The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
Page  1413

THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS

In June, 1858, the Regents of the University of Michigan placed $200 at the disposal of the President for the publication of Tables of Victoria (an asteroid), by Professor Francis Brünnow, the first Director of the University Observatory. If they had at the same time established a university press to issue the book, it would have been the first university press in this country. As it is, this action may be regarded as the earliest episode in the history of the present University of Michigan Press, and as significant of the publishing policy of the University, through whatever agency its books have been issued; for that policy has very definitely been to publish works of a scholarly character.

It was almost a half century later before any further action of a significant and lasting nature was taken in the field of University publication. This was the establishment in 1902 of the standing committee of the University Senate on publication of University studies. There was, to be sure, a certain amount of publication in the intervening years; much of it, however, was of a semiofficial nature, presumably not subsidized by the University, and that to which the University itself put its name was for the most part its catalogues, pamphlets containing commencement addresses, and occasional anniversary volumes, such as the proceedings of the semicentennial celebration of 1887 and of the quarter-centennial of Dr. Angell's presidency in 1896.

A listing of the semiofficial publications issued in the latter part of the nineteenth century has been included by Esther Anne Smith in her bibliography, University of Michigan Publications Containing Material of a Scientific or Learned Character (1922), which forms the second volume of the General Library Publications. Several among them are noteworthy for their length of life and the distinction of those who contributed to them. The Publications of the Michigan Political Science Association, for example, appeared in six volumes between 1893 and 1905, and numbered Thomas M. Cooley, Henry Carter Adams, Harry B. Hutchins, Fred M. Taylor, B. A. Hinsdale, and Richard Hudson among its authors. Nine Contributions to Rhetorical Theory, edited by Fred Newton Scott, were issued between 1895 and 1918, the last three being published by the University itself. Two series of Philosophical Papers, dated between 1886 and 1888, bore such names as George Sylvester Morris, Calvin Thomas, W. H. Payne, Henry Sewall, John Dewey, Alexander Winchell, and E. L. Walter on their title pages. There were also a short-lived Michigan University Medical Journal (1870-73), and the Bulletin of the Electro-therapeutic Laboratory (1894-97), and some of the departments began during this period the practice of collecting in annual volumes the papers which their members had published in the professional journals. The most lasting of all these publications, however, was that which still survives as The Michigan Technic; it began (1882-85) as Selected Papers Read before the Engineering Society of the University of Michigan, became The Technic in 1888 and The Michigan Technic in 1902.

Desultory as it was, this publishing activity on the part of the faculty is evidence that by the turn of the century the time had come for a more definite and permanent arrangement. Professor Francis W. Kelsey deserves much of the credit for what was then done. At the Regents' meeting of July, 1900, he presented Page  1414a statement to the effect that it would be expedient for the University to publish a series of works to be written by certain professors. This was referred to a committee and nothing more about it appears in the record. At the University Senate meeting of May, 1902, however, the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts submitted a proposal to establish a series of University Studies, and on motion of Professor Kelsey a committee, including President Angell and Professors W. Beman, H. S. Carhart, and R. M. Wenley, was appointed to study the question and make a report. This report, presented to the Senate on June 2, 1902, included two resolutions, which the Senate adopted. The first of them was to the effect that "it is expedient for the University to issue a series of publications in separate volumes to appear from time to time, when, in the judgment of a committee of the Senate appointed to consider the worth of the papers presented, suitable matter is offered through members of the faculties and when provision is made by the Regents, or otherwise, to meet the expenses of the publication." The second stated that the papers offered through Professor Kelsey were suitable for a volume, and that as the means of publication were provided Professor Kelsey should be authorized to proceed with the publication, which was to be under the title "University of Michigan Studies" with a suitable subtitle — a form which has ever since been retained for the Humanistic Series and the Scientific Series, though under arrangements made later the other series form subtitles under the general heading "University of Michigan Publications."

The committee authorized by the first of these resolutions was announced by President Angell in December, 1902, as consisting of Professors M. L. D'Ooge, V. C. Vaughan, I. N. Demmon, A. G. Canfield, and R. M. Wenley, and in the spring of 1903, with President Angell and Professor Kelsey also present, it authorized the publication of Volume I of the Humanistic Series in the form in which it later appeared. As the Standing Committee on Publication of University Studies, this committee is listed in the University catalogues from 1908-9 through 1914-15. In 1912-13 President Harry B. Hutchins' name is included as chairman and Professor Kelsey took the place of Professor D'Ooge, who had just retired; but otherwise the original members continued to serve throughout the committee's existence.

Volume I of the Humanistic Series was published in 1904. Most of the earlier volumes of this series, and in fact many of the later ones, were published with funds given to the University for the purpose, but in 1906, when the second volume of the series was in preparation, the Regents appropriated $350 — later increased to $500 — from University funds to aid in the project, and this precedent was followed, although not consistently, in the publication of several succeeding volumes. It was at least a foreshadowing of the provision made in University budgets of later years for the support of scholarly publication.

The Standing Committee on Publication of University Studies continued to sponsor the books issued by the University until June, 1913, when its functions were transferred by the Regents, on recommendation of the Senate, to the Executive Board of the newly organized Graduate School. By this time six volumes of the Humanistic Series had appeared, the seventh was in preparation, and the first three volumes of a second series — History and Political Science — had been published in the successive years 1911, 1912, and 1913. The first of this latter series, Dr. Mary L. Hinsdale's A History of the President'sPage  1415Cabinet, was underwritten to the extent of $450 by Regent William L. Clements.

