The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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The Museums and Collections

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THE University Museums consist of four teaching and research units, a Section of Exhibits, and a service unit of librarian, artist, craftsman, receptionist and information clerk, secretary, and superintendent of the building. Each of the four museums — the Museum of Zoology, the Museum of Paleontology, the Museum of Anthropology, and the University Herbarium — comprises a notable collection in its particular field, and a staff of specialists is responsible for the care, growth, arrangement, and productive use of the collection in research and teaching. Such museums, designed as tools in the biological sciences, document our growing knowledge of the tremendous diversity and yet orderliness of organic life by providing a repository of authentically determined and naturally arranged specimens. They are used for reference by the naturalist, the conservationist, and other workers in cognate fields and provide essential data for continuing study on the related problems of the evolution, distribution, and classification of organisms (see the separate articles on these museums).

The research and teaching collections are necessarily detailed and huge. They require extensive series with attached technical data and involve problems of preparation, compact storage, and arrangement that fit them for the use of the special student rather than the general public. A special Section of Exhibits staffed by scientifically trained specialists and equipped to present a less detailed but clear and accurate account of the data and principles of natural history is thus an essential part of the Museums' contribution to general education.

The exhibits occupy the entire second, third, and fourth floors of the Washtenaw Avenue wing of the Museums Building and a series of wall cases in the rotunda. The rotunda exhibits are a frequently changed series of topical displays arranged to show some phase of the work of the research museums, the sequence of techniques used in the construction of a new exhibit, or material of current interest in conservation or natural history.

The exhibits on the second floor form the Hall of Evolution and are arranged to illustrate the sequence of life through the geological ages. In large part the exhibits are actual fossils, but much use is made of reconstructions and models, and of dioramas that represent past geological ages in three-dimensional scenes with typical animals and plants shown as though alive in their ancient habitats. Many of the exhibits are of special interest because they are also a part of the research and teaching collections of the Museum of Paleontology, and many of the skeletal preparations and restorations were made by or under the direction of Michigan's great paleontologist and teacher, Ermine C. Case. The Guide to the Hall of Evolution facilitates their use and enjoyment.

On the third and fourth floors are modern animals and plants, with dioramas and cases given to Michigan's early Indian populations and cultures. The native fauna and flora of Michigan on the third floor show the wealth and variety of our state's wild life and enable the nature lover to observe at close range named specimens of the forms he has seen out-of-doors. The more elaborate exhibits of the fourth floor, by means of dioramas and selected groups of specimens and models, present important relationships and interdependencies Page  1432that govern the lives of animals and plants in nature. Some of these illustrate important correlations by which a particular organism and its special problems of existence in nature are recognized; others are concerned with the mechanisms that underlie important but intricate and subtle biological processes, and many are able to include something of the aesthetic appeal that is a very real part of natural history.

Mention should also be made of the Animal House situated between the two wings of the main building. A convenient arrangement of out-of-door cages is connected with individual shelters within a small central brick building. Surrounded by a narrow moat and guard rail, this structure houses a collection of Michigan mammals that attracts both adult and juvenile visitors. An adjacent Reptile Pit is for the display of living frogs, turtles, and snakes.

Although the present organization and title of the University Museums date from 1928, when the several units were brought together in the newly erected University Museums Building, the idea of university museums of natural history and the establishment of the first collections go back to the legislative acts of 1837 providing for the University of Michigan: "The Board of Regents shall have authority to expend so much of the interest arising from the University Fund as may be necessary for the purchase of Philosophical and other apparatus, a library and Cabinet of Natural History" (Mich. Laws, S.S., 1837). In the same month of that year the newly appointed Board of Regents at their first meeting created a committee "On the Library, Philosophical Apparatus, and Cabinet of Natural History" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 4), and at the second meeting Regent Schoolcraft submitted the following resolutions, which were adopted:

Resolved, That the Committee on the Library, Philosophical Apparatus, and Cabinet of Natural History, be directed to inquire into the following subjects.

First. The expediency of employing, at the earliest practicable period, a suitable agent to visit Europe for the purpose of procuring the necessary Philosophical Apparatus and standard books for the University.

Second. The propriety of instituting such inquiries and taking such preliminary steps as may be proper, to lay the foundation of a suitable collection of specimens for the University Cabinet, in the various departments of Natural History.

Third. Of calling the attention of the Executive to the propriety of directing the State Geologist to secure the large mass of native copper on the shores of Lake Superior for the University Cabinet, and of recommending that the expense of its transportation be paid out of the University Funds.

(R.P., 1837-64, p. 17.)

The interest of the University in a "Cabinet of Natural History" is evinced by the promptness with which the idea was put into effect. Although construction of the first University buildings in Ann Arbor did not begin until 1840 and the first classes did not meet until the fall of 1841, steps to acquire the Library and the Cabinet of Natural History and to purchase "Philosophical Instruments" were taken almost immediately.

Asa Gray, who had received an appointment as Professor of Botany and Zoology in 1838 and who was planning a trip to Europe, was given $5,000 for the purchase of books abroad. He resigned soon after his return from Europe, but among the 3,400 books that were obtained was a notable selection suitable to complement and be used in conjunction with the Cabinet of Natural History.

In 1838 an extensive and highly esteemed mineralogical collection was purchased for $4,000 from Baron Lederer of Austria and, at about the same time, the newly formed Geological Survey of Michigan made the University a repository Page  1433for geological, mineralogical, botanical, and zoological specimens collected in exploration of the state.

At the close of the year 1840 a committee of the Regents could report to Michigan's Superintendent of Public Instruction that "extensive and valuable collections in geology, mineralogy, botany and zoology, made within the geographical area of Michigan, by the state geologist and his exploratory corps" had been added to the nucleus formed by the Lederer Collection and that "one of the professors' buildings has been temporarily appropriated to the reception of the cabinet of natural history, which has been provided, or is in the process of accumulation, for the use of the professors and students in its various departments" (Mich., Senate Doc., 1841, p. 401).

It is evident that there was a clear appreciation of the role natural history collections should play as a part of the University; this interest and the financial provision made for such collections from the meager resources then available was perhaps an augury of the generous support and high repute Michigan's natural history museums were later to achieve in both research and teaching. It was well for the perpetuation of the museum idea that this initial concept so promptly resulted in a very respectable nucleus of actual collections, for the concrete existence of the collections was several times to serve as the chief thread of continuity between periods of active progress.

When classes began, Dr. Abram Sager, who had been appointed Professor of Botany and Zoology after the resignation of Asa Gray, was in charge of the biological collections and was responsible for them from 1842 until 1855, the year in which he gave up the chair of Botany and Zoology to devote himself entirely to his duties as a professor in the Medical Department. Sager was closely associated with Houghton in the first Geological Survey of Michigan, and his appreciation of the need for carefully preserved and well-documented specimens in biological study is indicated in the Second Annual Report of the State Geologist (1839): "It must be obvious to every reflecting mind, that no well directed or availing efforts can be made, either to improve the advantages or to avert the evils growing out of our connections with the animal world, without an intimate knowledge of their structures, capabilities and habits. Destitute of this knowledge, we but strike in the dark, and are more likely to impair than improve our interests." In Ruthven's estimate: "The collections show that throughout the time of his connection with the University Sager gave much thought to the Museum. In fact the collections obtained through him, and his services to the institution, give him the right to be considered the founder of the Museum" (Rept. of the Curator…, 1910, p. 8).

The coming of Henry Philip Tappan as the first President of the University brought strong support of the idea of museums as a part of a university. Through his influence and reputation the young Museum first received recognition and important assistance from the administrators and naturalists who were then guiding the Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum. Tappan's preface to the Catalogue of the Trowbridge Collection of Natural History in the Museum of the University of Michigan and the included letter of transmittal from Professor Henry are well worth quoting in full:


The History of the Trowbridge Collection of Natural History, the Catalogue of which is here published, cannot be better given than by transcribing the letter of Professor Henry, the distinguished Secretary of the Smithsonian Page  1434Institution, accompanying the donation.

Lieut. Trowbridge was elected Professor of Mathematics in the University of Michigan soon after his return from the Pacific Coast. Before, however, he had any intimation of the intention of the Board of Regents, he had already decided upon the disposition of this valuable collection.

We felicitated ourselves that we had gained at the same time a Professor of rare ability, acquirements, and promise, united to the finest moral and social qualities, and a rich addition to our Museum.

The Professor remained with us only long enough to endear himself to us, and to make us regret his loss. He was appointed Professor, May, 1856; he resigned his professorship, June, 1857, recalled to the service of the coast survey by the urgent friendship and appreciation of Dr. Bache.

The Museum to which he has contributed so largely will always preserve this splendid memorial of his attachment to his native State and his devotion to science.

But the benefits we have received through him are not confined to this collection. The letter of Professor Henry assures us of the permanent friendship and co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution. Within a few months past we have had substantial proofs of this in new donations of great value.

The Regents of the University are thus encouraged to put forth an enlightened zeal in the cause of science, and will endeavor to build up, in this young University of the North-West, a great and well-ordered Museum that shall reflect honor upon the State and justify the liberal patronage of the Smithsonian Institution.

Henry P. Tappan, President
University of Michigan,
May, 1861.

Letter of Prof. Henry
Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, April 1, 1859.

Dear Sir: —

I have the honor to forward, under the care of Mr. Kennicott, a collection of specimens of Natural History, chiefly of North America, as a donation from the Smithsonian Institution to the Museum of the University of Michigan. This collection is intended in part to discharge an obligation which the Institution is under to Lieut. W. P. Trowbridge, recently a Professor of Michigan University, and late of the U. S. Army. This gentleman, during his period of duty on the Pacific Coast of the United States, devoted all his leisure time to the collection of objects of Natural History, and with such success as to identify his name with the history of discovery in the Zoology of Western America. A large number of the vertebrate animals of that portion of the continent were first brought to light by him, and of quite a considerable proportion, no other specimens than his have as yet been added to any Museum. In view of the fact that the researches of Lieut. Trowbridge were prosecuted almost entirely at his own expense, it was considered but an act of justice on the part of the Institution to promise as full a series of his collections as could be spared to any public Institution which he might designate, and that would take the necessary steps for their preservation. He has selected the University of his native State as the recipient of this favor, and it gives us pleasure to transmit the first portion of the series in question, with additions from other collections belonging to the Institution. Many of the specimens are of great rarity, and not to be found at present in any Museum but that of the Smithsonian Institution. Additional collections will be forwarded from time to time, as the specimens are properly identified and labelled by the various gentlemen who now have them in charge.

The labor of selecting, labelling, and cataloguing the collection has been performed, under the direction of Prof. Baird, by Mr. Kennicott, who has been diligently occupied in the work for several months. In the collection sent, it is believed that the University of Michigan will possess a very valuable series of American animals, both on account of the great rarity of many of the specimens, and the accurate identification of the species.

It is hoped that this collection will be rendered constantly available in the course of instruction in your important Institution, and that it will be the means of diffusing a Page  1435knowledge of Natural History among the educated youths of our country.

We shall be happy to continue in any way in our power to co-operate with you, in accordance with the objects of this Institution, in "the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men."

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Joseph Henry, Secretary.

Dr. Tappan, President Univ. of Mich.
Ann Arbor, Mich.

There is evidence that Tappan's plans for the new University, outlined to Lieutenant Trowbridge in 1855 or early 1856 when the latter visited the University on his return from the Pacific Coast, led Trowbridge to designate Michigan as the repository of this collection. The Mr. Kennicott who prepared and catalogued the collection and brought it to Ann Arbor was the brilliant young naturalist, Robert Kennicott, who was to die in 1866 in his early thirties in the Yukon. Kennicott left for an expedition along "MacKenzie's River, Hudson Bay Territory," soon after his delivery of the Trowbridge Collection; he was commissioned by a joint Smithsonian and University of Michigan grant and a contribution from the Audubon Club to make a collection of "Specimens in natural history from the northwest" (Winchell).

Alexander Winchell was appointed Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany in 1855, and the Museum was under his direction until his resignation in 1873. During this time there was continued growth and much progress in administration and organization. In 1863 Winchell prepared a Report, Historical and Statistical, on the Collections in Geology, Zoölogy and Botany in the Museum of the University of Michigan, which was published by the University in 1864. The collections at the time of this report contained 26,000 geological and paleontological, 12,500 zoological, and 8,000 botanical specimens. In addition to the Trowbridge Collection, the birds obtained by Kennicott, and the large collections from the Michigan Geological Survey of 1859-60, there are listed the Charles A. White Collection of some 2,000 fossils; a collection of fossils made by Rominger under an appropriation from the Board of Regents; the purchase of the Rominger European collection of fossils; and a long series of small but valuable accessions from alumni, students, and other friends of the University.

For several years after Winchell's resignation the Museum received scant attention or support. Winchell's successors in the professorship of natural science were occupied by teaching duties and had little time for and apparently little interest in the Museum. Responsibility for the collections was undertaken by Mark W. Harrington, Assistant Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany in 1873-74 and "Assistant Professor in charge of Zoology and Botany," 1874-77. Harrington, whose own career was to be in mathematics and astronomy, had been an assistant for several years under Winchell, with duties divided between teaching, the Museum, and the Michigan Geological Survey.

The Museum's "Journal" of accessions and activities for these years bears dreary testimony to the plight of a collection without direction or plan. The impetus of alumni interest from Sager's and Winchell's time brought in a dwindling number of valuable and useful accessions, but they had little relevance to one another or to any definite goal and were intermingled with a miscellany of curiosities that had little claim to curatorial time or museum space.

In 1876, however, the Museum began another period of marked development and was strongly influenced by the growing interest in the geographic distribution of animals. In that year Joseph Beal Page  1436Steere was appointed Assistant Professor of Paleontology and Curator of the Museum, to become in 1877 Assistant Professor of Zoology and Paleontology and Curator of the Museum and in 1879 Professor of Zoology. Steere in 1875 had just returned from the first of the series of tropical expeditions that were to bring huge collections of South American and Philippine accessions to the Museum and, incidentally, to lay the foundation for the major role that the University of Michigan was to play in education and administration in the Philippines. He had always been intensely interested in natural history and as an undergraduate had spent much time in the Museum as a student and volunteer worker under Winchell. His imagination and enthusiasm had also been greatly stimulated by the then recent The Naturalist on the River Amazon by Henry W. Bates. Immediately after his graduation from the Law Department in 1870, with financial aid from Rice A. Beal, a wealthy resident of Ann Arbor, he set out alone on an expedition that was to carry him up the Amazon and along several of its tributaries, across the Andes into Peru and Ecuador and from there across the Pacific to the Philippines, Formosa, and the Moluccas. He returned to Ann Arbor by way of the Suez, and in London, at the British Museum, he began a long continued friendship and collaboration with Philip L. Sclater, Alfred Russel Wallace, R. Bowdler Sharpe, Albert Günther, and other eminent zoologists of the time.

The Beal-Steere Collection that resulted from this first expedition comprised 60,000 zoological and 1,156 botanical specimens and much archaeological and anthropological material. In the summer of 1879 Steere made a second visit to the Amazon, this time in company with three of his students, and in 1887-88 took a year's leave of absence to conduct a second expedition to the Philippines, again with a group of students.

The revived interest in the Museum with the large accessions of the Beal-Steere Collection led to the erection of the first University Museum Building, now the Romance Language Building. This was ready for use in 1880-81, and the natural history collections which had been housed (largely stored) in the North Wing of old University Hall were moved into the new building, and opened to the public.

With the provision of a special Museum Building, the Board of Regents adopted a set of rules that concerned all University collections:

  • I. The various illustrative collections belonging to the University are arranged in the following museums:
    • (1) The Museum of Fine Arts and History;
    • (2) The Museum of Natural History;
    • (3) The Museum of Applied Chemistry;
    • (4) The Museum of the Department of Medicine and Surgery;
    • (5) The Museum of the Homoeopathic Medical College;
    • (6) The Museum of the College of Dental Surgery.
  • II. The president of the University shall have the general supervision of the relations of the museums to each other and to the University; and he shall have power to decide all questions affecting these relations, his decisions to be subject to revision by the Board of Regents.
  • III. The Professors in charge of the instruction in Mineralogy, Geology, Botany, and Zoölogy shall be the Curators of the corresponding collections in the Museum of Natural History; the Professor of Zoölogy shall also have charge of the collections illustrating Archaeology and Ethnology.…
  • IV. For the Museum of Natural History there shall be a Custodian appointed, who shall perform, under the direction of the Curators, the duties with which Custodians of similar Museums are ordinarily charged. He Page  1437shall also, when required, assist the several Professors, who make use of the collections in the Museum at their lectures.
  • V. It shall be the duty of each of the Curators mentioned in III to make an annual report to the President of the University on the condition of the collection or the Museum under his charge; which reports or the substance thereof, shall be embodied by the President in his annual report to the Board of Regents. (R.P., 1881-86, p. 292.)

As Ruthven wrote in 1910:

There could hardly have been a worse arrangement than this, as far as the Museum of Natural History was concerned, for the curators were entirely independent of each other and no custodian could be expected to hold the departments together and insure the uniform development of the different collections. This is shown by the results. The professors of geology largely ignored the collections in their charge, which gradually deteriorated until they could hardly have been in a worse condition. On the other hand, fortunately for the zoological and anthropological collections, the professors of zoology continued to take a keen interest in their department in the Museum, and the collections have grown steadily in numbers and value.

(Rept. of the Curator…, 1910, pp. 10-11.)

The new building of 1880-81, which had been erected for the natural history collections, also provided several classrooms in geology and paleontology and quarters for two notable gifts to the University. In 1885 the Chinese government presented the University with material that had formed the Chinese exhibit at the New Orleans Exposition in 1884-85. As much of this collection as there was space to display formed a popular exhibit for the forty years the building continued to house the Museum. In 1900 the great collection of musical instruments brought together by Frederick Stearns, of Detroit, "to illustrate the development of musical instruments in many lands," and presented by him in 1899, was placed on exhibition in the Museum, where it remained until its removal to the newly erected Hill Auditorium in 1914.

In 1894 Jacob E. Reighard succeeded Steere in the professorship of zoology and was thus, by the Regents' ruling of 1882, also in charge of the zoological and archaeological and ethnological collections. It soon became evident that the rapid growth of the Zoology Department under Reighard and of the Museum under Steere had made it impractical for both to be directly administered and cared for by the "Professor in charge of instruction." Accordingly, in 1895 Reighard's title was changed to Professor of Zoology and Director of the Zoological Laboratory and Museum, and Dean C. Worcester was appointed Assistant Professor of Zoology and Curator of the Zoological Museum. Neither Reighard nor Worcester was primarily interested in the Museum. This was a period when morphology was in the ascendancy as a zoological discipline, and Reighard was an enthusiastic and productive student of morphology. A natural history museum had little relevance to a research and teaching program centered about morphological problems, and its directorship was a responsibility rather than an opportunity.

Soon after his appointment to the curatorship, Worcester was given leave to study the policies and operation of some of the outstanding eastern museums and visited the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, Peabody Museum at Yale, the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and the National Museum at Washington. On his return he proposed a policy for the University Museum that was approved by the Regents (R.P., 1891-96, pp. 545-53). Essentially, this policy was to devote the resources and activities of the Museum to: (1) exhibits for the instruction and entertainment of Page  1438the public and (2) the development of illustrative and study series. Worcester pointed out the need for extensive and detailed collections of the Michigan biota but felt that this was a function of the state rather than of the University and suggested that the Museum should be taken over by the state.

As a result of this viewpoint and policy, the period from 1894 to 1903 was one in which the Museum had little part in the educational or research program of the University. When Worcester left the University in 1898, his successor in the department gave full time to instruction, and Herbert E. Sargeant was appointed a part-time curator of the Museum without teaching assignment. Sargeant devoted his attention largely to exhibits, and numerous small but excellent habit groups of Michigan animals were made under his direction by Norman A. Wood. Wood had been employed originally as a taxidermist to mount the birds of the Steere Collection and was eventually to win recognition as an outstanding authority on Michigan ornithology; he became Curator of Birds under Ruthven.

The appointment of Charles C. Adams as Curator in 1903 brought a new impetus and direction to the Museum. To Adams, museum collections were tools for ecological and faunistic research. The zoological collections were reorganized, inventoried, and more adequately catalogued for scientific use, and an active exploration of the natural history of Michigan and its biotic relationships was begun. Adams enlisted the aid of several gifted and enthusiastic amateur naturalists of Michigan and with their help was able to conduct or send parties of staff members and students for organized field work to parts of Michigan that were biologically little known. The Museum was again concerned with University teaching, particularly with instruction that centered about the curators' special research interests and the planned objectives of the Museum. Adams revived the annual reports of the Museum inaugurated by Winchell.

Before Adams resigned in 1906 to become the director of the Cincinnati Museum, he had discovered an enthusiastic protégé in a young graduate student, Alexander G. Ruthven, who led biological expeditions to Isle Royale and the Porcupine Mountains. In 1906 Ruthven received his doctorate in zoology with a pioneering study of geographic distribution as a factor in animal evolution and was appointed Curator to succeed Adams. Thus began the long career of constructive planning and leadership that was to give the Museum of Zoology its status as a research and teaching institution and establish the University Museums as a functional part of the University.

Until 1913 the Museum remained, at least in theory, a part of the Zoology Department, and the reports of the Director of the University Museum were transmitted formally by Reighard, Professor of Zoology and Director of the Zoological Laboratory and Zoological Museum. This discrepancy in the designation of the Museum is particularly apparent in the last report (1911-12) to be formally transmitted by Reighard in which the title was Report of the Head Curator of the Museum of Natural History. Then, in 1913, the Regents recognized the Museum as a separate unit of the University, renamed it the Museum of Zoology, and appointed Ruthven Director. This was a formal recognition of the trend that had begun with Steere and received increasing impetus from Adams and Ruthven. All three had made or were making enthusiastic and highly productive use of the Museum for teaching and research, and, since all were zoologists, the Museum had come to Page  1439have preponderantly zoological collections and research interests. Ruthven's first Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology (1912-13) reviews the varying departmental interests and events that contributed to the history of the Museum between 1882 and 1913:

A history of the museum to the close of the fiscal year 1909-1910 was printed in the annual report for that year. Since that time important changes in the organization have taken place, making it advisable to complete the history to date.

It is evident from the published reports that the founders of the museum had broad and comprehensive views of what its scope should be, and a similarly broad plan underlaid the reorganization that took place when the institution was installed in the new building — in 1882. Unfortunately the plan of administration adopted when the museum was reorganized was not conducive to a general and equal growth of the departments. The university professors of the natural sciences represented in the museum were by virtue of their positions curators of the various collections, and no provision was made for a director who should be responsible for the general development of the institution. The result of this arrangement was that each department went its own way and was developed or neglected according to the interests of the persons in charge, growth was naturally greatest in the department in which most interest was exhibited, and the zoological collections soon came to be of most importance and to require most of the facilities.

For many years the collections in the Museum of Natural History were those of zoology, anthropology and geology, the botanical and mineralogical collections being housed with the respective departments and devoted to class use. From 1895-1913 the zoological department was in charge of the Professor of Zoology (Jacob Reighard), as director, and a curator who also acted a[s] custodian of the other collections. In 1909 the geological collections were taken over by the Department of Geology, so that since that date the museum has consisted only of the collections of zoology and anthropology, and to properly designate its restricted scope the Board of Regents, at the March meeting, 1913, changed the name of the institution from the Museum of Natural History to the Museum of Zoology.

Whatever may be said of the advisability of this restriction of the scope of the museum it is apparent that it has taken place gradually and naturally, as the result of a lack of interest in the museum on the part of most of the men in charge, and that the change in name is simply a formal recognition of the conditions. At the same time it should be recognized that the reduction in the number of departments will have the distinct advantage of making the museum more efficient, since the facilities are only sufficient to permit of the successful development of one or two fields of natural science.

Another important change in the organization was made this year in the transferring of the directorship of the museum from the professor of zoology to the head curator. This distinctly separates the museum from all other departments in the university, placing it upon the same footing as the General Library, and definitely fixes the responsibility for its development upon the person directly in charge.

Such general museum exhibits and services as already existed were maintained, and the Museum of Zoology continued the custodianship of the growing anthropological and archaeological collections, including the Chinese exhibition, but both space and budget were limited, and active development of an exhibit program was impossible until an adequate building and financial support could be provided. The years from 1913 to 1928 were, however, a period of growth of the separate natural history collections, and notably so for the Museum of Zoology under Ruthven. Between 1913 and 1927 its active full-time staff grew from five to fourteen, its collections more than quadrupled and were organized into six major "divisions," each with a full-time curator, and two series of publications based on Page  1440the Museum's researches were established.

Almost equally important was the staunch friendship of the group of influential amateur naturalists who were early attracted by the Museum's program of studies, and as honorary curators and associates were active in counsel, research, and support. Among them were Bryant Walker and Bradshaw H. Swales of Detroit, and Dr. William W. Newcomb of Ann Arbor, whose financial aid made possible the first Museum publications and many of the earlier expeditions, and Calvin Goodrich of Toledo, Ohio, and E. B. Williamson of Bluffton, Indiana, who resigned from successful careers as a newspaper editor and a banker, respectively, to devote full time to notable studies on the Museum's collections of mollusks and dragonflies.

An unavoidable result of the rapidly accelerating growth was that the old building became increasingly inadequate, and the collections began to overflow into whatever available space could be found. A few rooms in the Natural Science Building and some attic rooms in the Medical Building and in University Hall were made available, and finally three houses acquired by the University in its purchase of property for University construction were pressed into service. None of the space was permanent, much of it (like the old Museum building itself) was both inadequate in facilities and in protection from fire, and the whole arrangement was far from efficient.

The pressing need for adequate quarters was also accentuated by the development of the other natural history collections and their organization into separate research museums. In 1921 the Herbarium was created by the merger of the plant collections in the Museum of Zoology and those in the Department of Botany. In 1922 the Museum of Anthropology was organized as an independent unit, and the extensive paleontological collections were formally organized in the Museum of Paleontology. The need for more adequate quarters was clearly recognized in the early 1920's, and by 1925, when the legislature appropriated $900,000 for a museum building and equipment, plans for the organization of the new University Museums were well under way.

The new building was finally ready for occupancy in 1928, and the Museums of Zoology, Anthropology, and Paleontology and the University Herbarium were housed in a functionally planned and admirably appointed building. Ruthven had given many years of thought to a university museum and the role it should play. He and his staff had carried on the researches and amassed the carefully selected and pertinently documented collections that were bringing the Museum an international reputation. The University Museums' attainment of academic status and financial support was pre-eminently his accomplishment, and the new building reflected both his concept of what a university museum building should be and the detailed planning that only a trained museum staff could provide. The excellence of this planning is perhaps best shown by the fact that today, twenty-five years after completion, the Museums Building remains a model for the combined storage and active use of large research collections. Even the crowding and overflow that twenty-five years of growth would entail were foreseen; the plans provided and space was reserved for a now greatly needed addition that would be integral with the present building. Extensive provision was also made for a renewed and modern program of exhibits and a technical service staff to meet the common needs of the several units.

An organization that had been approved Page  1441by the Regents in 1925 was put into full operation. Ruthven became Director of the University Museums as well as Director of the Museum of Zoology, with supervision of the Museums Building, its common services, and the interrelations of the four independent museums. Each of these museums had its own staff and director and was free to work out its own co-operative arrangement with the teaching departments in its particular discipline, while all shared as museums the common problems that came with the responsibility for the curatorial care of active research and teaching collections. The responsibility for the revived exhibit program was for some years left to the individual museums. With the occupancy of the new building, Crystal Thompson, a former staff member of the Museum of Zoology, was recalled from Amherst, where she had gone to develop the Amherst College Museum, to be Curator of Extension Work and Exhibits in the Museum of Zoology. She developed exhibits and loan collections in zoology and initiated both the exhibit of Michigan fauna on the third-floor balcony and the Hall of Biological Principles on the fourth floor. At the same time the paleontological exhibits were organized as the Hall of Evolution under the direction of Ermine C. Case, the Director of the Museum of Paleontology.

In 1929 Ruthven resigned the directorship of the Museum of Zoology to accept the presidency of the University but retained the directorship of the University Museums until the increasing burden forced him to relinquish all direct relations with the Museums in 1936, when Carl Eugen Guthe, Director of the Museum of Anthropology, was appointed Director of the University Museums. Guthe resigned the directorship of the University Museums and of the Museum of Anthropology in 1944 to accept the directorship of the New York State Museum at Albany, where he succeeded Charles C. Adams, who had been Ruthven's predecessor as Curator of the University Museum. Upon Guthe's resignation a somewhat different plan of administration was adopted for the University Museums. The functions of the director were transferred to an Operating Committee comprised of the directors of the four museums (and, from 1944 to 1950, of the Director of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology).

In 1947, in a reorganization of the exhibits program, the position of prefect of exhibits was established to provide a supervisor responsible to the Operating Committee for the combined exhibit program of the four University Museums. Irving G. Reimann was brought from the Buffalo Museum of Science to assume this position, and funds were provided for a small but efficient staff of technicians, artists, and docents. The results of this program are now increasingly evident as each year has shown good progress in the number and quality of the exhibits.

In the accounts of the constituent museums are described the parts which each has played in the development of the University Museums. The year 1928 marked the beginning of a new era of opportunity and productivity for them. As collections grow, questions of selectivity and direction become increasingly important. Accessions which at an earlier stage filled important needs for taxonomic or distributional representation must be scrutinized in the light of whether the additional data they provide justify the space they occupy and the time their processing entails. The existing collections, the maturing concepts of cognate fields, and the proposed research and teaching problems of the staff become increasingly important in shaping the policies and Page  1442utilizing the opportunities peculiar to university museums.

As Ruthven wrote in taking formal leave of his staff and colleagues in the Museum of Zoology: "The Museum is not finished. It never can be if it is to be a functioning unit of the University. My earnest hope is that it will grow and change with the times and serve science and the University with increasing effectiveness" (A Naturalist in a University Museum).


Adams, Charles C.Report of the Curator of the University of Michigan Museum to the Board of Regents … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1903-4.
Catalogue of the Trowbridge Collection of Natural History in the Museum of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Published by the University, 1861.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
Gaige, Frederick M.Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1930-33.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Michigan. Laws of Michigan.Special Session of 1837, No. IV. June 21, 1837.
Michigan. Senate Documents. 1841.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1954.
Reighard, Jacob. MS, Correspondence, 1894-1903.
Reighard, Jacob. MS. Report of the Head Curator, The Museum of Natural History, Univ. Mich., 1912.
Rogers, J. Speed. Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1947-54.
Ruthven, Alexander G.A Naturalist in a University Museum. Ann Arbor, 1931.
Ruthven, Alexander G.Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology. Univ. Mich., 1914-29.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Winchell, Alexander. Report, Historical and Statistical, on the Collections in Geology, Zoölogy and Botany, in the Museum of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Published by the University, 1864.


FROM 1837 to 1854. — From the beginning of the University, collections in the field of natural history received much attention. At the first meeting of the Board of Regents in Ann Arbor on June 5, 1837, a committee "on the Library, Philosophical Apparatus, and Cabinet of Natural History" was appointed consisting of Edward Mundy, John F. Porter, and Elon Farnsworth. At the November meeting Henry R. Schoolcraft introduced a resolution directing the committee to look into: "The propriety of instituting such inquiries and taking such preliminary steps as may be proper, to lay the foundation of a suitable collection of specimens for the University Cabinet, in the various departments of Natural History" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 17).

It is not certain when the first collection of plants was received. It was probably part of the material obtained in the first Geological Survey of Michigan in 1838 under the direction of the state geologist, Douglass Houghton. The survey was authorized by an act of the legislature (Act No. 49, 1838) that specified:

Specimens shall be collected and preserved in the following manner, to wit: first, the state shall be supplied with single and good specimens; second, if more similar specimens than one can be found, sixteen more, if possible, shall be procured, to be distributed by the regents amongst the university and Page  1443its branches.… To entitle the university and its branches to any of the benefits of this act, of the aggregate amount herein appropriated, four thousand dollars shall be refunded to the state treasury from the university fund, … and within one month from the passage of this act, the regents of the university shall file in the office of the secretary of state their assent to the provisions thereof.

The Regents, however, passed the following resolution:

Resolved, That the Regents feel it their duty to withhold their assent to the appropriation contemplated by the Act of the 22d March, 1838. Yet they hereby pledge themselves for the erection of such buildings as may be necessary and otherwise to provide for the preservation of such specimens as may be collected under said Act and at any time intrusted to their care.

