The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
Page  1569

THE BUILDINGS AND LANDS

Administration Building

AT THE November, 1943, meeting of the Board of Regents, Professor Lewis M. Gram, Director of Plant Extension, presented a Postwar Public Works Program for the University of Michigan. He was assisted in its preparation by John C. Christensen, Controller, and Walter M. Roth, then Assistant Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds.

This program recommended the construction of a "General Service Building housing the business, administrative, and public service departments of the University." It was provided at the time that the University Broadcasting Service would also be housed in the new building. The estimated total cost was $1,310,000.

The proposed site was on the west side of State Street immediately south of Newberry Hall. Such a building of necessity required the closing of Jefferson Street from Maynard Street to State Street and the removal of Morris Hall at the southwest corner of State and Jefferson streets, at one time the home of Dr. Charles de Nancrède, who had been Professor of Surgery. This house, later used as St. Mary's Chapel, was at the time of its removal the headquarters of the University Bands and the Broadcasting Service. Also removed were three houses on the south side of Jefferson Street, owned by the University, a large rooming house and a residence on the northeast corner of Jefferson and Maynard streets, a service station on the northwest corner of State and Jefferson streets, and two small frame buildings immediately south of Newberry Hall. The Mimes Theater was sold for the price of its removal.

The architects selected by the Regents were Harley, Ellington and Day, of Detroit, to whom the contract was awarded in December, 1944. The general contract was awarded to Bryant and Detwiler, of Detroit. The first spadeful of earth was turned in June, 1946, by Regent R. Spencer Bishop, who unfortunately did not live to see the completion. The building received its first occupant in December, 1948. The total construction costs of the building when finished were $2,275,067.00. Including construction, the total for furniture and equipment, architectural and engineering fees, land and land improvements amounted to $2,463,127.06.

At a meeting of the Board of Regents on November 3, 1945, the building, which had previously been referred to as the General Service Building, was designated as the Administration Building.

The mass move to the building was made from eight campus units: University Hall, Mason Hall, South Wing, Haven Hall, Angell Hall, the Rackham School of Graduate Studies, North Hall, and Barbour Gymnasium. University Hall, center of student service activities for many decades, was vacant of permanent personnel for the first time since 1872. In June of 1871 the very first official act of President James B. Angell had been to lay the cornerstone of University Hall, the structure that united the two wings (Mason Hall and South Wing). When he reached Ann Arbor, President Angell found on the campus the wings of University Hall, a Law Building, a Medical Building, a small Chemical Laboratory, and the four original houses for the professors. The entire faculty numbered only thirty-five men.

Like the University Hall of those early years, the Administration Building is, in a physical sense, the front door of the University. Almost all of the institution's new students enter its portals Page  1570within a few hours or days after they reach Ann Arbor; the undergraduate students take their needs there many times during their campus careers; visiting educators and business personnel find under its roof many of the University staff members whom they come to see.

The building is an imposing five-story face brick and stone structure. It extends for 282 feet along South State Street, across from Angell Hall. The edifice is shaped like a very shallow "U" with wings extending 116 feet toward the west on both extremities.

Within its walls are modern facilities for some 285 staff personnel. The activities which the building houses can be broken down into five general groupings: general administrative services (Regents, President, and other officials of the University and their staffs); students' services (Office of Student Affairs, deans of Men and Women, residence hall offices, admission and registration, etc.); the Extension Service (Correspondence Study, Adult Education); the business services (Cashier's Office, Purchasing Department, Accounting Department, and Investment Office); and the other services to the public (Information Services and News Service, etc.).

All of the student services are on the first floor to ensure maximum ease of handling the heavy flow of student traffic. The main entrance leads through a vestibule and the elevator lobby to a spacious student lobby. To the rear is a broad entranceway opening to a large parking area behind the building. The upper floors are laid out for offices in a system which affords flexibility to the space assignments.

In the basement is a lunch room, a shipping and receiving area below the upstairs dock, and adequate space for the sorting and handling of United States and campus mail. On the fourth floor in the north wing is a lecture room, with capacity for seventy-five people, which fills a dual role: educators and other visitors preview films from the Audio-Visual Center's library; other small University group meetings are also held there.

