The Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center
The building occupied by the Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center of the Department of Radiology was conceived as a result of conversations in the spring of 1952 between Dr. F. J. Hodges, chairman of the Department of Radiology, and Dr. John C. Bugher, Director of the Division of Biology and Medicine of the Atomic Energy Commission. Dr. Bugher proposed a program of evaluation of clinical treatment of the cancerous diseases using teletherapy radioisotope units. Initially, it was planned to employ cobalt-60, and when cesium-137 could be separated it was to be used in a second teletherapy unit. One factor which interested the AEC was that since 1934 an organized recording of results of cancer treatment has been made at the University Hospital; this provided a rich background of standard high voltage X-ray treatment results to compare with results obtained with teletherapy units.
As a result of these discussions, and with the consent of the University, a formal research proposal was submitted to the AEC in May, 1952. This was approved in August, 1952, and was formally signed on December 22, 1952.
During the discussions preceding the submission of the formal research proposal, the AEC announced that it could no longer support major construction at university sites. Since the radiation therapy quarters in the Department of Radiology were entirely inadequate for housing teletherapy units, the project could not have been undertaken without new and larger quarters. This problem was discussed with Dean Furstenberg and the Executive Committee of the Medical School in April, 1952, and permission was granted to request financial aid of the Phoenix-Memorial Project. An initial grant of $75,000 from the Alice Crocker Lloyd Memorial Fund of the Phoenix-Memorial Project restricted to cancer research and $15,000 from unrestricted Phoenix Project funds formed the nucleus of the construction cost. The balance was provided by the University Hospital, the Medical School, and the general fund of the University. Authorization was given by the University in April, 1953, to complete final plans and accept bids. Ground-breaking ceremonies took place on July 14, 1953, and the building was completed and occupied in April, 1954. The first cobalt-60 source, 1903 Curies, was delivered and installed in February, 1955. The Center was appropriately dedicated on March 26, 1955.
Page 1652The Center is situated in the area south of the corridor connecting the Main Hospital and the Kresge Medical Research Building. The entrance is from the south wall of the corridor. Except for a penthouse for mechanical equipment, the building is below ground level. The Center will be used solely as the radiation therapy division of the Department of Radiology, providing facilities for the examination and treatment of patients and for related teaching and research activities.
The building was designed by Black and Black, of Lansing, Michigan, and was constructed by the Jeffress-Dyer Company of Washington, D.C. The planning was done in a series of conferences attended by the architects, Mr. Fry, Dr. Hodges, Dr. Lampe, and administrators of the University Hospital.
The structure consists of 6,600 square feet of floor space underground and 600 square feet in the penthouse above grade. The walls, floor, and ceiling are of poured high-density concrete. There are twenty-three rooms and three corridors. The five treatment rooms are appropriately shielded with lead and concrete to prevent radiation transmission to other parts of the building. The Center is provided with a class and staff conference room, examining and dressing rooms for patients, a room for radium storage and handling, a physics laboratory, a room for records and statistics, and an attractive entrance lobby. With the exception of the inner walls of the two large rooms designed to contain teletherapy units, the inner partitions are constructed of cinder block, with plaster in some areas. The treatment rooms, dressing rooms, and toilets have ceramic tile floors; other flooring is of asphalt tile. Most of the ceilings are covered with acoustical tile.
The estimated cost of the building was $250,000. The name Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center was designated by the Regents in honor of the late Dean of Women, Alice Crocker Lloyd.
Children's Psychiatric Hospital
The Children's Psychiatric Hospital was completed in December, 1955. Swanson Associates, of Bloomfield Hills, were the architects, and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., of Washington, D. C., were awarded the contract in the amount of $2,151,804. Construction was begun in the spring of 1954.
The new hospital will ultimately be a part of a total children's medical center with a planned 291-bed capacity. Built to harmonize with the Outpatient Clinic and the Kresge Medical Research Building, the Children's Psychiatric Hospital accommodates seventy-five children ranging in age from six to fifteen years.
There are four wards, three for sixteen children each, and a convalescent ward of twenty-seven beds. Each of the four units is independent in terms of the living plan for the children, and each ward has its own nursing and auxiliary staffs, dining room, and play rooms.
All walls in the living quarters are tiled, floors are of Gibraltar, and windows are louvre type with inside screens. Through careful use of colors, drapes, and other decorations, as warm as possible a tone has been provided.
All wards have three types of accommodations, four-bed dormitories, two-bed dormitories, and some single rooms. In addition, two detention rooms are provided in each ward to handle acute outbursts and allow for brief isolation when necessary.
Special features in each ward include a large playroom for active games, a smaller playroom for quiet games and music, a snack bar for evening use, and a group therapy room for special evening Page 1653projects. Special planning has gone into dining room construction and service. Children eat at tables planned for five children and one adult. Service is family style from platters on the tables when children sit down to eat. This allows for some degree of self-selection which is important to children. In the past it was found that when an unwished for food was presented, it was more throwable than eatable and mealtimes could be hectic.
The Children's Psychiatric Hospital has been designed around a total program that includes all aspects of special care which have been found to have therapeutic value. Because severely disturbed children may dislike school as a result of experiences in community schools, the hospital is geared to provide specially planned schooling in small groups. Six remedial reading rooms in the school area are provided to help overcome reading disabilities, common in disturbed children. One floor is devoted to classrooms and shops. There are five of each.
To take care of recreational needs there is a fully equipped gymnasium and a swimming pool. There is also a 100-seat auditorium equipped for movies, plays, and other entertainment in which the children themselves participate.
Other recreation facilities include a large playground with facilities for baseball, volley ball, slides, swings, sand piles, a wading pool, and other resources.
Each child in the hospital has a minimum of three hours a week with a psychiatrist in training.
Direct psychotherapy is practiced off the ward, away from the living area. Each child sees his doctor by regular appointment in the doctor's office — he is in effect attending a clinic separate from his home within the hospital.
Kresge Medical Research Building
In November, 1949, the Regents accepted "with grateful appreciation" a gift of $3,000,000 from the Kresge Foundation for the construction and equipment of a medical research building (R.P., 1948-51, p. 532). The Kresge gift, one of the largest single gifts ever received by the University, covered the construction costs of the Medical Research Building and of the laboratory furniture for some units in the building. Additional funds in the amount of $500,000 were received from private sources for furnishing certain laboratories and for purchase of special research equipment.
In planning the research building the faculty committee kept in mind three major objectives: to provide physical facilities for a continuing program of medical research, to facilitate a training program for a carefully selected group of men and women having research ambitions and aptitudes, and to bring together theory and practice through a close relationship between research, clinical care of patients, and medical education.
All research conducted in the Kresge Building is under the supervision of the Medical School faculty. Funds for research are received primarily from foundations, individuals, industry, and agencies interested in aiding the progress of medical science.
Giffels and Vallet, Inc., Detroit, and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, New York, were the architects and engineers for the building. Jeffress-Dyer of Washington, D. C., was the contractor. Ground was broken on January 17, 1951, and the dedication ceremonies held on completion of the building took place on May 15, 1954. Designed to permit a flexible arrangement of laboratories and equipment so that constantly changing needs or programs may be met, the Page 1654Kresge Building stands just west of University Hospital. It is 50 feet wide and 300 feet long and consists of five levels, containing 128 laboratory units, and twenty-eight animal units, as well as office, conference, shop, locker, mechanical equipment, and storage areas.
Laboratory areas have been so designed that they may be divided into individual units as small as ten feet wide by eighteen feet deep, each complete with all necessary services. These small units may be combined to form a single large laboratory whenever necessary. Likewise, a central hood exhaust system has been constructed which permits a hood to be placed in every twenty-foot laboratory or in every other ten-foot unit.
Animal quarters have been constructed on the top level of the building. These are air conditioned and have a special exhaust system to establish a standard environmental condition for research laboratory animals. The rooms are equipped with large sinks and have floors and walls of tile, permitting easy cleaning. A special kitchen has been built for preparation of food for laboratory animals, and the special animal cage washing unit permits efficient, automatic washing and sterilizing of cages.
Details of laboratory equipment, of course, will be constantly changing as research methods and objectives change. Several unusual and interesting laboratories have been constructed in the building, to meet the needs of research studies now underway. For example, there is a shielded electroencephalography area, a soundproof room with vibration-proof floor, walk-in cold rooms, incubator rooms, and an isotope laboratory.
The electroencephalography laboratories are room-sized copper boxes, the metal shielding serving to eliminate electrostatic interference. The machines are connected to the subject in the shielded room by means of a shielded cable. Extreme caution was taken to assure that the sheet copper in the walls of these rooms was completely insulated from the concrete and plaster of the walls in which it was placed. Significant progress is being made in this new field of investigation.
Equally painstaking was the construction of the Soundproof Laboratory, which is a room within a room. Its vibration-proof floor is supported by an independent foundation, and this room is also shielded electrostatically. The Soundproof Room is used in investigations of speech and hearing problems.
The Kresge Building is connected with University Hospital by means of a passageway. Between these two buildings is the new Alice Lloyd Radiation Therapy Laboratory, in which radiological therapy and research are being concentrated. There are no facilities for housing patients in the Kresge Building, but there is a close relationship between many of the research studies and the clinical care of patients.
The business administration of the building is under the general direction of the administrative staff of the University Hospital.
The major research facilities within the Building include special laboratories in dermatology, intestinal diseases, hypertension, metabolic and endocrine disorders, arthritis, anticoagulants, allergy, nervous system research, isotope studies, cancer serology, surgical techniques, immunology, kidney function, toxicology, and acoustics.
The Old University Hospital Buildings
The old University or "Catherine Street" Hospital included a group of some twenty buildings, large and small, the first of which was erected in 1891; Page 1655these were successively enlarged and added to until the completion of University Hospital in 1925. For many years the Medical Department had occupied, as a makeshift, a building on the campus, developed from one of the old professorial residences in 1876, with the intention of tearing it down after a few years of use (the Campus Pavilion Hospital, 1876-91; see Part V: The University Hospital). At the time of its construction modern methods of asepsis were unknown.
By 1890, however, the University's pioneer step in lengthening the medical course to four years, the prospective increase in the requirements for graduation, and the additional clinical courses made a new hospital imperative. The legislature in 1889 already had appropriated $50,000 for a new hospital unit to consist of two buildings, one, about 190 by 75 feet, to be used by the Homeopathic Department of Medicine, and one, about 235 by 60 feet, for the "regular" Medical School. Toward the construction of this hospital the city of Ann Arbor also contributed $25,000. These grants, as events proved, were far too small. Nevertheless, the two buildings provided 104 beds, of which the Homeopathic College had forty and the Medical School sixty-four.
The buildings were finally erected, after numerous modifications of the original plans, at the opposite sides of a ten-acre lot on Catherine Street, overlooking the Huron River. Construction was begun on the "regular" Hospital in 1890; it was occupied in 1891, and formally opened in January of the following year. The Homeopathic Hospital was not opened until 1892. Each building consisted of three stories, in addition to a basement, which was used for storage and other hospital uses, but these basements were so cut up that, in the words of Dr. Reuben Peterson in his "The History of the University of Michigan Hospital," they "resembled rabbit warrens."
The architects for the two buildings were Chamberlain and Austin, of Boston, and the contracts for their construction were carried out through the University Committee on Buildings and Grounds. At the time they were erected there had been comparatively little experience in hospital construction and this fact, as well as the limitations necessitated by the small appropriation, laid the buildings open to criticism in many respects. Dr. Peterson related that there were no classrooms, no teaching laboratories, and no preparation rooms, and that patients had to be prepared for operations in the bathrooms. The administration offices took up valuable space needed for other things. It may be said, however, that these buildings and those subsequently erected, faulty as they were, represented a great improvement over the facilities available before their construction, both for teaching and for care of the sick.
An amphitheater of the old-fashioned type was included in each Hospital, "a small pit from the center of which arose a steep central aisle with rows of uncomfortable wooden benches on either side" (Peterson). In these amphitheaters, for many years, operations and demonstrations were carried on before the students. The buildings also had two wards as well as a few private rooms; the space in the regular Hospital soon became so crowded that extra beds had to be provided.
At the rear, between the two buildings, a small heating plant was erected because the hospitals were too far away to be connected with the University heating system. This plant was used until 1897, when a much larger one, later used as the Wood Utilization Laboratory, was erected at the rear of the entire group of Page 1656buildings. The old heating plant was enlarged in 1897-98 at a cost of $10,000 to provide a dining room, dormitory, and laundry for twenty nurses. This new construction extended to the south of the old heating plant, occupying the space between the two buildings.
In 1901 Mrs. Love M. Palmer, wife of Dr. Alonzo B. Palmer, the first Professor of Anatomy, gave the University $20,000 for a building to be devoted to the care of children in the University Hospital and $15,000 for the endowment of it. The Regents added $5,000 to the original bequest (R.P., 1901-6, p. 224). This building was erected in the form of a special ward, measuring about 50 by 100 feet at the front of the building. It was completed in 1903 and after 1917 a part of it was used as an orthopedic ward. It served for some years as a tuberculosis ward after the opening of University Hospital in 1925 and later became the Radiation Laboratory.
In 1900, after the construction of the new Homeopathic Hospital (now North Hall), near the corner of North University and Washtenaw avenues, the old Homeopathic Hospital was taken over by the regular Medical School and became the Medical Ward, while the other building became the Surgical Ward. A long, narrow passageway was built in 1900 connecting these two buildings, crossing the Palmer Ward and the nurses' residence between them. From this passageway various subsidiary buildings extended which were designed for use as a bakery, an office for social service, and a housekeeper's room. A small office building was erected in 1896 for the use of the superintendent, and the space thus saved was used for much needed laboratories. This office building was enlarged in 1918. From 1925 it was used for school and recreational purposes by the Social Service Department, and later by the Red Cross. The old Homeopathic Hospital Building, later the Medical Ward, was burned to the ground in February, 1927.
The erection of a building for the departments of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology at a cost not exceeding $14,000 was approved by the Regents in November, 1905. Despite this favorable action, however, it was not until 1909 that the Regents directed the Buildings and Grounds Committee to work out a plan for such a building, and at the July meeting of that year the sum of $25,000 was voted for its erection. This amount was exclusive of equipment, purchased later for $9,600. The final cost of the building, completed in 1910, was $33,000. Known as the Eye and Ear Ward, this building was approximately 50 by 100 feet, with a floor area of 17,112 square feet, and stood at the rear of the main group of hospital buildings to which it was connected by a covered passageway. From the beginning these quarters were seriously limited, but a few extra rooms for patients, seriously ill, were thus provided as well as a limited space for the sectional teaching of students. With the opening of the new Hospital in 1925, the building was rearranged to care for maternity patients.
Provision for maternity cases in the Hospital was first made when they were temporarily housed in Palmer Ward after its erection in 1903. This, however, was a makeshift arrangement, and in January, 1905, the Regents approved the use of a building, originally moved from North University Avenue for use as a contagious hospital. This old house, which stood on the west side of the Hospital site behind the Medical Ward Building, with another which was moved to an adjacent site in 1908, served the Department of Obstetrics for many years, although neither of these buildings was at all adapted to the purpose it Page 1657was to serve. They have since been razed as fire hazards.
At the time the Catherine Street Hospitals were erected in 1891, a small shack on the property, just behind the Homeopathic Hospital, was taken over and used as a laundry. With the removal of the heating plant to a new building in 1897, the laundry was moved into a new building, and at a cost of $200 the old building was fitted up as a separate contagious disease hospital and equipped with furniture for an additional sum of $36.15.
Here cases of diphtheria, smallpox, and scarlet fever were cared for until 1914, when the city of Ann Arbor, gave the University the money for a Contagious Disease Hospital. Conditions in the first little building had been very bad, but no steps were taken to remedy them until a smallpox epidemic developed in Ann Arbor in 1908 and the patients had to be isolated in a building hastily prepared for the purpose. The city of Ann Arbor gave $25,000, which amounted to the cost of the building without its equipment, for the twenty-four bed Contagious Disease Hospital, which was erected in accordance with plans designed by J. H. Marks, then Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds (see Part V: The University Hospital). This hospital was designed for treatment under one roof of patients with various kinds of contagious diseases, at that time a radical departure in the treatment of such cases which, however, proved eminently practical and satisfactory. The building, completed in 1914 and measuring approximately 40 by 100 feet, was erected in an isolated spot well to the east of the entire Hospital group of buildings.
By 1914 the need for adequate quarters for the house physician and interns in the Hospital had become a pressing one, and the first interns' home was adapted from a residence moved to a site at the rear of the hospitals. An appropriation of $2,500 was made by the Regents for this purpose in March, 1912, and a further addition to the building was authorized in 1917. The building, which accommodated about fourteen men, was later used by the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology. A nurses' home, known as the Pemberton-Welsh Residence, was also erected in 1921. This was a two-story wooden building, about 160 by 45 feet, which housed seventy-five graduate nurses. The design and construction of this building were carried out entirely by the Buildings and Grounds Department.
In addition to the buildings composing the Hospital group, the state of Michigan, in 1901, authorized the erection of a Psychopathic Hospital, just to the east of the Hospital buildings. This building, completed in February, 1906, was the first University psychiatric hospital and clinic in the country. While the cost of the building was borne by the state, the University also appropriated about $8,000 to make it fireproof. It accommodated forty patients. In its plan and equipment it was essentially an observation hospital. On the first floor were the offices and a small classroom. The wards were at either end of the building on the first and second floors.
The last addition to the rather extensive group of buildings which comprised the old Hospital group proper was a separate twenty-five bed Dermatology Ward, authorized by the Regents in December, 1917, and erected in 1918 at a cost of $7,445. It was removed in 1932.
With the completion of the Hospital in 1925, the old Hospital buildings were no longer needed for the purposes for which they had been designed. Many of the buildings, however, have been used as convalescent wards and as other adjuncts to the Hospital. The old Psychopathic Hospital for some time was occupied by Page 1658the School of Public Health, and the old Office Building was used by the Red Cross.
Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital
The new Outpatient Clinic of the University was built at a cost of $3,836,717 with funds appropriated by the state. In March, 1949, the Regents agreed that a bill be introduced in the legislature "to include a request for the funds necessary to construct the addition to the General Library and the Medical Outpatient Clinic" (R.P., 1948-51, p. 284). In November of the same year the Board adopted a resolution that the University request the legislature for a capital improvements appropriation for 1950-51, covering the construction of the Outpatient Clinic in the amount of $2,800,000 (R.P., 1948-51, p. 574).
