The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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Part VI

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The Campus Center and Library

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The Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies

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THE HORACE H. RACKHAM SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

THE earliest mention of a post-graduate degree in the records of the University of Michigan is dated 1845, only eight years after the establishment of the University in Ann Arbor. In resolutions adopted by the Board of Regents in April of that year appears the statement: "No candidate for the second degree of Master of Arts shall receive this honor, unless he has preserved a good moral character, and previously to the Commencement, has signified his desire of the same to the Faculty."

It is implied that the degree was at first designed to be an honorary one, although not in the sense that this term is applied today. The candidates were selected from those who expressed a desire to be considered. The honor was originally intended for the University's own alumni, but in 1847 it was resolved:

That alumni of other Colleges and Universities who wish, be regarded as Alumni of this, and that the Faculty be authorized to recommend them for the degree of A.M. in the same manner as Alumni of this Institution; and, also, that they recommend such persons from time to time as they think worthy, for the honorary degree of A.M.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 368.)
Included in the same resolution was a provision for the appointment of a committee of three to confer with the faculty in reference to the qualifications required for conferring the regular degree of master of arts.

At first provision was made so that the degree could be conferred upon any alumnus or graduate of three years' standing. In 1852 the requirements were made more rigid. The Catalogue for that year stated:

The degree of Master of Arts will not be conferred in course upon graduates of three years standing, but only upon such graduates as have pursued professional or general scientific studies during that period. The candidate for the degree must pass an examination before one of the Faculties. He must also read a Thesis before the Faculties of the University at the time of taking the degree.


(Cat., 1852-53, p. 28.)

Until 1852, when Dr. Henry P. Tappan was called to the presidency of the University, its administration was in the hands of the faculty and the Board of Regents. Tappan was thoroughly in accord with the German system of education and felt that there should be a preparatory period in our system to correspond with the German Gymnasia, and that this should be followed by higher instruction by means of lectures, library work, and the use of other facilities for the encouragement of higher learning. He considered the lecture method to be of true university character as opposed to the textbook and recitation work of the lower college. In accord with his ideas this statement appears in the Catalogue for 1852-53:

It is proposed, therefore, at as early a day as practicable, to open courses of lectures for those who have graduated at this or other institutions, and for those who in other ways have made such preparation as may enable them to attend upon them with advantage. These lectures, in accordance with the educational systems of Germany and France, will form the proper development of the University, in distinction from the College or Gymnasium now in operation.


(Cat., 1852-53, p. 21.)
The so-called "University Course" was designed for those who had taken the Page  1038degree of bachelor of arts or the degree of bachelor of science, and for those generally who, by previous study, had attained a preparation and discipline to qualify them for pursuing it. The announcement stated:

The Course will be conducted exclusively by lectures. Besides attending these the student will have full opportunity of availing himself of the library and all other means that can aid him in literary cultivation and scientific researches.

This Course, when completely furnished with able professors and the material of learning, will correspond to that pursued in the Universities of France and Germany.


(Cat., 1852-53, p. 26.)
This statement is followed by a plan presenting twenty subjects as proper to such a course, but there is no mention of advanced degrees in connection with it. Advanced degrees continued to be granted in course on the old basis. The first master's degrees in course were granted in 1849, when the honor was conferred upon two candidates, Merchant H. Goodrich, of Ann Arbor, and Winfield Smith, of Monroe. Degrees granted in the following years numbered as follows: 1850, 5; 1851, 4; 1852, 6; 1853, 4; 1854, 18. In 1855 none were conferred. It is possible that the new rules relating to examinations and theses were being enforced at this time, making it more difficult to qualify for the degree.

Although President Tappan's plan for graduate work appeared in the Catalogue of the University as early as 1852-53, nothing further was done with regard to it until 1858-59, when definite rules were adopted for granting the degrees of master of arts and master of science "upon examination," and they were to be conferred respectively upon those who held the bachelor of arts and bachelor of science degrees, according to the following conditions: (1) The candidate had to be a graduate either of the University of Michigan or of some other collegiate institution empowered to confer degrees, (2) he must have taken at least two designated courses in each semester, (3) he was to take an examination in at least three of the studies thus attended, the subject to be of his own choice, and (4) he was required to present a thesis in one of the subjects chosen for examination. In this way a second degree might be obtained one year after the first degree had been granted. The courses offered were not restricted to candidates for the master's degree, but were open to all who gave satisfactory evidence of ability to profit by them. The master's degree in course continued to be offered as before. The first degrees to be given upon examination were granted in 1859.

President Tappan entertained great hopes for the future of the graduate program. In 1859 he reported:

In these higher courses we are advancing to the scope and dignity of a true University and maturing the noble plans of the founders. Nor need we despair of success. The more we enlarge our facilities of affording education, the more we extend our influence. Those Institutions will ultimately command the highest success, which most deserve it.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 817.)
Mention was made of the alumni receiving the degree of master of arts "upon examination according to our recently adopted University regulations for the higher degree … The new regulations above referred to form an important step in the progress of our honored Institution towards a proper and full University development." Then followed a statement of the regulations and the program offered under them:

The mere exhibition of such a programme is gratifying as an indication of what we would do. We are not without hope, however, that even the year upon which we have just entered will not close without the Page  1039inauguration of the higher course, at least, not without some worthy scholarly attempts at its inauguration.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 876.)

The new program, however, apparently did not prove very popular. The majority of the master's degrees continued to be granted in course. Until 1871, a period of thirteen years, only fifteen degrees had been granted upon examination. The war undoubtedly had something to do with this, but the chief factor probably lay in the difficulties that arose between President Tappan and the Board of Regents and in the change of administration that followed. In 1863 Tappan was succeeded by Erastus Otis Haven, and he in turn was followed by Henry Simmons Frieze, who served as Acting President from 1869 to 1871.

In his report of 1871 Acting President Frieze remarked:

One Master of Arts, it will be observed, has received his degree upon examination in post graduate studies. It is much to be wished that this class of students may increase in number. The marked success in professional life of the few who have thus far pursued post graduate courses, should invite more of the alumni to undertake it; especially those who have taken the first degree at so early an age that there is no occasion for haste in preparing for a profession.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 120.)

The feeling was growing that more significance should be given to the higher degree. A strong impetus must have been given toward this end by President Angell, who came to the University in 1871. In his report to the Regents in 1874, as spokesman for the Literary faculty, he said:

The members of the Literary Faculty, impressed with the importance of giving a higher significance to our Masters' Degrees, respectfully requested you to confer no second degrees in course after 1877, and their opinion met with your hearty approbation. Accordingly after that date Masters' Degrees will be given only on examination. Heretofore a Master's Degree has been valuable only as a certificate that a person, who had graduated Bachelor, had existed three years after his graduation. We propose now that it shall really signify the acquisition of larger attainments than are required for the Bachelor's Degree. No one can receive it, who shall not have done a year's good work in post-graduate studies, here under our direction, or two years' work elsewhere, the value of which is to be determined by examination.


(R.P., 1870-76, pp. 393-94.)
Provision was also made to grant the degree of doctor of philosophy to those who studied for at least two years after obtaining a bachelor's degree.

The change in the requirements for the master's degree seems to have been generally approved by educators of the day, and the granting of the degree only upon examination apparently had a wholesome influence upon postgraduate work.

In 1877 President Angell again mentioned that the degree of master in course would be discontinued after that year:

We may therefore reasonably expect that the number of applicants for the degrees on examination will increase. We desire it to be understood that the examinations for the second degrees are by no means a mere form. We make them rigorous and searching. We intend that the degrees shall have a real significance.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 152.)

There does not seem to have been any great increase in the number of master's students enrolled, however. A few degrees in course continued to be granted every year up to 1884. No reason is given for this, but presumably it took care of a few who had previously signified their intention of seeking the degree.

In 1880, while President Angell served as minister to China, Acting President Page  1040Frieze called attention again to the German system and likened the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts to the German Gymnasium. He deplored the fact that universities in America were giving their strength chiefly to the work of the secondary, rather than to the higher, education. He expressed the hope that in place of the bachelor's degree the master's degree would gradually be preceded by "certificates of proficiency or maturity." He said: "It is manifestly difficult, if not impossible to change the Gymnasium into a University by merely building up a system of post-graduate courses, as a sort of annex to the old established curriculum of four years; …" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 576).

Under an arrangement spoken of as a "new departure" a student might be recommended for the master's degree without having taken the bachelor's degree, provided he gave notice of such a purpose at least one year before he applied for the degree, chose courses approved by the faculty, and presented a satisfactory thesis. Dr. Frieze said of this arrangement:

It emancipates the student from the trammels of fixed courses at the period when he is sufficiently advanced in age and discipline, to choose and pursue his studies for himself as an individual, and according to his individual gifts, attainments, and necessities. And this is precisely the characteristic of university work for the Master's degree, as distinguished from gymnasial or lyceum work for the Bachelor's degree…

Our Faculty should as soon as possible cease to expend all their time and strength on that which ought to be the work of the High School; thus compelling our more ambitious students to resort to foreign universities to obtain their higher education. For they should get their whole education at home.


(R.P., 1876-81, pp. 577-78.)

A first attempt to put this system into action was made with the establishment of a School of Political Science in 1881. The course of study in this School was to cover a period of three years, and students might be admitted upon completion of the first two years in the University and the so-called "required studies." The degree to be given was that of doctor of philosophy. The following year, in 1881, the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts asked permission to grant the doctoral degree under the same condition, and this was approved. With respect to this new departure Dr. Frieze reported in 1881:

We should remember, too, that while the candidate is admitted to examination at the end of five years' residence, it by no means follows that the degree will be awarded. The examination must not be a mere matter of routine, and the award of the degree a foregone conclusion, … It must be emphatically an university examination, made by responsible committees or boards, … He is to be tested, … like a full-grown man and scholar, as to what he himself has found out and thought out under the general guidance and direction of those whom he chooses for instructors.


(R.P., 1881-86, p. 111.)

The program as outlined seems to have met with general favor, for in 1882 the faculty presented a plan to the Regents for graduate work. After a student had completed the first two years he was to choose whether he would continue his work on the "credit system" or on the "university system." The student working on the credit system would get his bachelor's degree at the end of his fourth year of residence. The student who selected the "university system" would be admitted to a special examination not earlier than his fourth year, and the degree conferred might be either a bachelor's or a master's degree; however, presentation of a thesis was necessary for the master's degree. The doctorate was to be conferred only upon Page  1041persons who had previously received a bachelor's or a master's degree. A minimum of two years was required before a student could present himself for the doctor's examination, except that with a master's degree and with some special mark of distinction he might present himself after one year.

A student on the "university system" might gain a master's degree only by his attainments and by presentation of a meritorious thesis. According to President Angell's report in 1882:

It is expected that those who seek a degree upon the University system will pursue a somewhat freer method of study than others, and will concentrate their labor on a few studies with the purpose of making large attainments in them, rather than of making limited attainments in many studies. It is hoped that a manly and enthusiastic spirit of investigation and research will be fostered, and that scholarship of a lofty type will be stimulated. We are aware that we are taking a very important and a bold step. But it is not the first time that this University has taken bold steps.


(R.P., 1881-86, p. 270.)

The so-called "seminary system" of study was introduced at about this time. In 1883 President Angell reported:

We have found what is known in Germany as the "seminary" method of work to be peculiarly adapted to secure the best results in advanced work in certain branches, … A small group of students, say ten, is organized for this kind of work. The plan generally followed is substantially as follows: At each meeting some one presents a carefully prepared paper on some assigned topic, a critique upon the paper is read by another member, and then all the others, who have been required to study upon the subject, discuss the topic in presence of the Professor who, himself, sums up the arguments in conclusion…

We now have so large facilities for guiding the studies of graduates that we are hoping, and not without good grounds, to attract hither an increasing number, not only of our own graduates, but also of the graduates of other institutions, whose means of giving advanced instruction are not so ample as ours.


(R.P., 1881-86, pp. 388-89.)

In his reports of 1884 and 1885 he expressed himself as highly gratified with the success of the "University System" and answered criticisms that had been made:

The tendency of the system is to lead scholars to pursue their work in a most generous, unartificial, and earnest spirit, and to accomplish more than they would under the mere stimulus of the ordinary class-room methods.