(R.P., 1837-64, p. 45.)

Nevertheless, the collections from the survey apparently came to the University, for in the Proceedings of the Regents for January, 1840, is the statement: "Your Committee further recommend that Dr. Houghton be authorized to place a part, if not the whole, of the specimens in geology, mineralogy, and zoology, now in his hands, belonging to the State, in the University buildings under the charge and control of the Board of Regents."

Although botanical specimens were not mentioned these doubtless were also in Houghton's charge at that time. The Regents had previously authorized the renting of a room for Houghton and had provided that one of the four buildings intended as homes for the professors should be used to house "the Cabinet of Natural History … and for other general purposes," until the main buildings should be completed (R.P., 1837-64, p. 70). The custodianship of the University was finally validated by an act of the legislature, in 1846, in which it was stated:

The various specimens of geology, mineralogy, zoology, botany and all other specimens pertaining to natural history belonging to the state, and now deposited in the University buildings be, and the same are hereby transferred to the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, …

Although the survey began in 1838, most of the plants were collected in 1839, when the two most southern ranges of counties were surveyed. John Wright, with the assistance of George H. Bull, was given charge of the botanical phase. Wright stated that between 800 and 900 species were examined and approximately 9,000 specimens were collected. During other years, some plants were collected by members of the survey, especially by Douglass Houghton and Abram Sager, although they were mostly concerned with other phases of the survey.

In 1838 Asa Gray was appointed Professor of Botany and Zoology. He was never in residence, however, during his short tenure and probably had no part in the development of the botanical collections. In 1839, Douglass Houghton was appointed Professor of Geology and Mineralogy without salary, and the natural history specimens were placed under his supervision. In 1841 the collections were moved to the Main Building, later designated Mason Hall, which had just been completed. From correspondence between Zina Pitcher and Silas H. Douglass in 1846, the latter apparently had some supervision of the collections immediately following Houghton's death in 1845. The letters indicate that Douglass was advised by Pitcher and George P. Williams, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, both of whom were interested in the botanical collections. In a letter to Douglass, Pitcher stated that Asa Gray, at Harvard, had consented to revise the determinations and classification of the botanical specimens, Page  1444with the proviso that he should retain a set. It seems doubtful, however, that this was done since the Gray Herbarium does not contain specimens or records of such a transaction, and the early collections of the University Herbarium do not bear annotations by Gray. The only record of an addition to the botanical collection is a letter (Oct. 3, 1846) from Regent Pitcher mentioning the gift of his private herbarium of Michigan plants.

On the resignation of Asa Gray in 1842, Abram Sager was appointed Professor of Botany and Zoology without salary until he should be engaged in instruction (see Part III: The Department of Botany). Although he probably was not in residence until 1848 he may have assisted Houghton with the collections. In 1855 he resigned this position to devote his entire attention to the professorship of obstetrics and physiology which he had also held from 1850. Because of his early training under Torrey and Eaton he had developed a strong interest in botany and zoology. He was associated with Houghton in the first Geological Survey, giving most of his attention to zoological phases. When he took up his duties at the University, the natural history collections were one of his major responsibilities. In the available records there is no evidence that any important botanical collections were added under his direction. He must have been actively interested in botany, however, since, in 1866, he gave his herbarium of 1,200 species to the University (Winchell, "Museum Rept.," 1866). This interest continued even after his resignation of the professorship of botany and zoology, and in 1874 he presented 100 plants which he had collected in Florida and South Carolina while in the South for his health.

From 1855 to 1880. — In 1855 Alexander Winchell (Wesleyan '47, LL.D. ibid. '67) transferred from the professorship of physics and civil engineering to the professorship of botany, zoology, and geology. Under his direction the Natural History Museum developed a definite organization. From 1863 to 1873 annual reports were published, and in 1870 a daily journal was begun which was continued until 1880. There is, therefore, considerable information available concerning the activities of the Museum for this period. During the early part there were only a few additions to the botanical collection. In 1859 and 1860 the Geological Survey of the state was continued under Winchell's direction. In 1860 N. Winchell was employed as botanist, and the northern shores of the Lower Peninsula and the islands at the head of Lake Huron were surveyed. The University received about 300 entries and 1,000 specimens of plants from this survey. In 1863 the Museum contained a collection of 1,500 species from Michigan, 400 from the southern states, and 225 from Germany. As already mentioned, Professor Sager presented his herbarium to the University in 1866. In 1867 Josiah T. Scovell collected about fifty species of plants on an expedition to the mining region of Lake Superior and in 1868 Albert E. Foote ('67m), Assistant in the Chemistry Laboratory, organized an expedition to Lake Superior which spent considerable time on Isle Royale and added 275 species, numbering about 350 specimens, to the Herbarium.

In 1868 two students graduated from the University who later played important parts in the development of the Museum. Both Mark W. Harrington and Joseph Beal Steere, as seniors, had helped in the Museum without compensation (Winchell, "Rept.," 1868). Mark Walrod Harrington ('68, A.M. '71, LL.D. '94) upon graduation was appointed Assistant in the Museum, and Page  1445for two years, as part of his duties, he catalogued the Herbarium, collected and identified specimens, and prepared collections for exchange. The following statement is from Winchell's report of 1871:

Mr. M. W. Harrington, the efficient regular Assistant in this Department for the past three years, having attached himself to the Government Expedition to Alaska, it is my plan to secure in his place, two or three energetic and aspiring young men, who will count the educational advantages of the position a large part of the just compensation for their services. Messrs. E. L. Mark, A.B., & J. F. Eastwood, A.B., have already entered upon duty under this arrangement.

(R.P., 1870-76, p. 142.)

In 1871 and 1872 Harrington was in Alaska as astronomical aid for the United States Coast Survey. He did not neglect the botanical opportunities which were offered, but his collection of plants went to the Smithsonian Institution, although the University later received a set. On his return in 1872 he collected in the vicinity of San Francisco and brought the specimens back to the University.

In September, 1870, Joseph B. Steere sailed on a trip which lasted for five years, during which time he collected extensively in the Amazon Valley, on the coast of Peru and Ecuador, and in the East Indies, China, and the Philippines. His botanical collections totaled about 1,156 specimens.

Between 1868 and 1873 other important additions included the herbarium of Dr. George L. Ames, containing 17,500 specimens, presented by his wife, and that of Houghton, containing 9,000 specimens, presented by his widow. Collections were also received from J. T. Scovell, Colorado, from G. W. Ramage, Texas and Louisiana, from Joseph C. Jones ('72, A.M. '75), from the north shore of Lake Superior, and from Charles J. Kintner ('70), California. In 1873 Winchell reported the botanical collection as totaling 6,491 entries and 36,385 specimens.

On Winchell's resignation in 1873, Eugene Woldemar Hilgard (Ph.D. Heidelberg '53) was appointed Professor of Mineralogy, Geology, Zoology, and Botany. He, however, served only two years. Mark Harrington had been promoted to Assistant Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany in 1873, and was largely responsible for the development of the collections in the Museum from 1873 to 1876. Many of the collections were obtained through exchange. The herbarium of Adams Jewett, containing 2,500 specimens, was received from his son H. S. Jewett. A large addition of German plants was acquired by a gift from S. S. Garrigues and a collection was obtained through President Angell from Professor Paul Reinsch, of Germany. Other important collections were received from Howard Shriver, Virginia, J. F. Eastwood, West Virginia, J. F. Joor, Louisiana and Texas, J. Clark Moss, Colorado, J. G. Lemmon, California, and from W. H. Dall and Marcus Baker, Alaska. Cryptogams received more attention than hitherto. Ferns were given by George E. Davenport, A. B. Lyons, Mrs. Mary O. Rust, and Miss Fannie Andrews. The Steere collections added important mosses and ferns. The Reinsch collection contained many mosses, and the Garrigues herbarium added numerous fungi. In addition, a collection of one hundred New England fungi was purchased from Byron D. Halsted.

In 1875 Harrington had charge of studies in Olmsted, Dodge, and Steele counties for the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. In the report of this survey, N. H. Winchell states: "Professor Harrington … was compensated only by the payment of Page  1446his field and traveling expenses. He also had the privilege of retaining such botanical specimens as he could gather, for the purpose of enlarging the already magnificent collection of plants in the Museum of Michigan University."

Apparently, there was much local interest in botany in Ann Arbor at this time. Harrington acknowledges volunteer help provided in the Herbarium by Miss E. C. Allmendinger, Miss Catherine M. Watson, Miss Louisa M. Reed, Professor John F. Eastwood ('71, Ph.D. '87), and Neddie Tyler ("Journ. Mus.," 1875, p. 92). For a number of years, Miss Mary H. Clark, who with her sisters conducted a seminary for young ladies in Ann Arbor, had been developing a herbarium. Alexander Winchell, in his report of the flora of the state in 1861, acknowledged his indebtedness to her for numerous records. Miss Elizabeth C. Allmendinger not only developed a herbarium but also published a list of the plants within a radius of four miles of Ann Arbor, listing 848 species. These collections were later given to the University.

In 1876 Harrington was granted leave of absence to study abroad. He took ferns from the Steere collection with him to Kew, where he finished his identifications, and in 1878 the result of his study appeared in the Journal of the Linnean Society (16: 25-37). This is apparently the first research paper based on botanical collections of the University to be published by a member of the faculty.

Harrington resigned in 1877 to take a position as professor of astronomy and mathematics in China. Volney M. Spalding ('73, Ph. D. Leipzig '94), who had been appointed Instructor in Zoology and Botany in 1876 to assist while Harrington was abroad, continued in this position following the latter's resignation. In 1876 Joseph Beal Steere ('68, '70l, Ph.D. hon. '75) was appointed Assistant Professor of Paleontology and Curator of the Museum. Spalding apparently had charge of the botanical collections under Steere's direction. In 1879 Steere was given the title of Professor of Zoology and Curator of the Museum, and Spalding was made Assistant Professor of Botany, apparently continuing in charge of the Herbarium. From 1876 to 1881 there were very few additions to the botanical collections, although more specimens from the Steere expedition were received. Harrington returned to the University in 1879 as Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory, but his interest in botany continued. In 1879 Spalding reported that Professor Harrington "performed much gratuitous labor … upon plants which had been secured to the University through his instrumentality" and that he had contributed several collections of plants to the Herbarium.

From 1881 to 1920. — In 1881 there was a reorganization of the Museum. The Regents adopted regulations in which it was stipulated that the professor in charge of instruction in each subject should be curator of the corresponding collection in the Museum of Natural History. Spalding, who was made acting Professor of Botany in 1881, consequently became Curator of the botanical collection. In the same year a Museum building was completed, and the natural history collections, with one exception, were moved from Mason Hall. The Herbarium remained under the care of the Botany Department in Mason Hall. The Regents' Proceedings of 1881, however, specifically included the botanical collection as part of the Museum of Natural History.

There was no provision for a supervising director of the Museum as a whole. Each curator was independent and was required to make an annual report to the President of the University Page  1447concerning the collection under his charge. These reports were not published, and only one of Professor Spalding's has been found ("Rept.," 1886, Angell Papers). How long Professor Spalding as Curator continued them is not certain. President Angell cites items from the curator's reports until 1887, when they probably ceased. That there had been such a requirement was apparently forgotten, since, in 1918, Professor Newcombe transmitted the report of J.H. Ehlers to President Hutchins with comments concerning the desirability of annual reports and the statement that "the enclosure is, I believe, the first report that the Phanerogamic Herbarium has ever made" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 428).

In 1904 Spalding resigned, and in 1905 Frederick Charles Newcombe ('90, Ph.D. Leipzig '93), who had been a member of the Botany Department since 1890, was appointed Professor of Botany. In 1905 Charles Albert Davis (Bowdoin '86, Ph.D. Michigan '05) was appointed Curator of the Botanical Herbarium. Davis had given considerable attention to the flora of Michigan while a professor at Alma College from 1887 to 1901. He had been Instructor in Forestry and a graduate student at the University from 1901 to 1905, and had served as Curator from 1905 to 1908 at a salary of $200. In 1908 Forest Buffen H. Brown (Michigan '02, Ph.D. Yale '18) was Curator of the Herbarium and also Curator of the Botanical Garden. The larger staff of the Botany Department, with varied specializations, resulted in an increased interest in the Herbarium, and in 1912 Calvin Henry Kauffman (Harvard '96, Ph.D. Michigan '07) was appointed Curator of the Cryptogamic Herbarium, and Henry Allan Gleason (Illinois '01, Ph.D. Columbia '06), Curator of the Phanerogamic Herbarium. Both were also on the staff of the Botany Department. The Herbarium at this time was housed in a room on the fourth floor of the South Wing of University Hall. Owing to lack of space a part of the collection was stored in bundles in the attic. A disastrous fire in 1913 destroyed this material, and damage from water and smoke necessitated discarding part of the remainder. In 1915 the Botany Department moved to the newly erected Natural Science Building, where the phanerogamic collection occupied a room on the third floor and the cryptogamic collection a room on the fourth, the two being connected by a spiral stairway. In 1916 John Henry Ehlers ('99, Ph.D. '14), Instructor in Botany, succeeded Gleason as Curator of the Phanerogamic Herbarium.

There are only a few records of accessions for this period. In 1886 a gift of $100 from Joseph B. Whittier, of Saginaw, made possible the purchase of Ellis' North American Fungi. In 1887 a set of plants from the Lake Superior region was received from Frank E. Wood. In 1894 Collins, Holden, and Setchell's Phycotheca Boreali-Americana, Briosi and Cavara's Funghi Parasiti, and Seymour and Earle's Economic Fungi were purchased. A gift of 2,000 plants collected by Lewis Foote while engaged on the United States Lake Survey was received in 1903.

In addition to the herbaria in the Department of Botany another botanical collection developed in the University. Since, in 1913, only the collections of zoology and anthropology were housed in the Museum of Natural History Building, the title was changed to the Museum of Zoology. In 1912 Charles Keene Dodge ('70), of Port Huron, who had been active in the botanical phases of the Biological Survey of the state, was placed in charge with the honorary title of Associate Curator of Botany in the Museum of Zoology, without salary. Mr. Page  1448Dodge contributed 5,000 species of plants to initiate the collection. In 1918 Dodge died, leaving his herbarium of 35,000 specimens to the Museum, and Cecil Billington was appointed Honorary Curator to supervise the collection. This herbarium was maintained as a separate collection until 1921. Among other accessions received during this period were Rocky Mountain plants from Edgar M. Ledyard, Nevada plants from the Walker-Newcombe expeditions, ferns from A. A. Hinkley, and Michigan specimens from Cecil Billington.

The botanical collections of the University for the most part increased as the result of investigations concerning the flora of Michigan. Under Professor Spalding cryptogams first received special attention. Spalding and Fanny Elizabeth Langdon ('96, M.S. '97), Instructor in Botany, studied the myxomycetes in the vicinity of Ann Arbor. Lorenzo N. Johnson, Instructor in Botany from 1892 to 1896, added many specimens to the Herbarium. He sent specimens to Ellis and Peck who described a number of species from them. Ill health resulted in his resignation in 1896, and his death followed a year later at Boulder, Colorado, terminating prematurely a very promising career. Studies by Harriet L. Merrow added many specimens of parasitic fungi, especially rusts. Adrian J. Pieters ('94, Ph.D. '15) and Julia Snow were responsible for the botanical phases of a biological investigation of Lake St. Clair (1893) and western Lake Erie (1898), under the direction of Jacob E. Reighard of the Department of Zoology. James Barkley Pollock (Wisconsin '93, Sc.D. Michigan '97) and C. H. Kauffman published papers on Michigan fungi in the Reports of the Michigan Academy of Science for 1905 and 1906, and until 1918 Kauffman continued to publish annually papers listing fungi previously unreported for the state.

In 1905 the legislature passed a bill providing that a biological survey of the state, in addition to the Geological Survey, be made under the direction of the state geologist. Alexander G. Ruthven was appointed chief naturalist of the survey in 1907. Most of the funds available for it were used to help support studies by various biologists. The University of Michigan co-operated in these investigations, and part of the collections were received by the University. In 1904 an expedition visited Isle Royale and the Porcupine Mountains, Ontonagon County, under Ruthven. In 1905 a party from the University visited Isle Royale, and W. P. Holt was responsible for the study of the flora. In 1906 Charles Albert Davis published results of his research with peat in Michigan and in the same year he studied the flora of the Walnut Lake area, Oakland County, as part of the biological investigations. The publication in 1918 of Kauffman's Agaricaceae of Michigan was not only a comprehensive treatment of the group for the state but was also one of the most outstanding for North America.

Kauffman was in Sweden in 1908 to obtain information concerning agarics from the area in which Fries's studies were made. Often accompanied by students, he extended his investigations to various parts of the United States. He was in the Lake Placid area of New York in the summer of 1914, in Olympic National Forest, Washington, in 1915, near Harlan, Kentucky, and Elkmont, Tennessee, in 1916, and in Leal, Colorado, in 1917. During World War I, in 1918 and 1919, he was on leave serving in the Plant Inspection Service of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. During this time he made many collections in Maryland and Virginia, and in the summer of 1920 collected at Tolland, Colorado.

H. A. Gleason prepared a monograph Page  1449of the Vernonieae for the North American Flora. In 1913-14, while on leave of absence, accompanied by B. E. Quick, he studied and collected plants in the Far East.

From 1921 to 1929. — In 1921 the various botanical collections, the phanerogamic and cryptogamic herbaria in the Department of Botany, and the herbarium in the Museum of Zoology were united in the Herbarium of the University of Michigan, which was given a separate budget. Kauffman was appointed Director and Curator of Cryptogams and John H. Ehlers, Curator of Phanerogams. Both were also members of the staff of the Department of Botany. Cecil Billington was given the title of Honorary Curator. He maintained an active interest in the Herbarium and contributed money for assistantships and field studies. In 1926 May V. Cannon, who had served for a number of years as Assistant, resigned and was given the title of Honorary Custodian of Basidiomycetes in recognition of her services to the Herbarium, and Bessie Bernice Kanouse (Michigan '22, Ph.D. '26) was appointed Curator and Assistant to the Director. Frances J. Thorpe (Ellsworth '14, M.A. Michigan '25), who had been an Assistant since 1924, was appointed part-time Research Assistant in 1929 and devoted her attention to studies of bryophytes and the care of the collection. In 1928, the new Museums Building having been completed, the Herbarium moved to its present quarters on the fourth floor of the research wing.

The study of the flora of Michigan continued to be a major investigation. Ehlers was on the summer session faculty at the Biological Station on Douglas Lake and continued the study of the phanerogamic flora of that area. Annotated lists of the higher plants for the region were published by Gates and Ehlers in 1924, 1927, 1930, and 1948. Billington published several papers concerning flowering plants. Kauffman, in addition to studies in the Ann Arbor area, spent the summer of 1927 in the Upper Peninsula accompanied by Bessie B. Kanouse and A. H. Povah, and, with his students, continued investigations there in 1929. Kanouse published results of studies of the Leptomitaceae and Blastocladiaceae in Michigan.

Kauffman spent some of his summers in field studies in other parts of the country, usually accompanied by students. In 1921 he stayed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and in 1924, at Elkmont, Tennessee, and Hot Springs, North Carolina. He collected at Mount Gretna, Pennsylvania, near his boyhood home, in 1924 and 1926. With John H. Ehlers, in 1922, studies were carried out in the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming, at Copeland, Idaho, and in the Oregon National Forest. Accompanied by Kanouse in 1923, investigations were continued in the Medicine Bow National Forest. In 1925 he worked at Lake Quinault, Washington, and in the Siskiyou National Forest, Montana, and at Grand Lake, Colorado. Kauffman published twenty papers concerning fungi, especially the Agaricaceae. Monographs of the genera Cortinarius and Inocybe were prepared for the North American Flora. He also published concerning the genera Armillaria, Lepiota, Clitocybe, Gomphidius, Flammula, and Paxillus for the United States. Kanouse was engaged in studies of the Phycomycetes and published concerning the families Blastocladiaceae, Leptomitaceae, and Pythiomorphaceae, and species in the genera Mucor, Pythium, and Saprolegnia.

In 1929 the Herbarium contained 184,712 specimens in the classified collections and approximately 75,000 which had not been distributed. In addition to Page  1450the specimens resulting from the studies described above, important collections were received through gifts, exchanges, and purchases. Only a few can be mentioned here. Howard A. Kelly gave his herbarium of fungi and lichens, and the library facilities of the Herbarium were greatly increased by a gift from him of an extensive library especially rich in rare and important mycological publications. He also donated 831 paintings of fungi, mostly by L. C. C. Krieger and E. M. Blackford.

In 1929, with financial help from Dr. Kelly, the lichen library and herbarium of Professor Bruce Fink of Miami University were purchased, increasing the material available in this group by 16,760 specimens. Joyce Hedrick (Mrs. Volney H. Jones) who had been Professor Fink's assistant, was appointed Research Assistant for lichens. Specimens of fungi from West Virginia, collected by Nuttall, were received. A number of exsiccatae were added. Important collections of grasses were received from A. S. Hitchcock and Mrs. Agnes Chase of the Department of Agriculture. The Alaskan collections of Ynes Mexia were purchased. The tropical American flora was represented through the collections of Chickering, Mexia, and Stevens. Hawaiian collections of Degener were obtained. Among the collections received from other botanists in the University were the materials resulting from the study of the genus Rosa by Eileen Erlanson, the collection obtained by Carl O. Erlanson on the MacMillan expedition into the Arctic, and collections resulting from a study of the Sumatran flora by H. H. Bartlett.

From 1930 to 1953. — In 1930, because of the illness of Professor Kauffman, Edwin Butterworth Mains ('13, Ph.D. '16), of Purdue University, was appointed Acting Director and, following Kauffman's death in 1931, he became Director. William Randolph Taylor (Pennsylvania '16, Ph.D. ibid. '20) of the University of Pennsylvania was appointed Curator of Algae in the same year, and both also were appointed as professors in the Department of Botany. The investigations of Kauffman concerning the Agaricaceae developed facilities which offered unusual opportunities for a continuation of research in the group. In consequence Alexander Hanchett Smith (Lawrence Coll. '28, Ph.D. Michigan '33), who had studied with Kauffman, was appointed Research Assistant in 1932. He became Botanist in 1945, and was made Professor of Botany in the Literary College in 1950.

In 1930 arrangements were made between the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the University of Michigan for a biological survey of the Mayan area of Central America. Consequently, in 1935, Cyrus Longworth Lundell (Southern Methodist University '32, Ph.D. Michigan '36) was appointed Assistant Curator. In 1939 Ehlers reached the retirement age, and Lundell succeeded him as Curator of Phanerogams and Ferns. Lundell resigned in 1944 to accept a position at Southern Methodist University and was succeeded in 1946 by Rogers McVaugh (Swarthmore '31, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '35), who was also appointed Associate Professor in the Department of Botany and in 1951 was promoted to Professor. Betty Robertson [Clarke] was Assistant Curator on a part-time basis in 1944 and 1945.

Frances Thorpe resigned in 1935, and William Campbell Steere ('29, Ph.D. '32), Instructor in Botany, was appointed Research Associate in the Herbarium to further research in the bryophytes and to supervise the development of the collection. He was made Curator of Bryophytes in 1945, and was also chairman of the Department of Botany when he resigned in 1950 to accept Page  1451a position at Stanford University. The lichens continued to be supervised by Joyce Hedrick Jones, who was made Assistant Curator on a part-time basis in 1944.

World War II interrupted investigations. W. C. Steere was on leave of absence, engaged in explorations in Colombia and Ecuador for quinine-producing plants for the Board of Economic Warfare. C. L. Lundell was on leave of absence in connection with exploration for rubber-producing plants in Mexico. E. B. Mains, in addition to his duties as Director of the Herbarium, served as acting chairman of the Department of Botany during the absence of H. H. Bartlett.

The researches of the Herbarium have continued in floristics, phytogeography, and taxonomy. The results have been published in 329 articles and nine books. The study of the flora of Michigan has been one of the major activities of the staff. The Biological Station has served as a center for research in the northern part of the Lower Peninsula, by John H. Ehlers and Rogers McVaugh for flowering plants, by W. C. Steere for bryophytes, and by A. H. Smith for fungi, all having been on the summer session staff of the Biological Station for various periods. Other areas receiving special attention have been Sugar Island and the shores of Lake Huron and Lake Michigan for flowering plants by Rogers McVaugh, and Sugar Island and the Keweenaw Peninsula for bryophytes by W. C. Steere. Fungi have been studied in the Harbor Springs, Munising, and Marquette areas and in the Keweenaw Peninsula by E. B. Mains, and in the Tahquamenon area by A. H. Smith. During this period forty-seven papers giving results of the studies of Michigan flora have been published in various journals, and data from Michigan collections have been included in many others. In addition, the publications Liverworts of Southern Michigan by W. C. Steere, and Common Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms of Southeastern Michigan and Puffballs and Their Allies in Michigan, both by A. H. Smith, deserve special mention.

The biological survey of the Mayan area by the Carnegie Institution and the University placed special emphasis on tropical American botany. In 1931 Harley H. Bartlett worked along the Belize River and the northern edge of the Mountain Pine Ridge of British Honduras and around Uaxactún, Guatemala, in 1932 Steere visited central Yucatán, and in 1933 Lundell was in British Honduras and the region around La Libertad, Guatemala. During the summer of 1936 Mains and Lundell investigated the flora of the high-rain forest and the Mountain Pine Ridge in the southern part of the El Cayo district, British Honduras. In 1937 Lundell studied the flora of the Río Moctezuma Valley, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, and in 1938 he visited Yucatán and Quintana Roo, Mexico. The results from these expeditions have appeared in more than thirty-five papers in various publications and in twenty-one papers in two volumes entitled The Botany of the Maya Area. Although co-operation with the Carnegie Institution was terminated in 1939, investigations of the flora of tropical America have continued. Steere studied the bryophytes of Puerto Rico while exchange Professor at the University of Puerto Rico in 1939-40 and published concerning the bryophytes of El Salvador, Colombia, and Ecuador, in addition to those of the Mayan area. Rogers McVaugh is engaged in a study of the phanerogamic flora of Jalisco, Mexico, and spent parts of 1949, 1951, and 1952 in field studies in that state.

Investigations concerning flowering plants include monographic studies of Page  1452the Celastraceae, Polygonaceae, Myrsinaceae, and Rutaceae by Lundell. He contributed the treatments of the Rutaceae, Celastraceae, Theophrastaceae, and Myrsinaceae for the "Flora of Panama" (to be published by the Missouri Botanical Garden) and initiated the preparation of the Flora of Texas, spending parts of the years 1940-42 in field studies in Texas.

McVaugh has been engaged in a study of the genus Prunus in North America. Field investigations were made in Texas and New Mexico in 1947, in southeastern United States in 1948, and in Michoacán, Jalisco, and other states in Mexico in 1949. He is also engaged in monographic studies of the Campanulaceae and Myrtaceae and has prepared the treatments of the Rosaceae for "Flora of Panama," the Myrtaceae for "Flora of Peru," and the Campanulaceae for Arizona Flora and for Flora of Texas. With Joseph H. Pyron he published the Ferns of Georgia. Studies have been made by him concerning early botanical explorations in North America.

Investigations of the bryophytes have been made for many areas in North America. Frances Thorpe reported concerning the bryophytes collected by Erlanson and Koelz in Greenland. Steere published a number of papers on the bryophytes of the Hudson Bay region and the Canadian eastern Arctic. In 1948 he headed a party supported by the Botanical Gardens of the University and the Navy to Great Bear Lake in the Canadian western Arctic. He studied the distribution pattern of mosses in Alaska in 1949, and he has published concerning species from Little Diomede Island in Bering Strait. Results of investigations concerning the phylogeny and distribution of mosses have been reported in papers concerning the Cenozoic and Mesozoic bryophytes of North America and Pleistocene mosses of Louisiana and Iowa. Steere also prepared the treatments for the families Calymperaceae and Erpodiaceae and the genera Didymodon, Barbula, and Tortula for Grout's Moss Flora of North America.

W. R. Taylor engaged in investigations concerning the taxonomy, morphology, and reproduction of algae. The results of his studies on the Atlantic coast have been published in the Marine Algae of the Northeastern Coast of North America. Other investigations have included studies concerning the marine algae of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, the Straits of Magellan, the coasts of Peru and Chile, the Marshall Islands, Java, and the Philippines. Taylor has also published studies of fresh-water algae of Isle Royale, Michigan, Newfoundland, Guatemala, and Colombia. He was a member of two Hancock expeditions, in 1934 to the Galapagos Islands and the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Central America, and in 1939 to the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Central America. In 1946 he was in the Marshall Islands engaged in botanical studies in connection with the "Crossroads" atomic bomb project of the U. S. Navy on Bikini. The results have been published in Plants of Bikini and Other Northern Marshall Islands. In 1949 he was on sabbatical leave engaged in a study of the marine algae of Bermuda.

The emphasis in the investigations of A. H. Smith has been on the large group of fleshy fungi, the Agaricaceae. His monograph North American Species of Mycena appeared in 1947 and his general treatment of fleshy fungi, Mushrooms in Their Natural Habitats, in 1949. The genera Cantherellus, Collybia, Cortinarius, Galerina, Kuehneromyces, Leucopaxillus, Lepiota, Lyophyllum, Melanoleuca, Nematoloma, Psathyrella, Pseudocoprinus, Rhodopaxillus, Rhodophyllus, Tricholoma, and Xeromphalina have received Page  1453extensive study. Dark-spored species are being studied in culture to obtain data concerning their development and genetics and to evaluate taxonomic characters. Field studies have been made in eastern North America: in northern New York in 1934, at Lake Timagami, Ontario, in 1935, and in the Great Smoky Mountains in 1938; in Pacific Coast states in 1935, in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon in 1941, in Idaho and Oregon in 1946, in Mt. Rainier National Park in 1948 and 1952, and in Wyoming in 1950. Smith has collaborated with L. R. Hesler in studies concerning fleshy Basidiomycetes of the southeastern United States and with Rolf Singer in investigations of the Agaricaceae of South America.

In other investigations of fungi, E. B. Mains, through facilities furnished by the Botanical Gardens (see Part III: The Botanical Gardens), has studied the host specialization of species of rusts and powdery mildews. Resistant varieties and selections of wheat, delphinium, and phlox to their powdery mildews and of snap-dragons and iris to their rusts were discovered. The inheritance of resistance of wheat to powdery mildew and of snap-dragons to rust has been reported. From taxonomic investigations of the Uredinales papers concerning the genera Spumula, Tegillum, Chaconia, Skierka, Ctenoderma, Maravalia, Bitzea, Scopella, Blastospora, and Angiopsora have been published. The genus Hydnum and the family Geoglossaceae have been studied. During the past fourteen years entomogenous fungi have received major attention, and results of investigations concerning the genera Cordyceps, Hirsutella, Gibellula, Hymenostilbe, Akanthomyces, Insecticola, Tilachlidium, and Synnematium have been published. Field studies were made in New Hampshire in 1938 and 1939, in Colorado in 1940, and in Montana and Washington in 1941.

Investigations of Phycomycetes have been continued by Bessie Kanouse, who has published concerning Saprolegnia parasitica and the genus Endogone. Major emphasis has been on the Discomycetes, especially of Michigan and of northwestern United States. Her publications include treatments of Gelatinodiscus, Pseudocollema, Otidea, Plectania, Helvella, and Morchella.

Joyce Hedrick Jones has published papers concerning the lichens of the American tropics, Michigan, the northwestern United States, and Alaska. She also revised Fink's manuscript of The Lichen Flora of the United States for publication.

Owing to the increase in the collections, space in the Museums Building became insufficient, and in 1947 the collections of algae and bryophytes were moved to the Museums Annex. This, however, did not provide enough space for the distribution of all identified specimens in the classified collections so that it has been necessary to store approximately 150,000 specimens. The classified collections in 1954 contained 123,479 fungi, 39,750 lichens, 14,999 algae, 57,475 bryophytes, and 249,725 vascular plants, a total of 485,428 specimens. They provide materials not only for the studies of the staff of the Herbarium but also for other biological investigations of the University. In addition, between ten and thirty-six loans of 600 to 7,500 specimens a year have been made to aid in researches at other institutions.