A request for an increased appropriation was made early in 1951, and the legislature accordingly, in June, 1951, granted $1,500,000 for the building. As a result the authorized contract cost was increased from $2,900,000 to $3,726,800. Skidmore, Owings and Merrill were appointed as architectural consultants for the building and the firm of Giffels and Vallet, Inc., as architects. A contract for the construction of the superstructure was executed with Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., of Washington, D.C.
Construction was begun in September, 1950, and completed in January, 1953. The structure is a seven-story addition to the main building. It houses twenty-one clinics formerly scattered throughout odd corners of the University Hospital and is now capable of serving three times the 250,000 annual patient capacity of the old Clinic.
The new clinics are designed to provide faster and better service as well as comfort and convenience for patients not confined to hospital beds. In addition to the twenty-one specialty clinics there are 196 examining rooms, six classrooms, and ample space for the administrative staff. On each level are comfortable waiting rooms. The Pediatrics and the Psychiatry clinics have their own waiting rooms.
With the opening of the building the Hospital began a twenty-four-hour-a-day emergency service. The air-conditioned emergency suite consists of a receiving room, four minor operating rooms, a first aid room, and a cast room, with X-ray facilities adjacent.
General services for all patients are on the second level, which is the ground floor at the main entrance. Here is the reception desk where patients present letters of referral from their doctors. Nearby is the registration area, with individual booths for interviewing patients. Next is a general laboratory area for routine examinations. Also on this floor is the pharmacy unit at which patients may have prescriptions filled and the Central Appointments Office.
Like all units of the Medical Center, this building is used in the education of medical and nursing students. The classrooms are equipped for film and X-ray projection. Another important teaching facility is the Nutrition Clinic, where patients are taught the dietary principles necessary in treatment of certain diseases. The Heredity Clinic, formerly in a frame building behind the main Hospital, has been moved to the Outpatient Building and has quarters on the first level.
The Outpatient Clinic Building measures 125,340 square feet. It is 60 by 231 feet. It is built of reinforced concrete and light brick and is modern in style. In addition to the basement, there are approximately 500 rooms on the seven floors. A bridge 140 feet long connects the Page 1659Clinic Building with the Main Hospital on three levels.
The Thomas Henry Simpson Memorial Institute for Medical Research
The Simpson Memorial Institute stands as the result of a $400,000 bequest to the University by Mrs. Catherine Simpson, of Detroit, in memory of her husband (R.P., 1923-26, p. 478). The building is on Observatory Street opposite the University Observatory and south of the University Hospital. According to the terms of Mrs. Simpson's bequest $150,000 was to be used for the construction and equipment of the building, and the remaining sum of $250,000 was to be invested in securities; it was intended that the income from these would pay the salaries of members of the staff, and it was agreed that expenses for heat, light, repairs, and administration of the new building would be borne by the University so that the income from the bequest could be used solely for research purposes. The primary subject for research, as stipulated by the donor, was the study of pernicious anemia and its treatment. Other disorders affecting the blood are also being investigated.
Construction began on June 3, 1925, with Albert Kahn as architect and Henry L. Vanderhorst as contractor. Dedication exercises were held on February 10, 1927. The cost of building and equipment eventually amounted to $202,867.85. The building is approximately 75 by 45 feet and affords 17,830 square feet of floor space.
The Institute, a beautiful four-story granite building, on a site overlooking the reaches of the Huron River Valley, is a few hundred feet from the entrance to the University Hospital. Broad steps lead up to the front entrance, through which one enters a handsomely furnished walnut-paneled lobby. Also on the first floor are offices for the Director and secretaries, a library, and a conference room. Many of the furnishings of the first floor were given to the University by Mrs. Simpson. A gift of books for the library was made in 1926 by Dr. Lemuel W. Famulener, of St. Luke's Hospital, New York City.
The second floor is devoted to the laboratories and offices of the junior staff members. On the third floor are accommodations for ten patients, nursing office, diet kitchen, and treatment and utility rooms. A lecture room, photographic room, and quarters for animals are on the two basement floors.
Since its establishment the Institute has been closely affiliated with the Medical School and with the University Hospital. In addition to research, the activities of the staff include consultations concerning patients referred by their attending physicians or by members of the hospital staff, and instruction of medical and postgraduate students.
In accepting the Institute at the dedication exercises, President Little referred to it as "a living memorial where through the years to come men and women will be enabled to search for ways in which human suffering may be decreased in order that happiness and freedom from pain which is so characteristic of Youth may be made more sure." He added: "No gift that the University will ever receive can have about it more delicate and beautiful sentiment than the untiring and personal attention that the donor has bestowed upon the Simpson Memorial Institute." During the twenty-seven years the Institute has been in existence, active research has been carried on in various fields of hematology. Almost 2,500 patients have been admitted Page 1660and cared for, and the yearly visits to the outpatient service total more than 2,000.
University Hospital Building
For many years before World War I plans for increasing the hospital facilities of the University had been discussed. It was not until 1917, however, that the legislature made a first appropriation for the new building, in the amount of $350,000. Two years later a second appropriation of $700,000 brought the total to $1,050,000, although $35,000 of this amount was set aside for an additional unit to the Homeopathic Hospital.
At first it was planned to construct the new hospital in units or sections, costing about $350,000 each, as the money was appropriated, but this did not prove feasible. Entrance of the United States into World War I delayed the progress of the building, but in May, 1919, plans were submitted by the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit, and were accepted by the Regents. The sum of $59,320 was set aside by the Regents in June, 1919, to cover the cost of the land required for the site, on Ann Street directly across from the Observatory. In the fall of that year contracts for the construction of the exterior shell of the building were let, with the expectation of completing the building through later appropriations on the part of the legislature. Thompson-Starrett Company held the contract for the work in masonry, cut stone, structural steel parts, and the rough carpentry; the University Department of Buildings and Grounds had charge of the heating, ventilating, plumbing, and electrical work.
In addition to the funds already provided the legislature had appropriated an additional $540,644 to complete existing contracts. Progress on the new building continued through 1920 and 1921, and in the fall of the latter year the first part of the construction was completed. No further funds were available at that time, however, and work was stopped. In 1923 the legislature made another appropriation of $2,300,000 to complete the hospital, the final cost of which was $3,395,961.
Construction of the building was resumed in the fall of 1923, with Professor John F. Shepard appointed Supervisor of Plans early in 1924, to work with the architect and contractors. Dr. Christopher G. Parnell, Director of the Hospital from 1918 to 1924, had also worked with the architect in the fundamental planning of the building. In June and July of 1924 bids were received, and the major contracts let for the completion of the building. From that time work progressed rapidly until patients were moved from the old Hospital to the new building early in August, 1925.
The gross floor area of the Hospital comprises 434,445 square feet. The main building is 460 feet over-all from east to west and 400 feet from north to south, when the Neuropsychiatric Institute is included.
With the completion of the building Michigan had a Hospital worthy of the state and of the University, adequate for the needs of the people and for the training of medical students and nurses. The Hospital, built on the system of regularly spaced piers, is of fireproof construction throughout and contains two miles of corridors and ten acres of floor space. At the present time it provides 744 beds. It was estimated that of the total cost of the building more than $400,000 was spent for equipment.
In general design the building, constructed of light sand-colored brick with stone trimmings, is in the shape of a double Y, with the lower ends forming the main corridors and the upper angles of the Y forming the wards at either end. Page 1661Directly in front of the building is a three-story administration building, constructed entirely of Indiana limestone, while to the rear is the surgical wing, with the Neuropsychiatric Institute, completed in 1939, just beyond. All of these sections are connected by corridors to the main Hospital, so that they really form integral parts of it. This unusual design provides maximum light and air for all the rooms and wards on the nine floors of the Hospital. Of these nine stories all are completely or in part available for patients. Floors below the first level are used for services such as kitchens, stores, dining rooms, cafeterias, and clothes storage.
On the roof are a recreation center and school department for crippled children and a poliomyelitis Respirator Center. The surgical wing contains a pathological museum, two amphitheaters, bacteriological, clinical, and serology laboratories, a library, eleven operating rooms, and ninety-two private rooms for patients. In the main part of the Hospital there are 652 beds including ten wards of eighteen beds each. The remainder are in smaller ward and semi-private accommodations. Adjacent to each ward and forming the ends of the two Y's are attractively furnished sun rooms.
The sixth floor provides facilities for treating 95 children. The fifth floor is reserved for treatment of neurological, neurosurgical, medical, and eye diseases. Men's and women's surgery for the most part occupies the third floor. The fourth floor is devoted to treatment of orthopedic, urologic, and ear afflictions. The second floor is devoted to internal medicine and metabolic diseases. The X-ray department occupies about 100,000 square feet on the ground floor and has complete facilities for diagnosis. Treatment facilities are quartered in the Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center Unit. One of the large amphitheaters is equipped with a special device by means of which 200 students may hear a patient's heart sounds at the same time. All departments of the hospital and clinics are connected with a central record room where histories of the patients are filed.
The Administration Building, which forms the main entrance to the Hospital, contains on the second floor the general offices, including those of the Director, Dr. A. C. Kerlikowske, the Associate Director, Dr. Roger B. Nelson, and other administrative personnel. On the same floor are the hospital personnel office, and the administrative offices for the Dietetic and Nursing departments. Just below, on the first floor, are the general admission and financial and business offices of the Hospital. The third floor is occupied by the Social Service Department as well as by the medical and financial statistical section.
In 1931 two additional stories were added to the main section of the Hospital under a 1929 appropriation of $250,000 from the legislature, to which $28,000 was added by the state and the University. These two floors, which added 98 beds to the capacity of the Hospital, are devoted to the care and treatment of tuberculosis. Incorporated in the addition were a light therapy room and a number of laboratories. This addition formed the final link in the chain of treatment of pulmonary diseases in Michigan, providing students with an adequate teaching laboratory. Altogether it added 35,787 square feet to the Hospital.
The Interns' Home, which was completed in December, 1939, is connected with the Hospital by an underground passageway. The building consists of three floors in addition to the ground floor; it is so planned that it may be Page 1662extended by adding two stories without impairment of its proportions and design. An elevator shaft, not utilized at the present time, has been provided in case of expansion.
Care was taken to place the recreational facilities of the building as far as possible from the living quarters, so as to avoid disturbing those who must sleep while others are engaged in leisure-time activities.
The ground floor contains the trunk room, a photographic darkroom, a recreation room covering 2,000 square feet and adjoined by a kitchen, and a handball court. On the first floor, at the right of the main entrance, is a reception room; on the east side of the second floor a lounge room, with paneled walls and built-in bookcases, affords a magnificent view of the Huron River and surrounding country.
The bedrooms, the majority of which are single rooms, have ample closet space and private lavatories. In addition, there are shower rooms, with marble shower stalls and marble wainscoting on each floor. Sixty-one interns are accommodated in these rooms. The building measures 39 by 154 feet and furnishes 23,295 square feet of floor space. It is equipped with a loudspeaker system extending to all corridors and to the handball court and the recreation and lounge rooms.
In 1938-39 the Neuropsychiatric Institute was built as an additional wing directly behind the Surgical Wing of University Hospital. It is connected with the Hospital by the use of corridors on each floor. The building stands on a sharp decline and is only five stories high, so that it is lower than the Hospital proper. Funds for this building were first provided by the legislature in 1929, in the so-called Hartman Act, when a total of $330,000 was appropriated, but this sum was never made available. Some years later, in 1937, $400,000 was again appropriated, and with this fund, plus an additional sum of $56,000 from the University Hospital Fund, the Institute was built.
The Neuropsychiatric Institute contains approximately eighty-five beds, of which one-third are for adolescents for whom a part of the second floor is reserved. The sub-subbasement contains rooms for physiotherapy and hydrotherapy equipment as well as a gymnasium. The subbasement floor is mainly for the work in occupational therapy; a lecture room seating 140 persons can be used for recreation and entertainment, and there is also a neuropathological laboratory. The basement and ground floors are used for the care and treatment of additional patients, while the first floor houses the offices of the outpatient department. The architect of the Institute was Albert Kahn, designer of the main Hospital, and the contractor for the erection of the building was Jerome A. Utley, of Detroit. This building is 212 feet by 53 feet, with a total floor area of 65,830 square feet.
In October, 1945, the Board of Regents approved a recommendation to ask the legislature for an appropriation of $1,000,000 for the construction of a maternity hospital (R.P., 1945-48, p. 119). The building was authorized early in 1946.
Ground was broken in March, 1947. Then, at the joint request of the Senate Finance and House Ways and Means committees, after $100,000 had been spent the work had to be suspended owing to lack of funds. It was not until May, 1948, that an economy-conscious legislature finally provided $1,645,000 Page 1663for the building. Yet no single unit in the University building program was ever more desperately needed than the Women's Hospital. The old building, erected in 1904 for other purposes, was outmoded, ramshackle, and overcrowded and was properly termed "a disgrace to the state" by former Governor Kim Sigler.
Construction was resumed in June, 1948, and completed in January, 1950. The total appropriation for the Hospital was $1,750,000, of which $100,000 was set aside for furnishings. The final cost was $1,725,000.
In accordance with the University Hospital's dual purpose as an educational center for medical and nursing students, as well as a hospital proper, the new Women's Hospital unit combines outpatient and inpatient service with facilities for the teaching of obstetrics and gynecology. There are also facilities for research in large and well-equipped laboratories.
Open house was held early in February, 1950. All patients and babies were transferred from the old Maternity unit and admitted to the new Women's Hospital on February 14, 1950.
Situated just east of the main Hospital, this beautiful brick building accommodates seventy-seven mothers and eighty-two babies, in contrast to the old structure where only thirty-five mothers and thirty babies could be taken care of.
The obstetric outpatient clinic, on the main floor, includes six examining rooms, two offices for doctors, an infants' examining room, and a special waiting room for mothers returning for the postnatal care of the babies. On the east side opposite the entrance, are a staff room, a classroom, a library, and laboratories. Also on the main floor is the Norman R. Kretzschmar Galens Memorial Room. This beautiful lounge for medical students was furnished with funds provided by the Galens Society and by associates of Dr. Kretzschmar, who died on May 5, 1943.
The building houses obstetrical patients and babies on the second and third floors and gynecological patients on the third floor. The modern delivery-room section on the second floor includes nurses' station, six labor rooms, two delivery rooms, and one operating room.
The delivery rooms have stainless delivery and operating tables, which were installed at a cost of about $1,000 each. In the ceilings are flush panel lights, and one wall of each delivery and operating room is of opaque glass block to provide complete illumination. The delivery rooms have explosion-proof electric switches, automatic clocks and special timing apparatus, and ducts for automatically piped-in oxygen and air pressure. This section also includes a "scrub" area for doctors and a utility room for sterilizing instruments.
The central east-west corridor connecting the delivery room section to the east part of the building, which contains many of the rooms for patients, has decentralized nurseries. These are situated so that the mothers are housed in four-bed or private rooms at each side of the rooms where the babies are cared for. Patients in these rooms can watch their babies through connecting windows, an arrangement to keep mothers and babies together from the earliest possible moment.
The second floor also has a laboratory, a treatment room, a four-bassinet nursery for premature babies, a room where mothers are instructed in the care of babies, a nursing station, and a special waiting room for harried fathers.
The third floor of the Hospital contains twenty-one rooms for forty-six patients and four nurseries equipped with thirty bassinets. The wards and all of the rooms are decorated in soft shades of Page 1664blue, green, yellow, and tan, a welcome departure from the customary clinical white color scheme. Each bedroom has self-adjustable beds and special lighting and signal facilities.
The fourth floor, which is devoted to housing for doctors on call and for medical and postgraduate students, has accommodations for sixteen persons, as well as a lounge and kitchenette.
Industrial Engineering Laboratory
The Industrial Engineering Laboratory, a wooden structure, immediately south of the R.O.T.C. Building and adjacent to the West Engineering Building, was built in 1943 to provide necessary laboratory space for the administration of courses relating to the war effort. Funds were made available through appropriation by the State Administrative Board, and the building was completed, after a delay of several months in obtaining critical materials, at a cost of approximately $7,500. The floor area is 4,828 square feet.
Until 1947 the building was used by the Electrical Engineering Department as an Electronics Laboratory. At that time the Electrical Engineering Department moved to the East Engineering Building addition, and alterations were made to provide quarters for an industrial laboratory.
In October, 1950, it was announced by President Ruthven that Mrs. Elizabeth H. Inglis had given her house, known as "The Highlands," at 2301 Highland Road, to the University. Mrs. Inglis was the widow of James Inglis, a Detroit industrialist and an honorary alumnus of the University, who died in March, 1950. Mr. Inglis was founder and chairman of the Board of the American Blower Company of Detroit. Under the terms of her husband's will the property was to have been given to the University at the time of her death, but because she was leaving Ann Arbor Mrs. Inglis decided to make the gift at this time (R.P., 1948-51, p. 1304).
The Inglis estate comprises eight and one-half acres north of Geddes Avenue and east of the University Arboretum, which it adjoins. From the height on Highland Road the house commands a sweeping view of wooded hills on the north side of the river. The four-story, twelve-room home, with its landscaped gardens and scenic grounds, is valued at $200,000.
The house, built in 1927, is of irregular brick and stone construction. It contains on the first floor a library, the laundry, and a boiler room. On the second floor are a combination living and dining room, a kitchen, coffee room, and a three-car garage. The master bedroom, two guest rooms, and maids' quarters are on the third floor, and on the fourth is another large bedroom. The property also includes a caretaker's cottage, a greenhouse workshop, and a pump house. A well, 170 feet deep, supplies water for an extensive irrigation system in the gardens.
The home, at present, is being used as a guest house for official visitors to the University and for meetings of University groups. A resident hostess is in charge of the house.