(R.P., 1881-86, p. 494.)

The fear often expressed that students will generally abuse or unwisely use the liberty granted them of choosing to some extent their studies has not been shown by our experience to be well founded.


(R.P., 1881-86, p. 598.)

In spite of the serious attempts to improve graduate work during these early years graduate students were not numerous. In the decade between 1880 and 1890 only 116 advanced degrees were granted, an average of about eleven a year. There were certain difficulties in the way. No fellowships or other aids were available for gifted scholars, the increase in undergraduate attendance made it difficult for the faculty to devote time to graduate work and to advanced students, and library facilities were not adequate. These were considered in President Angell's report to the Regents in 1887:

In this connection we may properly recognize with grateful appreciation the effort which the alumni are making to establish one or more fellowships, to be tenable by our graduates. The generous friends of the University can most effectively contribute to its usefulness and to the promotion of advanced scholarship by endowing fellowships, yielding from four hundred to six hundred dollars a year. Such assistance will enable a few gifted scholars to remain for a period after graduation and receive the amplest culture which we can here impart.

Page  1042It must, however, be remembered by us that the development of the post-graduate work makes larger demands on the time of the Professors and so increases the necessity of giving them more help for the instruction of the undergraduates … an increase in the number of graduate students, no two of whom, it may be, are pursuing the same line of studies, entails upon the Professors a much larger proportionate increase of labor than the addition of an equal or a much larger number of undergraduates.


(R.P., 1886-91, pp. 150-51.)

Librarian C. C. Davis in the same year emphasized the needs of the library:

The Post Graduate work which was contemplated when the University began her career, and which has never been lost sight of, had its beginning practically in this last decade. The widest range is given to these students in their choice of work. But limitations in that choice are reached, as soon as, in arrangement of details, an account is taken of books. In some cases there is not a volume; in others only a few — in very few cases are there all that are necessary.


(R.P., 1886-91, p. 169.)

It is noteworthy that of the eighty-four graduate students and candidates for higher degrees in 1889-90 twenty-two were women.

In 1891 President Angell mentioned for the first time the need of some new organization to give proper attention to graduate students:

No scholars, who go forth from our walls, do more for the reputation of the University. It is therefore of the first importance that we encourage such work as theirs… I propose to ask the Faculty of the Literary Department to give consideration to the subject of organization of the graduate work, and to report to you at some future time.


(R.P., 1886-91, p. 563.)

At the close of the year 1891-92, the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts decided to establish a graduate school. This action grew out of the conviction that the time had come to provide numerous advanced courses developed from the extensive use of the elective system. The necessity for a systematic and efficient administration of graduate work and, as far as possible, for separate instruction of graduate students was recognized. The management of the new school was entrusted to an Administrative Council of which the President was chairman. The council for the year 1892-93 consisted of the heads of departments. No essential changes were made in the rules already existing except that the master's degree for work in absentia, which had been granted for a few years, was to be discontinued after 1893-94.

President Angell pleaded in his report for the recognition of the new organization and called attention to further needs in connection with this work:

The Faculty feel, and with reason, that we ought to improve every opportunity to do well that advanced literary and scientific teaching which may be regarded as the university work … we should be glad to encourage and to invite graduates to take up the higher ranges of study with us, and should strive to furnish them as good facilities for such study as are afforded anywhere in the country. The demand for such facilities is rapidly increasing. The stronger universities are very properly striving to meet it. If we are not to fall behind them, we must also do our utmost to promote this advanced instruction. The importance of such instruction to American scholarship can hardly be overrated. It is absolutely essential to the training of teachers for our colleges and our other institutions of higher learning … It is, in fact, the genuine university work which we have for many years been desirous of doing. Dr. Tappan, with his broad vision and his true conception of the function of a university, attempted in his day to prepare the way for it. And the Faculty have never lost sight of the ideal which he pictured…

By their own action they have endeavored to secure the best organization of the work Page  1043that we can have with our present means, and have given to the organization the name of Graduate School… Assistants must be furnished, maps, charts, photographs, apparatus for research must be provided. A liberal supply of books of a class not required for the general purposes of the library must be had. In short, a considerable addition to our present expenses is involved. This is stated frankly so that there may be no misunderstanding on the part of the Regents or of the public… We have reached so critical a point in our history, it is so obvious that we must now either accept a position in the rear of the larger universities with which we have long been keeping pace in the highest university work, or else make a vigorous forward movement.


(R.P., 1891-96, pp. 78-80.)

Although the Regents undoubtedly did what they could in providing for the needs of the newly organized Graduate School, the appropriation of funds came slowly. Each year President Angell emphasized the needs of the School for better library facilities, increased faculty, and provision for fellowships. In his report of 1896 he said:

The question, therefore, with which this University and the other large State Universities is confronted is this; are the States willing to furnish the means for providing this kind of instruction? Just now, there is no more important question concerning higher education to be passed on by our western States. Upon the answer to be given to this question it depends whether the State Universities are to have their development arrested at their present stage, and so are to fall behind the universities, which depend for their support on private endowments.


(R.P., 1891-96, pp. 660-61.)

Acting President Harry B. Hutchins in his report of 1897 spoke discouragingly about the development of the graduate work. Attendance had increased slightly, but the growth and prosperity of the Department had not been what they should have been had the necessary funds for development been forthcoming: "Under existing circumstances, we can conduct graduate study only in connection with the undergraduate work and as incidental thereto."

The need for fellowships seemed so urgent that a committee consisting of Burke A. Hinsdale, George A. Hench, Henry S. Carhart, Albert B. Prescott, and Francis W. Kelsey was appointed in 1899 to study the problem. In calling attention to the report of this committee, President Angell said "… we trust that the attention of our friends will be directed to it."

Summer session work was instituted in 1900, and it was provided "that time spent by graduate students at the Summer Session shall be counted the same pro rata as that spent at other sessions of the University, provided that no student shall receive a degree who is not regularly matriculated in the University" (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 477).

By the year 1900 ninety students were enrolled in the Graduate Department, fifteen more than in the previous year. Seventy-nine colleges besides the University had been represented by students during the eight preceding years. There were 108 students in 1901, a gain of eighteen over the previous year. Several fellowships had been supported and they proved helpful and encouraging. In his report of 1901 President Angell called attention again to the needs for graduate study:

We are seriously lacking in adequate accommodations for the advanced students, both undergraduates and graduates, in carrying on what is known as seminary work, in which immediate access to a considerable number of selected books, and the supply of rooms for the meeting of small sections for conference and discussion in proximity to the books, are necessary. Few innovations in the method of University instruction have been more fruitful of good results than the introduction of the seminary method, Page  1044which has found its way into all the best institutions in the country. It is believed that it was introduced here earlier than at any other American University. We should not fall behind other institutions in reaping the largest results from it.


(R.P., 1896-1901, p. 703.)

The Graduate Department had been organized as a part of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, of which the Graduate Council was technically a committee. This soon created difficulties in connection with graduate work in other departments on the campus. Engineering had been organized as a separate department in 1895, and the departments of Law and Medicine had been in existence a long time. The Administrative Council had also grown so large that it no longer constituted a practical body for the administration of affairs. As first organized the council was to consist of the President as chairman, a secretary appointed by the council, and the heads of the various departments in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In 1896 the council included the professors and junior professors in the department and such persons as might be elected to membership.

It was gradually recognized that graduate study was peculiarly a University interest and not a departmental one. The Research Club, established in 1900, may have contributed to this feeling, since it served to bring the research interests in all fields closer together. In 1901 a memorial was presented to the Regents asking for the establishment of a separate graduate unit representing the entire University. Plans were included for the election of an administrative council of nine members and for the election of a dean by the council. This memorial was turned over to the Finance Committee of the Board of Regents, and the following resolution was adopted by the full vote of the Board in March, 1902: "Your committee, to whom was referred the memorial for the establishment of a Graduate School as a separate department, beg to report that it has considered the same, along with the protest lodged against such action, and the committee recommend that no action be taken" (R.P., 1901-6, p. 32).

There was, apparently, opposition to any change, but those who were interested in the school did not lose courage. In 1903 Regent Henry Dean presented to the Board a communication from Dr. Vaughan and fifty other members of the faculty asking again for the establishment of a graduate school, but this was tabled and no action taken. A month later Dr. A. B. Prescott presented a communication to the Regents, asking for a conference with the Board by a committee interested in the establishment of a graduate council in the University. This communication was referred to the committee of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Nothing further was heard of it. It is evident that the faculty of the Literary Department was reluctant to give up full control of graduate work and was putting obstacles in the way of any change.

By 1907, when the Graduate Council had grown to fifty-five members, it was decided that its functions should be performed by a smaller body, the Administrative Council of the Graduate School. It consisted of eleven members of the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, to be appointed by the President — three for three years, four for two years, and four for one year — and subsequent appointments to be for three-year terms. The council was to elect its own chairman and secretary, to represent the various departments offering graduate work, to administer all affairs of routine, and to make recommendations Page  1045to the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Later, the Dean of the Literary Department was made a member of the council ex officio. The organization was still purely one within that department.

In 1910, for the first time, recognition was given to graduate work in the professional departments. In October of that year it was resolved "that such courses in the professional departments of the University as meet the approval of the Administrative Council of the Graduate School, shall be accepted in fulfillment of the requirements for higher degrees" ("Minutes, … L.S.A.").

In 1910 the Regents appropriated money for the establishment of University fellowships. Although $5,000 was requested, the Regents granted only $3,000, and this seems to have been ample, since $750 remained unassigned, on the claim that there was a dearth of first-class applicants because of the lateness of the appropriation. Thus, at last came the support for worthy students for which President Angell had been pleading for twenty years.

Protests continued against the narrow organization of the work. In February, 1911, a resolution was passed that a committee be appointed "for the purpose of studying the problem of graduate work in the University and reporting a scheme of reorganization if such course seems to the committee to be wise." The committee consisted of Regents Sawyer, Beal, and Hubbard, and, as Senate members, Deans Vaughan and Reed, and Professors F. N. Scott, Wenley, and Ziwet, with the President as chairman.

In December the committee submitted its recommendations which were adopted:

1. That a Graduate Department be established in the University. 2. That a Dean for this Department be appointed by the Honorable Board of Regents on the recommendation of the President. 3. That the management of the Department be vested in an Executive Board of seven, together with the President and the Dean of the Department; that this Board be appointed by the Honorable Board of Regents on the nomination of the President and the Dean; that the term of office on the Board be seven years, one member to retire each year.


(R.P., 1910-14, p. 313.)

Karl Eugen Guthe (Ph.D. Marburg '89) was appointed the first Dean of the Graduate Department, and Henry C. Adams, Fred N. Scott, Robert M. Wenley, Moses Gomberg, Mortimer E. Cooley, Victor C. Vaughan, and Henry M. Bates were appointed members of the Executive Board. In September lots were drawn for term of service with results as follows: Gomberg, one year; Bates, two years; Wenley, three years; Cooley, four years; Scott, five years; Vaughan, six years; Adams, seven years.

The new Graduate Department was made wholly independent of any special faculty and had its own budget for administrative purposes. The Executive Board represented the various groups of study. Although the new department had no faculty of its own, it had at its disposal the members of all the faculties, as well as the resources of the University.

The task of reorganization was not an easy one, but Dean Guthe and the Executive Board entered upon their duties with enthusiasm. Dr. Guthe was a comparatively young man, who had no ties with the old organization and thus, was not hampered by University tradition. During his three years of service he did much to place graduate work in the University on a high level. His unfortunate death in 1915 was a great loss to the University.

Professor Alfred Henry Lloyd (Harvard '86, Ph.D. ibid. '93) was appointed Dean of the Graduate School in October, Page  10461915. Major departments were named "schools" or "colleges" from this date. In 1920-21 the Executive Board was changed from seven to eight members so appointed that two were to retire each year. Term of office was to be four years. Members were to be chosen so as to represent different fields of study. Dean Lloyd, while serving as Acting President of the University, died on May 11, 1927 (see Part IV: Department of Philosophy). He was succeeded as Dean by G. Carl Huber (M.D. '87, Sc.D. hon. Northwestern '30). Dean Huber died December 26, 1934 (see Part V: Department of Anatomy). In 1935 Clarence S. Yoakum (Campbell '01, Ph.D. Chicago '08) was appointed Dean, and Peter O. Okkelberg (Minnesota '06, Ph.D. Michigan '18), who had been Secretary of the School since 1930, became Assistant Dean.

