The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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Part VII

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The Engineering Quadrangle

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The College of Engineering

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THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

THE colonial period in America was almost wholly agricultural. After the Revolutionary War the necessity for home industry became apparent, and engineering and mechanical inventiveness were fostered. The opinions of Benjamin Franklin on the applications of science are well known. John Adams believed that the state should make provision for such education, and Jefferson proposed a school of technical philosophy, to be maintained entirely at public expense, at which various artisans could learn as much of the sciences as might be necessary to pursue their work understandingly.

The first school in this country to offer scientific instruction in engineering was authorized by Congress in 1776 and was established at West Point in 1802. The short-lived Gardiner Lyceum, established in 1823 at Gardiner, Maine, for the purpose of giving instruction in the applications of science, received no state aid after 1831 and was converted into an ordinary academy. In 1824 Stephen Van Rensselaer, of Albany, founded the Rensselaer School of Theoretical and Applied Science at Troy, New York. This was the first school having a continuous existence to be established primarily for the teaching of science and engineering in an English-speaking country. The first degrees in civil engineering were granted by Rensselaer in 1835. The second technical school established by Congress was the United States Naval Academy in 1845.

The Act to provide for the organization and government of the University of Michigan, passed by the legislature in 1837, provided for a professor of civil engineering and architecture if the wants of the University "shall require." In his inaugural Discourse of December, 1852, President Henry P. Tappan proposed "a Scientific course parallel to the classical course" containing "besides other branches, Civil Engineering, Astronomy with the use of an Observatory, and the application of Chemistry and other Sciences to Agriculture and the industrial arts generally."

The Catalogue for 1852-53 announced a scientific course which included civil engineering in the third and fourth years. Alexander Winchell was appointed Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering in November, 1853, and arrived in Ann Arbor in January, 1854. The first class, Parker's Aids, met on January 20, 1854. On February 10 the first lecture was given in civil engineering. Professor Winchell continued to develop the engineering courses until he was transferred to the chair of Natural History in September, 1855.

George and Matthias Harter received in 1855 the first bachelor of science degrees granted by the University. The first engineering degree was awarded in 1857 to William Vandersan Snyder. On the basis of graduates in engineering, the University of Michigan stands sixth in age in this country, following Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute founded in 1824, Union College, which introduced a course in civil engineering in 1845, Harvard in 1847, Dartmouth in 1851, and Yale in 1852.

The first description of the curriculum leading to the degree of civil engineering appeared in the Catalogue for 1855-56. It included Mathematics, Graphics, Physics, Natural Science, Elements of Astronomy, Language, Philosophy, and the following engineering subjects: Plane Geodetics, Railroad and Mining Surveying, Leveling, Nature and Strength of Materials, Theory of Construction, Page  1162Architecture, Machines (particularly the steam engine and locomotive), and Motors (particularly steam and water):

The entire course … can be accomplished by the industrious student in four years, but a longer time may be occupied upon it with advantage and profit … The studies pursued for the first three years … are identical with those of the corresponding course for the degree of Bachelor of Science, and are pursued in the same classes … The fourth year embraces the remaining portions.

Students desirous of perfecting themselves in any particular branch of Engineering will be permitted to enter upon any study of the regular course for which they may be prepared, but such students will not receive the degree of Civil Engineer.

In 1860 Frank L. Krause, of Mansfield, Ohio, and William Minto, of Antioch, Illinois, were granted the first degrees in civil engineering upon completion of the four-year curriculum.

The first surveying instruments were purchased in 1854, a theodolite for $225 and a level for $130, from $500 appropriated for the purpose by the Regents. After this the class spent some time nearly every day out of doors with the instruments. Winchell reported that the students enjoyed this work almost as much as he did. By 1855 he was considering putting his lectures on civil engineering into book form because a text was much needed.

Winchell made a survey in 1855 for a railroad which was to run from Ann Arbor to Jonesville. On September 23, 1855, he recorded in his diary: "This I expect will conclude my practice in the business of Civil Engineering. I have earned in this job at five dollars a day, seventy dollars. The business is hard and responsible but not unpleasant." Thus, the first professor of civil engineering was engaged in collateral practice, a policy which has continued to this day. He was away from the campus for four years during his incumbency of the presidency of Syracuse University and of a professorship in Vanderbilt University. His work in mathematics, physics, astronomy, ethnology, geology, and philosophy was widely known both in this country and in Europe. He died in 1891, having taught at the University for thirty-three years.

Winchell was succeeded by William Guy Peck, brevet second lieutenant of Topographical Engineers, a graduate of West Point, who was appointed Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering in 1855. Peck continued the instruction in surveying and civil engineering and also acquired additional instruments, apparatus, and books for the department. He resigned in 1857, however, to go to Columbia, where he became professor of mathematics and astronomy and the author of many works in both fields. He died in New York City in 1892 at the age of seventy-one.

The founder of engineering education at the University, however, was DeVolson Wood, who was made Assistant Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering in 1857, Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering in 1859, when he was granted his master's degree here, and Professor of Civil Engineering in 1860.

Wood was born in 1832, at Smyrna, New York. He was a teacher from the age of seventeen, beginning while he attended Albany Normal School and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and continuing until his death at sixty-five. In August, 1857, he started for Chicago, where he had heard there was a teaching vacancy. He reached Detroit with no money to go farther and, leaving his baggage, walked to Ann Arbor. He introduced himself to President Tappan, and, as Professor Peck had not returned, he was asked to substitute for a few days. Page  1163When Peck did not return Wood was appointed in his place. Wood became one of the best-known teachers in the United States. He possessed extraordinary ability as a mathematician and as an analyst, remarkable strength and simplicity of character, and a genius for teaching. The peculiar merit of his method of instruction lay in his capacity to make men think for themselves.

Almost immediately he proposed a four-year curriculum in engineering, and the Department of Engineering was formally established in 1858, when the Regents adopted the following resolutions:

1st, That an Engineering Course be added to the present curriculum of the University … 2nd, That the degree of Civil Engineer be conferred upon those who may pursue the Engineering Course and pass an approved examination … 3rd, That so much of the memorial of Assistant Professor Wood as relates to the syllabus of that Course be referred to the Academical Faculty.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 799.)

Wood summarized the problem of getting the necessary engineering training as well as the essential classical requirements into the four-year curriculum. He asked: "Should the entire [engineering] course be included, in point of time within the present undergraduate course of four years, or should a fifth or University year be added to complete the course" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 800). This question has never been completely answered.

Engineering instruction was begun in the scientific section of the sophomore class. Land surveying was started at the beginning of the year and continued for nine weeks. Then the class took up geometrical drawing, tinting, and shading. The textbooks, by Warren, were Drafting Instruments and Plane Projection Drawing. Instruction in descriptive geometry was given the sophomore scientific and Latin scientific sections during the last half of the second semester. Juniors in these sections studied Warren's Shades and Shadows and his Linear Perspective. Lectures in mechanical engineering, extending over a part of two years and alternating on successive years, were given the juniors and seniors. The subjects covered the principles of steam engines, principles of designing machinery, pattern-making, molding, and shopwork. A part of this two-year lecture course consisted of exercises in machine drawing. The class also read part of Warren's Machine Construction Drawing. After Class Day, the juniors took up railroad surveying.

The senior class in civil engineering studied the theory and practice of the construction of roads and railroads, using Henck's Field-Book for Engineers and Gillespie's Roads and Railroads. A lecture course was given on the construction of engineering instruments and on modes of adjusting them.

The subject of making earthen or common roads had received little attention from the scientific world. Consequently, as early as 1860 the need for a course in road construction was recognized, and the Regents approved a study leading to answers for the following questions:

I. At what season of the year can our earthen roads be worked most advantageously? II. Ought the same degree of dryness of the earth be required to work the roads that the farmer desires to make his fields mellow and pilourent? III. When are covered or tiled drains preferable to open drains? IV. Would one tiled drain along the axis or centre of a road ever be preferable to two parallel ones on each side? V. When can the scraper be used economically in grading a road? VI. When the wheel-barrow? VII. When the cart? VIII. In grading a hill, is it more economical to cut at once to the depth required and to fill at once to the height required or to do by partial cuttings and fillings?


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 907.)
Page  1164This program recognized the importance of creative work or research in the education of the engineer and may be regarded as the remote beginnings of the Department of Engineering Research, established in 1920, sixty years after the first problem requiring research on a matter of value to the state had been put to the staff and students of the College of Engineering.

Wood developed and offered courses on the resistance of materials, bridge construction, hydraulic motors, and the distribution of water in cities. Courses in military engineering were offered in 1862. Because of the Civil War no Army man could be obtained to teach, and Wood lectured on these subjects also.

Engineering classes in those days were given in the South Wing of University Hall, in rooms formerly used for student dormitories (South College, built in 1848-49). They were heated by wood stoves stoked by the professor or by an obliging student with wood from immense wood-boxes, filled daily by "Jimmie" Ottley, who was later promoted to an easier berth in the cloakroom of the Library. The water needed for the drawing room was supplied from a battered zinc pail, refilled from time to time as use demanded.

Most of the teaching during the sixties was done by Wood alone, although at times he had assistants and instructors to lessen the burden of his heavy schedule. In addition to those mentioned elsewhere, Cleveland Abbe, who later became a distinguished meteorologist, was Instructor in Physics and Civil Engineering in 1859-60; Elmore Horton Wells was Instructor in Engineering in 1864; and William Butler Morgan was Instructor in Mathematics and Civil Engineering in 1865-66. G. Y. Wisner was Assistant in 1865, and J. Burkitt Webb in 1871.

A course in mining engineering was first offered in 1865, and the first degree in this field was granted in 1867 to Stillman Williams Robinson, Assistant in Civil Engineering, who was made Assistant Professor of Mining Engineering and Geodesy in that same year. In 1872 Wood gave a course of thirty lectures to one student in mining engineering.

In 1873 an Act was passed by the legislature, establishing a School of Mines (and a School of Architecture) at the University, but providing for only two years' support. In 1875-76 an appropriation was made for professorships in mining engineering, metallurgy and chemical technology, and in architecture and design.

William Henry Pettee was appointed Professor of Mining Engineering in 1875, and Silas Hamilton Douglas served as Professor of Metallurgy and Chemical Technology from 1875 to 1877. William Le Baron Jenney, the distinguished Chicago architect, was appointed Professor of Architecture and Design in 1876. Because of the failure of the legislature to renew the appropriation in 1877, the chair of architecture and design was discontinued in 1880. In 1878 Jenney was granted a two-year leave of absence at the end of which he returned to private practice in Chicago. No degrees were given in architecture until 1909, after the department was re-established under the charge of Emil Lorch in 1906. Although Pettee resigned the chair of mining engineering in 1877 and subsequently was appointed Professor of Mineralogy and Economic Geology, he continued to give instruction to students in mining engineering without extra compensation, and Douglas provided for the quantitative analyses of the mining engineering course in the Chemical Laboratory. In spite of the lack of funds, the University made every effort to continue the instruction in mining and architecture, professors in other departments teaching these subjects.

Degrees in mining engineering were Page  1165given from 1867 to 1872, from 1878 to 1880, and from 1886 to 1896. In the latter years the program closely paralleled the development of the Michigan College of Mining and Technology at Houghton, established by the legislature in 1885.

Mechanical engineering was recognized in 1868 by a course taught by Robinson. He resigned in 1870, and the degree was discontinued. He later became professor of mechanical engineering at Ohio State University.

In his 1871 report Wood first raised the question concerning the establishment of the Engineering Department as a unit separate from the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts:

I think we ought to seek for the establishment of a fourth department of the University, to be called, School of Technology, or, Industrial School, or, School of Arts and Trades, or some other suitable name, within which we should organize advanced courses in General Science, courses in Technical Chemistry, courses in Engineering and Architecture. To accomplish this requires more means than the University has at its command, and hence an appeal should be made to citizens of the State to endow such a school, or endow professorships, or to erect a building, or to furnish apparatus; and if this does not succeed, an appeal should be made to the State for the same object, trusting that from one or both sources the necessary means might be secured to enable the University to develop such a department as to do credit to itself and meet the demands of the times.


(R.P., 1870-76, pp. 151-52.)

In 1872 Wood estimated that an endowment of $241,000 would be needed to provide a new building, an apparatus fund, a library fund, equipment for shops, professorships in civil, mechanical, and mining engineering, drawing, geodesy, and funds for field operations. He reported that an additional endowment of $132,500 would be required for the development of a complete technical school, providing for professorships in metallurgy and assaying, architecture, experimental physics, geology, and zoology, instructorships in chemistry, taxidermy, and in plaster, clay, and wax modeling, and for the purchase of models in architecture. President James B. Angell, in his 1872 report, asked for an endowment of $373,500 and added that "half a million dollars could be used without extravagance" for the purpose of establishing a scientific school at Michigan. Unfortunately, no public-spirited citizen or citizens stepped forward to make this a possibility, as had been the case at Yale, Harvard, and Stevens. The separation did not take place until 1895, and then only the engineering courses were included in the new College.

In 1872 Wood reported on the engineering graduates:

Of these there are, at the present time as nearly as I can ascertain … 62 civil engineers, 11 professors or teachers, 2 in business, 2 farmers, 1 editor, 1 assistant in an observatory, 1 director of an observatory at Cincinnati, and 1, business unknown … one other was killed at the Battle of Shiloh.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 150.)

Wood resigned in 1872 to accept an appointment at Stevens Institute of Technology, where he continued teaching until his death in 1897. Engineering instruction at Michigan was then placed in the hands of the triumvirate which guided its destiny for thirty years, Greene, Davis, and Denison. On the walls of the Denison Arch, West Engineering Building, are four bronze tablets to the memory of these three men and to their predecessor, DeVolson Wood.

Charles Ezra Greene, the first Dean of the College of Engineering (1895-1903), was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1842. After graduating from Harvard College in 1862, he entered the business of breech-loading rifle manufacture in Massachusetts and in 1864 became clerk of the Quartermaster's Department at Readville, Massachusetts. He was commissioned Page  1166first lieutenant in the United States Colored Troops and served as regimental quartermaster before Richmond, Virginia, and in Texas, until 1866, when he resigned his commission and entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, graduating with the degree of bachelor of science in civil engineering in 1868. He then engaged in professional railroad and river and harbor improvement work in Maine and in New Hampshire, and was city engineer of Bangor, Maine; he carried on a general practice until 1872, when he was appointed Professor of Civil Engineering at Michigan.

In addition to his work as teacher and administrator Greene added luster to the reputation of the department by the manner in which he acquitted himself in professional practice. He was a strict disciplinarian, and his classroom standards were high. To those who neglected their work Greene seemed severe; to those who showed interest and ability he gave an approval which was highly valued because it was neither grudging nor effusive. The personality of the real man was not apparent in the classroom. He was genial and possessed a delightful sense of humor, which he reserved for his more intimate friends.

Joseph Baker Davis, appointed Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering in 1872, was the only teacher of engineering familiar with work at Michigan at that time. Upon finishing college, Davis had worked for four years as an engineer, and had spent the second semester of 1869-70 as Instructor under DeVolson Wood. In 1871 he went to Pennsylvania, where he organized the Civil Engineering Department at Friends, now Swarth-more, College. In 1874 Davis organized the University camp for field work in surveying. This was the pioneer surveying camp for field work in this country. Davis, like Greene, was a successful consulting engineer as well as a teacher. He was, among other things, city engineer of Ann Arbor for sixteen years. In 1891 he was appointed to the chair of Geodesy and Surveying, which he held until his retirement.

When Greene died in 1903 and Cooley was asked to serve as Dean, he agreed to do so on condition that he could have the advice and assistance of Davis as Associate Dean. Davis acted in this capacity from 1904 until 1908, when he resigned the associate deanship, retaining the professorship of Geodesy and Surveying. He was a man of strong common sense — unpretentious, good-natured, and loyal to the University and to his friends. Engineers who were at the University during the first decade of this century will always remember this gruff but kindly teacher. His natural sympathy for students made it impossible for him to forget them. Because he gave of himself so unselfishly, and the demands made upon him were so great, he was unable to continue his work after 1910.

Charles Simeon Denison, who was also appointed in 1872, with the title of Instructor in Engineering and Drawing, became a member of the faculty at the request of his friend, President Angell, who, the year before, had also come to Michigan from the University of Vermont. Denison was made Professor of Descriptive Geometry, Stereotomy, and Drawing in 1885. In 1901 his title was changed to Professor of Stereotomy, Mechanism and Drawing, and he held this position until his death in 1913 ended more than forty years of continuous service to the University. He remained a bachelor, and his students were his whole life; even his profound knowledge of and interest in art were secondary to his affection for the engineering undergraduates, who gave him the endearing name of "Little Lord Chesterfield."

He was the founder of the Department Page  1167of Mechanism and Engineering Drawing, the history of which his own career so closely parallels. The story of the Engineering College could not be told without mention of his unselfishness and sympathy, his sense of justice, his keen wit, and his personal charm. Of Denison it could truthfully be said, "His life work was helping to build men."

When Mortimer Elwyn Cooley arrived on the campus in 1881, he had been detailed by the United States Navy, under the 1879 Act of Congress, to serve as Professor of Steam Engineering and Iron Shipbuilding. Although he lectured on naval architecture during the eighties, his real work proved to be in mechanical engineering, and, in 1881, almost immediately on his arrival, he was designated Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and the curriculum in mechanical engineering was re-established on a permanent basis. Cooley became the second Dean of the College in 1904.

The first engineering building, situated on the southeast corner of the campus, was a mechanical laboratory or shop of frame construction, sheathed inside and out with brick. It was built because Acting President Frieze insisted that an unexpended appropriation of $2,500 be used immediately. A plan was drawn up by Professor Davis for a building, twenty-four by thirty-six feet, to cost $1,500 and to house equipment purchased for $1,000. The foundry, forge shop, and engine-room were on the ground floor, and the pattern shop and machine shop were on the second floor. Construction, begun in 1881, under Cooley's supervision, was completed in time for classes in February, 1882. The next year the temporary joiner's shop used by the contractor for the new Library Building was given with its equipment to the Department of Mechanical Engineering (R.P., 1881-86, p. 376). In June, 1884, the Steward reported that the joiner's shop had been moved and connected with the Mechanical Laboratory at a cost of $600 and that it was "a great addition and convenience to this worthy but poorly equipped department."

At this time Cooley was the only mechanical engineer in the state of Michigan. He taught blacksmithing, machine shop, and patternmaking. Charles K. Adams, then Professor of History, who became president of Cornell University and later president of the University of Wisconsin, used to stop often on the diagonal and speak to Cooley as he stood in front of the little laboratory. He would say, "And how is the scientific blacksmith shop doing this morning?" He also used to remark that he thought it "a most peculiar thing to have a blacksmith shop on the campus of a classical university." The maligned little building, after bravely standing its ground long enough to demonstrate the value and practicability of erecting an adequate engineering laboratory, was sold in 1887. The bricks were removed, and it was transported to the southwest corner of North University Avenue and Observatory Street, where it became a private residence.

By this time the transition from the first period of development in engineering education at Michigan was complete. During the earlier or formative stage, when schools and programs were being established, the dominating personalities were scientists and publicists rather than engineers, and their chief aim had been the training of civil engineers to meet the problems of an era of rapid growth in population, especially in urban areas. The period following 1870 was one of expansion based on established curriculums. Engineers took an increasingly active part in education, and an American literature of engineering developed through the authorship of leading professors. The engineering profession achieved solidarity and began Page  1168to influence the scheme of education. The expansion of industry created a wide field for mining, metallurgical, and mechanical engineers. Teaching became practical, and laboratory teaching, a field in which American leadership has been especially marked, was developed. Early courses in mechanical engineering were concerned largely with the design of machinery and with the technology of the workshop. The problem of power production and application on a large scale did not become one of major importance until the eighties. Shops rather than the laboratory were the seat of the early efforts at practical instruction, and the emphasis on shopwork was typical of the desire of the schools to make their training as practical as possible.

As soon as the first little Engineering Laboratory was completed in 1882, it was overcrowded and President Angell reported to the Regents:

It was not possible for the Professor alone and in his narrow quarters to give instruction to all who desired it. The utility of actual work with tools and machines to engineers is now recognized in leading schools on both sides of the Atlantic. It is to be hoped that means may be placed at our disposal for enlarging the equipment of the Laboratory, and for providing a suitable assistant for the Professor.


(R.P., 1881-86, p. 268.)

By 1885 additional laboratory space was necessary. The first unit of the permanent brick Engineering Shop, which still stands in 1953 as the east part of the Automotive Laboratory, was built on the east side of the original laboratory, and connected with it by a passageway at the second-floor level. The "new" Engineering Laboratory had three stories and an attic. Within two years after completion in 1886, an enlargement was needed, which necessitated the removal of the first laboratory. The completed building consisted of the original east building, the central part and tower, and a west-wing one-story foundry and forge shop. It contained offices, classrooms, drawing rooms, and laboratories for testing machines, steam engines, water motors, and strength of materials. The tower held a water tank of one-hundred-barrel capacity for hydraulic work and a thirty-foot glass tube mercury column for standardizing gages.

In 1891 the building which had been occupied by the Dental School was turned over to the Engineering Department. The main part, completed in 1840-41, had originally been one of the four professors' residences. Professor Frieze had been its last occupant. It had been equipped for the Dental School in 1877, and an east wing had been added in 1878. In 1891 it was again enlarged by the addition of a third story on the north; the entrance was changed to the west side of the new part, and the word "engineering" was placed over the doorway. There were fifteen classrooms and several offices in this building, which continued in use until 1922, when it was removed to make room for Clements Library. Much of the equipment for these various laboratories came as gifts from tool and machine manufacturers.

Because of the tremendous interest in shops and laboratories during the eighties the question arose concerning the desirability of establishing a manual-training school in which young men could be trained as skilled mechanics. It was decided that the wisest plan would be to limit the mechanical equipment and instruction to the needs of students in civil, mining, and mechanical engineering, not only because the work at the University was intended to lead to an academic degree upon the conclusion of professional training, but because it was difficult to obtain funds for necessary equipment.

The Department of Electrical Engineering came into being in 1889 under the Page  1169supervision of Henry S. Carhart, Professor of Physics, with George W. Patterson as Instructor. The first degrees were conferred in 1890. In 1905 Patterson became the first Professor of Electrical Engineering and served as head of the department until 1915. He then served as chairman of the Department of Engineering Mechanics and, from 1922 until his death in 1930, he served also as Assistant Dean and as Associate Dean.

By 1891, when the engineers moved into their own building, there were 245 engineering students in the fields of civil, mining, mechanical, electrical, and sanitary engineering. That year nineteen bachelor's degrees and two graduate degrees in engineering were granted. In 1893 French, German, and Latin were again recommended as preparation for engineering students, and the language requirement was definitely established in 1895. It had been eliminated early in the history of engineering at Michigan "mainly because in our section of the country for many years a considerable number of men of mature years, who had grown up in offices of engineers without much opportunity for training in languages, came here to prepare themselves for engineering work." By 1893 it was reported:

Under the stimulus given in recent years to engineering study, especially to the preparation for mechanical and for electrical engineering, by far the larger number of matriculants in these courses are young men prepared in our High Schools, where the languages are well taught. A good knowledge of French and German is so helpful to the accomplished engineer of our time that it is wise to encourage the student to get a good reading knowledge of these tongues early in his course.


(R.P., 1891-96, p. 196.)
The requirement of a foreign language and of special training in English led to the establishment of separate departments of English and of other modern languages for engineering students.

In 1895, twenty-four years after DeVolson Wood first recommended such a step, it was resolved "that a School of Technology be organized, comprising the departments of Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Electrical Engineering, and that Professor Charles E. Greene be appointed Dean." A committee composed of Professors Greene, Cooley, and Carhart was appointed to make, with the assistance of the President, a detailed plan for the organization of the new unit. Strangely enough, two members of the committee, Greene and Cooley, were reluctant to separate the Department of Engineering from the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, believing that the engineer's education should be as broad as possible and that in a professional unit the tendency would be to narrow it. Until later departments of engineering were added there continued to be room in the engineering curriculums for liberal arts studies, which both Greene and Cooley believed to be highly important in the training of the engineer.

Rules adopted in May, 1895, for the government of the new department provided for about the same type of administration as was the current practice. These stipulated that the faculty should be composed of all those above the grade of assistant who taught any class organized primarily for the instruction of engineering students; that the immediate government of the department should be vested in the faculty, which would hold general meetings as directed by itself, and special meetings called by the President or the Dean or requested by two professors in the department; that the faculty should elect one of its own members as secretary to keep the records of its proceedings; that student records and grades should be kept by Page  1170the Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts; that admission of students should be handled by the Dean; that candidates for graduation should be recommended by the faculty; and that requirements for graduation remain unchanged. Engineering students were permitted to take courses in departments other than the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts only by permission of the Dean.

With reference to the desirability of the new unit President Angell said in his report of 1895:

Although we have taught engineering for more than forty years, many persons in Michigan have been unaware that we have engineering courses pursued by hundreds of students. This singular ignorance of what we are doing seems to be due in some degree to the fact that the engineering students have always been catalogued with the students of the Literary Department. The establishment of the separate Department of Engineering … should certainly attract the attention of our citizens, too many of whom have supposed that they must send their sons out of the state to be trained as Civil, Mechanical or Electrical Engineers.


(R.P., 1891-96, p. 506.)

The first meeting of the faculty of the new Department (College after 1915) of Engineering was held October 3, 1895, with Dean Greene presiding. For several years faculty meetings were held each week during the school year.

During the first year of its history, the Department of Engineering enrolled 331 students. Incoming students were given serial numbers, which appeared on all records. The serial numbers assigned to engineering students continued progressively every year thereafter; by February, 1952, the number 34,569 had been reached. Information on any person who has been admitted to the College of Engineering since 1895 can be found at a glance.

Because of the sequence of courses and prerequisites in programs of engineering students, the faculty has always closely supervised the election of studies, and classification committees were established at an early date. A semester classification card, designed by Professor Goulding, showed the student's name, subjects, and credit hours, followed by hours of recitation, lectures or laboratory work for each day of the week, his classrooms, and the names of his instructors. This classification card proved so satisfactory that only a few minor changes have been made in it since its inception in 1903.

A curriculum in chemical engineering was approved by the Board of Regents in April, 1898. Professor Edward DeMille Campbell of the Chemistry Department was placed in charge, and the first degree in chemical engineering was granted to Wareham Strong Baldwin in 1901. In 1902 Campbell was made Professor of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Chemistry and in 1905 Director of the Chemical Laboratory.

Some instruction in naval architecture had been given since 1881, but in 1898 an outline of a proposed curriculum, patterned after the course given at the University of Glasgow, was presented to the Regents, and in 1899 an appropriation was made for its establishment. In 1900 Herbert C. Sadler was appointed Junior Professor of Naval Architecture, and in 1901 a curriculum was established leading to a degree in marine engineering.

Under Greene's leadership the engineering enrollment had increased from 62 in 1872 to 609 in 1902. In October of that year the cornerstone of the West Engineering Building was laid. Greene did not live to see it completed. He died in 1903, and Cooley was appointed Dean, taking office in 1904. The four-storied, fireproof, steel and concrete building, with outside walls of vitrified paving Page  1171brick and stone, and a red tile roof, was designed to fit the southeast corner of the campus. An arcade (Denison Arch) permits the passage of the diagonal walk. The building contains a naval tank (the first enclosed tank and the first tank to be built by an educational institution — the only other being at the Washington Navy Yard), originally 300 feet long and later extended to 360 feet, mechanical and steam laboratories, hydraulic laboratory, electrical and physical testing laboratories, and a mold loft. It had been planned for an enrollment of 600 students, but 823 had to be accommodated when it was opened in 1904. It was enlarged in 1909-10, but Dean Cooley was hard pressed to find adequate housing for the College, which enrolled some 2,000 students in 1920. In 1922 classes in nontechnical subjects were moved to the old Tappan School, which was acquired from the city, renamed East Hall, and used as a replacement for the building torn down to make way for the Clements Library.

The East Engineering Building was completed in 1923 to house the departments of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering (formerly in the Chemistry Building and the old abandoned boiler house), Metal Processing (formerly called the Engineering Shops), Engineering Research, Aeronautical Engineering (including the Wind Tunnel), the Division of Transportation Engineering, the State Highway Laboratories, the East Engineering Library, and the Transportation Library. The brick Engineering Shops, constructed in the eighties, became the West Engineering Annex, providing additional space for the departments of Mechanical (automotive) Engineering, Engineering Mechanics, and Geodesy and Surveying. The West Engineering Building housed the departments of Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, and Marine Engineering, Architecture, Geodesy and Surveying, Mechanism and Engineering Drawing, Engineering Mechanics, and Mathematics, as well as the administrative and secretarial offices and the Engineering Library of some 20,000 volumes, which had been transferred from the General Library to the new building in 1904.

The Department of Engineering Mechanics was established in 1911 to give the instruction in applied mechanics previously offered in the Department of Civil Engineering. A course leading to a degree in engineering mechanics was established in 1929, and the first degree was conferred in 1930.

In 1916 the first aeronautical engineering curriculum offered in the United States was established at the University of Michigan. This instruction had a forerunner in the University Aero Club, founded by Professor Herbert C. Sadler in 1910. About 1912 Felix W. Pawlowski, who had taken the first course in aeronautical engineering ever given, that of Marchis in Paris, wrote to the University offering his services in setting up work in aeronautical engineering. As a result of Cooley's interest he was appointed Instructor in Mechanical Engineering in 1914 and lectured on aeronautical engineering subjects before the curriculum leading to a degree was established. Cooley wrote:

I hid this course in the Department of Marine Engineering for a time, for aeronautical engineering was not considered important enough to make it conspicuous by giving it a prominent place. Under Sadler's care it developed into a separate department. The first degree was conferred in 1917.


(Scientific Blacksmith, p. 115.)

The Department of Engineering Research, established in 1920, with Professor A. E. White as Director, has afforded an official channel through which the research facilities of the University in engineering and in related fields have been Page  1172made available to governmental and industrial interests. The unit was renamed the Engineering Research Institute in 1948. White continued as Director until 1953, by which time there were more than thirteen hundred staff members at work on more than two hundred projects a year, costing more than $6,000,000.

In 1922-23 the first degrees in geodesy and surveying were granted, with C. T. Johnston as chairman of the Department of Geodesy and Surveying. This program was discontinued in 1941, when the department was merged with the Department of Civil Engineering.

Although mathematics courses designed especially for engineering students have been taught at Michigan almost from the beginning, in 1928, at the urging of President Little, the Department of [Engineering] Mathematics merged with the Department of Mathematics of the Literary College. Three curriculums leading to the degrees of bachelor of science in engineering (mathematics), (astronomy), and (physics) were set up in 1928. The first degree in the mathematics curriculum was granted in the following year. The first degree in astronomy, with two years of work in any department of engineering, was conferred in 1938, but the program was discontinued in 1942. The first degrees in physics were granted in 1931, and by 1940 more than fifty had been conferred.

The number of hours of credit required for graduation was increased to 140 for all students entering after the fall of 1904. Six-year specialized courses were introduced in 1908, but did not prove successful. In 1912, a complete revision of all of the courses in engineering made it possible for a student in his senior year to have a much wider range of elective work than formerly. The new system provided that of the 140 hours of credit required for graduation, 125 hours were prescribed and the remaining fifteen hours could be elected from any one of the groups of studies outlined. All engineering students were to take the same subjects in their first year. Thereafter, the student chose the branch of engineering which he expected to follow and enrolled in that program.

The idea of a program of study longer than four years has borne fruit in the establishment of combined curriculums with several colleges within the University and with other institutions in the state. The first of these combined programs was established in 1921 with Albion College, whereby a student enrolled at Albion for three years, upon satisfactory completion of a prearranged program including substantially the work of the first two years of the College of Engineering, may be admitted to the College of Engineering, and after two additional years may be graduated in engineering. Under this agreement Albion College accepts the first year at the College of Engineering in lieu of its senior year and if the student's record is satisfactory grants him the bachelor's degree. This five-year course affords a broader education than is possible in the four-year course.

Other combined curriculums have been established through co-operation with colleges and professional schools on the campus, and with such industries as are able and willing to offer a definite program of graded work of educational value.

Graduate work is the generally accepted procedure for extending formal education, and from the beginning there have been graduate students in engineering at Michigan. In the early days graduate students were usually from classical colleges and took engineering after receiving their liberal arts degrees. It was not until about 1915, however, that sufficient progress was made in developing facilities for advanced or graduate work Page  1173in engineering to warrant many graduates of engineering schools engaging in graduate studies. With the encouragement and support of research provided by the Engineering Research Department and the facilities of the East Engineering Building, graduate work was stimulated in all fields of engineering at Michigan and has continued to expand until it appears that such work may be the best answer to the problem of true professional education for engineers.

Degrees in engineering until 1882 were designated as civil engineer and mining engineer. In 1882 the degree became bachelor of science, with the diploma indicating the field in which the degree was taken: bachelor of science (mechanical engineering). The degree was bachelor of mechanical (or — ) engineering from 1909 to 1916; thereafter it became bachelor of science in engineering with the field indicated.

The real beginning of work in architecture did not take place until 1905, when it was voted to establish a chair of architecture. In 1906 the engineering faculty submitted a schedule of work required for graduation in architecture and architectural engineering, which was published in the engineering Announcement for 1906-7. Since only one professorship was established, other courses in architecture were taught by the engineering faculty. Emil Lorch was appointed Professor of Architecture in 1906. A junior professorship, which went begging for lack of acceptance, was finally raised to a full professorship, and in 1910 Percy Ash, professor and dean of architecture at George Washington University, was appointed Professor of Architecture.

The course in architecture grew under the leadership of Lorch, and in 1913 the following resolution of the faculty of the Engineering Department was presented to the Regents:

Resolved, That the Department of Engineering and the department of Architecture be hereafter known as the Departments of Engineering and Architecture with the present Dean and Secretary acting in a similar capacity for the new organization; and that the Department of Architecture shall hereafter administer the admission and discipline of its students, with full control of the curricula in Architecture.


(R.P., 1910-14, p. 778.)
The title was changed to college in 1915, when the reorganization of nomenclature of units took place throughout the University. During the school year of 1927-28 the new Architecture Building was opened, and in 1931 the College of Architecture became an independent unit (see Part VII: College of Architecture and Design).

The honor system was established in the Engineering College in 1916. It was instituted at the request of the students themselves and is operated entirely by them, according to the principle that it is dishonorable for any man to receive credit which is not the result of his own efforts. This is part of the code of the engineer, and it has become a student tradition in the College.

In order to attract and hold men of standing in the profession as staff members it was necessary to permit them to maintain outside professional practice. This policy had first been brought to the attention of the Regents in April, 1910, in a letter to President Hutchins from Dean Cooley:

Sir: — It has come to my attention that there is some criticism of the practice of certain of the professors of the Department of Engineering to engage in professional work outside the University. As is quite generally known, it has been the policy of the Department for many years to encourage such … work by the members of its technical staff, so far as it could be done without too serious interference with college duties. The object of such practice is two-fold, namely, to secure as teachers at salaries which the University Page  1174can pay, men whose standing in the profession is such as to enable them to command much greater compensation; and to make available to the students problems in engineering not otherwise obtainable, owing to the lack of suitable published literature.

Inasmuch as it is not clear that such policy, although known to the Regents, has been formally recognized by them, it has occurred to me as desirable to request that an inquiry be made and that such action be taken as, in the judgment of the Regents, may seem wise and in the best interests of the Department and of the University.

Another matter which should have attention at the same time is the use of offices and studies in the engineering buildings in connection with outside work. The object of these offices and studies is to induce teachers to remain during the day where they can be readily found rather than to go to their homes or elsewhere at the close of their class hours, as formerly. The plan has worked exceedingly well.


(R.P., 1906-10, p. 683.)

The practice of encouraging outside professional work by the engineering faculty was officially approved in the following resolutions adopted at the December, 1910, meeting of the Board:

It may be assumed that the members of the teaching staff would have a keen sense of their responsibility to the University and that their desire to engage in outside work would not be primarily inspired by any spirit of commercialism. If it were found true that the commercial spirit did predominate in any case, then the University might well dispense with the services of that man.

Teachers of engineering … not only should be permitted to engage in professional work outside of their University work, but should be encouraged … in so far as it can add to the effectiveness of their work as teachers, and does not impair their services to the University, and where such work relates to problems of public interest the special kinds of skill to be found in such a teaching staff should, as far as possible, be made available to the public.

Teachers engaging in outside engineering work should have the approval of the Dean of the Department, and they should, at stated intervals, be required to file with the President a record of the work done and of the time given to it.

Teachers of engineering should be permitted to use their offices or studies for their professional work when such use does not interfere with University work.

The University should not be used as a means of securing outside professional work, but such work should be secured on the merits of the man and not because he teaches in the University.


(R.P., 1910-14, p. 57.)

The establishment of the Department of Engineering Research (the Engineering Research Institute) ten years later may be regarded as a logical development of this sound policy.

Before 1906 an advisory committee consisting of five members of the staff was elected by the faculty to approve appointments, buildings and rooms, repairs to buildings, and apparatus and equipment. In 1906 the standing committee, composed of the Dean as chairman, the Assistant Dean, and the chairmen of the various departments, replaced this committee and also functioned as the dean's cabinet. It held regular meetings until 1936, when, at the President's request, an executive committee for the College, appointed by the President, was formed and charged with the duties of investigating and formulating educational research and instructional policies for consideration by the faculty and of acting for the College in matters of budget, promotions, appointments, plant extensions, and all other financial affairs. The executive committee although distinct from the standing committee was made a part of the standing committee, and both bodies serve to the present time.

The end of the Cooley era wherein the Engineering College had acquired an outstanding reputation came in 1928, when Cooley retired and became Dean Emeritus of the College of Engineering and Architecture. He had been a member of Page  1175the faculty with the rank of full professor for forty-seven years. His policy of selecting outstanding professional men for departmental heads was based on Tappan's words: "There is no safe guide in the appointment of professors save in the qualifications of the candidates."

The third Dean of the College of Engineering and Architecture was Herbert Charles Sadler (1928-37), internationally known in the field of naval architecture and marine engineering, and a member of the faculty for thirty-nine years. When Sadler resigned the deanship in 1937, he was named Alexander Ziwet Professor of Engineering. He retired in 1939 as Professor Emeritus of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering and Dean Emeritus of the College of Engineering. His administration was overshadowed by an unhappy period of national depression, with years of curtailed University funds; enrollment, however, increased.

The fourth Dean of the College was Henry Clay Anderson (1937-39), who served the University for forty years, having been a teacher in the Mechanical Engineering Department since 1899 and chairman of the department since 1917. Anderson's death on October 14, 1939, was felt as a personal loss by everyone connected with the College. The heavy responsibilities which he shouldered for so brief a time undoubtedly hastened his death.

In 1938 the Regents approved the establishment of the Mortimer E. Cooley Foundation, with the following objectives: to supplement the regular engineering funds, to ensure the maintenance of a strong faculty for undergraduate teaching, to furnish facilities and laboratory equipment, to provide additional money for the encouragement of graduate work, to foster fundamental research in pure and applied science by faculty members, to encourage special grants to the College for libraries, laboratories, and museums, and to establish scholarships and fellowships. The general plan was to create a board of alumni and faculty members which would secure endowments and administer the funds acquired. The Mortimer E. Cooley Memorial was planned as a separate fund to provide a suitable physical memorial to Dean Cooley, who had contributed so greatly to the development of the Engineering College. This activity led to the erection of the Cooley Memorial Research Laboratory in 1952-53 on the north campus.

The fifth Dean, Ivan Charles Crawford, came to the campus in July, 1940. He was the second civil engineer to become Dean of the College. A graduate of the Army School of the Line, Langres, France, in 1918, and of the "short" course of the War College, Washington, D. C., in 1926, Dean Crawford brought to the College a background rich in service in the field of engineering education. He had been a teacher of civil engineering since 1912, dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Idaho from 1923 to 1937, and dean of the School of Engineering and Architecture at the University of Kansas from 1937 to 1940. During 1933-34 he was state engineer of the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works for the state of Idaho.

In 1942-43, soon after assuming his duties here, Dean Crawford was called to Washington, D. C., as consultant to the Training Division of the Bureau of Personnel of the Navy, and he was largely responsible for the writing of the Navy V-12 program, which specified the course of study for each type of Navy officer. Between January, 1941, and July, 1945, more than 12,500 men and women were trained by the College in 360 classes for immediate service to industry under the Engineering Science and Management War Training program, with Professor R. H. Sherlock acting as co-ordinator. Page  1176Of this number 1,837 were full-time trainees on the campus. The others received part-time instruction at various places in the state. The cost of the program was slightly more than $460,000. In 1942-43 there were also on campus 1,256 men in the Army Specialized Training Program and other army personnel programs operated on the quarter system; 3,513 men, enrolled in the Navy V-12 Program, together with 6,885 civilians in the regular degree programs, operated on the accelerated basis of three terms a year.

At the close of World War II, the returning veterans, including graduate students, increased the engineering enrollment to approximately 5,000. This peak enrollment passed rapidly, and the widely publicized unfortunate prediction that engineers were going to be in "oversupply" and unable to find suitable employment, combined with the low birth rate of the depression years, caused the enrollment in engineering to drop rapidly in 1950.

The addition to the East Engineering Building was completed in 1947 at a cost of $1,545,000, providing 94,848 square feet of laboratory, office, and classroom space urgently needed for the Electrical and Aeronautical Engineering departments. With the transfer of the Department of Electrical Engineering to these new quarters from the West Engineering Building, many other desired improvements were possible. The Naval Tank was extended to its full length of 360 feet. Adequate housing was provided for those members of the mathematics staff teaching engineering courses. Hydraulics, Structures, and Sanitary Engineering laboratories were added to the facilities of the Civil Engineering Department.

The importance of nuclear energy was recognized by the appointment of a nuclear engineering committee in December, 1948, including representatives from all professional departments of the College and with Professor R. R. White as chairman.

George Granger Brown became the sixth Dean of the College when Dean Crawford retired in 1951 to take up residence in Colorado. He was also appointed ad interim chairman of the Engineering Research Council, in which capacity he was administratively responsible for the Engineering Research Institute, including the Willow Run Research Center. This again brought the engineering research activities under the administration of the Dean of the College, from which they had been removed for nineteen months.

Brown had a broad experience in education, research, and professional activities and the important advantage of familiarity with the Michigan scene acquired in more than thirty years as a member of the chemical engineering staff.

Regular weekly meetings of the standing committee were re-established. The program in industrial engineering including the management and production options and a new program in materials engineering were announced in 1951. In 1952 the faculty recommended a plan for active participation of the College with industry, to be administered by the Engineering Research Institute.

Plans were made to celebrate the centennial of engineering education at Michigan in 1953, and Professor Stephen Attwood of the Department of Electrical Engineering was appointed chairman of the general committee. On May 23, 1952, ground was broken for the Cooley Memorial Research Laboratory.

The Transportation Institute was established in 1952, with John C. Kohl, Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, as Director, to develop and conduct inservice training programs, institutes, short courses, and conferences for engineers, technicians, and other personnel Page  1177

Bachelor's Degrees in Engineering
1857-79 1880-99 1900-1919 1920-39 1940-52 Total
Civil 177 232 922 1,163 710 3,195
Mining 24 18 1 ... ... 43
Mechanical 141 939 1,843 1,674 4,597
Electrical 139 592 1,062 1,173 2,966
Marine Engin. and Naval Arch 115 199 313 627
Chemical 385 998 1,026 2,409
B.S. Engin 124 ... 2 126
Aeronautical 9 573 846 1,428
Geod. and Surv 42 3 45
Mech. and Indust 30 ... 30
Chem. and Indust 4 ... 4
Elec. and Indust 3 ... 3
Engin. Mech 14 38 52
Engin.-Math 97 283 380
Engin.-Physics 55 163 218
Engin.-Law 26 13 39
Transportation 66 36 102
Metallurg.-Engin 63 208 271
Engin.-Bus. Admin 27 13 40
Astronomy 1 ... 1
Indust.-Mech 534 534
Industrial 2 2
Totals 201 530 3,087 6,266 7,028 17,112
Graduate Degrees in Engineering*
1862-79 1880-99 1900-1919 1920-39 1940-52 Total
Civil 4 19 49 330 354 756
Mining 1 .. .. ... ... 1
Mechanical 6 42 203 398 649
Electrical 5 22 191 325 543
Marine Engin. and Naval Arch 6 18 42 66
Chemical 44 582 544 1,170
Aeronautical 1 126 295 422
M. S. Engin 10 ... ... 10
Engin. Mech .. 75 101 176
Metallurgical 2 33 73 108
Mech.-Indust 44 44
Totals 5 30 176 1,558 2,176 3,945
Page  1178in the transportation industry, related organizations, and public agencies; to sponsor study and research in transportation through scholarships, fellowships, and grants; and to assist in the development of the Transportation Library. An advisory committee, representing the several units of the University having an interest in transportation, assists in the development of the Institute.

From 1904 to October, 1952, the requirements for graduation were based on the completion of 140 credit hours of work. The scholastic requirements for graduation since then have been expressed in terms of the quality and level of attainment reached by the student in English, drawing, mathematics, chemistry, and physics, and the completion of a specified program of studies for each degree curriculum. This plan permits the well-prepared superior student to complete his college requirements in less time and encourages him to come to the University with better preparation than he obtained under the old method.

The office of Secretary of the College has been held successively by Herbert Jay Goulding (1901-6), James Pyper Bird (1906-15), Louis Allen Hopkins (1915-33), Alfred Henry Lovell (1933-44), and Walter Johnson Emmons, who succeeded Lovell as Assistant Dean and Secretary in 1944. Camilla B. Green, who had worked in the Secretary's office since 1907, was made Assistant Secretary in 1915, and she assumed much of the responsibility for the management of the office. She was one of the first women to be permanently employed on the campus. Probably no member of the faculty ever became personally acquainted with so many engineering students as did she. By 1940 she had served the College faithfully for thirty-three years.

When Joseph B. Davis resigned as Associate Dean in 1908 Assistant Professor William Henry Butts, of the Mathematics Department, was appointed Assistant Dean. Dean Butts had been principal of a military school for some years and was well fitted for student personnel and admissions work. His kind advice was often supplemented with more substantial assistance, since the Assistant Dean also had charge of student loans and scholarships. Butts became Associate Professor of Mathematics in 1919 and retired in 1922. He was succeeded as Assistant Dean by George Washington Patterson III, a member of the faculty since 1889, chairman of the Department of Electrical Engineering from 1905 until 1915, Professor of Engineering Mechanics and chairman of the department from 1915 to 1930. During Dean Cooley's leave of absence following his resignation in 1927-28, Patterson served as Acting Dean of the College, and in 1928 became Associate Dean. On May 22, 1930, his death ended more than forty years of service to the University as teacher, scientist, and administrator.

He was succeeded as Assistant Dean by Alfred Henry Lovell, who was a member of the faculty of the Electrical Engineering Department from 1910 until he retired in 1953. When Lovell resigned to become chairman of the Department of Electrical Engineering in 1945, Walter J. Emmons became Assistant Dean.

The Mentor System

The mentor system of the College of Engineering is probably the oldest student counseling service in continuous operation in this country. Devised by Dean Cooley and put into effect under his supervision in the fall of 1911, it remains as a personalized form of his interest Page  1179in the problem of the freshman in making a proper adjustment to his new environment.

Originally, the freshman class was divided into groups of ten, with a member of the faculty appointed to act as mentor, or special adviser, to each group. At times because of increased enrollment the number of freshmen in a group has been increased to eighteen to twenty, but by 1952-53 a normal group is about ten.

At the first meeting of the mentors, Dean Cooley said: "The mentor should be the elder brother and should see that every man in his group gets the largest possible benefit out of his college life." If this result is to be achieved, there must be genuine co-operation between mentor and student, and the mentor must be carefully chosen for his ability to secure the confidence and co-operation of the student.

One phase of the mentor system is the practice of reporting frequently to the freshman his current scholastic standing. Each semester is divided approximately into thirds. Soon after the first third of the first semester is completed, all faculty members teaching freshman subjects report the standings of their students to the head mentor. These reports are collected for each freshman and issued to the mentors. The freshman then has a conference with his mentor regarding his progress and any recommended changes of schedule. Copies of the reports are also mailed to his parents. This is repeated about six weeks later. Two more such report-and-interview schedules take place in the second semester. Thus, the mentor sees each of his freshmen at least four times a year, and normally, of his own volition the freshman visits his mentor oftener.

The co-operation of the faculty has been largely responsible for the success of the mentor system. Promptness of the instructor in turning in his student ratings is essential to the success of the plan. As a rule, within a week after the reports have been made, about 95 per cent of the freshmen have had conferences with their mentors.

Contacts with parents, either by mail or personally, are an important part of the mentor's duties. Many of these contacts arise naturally, when the parent learns there is a faculty personnel officer who deals directly with the freshman. More contacts develop through the practice of sending the reports to the parents.

The principle is well established that, insofar as possible, the mentor should be free from the exercise of authority, so that he may secure the co-operation of the student. He may recommend a course of action to a freshman, but will seldom see that it is enforced. While the scholastic reports constitute a valuable service, they do not become an official part of the student's scholastic record. The freshman often consults the mentor in confidence. Since consultations are entirely by word-of-mouth and are not committed to the records, the student's confidence is protected. A mentor is appointed because he has an intelligent and sympathetic attitude toward the work and because he is willing to assume a difficult burden. His knowledge and experience do not always enable him to detect the cause of more serious difficulties, but he makes use of all campus services. He does not hesitate to refer the freshman to the University Health Service, and the freshman seldom fails to take advantage of such help.

As to scholastic adjustment, if a student's first report shows him to be doing work which is below passing grade, he may be advised to drop one subject so that he may bring up his average. This is particularly true of students who are partly or wholly self-supporting. Often a mentor discovers emotionally disturbing factors and helps the student to a Page  1180realization that this alone may be the cause of his difficulty.

The mentor's judgment of a student's capacity for doing creditable work is aided by access to all available information, such as his high-school record and the record made in Orientation period tests.

Since 1911 freshmen in the College have been required to attend a one-hour weekly assembly, conducted by the head mentor. Originally, assembly programs consisted mainly of class meetings, informational talks, speeches by the Dean and heads of engineering departments, and addresses by outside engineering speakers. Talks may be given on the subjects of the honor system and class organization, the functional aspects of engineering, invention and patents, student fears, personality development and undesirable behavior traits, scholarship and its relation to later success, and effective learning methods. The assemblies for the second semester are largely devoted to giving the freshmen as broad a view of the engineering field as possible.

The fine co-operation of those staff members who have served the College as mentors more than anything else has made the plan one of the outstanding systems of its kind.

Until about 1928 it was the custom to appoint a new head mentor each year. Professor Arthur D. Moore served continuously in that capacity from then until 1952, when Professor C. Willett Spooner was appointed to the position. Permanency of appointment made it possible for Moore to study the system as a whole and to keep more nearly abreast of the rapid growth of knowledge in the personnel field.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1906-52.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1852-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
The College of Engineering. 42d Gen. Bull. Bur. Alum. Rel., Univ. Mich., 1944. 16 pp.
Cooley, Mortimer E.Scientific Blacksmith. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1947.
Cooley, Mortimer E. MS, Papers.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
General Register, Univ. Mich., 1927-52.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Mann, Charles R."A Study of Engineering Education."Bull. Carnegie Found. for Adv. of Teaching, No. 11.
The Michigan Alumnus, 1894-1952.
The Michigan Argonaut, 1882-90.
The Michigan Technic, 1888-1952.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department [College since 1915] of Engineering."
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-52.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1952.
Ricketts, Palmer C.Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: A Short History. Troy, New York, 1930.
Shaw, Wilfred B.A Short History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: George Wahr, 1934.
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education. "Report of the Investigation of Engineering Education, 1923-29." Pittsburgh: Univ. Pittsburgh, 1930. Vol. 1.
Special Announcement, College of Engineering. Univ. Mich., 1914-52.
Tappan, Henry P.A Discourse, Delivered by … on the Occasion of His Inauguration as Chancellor … Detroit: Advertiser Power Presses, 1852.
University of Michigan Council and Senate Records, 1929-36.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Willson, Frederick N."Engineering Education. Some Historical Notes…"Trans. Eng. Soc. Princeton, 1901-2.
Winchell, Alexander. MS correspondence. In Alexander Winchell Papers.
Winchell, Alexander. Papers. MS "Diary."In Alexander Winchell Papers, 1853-59.
Page  1181

THE DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

IN 1911 Professor Herbert Charles Sadler (Glasgow '93, D.Sc. hon. ibid. '02, LL.D. ibid. '27), chairman of the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, attended the first International Aviation Meeting at Boston, Massachusetts. Many of the great contemporary flyers, including the Wright brothers, Glenn Curtiss, Louis Bleriot, and Graham White, took part in the airplane races and exhibition flights held on that occasion.

Interest in aeronautics was traditional in Sadler's family, for his great-granduncle, James Sadler (1751-1828), of Oxford, was the first English balloonist, and the two sons of James Sadler, Windham and John, followed their father's hobby and career. J. E. Hodgson in his voluminous History of Aeronautics in Great Britain devoted an entire chapter to the Sadlers (Chap. VI, "The First English Aeronaut, James Sadler and His Sons").

Moreover, during his early teaching career at the University of Glasgow, Sadler had as his colleague Percy S. Pilcher, who was Otto Lilienthal's follower and the British pioneer in modern glider flying.

Upon his return from the aviation meeting in Boston Sadler reorganized the University of Michigan Aero Club. In the year 1911-12 the students built a small wind tunnel in the "mold loft" of the West Engineering Building and experimented with various kinds of craft. They also built a glider, patterned to some extent on the Wrights' biplane, and flew it as a kite in the hilly country surrounding Ann Arbor. Since they had had no aeronautical experience, they concentrated on controlling the rise and descent of their craft and on maintaining its longitudinal equilibrium, depending for the more difficult lateral equilibrium on two helpers standing on the ground and holding ropes attached to the wing tips. The ground helpers were often lifted into the air by sudden gusts of wind or by the pilot's abrupt use of the elevator control. Sadler helped and advised, repeating the warning given him by Wilbur Wright: "If you will advise them [the students] to build a glider and to fly it, do not let them build it too light."

In 1910 Felix Wladyslaw Pawlowski (Paris '10, M.S. Michigan '14), who had taken the first course in aeronautical engineering ever given, that of Lucien Marchis at the University of Paris, arrived in this country. He spent two years in Chicago as a designer for the automobile industries. In 1911-12 he wrote to a number of engineering colleges and technological institutes requesting an opportunity to develop courses in aeronautics. He received negative replies from most of them on the grounds that aviation "very likely" would never amount to anything. But he had two encouraging answers, one from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology expressing interest in the proposal, although declining it "for the present" because of lack of funds, and another from Dean Mortimer E. Cooley, which resulted in Pawlowski's appointment to the University of Michigan in 1913 as Teaching Assistant in Mechanical Engineering, with the understanding that later he would be permitted to introduce courses in aeronautical engineering. He became Instructor in 1914.

In view of the times and the stage of Page  1182development of aviation, it is easy to find justification for the negative attitude of the various deans approached, but the farsightedness of Dean Cooley as well as his confidence in the future possibilities of this new mode of transportation is evident. When he presented the matter to his standing committee, Sadler and Ziwet expressed their approval.

After Pawlowski's arrival at the University interest in aviation increased rapidly. For a time, partly because of his insufficient command of the English language and partly because aeronautical engineering was not yet considered important (Cooley, Scientific Blacksmith), Pawlowski's official duties were limited to drawing-room work in mechanical engineering. He took a leading part in the activities of the Aero Club, however, thus relieving Sadler of that responsibility. Once a week the club held regular meetings, during which principles of aerodynamics and aviation were discussed, and another larger, but not a better, biplane glider was built. This glider also was flown as a kite, and, probably for the first time in the history of aviation, an automobile was used to tow it. Two students, Flavius E. Loudy ('16e [Ae.E.], Ae.E. '38) and Lewis C. Wilcoxen ('16e), distinguished themselves particularly in connection with the construction and the handling of this glider. Loudy later had a successful career in the aeronautical industries and in the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department.

The enthusiasm following a series of lectures delivered at the University in the fall of 1913 by Professor Lucien Marchis contributed to the establishment of the first regular courses in aeronautics in February, 1915. Professor Marchis throughout his earlier career had been interested primarily in the industrial or practical applications of physics; thus he lectured successively on the theory of steam engines, internal combustion engines, automobiles, and on aeronautics.

These first courses at the University, which were under the direction of Pawlowski, proved to be so popular that it was necessary to extend and correlate them as one of the regular groups of electives. This instruction, however, was for members of the Aero Club and was offered without credit. John H. Ledebaer's translation of Duchene's Flight Without Formulae was used as a textbook. The regular courses in aeronautical engineering, leading to a professional degree, were organized as a group of electives in the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering. Only junior and senior engineering students were eligible. The curriculum was much like that for naval architecture and marine engineering students and was similar also to the course in mechanical engineering. The aeronautical subjects were added partly at the expense of the electives.

The first course, Theory of Aviation, introduced in 1914-15 for two hours of credit, dealt with the principles of aerodynamics and the mechanics of flight. Students who were members of this first class included D. M. Bavly, M. L. Goldstein, K. W. Heinrich, A. Horbaszewski, Yocham Hu, F. E. Loudy, and Chien Hsün Sung.

In 1915-16 two new courses in aeronautics were added, Propulsion of Aeroplanes, which dealt with propeller design and the principal features of the various types of motors, and Aeroplane Design, which consisted of lectures and drawing room work. The details of the actual construction of an airplane were discussed, and a design was made to fulfill a given set of conditions. Sixteen students were enrolled in the three courses during the year.

Page  1183A 1912 model "B" hydroplane, manufactured by the Wright brothers, was presented to the University Aero Club in 1915 by Russell Alger, of Detroit, president of the Michigan Aero Club, and Frederick W. Alger, of Clarkston. Shortly afterward, the machine was destroyed in a trial flight on Barton Pond, fortunately without any harm to the pilot.

In 1916-17 a complete four-year program of study, Program VI, leading to the bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering was arranged. The department was included in the then renamed Department of Naval Architecture, Marine Engineering and Aeronautics. Pawlowski, as Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, still taught certain courses in mechanical engineering. During this year the following aeronautical courses were offered: General Aeronautics, Theory of Aviation, Theory and Design of Propellers, Aeroplane Design, Aeronautical Laboratory, Design of Aeronautical Motors, Theory of Balloons and Dirigibles, Design of Balloons and Dirigibles, Theory and Design of Kites, Design of Aerodromes and Hangars, Advanced Stability, Aeronautics — Advanced Reading and Seminar, Aeronautics — Advanced Design, and Aeronautics — Advanced Research. General Aeronautics was added as an introductory course dealing with the fundamentals underlying the design and performance of both the lighter-and the heavier-than-air craft.

Of the fourteen courses proposed and listed, only the first six were required as a minimum qualifying the student for the degree in aeronautical engineering; the remainder were offered as electives in accordance with the needs of senior and graduate students. During the first semester General Aeronautics was taught by Sadler, and Theory and Design of Propellers, Aeroplane Design, Advanced Reading and Seminar, and Advanced Aeroplane Design were offered by Pawlowski. At the end of the first semester of 1916-17 Pawlowski was granted a leave of absence to accept a position in Washington, D.C., as aeronautical engineer for the United States Army.

During the second semester the following courses were offered: General Aeronautics (Sadler), Theory of Aviation (Gerhardt), Aerodynamic Laboratory (Sadler), and Design of Aeronautical Motors (Fishleigh).

In May, 1917, the degree of bachelor of science in engineering (aeronautical engineering) was established, and in June, 1917, William Frederick Gerhardt was the first student to receive it.

Owing to the important role of aviation in World War I, the War Department began to organize design and construction of airplanes for the United States Army, and for that purpose drafted engineers who possessed some knowledge of aviation. After the declaration of war, however, and upon the arrival of the Balfour-Viviani Mission, the War Department accepted the advice of these experts of our Allies and abandoned attempts to develop original airplane design, concentrating instead on the utilization of the enormous manufacturing facilities of the country for quantity production of aircraft of Allied design. Consequently, in the fall of 1917, Pawlowski returned to the University to assist in conducting a special course, Principles of Aviation, which permitted students drafted into the Army to qualify or to claim preference for Air Corps service. The courses given during this year were: General Aeronautics, Theory of Aviation, Propeller Design, Airplane Design, Aeronautical Laboratory, and Aeronautical Motor Design. A two-hour course in "ground" instruction for future flyers was open to students from other schools and colleges Page  1184on the campus. Because of the large enrollment in Theory of Aviation, it was taught in two sections. In June, 1918, four students qualified for the degree of bachelor of science in engineering (aeronautical engineering), and W. F. Gerhardt, the first student to qualify for an advanced degree in aeronautics, was granted the degree of master of science in engineering (aeronautical engineering). Pawlowski was promoted to an associate professorship of aeronautical engineering and was relieved of further teaching duties in mechanical engineering.

During the first semester of 1918-19, work in aeronautical engineering was conducted by Pawlowski alone. Most of the thirty-four students in the first course wished to qualify for service in the Air Corps. Ten students enrolled in the courses offered in the second semester, only two of whom qualified for the bachelor's degree. The two built a dynamometer for the small wind tunnel.

Pawlowski was granted leave of absence during the first semester of 1919-20 to organize aeronautical research for the Polish army. In 1920-21 he taught all of the courses except Dynamic Stability, which was given by Professor Ziwet, of the Mathematics Department. Thirty-seven students were registered in aeronautical engineering during this year, and eight were graduated with the bachelor's degree.

Edward Archibald Stalker ('19e[Ae.E.], M.S.E. '23), after two years of experience in airplane design with the Stout Engineering Laboratories, Dearborn, Michigan, was appointed Instructor in Aeronautical Engineering in 1921 to relieve Pawlowski of part of his teaching load in order that he might have time for original investigations.

Plans for the East Engineering Building provided for a new wind tunnel, and in 1924 Pawlowski visited Europe to study the development of aeronautics and to obtain information to aid in the installation of the wind tunnel, which was finally completed with the aid of a gift of $28,000 from the Guggenheim Fund in 1926. An additional amount of $50,000 from the same fund was also given to provide a professorship of applied aeronautics for ten years. Lawrence Vincent Kerber ('18e [Ae.E.], A.E. '36), who was appointed to this position, came to the University in February, 1927. He assisted with the instruction in design and developed a course in aerial transportation, the first to be given by a university. One project undertaken in 1928-29 led to Professor Stalker's discovery that sucking off the boundary layer (the thin layer of air at the surface of a wing) is an effective method of delaying wing "stalling."

In January, 1927, the staff, assisted by members of other departments and by officers of the Naval Reserve Corps of Detroit, conducted a newly approved course in naval aviation to train men for the Naval Reserve Air Force. In 1928 the department purchased a discarded plane from the government for use in this course.

In 1929-30 the department, with 254 students, had the largest enrollment in the College. A total of 129 bachelor's degrees, eighteen master's degrees, and one doctor's degree had been granted by the end of 1929. Walter Francis Burke (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '29, M.S. Michigan '32) was appointed Instructor in this year. A committee composed of Professors Pawlowski and Stalker, Assistant Professor Frank N. M. Brown ('28e[Ae.E.], M.S.E. '32), who had come in 1928, and W. Burke administered the work in aeronautical engineering. Pawlowski was appointed to the Guggenheim professorship formerly held by Professor Kerber, who had resigned in 1929, following a year's leave of absence Page  1185with the Department of Commerce.

During the year a new balance, which required only one man for operation, was constructed. This improvement facilitated various research projects. The facilities of the Aerodynamics Laboratory were used by a number of companies, including the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, the General Tire Company, and the Stout Engineering Laboratories.

According to the Regents' Proceedings of September, 1930, almost twenty years after Dean Sadler and Professor Pawlowski had roused interest in aviation at the University of Michigan, "The Department of Aeronautical Engineering was established as an organization separate from the Department of Marine Engineering with which it has to this time been merged." In November, Professor Stalker was appointed head of the department.

With the depression enrollment began to drop until by 1933-34 it had reached a low of 176 students. A few changes in staff took place in these years. Milton John Thompson ('25e [Ae.E.], M.S.E. '26, Sc.D. Warsaw '30) was appointed Assistant Professor of Aeronautical Engineering in 1930, and in 1933 Burdell Leonard Springer ('32e [Ae.E.], M.S. '33) replaced Burke, who requested a leave of absence to accept a position with the General Aviation Corporation.

Research became increasingly important in the development of the department. The wind tunnel was used to conduct tests for industrial concerns, and a study of the downflow of gases behind power plant gas stacks and other experiments were carried out as a result of the acquisition of a multiple-tube manometer and a darkroom for photographic work. New equipment was acquired as the need for it arose. A suction blower and auxiliary equipment were installed to test the resistance of automobiles by streamlining. With the aid of C.W.A. labor in 1933-34, a propeller dynamometer, a small portable smoke tunnel, and a dynamic stability dynamometer were completed. In 1934 a small wind tunnel was constructed with the aid of F.E.R.A. and N.Y.A. labor. This tunnel was a single-return type with a cross section twenty-one inches by thirty-two inches at the experimental chamber.

In 1935-36 both Professor Pawlowski and Professor Stalker were granted leave of absence because of illness, and Edward Irwin Ryder ('33e [M.E.], M.S.E. '34), of the Hammond Aircraft Company of Ypsilanti, was appointed Teaching Fellow in order to lessen the teaching load. Milton J. Thompson was made acting chairman of the department in the absence of Stalker.

