THE University of Michigan was the first state university in the world and the second university in this country to offer education in dentistry. When the College of Dental Surgery was established by the Board of Regents in 1875, dentistry was for the most part a craft. The training of its practitioners was largely technical, and they knew little of scientific or health relationships. With the exception of Harvard Dental College, dental schools of that time were privately owned and operated and had little or no connection with universities or other educational institutions.
The members of the Michigan State Dental Society early realized the need for dental education on a university level, and in 1866 they presented to the Board of Regents a memorial requesting "the establishment of a Chair of Dental Hygiene, and one of Mechanical Dentistry and Metallurgy" in the Medical Department of the University (R.P., 1864-70, p. 94). The request was not granted at that time. In 1873 the University expressed an interest in establishing such a chair, but no funds were available for the purpose. In 1875, through the efforts of the Michigan State Dental Society, a bill (House Bill 518) was introduced in the state legislature to provide funds for the establishment of a dental school in connection with the Medical Department. This bill, providing an appropriation of three thousand dollars a year for the years 1875-76, was passed, and the Board of Regents resolved:
That a College of Dental Surgery be established, which shall, in addition to the facilities now afforded by the Medical Department and Chemical Laboratory, be constituted by the founding of two professorships.
That the Dental Profession of the State be requested to co-operate with the Regents by suggesting, at the June meeting, such names [of teachers] as they may deem suitable, and also by securing the necessary outfit.
That the Committee on Buildings, and the Secretary, be and are hereby instructed to make the necessary arrangements for the furnishing of a Lecture Room for the use of the Homeopathic and Dental Colleges.
(R.P., 1870-76, p. 435.)
In June, 1875, two professors were appointed. Jonathan Taft (Ohio College of Dental Surgery '50, M.D. hon. Michigan '81), who had served as Dean of the Ohio College of Dental Surgery in Cincinnati, Ohio, and who had also conducted an outstanding practice in that city, was made Professor of the Principles and Practice of Operative Dentistry. He also served as Dean from the time of his appointment as Professor. In 1891 his title was changed to Professor of the Principles and Practice of Oral Pathology and Surgery. When he came to Michigan, Dr. Taft had already established a reputation, both in this country and abroad, as an educator, a writer, and a public speaker. Because of his sterling worth and his scholarly attainments, he was held in high esteem by the Regents, who relied upon him very largely in the organization of the new College. The advancement and high standing attained by the College during its first twenty-five years were due in great part to Dr. Taft, who was recognized as a leader in dental education and dental science. He served as Dean until 1903 when he died in Ann Arbor at the age of eighty-three.
The second professor to be appointed was John Andrews Watling (Ohio College of Dental Surgery '60), of Ypsilanti, who was made Professor of Clinical and Page 1320Mechanical Dentistry in 1875. In 1891 his title was changed to Professor of Operative and Clinical Dentistry, and he served in this capacity until 1903. The first practitioner in Michigan to hold a professional degree, he was active for many years in the affairs of the Michigan State Dental Society. He was a prime mover in the requests for dental education and perhaps more than any other was responsible for the establishment of the School of Dentistry of the University of Michigan. He had served with Dr. Taft as an apprentice while a student in Ohio, and was influential in bringing him to Michigan.
Dr. Watling was recognized as an outstanding practitioner of dentistry and was highly respected in the profession. His unusual ability for organization enabled him to exercise strong leadership in dental societies and to further the advancement of dental education. He was responsible for the first law to regulate the practice of dentistry in Michigan, which was passed in 1883. Through the joint efforts of the scholar and scientist Jonathan Taft and the politically minded John Watling, a firm foundation was laid for the College, which was to become one of the leading dental schools in the world.
Walter Hinckley Jackson ('76d) was appointed Demonstrator of Dentistry in 1875, which position he held until 1877. He was a Civil War veteran who, after completing his apprenticeship, practiced in Ann Arbor. He, too, was a prominent figure in the Michigan State Dental Society, and co-operated with Dr. Watling and others in the establishment of the Dental College. These three constituted the first dental faculty.
Two years later, in 1877, William Henry Dorrance ('79d), a practicing dentist in Ann Arbor, was appointed Demonstrator in mechanical dentistry. He later became Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry and Dental Metallurgy, serving in this capacity until 1902.
In 1881 Calvin S. Case (Ohio College of Dental Surgery '71) came to the University from Cincinnati as Assistant in Prosthetic Dentistry. After a year he removed to Chicago, where he became well known for his work in the field of orthodontia.