W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry
The first graduate dental student in the United States or Canada was enrolled Page 1665in the School of Dentistry of the University of Michigan in 1894. In the years that followed, the faculty of the School of Dentistry evidenced great interest in graduate and postgraduate programs in dentistry, and instruction in these two areas of dental education was offered as far as the limited facilities of the School of Dentistry permitted. The W. K. Kellogg Foundation, shortly after its establishment in 1930, began the development of a health program in accordance with the charter of the Foundation. Those dentists who co-operated in the program were found to be keenly desirous of obtaining postgraduate instruction in the various phases of dental practice. Thus, the Foundation became interested in a need of the dental profession which had been a source of increasing concern to the School of Dentistry. Since the School of Dentistry had been offering postgraduate instruction for many years, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, in 1937, provided funds which amplified the teaching facilities of the School in an effort to meet the growing demands of the dental profession for postgraduate study (see Part VII: The School of Dentistry). This instructional program was, however, distinctly limited in its scope because of the inadequacy of the physical equipment required for postgraduate teaching.
The Kellogg Foundation, in co-operation with the School of Dentistry, formulated a plan to erect a building specially designed for that purpose. In August, 1938, President Ruthven presented to the Board of Regents a proposal of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation offering to give 55 per cent of the cost of an addition to the School of Dentistry, on condition that the Public Works Administration provide 45 per cent of a total cost of $400,000. Ultimately, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation granted $236,500 for the building and the Public Works Administration $209,835. Thus, the total cost of construction was $446,335 (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 784, 955).
Mr. Lewis J. Sarvis, of Battle Creek, was the architect for the building, which was erected at the corner of North University Avenue and Fletcher Street, adjacent to and connected with the existing School of Dentistry. The old residence known as the Prettyman house, on the west side of the School of Dentistry, was demolished in the fall of 1938, and work was immediately begun on the new building.
The general work contract was awarded to the O. W. Burke Company, although additional contracts were made for the foundations and footings, the electrical work, and the plumbing, heating, and ventilating. The dental equipment was purchased from the Ritter Dental Manufacturing Company. During the spring of 1940 the building was completed and on April 3 it was dedicated in connection with the annual homecoming of the School of Dentistry.
In January, 1940, the building was officially named the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry (R.P., 1939-42, pp. 187-88).
From an architectural viewpoint the building is an outstanding contribution to the University campus. In it are combined maximum efficiency with simplicity and beauty of design, and it is an ideal educational unit. The building is a full three-story structure which extends north and south for 200 feet and is approximately 100 feet in its east-west dimension. The entire exterior is dominated by large windows that provide maximum daylight to all rooms. Between the Institute and the Dental Building is a court, 50 by 54 feet in size, which gives the inner rooms on all three floors the same excellent lighting as the exterior rooms.
The main entrance to the building faces west, and broad stone steps lead Page 1666up to the outer doors of beautiful copper grill work. Another short flight of steps, flanked by marble wainscoting, leads to a spacious and impressive main lobby, which is paneled in American walnut. From this foyer a broad, marble, central staircase, dividing before a large panel of glass brick, ascends to the second floor, and lateral stairways descend to the basement.
On the corridor, to the right of the foyer, are the administrative offices of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute, a faculty conference room, and a seminar room. On the east and west corridor leading to the Dental Building are the dental caries research laboratories, a small lecture room, and a seminar room. To the left of the foyer a wide arch opens directly into a waiting room for children. This leads into the clinics and laboratories which are used in the teaching of dentistry for children and orthodontics.
On the second floor the central west part of the building is devoted to clinics and laboratories for partial denture prosthesis, and across the hall, facing on the inner court, are similar facilities for complete denture prosthesis. On the north side are specially adapted facilities for the clinical and laboratory teaching of operative dentistry, root surgery, periodontia, and ceramics. The entire south section of this floor consists of a series of operating rooms and private consultation offices designed for the department of oral surgery.
On the basement floor, on the south, are a seminar room and two laboratories devoted to oral pathology. On the court there is a large beautifully appointed auditorium which will accommodate 280 people. The north side of the basement accommodates locker rooms, seminar rooms, an instrument storage room, and research rooms for the Department of Orthodontics.
On each of the three floors there is direct communication between the Institute and the School of Dentistry through continuous halls on the south and by direct openings on the northwest corner of the Dental Building.
Facilities of the Institute are adapted primarily to graduate and postgraduate instruction in dentistry. All undergraduate teaching, with the exception of oral surgery and dentistry for children, is conducted in the Dental Building. Originally, an exhibition hall was in the north part of the basement. This was remodeled in 1947 to provide an additional seminar room, a storage room, and the instrument room. In the summer of 1952, the small lecture room on the first floor was expanded to seat 100, rather than 55, students. This necessitated a reduction in the size of one seminar room.
The Institute is unique in dental education and offers the most adequate facilities for graduate and postgraduate dental teaching to be found anywhere in the world.
Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology Building
The only building which was designed and built for the use of any of the sections of the Institute of Human Biology is the Vertebrate Biology Building north of the court at 1135 East Catherine Street. Constructed of inexpensive brick and tile, it was erected for the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics from a special appropriation of $20,000 made by the Board of Regents in 1930 (R.P., 1929-32, p. 372). Horace W. Feldman, who was then the Director, moved his stocks of mammals into this building as soon as it was completed in 1931. The western exterior wall was left unfinished in the expectation that an addition would be constructed later. An outdoor room of concrete and Page 1667wire screen, measuring 20 by 30 feet, was erected later at the east. In addition to animal rooms, a food-mixing room, a cage-washing room, a technique laboratory, the psychological testing rooms, offices, and a seminar room and library, the Vertebrate Biology Building also houses the Institute shops. In these shops are repaired and constructed animal cages, traps, and experimental equipment of many kinds, much of it employing electronic circuits.
The Lamont-Hussey Observatory may be said to have had its beginning as early as November, 1902. At this time, Hussey in conjunction with Aitken was carrying on an extensive double-star program at the Lick Observatory at Mt. Hamilton, California, and during a visit from Robert Patterson Lamont they had their first conversation concerning the desirability of sending a large telescope to the Southern Hemisphere for the measurement of southern double stars and for the extension of the double-star survey to the south celestial pole.
In October, 1905, Hussey came to the University of Michigan as Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory. In April, 1908, on meeting with Lamont in Chicago, he spoke again of his desire to proceed with the preparation of plans for a 24-inch refracting telescope for the Southern Hemisphere, and Lamont contributed $1,000 with which to begin drawings.
In April, 1909, Hussey visited the United States Naval Observatory to inspect its 26-inch refractor and to collect data for the design of the 24-inch refractor. In February, 1910, Lamont authorized placing the order for the glass, and in March, 1910, under Hussey's direction, plans and drawings for the mounting were begun by Samuel Pierpont Langley.
From June, 1911, to September, 1916, Hussey was Director of the La Plata Observatory in Argentina, as well as Director of the University of Michigan Observatory, agreeing to this co-operative arrangement with the idea that it would offer an opportunity to select a site with favorable observing conditions for the proposed refractor. That plan was never realized, however, and Hussey terminated his directorship of the La Plata Observatory in 1916.
During his South American sojourn, however, plans went forward for the southern refractor. In 1910 a contract for a 24-inch objective was given to the Alvan Clark and Sons Corporation. Then followed much delay and disappointment in obtaining glass suitable for such an objective. Not until August, 1922, did Hussey hear of a pair of disks from which could be ground a 27-inch objective. Lamont authorized the purchase of the disks, which arrived at McDowell and Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in April, 1923. The grinding of the objective was under the direct supervision of the chief optician, J. B. McDowell, and after his death the work was completed by Hageman. The objective arrived in Ann Arbor on January 27, 1925. The mounting for the refractor had been made at the Observatory Shop in Ann Arbor under the direction of the chief instrument maker, Henry J. Colliau.
During the summer of 1925 the 27-inch telescope was fully assembled and temporarily mounted on the Observatory grounds at Ann Arbor for the final testing, which proved the objective to be of excellent quality and the mechanical parts satisfactory; subsequent performance in South Africa amply bore out this designation.
In September, 1923, in conference Page 1668with Lamont, Hussey decided upon South Africa rather than Australia as the site, and in October, 1923, he left Ann Arbor for South Africa, where he tested various sites. As a result Bloemfontein, the capital of the Orange Free State, was selected.
In September, 1926, the refractor was shipped to Bloemfontein. Professor and Mrs. Hussey, accompanied by Richard A. Rossiter and family, followed on October 9. Professor Hussey's unexpected death in London on October 28, 1926, brought a tragic ending to his hopes, but it was decided that the project should go forward under the immediate supervision of Rossiter, who arrived in Bloemfontein on November 28, 1926.
The exact location of the building on Naval Hill, a site within the city limits of Bloemfontein and about two miles north and three hundred feet above the business section, was decided upon by Rossiter, and the plans for it were made by W. S. Lunn, engineer, of Bloemfontein. The construction was let to W. H. Birtand Sons, a local firm there, and another Bloemfontein company, Gillespie and Son, erected the dome. A bid of about $21,800 was accepted for the construction. Two gifts from Lamont, one of $25,000 for the dome, and the other of $27,000 for the construction of the building, were formally accepted by the Regents. Gifts from the city of Bloemfontein amounted to between $5,000 and $6,000. The steel dome, 56 feet in diameter and weighing fifty-eight tons when crated for shipment, and an observing chair of light steel, 27 feet high, were constructed by the J. W. Fecker Company of Pittsburgh and shipped in 1927. Many favors were extended by the municipality of Bloemfontein, including a free site, road construction, water and power at cost, and a residence for Rossiter at a rent of a dollar a year.
The building, of pressed red brick, consisted of a telescope room and a north and a south wing. The central part was covered by the large dome for the refractor. The south wing contained the library, three offices, a restroom, a storeroom, and a darkroom. The north wing provided quarters for the caretaker and for garage and storage purposes. The building was completed in February, 1928, and the telescope was erected for the beginning of the regular observing program in May, 1928.
The Observatory was officially named "The Lamont-Hussey Observatory," a fitting tribute to Hussey's lifelong ambition and Lamont's benefaction. It was formally dedicated on April 28, 1928, with guests officially representing the Orange Free State, the city of Bloemfontein, and the Boyden Station of Harvard University.
The financial support of the Lamont-Hussey Observatory from its beginning until June, 1933, came chiefly from Lamont. The records indicate that during the period from June, 1908, to November, 1927, Lamont contributed towards this project a total of $132,959.62 (R.P., 1926-29, p. 445). Subsequent gifts have undoubtedly increased his contributions to approximately $150,000. Every assistance has been given by the government of the Union of South Africa and that of the Orange Free State as well as by the municipality of Bloemfontein. From 1933 to April, 1937, the University of Michigan assumed the full financial responsibility. Then came the arrangement with the government of the Union of South Africa for the operating expenses for the five-year period, April, 1937, to March, 1942, amounting to about $25,000: 80 per cent to be furnished by the Union of South Africa, and 20 per cent by the municipality of Bloemfontein, without changing in any respect the status of the Observatory Page 1669and the rights of the University of Michigan. The University retained full ownership of the building, of its equipment, of the observing program, and of results secured. Never was there an agreement drawn up that demonstrated a greater liberality or a more genuine scientific spirit and attitude. Since that period, the support has been carried jointly by the University of Michigan and the municipality of Bloemfontein.
An important adjunct to the Lamont-Hussey Observatory for a period of approximately three years was the use of a 10 ½-inch objective prism camera, under co-operative arrangement with the Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories. This telescope, owned by Mt. Wilson and sent to the southern station in December, 1948, was used in the Michigan-Mt. Wilson southern H-alpha survey for a period of three years, ending in August, 1951. The plans for the additional building necessary to house this instrument were drawn up by Karl G. Henize, with the contract let to a local builder, H. A. Poole. It was erected about sixty feet to the southeast of the main building, and was constructed of brick covered with plaster. The cost of this temporary structure was about $3,000. The program was financed in its entirety by a grant to the University Observatory from the Rackham Fund.
Although the Observatory was officially closed in December, 1953, the big refractor has been in use during the summer of 1954 for the study of the planet Mars at its close approach, by astronomers from the Lowell Observatory at Flagstaff, Arizona.
At the turn of the century the Students' Christian Association, the Young Women's Christian Association, and the Young Men's Christian Association all flourished and were vigorously supported in the University. As early as 1897 an effort to bring these organizations together had proved unsuccessful.
For many years the Y.M.C.A. had rented Sackett and McMillan Halls, on State Street three blocks north of the campus, from the Presbyterian Church, but with the increasingly large scope of the work in religious education, social service, and missions, a new home for the Y.M.C.A. was badly needed. A site at the southwest corner of State and Washington streets was purchased, and in October, 1911, the Michigan Alumnus (18:12) announced: "The new building will contain dormitories for 75 to 100 men, offices, reading rooms, and bowling alleys. Shower baths and plunges will be included in the equipment. A large banquet hall will fill a long-felt need of the Association. The structure will be … four stories in height."
About a year later John D. Rockefeller offered to give $60,000 toward the project provided the Association could raise a like sum by October 1, 1915. The Alumnus for October, 1915, announced that alumni and friends had been able to raise the required subscription of $60,000, which was added to Mr. Rockefeller's gift. Plans for the construction were immediately underway, but were not, however, as ambitious as those first made. Otis and Clark, Chicago architects, were awarded the contract, and Professor John R. Allen of the Engineering College, a member of the Board of Directors of the S.C.A., superintended the erection of the building for the Association. The cornerstone was laid on May 16, 1916.
The structure was of colonial design and measured 100 by 50 feet. The cost of the building was about $70,000. An additional $30,000 for the site and $10,000 for the furnishings brought the total to $125,000.
Page 1670Lane Hall, named in honor of Judge Victor H. Lane, a member of the Law School faculty and for many years president of the Y.M.C.A., was formally opened on March 2, 1917, with addresses by President Harry B. Hutchins, Professor Leroy Waterman, the Reverend Lloyd Douglas of Ann Arbor, and Mr. N. C. Fetter, secretary of the Y.M.C.A. In the basement were two offices, a large club room, classrooms, and apartments for janitors and a caretaker; the main floor was devoted to the Board room, offices, five studies for student pastors, and a library; the second floor contained an auditorium seating 450 people and equipment for motion-picture projection in the gallery opposite the platform, a kitchen, dining rooms, four classrooms, two guest rooms, and a private bath for guests.
A gradual decrease in the effectiveness of the student religious organizations became evident, however, particularly in the early years following World War I. Other agencies expressed student interests more effectively, especially such social centers as the Union and the League, while many of the services which had been performed by the student associations were taken over by the churches and by the University. Lane Hall, nevertheless, continued as a center for the religious life of the men, although control of the building passed to the Student Christian Association, under which both the Y.M.C.A. in Lane Hall and the Y.W.C.A. in Newberry Hall carried out their programs. This arrangement continued until 1936, when the student organizations were discontinued and the Student Religious Association was created by the Board of Regents. The trustees of the Student Christian Association transferred the two properties, Lane Hall and Newberry Hall, to the Board of Governors of the new organization, the Student Religious Association, with the title resting in the Regents of the University.
At the present time the Student Religious Association has its headquarters in Lane Hall, with offices for the different religions and denominations under the charge of a Co-ordinator, DeWitt C. Baldwin, who is a University officer.
The Law Quadrangle
The four buildings comprising the Law Quadrangle: the Lawyers Club, the John P. Cook Dormitory, the Legal Research Building, and Hutchins Hall, were constructed during the decade 1923-33 on two city blocks purchased by the University, and facing on South University Avenue and State Street. The buildings themselves were given to the University by William W. Cook ('80, '82l), of New York City (see Part V: The Law School). Mr. Cook had first planned to endow a professorship of the law of corporations, but eventually this plan was merged in the more comprehensive and munificent gift which made possible the development of the Lawyers Club and the Law Quadrangle.
In the latter part of President Hutchins' administration, Mr. Cook had tentatively agreed to provide a dormitory for freshman students and had even acquired land for that purpose, the site of the University Museums Building on Washtenaw Avenue. This project however, was finally dropped and, when President Hutchins suggested that the Law School needed a new building and more adequate equipment, Mr. Cook was immediately interested. In 1920 a plan was prepared by members of the Law School staff and submitted to Mr. Cook for the erection of a Law School building, to include a library and dormitory. It also provided for a proposed endowment, the income to be used for the Page 1671development of legal research and graduate work.
Mr. Cook's response was prompt and generous, and a series of discussions took place between him and President Hutchins. It had first been proposed to place the buildings upon the lot on Washtenaw Avenue already purchased, but this proved too small for the purpose. In 1920 Mr. Cook, Dean Henry M. Bates, and the architects, York and Sawyer, of New York, decided upon a four-building project, embracing practically all the features of the plan as finally executed. The memorandum as agreed upon was incorporated, almost word for word, in that part of Mr. Cook's will, drawn the same year, which made provision for his benefactions to the University.
In accordance with this plan, the first part of the Quadrangle to be completed (1924) included the group of buildings comprising the Lawyers Club with its lounge, recreation room, offices, guest rooms, dining hall, and kitchen, and the residence hall facing on South University Avenue. In 1930-31 the John P. Cook Dormitory was erected, and in the summer of 1931, after the death of the donor in June, 1930, the beautiful and impressive William W. Cook Legal Research Building was ready for occupancy. Finally, in the early fall of 1933, Hutchins Hall, which contains the administrative offices and lecture, class, and seminar rooms of the Law School, was also completed.
Starret Brothers, of New York, were the contractors for the Lawyers Club, and the James Baird Company constructed the other buildings in the Quadrangle.
The Club buildings, with 127,347 square feet of floor space, form a magnificent Quadrangle open only at the southeast corner. A great central tower on the north side, rising some sixty-five feet, with the passageway beneath, constitutes a formal entrance to the Law School. Flagstone walks inside the Quadrangle connect the various buildings, and a generous planting of elms, arbor vitae hedges, and blue myrtle, which has grown remarkably, supplements the architectural features. Outside the Quadrangle evergreens of various types add color and individuality. The landscape design was the work of Jacob Van Heiningen of the firm of Pitkin and Mott, of Cleveland.
In their general style the buildings recall the Tudor Gothic of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge and the Inns of Court in London, although the demands of modern life and academic programs have necessitated many departures from English precedent. The group as a whole is constructed of Weymouth seam-faced granite, with trim of Indiana limestone.
Although the dormitories resemble those of English colleges, in accordance with modern needs and practice the windows were made much larger to afford more light, a procedure which modern heating methods permit. The Tudor Gothic style of the buildings is modified in many ways by Renaissance influence, for example, by an arcade of Doric columns leading from the northwest entrance along the side of the Lawyers Club. The dining hall resembles closely the chapels at Eton College and King's College, Cambridge; the lounge in the Lawyers Club just to the north is distinctly Renaissance in style.