The Army and Navy in 1935-36 began to send graduate officers to the University for instruction in aeronautics. A larger staff was needed in order to improve the courses offered and to develop a program of research. Charles S. J. MacNeil, Jr. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '33e[Ae.E.]), was engaged as Lecturer during the second semester of 1936-37 to handle advanced work in aircraft propellers and performance. The student branch of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences was organized during the year with Springer serving as honorary chairman.

Research projects were completed by the staff for such groups as the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Beech Aircraft Corporation, United Electric and Manufacturing Company, the Bell Aircraft Corporation, and the Wincharger Corporation. Extensive commercial tests of a one-tenth scale model of the "Electra," America's first all-metal transport airplane, were conducted for the Lockheed Aircraft Company of Burbank, California. These tests were later substantiated by flight tests of the Page  1186production airplane. One student, Clarence L. Johnson, who had helped with the tests, later became chief research engineer for the Lockheed Aircraft Company. He also received the Sperry Award in 1938.

In 1937-38 Emerson Ward Conlon (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '29e [Ae.E.]) was appointed Instructor to fill the vacancy caused by Springer's resignation, and Stalker resumed his duties as chairman of the department.

Two new design courses, Airplane Structures Laboratory and Applied Aerodynamics, were added to the curriculum in 1938-39. Upon completion of a pilot-training course which was set up in 1939 under sponsorship of the Civil Aeronautics Authority, the student received a civilian pilot's license. The program proved to be very successful, branching into primary and secondary courses. In 1942, because it was conducted in connection with the war effort, the name of the course was changed from Civilian Pilot Training to War Training Service. It was discontinued in August, 1943. At this time Conlon began research on the application of magnesium to aircraft structures. The department co-operated with the Dow Chemical Company in producing a wing Model SNJ-1 airplane for the Bureau of Aeronautics. This was the first magnesium aircraft structure to demonstrate a definite weight saving over the corresponding aluminum alloy structure.

In 1940 Associate Professor Thompson resigned to accept a position in charge of the aeronautical courses at the University of Texas. Arnold Martin Kuethe (Ripon '26, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology '33) succeeded him in 1941, and Franz Russell Steinbacher (New York '38e [Ae.E.], M. S. Michigan '42) was appointed Instructor. During World War II more changes occurred in the staff. Conlon, who had been promoted to Associate Professor of Aeronautical Engineering was called to active duty with the United States Naval Aeronautical Reserve in 1942, and Stalker resigned to enter industry. Professor Kuethe became acting chairman, and Associate Professor Edgar James Lesher (Ohio State '37, M.S.E. Michigan '40), who had served on the staff in 1939-40, returned in the fall of 1942.

The department participated in the training of aircraft inspectors for the Army Air Force under the E.S.M.W.T. program from 1942 to 1944. Steinbacher taught an extension course, Airplane Structures, and Lesher taught one listed as Aerodynamics. Under the same program Kuethe gave a course in Dynamics of Compressible Fluids, and Jacque Houser (Alabama Polytechnic Institute '42e [Mech. Eng.], M.S.E. Michigan '44), Teaching Fellow in Aeronautics, taught courses in aircraft inspection.

In research, Kuethe supervised the construction of special equipment for the Wright Field Wind Tunnel at Dayton, Ohio. Airplane model tests were conducted for the Ford Motor Company and the Lee Wendt Company of Chicago; wind pressure and rain penetration tests were carried out for the Celotex Corporation of Chicago; and an investigation of the pressure distribution over a steel hut for Army use was completed for the Stran Steel Division of the Great Lakes Steel Corporation. Several confidential projects were undertaken for the Army Air Force in conjunction with the Engineering Research Institute.

In 1944-45 Steinbacher was granted a leave of absence to do work in structural research for the Douglas Aircraft Company. Lesher was also granted leave to work on special projects for the Page  1187Stinson Division of the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation of Wayne, Michigan.

Julius David Schetzer ('39e, M.S. '44) was appointed Assistant Professor in 1944. In October, 1945, Conlon was released from duty as Commander with the United States Naval Reserve and returned to the University as Professor and chairman of the department. In the following year Professor Wilbur Clifton Nelson ('35e [Ae.E.], M.S.E. '37) and Associate Professor Myron Hiram Nichols (Oberlin '36, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology '39) joined the staff. Lawrence Lee Rauch (Southern California '41, Ph.D. Princeton '49) came to the staff as Assistant Professor in 1949. Hans Peter Liepman (Dipl. Ing. Swiss Institute of Technology '37, M.S. Harvard '39) was appointed Lecturer and given charge of the supersonic wind tunnel at Willow Run. While Conlon was on leave of absence in 1950 he served as Technical Director of the Air Force project (Arnold Engineering Development Center) at Tullahoma, Tennessee, and Kuethe again served as acting chairman of the department.

During this period the visiting teachers in the department included: Professor David J. Peery, head of the Aeronautical Engineering Department at Pennsylvania State College, Professor K. D. Wood, chairman of the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Colorado, Sir Richard V.H. South-well, of the Imperial College of London, Professor F. R. Shanley, of the University of California, and Dr. Leslie S. G. Kovasznay, Johns Hopkins University. In 1951, preparatory to a revision of the curriculum in aeronautical engineering, Associate Professor Schetzer visited various aircraft companies to study their needs. He obtained valuable information on dynamics of the airplane at the Douglas Aircraft Company in Santa Monica, California, which he presented in a series of lectures to the Douglas engineers.

In 1953 the professorial staff included: E. W. Conlon, A. M. Kuethe, W. C. Nelson, M. H. Nichols, J. D. Schetzer, and L. L. Rauch; E. J. Lesher; John William Luecht ('42e [Ae.E.]) and Robert Milton Howe (California Institute of Technology '45, Oberlin '47, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology '50).

More than thirty years after he had first kindled an interest in aviation at the University of Michigan, Professor Pawlowski retired in 1946 to live at Pau, France. Members of the department and all others who knew him experienced a feeling of great loss when news was received that he had died on February 17, 1951.

Much-needed space for the department was provided in 1946-47 when the addition to the East Engineering Building was built. The staff moved into its quarters in the new wing in November, 1947. Offices, two instrumentation laboratories, and several classrooms were on the first floor. The Aerodynamics, Design, Transportation, and Propulsion laboratories were on the fourth floor, and the Structures Laboratory was in the basement of the new wing. The small supersonic wind tunnel was moved to the Aerodynamics Laboratory on the fourth floor, and a 120,000-pound Tinius Olsen testing machine was installed in the new Structures Laboratory. The subsonic wind tunnel was modernized and converted to a closed-throat type. A six-component two-parameter strain gage type of balance system was designed, built, and installed, and a new fan having eight adjustable blades was installed.

On January 24, 1947, the Regents accepted the deed to the Willow Run Airport and Army Air Base from the War Assets Administrator. In doing so the University planned to improve facilities Page  1188for instruction and research in the field of aeronautics. It was also intended that so valuable a property should not be abandoned, but should be maintained for public airport purposes and future emergency. A plan was devised whereby landing field and hangar facilities were made available to the airlines through lease; the University retained space for a new and enlarged postwar program of aeronautical instruction and research.

The Department of Aeronautical Engineering, through the Department of Engineering Research, negotiated the contract, known as the Wizard Project, with the Air Materiel Command in April, 1946, for an engineering study of a defensive guided missile. Another project, initiated for the Signal Corps in 1946, involved the measurement of atmospheric temperatures up to forty miles' altitude and the determination of the relative amounts of helium, neon, argon, and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. To house these projects and provide the necessary laboratory facilities, the Aeronautical Research Center was developed at Willow Run Airport. Hangar No. 1, Bay 1, and parts of Bay 2, were remodeled into offices, stock room, drafting rooms, machine shop, electronics laboratory, and a model shop. A laboratory for upper-atmosphere research was also installed; this project, however, was moved to the University campus in November, 1947.

The large supersonic wind tunnel in the Warm-up Hangar at the Aeronautical Research Center was completed and put into operation in 1948. Laboratories for photographic work, turbulence, and propulsion were also constructed in the Warm-up Hangar. In Building 22 space was utilized for propulsion test equipment.

The department was relieved of its connection with Project Wizard in 1950, when the Engineering Research Institute became responsible for it; the Aeronautical Research Center became the Willow Run Research Center. The supersonic wind tunnel and most of the propulsion facilities at Willow Run were retained under the technical supervision of the department.

In addition to the various government contracts, research has been completed during recent years for such aircraft companies as Goodyear Aircraft, the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft, Bendix Aviation, Grumman Aircraft Engineering, and Boeing Airplane, and for such automotive concerns as Ford Motor, Studebaker, Kaiser-Frazer, and General Motors. Contracts have also been completed for the following companies: Palmer Bee, the Dow Chemical, Askania Regulator, the Pullman Standard, Outdoor Advertising, and the Stalker Development Company, which was founded by Edward A. Stalker, chairman of the department from 1930 to 1942.

Although enrollment in the department has fluctuated with the economic situation of the country and with the needs of industry it rose to an all-time high of 358 undergraduate and nineteen graduate students in 1940-41. During World War II, in 1943-44, there were only 181 undergraduates and six graduates, but the number increased to 270 undergraduates and seventy graduates in 1947-48. The tremendous increase in graduate students was due not only to the expansion of graduate courses and qualified staff but to the special post-graduate Pilotless Aircraft course for the specialized training of officers for the Air Force. This course, first offered in February, 1946, has been changed to the Guided Missiles Program for Air Force personnel, which covers two calendar years and one summer session.

In 1946-47, graduate courses in propulsion Page  1189and instrumentation, particularly in guided missiles, were added to the curriculum and later expanded. Courses such as Advanced Experimental Aerodynamics, Dynamics of Perfect Fluids, Dynamics of Compressible Fluids, Dynamics of Viscous Fluids, Nuclear Energy for Aircraft Propulsion, and Guidance of Pilotless Aircraft were introduced or expanded to cover new material. The nuclear energy course has been discontinued in favor of a more extensive nuclear engineering program in the College, directed by a committee under the chairmanship of Professor Rauch.

Each year the number of doctor's degrees awarded by the department has increased. Seven were granted in 1952. In 1948-49 the department attempted to standardize the requirements for the master's degree according to the student's option (aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, or design). Of the thirty hours required for the master's degree twenty were prescribed and the remaining ten were elective.

Early in 1951, at the request of the Air Force Institute of Technology, the guided missiles curriculum for Air Force officers was revised by Kuethe and Rauch to permit greater concentration of effort in the field of guidance and control. Professor Nichols was made director of the program upon his return to the department.

Members of the staff have been active in engineering associations, such as the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, The American Society for Engineering Education (formerly S.P.E.E.), The Aero Club of Michigan, and the Michigan Society for Professional Engineers. Several have served on the advisory or editorial boards of the Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences and the Applied Mechanics Reviews.

Books by members of the staff include Stalker's Principles of Flight (1931); Thompson's Fluid Mechanics (1937) (with Russell A. Dodge, Professor of Engineering Mechanics), Nelson's Airplane Propeller Principles (1944), and Kuethe and Schetzer's Foundations of Aerodynamics (1950).

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1913-1952.
Cooley, Mortimer E.Scientific Blacksmith. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1947.
Hodgson, J. E."The First English Aeronaut, James Sadler and His Sons." In: History of Aeronautics in Great Britain. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1924.
Nelson, J. Raleigh. "College Notes."Bull. Soc. Promot. Engin. Educ., VII, No. 5: 288-89.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1913-52.
Special Announcement, College of Engineering, Univ. Mich., 1914-52.
Page  1190

THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING

THE University of Michigan almost from its beginning recognized the importance of teaching the applications of chemistry to industrial life. Silas Hamilton Douglas (A.M. hon. Vermont '47), who was appointed Assistant in 1844, showed his interest in this subject in his "Report to the Water Commissioners of the City of Detroit on the Analyses of Waters" in 1854, in which he not only recorded the chemical composition but also discussed the relation between water supply and cholera and the danger of lead poisoning. President Tappan also was interested in the applications of chemistry. In his inaugural address in 1852 he stated:

To this end, we propose to establish a Scientific course parallel to the classical course. In this scientific course a more extended study of the Mathematics will be substituted for the Greek and Latin. There will be comprised in it, besides other branches, Civil Engineering, Astronomy with the use of an Observatory, and the application of Chemistry and other Sciences to Agriculture and the industrial arts, generally.


(Tappan …, p. 40.)

The title, Professor of Metallurgy and Chemical Technology, given Douglas during the last two years of his long career at the University, may be said to have been prophetic of the developments which were to take place in the following seventy-five years. Albert Benjamin Prescott ('64m, Ph.D. hon. '86, LL.D. Northwestern '03), who later became Dean of the School of Pharmacy, was primarily an organic chemist, but during the period 1865-70 he also lectured on metallurgy. Byron William Cheever ('63, '67m, '75l) was acting Professor of Chemistry and Metallurgy from 1881 until his death in 1888, and John Williams Langley (Harvard '61, M.D. hon. Michigan '77, Ph.D. hon. ibid. '92) was Professor of General Chemistry and Metallurgy in 1888-89. The emphasis on metallurgy was due in part to the course in mining engineering which, with Cheever's appointment, was divided into two options, mining and metallurgy. The last students in mining engineering were graduated in 1896, and the course was discontinued as the result of an agreement with the recently established Michigan College of Mines.

Fortunately, the professorships in metallurgy did not end with Professor J. W. Langley's resignation in 1889 nor with the discontinuing of the mining engineering course, for Edward DeMille Campbell ('86) was appointed Assistant Professor of Metallurgy in 1890. This appointment was of great significance because Campbell brought to the University a strong interest in a field of metallurgy which was then in its infancy, the study of the constitution of metals and alloys, particularly iron and steel. He was also much interested in the application of chemistry to industry, and this was to have its effect at an early date.

During this earlier period chemistry was relatively undeveloped, and its applications were mainly to methods of analysis. In 1892 few advanced courses were offered at the University, and almost all graduates expected to work as analysts in chemical laboratories. Analytical procedures were not well standardized, and it required originality and training to work out the problems that arose in routine analytical work. Scientific control of chemical operations was not possible until physical chemists had Page  1191discovered the underlying laws which control the conditions of equilibrium and the rate of chemical reactions. This body of knowledge was developed sufficiently to be of importance in the decade 1890-1900, and this period may, therefore, properly serve as the starting point in a consideration of chemical engineering. During these years Professor Prescott was Director of the Chemical Laboratory, with appointment dating from 1884. Professor Campbell gave one course in metallurgical operations, and a one-hour course entitled Outlines of Chemical Technology was announced as given by Otis Coe Johnson (Oberlin '68, A.M. ibid. '77, Michigan '71p), but was rarely offered. The only other courses in the applications of chemistry to industry were those in the field of analytical chemistry. Campbell was conducting research on the constitution of steel, and it was during experimental work in this subject that he lost his eyesight in the spring of 1892 (see Part III: Department of Chemistry).

Alfred Holmes White ('93, '04e) went to Europe for further study in the summer of 1896. During his stay at the Federal Polytechnicum at Zurich, Switzerland, he wrote Campbell about the courses which he was taking in chemical technology and the way in which the technical work was organized. Campbell was much interested and made plans to introduce such courses at the University of Michigan. With Prescott's approval White was appointed Instructor in Chemical Technology in 1897. The two new courses in this subject, one in inorganic and the other in organic chemical technology, were offered in alternate semesters. Campbell at that time was teaching one of the very early courses in metallography given in the United States. It is characteristic of this extraordinary man that although the subject had developed largely since his blindness, he should successfully inaugurate without trained assistants a course in a subject requiring laboratory work.

The first course in chemical engineering in the United States was offered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1888, but aroused little interest. The second was given at the University of Michigan in 1898. The Regents' Proceedings for April, 1898, contains a communication from Dean Charles E. Greene asking for the establishment "of a course of study in this department leading to the degree of bachelor of science in Chemical Engineering." This was approved by the Regents, and the direction of the course was entrusted to Campbell, although no formal change was made in his title until 1902, when he became Professor of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Chemistry.

The new program of study was necessarily made up of courses which were already being offered to other groups of students, because at that time the finances of the University did not permit an increase in staff or laboratories. In April, 1898, in his letter to the Regents, Dean Greene stated: "No addition to the teaching force will be needed for this course," and added, "It is not expected that the number of students will be large." The program of study as first outlined included the fundamental courses common to all programs in the College of Engineering, one in surveying, four in mechanical engineering, one in electrical engineering, and nine in chemistry. Included in the group of courses in chemistry were two in chemical technology taught by Alfred H. White and one in metallurgy taught by Campbell; these were the forerunners of the courses in chemical engineering proper. The first class graduated with five members in 1903. By making some substitutions in their programs, Wareham S. Baldwin received the degree in 1901 and No man Page  1192Follett Harriman received it in 1902.

The requirements for graduation in the College at that time were 130 hours of credit and, in addition, a thesis. The thesis was not required after 1905, but the credit requirement in hours was increased to 140. The staff in Chemical Engineering considered it desirable that each student continue to have some training in research, and introduced Technological Chemistry 39, a five-hour course, in which each student worked individually on a problem of his own selection and which was intended to serve as an introduction to further research work.

In the early years all the specialized courses were listed in the Department of Chemistry, but in 1908 the importance of the new department was recognized by Alfred H. White's promotion to Junior Professor of Chemical Engineering, and by the separate listing of chemical engineering courses including metallurgy in the Announcement of the College under their own heading and on the same basis as the courses in civil and mechanical engineering. Much credit is due Dean Cooley for this recognition; he was a firm believer in the future of the new department and prophesied that he would live to see it the largest in the College — a prophecy which was, for a time, fulfilled.

By 1900 the old Chemistry Building was crowded, and the department had to use space wherever it could be found. The square brick tower at the east end of what is now the Economics Building contained a large tank which had held a part of the campus water supply. The basement was used as a coal bunker. This water tank was removed about 1897, and the space was made available for laboratories. The department was assigned the coal bunker, which was cleaned out and fitted up as a laboratory for gas analysis and photometry, a room on the first floor which was used as a balance room for quantitative analysis, and rooms on the second and third floors which were used for research work and metallography. The old assay laboratory in the basement of the south wing of the building was also assigned to the department.

The present Chemistry Building was constructed in 1909. By that time the Department of Chemical Engineering had grown to such an extent that it was graduating about twenty students a year; it was therefore allotted ample space on the first floor and in the basement of the new building. The staff in 1909 consisted of Campbell, A.H. White, and Instructor Karl Wilhelm Zimmerschied ('03, M.S. '04), who further developed the course in metallography and extended the course work in extractive metallurgy. During the next few years both enrollment and staff increased. Zimmerschied resigned in 1912 to become metallurgist for General Motors Company and, later, president of the Chevrolet Motor Company. His place was taken by Albert Easton White (Brown '07, Sc.D. hon. ibid. '25), who was appointed Instructor in 1911. Elmer Edwin Ware ('07e [Ch.E.]) came to the staff in 1909, Walter Lucius Badger (Minnesota '07, '08e, M.S. ibid. '09) in 1912, John Davison Rue (Princeton '06, A.M. ibid. '08), in 1913, and Clair Upthegrove ('14e [Ch.E.]) in 1916, all as instructors. In 1914 Campbell realized that work in chemistry and chemical engineering had increased to the point where he could no longer administer the two departments; consequently he chose to continue as Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Chemical Laboratory, but resigned as Professor of Chemical Engineering. The administrative direction of the Department of Chemical Engineering passed at that time to Alfred H. White, who had been promoted to a professorship in 1911.

The outbreak of World War I, with consequent cessation of chemical imports Page  1193from Germany and with greatly increased demand for and utilization of metals and alloys, brought widespread recognition of the value of chemical engineering and metallurgy. When the United States entered the war in 1917, the demand for trained engineers caused a depletion in the staff. The department lost five of its seven members, A. H. White, A. E. White, C. Upthegrove, J. D. Rue, and E. E. Ware, all of whom received commissions with the armed services.

These leaves of absence necessitated an almost complete reorganization of the teaching staff. Clifford Dyer Holley (Maine '00, M.S. ibid. '02), of the Acme White Lead and Color Works, was appointed Professor of Chemical Engineering and head of the department on a part-time basis without salary. Professors W. L. Badger and Joseph Stanley Laird (Toronto '09, Ph.D. Princeton '12) completed the regular staff. In 1917 Assistant Professors John Crowe Brier ('12, M.S. '13), William Platt Wood ('12, '14e [Ch.E.], M.S. '16), Instructors Clarence Frederick Smart ('16e [Ch.E.]) and Franz Perrine Zimmerli ('18e [Ch.E.], M.S.E. '19, Met.E. '34) were added. Edwin Myron Baker (Pennsylvania State '16) and Adolph Frederick Wendler ('18e [Ch.E.], M.S.E. '19) became instructors in 1918. The period of World War I was one of great activity under trying conditions. The laboratory space was inadequate, the staff was new, and the military training requirement at the University limited the time and energy that a student could give to his studies.

Crowded conditions in the Chemistry Building did not permit the development of a laboratory in unit operations or pilot processing equipment. In 1917 the Swenson Evaporator Company, of Chicago, offered to install at the University certain valuable equipment of this type free of cost if the company in exchange might employ the services of Professor Badger as a research consultant. This offer was accepted by the Board of Regents, and space was found in the abandoned Boiler House in the center of the campus for this equipment. In spite of a discouraging environment good work was done.

At the close of the war, A. H. White, A. E. White, and Upthegrove returned to the University. Holley returned to his position with the Acme White Lead and Color Works, Rue and Ware resigned, and Brier left to become superintendent of the Holland Aniline and Chemical Works. Laird was granted a leave of absence and later resigned, and Zimmerli and Wendler went into industrial work. In 1919 Eugene Hendricks Leslie (Illinois '13, Ph.D. Columbia '16) was added to the staff as Associate Professor. He was promoted to Professor in 1923 and resigned to enter private practice in 1928. His book on motor fuels, published in 1923, was an important contribution in that field, and he gave valuable assistance in graduate work. George Granger Brown (New York University '17 [Ch.E.], Ch.E. ibid. '24, Ph.D. Michigan '24) became Instructor in 1920, and Brier returned in 1921 as Professor.

Because of the demand for trained engineers and since demobilization of the armed forces left many young men without jobs, they flocked to engineering colleges in embarrassing numbers and were particularly attracted by courses in chemical engineering. In 1920-21 more than one hundred sophomores chose chemical engineering as their field of specialization. The staff and facilities of the department were entirely inadequate to care for the load which this class represented when it reached the senior year. Fortunately, this postwar wave soon receded, but the enrollment continued much higher than before the war.

The East Engineering Building, occupied in 1923, was designed primarily to Page  1194accommodate the departments of Chemical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Metal Processing. Chemical Engineering and Metal Processing were concerned with the properties of metals, and it was arranged that the entire fourth floor should be given over to the metal processing foundry and to the laboratories devoted to metallurgy and to fuels in the Department of Chemical Engineering. Badger's laboratory in the old Boiler House was transferred to the new Unit Operations Laboratory, a unique pilot plant installation permitting equipment to extend through three floors.

Equipment for research work in the new building came partly from University appropriations, but a much larger amount was acquired by direct gift or through the activities of Engineering Research. Contributions which have been made in this way include valuable material for determining the strength of metals at high temperatures, an X-ray laboratory with a maximum rating of 280,000 volts, high-frequency melting material, elaborate equipment for work with fuels and petroleum, a mass spectrometer, an infrared spectrometer, high-pressure equipment, catalytic pilot plants, equipment for measuring the physical properties of paper and the rate of oxidation in protective films of paint and lacquer, and a constant temperature and humidity room.

For the first fifteen years after the establishment of the department in 1898, courses in chemical engineering were concerned almost entirely with chemical and metallurgical technology and with the chemical aspects of the operation of processes. The term "unit operations" was coined in 1915 by Arthur D. Little in a report to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: "Any chemical process, on whatever scale conducted, may be resolved into a co-ordinate series of what may be termed 'Unit Operations,' as pulverizing, drying, roasting, crystallizing, filtering, evaporating, electrolyzing, …" At the University of Michigan courses in unit operations were introduced in 1915 by Badger, who offered two courses in equipment for chemical operations. Lack of textbooks hampered the development of these courses, and even as late as 1922-23 they were announced as being "taught largely from blue prints and trade bulletins of apparatus required in many chemical engineering operations." The appearance of Principles of Chemical Engineering by Walker, Lewis, and McAdams in 1923 permitted this important branch of the subject to be put on a scientific basis.

The year 1925 may be considered as the end of the adolescent period in the growth of the curriculum. It also marks the acceptance of chemical engineering as a fully recognized branch of the profession throughout the United States. When the American Institute of Chemical Engineers published its first list of accredited curriculums in 1925, that of the University of Michigan was one of the fourteen recognized.

Shortly after The Principles of Chemical Engineering was published, Badger and Baker developed a text, Inorganic Chemical Technology, which partly bridged the gap between the descriptive work and the quantitative viewpoint. In 1931 Badger and McCabe brought out Elements of Chemical Engineering, which soon became the most widely used text in this field. Minor revisions of the curriculum increased the emphasis on unit operations at this time.

Metallurgy was first given University recognition in 1875 and continued to develop as an option in the Department of Chemical Engineering. Growth in the earlier years reflected strongly the interests of E. D. Campbell, whose work in iron and steel offered a basis for many of the developments in the field of physical metallurgy. While extractive or process metallurgy received its share of attention, Page  1195interest in physical metallurgy at the University was given strong impetus by the discovery of tetragonal iron in freshly formed martensite by William Fink ('21e), when he was working under Campbell's supervision in 1924. Discovery of tetragonal iron represented the first significant application of X ray to physical metallurgy. The department recognized the importance of such studies in 1929 by appointing Lars Thomassen (Norway Institute of Technology '19, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology '28) Assistant Professor to establish course work and laboratory in X rays. He became Professor in 1948.

With the continued growth of the department, optional course work in metallurgy increased, and the need for a greater difference in the programs of study in chemical engineering and metallurgy was recognized. The trend in this direction began in 1922, when metallurgical engineering titles were first given to those staff members working primarily in this field. In 1929 the Graduate School distinguished between the programs in chemical and in metallurgical engineering, and in 1935 a separate program was formulated in the College leading to the bachelor's degree in metallurgical engineering. At this time the name of the department was changed to Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering.

A. H. White retired from the chairmanship in 1942 after making the department outstanding; he was succeeded by G. G. Brown, who was also made Edward DeMille Campbell University Professor of Chemical Engineering in 1947. In 1951 Brown became Dean of the College and was succeeded as chairman by Katz.

A major change in the curriculums began during the period of low enrollment in World War II and continued for several years. The courses in organic and inorganic technology and the required senior thesis course were discontinued. Brown introduced thermodynamics, for many years an important graduate course, at the junior level for both chemical and metallurgical engineering students. The fuels laboratory was changed to a general measurement laboratory by Associate Professor Richard Emory Townsend ('24, M.S. '25, Ch.E. '42), who joined the staff in 1935, and Thomassen. The Structure of Solids as basic to engineering materials, physical metallurgy, and X rays was introduced by Thomassen and Associate Professor Maurice Joseph Sinnott ('38e [Ch.E.], Sc.D. '46). Seniors were given process design and equipment design courses.

During this period, graduate programs in special fields of study were emphasized. A master of science degree (protective coatings) was initiated for a program built around Carrick's courses in paints, varnish, and lacquers. The basic course in engineering materials for all engineering students, in which A. H. White's book was used as a text, was combined with the metal processing shop course in 1947; staff members from both departments have co-operated in giving this instruction. Because the need for students who have broad training in chemistry as well as in engineering was recognized, a combined program between chemistry and chemical engineering was established.

Since a distinction was made between the chemical engineering and metallurgical engineering degrees in 1935 many students have received both. These students were well qualified to serve as materials engineers, especially if they elected courses in plastics, protective coatings, and electrochemistry. A new four-year program designed to cover this field was given for the first time in 1952, with the degree bachelor of science in engineering (materials).

In 1948 the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the department was celebrated by a reunion of about two Page  1196hundred chemical and metallurgical engineering alumni. In its fifty years the department had enrolled a total of 3,876 undergraduate students and granted 2,151 bachelor's degrees. In the Graduate School 940 higher degrees had been granted. In 1947-48 the teaching staff numbered twenty-five, and there were 510 undergraduate students in chemical and 80 in metallurgical engineering and 197 graduate students. As of April, 1952, a total of 2,537 bachelor's degrees, 1,032 master's degrees, 9 professional degrees, and 177 doctoral degrees had been granted students from the department.

Graduate study and research. — A program of research work was organized soon after the department was established in 1898. Campbell, who had already lost his eyesight, continued his investigations and became a world-recognized authority on steel. Programs in the constitution and properties of Portland cement and on the utilization of fuels were also instituted at an early date and continued for many years.

In 1900 the Michigan Gas Association established a fellowship in gas engineering which is still maintained and which is the senior industrial fellowship in any of the various fields of science or engineering in the United States. A. H. White made significant contributions to the manufactured gas industry with the assistance of this fellowship.

The small group of graduate students specializing in chemical and metallurgical engineering was included with the group specializing in chemistry until 1911. The number of graduate students grew rather slowly until the close of World War I, after which there was a rapid increase.

The Department of Engineering Research, now the Engineering Research Institute, was organized in 1920. Albert E. White divided his time for a few years between teaching metallurgical engineering and guiding the new department, which has always maintained close and helpful relations with the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering.

The American Council on Education presented a report in 1934 in which universities were rated on their adequacy in staff and equipment to prepare candidates for the doctorate. The jurors were asked to star the departments of highest rank; roughly, the highest 20 per cent. The University of Michigan was one of the three universities of the United States starred as "most distinguished" in chemical engineering. The work in metallurgy was rated as "adequate."

In 1935, 20 per cent of all graduate students in the United States working toward the master's degree and 13 per cent of those studying for the doctorate in chemical engineering were enrolled at the University of Michigan. For metallurgical engineering the corresponding figures were 25 per cent of those studying for the master's degree and 35 per cent of those working for the doctorate.

Coincident with the depression, the graduate group in the department increased to about one hundred students, a number that has been maintained except during World War II, when as few as thirty-five students were enrolled, and in 1949, when the graduate enrollment reached a peak of 235 students. In 1932 thirty-three students were working toward the doctorate, and in the twenty years to 1952, 137 doctoral degrees were granted in chemical or in metallurgical engineering. Many of the graduate theses were on programs carried out by individual professors; others resulted from single excursions into new fields.

Petroleum. — G. G. Brown, who completed his study of the utilization of natural gasoline for the Natural Gasoline Association of America in the early Page  1197thirties, was familiar with the problems of the petroleum industry through his consulting connections in this field. This led him to initiate doctoral theses in the fields of pressure-volume-temperature relations of the hydrocarbons, thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon mixtures at high temperatures and pressures, vapor-liquid equilibria at high pressure, computation of fractionating column designs, and cracking. Reports on these studies established the department's reputation in the field of petroleum and attracted students throughout the country to graduate study at Michigan. In 1936 Donald LaVerne Katz ('31e [Ch.E.], Ph.D. '33), who had been one of Brown's students and who had spent three years with the Phillips Petroleum Company in petroleum production research, joined the department. His researches in critical phenomena, surface tension, viscosity, phase behavior, gas hydrates, and reservoir phenomenon complemented those of Brown, and both men were closely associated in much of their work. The "Brown Plan" of oil conservation was adopted by the Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board of Alberta for the Turner Valley Field. Brown received the Hanlon Award of the Natural Gasoline Association of America in 1940, and Professor Katz was similarly honored in 1950.

Robert Roy White (Cooper Union '36, Ph.D. Michigan '41), another of Brown's former graduate students, joined the department in 1942. His interest in petroleum was directed to chemical reaction kinetics, mass transfer, and distillation. When A. H. White retired, R. R. White guided the Michigan Gas Association fellowships in the direction of fundamental kinetic studies on synthesis gas. In 1945 he received the Junior Award from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers for one of his first papers on chemical reaction kinetics, and in 1945-46 the Russell Award of the University.

Associate Professor G. Brymer Williams ('36e [Ch.E.], Ph.D. '49) returned to the University in 1947 to assist in teaching petroleum process design and to conduct phase equilibria studies. Associate Professor Cedomir M. Sliepcevich ('41e [Ch.E.], Ph.D. '48) joined the staff in 1946 to work in the field of reaction kinetics at high pressure. He has continued in this field and is closely associated with Professor R. R. White.

Heat transfer and evaporation. — Students of Badger and Baker worked in the field of heat transfer in condensation processes and in boiling of solutions in evaporators. Badger earned a world-wide reputation as an expert on evaporation. Professor Alan Shivers Foust (Texas '28e [Ch.E.], Ph.D. Michigan '38), a student at the time Badger left the University to devote his entire attention to consulting engineering, joined the staff in 1937 and until 1952 continued the work in the field of evaporation and general heat transfer.

Associate Professor Jesse Louis York (New Mexico '38, Ph.D. Michigan '50) conducted studies on entrainment in evaporation, which led into the field of analyzing sprays to determine particle sizes. In 1937 Katz began teaching Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow which formerly had been taught by Badger. This contact with graduate students led him into a series of general researches in heat transfer. A number of reports was prepared on the subject of heat transfer through finned tubes as a result both of this general interest and of research sponsored by Wolverine Tube Division. Associate Professor Warren Lee McCabe ('22e [Ch.E.], Ph.D. '28), a member of the staff from 1925 to 1936, was associated with Badger and made auxiliary studies in the field of crystallization and thermodynamic properties of caustic solutions. Associate Professor Elmore Page  1198Shaw Pettyjohn ('18, M.S.E. '22, Ch.E. '30), a member of the staff from 1937 to 1942, was also interested in this area.

Organic industries. — About 1925 J. C. Brier became active in the field of paint and varnish production and utilization, developing methods for extracting oil from soy bean flakes. This work was interrupted when he left for active duty in the Army Ordnance during World War II. On returning to the University he engaged in research on fundamental combustion of artillery powder.

In 1945 Professor Leo Lehr Carrick (Valparaiso '11, Ph.D. Indiana '22) joined the department after spending many years at North Dakota Agricultural College. He organized a classwork program on protective coatings and engaged in research projects in the field of paints, varnish, and lacquers.

Associate Professor Donald William McCready (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '24e [Ch.E.], Ph.D. Michigan '33) came in 1929 as Instructor. For a time he engaged in research on drying paper, but his interest turned to plastics and polymers.

Thermodynamics. — G. G. Brown organized a graduate course in the field of thermodynamics in 1923 and continued to teach it until he became Dean. This background caused him to direct many students into thermodynamic problems for their research. Much of the work done in the field of petroleum was in the application of thermodynamics, as was Brown's earlier work in the field of combustion. Sliepcevich is continuing this interest, and Associate Professor Joseph J. Martin (Iowa State College '39, D.Sc. Carnegie Tech. '48), who joined the staff in 1947, is also conducting research in this field. Professor Clarence Arnold Siebert (Wayne University '30, Ph.D. Michigan '34), who joined the staff in 1936, has applied thermodynamics in the field of metallurgy. In 1939 Brown was honored with the Walker Award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers for publications in this field.

High-temperature properties of metals. — Although A. E. White came to the University in 1911, it was not until after World War I that he was to engage in his research on metals and alloys at elevated temperatures, a field in which he has continued to maintain an active interest. Immediately after World War I, many questions were raised concerning the behavior of metals and alloys which would meet new and more exacting requirements, particularly those in services at high temperatures. In 1927 A. E. White and C. Upthegrove contributed to a symposium in this field sponsored by the A.S.T.M. and the A.S.M.E. and were invited to become members of the joint research committee of the two societies on metals at elevated temperatures. While some work had been done previously, this marked the real beginning of a research program under A. E. White's direction which was to give the University of Michigan recognition throughout the world and to establish, through the Engineering Research Institute, what is today one of the largest and best equipped laboratories of this type.

Claude Lester Clark ('25, Ph.D. '28) and James Wright Freeman ('33, Ph.D. '40) have also contributed much to the development of this program as well as to the teaching of graduate students. Clark was concerned largely with the investigation of the fundamental effects of composition and the development of medium alloy steels for elevated temperature service. He left the University for the Timken Steel and Tube Company in 1940, and Associate Professor Freeman continued the work, with special emphasis on the fundamental factors affecting control of creep and ruptures. An extensive Page  1199program sponsored by the N.A.C.A. on metals and alloys for special service at elevated temperatures has been in progress since the early 1940's under his supervision.

Another phase of the behavior of metals at high temperature received attention in oxidation and decarbonization studies by Professors Wood, Upthegrove, and Thomassen, of the staff, and by Walter Edwin Jominy ('15, M.S. '16) and Donald William Murphy (Detroit City College '28, Sc.D. '31) of the Engineering Research Institute. Studies were made of the hydrogen-oxygen-carboniron equilibria and of nitrogen dilution as basic information to the mechanism of scaling and oxidation. Thomassen is continuing his work in the oxidation studies of nickel chromium alloys.

Theoretical metallurgy. — In the early days departmental research in theoretical metallurgy centered almost entirely around E. D. Campbell and his studies of the constitution of iron and steel. His work was extensive, and many of his publications are to be found in the Transactions of the British Iron and Steel Institute. The American Society for Metals, honoring his memory, established the annual Edward DeMille Campbell lecture in 1925, the year of his death. For a time emphasis in theoretical metallurgy was shifted to the nonferrous field, although malleabilization studies continued to receive the attention of A. E. White. Upthegrove, while working in the field of metals at elevated temperatures, found other interests in recrystallization, grain growth, equilibrium studies in binary and ternary systems, and in diffusion.

In this period John Chipman (University of the South '20, Sc.D. hon. ibid. '40, Ph.D. California '26), who was associated with the department while in the Engineering Research Institute, became interested in the application of thermodynamics to steel making. His work at the University established a fundamental basis for most of the studies in recent years in this field. He left the University in 1935 and became head of the Department of Metallurgy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Thomassen's work in the determination of depth of cold working effects in machining, line broadening, and in the use of tracers or radioactive materials in solid diffusion represents basic investigations in these fields. Siebert has continued the work in the application of thermodynamics to metals and alloys and has indicated a growing interest in the general physical metallurgy field of iron and steels. Sinnott joined the department in 1944. His teaching interest has been largely in the physics of solids, and his research with metals and high temperature refractory materials has turned in this direction.

Cast metals. — Professor Richard Schneidewind ('23, Ph.D. '33), who wrote his doctoral thesis on kinetics and malleabilization, has contributed much in the general field of theoretical aspects of cast metals. His contributions have included factors controlling austenite transformation at constant temperature and tensile properties immediately following solidification. In 1950 he was awarded the McFadden Gold Medal of the American Foundrymen's Society. Before his appointment to the staff in 1937 he conducted numerous electrochemical studies in the Engineering Research Institute.

Professor Harry Linn Campbell ('14e [Ch.E.], M.S. '21) had appointments in the departments of Production Engineering and Chemical Engineering, bringing the practical operation of the foundry and metallurgical studies together. Professor Franklin Bruce Rote ('38, Ph.D. '44) continued in this relationship from 1946. He was active in the development of the field of nodular iron. With Wood, Page  1200he worked on pearlitic iron for surface hardening and with Upthegrove on the fracture tests for melt quality. In 1951 Professor Richard A. Flinn (City College of New York '36e [Ch.E.], Sc.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology '41) replaced Rote. Flinn had an active interest in isothermal transformations of alloy iron and mechanisms of graphitization of gray and nodular irons.

Other research. — Associate Professor Lloyd Earl Brownell (Clarkson '37, Ph.D. Michigan '48) joined the staff in 1942. He has studied flow of fluids through porous media, has had an active interest in food technology and the effect of radiation on food and drug sterilization, and has contributed to the design of chemical engineering equipment. Sliepcevich has done valuable work on light scattering functions for the determination of particle sizes in fogs and sprays. Assistant Professor Edwin Harold Young (University of Detroit '42, M.S.E. Michigan '49), who came in 1947, has worked with Brownell on equipment design. Assistant Professor Lloyd Lute Kempe (Minnesota '32, Ph.D. ibid. '48) joined the staff on a half-time basis in 1952 while serving half-time with the Bacteriology Department of the Medical School. He is interested in the development of a program in bioengineering, paralleling Brownell's interest.

Staff activities and professional societies. — A. H. White was an early member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, becoming president in 1929-30. He was active in the establishment on the Michigan campus of the first student chapter of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers in 1922, and he was president of the American Society of Engineering Education in 1942. Brown likewise was active in the Institute. He was president in 1944, and over a period of years he has contributed to the work of the constitution and the education and accrediting committees. He served as director of research for the National Dairy Products, Inc., and as director of engineering for the United States Atomic Energy Commission. A. E. White was the first president of the American Society for Metals in 1920. Later, he was president of the American Society for Testing Materials.

Members of the staff have been authors of seventeen books and more than seven hundred publications. The text Unit Operations, prepared under the leadership of Brown, appeared in 1950 and was promptly adopted by 115 institutions, including almost all departments of chemical engineering in the country.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1906-52.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-52.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1890-1952.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Tappan, Henry P.A Discourse, Delivered by … on the Occasion of his Inauguration as Chancellor … Detroit: Advertiser Power Presses, 1852.
Page  1201

THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE original plan of the University of Michigan, dated January 5, 1837, and made by the first superintendent of public instruction, included a professorship of civil engineering and architecture. It was not, however, until 1853, when Alexander Winchell (Wesleyan '47, LL.D. ibid. '67) accepted the appointment as Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering, that a professorship in this field was established. In the list of new subjects, surveying, taught by the Reverend George P. Williams of the Department of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, was mentioned for the first time, and it was also stated that the University possessed an excellent "suite" of scientific instruments. In 1855 Winchell was succeeded by Professor William Guy Peck (U. S. Military Academy '44, A.M. Trinity [Conn.] '53, LL.D. ibid. '63), who resigned after two years to accept a position at Columbia University. DeVolson Wood (C.E. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute '57, A.M. Hamilton '59, M.S. Michigan '59) joined the faculty in 1857 as Assistant Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering at a salary of $1,000 a year, and in 1860 the two men who constituted the first engineering class in the University and the sixth in the United States were graduated. Wood became Professor of Civil Engineering in the same year.

The official records for the next twelve years reveal Professor Wood's remarkable energy and administrative ability. He taught practically all of the engineering courses, although from time to time an assistant or instructor relieved him of certain details of his work. For one year he had the assistance of Charles DeWitt Lawton (Union College '58, C.E. ibid. '59, M.S. ibid. '61), who was appointed Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering in 1870. In later years Lawton became a Regent and rendered long and valuable service to the University.

Wood's teaching was strenuous and varied. His last report, dated June, 1872, records that in the first semester he taught courses in Resistance of Materials, Theory and Practice of the Construction of Roads and Railroads, with assistants supervising the field work, two nine-week sections in Land Surveying, and two drawing courses, Geometrical Drawing, Tinting, and Shading, and Shades, Shadows, and Linear Perspective. In the second semester he again taught the land-surveying courses and also railroad surveying, location, and construction, a course in bridge construction, one in the distribution of water in cities, and a course covering mechanical engineering, foundry, and shop. All of these did not continue throughout the semester; some were given five days a week for six or seven weeks and were followed by other courses for the remainder of the semester. In this same report on teaching, Wood defined policies which have been followed until the present day and gave some idea of the time devoted to surveying:

The Scientific Section of the Sophomore Class took up Land Surveying at the beginning of the year, and continued the study for nine consecutive weeks. The class consisted of forty-five students, and was divided into two sections for class-room exercises, and each of these into two more sections for field exercises. I conducted the class-room Page  1202exercises, which consisted of recitations from Gillespie's Land Surveying and of familiar Lectures upon the subject. The class went over all the subjects of the textbook, with the exception of a few unimportant problems in parting off and dividing up land.

The field exercises were conducted by Prof. J. Burkett Webb, my assistant at that time, who was assisted by Prof. P. R. B. DePont. The object of these exercises is not to make expert surveyors, but to lay a proper foundation for those who desire to become such, and to teach to all, in a practical way, the principles which are involved. Each student is required to do every part of the work for himself. He uses the axe, chains, carries the flag, uses the compass, the transit, and the theodolite, computes his work from his field notes, and makes a plat of it, and reports the result to the Professor in charge. Neatness and accuracy are insisted upon in these reports. The Instructor accompanies the parties in the field, and directs and criticizes their work, and teaches them how to perform the several operations which are required of them …

At the beginning of the year the Senior class in Civil Engineering began the theory and practice of the construction of Roads and Railroads, using Henck's Field-Book for Engineers and Gillespie's Roads and Railroads. I also gave a course of Lectures upon the construction of engineering instruments, and the modes of adjusting them. … The students are not only required to use the instruments in the field, but also to adjust them. They are required to do all the preliminary work of laying out a railroad. They begin with a reconnaissance, then they survey the line, locating it, re-survey it, take the levels and establish a grade, set the side stakes, compute cuts and fills, and make a finished map of the line including the profile.


(R.P., 1870-76, pp. 211-14.)

Wood's teaching problem was complicated because textbooks were few, and the information sought was often "scattered throughout many books which would cost a large sum to purchase." The best method, he believed, was "to use a good textbook for the greater part of the work, and then criticize, improve, and expand upon its contents by familiar lectures." Only in cases of absolute necessity did he resort to lectures exclusively, because he considered the lecture system comparatively slow. Another of his methods was to develop a systematic course through lectures and to interest the students in reading reference works, for in this way they became familiar with many authors. Wood's great, and now classic, work on thermodynamics was only one of his many writings. In the spring before he left Ann Arbor he was preparing his lectures on bridges and roofs for publication.

He was a man of sturdy genial character and powerful intellect. His dynamic and virile personality was effective with his students, the majority of whom later occupied positions of responsibility in business or in education. Funds for the bronze tablet presented in his memory in 1917 were given by forty-three graduates of this early period who were still living in 1915, when the project was undertaken. He resigned in 1872 to accept a chair at Stevens Institute, Hoboken, where he died in 1897. It may not be known even to the older graduates that he is buried in Ann Arbor.

His departure from Michigan ended what may be called the old regime. At the same meeting in which his resignation was accepted, the Regents appointed Charles Ezra Greene (Harvard '62, A.M. ibid. '65, Massachusetts Institute of Technology '68e [C.E.], C.E. hon. Michigan '84) as Professor of Civil Engineering. Joseph Baker Davis ('68e [C.E.], A.M. hon. '12) was appointed Assistant Professor in March, 1872. He took charge of the work in surveying and in 1874 organized the first summer camp for students of surveying. He continued to Page  1203direct the work in surveying until his retirement in 1910. Charles Simeon Denison (Vermont '70, C.E. ibid. '71, Sc.D. ibid. '07), who later became head of the Department of Drawing, was appointed Instructor in Engineering and Drawing in 1872.

Thus, it came about that in the fall of 1872 the teaching staff of the Department of Engineering consisted of three properly equipped graduate engineers, Greene, Davis, and Denison, all of whom had had both practical experience and training in theory. Greene was unable to reach Ann Arbor until late in November, and in the meantime the work of the department was carried on by Davis and Denison. These three then began a most harmonious and friendly association which extended more than thirty years to be broken only by death.

The beginning of Charles E. Greene's leadership of the department coincided with the opening of President Angell's long administration. Davis had been teaching for a year, and Denison for a semester, so that Greene was relieved of the burden of teaching surveying, drawing, descriptive geometry, stereotomy, and mechanism and could devote his whole time to structural mechanics and to the theory of structures.

Although Greene bore the reputation among his students of being a severe man, many of them spoke in later years in praise of his excellent teaching, his perfect logic, and his clear exposition of difficult classroom problems. They referred also to his intensely human qualities. He ranks as one of the greatest engineering teachers of his time, and no story of the University would be complete which did not accord him full recognition. He gave splendid and devoted service to the Department of Engineering, stood high in the estimation of his University colleagues, and had a wide reputation as a professional engineer and as author of superior works on graphics and mechanics.

His death occurred suddenly on October 16, 1903. Because of his remarkable powers and attainments, his dignity and strength of character, he had been the dominating factor in the department. A beautiful bronze tablet in the archway of the West Engineering Building bears sincere and lasting testimony to the love and regard in which he was held by both students and colleagues.

In his annual report for 1904, President Angell paid him the following tribute:

Charles Ezra Greene, A.M., C.E., Professor of Civil Engineering and Dean of the Engineering Department, died suddenly on October 16, 1903, aged 61 years. He had held the Professorship for thirty-one years, and the Deanship since 1895, when the Department of Engineering became a separate organization. He graduated at Harvard University and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and had experience in his profession before coming to us. He was distinguished by simplicity and lucidity in his teaching. His writings won reputation for himself and for the University both in this country and in Europe. His high personal and professional character exerted a most elevating influence upon his pupils and commanded the respect of all who knew him. It is most gratifying that the Chicago Engineering Alumni have presented the University with an excellent oil portrait of him, and the undergraduate engineering students are to place a bronze tablet to his memory on the wall of the New Engineering Building.


(R.P., 1901-6, pp. 395-96.)

To meet the emergency caused by his death, Greene's son, Albert Emerson Greene ('95, '96e [C.E.]), was made Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering to carry on his father's work until a successor could be found. Albert Greene had been in the employ of the Canadian Bridge Company, and he returned to the University with an excellent background Page  1204of experience to qualify him as a teacher of structural engineering. He proved to be a clear and logical teacher.

The search for a successor to the professorship of civil engineering resulted in the choice of Gardner Stewart Williams ('89e [C.E.], C.E. '99), who was at the time professor of experimental hydraulics at Cornell University. Appointed in June, 1904, he began his duties at the opening of the following semester, when his title was changed from Professor of Civil Engineering to Professor of Civil, Hydraulic, and Sanitary Engineering. At the same time Clarence George Wrentmore ('93e [C.E.], M.S. '98, C.E. '02) was transferred from the Department of Descriptive Geometry and Drawing and appointed Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering. In the second semester of 1904-5 Charles Joseph Tilden (Harvard '96e [C.E.], A.M. hon. Yale '19) came as Instructor in Civil Engineering, and George Gottlieb Stroebe (Chicago '01, Michigan '07e [C.E.]), who had resigned as Instructor in Descriptive Geometry and Drawing in 1905, became Instructor in Civil Engineering in 1906.

John Howell Griffith (Wisconsin '93, M.S. ibid. '98) was appointed Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering in 1907, and a year later Charles Alton Ellis (Wesleyan '00, C.E. Illinois '22) and Edward Dunbar Rich (C.E. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute '95) were also appointed to assistant professorships in civil engineering, and Archie Burton Pierce (California '90e [C.E.], Ph.D. Zurich '03), Assistant Professor of Mathematics, was transferred to the department without change of rank.

Wrentmore was granted leave of absence in 1908 to accept an appointment as Assistant Director of Public Works in the Philippine Islands; his leave was extended until he resigned in 1911. Stroebe left the department in 1909 to engage in outside practice, but was considered a member of the staff until 1911, when the Regents accepted his resignation. He, too, was in governmental service in the Philippines when he resigned. Arthur James Decker ('05e [C.E.]) joined the staff as Instructor in 1909 and became Professor in 1918.

In July, 1911, Dean Cooley presented a plan to the Regents for the reorganization of the Engineering Department. He proposed the creation of a separate department of engineering mechanics to teach the courses in theoretical and applied mechanics previously offered in the departments of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mathematics. The Regents established the new department and put it under the direction of Tilden, whose title was changed to Professor of Engineering Mechanics.

Because he felt that the plan for the reorganization of the department was, in part at least, unsound, Williams tendered his resignation, which was accepted with regret by the Regents in July, 1911. He had worked actively for the advancement of the Department of Civil Engineering and of the engineering profession in Michigan. He had "achieved eminence in his profession" and commanded "the highest respect of his many friends and associates in the profession and of his … students in the University" (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 200-201). Albert E. Greene was advanced to a professorship and made acting head of the department.

At the same time Assistant Professor Griffith resigned in order to accept an appointment as engineer-physicist with the United States Bureau of Standards. With his resignation the University lost the services of an able and devoted teacher who had been wholly in sympathy with the plans for expansion. His counsel and advice proved to be invaluable Page  1205in the ultimate revision of the program in civil engineering.

In the summer of 1911 a search was begun for a man to take Professor Williams' place as head of the department. Dean Cooley made a tentative offer of the position to Henry Earle Riggs (Kansas '86, C.E. Michigan '10, D.Eng. ibid. '37), of Toledo, Ohio, who had been in engineering practice for twenty-six years. At the March, 1912, meeting of the Regents, Dean Cooley discussed the reorganization of the work in civil engineering and its various ramifications and transmitted to the Board a written statement from Riggs criticizing the courses in civil engineering and suggesting a substantial broadening of the work.

Riggs maintained that the courses in civil engineering fell "woefully short of what we have a right to expect." In hydraulic engineering only four hours were offered; no attention was given to applied hydraulics except as touched upon in Johnston's course in irrigation. Courses in water supply, sewerage, and power were needed. No instruction was offered in sanitary engineering save for brief references in one four-hour course in municipal engineering:

No more important subject, or attractive one, offers in the field of science than the relation of the engineer to public health, the design of water purification and of sewerage purification plants, the control of water sheds, the destruction of city wastes, the disposal or utilization of manufacturing wastes. [As for municipal engineering]… four hours is all too little. The establishment of grades, paving, road making, the disposal of storm water, the maintenance and care of sewers, paving, and allied subjects offer opportunities for elective courses, as well as that general course that all civil engineers should have.

Seventeen hours of structural engineering were offered, but the time allotted to foundations, masonry, concrete, and to reinforced concrete was "clearly not enough."

In the past, even before Wood's administration ended in 1872, railroad engineering courses had been offered, but in 1912 Riggs had reason to protest:

No time at all is given to railroad engineering, either steam or electric, although this field calls a very large percentage of the civil engineers of the country and the railroads constitute by far the largest industry of America, other than agriculture…

In former years, say in the '80's, railroad engineering as a science was primarily location and construction. Today [1912] it is primarily the economic reconstruction of old roads to meet new traffic conditions, maintenance and scientific management, and a training today for preparation for railroad service should include not only construction, but also railway history and economics, maintenance and a course in railway accounting, so that a foundation is laid for a broader development than is possible in a strictly engineering department, and an ambition inculcated in the students to know the work so that the future of our men be not limited to the chief engineership of railroads.

In this penetrating analytical prospectus may be glimpsed in first outline the combined curriculums for engineers later developed with the co-operation of the Law School and the School of Business Administration.

The plan of reorganization worked out by Cooley, Riggs, and Regents Hubbard and Grant was adopted in April, 1912 (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 399-400). A general subdivision of the work was agreed upon, as indicated by the titles adopted for the five professorships within the department, as follows: civil, structural, hydraulic, municipal and sanitary, and geodetic engineering. Riggs, who was appointed Professor of Civil Engineering, to become effective May 1, 1912, was to have general charge of all Page  1206branches of the subject. At the same time, Green's title was changed from Professor of Civil Engineering to Professor of Structural Engineering, and Horace Williams King ('95e [C.E.]) was appointed Professor of Hydraulic Engineering, to become effective the following October.

Greene resigned in July of that year because he was "not in sympathy with the proposed reorganization of the work in Civil Engineering, believing that a more conservative policy should be followed" (R.P., 1910-14, p. 485). The only men remaining from the time of Williams were Rich and Decker; Riggs was therefore confronted with the task of completing the staff before school opened in the fall.

Of the five subdivisions of specialization projected in the reorganization plan two had yet to be provided, structural engineering and sanitary engineering. Geodetic engineering was for a time administered for the department by Clarence Thomas Johnston ('95e [C.E.], C.E. '99), who had been Professor of Geodesy and Surveying since February, 1911.

Riggs had a special problem in selecting his staff. It was necessary for him to act promptly in finding engineering specialists who would be satisfactory to the University. Because of the faculty salaries then prevailing, the opportunity for outside professional practice was virtually essential as an inducement to men of the desired caliber. The Regents had already established the policy favoring outside work for members of the engineering faculty (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 56-57), and this made it possible to carry into effect the reorganization plan.

The staff of the department in 1912-13 consisted of men who brought to their University work a background of engineering experience. Not only was this true of the new staff members — Riggs and King, selected the previous spring, and the two appointed during the summer, William Christian Hoad (Kansas '98e [C.E.]), Professor of Sanitary Engineering, and Lewis Merritt Gram ('01e [C.E.]), Professor of Structural Engineering — but also of Rich and Decker, who remained from the previous staff.

The reorganization was an experiment; the results were to be determined only after a period of years. Three of the newly appointed professors had done no teaching. Any skepticism as to the wisdom of the experiment, however, apparently did not extend to the students, who cordially welcomed the newcomers and even refrained from hazing them during the early months of their teaching.

The departmental policy of emphasizing steel construction almost exclusively in structural engineering was abandoned, and an equal emphasis was placed on other fields of professional activity. In 1909-10, besides the courses later transferred to the Department of Engineering Mechanics, the Department of Civil Engineering had offered twelve courses, most of them in structural engineering, but some covering the general and theoretical aspects of such subjects as hydraulics. The only two courses given in the summer session were in mechanics. In 1912-13 the department offered six courses in structural engineering, five in hydraulic engineering, six in transportation, and ten in municipal and sanitary engineering, a total of twenty-seven. The new courses included forty-six hours of work given only for students who specialized in some branch of civil engineering, fifteen hours of which were in surveying. Each student's program of one hundred and forty hours for graduation included fifteen hours which were classed as "elective," but which had to be selected from one of the five specialties already mentioned, Page  1207or, for a student of exceptional standing, from mathematics, physics, or astronomy.

The transportation program included a few economics courses as electives; the sixth program, or general engineering science group, was the only one which permitted students to take work in the fifteen-hour block of so-called "electives" outside the department. The required courses outside the department, however, covered a wide range of technical and general subjects.

Courses in highway engineering and highway laboratory work were first given in 1912-13 under Rich. In the south half of the Physical Testing Laboratory sufficient equipment was installed to permit standard tests of paving brick and cement. Space was limited, and interest in the subject was small. With the twofold purpose of stimulating student interest by contact with practical problems and of making the laboratory serviceable to the smaller cities and villages of the state, the Regents, in January, 1913, authorized testing work for Michigan municipalities at a nominal charge for wear and tear of equipment. Even this nominal charge was eliminated in July, 1913.

Assistant Professor Rich resigned in 1913 to become state sanitary engineer of Michigan, and with his resignation the University lost an effective teacher and a fine personality. John Joseph Cox (Hiram '09e [C.E.]) was then appointed Instructor in Civil Engineering.

A one-week course in highway construction for the benefit of highway commissioners, county road engineers, and other state, county, and township highway officials was first offered in 1914-15, the Regents having allocated $700 to this project in the budget. Cox had urged this "short course" as a means of bringing the State Highway Department staff and county road officials together to attend lectures and conferences without interference from commercial interests, and the credit for its origination and development goes to him and to State Highway Commissioner Frank F. Rogers. Brickmakers and asphalt and road-machinery companies offered to furnish speakers and even to finance the meeting, but their offers were refused, and no exhibits were permitted. Part of the money was spent in bringing a few outstanding highway engineers of national reputation as lecturers in the course.

The first "short course" was attended by about two hundred and was so successful that it was repeated year after year, with a rapidly increasing attendance. By the third meeting the Michigan Association of Highway Commissioners and Engineers had been formed, and eventually the name "short course" was dropped. More than four hundred and fifty persons were present at the thirteenth annual conference held in 1927, the last year of Riggs's active administration.

Provision was made in 1914 for a summer assistant in the Highway Laboratory to care for city tests. The Regents received a communication from Dean Cooley in 1915, "urging certain co-operation … with the work of the State Highway Department." The sum of $1,500 was appropriated for the proposed state highway work, "on condition that the co-operation of the University could be had without displacing or otherwise interfering with the regular work of the University" (R.P., 1914-17, p. 125). This action of the Regents was the first step in the establishment of the State Highway Laboratory, which formed another important contact between the University and the state.

The first period of development in highway engineering work closed in July, 1919, with the resignation of Associate Professor Cox and the appointment Page  1208of Arthur Horace Blanchard (Brown '99e [C.E.], A.M. Columbia '02), professor of highway engineering at Columbia University, as Professor of Highway Engineering. Blanchard resigned in 1927 because of illness. From 1921 until 1923 Herschel C. Smith ('13e [C.E.], M.S.E. '21) served as Assistant Professor of Highway Engineering.

John Henry Bateman ('15e [C.E.], C.E. '22), who had been chief engineer of the State Highway Department, was appointed Assistant Professor of Highway Engineering in 1919 to take charge of the laboratory. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1923 and resigned in the spring of 1924. He had built, from the small fairly well-equipped laboratory which Cox had established, one of the finest highway laboratories in the country. For the first three years of its existence the Highway Laboratory occupied about one-third of the space in the Physical Testing Laboratory in the basement of West Engineering Building; it was then moved to the north half of the old Heating Plant. When the East Engineering Building was built in 1923, the division of highway engineering was given the north half of the basement and shared with the division of transportation engineering the north half of the first floor, the two branches together occupying the equivalent of one full floor of the new structure.

Bateman was succeeded by Roger Leroy Morrison (Illinois '11, A.M. Columbia '14, C.E. Illinois '17), who was appointed Associate Professor of Highway Engineering in 1924 and in 1928 became Professor of Highway Engineering and Highway Transport. He also served as Director of the Michigan State Highway Laboratory from 1924 to 1927. In 1946 he was appointed Curator of the Transportation Library. Under Morrison the short-period courses were replaced in the regular curriculum by semester courses taught as a branch of civil engineering. The relationship with the State Highway Department continued.

Walter Johnson Emmons (Brown '12e [C.E.], A.M. Columbia '14) was appointed Associate Professor of Civil Engineering in 1927 and also served as Director of the State Highway Laboratory from then until 1933. In 1944 he was appointed Secretary and Assistant Dean of the College, and he became Professor in 1951.

In 1933, in order to accord with the administrative policy of Commissioner Murray Delos Van Wagoner ('21e [C.E.]), the operating agreement between the University and the State Highway Department was revised with respect to the management of the joint laboratory. Pursuant to the new agreement, Assistant Professor Housel was selected to act as research consultant, and Associate Professor Emmons, then in charge of the laboratory, was assigned other duties. The status of Instructor Edwin A. Boyd, who had been employed jointly by the state and the University in the laboratory for many years, remained unchanged. The work in highway engineering under Morrison's direction maintained its steady progress, and the Michigan Annual Highway Conference continued to be popular.

Under the leadership of Charles E. Greene the department had concentrated in structural engineering, and many alumni had attained important positions in the official ranks of the great bridge companies. With the change in policy brought about in 1912, it was feared that the instruction in structural engineering, important as it had been in contributing to the success of civil engineering graduates and thus to the reputation of the University, would be relegated to a minor position.

Teachers of structural engineering were called upon to teach the fundamental Page  1209courses in the theory and design of structures to every civil engineering student irrespective of his group option, and they also taught them to students specializing in other departments. In this way the service of the division extended to the entire College.

Because of the greater volume of work a larger staff was needed in structural engineering than in any of the other divisions, and, accordingly, more changes occurred in personnel. James Harlan Cissel (Purdue '10e [C.E.]) was appointed Instructor in 1915. When Gram became head of the department in 1928 Cissel was made Professor of Structural Engineering and head of the structural engineering division within the department and continued to serve until his death in 1949. Associate Professor Glenn Leslie Alt (Kansas '16e [C.E.], C.E. ibid. '51) came as Instructor in 1918 with a background of professional practice, and Edward Leerdrup Eriksen (Polytechnical School, Copenhagen '10e [C.E.]) transferred from the Department of Engineering Mechanics and was made Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering in 1920. He left the University three years later for Purdue University, but returned in 1930 as Professor of Engineering Mechanics and head of that department. William Stuart Housel ('23e [C.E.], M.S.E. '32) was appointed Instructor in 1924 and rapidly established himself as an authority on soils and foundations. He was promoted to Professor in 1950.

State Highway Commissioner Van Wagoner was faced in 1933 with the responsibility of budgeting a large sum of money given by the federal government for a national program of unemployment relief. A part of this sum had been designated for the construction of bridges and grade separations, and Van Wagoner called upon the University for assistance in this work. Accordingly, Cissel was given leave of absence from 1933 to 1936 in order that he might devote his entire time to the service of the Highway Department. Robert Henry Sherlock (Purdue '10e [C.E.]), who had joined the staff as Instructor in 1923, was appointed to a professorship in civil engineering in 1933 and served as head of the structural division during Cissel's absence.

For many years prior to 1912 no courses had been given in railway engineering at the University, and students had not been encouraged to seek employment in this field, although before 1887 railroad construction had attracted a large percentage of graduates. By 1912 there was a demand for such instruction on the part of foreign students, particularly those from South America and the Orient. By far the larger part of the enrollment in railroad engineering for the first ten years after the revival of these courses in 1912 was made up of foreign students, and the work was limited to courses in location, construction, and railroad economics problems.

Albert Ross Bailey ('13), who was appointed Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering in 1914, aroused active interest in railroad engineering. While he was absent on leave during the first semester of 1915-16, this work was taken over by Norman Kirkwood Sheppard ('13e [C.E.], M.S.E. '16), who was appointed Instructor in that year. William Hamilton Sellew (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '97), principal assistant engineer of the Michigan Central Railroad, was appointed nonresident Lecturer on Railway Engineering in 1915 and took a lively interest in the work. Bailey resigned in 1918 to re-enter the service of the New York Central Railroad. Alt taught railroad engineering for two years, because Riggs, who had elected to do the teaching in this field in 1912, had taken over the courses Page  1210Public Utilities and Specifications, Contracts, and Engineering Ethics.

