The W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and PostGraduate Dentistry
The need for dental education beyond the undergraduate level was recognized soon after the organization of the College of Dental Surgery in 1875. A program was established shortly after 1890 leading to the degree of doctor of dental science after one or more years of study. Carrie Marsden Stewart was the first recipient of the degree in 1894. Nine graduate degrees were granted from 1894 until 1921, by which time the necessity for graduate programs was apparent.
In 1921 the Graduate School of the University recognized these programs and since that time has conferred the master of science degree upon graduate dental students. Such graduate training provides a foundation for teaching or research and qualifies those who desire to become specialists. The first master of science in dentistry degree was conferred by the Graduate School in 1921. From one to five such degrees were granted each year from 1923 to 1937, principally in the fields of oral surgery and orthodontics. The number of graduate students has been limited by the physical facilities and the size of the faculty.
The demand for graduate instruction was paralleled by a growing desire on the part of practicing dentists for some form of postgraduate education which would keep them abreast of advancements in the profession. Since 1920 the School had admitted an occasional postgraduate student. No organized program was offered for such students, however, because of limited facilities. Lecture programs and presentations were conducted throughout the state, but practitioners felt a need for demonstrations and actual clinical experience in methods and procedures. This led to specifically planned and scheduled postgraduate instruction in 1933 under the general direction of Dr. Chalmers J. Lyons. At first few students were enrolled, but each year brought an increase in the demand for such training.
Courses were offered in virtually all fields of dentistry, either in intensive one- or two-week programs or on a one-day-a-week basis throughout one or two semesters. The one-week and two-week courses were for those who lived at some distance from Ann Arbor, and the one-day-a-week courses for those within easy commuting distance. The undergraduate facilities and staff were adequate to provide all the postgraduate instruction until 1937, when the new four-year dental curriculum began to overload both facilities and staff. At that time Dr. Paul Jeserich was made Director of Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry. It became apparent that no further postgraduate expansion would be warranted and that some retrenchment would be necessary unless something could be done to increase the size of the faculty and to provide adequate space for postgraduate instruction.
The W. K. Kellogg Foundation became interested in the need for continuing education in the health sciences at this time, and, as a part of the program for a Michigan Community Health Project, sent dentists and other professional groups to various centers for postgraduate training. The Kellogg Foundation became aware of the postgraduate teaching in dentistry which had been carried on at the University and offered financial assistance to the faculty for a mutually co-operative program of instruction. Page 1333In 1937 the Kellogg Foundation made a grant of $110,000 to the School of Dentistry. Of this grant $10,000 was to be used for equipment and $20,000 a year for instructional purposes over a five-year period. As a result the postgraduate enrollment increased, but adequate classroom, laboratory, and clinical facilities were still lacking. To relieve this situation the W. K. Kellogg Foundation in 1938 made another grant of $236,500 and the Public Works Administration granted $209,835 to construct and equip the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry, which was completed in 1940. Through the efforts of Dr. Jeserich, the Director, the postgraduate program in dentistry was organized, and the financial assistance for instruction and for the building was obtained. The faculty of the School of Dentistry co-operated enthusiastically and assumed a heavy dual teaching load which has made the success of the postgraduate program possible.
As in 1875, when the University of Michigan created the first dental college to be organized as an individual part of a state university, it pioneered again by the erection of the first building in the world to be devoted solely to graduate and postgraduate teaching in dentistry. No dental school heretofore had assumed the responsibility of establishing dental education on a graduate level. The Institute symbolized the assumption of this responsibility by the University of Michigan.
Dr. Emory W. Morris, associate director of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, made the following statement at the dedicatory exercises on April 3, 1940:
Today we are here to see the building that developed as a request from a group of dentists desiring to render a better service to the people of their communities. We hope that the profession will use it and that it may stimulate a demand for the development of similar programs elsewhere, but to the Foundation the most significant aspect of this new school is that it is going to afford the dental profession the opportunity to provide an ever-increasing number of people in communities throughout the world an improved dental service.
In 1950, when Dr. Jeserich became Dean of the School of Dentistry, he continued as Director of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute. At this time Dr. William Richard Mann ('40d, M.S. '42), who was first appointed to the faculty in 1940, became Associate Professor of Dentistry and Assistant Director of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute. He was also appointed Co-ordinator of all clinics. In 1952 Dr. Mann became Associate Director of the Institute.
From 1922 to 1952 two hundred and twenty-two master of science degrees in dentistry have been conferred. The Institute is adequately prepared to care for the needs of some thirty-five to forty-five graduate students each year. Since 1933, when the first courses were offered, more than twenty-three hundred students have taken postgraduate work. Some of these students have taken part in as many as eighteen different postgraduate programs. The Institute, during 1951-52, offered twenty-six two-week courses, twelve one-week courses, ten one-day-a-week courses, in addition to several one- to three-day seminars. Each year approximately five hundred students attend these courses. The highest postgraduate enrollment occurred in 1950-51, when more than six hundred postgraduate students attended courses. Because of the exceptional facilities which are available and because of the caliber of its faculty, the Institute has become the best-known center in the world for graduate and postgraduate dental education. Requests come from Page 1334all parts of the United States and from almost every country for refresher training and graduate training leading to specialized practice or teaching.
The Institute received a grant of $79,000 in September, 1952, from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation to aid in developing and conducting a program for training teachers of dentistry. The funds are to support the first three years of the program, which will then be maintained by the University. This is the first program to give definite instruction in how to teach dentistry that has ever been offered.