The architectural details to be observed throughout are a feature of the Quadrangle as a whole. Over most of the entrances to the main buildings, as well as over many of the interior doorways, are carved texts taken from many sources, some from the will of Mr. Cook and others from the writings of great jurists. The seals of the various states are carved upon the towers and ends of the Legal Research Building, while the seals Page 1672of American and European universities and colleges form a decorative feature of the stained glass windows. On the beams of the great dining hall are carved the heads of famous jurists. In the first-floor corridors of Hutchins Hall is a series of stained glass cartoons portraying humorously various problems with which the law is confronted.
The Lawyers Club
As already mentioned, the first group of buildings of the Law Quadrangle to be built were those comprising the Lawyers Club itself, the first section of the dormitories, and the dining hall; these extend for some 275 feet along State Street. The tower, containing suites of student rooms, is surmounted by four turrets connected by an ornamental stone railing capped by Byzantine spires.
In the corner of the group, facing South University Avenue and State Street, is the Lawyers Club building proper, of which the principal feature is the great lounge on the first floor, largely Renaissance in spirit, with high-vaulted plastered ceiling and floor of wide white oak fastened with dowels. The walls are of dark oak paneling with a huge fireplace at the east end. Tapestries add to the attractiveness of the room, which is used as a general headquarters by the students living in the Quadrangle. Above, eight well-furnished and comfortable guest rooms provide accommodations for visiting lawyers who wish to utilize the research facilities of the Law School. Below the main lounge are a large game room and cloak rooms.
A lobby connects the lounge with the Tudor Gothic dining hall to the west. This magnificent room is 140 feet in length and 34 feet wide, and accommodates 300 men at heavy oak refectory tables. The hammer-beamed ceiling, 50 feet above the floor, is sustained by beams carved from old oak ship-timbers. The walls are of Indiana limestone with beautiful dark oak paneled wainscoting, above which are eighteen large windows of cathedral glass with English Gothic tracery. The floor is inlaid with marbles of different hues.
On the exterior, turrets mark each corner of the building, while massive oak-bound studded doors open on the court and into the connecting lobby. Beyond the dining hall are large, well-equipped kitchens.
On the walls of the lobby are two rare tapestries, one of the Renaissance period, the other medieval, presented by Mr. Cook. The floor of the lobby is brown tile, as are the floors of the stairs and halls of the dormitories. On either side of the lobby are the administrative offices of the Quadrangle and a faculty dining room with beautiful furnishings and ornamental fireplace.
The dormitory wing extends for two blocks eastward from the Lawyers Club Building on South University Avenue for 445 feet. Its peaked and gabled roof is covered with vari-hued slate shingles. Chimneys in groups of four rise above the nine sections, each of which has a separate entrance marked by medieval lanterns bearing the section letter in the glass. Water is available in each room, and there is a bathroom for each section. This first part of the dormitory provides accommodations for 197 men.
The John P. Cook Building
The John P. Cook Building was opened for occupancy in the fall of 1930. It houses 152 men, thus affording rooms in the entire Quadrangle for 352 students. This second unit, extending from the east wing of the Lawyers Club on South University Avenue 212 feet southward along Tappan Street, follows closely the architectural style of the Lawyers Club, with the same general arrangement of the sections. The rooms are somewhat larger, however, and the appointments slightly better. This section, which contains an Page 1673additional floor, was built as a memorial to Mr John P. Cook, the donor's father, and near the center of the building is a memorial room to him, with carved, paneled oak walls and stained glass windows. The room contains a full-length portrait of him by the artist, Henry Caro-Delvaille.
The William W. Cook Legal Research Building
Of the Law Quadrangle group the William W. Cook Legal Research Building is easily the most striking. It is in harmony with the other buildings of the group although more massive in general design. The main part forms one vast paneled library 244 feet long, 44 feet wide, and 50 feet high, with seating capacity for 500 persons. The exterior of the building is marked by four massive pinnacled towers, which, with the long row of arched and traceried windows extending the length of the building, emphasize the essential Gothic spirit of the architectural scheme and, at the same time, impart a rugged and individual beauty to the building.
An archway of carved stone at the entrance leads into a vestibule whence one may proceed directly to the main reading room or go down to the lounges and smoking rooms in the basement. The reading room gives an impression of architectural and decorative splendor. The ceiling is its most beautiful and interesting feature. Constructed of large plaster medallions paneled and decorated in blue and gold, it has heavy tie-beams running across it at the ends of which are carved figures which hold escutcheons bearing coats of arms of various heraldic designs. The stone walls are paneled in a carved oak to the height of 15 feet, above which high windows of tinted glass, bearing seals of the colleges and universities of the world, cast a soft light. The room has recessed bookshelves for 10,000 volumes of statutes, reports, digests, and encyclopedias. Long narrow alcoves opening off the main room also contain bookshelves holding about 20,000 volumes.
Immediately above the reading room, or the floor corresponding to the ninth-stack level, are thirty-two offices for the use of visiting lawyers, members of the faculty, and research workers. One of these rooms contains the private library of the donor, William W. Cook, arranged as nearly as possible as it was in his New York home and with the original furniture and decorations.
At the rear of the main reading room is the delivery desk from which passages give access to the tiers of stackrooms. This part of the building, of separate construction, was originally six book levels in height, and held approximately 210,000 volumes. In 1955 the stack structure was increased to ten levels with a total book capacity of approximately 350,000 volumes. In this structure there are 64 carrels and 31 offices for faculty members and graduate students. From level seven a bridge leads across to the third floor of Hutchins Hall, where the administrative offices of the Law School are situated. A connecting passageway from the basement of the library also leads to the basement and first floor of Hutchins Hall.
With the construction of Hutchins Hall which was opened to classes in the fall of 1933, the present Law Quadrangle was completed. This building was named, in accordance with Mr. Cook's desire, for Harry B. Hutchins, Dean of the Law School from 1895 to 1910 and President of the University from 1909 to 1920. It stands on the northeast corner of Monroe and State streets with entrances on both streets. The building, which affords about 104,000 square feet of floor space, has two wings, one extending for 190 feet on State Street and the other for 230 feet on Monroe Street, with corridors running Page 1674the length of the wings on each of the four floors and classrooms and seminar rooms opening from them. On the first two floors these corridors are finished in lime-faced brick with floors of sound-absorbing tile. On the first floor, extending north and east, they enclose a charming court and give access to the main Quadrangle entrance to the building, as well as to the Legal Research Building.
Constructed with a view to future expansion, Hutchins Hall has, in all, nine classrooms seating from fifty to 265 students each, and four seminar rooms seating from twelve to thirty-five students. A reading room on the second floor, with adjoining stacks to hold 3,000 volumes, is large enough to seat 220 students. These classrooms are especially well adapted to their purpose, with rubbertiled floors in various color patterns and special acoustics.
The faculty and administrative offices on the third floor provide accommodations for the dean and the secretary as well as committee rooms, general offices, and a spacious lounge. The offices on this floor all have convenient access to a staff library which is equipped with stacks for 25,000 volumes. There are also offices on the fourth floor including those of the Michigan Law Review.
An appropriately furnished alumni room on the first floor contains class pictures, beginning with the class of 1873; these are displayed on specially constructed racks. On the second floor is a practice courtroom furnished with jury box, witness box, judge's bench, and benches for sixty auditors, modeled after those found in the court of the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench in England.
The final cost of Hutchins Hall was $1,191,074.29. The final value of the various buildings of the Law Quadrangle, including equipment and books, is $8,643,370. This is exclusive of the endowment and other gifts given by Mr. Cook to the University.
As far as is known, Mr. Cook never saw any of the buildings his generosity had made possible. His only reason for not visiting the University was that it "might spoil his dream."
The Old Library Building
The University's first Library Building, erected with an appropriation of $100,000 secured from the legislature in 1881, was planned as a combination art gallery and library. Construction, under the direction of Ware and Van Brunt, architects (later Van Brunt and Howe), and James Appleyard, of Lansing, contractor, began in 1881. On November 22, 1883, the building was ready for occupancy, and on the twelfth of the following month formal dedication ceremonies were held. In 1898 an addition was made to the bookstacks at a cost of $13,450, increasing the capacity to 200,000 volumes.
The old Library Building was long a landmark on the campus. Its twin towers were conspicuous everywhere, and the curving red brick walls of the great reading room formed a unique architectural feature. The east tower contained the University clock and a peal of five bells striking the Westminster chimes on the quarter hours. These bells, scrapped for old metal in World War II, were given to the University by E. C. Hegeler, J. J. Hagerman, and President Andrew D. White of Cornell University.
Within the building the delivery desk was situated along the diameter of the semicircle formed by the reading room, and behind it were the stackrooms of fireproof steel and brick construction. The reading room was furnished with reading desks and swivel chairs, which in later years became very worn and unstable. The women sat on one side Page 1675of the room and the men on the other. At either end of the delivery desk were the library offices.
The second floor housed the University's art collections, principally the collection given the University by Henry C. Lewis, of Coldwater, in 1895. This collection, which included many original works, as well as copies of paintings in European galleries, filled every inch of space in the room formed by the sloping roof above the main reading room. A part of the semicircular area where the roof came close to the floor was walled off, and the curved passageway thus formed, which possessed peculiar acoustic properties, was long known as the "Whispering gallery." Two seminar rooms, one in history and English, and one in the classics, were situated on either side of the main art gallery.
Eventually, this first Library Building was officially declared to be unsafe and the Board of Regents, in 1915, appealed to the legislature for a new one. At first it was planned to enlarge the old building; this proved impracticable, however, because of its inflammable character, since the beams in the ceiling of the main reading room, the stairways, much of the frame of the structure, and the entire roof were of wood. The only parts of the old Library Building to be retained in the new one were the bookstacks which were fireproof, although too weakly built to permit raising their height to the level of the new structure.
The McMath-Hulbert Observatory of the University of Michigan is near Lake Angelus, about five miles north of Pontiac and fifty miles northeast of Ann Arbor. The buildings reflect the purpose and spirit of the Observatory as well as its history. The administration and office building and the three units in which the observational work is centered are functional in design and unified in purpose. They were constructed in the 1930's as the program of the Observatory expanded and as the various donors made possible new construction and equipment. The Observatory is concerned entirely with solar research, and its program is based on a battery of varied but unified solar observations, studied and analyzed by a team of experienced astronomers. The buildings and the instruments that they house have been designed and constructed to carry out this program.
The oldest building in the group is the dome that now houses the 24-inch reflecting telescope. It was in this dome, in July, 1930, that the McMath-Hulbert Observatory began operations (see Part III: The McMath-Hulbert Observatory). The development of the Observatory and its evolution from smaller equipment preceded this date. The first building and its original 10 ½-inch reflector, both of which were designed and constructed by the three men who established the Observatory — Robert R. McMath, Francis McMath, and Judge Henry S. Hulbert — were given by deed to the University on December 15, 1931. The original building, of concrete block, is octagonal and is surmounted by a dome 16 feet in diameter. The dome frame is of steel construction with an inner and an outer skin of wood separated by a 3-inch air space. The outer skin is covered with a treated waterproof canvas laid in white lead, which gives excellent temperature control. The base of the instrument pier is a concrete monolith, 4 by 6 feet, completely isolated from surface tremors. Although the original 10 ½-inch reflector has been replaced by a telescope with a mirror 24 inches in diameter, the building is essentially the same as when first constructed.
The widespread scientific interest in the Page 1676early motion pictures and in continuous records of solar activity led to plans for the construction of a second building, a solar tower, where the techniques and methods which had been used in the initial studies of the sun could be further developed and put into practice on every clear day. With the help of President Ruthven, $20,000 was secured from the Rackham Fund as an initial grant for this new project. After inspection of other solar installations and consultations with astronomers at the Mount Wilson Observatory and with H. D. Curtis, of the University of Michigan, it was deemed wise to try to build a truly major solar instrument. The cost of such a project greatly overran the initial grant, but a very substantial gift from McGregor Fund of Detroit and generous contributions from a number of individuals made the building of the 50-foot tower and its spectroheliographs possible. This extension of the Lake Angelus plant was begun in 1935. The tower was completed and in operation June 30, 1936.
The 50-foot solar tower consists of an observing room surmounted by two concentric towers and a spectrograph well dropping 31 feet into the earth beneath. A small office and an underground photographic darkroom complete the installation. The octagonal observing room at the foot of the tower proper is built of cement blocks and is approximately 28 feet in diameter. The outer tower, which serves as a windbreak and sunshade for the inner tower, and as the mechanical support of the dome, is 16 ½ feet in diameter. It is made of onequarter-inch steel plates with all joints riveted. The inner tower is 6 feet in diameter and is made of one-quarter-inch steel plates welded together. Since the two towers are structurally separate, the outer tower shields the instrumentbearing inner tower from shock and vibration. Both towers are surmounted by a single steel dome 17 ½ feet in diameter, actually the hemispherical bottom of a standard water-tower tank turned upside down.
For three years the instruments installed in the dome and in the 50-foot tower were in continuous use. Their success in the simultaneous recording of prominence motions in three dimensions and in the light of different elements showed the great desirability of adding still another simultaneous record, that of the energy changes in prominences and other solar features. In order to provide these new observations and to care for the rapidly expanding program of solar research, plans were drawn up for a new 70-foot tower telescope and for an office building. The latter was to include office space for the staff, a library, darkrooms, laboratory facilities, and a suitably equipped instrument shop. In September, 1939, McGregor Fund of Detroit made a grant of $100,000 to the University, and Dr. and Mrs. Robert R. McMath deeded the necessary land, so that the above plans could become a reality. The new installations were dedicated on May 25, 1940. They are known as the McGregor Tower and Building in memory of Tracy W. McGregor, the founder of McGregor Fund, who had a lifelong interest in astronomy.
The new building and tower are to the north of the two earlier structures. The McGregor Building, constructed of cement block, is two stories in height and covers an area of 5,600 square feet. It includes all of the facilities envisaged in the original plans. The McGregor Tower rises some 70 feet from the ground on a site at the southeastern corner of the McGregor Building. This tower follows the general plan of the 50-foot tower, with two separate, concentric steel towers. The lateral dimensions Page 1677were adjusted to be compatible with the increased height of the new tower. There is no well beneath the 70-foot tower. Instead, the light is sent horizontally through openings in the towers to spectrographs inside the McGregor Building.
In January, 1954, construction of a 50-foot focal length vacuum spectrograph was begun. The need for this special instrument, which had been demonstrated over the years, arises from the fact that a spectrograph with a long light path suffers from seeing difficulties as does a telescope when used in a dome. The spectrograph has an outer steel shell of ¼-inch steel plates 4 feet in diameter and 53 feet long. It utilizes to the fullest possible extent the superb diffraction gratings now made under the supervision of Dr. Horace W. Babcock, of Mount Wilson, and the great improvements in photoelectric detection tubes which were primarily the result of World War II. Substantial grants in aid were made by McGregor Fund, the Detroit Edison Company, and the Arthur Curtis James Foundation of New York.
Throughout this extensive building program it was unnecessary to secure the services of an architect. All of the buildings were designed and the construction supervised by Robert R. McMath, Director of the Observatory. From the time the Observatory was deeded to the University until the present, the buildings have been occupied exclusively by the regular and auxiliary members of the Observatory staff. The property has been cared for by a local caretaker now in the employ of the University of Michigan Plant Department.
From the preceding description of the manner of growth of the Observatory it is clear that the cost of the buildings cannot be determined accurately. Much of the material and many of the services were donated. It is therefore impossible to give even an estimate of the cost.
The equipment of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory is extensive and varied. The principal instruments are: 24-inch Reflecting Telescope; 50-foot Tower Telescope (Telescope focal lengths of 50, 40, 20, or 6 feet and spectrograph with focal lengths of 15 and 30 feet; Stone Radial-Velocity Spectrograph); McGregor Tower Telescope (spectrographs of Littrow and Pfund type, echelle grating, infrared spectrograph with lead sulfide cell as sensitive element); vacuum spectrograph; densitometers for intensity measurement of films and plates; instruments for the measurement of position on motion picture films; Lyot and Baird type monochromatic filters; Perkin-Elmer Infrared Spectrometer; shop equipment; fundamental machine tools of rather large size.
Madelon Pound House
Madelon Pound House, the large three-story residence at 1204 Hill Street, long the home of Thomas C. Trueblood, Professor-Emeritus of Public Speaking, provides additional facilities for the University's International Center. The house was purchased from the Trueblood estate by the University in 1951 and renovated for the use of the Center with funds provided by Arthur Pound ('07), well-known author of Slingerlands, New York, and his wife, Madelon Paterson Pound. The house was named in honor of Mrs. Pound by the Board of Regents and dedicated in October of the same year.
It is used for meetings and recreation and special projects of the Center. The number of foreign students in attendance at Michigan had more than tripled since the 1930's, and the new facilities were intended to ease long overcrowded conditions Page 1678in the main unit in the south wing of the Michigan Union.
The first floor, in addition to an apartment set aside for the use of the Pounds when they are in Ann Arbor, has two adjoining drawing rooms which are used for smaller meetings of faculty, students, or community groups, particularly for social activities of foreign women students. The library of the International Center is also housed on the first floor.
Two of the four units on the second floor provide space for the International Center's English Language Service, which helps students from foreign countries improve their ability to speak and to read the English language. Two other rooms on the second floor are used as the Special Projects section of the Center. The Chinese student aid program and its related services to Chinese teachers and researchers, administration of the Iraqi and other student funds, United States government intercultural programs, and similar activities will be carried on in this section.
The third floor has been remodeled to provide an apartment for a staff member who will supervise activities at the house; no living accommodations for students, however, are provided in the building. The kitchen and a recreation room are in the basement.
Mason and Haven Halls (Angell Hall addition)
The extraordinary increase in enrollment immediately after World War II, with a corresponding increase in staff, made the need for additional classroom and office space acute. Accordingly, the Regents in the spring of 1946 authorized Vice-President Robert P. Briggs to make application to the Federal Works Agency for funds to prepare plans for an addition to Angell Hall. The sum of $60,000 was received for this purpose from the Federal Works Agency in July, 1946, and the Regents selected the architectural firm of Smith, Hinchman and Grylls of Detroit to draw up preliminary plans (R.P., 1945-48, p. 475).