The teaching of railroad engineering had been greatly hampered in 1913 by lack of models and adequate space for equipment. In 1916 space was acquired on the fourth floor of the West Engineering Building, released by the Department of Forestry upon completion of the Natural Science Building; this was occupied by transportation engineering until 1923, when the present quarters in the East Engineering Building became available.

During 1921-22 it became evident that the highway transport aspect of transportation engineering was somewhat overemphasized and that the students needed a better perspective of transportation as an industry and a better understanding of the relative importance of the different transportation facilities. As a result of numerous conferences the Regents in 1922 created the chair of transportation engineering in order to bring together in one division all phases of instruction in transportation in the Department of Civil Engineering not covered by the division of highway engineering. By co-operation of the Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Marine, and Aeronautical Engineering departments, a curriculum in transportation was planned, and this was approved by the Regents in 1930. In 1926 a five-year course in highway traffic and transport had been authorized.

John Stephen Worley (Kansas '04, M.S. ibid. '04, C.E. ibid. '22) was appointed Professor of Transportation Engineering in 1922, but private interests caused him to change his status to part-time Professor for 1925-26. Walter Clifford Sadler (Illinois '13e [C.E.], C.E. ibid. '27, LL.B. Michigan '30), appointed Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering in 1925, was assigned the work in railroad engineering. He became Professor in 1941. Worley resumed the professorship in 1926. It was he who conceived the plan of a special Transportation Library, and it is largely through his tireless efforts that it has grown to its present dimensions.

The organization of the division of sanitary engineering within the department in 1912, the establishment of a special sanitary engineering curriculum, and the appointment of Professor Hoad marked the beginning of a long period of highly effective work in this field. The courses Water Supply and Sewerage and Sewage Disposal were made requirements for graduation in 1918-19, and courses were established for the benefit of students specializing in sanitary engineering.

One of the first expenditures for special equipment was the construction in 1913-14 of a model sewage-disposal plant and laboratory from two old frame buildings on Fuller Street, north of the old Hospital group. An Ann Arbor city sewer was connected, and several types of disposal equipment were installed; the units although small in capacity were capable of functioning efficiently. This plant gave splendid service until World War I, but was abandoned shortly thereafter.

By arrangement with the city, the Ann Arbor sewage-disposal plant completed in 1936 was made available to the University as a laboratory for graduate student research in sewage treatment.

The co-operation of the Department of Civil Engineering and the Medical School resulted in the development of courses in public health engineering, and a program leading to the degree of doctor of public health, which permitted approach to the subject from either the medical or the engineering point of view, was established in 1911.

The United States Public Health Service, in accordance with certain provisions of the Social Security Act, gave Page  1211sufficient funds to the University to make possible an expansion in public health education. As a result, in 1936 Harry Edgar Miller ('16e [C.E.], M.S.P.H. '44) was appointed Resident Lecturer in Public Health Engineering and Sanitation in the Division of Hygiene and Public Health. This Division, which became the School of Public Health in 1941, has since provided graduate training for engineers and others entering the public health field. The School of Public Health has greatly stimulated interest in graduate work in sanitary engineering.

The work in hydraulic engineering under Horace King was carried on steadily and consistently. The preliminary instruction in theory, given by the Department of Engineering Mechanics and the structural engineering division of the Department of Civil Engineering, was supplemented by courses in hydrology, hydraulics, water-power engineering, irrigation and drainage, and the construction of hydraulic works. Floyd August Nagler (Michigan Agricultural College '14, Ph.D. Michigan '17) was appointed Teaching Assistant in Hydraulics in 1915, and Chester Owen Wisler ('13e [C.E.], M.S.E. '15), who was appointed Instructor in 1915, was transferred from Engineering Mechanics to Civil Engineering in 1917. He became Professor in 1931 and retired in 1951.

Wisler began a two-year investigation of the rainfall in the Huron River drainage basin in 1916. A hydraulic testing flume was built at Argo Dam on the Huron River with funds for the construction given by Mr. Alexander Dow, of the Detroit Edison Company. This gift made possible a series of extended studies and research investigations of the flow of large volumes of water and contributed greatly to the effectiveness of the work in hydraulics. Technical publications by King and Hydraulics by King, Wisler, and Woodburn, produced in these years, were among the notable contributions to the subject.

Before 1900-1901 no more than fifty students of upperclass and graduate rank had majored in civil engineering in any one year; this number had grown to 150 by 1903-4 and after reaching a peak of 317 had dropped to 176 in 1911-12. From that date the departmental enrollment mounted quickly and maintained an average slightly below three hundred through 1927-28. The number of graduate students ranged from twelve to twenty-four throughout most of this period, although there were none in the war year 1917-18. In each of the two years 1921-22 and 1922-23 there were more than forty.

The private practice which Riggs had maintained grew to such dimensions by the late twenties that it required his undivided attention. In 1928 he presented his resignation, but the Regents gave him leave of absence until 1930, when, instead of the usual retiring title "Professor Emeritus," the title "Honorary Professor of Civil Engineering" was conferred on him in the hope that he might continue to serve in a semiofficial capacity on special problems of University interest.

Riggs had sacrificed professional associations built up through many years of private practice in order to assume the heavy and untried responsibilities which Dean Cooley had urged upon him. The boldness and dispatch with which he had reconstructed the curriculum and built up an almost entirely new staff were recognized as a remarkable achievement. The radical "experiment" of 1912 had worked out well, and developments exceeded expectations. Riggs carried on negotiations outside the University that were of great value to it, such as, for example, the continuing state service arrangement with the State Highway Department. Although he had been selected Page  1212in the belief that he would prove a wise administrator, he manifested a marked aptitude for teaching despite his lack of experience. The fact that he had been eminently successful in the practice of the engineering principles which he expounded, together with his earnest and inspiring personality, challenged the interest and respect of his students and made his teaching most effective.

Lewis Gram began his administration as head of the department in 1928 at the peak of national prosperity and directed the department through the discouraging years of the depression that followed. By 1933-34 student enrollment had dropped to 154, the lowest point in thirty years. The department budget was cut almost one-third in 1934-35. To effect the decrease it was necessary to reduce salaries and curtail plans for departmental expansion and for research programs. Nevertheless, fundamental research by the staff increased, and publications became numerous.

The faculty maintained contact with the profession, not only through occasional consultation in practice but by active participation in technical societies. Almost all staff members were affiliated with the Michigan Engineering Society and the Engineering Society of Detroit and were registered civil engineers in accordance with Michigan law.

Michigan cities and departments of the state government have freely utilized the professional abilities of those on the staff. Highway Laboratory tests increased from 273 in 1919 to 16,215 in 1936. Individual staff members served on stream-control survey commissions, in public utilities evaluations, and as consultants for the State Highway Bridge Department. The city of Detroit requested advice on problems arising from the city's purchase of the street railway, on the Belle Isle Bridge design, on the design and construction of River Rouge Bridge and other park bridges, and on traffic surveys and studies and asked the department to conduct civil service examinations for engineers. Saginaw, Flint, Battle Creek, Pontiac, Royal Oak, and other cities have employed members of the department as arbitrators and as designers or consultants. In accordance with definite policy, the department has encouraged members of the staff to identify themselves actively with the community and with the profession and to practice as well as to teach good citizenship, including active participation in the municipal government of Ann Arbor.

The aftermath of the period of economic depression was reflected in a decreased undergraduate enrollment and an increased interest in graduate study. Undergraduate options in structures, hydraulics, soil mechanics, highways, railroads, and sanitary and municipal engineering developed as major fields of graduate work.

Active interest in municipal engineering was evidenced by a program in public administration sponsored jointly by the department and the Institute of Public Administration, which led eventually to the granting of the degree of master of science in municipal (engineering) administration. The master's degree program in public health engineering, conducted in co-operation with the School of Public Health, provided instruction in this rapidly developing field.

Increased graduate instruction created a need for research and teaching laboratories, which was partly met during the period of the increased enrollment following World War II. Professors Wisler and Brater in their hydrological investigations attempted to establish a hydrologic experiment station with the aid of a small grant from the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, Page  1213but the inability to obtain essential instruments and equipment for the station made it necessary to postpone its construction.

Research in structural engineering under the direction of Professor Cissel was conducted as part of the program of the Department of Engineering Research. These studies of the durability of lightweight steel construction provided basic design data for further development in this field during and following World War II.

During the war the program of the department was continually modified, and graduate instruction was largely replaced by special courses offered under the auspices of the Army's A.S.T.P. and the Navy's V-12 programs. In connection with the Engineering Science and Management War Training (E.S.M.W.T.) programs, for which Sherlock was appointed co-ordinator, special courses were offered by the College. Morrison taught traffic control to police officers in Highland Park, Flint, and Dearborn and assisted with a program in surveying, topographic mapping, and photogrammetry, offered primarily for women. Emmons gave a defense course, Airport Runways and Low Cost Roads, for the Wayne County Road Commission. Carey, Wisler, and Brater assisted with the surveying and mapping program on the campus. Housel taught soil mechanics and Alt aerial bombardment protection in Detroit and Grand Rapids. Hoad assisted with courses in air sanitation in industry, and Decker supervised instruction for municipal officers and engineers in industrial water supply and treatment. L. C. Maugh presented advanced structural design courses in Detroit.

Horace King retired in 1939, and Hoad, the third member of the staff as reorganized in 1912, retired in 1944. He was succeeded by Earnest Boyce (Iowa State '17e [C.E.], C.E. ibid. '30, M.S. Harvard '32), of the University of Kansas, who was appointed Professor of Municipal and Sanitary Engineering in the College of Engineering and Professor of Public Health Engineering in the School of Public Health in 1944. This dual appointment helped to integrate further the facilities of the School of Public Health with those of the College of Engineering. In 1952 Boyce received the Samuel J. Crumbine Medal of the Kansas Public Health Association for twenty years of meritorious service in public health.

In 1946 Decker retired after thirty-six years of teaching service in the field of sanitary engineering, and Professor Gram, who in addition to serving as chairman of the department was Director of Plant Extension for the University, also retired in that year, ending service to the University of the last member of the staff recruited by Riggs in 1912. John Worley also retired in 1946 with the title of Professor Emeritus of Transportation Engineering and Curator Emeritus of the Transportation Library. In addition to his other duties, from 1945 to 1947 Dean Ivan Charles Crawford (Colorado '12e [C.E.], C.E. ibid. '15, D.Sc. hon. ibid. '44) carried the responsibilities of departmental chairman.

Surveying and geodesy. — Instruction in surveying and geodesy has always been an important and basic part of the civil engineering program. Originally established as an integral part of the general engineering curriculum, this work was included with the civil engineering program until the establishment in 1911 of a professorship of geodesy and surveying to which Clarence Johnston was appointed. Consequently, the early history of surveying and geodesy is closely intertwined with that of other civil engineering subjects. Reference has Page  1214been made to Wood's early report on the teaching of surveying.

While courses may have been differently named and arranged, there is no evidence of any great change in content and emphasis from 1857-58, when Wood began teaching the subject, until the year 1880-81. At that time courses similar to those offered today were introduced, and the practice of describing them in the Catalogue was begun. Surveying was taught with the use of the transit and level. Surveys were made with compass and solar compass. The study of higher surveying with plane table and sextant was offered, as well as earthwork and field work. Except for the addition of instruction in photography and the introduction of an elementary course for mechanical engineering students, no further important changes were made until after 1890-91, when the courses were rearranged. In 1892-93 the practice of using hours of credit was introduced. The evaluation of the work in terms of fractional courses was essentially the same as that used at present. A one-fifth course to all intents and purposes was the same as what is now called a one-hour course.

Surveying in the first semester included lectures and field practice with instruments, instruction in the use of instruments, and topography. The work of the second semester covered railroad surveying, city engineering, and road-making, field work in camp, and photography. With the exception of the course in the use of instruments this work was required of all civil engineering students.

In 1895 Geodetic Methods (Course 7), an elective three-hour course given by J. B. Davis, was announced. Surveying camp work was increased from four to six weeks in 1901-2. An elementary course in the use of instruments was offered especially for mechanical engineering students in 1883-84, and for noncivil engineering students from 1898 on.

Davis carried the teaching in surveying without much help until 1890. He was assisted by Elmer Louis Allor ('92e [C.E.], LL.B. '95), Instructor in Astronomy, in 1892-93, by Fred Morley ('86e [C.E.], C.E. '90), Instructor in Descriptive Geometry and Drawing, in 1893-94, and by Clarence Wrentmore from 1893 until 1908.

Davis published many papers during his long period of service with the University. These appeared in the Annals of the Michigan Engineering Society, the Michigan Technic, and other engineering journals. He also left unpublished manuscripts to the department.

No staff list would be complete which did not include mention of Professor Howard B. Merrick ('98e [C.E.], C.E. '13) and Associate Professor Hugh Brodie ('07e [C.E.], C.E. '14). Merrick was appointed Instructor in 1903. With the exception of four years spent in China, he taught continuously until his death in 1926. For several years before Davis retired and Johnston succeeded him in 1911, Merrick was in charge of the summer surveying camp. It was under his direction in 1909 that the first use was made of the Douglas Lake site. Brodie, who was appointed Instructor in 1908, accompanied Merrick and Carey to China in the late summer of 1918, returning in February, 1920. The Hugh Brodie-Joseph B. Davis Loan Fund was established by his estate upon his death in 1932.

When Clarence Johnston was made Professor of Geodesy and Surveying, additional elective courses were organized. The curriculum leading to the bachelor's degree was designed to give better training for those students specializing in surveying. The Department of Geodesy and Surveying was established in 1921. Degrees in these subjects were first granted in 1922-23.

The development of policies in the teaching of surveying as carried out by Page  1215Wood and Davis took place during the period preceding the great expansion in the field of engineering. With the turn of the century a demand arose for men trained in special fields, and it was necessary to concentrate the teaching of surveying in order to find time in the curriculum for these specialized subjects. In 1941 Geodesy and Surveying was discontinued as a separate department, and the staff and activities were reunited with the Department of Civil Engineering.

In 1941, when Johnston retired, Bouchard assumed the direction of the work in geodesy and surveying. Harry Bouchard ('11e [C.E.]) was appointed Instructor in 1918 and served until 1925, when he accepted a three-year appointment as professor of railroad engineering at Pei Yang University in Tientsin, China. He returned to the University of Michigan in 1928 and was promoted to Professor in 1941. In 1934-35 he completed a textbook, Surveying, which has been adopted by many schools of engineering throughout the country. In 1941 he became Director of Camp Davis, the summer surveying and geology camp at Jackson, Wyoming. Associate Professor Clifton O'Neal Carey ('06e [C.E.], C.E. '14) retired in 1945. He had been appointed Instructor in Civil Engineering in 1908 and was transferred to work in geodesy and surveying in 1910, continuing in that department until it was reunited with the Department of Civil Engineering.

Three other teachers of geodesy and surveying have given long years of service, not only to the Department of Civil Engineering, but to other departments and schools that have had a need for instruction in this field. Edward Young ('21e [C.E.]) became Instructor in surveying in 1920 and Associate Professor in 1947. His special interest has been in the field of photogrammetry with associated instruction in basic optics and photography. During World War II he established a course in aerial photogrammetry in order to train personnel for various government mapping agencies. A special wartime course, Photography in Industrial Research, was given under the auspices of the E.S.M.W.T. in Detroit. George Moyer Bleekman ('16e [C.E.], M.S.E. '23) was appointed Instructor in Geodesy and Surveying in 1923 and Assistant Professor in 1930. He has specialized in the field of municipal surveying and land subdivision, particularly in the methods used by municipal governments to keep land records. Harold James McFarlan ('17e [C.E.]) became Instructor in Geodesy and Surveying in 1920 and was promoted to Assistant Professor in 1926. His work in surveying, combined with his keen interest in student problems, has earned him an outstanding place among those who have contributed years of service to the College. In this connection it should be noted that he served as an adviser and mentor for seventeen years. In addition to teaching surveying courses he assisted with the instruction in drawing and mathematics during World War II.

Post world war 11 developments. — Earnest Boyce was appointed chairman of the department in 1947. When the Department of Electrical Engineering moved into the new addition to the East Engineering Building, space in the West Engineering Building was released for the use of the Department of Civil Engineering. Laboratory facilities in hydraulics, structures, including structural models, and sanitary engineering were provided. These added greatly to the departmental resources for research work and for undergraduate instruction. Structural engineering was under the direction of Professor Cissel until his sudden death in January, 1949, when Sherlock was given charge of the work. Also in this field were Alt, who had become Associate Page  1216Professor, and Lawrence Carnahan Maugh ('21e [C.E.], Ph.D. '34), who was appointed Instructor in 1925 and promoted to a professorship in 1948. Housel, who had been on the staff since 1924, became Professor in 1950. Leo Max Legatski ('31e [C.E.], Sc.D. '37) was made Assistant Professor in 1947 and promoted to Associate Professor in 1951. Robert Blynn Harris (Colorado '40e [Arch.E.], M.S.C.E. California Institute of Technology '47) was appointed Instructor in Structural Engineering in 1947 and promoted to Assistant Professor in 1949. Bruce Gilbert Johnston (Illinois '30e [C.E.], Ph.D. Columbia '38) came to the University as Professor of Structural Engineering in 1950 from Lehigh University, where he had been professor of civil engineering and director of the Fritz Engineering Laboratory (Structural Research). His background of research in structural engineering helped to stimulate graduate study in this field. After the retirement of King in 1939 and of Wisler in 1951, Ernest Frederick Brater ('34e [C.E.], Ph.D. '38), first appointed Instructor in 1937, became senior Professor in the field of hydraulic engineering. Vladas Merkys (École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées '28, D.Eng. Technische Hochschule [Karlsruhe] '46) was appointed Resident Lecturer in Hydraulics in 1950. The development of the Lakes Laboratory by Professor Brater at Willow Run and the construction of a hydraulics laboratory in the West Engineering Building have greatly improved the teaching and research resources in this field. Model studies in the Lakes Laboratory have provided design data for several refuge harbors on the Great Lakes.

The work in transportation engineering, although co-ordinated at the level of graduate research study, logically divides itself at the undergraduate level into the fields of highway and railroad engineering. Professor Riggs's great interest in problems of railroad construction, management, and regulation was carried forward by Worley and W. C. Sadler, who became Professor in 1941 and who has been responsible for the courses in railroad engineering. In addition, his training in law and his background of engineering experience have stimulated the development of special courses in specifications, contracts, and engineering law.

The postwar program in highway engineering emphasized highway construction and traffic engineering, both of which were under the supervision of Morrison until his death in 1952. Associate Professor John Clayton Kohl ('29e [C.E.]), who was appointed Assistant Professor in 1946 to assist with the teaching program in both highway and railroad engineering, was made Associate Professor in 1949. His active interest in transportation problems culminated in 1952 in the establishment of a Transportation Institute within the College. He became its first Director.

The facilities of the State Highway Laboratory, combined with those of the Transportation Library, provide an unusual opportunity for service in this field. The work of Housel in soil mechanics, previously mentioned in connection with structural engineering, is equally associated with the work in highway engineering and with the state service of the Highway Laboratory.

In 1949 Edwin Boyd terminated a period of thirty-five years of service as Instructor in Highway Laboratory Practice (one-half time shared with the State Laboratory). The vacancy was filled by the part-time appointment of Frank Evariste Legg, Jr. ('33, M.S. '34), as Assistant Professor of Engineering Materials. From 1946 to 1951 Gerard Oscar Kerkhoff (Michigan College of Mining and Technology '31, E.M. ibid. '31) held a one-half time appointment as Assistant Professor in Soil Mechanics. In September, 1951, Robert Oscar Goetz ('49ePage  1217[C.E.], M.S.E. '50) was appointed Instructor in Soil Mechanics. After the death of Professor Morrison, Donald Nathan Cortright (Illinois '39e [C.E.], M.S.E. Michigan '51) was appointed Assistant Professor of Highway Engineering.

In 1943 the Michigan Highway Conference, because of lack of space at the University, was held in Grand Rapids. Since the war the conference has been jointly sponsored by the State Highway Department, the County Roads Association, the Michigan League of Municipalities, and the University, which continues the publication of the Proceedings. A total of 767 were registered for the 1952 meeting of the Conference.

The postwar program in sanitary engineering has been stimulated by a worldwide need for engineers qualified in this field and by the School of Public Health with its co-ordinated teaching and research facilities. After his dual appointment in engineering and public health in 1944, Boyce introduced several changes, based on a co-ordination of instruction with the School of Public Health in both the undergraduate and graduate programs. Since the degree of master of public health in the School of Public Health was granted to engineers who expected to specialize in public health, the degree of master of science in public health engineering was replaced by that of master of science in engineering (sanitary engineering).

On the retirement of Decker in 1946, Richard King (Texas A. and M. '38e [C.E.], M.S.E. Illinois Institute of Technology '40) was appointed Assistant Professor of Sanitary Engineering. The appointment of Boyce, Professor of Sanitary Engineering, as departmental chairman, with an increased teaching load incident to the development of sanitary engineering laboratory facilities, made additional help necessary, and Assistant Professor Jack Adolph Borchardt (Illinois '40e [C.E.], M.S.E. Carnegie Institute of Technology '41, Ph.D. Wisconsin '48) was added to the staff in 1948. King resigned in the summer of 1950 to accept an appointment as associate professor of sanitary engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology, and Eugene Andrus Glysson (Vermont '49e [C.E.], M.S.E. Michigan '51) was appointed Instructor in Sanitary Engineering in 1951.

The history of teaching and research in engineering is partly one of staff, partly one of the students who seek instruction, and finally a story of the laboratories and other teaching resources which serve as an aid to effective instruction. During the war departmental undergraduate instruction was offered principally in programs that did not lead immediately to the bachelor of science degree, and graduate instruction was very restricted. In 1944-45 there were only nineteen graduate students, and only ten advanced degrees were granted — eight master of science or master of science in engineering degrees and two doctor of science degrees. By 1947 the undergraduate enrollment had increased to 307, and eighty-seven students were registered in the Graduate School for work in the Department of Civil Engineering. Eighty-one B.S.E. degrees were granted during the year, thirty-eight M.S.E. degrees, and one Sc.D. The fall of 1949 brought the peak enrollment with 369 students in the undergraduate program and 114 graduate students. During the year one Sc.D., sixty-one M.S.E., and 136 B.S.E. degrees were granted. The peak of postwar enrollment passed in 1949-50. During 1951-52, eighty-four bachelor's degrees, thirty-two master's degrees, and three doctoral degrees were awarded.

Increased postwar enrollment resulted in improved teaching and in better research laboratories. Much of this development, Page  1218however, came too late to be of maximum value to the veterans who created the emergency.

The future of engineering instruction in this field will depend to some extent on the ability of the staff to foresee and the University to provide the added teaching and research resources that will be needed to keep pace with technological progress. Plans are being made for continued development of the laboratory resources in the various areas of civil engineering on a basis commensurate with the demands that are made on this branch of the engineering profession. The present staff is sufficiently diversified in its research, service, and teaching interests to develop and present the broad technical foundation that each student should have as a part of his academic preparation for a career in the ever-changing field of civil engineering.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annals of the Michigan Engineering Society.
Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1906-52.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1852-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Davis, J. B. MS notebooks.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Michigan Technic, 1888-1952.
MS "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department (College since 1915) of Engineering."
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-52.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1865-1952.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Winchell, Alexander. MS correspondence. In Alexander Winchell Papers.
Winchell, Alexander. MS "Diary."In Alexander Winchell Papers.

THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PROFESSOR Henry Smith Carhart (Wesleyan '69, Sc.D. hon. Northwestern '12, LL.D. Michigan '12), assisted by Joseph E. Putnam, in 1888-89 offered the first course in dynamoelectric machinery as a course in physics. Thus began the instruction which resulted in the establishment of a separate Department of Electrical Engineering. The work was given in the east basement room of the Physics Laboratory with meager equipment, consisting of a twenty-five-horsepower high-speed steam engine driving a line shaft, an Edison dynamo of five-kilowatt capacity, a ten-arc Brush dynamo with arc lamps, a five-horsepower constant-potential motor, and a Brackett cradle dynamometer. Adjacent to the laboratory were a small photometric room and a battery room containing a thirty-one-cell storage battery. The first three degrees were granted in 1890 to Winthrop E. Gastman, William D. Ball, and Louis C. Hill.

In 1889 George Washington Patterson Page  1219(Yale '84, Massachusetts Institute of Technology '87, Ph.D. Munich '99) was appointed Instructor in Electrical Engineering, and a four-hour course in distribution and photometry was given which, with the four hours of dynamo-electric machinery, made eight hours available in electrical engineering. By 1891-92 a course in alternating current transformers had been added, the text being J. A. Fleming's The Alternate Current Transformer. In 1893-94 the course in distribution of electrical currents and photometry was divided into two courses, both of which were taught by Patterson, and the following year a course in the design of electrical machinery was introduced by Carhart. This was apparently the first attempt to add what might be called professional instruction in contrast to the other courses, which were really in physics.

A radical change took place in 1895-96, when the work in electrical engineering was separated from the work in physics, marking the recognition of the Department of Electrical Engineering. The curriculum remained the same, with the addition of a number of courses such as Electrical Measurements and Primary Batteries. In the following year a course in alternating current apparatus, taught by Carhart, was offered for the first time. Putnam had resigned in 1889, and in 1897-98 the staff, enlarged by the appointment of an instructor, Carroll Dunham Jones ('93e [E.E.], E.E. '97), consisted of Carhart of the Physics Department, Patterson, and Jones, who was replaced by Benjamin Franklin Bailey ('98e [E.E.], Ph.D. '07) in 1901.

During the next five years the department had a steady growth. Patterson and Bailey, who comprised the staff, were assisted by members of the Physics Department. In 1904 about half of the present West Engineering Building was completed, and the department moved into the south end of the basement of the new building. In 1905 Patterson was appointed Professor of Electrical Engineering, and an instructor, Ernest Steck ('01e [E.E.]), was added. He was succeeded in the following year by Lyman Foote Morehouse ('97e [E.E.], A.M. '04).

In the period 1905-15, with Patterson as head of the department, enrollment increased, new equipment was added, and the staff grew from four to eight members, with two assistants. Among those who deserve mention is Henry Harold Higbie (Columbia '04e [E.E.]), who was transferred from Mechanical Engineering to Electrical Engineering, and to whom credit is due for the development of the work in illumination. Because of his efforts Michigan is one of the leading universities in the United States for study in this field. Carl Leonard de Muralt (Zurich '95e [E.E.]) served from 1907 until 1913. Alfred Henry Lovell ('09e [E.E.], M.S.E. '14) was appointed Instructor in Electrical Engineering in 1910. He became Professor in 1919 and chairman of the department in 1945. He was also Assistant Dean of the College of Engineering from 1930 to 1944. His interest and experience have been principally in power-plant work, and he is responsible for the group of courses relating to power-plant design and transmission, which place special emphasis upon the economic aspects of power generation and utilization.

The number of courses offered during the decade 1905-15 grew from sixteen to thirty-two. Part of this growth was caused by the introduction of required courses in electric communications work, which was at first under the direction of Morehouse. His success in this field resulted in his resignation in 1910 to accept a position with the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. The work was carried on by Ralzemond Drake Parker ('05e [E.E.], M.S. '06) until Page  12201915, when he joined the same company. Harry Stevenson Sheppard ('12e [E.E.], M.S.E. '19) followed and was succeeded in turn by Porter Henderson Evans ('14e [E.E.], M.S. '20), Erwin Ernest Dreese ('20e [E.E.], E.E. '29), William Littell Everitt (Cornell '22e [E.E.], Ph.D. Ohio State '33), and Arlen Roosevelt Hellwarth ('25e [E.E.], M.S. '36).

The dynamo laboratories and offices of the department were moved to the north end of the West Engineering Building when it was completed in 1909. The communications laboratories were left in the south end, and a little later the illumination laboratories were moved to the attic.

In 1915 John Castlereagh Parker ('01, A.M. '02, E.E. '04, D. Eng. hon. '40) was appointed chairman of the department, and Professor Patterson became chairman of the Department of Engineering Mechanics. Parker had a background of extensive power system experience as well as a decided inolination toward scholarly pursuits. He remained with the University until 1922, during a period of rapid expansion. The staff at that time numbered fourteen men, in addition to several teaching fellows and student assistants.

Arthur Dearth Moore (Carnegie Institute of Technology '15e [E.E.], M.S. Michigan '22) was appointed Instructor in 1916; he became Professor of Electrical Engineering in 1931. His teaching interest has been largely in electrical design and in problems of heat transfer. He has taken a special interest in student personnel problems, and from 1928 to 1952 he served as Head Mentor in the College.

Both Joseph Henderson Cannon (Purdue '07e [E.E.]), who became Associate Professor in 1917 and Professor in 1920, and Stephen Stanley Attwood ('18, M.S. '23), who joined the staff as Instructor in 1920 and was promoted to Professor in 1938, have devoted themselves largely to the theoretical phases of electrical engineering. Melville Bigham Stout ('20e [E.E.], M.S. '24), appointed Instructor in 1922 and Professor in 1943, has done notable work in mathematics and in the theory of electrical rectification. He has been responsible both for the development of the courses in instrumentation and for the associated standards laboratories.

Others who served during this period include Ward Follet Davidson ('13e, M.S. '20), James Ferdinand Fairman ('18e [E.E.], M.S. '21), and Edwin Blythe Stason (Wisconsin '13, Massachusetts Institute of Technology '16e, J.D. Michigan '22).

Under Parker radical changes took place in the curriculum and in the general philosophy of the department. It was evident to the staff that electrical engineering was "growing up." In the early days it was possible in four years to give the student a fairly comprehensive picture of the entire field of electrical engineering, including details of practice. The theory of electrical engineering advanced rapidly, however, and books and articles in the field became increasingly mathematical in character. The engineer was expected to know much more theory, and at the same time the scope of the applications of electricity expanded. Radio became important, and with it electronics as a science was developed. Obviously, it was no longer possible to cover the entire field as had been done in the past. One possible method was to specialize. Thus, a student might graduate with considerable knowledge of detailed telephone practice, but with little or no familiarity with dynamos or motors. Such a solution was never seriously considered; it was felt that specialization should come after graduation, not before. This decision was supported by the Page  1221large electrical companies, which offered the graduate opportunity to discover his special interests and to learn the practical applications of electricity under the best possible conditions. Accordingly, the practical and more or less descriptive courses were discontinued, which reduced the thirty-two courses given in 1915 to twenty-three in 1919. New work of a theoretical nature was introduced, however, and course offerings gradually increased. Throughout this period there was a general stiffening of requirements.

In 1922 Parker resigned and was succeeded by Bailey, who was chairman from 1925 to 1944. On Bailey's retirement, Lovell was chairman until 1953, when he was succeeded by Attwood. After 1945 the department experienced the tremendous expansion of the postwar era caused by the G.I. enrollment. In 1947 the electrical engineering undergraduates numbered more than 700 and the graduate students 100. Correspondingly, the faculty had increased to twenty-eight members: eight professors, three associate professors, one assistant professor, one lecturer, and fifteen instructors. The department was moved to the new south wing, which was added to the East Engineering Building in 1947, and thus had an opportunity to arrange for efficient operation. The basement was occupied by the power substation, the dynamo and photometry laboratories, and the instrument shop. Offices and laboratories were on the second floor, and the third and fourth floors were allotted to communications and electronics. This has greatly facilitated the work of the department.

Electronics has become of great practical importance in electrical engineering, both in communications and in industrial power. The increasing use of mercury vapor lamps, neon and fluorescent tubes in illumination, the tremendous growth of radio and television, and the introduction of the photoelectric cell have all contributed to this result. Some instruction in electronics had been available since 1915 in connection with the study of vacuum tubes in radio and in certain courses in physics. In 1930 electronics was offered as an elective, and in 1931 it was made a requirement, the first such requirement by an engineering school in this country. This was followed by instruction in industrial electronics, networks, gaseous-conducting electronic apparatus, theory of high-vacuum electron tubes, and microwave electron tubes.

The increased offerings of the department necessitated a proportionate increase in the size of the teaching staff. Professor Lewis Nelson Holland ('23e [E.E.], M.S. '26) joined the department in 1924 and has contributed much to the development of both the graduate and undergraduate work in radio and in associated phases of the communications curriculum.

William Gould Dow (Minnesota '16e, M.S.E. Michigan '29) came in 1926 as Instructor in electronics and became Professor in 1945. His pioneer work in vacuum-tube design principles and his authoritative text on the subject have given the University of Michigan a foremost place in electronics. The curriculum is rich in the treatment of those fundamentals which control the functioning of electric devices.

Engineers have become increasingly aware of the importance of economics in engineering, and the early requirement of six hours in that field has been followed by economic analysis of the designs considered in the courses on power generation and transmission. The vast size of present electric systems and their interconnections have called for engineering advances in the operational calculus, alternating-current vector algebra, symmetrical components, and power system stability.

Page  1222In 1942 two important additions were made to the staff: Assistant Professor Jack Fribley Cline ('38e [E.E.], Ph.D. '50), appointed to help with work in communications, and Associate Professor Henry Jacob Gomberg ('41e [E.E.], Ph.D. '51). During World War II Gomberg was commissioned to design and install a radio research laboratory at the University of Iowa for the Navy. In addition to his work in the Electrical Engineering Department, he has served as laboratory director for the radioactive materials on research projects of the American Cancer Society and is Research Associate and Assistant Director of the Michigan Memorial-Phoenix Project. Gomberg also developed the laboratory and prepared the first course offered by the department in nuclear engineering. In 1943 Professor James Sherman Gault ('21e [E.E.], M.S. '24) began research and development in the theory of servomechanism and built up a laboratory in order to teach the subject as it relates to gun and turret control to classes of servicemen. This field has continually expanded, and control systems using electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic elements have been devised to regulate and govern the flow of energy. Assistant Professor Kazda collaborated in the work and has continued it since Professor Gault's death in 1951.

In 1946 three new members were added to the staff: John Joseph Carey (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '34e [E.E.]) was appointed Assistant Professor in the power and machinery curriculum, and Louis Frank Kazda (Cincinnati '40e [E.E.], M.S. ibid. '45) and Thomas Edwin Talpey (Cornell '46e [E.E.], M.S.E. Michigan '48) joined the department to help with the work in communications and electronics. Professor Edwin Richard Martin (Iowa State '11e, E.E. ibid. '17) came in 1947 to assist with the courses in machine design, Assistant Professor Walter Alfred Hedrich ('19e [E.E.], M.S. Michigan State '32) was appointed to help with the work in magnetic fields and illumination, and Richard Kemp Brown ('40e [E.E.], Ph.D. '52) was added to the staff in communications. Four men were appointed in 1948 to teach some of the more basic theoretical courses in electronics: Melvin Burtus Folkert ('47e [E.E.], M.S.E. '48), Phil H. Rogers (Texas '44, M.S. ibid. '47), Gunnar Hok (E.E. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm '26), and William Kerr (Tennessee '42e, M.S. ibid. '47). In the same year Kenneth Arnold Stone ('49e [E.E.], M.S.E. '52) and in the following year Joseph Aubrey Boyd (Kentucky '47e, M.S.E. ibid. '49) also became staff members. Associate Professor Alan Breck Macnee (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '43, Sc.D. ibid. '48), who established the courses in network synthesis, came to the University in 1950. Assistant Professor Norman Ross Scott (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '41, Ph.D. Illinois '50) was appointed in 1951 and began a computer course, and in 1952 Professor Joseph Galluchat Tarboux (Clemson '18e [E.E.], E.E. Cornell '21, Ph.D. ibid. '37) joined the staff in power and machinery.

The subject of illumination and photometry, which has always been important in electrical engineering at Michigan, was a requirement in the first curriculum of 1889, with Patterson and Carhart as instructors. Higbie followed in 1913 and expanded the instruction for students in architecture and for those doing graduate work. In 1929 he offered a graduate course, Natural Lighting of Buildings, based on his extensive research on daylighting of interiors. Since his death in 1947 the instruction and research in lighting have been directed by Page  1223Associate Professor Hempstead Stratton Bull (Lehigh '19e, M.S. Michigan '26) and Assistant Professor Hedrich.

In recent years the great increase in the number of graduate students reflects a growing conviction on the part of both the graduating engineer and the employer that four years is too short a time in which to master the fundamentals of electrical engineering. In general, a man does not return to receive specific instruction in the details of some particular branch, but rather to broaden and strengthen his foundation in mathematics and physics as applied to electrical engineering problems and to acquire some familiarity with methods of research. Staff members are encouraged and expected to participate in graduate work with the expectation that each will contribute something in his special field.

Research. — In the Department of Electrical Engineering research may be considered in three more or less distinct periods. Before the middle 1920's it was largely carried out on an individual basis by faculty members assisted by advanced students. The establishment of the Department of Engineering Research (now Engineering Research Institute) in 1920 made it convenient to carry on industrially sponsored group investigation under faculty direction and with substantial employment of part-time students within the University laboratories and under conditions permitting broad use of the scientific resources of the University. During the third period, from the middle 1940's to the present time, a large volume of government-sponsored work, particularly in the electronics field, has been added to the industrially sponsored research. Comparable to this in importance have been the contributions made by the graduate student theses. The increased resources of the University resulting from sponsored research programs made possible a major expansion in thesis work.

The year 1875 marked the beginning of important research in electrical engineering at the University. In that year John Williams Langley (Harvard '61, M.D. hon. Michigan '77, Ph.D. hon. ibid. '92) met Charles Francis Brush ('69, Sc.D. hon. '12, LL.D. Kenyon '03), and their discussion of arc lamp generators resulted in independent studies of the problem. Soon each had built a successful arc lamp generator of the series type, both of which were far superior to other machines then in use. Brush's outstanding work, however, was in the design of an automatic device for advancing the arc lamp carbons as they were consumed.

In the period 1880-1900 frequent references were made to the work of Carhart in electrochemistry and to that of Patterson in the field of electrical measurements. Patterson's work in the measurement of insulation resistance was particularly notable. Others of this period who deserve mention are Frank Caspar Wagner (A.M. '84, '85e [Mech.E.]) for his mathematical analysis of motor design, Edwin Henry Cheney ('92e [E.E.]) for a study of temperature rise in copper conductors, Eleazer Darrow ('92e [E.E.]) for his work on the economics of a double trolley railway system, Charles Gillman Atkins ('93e [E.E.]) and Edward Dana Wickes ('93e [E.E.]) for their study of the measurement of power in alternating current circuits, and Sergius Paul Grace ('96e [E.E.], E.E. '04, D.Eng. hon. '32) for his study of the fundamental characteristics of telephone circuits.

From 1900 to 1910 Ray Philip Jackson ('02e [E.E.]), Edward August Weiland ('04e [E.E.]), and Oswald William Visscher (Hope '01, Michigan '02, ibid. '04e [E.E.]) studied the properties of aluminum Page  1224valve rectifiers. Harold Gillespie Bandfield ('05e [E.E.]) investigated the efficiency of charging batteries from three-phase alternating current through a rectifier, and Adolphus Mansfield Dudley ('02e [E.E.], E.E. '31, D.Eng. hon. '39) made elaborate studies of induction motors.

Among many research projects carried out by Bailey since 1900, the most outstanding have been a study of the slip of an induction motor by the stroboscopic method, the advantages of rheostatic starters for induction motors, and a study of magnetos, ignition systems, and starting equipment for automobiles. In the middle 1920's his investigation of fractional horsepower motors (single-phase) led to the development of condenser starting of single-phase motors and to a new type of electrolytic condenser.

Since 1924 Gault made important contributions in alternating-current machinery, particularly in work on "Rotor Bar Current in Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors," published in 1941. He made important consulting and engineering design and development contributions in servomechanisms and in the electric utilities field, particularly in checking the electrical equipment design of the Detroit and Windsor Tunnel and the design and layout of two hydroelectric stations.

Parker, in the period 1915 to 1922, obtained important results in his work on the economic theory of engineering design and in the processes for determining obsolescence. Lovell continued and enlarged this program by analyzing the operating costs and the rate of growth of maintenance and replacement expense for numerous public utilities. More recently Carey has carried on research activity relative to stability problems of power systems.

From 1928 to 1932 the National Electric Light Association sponsored a major group research relative to wind-produced stresses in wood pole lines and the pattern of wind gusts, which involved extensive instrument design, field operations, and voluminous data reduction. Stout, Gault, and Dow made major contributions respectively to these studies. The results of this work appeared in a research bulletin, "Loading and Strength of Wood Pole Lines," by Sherlock, Stout, Dow, Gault, and Swinton, published in 1936.

In the several years following this wind study project, Stout carried out research in instrument and control-device design problems, and in 1943 accepted the responsibility for teaching and research in electrical instrumentation.

During the period 1930-36 Attwood and Dow employed the then newly devised Du Four type of cold-cathode continuously pumped cathode-ray oscilloscope as a research tool for investigating the properties of alternating-current arcs between metallic electrodes and surge voltage breakdown problems.

Attwood continued research in electric and magnetic field properties, including studies of special magnetic field problems in electric welding production apparatus, but with particular emphasis on electromagnetic wave propagation. During World War II, while on leave of absence, he served as director of the Columbia University division of the War Research Wave Propagation Group and contributed much to the military program. After the war he pursued this work actively, his outstanding contribution being the compilation and editing of the three-volume summary report of the committee's work. The growth and development of the graduate student research program in electrical engineering have been largely the result of Professor Attwood's inspiration and guidance in Page  1225technical, policy, and personal matters.

Between 1924 and 1932 Moore conducted a successful study of quantitative graphical methods of determining the flux and equipotential maps for two-dimensional electrostatic, magnetic, and elastic stress fields, and laminar fluid flow fields in irregular geometries not easily amenable to mathematical study. Between 1947 and 1952 he invented and developed a fluid flow mapping technique which permits completely quantitative studies of irregular fields present in a great variety of engineering problems. Between 1924 and 1940 Moore pioneered various methods in the study of heat transfer as applied to electrical apparatus and developed experimental methods for solving such problems, particularly in relation to arbitrarily complex time transients in heat flow problems.

Departmental research in photometry, illumination, and the laws of natural lighting was directed by Higbie from 1910 until his death in 1947. He was assisted in this work by several graduate students, particularly Wilfred Alexander Bychinsky ('30e [E.E.], Ph.D. '33) and John Melvin Lyon ('33e [E.E.], Ph.D. '36), whose theses grew out of the illumination problem. Higbie's most notable contributions to the knowledge of lighting occurred between 1924 and 1941. Before 1924 window areas in buildings were determined by rule of thumb. Higbie, in various papers published in the Illuminating Engineering Society Transactions, put the design of natural lighting of interiors on a scientific basis. Theoretical formulae for use in window design were developed and confirmed in models and in finished buildings of complicated fenestration. Single and multistoried buildings, monitor and saw-toothed roof structures, schools, and offices were all treated in these studies. Related research in the same field was done by H. S. Bull in the 1930's. Little more was accomplished during World War II and until 1951, when Bull completed an investigation dealing with the control and redirection of daylight in schoolrooms by means of various types of louvre systems. This was studied on a scaled model by using an artificial sun and sky. Hedrich also contributed to this program an analysis of the illumination patterns from fluorescent luminaires.

From 1927 to 1945 Holland directed an extensive series of doctoral thesis projects in the field of communication and related electronic applications. During World War II he worked with the Department of Physics and the National Defense Research Committee on uses of infrared radiation, particularly on studies of infrared radar. In 1945 Division 16 reports from this research included: "Development of an Infrared Glider Position Indicator" by G. A. Van Lear, Jr., and L. N. Holland, "A Photocell Test Set" by W. L. Hole and L. N. Holland, and "An Infrared Range and Direction Apparatus for Diffusely Reflecting Targets" by W. L. Hole, W. W. McCormick, and L. N. Holland. In 1950 under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research, R. K. Brown undertook an investigation of causes of variations in the velocity of propagation of sound in sea water.

Dow engaged in research on the use of electron tubes in the manufacturing industries, including studies of the firing time of ignition tubes (with Walter H. Powers ['34e [E.E.], M.S.E. '34]), analysis of space charge control mechanisms in vacuum tubes, and studies of the recovery time of grid control in thyratrons (with Harry A. Romanowitz [Cincinnati '24e [E.E.], Ph.D. Michigan '48]). Dow also initiated an investigation, sponsored by the Fisher Body Division of the General Motors Corporation, of high frequency power for welding sheet metal. This work, carried out under his direction Page  1226by a team of research engineers and graduate students, resulted in a number of patents.

From 1943 to 1945, while on leave at the Radio Research Laboratory at Harvard University, Dow worked on the development of radar countermeasure transmitters, particularly on microwave frequency electron tubes and equipment and new vacuum tubes a thousand times more powerful than their prewar predecessors. After returning to Ann Arbor, he initiated several major government-sponsored group research programs with the assistance of Gunnar Hok. The earliest of these programs was concerned with the instrumentation of high-altitude rockets for investigation of properties of the upper atmosphere. This undertaking, with Nelson Warner Spencer ('41e [E.E.]) as project engineer, resulted in the development of a successful method of measuring air temperatures to an altitude of about fifty miles, and in the demonstration of a new and potentially valuable means of direct measurement of properties of the E layer of the ionosphere.

Dow also played an important part in the organization of the Willow Run Research Center, which resulted in substantial benefits to the research and instructional programs of the department. The Center's extensive electronic computer activity was an invaluable starting point for the development of electronic computer research. A powerful microwave radar unit was installed in the engineering laboratories, and a staff of experts able to give consultation and lecture courses in the rapidly expanding fields of electronics, such as microwaves, information theory, and semiconductor electronics, was maintained.

The apportionment of the basic research work at Willow Run to the campus research program resulted in the establishment of a gaseous conduction laboratory which has continued to make valuable research contributions to other problems. The work in this conduction laboratory, under the direction of Harold C. Early (Michigan State '39, M.S. Michigan '41) resulted in experimentation with high-power-level gaseous discharges at microwave frequencies, studies of the production of violent winds at low pressures by ionic forces in gas discharges, the uses of spark discharges in printing, recording, and information storage processes, the behavior of arcs at low pressures in strong magnetic fields, and developments in the use of microwave-frequency breakdown for instrumentation purposes.

Probably the postwar project of greatest direct value to the department was that sponsored in 1946 by the Army Signal Corps to study various aspects of the behavior of microwave magnetron oscillators. This project resulted in the establishment of well-equipped microwave measurement and electron tube laboratories. The contributions resulting from work done on various kinds of electron tubes included theses by Leonhard Wilford Holmboe (Illinois Institute of Technology '41e [E.E.], Ph.D. Michigan '50), Robert William Olthuis (M.E. Stevens Institute of Technology '44, Ph.D. Michigan '51), George Raymond Brewer (Kentucky '43e [E.E.], Ph.D. Michigan '52), Jules Sid Needle ('43e [E.E.], Ph.D. '52), and Homer William Welch (DePauw '42, Ph.D. Michigan '52).

In 1951 under the direction of Dow with H. W. Welch as project engineer, the Electronic Defense Group was established in the departmental laboratories for the study of various classified military electronic problems. This group represents the equivalent, as to technical staff, of about fifteen to twenty full-time research workers, investigating electronic Page  1227circuitry at various frequencies extending into the microwave range, radio-wave propagation, electron tube principles, semiconductor electronics, and the use of ferrites as circuit elements. This program has been organized in such a way as to employ the special talents of members of the faculty. Thus, the teaching and research staff have access to the latest developments in electronics and will be able to make immediate instructional and research use of them when military security permits.

Important contributions to this program have been made by Dow, Attwood, Holland, Hok, Macnee, Cline, Scott, Needle, and Rogers of the teaching staff, and Welch, J. R. Black, Orr, and Boyd of the research staff. Many of the resources of the electrical engineering laboratories are of great value in this work, particularly the analog computer facilities, the electron tube laboratory, and the microwave instrumentation laboratory.

The first significant research by the department in electronic computation was begun in 1946 by Kazda. Later, work was carried out on gaseous conduction and semiconductor electronics by Early and Lyman Walton Orr (Toronto '43, Ph.D. Michigan '49). In 1949 the University began the construction of a flexible analog computer unit patterned after the designs employed at the Willow Run Research Center. This unit, completed in 1952, has been used extensively by Macnee in solving important Electronic Defense Group problems.

Gomberg has carried out research on the use of high-frequency power in powder metallurgy, on new methods of electromechanical energy transfer, linear motor systems, a series generator shunt motor oscillator, and on electrically generated heat transients to determine suitability for metal continuity testing. In nuclear engineering he has worked on the development of a high resolution radiation detecting layer (autoradiography) and of a radiation microscope for direct location of radioactive centers in solid state structures, under support by the Atomic Energy Commission, and on application of new methods of autoradiography to metallurgy. With the Medical School's Department of Radiology he has studied thyroid disorders by means of radioiodine. He has also worked on the mechanism of radiation damage and the development of a new X-ray spectrometer. In the Phoenix Project the construction of a mass spectrometer has been designed for stable isotope studies.

Dynamoelectrical machinery. — The history of electrical machinery at the University of Michigan began in 1874 with the purchase of the first machine, a self-excited alternating-current generator, built by W. Ladd, of London. The machine, which was ordered by Albert Prescott, Professor of Organic and Applied Chemistry and Pharmacy, was intended for work in connection with electricity and magnetism, but for some reason it could not be made to generate and so was never used.

At this time Professor George P. Williams was lecturing on general physical theory and analytical mechanics. An article in The Chronicle of October 31, 1874, deplored the lack of aid to Williams' physics laboratory while the Department of Chemistry was "abundantly supplied." The writer stated: "Money has been lavished on rare, costly, and, in some cases, frail machines, such, for example, as the 'Ladd's Machine,' which cannot be coaxed into a display…" This "frail machine" weighed over half a ton. Rehabilitated and operated in the 1930's, it is now the oldest machine in the museum of the Electrical Engineering Department.

In 1875 John W. Langley joined the faculty, and under his leadership the study of electrical machinery gained Page  1228headway. The second oldest machine in the historical collection is the Langley generator, built in 1876. This generator was successful, and a factory was established in Ann Arbor to manufacture machines of slightly modified design.

The Physics Laboratory was established by a state legislative appropriation in 1887, and, when completed, became the headquarters for work in electrical machinery. The first instruction in dynamoelectric machinery was offered in 1888-89, a three-hour course with laboratory. Under Carhart's guidance, several successful alternators, transformers, and motors were built by students doing advanced work.

In 1905, a year after Cooley became Dean of the College, the Electrical Engineering Laboratory was set up in the basement of the West Engineering Building. Nine rooms with a total floor area of approximately 5,000 square feet were used for dynamo laboratories, telephone and telegraph, photometry, calibration, and research.

The work in machinery entered a comparatively modern phase of development coincident with the removal of the Dynamo Electric Laboratory to the north wing in 1910. About 7,000 square feet were provided in the basement, where it was possible to lay out a flexible and convenient system of mounting machines for test and for making connections to the proper power supply.

Instruction in direct-current and alternating-current machinery has always been supplemented by various courses offered in design. An early course listed was Design of Electric Machinery and Appliances. Another, entitled Advanced Alternating-Current Machinery, was offered first for two hours of credit and later for three. Such courses developed until in 1951 a four-hour required course was given in field mapping and heat transfer, and optional courses were offered in induction motor design and in direct-current and synchronous machine design.

Motor control and servomechanisms. — It early became apparent to the staff of the Electrical Engineering Department that instruction in the control of electric motors would be an important addition to the curriculum. In 1915 Professor Lovell organized a course dealing with the magnetic control of motors, which by 1952 included magnetic and electronic closed-loop control. Numerous examples of magnetic and electronic motor control are studied in the machinery laboratories of the department.

The first course in servomechanisms was organized by Gault in 1944 as part of the University's armed services program. In this course the fundamental theory of closed-loop systems was presented to trainees, and in a co-ordinated laboratory period simple closed-loop systems were analyzed. With the termination of the war the theoretical content of the course was expanded, and it was offered at the graduate level. As control system complexity increased, it became apparent that additional instruction in servomechanisms was necessary. Since 1950 this added work, in which the multiple loop and nonlinear systems as well as component designs are considered, has been offered by Kazda. A recent addition to the Servomechanisms Laboratory has been an analog computer, one of the functions of which is to simulate closed-loop systems.

In 1949 a course entitled Motor Control and Electronics was organized to present basic electronic and motor theory to mechanical engineering students.

Lighting. — Instruction in lighting and in measurement of light (photometry) was included as a requirement in the first electrical engineering curriculum in 1889. Patterson, who was appointed Instructor in Electrical Engineering Page  1229in that year, first developed the work in lighting. As early as 1894 he translated and used as his textbook the Treatise on Industrial Photometry with Special Application to Electric Lighting, which Professor A. Palaz had published in Paris only two years before. This book was devoted entirely to light production, measurement, and control and distribution, in contrast to Crocker's Electric Lighting, which was largely used in other colleges and was concerned particularly with the generation and distribution of electric power for lighting.

In 1913 Higbie took charge of the work in lighting. The original required course in lighting had been expanded by 1920 to two hours. Graduate instruction in interior illumination was first offered in 1924. In 1929 another graduate course, Natural Lighting of Buildings, was the outgrowth of Higbie's extended research on daylighting of interiors.

Design.-Activity in the field of electrical machine design at the University of Michigan began in 1876, with the construction of Professor Langley's generator for arc lighting. Formal courses in design, however, were not introduced until much later. The first course restricted to design was Design of Electrical Machinery and Appliances, given in the Department of Physics by Carhart in the second semester of 1894-95. This course was transferred in 1896 to the Department of Electrical Engineering.

Bailey was in charge of the work from 1906 to 1922, and the design courses developed greatly under his guidance, benefiting from his technical knowledge, practical experience, and analytical skill. He introduced an elective course dealing with the design of induction motors, a field in which he attained prominence and in which he published extensively.

Moore took charge of the Design of of Electrical Machinery and Appliances course in 1922 and made numerous changes in the content, partly in response to the increasing emphasis on fundamentals in engineering education. He soon introduced work in graphical field mapping and added instruction in heat transfer. In connection with this work Moore invented and patented the hydrocal, a hydrodynamic computing machine for solving difficult heat transients. When he brought out his Fundamentals of Electrical Design in 1927, the design course was given the same name.

Through his publications and the men he has trained, Moore is recognized as an authority on field mapping. His fluid mappers are an outgrowth of his long-time interest in mapping fields. In a fluid mapper, streamline fluid flow made visible and occurring between a slab of dental stone and a piece of plate glass is made to simulate an electrostatic, a magnetic, or other analogous field. The flow pattern can lead to the solution of the field problem. Since 1948 Moore has developed fluid mappers so that they can be simply and cheaply made up.

Power plant courses. — The field of power generation and distribution is one of the oldest in the department. A four-hour course, Distribution of Electricity and Photometry of Electric Lamps, was offered by the Department of Physics in 1889-90. In 1896-97 a three-hour course with the same title was taught in the Engineering Department by Patterson. In the following year the distribution work was given separately as a two-hour course under the title Distribution of Electricity. Two new courses, Electric Generating Stations, taught by Ernst Steck for one hour of credit, and a two-hour course, Electric Railways, given by Patterson, made their appearance in 1904-5. In 1906 Bailey took over the lectures in the power group.

Lovell, assigned to teach power courses in 1913, increased the instruction Page  1230available by introducing Design of Electrical Power Plants and Transmission Systems in 1913, and in 1915 Rates and Cost Analysis and Industrial Electrical Engineering, all two-hour courses.

In 1916-17 Parker, then head of the Electrical Engineering Department, took over supervision of the power courses, and in 1919 an advanced course, Transmission, was introduced, and the two basic courses, Distribution of Electricity and Electric Generating Stations, were combined and offered as Power Plants, Transmission, and Distribution.

In 1922 Lovell was given charge of the power group. His development of this work is illustrated by his text Generating Stations, first published in 1930 and subsequently revised. Melville B. Stout introduced the course Electrical Rectification in 1929 and Circuit Analysis by Symmetrical Components in 1934.

When Lovell became Assistant Dean of the College some of his courses were taught by other members of the department, but on his appointment as acting head in 1944 and as chairman of the department in 1945, he again supervised the instruction in this field.

In 1946, to allow students studying electronics communication additional time for course work, Economic Applications in Electrical Engineering was introduced to replace the required course, Power Plants and Distribution Systems. Power System Stability was introduced in 1951 by John J. Carey, who had assisted Lovell in the power field since 1946. J. G. Tarboux has had extensive teaching experience in power and machinery and has published several standard texts on these topics.

Electronics. — In the early 1920's electronics first gained recognition as an important branch of engineering. The College of Engineering of the University of Michigan was one of the first engineering schools in the United States to include instruction in electronics as a major item in its curriculum. At that time the term generally implied attention to the physical functioning mechanisms of electronic devices and apparatus such as vacuum tubes and mercury-arc rectifiers. The first course properly called electronics was Thermionic Vacuum Tubes in Engineering, introduced in 1929 by Holland, who was also in charge of courses in communication engineering.

Plans for extension of this type of electronics instruction were made early in 1929 by a committee consisting of Attwood, Holland, and Dow. The plans led to the introduction by Dow of Fundamentals of Engineering Electronics which was offered as an elective but in 1931 was renamed Electronics and Vacuum Tubes and added to the list of courses required for graduation in electrical engineering. This course represented a major step in that it introduced in the junior year on an analytical level, as a required part of the electrical engineering curriculum, the noncircuit study of the internal function of electron devices as contrasted with the almost exclusive emphasis on electron tube circuitry prevalent in undergraduate instruction elsewhere. This step was made possible by the presence of courses already in the curriculum which emphasized noncircuit electrical engineering, particularly Principles of Electricity and Magnetism, introduced by Fairman and Attwood in the middle 1920's. Emphasis on the physical electronic aspects of electron devices has been maintained; it has contributed substantially to the establishment in the electronics field of the strong position which the department now holds.

Courses on the graduate level dealing with the internal behavior of electron devices were introduced in 1936. These included Theory of High Vacuum Electronic Devices and Gaseous Conducting Electronic Apparatus, both given by Page  1231Dow. Microwave Electron Tubes was given by Dow and Needle, and Electron Beam Tubes by Dow in 1946. Hok offered Semiconductor Electron Devices in 1952. These courses represent an important step in the transfer to the engineering arts of subject matter heretofore largely dealt with in physics curriculums.

The word "electronics" has come to have an all-inclusive meaning, referring generally to systems and equipments employing electron devices as major elements in their functioning. Correspondingly, instruction dealing with the applications of electronics in industry has been introduced in electrical engineering.

Courses dealing with or related to industrial applications of electronics have been Motor Control and Electronics, an undergraduate course for students in other engineering departments, taught by Gomberg in 1947; Industrial Electronics, which attempts to maintain an up-to-date introduction to new electronic arts, offered by Dow in 1939 for seniors; Photoelectric Cells, an undergraduate course dealing with characteristics and uses of photosensitive electron devices, given by Bull in 1930; and Servomechanisms, a graduate-level course, incorporating both the electronic and electric machinery aspects of the subject, was taught by Gault and Kazda in 1945. A course called Seminar in Electronic Computer Technology was offered by N. R. Scott, J. DeTurk, and L. E. Kolderup, of the Willow Run Research Center of the Engineering Research Institute in 1952. The planning and organization of this course represent a valuable correlation between university research and teaching activities, for the major instructional load is carried by experts in charge of analog and digital computer developments in the University's research program in electronic computer techniques. Nuclear Engineering Measurement and Instrumentation, introduced by Gomberg in 1952, represents the contribution of the department to the development within the College of training in nuclear engineering.

The use of electronic devices and apparatus has spread into almost all areas of electrical engineering work, so that it is now difficult to define the boundaries of electronics. The study of electronics, as well as the study of electric circuitry, electromagnetic field theory, instrumentation, and electric machinery is becoming important to all electrical engineers. This has been recognized by the inclusion of electronic measuring and control techniques in machinery and power laboratories in addition to the communications and electronics laboratories.

In 1946, with the Aeronautical Engineering Department, the department undertook a program of instruction in guided missile technology for Air Force officers. The electronics aspect of this program is a series of courses extending through four years.

During the summer sessions of 1937 and 1950 the department offered eight-week Electronics Symposium programs in which visiting lecturers were presented. In 1937 these lectures dealt with high vacuum electron tubes and gaseous conduction principles. In 1950 the subjects were microwave electron tubes and semiconductor electronics. These well-attended programs, by attracting teachers from many states, enabled the large electrical corporations to help strengthen instruction in electronics. Since 1938 two extension courses in electronics have been offered in Detroit.

Communications. — Although telegraphy was the first practical application of electrical engineering, it was not until 1900-1901, eleven years after departmental instruction had been established, that the first work in electrical communications was offered. In the second Page  1232semester of that year, Patterson taught a course entitled Telephone and Telegraph. By 1913 fourteen credit hours were devoted to work in communications. In 1912-13 instruction in radio, wireless telegraphy and telephony, was introduced.

Morehouse taught in this field until 1910, when he joined the staff of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. From 1907 to 1920 courses were given by Parker, Sheppard, and Evans. A milestone in the development of this program was reached in 1922 with a course in the advanced study of electrical circuits, primarily in telephone communication. Together with a course in radio, this constituted the backbone of the communications program until 1940. The electrical circuits course, taught for two years by E. E. Dreese, was taken over in 1924 by Cannon, who gave it for twenty-five years. Recently it has been taught by Holland and Cline. From 1926 to 1940 instruction in radio was given almost entirely by Holland. Hellwarth, who was a member of the communications staff from 1927 to 1931, taught specialized courses in telephone and telegraph.

As a result of World War II, a course in microwave engineering and one in radio communication were added to the curriculum. Another important addition, a course in radiation and propagation, has been given by Attwood since its introduction in 1946. Of prime importance in communications is the development that has taken place during the past ten to fifteen years in network synthesis. Two courses in this field have been offered by Macnee. Instruction in television has been given since 1939.

A history of the communications program would not be complete without some reference to the radio stations which have been built and operated by the department. In the engineering Announcement for 1912-13, under the description of electrical engineering laboratories, a five-kilowatt transmitting set with antennae 150 feet high and capable of sending 500 miles was described. This, the University's first powerful radio station, 8XA, was well known during the years 1913 to 1917.

In 1923-24 students of the department, under the direction of Dreese, constructed a 200-watt broadcasting station, with the call letters WCBC. The first regular radio program, a broadcast of the Michigan-Purdue basketball game, was sent out on February 16, 1924. After a year of successful operation the station was discontinued owing to lack of funds.

The famous spark transmitter, 8XA, was closed during World War I and not reopened. In 1926, however, the Electrical Engineering Department and the Signal Corps Unit of the R.O.T.C. built a short-wave radio station which operated in the 40-meter amateur band under the call letters W8AXZ. This station was rebuilt in 1927 and again in 1936. In 1930 a fifty-watt twenty-meter telephone transmitter was added to the station complement. W8AXZ became as well known as its predecessor, 8XA, largely because of its work with University of Michigan expeditions in South Africa and in Greenland and with Admiral Byrd's first expedition to the Antarctic. This station for many years also maintained contact with the University Surveying Camp in Wyoming during the summer months. It has operated only intermittently since World War II.

Electrical measurements. — A required course in electrical measurements was given in the department as early as 1895. It covered topics more advanced than those treated in the required undergraduate measurements course, then offered in the Physics Department.

Undergraduate instruction was taken over by the department in the fall of Page  12331945 in a new course, which was placed later in the curriculum than the previous study of measurements in order to permit increased prerequisites in electrical circuits. The development of the laboratory began when the department was moved to the new quarters in the East Engineering Building. Laboratory facilities were greatly increased in order to handle large postwar enrollments. In addition to the regular instructional material, the departmental calibration equipment was mounted for permanent and convenient use. An elective course which deals with electrical methods of measuring physical quantities, such as strain, torque, speed, and acceleration, was introduced in 1947.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1906-52.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1880-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
The Chronicle, October 13, 1874.
General Register, Univ. Mich., 1927-52.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-52.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1886-1952.
Special Announcement, College of Engineering. Univ. Mich., 1914-52.

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING DRAWING

THE first course in drawing in the University, called Descriptive and Analytical Geometry, was listed in 1843 as a course in mathematics and was taught by George P. Williams (Vermont '25, LL.D. Kenyon '49), Professor of Natural Philosophy and Mathematics and a member of the original faculty of the University. The text used was Davies' Descriptive Geometry, and the work was presented to the second-year students in the second term, probably in much the same way as it is today.

When Tappan became President of the University in 1852 a scientific course was introduced, and Descriptive Geometry (Davies) was listed in the third term of the second year, Drawing, Perspective, and Architecture (Loomis) was listed in the second term of the third year, and Shades, Shadows, and Perspective (Davies) was given in the third term of the third year.

In 1855-56, of the courses required for the degree of civil engineer, the following items were listed under Graphics: Descriptive Geometry, with its application to Shades, Shadows, Perspective, and Stone Cutting, together with Isometrical and Spherical Projections; Drawing in Plan and Elevation; Topographical Drawing; Tinting in Colors.

Under the heading "Methods of Instruction" appears the statement: "In drawing, besides copying the exercises given in the text books, students will be required to make plots of actual surveys, plans and elevations of buildings and machines from actual measurement, and will be expected from time to time, to produce original designs of proposed structures." The textbooks were Davies' Descriptive Geometry, Shades, Shadows and Perspective, Mahan's Industrial Drawing, and R. S. Smith's Manual of Topographical Drawing.