Accessions to the collections have been obtained from researches of the Herbarium and from those of the staff and graduate students of the Department of Botany. An average of 5,800 specimens a year has been received through exchange. A number of accessions have been gifts, the most important being the herbarium of Parke, Davis and Company, Page  1454of Detroit, of 27,264 specimens. The University also received the company's botanical library containing many rare publications. Purchases for the most part have been limited to a few exsiccatae.

The Parke-Davis herbarium added collections of vascular plants of Farwell from Michigan, of Bigelow, Heller, Rusby, Nash, and Lemmon from the United States, of Rusby, Bang, Morong, and Triana from South America, of Pringle, Palmer, Orcutt, von Tuerckheim, and Schaffner from Mexico and Central America, of Teysmann, De Vriese, Korthals, Duthie, Hooker, and Wallich from the East Indies and India, of Heller from Hawaii, and of Boissier, Schimper, Schweinfurth, Schlechter, and Burchell from the Levant and Africa. An important herbarium of the plants of the Indiana dunes was received as a bequest of Marcus W. Lyon, Jr. Other accessions were collections of Muller, Wiggins, Shreve, Gentry, and Matuda from Mexico, of Krukoff, Dusén, and Jansson from Bolivia and Brazil, of Hassler from Paraguay, of Bartlett from Argentina, of Koelz from northern India, of Clover from Arizona, and of Tharp, Cory, and Whitehouse from Texas.

From the duplicates of bryophytes in the Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden more than 4,000 specimens were obtained, including paratypes of Hooker, Wilson, Mitten, and Underwood. Collections of Drummond, Polunin, Soper, and Potter added accessions from the North American Arctic. The herbarium of F. M. Pagan added 2,512 Puerto Rican specimens. Other accessions were collections of Standley and Steyermark from Guatemala and of Bartlett from Sumatra, the Philippines, and Formosa.

Among the accessions of marine algae were those of Setchell and Gardner from the west coast of North America, of B. M. Davis from New England, Jamaica, and California, of Bøygesen from the Danish West Indies, of Wormersly from southern Australia, and of Bartlett from the Sulu Sea and Haiti.

Additions of fungi included collections of J. J. Davis from Wisconsin, of Hesler from Tennessee and North Carolina, of Burke from Alabama, of Baxter from Alaska, of Whetzel from Bermuda, of Holway from South America, of Singer from Argentina, of Sammuelson from Sweden, of Stevens from Hawaii and the Philippines, of Cheo from China, and of Hiratsuka and Kobayasi from Japan and eastern Asia. Among the gifts were the herbarium of A. H. Povah, which added specimens from Michigan and elsewhere in North America, and several important exsiccatae and the herbarium of P. M. Rea of fleshy fungi of California. A gift of duplicates from the Farlow Herbarium added lichens from tropical America, China, and the Canadian eastern Arctic. Among other accessions of lichens were collections of Polunin, Lepage, Dutilly, and Gardner from Canada, of Pringle and Matuda from Mexico, and of Herre from the Philippines, and Lojka's Lichenotheca Universalis.


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Harrington, Mark W."Report to the President for the Year Ending 1875."Proceedings of the Board of Regents, 1875, pp. 476-79.
Harrington, Mark W."Memorial Address on the Life and Service of Alexander Winchell LL.D." Ann Arbor: Published by the University, 1891.
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THE archaeological collections at the University of Michigan owe their origin and development to Francis W. Kelsey, Professor of the Latin Language and Literature at the University from 1889 to the time of his death in 1927. During his long and distinguished service to the cultural life of the University, Professor Kelsey was both zealous and discriminating in the acquisition of archaeological material to illustrate the life and times of the ancient Mediterranean World. No separate museum was organized to care for these collections, but they were administered by Professor Kelsey and his very competent assistant and colleague in the Latin Department, Dr. Orma Fitch Butler.

It was not until the autumn of 1928 that definite steps were taken to organize a museum for the care, exhibit, and study of the archaeological collections, which, by this time, had increased markedly, due mainly to the acquisition of objects from the field excavations in Egypt, organized by Professor Kelsey in 1924. Thus a Museum of Classical Archaeology was established as a unit in the group of the University Museums. John G. Winter, Professor in the Department of Latin and Greek, served as Director of the Museum from the time of its inception until his retirement in February, 1951. Dr. Orma Fitch Butler was Curator until the time of her death in 1938.

In the autumn of 1940 the Museum became a separate administrative research unit of the University under the name Museum of Art and Archaeology. In 1946 it became the Museum of Archaeology, on the establishment of a Museum of Art as a separate unit in the University. Early in 1953 the present name, Francis W. Kelsey Museum of Page  1456Archaeology, was adopted by the Board of Regents in honor of its distinguished founder.

Prior to 1924 collections now in the Museum were acquired by purchase and by gift. The first of the purchases by the University was of a collection of 109 objects, including lamps, vases, and building materials, from the Musée Lavigerie in Carthage in 1893. They were duplicate specimens of antiquities gathered from various excavations in and around Carthage, over a period of some forty years, by R. P. Delattre, of the Order of the White Fathers. At the time, Professor Kelsey was on leave of absence from the University, studying numerous archaeological sites in the Mediterranean world. A warm and lasting friendship sprang up between the American scholar and the priest of the Hill of Byrsa. As a lasting reminder of the kindness shown him, Professor Kelsey assigned accession number one in the Museum records at the University to a fragment of an ancient Roman lamp included in the purchased collection. It was the discovery of this lamp that had induced Father Delattre in the early years of his life in North Africa to undertake the careful excavations of Roman sites at ancient Carthage.

On this same trip Professor Kelsey obtained from dealers, mainly in Rome, Sicily, Capri, and Tunis, 1,096 other archaeological specimens, building materials, pottery, terracotta figurines, lamps, painted stucco, glass, tombstones from Pompeii, and one Latin inscription. Thus began the collections at the University of Michigan of original archaeological specimens from Mediterranean lands. Previously, only casts or photographic representations of ancient objects had been available for use as illustrative material in teaching in the departments of Latin and Greek.

The next acquisition of antiquities occurred in 1898 through the services of Professor C. L. Meader of the University, who was then a Fellow in Christian Archaeology at the American School of Classical Studies in Rome. This was a miscellaneous collection of 387 objects, mainly lamps, lamp handles, pottery, and some glass.

In the following year Professor Duane Reed Stuart, who was a student in the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, purchased for the University a collection of thirty-four lamps. They were specimens of types that originated in various parts of the Greek world and had been collected by Professor Rhoussopoulos of the University of Athens.

The end of the century marked the successful conclusion of negotiations that had been carried on for some time for the purchase of a part of the famed Canon de Criscio collection of antiquities. The remainder was acquired later. The history of this collection is described hereinafter by Dr. Orma Fitch Butler.

In 1900-1901 Professor Kelsey was on leave of absence from the University of Michigan to serve as annual professor at the American School of Classical Studies in Rome. He availed himself of this opportunity to arrange for the purchase of various groups of antiquities. They were valuable additions to the collections in the fields of Roman archaeology, architecture, economics, religion, and history. Among them were 463 brick stamps and ninety specimens of makers' stamps on Arretine pottery. Also included were thirty-three ex-votos that had been found near an ancient temple of healing at Veii in Etruria.

With wise foresight Professor Kelsey procured for the University at this time also an outstanding collection of ancient building materials that had been gathered together from ancient Roman and Greek sites. Numerous small, but important, antiquities were obtained, among them a bronze Lar from an Page  1457ancient house shrine, a mason's plumb bob, lead water pipes, most of them bearing stamped inscriptions, lamps, and decorative terracottas.

In the years before World War I, some additions were made to the Museum collections. As the War brought an end to study and research abroad as well as to the importation of antiquities from Mediterranean countries, Kelsey gave increased consideration to the possibilities of actual field work of excavation after the war at some ancient site in the Near East. The factor that caused special attention to be focused on such a project at this time was the study of papyri documents of Greco-Roman Egypt, which had come to the University some years earlier from the Egypt Exploration Society of London and Oxford.

Thus the two aims that Professor Kelsey had in view when he was granted leave of absence from the University from 1919 to 1921 were to purchase objects for the collections and to investigate the possibilities of excavations at Greco-Roman sites. He visited the countries bordering the eastern Mediterranean from Italy to Asia Minor, Syria, and Palestine, and then went south and west throughout North Africa, with special attention to Greco-Roman sites in Egypt.

During this period the Museum collections were enriched by several purchases and gifts. Fragments of Arretine ware and Rhine Valley pottery and some Roman glass were purchased from the Cologne Museum. Among the acquisitions were ancient lamps from Palestine and alabaster bowls, head rests, toilet articles, beads, and fine linen from the Egypt Exploration Society Excavations. Through the kind services of Mr. G. F. Allmendinger of Ann Arbor, funds were procured from the Michigan Millers' Association for the purchase of a fine Roman mill, a large storage jar, and several small objects of bronze which had been found in the excavations of a villa a short distance to the north of Pompeii. The Paul Gottschalk collection of 130 vases, mainly from ancient Greek sites in Italy, was also purchased at this time.

The year 1924 marked the establishment at the University of the Near East Research Fund, which was the culmination of years of planning and preparation on the part of Kelsey (see hereinafter the Institute of Archaeological Research). The fund, created by private gifts, made it possible to acquire antiquities both by purchase and by excavations in the field at Roman and Greco-Roman sites.

In 1919 Professor Kelsey had noted on his visit to the Province of Fayoum, Upper Egypt, that the ancient city sites, from which so much valuable papyrological evidence had come to the world of scholarship, were being rapidly and ruthlessly destroyed, with little or no care taken to recover the antiquities or to record archaeological data. These ancient hills had become the source of excellent fertilizer (sebbakh), so necessary for the expanding acreage of cotton in Egypt. This situation caused Kelsey upon his return to Ann Arbor in 1921 to redouble his efforts to obtain funds for the systematic excavation of a Roman site in Egypt. The account of the excavations in the Near East is appended.

During this visit to Egypt Kelsey arranged for the purchase of a large collection of antiquities, mainly of the Greco-Roman period, that had been gathered together by Dr. David L. Askren, a long-time resident of Medinet el Fayoum. Especially noteworthy in this group were the ancient glass and ostraca. The collection included also wood, bronze, pottery, lamps, and terracotta figurines, in all 549 pieces.

Since the establishment of the Museum in 1928, acquisitions have continued to be made by purchase and by Page  1458gift, as well as by excavations. Several groups of ostraca were purchased during the years when field work was being carried on in Egypt. In addition an important collection of seventeen ostraca from Egypt was presented to the University by F. C. Skeat of the British Museum, London.

During the 1920's the Museum received several valuable gifts from H.C. Hoskier, of New York, Honorary Curator of the Museum. In the group were small bronzes and amulets from Egypt, a collection of 119 ancient Roman and Ptolemaic Egyptian coins, all in excellent condition, and several pieces of Greek, Etruscan, and Cypriote pottery.

The antiquities from the sites excavated in Egypt, Karanis, Dimé, and Terenouthis constitute the major part of the collections in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology. The Egyptian government has been extremely generous with the University in the division of antiquities. The ancient written documents recovered from the excavations, the papyri and the ostraca, were granted export to the University for study and publication. The ostraca have been studied and published and returned to the Department of Antiquities in Cairo. As the studies on the papyri are completed they too will be returned to Egypt.

The antiquities from the excavations represent and illustrate every phase of life and living in a Roman town in Egypt. They range from the tiniest bead and amulet, used for personal adornment or as charms, to the large earthenware jars used for the storage of grain and fodder and the heavy stone milling pots and olive presses. Each group of objects is a study in itself, the glass, pottery, wood used in building and in making household articles of furniture or tools and implements, terracotta figurines and lamps, sculpture and household objects of stone, such as mortars and pestles, basketry, objects of bronze, bone, and faïence, textiles, harness and rope, jewelry, grains and seeds, toys, gaming pieces, coins that were lost or stored away for safekeeping, and scores of miscellaneous objects that were common in every household in those days. From Terenouthis the Museum has an unusual collection of grave stelae of the pre-Christian period, which are particularly important since they can be dated by the coins found with them.

The architecture and the topography of the sites have been recorded in the survey maps. From these and the photographs it is possible to reconstruct accurately the physical appearances of the cities throughout their various levels of occupation.

The coins in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology number into the many thousands. By far the greater proportion has come from the University's excavations in Egypt and Iraq, but previous to the opening of the field work in the Near East, the numismatic collections at the University were already large and important. The acquisitions in this field date back to 1880. They have been classified by the names of their donors or of those who established the collections.

The earliest collection was that of Abraham S. Richards, to be followed in the succeeding years up to 1919 by the Dorr, Fritchie, Dattari, Harsha, and Eastman collections. One of the largest, the Dattari Collection of Roman imperial coins of Egypt, Late Roman imperial coins, and coins of Alexander of Macedon, was acquired through the kind offices of Mr. Charles L. Freer. It was presented to the University by Mr. Giannino Dattari, a friend of Mr. Freer, in 1914.

The numismatics section of the Museum contains not only valuable Greek Page  1459and Roman coins from various parts of the ancient world, but also medieval and modern coins of Europe and coins and currency of the United States. By the purchase of the Lockwood Collection a large group of United States coins and many specimens from various European countries and the Orient were acquired. The gift of the Hoskier Collection, referred to earlier, was an especially important acquisition. The Kelsey Collection, acquired by purchase and by gift, consists mainly of Greek, Roman, and Late Roman types. A gold nugget, used as an early coin of the Philippines, was presented by Santiago Artiaga, an alumnus of the University.

In the spring of 1952 Dr. Robert W. Gillman of Detroit presented a collection of Palestinian antiquities that had been gathered together by his father, when he was American consul in Jerusalem (1886-91). Besides Egyptian scarabs and beads, the group contains Palestinian, Greek, Roman, and Crusader coins. It is a notable addition to the Museum, since it includes many early and rare Jewish and Crusader coins.

Mrs. Edward Dwight Pomeroy of Jacksonville, Florida, presented a large collection of European and American coins and currency. Recent gifts by Mr. and Mrs. Abd el Lateef Ahmed Aly, Dr. Bessie B. Kanouse, Mr. Harvey L. Sherwood, and the Reverend Mr. Kilford, have served to fill in gaps in the Museum collections.

In addition to the coins the Museum has in its care a number of medals. They were struck as commemorative of special occasions and presented to the University.

In the autumn of 1943 the University received a remarkable historical collection of European and American arms, together with a few Oriental pieces. The gift, known as the Arthur G. Cummer Memorial Collection of Arms, was presented by Mrs. Cummer. Both Mr. and Mrs. Cummer had been students at the University of Michigan. The collection is especially rich in short arms, such as dueling pistols in pairs. Since that time several individual gifts of arms have been made by Clayton G. Bredt, Jr., Lou R. Crandall, Miss Helen H. Hanley, Mrs. Fred Harris, Howard Ideson, J. G. Roberts, Alexander G. Ruthven, and Miss Eunice Wead. At the close of World War II, in 1949, several hundred captive enemy guns were received from U. S. government arsenals. Special exhibits of the arms have been made from time to time, and the entire collection is available to interested groups, especially for study connected with the military contingent at the University.

Of special interest in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology are the textiles, chiefly Roman, Coptic, and Islamic from Egypt. The specimens of weaving, linen and woolen cloth and carpets from the excavations at Karanis, are of particular importance, in the matter of dating and design. Throughout the years purchases have been made to supplement the collections of Coptic and Islamic textiles. Noteworthy among these was the purchase in 1939 from the estate of H. A. Elsberg of a number of Coptic and Egypto-Arab textiles. A few examples of European textiles were presented to the Museum at that time by the Elsberg estate. Other gifts to the Museum were two embroidered caps of the Coptic period by A. E. R. Boak, several Peruvian textiles by Miss Helen Ladd, an excellent example of Swedish linen by Miss Ruby Holmstrom, and a specimen of oriental embroidery by Miss Isabelle Stearns. In 1953 a purchase of 1,166 textiles from Egypt of the late Roman, Coptic, and early Islamic periods greatly enlarged the collections.

In the field of classical antiquities Page  1460few additions have been made since the time of the early acquisitions by Professor Kelsey, but in the late 1930's the University received a gift of particular importance, the Esther Boise Van Deman bequest. This gift consisted of 216 objects, collected by Miss Van Deman ('91) during the many years when she was associated with the American School of Classical Studies in Rome. The objects are not large in size, but they were chosen by Miss Van Deman with discriminating care and thought as to their archaeological value.

Among the other contributions that have come to the Museum are pottery and photographs from the estate of Mrs. M. L. D'Ooge, Greek pottery on exchange from the National Museum in Athens, pottery, bronzes, lamps, and building materials from Mrs. Grace G. Beagle, Oliver P. H. Kaut, Robert Y. Larned, Mrs. Charles W. Lobdell, Eugene S. McCartney, Miss Carrie Patengill, Jean Paul Slusser, and Mrs. Stuart Baits. Recently, the Museum received a group of potsherds of Roman and Tudor Britain from A. F. Norman, Sir Edward Whitley, and University College, Hull, England.

The large and valuable group of prints and negatives, made by George R. Swain for the Near East expedition, has been incorporated into the Museum records and files. Photographs and slides of classical and archaeological interest have been presented by William W. Bishop, the estate of Mrs. M. L. D'Ooge, James E. Dunlap, E. C. Overbeck, and W. H. Worrell.

The Coptic collections were enlarged in 1953 by twelve wooden seals presented by Dr. Aziz S. Atiya. In that year Dr. O. O. Fisher presented the twenty-three volumes of the first edition of the publication resulting from the work of the scholars who accompanied Napoleon on his expedition to Egypt.

Miscellaneous gifts to the Museum include a group of a hundred terracotta figurines from Egypt by Peter Ruthven, Roman glass, a dice box, a hand mill of granite from Egypt, and an excellently preserved spearhead of bronze from China, by A. E. R. Boak, a number of Greek and Coptic papyri by Dr. Moldenke of Detroit, a papyrus fragment from Mrs. Standish Backus, and Palestinian pottery and lamps by W. H. Worrell.

Purchases have been made of gnostic gems and amulets, chiefly from Egypt, pottery, sculpture in stone and wood of pre-Dynastic and Dynastic Egypt, stelae and textiles of the late Roman and Coptic periods, and textiles of Islamic Egypt. A small bronze statuette, said to have come from a tomb near the Kermanshah Pass in northwestern Persia, was also acquired by purchase.

In 1945 the Department of Oriental Languages and Literature at the University turned over to the Museum a collection of Babylonian clay tablets and seals. A recent gift to the Museum was an ikon of St. Demetrius, presented by Mrs. James Inglis. It is signed by the artist, Joannes Charalampos, and dated March 27, 1757. It is an excellent example of late Byzantine style.

Apart from antiquities the Museum has been the recipient of other gifts and transfers of property. Two bookcases, originally the property of the first President of the University, Dr. Henry Tappan, are now part of the Museum equipment. They had been presented to the University by Regent Junius E. Beal in 1927. They were part of the furnishings in the Regents' Room in Angell Hall until the time of the transfer of offices to the Administration Building in 1949. Two exhibit cases, formerly in the President's House on the campus, along with candelabra and wall brackets that had once been the property of Dr. Page  1461Tappan, were transferred to the Museum in 1951.

The Museum is continuing to build up a small reference library for the studies and research that are carried on within the Museum. Many books and periodicals from the library of Professor Kelsey were presented to the Museum by his heirs. The bequest of Orma Fitch Butler, the first Curator of the Museum, added some nine hundred volumes of particular value. Other donors who have made presentations of books and periodicals include Randolph G. Adams, Abd el Lateef Ahmed Aly, Zaky Aly, Floyd Ames, Santiago Artiaga, A. E. R. Boak, Campbell Bonner, Clayton R. Bredt, Jr., Mrs. R. Bishop Canfield, W. W. Gower, Miss Dorothy Markham, Miss Kathleen O'Doughlin, Frank E. Robbins, Alexander G. Ruthven, Peter Ruthven, Mrs. W. R. Taylor, John G. Winter, the General Library, the Michigan Historical Collections, the Museum of Anthropology, the Egyptian Embassy, the French Embassy, and the Commissioner for Archaeology in the Sudan.

The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology presents exhibits of the collections, conducts research, and prepares the results for publication. The antiquities from the excavations in the Near East form the main basis for the exhibits. They are arranged and documented with labels to present a logical account and sequence of various phases of life and living in the ancient past. Special consideration is given in the exhibits to the general needs of students. The storerooms and workrooms of the Museum are available for research by advanced students and scholars. Special exhibits are arranged from time to time for groups studying certain limited phases of ancient life.

The vast amount of original material in the Museum precludes the necessity of arranging loan exhibits, unless they happen to be intimately associated with research work. Such a loan exhibit was arranged during 1952-53 of the Fisher papyrus of the Book of the Dead, a document of fundamental importance in the study of ancient Egyptian life. At times the Museum has arranged and sent loan exhibits to other museums and schools.

The Museum building, Newberry Hall, is one of the oldest on the campus. The interior has undergone extensive changes and rehabilitation in order to adapt it to the needs of a museum. It is crowded and not fireproof, but care and caution have been taken, as far as possible, to safeguard the collections.

Although the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology is designated as a research unit, members of the staff have given both undergraduate and graduate instruction. The collections in the Museum are at all times available to graduate students, several of whom have availed themselves of the opportunity to use this original source material as bases for doctoral dissertations.

The main publications of the Museum have been in the Humanistic Series of the University. This series is described elsewhere in this Part (see University Press). Volumes XXXIV, XLII-XLIV, and XLVII in this series, by various authors, are devoted to papyri and ostraca from Karanis and Dimé. Volumes XXV, XXX, and XXXIX contain the reports of the excavations at Karanis and Dimé. Volume XXXI deals with Ancient Textiles from Egypt in the University of Michigan Collections, by Lillian M. Wilson. Roman Glass from Karanis Found by the University of Michigan Archaeological Expedition in Egypt, 1924-29 by D. B. Harden is Volume XLI, Parthian Pottery from Seleucia on the Tigris by Neilson C. Debevoise is Volume XXXII. StampedPage  1462and Inscribed Objects from Seleucia on the Tigris and Coins from Seleucia on the Tigris by Robert H. McDowell were published as Volumes XXXVI and XXXVII. Figurines from Seleucia on the Tigris by Wilhelmina van Ingen is Volume XLV. The gnostic gems in the Museum collections have been described by Campbell Bonner and have been published in articles in various journals and in Volume XLIX of the Humanistic Series, titled Studies in Magical Amulets, Chiefly Graeco-Egyptian.

Special archaeological reports on Tel Umar, Iraq, the site of Seleucia, and on Sepphoris in Palestine by Leroy Waterman have been published in the University of Michigan Studies. From time to time articles dealing with parts of the collections have been published by scholars in archaeological and philological journals.

The staff of the Museum consists of a director, two curators, a technician, and a secretary. Student assistants are engaged on a part-time basis. The staff of the Museum in 1954 consisted of E. E. Peterson, Director; Louise A. Shier, Curator; and Elinor M. Husselman, Curator.

The Institute of Archaeological Research

Although scholars from the University of Michigan even before World War I had participated in various archaeological researches in the classical lands, the real beginning of Near East research came in the years immediately following the war, when Francis W. Kelsey, Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, secured leave of absence and, with the aid of funds contributed by friends of the University, proceeded in 1919-20 and in the succeeding years to visit Europe for the purpose of making purchases for the University of Michigan collections. Among the results of his activities was the acquisition of such valuable materials as the Baroness Burdett-Coutts' Biblical manuscripts, which were bought at the auction in London, the Oriental manuscripts from the library of the former Sultan Abdul Hamid, and the beginnings of the remarkable group of Greek papyri from Egypt which have been assembled in the University of Michigan Library (see Part VIII: Papyri). The first papyrus purchase was made in the spring of 1921. In the next year, a further important purchase of papyri was made, consisting of 139 legal documents, most of which were presented to the University by its alumnus, John Wendell Anderson ('90l), of Detroit, in the name of the law class of 1890. Numerous later additions have made the Michigan collections one of the largest and most valuable in the world.

Shortly after Commencement time in 1923, the late Horace H. Rackham, of Detroit, made his first gift for research in the humanities (see Part I: Gifts). It amounted to $100,000, payable over two years, and at Mr. Rackham's request the donor's name was not announced at the time. The first expedition which was made possible by Mr. Rackham's donation set out in the spring of 1924 (see Part VIII: Archaeological Excavations). Transportation was furnished in the form of a Dodge sedan presented by Mr. and Mrs. Howard B. Bloomer, of Detroit, and a Graham truck presented by the firm of Graham Brothers. Professor Kelsey was appointed Director of the Research Staff, with George R. Swain, of Ann Arbor, as Associate Director in Charge of Transportation and Photography. Professors Arthur E. R. Boak, of Michigan, Thomas Callander, of Queen's University, David M. Robinson, of Johns Hopkins University, and H. G. Evelyn White, of Leeds University, were chosen Page  1463to take charge of field work. Enoch E. Peterson and Orlando W. Qualley, two advanced students in the classical departments, were included as fellows of the expedition. The remainder of the staff consisted of Hussein S. Feizy, of the University of Michigan, interpreter and surveyor, and Professor Kelsey's son, Easton T. Kelsey, who went as chauffeur. Unfortunately, Professor White's untimely death that summer prevented his actually taking part in the work.

The expedition divided into two sections, one of which began work at Karanis in Egypt, and the other at the site of Antioch in Pisidia, the modern Yalovatch. Professor Robinson was in charge of the latter site, and Sir William Ramsay, to whom the original permit for excavation had been issued by the Turkish government, was also present. Numerous interesting finds were made on this site, including a large early Christian basilica. Another important find was a considerable portion of the famous inscription recording the deeds of Emperor Augustus, copies of which were placed in various cities of the empire. Professor Boak was in charge of the first work at Karanis, which went on for more than ten years and was terminated in the spring of 1935. Without producing any finds of a sensational nature, the excavations in Egypt for the first time completely laid open for scientific study a city of Greco-Roman times. Kelsey himself, besides visiting both sites of excavation, directed a photographic study of Caesar's European battlefields and initiated other archaeological studies in Europe which were carried on by various fellows, including Miss Anita Butler and Miss Mary Pearl.

At the time when Mr. Rackham's first gift for research in the Near East became available, Kelsey turned to his colleagues for counsel. An informal committee which came to be called the Advisory Committee on Near East Research was assembled and held a number of meetings with Professor Kelsey and made decisions with regard to the general policies to be followed. The committee, when first formed in January, 1924, consisted of President Marion LeRoy Burton, Deans John R. Effinger and Alfred H. Lloyd, Professors A. E. R. Boak, Campbell Bonner, J. G. Winter, and H. A. Sanders, Dr. F. E. Robbins, and Librarian W. W. Bishop.

In 1925 a small expedition was sent to the site of ancient Carthage in North Africa and some excavating was done, but for various reasons it was thought inexpedient to proceed with further work there. The excavations at Karanis, however, as noted above, were continued from year to year, from 1926 under the direction of Enoch Ernest Peterson.

The death of Professor Kelsey in the spring of 1927 was a great shock to all his friends, but the impetus which his energy had given to Near Eastern studies did not abate. In the circumstances it was necessary that the advisory committee take over the general direction of activities, and under the new name of the Committee on Near East Research it was given specific authority by the Board of Regents to do so. In the spring of 1931 a further step was taken by organizing the Institute of Archaeological Research of the University of Michigan, the personnel of which was identical with that of the former committee, with the addition from time to time of certain other members and with the replacements which were made necessary by the deaths of President Burton, Dean Effinger, and Dean Lloyd. Professor Benjamin D. Meritt was a member of the Near East committee and of the Institute during his stay at the University, and was succeeded by Professor Clark Hopkins. In addition, Professors Leroy Waterman and William H. Worrell, of the Department Page  1464of Oriental Languages and Literatures, together with Dr. Carl E. Guthe, Director of University Museums, were added.

In 1929-30 great assistance was given to the research work of the Institute by an appropriation of $250,000, spread over a period of five years, from the General Education Board. This was intended rather for work carried out in Ann Arbor than for field excavations. The most tangible result of this activity was in the line of publication. No less than sixteen volumes were added to the Humanistic Series published by the University (see Part VIII: University Press), ranging from the publications of the results of excavation at Karanis, various volumes of papyri and ostraca, and Meritt's work in Athenian epigraphy to books on Egyptian textiles and Parthian pottery.

In the meantime, the Institute of Archaeological Research had undertaken the sponsorship of the excavations independently begun by Leroy Waterman at Tel Umar in Iraq. Waterman's researches and reasoning led him to identify the ancient Seleucia on the Tigris as a site which had been from almost immemorial antiquity an important center of trade and population. His first excavations began in December, 1927, on behalf of the American School of Oriental Research in Baghdad, with funds which were supplied by the Toledo Museum of Art. In the next year the University of Michigan and the Toledo Museum of Art shared the sponsorship of the work, the University furnishing the field direction, and this continued through the third season, that of 1929-30. In 1930-31 financial support was received from both the Toledo Museum of Art and the Cleveland Museum of Art. The latter institution provided the funds for the season of 1931-32. Work then lapsed because of the economic depression at home, but in 1936-37 another expedition was sent out under the direction of Professor Clark Hopkins.

These various campaigns resulted in the uncovering of a large block of dwelling houses and, in the final season, in the discovery of two temple sites. It is generally acknowledged by Oriental scholars and archaeologists that the site is an exceedingly promising one, but it has not proved possible for the University to plan for its thorough investigation.

Archaeological Excavations

Africa and Asia Minor. — In the spring of 1924 the University of Michigan began its first field work in the Near East. For many years the University had been slowly, but definitely, augmenting its valuable archaeological collections illustrative of ancient history. Of first importance among them were the papyri from Greco-Roman Egypt, acquired mainly by Francis W. Kelsey. The study of the papyri and the other archaeological material at the University led to the conclusion that further field work was necessary to illustrate and supplement the knowledge already gained. A very generous grant of funds by Horace H. Rackham in 1923 furnished the means for this undertaking.

Plans were laid to conduct reconnaissance operations in three countries, in three widely separated areas which were once part of the Roman Empire, namely, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Tunisia in North Africa. It was the plan of the Committee on Near East Research in charge of the work at the University to conduct trial excavations for one season and then, from the results obtained, to determine the most profitable field in which to continue investigations. Data gathered from excavations on the sites of Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, of Carthage in Page  1465North Africa, and of Karanis in the Province of Fayoum, Upper Egypt, were compared and evaluated. The result was that, after the first year, the committee decided to devote its resources to the work of excavation in Egypt.

The results of the first season's efforts in Egypt were of the utmost importance. Not only were many valuable papyri recovered from the excavations, but also other archaeological material, which could be assigned to a definite date and place and would therefore be of inestimable value for the study of life and society in Greco-Roman times. Another factor which influenced the decision of the committee was the very favorable and helpful attitude towards the excavations on the part of the Egyptian government and its efficient Department of Antiquities.

Antioch. — For his field operations in Asia Minor, Professor Kelsey chose as director Professor David M. Robinson, of the Johns Hopkins University. Acting upon the advice of the eminent Anatolian scholar, Sir William Ramsay, who had spent many years in research in the Near East, representations were made to the Turkish government for permission to excavate a site, called Sizma, near Konia. Pending completion of arrangements necessary for the organization of the work at Sizma, the University accepted the invitation of Sir William to assist him in the excavation of Pisidian Antioch, near Yalivadj, in Sparta Vilayet, for which he held a permit from the Turkish government. From May through August of 1924 the University conducted excavations on the site of Antioch and simultaneously in July and August completed trial explorations at Sizma.

These excavations were concerned mainly with the site of Roman Antioch which served as a military base of operations for the war conducted by the consul, Quirinius, later governor of Syria, against the Homanadenses; here too, the Apostle Paul had first preached to the Gentiles.

There had perhaps been an earlier Phrygian sanctuary on the site, dating probably from the early third century before the Christian Era. We know that as early as 189 b.c., however, Antioch was made a free city by the Romans. Though under Roman sovereignty, it retained its Greek characteristics even up to the time of its last king, Amyntas, who was killed in the wars against the brigands in the Taurus Mountains in 25 b.c. At that time the entire Province of Galatia came more closely under the personal supervision of Augustus, and it is just this period in the history of Antioch, under the Early Empire, that was the chosen field of investigation by the University. The site of the earlier Greek city has not been definitely determined.