In its initial stages, the planning proceeded on the assumption that the new building or buildings would replace six old structures which had been condemned as fire hazards: Haven Hall, the Economics Building, University Hall, Mason Hall, South Wing, and the Romance Language Building. At that time this represented a potential loss of sixty-five classrooms and 142 offices. Dean Hayward Keniston of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts proposed that these buildings be replaced by four separate structures: an addition to Angell Hall, a foreign language building, a human relations building, and an institutional relations building. These were to provide a total of about 140 classrooms and 250 offices.
These proposals, however, were regarded as much too ambitious, and it was thought wiser to consider the removal of only three buildings, Mason Hall, University Hall, and South Wing. The necessity for a more thorough study of the needs of the College was apparent, and James H. Robertson, of the Department of English, was appointed by the College to analyze the requirements of the various departments and to prepare a report, which was submitted in July, 1948. Throughout the summer and early fall, Associate Dean Lloyd S. Woodburne, Mr. L. Fry, and the architects held frequent meetings in an attempt to arrive at a design which would provide as much space as possible.
The original plan to enlarge Angell Hall by the addition of wings at the ends with an adjoining wing running north and south to enclose a central court was abandoned. The enormous increase in Page 1679building costs made such a plan prohibitive, if the proposed addition were to conform to the architectural style of Angell Hall. In fact, it became apparent that if anything like the needed classroom and office space were to be provided, the traditional plan of combining both faculty offices and classrooms in the same structure would have to be abandoned. The ceiling height for classrooms is considerably greater than that necessary for offices. Consequently, the inclusion of both offices and classrooms in the same structure is hardly economical. It was, therefore, decided to house some offices and classrooms in an office building with smaller offices and lower ceilings, and to build a second structure to include only the classrooms. The Executive Committee of the College agreed to this plan with some reluctance. but it was realized that the convenience of having offices close to classrooms was less important than the loss of space would be, with the current construction costs, under the traditional arrangement.
In October, 1948, the Regents, in their request to the legislature for appropriations for capital improvements, included a request for $3,750,000 for an addition to Angell Hall. In December of that year, the Regents appropriated $52,500 to complete the cost of plans and specifications which had been begun with the $60,000 from the Federal Works Agency.
The preliminary designs were approved in January, 1949, and the architects, Smith, Hinchman and Grylls were authorized to proceed with the preparation of the final plans and specifications. These called for an F-shaped structure with the two shorter arms adjoining the east side of Angell Hall. The addition comprised a four-story classroom section, including space for a study hall, two auditorium units, each containing two lecture halls, and an eight-story office building, the total amounting to approximately 190,000 square feet.
The legislature failed to appropriate funds for the building in the spring of 1949, and construction was therefore postponed. Action was precipitated, however, the following year by the destruction of Haven Hall by fire in June, 1950. Immediate application was then made to the legislature and in House Bill No. 32 the legislature appropriated the sum of $1,500,000 for the Angell Hall addition with the understanding that the total cost of the complete program would not exceed $4,000,000 (R.P., 1948-51, p. 923). In the meantime prices had risen, and the plans prepared in 1948 were revised in an attempt to bring the cost of the structure within the sum approved by the legislature. One auditorium unit was eliminated, and the other was redesigned to contain four lecture halls. Costs were also pared by other modifications in interior construction.
Vice-President Briggs was authorized by the Regents to let contracts for the demolition of Mason Hall, University Hall, and, if necessary, South Wing. After a restudy of the space needs of the College, the Executive Committee requested the administration to permit both Mason Hall and South Wing to stand. As the plans called for the addition to Angell Hall to be built on much of the space occupied by Mason Hall this request was denied, and these buildings were razed. Their elimination resulted in the loss of twenty classrooms, 120 offices, and the space occupied by the Bureau of Government Library, a total of about 167,000 square feet.
The Regents awarded the contract for the new construction to Bryant and Detwiler Company, and excavation was begun before the rubble from the old Page 1680buildings had been cleared away.
It soon became apparent that it would be difficult to hold the cost to the $4,000,000 figure. At the request of the Regents, the legislature increased the total appropriation for the new buildings to $4,784,403 (R.P., 1948-51, p. 1304).
In the early stages of planning the Angell Hall addition, it was provided that the building would house all the social science departments of the College. The reduction of space in the building, however, as a result of increased building costs and the dislocations produced by simultaneous elimination of Haven Hall, Mason Hall, University Hall, and South Wing required some modification in the original plans. Haven Hall had housed the departments of History, Sociology, Journalism, and the Bureau of Government Library. The Department of Philosophy and the academic counselors for freshmen and sophomores had been in Mason Hall. The Institute for Social Research occupied most of the space in University Hall, while South Wing housed teaching fellows in mathematics and Romance languages, as well as the Romance Languages Laboratory. It became necessary, therefore, to consider a rather general redistribution of space in Angell Hall, as well as in the new building.
After much study of the situation, the Executive Committee of the College, in March, 1951, recommended to the administration the following allocation of space in the office section of the addition: the first and second floors to the Department of English, the third floor to the Department of History, the fourth floor to the Department of Political Science, the fifth floor to the Department of Sociology, and the sixth and seventh floors to the Department of Psychology. A conference room on the ground floor was assigned to each of these departments.
Most of the third floor of the classroom section of the addition was allocated to the Department of Psychology for student and research laboratories, including the Vision Research Laboratory, and two rooms on the ground floor were set aside for the Psychology Instrument Shop. The Department of Journalism, the Language Laboratory, and the English Language Institute were assigned space on the first floor.
The buildings were finally completed in the late spring of 1952, and the various departments moved in during the summer. The Regents decided to retain the old names, Mason Hall and Haven Hall, assigning the former to the classroom section and the latter to the office building. The four large auditoriums were named Angell Hall Auditoriums A, B, C, and D. On September 26, 1952, the buildings were formally dedicated in an appropriate ceremony on the steps of the General Library.
Haven Hall, when completed, included 188 offices, housed 175 members of the faculty in addition to teaching fellows and secretarial staff, and contained 53,999 square feet. Mason Hall comprises, in addition to a study hall and laboratories, forty-one classrooms and twenty offices, and has a total area of 121,548 square feet. The Auditoriums, A, B, C, and D, seat 350, 258, 200, and 196, respectively, and have a total area of 25,474 square feet.
The total cost of the addition, $4,734,324, was distributed approximately as follows: construction, $3,989,307; architectural and engineering costs, $239,633; land improvement and utilities, $214,471; equipment, $290,913.
Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (First Engineering Building)
The early records of the University give little information regarding the Page 1681location of the rooms used for the different subjects taught in the 1850's and 1860's. Professor Charles S. Denison who taught engineering students from 1872 to 1913 says in one of his published articles: "For many years the engineering classes occupied three or four rooms … in old South Wing of University Hall, built in 1848-1849, rooms formerly used for student dormitories in the early days." It may be assumed that these same rooms were used by Professor Alexander Winchell, 1853-54, Professor William Guy Peck, 1855-57, and Professor DeVolson Wood 1857-72. It is certain that the engineering classes were held in South Wing in the 1870's and 1880's.
On July 1, 1880, the Regents tabled "for the present" a request from Assistant Professor J. B. Davis of the Department of Civil Engineering for "the sum of twenty-five hundred and fifty … dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary … for the purpose of erecting a suitable building, and preparing to give practical tests and instruction in … the various materials used in the constructive arts" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 548). In January, 1881, the Legislative Committee of the Board of Regents asked the legislature for an appropriation of $2,500 for a mechanical laboratory (R.P., 1881-86, p. 10).
In July Regent Shearer reported for the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, recommending that the building formerly used for a joiner's shop be turned over to the Department of Civil Engineering for use as a mechanical laboratory. The following September the joiner's shop was rejected as unsuitable, and the matter of locating and erecting a brick building for the mechanical laboratory was referred to the Committee on Buildings and Grounds and the Department of Civil Engineering "with power to contract for the same, by said committee, at a cost not to exceed $1,500, chargeable to said appropriation" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 137). In October, 1881, Acting President Frieze advised Professor Cooley that the appropriation of $2,500 for an engineering laboratory would revert to the state if not used before December 31 of that year. In November the Regents authorized the Committee on Buildings and Grounds "to expend one thousand dollars, from the special appropriation for the department, in apparatus and fittings for the new Mechanical Laboratory" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 164).
Professor J. B. Davis acted as architect for the building, which was begun in December, 1881, and completed in time for the second semester. This first engineering building situated on the southeast corner of the campus, facing north, was a mechanical laboratory or shop of frame construction, sheathed inside and out with brick. It was 24 by 36 feet and housed a foundry, forge, shop, and engine-room on the ground floor, and the pattern and machine shop on the second floor. Much of the work inside the building, such as doors, work benches, and coalbins was done by University workmen and by students taking the course in mechanical laboratory (R.P., 1881-86, pp. 241-42).
The first item of equipment to be bought for the shop was a four-horsepower vertical fire-box boiler and steam engine. Wrought-iron shafting was furnished at less than cost, and an old lathe, which had previously been scrapped, was removed from the basement of University Hall to the shop. To complete the Laboratory, the forge was built, an anvil and tools were purchased, and a twenty-four inch cupola was installed.
The building was heated by an old stove on the second floor next to the chimney. A pail of water, which froze overnight, was kept on the stove, and as the ice melted and the water evaporated, it formed a combination vapor system. Page 1682The foundry was at the east end of the first floor, with the cupola adjacent to the central brick chimney. The forge occupied the west end of the first floor. Woodworking and machine tool laboratories were on the second floor.
The first little Engineering Shop was at once overcrowded, and in 1883 a small wooden building, which originally stood where the old Physics Building now stands and which had been used by the contractor for the Library as a carpenter shop, was given to the Department of Mechanical Engineering. This was moved to the west side of the original engineering shop building and used for wood-working and pattern-making. The moving and fitting up of the shop was done at a cost of $600.
These buildings continued in use until 1887, when the little "Scientific Blacksmith Shop" was sold and removed from the campus to make room for an addition to the Engineering Laboratory which was begun in 1885.
Michigan League Building
Soon after the Michigan Union was completed, the Women's League of the University undertook to secure the funds necessary for the erection of a women's building. In February, 1921, a communication was received by the Regents from Mrs. W. D. Henderson, secretary of the Alumnae Council of the Alumni Association, requesting approval of a million-dollar campaign to raise funds for a women's building (R.P., 1920-23, p. 129). This was approved and President Burton addressed the opening meeting in Hill Auditorium in October, 1921. Of the amount secured by 1927, it was planned to use $600,000 for construction, $150,000 for furnishings, and $250,000 as an endowment. Heat and light were to be furnished by the University.
The Regents in 1921 agreed to furnish the site if the alumnae could raise $500,000 or more to construct and endow the building. In 1927, the sum of $350,000 was appropriated by the legislature for the purchase of a site (R.P., 1926-29, p. 279).
The first large gift was made by Robert Lamont ('96), of Chicago, for the establishment of a memorial to the League's first president, Mrs. Ethel Hussey. A gift of $50,000 from Gordon Mendelssohn, of Birmingham, provided the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater, a memorial to Mr. Mendelssohn's mother. The New York state alumnae contributed $15,000. Gifts were made by alumnae from all parts of the world. Chinese women alumnae in Tientsin sent antique tapestries made from a royal Manchu dynasty robe. Oriental rugs, vases, silver services, pianos, and many other furnishings were donated by alumnae.
Life memberships in the Michigan League were also included in the plan for raising funds. Various organized alumnae groups assumed the responsibility for raising definite quotas over a five-year period.
At the December meeting of the Regents in 1921, the location of the League had been fixed as the block bounded by North University and Washington streets, covering the area between the Mall and Fletcher (Twelfth) Street. The final cost of this site was $332,105.23. In May, 1927, Mrs. Henderson informed the Regents that the million-dollar fund would be completed by June and that work on the building could be begun. The breaking-ground ceremonies took place on Saturday, June 18, 1927, with Dr. Eliza Mosher, the first Dean of Women, turning the first shovelful of earth. On May 4, 1929, the building was formally opened. Dedication ceremonies were held on June 14, 1929, in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater.
Mrs. Mary Bartron Henderson ('04) Page 1683was the driving force behind the construction of the Michigan League. At the time of her death in April, 1937, the Regents announced:
Her name will forever remain associated, in the history of this institution, with the organization of the alumnae and the campaign which resulted in the building of the Michigan League, to which she devoted herself tirelessly and loyally. From 1926 to 1931, when she was the Executive Secretary of the Alumnae Council, Mrs. Henderson was the leader of the building campaign through its most critical period to its completely successful conclusion, and thereafter she remained chairman of the building fund until all the payments on the League had been made. The University is gratefully aware that, though this splendid addition to the facilities came as the result of the united efforts of many, the executive ability, the abounding energy, and the courage of Mary Bartron Henderson were indispensable factors in the success of the enterprise. The Regents, therefore, once more make record of their lasting gratitude for the extraordinary service rendered by Mary Bartron Henderson to her University, and express to her surviving family their heartfelt sympathy.
(R.P., 1936-39, p. 224.)
The architects for the Michigan League were Pond and Pond, Martin and Lloyd, the same firm of architects which had designed the Union; Lovering and Longbotham were responsible for the construction.
The Michigan League Building gives the impression of being a low, somewhat rambling structure; in reality it rises five floors above street level and is compactly built. It is constructed of soft red brick with white stone trim, and the many details, such as dormer and casement windows, alcoves, and balconies, lend variety to the general design without overembellishing it. The building is divided into three parts: the central section, containing the tower, the lounges, main concourse, offices, kitchens, and, on the fourth floor, bedrooms; the wing bordering North University Avenue, which includes the dining rooms, the ballroom, and a meeting room; and the northern wing, devoted almost entirely to the theater, checkrooms, workrooms for making costumes and scenery, and the linen supply closet. The northern and southern wings partly enclose a court on the east side of the building, forming a charming garden bounded on the street side by a high brick wall.
The most frequently used entrance is the south side entrance, which is approached by a circular drive. The main entrance, facing the Mall, directly across from Hill Auditorium, gives access to a spacious lobby, and on either side of the double entrance doors, two steps above the floor level, are alcoves, equipped with desks, chairs, and lamps. The lobby itself is comfortably furnished. Opposite the door, on the east side of the lobby, is the central information desk. From the main lobby, steps ascend to a corridor on the south, on the right of which are a ladies' lounge, a checkroom, conference room, and the Alumnae council office, while on the left side, near the south door of the building, are entrances to the cafeteria, one of the most popular campus eating places. Here the ample serving counters are separated from the dining room section by a wall of wood and glass, and the dining room itself, large, cheerful, and well-lighted, occupies most of the southern half of this wing.
Branching north from the main lobby is another corridor, on the left side of which are public telephone booths, a suite of rooms for the undergraduate offices of the League, and, at the far end, the lobby of the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. On the right side of this corridor are the offices of the Drama Season and the business manager of the League.
Page 1684Just to the right of the main desk a staircase ascends to the concourse on the second floor, a room similar in size and arrangement to the first floor lobby, but more richly furnished. On either side are large lounges, the one on the north being named in honor of Ethel Fountain Hussey; the other, furnished by Grand Rapids alumnae, is known as the Hazel Whitaker Vandenberg Room. Both have fireplaces and are provided with grand pianos and comfortable chairs and sofas. Tall windows break the long lines of the paneled walls. To the left, at the top of the stairs, is the Michigan Room, and, to the right, another lounge, the Kalamazoo Room. Just beyond this lounge is the Ann Arbor Room, sometimes used as the Student-Faculty Lounge. Beyond the Michigan Room to the south is a large beautiful ballroom, with arched ceiling and stained glass windows.
At the north, or opposite end, of the second-floor corridor are the entrances to the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The beautiful small theater has a main floor, balcony, boxes, and an orchestra pit, at either side of which rounded steps ascend to the stage. The lower walls are paneled in walnut, with white plaster above. The theater, which has a seating capacity of approximately seven hundred, is in use almost every day during the academic year. The Drama Season presentations are given here in the spring, and the Play Production classes also make regular use of its facilities.
At either end of the long second-floor hall, staircases lead to the third floor, containing the Henderson Room, the Listening Rooms, and meeting and rehearsal rooms. On this floor is also the Jessie Horton Koessler Library, a restful, low-ceilinged room, furnished with comfortable lounging chairs, as well as with sturdy tables and straight chairs conducive to study.
The fourth floor provides bedrooms for guests of League members and for alumnae. These rooms were completed through gifts of various alumnae groups. At the end of the corridor is the Cave, a room equipped for informal meetings. The fifth floor, consisting of one large room, is used as a dormitory for women.
The basement houses a "snack bar." Two murals painted by students of the College of Architecture and Design decorate two of the walls. This room is used by the students from early morning until late evening.
Michigan Union Building
The Michigan Union Building is the successor to an earlier Union clubhouse, a remodeled residence built originally by Judge Thomas M. Cooley, long a member of the University's law faculty. This spacious old residence, a rambling fieldstone structure, with pointed gables, stood on State Street at the end of South University Avenue, an ideal site for such a building as the projected Michigan Union. The necessary alterations were made by Professor Emil Lorch, of the Department of Architecture, and the building proved reasonably well adapted to the early needs of the Union.
The first Union had a large dining room on the first floor, a smaller one at the side, a large lounge, a game room, and a kitchen. The second floor housed the billiard room, a reading room, a room for the directors, and an apartment for the steward. The building, which was opened for the use of the students in November, 1907, served the needs of the University for almost nine years.
The growth of the student body and the increasing importance of the Union made an expansion of its facilities imperative, and early in 1916, the first building was torn down to make way for a new Michigan Union. Two adjacent lots, upon which dwellings were then Page 1685standing, were acquired; one of these houses was the old home of the architects of the new Union, Allen B. and Irving K. Pond, of Chicago. This was moved to the rear, and, with a rough frame building which had been erected in 1912 for student social affairs and dances, served as temporary headquarters while the new building was in the course of construction.