Page  1234DeVolson Wood began the formal organization of a curriculum in engineering in 1857, and the engineering subjects were advanced one semester. The drawing courses listed as Drafting, Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Tinting were given in the first semester of the third year, with Descriptive Geometry, Drafting, Graphics of Stone Cutting (Stereotomy), Framing, and Construction being offered in the second semester. By 1864-65, the year in which Erastus O. Haven became the second President of the University, the engineering freshmen were taught Geometrical and Topographical Drawing, Tinting and Shading, and the sophomores took Descriptive Geometry and Shades, Shadows, and Linear Perspective. The studies were the the same during the third year as in the regular scientific course. The seniors studied Topographical Plans, Shades and Shadows, and under Descriptive Geometry, Spherical Projections and Sun Dials. Under "Draughting," Plans and Elevations of Engineering Constructions, Architectural Drawing, Graphics of Stone Cutting, and Machine Drawing were listed.

In 1869-70 appears the first reference to the teaching of descriptive geometry other than as a course in mathematics. The text included figures of all problems, and the student was assigned a part of the text on which he was to recite, reproducing the figures on the blackboard. At this time he was required to apply his knowledge of descriptive geometry principles to the solution of a definite set of problems not in the textbook. In all probability the problems were solved on the drawing board.

Paul Rousseau B. de Pont (Collège de Juilly '56, Collège Rollin '57) was appointed Instructor in French and Drawing in 1871. This is the first time that the title Instructor in Drawing appears in the University Catalogue. The drawing courses for civil engineering students were distributed throughout the four years, and a course in lettering was required of the mechanical engineering students.

The year 1875-76 marked the establishment of a separate group of courses in engineering drawing, given by Charles Simeon Denison (Vermont '70, C.E. ibid. '71, Sc.D. ibid. '07), who later became head of the Department of Drawing, and by Joseph Baker Davis, afterward head of the Department of Geodesy and Surveying.

The drawing courses were given definite numbers in 1878-79 for the first time. Under drawing the following courses were listed in the first semester: 1, Geometrical Drawing; 2, Topographical Drawing; 3, Mechanical Drawing; and 4, Free-Hand Drawing, Pen and Ink Drawing. In the second semester: 5, Descriptive Geometry; 6, Shades, Shadows, and Perspectives; 7, Free-Hand Drawing (Advanced); and 8, Architectural Water-Color Drawing were offered. In 1880-81 drawing was given a separate heading in the Catalogue.

Course 2, Topographical Drawing, was transferred in 1891-92 to the Department of Geodesy and Surveying and dropped from the Civil Engineering requirement.

The Department of Architecture was established in 1906. The drawing courses required for architectural engineers were taught for several years by members of the drawing staff of the College of Engineering. Between 1910 and 1912 new courses in architectural drawing were added.

In 1912-13 Advanced Projections and Stereotomy was dropped from the civil engineering requirements, and Descriptive Geometry became the only required course for all engineering students. In 1914-15 all of the architectural drawing courses were taken over by the Department Page  1235of Architecture. In 1919-20 the dental students took Course 1d, Instrumental and Free-Hand Drawing, which was designed for them. During World War I the staff consisted of Alice L. Hunt, Associate Professor Herbert J. Goulding ('93e [M.E.]), and Assistant Professor Finch.

Henry Willard Miller (Washington and Lee '07, M.E. ibid. '10) was appointed Professor of Descriptive Geometry, Mechanism, and Drawing and head of the department, which was then known as the Department of Descriptive Geometry and Drawing, in 1921. Miller had been head of the Department of Engineering Drawing and Assistant Dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois. He had also served as a colonel of ordnance and chief engineer for the heavy artillery of the A.E.F. in France and later published a series of books on war subjects: Railway Artillery (2 vol.), Seacoast Artillery, Mobile Artillery, and finally The Paris Gun. He immediately began to reorganize the work of the department. The College in 1921 was suffering from the inflation of the postwar period. It had a tremendous enrollment, and such men as might be secured during the period were engaged to serve as instructors. At that time the Department of Descriptive Geometry and Drawing was teaching only two two-hour courses in descriptive geometry, which were given in the first and second semesters of the freshman year. Numerous other courses listed in the Catalogue had become obsolete because they were no longer taught. All courses in drawing proper were taught by the departments of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. Those taught in the Mechanical Engineering Department had been taken over by the department upon the death of Professor Denison in 1913.

In 1921 the staff of the Drawing Department made a survey of the drawing needs of the College of Engineering. Within the next year the engineering faculty approved the return to the curriculum of the Drawing Department of four hours' time, two from the departments of Mechanical and Civil Engineering and two from Engineering Shops. This made a total of eight hours available for the courses in engineering drawing. It was decided that of the eight units, three instead of four should be devoted to the subject of descriptive geometry, and three more to an elementary course in engineering drawing proper. The remaining two units were devoted to advanced work in engineering drawing. This accorded with Dean Cooley's "Ribbon Plan," which provided that work in the smaller units be extended throughout the curriculums. It was decided, therefore, to give the three-hour introductory course in engineering drawing in the first semester of the freshman year, the three-hour course in descriptive geometry in the second semester, and the two-hour course in advanced drawing in either semester of the sophomore year. This was advantageous because it had been found that the entering student did not adjust well to the work in descriptive geometry.

In 1923 the Regents approved a recommendation that the name of the department be changed to that of Mechanism and Engineering Drawing. At this time the courses for architecture students, Perspective, Shades and Shadows, and Descriptive Geometry, were being given in the Department of Stereotomy and Drawing under the supervision of Assistant Professor Wells Bennett, of the Department of Engineering Drawing, who later became Dean of the College of Architecture. When the title of the department was changed to Mechanism and Engineering Drawing the courses in architectural perspective and descriptive geometry were transferred to the jurisdiction Page  1236of Architecture, which was at that time one of the units of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture. In 1922 an additional course, Mechanism, was introduced as a requirement in several curriculums and as an elective in others.

The directions for Engineering Drawing 1 and 3 were printed in booklet form so that at the beginning of the semester the student would have a full set of specifications for the required work. The demand for these specifications booklets from small colleges throughout the country has been so great that the number distributed to various schools more than doubles the supply required for students in the College.

The limited time available for drawing made it necessary to place the major emphasis on the language rather than on the art of engineering drawing. The trend had been away from the art, and few commercial organizations were using tracing cloth or ink. Manufacturing companies and architects did all of their designing on tracing paper with pencils soft enough to make blueprints.

New blueprinting equipment was acquired, and the blueprinting quarters expanded until they occupied three commodious rooms, one a darkroom, another a room housing the blueprinting equipment, and the third a general workroom with a printing press and trimming and drafting tables. The blueprinting machine was the largest one made and the University's facilities for blueprinting were probably the best in Michigan. Under the direction of Associate Professor Maurice Barkley Eichelberger (Michigan Agricultural College '16) a large amount of work has been turned out for the University and for the city and state.

The Engineering Drawing quarters were gradually extended until by 1943 the department had a total of eleven drawing rooms. A desk of a new design equipped with filing space was approved, and by 1945 the department had purchased 300 of the new desks, dispensing with the old filing equipment and the iron pedestal drawing tables.

With the elimination of Drawing 3 as a required course in civil engineering in 1937, the trend toward the professional departments teaching drawing again became evident.

Among those in the department during its formative years were Alice Louise Hunt, Assistant in Drawing from 1889 to 1899 and Instructor from 1899 to 1919, Joseph Aldrich Bursley ('99e [M.E.]), who taught Principles of Mechanism in 1905-6 and later became Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Dean of Students, and Frank Richard Finch (Sheffield Scientific School '04), Instructor in Descriptive Geometry from 1906 to 1914, who was appointed Professor of Mechanism and Engineering Drawing in 1945. William Caldwell Titcomb (Harvard '04), Instructor in Architecture from 1907 to 1913, became Professor of Architecture. He resigned in 1932. Herbert Lester Abbott (Maine '06) taught descriptive geometry and drawing from 1908 to 1918, when he was appointed Assistant Professor. Julius Clark Palmer (Illinois '14e [E.E.]), appointed in 1914 as Instructor in Descriptive Geometry and Drawing, became Professor of Mechanism and Engineering Drawing in 1945. Martin J. Orbeck (C.E. Minnesota '11, M.S.E. Michigan '18) became Instructor in Descriptive Geometry and Drawing in 1914, resigned in 1924, returned in 1936 as Assistant Professor of Mechanism and Engineering Drawing, and was made Professor in 1951. John Minert Nickelsen (Illinois '14e [M. E.]), added as Instructor in 1916, became Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 1941. Maurice Barkley Eichelberger, Instructor in Descriptive Geometry and Drawing in 1922-23, became Assistant Professor in 1924, and Dean Estes Hobart Page  1237(Michigan State College '25), who was appointed Assistant Professor in 1930, became Professor in 1949. Robert Carl Cole ('19, M.A. '22) became Instructor in 1920 and Professor in 1949, and Philip Orland Potts ('16e [M.E.]) was made Assistant Professor in 1923 and Associate Professor in 1948. Frank Harold Smith (Arkansas '26e [E.E.], M.S.E. Purdue '38) was appointed Assistant Professor in 1938, and Francis X. Lake (Western Michigan College '28, Ph.D. Michigan '36) became Assistant Professor in 1940.

In 1935, in order to remedy a conspicuous deficiency in museum facilities, the department began the assembly and arrangement of a hallway museum. This museum now comprises about forty cases and has made a significant contribution in mechanical engineering to this and to other colleges of engineering.

World War II presented the College of Engineering with special problems. Early in 1941 the Ordnance Department and the Air Corps found themselves in desperate need of a large corps of inspectors to approve the vast assortment of war products. As a result a school was set up within the departments of Drawing and Metal Processing to train such inspectors. All engineering staff members served in this inspectors' school, which soon reached the proportions of a second college of engineering. A total of 1,500 inspectors was trained between January, 1942, and February, 1944. The College and University were commended by the government for their contribution in this field.

The interruption of education for so many students, together with later GI provisions, contributed heavily to the tremendous postwar enrollment. It was estimated in the spring of 1946, when the "V" programs, as the special military curriculums were called, were drawing to a close, that the Department of Drawing might have to teach as many as 1,800 students in the first term of 1946-47. It was necessary to increase the staff from fourteen to thirty in the autumn of 1946, and the enrollment of 1,760 was the largest in the history of the department. By 1951 enrollment had dropped to a lower level. The name of the department was changed in 1952 to Engineering Drawing.

Much progress has been made in visual methods of presenting instruction during and since World War II. The department now has two rooms fitted for sound-motion projection, owns one of the latest sound-motion projectors, and has incorporated the best of the available industrial and special instructional films in the regular teaching schedules. Russell Alger Dodge, Professor of Engineering Mechanics, became chairman of the department in 1953.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1906-52.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1852-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Cooley, Mortimer E.Scientific Blacksmith. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1947.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department (College since 1915) of Engineering."
Special Announcement, College of Engineering. Univ. Mich., 1914-52.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Page  1238

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS

THE chair of engineering mechanics was established at the University of Michigan in July, 1911. Before that time instruction in mechanics had been given by the departments of Physics and Mathematics, and the course Strength of Materials was taught by the Department of Civil Engineering. The fact that this department was satisfied to leave the teaching of statics and dynamics to the departments of Physics and Mathematics may be taken as evidence that there was no particular interest in those subjects. The subject of strength of materials was taught by the Department of Civil Engineering essentially with reference to structural engineering. In the decade preceding 1912, other engineering departments, particularly the departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, had become more interested in dynamics and kinematics than was the Department of Civil Engineering, and these departments were also rapidly becoming more interested in strength of materials. To them, however, strength of materials included such subjects as dynamic loading, resilience, and stress concentration, problems which could expect but scant treatment at the hands of civil engineers. It was natural, then, that an interest developed in the establishment of a separate Department of Engineering Mechanics administered with a view to serving the interests of the various departments. The feeling that existed at the time relative to the proposed change is illustrated by a communication on the subject from Dean Cooley to the Board of Regents under date of July 12, 1911:

1. The Faculty of the Department of Engineering on July 11, 1911, voted to recommend to the Regents that a Chair of Engineering Mechanics be created in the Department of Engineering, to have charge of applied mechanics as the same shall be prescribed and directed to be taught by the faculty.

This step has been under consideration for nearly two years, and during the second semester of 1910 was actively discussed… In the early days the subjects of applied mechanics were naturally taught by the professor of civil engineering, as that was the only engineering course in the University; but with the advent of other branches of engineering there arose the necessity of modifying the instruction so as better to meet the needs of the new engineering courses.

At the present time the Department of Engineering embraces courses of instruction leading to thirty-three different degrees…

While the instruction in applied mechanics by the staff in civil engineering has been of a very high order and has been given with most commendable ideals in mind, there has grown up the belief, now general in the Department, that it is too much to expect of a group of men, all specialists in one branch of engineering, to present the several subjects in applied mechanics in a manner best suited to the varied needs of the Department, made up, as it is, of a large number of branches in engineering.

Applied mechanics is fundamental to all branches of engineering, but some branches require a more extended treatment of portions of the subject than others. For example, civil engineers require more of statics, and mechanical engineers more of dynamics, while chemical engineers and architects have no need to pursue these subjects beyond the elementary or first presentation of them. It is, therefore, proposed to embrace in engineering mechanics the courses required by all students alike, leaving each department to supplement the general courses along a desired Page  1239line; or, if preferred by any department, there will be offered under engineering mechanics additional courses to meet the special needs of that department.

In this way two important objects will be accomplished: — First, the keeping together of all the students of the different branches for a longer period, and in consequence, a greater homogeneity in the Department; … Second, the student pursuing a branch of engineering which makes but limited use of applied mechanics is not burdened with instruction of no apparent use to him, and in consequence has more time for the courses in which he is particularly interested.

There is still a third object which to me seems very important, namely, the opportunity which will be afforded the civil engineering department to introduce or to make more important, new lines of work, such as sanitary, municipal, and railway engineering, waterways and highways. While courses of instruction are offered along some of these lines, they have not, in my opinion, been given the prominence they deserve in a modern school of engineering.

.....

It is anticipated that by the intermingling of the work of those engaged in teaching pure mathematics and engineering mechanics, both the teacher and the student will profit, in that the two subjects will be brought into closer harmony, and there will be a better understanding of principles and of the applications of pure mathematics to engineering problems.

The one most important thing to guard against is the tendency of the different departments of engineering to grow apart or separate. It should be our constant effort in the future to cement or weld together the different interests so that our output of engineering and architectural graduates will be, first of all, engineers and architects having enough interests in common to bring about mutual acquaintance and with it some knowledge of the problems of particular interest to each in his own line of work. This, it is believed, will be one of the conspicuous results following the creation of the chair in engineering mechanics, which the faculty of the Department of Engineering has recommended.

Should this recommendation meet with your approval, then it is further recommended:

2. That the necessary rearrangement of studies be authorized, this work to be done by a committee of the faculty of the Department of Engineering, subject to the approval of the President.

Sufficient work has already been done by a committee appointed by the Dean, to demonstrate that it will be perfectly feasible to begin work under the new plan with the opening of college in October next.

3. That the proposed changes go into effect with the beginning of the college year 1911-12.

4. That the necessary rearrangement of the teaching staff be authorized, this work to be done by a committee to be appointed by the Dean of the Department of Engineering, such changes as are recommended to be subject to the approval of the President.

As already explained, it is proposed merely to assign certain of the teachers in civil engineering and mathematics to give a part or the whole of their time to the work of the new department of Engineering Mechanics, without change of title for the present and without change of salary. When so engaged these teachers will be under the direction of the head of the department of engineering mechanics.

5. That the Physical Testing Laboratory be under the direction of the chair in engineering mechanics, and that free access to and use of the Hydraulic Laboratory be also granted to this department.

These laboratories are primarily for research and demonstration work in connection with subjects in applied mechanics, and this action is recommended to avoid any possible misunderstanding in the future.

6. While the Standing Committee has not formally considered any candidates for the new chair, I am informed, from conversation with the members of the committee, that Professor Charles Joseph Tilden, Junior Professor of Civil Engineering, would be most acceptable for this Page  1240position. It is, therefore, recommended that he be appointed Professor of Engineering Mechanics at a salary of $2,500 per annum…

7. It is further recommended that Professor Albert Emerson Greene be promoted to Professor of Civil Engineering at $2,500 per annum.


(R.P., 1910-14, pp. 201-5.)

Professor Charles Tilden was promoted to the newly established chair of engineering mechanics, and the necessary rearrangement of studies caused by separating the subject of applied mechanics from the study of civil engineering and placing it in a separate Department of Engineering Mechanics was approved.

The changes went into effect with the year 1911-12, when the teaching staff of the department was provided. The Physical Testing Laboratory was put under the direction of the chair of engineering mechanics, which was also given free access to and use of the Hydraulic Laboratory.

Viewed in retrospect, it is difficult to realize that feeling could have run so high over the creation of an independent Department of Engineering Mechanics, resulting in the resignations of Professor Williams, chairman of the Department of Civil Engineering, and several members of the department staff, particularly of Albert E. Greene, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering. Since 1912 many other colleges of engineering have established separate departments of engineering mechanics.

The chairmanship of the Department of Engineering Mechanics has been held successively by Charles Joseph Tilden (Harvard '96e [C.E.], A.M. hon. Yale '19), 1911-13; Arthur James Decker ('05e [C.E.]), 1913-14; George Washington Patterson (Yale '84, Ph.D. Munich '99), 1915-30; and Edward Leerdrup Eriksen (Polytechnical School, Copenhagen, Denmark '10e [C.E.]), 1930-.

Other past and present members of the staff include: Ferdinand Northrup Menefee (Nebraska '08e, C.E. Cornell '10, D.Eng. Lawrence Institute of Technology '37), 1912-; John Airey (London '10), 1912-24 (from 1922 to 24 Airey was also Director of Engineering Shops); Walter Turner Fishleigh ('06e [C.E.]), 1913-16; Frank Howard Stevens (Chicago '08), 1915-35; Jan Abram Van den Broek (Kansas '11, Ph.D. Michigan '18), 1914-; Orlan William Boston ('14e [M.E.], M.E. '26), 1914-20; Roy Stanley Swinton ('10e [C.E.], M.S.E. '20), 1915-; Richard Thomas Liddicoat ('16e [C.E.], Ph.D. '40), 1919-; Charles Thomas Olmsted (Case School '08e [C.E.]), 1920-; Russell Alger Dodge ('16e [C.E.], M.S.E. '18), 1921-; Holger Mads Hansen (Polytechnisk Laereanstalt '14e [C.E.]), 1932-; Roswell Earl Franklin ('20e [M.E.]), 1922-33; Lloyd Hamilton Donnell ('15e [M.E.], Ph.D. '30), 1923-31; Stephen Timoshenko (Inst. Ways of Communication [St. Petersburg] '01, D.Sc. hon. Lehigh '36, D. Eng. hon. Michigan '38), 1927-36; Franklin Leland Everett ('25e [M.E.], Ph.D. '31), 1931-; Donovan Harold Young (Washington State '27, Sc.D. Michigan '35), 1931-37; Jesse Ormondroyd (Pennsylvania '20), 1937-; William Walsh Hagerty (Minnesota '39e [M.E.], Ph.D. Michigan '47), 1942-; Paul Franklin Chenea (California '40, Ph.D. Michigan '49), 1946-52; Paul Mansour Naghdi (Cornell '45e [M.E.], Ph.D. Michigan '51), 1949-; Edward Axel Yates (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '29, M.S.E. Michigan '49), 1948-.

Since the establishment of the department some sections of the elementary courses have been taught by members of other departments, especially of the departments of Engineering Drawing, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Mathematics. Members Page  1241of the staff of the Department of Engineering Mechanics have in turn reciprocated occasionally by teaching courses in the departments of Civil Engineering and Mathematics.

In the elementary courses offered when the department was established, no radical changes were introduced except in Dynamics, which was offered as an almost entirely new course by Airey.

In June, 1929, the Regents approved a special curriculum for the Department of Engineering Mechanics. The undergraduate student who completed his work in this program received the degree of bachelor of science in engineering (engineering mechanics) and might pursue work for the master's and the doctor's degrees. The program was initiated by Timoshenko. During the time that he was with the University Timoshenko developed a number of graduate courses in engineering mechanics. The influence of his teaching, books, and scientific papers has been predominant in the development of advanced mechanics in the United States.

In June, 1950, the Executive Board of the Graduate School granted the request of the Department of Engineering Mechanics to confer the degree of master of science upon the completion of extension work offered at the Rackham Building in Detroit by members of the department staff.

Laboratories. — At a meeting of the Board of Regents held in June, 1880, Regent Shearer, in reference to a communication from Assistant Professor J. B. Davis, of the Department of Civil Engineering, concerning the establishment of a Strength of Materials Laboratory, recommended the adoption of the following resolution:

That the sum of twenty-five hundred and fifty ($2550.00) dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, be, and hereby is appropriated, to be expended under the charge of Assistant Professor J. B. Davis for the purpose of erecting a suitable building, and preparing to give practical tests and instruction in the strength and uses of the various materials used in the constructive arts.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 548.)
The matter at that time was laid on the table. Apparently this was the first recorded effort, although an unsuccessful one, for the establishment of a Strength of Materials Laboratory.

It was not until about ten years after Mortimer E. Cooley came to the University that he purchased the first testing machine. This was an Olsen universal testing machine of 100,000 pounds' capacity and was the nucleus of the present Engineering Mechanics Laboratory. It was installed in the southeast corner of the basement of the Engineering Building, which had been completed in 1886. Professor Charles E. Greene, chairman of the Department of Civil Engineering, was in charge of the machine. He used it in producing deflections of wrought iron beams to find the "coefficient" of elasticity. According to Dean Cooley, Greene "pulled everything." The machine was regarded as something entirely new.

After the West Engineering Building was completed in 1904, the machine was transferred to the basement. In 1905 a Reihle 200,000-pound universal machine was installed. Other machines, such as a Reihle 50,000-pound universal machine, a 10,000-pound horizontal transverse testing machine, a 10,000-pound horizontal wire tester, and a small arbitration bar tester were added in 1908. The laboratory at that time was under the direction of Gardner S. Williams.

The Testing Materials Laboratory was moved in 1910 to Rooms 101, 101-A, and 102, which had been made available when the Electrical Engineering Laboratory Page  1242moved to the new north wing. A course known as E.M. 5, Testing Materials, consisting of both lectures and laboratory experiments, was offered by Tilden in both semesters of 1911 for two hours' credit.

In the new location Menefee and Van den Broek taught and conducted their own experiments. Problems such as strength of welds and the effect of cold working were studied. A part of the laboratory in which Menefee determined physical properties of cement mixtures was equipped for preparing concrete specimens.

At the time of World War I the original 100,000-pound universal machine was drafted for service elsewhere. After the war it was returned — the weighing beam and a support for the tension head broken.

The Chicago World's Fair in 1903 popularized the monorail car. Shortly thereafter, a small model made its appearance in the laboratory, traveling frequently the length of its 100-foot course. The gyroscopic ship stablilizer, invented by Sperry, was also represented by a fair-sized model. Other demonstration apparatus, such as a device for illustrating critical speeds and resonance in helical springs and shafts, was added by Liddicoat in 1923. Donnell, in 1927, built a device for determining the acceleration due to gravity and coefficients of friction of several sliding bodies. Other small models and experimental equipment, such as the inertia pendulum, were also added.

Young helped to organize the laboratory work in experimental dynamics during the period from 1932 to 1937. This laboratory was housed in one of the rooms on the third floor of the West Engineering Annex.

Timoshenko was brought to the College of Engineering in the fall of 1927 for the specific purpose of promoting graduate work and building up a research laboratory. During the first few years his efforts were devoted principally to lectures and to directing graduate studies. In 1930 rooms on the third floor of the Engineering Annex were made available for research. Among early investigations were those conducted by Donnell on a model to illustrate wave phenomena caused by impact, creep in torsion at high temperatures, conducted by F. L. Everett, and photoelastic studies by M. M. Frocht. Many research projects were undertaken under Timoshenko's direction from 1927 until his resignation in 1936.

Equipment purchased about 1930 included a 72,000-pound capacity Amsler universal machine, a Losenhausen torsion fatigue machine, two Westinghouse pure bending fatigue machines, six Huggenberger tensometers, a Martens mirror extensometer set, a Heiser polariscope, and a Geiger vibrograph. In the following years various special fatigue machines for torsion and bending were built, including a fatigue machine for combined torsion and bending, after the designs furnished by Dr.H.J. Gough, of England.

Undergraduate familiarity with the Strength of Materials Laboratory and with research problems became more general in 1931 and thereafter because of a complete revamping of the course known as E.M. 2a. This work was begun by Eriksen, Timoshenko, and Everett, who was in charge of the program of reorganization. New small experimental apparatus was constructed by which the stresses and deflections due to twist, bending, and buckling of slender columns could be investigated. Engineering students have found this required course helpful in supplementing the theoretical course, Strength of Materials.

To provide laboratory facilities for the Navy V-12 Program in 1942 it was Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

[missing figure]
Marion LeRoy Burton
Page  1243necessary to remodel part of the existing Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, with the result that this relatively small laboratory contains good equipment which is used for teaching as well as for research purposes.

During the years 1945-52 the Department of Engineering Mechanics acquired several new testing devices, such as a tension torsion machine with a capacity of 10,000 inch-pounds in torsion and 10,000 pounds in tension simultaneously, a new universal testing machine with a capacity of 120,000 pounds in torsion and compression, and a tension and compression machine with a capacity of 60,000 pounds in tension and compression. Numerous pieces of equipment have been added to measure static and dynamic strain, vibratory motions, and temperature.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1910-52.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1908-14.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department (College since 1915) of Engineering."
Notebook by a group of five students dated Feb. 5, 1909.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-52.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1876-1952.
Special Announcement, College of Engineering. Univ. Mich., 1898-1952.

THE ENGINEERING RESEARCH INSTITUTE

MORTIMER E. COOLEY, Dean of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture, may well be considered the father of the Engineering Research Institute. As a leader in engineering education he believed that the activities of the College should extend into fields of research from which industry and, indirectly, the entire commonwealth would profit.

He expressed these views frequently to various engineering alumni groups. Encouraged by his interest in the status of engineering education and by the research facilities of the University, the Chicago engineering alumni in 1916 sent a questionnaire to twenty-four hundred alumni requesting suggestions for increasing the effectiveness of teaching and research in engineering at the University. A tabulation of the returned questionnaire demonstrated that, among other things, closer co-operation between the University, the state, and industry, as well as between Regents, faculty, and alumni, would be highly desirable. The committee recommended the establishment of research fellowships, outlined definite long-range research projects in ten specific fields of engineering, and further proposed:

That a distinct department or Bureau of Technical Research be organized on some plan sufficiently flexible that the laboratories may be developed either as separate units where funds are limited, or more centralized, as may be found most practicable.

That a University Press be established to promulgate the results of technical research as well as the work of other Colleges, both professional and literary.

That intensive study be devoted to the immediate needs and opportunities of service Page  1244to the State and the Industries and that every possible means of encouraging their co-operation be adopted.


("Memorandum," pp. 21-22.)

The Regents took no action at this time, however, and it was not until 1919 that the matter of engineering research was again brought to their attention. While Professor A. H. White, chairman of the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, was absent on leave during the war years 1917-19, Clifford D. Holley, chief chemist of the Acme White Lead and Color Works of Detroit, served as chairman. During this period the possibilities for sponsored research at the University were clearly recognized, and Holley obtained the interest of members of the Michigan Manufacturers' Association.

At the close of World War I the directors of the Association appointed a committee consisting of Harry C. Bulkley, F. S. Bigler, and M. W. Neal to discuss with the Regents the matter of industrial research in the College of Engineering. At the February, 1919, meeting of the Board, Regent Hanchett presented a communication from this committee:

The directors of the Michigan Manufacturers' Association at a meeting on February 6, 1919, appointed … a committee to bring to your attention the importance of co-operation between the University and the industries of the State along the lines of technical and scientific research. The committee was given power to act in cooperation with you, or with such a committee as you may see fit to appoint, … having in mind not only the benefits to be derived by the industries, but the advantages to be secured by the Engineering College of the University and the importance of the work to the State of Michigan …

It is the hope of this committee that your Board may express a willingness to give consideration to this subject… It is our strong belief that substantial good will come from … a plan of co-operation whereby the Engineering College will be brought into direct contact with the technical problems which constantly arise in the industries of the State and that these benefits will accrue not only to the students taking this work, but to the Faculty of the College as well, and that great benefit will result…

The expense connected with … any plan which may be decided upon can be arranged without adding to the budget of the University. On the contrary, we believe that the revenues of the University would be substantially increased by the added prestige which would come to the College of Engineering and, incidentally, to the University.


(R.P., 1917-20, pp. 505-6.)

A committee consisting of Regents Hanchett, Leland, and Clements, President Hutchins, Dean Cooley, and Professors J. E. Emswiler and A. E. White was appointed by the Board to confer with the committee of the Michigan Manufacturers' Association. The report of this committee outlines the advantages of such co-operation with industry and states:

The establishment of such co-operation will promote the work and influence of the University and greatly enhance its prestige and standing, and be the means of performing a definite and valuable service to the industries and the people of the State.

Conducting research work by the University, as is proposed, will not conflict with, or be opposed by, consulting engineers, as is evidenced by the fact that the Chicago Engineering Alumni of the University of Michigan, composed largely of consulting engineers, made a similar request to the Regents in June, 1916. On the contrary, it is our belief that the engineering profession generally would both welcome and encourage the more active interest of universities and technical schools and their participation in the solution of the practical problems constantly arising in the fields of engineering. Such interest and participation could not fail to react on the members of the teaching staffs and through them to the benefit of their students who are soon to Page  1245engage in practical engineering work.


(R.P., 1917-20, p. 819.)

The committee recommended specifically that the Department of Engineering Research be established in the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture to co-operate in all reasonable ways with industry, provided that all costs be borne by industry, with the University having the right to make public the results of such work.

The organization of the department was to be as follows: A director was to be appointed by the Board of Regents to have charge of the administration of the department, under the Dean of the Engineering College; an advisory board was to represent the industries and engineering interests of the state, and an administrative committee, consisting of the director as chairman and the heads of the professional engineering departments, was to have charge of the research work:

The staff of the Department of Engineering Research shall consist of the director and as many full-time and part-time investigators and assistants as conditions from time to time may warrant. Research work in connection with the Department of Engineering Research may be engaged in by any member of the teaching staff of the University, when approved by the head of the department to which such member is attached, and when and while so engaged he shall be responsible to the Director of the Department of Engineering Research.

Work in the Department of Engineering Research shall be open to graduate and undergraduate students under conditions mutually satisfactory to the Graduate School or the undergraduate teaching departments, as the case may be, and the Department of Engineering Research.


(R.P., 1917-20, p. 821.)

The Regents adopted this plan and approved the list of names submitted by the Michigan Manufacturers' Association to constitute the Advisory Committee of One Hundred (R.P., 1917-20, pp. 842-48). This committee was made up of representatives from twenty-six distinct industries and included many eminent industrialists of the state, such as Henry Ford, Horace E. Dodge, William C. Durant, Roy D. Chapin, Ransom E. Olds, Herbert H. Dow, Alex Dow, W. K. Kellogg, and Joy Morton.

The Advisory Committee of One Hundred, at the invitation of the Regents, met at the Michigan Union in May, 1920, and selected an executive Committee of Seventeen to collaborate with the Regents' committee in carrying out the plans for the department. In July, 1920, the industries' executive committee and the Regents' committee (President Burton had just succeeded President Hutchins as a member of the latter committee) met and resolved that "a Department of Research be established and a Director, an Administrative Committee, and an Advisory Board be appointed by the Regents." The committees unanimously favored the appointment of Professor A. E. White as Director of the department and recommended an appropriation of $10,000. President Burton's report, based on the committee's recommendations, was adopted by the Regents in October, 1920 (R.P., 1920-23, p. 25).

A. E. White has served continuously as Director of the department for thirty-three years. After graduating from Brown University in 1907, and completing a year of graduate study at Harvard University, he was associated with Jones and Laughlin Steel Company in Pittsburgh. His interest has been in metallurgy, particularly in ferrous metals and alloys for high-temperature service in power plants. He came to the University in 1911 as Instructor in Chemical Engineering, and in 1919 was promoted to a professorship. From 1917 to 1919, while on leave of absence from the University, Page  1246he was engaged in work with the Army Ordnance Division; his last assignment with this unit was as head of the Metallurgical Section of the Research Division with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. During 1940-41 he served as chairman of the Metallurgical Committee of the National Defense Research Committee and during World War II he was a member of the War Metallurgy Committee of the National Academy of Science and the National Research Council, and consultant for the Maritime Commission. White has been president of both the American Society for Metals and the American Society for Testing Materials.

Growth of engineering research activities at first was slow. Some members of the faculty were not enthusiastic about services of this nature. Michigan manufacturers, in spite of their enthusiasm during the period immediately preceding the establishment of the department, failed to recognize fully its value and were also hesitant because the department was unable to give assurance of equitable protection to the results of sponsored research. Some work, however, was received in the early 1920's and it has continued to come in increasing amounts ever since. World War II has given new impetus to university research, especially because of the large sums which the government has made available for this purpose. The department has not been willing to undertake routine testing, for fundamentally the criterion of the department has been engineering and research service. Only occasionally, when lack of equipment or of qualified personnel has made it impossible for the type of work to be done in industrial laboratories or when the testing was likely to lead to further research, has this type of investigation been conducted.

White reported in 1937-38 that members of the staff received benefits not only of a financial nature but also of a research nature in that many activities were in fields which were of particular interest to them. He added that the work could not fail to keep them abreast of developments, thus aiding materially in the effectiveness of their teaching.

Many students, both undergraduate and graduate, have been enabled to complete their college education through their earnings as research assistants in Engineering Research and at the same time have received valuable experience and training. Increasingly large numbers of doctoral dissertations are in whole or in part the direct outgrowth of projects which have been sponsored.

Important investigations have been conducted for professional societies and associations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Society for Testing Materials, the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, the Natural Gasoline Association, the National Association of Furniture Manufacturers, and the Roll Manufacturers Institute.

The question of patent rights was raised by the Chicago alumni in 1916 in their memorandum to the Regents. In 1924 the policy with respect to inventions was modified so that patents could be taken out if assigned to the Board of Regents (R.P., 1923-26, p. 406). This was a forward step in that it gave protection to research and prevented unscrupulous individuals from patenting work done at the University. It was not until 1928, however, that a definite patent trust agreement, prepared by A. E. White and Milton Tibbetts, assistant vice-president and patent counsel for the Packard Motor Car Company, was adopted by the Regents. This agreement was revised in 1941, and the principal features are still in force.

The Institute's patent policy is intended to promote the public welfare Page  1247and at the same time the interests of the University and the sponsor. At the time the formal research proposal is accepted, the sponsor may elect to reserve virtually exclusive rights to ownership of patents by payment of an additional service charge of 10 per cent on all costs of labor, material, equipment, and other miscellaneous chargeable items. Whenever anything of a patentable nature develops in connection with a research project, the sponsor is informed. If a patent is not desired, or if patent rights were not reserved when the contract was signed, the University may secure them, or, if the University declines to apply, the inventor may do so. In any case the sponsor receives an irrevocable license to make or to use any patented item or process resulting from research without payment of an additional fee. University earnings from patents go into the Patents Research Receipts Fund, which supports certain Institute activities, such as fundamental research on nonsponsored projects.

Most of the research projects until 1941 came from the industrial interests of the state. Although the major part of the research was done in the several departments of the Engineering College, particularly in the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, much work was centered in the Physics Department of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

Since the organization of the Department of Engineering Research, work has been done on more than two thousand projects, many of which are of major importance. In the early days, outstanding work was done under the direction of Professor Benjamin F. Bailey on the design and development of a capacitor-type single-phase alternating-current motor. This motor has been of universal service in almost every home in the country as part of the equipment of vacuum sweepers, washing machines, fans, sewing machines, and many other appliances.

Another major field was that of physics in which great emphasis was placed on work dealing with the control and elimination of noise. This was under the direction of F. A. Firestone, H. B. Vincent, and P. H. Geiger. These investigations led to the practice of inspecting roller bearings, noise reduction in vacuum sweepers, and improvements in fishing reels. In 1920 research was also begun on metals for high-temperature service. At that time the work related to the development of steels for use in power plants and in the petroleum industry. Under the direction of A. E. White, C. L. Clark, and J. W. Freeman, much research has been carried out in the development and utilization of alloys in the high-temperature components of aircraft propulsion systems. The work has been extended to the development of alloys for gas turbines and jet engines.

Other important studies included satisfactory design for automobiles, under the direction of W. E. Lay; the machinability of metals, including materials, cutting fluids, and performance, under the supervision of O. W. Boston and his associates; the effect of chemical reactions in steel-making practices, by John Chipman, for which work he received one of the medals of the American Society for Metals; studies dealing with the use of gas in forging and carburizing, by W. E. Jominy, later president of the American Society for Metals; outstanding work on nickel and chromium plating by Richard Schneidewind and L. L. Carrick. (Carrick later developed an improved battery.) Illumination studies and the design and development of prismatic glass block to give a maximum of light without glare have been under the direction of H. B. Vincent and R. A. Boyd. Page  1248D. L. Katz has done outstanding work in heat-transfer studies using finned tubes. Studies in the durability of lightweight steel construction have been carried forward by J. H. Cissel and W. E. Quinsey. Valuable work on internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and jet engines has been conducted by E. T. Vincent and his associates. Suitable layouts for harbors and breakwaters have been worked out under the direction of E. F. Brater. The volatility and physical and thermal dynamic properties of petroleum, including the properties of natural gasoline as a motor fuel, have been studied by George Granger Brown, Dean of the College of Engineering.

The Research Institute's national reputation has been enhanced by the investigations of W. S. Housel on soil mechanics to determine the bearing power of soils and foundations for all types of structures, such as highways, airports, buildings, and bridges.

Important studies have been carried out in the Wind Tunnel Laboratory in aeronautical engineering and in other fields. The first such study was to determine the reduced resistance of modern designs as applied to trains. Another had to do with the flow phenomena of gases emerging from smokestacks. Important investigations dealing with the strength of airline structures as affected by wind gusts and storms have been made. This work, which was done by members of the Electrical, Civil, and Engineering Mechanics departments, under the general direction of Professor R. H. Sherlock, led to a safer design of aerial line structures, such as high-tension wires in the utility industry, and gave the public greater assurance of continuity of service.

Quantitative spectrographic analysis, a method of analyzing materials which is now finding universal application, was developed by the Institute. This work was done in the Physics Department under the direction of E. F. Barker, O. S. Duffendack, and R. A. Wolfe. Important investigations by G. B. Brigham, Jr., and C. T. Larson, of the College of Architecture and Design, have been completed in the field of standardized low-cost flexible housing. The Wood Technology Laboratory of the School of Natural Resources has carried on important studies for the furniture industry dealing with adhesives and wood furniture construction and wood finishes.

In 1940 projects sponsored by federal agencies were first undertaken by the department. One of these, conducted by the Department of Physics under the supervision of Professor H. R. Crane, was in connection with the development of the proximity fuse. This was followed by the cyclotron and synchrotron and other projects. The late W. E. Bachmann, of the Department of Chemistry, made possible the manufacture of the powerful explosive DRX on a commercially practicable basis.

The activities for federal agencies have expanded and include such a wide range of projects in many fields that they now constitute a large proportion of the total. The department was engaged for several years, principally as a purchasing agent, in top-secret service for the Manhattan Project, Corps of Engineers.

In 1946-47 the University acquired by lease the Willow Run Airport and the several buildings adjoining it. This made possible an extension of instructional and research facilities, including space for the construction of a supersonic wind tunnel, a rocket test site, and turbine- and jet-engine test stands. A separate division of the department, originally known as the Aeronautical Research Center and later as the Willow Run Research Center, was established at Willow Run.

The Director served as chairman of the Page  1249Administrative Committee until 1948, although its duties had been assigned unofficially to a financial control committee in the late twenties. The Administrative Committee as such was discontinued in June, 1936 (R.P., 1932-36, p. 855), and the Executive Committee of the College of Engineering, together with the Vice-President in charge of business and finance, was given charge of the department. This action was taken in conformity with changes in the administration of the College, when the Executive Committee for the Engineering College was formed (R.P., 1932-36, p. 775).

In 1948 the Engineering Research Department was reorganized as the Engineering Research Institute "maintained, in conjunction with the College of Engineering … for the purpose of organizing and conducting research in the fields of engineering and the physical sciences" (R.P., 1945-48, p. 1132). The Executive Committee of the Engineering Research Institute was then created, consisting of the Dean of the College of Engineering as the chairman, the Director of the Institute, four members of the faculty of the College of Engineering, the Vice-President in charge of business and finance or his representative, the Dean of the Graduate School or his representative, and two members of the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, representing the field of the physical sciences.

The Institute was authorized to make arrangements for research with departments or with individual members of the staff, subject to the approval of the respective departments, in accordance with general policies approved by the Executive Committee of the Institute and the Board of Regents. Authority was also granted to employ graduate and undergraduate students as well as persons not otherwise associated with the University, as in the past.

Assistant Director Charles Good served as Acting Director from December, 1948, to July, 1949, during the illness of A. E. White. In March, 1949, the Regents approved a plan to reconstitute the Engineering Research Institute as a University enterprise responsible for the administration of contract research in engineering, the physical sciences, architecture, forestry, and such other fields as might appropriately be included. A new board was to serve, not as an administrative committee, but in the making of general policies. The Aeronautical Research Center was continued as part of the Engineering Research Institute, under its jurisdiction.

This plan was adopted in May, 1949, by the establishment of the Engineering Research Council with the Assistant Provost as chairman; other members were the Dean of the Graduate School, ex officio, and six members of the University Senate appointed by the Regents on the recommendation of the President, of whom at least three were to be members of the faculty of the College of Engineering. The Council was to be a general policy board, and the administrative direction of the Institute, except in connection with the Aeronautical Research Center, was placed in the hands of the director.

The Aeronautical Research Center was made a subdivision of the Engineering Research Institute within its policy-making jurisdiction. The immediate responsibility for the organization, administration, and operation of the Center was assigned to an operating committee responsible to the Engineering Research Council. The activities of the Aeronautical Research Center are confined to the field of aeronautical engineering and include other fields only when such fields are secondarily involved in projects in which the focal interest is aeronautical engineering. The Center does not compete Page  1250with the Engineering Research Institute in the conduct of sponsored research in other fields of engineering and the physical sciences. In November, 1949, the Board of Regents incorporated this plan in its Bylaws.

In 1950 the name of the Aeronautical Research Center was changed to the Willow Run Research Center of the Engineering Research Institute, and its administration was placed in the hands of a director who was responsible to the director of the Engineering Research Institute. The directors of the Engineering Research Institute and of the Willow Run Research Center were added as ex-officio members of the Engineering Research Council. In 1951 Dean Brown was appointed chairman, ad interim, of the Council. Professor Good resigned as Assistant Director of the Institute in September, 1951, to take up full-time duties in the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

When the Department of Engineering Research was established in 1920, the Regents appropriated $10,000 a year for current expenses. In 1925 this appropriation was increased to $20,000, plus the net earnings of the department not to exceed $40,000 additional, or a total of not more than $60,000. This limitation was removed in 1930 (R.P., 1929-32, p. 197). The Regents continued to make appropriations for the salary of the Director and some members of his staff until 1950-51, when all items were paid from Institute income. The total cost of work done since 1920 amounts to approximately $25,000,000, of which $23,000,000 represents work completed since 1940.

Funds have been appropriated from income to support many research activities of the faculty and to provide equipment and assistance that would otherwise have been unavailable for instruction, travel, and research. A reserve account was early established for the benefit of departments participating in the sponsored research program of the Institute. During the year 1950-51 the funds set aside for this reserve were about $140,000 out of a gross income of more than $3,000,000. The largest single appropriation from the accumulated funds of the Institute is the sum of $1,045,000 for the Cooley Memorial Laboratory on the north campus.

In 1925 J. Raleigh Nelson, of the Engineering English Department, was appointed on a part-time basis as chairman of the Publications Committee and Editor of Publications. He remained with the Institute in this capacity until 1937, when he became Director of the International Center. In 1950 Bernhard A. Uhlendorf became Editor of Publications.

The number of persons employed by the Institute has grown proportionately with the amount of research. In 1952 approximately 1,050 were employed, including about 500 persons at the Willow Run Research Center. Campus personnel included 135 academic and 65 nonacademic full-time appointees as well as some 180 faculty and 120 student part-time employees.

Frank W. Hutchings served from 1925 to 1926 as special assistant to the Director. William Hamilton Sellew was Assistant Director from 1929 to 1933. He had been Supervisor of Investigations and Research Engineer. Charles W. Good, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, served on a part-time basis as Assistant to the Director from 1923 to 1936 and as Assistant Director from 1936 to 1951. William E. Quinsey became Assistant to the Director on a half-time basis in 1944 and on a full-time basis in 1947. Herbert F. Poehle came to the Institute as Research Co-ordinator in 1948. He became Assistant to the Director in 1950. Pierce Halleck Farrar entered upon his duties as Assistant to the Page  1251Director in 1949 and since 1951 has served as Operations Manager. Arthur C. Prine was Director of Development on the administrative staff in 1951-52. Marland B. Small was appointed Accountant in 1927 and served as Assistant to the Director from 1940 until 1943. In 1944 Russel G. Kinnel joined the administrative staff as Business Aide, and now has charge of the accounting.

In his 1928-29 report A. E. White, the Director, stated:

The three essentials for the development of a research program of a proper type and scope at the University are: (1) adequate modern equipment, (2) a staff grounded in fundamentals, and (3) a spirit of co-operation. … It has frequently been necessary to refuse requests for research, sometimes because there was no specialist available on the faculty who was prepared to supervise the project, but more often because of lack of proper equipment…

In his autobiography, Scientific Blacksmith, Dean Cooley said:

The Department of Engineering Research was established … to meet a very definite need. It makes available to industry … research equipment and a faculty of expert engineers. This department is the official channel through which these facilities are made available to civic and industrial interests. Students work as assistants to men engaged in research problems; sometimes these research men are employed for special projects, more often they are members of the faculty to whom problems in their own specialized fields are assigned, the work being done in the laboratories of the instructional departments with which these members of the faculty are associated. No degrees are conferred by the Department of Engineering Research, its function being largely administrative. It has acted as a clearing house for industrial problems, both practical and theoretical. Professor Albert E. White, its director, has played a large part in making this department assume its place of leadership. The only limitations placed upon its usefulness are those of laboratory equipment and the time of faculty members. Should the postwar dreams all of us have for the College of Engineering materialize, these limitations will disappear, and there will be at the University of Michigan a research program which will contribute … greatly to the welfare of industry and of civilization…

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bylaws of the Board of Regents. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1949.
Cooley, Mortimer E.Scientific Blacksmith. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1947.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1914-52.
MS, "Memorandum on the Opportunities and the Development of the College of Engineering and Architecture and General Recommendations… Submitted by the Chicago Engineering Alumni to the President and the Board of Regents, University of Michigan, June 27th, 1916."
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-52.
Research in Engineering and the Physical Sciences. Rev. ed. Ann Arbor: Engin. Res. Institute, Univ. Mich., 1951.
Page  1252

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

AS early as 1895, shortly after the establishment of the Department of Engineering, the idea was conceived that a special type of work in English should be developed for students in engineering. As a consequence, although no separate unit was constituted, English courses for engineering and architecture students were taught by instructors borrowed from the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

The purpose of the instruction was to improve the student's command of his language as a means of communication. Two teachers of this period were Louis Abraham Strauss ('93, Ph.D. '00), who later became chairman of the Department of English in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (see Part III: English Language and Literature), and Shirley Wheeler Smith ('97, A.M. '00), who became Vice-President and Secretary of the University. Strauss taught English to engineering students from 1895 through 1898 and Smith from 1898 through 1901.

In 1908 Professor Joseph Raleigh Nelson ('94, A.M. '03) was brought from Lewis Institute to take charge of the English courses being taught in the College of Engineering. In co-operation with Professor F. N. Scott, chairman of the Department of Rhetoric of the University, and Dean Mortimer E. Cooley, Professor Nelson worked to broaden the conception of English instruction to include not only the mastery of the language as an instrument of expression, but also the expansion of the student's culture by means of the study of language and literature. Dean Cooley was always an ardent exponent of the idea that the engineer needs a broader background than it is possible for him to secure in purely technological pursuits. He was at all times an energetic supporter of the Department of English, which may be said to have had its beginning upon Professor Nelson's arrival. Although the department had its inception in 1895, the work in English was on a more or less tentative basis until 1908.

From 1908 to 1915 the department expanded in line with the rapid growth of the College. The requirement in English was increased from four to six hours in 1914, an arrangement which continued until 1932, when the number of hours required was increased to ten. Also, new courses were offered to meet the demands of the rising enrollment and the cultural needs of the students. Courses in literature, particularly the novel and the short story, and a course in scientific literature were established. In 1913-14 instruction in report writing began under Nelson, who became a pioneer in this field. This particular course, in accord with Dean Cooley's idea that English should be considered as a tool, became very popular with students.

Other developments, some of which were a result of World War I, occurred between 1912 and 1924. Special work was developed for foreign students not only in the College of Engineering but throughout the University. Out of Nelson's relationship with foreign students grew the interest that led to his appointment as Counselor to Foreign Students in 1933 and to his resignation as chairman of the department in 1936 in order to devote full time to the directorship of the University's International Center. During the same period courses in speech and business English were established. Business English was dropped after a few years, but instruction in speech has been continued and has developed into an important part of the curriculum.

Page  1253In 1922 a library was established with funds donated by students and faculty members. After a period in which the number of accessions increased rather slowly, Dean Sadler provided funds from the budget for the regular purchase of books. The library has since grown rapidly and now performs a distinct service.

For some years dentistry and pharmacy students took English courses in the Engineering College with the engineering and architecture students. Although the College of Architecture and Design became a separate unit of the University in September, 1931, students of architecture still take part of their work in English in the Engineering College.

After a brief reunion with the Literary College under the regime of President Little, the department was restored in 1930 to independent status in the Engineering College.

In 1930 the freshman work was placed on an experimental basis in that it was fashioned after the model of orientation courses offered in various other universities. The opinion of some of the men in the technical departments, and of Dean Sadler in particular, was that the courses in English could be designed to direct the students into other cultural branches of learning. Hence, the content of the beginning courses for some years was devoted to a consideration of the social sciences in the first semester, and to science and the humanities in the second.

After Professor Nelson's resignation in 1936, Professor Jesse Earl Thornton (Albion '08, A.M. Michigan '20) served in his place until 1937, when Professor Carl Gunard Brandt ('21l, LL.M. '22) was named chairman. Among those who have served on the staff of the department since Nelson took charge of the work are the following: Otto C. Marckwardt ('01, A.M. '02), Charles Albert Langworthy (Albion '08, Ph.D. Michigan '21), Ivan Henry Walton ('17, A.M. '21), Christian N. Wenger ('15, Ph.D. '22), Carl Enoch W. L. Dahlström ('20, Ph.D. '28), Robert D. Brackett (Northwestern '09, A.M. Michigan '23), Carl Edwin Burklund (Western State Teachers '22, Ph.D. Michigan '28), William Henry Egly ('13, A.M. '19), Leo Kirschbaum ('28, Ph.D. '37), Wilfred Minnich Senseman (Columbia '33, Ph.D. Michigan '50), Webster Earl Britton (Randolph-Macon '27, Ph.D. Michigan '45), George Middleton McEwen (Park '31, Ph.D. Michigan '46), Joshua McClennen (Harvard '35, Ph.D. ibid. '40), and William Harrison Mack (Oberlin '13, A.M. ibid. '13).

During World War II the staff was increased radically in order to provide instruction for the students in the various Army and Navy training programs. Directly after the war, the department again expanded to meet the demands of the returning veterans. At its peak the staff numbered thirty-five, including both full-time and part-time members. The department has now resumed its normal size, and nearly all courses are being taught by full-time instructors.

The freshman courses no longer emphasize a particular subject matter such as orientation; instead, the reading materials are selected as a means of developing the student's insight and sharpening his understanding. This purpose also carries over into a variety of advanced courses covering American literature, world literature, general reading for professional students, the literature of science, the novel, the short story, and the drama. In all these courses, as well as in many of the speech courses, composition occupies a prominent place.

Interest in work in speech has been so marked that, in addition to large enrollments in the numerous courses offered, more than a hundred students regularly belong to the Stump Speaker's Society Page  1254of Sigma Rho Tau, a student organization devoted primarily to discussion of engineering and related problems.

Methods and materials may have altered through the years, but the work of the department is still focused upon the original purpose for which the initial courses were established in 1895: sound training in written and oral communication, and the development of comprehension and reading skill through contact with broadening and humanizing material.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1915-52.
Catalogue…, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department (College since 1915) of Engineering."
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-52.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents…, 1895-1952.

MATHEMATICS IN THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

BEFORE the organization of the Department of Engineering as a separate unit in 1895, students of engineering were required to take courses in mathematics numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Mathematics 1 and 2 were four-hour courses in algebra and analytical geometry; Mathematics 3 and 4 were five-hour courses in calculus, and Mathematics 6 was a four-hour course in mechanics. In 1895 the Department of Mathematics formed separate sections for engineering students, and courses 4 and 6 were both listed as Calculus and Mechanics.

In 1901 the Board of Regents at the request of the engineering faculty appointed Alexander Ziwet, Junior Professor of Mathematics, to take charge of engineering mathematics. Under this arrangement the budget remained in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and all appointments to the staff were made by Professor Wooster Woodruff Beman ('70, A.M. '73, LL.D. Kalamazoo '08), head of the Department of Mathematics in the Literary Department. Some members of the staff taught entirely in the Department of Engineering, others entirely in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and a third group taught in both. By 1902-3 the courses were listed as 1E, 2E, 3E, 4E, and 5E. In 1903 Course 5E was replaced by a three-hour course, also called 5E, and a two-hour course 6E was added.

As a consequence, between 1903 and 1911 the Department of Mathematics had contact with all engineering students during the first three years of their professional education and played an important role in their training. The course work included college algebra, analytical geometry, calculus, differential equations, and theoretical mechanics.

A separate budget for mathematics was introduced in the Department of Engineering in 1905, and subsequent appointments and promotions, although made by Professor Ziwet, were administered by the Department of Engineering. For several years no changes were Page  1255made in the fundamental courses offered, but the idea of organizing a separate department of mechanics was considered, and in 1911 the courses in structural mechanics, formerly given by the Department of Civil Engineering, and the courses in theoretical mechanics, which had been given by the Department of Mathematics, were combined and offered as courses in the new Department of Engineering Mechanics, under the direction of Charles J. Tilden.

Much of the credit for developing the work in mathematics in the College of Engineering and for keeping it on a high level must be given to Alexander Ziwet (C.E. Karlsruhe Polytechnic '80), who came to the University in 1888 as Instructor in Mathematics, with a good background of training acquired in European universities and technical schools. He had had years of experience in practical engineering work and early advocated the high standards of instruction in mathematics and engineering which continued throughout his connection with the College of Engineering. An able teacher and lecturer, he surrounded himself with men whose standards and abilities were equal to his own. In addition to maintaining the high level of the required courses in mathematics, he advocated advanced instruction which might be helpful to the more gifted student of engineering. Soon after the department was organized the following courses were offered: Vector Analysis, Theory of the Potential, Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, and Hydrodynamics.

Ziwet's interest in the development of various branches of mathematics prompted the organization of the Mathematics Club, made up of members of the Department of Mathematics, which for many years, until its membership became too great, met in his rooms. This club, which encouraged original research, was also a strong influence in the development of engineering mathematics.

Owing to increased interest in higher mathematics on the part of engineering students, more work in pure mathematics was offered after 1920, including such courses as Differential Equations, Advanced Calculus, Fourier's Series and Harmonic Analysis, and Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. This led in 1927-28 to the inclusion of mathematics in the technical departments of the College of Engineering and to the adoption of a curriculum in mathematics leading to the degree of bachelor of science in engineering (mathematics). The aim of the curriculum has been to combine a more extensive background in higher mathematics with a broad fundamental background in engineering subjects. The requirements of the various technical departments as well as the requirements for advanced courses in the Department of Engineering Mechanics have helped to foster such a curriculum and have aided in the development of elective courses in mathematics which are of value to engineers. The program has attracted superior students and has helped them to secure good positions. From 1929 to 1952 a total of 378 students received the bachelor of science degree in engineering (mathematics).

Professor Ziwet retired in 1925, and Peter Field (Minnesota '96, Ph.D. Cornell '02) became head of the department. Field held this position until 1928. At that time the Department of Mathematics in the College of Engineering and the Department of Mathematics of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were combined and administered under a single chairman, Professor James Waterman Glover ('92, Harvard '93, Ph.D. ibid. '95). The administration of the department and the budget were placed under the jurisdiction of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Page  1256At the time of the union of the two departments of mathematics, the personnel of the Department of Mathematics in the College of Engineering consisted of Professors Peter Field, Theodore R. Running (Wisconsin '92, Ph.D. ibid. '99), Theophil Henry Hildebrandt (Illinois '05, Ph.D. Chicago '10), and Clyde Elton Love ('05, Ph.D. '13); Associate Professors Louis Allen Hopkins (Butler '05, Ph.D. Chicago '15), and Vincent Collins Poor (Kansas '01, Ph.D. Chicago '15); Assistant Professors Louis Joseph Rouse (Princeton '08, Ph.D. Michigan '18), William Wells Denton ('07, Ph.D. Illinois '12), and James Alexander Shohat (Mag. Pure Math. Petrograd '22); Instructors Donat Konstantin Kazarinoff (Moscow '16), Wendell M. Coates (Williams '19, Sc.D. Michigan '29), Ruel Vance Churchill (Chicago '22, Ph.D. Michigan '29), Ben Dushnik ('25, Ph.D. '31), Nevin Cotton Fisk ('23, Sc.D. '31), and John Johnson Corliss (Mississippi '25, Ph.D. Michigan '30). It is interesting to note that two of this group were later active in the administration of the Department of Mathematics of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Field was acting chairman from 1930 to 1932 during Glover's leave of absence and Hildebrandt succeeded Glover as chairman when the latter resigned the chairmanship in November, 1934.

The teaching of mathematics in the College of Engineering plays a prominent role in the policies and aims of the Department of Mathematics of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Separate sections of the elementary courses in mathematics for engineering students (eight hours being required during each of two years) are regularly offered. In addition, courses have been developed to meet the needs of students in the mathematics curriculum of the College of Engineering, of students in other engineering curriculums who find additional work in mathematics desirable, and of students who are working on the applications of mathematics. The staff members whose teaching is concerned mainly with engineering students continue to have offices in the West Engineering Building and so are readily accessible for consultation and assistance not only to students but to the teaching staff of the College of Engineering.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1915-52.
Catalogue…, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department (College since 1915) of Engineering."
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-52.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents…, 1895-1952.
Page  1257

THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

ACOMMUNICATION from Professors DeVolson Wood and Still-man W. Robinson to the Regents in December, 1868, requested the establishment of a course in mechanical engineering and asked that a description of the program and of the requirements for the degree of mechanical engineer be inserted in the Catalogue. On motion of Regent Sill the request was granted (R.P., 1864-70, p. 312). This is the first mention of mechanical engineering at the University of Michigan.

For admission the student was required to pass the general examinations for entrance to the scientific course and freshman mathematics. In the sophomore year the schedule included French, Surveying and General Geometry, Descriptive Geometry, Calculus, English, and History. In the junior year French, Philosophy of History, Perspective Drawing, Calculus, Astronomy, Machine Drawing, and Kinematics were required. The senior year included Physics, Theory and Use of Instruments, Principles of Mechanism, Strength of Materials, Drawing, Theory of Frames, Geology, Metallurgy, Theory and Construction of Prime Movers, and Millwork and Machines. Instruction was also given in the theory of pattern making, molding and machine shop practice, plans, elevations, sections, and drawing of machinery.

Apparently, the venture was not entirely successful, for in the Regents' Proceedings of June, 1870, it was resolved "that the degree of Mechanical Engineer…be and the same is hereby abolished, and the course of Civil Engineering be so extended as to include the main part of the course of Mechanical Engineering as heretofore prescribed." This arrangement was continued for eleven years, with Wood teaching the courses in mechanical engineering until he resigned in 1872. The following quotation from his report of that year gives an interesting description of the methods he used in teaching:

In the course of these lectures I introduced a novel mode of instruction, in order to exercise [the]…inventive faculties [of the students]. I assigned to them a problem, the character of which I was certain they were not familiar with, and asked them to solve it, make a drawing to represent their idea, accompany it with a specification, and report it to me. As soon as all had solved it who were able to, I reviewed their solutions and criticized them before the class, indicating the valuable points as well as the objectionable features. The following may serve as an example: — After describing the construction and operation of the ordinary D valve, and showing particularly that in order to open a port so as to reverse the stroke of the piston, the valve, up to the point of opening the port, is moving in the opposite direction from the piston, I asked the class to invent such an arrangement of parts as that the valve would open the port correctly if it moved the same way as the piston. In this way nearly all the working parts of the steam engine were considered, and problems assigned which involved modifications. The problems were simple, and were intended as a means of instruction, and not as puzzles. In their solution they not only became familiar with what exists, but also learned other possible ways of accomplishing the same end, and in connection with the criticisms, learned why a particular combination was used. In a class of thirty there would often be fifteen or twenty different solutions; but sometimes there would not be more than five or six different ones. The Class also read all that part of Warren's "Machine Construction Page  1258Drawing" which pertained especially to the steam engine.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 213.)

Mortimer Elwyn Cooley (U. S. Naval Academy '78e, M.E. hon. Michigan '85, LL.D. Michigan Agricultural College '07, Eng.D. Nebraska '11, Sc.D. Armour Institute of Technology '23), assistant engineer of the United States Navy, at the request of the Regents, was detailed to the University of Michigan as Professor of Steam Engineering and Iron Shipbuilding in August, 1881, to establish courses in mechanical engineering in the Department of Civil Engineering. In September, 1881, his title was established as Professor of Mechanical Engineering. This designation of title may be considered as the birth of the Department of Mechanical Engineering (R.P., 1881-86, p. 89).

Cooley's first report to the Board of Regents as Professor of Mechanical Engineering follows:

At the close of this, my first year's connection with the University of Michigan, I deem it fit and an appropriate time to submit to your honorable body a report on the year's work, and on the future possibilities of the course in mechanical engineering … It was desired to establish in connection with the course in civil engineering a parallel course in mechanical engineering, which, with the reorganized course in mining engineering, would make a complete school of engineering. With this object in view the course in mechanical engineering was laid out as it now appears in the calendar. It was arranged so as to permit of development according to the demands of the students who might elect the work offered. It was not expected that it would be found necessary to give instruction in the advanced courses under two years at least, or until students should be regularly entered for the degree of mechanical engineer. When that time should have arrived, it was recognized that the proper amount of technical work necessary for the degree of mechanical engineer could not be given with the present teaching force in the Department of Engineering.

The opening of the school year disclosed a much greater demand for the courses offered than was anticipated. Even the advanced courses were in demand, those which it is not possible to give at present. The work was commenced under the most encouraging auspices, and has continued, even with the necessarily hasty and imperfect preparation of the subject matter of the courses, to attract favorable attention and considerable application on the part of the students.

The following is a list of the courses offered, with the number of students electing them during the past year:

    1. Workshop Appliances and Processes, Pattern Making, Moulding and Founding. A 2-5 course [Cooley]
  • 5 students.
  • 2. Mechanical Laboratory work (not given this year) [Shop Practice in Forging (first given in 1885 by Taylor)].
  • 3. Mechanical Laboratory work. A 2-5 course [Cooley]
  • 5 [6?] students.
  • 4. Machinery, Machine Construction and Drawing. A 3-5 course [Cooley and Dension]
  • 5 students.
  • 5. Mechanism and Machine Drawing. A 2-5 course [Denison]
  • 10 students.
  • 6. Machinery and Prime Movers. [Water Wheels and Steam Engines]. A 3-5 course [Cooley]
  • 6 students.
  • 7. Machine Design. A 3-5 course [Cooley and Denison]
  • 1 student.
  • 8. Thermodynamics (not given this year) [first given in 1882-3 Cooley].
  • 9. Original Design, Estimates, Specifications, and Contracts. A 2-5 course [Cooley]
  • 1 student.
  • 10. Naval Architecture (not given this year).
  • 11. Naval Architecture. A 2-5 course [Cooley]
  • 1 student.
  • Total number of students
  • 35
Courses 5 and 6 are identical with the courses of the same number in civil engineering, and the students taking them were mostly civil engineering students.

During the latter part of October the question of a mechanical laboratory was brought up for consideration. It was found Page  1259that the $2,500 appropriated by the legislature for a mechanical laboratory in connection with the Department of Civil Engineering would revert to the State treasury on January 1, 1882, because that department was not ready to use it; and it was suggested that the money might be advantageously expended in erecting a building and equipping the same (as a mechanical laboratory) for the Department of Mechanical Engineering. Although at first it did not seem possible to expend so small a sum for so large a purpose and be able to secure any immediate and desirable results, by careful calculation it was found that certain definite results might be accomplished with benefit to a limited number of students; and it was decided that if a building could be erected leaving $1,000 out of that $2,500 for the purpose of machinery and tools, results justifying the expenditure of the whole sum might be expected. On that decision the building and fixtures as they now [1882] appear were erected …

Notwithstanding considerable delay experienced in receiving goods from the manufacturers, it was … possible to open the Mechanical Laboratory at the beginning of the second semester. Six students were permitted to take the course, the number being confined to those who the first semester had taken … theory of workshop practice. … The six who took the course were not confined to a prescribed course of work, as is contemplated for the future, but were engaged for a large share of the time in overhauling and erecting the machinery in the shop … The remainder of the time was devoted to grinding and putting in order the cutting tools, in performing some of the simpler operations at the work-bench, in preparing work for the iron lathe, in wood-turning, forging, brazing, and soldering, and in running the engine. One student working for the master's degree was permitted to devote his entire time to the construction of an electric lamp with which to perform the experiments required by the subject of his thesis. Another student was permitted to devote a part of his time to the construction of a model of an automatic grain weigher to be used in mills and in grain elevators. The work of both of these gentlemen was creditable. Although broken and irregular the semester's work in the Mechanical Laboratory has shown conclusively that there is a demand for such work among the students, and that it may be made a successful and profitable, as well as a popular, course among the many such at this University …

A great and growing necessity has long been felt for better educated mechanics and for more practical engineers; and it is generally recognized that this necessity can best be met by having in connection with our schools, laboratories or workshops, in which the practical nature of tools and materials can be studied at the same time with the theoretical. These laboratories, or workshops, should be open not only to the students of engineering and architecture, but also to those students whose time and circumstances permit [them] to take only special work.