Sir William and Lady Ramsay had visited and explored the site several times prior to the spring of 1924. As early as 1914 they had made a most remarkable discovery in the eastern portion of the hill of some sixty fragments in marble of a Latin inscription. The fragments proved to be parts of a copy of the famous inscription, set up in bronze in Rome, in front of the mausoleum of Augustus, and called Res Gestae Divi Augusti. The inscription in Rome has been lost, but its contents are known from a copy set up in Ancyra, the modern Angora, and therefore called the Monumentum Ancyranum. In like manner Antioch set up a copy of this inscription, to commemorate the deeds of the Emperor Augustus among the subject peoples in this eastern outpost of Roman civilization.

As a further contribution to this memorable document, the University recovered some two hundred additional fragments in the course of the excavations in 1924. Hitherto, according to Ramsay, no Page  1466fragments of the Preface or of the first seven chapters had been found at Antioch. With the discoveries made by the University, we now have fragments, not only of the Preface and of every chapter, but also of the four appendices, which serve to fill lacunae in the Monumentum Ancyranum.

Ever since the first fragments of this inscription were found at Antioch, there had been considerable conjecture as to its exact position in ancient times. Some scholars held the view that at Antioch, as at Angora, the inscription must have been cut on the walls of a public building. A complete clearance of the area in which these fragments were found revealed that in all probability the inscription had been carved on four pedestals, the faces of which were three meters in front of the Propylaea. The expedition had discovered the Propylaea, situated at the top of a broad, stone stairway, which led up from a stone-paved area, the Tiberia Platea, to a temple erected against the eastern hill.

This stairway consisted of about a dozen steps some twenty-two or twenty-three meters across. Enormous masses of sculptural and architectural fragments of the Propylaea were found lying in confusion on the steps. Here were found architrave blocks, cornices, spandrels and voussoirs of the three arches, slabs of sculpture in relief, drums of engaged Corinthian columns, and enormous, magnificently carved capitals. The bases on which once stood the pedestals bearing the Res Gestae and which indicated the locations of the piers of the arches were also uncovered. They had doubtless fallen because of successive earthquake shocks or were deliberately demolished by later inhabitants of that region, desirous both of destroying the monuments of an earlier regime and of procuring stone for their own building operations. A portion of the architrave was found containing the holes into which the bronze letters of an inscription had originally been fitted. It is quite possible that the name of Augustus was mentioned on this block signifying the dedication of the Propylaea to him. Though the site had been badly stripped of stone by the inhabitants of the modern village of Yalivadj, yet so many fragments of the Propylaea were found that it is possible to make an accurate reconstruction of this triumphal archway, here dedicated to a deified emperor.

Of the temple itself, whose podium had been cut from the living rock of the hill, not one stone was found in situ. A very accurate reconstruction of it can be made, however, based on evidence gathered from the architectural blocks that were found, some scattered about the temple area proper and others built into the walls of the houses of the nearby modern village. Some few meters behind the temple the natural rock of the hill had been cut to the height of several meters to form a nearly semicircular wall enclosing the east end of the temple area. In front of this wall was a two-story colonnade, Ionic above and Doric below. Shops had doubtless been located along the base of this wall.

In front of the Propylaea, to the west, was uncovered a large area paved with stone. From a long Latin inscription found here, it was learned that this was the Tiberia Platea, that is, the Square of Tiberius. Another inscription furnished the information that the square between the Propylaea and the temple was called Platea Augusta.

In the pavement in the center of the Square of Tiberius was a large, circular slab of stone. Bronze letters had once been fitted into the matrices of this stone and, from the holes left, Robinson was able to reconstruct the inscription. It recorded the fact that "T. Paebius Asiaticus, son of Titus, of the tribe Sergia, Page  1467an aedile for the third time, paved this square at his own expense."

To the west of the paved area were found the ruins of a building which was probably a Byzantine church. Nearby was recovered a marble head of Augustus, a cast of which is now in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University. No traces could be found of the remainder of the figure.

In the northwestern section of the city a Christian basilica was discovered. The floor of the nave was paved with a colored mosaic, containing four inscriptions, two of which mention Bishop Optimus, who became Bishop of Antioch about 375-81.

At the very close of the season a large monumental gateway was uncovered in the southwestern part of the site. Behind it had been a fountain, decorated with dolphins. The gateway, almost fifty meters wide, consisted of a large central arch, flanked by a smaller arch on either side. It rose to a height of twelve or thirteen meters. The enormous blocks used in the construction of the gateway lay strewn around in great confusion, due, no doubt, to earthquakes. Several of the architrave blocks which were recovered had been inscribed with bronze letters fitted into matrices. A dozen of these letters were found, several of them in situ, which mentioned a certain C. Iulius Asper (inscribed as C.IVL.ASP). In like manner there was found the name of a certain Pansinianus, known from other inscriptions found in the city by Ramsay.

Antioch had received its water supply from springs in the hills situated several miles to the north of the city. Many of the massive arches, supporting the stone watercourse, still exist. Practically the entire length of this aqueduct was explored.

In addition to the numerous building blocks of stone, many of them beautifully carved with figures in relief, numerous fragments of statues were found. Noteworthy among these was a draped statue of Victory, perhaps a copy of an earlier fifth-century Greek original. Coins, fragments of glass goblets, fragments of small stone altars, and other objects of interest were also uncovered in the course of the excavations.

Sizma. — It was necessary in July to curtail the work at Antioch in order to devote some time to the investigations at Sizma. Numerous trial trenches were dug, but no ancient buildings were discovered. Heaps of slag, ashes, and refuse from the smelting of cinnabar in ancient times, led Robinson to conclude that there may have been a settlement of miners here and that their houses had been built of adobe and consequently had not survived. In the debris were found many potsherds and some thirty vases of red, black, and brown hand-molded ware. It was Robinson's opinion that these dated about 2500 b.c. Numerous bone astragali, querns, pestles, and broken lamps were also recovered. Near the surface was found an inscription which contained a reference to the Zizimmene Mother, a title under which the goddess Cybele was here worshipped, but no traces were found of a sanctuary dedicated to this divinity. Numerous inscriptions of a late Roman date came to light in the surrounding territory.

Besides the persons mentioned above as associated with the actual excavations in Asia Minor, the staff included the following: Francis W. Kelsey, George R. Swain, Frederick J. Woodbridge, Horace Colby, Easton T. Kelsey, Feizy Bey, and Enoch E. Peterson.

Carthage. — In the spring of 1925 the Washington Archaeological Society decided to conduct an investigation on the site of ancient Carthage in North Africa. Acting upon the recommendation of Professor Francis W. Kelsey, who had acceded Page  1468to the request of the society to serve as General Director in the field, arrangements were made to conduct a thorough preliminary reconnaissance of the site. The aim was to ascertain both the prevailing working conditions and, from the archaeological evidence recovered, to determine whether or not it would be advisable to invest large sums of money for a complete clearance of the site, or parts of it.

In addition to support from the Near East research fund of the University of Michigan, the society received special contributions from the University of Rochester and from Mr. William F. Kenny, of New York. During the three months, March, April, and May, of 1925, there were associated with Professor Kelsey in the field work the following staff, some of them serving as assistants in special investigations for short periods and others connected with the general work during the entire campaign: the Abbé J.-B. Chabot, Orma F. Butler, Nita Butler, the Reverend Père A. Delattre, and Messrs. Ralph M. Calder, William Douglas, George F. French, Donald B. Harden, William E. Hayes, Horton O'Neill, Enoch E. Peterson, Byron Khun de Prorok, Gerard Rey de Vilette, Edward R. Stoever, George R. Swain, Robert R. Swain, Columbus C. Wells, Frederick J. Woodbridge, and Henry S. Washington.

Owing to the fact that practically the entire terrain which marks the site of ancient Carthage had been parceled out into building lots, and that much of it had already been occupied, any attempt to excavate the entire site was found to be prohibitive in expense, unless the government should see fit to expropriate the land as a national archaeological park. For this reason no extensive general excavation could be carried out, and detailed investigations were limited to a small area which had been purchased some years earlier by Byron Khun de Prorok. This was later enlarged by the purchase of land by the Washington Society, making altogether an irregular plot of ground, some sixty-three meters long, varying in width from fifteen to twenty-eight meters, which was the site of an ancient burial ground, consecrated to the goddess Tanit.

As early as 1921 this section, near the ancient harbor, had come under the surveillance of government officials in Tunis. From time to time in Tunis there had appeared limestone stelae with Punic inscriptions and symbols associated with the cult of Tanit. This finally came to the attention of certain public officials interested in antiquities. They investigated the matter and succeeded in definitely tracing them to their place of origin. The property was purchased and trial excavations were conducted with funds furnished by the Service des Antiquités.

It was in this plot of ground that extensive excavations were carried out during the season of 1925. Investigations were conducted in a restricted but typical area in this section to the very lowest stratum resting on the limestone bedrock. Unmistakable evidences were found of three distinct levels of archaeological remains. No ruins of an actual temple or shrine, dedicated to the goddess Tanit, were found in any level. Dedicatory stelae, set in the earth like tombstones of a cemetery, and cinerary urns with their contents were almost the only antiquities recovered in this area.

In the lowest stratum stelae were not found, but thirty-one cinerary urns were recovered, dating from the seventh and eighth centuries b.c. The urns were found spaced about a meter apart, each one carefully protected by a cairn of small stones, piled around and on top of it. A layer of black earth covered the cairns to an average depth of fifty centimeters. On top of this there was, in turn, a layer of yellow clay seven centimeters Page  1469in thickness. Above this was the second archaeological level, which averaged in depth from one and one-half meters to two meters. In the second level no cairns were found, only urns and stelae. The urns were arranged in groups and above each group a dedicatory stone had been erected. The third or top level consisted of urns only. They were placed in the earth, which had accumulated among the stelae of the second level to a depth of about a meter. To judge from fragments of pottery and Hellenistic lamps found in the filling, these deposits belonged to the period just preceding 146 b.c. The stelae were of various types; some had Punic inscriptions, others bore symbols sacred to Tanit.

More than eleven hundred urns were recovered in the excavations in 1925. A preliminary examination was made of the contents of a few of them. They contained charred bones of young children, lambs, goats, and small birds. With the bones in the urns of the lowest level were also found rings, bracelets, earrings, beads, amulets, and objects of gold, silver, bronze, and iron.

Along the northern edge of the area a Roman vault of a later period was uncovered. It had been built over earlier stelae, which were left undisturbed in their original position in the floor of the vault. Near the southern edge were found the ruins, perhaps of a temple, of the Roman period. The site has not been fully cleared, and owing to peculiar local conditions the matter must be left to governmental agencies.

Karanis. — In the autumn of 1924 the University of Michigan undertook field operations in Egypt which continued, without interruption, until August, 1935. During that time J. L. Starkey of London, England, served as Director for the first two seasons and was then succeeded by E. E. Peterson of the University. Associated as members of the staff in the field work at Karanis and Dimé, for varying periods during the eleven years of activities, were the following: Professor A. E. R. Boak and Messrs. L. Amundsen, D. C. Caskie, J. A. Chubb, H. Falconer, S. Golovko, R. Haatvedt, D. B. Harden, A. G. K. Hayter, F. B. Joslin, E. T. Kelsey, E. D. Line, G. Loud, O. W. Qualley, C. C. Roberts, P. Ruthven, V. B. Schuman, E. Swain, I. Terentieff, and S. Yeivin.

At the beginning of operations the Egyptian government granted to the University concessions to excavate two sites in the Province of Fayoum — Karanis, now known as Kôm Aushim, fifty-nine kilometers southwest of the Great Pyramid, and Soknopaiou Nesos, now called Dimé, some forty kilometers west of Karanis.

Karanis had been badly destroyed by the natives before the University began its systematic and scientific excavation of the site. Enough remained, however, buried beneath the sands of the desert, to enable the gathering of ample and accurate topographical evidence for the preparation of detailed maps of the city, both of the various buildings, public and private, including two temples, and of the general plan of the city in all the levels of occupation, throughout its six or seven hundred years of existence from the third century b.c. to the early fifth century a.d. Simultaneously, with the gathering of topographical evidence, exact knowledge was also acquired of the numerous objects found in the excavations. Now, for the first time in the history of archaeological research in Greco-Roman Egypt, it has become possible to identify and date the objects, apart from papyri, ostraca, and coins, that definitely belong to this period in ancient history. Hundreds of antiquities, scattered throughout the museums of the world, either undated or assigned to a very long, indefinite period, can now be classified Page  1470correctly, both as to time and place, by comparison with the objects recovered by the University of Michigan excavations in Egypt.

The entire site of Karanis has been completely and thoroughly surveyed. Triangulation and topographical charts have been prepared, which cover territory even beyond the confines of the city at its greatest extent. All architectural evidence uncovered has been noted on the proper maps at the proper levels. No reconstructions have been made that could not be substantiated beyond the question of a doubt by evidence found in the actual excavations.

In addition to the triangulation chart, topographical maps, and one general map of the excavated areas in the eastern section (scale, 1:1000), 133 other maps, illustrating all levels and sections, have been prepared. Throughout the years of field work, some seventy thousand levels alone were computed in the survey of Karanis, together with other measurements, totaling into the hundreds of thousands. In addition, hundreds of photographs have been taken, showing architectural and topographical details to supplement and illustrate the data recorded on the maps and plans.

Of major importance among the objects recovered in the excavations at Karanis were the papyri. Letters, business documents, and literary fragments became all the more valuable as historical source material by very reason of their discovery at definite locations and levels.

The coins of Karanis are very numerous, more than twenty thousand having been recovered from one house alone. The ostraca are extremely valuable for the close dating of levels and are important source material for the study of the economic life of Karanis.

One of the most perplexing problems that has hitherto confronted archaeologists has been the proper classification of glass from Egypt. Now it is possible to assign correct dates and provenance to the various types known to have come from Egypt. The same problem applies to pottery to an even greater degree, for it was found in greater abundance and was common over a longer period of time than the glass. One of the most important contributions which the University of Michigan excavations in Egypt have given to the history of this period is the accurate information on the use of wood, both in building and in the making of smaller objects of daily household use.

Dimé. — The site of Dimé, much smaller than that of Karanis, was thoroughly surveyed before excavations began. Although the site was in a very inaccessible part of the desert it had been badly ravaged by the diggers for fertilizer. Topographical and triangulation charts were prepared for the entire site. Two sections of the hill were chosen for special, detailed investigation, in which excavations were carried out down to bedrock, in certain places through as many as four levels of occupation. Seventeen maps on a large scale were prepared for the special sections under excavation.

The papyri and ostraca were among the most important objects recovered at Dimé. Especially noteworthy among these were some papyri with seals intact. A considerable number of the ostraca were Demotic. No complete specimens of glass and remarkably few fragments were found. Very little basketry and few wooden objects were recovered.

The excavations at Dimé showed that the city must have continued in existence from about the middle of the third century b.c. to the early third century a.d. Undoubtedly the collapse of the irrigation system and the decline in importance of the crocodile cult in Fayoum account for the early abandonment of this site.

Page  1471Terenouthis. — In 1935 the Egyptian government granted a concession to the University to excavate Terenouthis, now known as Kôm Abou Billou. It lay on the edge of the western desert accessible from the Nile Valley only by a camel and donkey trail, some ten miles southwest of the modern village of Kafr Dawud. Its utter destruction at the hands of modern treasure hunters and diggers for fertilizer precluded any lengthy campaigns on that site. In fact, there is no Greco-Roman site in Egypt that has not been almost completely ruined by the peasants of modern Egypt. The soil covering these ancient ruins furnishes excellent fertilizer for the cotton crops, and for that very reason the Egyptian government has allowed these mounds to be ruthlessly destroyed.

The main part of the work at Kôm Abou Billou was devoted to a clearance of a cemetery, which was very late Roman and early Coptic. An important and large group of limestone grave stelae was found. Beads, amulets, and jewelry, along with pottery, lamps, terracotta figurines, and some glass, were the principal objects recovered in the excavations. Some coins were found which are of especial value in dating the stelae and pottery. Hitherto it has been impossible to date the stelae and pottery found in this part of Egypt.

The results of the University of Michigan excavations in Egypt are of outstanding importance. Not only have they laid bare the plan of a town, to the very minutest detail in house construction and decoration, but they have also peopled these houses and temples, these streets and passageways, by revealing the very objects used long ago in daily life. We have seen the letters these people wrote to one another, the accounts they kept in business transactions, the kinds of food they ate, the grain they planted in their irrigated plots of land, the cloth they wove to make their garments, the wooden boxes in which they stored their treasures, the glass that must have been highly cherished, the pottery that served as common household ware, the toys that delighted the hearts of their children, the lamps that gave such feeble light and so much smoke, staining black the niches in their housewalls, and the paintings, all of some religious significance, with which they sometimes adorned their houses. We have seen the very temples in which they worshipped, now in ruins, mute reminders of a cult that even then was in decay. The people who wrote and read the papyri, which have become so valuable as source material for the history of this period, are revealed to us as a living people in a living town.

Seleucia on the Tigris. — Field work was begun at Seleucia on the Tigris, in Iraq, under the directorship of Professor Leroy Waterman in November, 1928, after a season of preliminary exploration. The expedition was sponsored jointly by the Toledo Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the University of Michigan. Robert H. McDowell served as Field Director.

Seleucia was founded by Seleucus Nicator, one of the generals of Alexander the Great. After Alexander died at Babylon in 323 b.c., Seleucus secured for himself the Middle East from the Mediterranean to India. He located his new city near an ancient trading center. It became the capital of the Seleucid empire, and was one of the centers of Greek civilization in the third century b.c.

In 141 b.c. the Parthians under Mithradates conquered the city. They were probably of Iranian stock from somewhere north of Persia. The Parthians made Seleucia their western capital. Prosperity came to Seleucia through trade and commerce. Sea-going ships came up Page  1472the river direct from India, Africa, and Arabia. On land, caravan routes from the East converged on Seleucia from Central Asia, China, India, and Persia, and continued west to ports on the Mediterranean coast.

Four levels of occupation were found in the excavations, dating approximately from 290 b.c. to 200 a.d. Seleucia is now a group of mounds covering some five square miles, about twenty miles south of the modern city of Baghdad. The average height of the mounds is twenty-five feet above the present level of the plain. The Tigris has changed its bed since ancient times, and the river is now several miles away from the ruins.

Owing to the vast extent of the mounds the work of the first two seasons was to a large extent exploratory. Systematic excavation was carried on, however, at a point nearest to the Tigris and resulted in the uncovering of a Parthian villa in Level I (115/20 a.d. to approximately 200 a.d.) and a date wine and molasses factory in Level II (about 69/70 a.d. to 115/20 a.d.). Aerial photographs of the ruins were also secured during the first two seasons through the British Royal Air Force. The gridiron pattern of streets of the Hellenistic city was visible on the photographs, particularly over the central parts of the site.

One of the city blocks (technically known as Block B) was selected for excavation. It was near the center of the mound and was approximately 450 feet long and 250 feet wide. Excavation showed that the entire block consisted of a single great house. During seasons 1930 to 1932, work, for the most part, was concentrated on Block B and resulted in the clearing of the first three levels.

After the 1931-32 season the financial effects of the depression were felt, and the field work of the expedition was discontinued. Work toward publication of the results of the excavations, however, was energetically carried on at the University of Michigan.

In 1936-37 another expedition was sent into the field under the directorship of Professor Clark Hopkins with Robert H. McDowell again serving as Field Director. During this season work was continued on Block B, and some houses of the fourth or Hellenistic level (about 290 to 143 b.c.) were cleared. A topographical survey was conducted with the help of new air maps, and a general plan of the site and the location of some of the more important buildings was established. Excavation of two of the most important temple areas was begun.

As a result of the excavations the University of Michigan has an outstanding collection of Parthian and Seleucid coins, architectural plaster, terracotta figurines, pottery, and other objects of everyday use. What is more important, knowledge of the Hellenistic and Parthian periods in Mesopotamia has been greatly extended.

Results of the excavations have been published in two preliminary reports and in four volumes in the Humanistic Series of the University of Michigan.

Among the members of the excavation staff at Seleucia at one time or another were the following: William C. Bellingham, Robert J. Braidwood, Neilson C. Debevoise, Henry Detwiler, Harry G. Dorman, Jr., Clarence S. Fisher, Clark Hopkins, Franklin P. Johnson, Robert H. McDowell, Mrs. McDowell, N. E. Manasseh, Frederick R. Matson, Jr., A. M. Mintier, Richard M. Robinson, A. Saarasalo, Charles Spicer, Jr., Leroy Waterman, Mrs. Leroy Waterman, and Samuel Yeivin.

Sepphoris, Palestine. — In the au tumn of 1930, funds having been given by a friend of the University, Harry B. Earhart, for excavation in Palestine, Professor Leroy Waterman, already in Page  1473the Near East, visited Palestine and secured the concession to excavate at the modern Arab village of Saffuriyye (ancient Sepphoris), situated four miles northwest of Nazareth, and the capital of Galilee in the days of Jesus. The area of the site most available for excavation consisted of the grounds of the village school, and work could accordingly only be carried on during the long summer recess of the school. As a result, work was begun in the summer of 1931 and was continued during the months of July and August with a staff of five men, including Dr. Clarence S. Fisher of the American Schools of Jerusalem, N. E. Manasseh and Samuel Yeivin of the Seleucia staff, together with Fadeel Sabba, a Palestinian, as photographer.

The chief architectural results consisted of the discovery and partial excavation of a very well-built Greco-Roman theater on the northeast slope of the citadel hill, capable of seating from four to five thousand persons, and of the ruins of an early Christian church which was a part of a larger monastic building. Pottery, coins, and small household objects of daily use were recovered, some of which are in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology.

The two months' work on the site was only a beginning. It was hoped to make Sepphoris an alternate-season site with Seleucia, but the depression prevented its realization. The main results of the work done at Sepphoris are described in The Preliminary Report of the University of Michigan Expedition at Sepphoris, Palestine, in 1931.

The De Criscio Collection

The University of Michigan owes its good fortune in acquiring the valuable De Criscio collection of Roman antiquities to the loyalty and vision of one of its alumni, the late Walter Dennison ('93, Ph.D. '98), who was the first man from the University of Michigan to hold a fellowship in the American School of Classical Studies in Rome. Dennison served his alma mater as Instructor of Latin from 1897 to 1899 and as Junior Professor of Latin from 1902 to 1910. Those who knew him well remember the accurate scholarship and the gentle spirit which informed all his teaching.

When Dennison was in Europe in 1896-97 collecting material for his work on Latin inscriptions he searched in all available places for unpublished material. Finally he learned of a private collection at the home of the Abate Giuseppe de Criscio of Pozzuoli, Italy. Father de Criscio, to give him his English title, was a member of a noble Roman family. In his youth he had been given a broadly liberal education, with the result that he brought to his work as a parish priest a wide acquaintance with and a deep interest in history, archaeology, and numismatics. Instead of losing interest in these pursuits as he became absorbed in his parish work, he kept up his studies and published many articles dealing with many phases of these subjects.

This devotion was aroused in part by the natural conditions which obtained in the parish over which he presided. The little town of Pozzuoli, founded by the Greeks in the sixth century b.c., was taken over by the Romans during the Punic wars. Later it became an important seaport and commercial center, particularly for the trade with Egypt. Lying as it does in the center of the great volcanic area north of Naples, it has often been showered with volcanic ash. Changes in level, caused by variations in subterranean pressure, have also taken place. As a result of all this, it is impossible to open the soil in Pozzuoli without unearthing the remains of earlier civilizations. The parishioners knew their priest's fondness for antiquities and notified him Page  1474immediately when such discoveries were made. He soon became the possessor of a large collection and maintained what might be called a small museum in his own home.

When Dennison learned of the existence of this collection he asked Father de Criscio for permission to look over the inscriptions which formed a large part of the material. This the kindly priest gladly granted, took the young American into his own home during his stay in Pozzuoli, and gave him permission to publish those inscriptions which had not already appeared in the Corpus or the Ephemeris Ephigraphica. During Dennison's stay Father de Criscio confided to him his regret that on his death his collection must of necessity be scattered since none of his family was interested in it. Dennison at once realized the great opportunity this offered the University of Michigan and wrote to Professor Kelsey to the end that, if possible, steps might be taken to secure this material.

Although times were still hard as the result of the depression of 1893, Kelsey began working on the problem with his usual vigor. In order to assure himself that the material was valuable, he asked William W. Bishop, who was then a Fellow at the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, to copy all of the inscriptions in the collection. When these copies reached the United States it at once became evident that the inscriptions contained a wealth of material on the provincial cursus honorum and on the imperial fleet of Misenum across the harbor. An effort was made to find some friend of scholarship who would come to the aid of the University and make the purchase possible. Henry P. Glover, of Ypsilanti, who had done much for his community, provided the necessary funds, but added the proviso that his name was not to be associated with the gift.

As a result of Mr. Glover's generosity there came to the University in 1899 some two hundred and fifty inscriptions on marble, several ash urns, some inscribed lead water pipes, and a few pieces of glass and bronze. The last were a personal gift to Mr. Dennison from Father de Criscio, but, with the generosity which characterized him, Dennison insisted on turning these over to the University also, to enrich its collections.

All of the objects arrived in good condition. This was due in great measure to the kindness of the museum authorities at Naples, who not only allowed some very valuable pieces to be sent abroad but also sent an experienced person to oversee the packing. In a letter to Dennison, Kelsey wrote, "I am surprised that the Government allowed the exportation of certain of the blocks, but the successful outcome of this aspect of the negotiations must be credited to Professor Mau."

In 1905, nine more inscriptions and several inscribed tiles, an incense altar, four tegulae suspensurae, for supporting the hollow floors of baths, a limestone wellhead, and a marble bath basin, were obtained from Father de Criscio.

Six years later the good father passed away, in the eighty-sixth year of his life. After some years his widowed sister, who had been his housekeeper, wrote to Mr. Dennison, unaware that he too had died in 1917, a victim of pneumonia, and offered to sell the residue of her brother's collection to the University. This letter was sent on to Professor Kelsey, who at once took up with President Burton the problem of securing the necessary funds. When this was done, the purchase was completed and the shipment of the material to Michigan was looked after by Professor John G. Winter, who was on leave in Italy in 1923.

In this third lot, the University secured some six hundred objects, among Page  1475them seven inscriptions, several pieces of marble relief-work, many fine specimens of blackware, several large storage jars, and many small objects. This material is of great value, as it shows the nature of the objects in daily use by the people of a small provincial town, and the University is fortunate in having been able to acquire it. The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, which has custody of the collection, will keep alive the memory of the good priest who collected these objects, as well as the memory of others whose devotion and generosity brought the De Criscio collection to the University.


Papyri were first acquired by the University of Michigan in 1920 through the initiative of Francis W. Kelsey, who traveled to Egypt in the spring of that year with B. P. Grenfell of Oxford (England) to purchase papyri with joint funds supplied by the British Museum, the University of Wisconsin, and the University of Michigan. In the following year, E. A. Wallis Budge, Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum, at the request of Professor Kelsey, bought another lot of papyri for the contributing institutions, among which were now included the universities of Oslo and Geneva and Cornell University. From this time until his death in 1927 Kelsey was untiring in his efforts to augment the Michigan collection, and since his death funds, donated by interested alumni or appropriated for the purpose by the Board of Regents, have been used to acquire additional papyri as they have become available. Moreover, the many papyri which were discovered at Kôm Aushim and Dimé in the Fayoum in the course of excavations conducted by the University of Michigan in Egypt from 1924 to 1935 were loaned by the Egyptian government to the University for study and publication.

The collection now comprises 4,832 inventory numbers, and 2,090 additional numbers have been assigned for reference purposes to the papyri from Kôm Aushim and Dimé. In the early years each piece was given a separate number, but subsequently the rapid growth of the collection made it advisable to form groups of the less significant fragments, and only complete pieces and the more important fragments received separate numbers. The total includes a certain number of waxed tablets, of which several are remarkably well preserved.

Greek is the language of the large majority of the texts, but other languages are represented in varying proportions — Demotic, 150; Coptic, 500; Arabic, 150; and Latin, 50. Approximately 500 papyri have literary texts, and these include classical authors, with Homer predominating, Biblical and patristic authors, and fragments from works of magical, mathematical, astrological, astronomical, and medical content (see Part IV: Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures). The rest of the papyri bear official documents, petitions, legal instruments, accounts, lists, memoranda, receipts, and private letters. They range in date from the third century b.c. to the eighth century a.d.

The collection is housed in the General Library of the University but is under the care of a curator of the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology. Many papyri have been mounted between sheets of glass so that they may be studied without risk of injury; most of them, however, are kept within folders and are preserved from exposure in steel cases. Frequently, with the permission of the librarian, papyri have been exhibited for interested visitors and members of learned societies.

The Humanistic Series of the University of Michigan Studies at present includes Page  1476eleven volumes containing editions of papyri. Numerous other texts have been published in periodicals. Among the more interesting and important groups are the following: more than one hundred papyri from the well-known Zenon archive of the third century b.c.; about two hundred documents of the first century a.d. from the ruins of the record office of the ancient village of Tebtunis; thirty well-preserved leaves of a third-century codex of the Epistles of Paul; thirty-one leaves of a third-century codex of the Shepherd of Hermas; two tax rolls of unusual length, which were compiled at the ancient Karanis in the second century a.d.; a number of Greek and Coptic magical texts; a poorly preserved but valuable Coptic codex containing Ecclesiastes and the Gospel of John in the Fayoumic dialect; a remarkably fine group of Coptic private letters, and a small group of large and for the most part well-preserved Byzantine documents in Greek and Coptic from Aphrodito.


THE Museum of Anthropology grew out of the general museum development at the University of Michigan. One of the earliest specimens to become a part of the Cabinet of Natural History was a Chippewa birch-bark canoe, which was sent from Lake Superior to Ann Arbor about 1840 by Douglass Houghton, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, who was in charge of the University's natural history collections.

During the 1800's a division of anthropology was not recognized as such in the natural history collections, although stray pieces and small groups of specimens were added from time to time. The first significant systematic collection was made by Joseph Beal Steere in the course of his famous trip of 1870 to 1875 up the Amazon, across the Andes and the Pacific, and through southeastern Asia. Steere collected archaeological and ethnological, as well as botanical and zoological, specimens in the regions he visited, thereby greatly increasing the anthropological materials of the University. Other expeditions by Steere and his associates added to the holdings. Steere was in charge of all the natural history collections from 1876 until 1894, when he resigned. One of Steere's students, Assistant Professor Dean C. Worcester, was appointed Curator of the zoological and anthropological collections in 1895. He was given a leave of absence in 1898 to go to the Philippines, where he had visited previously as a member of one of Steere's field parties, and resigned in 1900.

An accession of interest and importance was the Chinese government exhibit at the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition at New Orleans in 1884-85. This collection of Chinese craftsmanship was given to the University through President James B. Angell's contacts with the Chinese government. For many years a part of this gift was on exhibit in the old Museum Building. It now forms one of the valuable collections in the Museum's Division of the Orient.

In the spring semester of 1892 the University of Michigan offered its first instruction in anthropology. This was, significantly, a museum laboratory course in American archaeology. Two students were registered, and they prepared exhibits in the Museum, assembled Page  1477the anthropological collections of the University, and conducted independent investigations. The outstanding resources were a group of Danish neolithic implements, Professor Steere's South American and southeast Asia specimens, and the materials of Michigan prehistory. In the next few years, under the leadership of Harlan I. Smith, an inventory was made of Michigan prehistoric sites and collections. This initial impetus for scientific study was not continued, and the next continuing program was begun in 1922.

Dean Worcester in 1922 returned to Ann Arbor to obtain support for an archaeological expedition to the Philippines to investigate cave sites containing great quantities of Chinese porcelains. Professors Francis Kelsey and Alexander G. Ruthven supported his program and requested that Carl Eugen Guthe ('14, Ph.D. Harvard '17) lead the expedition with funds contributed anonymously by Horace H. Rackham. Guthe agreed to lead the party if a Museum of Anthropology were established to house the material so collected and to make possible the necessary research. This expedition of three years' duration resulted in the acquisition of the most valuable single collection in the Museum of Anthropology.

In 1922, with the reorganization of the University Museum, the Museum of Anthropology was recognized. In this same year the School of Homeopathy was abolished, and the Dean, Wilbert B. Hinsdale (Hiram College '75, M.D. Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College '87), who was thereby retired, was made Custodian in charge of the Collections in Michigan Archaeology. These were included by the Regents in the Museum's Division of Anthropology, of which Guthe was made Associate Director. Hinsdale and the collections under his immediate supervision were housed in the old Museum Building; Guthe and the large collection from the Philippines were quartered in the basement of Angell Hall from 1925 to 1927.