Graduate School management of University publications lasted until 1930, when the University Press was formally established, and thereafter, until March, 1935, the Executive Board retained the responsibility for accepting or rejecting scholarly manuscripts. In November, 1913, the Regents clarified their action giving the Executive Board of the Graduate School the authority formerly exercised by the Senate Committee on Publication of University Studies by stating that it was to be interpreted (a) as referring to all scholarly publications published or distributed under the auspices of the University or of any of its departments, (b) as entrusting to the Executive Board the ultimate financial and editorial management of such publications, including the solicitation of funds, the execution of contracts with authors and publishers, and the distribution and sale of publications, and (c) as including the control of existing funds and the general management of publications which had previously appeared.

Under this charter the two already existing series were continued, and several new ones began. The first volume of the Scientific Series appeared in 1914, the first of the Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters in 1921, the Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology in 1924, the Language and Literature Series in 1925, and the Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museums in 1928. For many years, following an arrangement made by Professor Kelsey, University of Michigan publications bore the imprint of the Macmillan Company and were listed in Macmillan catalogues; after 1908, however, the General Library handled the stock and sales.

In 1922 the University acquired its first full-time editor of scholarly publications, in the person of Dr. Eugene S. McCartney, a competent classical scholar who had completed both his undergraduate course and his study for the Ph.D. at the University of Pennsylvania and who had taught at the University of Texas, Northwestern University, and elsewhere. Increasing deafness influenced Dr. McCartney to give up teaching in favor of editorial work, and for thirty-two years the scholarly publications had the advantage of his singular appreciation for consistency of form and nicety of expression.

The Regents' statement concerning the extent of the powers granted to the Graduate School in connection with publications implies that in addition to the series sponsored by the University itself there were others for which departments of the University were responsible. This was indeed the case. The Michigan Technic, with its beginnings in 1882, could be called the oldest of these, except that it is primarily a student-managed publication; the Michigan Law Review, established in 1902-3, is edited jointly by faculty and students. The Publications of the Observatory of the University, which date from 1912, is a departmental publication, and so too are the two series sponsored by the Museum of Zoology, the Occasional Papers and the Miscellaneous Publications. Both of these series were founded by Dr. Bryant Walker, Mr. Bradshaw H. Swales, and Dr. W. W. Newcomb, the former in 1913 and the latter in 1916, and by 1954 more than 560 Occasional Papers and 87 Miscellaneous Publications had been issued. The Publications of the General Library had their beginning in 1919 and include eight volumes. After 1920 a number of other departmental series came into existence, which will be enumerated later.

It was largely because of the multiplication Page  1416of departmental publications that the University of Michigan Press was created in 1930. The General Library stocked and sold all the publications sponsored by the University itself, but orders for the departmentally sponsored books and pamphlets were filled at a dozen or more museum, school, or departmental offices, a situation which caused great inconvenience whenever a single order included items in different series. President Ruthven summarized the existing difficulties in his proposal for the establishment of the Press, which was submitted to the Regents February 7, 1930, and was approved by them:

For several years there have been suggestions on the Campus and from the alumni that the University of Michigan should establish a press. There has been considerable misunderstanding as to what was meant by the term and several of its advocates have not been able to distinguish between the three functions of a publishing concern, the managerial, including contracts, distribution, and so forth, the editorial, and the printing. I am not in favor of having a printing plant at the University. The experience of publishing houses goes to show that the work can be done as economically by contract and that there is endless trouble with a printing establishment.

On the other hand, there is great need for better organization of our publishing activities. New bulletins are started and old publications are discontinued and brought to life again with no one to supervise numbering, general style, and cost.

I suggest that the University immediately organize its publications under the general name, The University of Michigan Press, and that Dr. Frank E. Robbins be given the additional title of Managing Editor, with the understanding that he will have general supervision of University publications, with duties similar to those of managing editors in the various publishing houses, and that details of organization will be worked out later.

I am convinced that a simple organization of this kind, which will permit us to use the caption The University of Michigan Press, and which will co-ordinate the large number of publications now being issued, will very much improve the conditions now prevailing.


(R.P., 1929-32, pp. 185-86.)

The organization which evolved and was approved by the Regents in April, 1931, placed the affairs of the Press in the charge of an administrative committee of five (the Managing Editor, the Vice-President and Secretary of the University or his representative, and three faculty members appointed by the President), of which the Managing Editor was the executive officer. Its function was "to promote publication by and in behalf of the University, to determine policies relative to publications, to supervise all publication … and to approve all expenditures for publication…" The Executive Board of the Graduate School was to continue providing for the scholarly publications in its budget, and to retain its function of accepting or rejecting manuscripts, but the editing, manufacture, and publication of the books were to be supervised by the Administrative Committee of the Press. Since for the first time the Official Publications were brought under the same management as the others, a Committee on Official Publications was provided to take charge of them, consisting of the Registrar, the Managing Editor of the Press, and a faculty representative. It was further provided that the Alumni Press — a rather short-lived organization sponsored by the Alumni Association — might under certain conditions affiliate itself with the University Press and that departmental publications should be reported annually to the Administrative Committee of the Press, but might otherwise be managed and produced as before, except that the Press would be expected to take charge of their distribution.

Page  1417This arrangement made the University Press primarily a co-ordinating and distributing agency, since important functions with regard to scholarly publications still remained with the Executive Committee of the Graduate School, and the editorial office of official publications continued to be a part of the Registrar's organization. Eventually, however, both these functions became the sole responsibility of the Press. Full responsibility for scholarly publications came first, in March, 1935, when Graduate School affairs were being reorganized in consequence of the death of Dean G. Carl Huber. The Press at that time was given the powers held by the Executive Board of the School, and the Committee on Scholarly Publications was created as the final authority to rule on the acceptability of manuscripts. The editorial office of official publications remained in the Registrar's charge until September, 1945, when it became definitely a part of the Press. Appropriate rearrangements of the budget accompanied both these changes.