(R.P., 1881-86, pp. 239-43.)

Plans for the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory were prepared by J. B. Davis, and construction was begun in December, 1881. The two-story building was just south of the "Clock Tower" of the later shops. It measured twenty-four by thirty-six feet and was of frame construction, with brick placed edgewise between the studding. The ground floor was divided into two rooms, the foundry at the east end with a small cupola sixteen inches in diameter and five feet high adjacent to the central brick chimney, and the forge shop, brass furnace, and engine room at the west. The foundry also included two flasks, other necessary foundry tools, and molding sand.

The shop contained the first steam equipment in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, a forge, anvil, tools, a brass furnace, and a four-horsepower vertical fire-box boiler and steam engine. The second floor was also divided into two rooms, one of which was occupied by the pattern shop and the other by the machine shop. The equipment consisted of a wood-turning lathe built by Cooley Page  1260and members of his class, and an iron lathe, salvaged from the basement of University Hall and repaired by the students. The building was heated by an old-fashioned stove on the second floor next to the chimney. In cold weather it was found effective to melt ice in a pail of water on top of the stove in order to increase the humidity.

Because equipment was not available in this first building, much experimental work and testing were conducted under Cooley's direction in various industrial plants of southern Michigan. At this time all the classwork in engineering was taught in six rooms in the South Wing of University Hall.

On July 18, 1883, it was resolved that Professor Cooley be paid four hundred dollars for his services, to date from October 1, 1882. It should be said in defense of the University that Cooley was also receiving a salary from the Navy. He must have been encouraged, however, because, on the same day, he requested that a carpenter shop, measuring thirty by seventy-five feet, standing on the site of the present West Physics Building and used by the contractors in the construction of the Library, together with the machinery, be given to the Department of Mechanical Engineering. The request was granted, and the shop, moved and attached to the laboratory, served as a wood shop. This addition contained a planer, saws, and a steam engine. The old four-horsepower engine was sold, and the newly acquired engine was used to provide power for the laboratory.

By this time Cooley had added the following courses: 8, Theory of Machine Construction, 1 hour; 9, Machine Design, 5 hours; 6, Machine Dynamics, 2 hours; 11, Steam Engineering (Steam Generators, Steam Pumping, and Hoisting Machinery), Practical Laboratory Work, 3 hours; 4a, Shop Practice (Iron Work), 3 hours; 12, Shop Practice in Foundry, 2 hours. With the exception of the two shop practice courses, which were taught by Taylor (see Production Engineering), Cooley taught all of these himself.

By March, 1884, conditions apparently had begun to improve because a drill press was purchased for $180, and later in the year a room suitable for recitations and for the storage of models was assigned to the Laboratory.

In 1885 the Regents authorized a new mechanical laboratory, and it was resolved:

That Professor M. E. Cooley be and hereby is appointed Superintendent of the proposed building for the Engineering Laboratory, and that he be required to give such portion of his time as will not interfere with his duties as Professor of Mechanical Engineering as will insure a faithful performance of the contract — and that he discharge such other duties as may be directed by the committee on Buildings and Grounds … this appointment shall commence from the first operations of the contractors on the grounds, and continue during the active processes of the several works, and … the compensation shall be at the rate of fifty dollars per month.


(R.P., 1881-86, p. 583.)
This structure now comprises the north part of the east wing of the West Engineering Annex. Built of brick, with an interior of slow-burning mill construction, the three stories and attic originally measured forty by eighty feet. The ground floor was occupied by the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory; the second floor housed the machine shop and the third floor the pattern and wood shops. The attic was used for the storage of patterns and wood. Equipment was acquired for this laboratory partly by purchase and partly by gifts from industries. The original two-story frame structure built in 1881-82 and containing the foundry and forge shop was removed.

Page  1261Mechanical engineering continued to grow rapidly in importance. In 1891 the former Dental Building was acquired as additional classroom space. (The Clements Library now occupies this area.) The central or tower unit, which connected the two wings, contained tall mercury columns for calibrating pressure gages. In 1900 a twenty-foot extension was added to the laboratory (the south end of the east wing).

Cooley did most of the teaching himself until 1895. In 1904, after the death of Dean Charles E. Greene, Cooley was appointed Dean of the College. He held this position until his retirement in June, 1928, at the age of seventy-three.

Dean Cooley was a man of unusual and versatile personality, who envisaged large issues in complete perspective, yet never overlooked, and apparently never forgot, details. He possessed not only a keen intellect and the essential practicality of the engineer, but also a fine sense of humor. He was an especially good storyteller and a master of the art of influencing people. To him is due in large part the fine relationship which has always existed between students and faculty of the College.

Cooley established the first courses in shop practice, which were taken over in 1885-86 and developed by Professor Clarence George Taylor (Worcester Polytechnic Institute '81, M.E. ibid. '81, Michigan '02d) as Superintendent. He began the courses in naval architecture and mechanical engineering laboratory and introduced work in dynamics and design. After the Engineering Shops became a separate unit, he became Professor of Mechanical Practice in 1897, but resigned two years later to study dentistry. In one of the basic machine design courses in the early years a pamphlet written by Cooley, Dynamics of Reciprocating Parts of Engines, was used in conjunction with Unwin's well-known Elements of Machine Design for text.

Assistant Professor Frank Caspar Wagner (M.A. '84, '85e [M.E.]) taught Laboratory, Dynamics of Machinery and Engines, Thermodynamics, and Steam Engineering from 1890 to 1896, when he left to teach at Rose Polytechnic Institute, of which he later became president.

In addition to the courses mentioned, the following were available in 1896: Principles of Mechanism (Denison), Design of Shop Machinery (Taylor), Theory of Machine Design (Cooley), Steam Engines (Allen), Design of General Machinery (Cooley), Machinery and Mill Work (Cooley), Design of Engines and Boilers (Cooley), Dynamics of Engines: Valve Gears (Cooley and Wagner), Heating and Ventilation (Cooley), Compressed Air Machinery and Refrigeration (Cooley and Wagner). The increased importance of quantitative creative work is evident in the emphasis on design of machinery rather than on mere descriptive study.

The south wing and center section of the West Engineering Building, now occupied by the main Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, which has an area of almost 15,000 square feet, were erected in 1904. The equipment in the laboratory from the time of its first occupancy in 1886 until it was moved to its present location consisted of a steam engine built by the students in 1887, an Erie steam engine acquired with the joiner shop and used until 1921, an E. P. Allis Corliss engine which at the time of its purchase about 1891-92 was supplied with steam from the University power plant, a Stirling boiler bought by Cooley in 1894 and used only for experimental purposes, a small surface condenser, a DeLaval turbogenerator, a Murray turbine, and a Mietz and Weiss oil engine acquired from an exhibit at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo in 1901. Page  1262There were also a Rider hot-air engine and a Fairbanks-Morse gas engine, loaned to the Laboratory in 1896 and used until 1936, an Olsen testing machine, and the Cooley indicator tester or pressure gage calibrator, built as the result of a test on the Ann Arbor Water Works pumping engine.

During the first semester of 1904-5, this equipment was moved to the new Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, in the West Engineering Building. The forge shop was enlarged and moved to the ground floor of the east wing of the present Annex vacated by the Mechanical Laboratory, and the foundry was expanded to occupy the space relinquished by the forge shop. Additional equipment acquired later included boilers, stokers, superheaters, steam engines, Unaflow engines, air compressors, blowers, gas engines, particularly an Otto gas engine that is now a museum piece. A Brayton engine, acquired in 1912 through the efforts of J. E. Emswiler, for many years furnished power for a spice mill in the wholesale grocery house of the late Colonel Deane of Ann Arbor. The equipment also included oil engines and diesels, hot-air engines, and a refrigerating plant, acquired in 1910 from the Creamery Package Manufacturing Company of Chicago, stationary and portable electric motors and dynamometers, pumps, and steam injectors.

Professor Charles Simeon Denison (Vermont '70, C.E. ibid. '71, M.S. ibid. '74) taught Mechanism and Machine Drawing from 1881 until the time of his death in 1913, when it was abandoned. The mechanism course included valve gears from 1898 until 1908, when Valve Gears was offered separately by Bursley and others, particularly by Charles Horace Fessenden (Missouri '06e [M.E.], M.E. ibid. '08), who was appointed Instructor in 1908 and served as Professor from 1919 until his death in 1934. He developed a text, Valve Gears, in connection with this course, which was discontinued in 1915.

Sketching of Machine Details, first offered in 1905, became Machine Drawing in 1908. It was given by Bursley, C. Wilson, F. A. Mickle, and others until transferred to the Department of Mechanism and Engineering Drawing in 1922. Theory of Machine Movements (intended as a mechanism course) was instituted as a required course by Zowski in 1915 and abandoned in 1933.

Machine Design, introduced in 1881 by Cooley, was the first mechanical engineering design course. In 1883 he initiated Theory of Machine Construction to accompany the first course. This was soon followed by Design of Engines and Boilers and Design of Shop Machinery which was probably the forerunner of Machine Tool Design, introduced in 1897-98. Design of Hoisting Machinery was presented in the same year, and from that time until 1912 specialized machine design courses were known as Machine Design, with the content of the course indicated — Machine Design: Shop Machinery.

Design of Machine Details was introduced in 1909 to supplement the theory course; in 1912 the machine design course for electrical engineers was abandoned, and its content largely merged in the basic machine design course. Theory of Machine Design was the principal basic course from 1882, when Cooley and Denison taught it, until 1934, when Elements of Machine Design, introduced in 1915, was strengthened and became the basic course. Both the basic course and the advanced or second course are combination classroom and drawing courses consisting of two four-hour periods a week, the first hour being devoted to general instruction and the remaining three hours to drawing. Boston has been teaching Machine Page  1263Tool Design since 1935. By 1940 two nonmachine elective design courses were on an equal footing with the machine design courses, Design of Power Plants and Design of Heating and Ventilating Systems.

In 1898 Allen initiated a heat engines course, Boilers, Steam Engines, and Denison gave Mechanism, Valve Gears, which has, with various changes in name and content, continued to be a part of the curriculum. Heat Engines, a separate course, was offered for the first time in 1913-14. Instructors since 1905 have included Anderson, Bursley, Emswiler, Keeler, Boston, Wilson, W. F. Verner, Fessenden, and Watson.

John Robins Allen ('92e [M.E.], M.E. '96), who began teaching in 1897 as Instructor, became head of the department in 1904 and Professor in 1907. He resigned in 1917 to become dean of the Engineering College of the University of Minnesota. Allen was an interesting and inspiring teacher, tolerant in outlook and possessed of a wealth of personal and professional experience on which to draw. On leave of absence for the purpose in 1911-12 he established an engineering school at Robert College, Istanbul, Turkey. He was the author of a small book entitled Notes on Heating and Ventilation, one of the earliest American publications on this subject, and co-author (with J. A. Bursley) of Heat Engines, and (with J. H. Walker) of Heating and Ventilation.

Henry Clay Anderson (Kentucky '97e [M.E.]) came to Michigan as Instructor in 1899. After successive promotions he became Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 1912. He was head of the department from 1917 to 1937, when he became Dean of the College upon the resignation of Dean Sadler. He was a most effective teacher and was regarded with unusual affection and esteem by students and staff. He taught heat engines, the mechanical engineering laboratory courses, and thermodynamics.

Advances in technology and a corresponding demand for thermodynamics resulted in this subject's first appearance as a regular part of the curriculum in 1905-6, although a course in thermodynamics had been offered occasionally before that time. Anderson gave the course at first, and he was followed by Emswiler, Fessenden, Keeler, Calhoon, and others.

After Moyer's resignation in 1912 Emswiler was given general charge of the laboratory instruction. John Edward Emswiler (Ohio State '03e [M.E.]) came to the University as Instructor in 1906. He was appointed Professor in 1918 and was chairman of the department from 1937 until his death in 1940. Among other courses he also taught Design of Machine Details and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. He is the author of Thermodynamics.

The two main laboratory courses in mechanical engineering were introduced in 1898. At first called Mechanics Laboratory, the name was later changed to the more accurate Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. The basic or first course contained some materials testing until 1910 and much calibration work until 1913, as the laboratory testing machinery was in the shop. They were given as Mechanical Engineering Laboratory first and second courses, and a fee of five dollars was required for each until 1920. An advanced course, first offered in 1909-10 by Moyer and Bursley, was called Research Work in the Mechanical Laboratory in the second semester.

Joseph Aldrich Bursley ('99e [M.E.]), who was appointed Instructor in 1904, was promoted to Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 1917. When he became the first Dean of Students in the University in 1921, he continued to teach a section of Heat Engines, and he regularly Page  1264attended staff meetings until his retirement in 1947.

James Ambrose Moyer (Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard '99, A.M. Harvard '04) was Assistant Professor from 1908 to 1912 and in charge of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory in 1911-12. He resigned and later became head of the Massachusetts State Department of Education. He wrote Power Plant Testing while here.

When Hydraulics Laboratory, advanced course, was first offered by Zowski in 1912-13, the laboratory part of the course was dovetailed with Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, second course.

Stanislaus Jan Zowski (Polytechnicum Charlottenburg '05) was appointed Instructor in 1907. His special interest was in water turbine design, and an experimental low-head reaction turbine was built in the Engineering Shops from his designs. He was Professor of Mechanical Engineering from 1912 to 1922, when he returned to Warsaw.

Harold Rhys Lloyd (King William College [Isle of Man], '99, M.A. Cambridge '03) was appointed Instructor in 1912. He left for England in 1915, but returned as Assistant Professor in 1924 and became Associate Professor in 1936. He retired in 1950.

Hugh Edward Keeler ('12e [E.E.], M.E. '31) became Instructor in Mechanical Engineering in 1917. He was promoted to Professor in 1933. He taught Heat Engines, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Mechanical Research, Thermodynamics, Design of Steam Generating Equipment, Heating and Ventilation, Air-conditioning Systems, Steam Turbines, Refrigeration, Diesel Power Plants, Automotive Electrical Equipment, and Engine Acceptance Testing.

Sherzer gave courses in Hydraulics from 1920-21 until he retired in 1946. Allen Firman Sherzer ('13e [M.E.]), who had been Teaching Assistant in the department from 1914 to 1916, returned as Assistant Professor in 1920, and in 1931 was promoted to Professor of Mechanical Engineering. He taught Pumping Machinery and Design and Hydraulic Turbines and Design in addition to the Hydraulic Laboratory course.

In the semester before the introduction of Hydraulics Laboratory, Zowski offered a course of the same name, with fewer credit hours, apparently the forerunner of the course charted the next semester. In 1929-30 a one-hour laboratory course was introduced by Axel Marin ('22e [M.E.]) for students who did not have to take the first mechanical engineering laboratory course. Marin became Instructor in 1922 and Professor in 1945.

A co-operative arrangement with the Department of Chemical Engineering in 1919-20 made possible a one-hour chemical engineering course for mechanical engineers, which included fuel testing, gas analysis, and water treatment.

By 1937 the curriculum for the bachelor's degree had grown to such an extent that it included fifty-four courses, with seventy-four hours of preparatory work, fifty hours of secondary and technical work, and sixteen hours of electives. The subjects offered were grouped under Machine Design, Heat and Power, Heat Engines, Thermodynamics, Power Plants and Hydraulic Machinery, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory courses, Steam Power Engineering, Internal Combustion Engineering, Automotive Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Heating and Ventilating, and Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. A five-year curriculum in mechanical and industrial engineering leading to the master's degree in industrial engineering was first offered by the department in 1935. Specialized courses on diesel engines were offered for the first time in 1937 by Vincent, and in the second semester of Page  12651938-39 a laboratory course in air conditioning was introduced. The first extension course in industrial air conditioning was given in Detroit in 1939-40. In this year arrangements were also made to offer an elective course in metallurgy for students in mechanical engineering. At about the same time the courses in internal combustion engineering were expanded, and arrangements were made for an Internal Combustion Engine Institute in the summer of 1940.

Hawley was made acting chairman of the department in 1939, and, after the death of Emswiler in 1940, he was appointed to the chairmanship. Ransom Smith Hawley ('07e [E.E.], M.E. '15) came to the University of Michigan from the Colorado School of Mines in 1917. He became Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 1920 and served until his retirement in 1951. Professor Edward Thomas Vincent (London '21) succeeded as the chairman. Before coming to the University in 1936-37 he had been chief engineer for the Continental Motors Corporation in Detroit. Harry James Watson (Ohio State '15e [M.E.]), appointed Instructor in 1916 became Assistant Professor in 1921. Clarence Frank Kessler ('19e [M.E.], M.S.E. '24) joined the staff as Instructor in 1920, becoming Associate Professor in 1943. Floyd Newton Calhoon (Louisiana State '16, M.S. Michigan '35), who became Instructor in 1923, was made Professor in 1952. Charles Willett Spooner, Jr. (M.E. Cornell '34, M.S. Michigan '35) was added to the staff as Instructor in 1936; he transferred to Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering in 1945.

In 1937-38, 419 students were enrolled in the department; in 1948-49, 1,219; and in the second semester of 1951-52, 309 in mechanical engineering and 98 in mechanical and industrial engineering. Facilities of the Engineering College were taxed to the utmost after World War II, and it was only by greatly increasing the number of students in each section that instruction could be carried on. From 1940 to 1942 Hawley conducted a study of the curriculum that led to the introduction of an orientation course at the sophomore level, and a revision of the mechanism and design courses.

In addition to the regular work of the department, special extension courses, special courses for military groups, and courses for training civilians as factory production inspectors were given. The full-length summer term was introduced in 1942. In 1943 the Army Specialized Training Program was begun, and the Navy program was set up. The A.S.T.P. was discontinued in April, 1944, but the Navy program did not terminate until more than a year later.

In the fall of 1947 a new program was adopted that increased the time devoted to thermodynamics and electrical engineering, broadened the requirements in technical applications courses, and decreased the time devoted to metal processing and surveying. A senior course in process equipment design was offered in the fall of 1945, and the industrial air-conditioning extension course was adapted to the regular program in the second semester of 1947-48. Additions to the senior level courses include Industrial Exhaust and Ventilation Laboratory, and Rocket Motors, first offered in the second semester of 1951-52.

Service courses in heating and air conditioning were also given for students in the College of Architecture and Design and in heat-power engineering for students in chemical and metallurgical engineering.

The manner of conducting laboratory work has changed greatly since 1882, when little equipment was available and the work was more or less impromptu. In addition to the regular instruction, among the many experiments carried Page  1266on in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory have been tests on steam radiators and investigations in heating and ventilation. Space for a heat laboratory was released when the Architecture Building was completed in 1927. This laboratory was used extensively by Fessenden and Keeler for radiator tests and by Emswiler and Keeler for work on heat transfer through glass windows. When Engineering Shops moved from the West Engineering Annex in 1923, additional laboratory space for special projects was acquired by the department.

Repair work for the Laboratory was done in the University Instrument Shop until about 1925. This shop is now called upon to build only special equipment that cannot be handled in the laboratory's own repair shop, which was moved to its present location in 1910. Also serving the Laboratory are the instrument room and the tool room. The equipment includes more than one hundred and twenty pressure gages, thirty-five indicators, and temperature measuring instruments of all kinds.

The years immediately preceding 1937 saw no major additions to the equipment of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, but by 1940 a motor generator set had been acquired. When the "G.I." students appeared on the campus, the department found itself seriously handicapped for want of satisfactory training equipment. Hawley worked with the War Surplus Procurement office of the University for improvements. The department added a Westinghouse air compressor, a diesel engine, a Cummins diesel engine generator unit, a 400-horsepower Midwest dynamometer, a Spencer turbo-compressor and motor drive, a twenty-ton refrigeration machine and condenser, high-pressure blowers, an arc welding machine, three machine lathes, a twenty-horsepower electric motor, and various small motors, tools, and instruments. About $90,000 was appropriated for the rehabilitation of the laboratory, which was accomplished in the years 1948-51. The following equipment was purchased: a complete General Electric educational power plant, a ten-horsepower dynamometer with switchboard, controls, and instruments; a 100-horsepower Ward Leonard unit with dynamometer, a 15 kw turbogenerator with instrumentation; equipment to complete the surplus Frigidaire refrigeration plant so that it comprised an educational air-conditioning unit of twenty tons; an industrial air-conditioning laboratory; silica gel dehumidifier unit; instruments for instruction and research work; a Joy fan; an American Blower Axivane fan; a set of Bus Duct electric supply equipment; a set of T-bolt rails to provide fit-all floor fastenings for equipment; and various items for the Automotive Laboratory. In addition, gifts included a Timken oil-fired heating boiler, a Vickers hydraulic drive test stand; a Timken oil-fired warm air furnace; two Continental gasoline engines, and an Aeroquip hydrauloscope.

As the number of students increased and technology expanded, new tests were added to the laboratory courses. When the United States entered World War I in 1917, additional changes were necessarily made in the manner of carrying on the laboratory work. The term plan was temporarily adopted but later abandoned. After the war the scope of the work was enlarged to include a wider range of tests for Mechanical Engineering 7 and 8 (17 and 18 in 1952), which have been the main laboratory courses.

Six students were enrolled in the first course given in the Mechanical Laboratory in 1882. In the first semester of 1920, there were 105 men in the first course and eighty-five in the second. In 1937 eighty-five students were enrolled in the first course and fifty-one in the second; in Page  12671952, 166 were in the first course and 114 in the second.

Industrial Engineering

During a visit of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to Germany in 1910, Professor Bursley made the acquaintance of the Gilbreths and other leaders in the field of what was then known as "scientific management."

From 1913 to 1915 Bursley made a study of the applications of scientific management in manufacturing plants with the intention of introducing training in this field in the College of Engineering. A course was established in 1915 under the title Mechanical Engineering 35 — Scientific Shop Management. During World War I this instruction was expanded to include two courses in the preliminary training of officers for the Ordnance Department of the Army. This was the first work of the kind offered by an American college, and it formed the pattern for such instruction in other institutions.

In 1921, when Bursley became Dean of Students, Charles Burton Gordy (Pennsylvania '17, Ph.D. Michigan '29) was appointed Assistant Professor to carry on the instruction. Dean Cooley appointed a committee at this time to consider education in engineering administration. This committee reported favorably. A sequence of elective courses in engineering administration was to be given without interfering with any of the fundamental engineering subjects. A series of courses was suggested, and a budget of $14,500 was proposed. In October, 1921, the Dean appointed a committee consisting of Bursley, Airey, and Gordy to recommend a program of studies for work then known as production or industrial engineering. Airey was Superintendent of the shops until 1924, when he was succeeded by Boston. This committee recommended that "a separate department, to be known as the Department of Industrial Engineering, be established." The proposed curriculum included five new courses in industrial engineering and eighteen hours of electives.

No action was taken on these recommendations until 1923-24, when E. E. Day, chairman of the Department of Economics, expressed an interest in combining work in economics and engineering in preparation for the field of production. In 1924 H. C. Anderson, chairman of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, appointed a committee consisting of Fessenden, Myron Louis Begeman ('15e [M.E.], M.S.E. '22) and Gordy to combine suggestions made by Day with the reports of the two Cooley committees. This committee recommended that a five-year course in mechanical and industrial engineering be established, with a curriculum of 173 hours of work recommended, and the proposal was adopted in May, 1924. The degree of bachelor of science in engineering (industrial engineering) was first awarded in 1926 to William Alden Capen, who later became superintendent of the Keeler Brass Company in Grand Rapids.

By 1932 only fourteen students had been graduated, for a graduate of this program after five years of work received the same degree granted for four years of work in other curriculums. A new program was adopted by the Board of Regents in 1934, by which a bachelor's degree in engineering (mechanical engineering) was awarded at the end of the fourth year, and, upon completion of a year in the Graduate School, a master's degree in industrial engineering was granted.

No substantial change was made in industrial engineering until 1946, when the degree designation of bachelor of science in engineering (industrial-mechanical) Page  1268was initiated. Thus, for the first time the term "industrial" was added to the degree awarded at the end of four years of work.

In 1950 the curriculum in industrial (mechanical) engineering was accredited by the Engineering Council for Professional Development, with the suggestion that greater provision be made for courses in the area of industrial engineering. In the following year the Board of Regents approved a program leading to the bachelor's degree in engineering (industrial engineering), and in 1952 approved a change in name of the department to Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. In the spring of 1952, 98 students were enrolled in the industrial engineering curriculum.

In addition to Professor Gordy as program adviser, Associate Professor Quentin C. Vines (Illinois '29e [E.E.], M.E. ibid. '50), Assistant Professor Wilbert Steffy ('37e [Mech. Ind.]), and Instructor Edward Lupton Page ('40e [M.E.], M.S.E. '53) taught the courses in 1952. In December, 1951, the titles of these men were changed from Mechanical to Industrial Engineering. Thus, Gordy became the first Professor of Industrial Engineering at the University.

The program in industrial engineering includes two options. Option A is concerned with the development of standards for operation and the analysis and comparison of results of actual operation with norms previously established. It includes the analysis of a product as to methods of manufacture, layout of facilities, materials handling, production and inventory control, quality control, production standards and motion study, job evaluation and incentive methods of wage payment, organization, and personnel practices and policies.

Option B is intended to meet the needs of those students primarily interested in the methods and operations of manufacture. It includes the development, operation, and control of such processes as casting, forging, rolling, die-casting, stamping, molding, machining, and such functions as production planning, factory layout, routing and methods of manufacture, jigs, fixture, tool, and die design, technical estimating, and inspection. The objective is to acquaint engineering students with principles and methods of fabricating materials. Boston is program adviser, and all of the special work is offered in the Production Engineering Department. The two options follow a common program for the first two years, but differ thereafter.

Automotive Laboratory

Automotive and internal combustion engineering courses. — The first automotive engineering courses were offered in the fall of 1913, although Gas Engines and Gas Producers had been taught since 1907, and Machine Design (Gas Engines) was offered in 1912. These courses were reorganized and renamed by Anton Friedrich Greiner (Dipl. Ing. Munich '09), who came to the University as Instructor in 1912 and served as Assistant Professor from 1913 until 1921, when he resigned to take up professional work. In 1913 thirty-seven students were enrolled in the first automotive course, Gasoline Automobiles, given by Walter Turner Fishleigh ('02, '06e [C.E.]), and seventeen students in Automobile Testing, also taught by Fishleigh. He was transferred to the Department of Engineering Mechanics from the Drawing Department in 1912, appointed Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 1915, and Associate Professor of Automobile Engineering in 1916. To him is due the credit for the establishment of the automotive division of the Department of Mechanical Engineering. He resigned in 1919 to join the Ford Motor Company. In 1914 Fishleigh also Page  1269initiated an automotive research course of which Lay took charge in 1919. Walter Edwin Lay ('15e [M.E.]) was appointed Instructor in 1916, and became Professor in 1930. He has been responsible for the later development of the Automotive Laboratory. Charles Winfred Good ('18e [M.E.]) was appointed Instructor in 1918 and was promoted to a professorship in 1943. He has divided his time between the department and Engineering Research.

A feature of the first laboratory course was a full day's road test of a motor vehicle. It soon became the rule to photograph the test crew, thus producing a tangible record of both the student and the equipment, which consisted of a single cylinder Oldsmobile engine, a 1910 Krit, a 1907 air-cooled Franklin, and a 1911 Franklin engine.

The program was expanded to include Automobile Motor Theory and Design and Automobile Chassis Design in 1914, both taught by Fishleigh. Lay took over the first course from 1917 to 1921, and John Minert Nickelsen (Illinois '14e [M.E.]) succeeded him. He became Instructor in Drawing in 1916 and was made Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 1941. The work in automobile research was given by Lay in 1919 and by Nickelsen after 1920. Internal Combustion Engines and Gas Producers, introduced by Greiner in 1913, formed the main internal combustion engine course, with special topics as an advanced course. These courses and a design course initiated in the same year still provide the basic internal combustion engine instruction. After Greiner, Good took over the work with Lay, Vincent, and Schwartz succeeding him. Frank Leroy Schwartz (M.E. Lehigh '28, Ph.D. Michigan '40), who was appointed Assistant Professor in 1941, was advanced to Professor in 1949. Other instruction included a short course for highway engineers given by Lay from 1920 to 1927 and an automotive engineering seminar by Nickelsen. Aircraft Power Plants and a laboratory course were first given in 1934 by Lay and Kohler. Henry Lebrecht Kohler (Illinois '29, M.S. Yale '30, M.E. ibid. '31) joined the department as Instructor in 1931 and in 1933 was promoted to Assistant Professor. He resigned in 1946.

Much of the test equipment for the Automotive Laboratory was built in the small laboratory shop. Instruments were improved and adapted to laboratory needs. The greater part of the operating equipment, vehicle engines and other components, has been most generously furnished by the automotive industry. Only special research equipment and instruments have been purchased or built. By 1937 operating equipment consisted of motor vehicles, engines, transmissions, axles, superchargers, carburetors, mufflers, and, in fact, all of the major units which are used on aircraft, motor vehicles, tractors, and some marine applications of internal combustion engine power. Testing equipment included electric dynamometers, water brakes, air meters, fuel meters, tachometers, potentiometers, and all the small instruments needed in determining power, speed, temperatures, pressures, and air, fuel, oil, and water flow. Automotive engines and parts, including a 1913 Ford T and a Hudson 6-54 were used for instruction; many of these pieces are now in the automotive museum. Aircraft power-plant equipment included everything from a 1919 Liberty engine to a Wright Cyclone and Pratt and Whitney Hornets.

When the United States entered World War I the University offered its facilities and staff for training Army personnel. The first group of four detachments of enlisted men arrived in April, 1918, for an eight-week course in automotive engine repair. A total of one thousand and eighty-one men were Page  1270trained in the succeeding six months. Old vehicles and equipment were purchased and borrowed. Temporary buildings with some 6,000 square feet of floor space were constructed, and a teaching staff was recruited from the faculty of the College and from trade schools, factories, and garages.

In 1919, shortly after the Armistice, the laboratory equipment was moved to one of the temporary wooden buildings, which had a floor area of 10,800 square feet. Here began the research that formed the basis for limiting the grades on federal aid highways in Michigan. In 1922, when the space occupied by this building was needed for the new Physics Building, the laboratory was moved to a hastily constructed lean-to shed, which had an area of 3,200 square feet, on the west side of the foundry. Shortly afterward, additional space was acquired in the old shops until 11,000 square feet were in use for classrooms and laboratories.

In 1933 the laboratory was raided by a mob of seventy-five law students who broke down the doors and captured a graduate student who was just completing an endurance test on some piston rings. This seemed to establish the nuisance value of an automotive laboratory situated in a flimsy wooden building on the campus. A fire destroyed the south half of the wooden lean-to shed in 1937 and ruined much of the equipment. The shed was quickly rebuilt, however, and the equipment replaced.

An aircraft engine test house was set up at the Ann Arbor airport in 1936 and equipped with a reaction test stand built by the laboratory shops.

When World War II began, the laboratory facilities and staff services were again offered for training personnel engaged in the war effort. Civilian aircraft engine inspectors were trained in the laboratory. All enlisted men in mechanical engineering were required to take a classroom and a laboratory course in automotive engineering. While revising the content of these courses, it was learned that the University had not only the best program of automotive laboratory instruction, but also by far the most complete laboratory facilities of any of the colleges engaged in the education of enlisted men. In the spring of 1946 Vincent offered the first course in Gas Turbines.

In 1948, for the first time, a course in internal combustion engines was required for mechanical engineering students. A limited sum was made available for the purchase of additional equipment including a small dynamometer, two C.F.R. variable compression research engines, two high-speed pressure indicators, and a city bus. A gas turbine test cell was constructed.

Research Work

Research work on automobile and other internal combustion engines has been carried on in the department since 1913. Early work was restricted for the most part to the automobile, although a project on the engine, consisting of a heat balance study, was initiated in 1915. The results are still quoted as the most complete available on that type of engine. Work was also begun on a study of car resistance, and the various aspects of this problem have been studied more or less continuously since.

The laboratory was one of the first to present comprehensive data based on actual experiments showing the advantages of streamlining. The wind tunnel model built about 1930 had some of the best features of the present streamlined cars. An outgrowth of this resistance work was a co-operative study made with the State Highway Department to determine which of the grades in new construction were more economical, considered from the standpoint of Page  1271balancing the cost of construction against the operation cost of cars and trucks in climbing the grades.

The laboratory has co-operated with manufacturers and has studied almost all car and engine parts either with a view to improving them or to checking the improvements being attempted by the manufacturer. The engines worked on have varied from small single-cylinder ones for marine work, household equipment, and farm-lighting to twelve-cylinder airplane engines. Pistons, rings, pins, connecting rods, and crank shafts have been improved. Valve mechanisms, carburetors, manifold systems, and combustion chambers have been studied. Experimental work has been done on ignition and injection systems for both diesel and Otto cycle engines, bearings, lubricants, and fuels and their effect on engine parts and engine operation.

Extensive work has been completed on chassis parts, hydraulic transmissions, universal joints, propeller shafts, rear axles, brakes and brake linings, wheel types, springs, shackle bearings, front axles, and steering gears. Studies have been made of car performance, riding comfort, including the development of the Universal Test Seat and Universal Driver's Compartment, car safety, and car noise, particularly mufflers.

Production Engineering

The Mechanical Laboratory shop course was first given in the second semester of 1881-82 as part of the work in mechanical engineering. The number of students in the course was confined to those who had taken theory of Workshop Practice during the first semester, and only six were permitted to enroll.

The first shop course, limited to six hours a week was taught by Cooley, and consisted of forge, machine, and pattern work. The work was continued in this manner for years. In 1883 the Regents authorized Cooley to employ, "under the direction of the President, such temporary skilled assistance as [might] be necessary in the Mechanical Laboratory, at an expense not to exceed $12 a week" (R.P., 1881-86, p. 307). Robert Winslow was engaged on these terms as Instructor in Foundry, and Clarence Taylor became Assistant in the Mechanical Laboratory. Winslow held his position until his death in 1905. The Regents voted in 1886 to change Taylor's title to Superintendent of Shops in the Engineering Laboratory. This is the first time the title appears, for Cooley had been in charge of the work as Professor of Mechanical Engineering.

In 1897 Taylor was appointed Professor of Mechanical Practice. He was succeeded in 1899 by William Lincoln Miggett ('99e [M.E.], M.E. '04), who was appointed Superintendent of Engineering Shops.

The instructors (known as foremen) in the various laboratories in 1888-89 were Robert Winslow, Foundry; John M. Smoots, Machine Shop; and Horace Purfield, Wood Shop.

A four-hour course in shop work was required of all first-year engineering students in 1905. Second-year students in mechanical engineering were required to take either course 2, Pattern-making and Foundry, or course 3, Machine Shop, both four-hour courses. From 1900, with the advent of modern high-speed steels, great interest was shown in metal cutting problems, and enrollment in shop practice courses increased.

It was decided in 1920-21 to change the plan of instruction from that of manual training to the teaching of principles related to modern industrial practice. From 1919 to 1922 Professor John Airey (London '10), of the Department of Engineering Mechanics, served as Acting Superintendent of Engineering Page  1272Shops. He was appointed to the position upon Miggett's resignation and served as Director until 1924. Woodworking 1, given continuously since 1882, was discontinued at that time as a required subject for first-year engineering students because it was felt that satisfactory instruction in this subject could be obtained in the high schools.

Forge Shop, devoted largely to manual training in the working of steel, had undergone little change until 1915, when the instruction was broadened to include the basic properties of iron and steel and the effect of heat treatment. The use of the scleroscope and the pyrometer was introduced, and an acetylene welding outfit was added during that year. The work, confined chiefly to forge working and forge welding of wrought iron and steel, was required of all first-year students.

In 1920, through an appropriation of $1,100, a chemical control laboratory was set up in connection with the Foundry Laboratory. An advanced Foundry Practice course dealt with melting practice in the cupola and other furnaces, molding and core practice, and with compositions and properties of cast metals. From 1922 to 1947 the instruction in the Foundry Practice courses was under the supervision of John Grennan, who was appointed Instructor for this purpose. Jig and Fixture Design 7, required of students in the five-year mechanical and industrial engineering program, was introduced in 1921. Foundry Costs and Organization was developed about 1922 for students desiring employment in foundries.

Foundry (Shop 3), given for years in combination with Pattern Making (Shop 6), was made a separate four-hour course in 1920 and for the first time was under the supervision of a technical graduate, Harry Linn Campbell ('14e [Ch.E.], M.S. '21), who was appointed Assistant Professor of Metallurgical Engineering in the same year to work on the technical and metallurgical improvement of the forge and foundry courses. In 1925 he was transferred to the Department of Engineering Shops, and in 1927 he became Associate Professor. He resigned in 1936 to accept an industrial position. The course then included metal castings, their design, selection, properties, and production, and all castings produced in the course, such as grate bars for clinker crushers in the Power Plant, manhole covers, and rollers for steampipes in the tunnels, were utilized by the University. The nature of the work was such, however, that each student spent too much time in doing a simple job which had little educational value.

Orlan William Boston ('14e [M.E.], M.E. '26) was appointed Assistant Professor of Machine Shop Practice in 1921. The following year he was made Acting Director of Engineering Shops during Airey's leave of absence, and in 1925 he became Director. In 1927 Boston was made Professor of Shop Practice and Director of the Engineering Shops, and in 1934 his title was changed to Professor of Metal Processing and chairman of the Department of Metal Processing. In 1936 he was appointed Custodian of the Gaging and Measuring Laboratory of the Detroit Ordnance District, which was then installed at the University.

Machine Shop 4, a laboratory course dealing chiefly with the use of simple machine tools, was required of students in mechanical and electrical engineering, but was dropped from the electrical engineering curriculum in 1922. When Airey was made Acting Superintendent of the Engineering Shops in 1919, he urged the revision of the course to cover the subject of management (see Industrial Engineering). As a result, a manufacturing operation was set up, and thousands of tools were produced.

Page  1273The idea of producing small tools in quantities was abandoned about 1924, and a new policy was adopted in the teaching of machine shop practice. The major manufacturing operations of the metalworking industries were studied in the classroom and used or demonstrated, as far as facilities and time permitted, in the laboratory.

Although removal of the entire shop equipment to the East Engineering Building in 1923 did not immediately increase the floor space available for the shop laboratories and offices, the new arrangement greatly improved operating conditions, and much new equipment was added. Brick sheds were constructed above the Wind Tunnel for the storage of raw materials. During the summer of 1933 the court was excavated, and the storage bins were put underground.

Equipment was installed to provide facilities for an elective course in woodworking. The content was adapted to the need of the individual student. Some students designed and made furniture; others made patterns and parts to be cast. From 1924 to 1932 the Woodworking Laboratory was used in connection with the dental shop course. After 1930 it was also used for making structural parts, such as airplane wings and ribs, and for tests in laboratory work in Materials of Aircraft Construction, introduced by Boston, but crowded out about 1936, although not officially dropped until 1951.

William Allen Spindler ('29e [Ch.E.], M.S. '33) was engaged as Instructor in Engineering Shops in 1930. He assumed charge of the courses in the working, heat treating, and welding of steel upon Campbell's resignation, and Assistant Professor Eugene Jesse Ash (Heidelberg College '25, M.S. Ohio State '27) was given charge of the work in cast metals and foundry until he resigned in 1941. In 1931-32 Metal Working and Treating (Shop 2) was elected simultaneously with the first general chemical engineering course. The lectures dealt with the elementary metallurgy of iron and steel, in order to give the student a better understanding of the theory and principles applied in the laboratory.

By 1935-36 enrollment in the Department of Metal Processing was far beyond the normal capacity. Crowded sections were taught every half-day during the week and Engineering Materials was given two nights a week.

A new course known as Measuring and Gaging, was introduced by Boston in 1936-37 to make the equipment of the new Gaging and Measuring Laboratory, together with a study of the principles of dimensional quality control, available to interested students.

The foundry, originally planned for sections of fifteen students, accommodated sections of forty to forty-five, although the equipment had not been changed since its installation in 1923. Parts Processing was introduced by Boston in 1945.

Lester Vern Colwell ('35e [M.E.], M.S. '39), appointed Instructor in Metal Processing in 1937 to assist in teaching Machine Shop, was promoted to a professorship in 1951. William Wayne Gilbert (Colorado '31e [M.E.], Sc.D. Michigan '35) was appointed Instructor in 1934 and became Professor of Metal Processing in 1950. He has taught Machine Shop and Machinability, which, when introduced by Boston, was the first course of this kind in the country. Robert Abernethy Smith ('34e [Ch.E.], M.S. '39) was appointed Instructor in Metal Processing in 1936 to assist Professor Spindler in teaching metalworking, heat treating, and welding. He resigned in 1939 to develop a metallurgical laboratory for Sears, Roebuck, and Company. William Calvin Truckenmiller ('39e [Met.E. and Ch.E.], M.S.E. '44) was appointed Instructor Page  1274in Metal Processing in 1941 and became Associate Professor of Production Engineering in 1949. Victor Julien Gauthier (Wayne '36e [Ch.E.], M.S. Michigan '43) was appointed Instructor in 1942. He was promoted to Assistant Professor to teach courses in metallurgy in 1946 and resigned in 1947 to accept a position at New York University. Robert E. McKee (Bowling Green State '35, A.M. Michigan '47) was put in charge of the Machine Tool Laboratory and was promoted to Associate Professor in 1951.

High enrollment in the department continued during 1942-43. Fourteen courses, eleven of which were for graduate as well as undergraduate students, were offered. Equipment during this period was used extensively by engineering students and by engineering aides and ordnance materiel and aircraft inspectors of the Army. Metal working and treating subjects were under the general supervision of Truckenmiller. Spindler was in charge of foundry work, and the machine tool and tool engineering work was divided among Boston, Gilbert, and Colwell. Boston served as educational supervisor and organized the staff, courses, and equipment. H. W. Miller served as administrative supervisor.

Training for the Detroit Ordnance District was continued during the entire year. Similar courses for the Air Corps in Aircraft Materials Inspection Training were begun in November, 1942; these were forty-eight-hour week classroom courses, the first sections of which ran for twelve weeks; subsequent sections ran for ten weeks to conform with the beginning and ending of the inspection courses. As these courses dealt primarily with metal processing equipment and subject matter, all members of the staff were in constant demand. Several members were required to supervise and teach twelve to twenty-four hours a week in addition to their regular University work. Gradually, men were recruited from outside, until eleven full-time instructors were engaged in this work.

The departments of Drawing, Mathematics, Engineering Mechanics, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Civil Engineering contributed generously by loaning instructors to carry a part of the teaching load. By 1943, in these three courses, 1,140 certificates of completion had been granted.

Boston gave a series of lectures in 1943-44 to students in the Judge Advocate General's School of the University on machine tools and accessories involved in the subject of contract termination.

During 1945-46 the Army donated to the department several hundred thousand dollars worth of equipment. The staff worked through vacations and even during the summer, doing everything possible to install the valuable tools. Many pieces of equipment were for use in mass production. These machines were moved in, cleaned, and painted by the staff at a total expense of $1,500 in addition to the regular annual appropriation for current account. All machine tools were installed and ready for use by the fall of 1947. Many instruments and gages and inspection equipment owned by the Armed Services, in the Detroit Ordnance District Gage Laboratory, were consigned to the University. It is estimated that machines and tools with a book value in excess of $1,000,000 were so obtained by the department.

Leslie E. Wagner ('27ed, M.A. '36) was appointed Assistant Professor in the fall of 1946 to develop courses in welding. Frank Walter Sowa ('46e [Ch.E.], M.S.E. '48) was appointed Instructor in 1946 Page  1275and promoted to Assistant Professor in 1950. William Telfer was granted sick leave in 1946, and became Instructor Emeritus in Metal Processing in June, 1951. Telfer had served the University continuously since 1911 except for a short period during World War I. Harold James Holmes ('46e [M.E.], M.S.E. '49) was appointed Instructor in 1946. He became Assistant Professor in 1949 and resigned during the following year to accept a position with the Ford Motor Company.

Franklin Bruce Rote ('38e [Met.E.], Ph.D. '44), who had several years' experience with the Wyman-Gordon Company, was appointed Assistant Professor in the departments of Metal Processing and Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering in 1946, to serve half time in each, to co-ordinate the work in foundry and metallurgical engineering. He directed the foundry work and developed an active program of research. He became Associate Professor in 1949 and resigned in 1951. He was succeeded by Richard A. Flinn (City College of New York '36e [Ch.E.], Sc.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology '41) in both departments in 1951. Professor Flinn had been assistant chief metallurgist for the American Brakeshoe Company.

Gerald Albert Conger (Oklahoma '44e [Ch.E.], M.S.E. Michigan '49) and Walter Bertram Pierce were appointed Instructors in 1947, when John Grennan retired. Conger resigned in 1952, and Kenneth Frederick Packer ('49e [Met.E.], M.S.E. '52), Instructor since 1951, was transferred to foundry work. With the co-operation of other units of the College and of industry Rote and Flinn successfully introduced the principles of sound metallurgy into the foundry.

In 1948, $14,000 was made available from funds of the Engineering Research Institute to install in the Foundry Laboratory a $25,000 induction melting furnace of four units that had been purchased for $700 from the War Assets Administration.

The Foundry Education Foundation of the American Foundrymen's Society in the spring of 1951 requested the University to establish an informal co-operative arrangement with their industry. This was promptly approved by the Regents, and the University was added to an already large list of schools having this agreement. Scholarships to the extent of $2,500 were made available, and a new student section of the society was organized and presented with a charter in February, 1952, at which time, the student membership numbered seventy. The Foundry Education Foundation co-operated with Professor Flinn in the study of the foundry layout, which was greatly improved by the addition of new equipment in 1952.

In 1948 the time devoted to Metal Processing 4, Machine Shop and Metal Processing 3, and Foundry by the mechanical engineers was cut from four to two hours. These courses were prerequisites to any additional courses in metal processing and were taken as electives or by graduate students. For several years prior to 1951, graduate students transferring from other schools and interested in the work given in metal processing had studied for the degree of master of science in engineering (industrial engineering) in the departments of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. This unsatisfactory arrangement led to a recommendation that the Metal Processing Department be designated as the Department of Production Engineering and that a separate bachelor of science degree in production engineering be granted. This recommendation was presented in the spring of 1951 at about the same time that a revised curriculum Page  1276in mechanical-industrial engineering and a program in materials engineering were proposed. The result was the establishment of the curriculum in industrial engineering with the two options (see Industrial Engineering). Option B in production, with Professor Boston as adviser, provided the opportunity desired for those students interested in this field.

The name of the department and the staff titles were changed from Metal Processing to Production Engineering. Boston was also made Professor of Mechanical Engineering to co-ordinate the work in production and mechanical design.

With the removal of departmental barriers and the better co-operation of the staffs of the various departments assured, industrial and production engineering has an opportunity to flourish at Michigan. This is the culmination of a task Dean Cooley assigned to Boston when he came to Michigan in 1921: to develop courses co-ordinating the work in design, metallurgy, and production.

Gaging and Measuring Laboratory

The establishment at the University of Michigan of the Gaging and Measuring Laboratory by the Army Ordnance Department as a part of the Detroit District Ordnance Office was approved by the Regents in February, 1936, with Professor Boston, as Custodian, having immediate supervision. In the event of a national emergency, however, the direction of the laboratory will come under the supervision of the officer in charge of the Detroit District Ordnance Office.

The laboratory, installed in Room 2311 of the East Engineering Building, is used for the instruction of ordnance reserve officers during the summer, ordnance students of the R.O.T.C. unit, students of the University, and to render service to industry.

The equipment owned by the War Department was removed during World War II and returned to the University in 1948. At that time a classroom in the East Engineering Building was converted into a second gage laboratory, and an air-conditioning unit was installed so that the room could be used for precision measurements at controlled temperature and humidity. This laboratory, together with the original room housing the gage equipment owned by the University, offers complete facilities for precision measurement and the checking of gages as well as for instruction in this work.

University Instrument Shop

In 1900, $550 was appropriated by the administration for the purchase of a new lathe and other tools to be installed in a small shop within the Engineering Shops proper. Ralph H. Miller was appointed as Mechanician in charge; on his resignation in 1910, he was succeeded by John H. Stevenson. For almost twenty years instruments, largely special apparatus for University departments, were made in this small shop at cost.

In 1919, $12,000 was appropriated for a Central Shop, which was established in conjunction with the Engineering Shops with the shop superintendent in charge. A revolving fund of $2,000 was provided for its operation. Although there were only three men on the staff at that time, within a few months the number was increased to nine. A committee was appointed to supervise the administration of the new shop, which furnished mechanical service including the making and repairing of instruments and apparatus.

Later, plans were made to make the Central Shop a part of the Buildings and Grounds Department, but they did not materialize, and when the various divisions of Engineering Shops were moved to the new East Engineering Page  1277Building the Central Shop, because of its close relation, was moved adjacent to them. In 1924 the name was changed to Instrument Shop.

With $20,000 appropriated by the Regents in 1930 for remodeling and equipment, the Instrument Shop was brought to a high state of efficiency. At that time it was renamed the University Instrument Shop and continued, under the supervision of Boston, as a separate unit.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1895-1952.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1870-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and General Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Cooley, Mortimer E.Scientific Blacksmith. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1947.
General Register, Univ. Mich., 1927-1952.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1870-1952.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1952.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Special Announcement, College of Engineering, Univ. Mich., 1914-52.

THE DEPARTMENT OF NAVAL ARCHITECTURE AND MARINE ENGINEERING

THE history of instruction in ship design at the University of Michigan is closely associated with the growth and development of the College of Engineering. When Mortimer Cooley, assistant engineer in the United States Navy, was detailed to the University as Professor of Steam Engineering and Iron Shipbuilding in 1881, twenty-five students were enrolled in civil engineering; in the following year more than sixty were enrolled. Courses in naval architecture were established and taught during alternate semesters by Cooley and were first listed in the Calendar for 1881-82 as follows:

Naval Architecture. — The instruction in this branch comprises a course of lectures on the nature of the resistance of ships, the computation of augmented surface, probable resistance, the power necessary to secure a given speed, buoyancy, stability, wave motion, steadiness, determination of centre of gravity and metacentre, causes of rolling, causes of stability, and similar topics.

The textbooks used at that time were Thearle's Theoretical Naval Architecture and Seaton's Marine Engineering.

The growing importance of instruction in marine design from 1883 to 1893 — at which time three courses, Naval Architecture, Marine Engines, and Ship Building, were given — resulted from the increased enrollment in engineering, a demand for technically trained designers in the marine field, in which the trend was toward larger and faster ships, and a realization of the coming expansion of shipping on the Great Lakes. Michigan has a shoreline of 2,213 miles on the lakes and connecting rivers, and a tremendous amount of water-borne commerce annually passes through her waters. In 1952 tonnage on the Detroit River was five times the normal foreign tonnage of New York Harbor and greater than the combined tonnage of Hamburg, Liverpool, and London.

At the February, 1898, meeting of the Regents President Angell presented Page  1278a communication from Cooley, asking the Board to consider the advisability of establishing instruction in marine engineering and naval architecture. In June, 1899, the Finance Committee was requested to provide in the budget $2,000 for the establishment of a course in marine engineering. Cooley immediately began searching for a capable naval architect to take charge of this work, and in 1900 Herbert Charles Sadler (Glasgow '93, D.Sc. hon. ibid. '02, LL.D. ibid. '27) came to Ann Arbor from the University of Glasgow, Scotland, as Junior Professor of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering. The following item appeared that year in the Michigan Technic:

It is gratifying to know that the Mechanical Laboratory is to be considerably enlarged the coming summer, and among the apparatus which is to be placed in it is a compound marine engine, now being designed by some of the students, to be used in some of the courses in the recently established Department of Marine Engineering. The offer to become Junior Professor of Naval Architecture has been accepted by Mr. H. C. Sadler, of Glasgow, Scotland.

A communication from the engineering faculty dated October 8, 1901, outlined the course of study for the Department of Marine Engineering and recommended that a degree be granted in this field. The first graduate was Ernest Charles Stroebe in 1902. The degree program was described in the Announcement of the Department of Engineering for 1902-3, and in the University Calendar for 1903-4 appears a description of the Naval Tank, built in the north wing of the new Engineering Building (now the West Engineering Building). In 1916-17 the program was listed as Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering.

Early in the history of the department certain ideas were introduced which differed from those of similar programs in this country and abroad. The underlying principle that, in order to fit himself for the profession of shipbuilding, a student should have a thorough grounding in mechanical engineering was established, and the course consisted, therefore, of preliminary training in such scientific subjects as mathematics, physics, and chemistry, followed by the general courses required of all engineering students. In the third year mechanical and some civil and electrical engineering instruction was given, while the purely naval architecture and marine engineering work was confined largely to the fourth year. English, foreign languages, and other nontechnical subjects were also included in the preliminary work.

In 1913, following the procedure adopted by other departments, two options were established in the department: (A) naval architecture and (B) marine engineering. In actual practice the tendency was to differentiate between these branches of the profession; hence the opportunity was given the student to fit himself for whichever field he preferred. Minute specialization was avoided, however, and training in each branch was given to all.

The growing interest in aeronautics led to the introduction of courses in this subject in 1915. Owing to the close connection in many of the fundamental principles of this science with that of naval architecture and marine engineering, the new branch was attached to the latter department, and in 1916 a third option, (C) aeronautical engineering, was established. The budget for the work in aeronautics was included in that of the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering until the year 1930, when aeronautics was established as a separate department.

In 1925-26 option (D) water transportation, was added. This appears as option D in the Announcement for that Page  1279year and as option C subsequently. This group of studies permitted a student to acquire additional training in economics and accounting and eliminated some of the specialized work in naval architecture and marine engineering.

For a degree in 1940 the minimum requirements for eight semesters were:

Hours
Preparatory courses 66
Secondary and technical courses 49
Elective courses 25
Total 140

In 1952 the departmental curriculum included five groups of professional studies. Option A was offered for students of naval architecture and option B for those specializing in marine engineering. The work included introductory courses and the essentials of form calculations, structural design and strength analysis; ship design, stability, rolling, steering, and preliminary design, contracts, specifications, yard production methods, and estimating; marine machinery, boilers, and auxiliaries; and resistance, power, propellers, model testing in the naval tank, and navigation.

In conjunction with the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, in 1940 the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering offered advanced work leading to the degrees of master of science, master of science in engineering, and doctor of science. The enrollment for the advanced degree as a rule is made up largely of graduates from foreign institutions and other American universities. Many students from abroad come to study under sponsorship of their governments. Turkey, Argentina, Chile, Canada, Puerto Rico, China, Norway, India, Brazil, Japan, and other nations have been represented. Undergraduate enrollment has shown an annual increase, having risen from sixteen in 1927 to eighty-four in 1952.

The placement of graduates in industry has been facilitated through close contact maintained by the staff with leading shipyards, designers, and steamship companies. The success and advancement attained in the profession by former students is an indication of the sound fundamental training received at the University. Past graduates have held high ranks in the United States Coast Guard, and in times of national emergency the department has been unable to supply the demand by the Navy and other services for trained men in ship design and construction.

The Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering has been fortunate in its staff. Dean Cooley's interest as well as his encouragement and advice contributed much to the development of the work. Sadler continued as head of the department until 1928, when he became Dean of the College. He died in 1948. His career as a teacher and his contributions in the field of research are noteworthy. He wrote for various professional societies and during World War I acted as naval architect for the United States Shipping Board. His services as consultant on problems of power and stability were in constant demand, and in association with Frank Kirby he helped design many vessels for the Great Lakes. Herbert Sadler, of Michigan, George Baker, of England, and Admiral David Watson Taylor, U.S.N., were the men who developed the scientific principles of ship form and resistance, originally outlined in the latter part of the nineteenth century by William Froude, the marine engineering pioneer.

In 1903 Edward Milton Bragg (Massachusetts Institute of Technology '96) was appointed Instructor in the department. Although at first he devoted some of his time to mechanical engineering, his main interest was in naval architecture and marine engineering. In 1915 he Page  1280was appointed to a professorship and in 1928 he became chairman of the department. A distinguished scholar and teacher, Bragg achieved an international reputation through his research work and publications. He was concerned more with theory and fundamentals than with commercial applications, and his lectures reflected his clear understanding of his subject. His major interest was in propellers and paddle wheels, but he also contributed much to the present theory of hull form and resistance.

During World War I Sadler was called into government service, and in 1918 Anders Fredrik Lindblad (Chalmers Institute of Technology [Sweden] '13, Sc.D. Michigan '23) was appointed Assistant Professor. Lindblad had been connected with the American Shipbuilding Company of Cleveland, and he maintained an interest in Great Lakes shipping throughout his academic career. He was made Associate Professor in 1928, but in 1933 he resigned to take the chair of naval architecture at his alma mater, the Chalmers Institute in Gothenburg, Sweden.

In 1928 Henry Carter Adams II ('13, M.S. '15) was added to the staff as Assistant Professor. Previously, his experience had included employment with Gibbs and Cox, Naval Architects, and work as technical adviser to the Load Line Commission. His field of specialization has centered in damaged stability and in structural design and strength. He became Professor in 1953.

Upon Anders Lindblad's resignation, Louis Arthur Baier ('14e, Nav. Arch. '33) was appointed Assistant Professor. He brought to the department an extensive experience in commercial ship design, and his professional contacts have assisted in the placement of graduates and in keeping the department aware of modern practice. Because of his special interest in the field of resistance and powering, he was placed in charge of the Naval Tank. He became Professor in 1943.

The construction of models for use in the Naval Tank requires mechanical skill and the ability to read ship drawings. The first few models were made by Sadler with the help of student assistants. In 1907, Hermann Graf was appointed Model Maker and continued in that position until his death in 1927. A mechanic of the highest order, he was responsible for the construction of various instruments, and he made many improvements in the tank facilities. Arthur A. Limpert, of the Buildings and Grounds Department, succeeded Graf. An excellent mechanic in wood and metal, his rich experience in boat-building, pattern-making, and allied fields had prepared him well for the variety of work arising in a model-testing tank. Until he died in 1945 "Art" Limpert was one of the first staff members visited by alumni on their return to the campus. Douglas Van Aken held the position of Model Maker from 1946 to 1950 and was succeeded by Phillip A. Schnell.

The unique feature of the department's physical equipment is the Naval Tank, or experimental model basin. On the ground floor of the West Engineering Building and running north and south for a length of 360 feet, the Naval Tank is a popular point of interest to visitors, especially to the children of Ann Arbor.

In addition to the usual classrooms, the department has its own draftingroom, equipped with necessary instruments such as integrators, calculating machines, battens, and "ducks." Half models and photographs, donated by shipyards and steamship companies, help the student to recognize various types of ships. In addition, complete plans and specifications in hull and machinery are on file for reference by students who are developing their own designs. Page  1281Well-equipped shops are provided for the construction and preparation of models and appendages to be tested in the tank. The three principal functions of the laboratory are demonstration of hydraulic phenomena and principles to supplement classroom theory, pure research work, and testing designs for governmental services, shipyards, steamship operators, and consulting engineers. The Tank and its functions are described more in detail later in this account.

Members of the staff have always been active as consultants in design, powering, propellers, stability, Admiralty Court cases, and in other phases of ship construction and operation. Particular interest has been maintained in Great Lakes freight and passenger shipping.

Publications by the faculty have been limited by the nature of much of the work carried out in connection with the Naval Tank. Although important papers have been delivered before the national professional societies, much of the research and testing done for governmental or private interests is of a restricted nature and, in wartime, confidential. Reports of projects on which staff members have acted as consultants seldom are available or even suitable for general publication, although the experience and the results have been of great value to the department. These contacts with the profession, however, have proved to be another means by which students are placed in responsible positions upon graduation.

By 1940 Sadler, Bragg, Lindblad, Baier, and Adams had contributed numerous papers. Since then Bragg has published "The Quasi-Wake Factor" and "The Quasi-Propulsive Coefficient"; Baier has published "The Resistance of Barges and Flotillas," "Diesel Engines on the Great Lakes and Inland Waterways," and "The Great Lakes Bulk Cargo Carrier: Design and Power"; Baier and A. D. Maxwell, The Navigator's Handbook; Baier and Jesse Ormondroyd, "Fantail Vibration in High Powered Single Screw Vessels"; and H. C. Adams with C. M. Adams, "Vessel Unloading with Air-activator Conveyers."

During 1942 and in the years which followed, the department assisted in the war effort. Various experiments were carried out, and designs of floating dry docks and amphibious tanks were refined. Baier served as consultant to the Chief of Transportation of the War Department and to the Bureau of Yards and Docks. Bragg retired in 1944, and Baier was appointed chairman of the department. Assistant Professor Charles Willett Spooner, Jr. (M.E. Cornell '34, M.S. Michigan '35) was borrowed from the Department of Mechanical Engineering to take over instruction in marine engineering. He was promoted to Associate Professor of Mechanical and Marine Engineering in 1949.

A training course program was given during the war by the department in Cincinnati, Ohio, for the engineering staff of the Army Transportation Corps. In June, 1943, the Navy Department transferred the Reserve Officers Naval Architecture Group from Annapolis to the University of Michigan for training under the direction of the staff of the department.

Assistant Professor Glenn H. Easton (U. S. Naval Academy '15, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology '21) was a member of the department from 1944 to 1946, when the Reserve Officers Naval Architecture Group training program for the Navy Department was completed, providing some 227 officers for Construction Corps duty.

In 1948 Harry Bell Benford ('40e [Nav. Arch. and Mar. Eng.]) was appointed Assistant Professor of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Page  1282coming to the department from the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company. He had had a valuable background in all the practical phases of shipbuilding.

During the past decade the curriculums have been strengthened and emphasis has been placed on design details and fundamental heat balance. Graduate work attracts an increasing number of foreign students. The department serves state and federal government agencies in various consulting and research capacities. Improvements in propeller design, stern flow, and vibration control have contributed to increased tonnage movement on the Great Lakes.

The modern 7,000 shaft horsepower ore and stone carriers, currently under construction for the Great Lakes, were developed by Baier, who also acted as consultant to the state of Michigan in the design and construction of "Vacationland," the ferry recently completed for service at the Straits of Mackinac.

The Experimental Naval Tank

When it was proposed to build the West Engineering Building Dean Cooley incorporated into the plans provision for a naval testing tank. His justification for this was that the United States Navy Tank at Washington was occupied with naval work and hence was unavailable for merchant ship experimental research. Moreover, the development of shipping on the Great Lakes afforded an opportunity for direct contributions by the University to ship design. A subflume in the bottom of the tank was to be connected to the Hydraulic Laboratory, providing ample water supply for the testing of pumps and water wheels, and lastly the tank-room galleries were to be utilized for research in the transmission of compressed air through long pipelines.

During construction of the West Engineering Building, which was completed in 1904, the Naval Tank was extended 100 feet outside the main building to a length of 300 feet. In a few years, however, an addition to the building permitted construction of an additional sixty feet, which at the time was not flooded and put to use because of prior demands for floor space. This tank area was decked over with temporary planking, thus providing two rooms for the use of the Department of Electrical Engineering.

The bottom of the Naval Tank, which is semielliptical in cross section, is twenty-two feet wide and nine and a half feet deep, with a wetted area of about 185 square feet. A three- by four-foot flume extends the length of the Tank below the normal bottom.

All apparatus was designed by Dean Sadler and, with the exception of the towing car, was built in the University Shops. The car was furnished by the Russell Wheel and Foundry Company, of Detroit, in 1904, and its towing speed limit is about 480 feet per minute in low gear and 840 feet per minute in high gear.

Until 1936 practically all models were made of paraffin and were cast roughly to form in a clay bed. The waterlines were then cut on a pantograph-controlled twin rotary cutter machine, the final form being hand finished. The advantages of this technique were economy, ease of making alterations, the possibility of using the same material repeatedly, and the fact that the parent set of lines could be employed to produce a family of models for research purposes.

The disadvantages were sagging or hogging, owing to high temperatures, and alteration in frictional resistance, due to weathering of the wax surface. As the Tank work gradually changed to projects having single models, it was decided in 1936 to standardize by using Page  1283wood models. These are glued together from seven-eighths-inch white pine lifts cut to shape on the band saw and finished by hand to transverse templates.

Improvements in technique and apparatus have been made as required, but when funds are available a more modern dynamometer and car will be installed. The University of Michigan Tank has been in great demand in the development of barges and towboats to operate on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers because of its 140-foot false bottom, which can be adjusted in depth to simulate shoal water conditions. The Tank has been used in a study of the correction of yaw, a condition prevalent in barge towing, and much attention has been given to the improvement in speed and fuel economy of existing lake bulk carriers. This work has been under the direction of Baier.

Sensing the need for closer co-operation and standardization of technique among the various tanks, Baier organized in 1938 the American Towing Tank Conference (ATTC). The first meeting was held at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, in April, 1938.