Guthe prepared his first annual report of the Museum of Anthropology to the Regents for the year ending June 30, 1927, and was made Director in 1929. He is primarily responsible for the present organization of the Museum, and its research interests were crystallized while he was in charge. He left the University in 1944, and in 1946 he was succeeded by James Bennett Griffin (Chicago '27, Ph.D. Michigan '36) as Director.

It is interesting to note in historic perspective the origin of the Department of Anthropology at the University. In the spring of 1928 E. F. Greenman, who was then associated with Hinsdale in the Division of the Great Lakes, resigned, and the funds allocated for him as a Museum staff member were transferred to the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, plus an additional sum, to provide for an instructor in the new Department of Anthropology. Again in 1930 funds were transferred from the Museum budget to that of the department when an assistant professorship was established.

When the Museum of Anthropology moved to the fourth floor of the University Museums Building on its completion in 1928 there were five major rooms for collections, seven rooms for offices, a library, and a receiving room. One large range was transferred to the Visual Education section of the Museums, and an office, originally provided for visiting scientists, served as the office of the Department of Anthropology for more than twenty years. During the twenty-six years which have passed since the present quarters were occupied, the holdings of the Museum have increased to the point where considerable ingenuity is necessary in order to provide for the Page  1478annual collection increase, in spite of the fact that from its inception the Museum has emphasized quality in research rather than quantity, and specialized research rather than size. At present some specimens are housed in a temporary building at Willow Run while others are in the Museums basement. The addition of cabinets in the fourth-floor corridor has materially assisted storage. Each of the four active ranges and offices are equipped with laboratory facilities, which include connections for hot and cold water, gas, electricity, and compressed air. The ranges are furnished with insect- and dust-proof filing cases especially designed to care for anthropological material, in which every kind of specimen, from arrowheads and potsherds to weapons and clothing, may be immediately available for examination and study. Various accessories to the collections, such as maps, notes, reports, catalogues, publications, and negative records are also easily available. In addition to the collections, the Museum has maintained and is responsible for a large number of slides for instruction and research. As a result of the wide interests and diversified teaching program of the department, in which the Museum of Anthropology staff participates, this slide collection is one of the largest and most effective in existence. A photographic center is now being prepared, and this will be a most valuable research and teaching aid.

The administrative head of the Museum, the director, is responsible for the collections and research program of the several divisions. When the Museum of Anthropology was formally organized five divisions were recognized. The four functioning ones are the Division of the Great Lakes, the Division of the Orient, the Division of Archaeology, and the Division of Ethnology. Unfortunately, no provision was made for a curator of physical anthropology, and in 1930 the room assigned to this phase of anthropological research was turned over to the Exhibit Section of the University Museums.

The Great Lakes Division deals with the anthropological resources of the state of Michigan and those regions of other states and of Canada which border on the Great Lakes and is interested in the study of the historic Indian tribes of the area as well as its archaeology. It is the only properly qualified unit in Michigan devoted to the scientific study of the Indian inhabitants of the state and it has the only comprehensive collections in this field. It serves also as the depository for the Society for Michigan Archaeology.

W. B. Hinsdale was in charge of the Great Lakes Division from 1922 until his death in 1944. During this time he was active in archaeological work throughout the state and was responsible for the first systematic attempts to organize and record the prehistory of Michigan. In 1924 Emerson Frank Greenman (Michigan '23, Ph.D. '27) was appointed Assistant in Anthropology. He made numerous excavations until in 1928 he left the University to become Curator of Archaeology of the Ohio State Museum. In 1935 he returned to the Great Lakes Division of which he has been Curator since 1945. During the middle and late 1930's the archaeological program of this division was concentrated in southeastern and eastern Michigan, resulting in a number of publications dealing with the late ceramic Indian cultures of the state. Field work in the Manitoulin district of northern Lake Huron was also carried on each summer from 1938 to 1954 and served as a summer training school for students of archaeology. As a result of this Page  1479program, Greenman has made a number of unusual contributions to the early prehistory and geology of the Great Lakes area as well as to the late ceramic and historic cultures.

Closely connected with the program of the Great Lakes Division were the studies in the ethnohistory of the Indians of the Great Lakes area by W. Vernon Kinietz, carried on from 1935 to 1942 through grants from the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. His publications, particularly The Indians of the Western Great Lakes, 1615-1760 (an Occasional Contribution of the Museum of Anthropology), have been of unusual value to anthropologists, historians, and to educators.

The Division of the Orient was established to care for Far Eastern anthropological collections presented to the University by the government of China and by private individuals and for those obtained as a result of the three-year excavation program in the Philippines. The present University program in Japan is adding to the collections of the division. The long-standing interest and participation of the University of Michigan in the affairs of the Far East makes this unit of the Museum of Anthropology particularly valuable.

The first active curator of the Division of the Orient was Benjamin March, who served from 1933 until his untimely death in 1934, when the University lost an outstanding student of Chinese culture and art. B. A. deVere Bailey served as Assistant in this division from 1936 to 1941. In 1942 Mrs. Kamer Aga-Oglu began her research and curatorial work and has concentrated her attention on the outstanding Chinese export ware collected by Guthe in the Philippines. Her publications have served to call attention to the importance of this collection in the study of Chinese culture and to the nature of Chinese trade in southeast Asia.

The Division of Archaeology has valuable research collections from Europe, Africa, Mexico, and South America, but most of the material is North American in origin. Since the establishment in this division of the Ceramic Repository for the Eastern United States in 1927, under the auspices of the National Research Council, particular emphasis has been upon the archaeology of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. The Repository was conceived as a central sherd library for representative prehistoric ceramic materials from the region east of the Rocky Mountains and north of the Gulf of Mexico. Research on the prehistory of this area was carried on and the collection was strengthened from 1933 to 1940 with the support of E. Lilly of the Indiana Historical Society. James B. Griffin held a fellowship in the Museum for work on these ceramic materials from 1933 to 1936, when he became Research Associate and Assistant Curator of Archaeology. These ceramic collections have become the most comprehensive in existence. Their value is augmented by a large photographic and note file on all phases of the prehistory of the eastern United States. When Griffin was made Director in 1946 it was necessary to add a staff member in the Division of Archaeology. Albert Clanton Spaulding (Montana '35, Ph.D. Columbia '46) was appointed Associate Curator of Archaeology in 1947 and is now a Curator in the Division of Archaeology. His research program has dealt with Mississippi and Missouri Valley archaeology, with one field season in the Aleutians.

The Division of Archaeology has been engaged since 1950 in a survey of the prehistory of the Mississippi Valley from Page  1480the mouth of the Illinois River to Memphis, Tennessee. This is a strategic area for American archaeology, and the data obtained in this work are of interest and importance to many prehistorians. An earlier program in which Griffin collaborated with archaeologists at Harvard and at the American Museum of Natural History was concentrated in eastern Arkansas and northwestern Mississippi. The results of this work have been published by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University.

The Division of Ethnology houses specimens from various areas of the world, the majority being of North American origin, Little effort is made to develop these collections, for to do so would require space and staff far beyond foreseeable needs or facilities. This division contains the Ethnobotanical Laboratory, an outstanding center for the identification and interpretation of plant materials utilized by the American Indian.

The Division of Ethnology may be said to have begun functioning in 1929 when Melvin Randolph Gilmore (Cotner College '04, Ph.D. University of Nebraska '14) became its first Curator. Because of his botanical training and deep interest in the ability of the Indians to take advantage of the flora, Gilmore was instrumental in establishing in 1938 the Ethnobotanical Laboratory as a major research interest of the division. Upon Gilmore's death in 1940 Volney Hurt Jones (Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas '29, M.A. New Mexico '31), Assistant in the Laboratory since 1933, was put in charge, and it has been largely through his efforts as Curator that this unique research unit has become so effective. As a result of the years of operation of the Laboratory, extensive collections have been obtained of the varieties of cultivated crops in use in the New World before European colonization. More than 350 reports have been issued to individuals and to institutions which have submitted material for identification.

The Museum of Anthropology is responsible for two series of publications. They are issued at intervals as opportunity permits. The contributions are prepared by staff members and associates and include descriptions of museum collections, field work, results of research in various anthropological fields, and discussions of field and museum techniques. The Occasional Contributions from the Museum of Anthropology, with fifteen numbers issued, began in 1932, and the Anthropological Papers, of which nine numbers have appeared, began in 1949. These two series have called attention to the work and collections of the Museum throughout the scholarly world. In addition, the Museum has sponsored individual publications, of which the Archaeological Atlas of Michigan by W. B. Hinsdale and The Fort Ancient Aspect by J. B. Griffin are perhaps the best known.

The Museum has been and is an effective training area for students interested in anthropological research. The availability of the collections, particularly in the field of American archaeology, has made it possible for undergraduate as well as graduate students to participate in the research programs. The opportunity has enabled them to receive training in the study and analysis of anthropological materials, a feature which many schools have not provided, and to publish papers. These resources of the University have attracted advanced students whose primary interest has been in American archaeology. Twenty-five active professional anthropologists have received a significant amount of their training in the Museum.

Page  1481

Guthe, Carl E."Museum Growth Is Interesting Story."Mich. Alum., 36 (1929): 211-14.
Smith, Harlan I."Work in Anthropology at the University of Michigan."University Record, 1894, pp. 98-100.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1870-1954.


THE University early showed a concern with the fine arts by mentioning them in its founding documents of 1817 and 1837. Shortly after the middle of the nineteenth century authentic beginnings were made both in the teaching of art history and in the assembling of an art collection. In 1852 a Detroit portrait painter, Alvah Bradish, was given the title of Professor of the Theory and Practice of the Fine Arts (see Part III: The Department of Fine Arts). Beginning in 1858 he gave a series of lectures on art history, but within a few years his appointment was discontinued. The founding of the collections was the work of a classical scholar, Professor Henry S. Frieze, who came to the University in 1854. During the thirty-five years of his service he proved himself a teacher of wide understanding and deep humanism. He had a particular enthusiasm for music as well as an interest in the plastic arts, and it was largely through his efforts that the musical organizations were created which have played so important a part in the artistic life of the University (see Part I: Frieze Administration).

In 1855 Professor Frieze purchased in Europe a collection of art objects with which to illustrate the lectures he was subsequently to give on painting, sculpture, and architecture. These materials, the nucleus of the Museum of Art and Antiquities, consisted largely of engravings, photographs, and plaster or terracotta copies of classical sculptures. Professor Frieze, who served as Curator of the Collections until his death in 1889, believed it important to obtain plaster casts of Hellenistic and Roman sculpture, and it was through his personal influence that the Class of 1859 presented to the University a full-sized reproduction of the Laocoön group.

The collections in art and archaeology, together with others in zoology and anthropology, were at first housed in the old South Building (South Wing of University Hall). In 1858 they were removed to the North Building (Mason Hall), where they remained for twenty-five years. In the same year Professor Frieze issued a Descriptive Catalogue of the Museum of Art and Antiquities in the University of Michigan; a revised edition of this was authorized by the Regents in 1862, although there is no record of its actual publication. A later Catalogue of the Museum of Art and History in the University of Michigan by Professor Frieze came out in 1876. Although the words Museum of Art occur in the titles of both catalogues it is probable that the editor was construing art largely in terms of Greco-Roman history and culture. In view of the fact that the collections were begun as an adjunct to the Department of Latin, this was to be expected. The materials in art and archaeology, continuing to increase through the decades, remained under the curatorship of classical scholars as late as 1911, when the Department of Fine Arts was established.

The first important original work to come to the University was the life-sized Page  1482marble "Nydia" by the American sculptor Randolph Rogers. Rogers had spent his boyhood in Ann Arbor, and later, in Rome, had risen to eminence as one of the leading figures in the American classical revival. In the fall of 1859 a group of local citizens formed the Rogers Art Association and by giving concerts, lectures, and festivals managed by 1862 to raise funds to secure shipment of the marble replica of this popular work from Rome, where it had been carved during the previous year. The remainder of the cost of the "Nydia" was defrayed by gifts from alumni and friends of the University and also by admission fees to the room in the North Wing of University Hall in which the figure was on display.

From an early date the University seems to have been receptive to the art of portraiture. In 1859 the Board of Regents passed a resolution inviting the President and the incumbents of full professorships to place their portraits, without expense to the University, in the Gallery of Fine Arts. Again, in 1861 there was a resolution inviting the Honorable Lewis Cass, Governor Austin Blair, and the four Judges of the Supreme Court "to make a donation of their portraits to be placed in the Gallery of Fine Arts of the University." No results seem to have come of these resolutions, but through the years portraits of faculty members have been given the University, many of them as memorials from outgoing classes.

Donations of art or of archaeological material, including various collections of replicas and reproductions, were received from early times. In his catalogue of 1876 Professor Frieze was able to list some 1,789 items, of which the greater number were photographs, engravings, or casts. In the 1880's Randolph Rogers gave to the University most of the contents of his studio in Rome, including about ninety original models for his own works. Doubtless as a result of the fairly loose control exercised in the care of the University's art collections, and also because of the inadequate and scattered character of the space available for storage, almost all of these pieces were to disappear without record in the course of the next half century.

Serious plans were, however, made for accommodating the art works belonging to the University. When the Library was built in 1883, it was designed in part as a repository for the collections, which were by then impressively large. The entire third floor of the building constituted a kind of art museum: there was a gallery for pictures and another for sculpture, and in smaller rooms were housed the collections of prints, coins, and other objects. In 1898 the Library was extended, doubling the stack space and the size of the art gallery. Even so, a great many paintings had to be hung on the walls of the rotunda reading-room.

In 1884 a major bequest of paintings and sculptures was made to the University by Henry C. Lewis, a wealthy citizen of Coldwater, Michigan. This collection, which was not transferred to the campus until 1895, formed perhaps two-thirds of the contents of a private art gallery which this enterprising merchant had built up in the course of repeated visits to Italy and to the cities of the Atlantic seaboard.

There appear to have been in all approximately 430 paintings and thirty works of sculpture, many being copies. A group of portraits of eminent nineteenth-century men and women was included in the collection, together with a few good portraits of an earlier day. The general tone of the Lewis collection is best described by mentioning a few of the pictures which still claim attention: "The Twins" by W. A. Bouguereau, "The Retreat" by Adolf Schreyer, "Courtyard Page  1483in the Sultan's Palace" by Benjamin Constant, and, of distinctly higher quality, "Lafayette and Madame Roland" by Jean Jacques Hauer. In the American group the important work "Boyhood of Lincoln" by Eastman Johnson, has become, possibly, the best known painting in the University's possession. A canvas of regional and historical interest is the large "Attack on an Emigrant Train" by Charles Wimar, mid-nineteenth-century St. Louis painter.

After the death of Professor Frieze in 1889, another classical scholar, Martin Luther D'Ooge ('62, Ph.D. Leipzig '72, LL.D. Michigan '89, Litt. D. Rutgers '01), Professor of Greek, became Curator, serving until 1911. In 1892 Professor D'Ooge brought out a Catalogue of the Gallery of Art and Archaeology in the University of Michigan; in a revised edition of this publication in 1902 appeared the first listing of the Lewis Collection; in 1906 a second revision followed.

With the rapid development of the University, it became impractical to try to house the overgrown art collections in the Library, and the construction of Alumni Memorial Hall was partly intended as a remedy for this difficulty. The exact nature and purpose of this building had been a matter of considerable controversy, and the structure which finally emerged was a compromise between the requirements of the Alumni Association and the needs of the University for appropriate space in which to exhibit its collections. The building was completed in 1910, and in the summer of that year the materials in art and archaeology were moved into it. A sculpture gallery occupied the central part of the basement, and a small room nearby was given over to archaeology. The entire second floor, with its three sky-lighted galleries, one large and two small, was planned for the display of paintings.

The Department of Fine Arts was established in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1911, and space was at once found on the main floor of Alumni Memorial Hall for its offices and classrooms. The new incumbent, Herbert Richard Cross (Brown '00, Harvard '01, A.M. ibid. '02), Assistant Professor of Fine Arts, was made Curator of the Art Collection and retained this responsibility until his resignation in 1922. At that time Bruce M. Donaldson (Princeton '13, A.M. ibid. '15) became the departmental head and served as Curator until his death in 1940. In 1928 the Museum of Classical Archaeology was created; exhibition rooms were found for it in Newberry Hall, and in the spring of the following year most of the archaeological material was removed from Alumni Memorial Hall to quarters in that building and in Angell Hall. John Garrett Winter (Hope '01, Ph.D. Michigan '06), Professor of Latin, was made Director and continued in this capacity when, after a further reorganization in 1940, it was renamed the Museum of Art and Archaeology.

Although the Lewis bequest was the largest art collection ever to come to the University, many smaller groups of art objects have been donated at various times. Among these in the years between 1916 and 1946 were collections bearing the names of Wetmore, Todd, Ryerson, Cross, and Stearns. In 1939-41 an important gift of 158 Siamese and Chinese ceramic and bronze objects was received from Mr. and Mrs. Edwin L. Neville; the collection was formed while Mr. Neville was minister to Thailand. In 1940 the Warren P. Lombard collection of 388 works of American graphic art was presented by Professor and Mrs. Alfred H. White. In 1942 an important group of ten art objects, which included three large sixteenth-century Flemish tapestries and an early Renaissance processional Page  1484cross, was given to the University by Baroness Maud Ledyard von Ketteler, originally a citizen of Detroit and subsequently the widow of a former German minister to China who had been killed in the Boxer Rebellion.

As the University grew larger and more complex, title to many art objects came to be specifically vested in particular units or departments. Thus, with the passage of the years, considerable holdings of Oriental arts and crafts were acquired by the Museum of Anthropology. The College of Architecture and Design gradually built up a collection of its own, which included classical, Oriental, modern European, and American art in the fields of sculpture, pottery, glass, textiles, rugs, painting, and graphic design. The Clements Library collection included several paintings, one a work of importance, a version of Benjamin West's "The Death of General Wolfe." The Michigan Historical Collections acquired several fine early drawings and paintings by the mid-nineteenth century painter, J. F. Cropsey. Valuable art objects were specifically given to the Law Department, the Michigan League, the Michigan Union, and to particular student residence halls. These, presumably, never will be within the curatorship of the Museum of Art.

After the opening of Alumni Memorial Hall the University had at its disposal an adequate amount of gallery space, some of which it utilized to display parts of the art collections. It was several decades later, however, before it assumed responsibility for organizing and promoting a serious program of art exhibitions.

Such a program was instituted in 1911 by an outside organization, a town and gown group called the Ann Arbor Art Association, which had been founded by several art-conscious faculty members and citizens. On the evening of May 11, 1910, Alumni Memorial Hall was dedicated, and a reception was held to open a magnificent exhibition of Oriental and American art, of which all the Far Eastern works and a few of the Western paintings were loaned from the collection of Mr. Charles L. Freer, of Detroit. This project was jointly sponsored by the Alumni Memorial Committee and the Ann Arbor Art Association. Thereafter, for several decades the Art Association sponsored in the same building a series of exhibits of great interest and value to the University and to the local public. It performed a function which the University itself might well have assumed. The Board of Regents took cognizance of this by granting to the Ann Arbor Art Association, in 1922-23 and for several years thereafter, an annual subsidy of $500.

With the establishment in 1929 of the Division of Fine Arts, renamed the Institute of Fine Arts in 1936, a certain number of art exhibitions of a special nature were originated and displayed on University initiative and with University funds. Most of these were shown in the galleries of the Rackham Building, which had been dedicated in 1938.

Upon the recommendation of a special committee, appointed in March, 1945, to survey the situation of the fine arts at Michigan, a division was made, on July 1, 1946, between the two parts of the Museum of Art and Archaeology, and the Museum of Art came into being as a separate administrative unit of the University, with quarters assigned to it in Alumni Memorial Hall. The Museum of Archaeology continued to occupy Newberry Hall.

On the same date the staff of the new Museum of Art took up its duties. The Director, Jean Paul Slusser ('09, A.M. '11), was chosen from the faculty of the Page  1485College of Architecture and Design. As Professor of Drawing and Painting he continued his teaching and administrative work in the College on a part-time basis, while serving half-time as Director of the Museum. Over a period of years he had taken an active part in the exhibition and collecting programs of the Ann Arbor Art Association, and this experience, as well as his training in art history and his earlier journalistic contacts with the New York art market, provided him with certain qualifications for his task as Museum administrator. Helen B. Hall ('26, A.M. '29), who was appointed Curator of Paintings, had a background in art history and had acquired, while serving with the Institute of Fine Arts, a command of the processes of cataloguing art materials as well as some practical experience in planning and installing exhibitions. In 1953 her title was changed to the broader one of Curator.

The function of the Museum of Art as defined by the Regents was "to be the collection, conservation, study, and exhibition of works of art." Stated in a still simpler way, its purpose was to give students at the University of Michigan direct acquaintance with original works of art. It aimed to illustrate, both by the use of its own collections and by borrowed or rented material, the work carried on at the University in the theory, practice, and history of the visual arts. Originally, the Museum was given custody of the extensive and evergrowing collection of slides and photographs which was part of the basic equipment for teaching fine arts, and a special curator was appointed to have charge of it. After three years it was found more feasible to turn over this material to the Department of Fine Arts. During these initial years of the Museum's existence the staff made every effort, with the materials at hand, to create an organization which would take its place as a working unit in the art life of the University.

The first step was to put the physical equipment into better condition. A partition was thrown across West Gallery in Alumni Memorial Hall to create an exhibition gallery from that part of the large room not currently needed as a lecture hall. Later, in 1952, when lectures were discontinued in the building, the Museum took over that space and converted it into two galleries, a moderately large one for general exhibition purposes, and a smaller one for Oriental art. The Department of Fine Arts meanwhile converted the area formerly occupied by the Museum into a study room for prints and photographs. Both of the Museum galleries, together with the two small ones north and south of the rotunda, were redecorated in neutral tones of pale gray or off-white.

After operating for three years under crowded conditions in a basement room, the Museum staff was provided with a suite of offices on the main floor of Alumni Memorial Hall; here enough space was found for a study room and for the storage of prints and small objects. The basement room continued to be utilized for storage, shipping, and for general work.

From the outset a vigorous exhibition program was undertaken as one of the principal functions of the Museum. Exhibitions averaged seventeen a year, or almost two for each month of the regular academic session. Many of the displays were rented, but two or three every year were created by the Museum staff, sometimes with the collaboration of specialists in the units dealing with the history or practice of art.

The necessity of determining the most effective uses for the collections soon Page  1486became apparent. As many as possible of the paintings which, with the passage of time, had become scattered about the campus, were returned to Alumni Memorial Hall to be inventoried and reconditioned. An appraisal was made of the collections, and the paintings of the greatest importance were hung, if space could be found for them, or held in reserve to be shown whenever possible. A certain number of paintings and sculptures, many of which were copies, were adjudged as of no aesthetic or instructional value, and, with the permission of the Regents, were sold. About 200 objects, both in painting and in sculpture, were disposed of, and the sum realized was applied toward purchasing new works for the collections. Portraits of faculty members, whenever possible, were allocated to appropriate departmental offices or libraries, and a few decorative but relatively unimportant paintings of landscape or figure subjects were hung in the lounges or common rooms of student residence halls.

A beginning was made in building up the collections. A tentative plan for making accessions was drawn up, which laid out wide objectives in the field of graphic art and more limited ones in the areas of modern painting and sculpture. In 1947 the Regents granted a small annual sum for acquisitions, and since then, within the limitations of his budget, the Director has made purchases of basic items in these three fields. Gifts, meanwhile, have continued to enrich the collections.

Among the recent donors of notable art works have been Carl F. Clarke, Mr. and Mrs. Province M. Henry, Mr. and Mrs. Roger L. Stevens, and Mr. and Mrs. Harry L. Winston. In 1955 the Museum received the final installment of the most important bequest of art objects ever to come into the University's possession. This was the collection of Mrs. Margaret Watson Parker formerly of Grosse Pointe; in its entirety it totalled 679 items, comprising paintings, sculpture, graphic art, textiles, furniture, and works of decorative art.

In 1950 the Museum of Art began the publication of an illustrated Bulletin, of which one issue has appeared each year. It consists of scholarly articles contributed by the Director, the Curator, and by specialists in the Department of Fine Arts or elsewhere, relating to recent accessions or to significant objects in the Museum collections. Distributed to libraries and museum officials throughout this country and abroad, it is a first step in fostering relations between the Museum and a potential body of friends and benefactors.


Bulletin of the Museum of Art, Univ. Mich., 1950-53.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1850-1909, 1920-53.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1953.
Page  1487


THE Museum of Paleontology had its origin in the Cabinet of Natural History provided for in 1837 at the first meeting of the Board of Regents. The fossils earliest acquired for the cabinet were collected on Isle Royale by Douglass Houghton, the first state geologist of Michigan and one of the first appointees to the faculty of the University.

The early paleontological collections were received as a result of a clause in the act of the state legislature in 1838 creating the Michigan Geological Survey, which provided that duplicate specimens should be deposited at the University. Another and equally important factor in the development of paleontology was the ability and influence of Alexander Winchell.

The Museum of Paleontology at Michigan reflects to a great extent the personalities of three men: Alexander Winchell, 1855 to 1873 and 1879 to 1891; Carl A. Rominger, 1860 to 1907, and Ermine Cowles Case, 1907 to 1941. In the interval between Houghton's death in 1845 and Winchell's appointment in 1855 Abram Sager, who filled the chair of zoology and botany, appears to have been in charge of the paleontological collections. Winchell was the first appointee to the chair of geology after Houghton.

Winchell's published appraisal of the fossil specimens received from the first Michigan Geological Survey indicates his concern for the paleontological collections of the Museum:

They embraced however but a limited number of fossils and most of these were in an imperfect state of preservation… The paucity of fossils in this collection is naturally attributable to two good causes: first, the remarkable fewness of fossiliferous outcrops, especially at that period in our municipal history, and second, the nature of the methods by which surveys were prosecuted at that stage of scientific development.

(Report, 1864, p. 4.)

From sources other than the Geological Survey Winchell records among the principal accessions to the Museum prior to his appointment:

T. R. Chase, Esq., of Cleveland, Ohio, an alumnus of the University, presented a fine collection of coal-plants from the coal mines of northern Ohio; to which he added in June, 1863, a small lot of fossils, finely preserved, from Kelly's Island, Lake Erie.

Prof. Abram Sager, M.D., has given the Museum … a magnificent specimen of Syringopora from this State.

(Winchell, 1864.)

The Cabinet of Natural History was first placed in one of the professors' houses. In 1856 a dormitory room in (old) Mason Hall was remodeled to accommodate the Library and Museum (R.P., 1856, p. 649). Since other collections of the University besides natural history were included in the Museum it was necessary in 1862 to appropriate the North Room of Mason Hall for the Museum. The Library was moved in 1863, providing increased room for the natural science collections. These were moved into the first Museum Building (the present Romance Language Building) when it was completed in 1881. When the Natural Science Building was opened in 1915 the paleontology collections were placed in the basement and first-floor rooms of the Geology Department's section. In 1928 the University Museums Building, at the corner of Washtenaw and North University avenues, was erected, and the Museum of Paleontology was housed in its present quarters on the first floor of the Washtenaw Avenue wing. Provision was made Page  1488for two laboratories and classrooms, a preparation room, offices for the curators, and ranges for the collections.

Alexander Winchell (1855-91). — Although Alexander Winchell (Wesleyan '47, LL.D. ibid. '67) was a man of broad interests and, like most university professors of his time, taught a wide variety of subjects, his chief interest and most important contributions were in the field of paleontology. It is said that as a teacher he was skillful in imparting his own knowledge and in training others to habits of observation and investigation. Besides his many scientific contributions he published a number of popular books on geological subjects. Of these, his work World Life (1883) shows the most research and thought and was at that time probably the only book in the English language covering in a systematic manner the entire field of earth history.

One of Winchell's teaching devices and his sense of humor are illustrated by the following story told by a student of the class of 1861:

In the spring in the botany class we had brought in specimens of flowers from a surviving cabbage to a dried-up mullein stalk, and now in the geology class we were to bring in specimens of rocks, each to make his specimen the text for what he knew about geology. A more nondescript assortment of "specimens," before or since, probably never was collected. McGbrought in a chunk of coal; J. C. Ja mosaic set in a finger ring; J. A. Pa piece of chalk. The range of specimens were all of the same ilk. One boy in particular brought in a piece of putty, and Professor Winchell told him to put it back again in his hat where it belonged. These pranks were in a measure tolerated, and the professor still continued to teach and stimulate as with rare ability.

(Utley and Cutcheon.)

In June, 1888, Mary Emilie Holmes received her Doctor of Philosophy degree under Alexander Winchell. She was the first woman to receive a doctorate in geology at the University and the second to receive a doctorate in the University. The members of her committee were Alexander Winchell, J. B. Steere, Henry Sewall, W. H. Pettee, and V. M. Spalding. Her thesis on The Morphology of the Carinae upon the Septa of Rugose Corals was printed by Bradlee Whidden, Boston, in 1887. Following the title page is this tribute: "To Prof. Alex. Winchell, L.L.D. in Grateful Acknowledgment of Faithful Instruction, of Judicious Counsel and of Timely Words of Inspiration This Paper Is Respectfully Inscribed by His Pupil."

Winchell was in charge of the Museum from 1855 until the time of his resignation in 1873. In 1864, 1865, and 1866, Carl Rominger (M.D. Tübingen '44) was Assistant Curator of the Museum and was employed to make collections in natural history.

The most notable collections of fossils acquired by the Museum during this period (1855 to 1873) were those from the Michigan Geological Survey under Winchell's direction, the Steere Collection from Brazil and Peru, the C. A. White collection, the Rominger collection, part of the E. A. Strong collection, and the General Custer collection.

The Museum benefited greatly as a result of Winchell's position as state geologist and director of the Survey. Owing largely to his efforts the Geological Survey was re-established in 1859. In his first "Report of Progress," he discusses the successive geologic formations, describes outcrops observed at various localities, and lists the fossils recognized. In regard to the specimens acquired by the Museum, Winchell (1864, p. 9) said: "The products of the survey embrace specimens of rocks and fossils from all the formations occurring south of the Sault Ste. Mary, among Page  1489which are very many species new to science — one hundred and fifty of which have recently been described by the writer while descriptions of others are soon to be published."

With the outbreak of the Civil War, appropriations for the Survey were discontinued and were not renewed until 1869, when the legislature established a Board of Survey with power to select geologists and perform other necessary acts. Winchell was again made Director, and undertook the investigation of the Lower Peninsula, with the assistance of his brother, N. H. Winchell, M. W. Harrington, E. A. Strong, A. M. Wadsworth, C. B. Headley, A. O. Currier, and J. H. Emerson. Carl Rominger was appointed paleontologist on the Michigan Geological Survey in 1871. After Winchell's retirement he was appointed by the board to work on the Lower Peninsula and was assigned a study of the Paleozoic rocks and their associated fossils.

The C. A. White Collection of geological and zoological specimens was purchased in 1863 for $500. The geological collection consisted of 1,223 entries: 939 American fossils, 63 European fossils, and 16 rocks. Winchell described it briefly as follows: "This collection is remarkable for two things: 1st, the large number of beautifully preserved crinoids which it contains, and 2nd, the number of its original or type specimens. The fossils in this collection probably double the number previously in the possession of the University." Charles A. White, of Burlington, Iowa, had in 1860 described in considerable detail the rocks and their included fossils in the vicinity of Burlington. He was state geologist of Iowa from 1866 to 1869 and subsequently was paleontologist on surveys of the federal government and with the National Museum. He donated several other collections of fossils to the Museum subsequent to the sale of his original one.

The General Custer and Steere collections were received in 1873. The former consists chiefly of Upper Cretaceous fossils from the Yellowstone and Musselshell valleys. Winchell recorded that the Steere Collection included 77 entries of fossils and 1,068 specimens. The E. A. Strong Collection was acquired in several installments. Mr. Strong was superintendent of the public schools in Grand Rapids and was later head of the Department of Physics and Chemistry in the State Normal School at Ypsilanti. As noted above, he assisted Winchell on the Michigan Geological Survey in 1869. Winchell's report of 1873 on the Museum contains the following entry in the list of accessions: "Prof. E. A. Strong, Grand Rapids. Upper Helderberg Fossils — 15 entries, 32 specimens, from Onondaga County, N. Y." Shortly after Strong's death in 1920, the Museum secured from his daughters a collection of fossils containing specimens that had served as the basis for a paper Strong published in 1872.