Because the building is, in effect, a large office building, a maximum amount of window space affording natural light was incorporated in the design. Throughout the edifice all of the windows and window sills are of aluminum construction — no exterior painting was required and the maintenance costs are low. The interiors, which are acoustically treated, feature fluorescent lighting.

In common with other new structures on the campus, the Administration Building offices are painted in eye-pleasing colors that were selected after careful study of the room's exposure to sunlight. The exterior brick is a light salmon color. The sculpture on the exterior is the work of Marshall Fredericks, of Birmingham, Michigan.

Four self-operating elevators are placed strategically to accommodate the traffic. Two are just inside the front entrance and, to the delight of student users, move in the direction desired with unusual speed — at a rate of some 550 feet per minute. They operate under collective control with an electric eye as a safety feature to retard closing on an unwary arm or leg.

Above the front entrance, just to the left of the marble, stone, and steel façade, is a huge electric clock — eleven feet in diameter — with stainless steel hands.

Alumni Memorial Hall

The idea of an alumni memorial hall on the campus originated from a desire to honor those University men who had fallen in the Civil War. In 1864 a committee Page  1571of the Society of the Alumni of the University of Michigan (the organization which represented the graduates of the Literary College) was formed to co-operate with the faculty in raising funds for a suitable monument. In 1865 this organization voted to erect a memorial chapel, to cost about $25,000. Under the chairmanship of Thomas M. Cooley, subscriptions totaling about $10,000 were secured during the following years, but then the matter seems to have been dropped.

Not until June 17, 1903, was the subject revived, when William N. Brown proposed for discussion the building of a University alumni hall. A committee was appointed, consisting of William N. Brown, Andrew C. McLaughlin, and Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, with Professor M. L. D'Ooge as chairman. In 1904, however, Judge Claudius B. Grant appeared as the chairman, and under his direction the committee secured from the Regents the promise of a site at the southwest corner of the campus, and the assurance that the University would take over the maintenance of such a building, if erected. In addition, subscriptions in the amount of $18,000 were received. It was thereupon voted to undertake the project. The Alumni Association was then a well-organized, united body, representing the entire University, and its efforts culminated finally in the construction of Alumni Memorial Hall on the corner of South University Avenue and State Street.

Much difficulty was experienced in determining just what the function of such a building should be. As early as 1897 the University Librarian, Raymond C. Davis, had complained about the crowded condition of the Library Building, caused by the fact that the University's art collections were housed there. He suggested that the alumni provide a building, to be known as "Alumni Hall," which would furnish not only the necessary art gallery, but also quarters for the Graduate School.

The Alumni Memorial Committee of 1904, however, thought in terms of a memorial. The building was intended to provide a room containing "the names by classes of all who have served in the wars of their country, either in the naval or military departments, perpetuated in marble or bronze" (Mich. Alum., 1903-1904, p. 221). The building was also to serve as a meeting place for alumni and former students.

This committee, formed in January, 1904, consisted of Claudius B. Grant ('59), chairman, Hoyt Post ('61), Edward W. Pendleton ('72), George H. Hopkins ('71l), William N. Brown ('70l), Victor C. Vaughan ('78m), and Martin L. D'Ooge ('62). Clarence M. Burton ('73, hon. '05), Charles B. Warren ('91, hon. '16), and Franklin H. Walker ('73) became members later.

The question of the use of the building was complicated by the fact that, at about the same time, a committee was formed to conduct a campaign for the Michigan Union. The usefulness of this project and the obvious need for it made a strong appeal, and many argued that the Memorial Committee and the Union Committee should combine their objectives in a plan for one building. Those who were approached for contributions, scattered as they were over the length and breadth of the country, found the two campaigns confusing and suspected a duplication of effort.

The Michigan Alumnus undertook more than once to point out the distinction, and in December, 1904, published a statement by the Memorial Committee revealing an enlargement of the memorial idea and explaining the uses to which the building would be devoted. It was intended to commemorate not only those students and faculty who had participated Page  1572in past wars but also those who might serve in future wars. In addition, the building was to house the offices and assembly hall of the Alumni Association and to provide rooms for undergraduate and faculty social gatherings. Provided sufficient funds were obtained, it was also to contain a large auditorium on the ground floor for the general use of the University. The Memorial Committee even offered to provide rooms for the activities of the Michigan Union.