Although open-water research has been carried out on propellers and paddle wheels, self-propelled model tests have never been undertaken by the University. It is believed that this type of work should be restricted to models of at least twenty feet in length in order to avoid scale effect, and these sizes are beyond the present Tank's capacity.

Among the research problems undertaken have been the following. Series 1050 was tested in 1921 for the Fairbanks-Morse Company to find the best forms for fireboats. A fireboat is usually made as short as possible to enable it to maneuver readily in docks, and usually it has a high speed relative to its length. The forms were designed by Alfred J. C. Robertson, and the series consisted of four models all cut from the same waterlines. This series was unique in having the vertical spacing changed. The results obtained were very satisfactory throughout the speed-length ratio for which they were designed.

The first tests in the 1130 series were undertaken at the request of the United States Shipping Board in 1919. Nine preliminary forms were tested, and form 1130 was selected. Nineteen models were made from a set of parent lines and tested with varying percentages of entrance and run. This series was planned by Robertson.

At the University of Michigan four more models with a 50 per cent run were tested in order to complete the series. This was as far as it was originally intended to go with tests on this model, but the question arose concerning the effect of section shape upon resistance, and it seemed best to use model 1130 for such experiments. A medium shape was used on the twenty-three models previously tested, and variations were made in both directions. The tests seemed to indicate that a 27 per cent entrance and a 40½ per cent run were about the best proportions for general purposes.

All the tests had been made for a 425 by 56 foot ship. The next logical variation seemed to be in the beam. Kent's paper in 1919 on the "Effect of Variation in Beam" had covered a wide range, there being 13-foot intervals between the beams of the successive ships tried. It seemed advisable to cover a more limited range and to have about 4-foot intervals. Thirty models were used to cover this ground, and each model was tested at four different drafts. The experiments upon shape of section having shown that for this type of model best results were obtained with V-shaped forward sections and bulbous-shaped stern sections, these thirty models were tested with V-shaped sections forward and bulbous-shaped sections aft. Thirty-six models were used to Page  1284investigate the effect of rise of floor; eighteen models were tested with an entrance of 33.93 per cent and eighteen with an entrance of 40.7 per cent.

In the 2030 series, during the summer of 1920 the Emergency Fleet Corporation authorized the test of eighteen models of fairly fine form, varying from a prismatic coefficient of .53 to a prismatic coefficient of .76, with parallel middle body varying from o per cent to 35 per cent.

Series 2057 was tested in 1929 for the United States Shipping Board. The forms were designed under Admiral Taylor's direction and were for a form of about .66 block coefficient. The parent lines were very close to Baker's 56-C, although the models were made with some rise of floor.

The models represented 400-foot ships, but with breadth and draft varying to give ship forms ranging from L — 400', beam — 30.94', draft — 13.75', to L — 400', beam — 76.5', draft — 27.82'. Fifteen different models were necessary. The requirements of the Shipping Board would have been met if each of these fifteen models had been tested at one draft only, but it seemed desirable to test the models at a draft of .8 and also at 1.2 of that called for by the Shipping Board. The results were reported by James Lee Ackerson in the Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers for 1930 under the title "Test Results of a Series of Fifteen Models."

In 1935-36 a series of seventeen barge forms was tested for the Dravo Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The tests consisted of fitting ends of different shapes to a middle body and of testing the models at three different drafts in shallow water corresponding to twelve feet for the full-sized barge. As a result of these tests a final form was obtained which could be driven with 30 to 33 per cent less power.

Three similar models were tested in the Tank, and the data were worked over assiduously, but no frictional coefficient could be obtained. The data obtained in testing these models were published in 1932 as a part of the discussion in Commander Saunders' paper "Tests of Geometrically-Similar Ship Models," Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.

From 1915 to 1921 about fifteen different submarine forms were tested for the Electric Boat Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut.

In October, 1929, two models of Crane's design of the cup defender, "Weetamoe" were tested in the Naval Tank. These models were run upright and also in two inclined positions. As a result of these investigations the longer, narrower model was chosen.

In 1931 numerous tests were made for Burgess upon certain of his yacht forms, such as the "Valiant" and "Avatar." Changes were made in the shape of the longitudinal profile and in the shape of the section. The various forms were pushed down the tank at an angle to the direction of motion to determine the center of lateral resistance.

Various tests have been made from time to time upon V-bottom and round-bottom forms of high-speed boats. Certain patented Hydro-Curve forms have been tested for the inventor. The Fairbanks-Morse series deals with forms used in small fishing, trawler, and other commercial vessels.

In 1929-30 a series of tests supplementing those carried out some years previously by the Washington Tank was made for the Shipping Board upon types of bulbous bows. Results of these tests were published in the 1930 Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers under the title "Results of Experiments upon Bulbous Bows."

Page  1285From time to time various fireboat forms have been tested, and the results assembled and correlated by the students as a class project.

Because of the practical gains in speed and economy accomplished by model tests for the Dravo Corporation, continued research has been carried on relative to the most efficient arrangement of barge flotillas. This work proved so successful that river transportation, particularly upstream, has benefited.

An extensive program of tank tests for the Army Transportation Corps on the effect of shoal and restricted water on the speed and resistance of barges and flotillas has been under way during 1950-52. The results are intended to guide government plans for widening and deepening the principal inland waterways for navigation purposes.

In 1947 the new addition to the East Engineering Building was completed, permitting the Department of Electrical Engineering to release the space it had occupied in the West Engineering Building. This space was used for the completion of the north end of the Naval Tank, which was lengthened some sixty feet and fitted with a wave dampening beach. New rails were installed and a false bottom for shoal water work was built. Plans are under way to renew bearings and car wheels, completion of which will modernize the tank.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), 1901-2, 1925-52.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1882-83, 1903-4.
Catalogue …, 1913-14, 1915-16.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Cooley, Mortimer E.Scientific Blacksmith. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1947.
General Register, Univ. Mich., 1927-52.
News Item]. Michigan Technic, 1900, p. 74.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1900-1952.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1952.
Sadler, Herbert C."The Experimental Tank at the University of Michigan."Trans. Soc. Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 14 (1906): 51-63.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Page  [1286]
Page  [1287]

The College of Architecture and Design

Page  [1288]
Page  1289

THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN

ALTHOUGH the Act of 1837 provided for a professorship of civil engineering and architecture, it was not until 1871 that the establishment of a College of Architecture at the University of Michigan was discussed. At that time DeVolson Wood, Professor of Civil Engineering, stated in his report to the Regents that "we should organize advanced courses in General Science, courses in Technical Chemistry, courses in Engineering and Architecture." Four years later a more definite step was taken with regard to architecture. The minutes of the October, 1875, meeting of the Board of Regents note:

The act as finally passed provides for the appointment of a Professor of Mining Engineering, a Professor of Metallurgy, and a Professor of Architecture and Design, and assistants to these Professors, and for the purchase of apparatus, models, drawings, etc., of the value of $5,000. The Professorship of Architecture and Design has not yet been filled, but we hope to find soon a suitable person for the place. There is great need of such a chair. We do not expect a large number of students at first in this School, but we think it will have a steady and healthy development.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 467.)

1876-1906. — In March, 1876, Major William Le Baron Jenney (École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures '56) was appointed Professor of Architecture and Design "with such duties for the present as may be assigned him, and for such compensation for the services rendered as may be arranged by the Executive Committee." At the June meeting of that year one-third of the appropriation for the School of Mines was set aside for the Department of Architecture and Design. Professor Jenney's University activities were not to be confined wholly to instruction, however, for at the same meeting he was "requested to draft plans for a new library and museum building, and report the same to the Board with the estimated cost…"

In October, 1876, in his annual report President Angell stated:

The act, which establishes the School of Mines, provides for a chair of Architecture and Design. We were unable to fill the chair in time to begin instruction last year. But Mr. W. L. B. Jenney, of Chicago, having accepted the Professorship last spring, preparations were at once commenced for the work of the new academic year. Orders were given for books, models, casts, and other necessary materials for illustrations in teaching. Prof. Jenney also gave two introductory lectures on Architecture. We have not looked for a large number of students the first year, but there can be no doubt that there will be a considerable demand for instruction in this department. Certainly there can be no doubt that there is a great need of thoroughly trained architects, who can bring to their work refined and educated taste and scientific knowledge.

A class of seven are pursuing this course. In view of the brief notice which could be given of the details of the work, this must be regarded as a satisfactory number. Several other students regularly attend the lectures of the course.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 62.)
Professor Jenney's salary is not stated, but it is interesting to note that at this time Charles S. Denison, later to become Professor of Stereotomy, Mechanism, and Drawing in the College of Engineering, was appointed Assistant in the School of Architecture and Design at the annual salary of $500.

In these early days instruction in architecture seems always to have been on a precarious footing. At the October, Page  12901877, meeting President Angell again reported:

The Act passed in 1873, establishing a School of Mines here (including also a School of Architecture) made provision for its support for only two years. The Regents organized the School so that it began the work in Mining Engineering in the autumn of 1875. The instruction in Architecture was delayed until the autumn of 1876. Nearly the whole of the sum of five thousand dollars appropriated for apparatus has been expended, two-thirds of the amount on the apparatus for the mining work, and one-third on the apparatus for the Architectural School. Competent professors have been secured, and students have been attracted in good numbers from various parts of the Union. We had every reason to expect a satisfactory career for the Schools. To our great regret the Legislature failed to continue the appropriations for their support. We could spare nothing from our general fund to carry them on. It was a grave question whether we should not drop them altogether, in spite of the great disappointment to the students, who had been drawn hither by the assurance that we could give them full courses of instruction in Mining and Architecture. But Prof. Langley having kindly offered to give for the present the instruction in Metallurgy in addition to his regular duties, and Prof. Pettee having also offered to teach Mining Engineering in addition to his duties as Professor of Geology (both of them without any compensation for the extra work), we are able to continue to care for the students in Mining. But I am sorry to say that the instruction in Architecture must be suspended until from some source we can receive more funds. The class in Architecture were pursuing their study with great enthusiasm and with excellent promise. Surely in the downfall of badly planned and ill-constructed buildings, causing not only destruction of property but also of life, we are receiving eloquent appeals for the thorough training of architects. We do not need to leave our own grounds to be reminded of the advantages which might accrue to us from the employment of architects of chaste and cultivated taste.


(R.P., 1876-81, pp. 153-54.)

On October 11, 1878, W. H. Pettee, Professor of Mining Engineering and Geology, spoke before the Board:

It is well known that the Legislature of 1875 appropriated the sum of $21,000 for the establishment of this School (including a department of Architecture), and for its maintenance for two years. Some of that part of the appropriation which was available for equipment purposes was lost to the University, because the Professor of Architecture and Design, wishing to keep well within the limits of the appropriation, and not being aware that the money would have to be expended, if at all, before the end of December, 1876, postponed the completion of his intended purchases until it was too late …

The Legislature of 1877 failed to make any appropriation for the further support of the School, and all that has been done in and for the School during the past year has had to be done without aid from the State; nay, more than that, without expense to the University. The instruction in architecture was suspended at the beginning of the year; and not a single dollar, so far as I am aware, has been drawn from the University treasury, either for the payment of salaries or for the purchase of any apparatus or supplies to be used in the Department of Mining or that of Metallurgy.


(R.P., 1876-81, pp. 311-12.)

That the Regents had been unsuccessful in an attempt to obtain a satisfactory plan for the contemplated University Museum is evident from the report submitted by Regent Maltz, chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, which was adopted on June 25, 1879:

Your Committee to whom was referred the matter of procuring a design for the proposed Museum building were of the opinion that the only proper mode of proceeding to this duty was to advertise for competitive designs from architects. In accordance with this view, they advertised in the Detroit Post and Tribune and the Detroit Free Press for designs to be placed in the hands of H. D. Bennett, Secretary, and to be received to 12 o'clock noon of the 23d of June at the office of the Secretary at the University. On the Page  1291day set five designs were offered, of which two approach the nearest to the requirements of your Committee; and of the two referred to that under the motto of "Norman Romanesque," was deemed the superior, and as embracing more of the requisites of a Museum building for your uses. But it was found that the architect's estimate of the cost of erection was $8,000 in excess of the amount given to the architects as a limit of cost, and after some examination and partial estimating by your Committee, they became convinced that the cost of executing this design would be considerably in excess of the architect's estimate. They are therefore, and with great reluctance, obliged to recommend the rejection of all of the designs submitted.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 387.)

After this discouraging outcome the commission seems to have been given outright to Professor Jenney, for on June 25, 1879, he was authorized to "draw plans for the proposed Museum Building, to be submitted at the next meeting of the Board." It was resolved "that the plan and specifications prepared by Professor Jenney for the construction of a Museum be and are hereby adopted, subject to such modifications as may be made by the Committee."

It appears that Professor Jenney was likewise retained for the design of a homeopathic and hospital amphitheater provided that in the event the committee was unable to make a good and sufficient contract within the appropriation granted by the Legislature, the plans submitted were to be so modified by the committee as to come within the appropriation.

During this period it seems probable that Professor Jenney's teaching activities were suspended since at the October 21, 1879, meeting the following preamble and resolution were acted on by the Regents:

Whereas, the Department of Architecture was discontinued temporarily for financial reasons, and those reasons being now removed by the great prosperity of the University; therefore be it

Resolved, That the President and Executive Committee of the Board are hereby authorized to reinaugurate said Department of Architecture at the earliest practicable moment.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 434.)

Apparently, however, this prosperity was not too real, and resolutions alone could not finance the School. The following report was read by Regent Cutcheon and adopted in March, 1880:

The Executive Committee, to whom was referred the matter of reviving the School of Architecture, would respectfully report that in view of the very large expenditures likely to be required for the completion and equipment of the new Museum building, and the necessity for the immediate enlargement of the Chemical Laboratory, and other reasons which at present embarrass our action, the Committee has taken no steps toward the reinauguration of that School, and do not deem it expedient to take any such action at present.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 461.)

Ironically, construction costs of the Museum designed by Jenney made it impossible for him to continue his work as a teacher and in fact meant the suspension of all instruction in architecture for a long period.

It is regrettable that there appears to be no evidence at the University of Jenney's attitude toward education in architecture. The Regents' Proceedings do not quote him nor refer to his qualifications other than as mentioned above. Because of his brief connection with the University and the early abandonment of the course one may gain the impression that he was an unimportant man professionally. Certainly, he accomplished little as an educator, but in the annals of American architecture his name ranks as one of the most outstanding of his time.

William Le Baron Jenney was a civil engineer and an architect; he had received his training in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Page  1292and in Paris, France. He was engaged as a civil engineer in railroad work when the Civil War broke out. As a major in the United States Army he built Forts Henry and Donaldson, as well as the defenses at Shiloh, Corinth, and Vicksburg. After the war Major Jenney opened his first office as an architect in Chicago in 1868. Chicago was then a booming city, and he had an active practice. Even while serving briefly at the University of Michigan he was carrying on extensive projects in that city.

Today the multistoried office building is generally recognized as one of the most notable contributions of the American architect to the development of modern urban architecture. Structures such as the Empire State Building, erected in 1929, were made possible by the device of the steel skeleton frame, which carries the floors and masonry walls story by story. The venerable tradition of walls and floors carried up continuously from masonry footings at the base limited the practicable height of buildings in the structural sense. The efficiency of masonry wall office buildings on valuable land reached the point of diminishing returns in the seventeen-story Monadnock Building built in Chicago in 1889, for the first-story walls were seven feet thick, taking too great a proportion of the rentable floor area. Jenney was the architect of the Home Insurance Building completed in Chicago in 1886. This was the first skeleton-frame office building in the world. Within a few years the principle enunciated by Jenney became standard practice for high buildings. He also made important advances in the field of fireproofing. He had experienced both the San Francisco fire of 1850 and the Chicago fire of 1871, and, naturally, fireproofing was a preoccupation with him. The first Professor of Architecture at the University of Michigan was a great architect of his time. Early in the century Jenney retired from active practice to live in California, where he died in Los Angeles in 1907 at the age of seventy-five.

For more than twenty years instruction in architecture seems not to have been officially discussed at Michigan. In 1901, however, a communication to the Regents from the Michigan Chapter of the American Institute of Architects stated:

The Michigan Chapter of the American Institute of Architects … desire to add their hearty indorsement to the letter under date of May 27, 1901, addressed to your Honorable Body by Dr. Harold Wilson, of Detroit, asking for the establishment of a Department of Architecture in the University of Michigan.

The reason for the request having been quite fully presented in Dr. Wilson's letter, we would only beg leave to add that we feel sure it will be granted; that an education in architecture is as important as an education in any of the varied fields now cultivated through our higher educational institutions; that the factor of art is as important as the factor of utility. In proof of this, consider the beautiful cities of the world, and the tribute in the way of commercial riches that is paid them…

Apart, then, from any higher motive, from the utilitarian standpoint alone, the value of a department of architecture will, we believe, commend itself to your Honorable Board.


(R.P., 1896-1901, pp. 662-63.)

Possibly, there may have been occasional unofficial representations urging the cause of education in architecture, but the next evidence occurs in 1903, when a request for the establishment of a chair of architecture at the University was referred to the Engineering Committee for consideration.

In October, 1905, Regent Fletcher moved that a chair of architecture be established in the Department of Engineering. This was approved, and at the November meeting of the same year Regent Page  1293Hill read the following communication:

The Michigan Chapter of the American Institute of Architects at a regular meeting held Tuesday, Nov. 7, 1905, have instructed me to assure your Board that the Michigan Chapter, A.I.A., after a discussion on the establishment of a School for Architecture in the University of Michigan, is most heartily in sympathy with the plan proposed by your Body …


(R.P., 1901-6, p. 645.)

Finally, in February, 1906, twenty-six years after the termination of Jenney's appointment, Emil Lorch was appointed Professor of Architecture with service to begin October 1. This marks the beginning of the revival of instruction in this field, the first step in a program destined to develop to the present time. A schedule of work for students in architecture and in architectural engineering was approved in June, 1906.

President Angell in his report of October, 1906, said:

We are now to resume instruction in Architecture under Professor Emil Lorch. It was carried on from 1876 to 1880 * under Professor Jenney, and some men were graduated who have attained eminence in their professions. The work was provided for by a special appropriation of the Legislature at the urgent suggestion of Governor Bagley. But in 1877 the Legislature failed to renew the appropriation, and so the instruction was necessarily and much to our regret discontinued. We trust that we shall now be able to maintain it permanently.


(R.P., 1906-10, pp. 6-7.)

1906-1913. — The status of architecture as a subdepartment with a ranking chairman in the Department of Engineering was approved by the Regents in 1905. The four-year curriculum in architecture appears in the Announcement of the Department of Engineering for 1906-7. Accommodations were provided on the second and fourth floors of the West Engineering Building, and library space was made available in the Engineering Library. Almost immediately additional faculty members were appointed. Staff members of those years included Emil Lorch (A.M. Harvard '03), 1906-40; William Caldwell Titcomb (Harvard '04), 1907-13, 1925-32; Percy Ash (Pennsylvania '86), 1910-12; Raymond Everett (Harvard '09a), 1910-15; George McDonald McConkey ('14e [Arch.]), 1911-; Louis Holmes Boynton, 1912-24; Wells Ira Bennett (Syracuse '11a, D.F.A. hon. ibid. '19, M.S. Michigan '16), 1912-; and Beverly Robinson (Columbia '09a, M.S. Michigan '17), 1912-18. The enrollment which in 1906-7 had numbered twenty-two increased until by 1912-13 there were one hundred students.

Even in the early years of the unit it was the desire of the architectural profession and of Professor Lorch and his staff that architecture be made a separate department. At the Regents' meeting in May, 1907, "Regent Dean read a communication from the American Institute of Architects asking that Architecture in this University be made a separate Department. The communication was received and placed on file." It was to be expected that action toward separation would be delayed until student and faculty response should justify it.

In July, 1913, the following action was taken:

Resolved, That the Department of Engineering and the department of Architecture be hereafter known as the Departments of Engineering and Architecture with the present Dean and Secretary acting in a similar capacity for the new organization; and that the Department of Architecture shall hereafter administer the admission and discipline of its students, with full control of the curricula in Architecture.


(R.P., 1910-14, p. 778.)

The administration of the early program Page  1294was relatively informal and simple. For the first seven years, while architecture was a subdepartment of the Department of Engineering, Lorch was chairman. The small staff worked closely on mutual problems, almost as a family group.

The pattern of enrollment and staff growth through this period was as follows:

Enrollment Staff
1906-7 22 1906-7 1
1908-9 38 1908-9 2
1910-11 77 1910-11 4
1912-13 100 1912-13 8

1913-1931. — Considerable autonomy was granted to architecture in 1913, and two years later the title of the administrative unit was changed to that of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture. Enrollment dropped during World War I, then rose rapidly to 370 in 1930.

At this time the staff again was increased by the appointment of new instructors and assistant professors. These included Sidney Fiske Kimball (Harvard '09, Ph.D. Michigan '15), architecture, 1913-19; Leon Alexander Makielski, drawing and painting, 1915-28; Ernest Harrison Barnes (Hillsdale '97, A.M. hon. ibid. '23), painting, 1915-43; Joseph Joachim Albert Rousseau (École des Beaux-arts [Paris] '14), architecture, 1915-31; Charles Dana Loomis (Harvard '06), architecture, 1920-23; Frederick Charles O'Dell (Pennsylvania '17a), architecture, 1920-; Herbert Atherton Fowler ('31a), design, 1921-39; James Blaine Newman ('14e [Arch.], A.M. '24), architecture, 1920-25; Carleton Watson Angell, drawing and modeling, 1923-26, 1930-33; Ernest Wilby (Wesley College [Harrogate, England] '85), architecture, 1922-43; Raymond Mathews (Pennsylvania '12a, M.S. Michigan '35), architecture, 1923-42; Eliel Saarinen (Arch.D. hon. '33), architecture, 1923-24; Myron Butman Chapin (Chicago '20), drawing and painting, 1924-; Frederic H. Aldrich, Jr., drawing and painting, 1925-43; Samuel Chamberlain, architecture, 1925-30; Walter Vancleve Marshall ('15e [Arch.]), architecture, 1925-; Francis Skillman Onderdonk (D.Tech.Sci. Vienna '19), architecture, 1925-33; Charles R. Barnum (Minnesota '24a), architecture, 1926-33; Jean Paul Slusser ('09, A.M. '11), drawing and painting, 1925-; Alexander Mastro Valerio, drawing and painting, 1927-53; Ross Bittinger ('28a, A.M. '37), design, 1926-40; Mary Olmsted Johnson, drawing and painting, 1926-27; Victor V. Slocum, clay modeling, 1926-30; Maria L. Crane, drawing and painting, 1926-31; Harry Robinson Gamble (Pennsylvania State '22), architecture, 1926-31; Austin A. Howe, architecture, 1926-34; Thomas Sheridan Tanner (Illinois '17, M.S. Michigan '41a), architecture, 1927-; Walter Winthrop J. Gores (Stanford '17, A.M. ibid. '27), design, 1929-; George Holmes Perkins (M.A. Harvard '29), architecture, 1929-30; T. Gerald Kronick (Minnesota '26, M.S. Harvard '27), architecture, 1929-33; and George Bickford Brigham, Jr., architecture, 1930-.

In the large classes of the 1920's some of the best students were employed as teaching assistants, and among these were men who have since made outstanding records in professional practice: Chandler Carroll Cohagen ('15a), Clair William Ditchy ('15a), Robert Benjamin Frantz ('17a, M.S. '20), Joseph Hudnut ('12a), and Gilbert Stanley Underwood (ex. '17).

The quarters in the East Engineering Building proved inadequate for student and faculty accommodations. In 1923 additional space was obtained when the second and third floors of the old Engineering Shops were remodeled and occupied by the College as drafting rooms and as additional office space for the staff. A connection at the second-floor Page  1295level was built to span the gap between the Engineering Shops and the West Engineering Building. This was termed by students the "Bridge of Sighs." As early as 1915 the need for separate accommodations for architecture had been stated to the Regents:

A communication was received from Dean Cooley setting forth the desirability of other quarters than the Engineering Building, for the College of Architecture. On motion of Regent Hubbard this communication was referred with power to the President and the Chairman of the Regents' Committee on the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture.


(R.P., 1914-17, p. 237.)
The pressure of College and University growth ever demanding more space was recorded again in the Regents' Proceedings of June, 1919:

Communications were received from the Faculties of the departments of Chemical Engineering and Architecture urging the need of new buildings for housing these departments. On motion of Regent Hubbard, these communications were placed upon the table.

Owing to the enlarged enrollment and staff both engineers and architects by 1920 occupied very congested quarters. With the backing of the Regents and President Burton a campaign was launched for an architecture building. In 1924 the legislature was asked to appropriate $400,000 for the building and equipment. This was finally provided in the legislative appropriation of May 26, 1925.

Emil Lorch and Associates, Harold A. Beam ('22), and George M. McConkey were named as architects. The appropriation proved inadequate to carry through the project as contemplated. In this situation the building industries of the state were very helpful, contributing substantially to construction materials. Alumni and friends of the College made generous gifts for the acquisition of art objects and of historical fragments of American architecture. Among the donors may be mentioned George G. Booth, George D. Mason, William Starrett, Emory Clark, and Fred L. Smith. The new building was completed and occupied in the fall of 1927.

In 1920 at a special March meeting of the Board of Regents the separation of the College of Architecture from the College of Engineering was proposed. A communication from Dean Cooley transmitting a study by Professor Alfred H. White, chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering, of the probable development of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture, was referred to the Engineering Committee for consideration and report.

In January, 1922, Dean Cooley communicated to the Board the following resolutions adopted by the faculty of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture in June, 1920, and requested action by the Regents in accordance therewith:

Whereas, the Faculty of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture has for several years been considering a fundamental revision of its course of study with the purpose of broadening the program during the four undergraduate years and postponing part of the specialization to a fifth year of professional graduate study, and believes that the projected enlargement of its buildings will give it sufficient physical facilities to inaugurate such a program in the fall of 1923,

Resolved, That the faculty request the Board of Regents to approve the principle involved in this revision and to authorize the Faculty to submit a definite program embodying this principle.


(R.P., 1920-23, p. 366.)
Thus, upon the adoption of these resolutions, the five-year program in architecture was approved in principle.

Although the Architecture Building was completed and the five-year undergraduate program accepted, the matter Page  1296of autonomy remained undecided. Finally, in September, 1931, the College of Architecture was established as a separate entity of the University.

Since its beginning in 1906 the fundamental objective of the College had been education in architecture. From the first there was also necessarily instruction in freehand drawing and water-color painting, for proficiency in these fields was required of the student in architecture. Alice L. Hunt of the Engineering Drawing staff taught these courses in 1906-7. Titcomb and Everett followed her in this field at first and, later, Aldrich, Barnes, Makielski, and Slusser, all professional painters, carried on the supplementary courses. Presently, both architecture and nonarchitecture students began to elect drawing and painting as fields of interest in their own right. These elections considerably augmented the enrollment, and in 1921 Herbert A. Fowler was appointed to the staff as Instructor to teach decorative design. Like drawing and painting, decorative design soon attracted student interest, and as a result of these two developments the four-year curriculum in decorative design was listed in the Announcement of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture for 1925-26. The program leading to the degree of bachelor of science in design soon became a substantial part of the instruction offered by the College.

Although the status of joint equality with engineering under one administration was established in 1913, when the title of the unit was changed to Departments of Engineering and Architecture, the administration of the work in architecture was little changed. Staff meetings in architecture remained occasional and informal. Once established in the Architecture Building with the autonomy of the College in prospect, the first unofficial faculty meeting on record was held October 22, 1929. Assistant Professor Walter V. Marshall served as secretary. Present were Professors Lorch, McConkey, Rousseau, Wilby; Associate Professor Bennett; Assistant Professors Marshall, Slusser, Fowler, O'Dell, Chapin, Barnes; Instructors Onderdonk, Gores, Bittinger, and Perkins.

The following figures represent the pattern of enrollment and staff growth.

Enrollment Staff
1913-14 124 1913-14 9
1918-19 97 1918-19 8
1923-24 246 1923-24 13
1928-29 362 1928-29 29
1930-31 370 1930-31 27

1931-1936. — During the development of the College from 1931 to 1936, enrollment remained fairly constant following the slow recovery from the depression. Working accommodations were spacious and comfortable in the new building. Roger Bailey (Cornell '20a) was appointed Lecturer in Architecture in 1931 and was Professor from 1934 to 1948. In 1931, also, Jean Hébrard (A.D.G.F. École des Beaux-arts '03) succeeded Rousseau as Professor of Architecture, Beaver Edwards was appointed Instructor, resigning in 1938, and Ralph Warner Hammett (Minnesota '19, M.Arch. Harvard '23) became Associate Professor of Architecture.

As previously mentioned, in 1931 the School was set up "as a separate entity of the University under the direction of its own faculty and administrative officers, directly responsible to the President and Regents as provided in the By-Laws." At this time the title of Professor Lorch was changed to Professor of Architecture and Director of the College of Architecture. In September, 1931, faculty records became official.

When Professor Lorch resigned as Director of the College in the spring of 1936, President Ruthven appointed an Page  1297Executive Committee, which consisted of Professors Bennett, Gores, and Hébrard, with Professor Bennett as chairman. This organization remained in effect until the administration of the College was more formally reorganized. At the January, 1937, meeting of the faculty the report of the Regents was read:

Resolved, That the executive functions of the College of Architecture shall be under the control of a director assisted by an executive committee. The Executive Committee shall be charged with the duties of investigating and formulating educational and instructional policies for consideration by the Faculty and shall act for the College in matters of budget, promotions, and appointments; and

Resolved, further, That the Executive Committee of the College of Architecture shall consist of the Director and three additional members from the Faculty appointed by the President from a panel of names nominated by the Faculty. The panel shall contain twice as many names as there are positions to be filled. The Director shall be chairman of the Committee; and

Resolved, further, That the appointive members of the Executive Committee shall hold office for three years and shall not be eligible for reappointment until after the lapse of one year. The terms of office of the appointive members of the first Executive Committee shall be for one, two, or three years, as determined by lot, beginning July 1, 1937. Members receiving appointments at any time for one year shall be eligible for immediate reappointment; and

Resolved, That Wells Ira Bennett, M.S., be and hereby is appointed Director of the College of Architecture, effective February 15, 1937, with the understanding that he retain his present title of Professor of Architecture; and

Resolved, further, That the present Executive Committee of the College of Architecture be continued through June 30, 1937, and that the appointive members thereof be eligible for appointment in the first Executive Committee under the new administrative plan.


(R.P., 1936-39, p. 149.)

1936-1952. — Enrollment in the College reached a new high of 399 in 1940-41, but decreased noticeably during World War II. Before the war ended, the return of the veterans to college began, and the tremendous growth, common to all universities and colleges, continued until 1950. The teaching load for 1946-47 doubled that of the preceding year, and subsequent years have seen the trend continue. Among those appointed to the staff and serving as indicated were: Donald Burnette Gooch ('35ed, M.Des. '39), design, 1936-; Mary Chase Stratton (A.M. hon. '30), design, 1937-; Emil Weddige (Michigan State Normal '34, M.Des. Michigan '38), design, 1937-; Bertha Van Zwaluwenburg Frayer (Stanford '12), design, 1938-50; Catherine Bortic Heller ('23a), design, 1938-; Ernest Karl Mundt (Dipl. Ing. Berlin '30), architecture, 1940-44; Grover Dee Cole (Southern California '40), design, 1940-50; Aarre Kotivalo Lahti (Chicago Art Institute '47), design, 1940-; Richard Adolph Lippold (Chicago Art Institute '37), design, 1941-43; Thomas Samuel Haile (Royal College of London '34), design, 1942-44; John Worthington Hyde (Massachusetts State '25a, M.C.P. Harvard '36), city planning, 1945-; F. Carlos Lopez, drawing and painting, 1945-53; James Donald Prendergast (Chicago Art Institute '38), drawing and painting, 1944-; Karl Albert Kasten (California '38, M.A. ibid. '39), drawing and painting, 1946-47; Roger Benton Hollenbeck (Southern California '38), design, 1946-48; Gerome Kamrowski, drawing and painting, 1946-; Paul Henry Coy (Texas '41, M.Arch. Michigan '48), architecture, 1947-; Carl Erling Guldberg ('40a), drawing and painting, 1946-50; Charles Leo Moody (Maine '17), landscape architecture, 1946-; David Henry Reider, design, 1947-; Frank Cassara, drawing and painting, 1947-; Herbert Wilson Johe (Carnegie Institute of Technology Page  1298'36, M.Arch. ibid. '40), architecture, 1947-; Paul Haller Jones (Illinois '38, M.F.A. Cranbrook '48), drawing, 1947-; Glenn Gunnette Mastin ('34a), architecture, 1947-; Richard Wilt (Carnegie Institute of Technology '38), drawing and painting, 1947-; Chet LaMore (Wisconsin, '32, M.A. ibid. '32), drawing and painting, 1947-; Walter B. Sanders (Illinois '29, M.Arch. Pennsylvania '30), architecture, 1948-; Carl Theodore Larson (Harvard '25, M. Arch. ibid. '29), architecture, 1948-; Willard August Oberdick ('47a), architecture, 1948-; Edward Victor Olencki (Illinois Institute of Technology '44, M.S. ibid. '49), architecture, 1948-; Philip Charles Davis, design, 1948-; Charles William Pearman ('47a), architecture, 1949-; Thomas Fulton McClure (Nebraska '41, M.F.A. Cranbrook '47), design, 1949-; Arnold Benjamin Handler (M.S. London '35), city planning, 1950-; William Muschenheim (M. Arch. Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna '29), architecture, 1950-.

Visiting lecturers included Frank Lloyd Wright, Eric Mendelsohn, Joseph Hudnut, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Bragdon, Richard Neutra, Irving K. Pond, Albert Davis Taylor, Lilburn Lamley Woodworth, Knut Lönberg-Holm, Francesco della Sala.

Paralleling the growth of the College the programs in design have been revised and expanded to cover certain specialties such as information design, interior and product design, painting, printmaking, sculpture, and ceramics. The long-discussed five-year undergraduate program in architecture became the only curriculum in that field in September, 1939. A strong interest in city planning developed, and a senior major in city planning appeared in the Announcement for 1946-47. A graduate program leading to the degree of master of city planning was established in that year.

Landscape Design, which had been instituted as a program in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1909, was transferred to the College of Architecture in 1939 and became the Department of Landscape Architecture with Professor Whittemore as chairman. Assistant Professor George Gould Ross ('30, M.L.D. '32) was also transferred to the College of Architecture on a part-time appointment with the rank of Associate Professor. In consideration of the importance of the curriculum in design, and because of the transfer to this College of the Department of Landscape Architecture, the title was changed from College of Architecture to College of Architecture and Design in June, 1939.

Members of the Executive Committee, which was announced in July, 1937, were Professors Gores, Lorch, and Hébrard with Professor Bennett, Director, as chairman. This pattern of administration has continued, and in February, 1938, the Board of Regents appointed Bennett Dean of the College. In 1947 Professor Walter Marshall was appointed Assistant Dean.

The retirement of Professor Hébrard in 1948 left a vacancy on the senior staff. This event together with the large enrollment in the College created serious problems of leadership in teaching architecture. Following a survey by an advisory committee consisting of Harold D. Hauf, chairman of the Department of Architecture of Yale University; Joseph Hudnut, Dean of the School of Design at Harvard; Professor Joseph D. Murphy, of the School of Architecture of Washington University in St. Louis; John Root, distinguished architect of Chicago; and William W. Wurster, Dean of the School of Architecture of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, new appointments were made to the staff, including Larson, Sanders, Muschenheim, and Handler.

The pattern of enrollment and of staff Page  1299growth from 1931 to 1951 was as follows:

Enrollment Staff
1931-32 348 1931-32 27
1936-37 358 1936-37 24
1941-42 385 1941-42 30
1946-47 715 1946-47 35
1951-52 643 1951-52 46

The programs. — Since the re-establishment of instruction in architecture in 1906, there have been more than four decades of development in the College. If it is assumed that architecture rests on the great works of the past with adaptations to modern use, then a traditional grounding for education in architecture is sound. In these terms architecture is an expression of an orderly progress within a static framework; it is a combination of age-long experience in building and a demonstration of the academic principles of beauty. A school of architecture in a fine arts environment may have an architect as dean or chairman, but frequently the administrative officer is a historian or a musician, a fact which indicates only that the environment is that of the aesthetic elements in our culture.

The spirit of education in architecture in the earlier decades of the century was essentially that of the École des Beauxarts, suitably diluted for American consumption. Some reflection of the highly integrated and refined performance of the French school appeared in a few American institutions, but in the main only a faint shadow of the French design system, perhaps with some added deference to the French theory of architecture as stated by Gaudet, could be seen in the American environment. At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology both design and construction were well taught. In some schools the emphasis was on academic design, with a popular design critic in charge; in weaker schools the curriculum consisted mainly of engineering subjects only slightly tinctured by a design series and taught by devoted but not wholly competent instructors.

Some schools had their beginnings as groups of courses in departments of engineering. At Michigan Dean Cooley, of the College of Engineering, while this work was under his administration, presented to the Regents the problems of instruction in architecture and endorsed requests for staff, working quarters, and equipment. Most schools of architecture thus founded attained an independent status, although some are still departments of engineering. It has been fortunate for the College of Architecture and Design that the attitude of the College of Engineering throughout was constructive and friendly.

The young College at the University of Michigan was from the beginning relatively independent. Lorch early established the attitude that the main emphasis in architecture should be placed on design, taught objectively by capable men; and that construction courses for architects should be taught by architects, since the problems of building are only in a restricted sense common to those of the engineering field. The College has remained firm in this attitude. Albert Rousseau was much affected by the conditions presented by the modern environment, and he exemplified them both in teaching and in practice. Eliel Saarinen gave impetus to our continuing emphasis on city planning as essentially a phase of architecture. He was the complete architect. Jean Hébrard, thoroughly disciplined in the beaux-arts system, was convinced that architecture has always been dynamic and must continue to move forward. Like Saarinen he included city planning in his concept of architecture. He set a high example for his students by questioning their attitudes in attacking problems of design, which he presented in such a way as to bring out needs in modern architecture.

Page  1300Through the lively interest of Lorch the work of such American pioneers as Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright became known to the students. These men and their achievements were analyzed objectively at a time when they were little accredited, particularly in the eastern United States. Those who were teaching architecture at the University knew and appreciated the work of Otto Wagner in Austria, H. H. P. Berlage in Holland, and A. Perret in France. After World War I, as the modern movement abroad became more favorably known in the United States, the accomplishments of Walter Gropius, LeCorbusier, W. M. Dudok, Mies Van Der Rohe, and others were understandingly discussed by the students and their instructors. By the time of World War II American students and many teachers of architecture considered the attitudes of the academic French system obsolete. The young architect interested in new developments may sometimes have desired change for change's sake. It was probably inevitable that the followers of LeCorbusier, Wright, and the German Bauhaus tended to become as doctrinaire as the system they supplanted.

By the mid 1940's only a few schools considered research to be a necessary supplement to education in architecture. Building research had been undertaken in a few universities, but was wholly divorced from the work in architecture. The fact that instruction and research have now begun to merge in professional education suggests a growing awareness of professional responsibility.

In 1947, following a self-survey initiated by the report of the advisory committee earlier noted, the College of Architecture and Design began a marked reorientation. This has proceeded along lines which may be stated as follows: The prime objective in the curriculum in architecture is to integrate site planning, construction and materials, building planning, equipment, and research. Integration of program mainly should be vertical rather than horizontal, beginning with the basic courses and finding continued and sequential expression through the work of the second, third, fourth, and fifth years. No single professional course such as sophomore design should exist in a vacuum isolated from the design courses that precede and follow it.

Such horizontal stratification as remains extends as a tie across the fields of specialization: building planning, city planning, construction, and building economics are integrated in the case study of problems. Members of the staff work as a team with the student through the successive stages of analysis, synthesis, and final presentation in finished drawings. In junior and senior design the student has the advice and help of designers, specialists in construction, a research specialist, and an economist. In the judgments at the end of each semester the student personally presents his drawings and makes his argument to the jury. The junior and senior staff jury is supplemented by visiting practitioners.

Another objective, the development of architectural research, is being carried on by the College, some of the projects in co-operation with the Engineering Research Institute. It is the stated policy of the College that design, like construction, should be integrated with research. As numerous staff members devote part of their time to research, some knowledge of its importance and of its useful results in practice are brought to the student body. To a limited extent students are also employed on research projects.

In 1952 more than two hundred students in the College enrolled in the curriculum in visual arts. These students, like those in architecture, have an interest in graphic and three-dimensional presentation and a concern with qualities Page  1301of form. The curriculum, however, has its own objectives. The majors in visual arts are painting, printmaking, ceramics, sculpture, interior design, information design, and product design. A considerable range of professional quality, as well as subject matter, exists. The painter, like the poet, finds his complete justification in art as a way of life. The graduate of interior, information, or product design enters a fluid and unorganized but very live and realistic field. His may be an exciting and well-paid career; he may work free-lance or be employed by a corporation. The main objective in the training of the design student is the establishment of standards applicable to all visual design. The College endeavors to exemplify the spirit of the design fields in contemporary culture. The program in the visual arts is significant for the student, even though he or she may not use it as the basis of a career. A background of general academic subjects is required in the visual arts curriculum, and the program as a whole is valid as general education.

In the approach of the College, whether in architecture or in design, there is recognition of the American industrial civilization. Projects are realistic and imply the current economic and social situations. The instructor in design, with his students, endeavors to make a direct approach to a given problem in its economic setting and cultural pattern. The procedure is that of sufficient research to develop the factors involved, followed by their thorough analysis in a given setting. Finally, the synthesis in design, which is the student's solution, rests on an objective approach to organic function, rather than on a vague sense of form. This emphasis on realism in no sense excludes the element of imagination. The College is admittedly experimenting with this approach. Other schools have expressed great interest in the programs. The refinement of teaching techniques for teamwork among students and among staff groups is as yet in process. Results from the initial period are promising.

The history of the College illustrates the fact that education in architecture and design follows ever-changing patterns, preserving only the fixed purpose of presenting insofar as possible in a four-or five-year period a constructive preparation for professional practice. The student must also complete an apprentice period, or internship, after graduation, before he takes state board examinations. In architecture the complexity of the designing and building process has increased enormously since 1906. In the visual arts the perspective is equally challenging. The curriculum must change to keep pace with advances in architecture and the other arts.

Staff. — In the years between 1906 and 1952 the College has had many excellent teachers, with a range of service of one to thirty-nine years. By precept and practice they have set the patterns and attitudes of the College and have contributed markedly to its reputation. In any school personal leadership by the staff is the vital element in the record of development.

Emil Lorch, Professor of Architecture and later Director of the College of Architecture, had a sound background of architectural training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at Harvard University. In addition, his lively interest in the architecture of the Midwest gave his attitudes vitality and some degree of independence. Lacking the official national status of the École des Beaux-arts, the several modest American schools of architecture could only echo the approach of the French school by stating and issuing academic problems to be solved by the student with the aid of his critic, the professor of Page  1302design. It was inevitable that in order to give this process some resemblance to the French prototype, Frenchmen should be eagerly sought as chief critics. In 1907 this pattern was becoming well established. Behind it lay all the authority not only of the French school but of those successful architects in New York and Chicago who had been fortunate enough to have spent some time at the École des Beaux-arts.

The College managed to maintain its independence in spite of pressure from other schools and from those who could not understand a departure from the tenets of the French system. Professor Lorch was much influenced by the work and writing of Louis H. Sullivan, of Chicago, and by the early work of Frank Lloyd Wright, then a young but exciting and successful contemporary, and the theories of Denman Ross, of Harvard, and Arthur W. Dow, of Pratt Institute.

Professor Lorch's career at Michigan as head of the work in architecture extended from 1906 to 1936, when he resigned as Director of the College. During this period he served the interests of the school and of education in architecture with unswerving devotion. Always objective in thought and vigorous in action, his was throughout the period the outstanding personality; he was the leader. He was a charter member of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture and the first president of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. This last honor was most appropriate since he was a prime force in the establishment of legislation regulating the practice of architecture in the state of Michigan.

In addition to his concern with education and legal regulation of practice, Lorch was from time to time active in private practice, mainly in Ann Arbor. He was architect and a member of the consulting board of the Belle Isle Bridge in Detroit. He designed the Architecture Building. He was the architect of several buildings for the Detroit Edison Company and of numerous residential projects. He early had a particular interest in research having to do with the history of American buildings and since his retirement has carried on this work even more actively, continuing to concern himself with the Classic Revival period of the middle nineteenth century. Lorch was an inspiring teacher and after his resignation as Director he taught until he reached retirement age in 1940. He was made a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1939.

From 1917 until his untimely death in 1931, J. J. Albert Rousseau held the position of Professor of Architecture. He was a well-known figure on the campus, admired and respected by faculty and students. He knew intimately the personality and work of every senior student in the College. Born in Quebec, Canada, he studied architecture there and later at the École des Beaux-arts in Paris. It is indicative of his mental alertness and professional ability that he gradually adapted the tenets of his academic training to the necessities and opportunities of modern American architecture. His approach to architecture may be characterized as that of the conservative modernist. This progressive attitude appeared both in his teaching and in the various buildings he designed. Among his commissions, that of the Masonic Temple in Ann Arbor, carried out in collaboration with Professor McConkey, is considered to be the outstanding example.

Outside Ann Arbor Rousseau was prominent in the profession. He kept in friendly touch with the alumni, and they often came to Ann Arbor for help with their varied problems. To architects here and abroad he was well and favorably known. In the Chicago Tribune competition Page  1303of 1922, the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre competition of 1928, and the Chicago War Memorial competition of 1930, he won honorable mention, against world-wide competition. He was a member of the Detroit Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, the Michigan Society of Architects, and the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. Only a few days before his death he received official notice from Paris that he had been awarded the diplôme of the beaux-arts in recognition of his distinguished achievements in architecture, and he had just won the competition for the memorial chapel to Jacques Cartier to be erected on the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec. His brother, Georges Rousseau, an architect of Quebec, was assigned the actual execution of the work for this church.

In 1922 the Chicago Tribune held a world-wide competition for the design of its office building in Chicago. From the proposals submitted by the many brilliant competitors, that of Eliel Saarinen, of Finland, was awarded second prize. In the judgment of many architects and critics of architecture he should have received the first prize and would have won it from an impartial jury. Saarinen, then fifty-one years old, was already an internationally known architect. He had designed many important buildings in Finland and Estonia. He had won first prize in a number of competitions abroad and had carried out large town-planning projects at Munksnas-Haga and Greater Helsingfors in Finland. In the spring of 1923, Saarinen came to the United States and was persuaded by Lorch to come to the College of Architecture in the fall of 1923, to teach into the spring of 1924.

By special arrangement Saarinen taught a select group of seniors and graduates, emphasizing particularly the integration of architecture and city planning. His stay marked a high point in the history of the College, and a number of his students have contributed outstanding work in the practice of architecture and planning. His brilliant record abroad was surpassed by his accomplishment in the United States. After he taught at the University he began work on Cranbrook School, and this was followed by the extensive Cranbrook group building program. With the sympathetic backing of George G. Booth, the Cranbrook Academy of Art was established with Saarinen as director. This school for advanced studies made a marked impression on American architectural education. A number of graduates of the College of Architecture and Design have held Cranbrook scholarships permitting them to join its student body for graduate work.

Saarinen won the Smithsonian Institute competition in 1939 and designed a number of other important buildings including Kleinhans Music Hall, Buffalo, New York, 1938; the Tabernacle Church of Christ, Columbus, Indiana, 1940; Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, Iowa, 1944-48; and Christ Lutheran Church at Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1949. He died in 1950, at the age of seventy-six, still actively carrying on his practice and his teaching. Several buildings planned in collaboration with his son, Eero, were under way at the time of his death.

From 1922 to 1943 Ernest Wilby, long the gifted chief designer for Albert Kahn, Detroit architect, taught junior students of design, with special emphasis on materials and form. He was an outstanding faculty figure, influencing both students and staff. Wilby possessed a happy blend of the questioning mind and a very human interest in the individual student and his problem. Since his retirement he has lived in Windsor, Ontario.

Upon the death of Professor J. J. Page  1304Rousseau in 1931, Jean Hébrard was appointed Professor of Architecture. He was born in Paris in 1878 and was trained at the École des Beaux-arts. He first came to the United States in 1907 to teach architecture at Cornell University, but returned to France to serve as an officer in the French army during World War I. Between 1919 and 1923 he practiced in Paris doing valuable work in housing. He was architect for the important housing development in Paris Marcadet and in the garden city of Gennevilliers, a suburb of Paris. He was also the architect, during the reconstruction activities in the devastated regions following World War I, for the completely destroyed city of Albigny in the Ardennes. In 1926 Professor Hébrard returned to the United States. He was professor of architecture at the University of Pennsylvania until he came to Ann Arbor. He taught in the College of Architecture and Design until his retirement in 1948.

In addition to high competence, Hébrard brought to the College an unusual personality. Quiet in his teaching methods, he was a man of great charm who made a lasting impression on the character of this institution. Though he was well grounded in the French system, he was in no sense limited by it. His interest in city planning was great, and it was his insistence that merged the interests of city planning and the design of buildings, which provides an important continuing principle in the policy of the College. He was keenly alive to the changing situation in the practice of architecture and was among the first to see that the old aloofness of the architect as an artist was no longer valid. His professional work in France in the field of housing is evidence of his wide social interests. He was equally conscious of other changes brought about by the industrial revolution. It is interesting to know that since Professor Hébrard's retirement from the University he has continued to be active in the profession, both in France and in the United States. He has carried out a commission from the French Minister of Reconstruction and Urbanism in the form of research study as to conditions on urbanism in the United States (Tendances actuelles de l'urbanisme aux États-Unis).

William Caldwell Titcomb became a member of the staff in 1907. He remained until 1913, when he resigned to accept an appointment at the University of Illinois. He returned in 1925 as Professor of Architecture. Professor Titcomb was a competent designer, a gifted draftsman, and a spirited teacher; his was a sensitive, artistic temperament. Warmly responsive to the individual student, he gave to his work a verve and brilliance long remembered by the alumni. His contacts with the students extended beyond the classroom to many informal and constructive discussions. Following his resignation in 1932, he returned to his family home in Maine, where he still resides.

George McDonald McConkey was one of the first students in the course in architecture under Professor Lorch. After experience in construction work he became a member of the staff in 1911. He has been Professor of Architecture since 1928, heading the courses in construction. His work has been marked by a particular concern not only with the principles of construction in wood, steel, and reinforced concrete, but with the successive technological developments in his field. His students have always felt themselves to be in the forefront of events in the study of structures as an integral part of architecture.

Louis Holmes Boynton came to the department in 1912. He had made a high record at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and had spent five years in practice. He taught architectural design Page  1305with ability and devotion. In plan, form, and detail his hand was sure, and his work always in good taste. Boynton practiced extensively in Ann Arbor, and many fraternity houses and other buildings stand as a memorial to him. He died suddenly in Chicago in 1924.

More than one hundred men have served on the staff of the College of Architecture and have contributed much to its development and to the education of its thirteen hundred alumni as well as to the still larger number of students who took one or more courses. In addition to the staff members already named in this section, the following should be mentioned.

In architecture Bailey, Marshall, Brigham, Hammett, and O'Dell were well known to former students.

Roger Bailey, who resigned in 1948 and who is now head of the School of Architecture at the University of Utah, had particular individuality in his approach to design and a marked brilliance in presentation. He won the national competition for the Paris Prize in 1922 and studied at the École des Beaux-arts. With Eric Gugler of New York he won the first prize ($20,000) in the national competition for the Chicago War Memorial.

Marshall, who became a member of the staff in 1925, has been an able instructor in his special field, architectural mechanics and strength of materials. He has also effectively taught construction courses. As secretary of the faculty and, more recently, as Assistant Dean of the College, he has been diligent and competent. The many details of admission, programing, and recording are under his charge. Brigham has approached architecture with a happy blend of interest in construction and design. Hammett has taught history, design, and principles of office practice and has thus been well known to almost every student. O'Dell has had his own approach to design, with a warm feeling for materials and great skill in delineation.

For the development of drawing and painting much is due Professors Chapin, Slusser, and Valerio. Chapin is oldest in point of service. A devoted and able teacher, he is mentioned with affection by returning alumni. Slusser, in addition to teaching, has had from the first a sense of the values of instruction in drawing and painting. His wide observation of his field and his background of travel in the United States and abroad have made him a valuable leader. It was in recognition of these abilities that in 1947 he was appointed Director of the University Museum of Art. Since this date he has given only part of his time to the College. Valerio was one of the best of teachers, while pursuing his specialty of etching and printmaking with great success. In the early part of 1951 he was elected an associate member of the National Academy of Design in New York.

Whittemore has served in landscape architecture with enthusiastic devotion. Long an expert in plant material, he has likewise been active in city planning. In the latter field he has been highly successful in placing his graduates in planning offices.

Professors Fowler, Gooch, Gores, Heller, and Weddige have each played a leading part in the building of what is now the visual arts program. Fowler gave his best abilities and interest to decorative design and did the pioneer work in that program. Gores brought to the College the specialty of advertising design, and in this work he has been ably assisted by Gooch. Gores also prepared and has given a group of courses concerned with the historical aspects of the arts of design.

Catherine B. Heller, a specialist in interior design, came to the College with an excellent background of experience. She has been a competent and sympathetic Page  1306teacher, and her graduates have been successful in practice. Professor Weddige has taken a leading part in formulating our present fundamental courses in color and design. He has effectively taught lithography and other forms of printmaking.

Of the forty-six members of the staff in 1952, several recent appointees in addition to those named are contributing notably to the programs and reputation of the College of Architecture and Design. In later accountings of its history their names will have an honorable and a proper place.

Drawing and Painting and Design

Drawing and painting and the theory of design first appeared in the curriculum of the Department of Architecture as service courses for architectural students, and this circumstance exerted a strong influence upon the character of the work offered, actually giving special color and direction to instruction in these subjects for many years.

The first course in elementary design was taught in 1906 by Professor Emil Lorch. It attempted to present a scientific approach to the various fields of design. In 1910, with the assistance of William Caldwell Titcomb, Instructor in Drawing, a second course was added, Allied Arts of Design. In both of these the instruction was greatly influenced by the scholarly researches of Denman W. Ross, of Harvard, whose findings constituted at that time the dominant body of theory in this field.

The first courses in drawing were given by Alice Hunt in 1906 and by Titcomb in 1907. In 1910 Raymond Everett began to share this work as Instructor, and in 1915 Leon Alexander Makielski came as Instructor. This young portrait and landscape painter, a product of the Art Institute of Chicago, was joined later in the same year by Instructor Ernest Harrison Barnes, a Detroit landscape painter who had been trained at the Art Institute and the Art Students League. The initial offerings in drawing consisted of four courses which totaled eight credit hours: Freehand Drawing, Pen and Ink, Water Color, and Clay Modeling. By 1921 eight courses were being given, totaling twelve credit hours, with the two courses in design previously noted, and a three-hour requirement in fine arts history.

All drawing and painting instruction during these years was offered in a large sky-lighted studio on the fourth floor north in the West Engineering Building. Here the temper of the time in art education was expressed by a regiment of plaster casts and a battalion of still-life tables, many of the latter carrying carefully set arrangements of pottery and colored draperies. The emphasis as in virtually all schools of art and architecture of the period was upon naturalism, and practically all types of subject matter were treated as if they were still life. The accurate rendering of appearances was insisted upon, and the development of skills in the student was the chief objective. The curriculum consisted of a series of carefully graded courses, first in line, then in tone, and finally in color. Using the medium typically appropriate to each of these, the student concentrated successively upon the representation of simple objects, fragments of architectural ornament, casts of parts of the figure, casts of the whole figure, and finally of the living figure itself. Some attention was likewise given to sketching and painting from landscape. This entire approach was undoubtedly useful to the architectural student for whom it was originally designed, but with the passage of the years and the appearance in the College of Page  1307greater numbers of students with other than architectural objectives, it eventually became a deadening routine and little by little had to be altered or abandoned.

The initial layout of the design courses was the work of two architects, Lorch and Titcomb, but the increasing interest in this field warranted the appointment, by 1921, of a part-time special instructor. Herbert A. Fowler, originally a Detroit designer, and thoroughly imbued with the Denman Ross point of view, carried the major burden of design teaching for the next decade and did much to develop an initial curriculum based principally on academic theory. His text, Modern Creative Design and Its Application, was in use for most of this period. In addition to the main body of Denman Ross theory, it incorporated as an approach to the subject J. Hambidge's principles of geometric relations and was illustrated by the classwork of students. From 1926 to 1932 Fowler was given valuable assistance by Titcomb, who during this time inaugurated two important courses, History of Applied Arts and Design of Interiors, both destined to become major items in a program which was somewhat slanted toward the needs of students in interior design.

The efforts of Fowler in organizing this work were rewarded when in 1924 the Board of Regents approved a curriculum in decorative design leading to the degree of bachelor of science in design. When first announced in 1926, this program called for the completion of 140 credit hours of study made up as follows: eighteen hours of architecture; thirty-five hours of allied arts; twenty-two hours of drawing, painting, and modeling; sixty-one hours of general electives; and four hours of office practice. Five years were normally required for obtaining the bachelor's degree. As an option, a new joint program for art teachers was developed in conjunction with the School of Education, in which certain studies in education were added to the technical sequences for the degree.

In 1920, as a move to train teachers, a special arts course for supervisors, art instructors, grade teachers, and school principals was introduced into the summer session program to supplement a course in drawing and water color already being given. With Miss Emma Grattan, supervisor of art in the public schools of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and Birger Sandzen, a landscape painter and lithographer from Kansas, as instructors, this course proved attractive to numbers of vacationing art teachers and others and continued with great success for several years. In 1921 a guest instructor with special competence in landscape painting was given charge of the summer-session work in outdoor sketching, and this course soon established itself both with regular students of the department and with those whom Miss Grattan's work was attracting to Ann Arbor.

The instructor chosen for this was Jean Paul Slusser, a graduate of the University who had subsequently studied art at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and in the Woodstock landscape classes of the Art Students League of New York. In 1924 another painter, Myron B. Chapin, joined the staff; he was a graduate of the University of Chicago who had received additional training at the Art Institute of Chicago. Two women teachers, Maria L. Crane and Mary O. Johnson, served on the staff in 1926-27, and at that time a young Detroit painter, Frederic H. Aldrich, Jr., also became Instructor. In 1927 Alexander Mastro Valerio, painter and etcher, with an art background obtained at the Royal Art Academy in Naples, Page  1308was appointed. In 1928 Leon A. Makielski retired from the drawing faculty. Slusser had been placed upon the regular staff as Instructor in 1925, with the informal responsibility of acting as chairman of the drawing and painting group.

Meanwhile the design area was expanding. In 1926 Ross Bittinger became Teaching Assistant, and subsequently, as Instructor, he introduced work in metal crafts, in color, and in rendering, and was made responsible for the courses in interior design. In 1929 Walter W. J. Gores was appointed Instructor in Architecture; a graphic arts graduate of Stanford University, he had gone on to three years of postgraduate training in Europe as an American Field Service Fellow to French universities. Two years later he was made Assistant Professor of Architecture and given responsibility for assisting in the development of the design group. He inaugurated courses in advertising design, organized two important lecture courses dealing with the Arts of Design and the History of Interiors, and developed a valuable seminar for seniors in design. In spite of early efforts on his part to initiate more progressive methods in design teaching, it was some time before any changes of importance took place.

When in 1927 the College of Architecture moved into its new building, the third floor was devoted to the classes in design and the fourth floor to those in drawing and painting. It is anomalous that these two groups maintained separate identities throughout the development of the College, and a certain amount of overlapping and duplication, as for instance in the field of color, was the result. That the line of demarcation was never clearly drawn may be noted from the fact that pictorial composition, a key course in the drawing and painting program, was originally set up as a design course, while clay modeling was at first listed as a course in drawing. For many years the normal development of sculpture within the College of Architecture was inhibited by the presence in the Literary College of a sculptor in residence. Clay modeling, however, was from the very beginning part of the architectural curriculum. Instruction in this subject was handled by a succession of young sculptors, of whom may be specifically mentioned Samuel Cashwan, Carleton Angell, Victor Slocum, and Beaver Edwards.

In 1935 a proposal was made by Gores for a major change in the curriculum in decorative design as it was then entitled; this called for a reduction of credit hours required for graduation from 140 to 128. This plan was approved and put into effect; the degree, which could now be earned in four years, was changed to bachelor of design. The greater attraction of the program was soon demonstrated by an increased enrollment, and this in turn made it possible to build up the faculty by additional appointments. Technical requirements accounted for sixty-eight hours and the general cultural subjects for sixty. Five major options leading to the degree were offered, namely: I, Interior Design; II, Advertising Design; III, Stage Design; IV, Applied Design; and V, Drawing, Painting, and Design. The last category was intended particularly for students preparing to teach art. By completing certain requirements in the School of Education, together with technical studies in the College of Architecture, a student might obtain a teacher's certificate in addition to his bachelor of design degree.

Partly because of the increase and gradual change in the make-up of the students in the drawing and painting classes, to a large extent the result of the growing popularity of the design program and its greater attractiveness to women students, a difference in the Page  1309character of the instruction became manifest. Increasing numbers of students from other departments of the University were taking courses in the College of Architecture for cultural reasons or as an avenue toward creative self-development. The work in drawing and painting had become better suited to the needs of the general art student. Pictorial composition had been expanded to occupy two semesters; etching, portrait, and life painting had been added; and beginning in 1937 a class in fresco painting was inaugurated by Slusser and taught by him for several years; later this became a class in mural painting in which various techniques were employed.

Parallel with these developments, a more objective point of view was being advanced in design. A kiln, first set up in the East Engineering Building but subsequently moved to the Architecture Building, made possible the introduction of ceramics courses as a logical extension of the elementary course in clay modeling. Work in this area was for some years under the supervision of Mary Chase Stratton, owner and co-founder of the Pewabic Potteries of Detroit. A series of grants from the Earhart Foundation during the years 1938-42 provided adequate hand and power tools, together with equipment for carrying out projects in wood, metals, and other materials in a newly organized workshop set up in the Architecture Building. Looms were also acquired for the teaching of weaving; the whole policy was to provide opportunity for the student to learn through practice as well as through theory.

In the year 1937 several changes occurred: Professor Wells I. Bennett, a member of the architectural faculty, became Director, and the following year, Dean, of the College; and Gores was informally placed in charge of the work in design. Professor Fowler resigned in 1939. Progress in formulating a comprehensive educational policy was made when in 1939, partly as a result of a survey by Gores of art teaching in other institutions, a major reorientation of the work here was undertaken. The former emphasis on academic theory gave way to a more direct and creative approach in the content, method, and objectives of courses and their sequences; this was reflected in the appointment of new staff members with a more modern and realistic point of view.

Certain changes which had already made their appearance in the work of the school were further accelerated by the happenings of the war and postwar years. During the early part of World War II male students virtually vanished from the scene, and the fact that the College was able to keep most of its staff together and continue its operations was due in large part to the steady enrollment of women in the drawing and painting and design classes. The special demands of this group had an influence upon the character of work offered. At the close of the war, with the sharp increase in staff made necessary by the sudden influx of veterans, there inevitably came, with new personnel, new ideas and new viewpoints. Throughout the University there was a readjustment in teaching methods and objectives to meet the changing times.

Among the newer members of the drawing and painting staff whose influence has proved stimulating both to their students and their colleagues is James Donald Prendergast. A graduate of the Art Institute of Chicago, with varied experience both as painter and teacher, he came here from the University of Arizona in 1944 as Assistant Professor. Several of his attitudes proved especially valuable: his preoccupation with color, his interest in surrealism, and his belief that the student should be encouraged to find the answers to his own artistic Page  1310problems. Another leavening influence has been provided by Karl Kasten, a graduate of the University of California Department of Art, who came in 1946 as Instructor, and who has sponsored several progressive approaches in drawing and painting. In 1945 Carlos Lopez joined the faculty and soon established himself, as he previously had in Detroit as one of the best loved of teachers. An active exhibitor nationally as well as locally, he came with a sound reputation both as an easel and a mural painter and as a draughtsman experienced in handling military and industrial subject matter. He died in January, 1953.

In 1946, Gerome Kamrowski joined the staff and very soon became a quickening influence in the life of the College. An abstract surrealist, associated during his New York years with the Matta group, he brought to his teaching the methods and viewpoints of the extreme avant-garde, while at the same time obtaining from his students work of the greatest soundness as strict representation. Another abstract surrealist, Chet LaMore, came from the Albright School in Buffalo in 1947 with the rank of Assistant Professor. With a master's degree in art history from the University of Wisconsin, and self-taught as a painter, his influence was in the direction of more imaginative color and design. Richard Wilt, a graduate of Carnegie Institute, appointed Instructor in 1947, proved to be an active painter and vigorous teacher, and Frank Cassara, a young Detroit mural painter, demonstrated his worth as a teacher of drawing.

In 1948 the Extension Service promoted a successful expansion of some of the regular work in drawing, painting, sculpture, and ceramics. Three men were selected by the College to serve as a resident staff, giving instruction for college credit and otherwise, at both the Grand Rapids Art Gallery and the Kalamazoo Art Institute. Gerald Mast was appointed Assistant Professor of Drawing and Painting in 1948 and was joined the following year by Paul H. Jones, who had completed two years of University service in Ann Arbor, and by Kirk Newman, a sculptor, who was added to the group as Instructor in Ceramics.