Nelville Soule Hoff (Ohio College of Dental Surgery '76) was the next member to be added to the faculty of the College. He was a practitioner in Cincinnati and came to the University at the invitation of Dr. Taft with whom he had been associated. Appointed Assistant Professor of Practical Dentistry in 1888, he later taught materia medica and from 1903 to 1924 was in charge of prosthetic dentistry.
Dr. Hoff played an important role in the early days of dental education and in the history of the College. He was Secretary for many years and later became Dean. He edited the Dental Register (1900-1923), a leading dental publication of that day, and took an active part in national and international dental and dental education meetings. With Dean Taft he guided the destinies of the institution during the first twenty-five years of its existence and supervised the planning and erection of the present Dental Building.
The establishment of the College (School since 1927) at the University of Michigan began a new era for dental students because of the emphasis on instruction in those branches of medical science which are a part of the dentist's education. The College also became known for the excellence of its technical and operative training. Michigan graduates, even in the early days, were noted for their skill in gold foil operations and in other exacting dental technics of that time. The College has also profited from the enthusiastic interest and co-operation Page 1321of the dental profession of the state. Close association with other units of a great university has made possible the development of dentistry on an educational and professional level that has been reached in few other institutions. As early as 1885 the College ranked as one of three American dental schools which were recognized in Europe. The medical councils of several European countries ruled against the acceptance of dental degrees from America. Exception was made, however, for those granted by Harvard and the universities of Michigan and Pennsylvania.
In its early days the College had a somewhat peripatetic existence. At first it was housed with the Homeopathic College in a residence formerly occupied by a professor (Merriam), on the north side of the campus. When this building was outgrown, activities were transferred in 1877 to the house of another professor (Frieze) on the south side of the campus. A later addition to this house provided additional laboratory and clinical facilities. In 1891 quarters were again obtained on the north side of the campus in a building formerly occupied by the University Hospital.
The building which was erected on North University Avenue in 1908-9 still houses the School. Specially designed for dental education, it was enlarged in 1923 to accommodate the increasing student enrollment and increased curricular requirements. In 1939-40 the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry Building, adjoining and integrated with the Dental Building, was erected. The Dental Operative Clinic was completely re-equipped in 1949.
At first the course of instruction consisted of two terms of six months each, with one year of apprenticeship in a dental office. At that time the entrance requirements were the same as for medicine and law, a high-school education. During the first year, twenty students were enrolled, four of whom had previously served an apprenticeship, and nine were graduated at the end of the year with the degree of doctor of dental surgery. The Catalogue for 1876 stated:
The candidate must be twenty-one years of age. He must furnish evidence of good moral character. He must have devoted three years to the study of his profession, in connection with attendance upon a full course of medical lectures. He must attend two full courses of lectures in the Dental College, or one course elsewhere, and the last one here, and we recommend that he attend these courses regularly. He must pursue the study of Chemistry in the Laboratory, or sustain an examination in the studies there pursued. He must submit to the Faculty a thesis upon some subject of his course. He must present for inspection practical operations prepared by himself in the College, and give evidence of his skill and ability in treating those derangements which may be submitted to his care. He must sustain an examination satisfactory to the Faculty in all the branches taught.
A graduate of the Medical College may enter the Senior class, and, if found qualified, may graduate after one year has been devoted to the study of Dentistry.
In 1884 the two terms were extended to nine months each, to conform to the academic year, and a third year was added in 1889. The School pioneered in 1901 by extending the dental curriculum to four academic years. Because the move was not supported by the profession, the three-year program was readopted in July, 1904. Subsequent developments in the scope of dental education and practice, however, accentuated the need for increased instructional facilities. A four-year curriculum was offered optionally in 1916 and required in 1917. At that time dental schools throughout the country adopted the four-year program.
Page 1322Attendance at a summer session was required in 1918; in 1921 this was replaced by the admission requirement of a year of preprofessional college work. In 1927 predental requirements were increased to two years of academic training in which certain scientific subjects were prescribed, and the dental curriculum was shortened to three years. This new program was adopted by only five other schools. In 1934, as a result of a survey of dental education carried out under the auspices of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, it was recommended that the dental curriculum should consist of two years of academic preparation and four years of dental instruction. An optional six-year program was offered in 1934, which in 1935 became compulsory.