At the time of the transfer of the office of official publications in September, 1945, the organization of the University of Michigan Press as a whole was modified in certain particulars. The Managing Editor's title became Director; the Administrative Committee became the Executive Committee, composed of the Director of the Press, the Vice-President in charge of business and finance (or his representative), the Director of the Library, the chairmen of the committees on official and scholarly publications, and two appointed members; and the functions of the two committees, on scholarly and official publications respectively, were defined. The membership of the Committee on Scholarly Publications was stated to be the Director of the Press and the Dean of the Graduate School, ex officio, and six faculty members representing language and literature, fine arts, social science, physical science, biological science, and the health sciences, respectively; these latter are customarily nominated by the corresponding divisions, or in default of a divisional organization by the divisional committee on research projects set up by the Graduate School.

The physical quarters of the Press and its predecessors have evolved in much the same way as the Press itself. Before the arrival of Dr. McCartney the editorship of the Humanistic Series, the most ambitious and almost the only series sponsored by the University, fell to Professor Francis W. Kelsey, and the editorial office, such as it was, was Professor Kelsey's own office, at first in the old Library Building and after 1909 in the southeast corner of the basement of Alumni Memorial Hall. When the Graduate School Office was moved from Room 9, University Hall, to a suite on the first floor of Angell Hall in 1924, Dr. McCartney was given a small room at the north end of this suite, a few years later moving to a room on the fourth floor of the same building, which he and his assistants occupied until 1952; at that time much more commodious quarters were provided for them in the east side of the basement of the Rackham Building.

The editing of official publications was, prior to its assumption by the Press, a function of the Registrar, performed in the Registrar's Office in University Hall. As more members of the Registrar's staff were assigned to editorial work, more adequate quarters were found in a basement room in Angell Hall. After several years in this location, the office was moved in 1946 into the University Press Building at 311 Maynard Street. Since 1936 Walter A. Donnelly has had charge, as Editor of Official Publications. Mr. Donnelly, who entered Page  1418the service of the University as Instructor in Rhetoric in 1924, became Editor of Museums Publications in 1929 and since 1936 has divided his time between these and the official publications.

The Press Building just mentioned came to the University in April, 1931, as the gift of Mr. Dexter M. Ferry, Jr., of Detroit, an alumnus who has taken great interest in the publishing activities of the University and who has most generously assisted them on numerous occasions. An additional gift by Mr. Ferry, together with an allocation from University funds, permitted remodeling of the building during the ensuing months. Mr. Ferry's letter stated that it was his intention that this building should house both the University Press and the Alumni Press; the latter, however, was discontinued by the Alumni Association before it could take its place in the building, and the general scheme of remodeling, therefore, was to provide on the first floor for the University's printing plant (previously in the basement of the General Library) and on the second floor for the editorial offices, storage space, and mailing room of the University Press. It was not until 1937-38, however, that the mailing room was completely outfitted and all, or nearly all, University publications could be stocked and distributed from the Press Building. Mr. Edward E. Lofberg, Superintendent of the University's Printing Office, at that time took over the supervision of sales and continued to perform this function until 1955. Similarly, it was not at once convenient to move the editorial offices away from their campus associations, and for a period Professor E. D. Mitchell was permitted to use a room on the second floor of the building for the editing of a journal in the field of recreation and camping. The suite of four rooms prepared for editorial use, however, was eventually occupied by the Office of Official Publications.

The University's support of scholarly publication was at first, as already indicated, sporadic and in small amounts appropriated to help finance specified books; gradually this was superseded by the present policy of appropriations regularly carried in the University budget for salaries of editorial personnel, current expense, and the "Scholarly Publications fund," which defrays printers' bills and certain other expenses incident to the production of books. The first sign of a change in policy was the inclusion of an item of $1,300 in the 1920-21 budget of the Graduate School for publication expenses; though the School had previously received budget appropriations, mostly of minor amounts, for the production of certain books, this was the first time that the item took on a general character. No appropriation was made in 1921-22, but in 1922-23 the amount was substantially increased, to $12,000, and thereafter it became a regular fixture of the budget, varying in amount with the prevailing circumstances and in due time transferred from its Graduate School heading to that of the University Press.

No university press, if it is truly representative of the best scholarly work of its sponsoring institution, can succeed without the aid of benefactors; this is certainly true of the University of Michigan Press and its predecessors. The first four volumes of the Humanistic Series were published at the expense of the authors, with the exception of the appropriations, already mentioned, made by the Regents, but from this point until quite recently outside contributions have supported this series. The funds for Volume V, for example, came from Mr. William H. Murphy, of Detroit, and some thirty members of the Congregational Page  1419Church of Ann Arbor, and the later volumes were thus financed: Volume VI, $350 from the Regents, the balance from Regent Peter White and the author; Volume VII, $350 from the Regents, the balance from Mr. J. M. Longyear and the author; Volumes VIII, IX, X, Mr. Charles L. Freer; Volume XI, Mr. William H. Murphy; Volume XII, Mr. Freer, Mr. Murphy, and Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan; Volumes XIII, XXI, the Freer Research and Publication Fund; Volumes XIV, XV, Mr. William H. Murphy; Volume XVI, Mrs. E. W. Pendleton; Volume XXIII, Mr. H. C. Hoskier, the author. In 1929-30 the General Education Board made an appropriation of $250,000 for work in the advanced humanities, a good share of which was utilized in the publication in the Humanistic Series of studies resulting from the University's program of excavation and research in Egypt and other parts of the Near East. In whole or in part Volumes XVII-XX, XXII, and XXIV-XLII were thus financed, with aid from the funds provided by Mr. Horace H. Rackham in the case of Volume XXV. Mr. W. B. Shaw, in his study of the support given the University from sources other than public funds or student fees between 1817 and 1934, lists a total of $60,978.43 in contributions to the Humanistic Series from 1904 to 1931; this does not include the General Education Board's appropriation, the Freer Fund, or Mr. Rackham's gift.