The students, in general, opposed the memorial idea, dubbing the proposed building "D'Ooge's Palace" and "The Mausoleum." As the campaigns proceeded it became evident, however, that the memorial project was the more popular among the alumni, for the funds grew rapidly. The Memorial Committee was greatly stimulated in January, 1904, by a gift of $10,000 from Ezra Rust, of New York, the largest single subscription of the campaign. Although the original goal had been $100,000, in 1905 the amount proposed was raised to $250,000.

In 1905 the Regents appointed a committee to co-operate with the Memorial Committee. Plans for a building "direct simple, and dignified," to cost unfurnished, about $175,000, were submitted by the architects, Donaldson and Meier, of Detroit. This plan, which made provision for use of the building as an art gallery, was accepted.

In June, 1907, the Regents appropriated the sum of $50,000 toward the project, with the understanding that the alumni would contribute $132,000. The building was to house the University's art collections, thus providing much needed relief for the Library.

The contract was given to Koch Brothers, of Ann Arbor, in September, 1907. The cornerstone was laid by Judge Grant in June, 1908. The building was completed in 1910 and dedicated with appropriate exercises held in University Hall on May 11. It was officially presented to the University by Judge Grant and was received for the University by Regent Walter H. Sawyer.

Alumni Memorial Hall is an impressive stone building marked by a flight of steps leading up to four great classical pillars at the front. Great bronze doors open directly into the main lobby and statuary hall. There are also two side entrances. The building is approximately 115 by 150 feet, with 41,025 square feet of floor space.

Much credit for the success of the enterprise must be given to Judge Grant, long a prominent figure in University affairs; later he became a Regent of the University and a justice of the state Supreme Court. All of the members of the Memorial Committee, however, had worked hard and contributed much personally toward the success of the project. As a result of their labors a sum of $128,135.64 was contributed by 1,500 subscribers, and the building was completed and furnished at a cost of $195,885.29.

Four of its rooms were named for the four largest donors, as follows: the large main gallery for Ezra Rust, the south upper gallery for Dexter M. Ferry, the north upper gallery for Simon T. Murphy, and the lower north front room for Arthur Hill. The south front room was called the Alumni Room.

Since there was still some discrepancy between the total cost and the money available, the committee continued its work until all but $3,999 of the obligation was paid. This last sum proved to be a thorn in the flesh. In 1912 the Memorial Committee asked to be released from its personal guaranty, and in 1915 the Alumni Association asked the Board of Regents to assume this debt, since they had no means of meeting it. They pointed out that to start another campaign Page  1573among the alumni for money would only interfere with the drive for funds being carried on by the Michigan Union. The Regents declined to act, and the indebtedness was not wiped out until all the obligations of the Alumni Association were paid, with the assistance of the University, in 1934.

A number of gifts were received for the new building. Three members of the Memorial Committee, Burton, Walker, and Hill, gave, respectively, furniture, rugs, and a life-size bronze bas-relief portrait of the first President, Henry Philip Tappan. Hill also gave $5,000 for a similar likeness of President Emeritus Angell. Both were the work of the distinguished sculptor, Karl Bitter.

The uses to which Alumni Memorial Hall has been put in succeeding years have followed in general the intentions of the Memorial Committee. It houses the headquarters of the Alumni Association and the Michigan Alumnus and contains the Museum of Art and the Alumni Catalog Office. Its social function was, in the course of time, reduced to the use of a large room in the basement for the University Club, a faculty organization which later moved to quarters in the Union.

The building's chief usefulness to the University has been as a center of art activities. It was opened officially upon the occasion of an art exhibit, sponsored by Charles L. Freer, which included many items from his famous collection of American and Oriental art, now in the Freer Gallery in Washington. From the time of its organization until 1949 the Department of Fine Arts held classes in this building. The department still maintains a study hall there. The Ann Arbor Art Association held annual exhibits in Alumni Memorial Hall for many years and scheduled some six or eight other exhibits each year. The Museum of Art was given quarters in the building in 1946, when it was separated from the Museum of Archaeology.