Changing concepts of dentistry as a profession have caused expansions in curriculum and improvement in teaching facilities. In the beginning dentistry was chiefly a mechanical or technical pursuit intended to relieve pain and restore damaged or lost teeth to approximately normal function and appearance. Diseases of the mouth were looked upon as local injuries which might be painful, disfiguring, and disturbing to masticatory function, but were not considered important to the general physical health. In 1910 an English physician named William Hunter in an address given in Montreal stated that he had observed many patients seriously ill with various general disorders which were improved by the extraction of infected teeth. He strongly asserted his belief that dental infections were a serious menace to bodily health. After Hunter's pronouncement, studies of dental disease were made which led to an entirely new view of dentistry. Since that time it has been recognized that diseases of the mouth are not purely local disturbances but that they may seriously affect the health of the body. This discovery transferred dentistry from the category of mechanics and cosmetology to a place in the field of health service. Recognition that healthy teeth are important to general health has had a stabilizing influence upon the practice of dentistry and has helped to establish co-operation between physicians and dentists. Dentistry has become virtually a medical health specialty and an important branch of public health service.
New relationships and enlarging horizons of the dental profession have required increased educational programs so that the dentist may be qualified to meet his responsibilities. It was necessary to give more instruction in the basic medical sciences and to include courses in general medicine in the dental curriculum, which was made possible by the co-operation of the Medical School of the University. In addition to changing health concepts, much progress has been made in dental technics and in the development of new materials. As the importance of research has been recognized, laboratory and clinical facilities have increased, and frequent enlargement of the physical plant has been necessary.
In 1926 the survey of dental schools by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching reported that Michigan is "generously supported financially, well equipped for all phases of its work, and having a faculty of high quality, it is one of the most happily co-ordinated and effectually conducted dental schools in North America, … justly regarded … as exemplar of the best in dental education" (Gies, Dental Education, p. 399). The School of Dentistry of the University of Michigan has always maintained a position of acknowledged leadership among dental educational institutions.
The number of graduates of the School Page 1323at five-year intervals since its opening is as follows:
After the resignation of Dr. Taft in 1903, Cyrenus Garritt Darling ('81m) served as Acting Dean. A member of the surgical staff of the University Hospital, he lectured also on oral pathology and surgery in the School. From 1905 to the time of his retirement in 1926 he held the title of Professor of Oral Surgery. Dr. Darling was deeply interested in the development of dentistry, and during the difficult transition period which followed the resignation of Dr. Taft, he proved to be a salutary influence. With Dr. Lyons he organized and established the cleft palate and harelip surgical service in the University Hospital, which became the largest clinic of its kind in the world.
In 1906 Willough by Dayton Miller ('75, D.D.S. Pennsylvania '79, Ph.D. hon. Michigan '85, M.D. Berlin '87, Sc.D. hon. Pennsylvania '02), of Berlin, Germany, was appointed Dean. He was the outstanding dental scientist of his day, having gained renown in Germany and throughout the world. His contributions in the field of dental pathology and bacteriology laid the foundation for our present knowledge of biologic dental science. He came to Ann Arbor in 1907, but died, following an operation for appendicitis, before he could take up his new duties. His untimely death was a great loss both to the University and to the profession.
Subsequent to the death of Dr. Miller, Nelville Hoff was made Acting Dean and then, in 1911, Dean. He resigned in 1916, but continued the teaching of prosthetic dentistry. He died in 1926.
Marcus Llewellyn Ward ('02d, D.D.Sc. '05) was made Dean of the School in 1916 and served with great distinction in that capacity for eighteen years. He had been appointed Instructor in Operative Techniques and Operative Dentistry in 1903 and became Professor of Applied Physics and Chemistry, and Crown and Bridge Work in 1912. He established the School's Laboratory of Physics and Chemistry which, under his guidance, developed into a research unit of national and international reputation. During his deanship many changes took place in the curriculum. Dr. Ward was a member of the Committee of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, which evaluated the dental schools of this country, and he made important contributions to the work of this committee. It was also during his administration that the addition to the Dental Building (1923) was made.
During his tenure of office as Dean, Ward assembled a strong and well-organized faculty which was outstanding in dental education. He also contributed much to the literature in the field of dental materials. Upon his resignation as Dean in 1934, he was named Jonathan Taft Professor of Dentistry and continued his teaching and research in dental materials until his retirement in 1945.