Among members of the design group who have made continuing contributions are some who received part of their training in the College: Donald B. Gooch, many-sided as a teacher, developed himself here as a painter and subsequently acquired valuable experience in advertising design. Catherine B. Heller brought to her teaching of design theory and interior design the advantages of an architectural degree plus some years of practical experience in New York City. Emil Weddige, indefatigable in the service of the College, was graduated from Michigan State Normal College; later he studied painting here and pursued advanced studies in printmaking both in this country and abroad. Bertha Van Z. Frayer, who for twelve years ably administered the work in weaving, is a product of Cranbrook training. Aarre K. Lahti, who did much to develop the work in product design, was originally trained as a painter at the Art Institute of Chicago and came with unusually wide experience in various practical forms of design. Ernest Mundt, now director of an important art school, and Richard Lippold, well-known sculptor, were for a time on the staff; the former introduced some of the principles of Bauhaus teaching here, and the latter was especially concerned with pointing out to students the historic interrelation of the arts. Grover D. Cole successfully handled most of the early work in ceramics, expanding and developing the courses in this area, as well as the facilities for teaching them. While Cole was in service during World War II, Thomas Page  1311S. Haile, a distinguished English potter, ably carried on this work. Roger Hollenbeck, not long on the staff, brought a fresh point of view to the teaching of basic design. David H. Reider, formerly on the staff of the Albright School, was in 1947 made Assistant Professor of Design and given responsibility for much of the basic instruction in this subject, and the next year Philip C. Davis was appointed Instructor; he assisted in developing the courses in photography.

Sculpture was finally given its place in the curriculum of the College in 1949, when, after William Talbot, New York sculptor, briefly served as visiting lecturer, Thomas F. McClure, formerly of the University of Oklahoma, was appointed with the rank of Assistant Professor to have charge of this work. With competence both in ceramics and in sculpture, he was in a position to give unity of direction to the work of both disciplines. In 1950 and 1951, respectively, two instructors with Cranbrook backgrounds were appointed to the design staff: J. T. Abernathy was placed in charge of ceramics, and Ron Fidler was assigned the teaching of general design.

As a result of the continuing study being made of the various programs of the College, a sweeping simplification of the nonarchitectural educational pattern was arrived at, and in 1951 a description of the new visual arts program was published. This was a single curriculum suited to the various interests and professional needs of degree candidates, while at the same time providing courses for the general university student seeking some art training in the College. Within this framework all students were expected to elect during the first three semesters a common group of foundation courses in drawing and design; in the intermediate period they were allowed to choose from several groups of specific prerequisite courses those which would prepare them for the specialized fields in which they planned to concentrate during the last three semesters of the four-year program. These specialized upperclass courses, each for four credit hours and of which the student was required to elect three, were in the areas of interior design, product design, information design, ceramics, sculpture, printmaking, and oil painting. The student was to take three in a single field or might schedule a combination of them.

Indicating a direction in which the work of the College might conceivably expand were two comparatively new courses of an interdepartmental nature. Art for Beginners, taught by members of the drawing and painting staff for nonarchitectural students, was the required laboratory work for a basic survey lecture course in the fine arts given in the Literary College; and Home in the Community was a studio course in interior design taught by a member of the visual arts staff but entirely for students outside the College. Such an expansion of the work in drawing, painting, and design in response to the needs of the general university student seemed to fall in with recommendations made in a 1949 Senate Advisory Committee report on the status of women at Michigan.

With the constitution in 1946 of a Museum of Art with a director chosen from the staff of the College of Architecture and Design, a step was taken toward vitalizing and at the same time unifying the work of the various agencies of the University devoted to art teaching. The scheduling of an almost continuous series of changing exhibitions throughout the academic year and the building up of the permanent collections in the Museum of Art proved important ways of providing illustrative material for courses in the theory, history, and practice of art in the University.

It may be pointed out that the trend Page  1312of the architectural disciplines of the College has been toward an ever greater degree of professionalism. In drawing, painting, and design, on the other hand, and to some extent the same thing is true for all the areas of the visual arts program, the direction has been not so much toward greater professionalism as toward greater usefulness to the general student. Specialization in the upper brackets of the various options offered in the visual arts curriculum is still, as it has always been, a possibility for those who qualify themselves appropriately for it, but it becomes increasingly clear that part of what may be called the manifest destiny of this work is bound up with the large cultural objectives of the University as a whole.

Perhaps it is a symbol of this growing interrelatedness that staff members of the College have increasingly been drawn into the activities of the entire University community; they have given professional help and advice in the decoration of halls and banquet rooms for ceremonial occasions; they have designed printed publicity material for special campus purposes, and they have made radio and TV appearances in their various professional capacities. But more important than all this is the realization which in recent years has come to all of them that the disciplines which they represent must be made increasingly accessible to the cultural uses not merely of the specialist, but of the student in search of a liberal education.

Landscape Architecture

The interest of the University in the subject of landscape design was heightened in 1906, when Walter Hammond Nichols ('91, M.A. Columbia '01) and his wife Esther Connor Nichols ('94) gave the University a tract of land to be used as a botanical garden (see Part III: The Botanical Gardens). Ossian Cole Simonds ('78e, M.A. hon. '29), nationally known landscape gardener of Chicago, was employed by the University in 1907 to plan the Botanical Gardens. He also laid out other city parks, home grounds, and residential subdivisions in and about Ann Arbor. He was made Nonresident Lecturer on Landscape Gardening at a salary of $500 a year in 1908 and gave a series of lectures at the University on the subject of landscape design. Professor Filibert Roth, of the Forestry Department, and Assistant Professor George P. Burns, of the Botany Department, were of much help in promoting and perfecting these plans. Burns might well be said to be the father of the Nichols Arboretum as well as of the city of Ann Arbor park system.

In 1909 the Regents authorized the establishment of a five-year course leading to the degree of master in landscape design, four years to be spent in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and one year in the Graduate School. At first a degree of bachelor in landscape design was also authorized for the completion of a four-year course, but this was discontinued a few years later. Professional students were expected to follow the five-year program. With the transfer of the department to the College of Architecture and Design in 1939, the degree of bachelor of science was granted after four years of study. The first graduate of the five-year program was Franz A. Aust (Minnesota '08, M.S. ibid. '10, M.L.D. Michigan '22), who became professor of landscape design at the University of Wisconsin.

Upon the establishment of the department in 1909, Simonds continued as Nonresident Lecturer, and Aubrey Tealdi (Royal Technical Institute Livorno Page  1313'00), of the Simonds Chicago office, was appointed Instructor in Landscape Gardening. Drafting rooms were on the top floor of old University Hall. The University of Michigan was thus the first institution in the Midwest to establish a department of landscape design. The Regents allocated $224 for books and illustrations for the beginnings of what is now an excellent library.

In 1913 Tealdi was appointed Junior Professor, and in 1914 Harlow Olin Whittemore (Alma '09, M.L.D. Michigan '14) was added to the staff as Instructor in Landscape Design. Simonds continued as consultant in landscape design and city planning for many years. He died in 1931.

Only very general instruction in civic improvement had been given until 1913, when Ewart G. Culpin, secretary of the Garden Cities and Town Planning Association of England, who was in the United States lecturing on the new "garden cities" of England, came to Ann Arbor. His talks aroused such great interest that the department bought his entire collection of lantern slides, and a definite program of instruction in city planning was begun. A graduate course in city-plan design was offered in 1914, and a special undergraduate lecture course in city planning and civic improvement grew until by 1926 the class enrollment numbered 160. Tealdi, who in 1915 was promoted to Associate Professor of Landscape Design, was an active member of the civic committee which promoted the development of the city plan for Ann Arbor drawn up by Olmsted Brothers, landscape architects of Brookline, Massachusetts.

In 1916 Frank Backus Williams, of the New York bar, was appointed Nonresident Lecturer and inaugurated a course in city-planning law. Taught first in this country at the University of Michigan, it has since become a recognized phase of city-planning endeavor. Williams later developed and published this series of lectures in book form, and from the proceeds of the book donated $500 to the department to purchase foreign books on city planning. With this as a nucleus a fine library has been assembled on the subject.

Professor Tealdi was made Director of the Arboretum in 1916 and held this position until 1934. Under his direction large numbers of various species of woody plants, trees, shrubs, and climbers were secured and planted.

Up to this time the curriculum in landscape design had been a combination of Literary College subjects, professional design courses, and a few elementary courses in surveying, drawing, and architecture. After 1916 more emphasis was placed on training in the first- and second-year courses in drawing and architectural design, decorative design, and history of art and architecture as well as on surveying and highway engineering. This instruction was intended to provide a solid foundation in general design and draftsmanship as well as in the principles of construction. More courses in landscape design also were added. In 1917 the staff consisted of Aubrey Tealdi, Associate Professor of Landscape Design, Harlow O. Whittemore, Instructor in Landscape Design, and Ossian C. Simonds and Frank B. Williams, visiting lecturers. George Carroll Cone (Harvard '03) taught a course in landscape modeling, which was another innovation by the department. In 1919 Tealdi was made Professor of Landscape Design. In 1925 Cone was promoted to Assistant Professor of Landscape Design, thus becoming the third full-time member of the staff. A four-year program in park and estate management, so far as is known the first in this country, was inaugurated in 1919.

In 1919 the announcement of the department Page  1314for the first time included a list of books and magazines on the subjects of landscape architecture, gardening, park development, plant materials, and city and regional planning. This proved to be a popular feature of the bulletin, and many libraries in Michigan and elsewhere took advantage of it to build up their book lists on these subjects.

In 1934, after twenty-five years of service to the University, Professor Tealdi retired as head of the Department of Landscape Design and Director of the Nichols Arboretum to take up residence in his native Italy. The department developed notably under Tealdi and owes much to his ideas and his personality. The excellent character and quality of the Arboretum are also distinctly the result of his work and interest.

Whittemore was promoted in 1934 to Associate Professor, chairman of the Department of Landscape Design, and Director of the Nichols Arboretum. He was made Professor in 1938. Cone was also advanced to Associate Professor in 1934, and George Gould Ross was appointed Assistant Professor. In 1940 he became Associate Professor.

An optional program in city planning was added to the curriculum in 1935-36, and the optional program in park and recreation management, which had been discontinued in 1924, was renewed on a five-year basis. The city planning program paralleled the greatly increased interest in the subject prevalent in this country and abroad, as well as a widespread demand for more and better recreation facilities. Because city planning is a natural field of interest for the landscape architect, some instruction in this subject had been regularly included as part of the curriculum ever since the establishment of the department. At this time a course in practical gardening was begun at the Nichols Arboretum by Charles L. Moody, who had been Superintendent of the Arboretum since 1919.

The department was transferred to the College of Architecture and Design in 1939 and the name changed to Landscape Architecture. The degrees to be granted were changed to bachelor of science in landscape architecture for a four-year program and master of landscape architecture after one and one-half years of study in the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. The close association and collaboration with the other arts of design has had a beneficial effect on the graduates. Since 1933 the demand for graduates has been about six times the number available.

In 1936, also, the department, with the co-operation of the Detroit Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects and other agencies, organized a conference on landscape architecture, which was made a section of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters in the following year.

At the close of the 1938 school year Professor Cone reached retirement age. To help fill this vacancy Robert Dare Slack ('35, M.L.D. '37), of Grand Rapids, was appointed Instructor, and Albert Davis Taylor (Massachusetts State College '05, M.S. Cornell '06), of Cleveland, president of the American Society of Landscape Architects, became Nonresident Lecturer. Lawrence A. Enersen (Carleton '31, M.L.A. Harvard '35) served as Instructor in Landscape Design from 1940 to 1942.

By 1952 records showed that since the establishment of the department in 1909 seventy-nine students had completed the five-year program and received the degree either of master of landscape design or master of landscape architecture. A larger number had received the degree of bachelor of arts upon completion of the four-year curriculum. After the transfer of the department to the College of Architecture and Design Page  1315twenty-four bachelor's degrees in landscape architecture were granted, making a total of 108 professional degrees which have been conferred. All but a few of those who received the master's degree entered the field of landscape architecture or some phase of city planning.

The equipment of the department in 1952 was second in importance only to that of Harvard University. The collection of rare books dealing with the history of landscape architecture and city planning, the result of years of painstaking search by Tealdi both here and in Europe, is unsurpassed in this country. More than nine thousand lantern slides, most of them obtained from original sources, are available for class use and for extension lectures. The photograph collection also includes about one thousand photographs taken by Ernest H. ("Chinese") Wilson (M.A. hon. Harvard '16) in his plant material collecting trips in China, Japan, and Korea. Card catalogues of reference materials and files of clippings have been maintained, to which in 1952 were added the complete files of plans and reference materials of the A. D. Taylor office in Cleveland, Ohio. The plant materials collection at the Nichols Arboretum must also be considered among the assets of the department.

The state of Michigan has resources which contribute substantially to the study of landscape design. The variety of natural geological landscape and native vegetation is unsurpassed. Michigan has more native species of trees, for example, than has the entire continent of Europe. Variations in climate extend through three distinct plant life zones. Because Michigan is far advanced in methods of manufacturing, agriculture, mining, transportation, education, and recreation from the design and planning point of view the state serves as a demonstration laboratory of modern city and rural planning.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Architecture and Design (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1931-53.
Announcement, College of Engineering (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1906-31.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
General Register, Univ. Mich., 1927-52.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1871-1952.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1870-1952.
Shaw, Wilfred B.A Short History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: George Wahr, 1934.
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The School of Dentistry

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Page  1319

THE SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY

THE University of Michigan was the first state university in the world and the second university in this country to offer education in dentistry. When the College of Dental Surgery was established by the Board of Regents in 1875, dentistry was for the most part a craft. The training of its practitioners was largely technical, and they knew little of scientific or health relationships. With the exception of Harvard Dental College, dental schools of that time were privately owned and operated and had little or no connection with universities or other educational institutions.

The members of the Michigan State Dental Society early realized the need for dental education on a university level, and in 1866 they presented to the Board of Regents a memorial requesting "the establishment of a Chair of Dental Hygiene, and one of Mechanical Dentistry and Metallurgy" in the Medical Department of the University (R.P., 1864-70, p. 94). The request was not granted at that time. In 1873 the University expressed an interest in establishing such a chair, but no funds were available for the purpose. In 1875, through the efforts of the Michigan State Dental Society, a bill (House Bill 518) was introduced in the state legislature to provide funds for the establishment of a dental school in connection with the Medical Department. This bill, providing an appropriation of three thousand dollars a year for the years 1875-76, was passed, and the Board of Regents resolved:

That a College of Dental Surgery be established, which shall, in addition to the facilities now afforded by the Medical Department and Chemical Laboratory, be constituted by the founding of two professorships.

That the Dental Profession of the State be requested to co-operate with the Regents by suggesting, at the June meeting, such names [of teachers] as they may deem suitable, and also by securing the necessary outfit.

That the Committee on Buildings, and the Secretary, be and are hereby instructed to make the necessary arrangements for the furnishing of a Lecture Room for the use of the Homeopathic and Dental Colleges.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 435.)

In June, 1875, two professors were appointed. Jonathan Taft (Ohio College of Dental Surgery '50, M.D. hon. Michigan '81), who had served as Dean of the Ohio College of Dental Surgery in Cincinnati, Ohio, and who had also conducted an outstanding practice in that city, was made Professor of the Principles and Practice of Operative Dentistry. He also served as Dean from the time of his appointment as Professor. In 1891 his title was changed to Professor of the Principles and Practice of Oral Pathology and Surgery. When he came to Michigan, Dr. Taft had already established a reputation, both in this country and abroad, as an educator, a writer, and a public speaker. Because of his sterling worth and his scholarly attainments, he was held in high esteem by the Regents, who relied upon him very largely in the organization of the new College. The advancement and high standing attained by the College during its first twenty-five years were due in great part to Dr. Taft, who was recognized as a leader in dental education and dental science. He served as Dean until 1903 when he died in Ann Arbor at the age of eighty-three.

The second professor to be appointed was John Andrews Watling (Ohio College of Dental Surgery '60), of Ypsilanti, who was made Professor of Clinical and Page  1320Mechanical Dentistry in 1875. In 1891 his title was changed to Professor of Operative and Clinical Dentistry, and he served in this capacity until 1903. The first practitioner in Michigan to hold a professional degree, he was active for many years in the affairs of the Michigan State Dental Society. He was a prime mover in the requests for dental education and perhaps more than any other was responsible for the establishment of the School of Dentistry of the University of Michigan. He had served with Dr. Taft as an apprentice while a student in Ohio, and was influential in bringing him to Michigan.

Dr. Watling was recognized as an outstanding practitioner of dentistry and was highly respected in the profession. His unusual ability for organization enabled him to exercise strong leadership in dental societies and to further the advancement of dental education. He was responsible for the first law to regulate the practice of dentistry in Michigan, which was passed in 1883. Through the joint efforts of the scholar and scientist Jonathan Taft and the politically minded John Watling, a firm foundation was laid for the College, which was to become one of the leading dental schools in the world.

Walter Hinckley Jackson ('76d) was appointed Demonstrator of Dentistry in 1875, which position he held until 1877. He was a Civil War veteran who, after completing his apprenticeship, practiced in Ann Arbor. He, too, was a prominent figure in the Michigan State Dental Society, and co-operated with Dr. Watling and others in the establishment of the Dental College. These three constituted the first dental faculty.

Two years later, in 1877, William Henry Dorrance ('79d), a practicing dentist in Ann Arbor, was appointed Demonstrator in mechanical dentistry. He later became Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry and Dental Metallurgy, serving in this capacity until 1902.

In 1881 Calvin S. Case (Ohio College of Dental Surgery '71) came to the University from Cincinnati as Assistant in Prosthetic Dentistry. After a year he removed to Chicago, where he became well known for his work in the field of orthodontia.

Nelville Soule Hoff (Ohio College of Dental Surgery '76) was the next member to be added to the faculty of the College. He was a practitioner in Cincinnati and came to the University at the invitation of Dr. Taft with whom he had been associated. Appointed Assistant Professor of Practical Dentistry in 1888, he later taught materia medica and from 1903 to 1924 was in charge of prosthetic dentistry.

Dr. Hoff played an important role in the early days of dental education and in the history of the College. He was Secretary for many years and later became Dean. He edited the Dental Register (1900-1923), a leading dental publication of that day, and took an active part in national and international dental and dental education meetings. With Dean Taft he guided the destinies of the institution during the first twenty-five years of its existence and supervised the planning and erection of the present Dental Building.

The establishment of the College (School since 1927) at the University of Michigan began a new era for dental students because of the emphasis on instruction in those branches of medical science which are a part of the dentist's education. The College also became known for the excellence of its technical and operative training. Michigan graduates, even in the early days, were noted for their skill in gold foil operations and in other exacting dental technics of that time. The College has also profited from the enthusiastic interest and co-operation Page  1321of the dental profession of the state. Close association with other units of a great university has made possible the development of dentistry on an educational and professional level that has been reached in few other institutions. As early as 1885 the College ranked as one of three American dental schools which were recognized in Europe. The medical councils of several European countries ruled against the acceptance of dental degrees from America. Exception was made, however, for those granted by Harvard and the universities of Michigan and Pennsylvania.

In its early days the College had a somewhat peripatetic existence. At first it was housed with the Homeopathic College in a residence formerly occupied by a professor (Merriam), on the north side of the campus. When this building was outgrown, activities were transferred in 1877 to the house of another professor (Frieze) on the south side of the campus. A later addition to this house provided additional laboratory and clinical facilities. In 1891 quarters were again obtained on the north side of the campus in a building formerly occupied by the University Hospital.

The building which was erected on North University Avenue in 1908-9 still houses the School. Specially designed for dental education, it was enlarged in 1923 to accommodate the increasing student enrollment and increased curricular requirements. In 1939-40 the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry Building, adjoining and integrated with the Dental Building, was erected. The Dental Operative Clinic was completely re-equipped in 1949.

At first the course of instruction consisted of two terms of six months each, with one year of apprenticeship in a dental office. At that time the entrance requirements were the same as for medicine and law, a high-school education. During the first year, twenty students were enrolled, four of whom had previously served an apprenticeship, and nine were graduated at the end of the year with the degree of doctor of dental surgery. The Catalogue for 1876 stated:

The candidate must be twenty-one years of age. He must furnish evidence of good moral character. He must have devoted three years to the study of his profession, in connection with attendance upon a full course of medical lectures. He must attend two full courses of lectures in the Dental College, or one course elsewhere, and the last one here, and we recommend that he attend these courses regularly. He must pursue the study of Chemistry in the Laboratory, or sustain an examination in the studies there pursued. He must submit to the Faculty a thesis upon some subject of his course. He must present for inspection practical operations prepared by himself in the College, and give evidence of his skill and ability in treating those derangements which may be submitted to his care. He must sustain an examination satisfactory to the Faculty in all the branches taught.

A graduate of the Medical College may enter the Senior class, and, if found qualified, may graduate after one year has been devoted to the study of Dentistry.

In 1884 the two terms were extended to nine months each, to conform to the academic year, and a third year was added in 1889. The School pioneered in 1901 by extending the dental curriculum to four academic years. Because the move was not supported by the profession, the three-year program was readopted in July, 1904. Subsequent developments in the scope of dental education and practice, however, accentuated the need for increased instructional facilities. A four-year curriculum was offered optionally in 1916 and required in 1917. At that time dental schools throughout the country adopted the four-year program.

Page  1322Attendance at a summer session was required in 1918; in 1921 this was replaced by the admission requirement of a year of preprofessional college work. In 1927 predental requirements were increased to two years of academic training in which certain scientific subjects were prescribed, and the dental curriculum was shortened to three years. This new program was adopted by only five other schools. In 1934, as a result of a survey of dental education carried out under the auspices of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, it was recommended that the dental curriculum should consist of two years of academic preparation and four years of dental instruction. An optional six-year program was offered in 1934, which in 1935 became compulsory.

Changing concepts of dentistry as a profession have caused expansions in curriculum and improvement in teaching facilities. In the beginning dentistry was chiefly a mechanical or technical pursuit intended to relieve pain and restore damaged or lost teeth to approximately normal function and appearance. Diseases of the mouth were looked upon as local injuries which might be painful, disfiguring, and disturbing to masticatory function, but were not considered important to the general physical health. In 1910 an English physician named William Hunter in an address given in Montreal stated that he had observed many patients seriously ill with various general disorders which were improved by the extraction of infected teeth. He strongly asserted his belief that dental infections were a serious menace to bodily health. After Hunter's pronouncement, studies of dental disease were made which led to an entirely new view of dentistry. Since that time it has been recognized that diseases of the mouth are not purely local disturbances but that they may seriously affect the health of the body. This discovery transferred dentistry from the category of mechanics and cosmetology to a place in the field of health service. Recognition that healthy teeth are important to general health has had a stabilizing influence upon the practice of dentistry and has helped to establish co-operation between physicians and dentists. Dentistry has become virtually a medical health specialty and an important branch of public health service.

New relationships and enlarging horizons of the dental profession have required increased educational programs so that the dentist may be qualified to meet his responsibilities. It was necessary to give more instruction in the basic medical sciences and to include courses in general medicine in the dental curriculum, which was made possible by the co-operation of the Medical School of the University. In addition to changing health concepts, much progress has been made in dental technics and in the development of new materials. As the importance of research has been recognized, laboratory and clinical facilities have increased, and frequent enlargement of the physical plant has been necessary.

In 1926 the survey of dental schools by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching reported that Michigan is "generously supported financially, well equipped for all phases of its work, and having a faculty of high quality, it is one of the most happily co-ordinated and effectually conducted dental schools in North America, … justly regarded … as exemplar of the best in dental education" (Gies, Dental Education, p. 399). The School of Dentistry of the University of Michigan has always maintained a position of acknowledged leadership among dental educational institutions.

The number of graduates of the School Page  1323at five-year intervals since its opening is as follows:

1876.... 9 1905.... 37 1930.... 118
1880.... 34 1910.... 53 1935.... 39
1885.... 28 1915.... 87 1940.... 35
1890.... 38 1920.... 38 1945.... 62
1895.... 44 1925.... 56 1950.... 69
1900.... 66

After the resignation of Dr. Taft in 1903, Cyrenus Garritt Darling ('81m) served as Acting Dean. A member of the surgical staff of the University Hospital, he lectured also on oral pathology and surgery in the School. From 1905 to the time of his retirement in 1926 he held the title of Professor of Oral Surgery. Dr. Darling was deeply interested in the development of dentistry, and during the difficult transition period which followed the resignation of Dr. Taft, he proved to be a salutary influence. With Dr. Lyons he organized and established the cleft palate and harelip surgical service in the University Hospital, which became the largest clinic of its kind in the world.

In 1906 Willough by Dayton Miller ('75, D.D.S. Pennsylvania '79, Ph.D. hon. Michigan '85, M.D. Berlin '87, Sc.D. hon. Pennsylvania '02), of Berlin, Germany, was appointed Dean. He was the outstanding dental scientist of his day, having gained renown in Germany and throughout the world. His contributions in the field of dental pathology and bacteriology laid the foundation for our present knowledge of biologic dental science. He came to Ann Arbor in 1907, but died, following an operation for appendicitis, before he could take up his new duties. His untimely death was a great loss both to the University and to the profession.

Subsequent to the death of Dr. Miller, Nelville Hoff was made Acting Dean and then, in 1911, Dean. He resigned in 1916, but continued the teaching of prosthetic dentistry. He died in 1926.

Marcus Llewellyn Ward ('02d, D.D.Sc. '05) was made Dean of the School in 1916 and served with great distinction in that capacity for eighteen years. He had been appointed Instructor in Operative Techniques and Operative Dentistry in 1903 and became Professor of Applied Physics and Chemistry, and Crown and Bridge Work in 1912. He established the School's Laboratory of Physics and Chemistry which, under his guidance, developed into a research unit of national and international reputation. During his deanship many changes took place in the curriculum. Dr. Ward was a member of the Committee of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, which evaluated the dental schools of this country, and he made important contributions to the work of this committee. It was also during his administration that the addition to the Dental Building (1923) was made.

During his tenure of office as Dean, Ward assembled a strong and well-organized faculty which was outstanding in dental education. He also contributed much to the literature in the field of dental materials. Upon his resignation as Dean in 1934, he was named Jonathan Taft Professor of Dentistry and continued his teaching and research in dental materials until his retirement in 1945.

Chalmers John Lyons ('98d, D.D.Sc. '11) was made chairman of the Executive Committee of the School in 1934. Dr. Lyons had formerly practiced dentistry in Jackson, Michigan; he was Instructor in Clinical Dentistry from 1907 until 1909, when he became Nonresident Lecturer on Clinical Dentistry. In 1915 he was appointed Professor of Oral Surgery. Closely associated with Dr. Darling, he developed the field of oral surgery and the Oral Surgical Clinic of the Hospital. He became widely known for his surgical treatment of cleft palate and harelip and was recognized as an Page  1324outstanding authority in his field. Because of his charming personality and his achievements in the field of surgery, Dr. Lyons exerted a strong influence upon the students and the profession. He also gave valuable help during the difficult years when the faculty was in the process of reorganization. He died in 1935, less than a year after his appointment as head of the School.

Upon Lyons' death, President Ruthven appointed Russell Welford Bunting ('02d, D.D.Sc. '08) as acting chairman of the Executive Committee. In 1937 Dr. Bunting was made Dean of the School. He had been connected with the faculty since 1904, first as Assistant in Prosthetic Dentistry and later as Instructor in Dental Pathology and Histology. In 1914 he was made Professor in this field. From 1910 to 1936 he was actively engaged in the study of the cause and control of dental caries, and from 1929 to 1936 he directed the Dental Caries Research Group. Bunting was in charge of the teaching of periodontia for undergraduate and postgraduate students from 1910 to 1948. He retired in 1951. During his term of service as Dean, the faculty made notable advancements and added much to the prestige of the School. One achievement which deserves mention was the establishment in 1936 of the Dental Alumni Bulletin, which increased alumni interest in and co-operation with the School.

Paul Harold Jeserich ('24, '24d) succeeded Bunting as Dean. Dr. Jeserich had begun his service to the University with his appointment as Demonstrator in 1924. He became Instructor in Operative Dentistry in the following year. From 1927 to 1933 he was engaged in private practice in Ann Arbor, but he returned to the faculty in 1933 and in 1935 was made Professor of Operative Dentistry and Director of the Operative Clinic. During the years of his association with the School Dr. Jeserich has exercised a constructive and progressive influence. Since 1937 he has been Director of Graduate and Postgraduate Education. Through his efforts the W. K. Kellogg Foundation became interested in the expansion of postgraduate work, which resulted in the generous gift for the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry. In 1942 the Kellogg Foundation granted the School $113,000 for the purchase of technical and clinical instruments to be loaned to dental students and for remodeling the School laboratories. This grant enabled the School to cut approximately in half instrument charges to students and to become perhaps the best equipped in the nation.

Those who have served as secretary of the dental faculty include Nelville S. Hoff (1888-1907), Elmer L. Whitman (1907-12), Russell W. Bunting (1912-23), and Francis B. Vedder (1923-).

Fields of study. — Throughout its history the School has recognized certain fields or divisions of dental science and practice. The members of the faculty have contributed much to the development of dentistry by correlating the teaching of the various branches. The history of the teaching programs cannot be separated from the lives and works of the men who developed them.

The two principal divisions of practice in clinical dentistry are operative and prosthetic. Operative dentistry was taught in the early days by Watling and Taft, though, as the College grew, graduates were employed as assistants. Outstanding among these was Louis Phillips Hall ('89d), who joined the staff as Assistant in Clinical and Mechanical Dentistry in 1889. In 1903 he became Professor of Operative and Clinical Dentistry and was in charge of the Operative Clinic until 1918. Dr. Hall was Page  1325an outstanding exponent of the highest ideals in dental education. A skilled operator, he instilled in the minds of his students the desire to excel. He was an excellent teacher and contributed greatly to the prestige of the School in the field of operative dentistry. He continued as Professor of Operative Dentistry until his retirement in 1928.

In 1918 the directorship of the Operative Clinic was assumed by John Jacob Travis ('03d), who for many years had practiced in Plymouth, Michigan. For nine years under his vigorous and progressive teaching, clinical dentistry advanced markedly. He resigned in 1927 to engage in practice in Ann Arbor.

From 1927 to 1935 Robert Kennard Brown ('19d, M.S. '28), who formerly had practiced in Cleveland, Ohio, served as head of the Operative Clinic, and from 1935 to 1946 Dr. Jeserich was in charge. Louis Charter Schultz ('26d, M.S. '42), a member of the operative staff since 1935 became Professor of Dentistry and head of Operative Dentistry in 1946. He has instilled in his students the highest ideals of dental service.

During recent years the several divisions of operative dentistry have attained such importance that they are now treated as specialties. The work in periodontia, headed by Dr. Bunting until 1948, was taken over by Donald Archibald Kerr (Michigan State Normal '31, Michigan '37d, M.S. ibid. '43). Dr. Kerr, who was promoted to Associate Professor in 1948, had worked with Dr. Bunting for many years in the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching of the treatment of periodontal disease.

By 1934 dentistry for children had grown to such prominence that Kenneth Alexander Easlick ('17, '28d, A.M. '36) was given charge of the work. Upon his graduation Dr. Easlick had been appointed Instructor in Clinical Dentistry. From 1932 he developed a special course in dentistry for children, which under his leadership has grown to great importance in undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate teaching. Dr. Easlick was promoted to Professor of Dentistry in the School in 1945. He received a like appointment in the School of Public Health at the same time and is now the head of the Children's Clinic in the Kellogg Institute. He is ably assisted by Assistant Professors Joseph Thurman Hartsook (Ohio State '37, Michigan '42d, M.S. ibid. '47) and William Ernest Brown, Jr. ('45d, M.S. '47).

During the past twenty years endodontia, the treatment of pulpless teeth, has become recognized as a special form of dental practice. It has been developed and presented by Ralph Frederick Sommer ('24d, M.S. '30) in association with Dr. Rickert. These two men devised revolutionary methods of treating and filling pulpless teeth aseptically, which have been widely recognized and adopted. Dr. Sommer was promoted to a professorship in 1941 and is now in charge of this work.

Prosthetic dentistry, which was developed until 1902 by Dorrance, an outstanding teacher of the subject, became another specialty. From 1903 to 1924 it was directed by Hoff with the assistance from 1921 of Percival Chelston Lowery ('10d, M.S. '40), a well-known Detroit practitioner. In 1924 Dr. Lowery was made Professor in charge of prosthetic teaching, which position he ably filled for five years. He was assisted by Richard Henry Kingery (Michigan Agricultural College, '20, Michigan '24d), who, in 1929, assumed direction of this instruction. Kingery, who was promoted to a professorship in 1937, is largely concerned with postgraduate teaching. In charge of the undergraduate teaching in this field is Corwin Robert Wright ('29d, M.S. '38), Associate Professor of Dentistry since 1945.

Page  1326Certain phases of prosthetic dentistry have been elevated to special forms of dental practice. For many years crown and bridge work has been taught independent of other forms of dental restorations. The first professorship in this important field was held by Dr. Ward from 1912 to 1934. From 1920 to 1924 Albert John Irving ('17d), now a noted practitioner of New York City, was associated with Ward in clinical instruction. Since 1925 Francis Bulkley Vedder ('16, '18d) has been connected with the teaching of this work. Dr. Vedder has been a member of the faculty since 1918, first as Demonstrator and later as Instructor. He was promoted to a professorship in 1931 and in 1934 was given charge of the work in crown and bridge processes, in which field he is recognized as an authority.

During recent years partial denture prosthesis has grown to such importance that it has attained specific status in the School. In 1934 Oliver Clark Applegate ('17d, D.D.Sc. '37), Professor of Dentistry since 1947, assumed direction of the work and has made notable contributions in this new field. He has been ably supported by his associate, Roland Oswald Nissle ('29d), who was made Associate Professor in 1949.

The basic technic courses which are preparatory to both operative and prosthetic dentistry were conducted by Professor Elmer LeRoy Whitman ('04d) from 1904 to 1949. This instruction has since been under the charge of Associate Professor Ralph Sayles Moyer ('31d, M.S. '43), who was appointed Instructor in Dentistry in 1932.

Oral surgery was first taught to dental students by Dr. James N. Martin ('83m), of the University Medical School. Dr. C. G. Darling was appointed Clinical Lecturer in Oral Pathology and Oral Surgery in 1891 and was made Professor in 1905. He was also associated with Dr. Charles De Nancrède in the Department of Surgery of the Medical School and succeeded him as head of the department and chief surgeon of the University Hospital. Lyons and Darling developed the technics of repairing lip and palate clefts and conducted the oral surgery clinic section of the University Hospital. From 1915 until his death in 1935 Lyons was head of the oral surgery section. In this position he developed the teaching of exodontia, which previously had been given by the operative clinical teaching staff. His chief contribution was in the field of harelip and cleft palate repair, in which he earned an international reputation.

John Willard Kemper ('17d, M.D. '27), who joined the staff as Assistant Professor in 1929, succeeded Dr. Lyons as Professor in charge of the teaching of oral surgery and of the oral surgery clinics in the Dental School and in the University Hospital. He had been associated with Lyons and was eminently successful in carrying on the harelip and palate surgical service until his sudden death in 1952. From 1940 Reed Othelbert Dingman ('28, '31d, M.S. '32, M.D. '36) was associated with Kemper in the teaching of oral surgery. Dr. Dingman also took special training in plastic surgery, in which field he has outstanding ability and reputation. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1943. Philip Munro Northrop ('28d, M.S. '31), who became Professor of Dentistry in 1950, has been a member of the oral surgical staff since 1935.

Prior to 1923 teaching in the field of orthodontics was conducted one day a week by visiting lecturers. Among these may be mentioned three well-known orthodontists of Detroit, Oliver Wilson White ('98d, D.D.Sc. '99, M.S. hon. '40), Milton Tate Watson ('93d), and Frank Rodman Woods ('03d). In 1923 Alfred LeRoy Johnson (D.M.D. Tufts Page  1327'04, A.M. hon. Harvard '42, D.Sc. Rochester '45), who had been a member of the faculty of Tufts Dental College, was appointed Professor of Orthodontia to take charge of the teaching of this specialty. Dr. Johnson initiated a graduate training program, but remained only until the end of the school year. George Raymond Moore ('23d, M.S. '24) was appointed Instructor in Orthodontia in 1924. He carried on the program begun by Dr. Johnson with the assistance of Dr. Benno Edward Lischer, an eminent orthodontist of St. Louis, Missouri, who for three years visited the School periodically to take part in the teaching of this subject. Dr. Moore was made Professor of Orthodontics in 1937 and was in charge of this work until his death in 1952. With the members of his teaching staff, he developed effective undergraduate and graduate teaching programs. Ninety-nine of his students received master of science degrees in orthodontics, and thirty-nine pursued a two-year postgraduate program. All undergraduates were given special training in orthodontia. Michigan early attained first place in this field.

In the early days dental therapeutics and the use of drugs were taught by the operative staff. When Hoff was appointed Professor of Dental Materia Medica and Dental Mechanism in 1891, he developed and taught the subject until 1903. Egbert Theodore Loeffler ('85e[C.E.], '88d), who had been a practitioner in Saginaw, was given charge of the teaching of materia medica and therapeutics at that time, with the title of Professor of Dental Therapeutics. Dr. Loeffler installed the first dental radiographic equipment in the School, and he is responsible for the introduction of radiologic technics for dental diagnosis. In 1939 the department was greatly expanded to meet the ever increasing demand. Dr. Ralph Sommer took charge of the work in that year.

With the resignation of Loeffler in 1920, the teaching of dental therapeutics was assumed by Ura Garfield Rickert (Buchtel '07, A.M. ibid. '13, Michigan '16d), who since 1913 had been associated with Bunting in the study of dental caries. Rickert had taught physiological chemistry and hygiene since 1917, and until his death in 1938 he gave the courses in therapeutics and developed many new formulae for dental preparations which are in general use today. He also played an active part in the controversy over the retention of pulpless teeth in the mouth and their relationship to focal infection. He advocated a middle course and did much to stabilize the thought concerning this problem. His influence was widely felt during this period of changing concepts in dental education and practice.

On the death of Dr. Rickert, therapeutics was taught for one year by Morris Davis Mackoy ('06d). In 1940 the work was assumed by Floyd Darl Ostrander ('34d, M.S. '41), a member of the operative staff since 1934. Ostrander was promoted to Professor in 1952 and now has charge of the teaching of this subject. He has become widely known for his contributions in the field of dental therapeutics.

The teaching of pathology in the early days was limited to a few lectures on the diseases of the mouth given under operative dentistry by Taft. Instruction in this subject was assumed in 1903 by Bunting, who developed a lecture course in both general and oral pathology. The teaching of general pathology, which was transferred in 1920 to the Department of Pathology in the Medical School, consisted of both lecture and laboratory instruction. Bunting continued to teach oral pathology, lecture and laboratory, until 1939, when Kerr, who had been associated with the Department of Pathology, took over the teaching of this Page  1328subject. Under his direction the graduate and postgraduate teaching of pathology has been efficiently developed.

A unique graduate program of teaching in dentistry and public health has been organized and operated in the School of Dentistry since 1938. At that time Dr. John Sundwall, chairman of the Division of Public Health, requested that a dental co-ordinator be named to outline and direct the programs for public health dentists. Dr. Easlick was chosen for this position, and he organized for senior students a course of lectures on public health and conducted the graduate teaching of public health dentists. In 1939, under the auspices of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, a one-week field trip to the county health departments of southwestern Michigan was arranged for senior dental students. This field experience was continued for five years.

In 1941 Dr. Easlick was appointed Assistant Professor in the School of Public Health on a half-time basis and was given a like appointment in the School of Dentistry. Under his direction the teaching of public health dentists in the School of Public Health became an important function of both schools. By 1952 eighty-five graduate degrees in public health dentistry had been awarded. Most of these graduates are now in public health service in this country or abroad.

Dental hygiene. — The first dental hygiene course was offered in Bridgeport, Connecticut, by Dr. Alfred C. Fones. The students were trained to teach mouth hygiene in the public schools and to serve as auxiliary aids to practicing dentists. The services of these assistants proved so beneficial that interest in their preparation grew rapidly, and dental schools began to offer such instruction. By 1952 twenty-six schools had training courses, and dental hygiene graduates were certified for practice in every state.

Upon the strong recommendation of the dental profession of Michigan, the University offered a course for dental hygienists in 1921. Originally a two-year program based on high-school graduation, it was shortened to one year in 1922. Miss May Helmer, a registered nurse who had been acting as an assistant in a dental office, supervised the first class. In 1922 Hertha Charlotte Hartwig (Klages) ('15d), a practicing periodontist of Detroit, became Instructor in Oral Hygiene.

Dr. Hartwig resigned in 1924, and Dorothy Gerald Hard (Bunting) ('22d, M.S.P.H. '34) was appointed Instructor in Oral Hygiene. Dr. Hard had been an industrial dentist in the laboratories of Parke, Davis and Company in Detroit. She was made Director of the Curriculum in Dental Hygiene in 1934 and Professor in 1953. During her tenure of office Dr. Hard has taken an active part in the teaching of periodontia. In her connection with the Dental Caries Research Group, she made significant contributions both to research and to publications. Under her guidance the curriculum has been amplified to meet changing views of dental hygiene and has grown to be an important function of the School. In 1938 the curriculum was extended to two years, and in 1948 an optional four-year curriculum leading to the bachelor of science degree in dental hygiene was offered. The first two years of academic study may be taken in the University or in any liberal arts college of equal standing.

Eight young women were graduated in the first class. The enrollment has increased until the number of applicants has far exceeded the capacity of the School to accommodate them. Since 1947 an average of thirty has been graduated each year, approximately half on Page  1329the four-year program. In 1951-52 thirty-seven students were enrolled.

Research. — During the past fifty years research at the University of Michigan has resulted in notable contributions to dental science. The first project, begun by Ward in 1903, initiated the study of the properties of dental amalgam used as a filling material, its value as an arrester of dental caries, and the possible dangers of mercuric poisoning. This research led to the establishment in 1904 of the course, Testing Filling Materials, which was expanded to keep pace with advances in clinical practice and which has been continued to the present time.

Studies have been made of practically all materials known to dentistry and of those used in their processing, the measurement of the physical properties of enamel and dentin, and the behavior of revolving dental instruments. The findings of these investigations have had wide recognition and have served to stimulate a spirit of inquiry in the clinical phases of dentistry. The laboratory was conducted by Ward and his associates until 1946, when Norris O. Taylor (Illinois '18, Ph.D. Iowa '23) was appointed Professor of Dentistry and given charge of this work. Through the efforts of Taylor research grants were obtained from various governmental agencies for the investigation of filling materials used in governmental services. At the end of two years' service Taylor resigned to join the S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company.

Floyd Avery Peyton (Indiana '28, Sc.D. Michigan '33) became Professor of Dentistry and assumed charge of the Dental Materials Laboratory in 1948. From 1935 to 1946 Peyton had worked with Ward in the laboratory and had assisted in the teaching of Dental Materials. Under Peyton's direction, by the addition of research projects supported by governmental agencies, by private industry, and by the Horace H. Rackham Fund, the services of the laboratory have been greatly extended. Government grants have been made by the Public Health Service, the Army, the Air Force, and the Veterans' Administration.

In 1910 Bunting began the studies of the cause and control of dental caries which he pursued until 1936. During this time he was associated with Rickert, Faith Hadley ('20, D.P.H. '35), and Mary Catherine Crowley ('26, M.S.P.H. '28). These studies were greatly expanded by the organization of the Dental Caries Research Group in 1929. This research group, financed from 1929 to 1933 by the Children's Fund of Michigan, was discontinued owing to the depression, but was carried on from 1934 to 1936 with funds from the Horace H. and Mary A. Rackham Fund. Under Bunting's direction a staff of well-qualified scientists in the fields of bacteriology, chemistry, nutrition, and dentistry was organized, which, over a period of six years, made notable contributions to the knowledge of dental caries and laid the foundation for subsequent developments in caries prevention. The findings, which were revolutionary and which were subject to much controversy, have since been accepted in this important field.

Philip Jay ('23d, M.S. '24, D.Sc. hon. Washington '41) was in charge of the bacteriologic investigations of the group and since 1936 has directed research on dental caries. Jay, who came to the School of Dentistry in 1929 from the University of Rochester, where he was engaged in bacteriologic research, was promoted to a professorship in 1948. He played an important role in the group studies and has been active in the development of the technics for control of dental caries. He has been closely Page  1330associated with the National Institute of Health in Washington, D. C., in the study of the effects of water fluoridation and has participated actively in the Institute's studies of caries control.

The outstanding contribution in the field of oral surgery has been the development of surgical technics for the treatment of harelip and cleft palate. This clinical service was begun in the School by Darling and Lyons in 1913. Since 1945 functional studies of palatal deformities have been made in conjunction with the Speech Clinic of the University. By the use of photographs and moving pictures with sound track it has been possible to evaluate the effectiveness of various surgical technics for the correction of oral malformations. As a result a variation in surgical technic has been developed which is much superior to former methods and which has been used very successfully. The more recent developments by Kemper, Dingman, Northrop, and other members of the oral surgical staff include ostectomy and osteotomy of the mandible for correction of developmental defects, bone grafts, open reduction of fractures, control of loss of blood during cleft operations, ostectomy for malunion of fractured bones, and menisectomy for the treatment of traumatic arthritis and subluxation of the temporomandibular joint. With Associate Professor Mary Crowley, Northrop has carried on significant studies of bacteremias following surgical procedures and of preventive premedication to control them.

Since 1934 Associate Professor Crowley has served as bacteriologist in charge of laboratory studies. She previously had played an important part in the research on dental caries. More recently she has been identified with research in the fields of endodontia, oral surgery, dental focal infection, and instrument sterilization and has been joint author of many of the resulting publications. Crowley also conducted a bacteriologic study to determine the usefulness of partial pulpectomy when the pulps of immature teeth are exposed.

Rickert made many important contributions in the field of focal infection of a dental origin during the days in which pulpless teeth were considered harmful and unsafe. He carried on bacteriologic research with Dr. Faith Hadley, and later, in co-operation with Sommer and Crowley, he developed a technic of filling root canals aseptically and safely. The contributions of Rickert and Sommer have had a salutary effect in the treatment of pulp-involved teeth. Their technics in root surgery, the treatment of root-end infections, and the aseptic filling of root canals have received wide recognition in the dental and medical professions.

Kerr, who is in charge of the work in oral pathology, has carried out notable studies concerned with enamel hypoplasia, papillary cyst adenoma, lymphomatosum, myoblastic myomas of the oral region, granuloma pyogenicum, and other pathological manifestations. In this field Associate Professor Sigurd Peder Ramfjord (Oslo '34d, Ph.D. Michigan '51) has made valuable animal studies of the effect of febrile diseases on the periodontium, the reattachment of the periodontium to the root, and the effects of tuberculosis and alloxan on the periodontal tissues.

For some years, under the direction of George R. Moore, studies of the growth of the face and jaws and the development of occlusion were conducted. Since 1931 dentofacial records of the development of the children in the University Elementary School have been maintained. With Associate Professor Byron O. Hughes of the School of Education, extensive research on malocclusion in its relation to heredity has Page  1331been carried out. A cephalometric radiographic study of the effects of orthodontic treatment is now being pursued under a grant from the Faculty Research Fund.

In the field of complete denture prosthesis Kingery, since 1928, has evaluated methods of treatment for the edentulous patient. From 1930 research on the rehabilitation of patients with oral clefts has been conducted in conjunction with the work in speech, oral surgery, orthodontics, and dentistry for children. A co-operative study was undertaken in 1935 to examine the adaptation of new materials to the field of denture prosthesis, and in 1944 Wright and other staff members began an investigation to determine the function of the structures of the oral cavity as they relate to denture prosthesis.

Since 1934 work in partial denture prosthesis, under the direction of Applegate, methods of registering the supporting contour of the tissues of the edentulous ridge, and adaptations to the construction of partial dentures have been developed. Means of recording the occlusal paths of the edentulous patient and of estimating the ability of the remaining tissue to support a denture also have been studied.

The Dental Library

Housed in the Dental Building and operated by the General Library, the Dental Library has become a vital factor in both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. When the organization of the Dental Library was reported in the University Calendar for 1879-80 it was characterized by the statement that "a library of dental science, containing almost every known work on this specialty, is accessible to the students."

With the opening of the Dental Building in 1908 a reading room was provided, but as no funds were available for the services of a librarian, the use of the library was restricted. In 1917 by the assessment of a library fee a part-time attendant was provided. The control of the Dental Library was transferred to the General Library in 1918, and in 1919 the first full-time library attendant was appointed.

In 1929 Inez Bowler (Colby '07, A.M.L.S. Michigan '35) was appointed Librarian. She was succeeded by Marjorie Cleveland Lewis (Darling) ('29 [L.S.]) in 1934. Since 1939 Hilda Margaret Rankin has held the position of dentistry librarian.

Through the efforts of William Warner Bishop, Librarian of the University, the collection of books and dental periodicals was increased until it became one of the leading dental libraries of the country. In 1926 it was given high commendation by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. A study of dental library needs, carried out in cooperation with Dean Ward and the dental faculty and financed by the Carnegie Foundation, was begun in 1929. As a result of these researches, conducted over a period of five years, a manual of organization and operation for all dental libraries, written by Librarian Bowler, was issued. Important additions were also made to the rare book collection.

In 1952 the library contained more than 10,000 volumes and included all leading current publications in dentistry, medicine, public health, and allied fields. Facilities are taxed daily to their full capacity by both undergraduate and graduate students.

Housed with the library was the Ford Museum of Crania donated by Professor Corydon L. Ford of the Medical School. To this was added a collection of five hundred specimens donated by Dr. William Mitchell ('78d) and Dr. L. J. Mitchell ('84d) of London, England. Page  1332The name was then changed to the Ford-Mitchell Museum. In 1928 this entire anthropological collection was transferred to the University's Museum of Anthropology.

The W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and PostGraduate Dentistry

The need for dental education beyond the undergraduate level was recognized soon after the organization of the College of Dental Surgery in 1875. A program was established shortly after 1890 leading to the degree of doctor of dental science after one or more years of study. Carrie Marsden Stewart was the first recipient of the degree in 1894. Nine graduate degrees were granted from 1894 until 1921, by which time the necessity for graduate programs was apparent.

In 1921 the Graduate School of the University recognized these programs and since that time has conferred the master of science degree upon graduate dental students. Such graduate training provides a foundation for teaching or research and qualifies those who desire to become specialists. The first master of science in dentistry degree was conferred by the Graduate School in 1921. From one to five such degrees were granted each year from 1923 to 1937, principally in the fields of oral surgery and orthodontics. The number of graduate students has been limited by the physical facilities and the size of the faculty.

The demand for graduate instruction was paralleled by a growing desire on the part of practicing dentists for some form of postgraduate education which would keep them abreast of advancements in the profession. Since 1920 the School had admitted an occasional postgraduate student. No organized program was offered for such students, however, because of limited facilities. Lecture programs and presentations were conducted throughout the state, but practitioners felt a need for demonstrations and actual clinical experience in methods and procedures. This led to specifically planned and scheduled postgraduate instruction in 1933 under the general direction of Dr. Chalmers J. Lyons. At first few students were enrolled, but each year brought an increase in the demand for such training.

Courses were offered in virtually all fields of dentistry, either in intensive one- or two-week programs or on a one-day-a-week basis throughout one or two semesters. The one-week and two-week courses were for those who lived at some distance from Ann Arbor, and the one-day-a-week courses for those within easy commuting distance. The undergraduate facilities and staff were adequate to provide all the postgraduate instruction until 1937, when the new four-year dental curriculum began to overload both facilities and staff. At that time Dr. Paul Jeserich was made Director of Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry. It became apparent that no further postgraduate expansion would be warranted and that some retrenchment would be necessary unless something could be done to increase the size of the faculty and to provide adequate space for postgraduate instruction.

The W. K. Kellogg Foundation became interested in the need for continuing education in the health sciences at this time, and, as a part of the program for a Michigan Community Health Project, sent dentists and other professional groups to various centers for postgraduate training. The Kellogg Foundation became aware of the postgraduate teaching in dentistry which had been carried on at the University and offered financial assistance to the faculty for a mutually co-operative program of instruction. Page  1333In 1937 the Kellogg Foundation made a grant of $110,000 to the School of Dentistry. Of this grant $10,000 was to be used for equipment and $20,000 a year for instructional purposes over a five-year period. As a result the postgraduate enrollment increased, but adequate classroom, laboratory, and clinical facilities were still lacking. To relieve this situation the W. K. Kellogg Foundation in 1938 made another grant of $236,500 and the Public Works Administration granted $209,835 to construct and equip the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry, which was completed in 1940. Through the efforts of Dr. Jeserich, the Director, the postgraduate program in dentistry was organized, and the financial assistance for instruction and for the building was obtained. The faculty of the School of Dentistry co-operated enthusiastically and assumed a heavy dual teaching load which has made the success of the postgraduate program possible.

As in 1875, when the University of Michigan created the first dental college to be organized as an individual part of a state university, it pioneered again by the erection of the first building in the world to be devoted solely to graduate and postgraduate teaching in dentistry. No dental school heretofore had assumed the responsibility of establishing dental education on a graduate level. The Institute symbolized the assumption of this responsibility by the University of Michigan.

Dr. Emory W. Morris, associate director of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, made the following statement at the dedicatory exercises on April 3, 1940:

Today we are here to see the building that developed as a request from a group of dentists desiring to render a better service to the people of their communities. We hope that the profession will use it and that it may stimulate a demand for the development of similar programs elsewhere, but to the Foundation the most significant aspect of this new school is that it is going to afford the dental profession the opportunity to provide an ever-increasing number of people in communities throughout the world an improved dental service.

In 1950, when Dr. Jeserich became Dean of the School of Dentistry, he continued as Director of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute. At this time Dr. William Richard Mann ('40d, M.S. '42), who was first appointed to the faculty in 1940, became Associate Professor of Dentistry and Assistant Director of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute. He was also appointed Co-ordinator of all clinics. In 1952 Dr. Mann became Associate Director of the Institute.

From 1922 to 1952 two hundred and twenty-two master of science degrees in dentistry have been conferred. The Institute is adequately prepared to care for the needs of some thirty-five to forty-five graduate students each year. Since 1933, when the first courses were offered, more than twenty-three hundred students have taken postgraduate work. Some of these students have taken part in as many as eighteen different postgraduate programs. The Institute, during 1951-52, offered twenty-six two-week courses, twelve one-week courses, ten one-day-a-week courses, in addition to several one- to three-day seminars. Each year approximately five hundred students attend these courses. The highest postgraduate enrollment occurred in 1950-51, when more than six hundred postgraduate students attended courses. Because of the exceptional facilities which are available and because of the caliber of its faculty, the Institute has become the best-known center in the world for graduate and postgraduate dental education. Requests come from Page  1334all parts of the United States and from almost every country for refresher training and graduate training leading to specialized practice or teaching.

The Institute received a grant of $79,000 in September, 1952, from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation to aid in developing and conducting a program for training teachers of dentistry. The funds are to support the first three years of the program, which will then be maintained by the University. This is the first program to give definite instruction in how to teach dentistry that has ever been offered.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Association of Dental Schools, Curriculum Survey Committee. A Course of Study in Dentistry. Chicago, 1935.
Announcement, School of Dentistry, Univ. Mich., 1923 — .
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1875-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Gies, William John.Dental Education in the United States and Canada; a Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. New York, 1926.
Guerini, Vincenzo. A History of Dentistry from the Most Ancient Times until the End of the Eighteenth Century. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1909.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Michigan State Dental Society. Journal. Vol. 1, Mar. 1919 — (title varies, Mar. 1919-April 1932, Bulletin).
Michigan State Dental Society (title varies). MS, Minutes 1856.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1871-1952.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1870-1952.
Thorpe, B. L.Biographies of Pioneer American Dentists and Their Successors. Ed. by Charles R. E. Koch. Chicago: National Art Publ. Co., 1909.
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The College of Pharmacy

Page  [1336]
Page  1337

THE COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

THE Regents of the University of Michigan at their December 29, 1876, meeting founded the School of Pharmacy through the following resolution:

"Resolved, That the School of Pharmacy which has hitherto been connected with the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, be and is hereby constituted a separate school of the University, to be known and designated hereafter as 'The School of Pharmacy'."

There was, however, a history of pharmacy at the University long before this. As early as October, 1839, Douglass Houghton (A.M. and M.D. Rensselaer '29) was appointed Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and he was also "charged with the subjects of Chemistry and Pharmacy, till the Regents take further order in relation thereto." Houghton probably did not conduct regular classes, although he did make contributions to the scientific collections of the University. In 1844 Silas Hamilton Douglass* (A.M. hon. Vermont '47), Houghton's cousin, was designated Assistant in chemistry. The appointment was made during Houghton's survey of the Upper Peninsula and just one year before he was drowned in Lake Superior.

Douglass was placed in charge of the Chemistry Department after his cousin's death and continued in this capacity for the next thirty-two years. In addition to his other duties, his efforts were directed toward the establishment of the Medical School and the teaching of chemistry in it. Owing to the success of his course in the Medical School and the support and interest of President Tappan, Douglass was able to direct the construction of the first chemical laboratory in a state university.

There seems to be no indication that he actually taught courses in pharmacy, but his titles illustrate the University's continued interest in the subject. From 1851 to 1855 he held the title of Professor of Chemistry, Pharmacy, Medical Jurisprudence, Geology, and Mineralogy and from 1855 to 1870 his title was Professor of Chemistry, Mineralogy, Pharmacy, and Toxicology. Douglass played a definite role in the development of the School of Pharmacy, since it was in the Chemical Laboratory under his direction that the first courses in pharmacy were offered. Alfred DuBois ('48, M.A. '54), the first nonstudent assistant selected to aid Douglass and the first teacher to give instruction in pharmacy at Michigan, was appointed Assistant to the Professor of Chemistry in 1855, having previously acted as a voluntary student assistant. In 1857 he was made Assistant Professor of Chemistry and in 1858 his salary was raised from $800 to $1,000 per year. When he submitted a request at the September, 1862, meeting of the Board of Regents, however, to be made Assistant Professor of Pharmacy and Organic Chemistry, his request was refused, and his somewhat rapid rise in the young University was brought to an abrupt end. At the September meeting, DuBois' request was referred to the committee on the Chemistry Department under the chairmanship of Regent Bishop. The report of this committee (now in the Michigan Historical Collections) describes the status of pharmacy in the University at that time.

The report begins by outlining the duties performed in the department. There were four lectures a week in chemistry and pharmacy during the Page  1338first semester and three lectures a week in chemistry during the second semester. The instruction included fifteen lectures in organic chemistry "which is all the time that can profitably be devoted in this branch at the present state of the science. The lectures on Pharmacy are in direct connection with those on Chemistry; a natural if not a necessary association." There were also courses given in Analytical Chemistry and Practical Pharmacy (Chemical Technology). The class in Practical Pharmacy had an average of about six students and was conducted by DuBois. It was his proposal that there be a division of the professorships then held by Professor Douglass and that DuBois should confine his instruction to the courses Practical Pharmacy and Organic Chemistry.

It was, however, the opinion of the committee that the size of the University was not such as to warrant this. They further believed that DuBois' rise had been too rapid, especially in view of the size of the department, type of work to be performed, and his lack of willingness to carry out all assigned tasks: "It cannot therefore in the judgement of your committee be wise or politic to permit this state of things longer to exist. Neither can it be for the interest of Prof. DuBois that it should, for while it may not be for the interests of the University to establish a chair of Phar. and Or. Chem. for the purpose of his accommodation, he can have no difficulty in procuring a position elsewhere better suited to his tastes than the one he now holds and where he may have an opportunity to employ his scientific attainments more creditably to himself and more profitable to the interests of Chemical Science." The report concluded by suggesting that the staff of the Department of Chemistry should consist of the Professor of Chemistry, Douglass, and three assistants.

The report of the committee was accepted at the March, 1863, meeting of the Regents. The position of Assistant Professor of Chemistry was abolished, and provision was made for three assistants to Professor Douglass. It thus was on June 23, 1863, that Albert Benjamin Prescott ('64m, Ph.D. hon. '86, LL.D. hon. '96) was appointed to the first assistantship at a salary of $300 a year. From this position Prescott rose in 1870 to Professor of Organic and Applied Chemistry and Pharmacy. The assistantship with a salary of $225 was given to Henry Sylvester Cheever ('63, '66m), who also was to influence the development of the College of Pharmacy. Both of these men received their initial appointments while students at the University.

There is doubt concerning the exact nature of the pharmacy course conducted by Professor DuBois, the years during which it was taught, and its fate after he left the University to enter a career as chemist and assayer in Colorado and California. The course that he began appears to be a part of the "special investigations in Chemical Technology" described in the section on courses of instruction in "Chemistry and Determinative Mineralogy" of the early University catalogues. However, the first actual mention of its being so is in the Catalogue of 1866-67. Prescott also told something of this course in an article entitled "Silas H. Douglass as Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy." He dated the establishment of the first laboratory course in pharmacy at the University as 1860 and described it as work in pharmaceutical preparations intended for students of medicine but also "as general practical training in applied science" and went on to say:

"In the making of emulsions there was almost a course in itself. As to the making of 'blue mass' it was a common Page  1339remark that it took its name from the feeling of the student before he could complete the task to the satisfaction of the professor. 'Iron by hydrogen' was worked by the class jointly, but each man severally must test one portion of it and preserve another portion. The preparation of morphine from opium was certainly not an economical procedure in respect to the yield of alkaloid, but it turned out quite well in the yield of experience."

Development of the college. — Interest in this course and in pharmacy in general at the University reached such a point that at the December 14, 1868, meeting of the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts two important decisions were made. First, it was "decided to make a separate list of the Pharmaceutical Chemical Students," and second, it was "carried that a committee of three be appointed to take into consideration the propriety of forming a course for a degree as Phar. Chemists. Committee consisted of Dr. Haven, Professors Douglass and Cheever." Eight days later, at the Board of Regents' meeting, on the motion of Regent Sill, authority was granted to establish a full course of study in pharmacy and to grant a certificate of graduation to students who completed the work. Thus, in the Catalogue for 1868-69 the first list of twenty students in pharmacy was given; the Catalogue for the following year presented a list of twenty-three men who had received degrees as pharmaceutical chemists.

Pharmacy then remained a special course in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts until December 29, 1876, when the Regents adopted a resolution to establish a separate School of Pharmacy. This resolution was passed in response to a communication presented one week earlier by the professors and instructors in pharmacy:

"To the Honorable Board of Regents: The undersigned, the officers of instruction in the course in Pharmacy, respectfully recommend that this course, viz: the provisions for the instruction given under the requirements for the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist, be constituted a separate branch or department of the University, under the name of The School of Pharmacy.

"Our recommendation seems to be supported by the following considerations. The course in Pharmacy is a technical one, throughout. As such it is not parallel with any course in the literary department and its inclusion in this department has been only nominal. It is separated from other departments by the professional purpose of its work in the University and by its relations to those who supply its students and employ its graduates. Nearly all the required work of the Pharmacy classes is conducted with them separately, as shown by accompanying statement A, this separation being demanded by the size of the classes as well as by a due application of the sciences taught. The permanence of the school seems to be assured by the steadily increasing support given it, as noted in statement B. The officers who now give instruction to undergraduates in pharmacy are named in statement C.

Silas H. Douglas

Albert B. Prescott

G. E. Frothingham

William H. Pettee

John W. Langley

Volney M. Spaulding"

Statement A was a list of courses required for the degree of pharmaceutical chemist. Statement B was a summary of the students in pharmacy from 1868 to 1876 and a note pointing out the published contributions of original work by alumni of the pharmacy course. Statement C listed the twelve people giving instruction Page  1340to pharmacy students at that time.

It was in this manner that pharmacy became established as an independent unit on campus. There followed only one organizational modification in the seventy-five years of development after its establishment. In 1915 the name of the "School of Pharmacy" was changed to "College of Pharmacy," to conform to the University policy adopted at that time.

Although instruction in pharmacy became firmly established at the University, this type of teaching was not at the time accepted by educators and practitioners in pharmacy. University of Michigan pharmaceutical education was a decided change in many respects from the pattern which then prevailed. The situation is best described as follows:

"Until after the Civil War pharmaceutical education and the general institutions of higher learning in the United States went entirely separate ways. But emergence of the state university on the American scene during the first half of the century was to prove of primary importance in pharmacy. Such institutions tended to have a more democratic outlook than the old-line universities, which emphasized liberal education for the upper class. In the state university the pendulum swung far the other way: emphasis was on practical subjects to serve the people's needs, on applied science and the training of replacements for the professions.

"One of the state institutions most alert to these needs was the University of Michigan, which in 1868 became the first to establish a course in pharmacy. Unhampered by dependence on ticket sales for support, or by the encrusted tradition of the apprenticeship system, or by those with a vested interest in the status quo, there emerged a radical departure in pharmaceutical education. The two most significant features were complete disregard of the apprenticeship as a requirement for graduation — elsewhere considered the very core of a pharmacist's education — and heavy emphasis on basic science without regard for what seemed functional in the average 'store.'

"Such heresy becomes understandable only in the light of the Michigan tradition. The University had made great strides under its aggressive president, Henry P. Tappan, whose guiding star was European academic thought and the German university in particular. His successor, E. O. Haven, took special pride in his science courses, and during his regime set up new courses in chemistry and physics, as well as pharmacy.

"The University of Michigan medical school had been 'unique' in that it bravely set high standards. In the medical curriculum pharmaceutical instruction was naturally included. Medical students and others who might be aiming at either part-time or full-time practice of pharmacy were taking a laboratory course in pharmacy eight years before the separate pharmaceutical curriculum was organized.