The first secretary of the graduate division of the University was Professor W. H. Pettee, who served from 1892 to 1903, when he was succeeded by Professor Alfred H. Lloyd. Professor Walter Dennison succeeded Lloyd in 1905, and he was followed by Professor Edward H. Kraus in 1908.

Recognizing the new department as pre-eminently for the encouragement of research, the Regents in 1913 placed the publications of the University under its jurisdiction. It was specified that the Executive Board might, at its discretion, enlarge the range of publication so as to include any field. The successive reports of the Graduate School indicate the increasing number and importance of these works. In 1920 the Executive Board did not spend its appropriation for publications because the amount available would not cover the costs of production. The need for a press, with adequate publication funds, was presented to the Regents in a report prepared by a special committee of the Research Club. This report urged the continued support of existing publication series, the establishment of new series, the organization of a University press, and the placing of a special fund in the hands of the Dean for furthering research activities. No action on these matters was taken at the time. Nevertheless, the Executive Board continued to receive increasing financial support for publication. In 1922 Dr. Eugene S. McCartney (Pennsylvania '06, Ph.D. ibid. '11) was appointed Editor of Scholarly Publications.

In 1930 the University of Michigan Press was established with Frank E. Robbins (Wesleyan '06, Ph.D. Chicago '11) as Managing Editor. Authorization for publication in the several series and the budget remained under the administration of the Executive Board of the Graduate School. Control of editing and production was transferred to the Administrative Committee of the University Press in the following year. The final transfer of control of publications to the University Press occurred in 1935. At that time the Committee on Scholarly Publications was created, with membership representation from the several divisions, the Dean of the Graduate School and the Managing Editor of the Press holding office ex officio.

Closely associated with the more technical problems of publication, and a more vital element in the development of a graduate school, is the encouragement of research. One form of such encouragement is the issuing of faculty bibliographies. The earliest of these is apparently the list in the first number of the University Record, which appeared in April, 1891, and covered books and articles between October, 1889, and October, 1890. The Record printed the list annually for five years, when it was taken over by the Michigan Alumnus. The list printed in June and July, 1897, covered Page  1047the period from October, 1894, to May, 1897. Irregular publication in the Alumnus and the News-Letter covered a part of the period to 1899. The University of Michigan News-Letter printed lists from 1899 through 1905. By authorization of the Regents, the Librarian, T. W. Koch, published the bibliographies of the faculty from January, 1906, through June, 1909. In 1919, Dean Lloyd renewed the record of scholarly contributions for the period 1909-18. With the exception of 1930-33, when the report covered a three-year period, this report has appeared biennially either as a part of the President's Report, or separately.

Although the Executive Board was placed in full charge of publications, and soon thereafter appropriations of twelve to fifteen hundred dollars a year were at the disposal of the Board, the main dependence was on gifts from friends of the University. The Regents established a separate trust fund for research in 1925. By this time, also, the sum available had risen to $12,000. In 1930-31 the amounts available were $22,000 for publications and $30,000 for research. These funds for publication are now under the control of the Committee on Scholarly Publications.

Funds for research derive from at least four sources. Departmental budgets and personal financing are responsible for the numerous publications issued by faculty members. Special appropriations from general funds, including the Faculty Research Fund, are mentioned throughout the history of the University. Within recent years special grants from foundations, friends of the University, and alumni have become a large factor in the support of research. Endowments specifically for research have not accumulated rapidly until recent years. The Regents, however, have appropriated sums for such projects from income from general endowments. The W. W. Cook Foundation was established in 1929, but is primarily for specific purposes all closely related to the functions of the Law School. The Rackham Fund was established in 1935. Other endowments such as the Alexander Ziwet Fund are partly available for research projects.

The following table gives the sums received from outside sources from 1897 to 1941.

TABLE ICurrent and Continuing Funds for Research by Five-Year Periods
Years Amounts
1897-1901 $ 1,760.83
1902-1906 1,031.25
1907-1911 1,481.25
1912-1916 8,585.25
1917-1921 50,677.96
1922-1926 360,562.28
1927-1931 1,284,516.32
1932-1936 979,511.21
1937-1941 1,053,364.71

Mr. Horace H. Rackham had been, during his lifetime, a generous donor to the research funds of the University, and in his will he established the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund. The trustees of the fund, Mrs. Mary A. Rackham, Mr. Bryson D. Horton, Mr. Clarence E. Wilcox, Mr. Frederick G. Rolland, and Mrs. Myra H. Bussey, studied his gifts and became convinced that the purposes he hoped his fortune would realize must necessarily issue from increases in the knowledge of human history and human thought. Assured of the soundness of this view the trustees gave to the University of Michigan, on September 7, 1935, $5,000,000 to perpetuate Mr. Rackham's faith in study and research. This sum was later augmented, on November 1, 1935, by the addition of $1,500,000.

The capital sum of $4,000,000, by action of the trustees and the Regents Page  1048of the University, became a perpetual endowment, the income of which is used by the University in extending the boundaries of knowledge and its applications to human welfare. The remainder was segregated to purchase land and erect a suitable building in memory of Mr. Rackham.

The building is situated on the two blocks north of the Michigan League Building and Hill Auditorium. The principal elevation, the south, is on a direct line with the University Library, and the space between the two buildings is called the Mall.

The offices of the trustees of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund have occupied the rooms in the west wing of the main floor. In the east wing are the various offices of the Graduate School. The facilities of the building are designed to permit social activities among the graduate students. Small study rooms and conference and common rooms are provided. A large study hall, library, and periodical rooms are furnished for those who wish to read uninterruptedly or to browse in scholarly fields other than their own.

In the recesses of the building, above the lecture hall, and in the basement are large, airy rooms for those who wish to work in quiet on problems calling for days and weeks of continuous effort. None of these rooms is permanently assigned to graduate students, to any group of graduate students, nor to any faculty research project. They are, however, available for the period of a project to those who are engaged in formal research tasks that are financed by income from endowments.

In different sections of the building, particularly on the intermediate floor, are exhibition rooms for demonstration of techniques and results of research to campus gatherings and to scientific and learned societies which meet in Ann Arbor as guests of the University. The scheme of the building includes facilities for housing small and medium-sized scientific and scholarly organizations.

By these gifts to the University — the assurance of permanent support in research and a building to house Graduate School activities — the trustees felt that they could most materially and adequately assist progress in the graduate field.

The Executive Board has given much time to consideration of methods for promoting research. A plan adopted by the Regents in 1921 gave the Board power to establish a research division in connection with any department in the University. Research professors, associates, and fellows were authorized, whose duties of instruction were to be limited to work with approved graduate students. Other provisions included use of all facilities of the University and the appointment of special committees which would be responsible for the monies assigned to them for research and publication.

Financial support was not immediately forthcoming, and the plan did not develop in the form proposed. Bureaus such as the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research in the School of Education, the Bureau of Government, the Bureau of Business Research, the Lawyers' Club Research Fund, the Simpson Memorial Institute, the Institute of Public and Social Administration, the Land Utilization Research Committee, the Institute of Archaeological Research, the Fine Arts Development Fund, the Neuropsychiatric Institute, the Bureau of Industrial Relations, and the Institute for Human Adjustment, have all come into existence since the plan was proposed. Though not precisely following the original plan, they Page  1049may be thought of as forms of research organizations which stem from the proposals of the Executive Board. Closely associated with the University, though independently supported, are the Institute for Fisheries Research, the State Highway Engineering Laboratory, the Michigan Children's Institute, and the Michigan Child Guidance Institute.

The direction of growth, as proposed in the Executive Board's plan of 1921, was conceivably based on the strengthening of research activities through departmental organizations. Certain weaknesses appeared in the plan. The members of the staff of a department are all more or less engaged in research. To single out particular individuals or to appoint new men with circumscribed functions violates this condition. It also differs from the theory that conceives the most satisfactory status to be one in which the investigator teaches, as well as directs, his special group of research assistants. Again, the rapid growth of interdepartmental fields of research has made it desirable to develop a more inclusive and, at the same time, more flexible type of organization.

The rise of the institutes indicates the increasing funds available for research purposes. Moreover, funds came for specific purposes which were generally just outside the research objectives of the departments. Suitable as the institute is for concentrated research and for drawing support, it does not bring departments together in the investigation of problems lying intermediate between them, nor does it often stimulate members of a teaching staff to attempt research.

In 1929, at the suggestion of President Ruthven, the Division of Fine Arts was established. A division was defined as a grouping of units and departments for the purpose of co-ordinating various allied activities and of developing a general field. Its function was advisory. Its specific duties of advice and recommendation concerned the interrelations of its several curriculums, the encouragement of individual research, and the promotion of co-operative investigations.

The principal value of the concept was to establish closer relations between the departments grouped within a division. The division was represented before the Executive Board by a special committee on research. These committees gave valuable criticism on projects and familiarized themselves with types of current investigation.

An excerpt taken from a brief history of the School prepared in 1920 by Dean Lloyd at the request of President Hutchins will serve to summarize the early history of scholar and fellowship aid:

No history of the Graduate School should omit mention of the fellowships which for a number of years, thanks partly to private generosity, partly to official appropriation by the Regents, the Executive Board has had at its disposal. Until 1911 the number of fellowships was small, beginning at none and for the decade before 1911 being from six to ten in amounts varying from two to five hundred dollars. The first was the Elisha Jones Classical Fellowship. This and all the earlier fellowships were given to the University. But in 1911 the Regents established ten University Fellowships, with stipend of three hundred dollars each, and only a year later, when the reorganization took place, they added five University Fellowships of five hundred dollars each and also ten State College Fellowships of three hundred dollars each. The latter have been reserved especially for properly accredited graduates of the state colleges, the holders being nominated by the faculties of the different colleges, approved by the Executive Board, and finally appointed by the Regents. The University Fellowships have been general as to students eligible and also as to subjects of study. Any accredited graduate, Page  1050from the University of Michigan or from any other approved college or university, from the United States or from any foreign country, may be appointed, the essential tests determining appointment being manifested ability and performance in any field of study in which the University is prepared to give graduate work. Besides the fellowships already named, the School has received by special gifts, in many cases dependent on annual renewals, a few fellowships given without limitations and a considerable number given for studies in specified fields from Greek and Latin to paper-making. Since 1912, except for the interruption of the war, there have been available in all from thirty-five to forty-five. A list of the donors, in some cases individuals, in some corporations, would certainly be appropriate here, if for no other reason, as a mark of appreciation, but the list is a long one and this history must be kept within certain bounds. The annual bulletins give the details in full, donors, purposes, amounts, and appointees. In several instances the amounts have been as much as twelve hundred dollars, the annual stipend, with special additional sums for expenses of materials and other incidentals.


(Hutchins Papers, Feb. 1920.)

After Dean Lloyd and Dean Huber reported on the status of special aid to graduate students, the number of all types of scholarships increased until by 1939-40 there were approximately one hundred and forty-eight. This increase came in specific grants from interested friends and industrial concerns, from specially endowed funds, and through increased appropriations from general funds. The two Alfred H. Lloyd postdoctoral fellowships, upon recommendation of Dean Huber, were created by the Regents in 1927-28. Two additional fellowships in memory of Horace H. Rackham were established in 1936-37. The ten Rackham predoctoral fellowships carrying stipends of one thousand dollars each, renewable, and demanding special qualifications,

TABLE IIEnrollment in the Graduate School
Year Michigan Other States and Terr. Foreign Countries Total (Exclusive of Summer Session) Summer Session
1912-13 172 81 14 267 128
1916-17 198 156 15 369 202
1920-21 269 142 29 440 240
1924-25 444 261 53 758 583
1928-29 648 356 87 1,091 950
1932-33 1,083 494 97 1,674 1,493
1936-37 1,318 632 166 2,116 1,932
1939-40 2,071 849 163 3,083 3,331
began somewhat earlier under a separate grant from the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund. The state college scholarships in 1940 were sixteen in number. In that year there were thirty scholarships carrying remission of tuition for assignment each year to students passing immediately from their undergraduate work to the graduate school.