After Winchell's first period on the faculty, the paleontology collections were under succeeding professors of geology, who usually also held the chairs of zoology and botany. Winchell was succeeded in 1873 by E. W. Hilgard, who resigned in 1875, and W. H. Pettee took charge of the geological work. Their time was taken up largely by teaching duties and the Museum was mostly under the direction of Mark W. Harrington, who was Instructor and Assistant Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany from 1872 to 1876.

In 1876 Joseph Beal Steere was appointed Assistant Professor of Paleontology and Curator of the Museum. This was the first time that paleontology had been officially recognized apart from geology in a University title. That year a course in paleontology was offered for Page  1490seniors in the Polytechnic School. In 1879, when Winchell was reappointed to the faculty as Professor of Geology and Paleontology, Steere was promoted to Professor of Zoology.

In 1883 the Regents authorized the purchase of a mastodon head found in Ohio, at a sum not exceeding $115 and stipulated that it was to be deposited in "the General Museum building."

The activities of the Museum staff in the field of paleontology after Winchell's return to the University are summarized briefly in several of President Angell's annual reports. In 1883 he said: "The paleontological specimens are arranged in biological order. During the year the whole collection of fossil plants has been investigated and arranged. A few valuable gifts have been received. Cases are needed for some of the largest specimens, which are suffering from exposure" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 394). The following year he noted: "A few additions have been made to the Museum of General Geology and Paleontology. But it is very desirable that we have the means of making additions, especially of vertebrate remains, to our collections. Large supplies of desirable specimens are found in our western territories. For the lack of these our special students are suffering seriously in the prosecution of their work here." In the annual report for the year ending September 30, 1885, it is recorded that "in the palaeontological department the entire collection of the proboscidian remains have been investigated, arranged and labeled by Dr. Winchell, and much work has been done by him in a careful study of the difficult group of the stromatophoridae. A large part of our specimens have been better arranged and labeled, and the larger part of Dr. Rominger's valuable collection has been received on deposit. It is greatly to be desired that this collection should be permanently secured for the University" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 604).

To Winchell is given the credit for organizing the Museum as a distinct department. He originated the first system of catalogues, including two for geological and paleontological accessions: (1) a Journal in which are entered the date of every acquisition, its nature, and the source whence obtained; (2) a Geological Register in which the names of specimens are written opposite the serial numbers extending from one upwards, and opposite these the locality, formation, source of acquisition, date of acquisition, collector, and place in the Museum of each specimen. He inaugurated the custom of submitting annual reports to the Board of Regents. Several of these were published separately, and others are in the Regents' Proceedings. They are among the principal sources of information on the development of the Museum. Winchell served as secretary of the Board of Regents from 1854 to 1856.

When first appointed to the faculty in 1853, Winchell was Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering. In 1855 his title was changed to Professor of Botany, Zoology, and Geology. Among the many courses he offered there were several in paleontology. Winchell's earliest publication in Michigan paleontology, dealing with fossils from the Marshall sandstone, appeared in the American Journal of Science in 1862. During his first period of tenure on the faculty, he published some twenty papers on the geology and paleontology of Michigan.

After Winchell's death, a course in General Paleontology was offered by Israel C. Russell, Professor of Geology from 1892 to 1906. H. E. Sargeant was appointed part-time Curator in the Museum in 1898. He was succeeded in 1903 by Charles C. Adams, who served until 1906, when Ruthven became Curator. Ruthven continued in that capacity until Page  14911913, when the name for the collections of zoology and anthropology was changed to the Museum of Zoology, and his title became Director of the Museum of Zoology.

Carl Ludwig Rominger (1861-1907). — Although Carl Ludwig Rominger was officially connected with the Museum as Assistant Curator for only two years (1864-66), his industry in and devotion to paleontology left an indelible impression on the progress of that science in the University and in the state. He lived in Ann Arbor for forty-seven years and was state geologist of Michigan from 1870 until 1884.

His contributions to the Museum were made in several ways. His collection of invertebrate fossils from Europe was acquired by the Museum, he donated several other collections made in this country, he studied the corals of Michigan which became the property of the University, he collected for the Museum, and after his death his son and daughters presented his papers and several boxes of fossils.

The acquisition of the Rominger Collection by the Museum is a lesson in patience and perseverance. A contemporary paleontologist (Clark, Hall, p. 453) characterized Rominger as "a gentle, keen, generous and obstinate geologist with abilities of a high order…" Rominger seems to have wanted his collection to be in Ann Arbor where he could work on it, yet be needed whatever money it would bring. At a meeting of the Board of Regents on March 29, 1864, "President Haven announced that Dr. Carl Rominger had offered to place in the University Museum a very choice collection of fossils from Europe, provided that the Regents would furnish suitable cases for the arrangement of the same." The following day the Committee on the Museum having seen the specimens reported that it was a very valuable collection and "having ascertained the Doctor's willingness to let them remain in the University a number of years, recommend that the same be received subject to the direction of the President."

At the September, 1864, meeting of the Board of Regents, Haven said:

Several cases have been made to receive a large and excellent collection of fossils, gathered in Europe, by Carl Rominger, M.D., Assistant Curator of the Museum of Geology, Zoology and Botany. The University has the use of this rich and rare collection now gratuitously, and I recommend that it be purchased, if it can be for a reasonable price, and made a permanent part of the Museum.

Four years later, in a report to the president Winchell wrote: "I beg respectfully again to call attention to the Rominger Collection. In courtesy to Dr. Rominger some definite action should be taken without further delay."

At the next meeting of the Regents, on December 22, 1868, the following resolution was adopted: "Resolved, That this Board heartily appreciates the value of Dr. Rominger's Collection of Fossils now in the University Museum, and that it is very desirable to secure the same for the University as soon as the state of our finances will permit."

After another year the committee recommended "the purchase of Dr. Rominger's Collection, at the price named, $1,500, and that such terms with regard to time of payment be made as can be agreed upon." This report was adopted. However, nine years later in 1888 the committee was authorized to enter "into a contract with Dr. Rominger, by which, on payment semi-annually of one hundred and twenty-five dollars ($125) from January 1st, 1888, by the University to Dr. Rominger, the latter binds himself to keep his palaeontological collection in the University Page  1492Museum; and not to sell it without giving us one year's notice. The University may at any time terminate the leasing of the collection and may purchase the collection at any time for a sum not exceeding five thousand dollars."

In December, 1891, the motion was carried to authorize the Executive Committee to purchase the Rominger Collection for $5,000, and in January, 1892, it was reported that Rominger's collection had been purchased. The committee believed that the price was very low and concluded that the Museum's paleontological collections had been "doubled in amount and trebled in value as a result of Dr. Rominger's collection. It contains collections from this country and Europe… A valuable suite of Canadian trilobites at present being studied in Washington by the U.S.G.S. is to be included, also Russian bryozoa, from which several hundred thin sections have been prepared." The Rominger Collection in 1866 contained 2,500 entries and 6,000 specimens (R.P., 1866, pp. 168-80). Thus, after twenty-eight years' delay, title to the Rominger Collection passed to the University of Michigan.

As state geologist for fourteen years Rominger prepared his most lasting contribution to the geology and paleontology of Michigan. In Volume III of the Survey publications, Part I is devoted to the "Geology of the Lower Peninsula" and Part II to the "Fossil Corals." He emphasized the faunal assemblage characteristic of successive strata and concluded that "in the fossils we have always an infallible guide, in cases where lithological and stratigraphical characters would leave us in an inextricable perplexity, regarding the position of certain strata." The assemblage of fossil corals gathered by Rominger to illustrate his work is probably the finest collection of this group of organisms from the Devonian of North America.

In a letter of 1878 (Clark, Hall, p. 453) Rominger described his simple but productive mode of working, as follows:

In the quiet way I prosecute my work, with small expense to the State, I find no opposition and everybody lets me go my own course, but I think the case would be different as soon as I would claim assistants and increase of appropriations. Fortunately I do not believe that with assistants I could work more successfully than I do at present, therefore I need no larger appropriations and have in all things my own way, not to the disadvantage of the State.

Rominger moved to Ann Arbor in 1860, and the first record of his connection with the Museum is in 1861 when "on motion of Regent Johnson the sum of $75 was appropriated to pay Dr. Rominger for services rendered in the Museum" (R.P., 1861, p. 967). Winchell's report to the President for the year 1864-65 records the accession from Rominger of a small lot of fossils, supposed to be from Rockford, Illinois.

On June 27, 1865, the Regents received a communication from Winchell, "in relation to the enlargement and improvement of the Museum and the employment of Dr. C. Rominger as Curator of the Museum of Geology, Zoology and Botany, to be charged with the duty of laboring for the increase and preservation of the collections in this department." Rominger continued as Assistant Curator, however, but his salary was increased to $200 per annum. A sum of $300 was appropriated "for the purpose of employing Dr. Rominger to make collections in Natural History, for the use of the Museum, in accordance with the plan proposed by Dr. Rominger in his paper, and to be approved by the President and Professor Winchell" (R.P., 1865, p. 123). With this sum he made twelve collections, comprising 320 Page  1493species of fossils from Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian strata in Indiana, New York, Michigan, and Ontario. Nevertheless, in September, 1866, the Committee on the Museum recommended that his salary as Assistant Curator of the Museum be discontinued.

Rominger's distinction brought many prominent geologists and paleontologists to Ann Arbor. His collections of European and American invertebrates are still among the best in the Museum of Paleontology. They have furnished the basis for numerous studies by succeeding investigators.

Ermine Cowles Case (1907-41). — The development of vertebrate paleontology at the University of Michigan began with the appointment of Ermine Cowles Case (Kansas '93, Ph.D. Chicago '96) as Assistant Professor of Historical Geology and Paleontology in 1907. Winchell and Rominger had been interested primarily in invertebrate fossils, which occur in great numbers in the rocks of Michigan, but Case was trained in vertebrate paleontology. Vertebrate fossils are relatively rare in Michigan so that under his influence the emphasis changed not only from invertebrate to vertebrate paleontology but also from the fossils occurring in Michigan to those of the western and southwestern United States.

The vertebrate fossil collections of the Museum grew rapidly by Case's untiring efforts. In his laboratory he was constantly engaged in preparing and studying specimens. He led field parties in the West and Southwest nearly every summer, collecting for the University some of the finest specimens of Triassic amphibians and reptiles to be found in any museum in the world. Although early amphibians and reptiles were his chief field of interest, his researches included many other groups of animals which ranged in age from Devonian to Pleistocene. Fishes from Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Texas, turtles from Montana and Wyoming, birds from South Dakota, and mammals from Michigan and Maryland received his careful study.

Many of the vertebrate specimens were prepared for study or exhibit by William H. Buettner, vertebrate preparator in the Museum from 1915 to the present. He accompanied Professor Case on most of his collecting trips to the western United States from 1917 to 1938. His first preparation room on the campus was in the basement of the old Pharmacology Building, but he subsequently moved in October, 1915, to a room in the basement of the Geology section of the new Natural Science Building. One of Buettner's first jobs was to help move the Geology Department to the Natural Science Building. As he was crossing the campus, carrying the relief globe of the world on his shoulder, he passed President Angell on the walk. The President stopped and remarked: "You must be a very strong young man to carry the world on your shoulders."

In 1911 Professor Case had "Curator of the Paleontological Collection" added to his title. He was promoted in 1912 with the title Professor of Historical Geology and Paleontology. In 1921 he succeeded Willian H. Hobbs as Director of the Museum of Geology (changed to Museum of Paleontology in 1928).

Under Case's leadership the teaching of paleontology expanded with the growth of the University. George M. Ehlers ('13, Ph.D. '30) was appointed Instructor in Geology in 1919. He developed courses in invertebrate paleontology.

The Museum of Geology first had a separate budget in 1926-27. The staff in that year consisted of E. C. Case, Director, W. H. Buettner, Preparator, M. S. Chang, Assistant, and Mary E. Cooley, Cataloguer. When the name was changed to Museum of Paleontology Page  1494and the collections were moved to the Museums Building the staff consisted of Professor Case as Director and Curator of Vertebrates, Assistant Professor G. M. Ehlers as Curator of Paleozoic Invertebrates, and Mr. W. H. Buettner as Preparator. It was soon augmented however by the appointment of Lewis Burnett Kellum (Johns Hopkins '19, Ph.D. ibid. '24) as Curator of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Invertebrates in 1928 and Chester A. Arnold (Cornell '25, Ph.D. ibid. '29) as Curator of Paleobotany in 1929. With the exception of Arnold, who was on half time in the Botany Department, the salaries of the curatorial staff were entirely on the Geology Department budget.

Among the first vertebrates placed on exhibit in the Museum after Case was appointed to the faculty were three skulls: the giant beaver, Castoroides ohioensis, a large carnivorous reptile, Dimetrodon incisivus Cope, and a huge amphibian Eryops megacephalus Cope, of the early ages of the world. The beaver skull mount was assembled from two specimens found at different places in Michigan. The reptile skull was part of a collection made by Case from the Permian of Texas in 1908 on a co-operative expedition of the Department of Geology and the American Museum of Natural History. The amphibian skull was collected in the same area at another time. Another exhibit installed about the same time was a series of bones and teeth illustrating the evolution of the horse. The specimens were obtained on exchange from the American Museum.

In 1911 Case wrote: "The department of geology is making extensive plans to continue the collection and installation of vertebrate fossils in the Museum, a phase of geological work in which the University is far behind other institutions."

In the summer of 1912 Case discovered the Brier Creek Bone Bed in Archer County, Texas. It contained "by far, more bones than any known accumulation of the same age." More than 1,500 specimens of separate bones were recovered, and many times that number were present. That year the Board of Regents added $300 to the budget of the Department of Geology "to cover the salary of an assistant giving ninety hours per month for ten months to the preparation of vertebrate fossils collected by the expedition in charge of Professor E. C. Case during the past summer."

Among the many specimens collected from the Brier Creek Bone Bed the following summer (1913) there were several basicranial regions of the Permian or Permo-Carboniferous reptiles, Dimetrodon and Edaphosaurus. Also numerous large foot bones of a character different from those of Dimetrodon or the cotylosaur Diadectes were found associated with the spines of Edaphosaurus and with large claws. From this Case concluded that "the foot of Edaphosaurus was of goodly size and armed with sharp claws well fitted for digging in the soft earth or vegetation, tearing open rotten logs and overturning rocks in search of food." A composite mount of the skeleton of Edaphosaurus cruciger Cope was subsequently made from bones of various individuals of the same size all recovered from the Brier Creek Bone Bed.

Also from the very abundant material collected from the Brier Creek Bone Bed sufficient bones of the right size were selected to mount a nearly complete skeleton of Dimetrodon incisivus Cope, the "fin-backed lizard."

Three specimens of exceptional interest and value were presented to the University by Chase S. Osborne in 1914: an egg of the extinct, giant, flightless bird of Madagascar, AepyornisPage  1495maximus; a skeleton of the extinct pygmy hippopotamus from the Pleistocene deposits of Madagascar; and an adult specimen of the common hippopotamus of South Africa shot by Mr. Osborne while hunting. Mr. Osborne obtained these specimens on a trip around the world in 1913.

From the bluffs along the north side of Chaleur Bay, New Brunswick, the Museum obtained in 1916 the little armored fish called Bothriolepis, so ancient that it is doubtful whether it can really be called a fish. It lived in the Devonian period some 300 million years ago, almost at the beginning of backboned life. From these ancient rocks Case collected specimens of the air-breathing lung-fish, ancestor of one of the most persistent of the lines of life upon the earth. Its descendants live, but little changed, in the waters of western Australia, Egypt, and Paraguay today.

The University of Michigan expedition to the Bad Lands of South Dakota in 1917 recovered an excellently preserved shell of the large land turtle Stylemys nebracensis Leidy, the skull of a great browsing animal, Titanotherium, which took the place of the elephant in those older days, the skull and a part of the skeleton of one of the ancestral pigs, as large as a small pony, and probably one of the most terrible animals of the period. While examining the Triassic Dockum beds of western Texas in the summer of 1919, Case collected the almost complete thoracic shield of a large labyrinthodont, which he described and figured as a new species.

Another remarkable specimen was collected in 1917 and 1919 near the crossing of the Blanco River on the road from Spur, in Dickens County, to Crosby-town, in Crosby County, Texas. It consisted of the skull, most of the vertebral column, much of the dorsal armor and a curious pair of curved spines, belonging to a new phytosaurian reptile, near the ancestral crocodile. Case described and figured it under the name Desmatosuchus spurensis. A glass case was built especially to exhibit it.

In 1920 Case discovered an amphibian skull in the breaks of Sand Creek in Crosby County, Texas. The undistorted skull was unique in the perfect preservation of the bones and the minutiae with which the osteological details could be traced. He named it Buettneria perfecta.

The Museum also acquired in 1920 a tooth of the Dipnoan genus Ceratodus which is of special scientific interest as the first occurrence of the genus recorded in North America. Case discovered it in the Dockum beds of Crosby County, Texas. It was the only fish tooth found in a collection of several hundred teeth. He and Buettner also brought back the major part of the presacral part of the vertebral column of a small dinosaur. The bones were in their natural position, but had been somewhat crushed and rotted before fossilization. In the laboratory they were mounted on a plaque just as they occurred in the rock.

In a survey of the paleontological collections in the University in 1921, Case said:

The paleontological collections in the Museum of the department of Geology have been gathered to illustrate the history of the earth and the origin and development of life… The collections have steadily grown since their start by purchase, by exchange, by gift and by continued collection… One of the most important steps in advance was the institution, some ten years ago, of expeditions by members of the department, directed to definite localities with the object of procuring material to fill gaps in the series and obtain material for student use.

(Mich. Alum., 27: 292.)

From the great tar pits of Rancho la Brea near Los Angeles, California, the Page  1496University obtained a great wolf and the skeleton of one of the sabre-tooth tigers. A specimen referred to the amphibian genus Ostodolepis was obtained on exchange from the University of Chicago about 1912. It was enclosed in a nodule of hard calcareous red sandstone which required more than a month's time of chiseling with a needle under a binocular microscope, to extricate. Case identified it as Ostodolepis brevispinatus Williston and stated that in all probability it came from the same locality and geological horizon as the type specimen which was also contained in a block of red sandstone from Wilbarger County, Texas.

The party from the Museum in the summer of 1924 collected an incomplete skull of an Eocene crocodilian from the lower beds of the Wasatch formation of Tatman Mountain in the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming. It is particularly valuable in that it preserves the major part of the dentition. Case described it as Allognathosuchus wortheni.

In the following year (1925) Case and Buettner returned to a locality in Crosby County, Texas, where they had collected in 1920. Buettner discovered there a nearly complete pelvis of a large phytosaur with only the right ilium missing. In preparing and mounting the specimen in the laboratory, they discovered that the right ilium found on the earlier expedition fitted exactly into the otherwise complete pelvis. The association of the skull found in 1920 and pelvis added considerably to their scientific value.

The 1927 expedition to Texas was especially rich in the museum specimens recovered. The first member of the reptilian order Cotylosauria known to occur in the Triassic of North America was found by Buettner near Walker's Tank in Crosby County. Professor Case named it Trilophosaurus buettneri. The specimen is the anterior part of the lower jaw of a small cotylosaur. On the same expedition Case and Buettner collected a very complete cranial region of a large phytosaur, probably of the genus Leptosuchus, from the Upper Triassic beds of Howard County, Texas.

In April, 1928, in Case's first published account of the expedition to Texas in 1927 he referred to it as "the expedition of 1927 from the Museum of Geology," but in November, 1928, he spoke of it as "the expedition from the Museum of Paleontology." The title of the Museum of Geology was changed in May, 1928, to Museum of Paleontology.

Near Ostischalk, about twenty-three miles southeast of Big Springs in Howard County, the 1927 expedition recovered an almost complete skull, lacking the jaws, of a new form of phytosaur, Brachysuchus megalodon. In 1929, he and Buettner revisited the site and found, within 100 feet of the spot where the skull had been recovered two years before, the nearly complete lower jaw of the same specimen.

The 1931 expedition to Scurry County, Texas, recovered a large amount of material of the stegocephalian, Buettneria bakeri, which later was used for teaching, research, and exhibit in the Museum. In Potter County the field party recovered two nearly complete skulls of phytosaurs, Leptosuchus studeri Case and Brachysuchus megalodon Case, and a large part of the tail of a small dinosaur of the genus Coelophysis.

One of the most valuable specimens in the Museum is the skull of the reptilian dicynodont Kannemeyeria erithrea Haughton, collected by Henry F. Donner in 1931 from the Permian of South Africa. Donner, a student assistant at the University's astronomical observatory at Bloemfontein, had been commissioned by Case to collect fossils from some of the well-known vertebrate Page  1497localities in South Africa. His account of the circumstances under which he found this specimen follows:

Upon arriving at Lady Frere I learned that a German was there collecting for the University of Munich and had been there for over two weeks. I thought there would be no hope for me and decided to leave the next day. In the P.M. however, my Friend in Lady Frere and I went to look around in a small hill about a mile from town where he had found many bone fragments. Here we noticed a little knob of rock about the size of a golf ball. I chipped the top off with my pick and saw bone which I took to be the snout. I had pleasant visions of a nice skull behind this and behind the skull a beautiful skeleton buried under the hill. We started digging away around it and the more we dug the more it looked like a skull so we hurried back to the house to get more tools and a Native boy and by dark had the nice big skull removed. The next morning I returned with the boy and we dug all about the spot but found no more so had to be content with collecting all the bone fragments scattered about the spot which probably belong to the skull. A few hours after we left the German arrived at the spot and learned that he was not the only one collecting. Later I met him and he showed me his collection which I envied very much. When I showed him my skull he was very disappointed that I had arrived. He said it was the best one he had seen and if I had only waited a day longer he would have had it as it was the only place he had not visited. This luck encouraged me so I stayed a few days but only found a tooth in this same hill and a bone about one mile north of this spot.

The skull of a new fossil hawk from the Oligocene beds of South Dakota was the most important find of the 1932 expedition from the Museum of Paleontology. Another fortunate discovery of this season was a specimen of the land turtle Stylemys with the bones of the feet, most of the limbs, the girdles, the neck, and the tail preserved.

In the summer of 1933, a joint expedition from the Museum of Paleontology and the Museum of Comparative Zoology spent some weeks in the Permo-Carboniferous beds of north-central Texas. In the course of the work, Buettner discovered a slab containing sixteen skulls of the amphibian Trimerorhachis. In the laboratory seven were removed, four of these were sent to the Museum of Comparative Zoology and three were used for detailed study. The balance of the slab was placed on exhibit. Near Dundee, in Archer County, Buettner collected the remains of many small fish from the Permian, Wichita formation. By piecing the fragments together, Case was able to reconstruct the skeleton. It proved to be a new paleoniscid fish, Eurylepidoides socialis.

It is always a satisfaction to recover an anatomically complete skeleton of a form that has previously been known only from fragmentary material. Such good fortune came to the expedition from the Museum in 1938 when a nearly complete turtle skeleton in the Upper Cretaceous, Lance beds, near Fort Peck, Montana, was found. The party was engaged in the excavation of a dinosaur when a visitor, Mr. Ralph Nichols, of Salmon, Idaho, discovered a turtle in a sand deposit approximately 100 feet above the bed in which they were working. Case subsequently identified it as a species of the genus Eubaëna.

The summer of 1938 was the last of Case's expeditions in search of fossils. That summer the Museum's field party, consisting of Case, Buettner, and John A. Wilson, collected the great semiaquatic dinosaur, Anatosaurus (previously called Trachodon), which was to become the most spectacular exhibit in the Hall of Evolution in the Museum. It was found in the Hell Creek beds of Upper Cretaceous age near Fort Peck, Montana. The removal of the bones took two months, and more than four tons Page  1498of material was shipped to the Museum. It took three years of Buettner's time in the laboratory to prepare and mount the specimen for exhibit.

Numerous vertebrate fossils from Michigan were brought to the Museum of Paleontology during the Case period. Nine mammoths (two from Eaton County and one each from Newaygo, Livingston, Montcalm, Lenawee, Cass, Ionia, and Wayne counties), and fifteen mastodons (three from Berrien County, two each from Lenawee and Jackson counties, and one each from Washtenaw, Eaton, Monroe, St. Joseph, Shiawassee, Genesee, Wayne, and Saginaw counties) were received. In August, 1915, the Museum acquired a nearly complete skull of the extinct musk ox Symbos cavifrons. It is the most perfect skull of the fossil musk ox in existence. The specimen was found about three miles northeast of Manchester, Michigan. Specimens of armored fish of Devonian age were collected in 1930 at Rockport in Alpena County. The subocular plate of another Devonian arthrodire, Dinicthys, from Squaw Basin, in Alpena County, was given to the Museum in 1933. Remains of a Pleistocene horse (Equus) found in Reety Park in Manistee were purchased in 1934.

As a result of the geologic expeditions under the direction of L. B. Kellum, the Museum received large collections of invertebrate fossils from Mexico during this period. The Museum also acquired by gift three other important collections from Mexico: the East Coast Oil Company Collection in 1928, the Ohio-Mexico Oil Company Collection in 1933, and the Barker Collection of Foraminifera in 1937.

Other collections which should be mentioned either because of their size or the perfection of preservation or the rare occurrence of the specimens, are: the Day Collection, purchased before 1928; the Ford-Mitchell Collection of Recent and fossil crania and teeth, transferred from the Dental School to the Museum of Paleontology in 1928; the Hinshaw Collection, given to the Museum between 1926 and 1931 by H. H. Hinshaw of Alpena, Michigan; the Stuart Perry Collection, given to the Museum in 1931 by Stuart H. Perry of Adrian, Michigan; the Elliott Collection given by Mr. Willian J. Elliott of Spur, Texas, between 1934 and 1947; the Pettyes Collection, purchased in 1936; and the Gilbert O. Raasch Collection, purchased in 1938.

The series, Contributions from the Museum of Geology, was inaugurated in 1924 to provide a medium for the publication of papers based upon material in the Museum. The name of the series was changed in 1928 to Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology. Case was largely responsible for starting the new series. He and other members of the Geology Department had earlier published papers based on specimens in the Museum in the Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, in Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, and in scientific journals outside the University. The series was financed at first by the Graduate School. In 1938 the Committee on Scholarly Publications assumed this responsibility.

The Period Since 1941. — Since 1940 the Museum of Paleontology has been reorganized on a basis to promote its functions in the University. There has been continued growth of the collections, expansion of the staff, increase in the number of courses offered, a broadening and change in emphasis of the research program. Installation of public exhibits in paleontology has been transferred to the Section of Exhibits in the University Museums. Control of publication of the Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology has been placed in the hands of the Page  1499director and curatorial staff of the Museum. Field work has been established on a more continuing basis. In fourteen years, 10,770 catalogued items have been added, making a total of 33,040. Many thousands more have been accessioned and await study before being catalogued.

Upon the retirement of E. C. Case in 1941, L. B. Kellum was appointed Director of the Museum of Paleontology. The same year, the Board of Regents recorded and approved the transfer of the Museum of Paleontology from the Department of Geology in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, to a status similar to that of the other University museum units. Members of the Museum staff teaching in the Geology Department were placed on half time in the Museum and half time in the Department, thus clearly defining their responsibility to the curatorial and teaching functions. In September, 1941, Joseph Tracy Gregory (California '35, Ph.D. ibid. '38), a member of the staff of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, was appointed half-time Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology and half-time on the teaching staff of the Geology Department. Like that of E. C. Case his work had been on Permian and Triassic fossils in Texas. After one year he was drafted into the armed forces and was on leave from August, 1942, to April, 1946. After resuming his teaching and curatorial duties he resigned in June to accept an assistant professorship at Yale University. The vacancy thus created was filled in 1946 by the appointment of Claude William Hibbard (Kansas '34, Ph.D. Michigan '41) as Assistant Professor of Geology and Associate Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology. Hibbard's training and experience had been chiefly in late Cenozoic mammals. His research activities have continued mainly on Cenozoic stratigraphy and paleontology of the High Plains. His annual field trips to western Kansas and adjoining states have added an enormous number of small vertebrates and some larger ones to the Museum's collections. Many publications by Hibbard and his students have resulted from the study of this material. He was promoted to Curator in 1949.

William G. Fargo, of Jackson, Michigan, was made Honorary Curator of Paleozoology in 1943, in recognition of his work on the Pliocene Mollusca of Florida and his continued interest in and co-operation with the Museum. He identified the Museum's large collection of marine Pliocene Mollusca from the Caloosahatchee formation of Florida and deposited in the Museum many identified specimens from the St. Petersburg fauna. Mr. Fargo was the only honorary curator in the Museum of Paleontology.

The appointment of Erwin Charles Stumm (George Washington '32, Ph.D. Princeton '36), Associate Curator of Paleozoic Invertebrates, on a full-time basis in July, 1946, reflected a new policy of the University with regard to the Museums. The creation of the Advisory Board of the University Museums in 1945 had brought into the administration of the Museums a new group of University officers. They rejected the older theory that each division of the Museums should have a single curator, with an assistant of transient employment, and proposed that the Museums should offer a truly professional career to the members of the staff. Stumm's appointment was the first full-time academic appointment in the Museum of Paleontology. His research on the Museum's collections was chiefly on Paleozoic invertebrates from Michigan, including brachiopods, cystoids, trilobites, and corals. He was promoted to Curator of Paleozoic Invertebrates in 1952. Ehlers Page  1500and he published a number of papers on the corals of the Traverse Group in Michigan. They figured and redescribed many type specimens in the Winchell and Rominger collections.

With the growth of the oil fields of Michigan there developed a need for geologists trained in micropaleontology who could recognize, by means of their fossil content, the formations penetrated by the drill and determine the depths to possible producing horizons. In response to this need and to promote the development of the natural resources in the subsurface of the state, Robert Vernon Kesling (Ph.D. Illinois '49) in 1949 was appointed Associate Curator in the Museum, half-time in the Museum and half-time as Assistant Professor in the Geology Department. Kesling's field of specialization was the subclass Ostracoda of the Crustacea. He built up the Museum's collections in this group of organisms, and his research led to the discovery of many new species and genera. His many publications on the Ostracoda of Michigan are exquisitely illustrated with his own line drawings and superb photography. He was promoted to Curator of Micropaleontology in 1955.

Professor Emeritus E. C. Case continued his research in the Museum for nearly ten years after his retirement. In this period he completed a monograph on the Stegocephalia, published a paper on the parasphenoid bone in the vertebrate skull, and prepared a catalogue of the type and figured specimens of vertebrate fossils in the Museum of Paleontology. His final publication, entitled "The Dilemma of the Paleontologist," appeared in 1951. In it he explained that the contribution of the vertebrate paleontologist to the study of evolution is limited by the fact that only the hard parts of animals are ordinarily preserved in fossils and that the preservation of even these parts is imperfect. He might well have considered his own contributions to the stratigraphy and paleoecology of the past, where the paleontologist is on much firmer ground and where he has obtained more substantial and lasting results.

During this period the Museum received some notable collections. In 1940 the Hood Museum transferred to the Museum of Paleontology a large collection of invertebrate fossils which Alexander Winchell or his heirs had sold to Alma College. With it were two catalogues in Winchell's handwriting. Among the items listed were fossils collected by E. A. Strong at Taylor's Quarry, Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1871, and at Wilmington, Illinois; fossils collected by Rominger at Widder, Canada West, in 1865; and fossils collected by C. A. White at Burlington, Iowa, and elsewhere. The great majority of the specimens, however, had been collected by Winchell himself.

Besides the large collections of fossils made by the curators during their own field investigations, the Museum received by gift, exchange, and purchase many others, including a skeleton of Rhynchosaurus from the Triassic of southern Brazil, secured in 1942 on exchange from the Museum of Comparative Zoology; several collections of identified marine mollusks from the Pliocene and Miocene formations of Florida given by William G. Fargo, of Jackson, Michigan; in 1944 the collections of Roy L. Coville, a former student of the University of Michigan and former head of the Industrial Arts Department of the State Teachers College, Dickinson, North Dakota, consisting of well-preserved fossil plants and vertebrate animals from the Bad Lands of western North Dakota. In 1944 the Museum purchased four large silicified cycadoids from the Lower Cretaceous of Texas.

