In 1939 the University's physical plant was extended, and the generating capacity of the heating plant was increased to compensate for this growth. A 4,000-kilowatt turbogenerator was installed. With this unit the four turbogenerators had a total generating capacity of 8,350 kilowatts.
The electrical distribution system originally installed in the heating tunnels was changed because of the effect of excessive heat on the cable insulation and the carrying capacity of the copper. The present distribution system is a series of concrete and fiber underground raceways, carrying primary distribution cables from the Heating Plant to various University buildings where they terminate in underground transformer vaults from which secondary service is supplied to the buildings.
In 1953-54 the plant generated 25,473,226 kilowatts of electricity, purchased 14,965,400 kilowatts, and used 36,813,846 kilowatts.
Water. — During the early history of the University, the problem of a water supply was critical. The location of the campus on one of the higher sections of the city, together with the pervious nature of the underlying earth strata, made it all but impossible to obtain water by means of wells. When steam became the means of heating, a source of water became more urgent. Several means to obtain it were evolved. Large cisterns were constructed at various points on the campus into which rain water from neighboring roofs was conducted. Water for boiler purposes was then pumped from the cisterns.
Another early method of providing water consisted of piping spring water from natural springs near the site of the present Stadium to a receiving well near the intersection of Hill and South State streets. From this point it was pumped to the campus. This supply was meager owing to the distance that the water had to be conveyed through the small wooden pipes then used and the very small differential of elevation between the source and the outlet.
In 1885 the city of Ann Arbor gave a private company a franchise covering a water works system. The University has since obtained its supply from this utility. The city of Ann Arbor purchased the system in 1914, and it has been operated by the municipality since that time.
Water service to the various University buildings has been taken from the nearest adequate supply mains and is individually metered at the buildings. The only exception to individual building or building group service is the supply of hot water. Hot water for all University buildings is furnished through the Washington Street Heating Plant and distributed in University-owned mains in the heating tunnels.
The principal source of water for the municipal system is from wells which produce relatively hard water. Provisions were made at the heating plant to soften the raw water for use in the Page 1750boilers and in the domestic hot water system. When the municipal system built a softening and filtering plant in 1938, the need for softening all hot water at the heating plant was eliminated. Water direct from the city's mains is now heated for domestic supply, and only that used for boilers is softened to a further degree.
Water for fire protection for University buildings was provided by two services — one by hydrants connected to the city's distribution mains and the other by a University-owned high-pressure fire system which was installed in 1914. This latter system was connected at various points with the city's distribution system by check valves. Owing to cross-connection features this arrangement was discontinued. The University's high pressure mains are now leased to the city for use as distribution mains, and the high pressure pumping equipment has been removed.
West Engineering Annex (The Old Automotive Engineering Laboratory)
Hardly had the first Engineering Building been completed when it was found that "the public [was] so thoroughly awakened to the need of men well trained to guide our great mechanical industries" that a new mechanical laboratory was required (R.P., 1881-86, p. 494). Plans for the new building were authorized by the Regents in June, 1885. In August of the same year the Committee on Buildings and Grounds reported that Gordon W. Lloyd, architect, had furnished the design for the laboratory and that J. L. Gearing and Sons was the lowest bidder at $9,387 (R.P., 1881-86, pp. 581-82).
The new building, of slow-burning mill construction with brick walls and timbered floors, was occupied in 1886. Three stories and an attic in height, it towered over the original building to which it was connected. The north doorway of this structure bore the inscription "Engineering Laboratory" with the date, 1885. Almost immediately, however, it was found necessary to enlarge this building by removing the original building and the carpenter shop. The Catalogue of the University for 1887-88 states:
The increasing demand for practical instruction in the engineering departments has made it necessary again to extend the facilities of this Laboratory. The new building, completed in 1886, has been enlarged by the addition of two wings, which nearly double its former capacity. The Laboratory now contains about 20,000 square feet of floor space.