Anatomical Laboratory

One of the first anatomical laboratory buildings in this country was the laboratory authorized by the Board of Regents in 1887 and completed in 1889 (see Part V: the Department of Anatomy). It stood south of the first Medical Building, on the east side of the campus.

The erection of this laboratory was the result of a long-standing demand for better facilities for the study of anatomy, which had been emphasized since the days of Dr. Moses Gunn, who became Professor of Anatomy in 1849 and set up what must be regarded as the first laboratory in the University. In fact, for a time the first Medical Building was known as the Laboratory Building.

The legislature, however, made no provision for the Anatomical Laboratory Building, and it was erected through an appropriation from the general fund. At the October, 1887, meeting of the Regents President Angell announced:

It having been found advisable to furnish in the medical building ampler accommodations for the physiological and microscopical laboratories, we were forced to erect a new building for our anatomical work, and to make large changes in the medical building. This has entailed an expense for which no provision has been made by special appropriation. But the necessity was so pressing that the wisdom of the step cannot be questioned. We gain the great incidental advantage of securing improved sanitary conditions for the medical building by the removal from it of all the work of dissection. Never before was it so well fitted for its purpose as it is now.


(R.P., 1886-91, p. 157.)

It was not until 1889 that a legislative appropriation of $7,958.63 defrayed the cost of its construction. The architect was Gordon W. Lloyd, of Detroit, and Page  1574the contractor for it was William Biggs.

In April, 1889, Regent Whitman, chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, reported:

Your Committee on Buildings and Grounds beg leave to submit the following report of M. E. Cooley, Superintendent of the Construction of the Anatomical Laboratory, and the New Boiler House. The work has been done in a workmanlike manner, and to the satisfaction of your Committee…


(R.P., 1886-91, pp. 298-99.)

The Annual Announcement of the Department of Medicine and Surgery for the year 1889-90 also reported, "The Anatomical Laboratory recently erected for the accommodation of the classes in practical anatomy, is admirably adapted for this purpose; the rooms are large, well lighted, and well ventilated."

The actual cost of the building was given as $6,535.95. This figure doubtless did not include the furnishings provided for in the legislative appropriation. The building was an unpretentious structure of brick with stone trim, containing the laboratory room on the second floor and a small dissecting room and the washrooms on the first floor. It was approximately 35 by 50 feet. It was torn down when the work in anatomy was removed to the West Medical Building, which was completed in 1903.

James Burrill Angell Hall

Foremost in the building program inaugurated by President Burton in 1920 was provision for a new main structure for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, since the space provided by old University Hall had become inadequate. Classes were being held wherever rooms could be found: in an old abandoned public school building known as West Hall on the west side of State Street, the basement of Tappan Hall, Alumni Memorial Hall, Newberry Hall, Hill Auditorium, the Law and Medical buildings, the Natural Science Building, and the Library.

Consultations after classes were generally impossible because of the continuous use of classrooms. Some courses were not offered at all because of lack of space while others were given in more than one building. This condition existed in spite of the fact that the larger rooms in Mason Hall and in the South Wing had been divided by partitions so that the total numbers of rooms had been doubled. Had Bertrand Russell known these facts when he visited the campus in 1924, he probably would not have made the remark, with which he was later credited, to the effect that he had never met an American educator "who was not more interested in buildings than in education."

It was felt that inasmuch as the University had grown up around the Literary College and because the College serves all other departments, the new building should be the central structure on the campus. It should not only be large but, in the words of President Burton, "It [should] be beautiful, dignified, and commanding. It [should] help to give unity and form to the entire Campus." A classic design was, therefore, decided upon as being more in harmony with existing buildings, namely Alumni Memorial Hall, the President's House, the Clements Library (then in process of construction), and Hill Auditorium.

The discussion as to the site turned on the desire to preserve old University Hall as a relic of the early days. At first the Regents favored retention of the oldest part, Mason Hall, with the new building surrounding it, but further discussion brought a change of mind, and the decision was reversed. The site on which it stood had become too valuable to permit the preservation of the old building, and the retention of a part Page  1575of it would have made it impossible to work out satisfactory lighting conditions for the new. Thus, even in the early 1920's University Hall was destined in the course of time to bow its way out.