Vertebrates from Michigan are especially important records. Those acquired since 1940 include the remains of five Page  1501mammoths (from Midland, Lenawee, Barry, Washtenaw, and Shiawassee counties) and ten mastodons (three from Shiawassee County, two from Berrien County, and one each from Livingston, Genesee, Sanilac, Washtenaw, and Lenawee counties).

Other collections acquired in this period, which should be mentioned, are: the Raymond R. Hibbard Collection received by exchange between 1927 and 1954; the Southworth Collection purchased between 1935 and 1947; the Humphrey Collection, the gift of William E. Humphrey, between 1940 and 1954; the Reimann Collection, the gift of Irving G. Reimann, between 1947 and 1953; and the E. P. Wright Collection, given between 1952 and 1954 by Mr. and Mrs. Edward Poultney Wright of Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan.

The Hall of Evolution in the University Museums Building is devoted almost entirely to paleontological exhibits. The planning, preparation, and installation of these were the responsibility of the Museum of Paleontology prior to 1947, when Irving G. Reimann was appointed Prefect of Exhibits in the University Museums. The great duck-bill dinosaur skeleton collected in 1938 was installed in 1940-41. A large and beautifully preserved ammonite, Placenticeras meeki Boehm, from the Cretaceous of South Dakota, was made a complete exhibit in 1941-42. The pelvis of a dinosaur collected by the American Museum of Natural History in Wyoming was given to the University in 1939 and displayed in 1942-43. An exhibit of Oligocene insects in Baltic amber was also planned and installed in that year. A titanothere exhibit occupying two sections of the vertical cases was arranged in 1943-44. It consisted of a skull collected by Case in 1917 from the Bad Lands of South Dakota, a lower jaw from Wyoming received on exchange from the American Museum of Natural History, a complete pelvis collected near Orella, Nebraska, in 1936, and a small-scale restoration of the animal made by the Museum's artist.

The vertical mount of the Owosso mastodon which had been in preparation since 1944, was placed in the center of the hall in 1946-47. The Alcove of Fishes and the Alcove of Fossil Plants were completely rearranged by curators in the Museum of Paleontology in 1946 and 1947.

The principal change in the exhibits, which began in 1947, was the use of dioramas to show the animals as they appeared in life and the use of color to make exhibits more attractive. This reduced the space available for fossils on exhibit, and few actual fossilized specimens have been installed in the last eight years.

Prior to his retirement Professor Case was the sole member of the Editorial Board of the Contributions. In 1942 President Ruthven, on recommendation of the Committee on Scholarly Publications, appointed G. M. Ehlers, C. A. Arnold, and L. B. Kellum, chairman, members of the board. There has been no change in the membership since. In 1952 the Committee on Scholarly Publications was relieved of all responsibility for the Contributions, and funds for publication were appropriated by the Board of Regents to the Museum of Paleontology.


Case, Ermine C."A Census of the Determinable Genera of the Stegocephalia."Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., N.S., 35 (1946), Pt. 4: 325-420.
Case, Ermine C."An Endocranial Cast of a Phytosaur from the Upper Triassic Beds of Western Texas."Journ. Comp. Neurol., 45 (1928), No. 1: 161-68.
Case, Ermine C.Contrib. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich.,Page  1502 Vol. II, Nos. 4, 6, 11, 12; Vol. III, Nos. 1, 5, 8, 9, 11; Vol. IV, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14; Vol. V, No. 6; Vol. VI, Nos. 1, 10; Vol. IX, No. 5 (1925-51).
Case, Ermine C.Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., Nos. 12, 62, 82, 101 (1915-21).
Case, Ermine C.Papers Mich. Acad. Sci., Vol. 4: 419-24; Vol. 20: 449-54 (1924-35).
Case, Ermine C."Something about the Paleontological Collections in the University."Mich. Alum., 27 (1921), No. 5: 292-300.
Case, Ermine C."The Bloomfield Hills Mastodon."Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci., No. 4 (1935).
Case, Ermine C."Valuable Specimens Recently Added to the Paleontological Collections of the University."Mich. Alum., 21 (1915), No. 5: 248-50.
Clark, John M.James Hall of Albany, Geologist and Paleontologist 1811-1898. Albany, 1921.
Ehlers, George M., , and William E. Humphrey. "Revision of E. A. Strong's Species from the Mississippian Point Au Gres Limestone of Grand Rapids, Michigan."Contrib. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich., 6 (1944), No. 6: 113-30.
In Memoriam Edwin Atson Strong. Ypsilanti: Published by the Faculty of the Michigan State Normal College, 1920.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1940.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Utley, Henry M., , and Byron M. Cutcheon, Comp. The Class of Sixty-One, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1902.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, Acquisition Register. Current numbers 7869-9095.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, A. Winchell's Collection. Serial numbers 1-4875.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, Museum of the University of Michigan. Geology. Vol. I. Serial numbers 1-7868.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, Register of Stella Cabinet Belonging to Alexander Winchell. Vol. II, Feb. 1, 1885. Serial numbers 4876-7006.
Winchell, Alexander. Report, Historical and Statistical, on the Collections in Geology, Zoology and Botany in the Museum of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1864.
Winchell, Alexander. Report of Operations in the Museum of the University of Michigan in the Department of Geology, Zoology and Botany, and the Department of Archaeology and Ethnology. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1873.


THE Museum of Zoology is a research and teaching unit of the University for the study of the evolution, distribution, and systematic relationships of animals. Its collections comprise some 50,000 mammals, 110,000 birds, 130,000 reptiles and amphibians, 2,100,000 fish, 2,500,000 insects, and 2,000,000 mollusks, with the accompanying data essential for study. The collections are as notable for the wealth and accuracy of their field data as for the excellence of their representation of the respective groups, and they have given the Museum an international reputation as a center for graduate teaching and research in natural history.

The Museum occupies the first, second, and third floors and much of the basement in the north wing of the University Museums Building. The collections are housed in fireproof ranges designed for safe storage and ready access to any individual specimen or desired series. Complementing the ranges are staff offices and study rooms, aquarium and live-rooms, preparation rooms, divisional libraries, and a seminar and classroom, an over-all area of some 46,000 square feet. The staff includes a director and eleven curators, as well as research and student assistants, an artist for the illustration of its publications, and a small secretarial staff. The curators and the director have academic status in the Department of Zoology, and their duties are more or less equally divided between curatorial work, research, and teaching. These functions, indeed, are not separable in any real sense. The extensive collections and the data that accompany them are the essential tools for both research and teaching, and so long as they are in use require a continuing Page  1503curatorial process which, if it is at all competent, depends upon current as well as completed research.

The teaching is largely but not exclusively graduate. In addition to directing the doctoral studies of some thirty to forty students, staff members give courses and seminars in mammalogy, ornithology, herpetology, ichthyology, entomology, malacology, and systematics and supervise individual studies, which any qualified student may elect.

The Museum of Zoology is one of the University's oldest units for specialized research. Although its official existence as a separate unit dates from as late as 1912-13, its modern existence began in 1903, as a direct descendant of the University Museum of Natural History provided for in the enabling act of 1837. The transformation of the old Cabinet and later Museum of Natural History into a Museum of Zoology came in large part from the cumulative enthusiasm and efforts of three great naturalists who were successively in charge of the zoological part of the natural history collections.

The first, Professor Joseph Beal Steere ('68, '70l, Ph.D. hon. '75), Curator of the Museum from 1876 to 1894, was a pioneer student of animal geography. His zoological explorations in South America, the Philippines, and parts of the Dutch East Indies brought the first large accessions of study materials as contrasted with those for exhibit, and gave the Museum of Natural History a strong zoological bent. The second man, Charles Christopher Adams (Illinois Wesleyan '95, Ph.D. Chicago '06, Sc.D. Illinois Wesleyan '20), was brought to Michigan in 1903 by Jacob Reighard, Steere's successor as Professor of Zoology, to be Curator in charge of the Museum, because Reighard's own interests were in other fields. Adams was one of America's pioneer students of ecology and faunal relationships, and it was due to his interest that attention was turned to a detailed study of the Michigan fauna and an analysis of its ecological and geographic history and relationships. He instituted a series of faunistic and ecological surveys of the state and stressed the fact that abundant specimens and detailed field data are essential for the development of scientific natural history. The third man was Alexander Grant Ruthven (Morningside '03, Ph.D. Michigan '06, LL.D. California '38, D.H.C. Catholic University of Chile '44), Adams' student and chief lieutenant in the zoological explorations of the state and in 1906 his successor as Curator of the University Museum. Ruthven's own researches related the data and problems of geographic distribution with those of ecological adaptation. He conceived of both as playing a part in racial differentiation and speciation. To him museum collections and data were one of the essential tools for deciphering the course and much of the mechanism of evolution, and a sine qua non for the construction of a systematics that could aspire to an accurate presentation of taxonomical relationships. Ruthven's twenty-three years of leadership — until 1929, when he resigned to accept the presidency of the University — were devoted to developing the Museum for this purpose and gave it its peculiar status as a university museum for research and teaching.

In 1909 the geological material was transferred to the Department of Geology, leaving only the zoological and anthropological collections in the custody of the University Museum. The anthropological specimens, although accumulating and cared for, were inactive, held in trust for a future museum of anthropology. In 1913 the Regents, in view of the restricted scope of the collections and the active interest in zoological research, formally recognized the Museum of Zoology as a separate administrative Page  1504unit, with Ruthven as Director. In reviewing this action in his Report for 1912-13, Ruthven stated:

This distinctly separates the museum from all other departments in the university, placing it upon the same footing as the General Library, and definitely fixes the responsibility for its development upon the person directly in charge.

The museum is now in position to pursue energetically the policy that has been adopted in recent years. Briefly, this policy requires that primary attention be given to the preservation of materials for the study of the Michigan fauna, that limited explorations be made outside of the state for the purpose of acquiring material for illustration and comparison, that schools and working naturalists in the state receive such assistance as can be rendered them, and that as much research work as possible be done on local problems and in the general fields in which the members of the staff have specialized.

The staff of the newly recognized Museum of Zoology consisted of Alexander G. Ruthven, Director, Norman A. Wood, Curator of Birds, Bryant Walker, Honorary Curator of Mollusca, William W. Newcomb, Honorary Curator of Lepidoptera, Arthur S. Pearse, Honorary Curator of Crustacea, Etta Van Horn, Administrative Assistant, Crystal Thompson, Scientific Assistant in Charge of Fish and Invertebrates, Helen Thompson, Scientific Assistant in Charge of Amphibians and Reptiles, Bradshaw H. Swales, Associate in Ornithology, Arthur W. Andrews, Associate in Entomology, and Charles K. Dodge, Associate in Botany. Wood, who was to become the dean of Michigan ornithology, began his association with the Museum in 1895 as a taxidermist, employed to mount the birds of the Steere Collection, but his innate abilities and rapid development as an ornithologist and field naturalist made his appointment as Curator of Birds a particularly happy one.

Helen Thompson, later Helen T. (Mrs. Frederick M.) Gaige, and Crystal Thompson had been associated with the Museum since 1911 as students of natural history and had won a place on the staff by their enthusiasm and competence. Walker, Newcomb, Pearse, Swales, Andrews, and Dodge held honorary appointments that recognized their deep interest in natural history and their enthusiastic response to the opportunity to share in a program of field and museum studies. Of these only Pearse was a professional zoologist, then at the beginning of an academic career that was to lead to professorships at Wisconsin and Duke and recognition in the development of ecology in America. Bryant Walker was a Detroit attorney who had already won as high a place in his avocation of malacology as in his profession as a corporation lawyer. Newcomb was a physician, living first in Detroit and then in Ann Arbor, with an enduring interest in the Lepidoptera; Swales, a Detroit and later a Washington, D. C., attorney, found time to carry on studies on the natural history of birds, and Andrews, a master cabinet-maker, became a serious student of the Coleoptera and for many years contributed greatly to a knowledge of the insect fauna of Michigan. Dodge, a customs collector at Port Huron, had made himself an authority on the botany of Michigan and had developed an extraordinary knowledge of plants in the field. He continued to add to knowledge of the Michigan flora until his death in 1918. This group of professionally competent amateurs who participated in the councils of the Museum took part in its program of studies and established a strong tradition of the peculiar worth of gifted and devoted amateurs in the maintenance of an esprit de corps and as associates in museum research.

Walker and Newcomb had been generous Page  1505in support of the earlier biological explorations carried on by Adams and Ruthven. The expeditions to Isle Royale and the Porcupine Mountains in 1904 and 1905 and the field work in 1907 in Iowa by Ruthven and Max Peet, in Dickinson County in 1909 and in Veracruz, Mexico, in 1910 by Ruthven and H. B. Baker were made possible by their financial support. These expeditions by Adams and Ruthven, the 1908 state-supported field work in Huron County, and the Mershon expeditions to the Charity Islands in Lake Huron in 1910-11 had an essential part in the emergence of the Museum of Zoology.

Its reorganization as a separate department was a stimulus to increased activity. Thanks very largely to the continued generous support of Walker, Newcomb, and Swales, field work in Michigan and in regions outside the state was carried out on an extensive scale. Expeditions were sent to the Maggie Basin in Nevada in 1912, to southern Illinois and to the Santa Marta Mountains of Colombia in 1913, to British Guiana and the Davis Mountains of Texas in 1914, to Schoolcraft County in Michigan in 1915, to the Davis Mountains again and to the Appalachians of North Carolina in 1916. George Shiras, of Marquette, provided for museum field work at Whitefish Point on Lake Superior in Chippewa County in 1912, 1913, and 1916, in Alger County in 1916, and, with Bryant Walker, supported field parties in Berrien County in 1917.

In 1913, through the support of Walker, Swales, and Newcomb, the Occasional Papers, the Museum's first scientific series, was begun. In the same year Frederick Mahon Gaige ('14) was added to the staff as Scientific Assistant in Charge of Insects, and in 1914 George R. LaRue of the Department of Zoology was made Honorary Curator of Parasitic Worms. In 1916, with the support of Walker, Swales, and Newcomb, the second scientific series of the Museum, the Miscellaneous Publications, was established. This year is also memorable for the appointment of Edward Bruce Williamson (Ohio State '95) as Honorary Curator of Odonata. Williamson, a banker and horticulturist of Bluffton, Indiana, was a student of the dragonflies. Like Bryant Walker he was an amateur who had achieved an international reputation as an authority in his field, and, like Walker, he contributed greatly to the Museum's growing scientific reputation.

In 1916-17 much progress was made toward the present organization of the Museum into divisions: a Division of Birds and Mammals with Wood as Curator and Swales as Honorary Associate Curator in Ornithology; a Division of Reptiles and Amphibians with Ruthven as Curator and Crystal Thompson and Helen T. Gaige as scientific assistants; a Division of Insects with Frederick M. Gaige as Curator, Newcomb as Honorary Curator of Lepidoptera, Williamson as Honorary Curator of Odonata, and Andrews as Honorary Associate Curator in Entomology; a Division of Mollusks with Mina Winslow as Scientific Assistant in charge and Bryant Walker as Honorary Curator; a Division of Crustaceans with Pearse as Honorary Curator; a Division of Parasitic Worms with LaRue as Honorary Curator; and a Division of Botany with Dodge as Honorary Associate Curator. Such provision as could be made for a collection of fishes was for the time assumed by the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians.

The next year Mrs. Gaige was made Assistant to the Director, and three new honorary associate curators were appointed: Cecil Billington, of Detroit, in botany, Calvin Goodrich, of Toledo, in mollusks, and James Speed Rogers, of Page  1506Guilford College, North Carolina, for the order Diptera. In 1919 Miss Winslow was made Curator of Mollusks, Mrs. Gaige became Assistant Curator of Reptiles and Amphibians as well as Assistant to the Director, and Lee R. Dice was brought in as Curator of Mammals. The earlier Division of Birds and Mammals was split into separate divisions of Birds and of Mammals, with Wood and Swales now responsible for the bird collection. In 1920 a Division of Fishes was created. Carl L. Hubbs, following Walter N. Koelz, took over the then modest collection of fishes that had been cared for by the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians — a collection accumulated chiefly through the work of Professor T. L. Hankinson, Professor Jacob Reighard, and Walter N. Koelz.

In 1921 the Section of Botany was transferred to the newly formed University Herbarium. This left the Museum with six major divisions — Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians, Fishes, Insects, and Mollusks, each with a full-time curator — and with two minor divisions that were essentially repositories for incidental collections of Crustacea and parasitic worms.

The growth of the collections, which had been continuous since the inauguration of the early surveys by Adams in 1903, began to accelerate markedly with reorganization of the Museum of Zoology in 1913. The intensive investigation of Michigan's fauna had continued with more emphasis on ecological relationships and correlation with the detailed physical and historical geography of the state. Each of the divisions was also studying the distribution and ecological relationships of particular groups or faunas and sending field parties on expeditions into South America, Central America, Mexico, the mountain and desert regions of the western United States, such peculiarly isolated faunal areas as the Davis Mountains of Texas and the Olympics of Washington, and present and former river drainage systems of North America. Much work was also done by staff members in collaboration with special biological surveys of other states, and all of this added to the growth of the collections and to their increasing adequacy for research and teaching.

By 1920 the old Museum Building was outgrown and an overflow into other quarters began. Several rooms in the Natural Science Building were made available for the Division of Fishes, but these were soon inadequate, and "annexes" helped to meet the increasing need for space — part of the third floor of the Old Medical Building and a succession of frame houses acquired by the University in plans for campus expansion.

In 1925 the legislature appropriated funds for a University Museums Building. This was not ready for occupancy until 1928, but the congestion in the old Museum Building and its annexes was made more endurable in the knowledge that adequate quarters were in prospect.

Both Adams and Ruthven thought of collections as essential tools for the investigation of an important group of broadly related problems: the bearing of geography and geological history on present and past distribution of animal species and faunas; the interaction in nature between animal populations and the kind and availability of habitats suitable for their needs. This was an aspect of natural history of common importance to many fields of theoretical and applied biology, but badly limited by the dearth of truly extensive and sufficiently documented collections of actual specimens. Because of the multiplicity of animal forms and their intricate patterns of distribution and interrelationship, the amassing of adequate collections can at best be only a gradual process, and, because of its Page  1507complexity, can proceed only by alternating the study of collections at hand with fresh excursions afield to fill discovered gaps in collections and data.

This concept loomed large in maintaining the support that had come from Walker, Williamson, and other honorary curators and had long been one of Ruthven's basic teachings. His essays on "Geography in Museums of Zoology," "Systematic Zoology in Museums," "The Relation of the Museum to the High Schools and Grade Schools of the State," and "Some Considerations Pertinent to the Development of a Museum Policy," in his Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology for the years 1920-26, attest this broadly conceived idea of the role of a University museum.

The years 1925-28 were especially busy ones. In addition to the nearly normal programs of expeditions, research, and curatorial work, the translating of long-developed ideas of specimen ranges, live rooms, aquaria, divisional libraries, and laboratory-offices into working plans, and the designing of the special equipment and of the uniquely accessible shelving for the huge reptile and amphibian and fish collections were completed, and 1928 brought the huge task of installing the collections in their new quarters.

The new building, which included space for the University Herbarium, the Museum of Anthropology, the Museum of Paleontology, and a Section of Exhibits, as well as for the Museum of Zoology, was a notable example of pleasing highly functional museum planning and construction. The needs of the growing Museum of Zoology for the ensuing twenty-five years were, on the whole, admirably anticipated, and only within the past few years has the Museum again begun to feel the limitations of increasingly crowded quarters.

The fiscal year 1927-28 was marked by a number of important changes in staff. Ruthven was appointed to the newly created post of Director of University Museums, Gaige was made Assistant Director of the Museum of Zoology and Mrs. Gaige Assistant to the Director of University Museums. All of these appointments were in addition to those previously held. New personnel included Josselyn Van Tyne, Assistant Curator, Bird Division, Grace Eager, Museum Artist, William G. Fargo, of Jackson, Honorary Curator of Birds, and William P. Harris, of Grosse Pointe, Honorary Associate Curator of Mammals. The year also brought the loss by death of Bradshaw H. Swales, Honorary Associate Curator of Birds since 1912.

The next year was Ruthven's last as Director of the Museum of Zoology. His appointment to the directorship of the University Museums had been a part of the long-planned organization of natural history museums in the University, and had been conceived as an extension of his extraordinarily fruitful development and administration of the Museum of Zoology; but in the same month (June, 1928) in which the new Museum was formally dedicated the Regents asked him to act as Dean of Administration for the University. In June, 1929, following the resignation of President Little, the Regents requested that he "divest himself so far as possible, for the present, of his responsibilities centering about the Museum and the Department of Zoology" and that he "allow his resignation as Dean of Administration, which he had desired to have the Board consider, to lie upon the table" (R.P., 1926-29, p. 1017). Then, in October of 1929, he was asked to accept the presidency of the University.

Ruthven hoped to keep his close association with the Museum, and he retained his positions, Director of University Museums and Curator of Reptiles Page  1508in the Museum of Zoology, as long as there was any hope that the duties of the presidency could be lightened sufficiently to allow a part-time return to herpetological research and museum policies. Instead, he was soon faced with the problems of University administration in a great depression and then in World War II.

The problem of filling the directorship of the Museum of Zoology was chiefly one of persuading Gaige to accept administrative duties at the expense of his research and concern with the Insect Division. He had been associated with the Museum since 1908, and had been a member of many of its expeditions. He had been Curator of Insects since 1916 and had not only assisted Ruthven in the development of the Museum, but his extraordinarily broad knowledge of natural history, its literature and workers, and his unselfish loyalty to the Museum made his appointment in November, 1929, a happy one.

Gaige's first Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology for the year ending June, 1929, issued early in 1930, lists the following staff:

    Museum Faculty
  • Alexander G. Ruthven, Director of University Museums
  • Frederick M. Gaige, Director of Museum of Zoology
  • Helen T. Gaige, Assistant to Director of University Museums
  • Geneva Smithe, Secretary of University Museums
  • Crystal Thompson, Curator of Department of Visual Education
  • Kimber C. Kuster, Librarian
  • Morley W. Williams, Superintendent of Building
    Scientific Staff
    • Division of Mammals
    • Lee R. Dice, Curator
    • William P. Harris, Jr., Associate Curator
    • Adolph Murie, Assistant Curator
    • Ruth D. Svihla, Assistant
    • Division of Birds
    • Norman A. Wood, Curator
    • Josselyn Van Tyne, Assistant Curator
    • William G. Fargo, Honorary Curator
    • Walter E. Hastings, Custodian of Birds' Eggs
    • Division of Reptiles and Amphibians
    • Alexander G. Ruthven, Curator of Reptiles
    • Helen Thompson Gaige, Curator of Amphibians
    • Howard A. Kelly, Honorary Curator
    • Norman E. Hartweg, Assistant
    • Division of Fishes
    • Carl L. Hubbs, Curator
    • Walter Koelz, Assistant Curator
    • Laura C. Hubbs, Cataloguer
    • Division of Insects
    • Frederick M. Gaige, Curator
    • E. B. Williamson, Research Associate
    • Samuel A. Graham, Research Associate
    • William W. Newcomb, Honorary Curator of Lepidoptera
    • Sherman Moore, Associate Curator of Lepidoptera
    • James Speed Rogers, Associate Curator of Diptera
    • Arthur W. Andrews, Associate Curator of Coleoptera
    • Ada Olson, Assistant
    • Division of Mollusks
    • Mina L. Winslow, Curator
    • Calvin Goodrich, Assistant Curator
    • Bryant Walker, Honorary Curator
    • Ruth Morris, Assistant
    • Division of Crustaceans
    • Edwin P. Creaser, Assistant in Charge
    • Division of Annelids
    • Frank Smith, Honorary Curator
    • Division of Parasitic Worms
    • George R. LaRue, Research Associate
    • Division of Protozoans
    • Dora S. Lemon, Custodian
  • Page  1509
      Division of Extension
    • Crystal Thompson, Curator
    • Technical Staff
    • Carleton W. Angell, Sculptor, University Museums
    • Grace Eager, Artist
    • James Wood, Preparator
    • A. Russell Powell, in charge of shop
    • Elsa Hertz, Telephone and Information Clerk

Of the eleven divisions listed in the report, the first six — Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians, Fishes, Insects, and Mollusks — were strongly entrenched with extensive and rapidly growing research collections, full-time staffs, and expanding research and teaching programs. With the exception of the Fish Division their origins had antedated the organization of the Museum into divisions.

The divisions of Crustaceans, Annelids, Parasitic Worms, and Protozoans were set up as tentative trials of the feasibility of establishing such collections without continued curatorial care, solely with the interested collaboration of honorary curators. The Division of Crustaceans owed its origin to Professor A. S. Pearse of the Zoology Department, an interest and collaboration that continued for several years after Pearse left Michigan. In 1929 the division was reactivated with the appointment of Edwin P. Creaser, a graduate student of crayfishes, as Assistant in Charge. He was promoted to Curator in 1933 and resigned in the same year. No further curatorial appointments were made. During and following Creaser's curatorial activity the crustacean collection grew considerably. It remained inactive, however, and in 1950 the Museum obtained permission of the Regents to present it to the National Museum, where it is assured of continued accessibility to workers in this group.

The divisions of Annelids, Parasitic Worms, and Protozoa had an even briefer existence than that of Crustaceans, and none survived the interest and collaboration of their honorary curators or custodians. The collection of parasitic worms built up by Professor George R. LaRue and his students, of the Department of Zoology, was transferred to the Bureau of Parasitology, Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland. This was done at LaRue's request when, in 1949, he retired and moved to Beltsville to continue his studies in helminthology.

The Division of Extension was later combined with the Department of Visual Education and transferred to the University Museums. Both extension and visual education were under the direction of Crystal Thompson and formed the basis for the present Section of Exhibits of the University Museums.

The year 1930 was notable for the gift of the Edwin S. George Reserve to the University. The Reserve, a tract of approximately two square miles of rolling knob-and-basin topography with extensive areas of woods, old fields, marshes, and swamps, providing a wide range of animal and plant habitats of southern Michigan, was accepted as a native wildlife preserve to be administered by the Museum of Zoology. It has proved a magnificent laboratory in natural history not only for the study of an abundant natural biota but as an area where field studies may be carried on safe from the interference of fires, tillage, trespass, or change of ownership.

Gaige's directorship extended from 1929 until August, 1945, through the difficult depression years of the 1930's and World War II. Although he never lost his distaste for the routine forms and minutiae of administration he carried on as Director through the academic disruption of the war years, but a few weeks Page  1510after the final surrender of Japan he resigned both the directorship and the curatorship of the Insect Division. Mrs. Gaige resigned as Curator of Amphibians on the same date, and the double loss was severely felt by the entire Museum. Gaige's outstanding contributions as Director had been his loyal support of his staff and the example of his extraordinarily broad knowledge of natural history. The friendship and moral and material support that he and Mrs. Gaige gave to so many beginning and often uncertain younger naturalists became a tradition to a whole generation of museum students. William H. Burt, Curator of Mammals and chairman of the Museum's Executive Committee, served as administrative head from the time of Gaige's resignation until 1947, when James Speed Rogers, ('15, Ph.D. '31), Honorary Associate Curator of Diptera since 1918, a former student of both Ruthven and Gaige, and Professor of Biology at the University of Florida since 1922, was appointed Director.

The account of the Museum since 1929 can best be related in a brief review of the divisions.

Mammals. — The establishment of a separate division for mammals dates from 1919, when Dr. Lee Raymond Dice (Stanford '11, Ph.D. California '15) was appointed Mammalogist and took over the mammal collection that until then had been the responsibility of the Curator of Birds. The first objectives set by Dice were the rounding out of the modest and rather random collection and intensive field work on the mammals of Michigan. This was soon supplemented by field work in other areas pertinent to the needs of the collection and to the interests of the curator, and special attention was given to the hares, rabbits, and coneys.

In 1927 the enthusiastic co-operation of William P. Harris, of Grosse Pointe, was recognized by his appointment as Honorary Associate Curator, a relationship that continued to be a most happy one for the Museum. His studies on the North American squirrels and the generous sponsorship he has given through the Harris Fellowship in Mammalogy, the purchase of specimens, and the support of expeditions have greatly aided the division. In 1931 Philip M. Blossom was appointed Honorary Associate Curator. He contributed materially to the stature of the Museum, particularly in his work in the Southwest on desert mammals.

Dice became particularly interested in the bearing of genetics and ecological factors on the evolutionary relationships of wild mammal populations and increasingly preoccupied with his own important researches in these fields. Breeding stocks of wild rodents were established to test the inheritance of characters used in systematics, and a long series of breeding experiments was planned and carried out on crosses between taxonomically distinct races and species. This work was greatly furthered by the gift of the breeding stocks studied by Sumner at the University of California at La Jolla, and by close co-operation with the Laboratory of Mammalian Genetics.

In 1929 Adolph Murie (Concordia '25, Ph.D. Michigan '29), who had taken his doctorate in mammalogy under Dice, was appointed Assistant Curator and took over much of the responsibility for the general mammal collection. He was succeeded by Seth B. Benson in 1934-35, and Benson by William Henry Burt (Kansas '26, Ph.D. California '30) in 1935.

In 1934 Dice was also made Director of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics, and in 1938 he resigned as Curator of Mammals to direct the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics. Burt was made Page  1511Curator of Mammals, and Dice became Honorary Associate Curator, a position he continued to hold until 1946.

In 1938 Emmet Thurman Hooper (California '33, Ph.D. '39) was appointed Assistant Curator of Mammals, becoming Associate Curator in 1946. Under Burt and Hooper the division has continued to expand and to maintain an active program. Burt's own researches and those of his students have been chiefly in the ecology of wild populations, especially the behaviors associated with home ranges and other manifestations of territoriality. Hooper's studies have centered chiefly about the derivation and relationships of the mammal fauna of Mexico, particularly the geographic factors in speciation and evolution.

Much of Burt's and Hooper's concern has been to add to the knowledge and appreciation of Michigan's mammal fauna and resources, a project that has been popularly summarized in Burt's The Mammals of Michigan.

Birds. — The bird collection had been the special concern of Norman A. Wood in the days of the old Museum when Wood was employed as a taxidermist for the birds of the Steere Collection. Adams recognized Wood's ability and intimate knowledge of birds and gave him the responsibility for ornithology in the expeditions to the Porcupine Mountains and Isle Royale. Under Ruthven, Wood carried on studies of migration at Point Pelee, Ontario, and continued to be responsible for both ornithological field work and the care of the bird collection, a status that was officially recognized by his appointment as Curator in 1911.

The division was also fortunate in the support it continued to receive from honorary curators and other collaborators. Bradshaw H. Swales was Honorary Curator from 1912 until his death in 1928, Walter E. Hastings, Custodian of Birds' Eggs from 1921-32, and William G. Fargo, Honorary Curator from 1927 to 1943. Fargo, a civil engineer, has since 1926 given much support to the division by his own field work, the purchase of extensive collections, and generous financial aid for expeditions. Other longtime collaborators and generous sponsors were Dr. Max M. Peet of the University's surgical staff, an enthusiastic student and collector of birds since his early student days, A. D. Tinker, of Ann Arbor, and the Michigan Department of Conservation.

Josselyn Van Tyne (Harvard '25, Ph.D. Michigan '28) was appointed Assistant Curator in 1928 and Curator in 1931; in 1933 Wood, after some forty years of continuous studies, chiefly on the birds of Michigan, was made Curator Emeritus. William Pierce Brodkorb (Illinois '33, Ph.D. Michigan '36) was appointed Assistant Curator in 1936, a position he held until 1946. He was succeeded by Joseph James Hickey (New York Univ. '30, Ph.D. Michigan '49). After Hickey's resignation George Miksch Sutton (Bethany College, '23, Ph.D. Cornell '32) was appointed Curator, half time, reserving the remainder of his time for his bird paintings and illustrations. In 1949 Sutton resigned the curatorship to devote himself to his illustrations and research but remained as Research Consultant until he resigned in 1952 to accept a professorship at the University of Oklahoma. In 1949 Robert W. Storer (Princeton '36, Ph.D. California '49) was appointed Assistant Curator.

The collections of the Bird Division have been guided largely by three chief objectives: the development and maintenance of an exhaustive and precisely documented representation of Michigan and North American birds, an adequate synoptic collection of the families and genera of the birds of the world, and the Page  1512establishment of strong research collections in those groups of especial interest to the staff. Much attention is also given to assembling adequate skeletal and other anatomical series needed for the critical revision of familial and intergeneric relationships.