The completed building — central part with tower and the west-wing one-story foundry room — was under contract to be finished by January 1, 1888; it contained offices, classrooms, drawing rooms, and laboratories. In the tower at a height of 70 feet was a water tank of 100 barrels capacity.
In the summer of 1900 the contract for the erection and completion (except plumbing) of another addition to the Engineering Laboratory was made with Henry Carew and Company, of Detroit, with the understanding that the work should be completed by October, 1900.
At this time both the east wing and west wing of the Engineering Laboratory were extended to the south, continuing the same design and the original red brick with sandstone trim. When the old Library was torn down the clock tower and the chimes were moved "to the Engineering Building, now the Automotive Laboratory." In 1942 these bells were donated to the World War II metal scrap drive.
The completed structure afforded 42,204 Page 1751square feet of floor space and was used continuously by the Engineering College, first as shops and then as classrooms, drawing rooms, automotive laboratory, and engineering research laboratories until razed in 1956.
West Engineering Building
"The Engineering Department, which is receiving this year a third more students than it had last year, must have more room at once," according to President Angell's report in October, 1901. On November 26, the Regents authorized a new engineering building to cost $100,000. In March, 1902, the Regents accepted plans and specifications prepared by Mason and Kahn, of Detroit, and authorized a contract not to exceed $120,000, which was awarded in June, 1902, to Charles Hoertz and Son, of Grand Rapids. The figure was $140,000, including provision for a tile roof.
Apparently, there was difficulty with the contract. In December the Regents voted "to put steel beams, ten feet apart, over ship tank in the new Engineering Building to carry the cement floors." In March, 1903, bids for the heating and plumbing were referred to the Building Committee with power to act, and in May it was decided to fireproof the entire roof at an additional cost of $2,127. In July, 1903, the building was still far from completed, and the Regents served notice on the contractor that "unless they proceed[ed] with the prompt completion of their contract, the Board of Regents [would] take into its own hands the completion of the building and charge the contractors with the expenses thereof."
The building was finally completed in September, 1904, at a total cost of $275,000, in addition to equipment estimated at $26,700. It was known from 1904 to 1923 as the New Engineering Building. It is of fireproof steel and reinforced concrete construction, with outer walls of brick and stone, with a gross floor area of 94,318 square feet.
The central pavilion, 57 feet wide at the front, faces the corner, its archway spanning the main diagonal walk at the southeast corner of the campus. In 1914, a bronze tablet, in memory of Professor Charles Simeon Denison, was placed inside this arch, known as the Denison Arch. Suggestion of the arch "had its origin in the fact that when the New Engineering Building was under construction, it was a serious problem how to dispose of the building without interfering with the diagonal walk … Professor Denison prepared a sketch showing the diagonal walk passing through the building. This was turned over to the architect and the idea was incorporated in the plans." The wing facing South University Avenue extends westerly 134 feet and is 64 feet wide. The east wing, facing East University Avenue, originally extended 224 feet and is 61 feet wide. The central pavilion and these two wings constitute the main part of the building and are four stories high. In addition, there was a 61-foot square extension to the west at the north end of the east wing, and a one-story extension 25 feet wide and 100 feet long to the north to provide adequate length for the Naval Tank on the first floor of the east side of this wing. The tank was later extended to 360 feet long, 22 feet wide, and 9 ½ feet deep.
In 1904 the ground floor of the entire south wing was devoted to laboratory work in electrical engineering, mainly direct current and alternating current machinery, with a separate laboratory for experimental work in telegraph and telephone. Directly above on the second and third floors of the south wing, provision was made for work in civil engineering.
Page 1752The east side of the east wing contains the Naval Tank, the first to be constructed in a university in this country. Steel rails at the sides of the tank form a track for an electrically driven traveler which may be run at different speeds towing ship models of various lengths and forms. A dynamometer mounted on the traveler measures the resistance developed by the model. On the west side of the east wing, on the ground floor, are the physical and cement testing laboratories. The west extension of the east wing houses the steam and hydraulics laboratories; a boiler room at the north was used for student work with high pressure steam.