"Thus it was a rather easy transition to a special 'Course of Study in Pharmacy' within the Department of Science, Literature and Arts, requiring for completion 'one and a half to two years' of study, with a sound scientific education as its supreme goal and with facilities to reach its objective. This move was interpreted as a challenge by pharmacy schools then in existence. The battle lines were drawn at the St. Louis meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1871. Here the University of Michigan School of Pharmacy was denied recognition, since it was not 'within the proper meaning of our Constitution and By-laws, a College of Pharmacy: it being neither an organization Page  1341controlled by pharmacists, nor an institution of learning which, by its rules and requirements insures to its graduates the proper practical training, to place them on a par with the graduates of the several colleges of pharmacy represented in this Association.'

"Dr. Albert B. Prescott, professor of organic chemistry and pharmacy at Michigan, had not planned to present a paper. But a later session found the modest, benign-looking professor of thirty-nine stumping to the platform with his cane, a constant companion since a boyhood accident. '… Circumstances occurring since the opening of the meeting,' he said, 'have caused me to present, very briefly, the views upon a few points which I have held for some time.' Then in his slow-spoken deliberate way he fought back. He championed the supreme value of a new school of thought: scientific education in pharmacy, when he said: 'In a large number of instances, the apprentice is led to perform mechanical labor in blind ignorance of the nature of the material with which he deals; he becomes habituated to a feeble and automatic mode of action, and hence, too often, he never afterward breaks through to the light. Elementary textbooks on chemistry and botany are not placed in his hands; he learns to refer to official and non-official authorities, and to follow after statements and methods which he does not understand; and, too often, he finally ceases to 'wonder why' he does this or that. The history of processes of preparations and the discussion of physical and chemical ways and means are in a tongue unknown to him.

"'In many instances, this condition of things may be remedied by the pharmacists having apprentices in charge, but in this country and at present, in a far larger number of instances, such remedy is impossible, because the pharmacist has little more science than his apprentice. He also was a blind apprentice, if he was an apprentice at all, and he is too often unconscious or regardless of his own deficiencies … From this (apprenticeship) beginning, year after year still leaves him at the mercy of wholesale deceptions, innocent of the wrong done under his hand, if we may term him innocent whose ignorance places human life in daily jeopardy.

"'In Germany, the state requires and regulates apprenticeship, enforces instructions during the same, and secures the scientific character and the efficiency of such instruction by official examination; and the same fact is true, to a certain extent, in Great Britain. It is evident that before we can hope for such apprenticeship, we must obtain a new generation of competent masters by some other means.

"'There is now a general demand for scholastic training in technical science for all young men who are to enter upon vocations requiring applications of science: engineers, miners, manufacturers, mechanics, agriculturists, and (shall they be named at the last?) pharmacists. Every year this demand is notably more imperative. This education, of inestimable advantage to the pharmacist whenever obtained, is certainly never more useful than when secured before apprenticeship. This is the logical order; first principles, and then their applications. It is true that from didactic college instruction only, the principles of science are feebly apprehended, and especially in physical and chemical science, but vague and evanescent ideas are likely to be obtained by lectures alone.

"'But, as we have just seen, it is not in the shop that the conditions of practical study are to be found at present; indeed, such conditions never can be so perfectly furnished in the shop as in the school laboratory. And it is the growing Page  1342conviction of thoughtful educators, that physical science must be, and is to be taught in college laboratories. The student must handle the materials and wield the forces of physical and chemical action before he obtains a clear acquaintance with the same. And it is more than knowledge of natural forces, it is the skill to guide those forces that constitutes power, and such skill is best acquired in school laboratories. Moreover, the mental and manual discipline of laboratory science-work under the teacher, the training in care and accuracy imperative thereto, is excelled by no other discipline for the perceptive, inductive and executive faculties and it is discipline especially useful in the vocation of pharmacy. Such laboratory work ought not be briefly completed; the broad field of pharmacy, reaching far into the sciences of inorganic and organic nature, requires years of pupilage. A preparation that is to give ability, interest and good success to the lifetime should not have its opportunities too grudgingly counted in months.

"'But it may be urged, will young men who have taken and graduated from college courses in technical science, be willing to enter into the drudgery of apprenticeship in the shop of the apothecary, there to learn those practical details of daily duty and sales, which every one admits can be better learned in the shop; indeed, cannot be learned elsewhere? The question has its parallels. Farmers and mechanics cry out with fear, that too much school education of any sort may lift their sons above their vocations. It is a question asked at thousands of firesides, but the world is full of answers — there is no danger of too much schooling…

"'That young man whose knowledge of science breeds contempt of handicraft, has but poorly learned science, and has missed its true enthusiasm…

"'It is precisely to the ignorant apprentice in pharmacy that its work is drudgery. Too many of our apprentices have not taken that step which the world has taken in little more than a generation — the step from the dreary charm-dealing to scientific pharmacy. Give them first the fundamental sciences, and the daily duties of apprenticeship become invested with constant interest.'

"It was not just talk. But for a long time the University of Michigan stood alone. The old-line schools went their own way, with Philadelphia and the other better schools striving to improve instruction within the restricting frame set in the early part of the century. Then in 1883 the University of Wisconsin established its department of pharmacy, followed in quick succession by the state universities of Indiana, Ohio and Illinois, joined by others farther west by the end of the century." (Sonnedecker, pp. 205-18.)

In several respects Silas H. Douglass could be considered to have held the first directorship of the work in pharmacy at the University. It was while the Chemical Laboratory was under his guidance that the first courses in pharmacy were developed and the groundwork for the establishment of the independent department was laid. However, the actual honor of the first deanship of the new unit went to Albert B. Prescott, who held this position until his death on February 25, 1905. Julius Otto Schlotterbeck ('87p, Ph.D. Bern '96) was appointed to succeed him. After his death in 1917, Alviso Burdett Stevens ('75p, Ph.D. Bern '05, Sc.D. hon. Michigan '26) served as Dean until 1919, when he reached retirement age. During the next fall Henry Kraemer (Philadelphia College of Pharmacy '89, Pharm. M. hon. ibid. '12, Ph.D. Marburg '96), who came to the University from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, Page  1343was appointed Dean. He resigned in 1920 after serving for one year. Kraemer in turn was succeeded by Edward Henry Kraus (Syracuse '96, Ph.D. Munich '01, Sc.D. hon. Syracuse '20, LL.D. ibid. '34), who was Acting Dean until 1923. He was then appointed Dean and served until August, 1933, when he became Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The next administrative officer of the College of Pharmacy was Howard Bishop Lewis (Yale '08, Ph.D. ibid. '13), chairman of the Department of Biological Chemistry, who was Director of the College from 1933 to 1947. Because of his work in biochemistry, Lewis asked to be relieved of his duties as Director of the College. Charles Howard Stocking ('09p), who had been Secretary of the College while Lewis was the Director, was made Acting Director on July 1, 1947, and was Dean from April, 1949, to August, 1951, when he retired. He was succeeded by Thomas Dudley Rowe (Montana '32, Ph.D. Wisconsin '41), who at the time of his appointment was Dean of the Rutgers University College of Pharmacy.

Throughout the history of the College, the secretaries have performed important administrative functions. Perhaps the best known of the many secretaries was Clifford Conklin Glover ('12p, M.S. '14), who held this post from 1918 until his death in 1942.

As has been pointed out the early development of the College of Pharmacy was within the Chemical Laboratory, construction of which began in 1855. Upon completion in the following year, this one-story building containing but three rooms and furnished with twenty-six laboratory tables served for all chemical laboratory work in the University. There were additions in 1861, 1866, 1868, 1874, 1880, 1888, and 1901, which served to expand the facilities available to all the chemical sciences including pharmacy. In 1903, when the laboratory work in physiological chemistry was removed to the Medical Building, more space was provided for chemistry, chemical engineering, and pharmacy.

The facilities available for pharmacy entered a second period of advancement when in 1909 the new Chemistry Laboratory was completed. Pharmacy occupied space on the second and third floors of the building. A third advance was made in 1948, with the completion of the addition to the Chemistry and Pharmacy Building and a modification of the facilities in the old section of the building.

Thus, the College of Pharmacy has been unique in its development not only in the fact of its establishment directly from the Chemistry Department but also in its close association with this department during the period of its growth. The advantages to pharmacy through this association have been many, especially in the field of research in pharmaceutical chemistry. Dr. Lewis, in his reports before the 1948 addition to the Chemistry and Pharmacy Building, expressed the nature and advantages of this association. For example, in the 1935-36 President's Report he stated:

"The College of Pharmacy has always been closely associated with the Department of Chemistry since its establishment. We feel that these close relationships should be continued and extended. It is hoped that if an addition to the Chemistry Building is contemplated, adequate facilities for the expanding activities of the College of Pharmacy may be included in the plans."

A discussion of the history of the physical facilities of the College should also include mention of its interest in a museum and in botanical gardens. A museum of chemical and pharmaceutical interest was installed in the Chemical Laboratory and provision was made for it in connection with the additions Page  1344to the Laboratory in 1888. With the transfer of the College to the new building in 1909-10 the museum was moved to the third floor at the southwest corner of the building. This museum which had a valuable function as a teaching aid, exists in part today in the Pharmacognosy Laboratory.

The College of Pharmacy was interested in a botanical garden before the turn of the century and was largely responsible for the first actual establishment of the garden on the campus. An interesting report, believed to have been written by Professor V. M. Spaulding, contains a description of this garden and pharmacy's part in its development. The garden in 1897 was on ground between the Library, the Physics Laboratory, and the Chemical Laboratory. Each member of the pharmacy class of 1899 selected and paid for a tree of medicinal or economic importance to be planted in it. In the 1900-1901 Announcement of the College, the garden was described as including medicinal species and experimental plantings for use by classes in pharmacognosy, pharmacy, and materia medica. The Announcement for 1907-8 records the transfer of the Botanical Gardens to the University's newly acquired Nichols Arboretum and the plan to reserve a part of the Arboretum for a medicinal garden and for experimental plantings (see Part III: The Botanical Gardens).

During World War I, under the direction of Kraemer, this practical work in pharmacognosy was expanded. In his report to President Hutchins, he noted that during the summer of 1918, 25,000 plants, representing more than fifty different species, were grown. During the summer of 1919 through the contributions and interest of Frederick Stearns and Company this work was continued. The material grown in this manner was sold and used in supplying material for teaching and research. The work thus described by Kraemer was carried on in co-operation with the Botanical Gardens at their present location near Packard Road.

Curriculum. — As has already been mentioned, Michigan pharmaceutical education was a change in the usual plan in respect to apprenticeship and in respect to the stress on basic sciences. It differed also in regard to its residence requirements for a degree. Michigan was the first institution to establish the degree of pharmaceutical chemist, which required one and one-half to two years of resident day study. This plan was an advancement over the existing part-time and night courses in pharmacy given elsewhere. In May, 1895, a four-year curriculum leading to the degree of bachelor of science was authorized by the Regents. This program, however, was not the first offered; Wisconsin, three years earlier, had introduced a four-year program. In both institutions it was intended to supplement, not to replace, the existing two-year course. The two-year curriculum for the degree of pharmaceutical chemist was lengthened in 1913 to three years. The two-year course leading to the degree of graduate in pharmacy was maintained; however, owing to lack of interest it was abandoned after 1919. In order to conform with the regulations of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the three-year course leading to the degree of pharmaceutical chemist was discontinued after 1932.

Michigan's position in relationship to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy regulation abolishing the three-year course deserves some discussion. Several of the reports to the President by Dean Kraus dealt with this subject. In the report for 1925-26 he pointed out that even though Michigan was among the first in 1895 to recognize Page  1345the need for a four-year course and fully supported and expected the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy to require its adoption within four or five years, the University could not require its mandatory acceptance at that time. This view was based on the fact that the legislative standards concerning the educational requirements for registration as a pharmacist in Michigan had been permitted to lag too far behind those of other states. In Michigan a prerequisite law requiring two years of practical experience and two years of instruction in an accredited college of pharmacy would not become effective until January 1, 1929. It was the opinion of the faculty in 1926 that it would be unwise to advance educational standards before the provisions of the state law had become effective.

The lag in the state of Michigan's educational requirements for pharmacy registration forced the College to make another concession in 1935-36. The College Announcement for that year contained a note which described a "special two-year program for students not candidates for a degree." The note explained the possibility of practicing pharmacy in Michigan with only two years of work in an accredited college of pharmacy and two years of practical experience or three years of college work and one year of practical experience. If for any reason a student did not wish to complete the regular four-year curriculum a shorter program could be arranged. Such a program would not lead to a degree nor qualify the student for reciprocity with other states. The notice, however, appeared only for the one college year, because during that year the legislature provided that after January 1, 1938, every applicant for a pharmacist's certificate should provide evidence of graduation from an "accredited school or college of pharmacy." This regulation meant completion of a four-year course, since national accreditation was granted only to those schools which awarded the bachelor of science in pharmacy.

Not only was there a trend toward lengthening the pharmacy curriculum, but there was also a trend to raise admission requirements and improve curriculum content. When work for the degree of pharmaceutical chemist was first offered in 1868 no requirements for admission were listed in the Catalogue for that year. The course of study was given as follows:

"Lectures upon Chemical Physics, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, and Toxicology; Lectures upon Materia Medica; Recitation and Lectures upon Practical Pharmacy; thorough and systematic practice in Quantitative Chemical Analysis, optional; Practice in Medico-legal Analysis of Poisons, and in Analysis of Urine; Systematic exercises in Metrology, Acidimetry, Alkalimetry, Distillation and Alcoholometry, and in the preparation of Pharmacopoeial and Chemical Compounds and Medicinal Prescriptions."

In addition, a thesis in pharmaceutical chemistry was required, which was to be based on library work and on directed research. Students could pursue classes in any branch of study "if prepared to proceed advantageously."

The Calendar for 1873-74 made the first mention of admission requirements: "A good knowledge of the English language as determined by written examination in the same." It is interesting that the Medical School and Law School at the time had only the additional provision that the prospective student be eighteen years old.

There was no change in the admission requirements when the School of Pharmacy became established as an independent unit, but there were changes in the curriculum. The Calendar for 1876-77 Page  1346listed the following courses as requirements for the first year of the newly established school:

"Chemical Physics and Inorganic Chemistry, illustrated lectures and recitations; Analytical Chemistry, lectures and class drills upon the laboratory work and upon chemical problems; Pharmacy, the study of pharmaceutical and manufacturing operations by lectures and solution of problems; Botany, recitations with Gray's Lessons and practical studies with fresh plants; Qualitative Analysis, laboratory work in the analysis of unknown materials."

The requirements for the second year were listed as follows:

"Pharmaceutical Botany, examination of fresh plants, lectures and exercises on macroscopic and microscopic drug examination; Crystallography, lectures and exercises in identifying crystals; Materia Medica, lectures and examinations of collections; Organic Chemistry, lectures; Toxicology, lectures; Inorganic Pharmacy and Organic Chemistry, lectures; and recitations; Organic Analysis, laboratory work in ultimate, qualitative, and quantitative estimation of organic drugs; Commercial Examination, the detection and estimation of impurities in articles important in commerce; Toxicology, lectures with the laboratory work in analyses of poisoned food material and animals; Analysis of Urine; Pharmacopoeial Preparations, exercises in class based upon the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, the more elaborate chemical productions, extemporaneous pharmacy and in reading and preparing prescriptions; the Thesis, personal research in any subject of the course."

In September, 1880, the requirements for admission were advanced to a point unequaled by those of any other pharmacy school of that period. Either graduation from "graded high schools or equivalent institutions" was mandatory or the applicant was required to have completed one year's study in Latin or German and to pass examinations in English, arithmetic, and algebra.

The entrance requirements were further advanced in 1883 by increasing the scope of the examinations required of those who were not high-school graduates. The President's Report for that year describes the aim of the school as being to elevate the educational program rather than to enlarge the classes.

In 1895 a program for the degree of bachelor of science in pharmacy was introduced. The requirements for admission to this new program were raised to be the equivalent of those for admission to the curriculum leading to the bachelor of science degree in the Literary Department. In addition, the new degree had the same requirements for graduation in respect to mathematics, physics, English, German, and French as did the equivalent degree in the Literary Department at that time.

Throughout the development of the College, changes were made in both the admission requirements and curriculum in order to meet the educational and scientific advancements of the day. In 1901-2 for the first time the units of high-school work required were listed. They differed for students planning to obtain the degree of pharmaceutical chemist from those for students working for the bachelor of science in pharmacy degree. By this time there had also developed a difference in admission requirements for those who had practical experience in pharmacy and for those who had not. Further changes were made in 1913, 1920, 1921, 1928, 1935, 1943, 1946, and 1952.

It was realized from the time that the College of Pharmacy was established that although a large percentage of its graduates were to enter retail pharmacy, because of the thoroughness of the basic Page  1347training in sciences offered by the College, many graduates were in demand in such fields as teaching, industry, and government. For example, Dean Kraus in his report to the President for 1925-26 listed the distribution of the graduates for the previous thirty-five years: 50 per cent pharmacists, 25 per cent chemists, 8 per cent teachers, and 17 per cent miscellaneous.

A step toward specialized training for those entering the retail field was made in 1901 with a series of lectures on "Commercial Relations." The following year a course in commercial training for pharmacists, given by the Department of Political Economy, was also required. Later, commercial training was provided in the general courses given by the Department of Economics. In order to supplement this general instruction, the course Commercial Pharmacy was taught in the College itself by members of the staff from 1913 to 1951. Commercial training, under the heading Pharmacy Administration, was again offered to pharmacy students in 1951 by instructors trained in economics and business administration.

The report of Dean Kraus to the President for 1922-23 and the Announcement of the College for the following year described the "revision of the curricula so as to provide greater flexibility in the matter of specialization." The outline of this plan is found in the President's Report:

"According to the new plan, the three-year curriculum, leading to the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist, is designed especially for students wishing to prepare for retail or commercial pharmacy…

"The instruction leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy, which extends over a period of four years, has been greatly modified. During the first two years all students will pursue the same course of study, which includes basic instruction in pharmacy, chemistry, the languages, physics, hygiene, botany and the crystallographic and optical properties of chemicals. For the third and fourth years three distinct plans are arranged, designed to prepare students for either (a) General, analytical or manufacturing pharmacy, (b) Laboratory or clinical service, or (c) Pharmaceutical Administration.

"The courses included in group (a) are very similar to those previously required of all students pursuing the four-year course. In group (b) special emphasis is placed upon courses in bacteriology, physiological chemistry, pathology and so on. A very considerable amount of instruction in economics and business administration is included in group (c)…"

A further division of the curriculums was made in February, 1924, when a combined curriculum for pharmacy and medicine was established. This shortened from eight to seven years the time required to obtain degrees in both pharmacy and medicine for those intending to enter both general practice and pharmaceutical-medical research.

These curriculums were offered until the time when the degree of pharmaceutical chemist was discontinued; that is, after the academic session of 1929-30, no more beginning students were accepted for graduation on the three-year program. In 1930 the requirements for graduation with a degree of bachelor of science in pharmacy were made separate for the two curriculums. After completing basic courses required during the first two years, a student could choose a curriculum designed for specialization in retail pharmacy or one "for the student preparing for general, analytical, or manufacturing pharmacy, or for duties of laboratory or clinical technician." At the same time, because the faculty of the Page  1348Medical School had required that candidates for admission must have ninety hours of work in prescribed subjects, the combined course in pharmacy and medicine was discontinued. In its place was established a third curriculum which led to a degree of bachelor of science in pharmacy and also allowed the student to meet the academic requirements for admission to the Medical School. This pharmacy-premedical program was listed in the College Announcement until 1949.

In 1944 in place of the formal division of retail and nonretail curriculums a single basic curriculum was developed with the principle of a division of specialization provided for by a series of alternative electives. In this manner and with the aid of academic advisers, it was hoped that the students' curriculums could be adjusted to their varying needs.

In the fall of 1952, formal divisions were again offered to the student desiring specialized training. These divisions follow a basic two-year program and are intended for the following fields of specialization: retail pharmacy, industrial or hospital pharmacy, and graduate work and research. Each option requires completion of 130 credit hours. The selection of course work for each curriculum has been modernized and improved. The retail pharmacy and industrial-hospital pharmacy options represent the greatest changes. For example, in both plans six hours of laboratory work a week are required in the Dispensing Pharmacy course. Three hours are given in the Hospital Pharmacy under the direct supervision of faculty members.

The retail pharmacy curriculum, besides its basic scientific training, offers courses in general economics, accounting, and specialized pharmacy administration in the fields of merchandising, management, and pharmacy law. The industrial-hospital curriculum includes work in the recently developed manufacturing pharmacy laboratory. For the first time, all of the new curriculums require biochemistry.

The first mention of the existence of a summer session for pharmacy was made in 1905. The Announcement for that year stated that the Regents had established a short course in pharmacy to be made available during the summer months: "During this season of the year the drug business in many cities and towns being rather dull, proprietors, clerks and apprentices in pharmacy may find it to their advantage to combine their summer vacation with study." It was adapted for both those who wished "to acquaint themselves with the underlying principles of the science in a short time" and for those seeking credit toward graduation in pharmacy. In addition, it was considered helpful for those preparing for pharmacy state board examinations.

As the educational requirements for licensure became more rigid the functions of the summer instruction were modified to include the needs of only those students seeking pharmacy degree credit. The regular pattern of two terms and a summer session was interrupted during the war years from June, 1942, to June, 1946, when the College operated on a three-term basis. Regular summer sessions were resumed in 1947.

Student activities. — Little information on student activities prior to 1900 is available. The first student organization of which there is record was the Prescott Club, which was described, with a listing of the principal addresses given at the previous year's meetings, in the Announcement for 1909-10. It was the purpose of the monthly meetings to have guest and student speakers and to provide social activities for the student body. The club was active until the Page  1349spring of 1946, when it became the local student branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association. This change was made in order to enjoy the advantages of affiliation with this important national professional pharmacy organization. The charter was asked for and granted under the name Albert B. Prescott University of Michigan College of Pharmacy Student Branch. Thus, it became the first branch to honor an outstanding pharmacy educator and to carry on the tradition of a worth-while student club.

Almost at the same time as the founding of the Prescott Club, a more restricted student organization was formed. In May, 1908, the students and faculty of the College formed the Aristolochite Society for the purpose of promoting the advancement of pharmaceutical science by the encouragement and recognition of scholarship. It was soon to be approved as one of the campus honor societies and to develop beyond the Michigan campus when a second chapter was organized at the College of Pharmacy of the Oregon Agricultural College in 1919. In 1921, the Committee on Activities of Students and Alumni of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties, with Zada M. Cooper as chairman, began to develop plans for a national pharmaceutical honor society. After the existence of the Aristolochite Society was pointed out to the committee, Professor Cooper in co-operation with the officers of the society made the organization national in scope. On June 3, 1922, the Aristolochite Society was granted a charter by the state of Michigan, but under the name of Rho Chi Society; the local group became the Alpha Chapter and the Aristolochite Society at Corvallis, Oregon, became Beta Chapter of Rho Chi. At the present time there are forty-two chapters of this national honorary pharmaceutical society open to individuals on the basis of scholarship and service to pharmacy, irrespective of sex, race, or creed. Membership in this organization is considered to be the highest professional honor that a student can attain.

Pharmacy students enjoy and appreciate the opportunity to visit neighboring manufacturing plants. The Announcement as far back as 1901-2 has described such annual excursions, and the President's Report for 1924-25 outlines a westward trip including the Kellogg Company, the Battle Creek Sanitarium, the Upjohn Company at Kalamazoo, and the plants of Bauer and Black Company and the Abbott Laboratories in Chicago. In addition to these companies, the Parke, Davis and Company of Detroit and the Eli Lilly Company of Indianapolis have been very generous for many years in entertaining pharmacy students while showing and explaining their manufacturing procedures to them.

The student body of the College has been fortunate in having available since 1906 a student loan fund. In August of the previous year, the Michigan State Pharmaceutical Association met in Kalamazoo and established the Prescott Memorial Scholarship Loan Fund in honor of the first Dean of the College of Pharmacy. The fund has since grown to approximately $3,500. Over the years, it has made a very definite contribution to the education of worthy students.

In 1943 securities from the estate of Harry Helfman were granted to the College to establish the Harry Helfman Pharmacy Student Aid Fund. Money from this fund is still available for grants and loans to pharmacy students. In recent years there has also been available undergraduate scholarship aid from funds provided by the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education.

Special scholarship prizes and awards have also been granted to pharmacy Page  1350students. Since 1924, when Cyril F. Hanft was the recipient, the Lehn and Fink medal has been awarded annually to the graduate with the highest over-all average. Since the fall of 1947, the Borden Scholarship Award of $300 has been given to the highest ranking student entering the senior class. For many years the Charles Ralph Eckler Prize was presented to an outstanding student in pharmacognosy. More recently there have been awarded the Rho Chi prizes to leading students in the freshman and sophomore classes and the Merck Awards to outstanding seniors.

Since its inception the College has had a small but constant percentage of women graduates in pharmacy. The College is proud that Amelia and Mary Upjohn graduated in pharmacy in June, 1871, just three months after the first two women had received degrees in other units of the University in March, 1871.

Graduate study and research. — Dr. Prescott sincerely believed in the importance of research, and from the very beginning it was required for the degree of pharmaceutical chemist. He was proud of the work of his students and of the degree to which their results entered into the publications of the time. In the President's Report for 1880 he stated that according to a recent survey about 45 per cent of the graduates had done work which had been reported in the scientific journals of this and other countries. He listed the subjects of some of the more important contributions, such as an analysis of Lobelia inflata, the discovery of a third Hydrastis alkaloid, a chemical analysis scheme for plants, a study of household filtration of waters, and a method for soap analysis. Prescott affirmed that these publications were "evidence of the capability of our system of instruction." The student research illustrates how far advanced Michigan's system of scientific pharmaceutical education was as compared to the training given in other pharmacy schools.

Throughout the early years, the members of the staff made many contributions to pharmaceutical research. A list of publications can be found in the "Bibliography" included in E. D. Campbell's History of the Chemical Laboratory of the University of Michigan. Of special importance was the textbook Qualitative Chemical Analysis written by Douglas and Prescott and first published in 1874. Later, Prescott and Johnson were the authors of this work, which through the years was widely used as a standard textbook.

In 1926 Frederick Franklin Blicke ('16, Ph.D. '21) was appointed Assistant Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. He had been Assistant Professor of Organic Chemistry in the Chemistry Department of the University. In the President's Report for 1926-27 Dean Kraus expressed the hope that by this appointment Michigan would continue the leadership in pharmaceutical chemistry initiated by Prescott and Schlotterbeck. This hope has been fully realized, for in the years that Blicke has been a member of the staff of the College he has, besides conducting undergraduate instruction in pharmaceutical chemistry, become a nationally recognized leader in synthetic organic pharmaceutical chemistry. In addition to directing the training of many candidates for the master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees and to conducting graduate courses in pharmaceutical chemistry, Dr. Blicke, with his students, has made more than one hundred contributions in pharmaceutical and organic chemistry. These include synthesis of organic arsenic compounds, mercurial antiseptics, phenolphthalein derivatives, local anesthetics, antispasmodics, oxytocics, antimalarial drugs, and hypnotic, analgesic, and antihistaminic Page  1351agents. Other contributions have been made in the development of the Mannich and Grignard reactions and in the field of heterocyclic chemistry.

A great aid to the research conducted by Blicke and his students has been an increasing number of industrial fellowships made available by the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The Parke, Davis and Company fellowships were begun in 1926, and those provided by Upjohn were first awarded in 1927. They are not the first such fellowships granted, however, as there is record of the Frederick Stearns and Company Fellowship being available in 1895 and Nelson, Baker and Company establishing a fellowship for pharmaceutical research in 1899. These are thought to be the earliest industrial fellowships granted in pharmacy. The Frederick Stearns Fellowship has continued to be granted since 1895. It is now known as the Sterling-Winthrop Research Institute Fellowship, the Stearns Company having been incorporated with Sterling-Winthrop in the early 1940's. The following concerns had established fellowships in pharmaceutical chemistry in 1951-52; Sterling-Winthrop Research Institute, Parke, Davis and Company, Monsanto Chemical Company, Upjohn Company, William S. Merrell Company, and the Michigan Chemical Corporation. The American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education has also awarded fellowships for research in pharmaceutical sciences in recent years.

Prescott was also interested in having his students in pharmacy remain in Ann Arbor to continue research and study after graduation. The Calendar as early as 1881 listed a "Resident Graduate" program, and the Announcement for that year contained a section describing "Post-Graduate Studies." The Announcement for 1882-83 made the first mention of the degree of master of pharmacy. The requirements for this second degree being "the accomplishment of original research, of an extent representing the average work of a full college year… A full record of the work, with citations of authorities in form for publication, is required." The degree of master of pharmacy was earned upon this basis by five individuals during the period from 1887 to 1895. Education beyond the degree of pharmaceutical chemist was then provided by a program for the newly established degree of bachelor of science in pharmacy, which required research.

The master of science degree was described for the first time in 1899 as being granted to graduates of the bachelor of science curriculum following one year's additional work in a major and two minor subjects. Walter H. Blome and Silas F. Scott, in 1905, were the first two recipients of this degree. During this period opportunity was given students from other colleges of pharmacy to take advantage of Michigan's more advanced laboratory instruction in pharmacy and chemistry. The work thus undertaken by resident graduates could be applied toward any of the degrees granted.

The Announcement for 1913-14 outlined for the first time the graduate program as it basically continues today, that is, under the administration of the Graduate Department, now the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. The degrees conferred in 1913 after "completion of approved courses of study in the Graduate Department and from the courses offered by the Pharmacy Department [were] Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy, and Doctor of Science." Of these, the degrees actually conferred have been master of science and doctor of philosophy.

In 1947 still another graduate program in pharmacy was developed. The College of Pharmacy in co-operation Page  1352with the Graduate School and the University Hospital Pharmacy, under the direction of Don Eugene Francke ('36p, M.S. '48, Sc.D. hon. Purdue '51), established a two-year graduate study and internship program in hospital pharmacy, leading to the degree of master of science in pharmacy and to a certificate in hospital pharmacy granted by the University Hospital.

Professional and community relationship. — An important part of the record of the College is service to the profession and to the community. It recognizes its responsibility for postgraduate education of both its alumni and of other members of the profession in the state. Since 1932 the College with the Michigan Branch, formerly the Detroit Branch, of the American Pharmaceutical Association has held an annual spring conference in Ann Arbor. The general plan of these conferences has been a morning and afternoon session sponsored by the College; the evening session has been the regular monthly meeting of the Michigan Branch. At all of these meetings papers on pharmaceutical problems have been presented and discussed. The meetings were temporarily discontinued from 1943 to 1945 because of the war. In the fall of 1952 they were extended in length and in scope.

In 1941 the College of Pharmacy and the Extension Service of the University co-operated in offering extension work in pharmacy. The Michigan State Pharmaceutical Association and the State Board of Control for Vocational Education also took part in this project. The course was conducted by Arthur E. Crippen, a retail pharmacist of Ann Arbor, and had a total enrollment of 110 retail pharmacists. The war interrupted the work, but plans have been made for its redevelopment.

The College has also co-operated with the pharmacists of the state through their organization. In a copy of a letter dated August 18, 1866, Silas H. Douglass extended an invitation to the National Convention of Druggists meeting in Detroit to visit the University's "Laboratory of Analytical and Applied Chemistry and Pharmacy." Both Douglass and Prescott took an active part during May, 1874, as members of important committees meeting in Detroit to organize the Michigan Pharmaceutical Association, and when on November 14 and 15, 1883, this association was succeeded by the Michigan State Pharmaceutical Association Prescott was a member of the Committee on Permanent Organization. Faculty members and alumni of the College have taken an active interest in the affairs of this association, while the association in turn has been of aid to the College, as, for example, in the establishment of the Albert B. Prescott Memorial Scholarship Loan Fund and by grants from the association to promote pharmaceutical research.

Graduates of the College have held important positions in industrial and educational institutions. They have made important contributions to the advancement of the profession. Faculty and graduates have also taken an active part in the development of national pharmacy organizations.

Prescott was second vice-president in 1885 and president in 1899 of the American Pharmaceutical Association. This recognition is especially interesting in light of the refusal of the association in 1871 to admit him as a delegate representing the University of Michigan's curriculum in pharmacy. A. B. Stevens was first vice-president in 1890-91 and honorary president in 1919-20. Leonard A. Seltzer ('92p, M.S. hon. '26), of Detroit, was first vice-president in 1916-17 and second vice-president in 1917-18. D. E. Francke was elected president for 1951-52, and Dean Rowe was first vice-president for 1952-53.

Page  1353The American Conference on Pharmaceutical Faculties (now the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy), organized in Baltimore in 1900, elected Dr. Prescott as its first president. Other faculty members serving as president of the organization have been: Dean Schlotterbeck, 1910-12; Dean Kraemer, 1917-18; Dean Kraus, 1925-26; and Dean Stocking, 1932-33. Graduates of the College holding the same position have been Albert H. Clark, 1912-13; Charles B. Jordan (former dean of Purdue University School of Pharmacy), 1918-19; Wilber J. Teeters (former dean of the School of Pharmacy, University of Iowa), 1920-21; Charles W. Johnson (former dean of the School of Pharmacy, University of Washington), 1923-24; L. D. Havenhill (former dean of the School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas), 1933-34; Charles H. Rogers (dean of the School of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota), 1939-40; and Troy C. Daniels (dean of the College of Pharmacy, University of California), 1952-53.

The Revision Committees of the United States Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary, the nation's official reference books for pharmacy and medicine have also been aided in their work by members of the faculty and alumni of the College. Justin L. Powers ('19p, M.S. '27), in 1952, became chairman of the National Formulary Committee.

In addition to these contributions to pharmaceutical societies, the faculty of the College has made definite contributions to other scientific societies. For example, Prescott was president of the American Chemical Society in 1886 and president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1891; more recently Professor Blicke has served as chairman of the Medicinal Section of the American Chemical Society.

The College has always desired to maintain contact with its alumni. An Association of the Pharmaceutical Alumni of the University of Michigan was early established, and the officers of this association were listed for the first time as part of the Announcement for 1885-86. In 1897 the alumni of the College, with the alumni of all other departments of the University, were organized in the Alumni Association of the University. Through the aid of this organization connections with alumni have been maintained. Two of the high points in this relationship have been the fiftieth and the seventy-fifth anniversary celebrations of the College of Pharmacy. It is interesting to note that the fiftieth anniversary was celebrated on June 26, 1918, while the seventy-fifth was not held twenty-five years later, but on October 24 and 25, 1951. Thus, the fiftieth anniversary marked the establishment of pharmacy as a division within the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the more recent celebration marked the seventy-fifth year since establishment of the College as an independent unit in 1876. The proceedings of the fiftieth anniversary were recorded as part of the Announcement for 1919-20; those of the seventy-fifth were made available in a separate publication. In reviewing these publications, one finds that Miss Julia Esther Emanuel ('89p, M.S. hon. '51) played an important part in both celebrations. In 1918 she spoke on the topic, "Woman's Work in Pharmacy," and in 1951 she was awarded an honorary degree of master of science in recognition of her outstanding work in pharmacy. Others who received degrees at the seventy-fifth anniversary convocation were Charles H. Rogers ('13, Sc.D. hon. '51) and Charles Rudolph Walgreen ('28p, M.S. hon. '51). The fiftieth anniversary celebration concerned itself mainly with a review of the conditions of the present. The 1951 celebration placed accent on "The Next Twenty-five Years in Pharmacy."

Page  1354The College of Pharmacy has played a dominant role in the establishment and growth of pharmaceutical education. The ideas of the earliest leaders of pharmacy at the University of Michigan were responsible for the development of pharmaceutical education as it is known today. No individual in America deserves a larger share of credit for this development than Michigan's first Dean of Pharmacy, Albert B. Prescott.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, College of Pharmacy (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1880-1952.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Campbell, Edward D.History of the Chemical Laboratory of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1916.
Catalogue, Univ. Mich., 1860-71, 1914-23.
Cheever, H. S. MS, "Report to the Board of Regents, March, 1876."In University of Michigan Papers.
Douglass, Silas H. [Letter, August, 18, 1866]. In Silas H. Douglass Papers.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Jenkins, Glen L."The Rho Chi Society."Journal Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 21 (1932): 1033-37.
Kraemer, Henry. [Letters, February 27, 1920; March 12, 1920]. In Harry B. Hutchins Papers.
Kraus, Edward H. MS, "The Department of Pharmacy and the State University." An address at the University of Wisconsin, 1933.
Kremers, Edward, , and George, Urdang.History of Pharmacy. 2d ed.; Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1951.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department of Literature, Science and the Arts," 1864-78.
MS, "Report of the Regents' Committee on the Chemical Department, March, 1863."In University of Michigan Papers.
Prescott, Albert B."Silas H. Douglass as Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy."Pharm. Rev., 21 (1903): 359-63.
Prescott, Albert B."Pharmaceutical Education."Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 19 (1871): 425-29.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-52.
Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 19 (1871): 29-34, 47-48, 97.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1864-1952.
"75th Anniversary Celebration, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan."Univ. Mich. Official Publ., 53, No. 86 (1952).
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Sonnedecker, Glenn. "Science in American Pharmaceutical Education of the 19th Century."Amer. Journ. Pharm. Ed., 15 (1951): 205-18.
[?] Spaulding, Volney M. MS [Sketches of Arboretum and Early Botanical Garden on Campus]. In University of Michigan Papers.
Stocking, Charles H."History of Pharmacy in the University of Michigan,"Amer. Journ. Pharm. Ed., 12 (1948): 388-90.
Stocking, Charles H. MS, "History of Pharmacy in the University of Michigan," 1950.
Page  [1355]

The Department of Military Science and Tactics

Page  [1356]
Page  1357

THE DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY SCIENCE AND TACTICS

BEFORE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE R.O.T.C. — The Act of 1817, by which the Catholepistemiad, or University, of Michigania was established, provided for a professorship of military science. Until 1856, however, apparently no interest was taken in the teaching of this subject, since the Act of 1837, which superseded the Act of 1817, omitted the Military Department from the University. In 1856 Lieutenant William Petit Trowbridge, a graduate of the United States Military Academy, was appointed Professor of Mathematics in the Scientific Department. Through his efforts a University battalion composed of some ninety students was organized, and a building was erected as an armory on the southeast corner of the campus. Professor Trowbridge severed his connection with the University at the end of the first year, and with his departure the interest in the unit ceased.

On March 29, 1860, a communication from Henry W. Whittlesey, secretary of the State Military Board, was presented to the Regents "requesting in behalf of the Uniformed Militia of this State that the study of Military Engineering be introduced into the University" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 899). No further interest seems to have been taken in the subject until April, 1861, when President Tappan set aside a room on the ground floor of the South College as a drill room, secured the services of Assistant Librarian Joseph H. Vance as drillmaster, and advised the students to divide themselves into sections of fifty, each section to drill one hour a day, the seniors first.

Three companies were promptly formed: The Tappan Guards, commanded by Captain Charles K. Adams ('61, A.M. '62, LL.D. Harvard '87), who was to become Professor of History at the University and later president of Cornell and Wisconsin; the Chancellor Greys, commanded by Captain Isaac H. Elliott ('61, A.M. hon. '19); and the Ellsworth Zouaves, commanded by Captain Albert Nye ('62), who died at Murfreesboro in 1862.

In June, 1861, it was resolved that a chair of military engineering be established in the University (R.P., 1837-64, p. 963), but the President was unable to fill the chair. On December 18, 1861, the executive committee was directed "to make temporary arrangements for instruction in Military Engineering and Tactics by employing Professor [De-Volson] Wood in this Department and some individual competent to conduct military drill" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 972).

The University Catalogue for 1861-62, announcing the establishment of a chair of military engineering and tactics, explained that it was difficult to procure a suitable military man because of the great demands which the war made upon military talents, but the hope was expressed that a competent person might be secured to give the course during the second semester. Once having decided to introduce military training, the Regents became enthusiastic about the idea. In September, 1861, the following resolution establishing a military school was passed:

Whereas, It has been discovered since the outbreak of the present Southern Rebellion that in this as well as in most of the other loyal States of the American Union there exists a great scarcity of men possessed of suitable military education to drill and prepare our Volunteer Armies for camp life Page  1358and the battle field and to lead them in action, whereby great loss of time and money has been incurred by the States and the Nation, and the honor of our arms as well as the safety of our country and its institutions have been seriously jeopardized, and

Whereas, The present means of furnishing a thorough military education whereby men may become masters of the art of war are entirely inadequate to the wants of the Nation and of the several States, and

Whereas, We now have before us a practical demonstration of the fact that it is not safe for any government however excellent or powerful it may be to neglect entirely the military education of its people, and [we] can see clearly that in times of peace it is wise to prepare for war … as a matter of economy to the State and that her troops may be supplied with competent officers and the work of preparing volunteers and raw recruits for efficient service be speedily and cheaply accomplished, the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, under the conviction that this work can be more economically performed for the State in this University where Civil Engineering, the higher Mathematics, the Modern Languages, the Natural Sciences, and most of the other studies incident to and connected with a thorough military education are now taught than anywhere else in the State, do adopt the following resolution:

Resolved, That as soon as the State shall add to the University Fund the sum of $100,000 from which the University shall derive a permanent additional annual income of $7,000 the Board of Regents will establish in the University a Military School in which shall be taught Military Engineering and Tactics, Strategy, and the Art and Science of War.


(R.P., 1837-64, pp. 967-68.)

In 1862 the Regents called attention to the fact that the chair of military science was still vacant and stated their willingness to establish a free military school provided the state would make the necessary financial arrangements for the support of such a school. As a result the budget for the year ending June 30, 1864, set aside the sum of $1,500 for a professor of military engineering if one should be appointed (R.P., 1837-64, p. 1090).

As the Civil War period receded, interest in military instruction waned. No further mention was made of it until 1898, when the question of establishing military instruction was again discussed and disapproved. Company A, University of Michigan Rifles, was organized and was authorized by the Regents to raise the American flag on the campus flagstaff. No further action, however, other than to approve leaves of absence for faculty members who joined the colors, was taken at this time by the Board of Regents.

During World War I there was a revival of interest in military instruction. In November, 1914, petitions from faculty, students, and alumni requesting that military instruction be offered were tabled. In February, 1915, President Hutchins presented other petitions, but the committee to which they were referred for consideration recommended in May, 1915, that the matter be left in abeyance.

A resolution of the University Senate was presented to the Regents in December, 1915, recommending that beginning with the academic year 1916-17, compulsory military training of students for the first two years, under General Order No. 49 of the War Department — essentially the system then in use in the landgrant colleges — be established and that a regular army officer be procured to fill the chair of military science and tactics. This resolution, which went into considerable detail, establishing the age of enrollment, duration of the course, exemptions, the use of uniforms, and control, was referred to a committee which in February, 1916, recommended the establishment of a chair of military science and tactics and of voluntary military Page  1359training, disapproved the use of uniforms except in summer camps, and placed administrative control under a committee composed of the President of the University, two members of the Board of Regents, and the deans of the colleges and schools. These resolutions were adopted (see Part I: The University in War Service).

The officer training camps, originated by General Leonard Wood, were then becoming nationally accepted. In May, 1916, the Regents approved the recommendation of the faculty of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture that students completing a five-week course of instruction during the summer of 1916 should be allowed two hours of credit toward graduation and an additional hour if they qualified as expert riflemen.

The Regents, in November, 1916, authorized the Committee on Military Affairs to make an application to the War Department under the amended General Order No. 48, for the detail of an army officer to occupy the chair of military science and tactics, with the provision that the expense to be incurred by the University for such detail should not exceed $1,000 per year (R.P., 1914-17, pp. 606-9).

In January, 1917, the President reported to the Regents that more than one hundred students had signified their intention to enroll for military instruction, and the Regents authorized him to sign a petition permitting the University to participate in the government aid authorized under Section 56, Act of Congress, approved June 3, 1916. Three hours of military instruction a week were approved, completion of the course being a prerequisite for graduation for those who enrolled (R.P., 1914-17, pp. 674-75).

Early in 1916, Kenneth W. Heinrich, formerly of the Naval Militia and at that time a marine engineering student, assisted by Joseph Ralston Hayden, Arthur Edward R. Boak, Orange Malcolme McNeil, and Felix W. Pawlowski of the University faculty, organized a naval reserve unit, anticipating formal authorization by the Navy Department. Although not accepted immediately, this unit drilled and carried on other instruction that spring and the following fall, and with the entrance of the United States into the war it was officially recognized by the Navy Department. Two divisions were organized, the first naval unit to be formed in any college.

In January, 1917, ninety-six men were sworn into the service. These were the Seventh and Eighth Divisions of the Michigan Naval Reserve, which became part of the Michigan Naval Militia. The officers of the Seventh Division (engineering) were Orange Malcolme McNeil, Lieutenant (j.g.); Elmer Adna Harrington, Lieutenant (j.g.); and Kenneth Warren Heinrich, Ensign. The Eighth Division (line and deck) included Joseph Ralston Hayden, Lieutenant; Arthur Edward R. Boak, Lieutenant (j.g.); and Albert H. Jenkins, Ensign. Dr. Harold Stacy Hulburt, Lieutenant (j.g.), was medical officer. In May this unit went to the Great Lakes Naval Training Station.

In April, 1918, the Regents approved certain naval courses to be conducted by the faculty of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture. A regiment of six hundred men — the Students' Naval Training Corps, S.N.T.C. — was enrolled under command of Rear Admiral Robert M. Barry, U.S.N., with Lieutenant A. E. R. Boak (j.g.), Executive Officer, Lieutenant A. H. Porter (j.g.), Surgeon, and Professor Ralph Hamilton Curtiss, of the Department of Astronomy, as Instructor of Navigation.

The interest in the military service was as intense as that shown in the naval Page  1360service. In 1917, ably led by Joseph A. Bursley and other faculty members, two battalions were formed, and seven courses in military science were offered in the College of Engineering. All the forces of the Medical School were turned immediately to the training of the upperclassmen for medical officers, and the students enlisted almost in a body for government service. In the Law School military companies were formed at once. Companies were also organized in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

Under the Act of Congress, approved June 3, 1916, Major Charles W. Castle, U. S. Army, early in 1917 was detailed to the University as Commandant of Cadets, and later in the same year his title was changed to Commandant of Cadets and Professor of Military Science and Tactics. He appointed the following faculty members as officers in the various student drill organizations: Philip G. Bartelme, Brigade Adjutant with the rank of Colonel; Philip E. Bursley, Commandant of the Literary College companies with the rank of Colonel; Colonel Clyde E. Wilson, M.N.G. retired, Commandant of the engineering companies; Professor Paul H. De Kruif, Commandant of the medical companies; and Professor Horace L. Wilgus, Commandant of the law companies. Major Castle was transferred by the War Department, and was succeeded by First Lieutenant George Carleton Mullen, in October, 1917. First Lieutenant Losey J. Williams, retired, was appointed Associate Professor of Military Science and Tactics on December 1, 1917.

In the summer of 1917 courses in military stores were authorized. Shaw, in his account, said:

The University may also claim particular credit for the development of courses in army stores, which were first instituted by Professor, later Lieutenant-Colonel, Joseph A. Bursley, 99e. This course, which aimed to fit men for the ordnance and quartermasters departments, grew through six successive increments every six weeks, to about 250 men, and proved so practical and effective that similar courses were installed in other universities. In the same manner similar short courses were established in the Engineering College for the training of mechanics, particularly in the maintenance and repair of gas engines. The first course of eight weeks began on April 15 [1917], and prepared 195 men for this important branch of the service. A detachment of 700 men followed which included 500 automobile repair men, 100 general mechanics, 60 gunsmiths, and 40 carpenters.


(Shaw, pp. 309-10).

Herbert Nicolaus Schmitt ('16, A.M. '18), of the Department of Economics, was appointed Instructor in the course in Army stores. Bursley was commissioned as Major in the Army and was made supervisor of instruction in the Ordnance Department at Washington, D.C. He was later promoted to Colonel.

The r.o.t.c. — Under the provisions of Section IV, War Department Bulletin No. 51, in the fall of 1917 an infantry unit, senior division, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, was established at the University. The Regents in October, 1917, authorized two hours' credit toward graduation for all engineering and architecture students who enrolled for military science and excused those who elected military science from compulsory gymnasium work. The University had an enrollment of eighteen hundred, the largest in the United States.

Dean Mortimer E. Cooley, of the Engineering College, was appointed Regional Director for the War Department Committee on the S.A.T.C. In this capacity he organized and supervised the training of all Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin students enrolled in this corps.

The Board of Regents in May, 1918, authorized the Colleges of Engineering Page  1361and Architecture to "receive and register the members of Training Detachments … and to perform all other duties … required by the War Department" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 222). These detachments were made up of enlisted men who were to be trained for a period of sixty days in mechanical arts. Professor Henry H. Higbie submitted a plan for training two hundred enlisted men (see Part I: The University in War Service). Instruction was given for machinists, gunsmiths, blacksmiths, and carpenters. Gas engines were also studied. Higbie was placed in charge of this work, and five assistants were employed to help him. In June, 1918, the Regents agreed that the University would undertake the technical training of three hundred Signal Corps men.

So successful were the results of this instruction that in July, 1918, at the request of the War Department, the number of trainees was increased to seven hundred. Higbie had thirty-eight assistants, the three principal ones being Benjamin F. Bailey, William L. Miggett, and Walter E. Lay. In August, 1918, a new contract was signed with the government providing training for twelve hundred army mechanics.

In 1918-19, in order to correct certain defects of the old R.O.T.C., the Students' Army Training Corps (S.A.T.C.), which was intended to be a distinct organization having no relation to the training detachment for army mechanics, was organized to supersede the R.O.T.C.

Lieutenants Mullen and Williams were relieved from duty at the University to have charge of this work, and in September, 1918, Captain, later Major, Ralph H. Durkee, was assigned by the War Department as military commanding officer, with a staff of five lieutenants and one medical officer to assist him. In October, 1918, the Regents directed President Hutchins to sign a contract with the government providing for the training of 3,000 S.A.T.C. students. More than 2,700 students enrolled for training that fall. After the signing of the Armistice on November 11, 1918, the Regents, on November 21, voted to discontinue the Students' Army Training Corps.

In April, 1919, President Hutchins was authorized by the Board to take the necessary steps in order to secure the re-establishment in the University of units of the Signal Corps, Coast Artillery Corps, and Field Artillery (R.O.T.C.), and in August, 1919, Lieutenant Colonel John Porter Lucas (United States Military Academy '11) was appointed officer in charge of the R.O.T.C. with the rank of Professor of Military Science and Tactics. At this time the Regents directed the President to request the establishment of ordnance and engineer units of the R.O.T.C. At the same meeting the sum of $750 was set aside for salaries in the Department of Military Science and Tactics, and the sum of $250 for current expenses for the year 1919-20.

In September, 1919, the Regents approved the recommendation of a committee of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture that twelve hours' credit in military science be accepted toward graduation. In December, 1919, a similar recommendation from the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts was approved by the Regents.

Lieutenant Colonel Robert Arthur was appointed Professor of Military Science and Tactics in November, 1919, and as he was senior to Lieutenant Colonel Lucas, the Regents designated Colonel Arthur as Commandant in the department.

Under the provisions of Section II, War Department Bulletin No. 43, in December, 1919, the Infantry R.O.T.C. Page  1362unit at the University was discontinued, and, under the provisions of Section IV of the same bulletin, the Coast Artillery and Signal Corps units were established. In February, 1921, the Regents approved the establishment of Infantry (Sec. VIII, Bull. 17, War Department, 1921) and Ordnance R.O.T.C. units (par. 3, Sec. II, Bull. 14, 1921).

The Board of Regents in June, 1922, approved the establishment of an R.O.T.C. unit of the Air Service, but this was not done because the War Department appropriation bill for 1923 prohibited the expenditure of funds for new R.O.T.C. units of the Air Service (R.P., 1920-23, p. 607).

The Coast Artillery unit was discontinued in 1928 (Sec. I, War Dept. Bull. No. 43). In 1935, under authorization of the War Department, a military engineering unit of the R.O.T.C. was established at the University. A medical unit was established in October, 1936, without additional expense to the University, under conditions laid down by the War Department.

The period 1937-52. — The Corps grew steadily from 180 men in 1920 to a maximum enrollment of 1,256 in 1942-43, but by the end of that year the enrollment was only 440. This decrease was caused by loss of students to army service.

At the beginning of the second term all Advanced Course R.O.T.C. students were members of the Enlisted Reserve Corps. As soon as the Army Specialized Training Program went into effect at the University these men were ordered to active duty and placed in barracks on the campus. All cadets were sent to a reception center for complete processing. They returned to the University in March, and each man continued the course of study which he had pursued before activation. At the end of the year the Advanced Course was discontinued by the War Department. The juniors were sent to replacement training centers to take training in lieu of the senior year at the University and the seniors were sent to officer candidate schools.

With the inactivation of the Advanced Course, and owing to the fact that most students would be called for Army service prior to the completion of R.O.T.C., the War Department prescribed that all instruction should be comparable to that received in Army basic training. Therefore, two additional terms were added to the basic course so that students who were permitted to remain in school were given an opportunity to take advanced work. These additional courses, although not considered advanced R.O.T.C. work, were intended for those who wanted to increase their knowledge of Army work.

Twenty-seven students, all in Army basic training, were enrolled at the end of the 1943-44 school year in the branch immaterial course. The maximum enrollment for this period was 218. A quartermaster unit was established in 1942.

In December, 1943, twenty-nine former first-year advanced students were returned to the University from replacement training centers to continue their studies and to await call to their respective officer candidate schools.

Assigned Army personnel served only part time in connection with the R.O.T.C. during World War II. The remainder of their time was spent in the Army Specialized Training Program.

During the years of World War II the University and the Army co-operated in establishing the following schools and programs: Army Specialized Training Program, Army Specialized Training Reserve Program, Army Intensive Japanese Language School, Civil Affairs Training School, Post Hostilities Training School, Judge Advocate General's School, and the Judge Advocate General's Candidate School.

In 1945 the following advanced course Page  1363units were reactivated: Infantry, Signal Corps, Ordnance Department, Quartermaster Corps, and Corps of Engineers. This was termed an Interim Program and was to remain in effect until superseded by a permanent postwar R.O.T.C. All new students entering R.O.T.C. were enrolled in the new program, which was initiated at the beginning of the 1946-47 school year. The Interim Program begun in 1945-46 continued in effect for those students originally enrolled.

In addition to the former units, which included Infantry, Signal Corps, Ordnance Department, Quartermaster Corps, and Corps of Engineers, four additional units were activated: Corps of Military Police, Transportation Corps, Medical Corps, and Air Force. Of the latter group only the Medical Corps had been a part of the University R.O.T.C. before World War II.

The basic policy of the present R.O.T.C. program has raised the senior R.O.T.C. to college level and limited advanced courses to those who were graduates of degree-granting institutions, thereby commissioning only those students who already had had four years of college. Pay and allowances were increased for advanced course students. Branch type instruction was retained in order to provide qualified branch type officers. Commissioning in professional branches was retained, and credit for junior R.O.T.C. and service in the armed forces during World War II was allowed.

The maximum enrollment for the 1946-47 school year was 131. The preceding year it had been forty-five. The number of students in the R.O.T.C. immediately following World War II was low, resulting in part from the so-called "veteran attitude." A large proportion of the students were veterans, many of whom were former officers who were thus excluded from R.O.T.C. training. Those who were eligible appeared to have had all the military training they desired. Reports indicated this to be true at almost all colleges in which R.O.T.C. was on a voluntary basis.

In addition to Scabbard and Blade, national honorary society, and Pi Tau Sigma, national Signal Corps fraternity, Company A, Pershing Rifles, a national honor society, was activated in March, 1948. Membership in this society is selective from the basic R.O.T.C. students. The Pershing Rifle Company, now D-3, held its first invitational drill and rifle meet in May, 1951. Cadets representing eleven colleges and universities participated.

Because the maximum enrollment for 1947-48 was again disappointingly low, the Corps of Engineers, the Transportation Corps, and the Corps of Military Police units were discontinued in August, 1948. A Dental Corps Unit, however, enrolled students for the first time in the fall of that year.

With the graduation at the end of the first semester of 1947-48 of the last group of students enrolled in the Interim Program, a difficult problem in scheduling was eliminated and the level of instruction was raised materially. Lesson plans were revised and improved in each service unit. As a result, at the time of the annual inspection the University received a superior grade for its educational and training R.O.T.C. program.

Supply rooms were maintained in the old Boiler House on the campus, and a security room for weapons and other equipment was provided in the basement of the Boiler House. The Air Force had a supply room in the Temporary Classroom Building, and the Signal Corps had one in the West Engineering Annex. Although the enrollment was low in 1947-48, there was a marked improvement in the general effectiveness of the program.

A comprehensive survey of the Page  1364R.O.T.C. was begun by the University in the spring of 1948, with a view to increasing the enrollment, arousing interest in the R.O.T.C. on the part of both students and faculty, and improving the facilities provided. With the passage of Public Law 759, the Selective Service Act of 1948 provided for military deferments, under certain conditions, of R.O.T.C. students. In 1948-49 more than seven hundred students were enrolled in Infantry, Ordnance, Quartermaster, Signal Corps, Medical, Dental, and Air Force branches.

In July, 1949, the Air Force was separated from the Army R.O.T.C. and became the Air Force R.O.T.C. The two units continued to operate under the chairmanship of the Department of Military Science and Tactics. The senior Air Force officer was raised to the rank of professor. Both units moved to North Hall, which also housed the Naval R.O.T.C., in July of that year. Enrollment for 1949-50 (less Air Force R.O.T.C.) totaled 576 cadets.

Five hundred and sixty-five cadets were enrolled in 1949-50. At this time the Signal Corps took over the space previously occupied by the Air Force in the Temporary Classroom Building. The old Signal Corps supply room on the second floor of North Hall was converted into a cadet library and meeting room, and a training aids construction room was prepared on the third floor.

In 1951 four students taking business administration, law, and accounting courses were sent to the Finance Corps Summer Camp rather than to the camp of their assigned branch. In this way, upon graduation these students were commissioned in the Finance Corps. No such R.O.T.C. branches were contemplated, but the University of Michigan was one of the twenty-five institutions selected to furnish officers under this plan.

In September, 1950, the effect of the war in Korea began to make itself felt on the campus. The fact that R.O.T.C. students were draft deferred increased interest in the program. No student was accepted in any unit, however, who could not complete his full R.O.T.C. course before graduation. This was in accord with the aim of the R.O.T.C. to furnish junior reserve officers for the national defense. Interest in the program had increased sharply by midyear, but many students were unable to enroll because they lacked the necessary number of hours. Increased enrollment in the Air Force (veterans in curtailed courses) caused classroom facilities at North Hall to become badly strained. The rifle range with its ten firing points was inadequate. Air Force R.O.T.C. announced that in addition to Communications it would teach the following courses: General Tech, Flight Operations, and Administration and Logistics. In order to accommodate these classes the R.O.T.C. moved to the Temporary Classroom Building, which had been prepared for occupancy during the summer. Separate classrooms, training aids rooms, and offices were provided for each branch. A lecture room containing seventy-two seats was arranged for common courses, and a map room seating sixty students and containing permanently affixed training aids and fluorescent lighting was provided. These rooms, the cadet library, meeting room, and a Signal Corps laboratory, comprised the new facilities. The photograph laboratory was retained in North Hall. The firing positions in the rifle range were rearranged, and the number of firing points was increased to twenty. New lighting, bullet traps, and retractable targets were installed.

Over-all enrollment in the R.O.T.C. units increased from about eight hundred to approximately twelve hundred in Page  1365

TABLE IEnrollment R.O.T.C.*
Established 1919 1919 1921 1921 1935 1936 1942 1948 Total
Cac* Sig Ord Inf Engr* Med QMC Dent
Year
1921 200 62 52 111 ... ... ... ... 425
1925 92 56 55 109 ... ... ... ... 312
1929 ... 141 75 198 ... ... ... ... 414
1933 ... 115 102 392 ... ... ... ... 609
1937 ... 92 108 418 127 68 ... ... 813
1941 ... 86 98 539 264 120 ... ... 1,107
1945 Branch Immaterial 45
1949 ... 61 108 133 ... 62 117 95 576
1951 ... 74 100 141 ... 33 119 55 522
1951. Of the seven hundred freshmen enrolled, more than one hundred joined the Naval R.O.T.C. and of the remainder, about one-third joined the Army and two-thirds the Air Force R.O.T.C. units. This division was so ordered by the Department of Defense, but a substantial change in these percentages of entering freshmen is planned for future classes.

In the fall of 1951 Army R.O.T.C. enrollment totaled 522 cadets. The decrease was in the medical and dental branches. The enrollment in other branches increased slightly, and a 50 per cent increase in the number of freshmen took place in spite of the unfavorable division of the Army and Air Force units.

During the fall the rifle team was equipped with shooting jackets, gloves, and fine Remington Rangemaster target rifles. It became an active chapter of the National Rifle Association, College Division, and participated in national intercollegiate and postintercollegiate matches. Shoulder-to-shoulder matches were fired in competition with nearby institutions, and an annual club championship match was arranged. The Army, Navy, and Air Force R.O.T.C. teams held annual matches sponsored by the Lions Club of Ann Arbor. In co-operation with the University of Michigan Rifle Club, the National Rifle Association Intercollegiate Rifle Tournament was sponsored in March, 1952.

The number of cadets authorized to attend the 1952 Finance Corps Summer Camp was increased from four to eight.

The Regents voted that, effective July 1, 1951, the Department of Air Science and Tactics be established and that hereafter there would be a Department of Air Science and Tactics, a Department of Military Science and Tactics, and a Department of Naval Science (R.P., 1951, p. 1298).

In addition to those already mentioned, commissioned personnel who have served with the Reserve Officers' Training Corps at the University include: Major William Thomas Carpenter, Coast Artillery Corps (B.M.E. Kentucky '98, M.E. ibid. '18), who in 1923 succeeded Major Arthur as Professor of Military Science and Tactics and head of the department. In 1925 the Page  1366War Department relieved Major Carpenter of his duties here, and Major Reinold Melberg (U. S. Military Academy '15) of the Coast Artillery Corps, became Commandant of the R.O.T.C. and Professor of Military Science and Tactics. He was succeeded in 1929 by Major Basil Duke Edwards (U. S. Military Academy '12, LL.B. Harvard '17) of the Infantry, and he in turn by Major Fredrick Clifford Rogers, who was appointed Professor of Military Science and Tactics in 1933. In 1937 Edwards, who had been promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in the Army, returned to the University as Professor of Military Science and Tactics and head of the department in place of Lieutenant Colonel Rogers, who in the summer completed a four-year assignment to the position.

Edwards was on leave because of illness during the year 1940-41, and Lieutenant Colonel Francis Marion Brannan (U. S. Military Academy '14), Infantry, was appointed to serve in his place. He was succeeded by Colonel William Addleman Ganoe (Dickinson '02, A.M. ibid. '13, Ph.D. hon. ibid. '52, U. S. Military Academy '07) in 1941. When Colonel Ganoe was transferred in April, 1943, it was resolved by the Regents:

Whereas, Colonel Ganoe served the University and the people of the state very effectively and loyally by his successful efforts to arouse the attention of the community to the seriousness of the national situation … be it

Resolved, That the Regents of the University of Michigan hereby express to Colonel Ganoe their sincere appreciation of the loyal and effective aid given the University by his tireless work in its behalf.


(R.P., 1942-45, pp. 269-70.)

Colonel Rogers returned to the University and was reappointed Professor of Military Science and Tactics and chairman of the department in May, 1943. His period of service (1933-37) was undoubtedly one of great importance to the University in the years preceding World War II. Colonel Rogers was keenly interested in the R.O.T.C., and his affability, kindness, and understanding endeared him to everyone. Because of his understanding of students and his interest in University problems it was fitting that he should return in 1943 to take charge of all programs established by the Department of the Army. He retired in September, 1944, after thirty-five years of military service.

Colonel Edward Hamilton Young (U. S. Military Academy '18, J.D. New York University '38, LL.D. Miami '43), J.A.G.D., was appointed to the position, but was transferred in the same year, and Colonel Reginald Conklin Miller (Nebraska '32, LL.B. ibid. '33), J.A.G.D., succeeded him. He in turn was succeeded in 1946 by Colonel John Beecher Evans (New Hampshire '29, M.F. Yale '47), Infantry; in 1946 he was replaced by Colonel Karl Eugene Henion, Infantry, who became Professor of Military Science and Tactics and chairman of the department. He was followed by Colonel Charles Dudley Wiegand (U. S. Military Academy '29) in 1950, and he in turn by Colonel Virgil Rasmuss Miller (U. S. Military Academy '24) in 1952.

In his report for 1946-47 Colonel Henion stated:

Special mention may be made of the retirement of Master Sergeant Dewey G. Bonnewell. Sergeant Bonnewell retired from the Army after twenty-six and one-half years' service, twenty-one years of which he served with the R.O.T.C. at the University of Michigan. His long and faithful service contributed greatly to the success of the R.O.T.C. at this University.


(R.P., 1946-47, p. 377.)

Page  1367
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hayden, Joseph R., , and Robey M. Burley. A History of the University Divisions, Michigan Naval Militia. Ann Arbor: Privately printed, 1921.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. By Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Michiganensian, 23 (1919): 36, 39-244.
"Michigan in the War."Mich. Alum., 5 (1898): 79-93.
"Michigan Prepares for War."Mich. Alum., 23 (1917): 446-49.
"Michigan's Record in the Great War."Mich. Alum., 27 (1921): 551-52.
"Military Training in the University."Mich. Alum., 22 (1915): 147-48.
"The University During War Times."Mich. Alum., 2 (1895): 3-4.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]