Angell Hall, extending for 480 feet along State Street, was completed in 1924 at a cost of $1,077,000. Only the first two sections, comprising the long façade, were erected as originally projected. In his design, the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit, followed a severely classical precedent in the entrance portico with its eight great Doric columns surmounting a wide esplanade of steps across the front. The building consists of a basement and four stories, with an extra section above the top floor, which provides a small observatory. When completed the building provided 152,000 square feet of floor space. In addition to the offices and classrooms of the various departments and the office of the Dean of the College, a number of rooms were also designated for special purposes, such as the study hall and the Mathematics Library. For some years the President and other officers of the University also occupied offices on the first floor.

Restrained sculptural details on the exterior suggest the functions of the building. Thus, on panels in the spandrels between the main columns appear among other motives the owl, the book, and the lamp of learning; larger panels at the sides present figures in bas-relief emblematic of philosophy and the arts. Over the main door another relief incorporates devices traditional to learning and treats decoratively the inscription on the University seal, "Artes, Scientia, Veritas." Ulysses Ricci, of New York, was the sculptor for this motto. The planting and approaches were prepared by the landscape architects, Pitkin and Mott, of Cleveland, Ohio.

The entrance lobby, finished in travertine marble, is attractive and spacious and well adapted to the purposes of the building. Its classical details are echoed in the rich ceiling decorations, the work of the Di Lorenzo Studios, of New York, the firm which was responsible for the decoration of the General Library and the Clements Library.

The general plan of the building provided for a grouping of departments so that, in the words of Dean John R. Effinger, "… each department may develop its own spirit," with those having common interests adjacent to each other. A desire was also expressed by Dean Effinger that a measure of the spirit of old University Hall might be preserved by placing somewhere that noble phrase from the Ordinance of 1787, which has thrilled so many generations of students and which many had unconsciously learned from seeing it in the auditorium in the old building: "Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." This quotation was carved in stone high over the façade of the new building.

At the request of the faculty of the College and of the Student Council, the Regents, in December, 1924, named the building James Burrill Angell Hall. When the Mason Hall and Haven Hall units were added in 1952 the north and south ends of Angell Hall, which had been left bricked up in anticipation that the completion of the building would extend them, were refinished in limestone.

Architecture Building

For twenty-one years after a curriculum was re-established in architecture in 1906 instruction was carried on in accommodations provided in the West Engineering Building. An office for Professor Page  1576Emil Lorch, head of the department, one large office for the staff, and adjacent drafting rooms for students were on the second floor of the west wing. The beginnings of the Architecture Library were maintained in the Engineering Library on the second floor. The classes in freehand drawing and projection drawing met in the single large skylighted room on the fourth floor at the north end of the north wing, quite remote from the main quarters of the school. Lecture courses for architecture were included each semester in the scheduled assignment of classrooms in the Engineering Building. The East Engineering Building had not as yet been built.

When the enrollment growth of the department after World War I made these accommodations entirely inadequate, added drafting room space and two large offices were obtained through the remodeling of the second and third floors of the old Engineering Shops Building, unofficially renamed "The Parthenon." The Parthenon was linked to the regular drafting rooms and offices in the West Engineering Building by a second-story enclosed bridge. This bridge was termed "The Bridge of Sighs," but it more or less satisfactorily united second-floor activities. When Eliel Saarinen, the distinguished Finnish architect, was Visiting Professor in 1923, he was assigned the room at the end of the west wing for his hand-picked graduate class. Much of the student circulation over the bridge to the Parthenon went, mainly on tiptoe, through this studio.

In the early 1920's, with the postwar increase in enrollment, the need for a separate and sizable building became obvious. Following the recommendations of Professor Lorch, the Regents in 1924 passed a resolution approving a request to the legislature for an appropriation of $400,000 for an architecture building.