A staircase at either side of the entrance from the archway leads to the upper floors. Directly over the arch, on the second floor, is West Engineering Library, 30 by 53 feet, with paneled ceiling and walls and arched alcoves. The library is equipped with two large fireplaces which add to the attractiveness of the room. The offices of the dean and secretary, adjacent to the library, also have fireplaces. The second floor was mainly classrooms and offices, except for the Mechanical Laboratory directly over the steam and hydraulic laboratory.
Mechanical design rooms and Engineering Mechanics occupied the third floor of the east wing. The work in naval architecture was also on the third floor, and a mold loft was provided for the naval architects above the Mechanical Laboratory on the third floor of the center wing. Engineering Drawing and Architecture occupied the fourth floor.
This new structure became seriously overcrowded almost immediately and plans for an addition were approved in July, 1908.
The addition constructed in 1909-10 extended the east wing along East University Avenue, providing a four-story structure the entire length of the Naval Tank, now 360 feet in length, with a four-story north wing extending westward at the north end. The architect was Albert Kahn and the contract was awarded to Koch Brothers of Ann Arbor for $73,063.
Occupied in 1910, this addition added approximately 63,000 square feet to the total structure, which was designated the West Engineering Building in 1923, when the East Engineering Building was under construction.
To meet the critical need for space at this time, the one-story wooden buildings erected for hospital wards on the north side of the campus, and later used by the Dental College, were moved near the north end of the New Engineering Building, for use, in part, by the Surveying Department. In 1919 this group of old buildings was removed, and the Department of Surveying was housed in various other buildings, including the Library, until 1928, when the department was moved into the rooms formerly occupied by the College of Architecture in the south wing of the West Engineering Building and the Engineering Laboratory of 1885, known as the Annex. The new north wing housed on the first floor the electrical laboratories which were moved from the south wing. The offices of the dean and secretary were moved from over the arch, adjacent to the library, to the northern end of the addition on the second floor. The third floor included a lecture room, seating approximately 350 students. The fourth floor was devoted to the Architectural Department and class and drawing rooms.
Upon completion of the East Engineering Building in 1923, Highway Engineering was transferred to the East Engineering Building, and automotive engineering occupied space vacated by the Shops on the first floor of the West Engineering Annex constructed in 1885. The upper floors of the Annex, connected to the West Engineering Building by an Page 1753enclosed bridge at the second-floor level, were taken over as drafting rooms for architecture until the College of Architecture moved into its own new building in 1927. At that time the Department of Geodesy and Surveying moved into the south wing of the West Engineering Building, and Engineering Drawing took over the space vacated by Architecture.
When the addition to the East Engineering Building was completed in 1947, Electrical Engineering was transferred to that building, and the space vacated at the north end of the east wing of the West Engineering Building provided for Sanitary Engineering and Hydraulic Laboratories and an extension of the Naval Tank. Offices for the staff in Mathematics were provided on the second floor, and Civil Engineering expanded into the area formerly occupied by Mathematics on the third floor. In 1953 Engineering Mechanics offices moved from the fourth floor to the second floor of the south wing, and Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering were provided with offices and a large drawing room on the fourth floor in the room originally occupied by the College of Architecture; the old mold loft on the third floor was converted into a storage room for the Engineering Library. In 1955 an elevator was installed at the north side of the Mechanical Laboratory, and an appropriation was made to modernize the electric power supply to the standard 110-volt system.
In November of 1901 the Regents appropriated $16,000 for the purchase from the city of Ann Arbor of the old First Ward school building, which afterward was known as West Hall. This simple brick edifice, built in 1862-63, stood on State Street, very near the site where Betsy Barbour House was later erected. University Hall, which housed the classrooms of the Literary College, had become so overcrowded that immediate expansion was necessary, and to relieve this situation additional classrooms were made available in West Hall. Although it furnished only 9,824 square feet of floor space, West Hall accommodated classes in English, modern languages, and forestry. Later, the Department of Rhetoric of the Literary College was the sole tenant. Professor Fred Newton Scott's seminar room, with its famous round table, was situated on the second floor of this building.