Gratifying as this growth in aid to worthy students has been, there are several considerations which indicate that all requirements have not been met. Many aspiring candidates for higher degrees spend years in reaching their goal. They must constantly break their progress to teach or to work in some preliminary occupation in order to secure the money to return for an all-too-short study period. Often the best years for study and research are lost before they can return even for this brief period. Other graduate students of high ability spend precious hours in working to support themselves. Intellectual enthusiasm is dissipated by interruptions and by the draining away of energy into nonproductive effort. Nevertheless, enrollment in the School since its establishment as a separate unit has increased remarkably Page  1051

TABLE IIIGraduate Degrees Granted by the University, 1847-1940
Degree Degree First Granted Totals
Master of arts "in course" 1849 415
Master of arts "on examination" 1859 41
Master of science "on examination" 1859 15
Master of science "in course" 1859 69
Master of philosophy "in course" 1875 14
Doctor of philosophy 1876 1,293
Master of philosophy "on examination" 1877 6
Master of letters "in course" 1881 2
Master of letters "on examination" 1882 1
Master of arts 1884 6,179
Master of science 1884 1,891
Master of philosophy 1884 46
Master of letters 1885 19
Master of pharmacy 1887 5
Doctor of science 1889 125
Mining engineer 1890 3
Civil engineer 1890 64
Electrical engineer 1895 14
Master of education 1896 32
Master of science in education 1896 614
Master of science in forestry 1904 127
Master of science in pharmacy 1905 9
Chemical engineer 1912 6
Master of science in public health 1914 150
Master of science in architecture 1916 20
Master of landscape design 1916 58
Doctor of public health 1916 38
Master of arts in municipal administration 1917 54
Master of science in chemistry 1920 63
Master of science in municipal administration 1922 6
Master of arts in library science. 1927 106
Aeronautical engineer 1934 2
Metallurgical engineer 1934 1
Naval architect 1935 1
Master of science in industrial engineering 1935 3
Master of public health 1935 1
Master of arts in social work 1936 5
Master of design 1936 3
Master of science in public health engineering 1938 2
Master of social work 1938 12
Master of clinical psychology 1940 1
11,516
(Table II) as has the number of degrees granted (Table III).

Primary credit should be given to the faculties of the several colleges and schools for their early recognition of the importance of graduate study. The freedom to search and to teach, inculcated by them, continues to be a prime value in our form of society.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, Graduate School [Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, 1937 — ], Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
The Building of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, Univ. Mich., 1938.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1888-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1852-59, 1914-23.
Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, Detroit and Ann Arbor, 1934-1940. Ed. by Frances H. Miner. Ann Arbor: Published by the Trustees, 1940.
Lloyd, Alfred H. MS, [Letter, February, 1920].In Harry B. Hutchins Papers, Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts," Univ. Mich., 1910.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1858-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Page  1052
University Center for Graduate Study in Detroit

The University Center for Graduate Study in Detroit was established in response to the demand of those in the Detroit area who wished to continue advanced study, but were unable to come to Ann Arbor for this purpose. The Extension Service (then the Extension Division) of the University had for some years offered both undergraduate and graduate courses in Detroit, and up to six hours of such graduate work could, under certain conditions, be transferred later to the student's graduate record and counted toward a master's degree. Although this helped students seeking higher degrees, it did not suffice for those whose employment did not allow them opportunity to continue at the University.

The success of the extension work encouraged the University to extend extramural work. In 1933 graduate work was offered in Detroit in a program which became known as the Center for Graduate Study. At first only a limited program was presented, but as it proved a success the work was gradually expanded. This extramural work was administered by the Extension Service which from the beginning, under the general supervision of the Executive Board of the Graduate School, has handled the details connected with program arrangement, faculty, registration, and collection of fees.

After 1937-38 all graduate work taken in Detroit for which graduate credit was desired had to be taken at the Center for Graduate Study.* Thus, graduate students in the metropolitan area enrolled in the Graduate School for their graduate work. No work has been undertaken which could not be of equal standing with that offered on the campus of the University.

As the plan operated in 1940, therefore, the Center for Graduate Study was considered an integral part of the Graduate School. Full residence credit was granted for the work taken, and the student enrolled in the Center was admitted in the usual way and had to comply with the general rules and regulations which applied to students on the campus.

The program in social work has been associated, in a sense, with the Center for Graduate Study. The facilities for social work were open within certain limits to students who were eligible for admission to the courses and could take them with profit. Co-operative relations were also established with the Merrill-Palmer School and the Ford Hospital, so that certain graduate credit from these institutions could be applied toward a degree.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Building of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, Univ. Mich., 1938.
Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, Detroit and Ann Arbor, 1934-1940. Ed. by Frances H. Miner. Ann Arbor: Published by the Trustees, 1940.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1921-40.
Page  1053

THE INSTITUTE FOR HUMAN ADJUSTMENT

THE Institute for Human Adjustment is a manifestation of the desire of the University to encourage research in the social, psychological, and physiological mechanisms of behavior, and to improve and extend its program of research and training in the field of special education. In the Institute facilities are established for the furtherance of this broader program. Through the gift of $1,000,000 to the University of Michigan by Mrs. Mary A. Rackham and special grants for buildings and equipment from the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, the Institute was established in 1937 (P.R. 1936-39, p. 224). These funds, which are a part of the endowment of the Rackham Graduate School, have been designated for use in teacher training, research, and service in the entire area of personal adjustment.

Upon its establishment the Institute for Human Adjustment acquired two existing units, the Speech Clinic and the Psychological Clinic, which had been operating in this area and which were to be co-ordinated and expanded in accordance with the program. In 1938 the Sociological Research Unit was created and placed within the Institute, as was also the newly established Fenton Community Center. Clark Tibbitts (Lewis Institute '24) was made Director of the Institute in 1938 and was also appointed Lecturer in Sociology.

The Institute was thus composed of distinct but co-ordinated units working in close co-operation with related departments of the University, particularly in the physical, biological, psychological, and social sciences, and with other specialized agencies in the community. To some extent each unit was regarded as an extension of the courses of study which were being developed.

The Institute for Human Adjustment is designed to serve normal, as well as physically handicapped and mentally maladjusted persons, so that they may be free to develop to the limit of their individual potentialities. The primary aims of the Ann Arbor units are identical: teacher training, research, and service. Teachers and specialists are trained for ordinary work in speech improvement and psychological examining in schools, courts, and child-welfare agencies, and for the more difficult tasks of diagnosis, research, and teacher training in other institutions.

The research program is designed to portray certain aspects of human behavior, particularly as they present problems of social adjustment. In the Speech Clinic research contributes to a better understanding of the processes of speech and speech disorders and provides the basis for more adequate programs of diagnosis, treatment, and retraining. Research in the Psychological Clinic throws light on the growth and development of mentality and personality in different types of homes and communities, offers reasons for school failures and methods of helping those who are failing, and examines the psychological and biopsychological differences among psychotic groups in hospitals for the mentally diseased.

Service is given directly through individual examinations, diagnosis, and treatment, and indirectly through education of parents, physicians, teachers, social workers, and visiting or school nurses. Efforts are made to point out to Page  1054these groups needs or defects of which they are unaware, the consequences of neglecting them, and the desirability of providing guidance or correction at an age when the individual can receive the greatest benefit.

Specific problems dealt with by the Psychological Clinic are vocational guidance, reading difficulties, adjustment of superior children, search for the causes of behavior problems including delinquency, methods of determining the capabilities and intelligence of children who are considered for adoption, and personality adjustment in the family. Clients come to the clinic as self-referrals and from the Michigan Child Guidance Institute, the University Health Service, the Michigan Children's Aid Society, the Speech Clinic, the Ann Arbor public schools, and elsewhere. In addition to the exhaustive individual examinations given in the clinic, group testing and individual examinations are given in the schools of Ann Arbor and neighboring communities, and in the Ypsilanti State Hospital.

The Speech Clinic directs its attention to individuals with deviations from normal speech patterns, such as stuttering and poor articulation, and to those handicapped by cleft palates, spastic disorders, and aphasia. It conducts tests of hearing and teaches speech reading and conversation, in order that even those with serious hearing losses may learn to communicate with normal people. In addition to the work in Ann Arbor, the clinic makes surveys of speech and hearing in the schools, supplementing its findings by social and school histories, and by mental and dental examinations of those children who have deviations. Such surveys call the attention of the school personnel and the family to the existence of problems which can be corrected before they have serious consequences. The surveys are frequently followed by a program of speech correction which gives excellent opportunity for teachers in training to gain experience.

The directing staffs of the clinics are restricted almost entirely to members of the University faculty. Graduate and undergraduate students conduct examinations consistent with the level reached in their classroom work, and they do part of the retraining in the Speech Clinic. Their clinical work is supervised and reviewed by the members of the senior staff and is an important part of their training. Through the service programs the staff members are able to collect the information fundamental to research. The contributions of the clinics are derived largely from the successful integration of the three-fold purpose upon which their operation is based.

The Sociological Research Project is devoted to study of the problems of youth in Flint. The main emphasis is placed on demonstration in vocational guidance. The program calls for intensive study and guidance of a selected group of high-school students. The interests, aptitudes, and personal characteristics of each member of this group are ascertained through the use of aptitude tests, interest inventories, personality schedules, case-history records, and school-achievement and work records. An intensive vocational program offered in conjunction with the schools includes explanation of the significance of tests, counseling, courses in vocational subjects, and discussions with individuals engaged in various occupational fields. A co-ordinated effort is made by the guidance project, the school placement service, and the junior employment office to find work opportunity in the field of preparation. The program is conducted by a staff assembled for the purpose, with the assistance of the staff of the Flint Guidance Center and of selected principals and teachers in the Page  1055schools. Like the Ann Arbor units, the Flint Sociological Research Project has been a means of giving University students actual field experience in psychological examining and in social research.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1937-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1937-40.
Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, Detroit and Ann Arbor, 1934-1940. Ed. by Frances H. Miner. Ann Arbor: Published by the Trustees, 1940.
Speech Clinic

The Speech Clinic opened officially in June, 1937, as a unit of the Institute for Human Adjustment and of the Department of Speech. Since 1937, although the clinic has been a part of the Institute, it has still continued to operate in close association with the Department of Speech.

Remedial help in speech had been carried on at the University since 1906-7. Upon the resignation of Professor Hempl the course in general linguistics was taught by Professor Clarence L. Meader, and the philological basis of the work was expanded to include the biological processes of language. In 1909-10 Professors Walter B. Pillsbury and Meader organized a course in the psychology of language, which has been given almost every year. Two years later Professors Meader and John F. Shepard co-operated in organizing a course in experimental phonetics.

Professors Muyskens and Meader offered Practical Phonetics in 1922. This was a course in the application of experimental phonetics to the problem of language development. In 1923 Professor Meader added a seminar in semantics especially for those students who were interested in the developmental processes. With the aid of the Department of Speech, special problems in the field were undertaken by graduate students, who later opened clinics at Grace Hospital, Detroit, and elsewhere.

In 1927, because of a continued demand by teachers of speech and speech correction and especially by teachers of English, an explanatory phrase, "to correct minor speech defects," was added to the course listings in phonetics. John H. Muyskens ('13, Sc.D. '25), Associate Professor of Phonetics and Director of the Laboratory of Speech and General Linguistics, who had alternately taught and done graduate work in human biology from 1912 until 1920, had charge of the general program of the clinic from 1927 to 1938.

To meet the increasing demands upon the time and the efforts of the General Linguistics staff and upon members of the Department of Speech, a plan was finally realized in the establishment of the Speech Clinic of the Institute for Human Adjustment.

The clinic was established in recognition of a need to bring remedial help to children and to adults suffering from various types of defective speech. The present housing of the Speech Clinic and the endowment for staff and equipment have permitted a scope of work not hitherto possible. The main purposes of the Speech Clinic are three-fold: teacher training, research, and service. In addition to these official purposes, the clinic also recognizes a responsibility for the dissemination of knowledge regarding the hygiene of speech development, so that serious speech defects may be anticipated and prevented.