The History and Political Science Series, again according to Mr. Shaw, was aided by donors to the extent of $989.45 between 1912 and 1931; this includes the gift by Regent Clements already mentioned.

Aid to publication has also come from several endowments. The Publications of the Observatory are in part supported by the income of two such funds, the Lawton Publication Fund of $4,000, which came in 1919 from the bequest of Frances A. Lawton, of Jackson, and the Orlando B. Wheeler Fellowship and Publication Fund in Astronomy, established in 1928 in the amount of $15,000 by Mrs. Wheeler in memory of her husband, a member of the Class of 1862 and a former member of the Observatory staff. The Charles L. Freer Research and Publication Fund, now amounting to more than $185,000, was provided as a bequest from Mr. Freer in 1920. The legal publications have been most substantially aided by two funds established by Mr. William W. Cook, namely the William W. Cook Michigan Law Review Fund of $14,339.41, which came as a gift in 1924, and the W. W. Cook Endowment, of $2,144,260.33, resulting from a bequest in the donor's will, in 1930. The latter fund may be used for research, book purchases, and various other purposes, as well as publication. Similarly, the Horace H. Rackham Fund, which came in 1935 as a gift from the trustees of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, has generously aided University publication; the governors of the fund are accustomed to maintain an item of about $8,000 a year in their annual budgets for this purpose. The Charles S. Mott Foundation, of Flint, which in 1938-39 gave $50,000 in support of the Bureau of Reference and Research in Government (now called the Bureau of Government), thereby made possible the publication of several titles among the Michigan Governmental Studies and the Michigan Pamphlet series.

The gift of the Press Building by Mr. Dexter M. Ferry, Jr., has been mentioned, but this is by no means the only indication of Mr. Ferry's generous interest in the University's publishing activities. His contributions have made Page  1420possible the publication of a considerable number of books outside of the regular series — for example, Folklore from the Schoharie Hills by Emelyn E. Gardner, Chariton's Chaereas and Callirhoe, translated by W. E. Blake, and John Mix Stanley and His Indian Paintings, by W. Vernon Kinietz, all of which were Fifty Books of the Year selections, the great Dictionary of the Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, compiled by Morris P. Tilley, and The University of Michigan: An Encyclopedic Survey. There have been others, and beyond the contributions in money made by Mr. Ferry his sympathy with the University's problems and ambitions, as related to publishing, has afforded much comfort and encouragement to those who have been actively engaged in the work.

The University of Michigan Press has been a member of the Association of American University Presses since 1937, the year in which that Association, which had its beginnings during the 1920's in the informal meetings of representatives of some of the older presses, began to take on the aspect of a national university press organization. The Press had become one of the participants in University Books, Inc., a subsidiary of Farrar and Rinehart organized as an agency for the sale of university press books, and in the year named the clients of this corporation, meeting in New York, joined with the earlier group and have continued to meet with them ever since. University Books, Inc., unfortunately, had only a brief existence, from 1936 to 1938, but the Association has taken substantial form and flourished. Besides its yearly conferences, it has supported the Educational Directory (addressograph lists of numerous categories of scholars, most useful for direct mail advertising), has arranged co-operative exhibits at the meetings of learned societies, and has carried on various other co-operative projects for the benefit of its members. The Press has been represented at all the meetings of the Association since the first and has taken part in all of its activities.

There follows a summary of University Press publications as of 1954, exclusive of the announcements, registers, reports, and miscellaneous items which are classed as "Official," but including the titles published by predecessor organizations which are customarily listed in its catalogues.

    UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS
    • General Series
    • Humanistic Series. Oldest of existing series, established in 1904. Forty-nine volumes have been published; beginning with Vol. VI they have been of quarto size and most of them have been beautifully illustrated with collotypes.
    • Humanistic Papers. Unofficially used to describe four or five books, not constituting a regularly authorized series, on humanistic subjects, the publication of which was arranged by Professor Francis W. Kelsey. Discontinued.
    • History and Political Science Series, 1911. Nineteen volumes published.
    • Scientific Series, 1914. Nineteen volumes published.
    • Archaeological Reports, 1931. Three published; not a formally recognized series, but issued in uniform format.
    • Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, 1921. Thirty-nine volumes published; the last sixteen are also available in paper-covered parts.
    • Language and Literature Series, 1925. Twenty-six volumes published.
    • Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museums, 1928. Two volumes published.
    • Fine Arts Series, 1935. Two volumes published.
    • Facsimiles of Manuscripts, 1913. Facsimiles of the Freer manuscripts of the Old and New Testaments; three volumes published for deposit in approved libraries; not for sale.
    • Page  1421Publications in Mathematics, 1944. Paper covers; two volumes published.
    • Linguistics Series, 1945. Four volumes published.
    • Contributions in Modern Philology, 1947. Paper covers; twenty published.
    • Studies in American English, 1948. Two volumes published.
    • The University of Michigan: An Encyclopedic Survey. Nine parts; paper covered, to form four volumes in cloth; seven parts issued.
    • Middle English Dictionary, 1952. Issued in 124-page paper-covered parts; four have appeared. The complete work will run to about 8,000 pages.
    • Michigan Mathematical Journal, 1952. Two issues a year.
    • The Jerome Lectures, 1933. Three volumes published.
    • Books not in series. More than sixty titles have been issued outside of the regularly established series.
    • Departmental Series
    • Museum of Anthropology
      • Occasional Contributions, 1932. Fifteen published.
      • Anthropological Papers, 1949. Nine published.
    • Department of Astronomy
      • Publications of the Observatory of the University of Michigan, 1912. Nine volumes published.
    • English Language Institute
      • Publications, 1943. One published.
    • Engineering Research Institute
      • Bulletins, 1926. Thirty-seven published.
      • Circulars, 1927. Six published.
      • Reprints, 1927. Sixteen published.
      • Special Publications, 1951. Five published.
    • Medical School and University Hospital
      • University of Michigan Medical Bulletin, 1934. Nineteen volumes; a monthly periodical, originally called University Hospital Bulletin.
    • College of Architecture and Design
      • Architecture and Planning Series, 1952. Two volumes published.
    • School of Business Administration, Bureau of Business Research
      • Michigan Business Studies, 1926. Eleven volumes. Each volume consists of five studies.
      • Michigan Business Reports, 1938. Twenty-two issued.
      • Michigan Business Papers, 1937. Twenty-five published.
      • Michigan Business Cases, 1934. Issued in loose sheets; discontinued in 1949.
      • Michigan Business Review, 1949. Bimonthly periodical; distributed gratis. Five volumes published.
    • School of Education
      • School of Education Bulletin, 1929. Twenty-four volumes published. A periodical for distribution gratis, monthly from October to May.
      • Monographs in Education, 1939. Three published.
      • Bulletins of the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research, 1920. At least 158 issued, some in mimeographed and some in printed form. The first printed Bulletin was No. 55 (1923) and the last No. 158 (1948). Series now discontinued.
      • Special Studies of the Department of Vocational Education, 1923. Nine volumes published.
    • Law School
      • The Michigan Law Review, 1902. Periodical; monthly, November-June. Fifty-one volumes published.
      • Law Series, 1935. Seven published.
      • Michigan Legal Studies, 1932. Fifteen volumes published.
      • The Thomas M. Cooley Lectures, 1948. Five volumes published.
      • Summer Institute Series, 1949. Five volumes published.
      • Legislative Research Publications, 1952. One volume.
    • School of Natural Resources
      • Bulletins, 1930. Fourteen published.
      • Circulars, 1938. Two published.
    • School of Nursing
      • Manual of Nursing Procedure, 1949. Issued in parts; forty-six published.
    • Institute of Public Administration, Bureau of Government
      • Michigan Governmental Studies, 1938. Thirty published.
      • Page  1422Michigan Pamphlets, 1939. Twenty-four published.
      • Michigan Governmental Digest, 1946. Four published.
      • Papers in Public Administration, 1948. Eight published.
      • Bulletins, 1923. Six published; discontinued in 1928.
      • New Series Bulletins, 1932. Eight published. Discontinued.
    • School of Public Health
      • Public Health Economics, 1944. Ten volumes published. A monthly (except September) periodical.
      • Research Series, 1945. Six volumes published.
    • School of Social Work
      • Institute of Social Work Studies, 1947. One published.
    • William L. Clements Library of American History
      • Bulletins, 1924. Sixty-two published.
      • The Quarto, 1943. Twenty-seven issues.
    • Michigan Historical Collections
      • Bulletins, 1947. Five published.
    • University Herbarium
      • Contributions, 1939. Eight published.
    • Institute of Human Biology
      • Contributions, 1936. Sixty-eight published.
    • Center for Japanese Studies
      • Bibliographical Series, 1950. Four published.
      • Occasional Papers, 1951. Four published.
    • Museum of Paleontology
      • Contributions, 1924. Eleven volumes published; twelfth in progress; most volumes contain ten papers issued separately.
    • Museum of Zoology
      • Occasional Papers, 1913. 560 published.
      • Miscellaneous Publications, 1916. Eighty-seven published.
      • Michigan Handbooks, 1925. Five published.
      • Circulars, 1932. Two published.
    • Office of the Vice-President in Charge of Educational Policies
      • Administrative Studies, 1940. Two published, series discontinued.
    • Department of Fine Arts
      • Ars Islamica, 1934. Sixteen volumes published; originally sponsored by the Research Seminary in Islamic Art of the Institute of Fine Arts. Discontinued in 1952.
    • Bureau of Industrial Relations
      • Reports, 1937. Five issued.
      • Bulletins, 1936. Nineteen published.
    • General Library
      • Publications, 1922. Eight published.
    • Institute for Social Research
      • Survey Research Center Series, 1950. Twelve volumes published.
      • Research Center for Group Dynamics Series. Three published.
    • Social Science Research Project
      • Reports, 1947. Fourteen published.

Dr. Robbins retired in June, 1954, and in September was succeeded by Mr. Fred D. Wieck as Director of the Press.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1890-1909, 1920-1953.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1953.
Robbins, Frank E."The First Duty of a University Press."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 45 (1939): 141-45.
University Press booklists.
Official Publications

Catalogues. — When on August 8, 1843, the Regents "Resolved, That the Executive Committee be authorized to publish a Catalogue of the Faculty and Students of the University with the prerequisites to admission, together with the Course of Studies pursued therein, — in pamphlet form" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 268), there was initiated a series which has continued unbroken to the present day. Copies of this first catalogue are rare, but the one in the University Library is not "unique" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 268, n.), as at least two others are known to exist.