Chalmers John Lyons ('98d, D.D.Sc. '11) was made chairman of the Executive Committee of the School in 1934. Dr. Lyons had formerly practiced dentistry in Jackson, Michigan; he was Instructor in Clinical Dentistry from 1907 until 1909, when he became Nonresident Lecturer on Clinical Dentistry. In 1915 he was appointed Professor of Oral Surgery. Closely associated with Dr. Darling, he developed the field of oral surgery and the Oral Surgical Clinic of the Hospital. He became widely known for his surgical treatment of cleft palate and harelip and was recognized as an Page 1324outstanding authority in his field. Because of his charming personality and his achievements in the field of surgery, Dr. Lyons exerted a strong influence upon the students and the profession. He also gave valuable help during the difficult years when the faculty was in the process of reorganization. He died in 1935, less than a year after his appointment as head of the School.
Upon Lyons' death, President Ruthven appointed Russell Welford Bunting ('02d, D.D.Sc. '08) as acting chairman of the Executive Committee. In 1937 Dr. Bunting was made Dean of the School. He had been connected with the faculty since 1904, first as Assistant in Prosthetic Dentistry and later as Instructor in Dental Pathology and Histology. In 1914 he was made Professor in this field. From 1910 to 1936 he was actively engaged in the study of the cause and control of dental caries, and from 1929 to 1936 he directed the Dental Caries Research Group. Bunting was in charge of the teaching of periodontia for undergraduate and postgraduate students from 1910 to 1948. He retired in 1951. During his term of service as Dean, the faculty made notable advancements and added much to the prestige of the School. One achievement which deserves mention was the establishment in 1936 of the Dental Alumni Bulletin, which increased alumni interest in and co-operation with the School.
Paul Harold Jeserich ('24, '24d) succeeded Bunting as Dean. Dr. Jeserich had begun his service to the University with his appointment as Demonstrator in 1924. He became Instructor in Operative Dentistry in the following year. From 1927 to 1933 he was engaged in private practice in Ann Arbor, but he returned to the faculty in 1933 and in 1935 was made Professor of Operative Dentistry and Director of the Operative Clinic. During the years of his association with the School Dr. Jeserich has exercised a constructive and progressive influence. Since 1937 he has been Director of Graduate and Postgraduate Education. Through his efforts the W. K. Kellogg Foundation became interested in the expansion of postgraduate work, which resulted in the generous gift for the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry. In 1942 the Kellogg Foundation granted the School $113,000 for the purchase of technical and clinical instruments to be loaned to dental students and for remodeling the School laboratories. This grant enabled the School to cut approximately in half instrument charges to students and to become perhaps the best equipped in the nation.
Those who have served as secretary of the dental faculty include Nelville S. Hoff (1888-1907), Elmer L. Whitman (1907-12), Russell W. Bunting (1912-23), and Francis B. Vedder (1923-).
Fields of study. — Throughout its history the School has recognized certain fields or divisions of dental science and practice. The members of the faculty have contributed much to the development of dentistry by correlating the teaching of the various branches. The history of the teaching programs cannot be separated from the lives and works of the men who developed them.
The two principal divisions of practice in clinical dentistry are operative and prosthetic. Operative dentistry was taught in the early days by Watling and Taft, though, as the College grew, graduates were employed as assistants. Outstanding among these was Louis Phillips Hall ('89d), who joined the staff as Assistant in Clinical and Mechanical Dentistry in 1889. In 1903 he became Professor of Operative and Clinical Dentistry and was in charge of the Operative Clinic until 1918. Dr. Hall was Page 1325an outstanding exponent of the highest ideals in dental education. A skilled operator, he instilled in the minds of his students the desire to excel. He was an excellent teacher and contributed greatly to the prestige of the School in the field of operative dentistry. He continued as Professor of Operative Dentistry until his retirement in 1928.
In 1918 the directorship of the Operative Clinic was assumed by John Jacob Travis ('03d), who for many years had practiced in Plymouth, Michigan. For nine years under his vigorous and progressive teaching, clinical dentistry advanced markedly. He resigned in 1927 to engage in practice in Ann Arbor.
From 1927 to 1935 Robert Kennard Brown ('19d, M.S. '28), who formerly had practiced in Cleveland, Ohio, served as head of the Operative Clinic, and from 1935 to 1946 Dr. Jeserich was in charge. Louis Charter Schultz ('26d, M.S. '42), a member of the operative staff since 1935 became Professor of Dentistry and head of Operative Dentistry in 1946. He has instilled in his students the highest ideals of dental service.
During recent years the several divisions of operative dentistry have attained such importance that they are now treated as specialties. The work in periodontia, headed by Dr. Bunting until 1948, was taken over by Donald Archibald Kerr (Michigan State Normal '31, Michigan '37d, M.S. ibid. '43). Dr. Kerr, who was promoted to Associate Professor in 1948, had worked with Dr. Bunting for many years in the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching of the treatment of periodontal disease.