As a result of the University's request, the legislature in 1925 appropriated $400,000 for the purchase of a site and the construction of a building for architecture "in accordance with plans and specifications as prepared by Emil Lorch and Associates and as approved by George D. Mason" (R.P., 1923-26, p. 909). Mason, long an outstanding architect in Detroit, had led the campaign for the building.

Through this preliminary period, Professor Lorch had made many studies of the facilities needed for the growing school. He had worked with the University authorities, members of the legislature, the Detroit Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, and the building industry. Emil Lorch and Associates, Architects, began the preparation of complete plans immediately upon approval of the building project by the legislature. The term "Associates" included George M. McConkey ('14e) and Harold A. Beam ('22). Professor McConkey has been a member of the staff since 1911, and Harold Beam has long been associated with the Great Lakes Steel Corporation in Wyandotte, Michigan. In 1926, the Buildings and Grounds Committee was authorized to advertise for bids on the plans and specifications then prepared. The contract was awarded to the Weber Construction Company of Bay City and construction was begun on October 1, 1926.

The site chosen was the south half of the block bounded on the north by South University Avenue, on the west by Tappan Street, on the south by Monroe Street, and on the east by Haven Avenue. The north half of the stated block was occupied by the Martha Cook Building and its extensive and well planted grounds. It was assumed by the architects that the main entrance of the new building would be on Haven Avenue. Although the property was then considered by some observers to be remote, it Page  1577was faced on three sides by University buildings. The site of the Architecture Building was purchased from private owners at a cost of $137,717.50. When completed the building with its equipment was valued at $515,106.

In the construction of the building some changes were made in the interests of economy but in general it proceeded as planned. The department moved into its new quarters in September, 1927. At that time the building was usable, but construction was not completed until June, 1928. Because of building costs the appropriation from the state proved insufficient, but gifts from alumni and friends made it possible to retain features which otherwise would have been omitted. Mr. George D. Mason was a staunch backer in this situation, and Mr. George G. Booth made a substantial contribution for equipment and the purchase of art objects. The building industry in the state contributed certain materials and provided others at reductions in cost.

The Architecture Building is L-type in plan along the east and north sides of the property, the projected plan for long-time development being that of a quadrangle, with wings on the west and south sides to be added eventually. The wing running north and south is 168 feet long and that running east and west is 111 feet long. The building has 76,223 square feet of floor space.

The structure is without basement, and each of the wings is four stories in height. The tower is the main vertical circulation, supplemented by the south stairway on Monroe Street. Externally, the wall surface material is brick, and the sloping roofs are slate. Although the structural frame is mainly of steel, there are many piers and modulated wall surfaces so that the general effect is to some extent monumental. The north side of the wing running east and west is largely of glass, providing light for the large drafting rooms on the lower three floors. At the fourth-floor level and for the fifth-floor studio these large windows are arched.

The entrance lobby at the ground-floor level of the tower is finished in limestone, with tiled floor. It is somewhat formal in character and aims to express not only its function but by its character to speak for the profession housed in the building. This lobby opens directly to the adjacent architecture auditorium, the principal public room on this level, which seats more than 350 people. Originally, the hall extending south to the Monroe Street entrance was a spacious exhibition area equipped with glazed cases in open alcoves for exhibition purposes. The wing running to the west at this ground-floor level was a single large drafting room for freshman architecture students. It is paralleled and served by a corridor leading to the west entrance.

At the head of the main stairway on the second floor are the administrative offices. In the wing running to the south the major part is the Architecture library. This is an impressive room forty by ninety feet, architecturally the most admired room in the building. At the third-floor level the space over the library, measuring 3,600 square feet, was designed as an exhibition room rising thirty feet through the fourth-floor level. Twenty-five years ago the galleries of museums and art institutions such as the Metropolitan Museum in New York and the Art Institute in Chicago, featured lofty halls and permanent exhibitions of full-size replicas of historical elements of architecture, equestrian groups of sculpture, and similar items. The lower wall spaces and the standing screens in this room provided space for exhibitions of architectural drawings and paintings. As to the use of the wing running Page  1578to the west, the second and third floors follow the pattern of the first floor, namely, that of the large drafting room, but without corridor. At the fourth-floor level are fully equipped studios for drawing and painting. The building originally provided nine faculty offices along the west side of the south wing, and at the south end of the building on Monroe Street were eight classrooms with blackboards, two on each floor.