Page  1056The training of teachers and specialists at the clinic is accomplished through formal course work and through a clinical internship which provides practical experience in the examination, diagnosis, and treatment of speech disorders. The clinic has recognized the need for training teachers of speech correction for different grade levels, and for different levels of specialization, ranging from the grade school teacher who needs some information regarding speech correction, to the specialist who expects to work as a clinician, instructor, or research investigator in institutions of higher learning.

The work of research has involved background studies in speech and language development and the investigation of attributes of normal speech as they provide a basis for a better understanding of pathological conditions. Investigation of new and improved methods for the correction of speech defects, the further study and description of recognized classifications of speech disorders and, above all, detailed study of individual cases of defective speech are a part of the work of the research program.

Service is given directly through individual examination, diagnosis, and treatment of persons having speech defects. It is also rendered through the dissemination of knowledge regarding speech hygiene to parents, physicians, teachers, social workers, school nurses, and to agencies dealing with human welfare. Through its staff of specialists and graduate clinicians, the clinic undertakes examination and treatment of all types of speech imperfections including articulatory disorders, stuttering, foreign accent, voice problems, and defects resulting from organic lesions such as cleft palate, hearing loss, and lesions of the central nervous system. Regular days are scheduled for the examination of patients. Clinic and staff members also serve in a consulting and in an advisory capacity to referral agencies which may have afflicted persons under their care. Mutual referral agencies have been established between the Speech Clinic and many other departments of the University such as the Dental Clinic, the University Hospital, the University Health Service, and the Michigan Child Guidance Institute. Approximately five hundred individuals are seen annually for examination and treatment. Additional numbers are seen through the medium of survey examinations conducted in public school systems of the state. Occasionally, staff members from the Speech Clinic assist these schools in setting up a program of speech correction. The clinic also co-operates with the Health Service each year in administering a speech examination for entering students and in giving hearing tests to the students.

The National Speech Improvement Camp under the direction of John N. Clancy is affiliated with the Speech Clinic. This unique boys' camp represents one of the most important advances in the treatment of speech correction in this country. The members of the staff contribute unofficially to the support of the camp through voluntary consultation and examination services. In return for this service, the camp places at the disposal of the clinic its unequaled facilities for study of speech cases and methods of speech improvement. Through the intensive study thus afforded, many advances have been made in our understanding of the nature of speech disorders in their relationship to other aspects of the total personality.

The clinic is in a building of its own at 1007 East Huron Street. Its twenty-one rooms contain new and modern equipment, with special lecture rooms Page  1057for the hard-of-hearing, laboratories, a small library, and rooms for research, testing, and training.

The staff in 1940 included Dr. Harlan Bloomer (Illinois '30, Ph.D. Michigan '35), Clinic Manager, Associate Professor Bessie L. Whitaker, (Stetson '06, A.M. North Carolina '07), Director of Speech Reading, Assistant Professor Henry M. Moser (Ohio State '24, Ph.D. Iowa '37), Dr. Lucy Dell Henry (Chicago '22, M.D. ibid. '35), Clinic Physician, John N. Clancy (Notre Dame '21, A.M. Michigan '37), Admitting Officer and Clinician, and William Bilto (Michigan State Normal '35, A.M. Michigan '40), Clinician.

THE INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC AND SOCIAL ADMINISTRATION

THE Institute of Public and Social Administration was established in 1936 as an integral part of the Graduate School of the University, to provide professional curriculums in social work and public administration, to co-ordinate technical offerings in these and in other closely related fields, and to provide facilities for research in them. Its special objectives were to equip men and women for professional service in social work and public administration and to train investigators. The Institute aimed to foster study and investigation and thus contribute to a better understanding of human nature and behavior as exhibited in our complex social and economic life.

The first of the developments that led to the establishment of the Institute began about 1914. The two phases of the present program developed more or less independently of each other. In 1914-15 a graduate program which led to a master's degree in municipal administration was developed in connection with the Department of Political Science. The program included a minimum of one year of graduate work and at least three months of specified field work. The courses listed were drawn from various departments, Political Science, Economics, Landscape Design, and Mathematics, and from the Law School and the College of Engineering. The first degree was granted in 1917. Sixty degrees had been conferred by 1935, when the program was discontinued. For most of this period the work had been conducted under the direction of Robert Treat Crane (Johns Hopkins '02, Ph.D. ibid. '07, LL.B. Maryland '07), Professor of Political Science.

Interest was shown, as early as 1916, in the establishment of a curriculum for the training of social workers. At that time the Department of Economics, which also included the Department of Sociology, requested the appointment of an instructor especially trained in city welfare work. The Regents, however, declined to make the appointment. Later in the same year, the Department of Economics requested that an instructor be appointed to give technical courses in methods of social betterment, but the Regents again declined because of the financial condition of the University.

It was not until 1921 that the adoption of a curriculum in social work was authorized (R.P., 1920-23, pp. 197-98). The curriculum was set up for the purpose of combining a broad training in the social sciences with work of a more specialized Page  1058nature. An earlier resolution provided "that the President in co-operation with the Deans and other persons concerned make a careful study of the needs for the training of social workers in the state, … and the best methods by which the University could undertake to meet those needs, …" (R.P., 1920-23, p. 99).

In May, 1921, the Board of Regents adopted a plan for such training, and Arthur Evans Wood (Harvard '06, S.T.B. ibid. '11, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '20), Professor of Sociology, was appointed Director of the Curriculum for the Training of Social Workers. He was to be advised by the teaching staff of the Department of Sociology. Included in the new curriculum were such courses as Social Statistics, Case Work, Community Problems, Criminology, Social Psychology, Cultural Evolution, the Family, and Poverty and Dependency. The program was largely undergraduate and did not provide for any special degree, but in 1927 the Regents authorized the issuance of a special certificate to social-service workers after the completion of their course work and of two months of field work.

It was natural that this type of training should have been of interest to the Detroit communities, where certain social problems characteristic of a large city were acute. Most of the field training of graduates from the social-service curriculum had been provided by Detroit. Those who were interested in improving social work in the metropolitan area hoped that a center for the training of social workers on a graduate basis might be established there as a unit of the University.

Meanwhile, the American Association of Social Workers came to the conclusion that the amount of maturity required in social work could not be attained through undergraduate study alone and decided that schools which desired to remain members of the Association must conduct the work on a graduate basis. In January, 1935, the Regents authorized the organization in Detroit of a graduate unit of the University, to be known as the Institute of the Health and the Social Sciences (R.P., 1932-36, p. 531). The Dean of the Graduate School and the Chairman of the Division of the Health Sciences were charged with the duty of perfecting the organization. The purpose of the venture was to co-ordinate the work of the University in the two fields, within the city of Detroit, and to co-operate more advantageously with the existing educational and research agencies of the city. Robert Wilson Kelso (Harvard '04, LL.B. ibid. '07), Professor of Social Service, who had had wide experience in social service work, was selected to head the Institute, which was under the direction of an executive committee of which the President of the University was chairman.

The original idea was to experiment with a new approach in social work training different from that sponsored by other American Association schools in the field. This procedure did not receive any general approval, and the venture led to difficulties in obtaining recognition of the work done, and also to difficulties in establishing relationships with other institutions of a similar kind.

By 1935 a demand had arisen for a program of training for various administrative functions in the state. Requests had come from the Department of Political Science for training in public administration, and from the Department of Forestry and Conservation and the Department of Geography for training in the field of land utilization. It was decided, therefore, to assemble these diversified training programs under the general scheme of an Institute of Public and Social Administration. Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

[missing figure]
The Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies
Page  1059Since a course already existed for training in public health, this part of the program was omitted from the proposed curriculum. It was under these circumstances that the Institute of the Health and the Social Sciences was changed early in 1936 to the Institute of Public and Social Administration. The executive committee in charge was to be responsible to the Executive Board of the Graduate School. The Bureau of Reference and Research in Government was also placed under the jurisdiction of the Institute, and the program of research in land utilization and land-use planning was instituted at this time.

The curriculums in 1940 provided for a two-year program both in public administration and in social work and led to the professional degrees, respectively, of master of public administration, and master of social work. The purpose of the reorganized Institute was to expand activities in research, training, and service in those social and governmental fields which require technical knowledge and skills based on the formal social sciences and related disciplines. It also endeavored to co-ordinate the curriculums and to supplement them where necessary, so that students might gain a more adequate understanding of the nature of voluntary and governmental organization and thus be better prepared to act as citizens and to fill responsible public and social positions.

It was hoped at the outset that the work in Detroit would be supported by private donations and contributions from interested organizations, but most of the support thus far has come from the McGregor Foundation and from the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund.

The work in Ann Arbor has been closely correlated with that in Detroit. In public administration the principal part of the work has been conducted in Ann Arbor, under the direction of Professor George Charles Sumner Benson (Pomona '28, Ph.D. Harvard '31), who resigned to become a member of the staff of Northwestern University in 1941. The social work curriculum has been conducted principally in Detroit.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1914-15.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1914-36

THE BUREAU OF GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT activities are so diverse and so intermingled with our daily life that a useful service can be performed by a research agency concerned primarily with governmental problems. Such an agency has been in existence for many years at the University of Michigan. The need for a center of information on government was recognized by the University as far back as 1913, when the Bureau was established as a division of the Department of Political Science under the name of the Bureau of Reference and Research in Government. Professor Robert T. Crane (Johns Hopkins '02, Ph.D. ibid. '07, LL.B. Maryland '07), of that department, was director of the Bureau of Government from 1913 to 1922. He was succeeded by Professor Thomas H. Reed (Harvard '01, LL.B. ibid. '04), also of that department, who served from 1923 to 1936. In 1918 the title of the Bureau of Reference and Research in Page  1060Government was changed to Bureau of Government (R.P., 1917-20, p. 327). For about twenty years the small appropriation available to the Bureau was used chiefly in developing the library for the use of students in the municipal administration curriculum.

An expansion in the Bureau activities was made possible in 1934 by a grant of funds for governmental research from the Horace H. Rackham estate, and for the first time it became possible to initiate a broad program of research extending over a period of several years. At that time the Bureau was reorganized into a separate unit of the University under the supervision of Harold Dewey Smith (Kansas '22, A.M. Michigan '25, LL.D. Grinnell '43), who was also director of the Michigan Municipal League. To broaden the scope of its activities, a faculty advisory committee was appointed at that time, consisting of representatives from the Law School, the School of Education, and the departments of Economics, Sociology, and Political Science. Mr. Smith, who later became Budget Director of the United States, was succeeded in 1937 by Assistant Professor Robert S. Ford (Texas Christian University '24, Ph.D. Columbia '33), of the Department of Economics.

A substantial enlargement in research activities was made possible in 1938, when the Charles S. Mott Foundation made a four-year grant to the Bureau for expanding the research program dealing with problems of taxation and public finance in Michigan. Since 1938 the Bureau has been a part of the University Institute of Public and Social Administration in the Graduate School. This Institute consists of four divisions: the curriculum in public administration, the curriculum in social work, the program of research in land utilization, and the Bureau of Government. Under the new arrangement there is a single advisory committee for the Institute, which is composed of the Dean of the Graduate School and representatives of the Law School, the School of Business Administration, the School of Forestry and Conservation, the School of Education, the Division of Hygiene and Public Health, and the departments of Economics, Geography, Political Science, and Sociology.

The function of the Bureau under this arrangement is to aid and conduct research and service in public and social administration. This is the broad program. The immediate objective is to analyze fiscal problems in Michigan, with particular reference to state government, although certain aspects of local government are also studied. In carrying out this program a research staff has been developed for the first time in the history of the organization.

An important feature of the research activities is the prompt publication, in the form of bulletins and pamphlets, of the results of the various studies. A number of such reports have been published by the Bureau of Government, and two series were begun — the Michigan Pamphlets and Michigan Governmental Studies. The Governmental Studies are longer and more technical than are the Pamphlets, which are primarily for those who want a condensed analysis of an important governmental problem.