Plans for the Union as prepared by Irving K. Pond ('78e) were on a scale heretofore unknown for club houses in American colleges and universities. These called for a building some 250 feet long and approximately 200 feet wide, dominated by a massive tower. It had long been recognized by all who were interested in the project that only a building of this size would be adequate for such a large student body. Within the building, facilities were provided on a correspondingly large scale, including ample lobby room on the first floor, a large number of dining rooms of various sizes with well-equipped kitchens, and about sixty sleeping rooms for alumni on the upper floors.
Estimates speedily grew from $300,000 to $1,000,000, of which $100,000 was set aside for furnishings and $250,000 as an endowment. By 1916 the building committee for the Union had sufficient funds in hand to proceed with construction, and at commencement of that year President Hutchins turned the first shovelful of earth. Owing to wartime difficulties, however, the building was not ready for use by the students until 1919, although, with the aid of a loan of $260,000 from the Michigan War Preparedness Board, it had been sufficiently completed to be used as a barracks for the Students' Army Training Corps; during this emergency it served as a dormitory for 800 men and as a mess hall for some 4,000.
Sufficient funds were finally raised through further contributions, memberships, and a loan, secured by subscriptions, to complete the building. The University Buildings and Grounds Department as contractors were responsible for its construction. The gross floor area before subsequent additions was 166,370 square feet.
On March 26, 1920, the Union and its grounds were deeded to the University, at which time the cost of the building was stated as "upwards of $1,150,000," with subscriptions aggregating a little more than that amount. The Regents, in accepting the deed, however, did not bind the University to assume any further debts for the Union.
Two parts of the Union were left unfinished, the swimming pool and the library on the second floor. An extensive campaign among students and alumni eventually secured the $40,000 sufficient to finish the pool which measures 30 by 75 feet and is situated on the south side of the basement, with a gallery entrance from the first floor corridor. The pool, one of the most beautiful in the country, is served with chemically purified water.
In June, 1923, Mrs. Edward W. Pendleton, of Detroit, gave $21,500 for the completion of the library as a memorial to her husband ('72), and in 1925, the new room, paneled in oak, was ready for student and alumni readers. Portraits of President Angell and President Hutchins, as well as one of Mr. Pendleton, for whom the library was named, were hung on the walls. Mrs. Pendleton also made the University a gift of Mr. Pendleton's library and an additional $1,000 with which to buy books.
The Michigan Union is a four-story building with a basement and subbasement. It extends for a distance of 168 feet along South State Street and has a maximum depth of 230 feet. The main entrance, facing east under the great square tower, is approached by a broad Page 1686terraced walk. Cut in stone above the door are two figures representing the student and the athlete. On the first floor, between two great comfortably furnished lounges, is a wide hall leading to the main desk; a corridor to the left leads to the offices of the manager of the building and to the swimming pool gallery. Beyond the desk to the right a corridor with cloakroom and two small dining rooms on the left opens into the main dining room. The kitchens are at the rear. The main dining room, which accommodates more than 200 persons, has oak-paneled wainscoting and six pillars of gay-colored terra cotta set at intervals around the room. The floor is of tile in a basket weave design. Additional dining space is afforded by the adjoining terrace, which was at first left open, but later was enclosed to form a long, well-lighted room with windows running its entire length.
In 1926 a smaller dining room on the first floor was made possible through a gift of $5,000 by Charles M. Crowfoot. Another dining room of the same size was designated as a Founders' Room, with portraits of all who had been instrumental in carrying out the original plans for the Union incorporated in the paneling. These two small dining rooms are in constant use for meetings of faculty groups and organizations.
The side entrance to the building on the north, formerly known as the "ladies'" entrance, affords access to the lobbies, the dining rooms, and the ballroom on the second floor. A dining room on this side, originally reserved as a ladies' dining room, was later remodeled for general use and named in honor of Professor Henry Anderson, long an officer of the Union.
The subbasement houses the mechanical equipment for heating, lighting, and ventilating the building, and a complete refrigeration system. On the floor above, in the basement proper, are the locker rooms and the entrance to the swimming pool. On this floor also are the business and record offices of the Union, a large barber shop, and the Tap-Room, a completely equipped cafeteria with colorful furniture and tables. Bowling alleys, first installed in the basement, were later moved to a new addition to make way for a needed expansion of the Tap-Room. At the rear are kitchens and ample storage space and shops.
With the exception of the tower rooms, the upper floors of the Union are reached either by elevator or by stairs; one of the tower rooms is occupied by Michigamua, the senior student society which first worked for a Union building. On the second floor the front part of the building to the right is occupied by the Pendleton Library, while a great billiard room with twenty-two tables takes up the space on the left.
A beautiful ballroom or assembly hall, 50 feet wide, more than 100 feet long, and two stories high, is at the end of the corridor extending to the rear from the main second floor hall. This room will accommodate 1,500 persons at a meeting, 600 diners, or 350 couples at a dance. Adjacent are three private dining rooms with movable walls which may be rolled back to connect the rooms with the ballroom. Adjoining the dining rooms is a terrace similar to that on the first floor.
That part of the third floor not occupied by the upper parts of the ballroom and the reading room is devoted to dining rooms and office and committee rooms for student organizations. These meeting rooms are furnished with large tables and matching chairs.
The fourth floor is devoted almost wholly to guest bedrooms, with one large lounging room where returning alumni may gather to chat. A stairway leads to the roof of the tower which affords Page 1687a fine vantage point for viewing the campus and city.
Within a few years after the building was completed more office and tap-room space became necessary, and in the spring of 1930 an additional suite of offices, which provided 4,972 more feet of floor space, was added on the south to provide for the general manager as well as for the student officers of the Union, who had previously had their offices on the third floor.
Two new wings to the south were completed in 1936 and 1938. The first, providing quarters for the University Club as well as fifty-four additional rooms for guests, afforded more than 90,000 more square feet of available space. This wing runs parallel to the main structure, while the other, with frontage on Madison Street, houses the International Center and affords eighty additional guest rooms. The first unit measures 142 by 145 feet, while the other to the south is 50 by 160 feet.
Immediately behind the Union, bordering on Madison and Thompson streets, are the residence halls of the West Quadrangle, which are connected with the basement and first floor of the Union by means of corridors.
A new $2,900,000 addition, begun in 1954-55, will provide additional cafeteria space, dining rooms, music rooms, and a student workshop.
Mimes Theater Building
When the old home of Judge Thomas M. Cooley was purchased and remodeled in 1906-7 to serve as the first Michigan Union Club House, the activities of the Union were already extensive. In 1912, therefore, an addition 60 by 120 feet was built to care for student needs and to accommodate the influx of alumni expected to return for the celebration of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the University in June of that year. Four years later, in 1916, the Cooley residence was torn down and work on the present Union Building was begun. The addition, however, which had been used for the most part as a dining room and ballroom, was moved to a site north of the Union to serve as temporary headquarters for the Union while the new building was under construction.
In 1921, after part of this addition had been destroyed by fire, the beams supporting the dance floor were opened at one end and a stage was constructed. Seats from old University Hall were installed to complete remodeling of the building as a theater. In The Michigan Alumnus for October, 1921, it was reported:
Work on transforming the old Union building into a little theater has been progressing rapidly during the last few weeks and it is expected that the stage will be ready for the opera rehearsals next week. The new theater will be known officially as the "Union Playhouse."
The completion of this playhouse will be another demonstration of the need for a campus theater. At the present time there are five organizations besides the Union which give at least one play during the year. Some of these have been given in Hill Auditorium, some of them in Sarah Caswell Angell Hall, but the proper stage facilities for dramatic work are lacking.
The new Union theater will have a seating capacity of 400 and a stage large enough to take care of standard size scenery. From wall to wall the stage measures 50 feet and is 30 feet deep. The opening is 28 by 16 feet, approximately the standard size. Three dressing rooms, a costume room under the stage, and a screened orchestra pit large enough to seat fifteen people have been provided. The floor of the building has been elevated so as to provide good vision from any part of the house.
For a number of years this theater Page 1688was used for Union productions. In February, 1922, it was taken over by the Mimes Society, a student dramatic organization which was under Union auspices. Here rehearsals were held for the annual Union operas.
Play Production classes, using old University Hall as a laboratory, were forced to move, because the building was condemned as a fire-trap. New quarters, therefore, had to be found for these Speech Department courses, and, as a result, the Regents rented the Mimes theater from the Union and presented it to the Speech Department, primarily for the use of the Play Production courses. It was formally opened as a Laboratory Theater on December 1, 1930.
Alterations to the building were made at this time so that, in addition to the stage and auditorium, the Laboratory Theater provided a Green Room designed to be used as a lobby or reception room or, on occasion, as a classroom. Two offices were constructed in the rear part of the building. In the basement were two more classrooms, make-up rooms, and a storage room. The Laboratory Theater, however, in its turn, only a year or so later was condemned as a fire hazard and boarded up.
With the construction of the Michigan League in 1930, however, the work in Play Production was moved to the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The old theater building was finally razed to make way for the parking lot and drive behind the new Administration Building.
Morris Hall, at one time headquarters of the University Broadcasting Service and the University Band, was situated on State Street on the southwest corner of Jefferson Avenue directly across from the campus. It had been the home of Professor George S. Morris who came to the University in 1870 and served for many years as head of the Department of Philosophy. For some time after Professor Morris' death in 1889 his family continued to occupy the residence. Eventually, however, it passed to other hands and was finally bought in 1915, as a site for a Catholic chapel.
In President Burton's report for the year 1922-23 the University's need of this site was mentioned, with the observation that it was not fair either to the Church or to the interests of the University that an elaborate structure should be placed on this corner. The Regents, therefore, in September 1922, entered into negotiations for the purchase of the property, which was eventually acquired by the University for $118,950. In 1924 the building was named Morris Hall, in honor of Professor Morris, and a room was set aside for archaeological material. The structure was poorly adapted for museum purposes, however, and at just about this time Newberry Hall was acquired by the University to house the archaeological collections.
An appropriation of $4,300 was made by the Regents in October, 1928, to adapt Morris Hall as a studio for broadcasting, for rehearsals of the University Band, and for other musical activities. Changes made in the building which had a frontage on State Street of 40 feet and was 85 feet long, included the construction of two studios separated by a glass partition, a smaller one with perfect acoustic facilities for ordinary broadcasts, and a larger studio to serve as an auditorium and for auditions and band rehearsals.
The building was torn down to make way for the Administration Building.
Mortimer E. Cooley Building
The Mortimer E. Cooley Building, usually called the Cooley Memorial Laboratory, or, simply, the Cooley Building, Page 1689was the first structure to be erected on the University's North Campus. It seems appropriate to record some of the events that led to the acquisition of this campus site and to sketch briefly the proposed development of the area.
In the late 1940's the facilities available to the Engineering Research Institute had become inadequate to cope with the increasing demands for government-sponsored research. Therefore, the Executive Committee of the Institute voted on March 7, 1949, to make certain funds accumulated in one of the Institute's accounts available to finance a building "which could properly house the Institute," and on March 11, Dean I. C. Crawford, chairman of the committee, transmitted a proposal to this effect to the University Committee on Plant Extension.
On July 14, 1949, at a meeting of the Engineering Research Council (which had just superseded the Executive Committee), the Vice-President in charge of business and finance, Mr. R. P. Briggs, mentioned the possibility of purchasing property away from the campus, but close to Ann Arbor, since the acquisition of a building site close to the Engineering buildings was extremely costly and would make future expansion very difficult. In the same month, Professor C. T. Larson, a member of the Council, addressed a communication to Assistant Provost J. A. Perkins, chairman of the Council, advocating "conscious decentralization" of University activities and the development of a "University Research Center" through expansion of facilities outside the Ann Arbor city limits.
Before the end of the year, December 16, 1949, Vice-President Briggs was authorized by the Regents "to purchase a parcel of land, comprising eighty-eight acres, lying to the north and west of the Huron River and east of the Municipal Golf Course, with the understanding that negotiations are to continue for the purchase of further properties in that area…" (R.P., 1949, p. 585). The Regents formally approved this purchase on February 24, 1950, and in October of the same year they authorized the acquisition of two additional parcels of land, one of some seventy-one, and the other of about fifty-seven acres, both adjoining the original eighty-eight. (It is interesting to note that purchase of seventy-one acres of Arborcrest property, originally laid out and planted for cemetery purposes, yielded the many beautiful evergreens which now adorn several buildings on the old campus, including the West Engineering Building.)
About two weeks prior to the formal approval of the purchase of the first tract of land, the Engineering Research Council devoted an entire meeting to the space problems of the Institute. Vice-President Briggs, who had been invited to the meeting together with Provost J. P. Adams, indicated that the Council "should consider moving the Engineering Research Institute to the environs of Ann Arbor, where land was not at a premium and where there would be ample opportunity for expansion." One member of the Council, Professor G. Granger Brown, "advised that he had been studying the idea of moving certain instructional laboratories, as well as research laboratories, off the campus." He had in mind moving primarily those laboratories in which students spend half-day periods, for this "would have the advantage of permitting continued integration of instruction and research…"
Exactly one year from the day when the Regents authorized the first land purchase, they initiated the negotiation of "an appropriate architectural contract with Cornelius L. T. Gabler, of Detroit, for the construction of a research facility to be provided from funds of the Engineering Page 1690Research Institute in the amount of $750,000," in accordance with a resolution of the Engineering Research Council submitted to the Regents and adopted by them on November 18, 1950 (R.P., 1950, pp. 1128-29).
Anticipating a continuing increase in student enrollment and an expanded program of research activities, both undirected and sponsored, and activated by a desire to keep the teaching and research functions of the University closely integrated, the Regents decided to entrust the over-all planning of the new campus to an architectural firm of national reputation. Hence, they empowered Vice-President W. K. Pierpont, who had succeeded Mr. Briggs in February, 1951, to enter into a contract with Eero Saarinen and Associates, of Birmingham, Michigan, to act as consultants in the development of the new campus, now commonly called the North Campus (R.P., 1951, p. 1297).
Saarinen and Associates, after many conferences with University administrators, presented long-range plans. The North Campus was conceived to embrace an engineering research area consisting of about seventy-five acres, as well as several other areas set aside for distinct educational functions. Of the total area, amounting to more than 378 acres, one section has since been reserved for apartments for married students and staff.
The first building to be begun and completed on the North Campus is the Mortimer E. Cooley Building, named so in honor of Mortimer Elwyn Cooley, Dean of the College of Engineering — the name was changed twice during his deanship — from 1904 to 1928, one of the outstanding personalities in the field of engineering. Since he was responsible to a large degree for the establishment of the Department of Engineering Research (Engineering Research Institute), it was appropriate that the first building constructed for Engineering Research Institute activities should bear his name. About a total of $100,000 contributed during his lifetime by friends, colleagues, and former students to the Mortimer E. Cooley Foundation, and after his death to the Cooley Memorial Fund, was added to the various sums, totaling $1,045,000, from various reserve funds of the Institute.
The Cooley Building, situated at the southeastern end of the area set aside for engineering research, was dedicated on October 24, 1953, climaxing the Engineering Centennial celebration. The building is of reinforced concrete, brick-faced and flat-roofed. The major portion of the front, which faces south, consists of Thermopane windows set in aluminum sash. The over-all dimensions are approximately 243 by 56 by 27 feet high (from base grade). At the north side near the east end there is a projection, 49 by 25 feet, approximately 18 feet deep (the top just extending above grade level), which houses heating facilities that presently serve two additional buildings and are sufficient to serve several more to be built in the future. The general contractor was Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., of Washington, D. C., and Ann Arbor.
A special feature of the Cooley Building is a structurally isolated room, 18 by 24 by 16 feet high, near the southeast end of the building. The walls, floor, and ceiling of this room — it is really a building within a building, since it rests on its own footings — are of high-density concrete, so that a fairly loud, sharply uttered sound reverberates up to thirty seconds. This "Reverberation Room" was constructed for noise-reduction investigations carried on by the Sound and Infrared Group, which occupies space on all three floor levels, amounting to about 20 per cent of the total space available for research.
Page 1691About 55 per cent of the total laboratory area is used by the Electronics Defense Group, which carries on important research in communication engineering.
The other research activities presently housed in the Cooley Building are nuclear power development (5 rooms), development of shock mounts for tank fire control instruments (1 room), and study of blast loads on buildings (1 room).
The total number of research workers employed in the various laboratories is about 120, of whom virtually all are engaged in classified research. The major part of the building's laboratory equipment has been supplied by the federal government. The building also is the headquarters of the College of Engineering Industry Program, which is administered by Professor H. A. Ohlgren as an Institute project.
The Cooley Building, having been planned as the nucleus of a sizable research area, has two lobbies, two lounges, two conference rooms, and an auditorium, which are available for informal conferences and for meetings.
The furnishings of all the conference facilities except the auditorium were presented by various alumni, groups of alumni, and friends of the University.
In the west end of the basement is an auditorium — seating capacity 125 — which was furnished with Institute funds. It is provided with a projection booth and a large door behind the screen and blackboard area and is equipped with a public address system and a motor-operated autotransformer for control of overhead lighting. Near the entrance to the auditorium is a plaque honoring Professor A. E. White, Director of the Institute from its inception until his retirement in 1953, when he was succeeded by Professor R. G. Folsom.
To the west of the Cooley Building is the Phoenix Memorial Laboratory, constructed with some of the funds donated by alumni and friends of the University for research in peacetime applications of nuclear energy, and to the south is the Library Service and Stack Building, which serves as a storage facility for little-used library materials and also houses the University Bindery. A pedestrian tunnel is to connect the Cooley and Phoenix buildings, since some of the research activities in the two buildings will be closely related, especially after completion of the nuclear reactor, which will adjoin the Phoenix Building.
Presently under construction are the Automotive Laboratory, being built with state-appropriated funds, and four aeronautical research laboratories, for the construction of which Engineering Research Institute funds are being used. The Automotive Laboratory is a short distance north of the Cooley Building, and the aeronautics buildings, some distance northeast.
Museums Annex (Old Health Service Building)
In 1921, when the Health Service was made a unit of the new Division of Hygiene and Public Health, the need for more space than that provided by the remodeled dwelling on Ingalls Street which then housed it became imperative. As a result, in July, 1922, the Health Service took over the building which had served as the Children's Ward of the old Homeopathic Hospital.