In 1923, the Buildings and Grounds Department razed West Hall, behind which Betsy Barbour House had just been erected. The President's Report for 1922-23 stated:
[West Hall] was never planned for the use to which it was put and of course has never been suited to it. Even its venerable age has not brought it qualities such as to endear it to students and staff. Its creaking, splintered floors, its steep narrow staircases, its small rooms, its lack of office space, are all things of which its occupants are glad to be rid. It goes without saying that West Hall was a fire-trap.
West Medical Building
"The erection of this building is a debt handed down from the nineteenth century which we are trying to pay at the threshold of the twentieth: the erection of a home for the Department of Medicine and Surgery of this University… It represents the fulfillment of a long cherished wish, the final relief of long felt wants, the realization, partly at least, of plans entertained for years and prospects opening for a bright future" (Mich. Alum., 8: 197-205).
So spoke the Honorable Hermann Kiefer, Regent of the University and Page 1754chairman of the committee on the Department of Medicine and Surgery, at the laying of the corner stone of the West Medical Building on October 15, 1901.
The building is situated on the east side of the campus, just north of the original Medical Building. Spier and Rohns were the architects, and Koch Brothers were in charge of the erection of the building, the total cost of which was $167,000. It was first occupied in 1903. The building is rectangular, measuring 175 by 145 feet, with an inner court 75 by 45 feet which admits light to all parts of the building. The structure consists of a basement and three stories. The exterior is treated in the Renaissance style of architecture. The basement and first story are faced with dressed field stone, laid in course. The upper stories are of pressed brick of light buff color and mottled, with ornamental and molded brick for belt courses, arches and cornices. The two main ornamental entrances are on the east and west sides and are constructed of Bedford limestone. The vestibules are faced with dark red pressed brick. The interior of walls and nearly all partitions are finished with stock brick and coated with enamel paint. The floors and corridors throughout the building are of quarter-sawed Georgia pine, except in the case of the anatomical laboratories which have monolithic water-tight floors. The ceilings throughout are of wood. The general finish of the interior is of Louisiana red cypress.
The building was originally occupied by the departments of Anatomy, Histology, Pathology, Bacteriology, Physiological Chemistry, and Hygiene. In addition to the spacious laboratories of these departments, the building contained two large amphitheaters, two large recitation rooms, and a suite of rooms for executive purposes. Space was also provided for the anatomical and pathological museums. The building in 1955 houses the offices of the Medical School and the laboratories of the departments of Pathology and of Physiological Chemistry.
West Physics Building
The growth of the University in the years subsequent to the Civil War and the demand for special training in physics, particularly for students of engineering and medicine, made imperative a new physics building, which was authorized by the Regents in July, 1887, with an appropriation of $30,000 for the construction. At the October, 1887, meeting of the Regents the Committee on Buildings and Grounds reported that they had accepted the design of the architects, Pond and Pond, of Chicago, who had consulted with Professor Henry Smith Carhart and Dr. Victor C. Vaughan concerning the general room arrangement and the interior conveniences of the building. The contract for the construction was awarded to Daniel J. Ross for $26,973.99. The building, the third floor of which was to be used as a Hygienic Laboratory under the supervision of Dr. Vaughan, was completed in 1888. Out of the original appropriation an unexpended balance of $176.93 remained at the time of completion, which was used to purchase appliances for the Hygienic Laboratory.
On the completion of the West Medical Building in 1903, the Hygienic Laboratory was moved into the new quarters, leaving much needed room for further development of the Department of Physics. Even this expansion was found insufficient, however, and in 1905 another addition was made. Pond and Pond were the architects for the addition as well as for the main building. Koch Brothers of Ann Arbor were awarded the contract for the sum of $23,000 (R.P., 1901-6, p. 514). When completed it cost about $35,000.