The title page of this catalogue reads University of Michigan. Catalogue of thePage  1423Officers and Students in the Department of Arts and Sciences. 1843-4. Ann Arbor, Printed at the Michigan Argus Office, 1843. Its sixteen pages carry the names of the Board of Regents, Librarian, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Board of Visitors, Executive Committee, Faculty and Students; "A Statement of the Course of Instruction, Expenses, etc. in the University of Michigan," and the "Preparatory School." The course of study is presented in a table on a single page.

The general title Catalogue of the Officers and Students continues, with one or two slight variations, through the academic year 1870-71. Changes occur in other parts of the title, as in 1848-49, when the "Department of Arts and Sciences" becomes the "College of Arts and Sciences." The catalogue for this year contains an announcement of the projected opening, in the autumn of 1849, of the Department of Medicine. Appended, with special title page, but continuous paging is the Catalogus Senatus Academici et Eorum Qui Munera et Officia Gesserunt, Quique Primi Gradus Laurea Donati Sunt in Universitate Michiganensium. MDCCCXLVIII. A similar Catalogus Senatus Academici dated 1852 was appended to the catalogue of 1851-52. These were succeeded in 1860 by the General Catalogue of Officers and Graduates from … 1837 to 1860. Another General Catalogue appeared in 1864 and in 1871 the Catalogue of the Academic Senate of the University of Michigan, and of Those Who Have Received Its Regular and Honorary Degrees. For 1837-1890, 1837-1901, 1837-1911, the title is again General Catalogue, but for 1837-1921 it is Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties.

In 1850-51 the name of the College of Arts and Sciences is dropped from the title of the annual catalogue, for the Department of Medicine and Surgery is now included. In 1851-52, however, two catalogues were published: Catalogue of the Officers and Students in the College of Arts and Sciences and Catalogue of Officers and Students in the College of Medicine and Surgery. Again in 1852-53 the College of Medicine issued a catalogue, although the Catalogue of the Corporation, Officers and Students in the Departments of Medicine, Arts and Sciences included material on the Department of Medicine.

On April 22, 1852, the Regents "Resolved, That in future but one General Annual Catalogue embracing both Literary and Medical Colleges shall be published by the Faculties or students with the sanction or assistance of the Board" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 512). With the catalogue for 1853-54, the names of the departments no longer appear in the title.

The early catalogues seem to have been prepared sometimes by a committee of students (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 380, 399, 512) and sometimes by the faculty (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 433, 445, 461, 524, 958). The 1852-53 catalogue of the College of Medicine and Surgery reads "Published by the Class." Until 1855 the majority were printed in Detroit, though four (1843-44, 1849-50, 1853-54, 1854-55) and an Abstract of the Annual Catalogue … for the Year 1855 were printed in Ann Arbor, and the Catalogue for 1847-48 in Troy, New York. With that for 1855-56, the catalogues bear the imprint of the University.

The catalogues for 1866-67 and 1867-68 were exhausted before the demand for them was satisfied, and supplementary "brief announcements" were issued, without titles. By 1871-72 the catalogue had grown to eighty-four pages. At this time the title was changed to Calendar of the University of Michigan. In 1914-15 it was again changed to Catalogue of the University of Michigan. In the 1919-20 issue, "With Announcements for 1920-21" was added to the cover title, although Page  1424the title page remained unchanged. With 1925-26 and 1926-27 "Announcements" on the cover title was changed to "General Information." Until 1922-23 all catalogues included a list of students. For this year there were two issues, one "Complete Without Register of Students" (cover title) and one including the register. On May 15, 1923, the Regents adopted the following resolution submitted by the Conference of Deans:

That hereafter the University Catalogue be published in two sections; one section to contain the usual matter found in the Catalogue with the exception of the register of students and to be known as the University Catalogue, the other section to repeat the faculty list and include the list of graduates of the preceding year, and the register of students enrolled during the year concerned, and to be known as the Register of Students; each section to be issued as a separate bulletin.


(R.P., 1920-23, p. 801.)
In 1925-26 and 1926-27 Catalogue and Register were not only issued separately, but also under one cover, which bore the title Catalogue and Register.

In 1919 the "desirability of appointing a University Editor who should be in charge of all printed matter issued by the University" was called to the attention of the Regents, who declined to make the appointment (R.P., 1917-20, pp. 654, 748). In May, 1925, however, the Board adopted the recommendation of a committee from the Deans:

The various University announcements and bulletins and the University catalogue should be edited under the supervision of the Registrar. It might be advisable to have a committee on publications, appointed by the President to act in conjunction with the Registrar in this matter.


(R.P., 1923-26, p. 610.)
In April, 1926:

The Board approved the action by the Committee on Publications … recommending the issuance of a general information bulletin in place of the general catalogue, and the binding together in one volume each year, in such number of volumes as the files require, of (a) this bulletin of general information, (b) the announcements of the several schools and colleges, and (c) the register of students.


(R.P., 1923-26, pp. 865-66.)
In November of this same year the Board acceded to the Registrar's request for a delay of one year in putting this plan into effect (R.P., 1926-29, p. 67). It was therefore the catalogue for 1927-28 which appeared in the new form, and under the cover title General Register. Since 1929-30 the cover title has been General Register Issue. This General Register appears in two volumes, and is made up of 16 to 20 parts, each part with its own title page.

With the establishment of the University of Michigan Press in 1930, the Committee on Official Publications of the Press was given charge of all official publications of the University, the editorial work under the above committee continuing in the Editorial Division of the Registrar's Office until 1945, when this editorial staff was also transferred to the Press.