The nature of the research activities can be indicated by listing some of the subjects included in the published reports. Various aspects of governmental administration and organization in Michigan are covered in reports on administrative organization of state government: State Administrative Board, manual of state government, property tax administration, state tax administration, and units of government. Studies concerning the electoral process have dealt with permanent registration of voters, the initiative Page  1061and referendum, and voting behavior in Ann Arbor and Detroit. The tax studies deal with such problems as highway finance, taxing intangibles, property-tax delinquency, retail sales and use taxes, tax and salvage sales, and financing national defense. In addition, pamphlets have been issued on local government in Cheboygan and Branch counties, and studies of other Michigan counties will be made in the future.

Naturally, the research and service activities of this type of organization center around its library. The library in 1940 had 25,000 books and documents classified according to the Library of Congress classification and about twice that number of pamphlets, arranged by subject in a vertical file. Approximately 350 periodicals were received currently. The library was under the supervision of Mrs. Ione Dority ('23, A.B.L.S. '27), who had served as librarian since 1931 and who deserves much credit for her work in building up this collection. Although the scope of the collection has been broadened in the last few years, the emphasis continues to be placed on Michigan materials.

The library is primarily for research, but reading reserves are maintained as a supplement to the resources of the General Library for a few classes in public administration. These reserves are used by students in public administration, governmental accounting, personnel administration, state and local government, elections, public finance, taxation, land use, and the administrative process.

In the last few years requests for information about various governmental problems have come to the Bureau in increasing number, and an effort is made to provide this informational service as far as it is possible to do so. The library has been especially helpful in developing the service feature. In addition, the Bureau co-operates with state and local officials in the study of fiscal problems. Special reports were prepared in 1938 and 1939 for the governor's Tax Study Commission, and in 1940 the State Budget Office and the Bureau of Government issued a comprehensive manual on the administrative organization of the state government.

Contemporary government is exceedingly complex and controversial, and adequate analysis of governmental problems requires tedious and prolonged study. In general, problems selected for investigation must be timely. This does not preclude investigations of a more theoretical nature which may not be of immediate interest to the public, but which may have significance in the fields of public finance and public administration. In every study great care is taken to state all of the pertinent facts accurately and impartially. The research program of the Bureau is designed to assist and improve government in Michigan, and to be of service to Michigan citizens by furnishing them with information on leading questions in taxation and government. Careful examination of governmental issues from the financial, administrative, economic, and legal standpoints will provide a basis for the intelligent treatment and understanding of these problems.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents…, 1914-40.
Page  [1062]
Page  [1063]

The School of Business Administration

Page  [1064]
Page  1065

THE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

THE School of Business Administration as a separate entity did not come into existence until 1924, but its antecedents in the Department of Economics of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts go back to the beginning of the twentieth century.

The first reference to courses in higher commercial education appears in the University Calendar for 1900-1901:

To meet the wants of students — both undergraduates and graduates — who wish to pursue the study of history, economics, and subjects allied thereto, not simply as a portion of a general academic course, but for purposes of specialization and with reference to the careers they have in view, provision has been made for the extension and the systematic grouping of all the courses of study offered in the departments named above, in such a way as to enable a student to plan his work in an orderly manner for a period of two or of three years. For convenience, and to secure uniformity of administration, a special committee* has been named to supervise the work of students who enter upon the special courses; and, while it is not proposed to prescribe a curriculum of study from which there can be no deviation, it is expected that the advice of the committee will be followed by the student in the arrangement of his work.

According to the statement the aim was to give a scientific training in the structure and organization of modern industry and commerce so as to enable the student to master quickly the technique of any business career. In 1902-3 the name of the department appears as "Political Economy, Industry and Commerce, and Sociology," and is accompanied by this statement:

The courses in industry and commerce have for their special object the study of organization and processes of modern business. They are closely related to economics, both as a study of wealth production and as an account of the application of economic principles in industrial society. Some of them are technical in character and are intended to rank as semi-professional courses.

By 1902 an imposing list of courses was offered in the Department of Economics. These included: Commercial Geography of the Extractive Industries (Jones), Commercial Geography of the Manufacturing Industries (Jones), Science of Accounting (Springer), Commercial Law (Knowlton, Mechem, Goddard, Sage, Bunker, and Wilgus), Administration of Corporate and Public Industries (Adams, Smalley), and Technique of Foreign Trade (Jones).

In 1904-5, for the first time, Principles of Industry (Jones) was offered, and in 1906-7 Corporations (Smalley) and The Theory and Practice of Manufacturing Costs (Harpham) were given. In 1907-8 appear Auditing (Kime), Practical Banking (Kime), and Business Organization and Management (Kime). In 1908-9 the only new course is called Wholesale and Retail Trade (Jones, Keeney). In 1909-10, for the first time, the following courses were listed: Railway Organization and Operation (Adams, Jones, Haney), Railway Tariffs (Smalley), Railway Statistics and Accounts (Adams, Haney), Principles of Industrial Technique (Hamilton), and Internal Commerce of the United States (Jones). In 1910-11 additional courses appear as follows: Principles of Industry (Jones), Page  1066Railway Finance (Smalley), Railway Engineering Problems (Anderson, Cooley, Hamilton, Williams, Davis, Allen), Drawing and Projections (Hamilton), Industrial History of the United States (Jones), and Investment (Jones).

Some of these courses were continued for only a few years. Courses in accounting and finance began to assume greater importance. Business Organization and Management, and the law courses, however, were continued until formal establishment of the School of Business Administration. Courses in marketing, statistics, and personnel had also been introduced.

More than twenty years before the establishment of the School of Business Administration a certificate in commerce was granted for the completion of certain prescribed work. The first reference to this certificate appears in the Calendar for 1904-5:

The course in Commerce is organized as a special course in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Its aim is to give special training in the organization and processes of modern industry and to assist the student in the selection of such general courses, offered in the department [of Political Economy], as will best supplement this training in preparation for a business life.

The course is administered by a committee of the Faculty … enrollment takes place at the beginning of the third year of residence in the University, and may be continued either for two years, leading to the bachelor's degree, or for three years, leading to the master's degree. During the first and second years of University residence it is essential that the student accomplish certain preliminary work, including History, Courses 11 and 12, Political Economy, Courses 2, 3, 29, and 30, and two years of French or German…

The privileges of the Combined Literary and Law Course … are open to candidates for the bachelor's degree in the course in Commerce having 90 hours credit.

Graduates are entitled to receive, in addition to their diploma, a certificate signed by the President stating the special or professional courses completed in the course in Commerce.

For about twenty years, beginning in 1900, Professor Edward David Jones (Ohio Wesleyan '92, Ph.D. Wisconsin '95) taught many of the courses in commerce. Durand William Springer (Albion '86, A. M. Michigan '24) in 1901 began the first instruction in accounting. He became a leader in organizing societies of qualified public accountants and for many years was regarded as the dean of certified public accountants in Michigan. Professor David Friday ('08), to become famous in later years as a federal research and consulting economist, took over the accounting work in 1911 and succeeded in giving it widespread popularity. For many years the elections in the various accounting courses outnumbered all other courses in the department with the single exception of the introductory course, Principles of Economics. Among the instructors who served under Friday in the work and who became distinguished in the field were Martin J. Shugrue ('13) and Russell Alger Stevenson ('13, Ph.D. '19, LL.D. '41). Henry Rottschaefer (Hope '09, J.D. Michigan '15, S. J. D. Harvard '16) was an instructor for several years and assisted Professor Isaiah Leo Sharfman (Harvard '07, LL.B. ibid. '10) in the commercial law courses. Fred E. Clark (Albion '12, Ph.D. Illinois '16) later took over Professor Jones's courses, Business Organization and Management, and Marketing. After 1919 these courses were given by Professor Clare Elmer Griffin (Albion '14, Ph.D. Illinois '18).

It is common in universities for undergraduate work in economics to lead eventually to a demand for courses having a direct and practical application Page  1067to business. To meet this demand courses are added from time to time, and in this way a curriculum grows up which does not take into consideration the program as a whole. Furthermore, the popularity among undergraduates of the more practical courses has had a tendency to draw students away from the study of economics as a social science.

Enrollment in the Department of Economics for courses now given in the School increased greatly in the decade preceding the establishment of the School: 1914-15, 950 students; 1919-20, 1,383 students; 1923-24, 1,440 students. The greatly increased enrollment in commerce in the years immediately following World War I resulted in the organization of a separate School of Business Administration, which put into concrete form a recognition of the growing differentiation in objective between economics and business, to the advantage of both.

Schools devoted primarily to business subjects were already numerous in leading American universities. The Wharton School of Finance and Commerce at the University of Pennsylvania, established in 1881, was the first separate college or school devoted primarily to the teaching of business courses. The development was slow in the early years, the University of California alone setting up a separate curriculum of this character before 1900. In 1900 the Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance was established at Dartmouth. In 1908 Harvard University established its Graduate School of Business Administration. For admission to this school a bachelor's degree from an accredited college or university was required.

In 1922 preliminary plans were made for the establishment of a separate school of business at Michigan. The merits of basing professional study on a liberal education were recognized. The constantly increasing influence of business leaders on economic, social, and political institutions served to emphasize the importance of a cultural background for the business leaders of the future. For these reasons the idea of establishing an undergraduate school of business was never given any serious consideration. The new school was to offer two years of work in business administration following work in liberal arts. The problem was to decide whether two, three, or four years of background in liberal arts were to be required. It was decided to follow the lead of the Amos Tuck School at Dartmouth, which required three years of collegiate preparation.

When Edmund Ezra Day (Dartmouth '05, Ph.D. Harvard '09, LL.D. Vermont '31), of Harvard, came to Michigan as Chairman of the Department of Economics in February, 1923, one of the problems with which he was primarily concerned was that of working out plans for the new school. Before joining the Harvard faculty Day had been a member of the teaching staff at Dartmouth and thus had had a first-hand opportunity to study the functioning of the Amos Tuck School there.

The three years of preparatory work at Michigan included, as a minimum, one year in the Principles of Economics and one year in the Principles of Accounting, with six hours recommended in Money and Credit. Students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts who completed requirements of that College and whose scholarship was of sufficiently high standard were admitted on the combined curriculum in letters and business administration. A student thus was able to earn the degree of bachelor of arts at the end of his first year in business administration and the master of business administration degree at the end of his second year. Students Page  1068from other accredited colleges with the required economics and accounting were admitted at the end of their third year, but had to forego the possibility of earning a bachelor's degree. After several years of experimentation on this basis the entrance requirements for all except Michigan combined curriculum students were raised to a straight graduate basis, with the undergraduate work including at least one year in economics.

The School of Business Administration was formally organized in 1924, with its first quarters in Tappan Hall. Day was appointed Dean, and, until his resignation in 1928, he continued to act also as Chairman of the Department of Economics. This ensured a close relationship between the two units, which was particularly desirable during the formative years of the new School. Day was succeeded in 1929 by Clare E. Griffin, Professor of Marketing, who had been Acting Dean in 1927-28 when Day was on leave.

The close relationship between economics as a social science and professional training for business had been emphasized in the selection of the faculty of the School. In many schools of business it has been the custom to recruit some of the faculty members on a part-time basis from the ranks of active business men. Here, however, not only are the members of the faculty on a full-time basis, but with few exceptions they have come to Michigan from other departments of economics. Thus, graduate training in economics has been considered as important for members of the instructional staff as is an intimate practical knowledge of the subjects taught.

The general purpose of the School of Business Administration is to afford fundamental training for the student which will be of value to him throughout his business career, and to shorten, as much as possible, his period of apprenticeship. This general purpose may be resolved into certain more specific aims. The School endeavors to provide instruction of professional grade in the basic principles of management, to afford training in the use of quantitative measurements in the solution of management problems, and to assure education in the relationship between business management and the more general interests of the community, as represented by both public and private agencies.

The first year in the School has been devoted primarily to work in accounting, statistics, and the major phases of management — that is, production, industrial relations, distribution, and finance. Most of the student's program in this year has been prescribed. The second year has been devoted largely to specialized studies in the separate divisions or phases of business. It is not the aim of the School to teach the detailed techniques of individual trades or industries; such details can be better taught by the trades and industries themselves. The emphasis of instruction is at all times upon such general phases of management as have wide and important applicability.