By 1934 dentistry for children had grown to such prominence that Kenneth Alexander Easlick ('17, '28d, A.M. '36) was given charge of the work. Upon his graduation Dr. Easlick had been appointed Instructor in Clinical Dentistry. From 1932 he developed a special course in dentistry for children, which under his leadership has grown to great importance in undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate teaching. Dr. Easlick was promoted to Professor of Dentistry in the School in 1945. He received a like appointment in the School of Public Health at the same time and is now the head of the Children's Clinic in the Kellogg Institute. He is ably assisted by Assistant Professors Joseph Thurman Hartsook (Ohio State '37, Michigan '42d, M.S. ibid. '47) and William Ernest Brown, Jr. ('45d, M.S. '47).
During the past twenty years endodontia, the treatment of pulpless teeth, has become recognized as a special form of dental practice. It has been developed and presented by Ralph Frederick Sommer ('24d, M.S. '30) in association with Dr. Rickert. These two men devised revolutionary methods of treating and filling pulpless teeth aseptically, which have been widely recognized and adopted. Dr. Sommer was promoted to a professorship in 1941 and is now in charge of this work.
Prosthetic dentistry, which was developed until 1902 by Dorrance, an outstanding teacher of the subject, became another specialty. From 1903 to 1924 it was directed by Hoff with the assistance from 1921 of Percival Chelston Lowery ('10d, M.S. '40), a well-known Detroit practitioner. In 1924 Dr. Lowery was made Professor in charge of prosthetic teaching, which position he ably filled for five years. He was assisted by Richard Henry Kingery (Michigan Agricultural College, '20, Michigan '24d), who, in 1929, assumed direction of this instruction. Kingery, who was promoted to a professorship in 1937, is largely concerned with postgraduate teaching. In charge of the undergraduate teaching in this field is Corwin Robert Wright ('29d, M.S. '38), Associate Professor of Dentistry since 1945.
Page 1326Certain phases of prosthetic dentistry have been elevated to special forms of dental practice. For many years crown and bridge work has been taught independent of other forms of dental restorations. The first professorship in this important field was held by Dr. Ward from 1912 to 1934. From 1920 to 1924 Albert John Irving ('17d), now a noted practitioner of New York City, was associated with Ward in clinical instruction. Since 1925 Francis Bulkley Vedder ('16, '18d) has been connected with the teaching of this work. Dr. Vedder has been a member of the faculty since 1918, first as Demonstrator and later as Instructor. He was promoted to a professorship in 1931 and in 1934 was given charge of the work in crown and bridge processes, in which field he is recognized as an authority.
During recent years partial denture prosthesis has grown to such importance that it has attained specific status in the School. In 1934 Oliver Clark Applegate ('17d, D.D.Sc. '37), Professor of Dentistry since 1947, assumed direction of the work and has made notable contributions in this new field. He has been ably supported by his associate, Roland Oswald Nissle ('29d), who was made Associate Professor in 1949.
The basic technic courses which are preparatory to both operative and prosthetic dentistry were conducted by Professor Elmer LeRoy Whitman ('04d) from 1904 to 1949. This instruction has since been under the charge of Associate Professor Ralph Sayles Moyer ('31d, M.S. '43), who was appointed Instructor in Dentistry in 1932.
Oral surgery was first taught to dental students by Dr. James N. Martin ('83m), of the University Medical School. Dr. C. G. Darling was appointed Clinical Lecturer in Oral Pathology and Oral Surgery in 1891 and was made Professor in 1905. He was also associated with Dr. Charles De Nancrède in the Department of Surgery of the Medical School and succeeded him as head of the department and chief surgeon of the University Hospital. Lyons and Darling developed the technics of repairing lip and palate clefts and conducted the oral surgery clinic section of the University Hospital. From 1915 until his death in 1935 Lyons was head of the oral surgery section. In this position he developed the teaching of exodontia, which previously had been given by the operative clinical teaching staff. His chief contribution was in the field of harelip and cleft palate repair, in which he earned an international reputation.