Announcements. — In the earlier years many brief announcements were issued, usually with only caption titles, and often with no date. The latter can sometimes be supplied. University of Michigan, published about 1855, is a brief announcement or prospectus. In 1859 the opening of the Law Department was announced in University of Michigan. The Law Department. English in the University is signed by Moses Coit Tyler and Isaac N. Demmon, March 18, 1878. The Professorship of the Science and Art of Teaching is dated 1879, and Michigan University, Chair of the Science and Art of Teaching, 1880. This same year appeared Instructions to Applicants for Higher Degrees, and in 1881 or 1882 Circular for Preparatory Schools. An Page  1425Announcement to Preparatory Schools, giving "certain important changes in the requirements for admission," was issued in December, 1888, and a Supplementary Announcement to Preparatory Schools in May, 1889.

Two interesting announcements are Examinations for Admission to be Held in Chicago, Saint Louis, and Cincinnati, in 1882, and Examinations for Admission to be Held in Chicago, St. Louis and Dubuque, in 1885. In 1883 the University system was described in Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Circular of Information Relating to the University System. A Circular of Information in 1884 or 1885 gives statistics of Michigan as compared with institutions such as Cornell, Yale, and Harvard. Announcement to College Graduates Intending to Study a Profession and Studies Leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology appeared in 1885, and in 1889 Electrical Engineering.

Announcements have been issued by schools, colleges, and departments usually from their earliest years. These are the announcements, which, with the Bulletin of General Information and Register have formed the General Register. The titles have varied: Announcement, Annual Announcement, General Announcement, and many of them include List or Register of Students.

The first announcement of the Department of Medicine and Surgery was the Primary Announcement of the Course of Lectures … 1850-51. Those for 1860-61 to 1862-63, and 1865-66 were joint announcements of the "Departments of Medicine and Surgery, and Law." No announcements have been found for either the Department of Medicine or the Department of Law for 1863-64, 1864-65, and from 1866-67 to 1874-75. Beginning with the session of 1875-76 the announcements of the College of Medicine and Surgery, as it was then called, have continued without break. For the Department of Law there is a complete series from 1883-84 to date.

The announcements of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts appeared in a general Announcement from 1871-72 to 1874-75. Separate announcements have been issued continuously since 1878-79. Frequent supplements appear under varying titles, as Supplementary Announcement, Scheme of Lectures and Recitations for the First [or Second] Semester, Announcement for the First [or Second] Semester, Special Announcement.

The "School" of Pharmacy issued an announcement or prospectus about 1870 bearing the caption Department of Pharmacy in the University of Michigan and about 1873 another, School of Pharmacy. From 1880-81 the series is complete. The First Annual Announcement of the Dental College is for 1875-76. None has been found for 1876-77 to 1878-79. The Homeopathic Medical College issued an Annual Announcement from 1875-76 to 1921-22, with apparent lapses for 1878-79, 1880-81, 1887-88, and 1895-96. The School of Mines, which opened in September, 1875, issued a First Annual Announcement for 1875-76. No other has been found. Beginning with the academic year 1879-80 the name School of Mines was dropped, and the courses were included in the Catalogue under the Department of Literature, Science, and Arts.

The Department of Engineering issued its first announcement for the year 1895-96. Since 1898-99 this has borne the title General Announcement. Supplements, Program and Hours of Work, Schedule of Work, Second Semester, Special Announcement, First [or Second] Semester, have appeared almost from the beginning. Since 1905-6 a Special Announcement for each semester has appeared with considerable regularity. The Program of Hours and Work for the Year 1900-1901 is the only announcement Page  1426found for this year. From 1910 to 1915, and in 1917, the Department of Architecture issued announcements under varying titles: Announcement, Announcement. Work by Students, Programs of Study. Work by Students, and Bulletin. Work by Students. Since 1932-33 the College of Architecture has issued an Announcement.

For 1883-84 and 1887-88 appeared undated announcements with the caption Courses of Study for Graduates, Department of Literature, Science and the Arts. The Graduate School has issued its announcements since 1892-93. From 1921-22 to 1926-27 two annual publications were issued, a General Announcement and Announcement of Studies. Other schools have issued announcements since their organization. The School of Business Administration issued a Preliminary Announcement 1924-1925.

Special announcements concerning single subjects or groups of subjects have been issued by nearly every school and college.

President's Report. — Dr. Henry P. Tappan made his first report to the Board of Regents on November 15, 1853, covering the year 1852-53. The title page reads Report to the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, made November 15th, 1853, by Henry P. Tappan, D.D., Chancellor of the University and President of the Board. Ann Arbor, Cole and Gardiner, Printers, 1853. From this time reports were made annually until the last one submitted by Dr. Angell, for the year ending September 28, 1909.

Reports for 1853-54 to 1908-9 were printed in the Proceedings of the Board of Regents, that for 1859-60, however, being an Abstract from the President's Annual Message instead of the full report. From 1853-54 to 1883-84 the President's Report forms a part of the Regents' Report to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and from 1884-85 to 1895-96 the President's reports, together with the financial reports and accompanying documents, were submitted as the Annual Report … to the Superintendent of Public Instruction. These were all printed in the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Separate issues are available for all except the reports for 1853-54, 1854-55, 1856-57 to 1864-65, and 1868-69. The Regents ordered five hundred extra copies of the report for 1864-65 (R.P., 1864-70, p. 180), but none has been found on the campus.