The use of the scientific method in the solution of management problems has wrought fundamental changes in business administration during recent years. The technique of quantitative measurement in business administration devolves largely around accounting and statistics. These subjects are regarded as fundamental in professional training for business administration. They are given a large place in the instruction of the School, and students are required to become familiar with the application of these methods of quantitative analysis to the several important phases of management.

The relationships of business management to the more general interests of the community can be clearly understood only after broad training in such fields Page  1069of study as the social sciences. Students coming to the School of Business Administration are expected to have included in their undergraduate programs a substantial amount of work in the social sciences, particularly in economics. In the School further attention is given to the relation of business administration to business ethics, legal practice, government control of industry, and more general public policy.

To acquaint students with typical situations that arise in business relationships, instruction in the School of Business Administration has been based on the use of the problem method. The cases have been drawn from actual experience in a wide variety of fields. Much of the case material was prepared by the Bureau of Business Research. By keeping in touch with changing business methods, the Bureau is able to supply the instructional staff with current business problems and with new ideas in managerial policy.

In 1940 there were eighteen members on the faculty of the School and sixteen on the staff of the Bureau of Business Research. Fifty-seven courses were offered, and the enrollment was 217.

Bureau of Business Research

The Bureau of Business Research, established in 1925 as a department of the School of Business Administration under the directorship of Dean Edmund E. Day, provides a means of co-ordinating and facilitating the research work of the members of the faculty. In the performance of its functions, the Bureau makes possible a continuous contact between the School and numerous business enterprises, thereby enriching the instruction and keeping up to date the materials used in teaching. The cooperation thus established between teaching staff and men actively engaged in business is considered essential to the effective conduct of business education.

As contributions to the literature of business, the Bureau publishes the results of its researches in two forms. Michigan Business Studies, a monograph series under the authorship of staff members, deals with investigations in all the major divisions of business. In Michigan Business Cases appears problem material which has been collected for use in the classwork of this and other institutions.

Bureau of Industrial Relations

The Bureau of Industrial Relations, established in 1935 under the directorship of John W. Riegel (Pennsylvania '17, Ph.D. Harvard '25), is a center for study and interchange of information on employer-employee relations. Because of the increasing importance of this field and the need for study and advice, it seemed appropriate to set up a special Bureau for it. This was made possible by a gift of funds for the purpose by the Earhart Foundation. The Bureau studies and reports upon constructive endeavors in this field, convenes meetings of business executives and other groups interested in discussion of such developments, and maintains a specialized library. A reference service is maintained which employers and employees, or their representatives, are invited to use, with the result that requests are continually received for information on widely varying topics. The annual conference of the Bureau brings together representatives of business organizations from the entire country. These annual conferences are, in a sense, a continuation and an extension of a series of conferences held by the School before the establishment of the Bureau. Although for administrative purposes it is a part of the School of Business Administration, the Bureau is designed to serve the entire University.

Page  1070
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Business Administration, Univ. Mich., 1925-40.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1900-1905, 1912-13.
Catalogue, Univ. Mich., 1914-18.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1883-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1900-1940.
Page  [1071]

The School of Education

Page  [1072]
Page  1073

THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

THE School of Education of the University of Michigan, established by the Board of Regents in May, 1921 (R.P., 1920-23, p. 189), is a direct outgrowth of the chair of the Science and the Art of Teaching which had been a part of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts since 1879.

Even before Michigan was admitted to the Union in 1837 the movement seeking to make teaching a profession was progressing. In the convention which drafted the first constitution John D. Pierce, who later became Michigan's first superintendent of public instruction, espoused high standards of education as fundamental to the state's development and prosperity. As state superintendent he endeavored to have a teacher-training department incorporated into the plan for the University. In this he failed. Nevertheless, some sort of pedagogical work was provided in the branches which were created as preparatory to the University itself. This work, however, was designed for rural school teachers only and was abandoned when the branches disappeared during the next decade.

John Pierce's successor, Superintendent Franklin Sawyer, in referring to the branches stated that "the art of teaching, though well understood, is not adequately taught… A model school … would afford all the aid that a young man or a young woman could want to perfect him or her in the practice as well as [the] theory of teaching …" (Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1841-42, p. 54).

With the continued agitation of successive superintendents of public instruction for the professional training of teachers, it was gradually recognized that some qualifications in addition to scholarship were necessary for the certification of teachers. As a result a bill was introduced in the legislature in 1849 establishing the Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti. The schoolmen were not yet satisfied, for they desired pedagogical training dealing not only with methods of teaching but also with the practical problems of school organization, administration, and management.

President Tappan's report to the Board of Regents in 1856 pointed out for the first time the University's responsibility to supply the state with competent teachers. He said: "The highest institutions are necessary to … raise up Instructors of the proper qualifications, [and] to define the principles and methods of education …" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 655). As a result of this report the Catalogue for 1858-59 (p. 38) announced a teacher's course in ancient languages "for the benefit of those who may wish to prepare themselves for teaching in Union and High Schools."

In 1860 John Milton Gregory, then superintendent of public instruction, claimed that many schools were in the hands of teachers ignorant of the first principles of the art and the science of teaching, and in 1861, 1862, and 1863 without payment he gave a course of lectures to the senior class at the University on the principles and the philosophy of education, the proper organization and administration of schools, and methods of teaching the different branches of knowledge. In 1871 The Michigan Teacher expressed concern over the fact that graduates of the Page  1074University entering the field of teaching began their work "wholly unprepared, in theory and practice, so far as the equipment of the University goes in such preparation." The University student publication, The Chronicle, for March 9, 1872, proposed that "the professor in charge of each branch in which this instruction is needed is best qualified to give it… This instruction should be given in every department of study in which preparation is required for admission to the University."

President James Burrill Angell lent his influence to the movement and in 1874 wrote:

It cannot be doubted that some instruction in Pedagogics would be very helpful to our Senior class. Many of them are called directly from the University to the management of large schools… The whole work of organizing schools, the management of primary and grammar schools, the art of teaching and governing a school, — of all this it is desirable that they know something before they go to their new duties. Experience alone can thoroughly train them. But some familiar lectures on these topics would be of essential service to them.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 390.)

It was not until 1879 that the Board of Regents finally approved his recommendations. In that year it was resolved "that in accordance with the recommendation of the Faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, a chair of 'the Science and the Art of Teaching,' be and is hereby established in the University" (R.P., 1876-81, pp. 388-89), and William Harold Payne (A.M. hon. '72, LL.D. hon. '88, Litt.D. Western University of Pennsylvania '97) was appointed to the position.

Professor Payne was born at Farmington, Ontario County, New York, May 12, 1836. He received his early education in the common schools, the Macedon Academy, and the New York Conference Seminary at Charlotteville. He began his career as a teacher in the country schools and later served as school principal in Victor, New York, and in Three Rivers and Niles, Michigan. In 1866 he became head of the Union Seminary in Ypsilanti, then the leading preparatory school of the state. From 1869 to 1879 he was superintendent of public schools at Adrian, Michigan, where for ten years his reputation had grown as an administrator and writer on educational subjects. From the time of his appointment until he resigned in 1888, Payne served as the sole member of his department. He left the University to accept the chancellorship of the University of Nashville and the presidency of Peabody Normal School (R.P., 1886-91, p. 193).

Burke Aaron Hinsdale (A.M. hon. Williams '71, Ph.D. Ohio State '88, LL.D. ibid. '92), who succeeded Payne, was born at Wadsworth, Medina County, Ohio, March 31, 1837. He was educated in the district schools and at Western Reserve Collegiate Institute, afterward Hiram College. Here he met James A. Garfield, who was about four years his senior, with whom he formed a close and enduring friendship. He became a minister and preached regularly for some years, serving at Solon and at East Cleveland. On the opening of Alliance College in 1868 he was appointed to the chair of history, political economy, and governmental science. He resigned at the end of the first year to accept the chair of philosophy, history, and Biblical literature at Hiram College. He became president of the college in 1870 and served until 1882. On the nomination of General Garfield for the presidency in 1880, Hinsdale took an active part in the campaign and prepared The Republican Textbook. He became superintendent of the Cleveland public schools in 1882 and in 1888 followed Payne in the chair Page  1075of the science and the art of teaching at the University of Michigan. He figured importantly in the life of the University and was well known for his research work and authorship.

On Professor Hinsdale's death in 1900, Professor Payne was recalled to the University. He entered upon his duties in September, 1901, and taught until his death in 1907.

Meantime, in 1899 Allen S. Whitney had been added to the staff as Junior Professor of the Science and the Art of Teaching and Inspector of Schools, and the department became directly responsible for the visitation, inspection, and accreditation of high schools. Shortly thereafter, three others were added to the department: Lewis B. Alger (Ph.B. '97, A.M. Columbia '01), who remained only two years, resigning in 1905 to enter upon a business career; Theodore de Laguna (California '96, Ph.D. Cornell '01), who likewise soon resigned to accept a position at Bryn Mawr College; and Calvin O. Davis ('95, Ph.D. Harvard '10), who remained on the staff. On the death of Professor Payne in 1907, Whitney became head of the department.

Allen Sisson Whitney ('85, Ed.D. hon. '39, LL.D. Syracuse '21) was born in 1858 at Mount Clemens, Michigan, where he received his early education in the public schools. Before serving on the staff of the University he had been superintendent of schools at Mount Clemens and at Saginaw, East Side. His title was changed in 1902 to Professor of Pedagogy and Inspector of Schools and in 1905 to Professor of Education and Inspector of Schools.

Between 1907 and 1921 the department grew in personnel, in curriculum offerings, and in state-wide service. In 1921, when the School of Education became a separate unit, Professor Whitney was made Acting Dean. In 1923 he became the first Dean and continued to head the work of teacher-training until his retirement from active service in 1928. Although Dean Whitney's resignation did not take effect until June, 1929, during his leave of absence preparatory to retirement, an executive committee consisting of Professors J. B. Edmonson, Raleigh Schorling, and George E. Myers was appointed to carry on the administrative work of the School. Dean Whitney was succeeded by James Bartlett Edmonson ('06, Ph.D. Chicago '25) in 1929.

Professor Edmonson was born at Parkersburg, Iowa, in 1882. He served as teacher and principal in the Michigan public schools from 1906 until 1914, when he became Inspector of High Schools and Professor of Secondary Education at the University of Michigan. From 1927 to 1929 he was Director of the Division of University Inspection of High Schools and in 1929 he became Dean of the School of Education.

Teacher training. — President Angell began the advocacy of teacher-training work almost at the outset of his career. Under his leadership the faculty in 1874 voted to grant a teacher's diploma to such graduating students as showed "special fitness for teaching certain branches." The next year the faculty voted to make the teacher's diploma a "certificate of qualification for teaching," provided the candidate sustained a satisfactory special examination in the subject matter he desired to teach. Later, the examination feature was found impracticable, but the diploma itself, although it had no legal value, continued to be granted until 1921. In 1879, as previously stated, a chair of the science and the art of teaching was finally established.

The University in 1870 had opened its doors to women students, and a year later it began the accrediting of high Page  1076schools after inspection and recommendation by a committee of the faculty. Both these steps naturally did much to enhance the development of teachertraining.

Much of Professor Payne's influence upon teacher-training came as a result of his numerous pedagogical writings. Nevertheless, the organizational work which he did for the new department was also of far-reaching significance. He believed firmly that professional education should consist essentially of principles and not of rule-of-thumb procedures. In particular, he held that a foundation of history, philosophy, and science was the best basis upon which to build a career as teacher. Hence these subjects, applied to education, became the essence of the new curriculum.

In formulating his objectives for the new department, Professor Payne laid down certain statements which have ever since been utilized in presenting the aims of the School. They are:

  • 1. To fit university students for the higher positions in public school service.
  • 2. To promote the study of educational science.
  • 3. To teach the history of education and of educational systems and doctrines.
  • 4. To secure to teaching the rights, prerogatives, and advantages of a profession.
  • 5. To give a more perfect unity to our state educational system by bringing the secondary schools into closer relation with the University.