John Willard Kemper ('17d, M.D. '27), who joined the staff as Assistant Professor in 1929, succeeded Dr. Lyons as Professor in charge of the teaching of oral surgery and of the oral surgery clinics in the Dental School and in the University Hospital. He had been associated with Lyons and was eminently successful in carrying on the harelip and palate surgical service until his sudden death in 1952. From 1940 Reed Othelbert Dingman ('28, '31d, M.S. '32, M.D. '36) was associated with Kemper in the teaching of oral surgery. Dr. Dingman also took special training in plastic surgery, in which field he has outstanding ability and reputation. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1943. Philip Munro Northrop ('28d, M.S. '31), who became Professor of Dentistry in 1950, has been a member of the oral surgical staff since 1935.
Prior to 1923 teaching in the field of orthodontics was conducted one day a week by visiting lecturers. Among these may be mentioned three well-known orthodontists of Detroit, Oliver Wilson White ('98d, D.D.Sc. '99, M.S. hon. '40), Milton Tate Watson ('93d), and Frank Rodman Woods ('03d). In 1923 Alfred LeRoy Johnson (D.M.D. Tufts Page 1327'04, A.M. hon. Harvard '42, D.Sc. Rochester '45), who had been a member of the faculty of Tufts Dental College, was appointed Professor of Orthodontia to take charge of the teaching of this specialty. Dr. Johnson initiated a graduate training program, but remained only until the end of the school year. George Raymond Moore ('23d, M.S. '24) was appointed Instructor in Orthodontia in 1924. He carried on the program begun by Dr. Johnson with the assistance of Dr. Benno Edward Lischer, an eminent orthodontist of St. Louis, Missouri, who for three years visited the School periodically to take part in the teaching of this subject. Dr. Moore was made Professor of Orthodontics in 1937 and was in charge of this work until his death in 1952. With the members of his teaching staff, he developed effective undergraduate and graduate teaching programs. Ninety-nine of his students received master of science degrees in orthodontics, and thirty-nine pursued a two-year postgraduate program. All undergraduates were given special training in orthodontia. Michigan early attained first place in this field.
In the early days dental therapeutics and the use of drugs were taught by the operative staff. When Hoff was appointed Professor of Dental Materia Medica and Dental Mechanism in 1891, he developed and taught the subject until 1903. Egbert Theodore Loeffler ('85e[C.E.], '88d), who had been a practitioner in Saginaw, was given charge of the teaching of materia medica and therapeutics at that time, with the title of Professor of Dental Therapeutics. Dr. Loeffler installed the first dental radiographic equipment in the School, and he is responsible for the introduction of radiologic technics for dental diagnosis. In 1939 the department was greatly expanded to meet the ever increasing demand. Dr. Ralph Sommer took charge of the work in that year.
With the resignation of Loeffler in 1920, the teaching of dental therapeutics was assumed by Ura Garfield Rickert (Buchtel '07, A.M. ibid. '13, Michigan '16d), who since 1913 had been associated with Bunting in the study of dental caries. Rickert had taught physiological chemistry and hygiene since 1917, and until his death in 1938 he gave the courses in therapeutics and developed many new formulae for dental preparations which are in general use today. He also played an active part in the controversy over the retention of pulpless teeth in the mouth and their relationship to focal infection. He advocated a middle course and did much to stabilize the thought concerning this problem. His influence was widely felt during this period of changing concepts in dental education and practice.
On the death of Dr. Rickert, therapeutics was taught for one year by Morris Davis Mackoy ('06d). In 1940 the work was assumed by Floyd Darl Ostrander ('34d, M.S. '41), a member of the operative staff since 1934. Ostrander was promoted to Professor in 1952 and now has charge of the teaching of this subject. He has become widely known for his contributions in the field of dental therapeutics.
The teaching of pathology in the early days was limited to a few lectures on the diseases of the mouth given under operative dentistry by Taft. Instruction in this subject was assumed in 1903 by Bunting, who developed a lecture course in both general and oral pathology. The teaching of general pathology, which was transferred in 1920 to the Department of Pathology in the Medical School, consisted of both lecture and laboratory instruction. Bunting continued to teach oral pathology, lecture and laboratory, until 1939, when Kerr, who had been associated with the Department of Pathology, took over the teaching of this Page 1328subject. Under his direction the graduate and postgraduate teaching of pathology has been efficiently developed.
A unique graduate program of teaching in dentistry and public health has been organized and operated in the School of Dentistry since 1938. At that time Dr. John Sundwall, chairman of the Division of Public Health, requested that a dental co-ordinator be named to outline and direct the programs for public health dentists. Dr. Easlick was chosen for this position, and he organized for senior students a course of lectures on public health and conducted the graduate teaching of public health dentists. In 1939, under the auspices of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, a one-week field trip to the county health departments of southwestern Michigan was arranged for senior dental students. This field experience was continued for five years.