At the time of its completion in 1928, the facilities of the Architecture Building were outstanding among the architecture schools of the United States. It provided handsomely for the student body and faculty of that day and permitted a certain amount of expansion. The drafting rooms were well equipped with drafting tables and the drawing and painting studios with easels and tables. In general, however, the furnishings were inadequate, and for many years the classroom benches were of varying vintage that had been discarded elsewhere on the campus. The library, for example, was provided with overhead lighting fixtures discarded by the General Library. These make-shift arrangements served for many years, and a miscellaneous collection of tables and chairs of the kitchen-chair type were used as the library tables and as seating furniture. Faculty office furniture was obtained soon after the building was erected and still serves satisfactorily as far as the limited number of items is adequate.

In the early years after the building was occupied, the open site space comprising the entire southwest area of the block was developed as a formal garden, with a sunken square in the center focused on a central column. Flagged walks and rows of clipped evergreen hedges outlined this space. Through the efforts of Professor Lorch and friends of the school a number of fragments of architecture were purchased or donated and appropriately placed on the axes of the garden about the sunken court, or against the walls of the main building. Those of particular interest are fragments of American buildings illustrating by example the range and sequence of architectural development in this country. The arrangement aimed to make the open space agreeable, to relate it to the existing building, and to suggest the quadrangle which would appear upon completion of the whole structure. In 1954 it was necessary to erect a temporary research laboratory of unistrut construction in the garden. Not long after the occupation of the building Haven Avenue was closed as a street, and its place was taken by a mall with a broad sidewalk, thus depriving the Architecture Building of its main entrance by a street approach.

To meet the pressure of growth in size, coming to a climax in the years immediately after World War II, many changes had to be made in the effort to obtain every possible square foot of teaching space. Equally demanding in the use of space has been the growth of the Visual Arts curriculum. When the building was constructed architecture was almost the only concern of the school. Through the years, however, instruction in decorative design has gradually become a degree program in the visual arts, which now has more than two-fifths of the entire enrollment in the College. The developing emphasis on art teacher education exerts added pressure. Landscape Architecture was transferred to the College in 1939, and, although a small unit, it has required a certain amount of space. Over the past six years, architectural research has become an activity of growing interest for staff and students. Integrated with the curriculum in architecture, it, Page  1579too, requires space for analytical studies, drafting, the construction of mock-ups, and the testing of assemblies.

Thus far no violence has been done to the basic structure of the Architecture Building as the result of these developing needs, but many elements have been modified. On the ground floor the freshman drafting room has been divided into three sections, none of which is now used for instruction in architecture. This division provides in approximately equal areas for sculpture, general shop, and ceramics, disciplines not available in 1928. The installation for ceramics is permanent in character and represents a considerable investment. In the east wing of this floor the exhibition alcoves have had to give way to permanently enclosed faculty offices. The auditorium has been provided with adequate, permanent seating and is now equipped for film as well as for lantern-slide projection. It is used as a University auditorium in the evenings, mainly for movies. The two south classrooms are used for architectural research.

The second floor is least changed. The administrative offices for the College, however, have been remodeled, eliminating the storage vault, and accommodating an office for the assistant dean, an administrative function not foreseen when the building was erected. Another office has been gained on this floor by enclosing a large alcove opposite the double doors to the library.

Soon after World War II the large exhibition room on the third floor was converted into a single drafting room. Its extreme height is uneconomical, but the floor space is in active use. At this level, as on the floor below, an office was built in. The fourth floor alone remains unchanged. The large studio of nine hundred square feet, twenty-three feet high at the fifth-floor level, was originally thought of as a suitable studio for a distinguished visiting designer, painter, or sculptor, who might there carry on creative work while meeting students as an artist in residence. This room is now regularly filled to capacity with classes of students in painting. The sixth-floor room of twelve hundred square feet area, a considerable climb in these days of elevators, was, for more than twenty years, filled with stored casts and other art objects. Under the pressures of present necessity, it is now a photographic studio with darkrooms and like facilities.