This building, which had been constructed at a cost of $32,322.41 in 1919, was erected by the Department of Buildings and Grounds and consisted of three floors approximately 40 by 70 feet, with a total area of 11,795 square feet. For about eighteen years, or until April, 1940, the Health Service occupied this building. In 1928, because a larger staff, Page 1692improved service, more space, and more adequate equipment were badly needed, funds were made available which permitted expansion on the ground floor of the former Homeopathic Hospital. This space was used for a small waiting room, two physicians' offices, and extended facilities for physiotherapy. New furniture, modern equipment, and X-ray facilities were also installed.
The entrance to the main building opened into a hall, on the left side of which were three offices for doctors and one for the dispensing nurse. Farther down the hall, opposite the entrance, was a large main room containing the business office and files for student records. Opening off this room, at the east, was a patients' waiting room and, surrounding it, on the north and west, were offices and examination rooms for the various Health Service physicians.
Just inside the main entrance a stairway led to a second-floor room occupied by the nurse supervising the infirmary. At the east end of the building was a ward for women students and on the west, a ward for men.
The basement, which was partly above ground, housed the X ray, pharmacy, and cashier's offices at the front, and a laboratory at the rear. The basement was connected by a corridor with the basement of the old Homeopathic Hospital, which housed the eye, ear, nose, and throat and allergy clinics of the Health Service. At the rear were a dietitian's office, dining rooms, and a kitchen.
With the completion of the new Health Service Building in 1940, the old Health Service was taken over by the University Museums and named the Museums Annex.
The larger part of the space, comprising the entire second floor and some rooms on the third floor and in the basement, houses the Institute for Fisheries Research of the Michigan Department of Conservation, which formerly occupied very congested quarters in the University Museums Building. The remaining space is used by the Great Lakes Laboratory of the United States Fish and Wild Life Service, the University Herbarium, the Museum of Paleontology, and the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology, for much needed supplementary research facilities. Until it was discontinued in the spring of 1942, the University unit of the Michigan WPA Museums Project had its headquarters in the Annex. Since then, these rooms have been used by the office of the University Museums.
Natural Science Building
The teaching of the sciences has been emphasized from the very beginning in the curriculum of the University of Michigan. This emphasis led, eventually, to a serious lack of space for classrooms and laboratories. Accordingly, in 1913 the Regents asked the legislature for an appropriation of $375,000 for a Natural Science Building, which was granted. Plans for the proposed building, prepared by Albert Kahn, of Detroit, the architect, were accepted in October, 1913 (R.P., 1910-14, p. 815). Construction began four months later, in May, 1914, under the contractors, Irwin and Leighton, of Philadelphia, and the building was completed in the latter part of 1915. Throughout the period of construction Professor John F. Shepard, of the Department of Psychology, acted as the representative of the University in overseeing the details of design and equipment. The eventual completion of the building and the construction of a botanical conservatory measuring 30 by 60 feet on the southeast corner represented a final cost of $408,000.
The departments accommodated include Botany, Geology, Mineralogy, Page 1693and Zoology, and the School of Natural Resources and the Natural Resources Library. Formerly, the Department of Psychology was also housed in the building.
The building stands on the south side of North University Avenue, directly across from Hill Auditorium, on the site of the old Homeopathic Medical School, which had incorporated the westernmost of the two professors' residences on the north side of the campus. It is separated from the Chemistry Building by the Mall which extends from the General Library Building to the Rackham School of Graduate Studies.
The Natural Science Building is constructed of dark red tapestry brick with trim of light terra-cotta and stone. Practically the only ornamentation is provided by patterns in the brick. The building, carefully designed with its essential purpose as a laboratory building in view, was a pioneer in University construction, since the architect, Albert Kahn, utilized a newly developed system employed successfully in the construction of large factories, the use of regularly placed steel and concrete piers to support the building, making all the rooms exactly the width of the spaces between the piers or multiples of that space. The walls between the piers are utilized entirely for windows, thus affording a maximum amount of light. The building is almost square in shape, except for one corner which is cut off to leave room for the campus diagonal walk. In this corner is the amphitheater, which seats 482 persons, and above it the Natural Resources Library. The total floor space comprises approximately 155,000 square feet, divided among 270 rooms.
Upon entering the building from North University Avenue the section occupied by the Department of Zoology lies to the right. To the left of the entrance are the offices and laboratories of the Department of Mineralogy and, farther down the hall to the eastern entrance, is the section devoted to the Department of Geology. Also on the east side is the School of Natural Resources, while on the southeastern corner, extending along the south side to the amphitheater, are the classrooms and laboratories of the Department of Botany. Special stairways in each of these sections simplify access from one floor to another for each department. An elevator is available for moving heavy apparatus.
From either the front (north) or east entrance low broad stairways lead into long, terrazzo-paved corridors extending the length of the building on each side. There are entrances at either side of the southwest part of the building occupied by the auditorium, which in daytime is lighted by skylights and is furnished with complete equipment for the demonstration of experiments. Five tables can be set up singly or in a group and are equipped for electricity, gas, compressed air, and water installations. For many years the Natural Science Auditorium was used for special lectures and other University functions which are now given in other auditoriums.
The building contains numerous laboratories, all equipped with specially adapted laboratory furniture: acid-proof tables, specially designed sinks, and other features. Most of the laboratories are of three or four units, and the offices and research laboratories of the faculty are of one or two units. Many of the classrooms are equipped for picture projection. On the northeast corner of the second floor are the two connected museums of the Department of Mineralogy and Geology. There is an aquarium room with troughs and tanks, enabling the Department of Zoology to carry on experiments in aquatic life. In 1930 an animal house was erected in the central court.
Page 1694The building is valued at $868,600, including the $210,000 cost of rehabilitation, which was carried on chiefly in the library section in 1953-54.
Newberry Hall, situated on State Street directly across from Angell Hall, was built in 1890-91 as headquarters for the Students' Christian Association of the University. This organization was established in the winter of 1857-58 and continued to flourish for many years, with a large proportion of the student body active in the work of the organization. At the celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Association in 1883, the need for suitable quarters was vigorously set forth. It was not until July 1, 1887, that funds were available to begin the construction of a building. Members of the faculty, students, and citizens of Ann Arbor contributed the sum of $2,500 to purchase the site, and this, together with an extra sum of $1,700, made up the original contribution. Albert E. Jennings ('89) had taken the field as a canvassing agent, and as a result sufficient funds were raised to justify the Board of Directors in undertaking the erection of the building. The cornerstone was laid on May 26, 1888, but delays in construction followed owing to the expansion of the original plans, and it was not until June, 1891, that the building was dedicated. With its furnishings, the completed building represented a total cost of $40,000, which sum included a gift of $18,000 from Mrs. Helen H. Newberry, of Detroit. In recognition of this support it was named Newberry Hall in honor of her husband, John S. Newberry ('47). Several contributions of $1,000 were made by Detroit citizens, and $2,600 was raised by the women of Ann Arbor, largely through an art loan exhibition which was held in the partly completed building. In a contemporary account of this exhibition it was estimated that "two million dollars worth of valuables" was displayed.
The new building contained rooms for general social headquarters for the Students' Christian Association as well as offices and committee rooms and an auditorium on the second floor. It was substantially built of native field stone, in the prevailing Romanesque style of the period, developed under the influence of the architect, H. H. Richardson, of Boston. The plans were prepared by Spier and Rohn, architects, of Detroit. It has a frontage on State Street of 58 feet and extends 90 feet to the rear.
Following a reorganization in 1904-5, Newberry Hall became the center of the Young Women's Christian Association, under the general direction of the board of the Students' Christian Association, which still continued to hold the title to Newberry Hall. The building gradually decreased in usefulness, and at the June meeting of the Regents in 1921, the Students' Christian Association offered it to the University for classes on condition that the expense of repairs and the cost of heating be borne by the University (R.P., 1920-23, p. 210). In July, 1921, the Regents appropriated $2,000 for repairs and equipment of Newberry Hall, which provided three classrooms and a large lecture room. At the June meeting of 1922 the Board authorized payment of $2,400 to the Association for rental of the building as of September, 1921. The University continued to rent it for classes in history, English, and philosophy and in 1928 took it over on a lease from the Students' Christian Association and adapted it for use as a museum under the Department of Classical Studies.
In a subsequent reorganization, following the establishment of a Student Page 1695Religious Association in 1937, the Board of Directors of the old S.C.A. transferred the property to the University.
In 1953 the museum, which had become a separate unit, was named the Francis W. Kelsey Museum of Archaeology.
The building now known as North Hall was built in 1899-1900 to house the Homeopathic Medical College of the University. In June, 1899, the following resolution was adopted by the Board of Regents:
Resolved, That if the city of Ann Arbor will give the Board of Regents the property known as the Smith place, opposite the northeast corner of the Campus, the Board will erect thereon a hospital for the Homeopathic Department. Said hospital shall not cost less than $50,000, and work on same shall be begun at once.
(R.P., 1896-1901, p. 381.)
In September, 1899, the President and Secretary of the University were authorized to accept from the city of Ann Arbor the deed to this propery, comprising five acres, for the hospital site. Ground was broken and the stone hauled in November, 1899. Stanton and Kirby were appointed as the architects for the building, which was completed late in 1900. The exercises incident to the formal opening of the Hospital were held on December 6, 7, and 8, 1900. The building, which has a total floor area of 48,465 square feet, cost $80,306.50. At the time of completion it had a maximum capacity of one hundred and forty beds, and it was announced that this would afford "ample clinical facilities for years to come."
The ground plan of the building is in the general form of the letter "T." Each end of the top of the letter was a ward, and the base was occupied by the operating and clinic rooms. In all, the building contained six wards and about twenty private rooms. It extended back over the brow of a hill, which made it possible to have a basement and a subbasement, above the ground level. It had a frontage of 200 feet and was constructed of granite and gray pressed brick, with a red tiled roof. When the hospital was opened the following description appeared in the Michigan Alumnus for November, 1900:
The broad corridors, wide windows and glistening red oak woodwork make an attractive interior. At the end of each hallway are double glass doors opening into a ward, each … intended for sixteen beds. At the front of each ward is a large sun parlor, to be used as a sitting room by patients able to leave their beds. Admirable forethought has taken care that there be no square corners or angles to catch dust and germs…
The plumbing attracts instant attention. It is elaborate and thoroughly modern. The Sturtevant heating system is … guaranteed to change the air in the entire building every five minutes. The steam for the heating is carried from the University heating plant, a quarter of a mile distant…
The operating rooms are up to date in every respect. The surgical amphitheatre is finished in gray marble and is a model of beauty and utility…
The site is peculiarly well adapted to the purpose. It is directly across the street from the University grounds and is on the street car line. The five acres of land and fine residence make up the grounds and house of what for generations has been one of the finest estates in the city.
The Hospital was housed in this building until the Homeopathic Medical College was discontinued in 1922.
In May, 1926, the building was designated by the Regents as "South Department Hospital." The old hospital group of buildings, on Catherine Street, was designated "Convalescent Hospital."
The Regents' Proceedings for September, Page 16961940, notes that "in view of the fact that the South Department of the University Hospital, so-called, is no longer used for hospital purposes but is occupied by the University Extension Service, the Naval R.O.T.C. unit … the building was redesignated as North Hall."
From 1949 to 1951 the Army R.O.T.C. and the Air Force R.O.T.C. were also housed in the building. The Army R.O.T.C., however, moved to the Temporary Classroom Building in 1951. The building since 1940 at various times has also housed the American Red Cross and the Audio-Visual Education Center.
The Old Engineering Building
In 1891 a building on the site where Clements Library now is was made available for engineering classes. The oldest part of this building had been one of the four Professors' Houses from 1841 to 1877, Professor Frieze having been the last occupant. In 1877 the residence was altered and refitted for the Dental School, and in 1878 a wing was added at the east. When, in 1891, the Dental School moved to larger quarters on the north side of the campus, the building was enlarged toward the north and a third story added. The entrance was changed to the west side of the new part, and the word "Engineering" was placed over the doorway, the east wing remaining as before. There were fifteen classrooms and several offices in this building, which continued in use until 1922. After 1904 it was called the Old Engineering Building.
The Old (First) Medical Building
The Old Medical Building, long a landmark on the east side of the campus, was one of the earliest University buildings. Preliminary action was taken in January, 1847, when it was resolved "that a building be erected upon the University Grounds similar in its dimensions and general plan to the principal building now in use, that suitable rooms for a Laboratory, Lectures, Anatomical Dissections, etc., for the use of the Medical Department be prepared in one section of said building … (R.P., 1837-64, p. 365). The sum of $5,000 was appropriated for the purpose and $3,000 more was set aside in 1848 when the completion of the building was finally authorized. It was occupied in 1850, and the total cost upon completion of the exterior in 1852 was $9,991.84 (see Part V: The Medical School).
Constructed under the supervision of Professor Silas H. Douglas, a member of the first medical faculty, who at that time also served as Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, this building was the center of medical instruction on the campus for more than fifty years. While there is no record of an architect, it is probable that the plans were prepared under Douglass' direction, in cooperation with Jonathan Kearsley, at that time chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents.
During the period of its construction, it was known as the Laboratory Building, apparently in order to secure a better insurance rate and also to distinguish it from the South University Building (South Wing of University Hall), which was under construction at about the same time. The new building was 92 feet in length, 42 feet in width, and three stories high. It contained laboratories and lecture rooms, particularly a large lecture room on the second floor with a small dome above to admit light. A striking feature of the building was the portico on the east side with four tall Greek columns of brick and stucco construction, the capitals of which were designed and cast in Detroit.
Page 1697The Medical Department of the University was opened immediately upon the completion of the new building and from the first grew so rapidly that by 1864 an addition was necessary. In January, 1864, the Regents considered how they might enlarge the building. An examination of the finances of the institution showed that it could not be done without incurring debt. An appeal was made to the citizens of Ann Arbor, who responded by a gift of $10,000, raised by a general tax. The cost of the addition, according to Farrand, was $20,000. This four-story structure at the west end of the building was 60 feet square, thus more than doubling the classroom and laboratory space. It had offices and two large lecture rooms or amphitheaters, each containing seats for 600 persons. The top floor provided a new and enlarged dissecting room. For more than half a century all the pre-clinical medical work on the campus was carried on in this building and in the small Anatomical Laboratory Building, which was completed in 1889 just to the south of the Medical Building.
It was not until the West Medical Building, for many years known as the New Medical Building, was completed in 1903 that the old building which had served the University since the opening of the Medical School was superseded. The rear wing, as a matter of fact, proved so dangerous and ill-adapted that on the completion of the new building it was no longer used for classes. Later, however, permission was given for the continued use of the first-floor laboratories, and for some years the older east section was used. On August 12, 1911, a fire of unknown origin broke out on the third floor of the rear wing, which practically destroyed the west half of the building. The old front part was saved, only to be razed in 1914, to the regret of all the medical alumni of the University, who had already raised funds to save the building and adapt it for modern conditions of instruction. This proved impracticable, however, particularly in view of the fact that, with the expansion of the University and the erection of new buildings, the land upon which it stood had become extremely valuable. Randall Laboratory of Physics stands upon the site of the Old (First) Medical Building.
Chase S. Osborn Preserve
A valuable tract of land in Chippewa County in the Upper Peninsula, approximately three hundred miles north of Ann Arbor, including all of Duck Island and a part of Sugar Island, was the gift of Chase Salmon Osborn, Michigan's thirty-ninth governor (1911-13) and Regent of the University from 1908 to 1911, and his son, Colonel George Augustus Osborn. The gift was tendered in the following communication which was presented to the Board of Regents by President Ruthven in the fall of 1929:
I shall be happy to deed my so-called Duck Island Preserve of over three thousand acres to the University. There shall be no restrictions except a life tenancy of Duck Island containing about one hundred sixty acres. My library of several thousand books, some of which are rare, goes with the gift. It is now stored in a fireproof godown. This property is impressive and beautiful and has unusual versatile value. There are more than ten miles or over sixty thousand feet of water front. It is blocked solid for five miles. This message shall be your authority to ask the Regents to act in the matter. Deed shall follow. Title is perfect. Name and other considerations can be discussed later.
The Regents accepted this offer in the following resolution:
Resolved, That we, the Regents of the University of Michigan, accept with gratitude the splendid gift of over 3,000 acres of land, including a part of Sugar Island and some small adjacent islands, with the several Page 1698buildings thereon and a library of several thousand books, offered to the University by the Honorable Chase S. Osborn under the conditions that the gift be recorded as a joint gift from Chase S. Osborn and George Augustus Osborn and that Dr. Chase S. Osborn reserves a life tenancy of Duck Island.
Resolved, That this land shall for the present be used principally for research and instruction in the natural sciences and forestry; and
Resolved, That the land be known as the Chase S. Osborn Preserve of the University of Michigan …
(R.P., 1929-32, p. 54.)
Duck Island is about twenty miles below Sault Ste Marie on the so-called "old channel" of the historic and rarely beautiful St. Mary's River. This secluded island was for many years the home of Michigan's former governor. When first occupied by him, the island was accessible only by water. Duck Island proper is narrow and less than a mile long and is separated from Sugar Island by a narrow channel which widens in the shelter of the two islands into a pleasant and relatively calm bay. From the north side of this bay a trail winds northward through a pine grove to the buildings erected and occupied by Governor Osborn. A few yards to the right of this trail and just short of the building site is a small plot of ground returned by the University to the Osborn estate. Here, beneath a huge granite boulder and in sight of the waters he so loved, the Governor is buried.
The path beyond bends upward to the top of a small and partially cleared knoll where the buildings in which the governor lived and entertained his guests are situated. The two most interesting cabins on Duck Island are of log construction. The larger of the two, Big Duck, was reserved for Mr. Osborn's guests. It consists of a large living room with fireplace, beds in the corners which can be curtained off at night, and a small dining room and kitchen in the rear. Little Duck, the smaller of the two cabins, containing only one room, about fifteen by eighteen feet, was occupied by Governor Osborn during his periods of residence on the Island. A few paces farther north and entirely separated from Little Duck is the governor's private bedroom, a small room of post and bark construction, large enough to shelter only the log and balsam bough bed used by Mr. Osborn. The shelter protected him against the severe frosts of Michigan's autumns.
Situated between Big Duck and Little Duck, and somewhat closer to the east channel, is a concrete fireproof library building, constructed by the governor to house his private collection of several thousand volumes (many of them irreplaceable), voluminous correspondence, and other manuscript materials. After his death, the University transferred many of the books to the General Library, and the manuscripts to the Michigan Historical Collections.