In 1941 Dr. Easlick was appointed Assistant Professor in the School of Public Health on a half-time basis and was given a like appointment in the School of Dentistry. Under his direction the teaching of public health dentists in the School of Public Health became an important function of both schools. By 1952 eighty-five graduate degrees in public health dentistry had been awarded. Most of these graduates are now in public health service in this country or abroad.
Dental hygiene. — The first dental hygiene course was offered in Bridgeport, Connecticut, by Dr. Alfred C. Fones. The students were trained to teach mouth hygiene in the public schools and to serve as auxiliary aids to practicing dentists. The services of these assistants proved so beneficial that interest in their preparation grew rapidly, and dental schools began to offer such instruction. By 1952 twenty-six schools had training courses, and dental hygiene graduates were certified for practice in every state.
Upon the strong recommendation of the dental profession of Michigan, the University offered a course for dental hygienists in 1921. Originally a two-year program based on high-school graduation, it was shortened to one year in 1922. Miss May Helmer, a registered nurse who had been acting as an assistant in a dental office, supervised the first class. In 1922 Hertha Charlotte Hartwig (Klages) ('15d), a practicing periodontist of Detroit, became Instructor in Oral Hygiene.
Dr. Hartwig resigned in 1924, and Dorothy Gerald Hard (Bunting) ('22d, M.S.P.H. '34) was appointed Instructor in Oral Hygiene. Dr. Hard had been an industrial dentist in the laboratories of Parke, Davis and Company in Detroit. She was made Director of the Curriculum in Dental Hygiene in 1934 and Professor in 1953. During her tenure of office Dr. Hard has taken an active part in the teaching of periodontia. In her connection with the Dental Caries Research Group, she made significant contributions both to research and to publications. Under her guidance the curriculum has been amplified to meet changing views of dental hygiene and has grown to be an important function of the School. In 1938 the curriculum was extended to two years, and in 1948 an optional four-year curriculum leading to the bachelor of science degree in dental hygiene was offered. The first two years of academic study may be taken in the University or in any liberal arts college of equal standing.
Eight young women were graduated in the first class. The enrollment has increased until the number of applicants has far exceeded the capacity of the School to accommodate them. Since 1947 an average of thirty has been graduated each year, approximately half on Page 1329the four-year program. In 1951-52 thirty-seven students were enrolled.
Research. — During the past fifty years research at the University of Michigan has resulted in notable contributions to dental science. The first project, begun by Ward in 1903, initiated the study of the properties of dental amalgam used as a filling material, its value as an arrester of dental caries, and the possible dangers of mercuric poisoning. This research led to the establishment in 1904 of the course, Testing Filling Materials, which was expanded to keep pace with advances in clinical practice and which has been continued to the present time.
Studies have been made of practically all materials known to dentistry and of those used in their processing, the measurement of the physical properties of enamel and dentin, and the behavior of revolving dental instruments. The findings of these investigations have had wide recognition and have served to stimulate a spirit of inquiry in the clinical phases of dentistry. The laboratory was conducted by Ward and his associates until 1946, when Norris O. Taylor (Illinois '18, Ph.D. Iowa '23) was appointed Professor of Dentistry and given charge of this work. Through the efforts of Taylor research grants were obtained from various governmental agencies for the investigation of filling materials used in governmental services. At the end of two years' service Taylor resigned to join the S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company.
Floyd Avery Peyton (Indiana '28, Sc.D. Michigan '33) became Professor of Dentistry and assumed charge of the Dental Materials Laboratory in 1948. From 1935 to 1946 Peyton had worked with Ward in the laboratory and had assisted in the teaching of Dental Materials. Under Peyton's direction, by the addition of research projects supported by governmental agencies, by private industry, and by the Horace H. Rackham Fund, the services of the laboratory have been greatly extended. Government grants have been made by the Public Health Service, the Army, the Air Force, and the Veterans' Administration.
In 1910 Bunting began the studies of the cause and control of dental caries which he pursued until 1936. During this time he was associated with Rickert, Faith Hadley ('20, D.P.H. '35), and Mary Catherine Crowley ('26, M.S.P.H. '28). These studies were greatly expanded by the organization of the Dental Caries Research Group in 1929. This research group, financed from 1929 to 1933 by the Children's Fund of Michigan, was discontinued owing to the depression, but was carried on from 1934 to 1936 with funds from the Horace H. and Mary A. Rackham Fund. Under Bunting's direction a staff of well-qualified scientists in the fields of bacteriology, chemistry, nutrition, and dentistry was organized, which, over a period of six years, made notable contributions to the knowledge of dental caries and laid the foundation for subsequent developments in caries prevention. The findings, which were revolutionary and which were subject to much controversy, have since been accepted in this important field.