Interesting documents often accompany the President's Report, as well as appropriation bills and acts of the Legislature, and lists of appointments and of students. To the report for 1864-65 is appended the "Annual Statement for the President … on the Cabinets of Geology, Zoology and Botany." In 1865-66 and 1866-67, this report appears as "Statement …" and in 1868-69 as "Report of Operations in the Museum … in the Department of 'Geology, Zoology and Botany,' and the Department of 'Archaeology and Relics.'" These reports are by Professor Alexander Winchell. "Reports from the Deans of the Professional Schools and from the Professors of the Department of Literature, Science and the Arts" are appended to the reports for 1871-72, 1873-74, 1878-79, and 1879-80. From 1872-73 to 1908-9 the "Report of the Finance Committee" is appended. This report includes, from 1881-82 to 1891-92, the report of the treasurer. From 1892-93 to 1899-1900, and from 1907-8 to 1908-9 the report of the treasurer only accompanies the President's Report. From 1900-1901 to 1906-7 a "Financial Statement" made by the Finance Committee of the Board of Regents forms the appendix. "Financial Statement" continues to appear on the title page for Page  14271907-8 and 1908-9, though the report of the treasurer is actually appended.

With the report for 1875-76 is Professor William H. Pettee's "Report on the School of Mines" and an "Outline of the Educational System of Michigan" by Professor Henry S. Frieze. "Report of the Dean of the School of Political Science" (Charles Kendall Adams) accompanies 1881-82, and with 1882-83 to 1908-9 (except for 1891-92) was issued "Examinations for Degrees" (after 1896-97 "Examinations for Higher Degrees"), which lists the candidates and the titles of their theses. Reports on the summer session by John O. Reed are appended to 1902-3 to 1904-5. These appendices do not always appear with the President's reports in the Regents' Proceedings. The President's Report for 1898-99 was also issued, without the appendices, as Supplement to the University News Letter, No. 36, November 16, 1899.

Dr. Harry B. Hutchins, during his administration, discontinued the practice of making an annual report. After his retirement he began the preparation of a summary report for the period 1909 to 1920 (P.R., 1920-21, p. 5), but this was never completed.

Dr. Marion L. Burton resumed the practice, his first report covering the year 1920-21. Reports of general administrative officers, deans, and directors are appended to this report and continue so to the present time.

Official Publication. — In 1900, in order to take advantage of the low rates on second-class mail matter, as established in 1894, the University began to issue its administrative publications in a single series called University Bulletin. New Series. Two separate bulletins were given the numbering Volume I, No. 1. As the month of publication was omitted it is impossible to tell from the bulletins themselves which was actually the first. With Volume I, No. 2, the month (in this case May) was added and thereafter appears, with rare exceptions, on each bulletin. The titles University Bulletin. New Series and University of Michigan Bulletin. New Series were used interchangeably until 1927, when with Volume XXIX, No. 8, August 20, 1927, the title became Official Publication, and the New Series was dropped.

Catalogues, announcements, and reports issued since 1900 bear the title, volume, and number of the University Bulletin or Official Publication.

The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review

The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review is published by the Alumni Association of the University of Michigan as a special issue of the Michigan Alumnus. Its establishment, in March, 1934, was the result of a long series of efforts, beginning in 1910, when the Editor of the Alumnus, at that time a monthly, recommended editorially that the magazine become a weekly with a supplementary quarterly issue.

This project was subsequently advocated by the General Secretary, Wilfred B. Shaw, in several annual reports to the Alumni Association, but the conservatism of the alumni for many years had led to a general disapproval of the plan.

Eventually, in 1921, the weekly was established, but no action was taken at that time upon the projected quarterly. Meanwhile, the matter had been favorably considered by President Burton in his first annual report. A committee was appointed at a conference of the deans, which submitted a report that was adopted by the Regents on May 26, 1923, and by the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association on March 29, Page  14281924. The result was the appointment of a provisional editorial committee to study the problem, with the understanding that publication was to begin in the fall of 1925. The members of this committee were Professors Fred N. Scott, Oscar J. Campbell, Louis A. Strauss, Dr. Frank E. Robbins, and Wilfred B. Shaw.

With this favorable action it seemed that the way was open for the project, but the committee was not in entire agreement on the form the publication should take, some of the members being of the opinion that the proposed review should be purely literary, paying for such articles as were published at regular rates. This was the tenor of the report presented by the committee, which was approved at the triennial meeting of the alumni held at Detroit in June, 1925. The directors of the Alumni Association, however, felt that the magazine should concern itself more directly with the life and thought of the University, and hesitated in view of the expense involved. The result was that no action was taken, and publication was again indefinitely postponed.

Not until the spring of 1934 was the question again raised, this time by President Alexander G. Ruthven, who recommended a further study of the question to determine whether or not the publication of a quarterly could be made a part of the program of the Alumni Association. He advocated an editorial policy which should concern itself closely with the University, relying on faculty and alumni authors rather than on paid contributors as suggested in the earlier plan.

The result was a progressive change in the general publication schedule of the Michigan Alumnus, which permitted the inclusion of a quarterly issue in the program. The number of issues was reduced from thirty-six to twenty-six, permitting weekly issues during the fall, fortnightly issues during the rest of the college year, and monthly issues in the summer. This left sufficient funds for the publication of the Quarterly Review as a regular part of the general Alumnus program.

The first issue appeared in March, 1934, with Wilfred B. Shaw, Director of Alumni Relations, as Editor of the four annual numbers, and with T. Hawley Tapping editing the other issues of the Michigan Alumnus.

Mr. Shaw continued as Editor, and also as illustrator, until his retirement in January, 1951. He was succeeded as Editor by Dr. Frank E. Robbins, the Director of the University Press, who has continued to edit the Quarterly since his retirement from the Press in 1954.