Even so brief a review of the Bird Division would be remiss if it failed to stress the indefatigable work of Van Tyne in building up the increasingly adequate research collection and the outstanding ornithological library that so greatly facilitates the work of the division. An exceptional series of gifts has contributed greatly to the growth of the division. Among the more notable gifts have been the Walter Koelz collection of 3,350 specimens, one of the many important gifts of William Fargo; the huge collection of Dr. Max M. Peet, extraordinarily rich in many rare species and series, the gift of Mrs. Max M. Peet; the Shufeldt collection of Mexican birds; and the extensive collections made in Costa Rica by Paul Slud.

Reptiles and Amphibians. — The cold-blooded vertebrates had received scant attention in the Museum prior to the Isle Royale expeditions of 1904 and 1905, when Ruthven began an intensive study of Michigan herpetology. By 1910 he had the enthusiastic collaboration of Helen Thompson (later Mrs. F. M. Gaige) and Crystal Thompson. They had accumulated sufficient collections and data by 1912 to publish the first Herpetology of Michigan, in which forty-four species of reptiles and eighteen of amphibians were recorded from the state.

Although the concern with Michigan fauna continued to be a primary interest of the division, explorations were carried much farther afield. The Maggie Basin of Nevada was visited in 1912, and in 1913 the expedition to the Santa Marta Mountains of Colombia initiated the series of trips to northern South America, Central America, and Mexico that were to give the Museum notable collections of a rich neotropical fauna on which Ruthven, Mrs. Gaige, and their students were to base a long series of important papers.

By 1917, when the organization of the Museum into divisions was begun, the reptile and amphibian collections were already extensive and important, and the Museum had acquired a reputation as a strong center of herpetological research. In 1918 Mrs. Gaige was made Assistant Curator, and in the same year Frank N. Blanchard began a doctoral problem under Ruthven on the kingsnakes of the genus Lampropeltis. This was the beginning of a program of graduate teaching and research in which a large proportion of the American workers in herpetology of the present generation were trained.

The excellence and efficiency of this training, and Ruthven's ability to keep in touch with it so long after he had become President of the University, owed much to the long and close co-operation between Ruthven and Mrs. Gaige. In 1927 Ruthven became Curator of Reptiles and Mrs. Gaige Curator of Amphibians, an arrangement that recognized Mrs. Gaige's share in the work and research of the division. Within a little more than a year, however, it was necessary for Mrs. Gaige to assume curatorial care of the entire division and to take increasing responsibility for much of the direction of graduate instruction.

Norman Hartweg ('30, Ph.D. '34) was added to the staff as Assistant Curator in 1934 and became Associate Curator in 1942. In 1945, after Mrs. Gaige's resignation, Hartweg was given charge of the division and was made Curator in 1946. In 1947 Charles Frederic Walker (Ohio State '30, Ph.D. Michigan '35), formerly associate professor at Ohio State University, became Associate Curator.

Both Hartweg and Walker obtained Page  1513their doctorates under Ruthven and Mrs. Gaige, and they have continued the old traditions as far as has been practicable with an expanding teaching program and an ever-growing collection. Hartweg's primary research interests have been largely with turtles, Walker's with the amphibians, but their students' researches have included almost the entire taxonomic range of herpetology.

Fishes. — The small fish collection accumulated over the years was augmented in 1919 by the gift from the U. S. Fish Commission of some 3,000 specimens from the Great Lakes region, consisting largely of whitefishes collected by Walter Norman Koelz (Olivet '15, Ph.D. Michigan '20) in furtherance of his monographic study of that group. Koelz was appointed Curator of Fishes by the Regents in December, 1919, but left the following March to take a position with the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. Carl Leavitt Hubbs (Stanford '16, Ph.D. Michigan '27), a student of Charles Henry Gilbert and protégé of David Starr Jordan at Stanford, assumed the curatorship in July, 1920, and the present Division of Fishes, with its unrivaled collection of North American freshwater fishes and excellent synoptic representation of other faunas, is largely a monument to his untiring energy, enthusiasm, and ability.

There was no room for another collection in the overcrowded old Museum Building. Instead, temporary and often makeshift quarters were found. Two rooms provided in the new Natural Science Building in 1919 were outgrown by 1921, and the collections were moved to the Museum Annex, a frame house on East University Avenue, then into rooms in the old Medical Building, and once more into the Natural Science Building. In spite of handicaps the collections grew rapidly. The first concern was to build up the Michigan collection, and the first two years were devoted to this objective.

Of the more than 50,000 specimens accessioned for 1922-23, some 18,000 were taken by Hubbs in California, a large collection was obtained in North Dakota by T. L. Hankinson, Professor at the Michigan State Normal College and a long-time collaborator, and approximately 20,000 specimens from Michigan or the Great Lakes were received through the co-operation of the United States Bureau of Fisheries and by the field work of Hubbs and his students. Hubbs had remarkable success in obtaining active co-operation from other individuals and institutions, in large part because of the essential aid he provided in making taxonomic determinations and the sound practical suggestions which he was able and willing to give to workers on fishery problems and surveys. As a consequence the division became a repository for many of the collections made by state surveys, the Great Lakes section of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, and many independent workers. The co-operation with the Michigan Department of Conservation and the Great Lakes Division of the Bureau of Fisheries has continued to be especially close and important.

In 1925 Jan Metzelaar (Sc.D. Amsterdam '19), fishery expert for the Michigan Department of Conservation, was made Honorary Custodian of Michigan Fishes, in recognition of his work with the Fish Division since 1923. This continued until his untimely death, by drowning, in 1929 while engaged in fishery investigations. In 1927 Mrs Laura C. Hubbs received appointment as Cataloguer of Fishes, in view of her work as a volunteer, and in 1929 Walter Koelz returned as Assistant Curator of Fishes.

Hubbs organized the Institute for Fisheries Research in 1930 under the sponsorship and with the support of the Michigan Department of Conservation and was its director until 1935, as well as Curator of the Fish Division.

Page  1514Koelz resigned as Assistant Curator to accept the post of Ichthyologist in the Institute, and Carroll Willard Greene ('25, Ph.D. '34) was made Assistant Curator.

Hubbs's broad interest in the evolution and systematics of fish had brought him in contact with the problem of hybridization in nature, a question of great theoretical importance in systematics and evolution and one that is particularly pertinent and pressing in ichthyology. In 1927 he began a series of breeding experiments to test the possibilities, limits, and results of crossing taxonomically distinct forms, experiments that were soon expanded to the capacity of the aquarium room in the new building. The long series of aquarium investigations, in which Mrs. Hubbs and his graduate students were important collaborators, was supplemented by extensive and detailed analyses of hybridization in nature, based upon studies of many extensive series and of ecological and geographic factors. These investigations, continued until 1944, resulted in a number of publications of marked importance in general systematics and evolutionary theory as well as in fish taxonomy.

The studies on hybridization did not lessen the other activities of the division. The collections continued to expand with attention both to taxonomic representation and to the correlation of distribution with present and former drainage systems. Staff and student publications on this accumulating material appeared as reports on regional faunas and on ecological and geographic distribution, as descriptions of new forms and groups, and as taxonomic revisions of genera and families.

In 1930 Greene resigned as Assistant Curator and was replaced by John Greeley (Cornell '25, Ph.D. ibid. '30), until 1934, when he became ichthyologist for the New York Department of Conservation. He was replaced by Miltion Bernhard Trautman, who resigned in 1939 to accept a post with the Franz Theodore Stone Laboratory at Put-in-Bay, Ohio. The position of Assistant Curator was not continued after Trautman's resignation; instead, provision was increased for graduate assistantships. Hubbs resigned in 1944 and accepted a professorship of biology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at La Jolla, California, having served twenty-four years as Curator of Fishes. In that time the collections had grown from 5,000 to almost 2,100,000 specimens, the Museum had become the outstanding center for the systematics of North American fishes, and more than forty graduate students had received training in ichthyology or fishery biology.

Reeve Maclaren Bailey ('33, Ph.D. '38), who had been assistant professor at Iowa State College and head of the Iowa Fisheries Research Unit, was appointed Associate Curator to replace Hubbs in 1944, and William Alonzo Gosline III (Harvard '38, Ph.D. Stanford '41) was added to the staff as Assistant Curator in 1945. Bailey was promoted to Curator in 1948, and, also in 1948, when Gosline resigned to accept a professorship in zoology at the University of Hawaii, Robert Rush Miller (California, '38, Ph.D. Michigan '44), formerly associate curator at the National Museum, was appointed Associate Curator.

Both Bailey and Miller were trained in the Hubbs tradition, having completed their doctorates under his direction. They have continued the program of staff and student research based upon the rich store of material and have carried on extensive field explorations to fill gaps in geographic, ecological, and taxonomic coverage.

Insects. — The organization of this collection dates from 1913, when Frederick M. Gaige became the Assistant in Page  1515Charge of Insects. Two honorary appointments had already been made in entomology: Dr. William W. Newcomb, Honorary Curator of Lepidoptera in 1909, and Arthur W. Andrews, Associate in Entomology in 1912. Both Newcomb and Andrews were enthusiastic students of Michigan insects and were eager to help build up the Museum's collections as soon as the specimens could be assured of proper care. Aside from a small series of Michigan moths, butterflies, and beetles contributed by Newcomb, Andrews, and other members of the Detroit Natural History Club, there were a few incidental collections of insects made by earlier Museum field parties, some remnants of the old Beal-Steere collections of the 1870's, an extensive collection of Philippine insects presented to the Museum by Professor E. M. Ledyard of the University of the Philippines, and the ants taken by Gaige in the 1912 expeditions to the Charity Islands in Lake Huron and the Maggie Basin in Nevada.

In 1913, however, two immediate objectives were established. One was an adequate representation of the Michigan insect fauna, the other a comprehensive collection of the ants, the group which Gaige had chosen for his own research. As a member of the 1913 and 1914 expeditions to Colombia and British Guiana, respectively, Gaige began the Museum's extensive collections of neotropical ants. The Newcomb expedition to the Davis Mountains of Texas in 1914 paid especial attention to securing ants, Lepidoptera, and beetles, and in 1915 the field party sent to Schoolcraft County in the Upper Peninsula included three entomologists in addition to Gaige and Andrews.

In 1916 a Division of Insects was created with Gaige as Curator, and E. B. Williamson was appointed Honorary Curator of Odonata. Williamson was a well-known amateur authority on the Odonata; he had already given much help in the determination of the dragonfly material and shared the Museum's great interest in the neotropical fauna. The general pattern for the development of the division was beginning to take a definite form. The ants and dragonflies were to be studied on a world-wide basis with especial attention to North America and the neotropical region. For other insects the special concern was to be the Michigan fauna. Both goals were ambitious ones and were necessarily planned as accumulative projects. The most rapid progress on the Michigan fauna was in the butterflies and moths, beetles, and various conspicuous families of other orders, such as the cicadas, bumblebees, robberflies, and horseflies, in which the cordial co-operation of outside specialists such as W. T. Davis, T. H. Frison, and J. S. Hine was available. The accession of specimens was not, of course, limited to the above groups. Insects of nearly all orders were collected and preserved with the proper field data, to be stored unworked for the day when a competent investigator would undertake their study, and several such workers were in time found or trained. In 1918 J. Speed Rogers, who as a member of the Schoolcraft expedition of 1915 had begun the study of the craneflies, was made Honorary Associate Curator of Diptera. T. H. Hubbell, as a student Aid in Entomology, 1919-22, developed an enduring interest in the Orthoptera that was to result eventually in the Museum's outstanding research collection in that group. At about that time, Roland F. Hussey, a student in the Department of Zoology, began work on the Hemiptera and as a member of several field expeditions and by much collecting about Ann Arbor developed a very respectable representation of the Michigan Hemiptera. Melville T. Hatch, another student of entomology in the Department of Page  1516Zoology and a specialist in the Coleoptera, collected intensively about Ann Arbor and in Cheboygan County and gave much aid in the determination and arrangement of the beetle collection.

The rapid growth of the division brought difficulties. Despite the small size of an individual insect the material was beginning to overflow all available space in the old Museum. Fortunately, several of the honorary curators were able to provide quarters for their rapidly growing accessions until the new museum building became available, and for several years perhaps less than half of the annual accessions were actually deposited in the Museum. In 1926 Sherman Moore, an engineer of the United States Lake Survey, was made Honorary Associate Curator of Lepidoptera. He had already given much attention to the collection and to the study of moths and butterflies of the Great Lakes region, and eventually (1952) was to complete the critical determination and arrangement of the extensive collection of Michigan Lepidoptera.

The year 1929-30 brought many important changes, one of them unforeseen and unplanned. Gaige was made Director of the Museum of Zoology while still holding his curatorship, an increasing responsibility that gradually brought an end to his work on ants. E. B. Williamson, who had retired from his profession as a banker, accepted a full-time position as Research Associate in Odonata, and Professor Samuel A. Graham was appointed honorary Research Associate. The years 1928-33 were notable for the tremendous development of the Odonata collections and active research on this group. Williamson's own private collection, perhaps the most extensive in North America, was given to the Museum, and the combined collections were further expanded by an energetic program of field work. Leonora K. Gloyd was made Assistant in Odonata, and in 1932 Justin W. Leonard began his doctoral problem under Williamson's direction on a group of the neotropical dragonflies.

Williamson's death in 1933 was a severe loss to the division. Mrs. Gloyd, who continued to care for the collection until 1938, completed one of Williamson's unfinished papers and carried on a number of studies of her own. Leonard completed his doctoral dissertation in 1937 under Gaige's direction.

In 1935 T. H. Hubbell was made Honorary Associate Curator of Orthoptera in recognition of his already important research and the extensive collection of North American Orthoptera he was establishing in the Museum.

From the mid-thirties until 1946 the division was concerned chiefly with the development of the Michigan collections. Particularly intensive studies were carried on at the Edwin S. George Reserve, with Sherman Moore, Wilbur MacAlpine, W. F. Lawler, G. W. Rawson, W. C. Stinson, and J. H. Newman, working on Lepidoptera, Andrews on Coleoptera, Irving J. Cantrall on the Orthoptera, Rogers on the craneflies, and George Steyskal on the higher Diptera. All of these men except Cantrall and Rogers were members of the Detroit Natural History Club or its successor, the Detroit Entomological Club, and competent amateur specialists in the groups they studied. Irving James Cantrall ('35, Ph.D. '40), a graduate student who was engaged on a doctoral problem on the ecology of the Orthoptera under Hubbell, in 1949 became Curator of the Reserve. The extensive collections of Orthoptera and of craneflies grew rapidly, but were to a large extent either in the laboratories of their nonresident honorary curators or in compact storage in the Insect Division. From the date of Gaige's resignation in 1945 until January Page  15171, 1947, the division was in the charge and under the efficient care of Ada L. Olson, Senior Technical Assistant in Entomology, who maintained cooperation with the honorary curators and other collaborators.

In July, 1946, Professor Theodore Huntington Hubbell ('21, Ph.D. '34), of the Department of Biology of the University of Florida, was appointed Curator of Insects, effective January 1, 1947, and under his direction marked progress has been made in reorganizing the collections, determining a great backlog of unworked material through the aid of specialists, and meeting the problems of expanding collections and limited storage facilities. J. Speed Rogers, in his research and teaching, since 1947 has been a member of the division and has shared with the curator responsibility for active resumption of staff and student research on insects. Although emphasis is on the Orthoptera and craneflies, graduate students are carrying on studies in ants and dragonflies. A system of summer curatorships has been established, whereby recognized specialists can be brought to the University to study and arrange the Museum's collections in insect groups outside the competence of the resident or honorary staff. This makes authoritatively determined specimens available for reference and teaching and leads to the publication of research papers based on the Museum's collections. Dr. F. N. Young of Indiana University has spent two summers on the water beetles, Dr. Roland F. Hussey of the University of Florida two summers on the Hemiptera, and Mrs. Leonora K. Gloyd of the Illinois Natural History Survey a summer on the Odonata. The collection of Odonata again has been greatly augmented. In 1951-52, the Museum acquired the huge collection of dragonflies and the magnificent Odonata library of Dr. Clarence H. Kennedy of Ohio State University. The combined Williamson and Kennedy collections form an unrivaled archive of dragonfly taxonomy and distributional data and, though at present relatively inactive, constitute the chief of the Museum's outstanding research series of insects, the others being the Orthoptera, craneflies, and ants.

Mollusks. — A mollusk collection had existed since the Beal-Steere expedition of the 1870's but, except for a few gifts of small and miscellaneous lots of specimens, was dormant until 1903. Then, with the inauguration of a vigorous program of field work by Adams, a steady influx of material began. The renascent Museum soon attracted a series of gifts, notably from and through Bryant Walker of Detroit, an amateur student of mollusks who had gained an international reputation as an authority on the North American land and fresh-water fauna.

In 1909 Walker was made Honorary Curator of Mollusca and in 1912 was given an honorary degree in recognition of his outstanding contribution to a knowledge of the classification and distribution of North American mollusks. Mina Winslow (Smith '13, M.A. Michigan '16) was added to the staff as Scientific Assistant in 1916, and the formal organization of the collections was begun.

Another skilled amateur student, Calvin Goodrich of Toledo, Ohio, in 1917 was made Honorary Associate Curator. A Division of Mollusks was set up in 1918 with Miss Winslow as Curator, and through the generosity of Mr. Goodrich, Miss Doreen Potter was employed as a student assistant in the division. Policies for the development of the division included the amassing of a collection of Michigan mollusks with attention to local and ecological distribution, the development of a synoptic representation of the mollusk fauna of Page  1518the world, and the accumulation of ample series in the groups selected for intensive study.

Both Walker and Goodrich had an important part in the researches of the division and produced a notable series of important papers on the classification and distribution of North American mollusks. Miss Winslow was largely concerned with the Michigan fauna, and, in addition to much important work on faunal lists and bibliographies, she added materially to a knowledge of the state's fauna and its distribution. She also gave attention to the synoptic collection of the world fauna and by visits to European museums and an expedition to South Africa arranged many important exchanges and made extensive additions to the collection.

Miss Winslow resigned in 1929, and Goodrich, who had recently retired from newspaper work, was made Curator; Henry van der Schalie, then a graduate student in malacology, was appointed Assistant. That year also brought an end to Walker's long collaboration in the researches of the division and to his even longer career as a malacologist. Goodrich's first report as Curator of Mollusks (in the Report of the Director for 1929-1930) ends with the following paragraph:

Because of illness, Dr. Bryant Walker — for the only twelve months in forty-one years — has been unable to add to his writings upon mollusca. Dr. Walker's first paper, written in collaboration with Mr. C. E. Beecher, appeared in the Proceedings of the Ann Arbor Scientific Association for 1875-76, and in 1879 he published the first of his several catalogues of Michigan mollusks, but it was not until 1889 that he began upon the scarce interrupted begetting of papers.

Walker never fully regained his health and died in May, 1936. His collections and library were willed to the division: 100,000 lots of shells and 1,500 volumes. This bequest was a major factor in giving the division its outstanding position as a center for research and instruction in malacology.

In 1931 Allan F. Archer began graduate work in mollusks under Goodrich and served as a voluntary assistant in the division until 1936, when he completed his doctorate and was appointed Assistant. He resigned in 1937 to accept a Rackham fellowship. In 1934 Henry van der Schalie (Calvin College '29, Ph.D. Michigan '34) was made Assistant Curator. On Goodrich's retirement in 1944 with the title of Curator Emeritus, van der Schalie was made Curator. His curatorship has been marked by important changes in the division. The program of graduate teaching has been greatly expanded, and a course and a seminar in malacology have been established. He and his students have continued to develop the collection but with several important changes in emphasis. There is concern with life histories and ecology, a revival of interest in the Michigan fauna, and active collaboration with public health agencies in relation to control of snail-borne diseases.

Publications. — The publications of the Museum of Zoology are in two main series — the Occasional Papers and the Miscellaneous Publications — made possible by funds donated by Walker, Swales, and Newcomb. The Occasional Papers, begun in 1913, are based principally on the Museum collections. The papers are issued to libraries and specialists. More than 570 have appeared. The Miscellaneous Publications are monographic studies and other contributions not within the scope of the Occasional Papers. More than ninety have been published. Other Museum publications are in the Michigan Handbook Series.

Page  1519

Adams, Charles C.Report of the Curator of the University Museum … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1903-6.
Ark, The. Ann Arbor: Museum of Zoology, 1922-32.
Gaige, Frederick M.Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1929-34.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-54.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1954.
Rogers, J. Speed. Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1947-54.
Ruthven, Alexander G.A Naturalist in a University Museum. Ann Arbor: Privately Printed, 1931.
Ruthven, Alexander G.Report of the Director of the Museum of Zoology. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1913-29.
Ruthven, Alexander G.Report of the Head Curator of the University Museum … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1907-12. (Title varies.)
The University Museums Building of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1929.


THE mineral collections of the University of Michigan had an unusual beginning. One of the first acquisitions by the Board of Regents, purchased in 1838 for $4,000, was the Baron L. Lederer Mineral Collection, consisting of about 2,600 specimens, chiefly from European countries. Thus, before there were any students or classrooms, the University had a mineral collection. In spite of our knowledge concerning this early beginning, a period of sixty years followed about which very little is known. Record books still exist, in which the various items of the Lederer Collection were catalogued, and in which succeeding acquisitions were listed.

Many of the early entries bear the names of Douglass Houghton (A.M. and M.D. Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. '29), the first to be appointed Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in 1839, and of Silas Hamilton Douglass (A.M. hon. Vermont '47), who succeeded Houghton after his death. The name of Alexander Winchell (Wesleyan '47, LL.D. ibid. '67), Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany, occurs many times. One record book lists the mineral collection of Theodore N. Chase, with more than two hundred entries. The name Van Vechten appears repeatedly, especially in connection with minerals from California.

When Edward Henry Kraus (Syracuse '96, LL.D. ibid. '34, Ph.D. Munich '01) first came to the University in 1904 as Assistant Professor of Mineralogy, the mineral collections were in the basement of Tappan Hall, where the Mineralogy Department was housed. The six large cases in which the main collection was displayed were not new at that time. These same cases still contain the major part of the minerals which are on public display in Room 2071 of the Natural Science Building.

After 1900 there was a steady growth in the collections, including mineralogical, petrological, and crystallographic specimens. In addition to the general systematic collection, various special collections are worthy of mention. These include the Frederick S. Stearns Collection of Gems, given to the University in 1931-32, and valued at $10,000. This consists of both cut and uncut material. A part of it is on display with other gem material in a special case. The W. R. Candler Collection of Agates is on view in one of the second-floor corridor cases. Of particular interest are several hundred meteorites given over the years by Page  1520Stuart H. Perry, of Adrian. Some of the larger specimens are on exhibit. A fine collection of polished slabs of domestic and foreign marbles and other rocks and a remarkable collection of sulfur and associated minerals from Sicily are also worthy of mention. A unique collection of antarctic rocks, both from the Byrd Antarctic Expedition (1928-30) and others, is not on display, but is available for research and classroom use.

Various individuals have been interested in the mineral collections, and have done much to improve them. Lucius Lee Hubbard, state geologist (1883-99) and Regent of the University of Michigan (1911-33), was very active in his support of the collections, both in his official capacity as Regent, and as a donor of many fine specimens from the copper country in northern Michigan. William Bennett Colburn, formerly of Detroit, did much to improve the arrangement of the collections. He also was the donor of many specimens and was helpful in obtaining the Stearns Collection of Gems for the University. He was given the title of Honorary Associate Curator in 1933.

When the Geology Museum in the Natural Science Building was discontinued in 1943, many specimens of minerals and rocks were turned over to the Department of Mineralogy. These made a very fine addition to the mineral collections.

During the course of a recent investigation of micas, sponsored by the United States Signal Corps, an outstanding collection of analyzed specimens of micas from all over the world has been acquired.

Field trips to various localities by members of the staff have resulted in many acquisitions. Important among these were the specimens collected by E. William Heinrich (Iowa State '40, M.S. Harvard '42, Ph.D. Harvard '47), Associate Professor of Mineralogy and Curator of the Mineralogical Collections, while in Europe in 1950. At the same time he arranged exchanges with various European institutions which resulted in the addition of specimens from many important European countries.

A large part of the collections is not on display, chiefly because of lack of space. This material, however, is available for study and research. In addition, thousands of rock and mineral specimens are used in the teaching program. These include special collections housed in the lecture rooms, where they are easily available for demonstration, and much larger collections used in the laboratories.

In addition to the mineral and rock specimens, the collections include many crystal models. Large glass models of all possible crystal forms and cardboard models illustrating the crystal forms observed on common minerals are available for lecture demonstration. More than a thousand small wooden models are available in the laboratory for the study of crystallography.

The collections also include many thin sections of rocks and minerals, including ores and polished specimens for study with the microscope; lantern slides, both black and white and in color, illustrating many different phases of mineralogy; and numerous photographs. Of special interest among the latter are a series of scenes of diamond recovery in the early days at Kimberley.

Page  1521


The Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments, which comprises some 1,500 pieces, is housed in the second-floor lobby of Hill Auditorium. Until new or different accommodations can be obtained the collection may be visited only during such times as the building is open for public functions.

The main body of the collection was a gift from Frederick Stearns (1831-1907), a Detroit manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, whose philanthropy greatly benefited the University over a period of many years. The instruments were first offered to the University in October, 1898, and the gift was gratefully accepted by the Board of Regents at their January, 1899, meeting:

Resolved, That the thanks of this Board be returned to Frederick Stearns, Esq., of Detroit, for his gift to the University of his very valuable collection of musical instruments, which represent the musical art of several centuries and of many lands, and that we have pleasure in complying with his request to place the collection in a fire-proof room in the Museum.

Resolved, That we also thank Mr. Stearns for the further gift of new cases in which to install the collection.

(R.P. 1896-1901, p. 342.)

At that time, the exhibit numbered 904 pieces and was described as "one of the best classified collections in the possession of any institution or individual in any country" (Angell Papers, Vol. 24). Stearns estimated the value of his instruments to be at least $25,000. Since the collection was established, it has been enlarged by further gifts from Stearns and other individuals.

The collection, first exhibited in the University Museum, was moved to Hill Auditorium in 1914. During the next several years Professor Albert A. Stanley (1851-1932) performed a monumental task in developing the present display, reclassifying the instruments, and publishing a catalogue of the collection. The exhibit has remained almost untouched since Stanley's time.

Although the group was once considered one of the world's most important instrument collections, its reputation has diminished in recent years. Lack of upkeep, of use, and of important additions has contributed to this.

The collection is often criticized for its failure to include "genuine" antiques and outstanding instruments of certain types. It should be noted that Stearns's intention was to illustrate the evolution of musical instruments and to present the amazing varieties and forms that were created by peoples from the past. That Stearns was not primarily concerned with establishing a museum of priceless antiques is revealed in his letter of presentation. He stated: "While none of the instruments is of especial interest historically … the collection very completely represents all classes, genera, and species" (Angell Papers, Vol. 24). Although Stearns succeeded admirably in his aim, some of the pieces which were accumulated are frankly freaks, curiosities, or hybrids, a fact which he himself recognized.

Outstanding among the instruments is an early seventeenth-century Italian octavina (No. 1334), designated as "Spinetta. Eighteenth century." Professor Stanley's description says, "The instrument proper lifts out of the beautifully decorated case. An artistically cut rose ornaments the sounding board. Compass: three octaves and one note… Page  1522This beautiful instrument was at one time erroneously attributed to the celebrated maker, Hans Rücker, of Antwerp." This octavina was restored in 1950 by John Challis, a famous American harpsichord maker. At present, it is the only keyboard instrument in the collection in condition to be used for performance. A letter by Challis, included with the instrument on its return to the display, provides further description and documentation:

Like many old musical instruments, this one has been through many repairs done by often times unskilled or careless workmen. Fortunately, no serious damage was done to it and the results of bungling workmanship could be removed and carefully restored.

The instrument is of Italian workmanship style and wood. It was constructed around 1600. The outer ornamental case is of recent construction (c. 1900). It [has been] carefully cleaned and covered with two coats of varnish to protect the painting and gilding.

The sides and soundboard of the instrument itself are made of Italian cypress. Several replacements had to be made where earlier repairs were badly done. The keys of boxwood and walnut are mostly original some having been replaced by earlier workmen. The old jacks were so badly damaged that they were not usable. New ones had to be made.

Certain compromises in the interest of future upkeep and stability in the American climate were considered advisable such as drilling the tuning pins, long hitch pins, and keying the fragile corner joints of the instrument.

No name or date of the original maker could be found on either interior or exterior of the instrument. Craftsmen's names in those days were considered of little interest or value.

This instrument is a virginal or spinet and more accurately called an octavina because it is to be tuned an octave higher than regular pitch. Modern pitch of A-440 fits its scaling and stringing.


John Challis
1 August, 1950

Catalogue descriptions of other instruments worthy of note include:

  • 768. OLIPHANT. Carved ivory.....France The surface is covered with beautiful carvings, including medallion portraits of Francis I, Henry II, and Francis II. It has a cup mouthpiece. It is too large to have served as an actual hunting horn.
  • 1037. LIUTO.....Italy Pear-shaped body of fluted strips of red wood. Flat sound-board, with ornamented rosette sound-hole. The neck — flat and inlaid with ivory — bends at an acute angle. Nine pairs of fine wire strings. A type made familiar by the great Italian painters.
  • 1277. VIOLINO.....Italy This differs from the usual type in that the strings are tightened by a metal device. A similar device in use on other bowed instruments may have suggested its application, but whether by the maker whose name appears below, or by some other, is an open question. Signed — "Nicolaus Amatus, Cremonen. Hieronyme filius antonii nepos, fecit, 1670."
  • 1296A. VIOLA D'AMORE.....Italy, or France This beautiful instrument, of the seventeenth century, exhibits the rare workmanship characteristic of early Italian and French makers, and is the choicest example of its type in the Collection. The top of the body — with C sound-holes — is purfled with ivory and ebony inlay, and the back carries a representation of a shepherdess surrounded with scroll-work designs. The curved peg-box ends in a carving of a man's head. Six bowed strings run over a finger-board of ebony, inlaid with boxwood in an artistic design, to a tail-piece of like material and decoration. Six sympathetic strings occupy their usual positions.

The most popular single piece, an automatic clarinet player (No. 644) from Germany, more logically belongs Page  1523in a mechanical exhibition. This curiosity, once the property of J. P. Barnum, is one of the many mechanical music-makers created by nineteenth-century technicians. Stanley comments:

The original gay habiliments vanished in the fire which destroyed its home, Barnum's Museum, New York, and, as the mechanism was wrecked, it is impossible to give any information as to its repertoire. The brass clarinet, in three sections, is 36 cm. long, and the diameter of the bell is 12.5 cm. The wind was furnished by a bellows run by clock work, which also governed the movement of the keys, of which two are in the bell section.

Friedrich Kaufman, of Dresden (1785-1866), invented a number of such automatic players, and it is probable that this automaton was made by his son, Friedrich Theodor (1823-1872), who developed the Orchestrion — in 1851 — from an earlier instrument devised by his father.

The collection still successfully accomplishes its main objective: to exhibit musical instruments of all times and all peoples. In particular, the primitive types and the brass and woodwind groups are well represented. The recent growth of musicological studies has created an interest in the principal performance mediums of past ages and, in turn, in the collection itself. As a consequence certain weaknesses, such as the lack of viols and certain keyboard instruments, have become apparent. The chief needs are playable pieces of the following kinds: viols (all sizes), vielles, viola d'amore, clavichord, and a piano suitable for performance of late eighteenth-century music. The acquisition of these would aid in restoring the Stearns Collection to a position of importance and usefulness.

Future plans call for the adoption of more modern methods of display and for the reconditioning of most of the instruments, at least of their visual features. When this is accomplished, special exhibits can be inaugurated so that this valuable resource will be more useful as an educational force in the University and in the community.


The James B. Angell Papers, MS, Vols. XV, XXII, and XXIV.
Guide to the Michigan Historical Collections. 2 vols. Detroit, 1941-42.
In Memoriam Frederick Stearns. [n.p., 1907?]
MS, Letter from John Challis, dated August 1, 1950.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1901.
Stanley, Albert A.Catalogue of the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1918. Second edition in 1921.
Stanley, Albert A."The Value of a Collection of Musical Instruments in University Instruction,"Proceedings of the Music Teachers' National Association, III (1908): 78-95.
Stanley, Albert A. Papers.Page  [1524]