Philip Jay ('23d, M.S. '24, D.Sc. hon. Washington '41) was in charge of the bacteriologic investigations of the group and since 1936 has directed research on dental caries. Jay, who came to the School of Dentistry in 1929 from the University of Rochester, where he was engaged in bacteriologic research, was promoted to a professorship in 1948. He played an important role in the group studies and has been active in the development of the technics for control of dental caries. He has been closely Page 1330associated with the National Institute of Health in Washington, D. C., in the study of the effects of water fluoridation and has participated actively in the Institute's studies of caries control.
The outstanding contribution in the field of oral surgery has been the development of surgical technics for the treatment of harelip and cleft palate. This clinical service was begun in the School by Darling and Lyons in 1913. Since 1945 functional studies of palatal deformities have been made in conjunction with the Speech Clinic of the University. By the use of photographs and moving pictures with sound track it has been possible to evaluate the effectiveness of various surgical technics for the correction of oral malformations. As a result a variation in surgical technic has been developed which is much superior to former methods and which has been used very successfully. The more recent developments by Kemper, Dingman, Northrop, and other members of the oral surgical staff include ostectomy and osteotomy of the mandible for correction of developmental defects, bone grafts, open reduction of fractures, control of loss of blood during cleft operations, ostectomy for malunion of fractured bones, and menisectomy for the treatment of traumatic arthritis and subluxation of the temporomandibular joint. With Associate Professor Mary Crowley, Northrop has carried on significant studies of bacteremias following surgical procedures and of preventive premedication to control them.
Since 1934 Associate Professor Crowley has served as bacteriologist in charge of laboratory studies. She previously had played an important part in the research on dental caries. More recently she has been identified with research in the fields of endodontia, oral surgery, dental focal infection, and instrument sterilization and has been joint author of many of the resulting publications. Crowley also conducted a bacteriologic study to determine the usefulness of partial pulpectomy when the pulps of immature teeth are exposed.
Rickert made many important contributions in the field of focal infection of a dental origin during the days in which pulpless teeth were considered harmful and unsafe. He carried on bacteriologic research with Dr. Faith Hadley, and later, in co-operation with Sommer and Crowley, he developed a technic of filling root canals aseptically and safely. The contributions of Rickert and Sommer have had a salutary effect in the treatment of pulp-involved teeth. Their technics in root surgery, the treatment of root-end infections, and the aseptic filling of root canals have received wide recognition in the dental and medical professions.
Kerr, who is in charge of the work in oral pathology, has carried out notable studies concerned with enamel hypoplasia, papillary cyst adenoma, lymphomatosum, myoblastic myomas of the oral region, granuloma pyogenicum, and other pathological manifestations. In this field Associate Professor Sigurd Peder Ramfjord (Oslo '34d, Ph.D. Michigan '51) has made valuable animal studies of the effect of febrile diseases on the periodontium, the reattachment of the periodontium to the root, and the effects of tuberculosis and alloxan on the periodontal tissues.
For some years, under the direction of George R. Moore, studies of the growth of the face and jaws and the development of occlusion were conducted. Since 1931 dentofacial records of the development of the children in the University Elementary School have been maintained. With Associate Professor Byron O. Hughes of the School of Education, extensive research on malocclusion in its relation to heredity has Page 1331been carried out. A cephalometric radiographic study of the effects of orthodontic treatment is now being pursued under a grant from the Faculty Research Fund.
In the field of complete denture prosthesis Kingery, since 1928, has evaluated methods of treatment for the edentulous patient. From 1930 research on the rehabilitation of patients with oral clefts has been conducted in conjunction with the work in speech, oral surgery, orthodontics, and dentistry for children. A co-operative study was undertaken in 1935 to examine the adaptation of new materials to the field of denture prosthesis, and in 1944 Wright and other staff members began an investigation to determine the function of the structures of the oral cavity as they relate to denture prosthesis.
Since 1934 work in partial denture prosthesis, under the direction of Applegate, methods of registering the supporting contour of the tissues of the edentulous ridge, and adaptations to the construction of partial dentures have been developed. Means of recording the occlusal paths of the edentulous patient and of estimating the ability of the remaining tissue to support a denture also have been studied.