A trail leads southwest from the building site to the east side of the bay, and to the channel which separates Duck Island from Sugar Island. This channel, once navigable, gave access to a small and sheltered lake below the lower tip of Duck Island, which provided anchorage for the governor's boats. Over the years the channel has been partially closed by a beaver dam, and at this point there is a foot passage from one island to the other.
The trail bends slightly to the eastward and continues across Sugar Island to the Gander, a large cabin of modern log construction, which provides, in addition to a pleasant lounge, comfortable sleeping and cooking facilities. The Gander is used by the University to house investigators working on the Preserve. Not far to the south and west is the dwelling occupied by the caretaker of the Preserve.
More than 85 per cent of the total land Page 1699area is well wooded. The remainder consists of old clearings — disappearing evidences of earlier logging and farming ventures. The forest tract is largely "second growth" but of large pole. Much of the tract has not been heavily lumbered in recent years. More than half of the tract is mixed lowland hardwoods and conifers in which soft maple, balsam, fir, white birch, spruce, and aspen predominate. There are also upland hardwoods, with a fine showing of white birch, sugar maple, yellow birch, and red oak. Other forest types are the mixed hemlocks and hardwoods, white and Norway pine, swamp conifer characterized by spruce, balsam, fir, and cedar, and the lowland hardwoods with stands of black ash, balm of Gilead, and elm. The entire area is remarkable for the profusion and intermingling of tree species, of which there are about twenty in number.
Commercial cutting for the production of wood pulp was undertaken by the University during World War II. These operations have been discontinued and in all probability will not be reopened. In its natural state the Preserve offers excellent opportunities for research and demonstration. Even though well suited to commercial forest production under sound forestry management, it is believed that much of the area is more valuable for other purposes. Beyond its aesthetic and recreational values, the tract can become a sample primitive forest and wild-life habitat unexcelled for biological and other scientific studies.
The area is secluded. Transportation facilities are not especially encouraging, and consequently University activities have been limited to occasional field explorations and some research in the biological sciences. The islands are both attractive and inviting. A bridge across the St. Mary's River just south of the city of Sault Ste Marie, making the area more accessible, suggests a host of University activities which could be administered to advantage among the now remote beauties of the Osborn Preserve.
Phoenix Memorial Laboratory
On June 9, 1955, the Phoenix Memorial Laboratory, situated on the North Campus, was dedicated. The laboratory is a tangible manifestation of the Michigan Memorial-Phoenix Project, the University's war memorial research project devoted to study of the peacetime implications and applications of atomic energy.
The Phoenix Project itself was created on May 1, 1948, by action of the Board of Regents, on recommendation of its War Memorial Committee (R.P., 1945-48, pp. 1261-62). The project draws its financial support primarily from students, alumni, and friends of the University. This support totaled about $7,500,000 when the drive for funds was completed.
As the research program on peacetime implications and applications of atomic energy began to take shape and gain momentum, it was apparent to the Preliminary Planning Committee of the project that a laboratory with special facilities was needed. Research on atomic energy involves the handling of large amounts of radioactive materials and the use of high intensity radiation sources. Such work can be carried out safely and adequately only in facilities designed for the purpose.
On March 14, 1951, an informal committee on building plans was appointed by Dean Ralph A. Sawyer, then chairman of the Preliminary Planning Committee, and later Director of the entire project. The building committee, consisting of Professors H. B. Lewis, D. G. Marquis, and Dean G. G. Brown, reported on March 22, 1951, recommending Page 1700the construction of a laboratory, "to provide facilities for work in the field of atomic energy, that the planning be co-ordinated with plans for the Engineering Research Institute and the Cooley Memorial and incorporate suitable features as a Phoenix Memorial."
The new Executive Committee of the Phoenix Project, at its meeting of October 20, 1951, Dean Sawyer presiding, authorized the construction of a memorial building, and a building committee was appointed to draw up and submit plans.
On January 11, 1952, it was announced that Cornelius Gabler, of Detroit, architect for the Engineering Research Laboratory, had been selected as the architect for the Phoenix Memorial Laboratory. Professor Henry J. Gomberg, newly appointed Assistant Director of the Project, was named chairman of the building committee. Later, William Parkinson, of the Department of Physics, and Alfred S. Sussman, of the Department of Botany, were added to make a committee of three. Edward R. Baylor, of the Department of Zoology, was appointed in August. The first task of the committee was to decide upon the research facilities which the building should provide.
The problems involved in properly accommodating radiation research proved to be difficult, particularly since many of the requirements were new and there was little literature or experience to draw on for guidance. The committee received excellent support and assistance from many faculty and staff members, however, in particular, from H. R. Crane, of the Physics Department, W. W. Meinke, of the Chemistry Department, L. E. Brownell, of the Chemical Engineering Department, G. M. Ridenour, of the School of Public Health, who is also the University's Radiological Safety Officer, A. H. Emmons, Associate Radiological Safety Officer, J. V. Nehemias, and many others.
The final plan for the laboratory resulted in a three-story building of reinforced concrete, brick, and glass about 180 feet long, 57 feet wide, 27 feet above grade on the west side and 40 feet above grade on the east side. A greenhouse of a unique inverted-V roof design extends about 40 feet south from the southwest corner of the main building to which the greenhouse is connected by corridor.
The first floor, as can be seen from the dimensions, is below grade on the west side. At the north end of the building, this "below-grade" area extends to the west, providing a large underground room. All the heavy radiation work is housed on the lower floor, particularly at the north end in the below-grade area.
From the south end of the lower floor, a visitor passes, on the right-hand side, the following rooms: (a) A clothes change area in which regular street attire may be exchanged for special protective clothing if needed. In a health physics monitoring station both personnel and clothing are checked for radioactive contamination on return to the clothes change area. (b) A radiation measurements laboratory in which equipment is available for highly accurate measurement of radioactivity in small samples and specimens. (c) A radioactive materials handling and preparation area in which radioactive materials and specimens are prepared for easy handling and subsequent measurement. Included in this room is a walk-in type hood large enough to accommodate a small machine or a moderate-sized animal, such as a dog. (d) A radiochemistry laboratory with complete facilities for carrying out all chemical analyses and synthesis procedures using radioactive materials with activities up to several Curies.
On the left hand side, there is: (e) A service area for the heating, ventilating, and electrical equipment. (f) Extending, back into the ground beyond the building Page 1701line is a heavily shielded room in which a new type of particle accelerator is to be built. (g) A high flux gamma source housed in a special room with the walls of high density concrete 3 feet thick. The source itself, consisting of about 2,500 Curies of Cobalt-60 is housed in a 20-foot deep water tank when not in use. The source is used for studies on the effects of radiation. (h) Two large caves designed for handling up to 10,000 Curies of gamma emitters. The inside of the caves provides a work area 6 by 10 feet. The cave walls are 3 feet thick and of a high density concrete surfaced with sheet steel three-eighths of an inch thick. The walls of each cave are pierced by three windows of special high density glass permitting complete visual surveillance of the work in the caves. The actual handling of material inside the caves is carried on through manipulators, operated from the outside; these are capable of reproducing most motions and actions of the human hand.
In addition, there are special decontamination and waste cleanup facilities and special underground storage pits for radioactive materials. A 14-ton hydraulic lift brings heavy shielded casks containing radioactive materials from ground level down into the cave area or vice versa. Eventually, the north wall will be breached, and openings will provide direct access to the new Ford Nuclear Reactor now under construction.
The second floor of the building provides free access to the public and contains the memorial lobby, administrative offices, conference room, library, and shops. The library has been dedicated to George Mason, former president of American Motors, whose efforts in obtaining financial support for the project "helped transform a dream into reality."
The third floor is not finished but will eventually contain laboratories devoted to studies in the life sciences. Projected facilities to be provided when money is available include microbiology and biochemistry laboratories, an aquarium, an animal room, an operating room, hot and cold rooms, tracer level counting rooms, and a special installation for microradiation detection.
In February, 1954, the De Koning Construction Company, of Ann Arbor, was awarded the construction contract. The original budget was for $1,500,000, which included finishing the first floor completely, and the lobby on the second floor. The contract was later expanded to cover some changes and completion of the second floor installations. The new budget total is $1,626,111.17.
Although not yet quite completed, the building was occupied in July, 1955, when the Midwest Universities Research Association set up headquarters for their study group on new accelerator design and began construction of a model, capable of accelerating electrons to two million electron volt velocities, of a new proposed twenty-five billion electron volt proton accelerator. Requests for use of the building facilities have come in rapidly and will be fulfilled in keeping with the policy of open research devoted to furthering the peacetime use of atomic energy.
The new Phoenix Memorial Laboratory will provide radiation research facilities which have no equal in any nongovernment laboratory in the country. With the new Ford Research Reactor, the University will have facilities and equipment for study in all aspects of atomic energy. It is expected that the new Ford Nuclear Reactor which will complete the building will be dedicated during the spring of 1956.
Portage Lake Observatory
The research and instrumentation programs of the University of Michigan Observatory have undergone steady evolution, in step with, and often leading, progress Page 1702in the field of astronomy. Shortly after his appointment to the directorship in 1946, Professor Leo Goldberg initiated planning for a new telescope which should be of the wide-field class suited especially to research on questions of galactic and extragalactic structure. Instruments of the Schmidt design were coming increasingly into use at major observatories, and the Director and staff realized the desirability of adding a large telescope of this type to the equipment of the Observatory. Opportunity for investigations of a kind new to the Observatory programs would thus be combined with facilities for training graduate students in the use of the latest in telescopic developments.
It was estimated that an instrument of requisite power, with the necessary buildings, would require an outlay of $260,000. In June, 1947, the Board of Regents appropriated $150,000 adding $10,000 six months later. At an early stage in the planning, McGregor Fund of Detroit, already a generous contributor to the construction and support of the McMath-Hulbert Solar Observatory, offered the sum of $100,000, a gift accepted by the Regents in January, 1948. The final cost proved to be within a small percentage of the estimate.
A Schmidt-type telescope of the desired size, designed and constructed by the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, had been in successful operation for several years at the Case Institute of Technology's Warner and Swasey Observatory. By contracting with the Warner and Swasey Company for all mechanical parts of an identical telescope, the expenses incidental to drawing up a new design were eliminated. This duplication, incidentally, represents the closest approach to "mass-production" of large telescopes in the history of modern astronomy.
Since the Warner and Swasey Company had discontinued their optical department, the exacting work of grinding and figuring the 36-inch spherical mirror, 24-inch correcting plate, and two 24-inch objective prisms of four-and six-degree refracting angle, respectively, was carried out by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation of Norwalk, Connecticut. The pyrex mirror blank was quickly provided through the kindness of Dr. J. A. Anderson of Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories, suitable replacement in due time being undertaken by the University of Michigan. The correcting plate blank is Pittsburgh plate glass, and the blanks for the objective prisms were obtained by Mr. Perkin from Chance Brothers Ltd., in England. In view of the delays normally encountered in obtaining large optical disks, procurement of these was unusually expeditious.
It was mandatory that a rural site be chosen for the new instrument, yet one that would be conveniently accessible from the campus. Peach Mountain, fifteen miles from Ann Arbor, had earlier been selected for proposed observatory expansion, and a reservation of more than 600 acres had been acquired by the University for work in forestry and biology. Within this forested area, well protected from encroachment by private and commercial building, a suitable clearing was chosen, not far from the University radio transmitter tower.
Two buildings were required, one to house the telescope, the other to provide accommodations for observers. Plans for both were drawn up by the Ann Arbor firm of Colvin and Heller, acting in close consultation with the Observatory staff. Both buildings combined efficient design with a simplicity of style suited to the woodland surroundings. The Observatory proper, of sand-colored brick, carries the telescope at the second-floor level; the first floor is given over to garage space and to auxiliary electronic equipment for the telescope Page 1703drive. A small but well-equipped basement darkroom is supplemented by an auxiliary dark-closet opening off the working area of the telescope. The dome, an important adjunct of a large telescope which requires careful engineering, was constructed by the Paterson-Leitch Company of Cleveland after the designs of the Warner and Swasey Company.
The staff building, a one-story brick structure, includes a commodious, comfortably furnished room which serves as library, working space, and lounge; two bedrooms with sleeping accommodations for four persons; and a well-equipped kitchen. The basement, in addition to the usual service equipment, houses a small workshop, and has ample space for expansion of laboratory and storage facilities.
Construction of the Observatory Building was contracted to A. P. W. Hewitt, Inc., and the staff building was erected by Kurtz Building Company, both of Ann Arbor.
Ground was broken in August, 1948, and the telescope was put into operation on the night of February 2, 1950. Formal dedication ceremonies were held on June 24, 1950, at the conclusion of a two-day symposium on "The Structure of the Galaxy," attended by a distinguished group of American astronomers. In conformance with a suggestion by Judge Henry S. Hulbert, then president of McGregor Fund, the telescope was named in honor of Dr. Heber Doust Curtis, Director of the University of Michigan Observatories from 1930 to 1942. The name chosen for the Observatory is derived from its site overlooking Portage Lake.
Continuous improvements, major and minor, have been made in the Curtis Schmidt telescope as need arose. The most important modification is a variable-frequency, electronically controlled diurnal drive, designed and constructed at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory. In 1952 a program of photoelectric photometry and spectrophotometry was initiated and is carried on parallel with the programs of direct and spectroscopic photography.
The telescope, buildings, and location are considered eminently satisfactory and constitute a notable milestone in the long history of the University of Michigan observatories.
Radiation Laboratory Building
The headquarters of the Institute of Human Biology are housed in a building which was originally part of the old University Hospital. In fact, the north wing of this building is the oldest part still standing of any of the old Hospital group. The wing was constructed in 1891, and a later addition to the south was called the Palmer Ward, a name sometimes in later years attached to the whole building. For many years the first floor of the wing served as a dining room, and most of the second floor was divided into small rooms for patients. In 1950 the old dining room was divided into offices and laboratories for the Institute, part of the cost being provided from research grants and part by University funds. In 1951 and 1952 the rooms on the second floor were also refinished and fitted as offices and laboratories. In addition to the main offices of the Institute, the north wing provides space for the section of Community Dynamics, Assortative Mating Study, and Hereditary Abilities Study. In the attic experiments are presently being conducted on the heredity of the behavioral characteristics of small animals.
Harrison M. Randall Laboratory of Physics
Among the buildings projected in the plan of construction inaugurated by President Burton in 1921 was a new building Page 1704for the Department of Physics. For many years this department, which was one of the oldest in the University, had carried on its program in very limited quarters. The need for a new building was therefore acknowledged as one of the paramount needs of the University, and the Committee of Five created by President Burton placed the building in the first group planned in the new program. In thus inaugurating a University building policy it was decided by the Regents and the Committee that the buildings for the use of the "humanities" would be erected whenever possible in the south and west sections of the campus, while those for the "sciences" would be grouped in the north and east (R.P., 1920-23, p. 278-79).
Professor John F. Shepard, of the Department of Psychology, who for many years was Supervisor of Plans for University buildings, Dean John R. Effinger, of the Literary College, and Professor Harrison M. Randall, of the Department of Physics, were chosen as members of the committee for the proposed Physics Building. The plans of Albert Kahn, of Detroit, the architect, were accepted in January, 1922.
It was decided to erect the building on East University Avenue between the West Engineering and West Medical buildings, on the site formerly occupied by the old Medical Building, which had been razed in 1914. It was estimated that the cost of construction and equipment would amount to $600,000; only a part of the building, however, was to be erected immediately. In the meantime the Regents provided, in October, 1922, for the manufacture in the University Shops and in the Physics Shop of certain equipment needed for advanced research in the new building at a cost of $25,000. It was recognized that a physics laboratory was rather like a new library, in that it would be quite useless until equipped with apparatus, the character and completeness of which measured the usefulness of the building.
President Burton asked the State Administrative Board in January, 1923, for an appropriation of $450,000, the estimated total cost of the first unit of the building, including equipment, and this was granted. It was also arranged that the construction should be done by the University's Department of Buildings and Grounds. The building, as carried on the University inventory in 1954, is valued at $463,774, and the equipment (including that in the West Physics Building) is valued at $343,820.
The building was ready for use in 1924. The President's Report for 1922-23 explained its function in the following words: "It will, as has been previously explained, be primarily a laboratory for advanced classes and for research for teachers and graduate students."
The building is simply constructed of reinforced concrete carried on regularly spaced piers and faced with brick. It has four stories as well as three basements, and is an example of an unusual method of construction for buildings of this type. It had been planned to erect a building of five stories in the restricted area assigned to it, but this did not conform to the campus plan, especially in view of the lower height of the neighboring buildings. The only solution seemed to be to go one story farther underground. As much of the work in a physics laboratory is carried on in darkened sound-proof rooms, this departure was not open to serious objection, especially since it offered the decided advantage of greater freedom from vibration and greater uniformity in temperature. A second and lower subbasement was later added to the plan, making three floors below the level of the ground. Fortunately, the location in the sand and gravel bed was ideal for such construction, offering advantageous draining facilities. Moreover, the value of the Page 1705sand and gravel removed compensated in good part for the unusual expense of the excavation. The building as constructed without the final unit is L-shaped, with a wing of 135 feet extending along East University Avenue. The main wing extends 146 feet from the east to the campus entrance. Both of these wings are 60 feet wide.
The greater part of the building is occupied by laboratories and research rooms for intermediate and advanced work, as well as offices for the staff. Considerable space is devoted to the practical applications of physics, the projects being supervised by staff members under the Engineering Research Institute. In all, there are 121 rooms, fifty-three of which are available for research purposes, while some of them are adapted for special problems. A part of the second floor of the campus wing houses the physics library.
There are two recitation rooms on the first floor and two on the second. One of these (Room 1041) seats seventy-two and serves as a small lecture room.
Inside the building, but on a separate foundation, with separate walls, is a small two-story brick building, completely enclosed, planned and used continuously from the beginning as a sound laboratory. The part on the second basement level is a reverberation room with smooth sound-reflecting walls, and the upper segment is sound proofed with highly absorbing walls. This unique facility has made possible a significant program of studies in noise reduction.
A large room two stories high was provided in the east wing, including part of the first and second basements. The original plan was to equip it for high voltage X rays, but this was never carried out. In recent times this room has proved extremely valuable as the location for a high energy synchrotron.