Page 1755The Physics Building, which is of red brick, is 56 by 192 feet, comprises 18,497 square feet of floor area and is valued, exclusive of equipment, at $64,269. It is on the south side of the main campus, next to the Engineering Annex, between the General Library and the Clements Library. Included in the 1905 addition was a well-equipped lecture room accommodating 400 students, long used, until the erection of later buildings, as the one available, medium-sized auditorium on the campus. From about 1910 until 1925 the West Lecture Room was used for the daily summer session lectures under the charge of Dean Kraus.
At the present time the building provides space for the lectures, recitations, and laboratory classes in general physics and for two offices. There is also storage space for demonstration and laboratory apparatus; the physics instrument shop and the glassblower are also in this building.
Wood Technology Laboratory
In 1897 the Board of Regents authorized the Committee on Buildings and Grounds "to procure plans for enlarging the steam heating plant at the Hospitals so as to provide a dining room, laundry, and dormitories for the nurses in the Training School, at a cost not exceeding $10,000." The building, which was situated north of the other hospital buildings on Catherine Street, was used for this purpose for a number of years. A section of it was used for twenty years (1897-1917) as a laundry; later, the building became a clinical laboratory. Eventually, however, when the old hospitals were connected with the central heating plant of the University, this heating and power plant was abandoned, and in 1928 it was decided to remodel the west side of it as a wood utilization laboratory for the use of the School of Forestry and Conservation (R.P., 1926-29, p. 442). The sum of $8,300 was set aside for special repairs and alterations.
These changes included installation of a lumber-drying kiln provided with the necessary instruments and apparatus, a fully equipped wood-preserving plant designed to operate at pressures up to 200 pounds to the square inch, additional machinery and equipment for study of the mechanical and physical properties of woods and of the bonding of wood with adhesives, and improved facilities for the study of the structure of woods, with special reference to properties and industrial uses. The floor area occupied by the kiln and wood-preserving plant is approximately 40 by 70 feet, and there is ample working space around the units.
Since 1945 the building has undergone considerable remodeling, and there have been extensive additions of equipment. Total floor space now available is 15,400 square feet. The east end of the building was rehabilitated in 1946, and space provided for a finishing laboratory, a wood-machining laboratory, and for storage. New equipment for these two laboratories included a spray booth and accessory equipment and a complete assortment of power woodworking machines, namely, a planer, band saw, router, shaper, jointer, sanding machines, circular saws, borers, and drill press.
Alterations to the west end of the building in 1953-54 resulted in space for wood chemistry and in better facilities for work in wood anatomy, physical and mechanical properties of wood, and gluing. The major pieces of equipment in the gluing laboratory consist of two hot presses, a high frequency machine, a refrigerator for storing glues, a glue spreader and a cold press, together with appropriate testing equipment, while in the timber mechanics laboratory are two 60,000-pound universal testing machines, one mechanically and one hydraulically Page 1756operated, a toughness testing machine and various strain measuring devices and instruments. A weighing room is adjacent to the gluing and timber testing laboratories. Three large controlled temperature-relative humidity rooms, constructed in 1950, are in the basement.
The wood preservation laboratory contains two pressure cylinders and accessory working tank and pressure equipment. In addition, there is specially designed equipment for vacuum treating. The dry kiln, in the same laboratory, was remodeled in 1951 by the Standard Dry Kiln Company and is now of up-to-date design.
Additional remodeling in 1955 provided a fourth large, walk-in humidity room in the basement. At that time, an area 24 by 48 feet on the ground floor at the east end of the building, which formerly served as a garage, was incorporated into the laboratory. Metal-working and maintenance equipment including precision grinders, boring equipment, a lathe, and a milling machine are now housed in this area.