Burke A. Hinsdale was a profound scholar. In educational matters he was known throughout the nation by reason of his public addresses and his writings. He likewise had an administrative mind. Through his influence the state legislature in 1891 authorized the Regents to issue a teacher's certificate, valid legally for life, to any student who received from the University both a degree and a teacher's diploma. It was also through Professor Hinsdale that the office of inspector of high schools was created and attached to the Department of Education.

During the period from 1899 to 1921, teacher-training work expanded slowly but continuously. In 1900 the staff consisted of but two men — Professors Hinsdale and Whitney; in 1940, including teachers in the University High School and Elementary School, it numbered seventy-one full-time and part-timemembers.

Under Professor Whitney's leadership emphasis was placed more and more on the practical aspects of the profession. To this end persistent efforts were made to provide experience for students in classroom observation and directed teaching. From 1911 these facilities were furnished in the Ann Arbor city schools through co-operation with its Board of Education (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 134-36). This arrangement did not prove wholly satisfactory, however, and renewed efforts were made to establish a high school and an elementary school. Although for many years this hope was deferred, in 1922 the legislature appropriated $525,000 for a high-school building, which was opened to students in the fall of 1924. In 1927 the legislature appropriated $800,000 for a University Elementary School, and this building was first occupied in 1930.

Meanwhile, other expansions were taking place. In 1913 the Regents approved the introduction of teachers' courses in industrial education, drawing, commercial branches, and physical education, and appropriated the sum of $500 for laboratory work in education. In 1917 vocational education, in accordance with the provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act of the federal government, was incorporated into the work of the department; Page  1077the Regents in 1921 authorized a four-year curriculum in physical education, athletics, and school health, which was likewise placed under the administration of the School; and in 1922 the curriculum in public health nursing was added.

Organizational changes. — From 1879 to 1921 the professional training of teachers was carried forward in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the general plan of administering the work remained virtually unmodified, although the name of the unit had been officially changed to the Department of Education as early as 1908. The responsibility for inspecting and accrediting high schools, however, and the immediate direction of the teacher placement bureau were shifted to the department, and these additions caused some slight adjustment of procedures.

With the establishment of the new School in 1921, much additional administrative machinery was thought to be desirable. The scientific movement in education had developed rapidly after 1910. In consequence, the department (and later the School) introduced various courses dealing with educational psychology, tests and measurements, and educational statistics. Similarly, the courses in school administration, school supervision, instructional methods, vocational guidance, and physical training were expanded notably. As a result the work of the School began to be listed under seven departmental headings, indicated first by Roman numerals and later by letters of the alphabet. By 1926-27 these were listed as A. The History and Principles of Education; B. Educational Administration and Supervision; C. Educational Psychology, Mental Measurements, and Statistics; D. The Teaching of Special Subjects, including Directed Teaching; E. Vocational Education and Vocational Guidance; F. Physical Education, Athletics, and School Health; and G. Public Health Nursing.

Each department has a chairman elected by his colleagues for a term of three years, and these individuals organized and administered the departmental work.

The three general officers of the School are the Dean, the Secretary, and the Recorder. Several committees have shared administrative responsibilities with these officers. The standing committees have been Advisory and Administrative, Graduate Work, the Library, and Student Activities. Among the more important special committees are the Friendship Committee, the Committee on Candidacy for the Teacher's Certificate, and the Editorial Board of the School of Education Bulletin. Other organizational units of the School are the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research and the two laboratory schools.

Housing quarters. — For years after the appointment of Professor Payne in 1879 all courses in Education were conducted in University Hall. Later, the offices and the work of the department were moved to Tappan Hall. With the completion of the University Elementary School in 1930 the administrative offices of the School of Education were transferred to that building. In addition, several rooms in the Elementary School were set aside for classwork for University students.

The original building plans for the School of Education included three units — the high school, the elementary school, and another to be built on the site of the present playground of the high school. This third unit was to have been devoted solely to the offices, laboratories, libraries, and classrooms of the School.

Course offerings. — During the first year of Payne's incumbency he offered Page  1078only two courses: a practical course dealing with the problems of school management and supervision and a theoretical one dealing with the history and philosophy of education. The next year, in 1880, these courses were expanded somewhat, and they were still further differentiated a year or two later. But after eight years the department listed only seven courses.

Since Professor Payne's time the processes of course differentiation and addition have gone steadily forward. Table I lists developments in the curriculum from

TABLE ICourse Offerings
Groupings Courses
1921 1939
A. History and Principles 8 12
B. Educational Administration and Supervision 12 44
C. Educational Psychology, Mental Measurements, and Statistics 8 36
D. Special Methods 9 35
E. Vocational Education 7 21
F. Physical Education and School Health .. 56
G. Public Health Nursing .. 19
Total 44 223
1921 to 1940. These courses were not all offered each semester of every year, and many of them were scheduled for the summer session only, when the wide range of educational interests among the hundreds of graduate students who come from all parts of the country seems to make an extensive program of work both justifiable and desirable. Nevertheless, it is a long road from the two courses offered in 1879 to the 223 listed in 1939-40.

Graduation and teacher's certificate requirements. — As early as 1858, as already mentioned, so-called teachers courses in subject matter fields were instituted at the University, and in 1874 a teacher's diploma was authorized. Six years later, one year after Payne took up his duties on the campus, the requirements for this diploma were that a student should complete "one of the courses in the Science and the Art of Teaching, and some one other course of study with reference to preparation for teaching" and should by special examination show such marked proficiency as to qualify him to give instruction. This teacher's diploma had no legal value; it served merely as the University's special recommendation of a candidate to school authorities.

When Professor Hinsdale succeeded Professor Payne in 1888, he sought to have legal certification status accorded the professional work done on the campus. As a result of his efforts the state legislature in 1891 empowered the University Board of Regents to issue such a certificate to all students receiving the teacher's diploma. Hence, from that time until 1921, students who met the specified requirements received simultaneously three credentials: a diploma of graduation, a special teacher's diploma, and a legal teacher's certificate. The latter entitled the holder to teach in any public school in Michigan throughout his lifetime.

Immediately following the authorization of a teacher's certificate the University set the number of hours of professional work needed to secure it at eleven. When the School of Education was established in 1921, the entire responsibility for teacher training and certification was turned over to it. Since that date many changes have been initiated. The more significant of these are as follows.

At the very outset of its existence the Page  1079School set standards that were specific and definite. It prescribed that all candidates for the teacher's certificate (the special teacher's diploma having been abolished) should complete one course in educational psychology, one in secondary education, and one in teaching methods. The following year (1922) the eleven-hour minimum was raised to fifteen hours. Three years later an introductory course in general psychology was made a prerequisite to all work in education.

In 1927 a number of other far-reaching changes in graduation and certification standards were made: the total of hours required for graduation was set at 124 rather than at 120 as previously, with 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit; new regulations were imposed respecting the student's academic preparation, a major of at least twenty-five hours and a minor of at least fifteen hours being prescribed for all; and the required work in education was made to consist of five three-hour courses selected from five definitely described fields. These five fields were:

  • Educational Psychology
  • Introduction to Secondary Education
  • A choice of
    • a. Introduction to Experimental Education
    • b. Educational and Mental Measurements
    • c. Psychology of Elementary School Subjects
  • A choice of
    • a. History of Education
    • b. Philosophy of Education
  • A methods course in one's major or minor field.

In this same year the Announcement first carried the following statement: "He [the candidate for a certificate] must give evidence of good health, distinctive moral character and personality, and pronounced teaching aptitudes and interests." This paragraph, slightly reworded, has continued to appear in the printed standards.

In 1928 and 1929 other significant changes in requirements were adopted. Educational Psychology (C1) was increased from a three-hour to a four-hour course and was made to include some laboratory experience. History of Education (A1) and Introduction to Secondary Education (B20) were each reduced from three hours to two hours. Directed Teaching (D100), which had been offered without credit during the years 1924-26 and for one hour of credit in 1926, was now made a two-hour course and was definitely prescribed for all. It became a four-hour course in 1932, and after 1938, under the provisions of the new state code, it carried five hours of credit.

Meanwhile, in order to accommodate certain graduate and other students who had not pursued educational courses in the regular order, a Correlated Course in education was established in 1929-30. This course was organized with units covering the work in all the prescribed areas and took the entire time of a student for one semester. After spending six weeks in classroom instruction, students were placed for another six weeks in various city school systems throughout the country in order to devote their time to observation and directed teaching. On the completion of this period the students returned to Ann Arbor and continued classwork for the remainder of the semester. The Correlated Course in 1940 carried seventeen hours of credit.

In 1929 the requirements were again overhauled. Departmental fields were classified under two headings: List A, which included those types of work for which directed teaching was available in the University High School, and List B, including those types of work for Page  1080which facilities for directed teaching were not available. A student was required to select a major or a minor from List A; he was privileged to select the second field of specialization from List B. Simultaneously, five group or interdepartmental fields of work were recognized — biology, English-rhetoric, general science, physical science, and social studies. A student was privileged to select both his major and his minor from these larger divisions, but the required hours consisted of thirty-two to thirty-eight for a major and twenty-one to twenty-five for a minor. The same courses might be counted doubly, however; that is, toward satisfying the major and the minor simultaneously.

During 1929 and 1930 two new special curriculums leading to the teacher's certificate were established: a curriculum for teachers of commercial subjects and a curriculum for teachers of art and design. In 1937 the old curriculum in vocational education was reorganized so as to provide a curriculum for teachers of industrial arts in junior and senior high schools. In 1940, therefore, the School of Education provided six special curriculums.

Since 1930 qualifying and comprehensive examinations have constituted two formal requirements for students seeking the teacher's certificate. The first of these, which is to be taken before admission to the course in directed teaching, tests the student's knowledge of the subject matter in his academic major or minor; the second, which is to be taken just before graduation, tests the student's mastery of certain professional matters.

The University Elementary School was not designed to give training to the typical undergraduate student; on the contrary it was meant to serve primarily as an experimental school where educators might carry forward systematic studies in child development. Yet, for students who already had had considerable pedagogical work (including directed teaching) at other institutions, an undergraduate program in elementary school training was provided, which required a minimum of one hundred hours of credit in academic work. The number of individuals enrolling for the work on the undergraduate level was small. This was due in part to the fact that the old University certificate permitted the holder to teach in any grade he might choose — in high school or elementary school. There was, consequently, no necessity for a prospective elementary teacher to tread an unusual path.

A new certification code went into effect in Michigan on July 1, 1939. Under it, all blanket certificates were abolished. Henceforth, students in training prepared themselves for one definite type of school work — elementary, secondary, or junior college. To qualify for elementary- and secondary-school certificates they were required to have had directed teaching on a corresponding level. Up to this time the teacher-training program of the School of Education was on the secondary level only. Because of student interest and the need for elementary school teachers, a training program was arranged with the teachers colleges of the state — and with various other institutions. The School of Education developed a plan whereby students were, under certain conditions, permitted to spend one semester of their senior year in these institutions in order to secure the specific training for elementary school work not available at the University. For students granted this privilege the usual residence requirements were waived, and an elementary school certificate was awarded upon graduation.

In 1932 another notable change in Page  1081graduation and certification requirements went into effect. Since 1927 the two sets of standards had been identical: both graduation and certification had required 124 hours of credit and 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit. The two goals were separated in 1932, and an individual could graduate without being certificated. Graduation thus rested upon the basis of 124 hours of credit and 124 honor points, or a C average; certification rested upon the completion of 124 hours of credit, or, on the new basis of marking, 25 per cent more points than hours. Also in 1932, the prescribed number of hours in education was raised from fifteen to seventeen. Both for graduation and for certification at least seventeen hours in professional training were required for all.

In 1934 course A1 (History of Education) and course B20 (Introduction to Secondary Education) — each previously a two-hour course — were abolished, and their instructional materials were organized into a single three-hour course, A10, Education in the United States. The prescribed certificate standards were set as follows: A10, Education in the United States, three hours; C1, Educational Psychology, four hours; D, Special Methods in major or minor, three hours; D100, Directed Observation and Teaching, four or five hours; and an elective in education, two or three hours.

In 1937, by law, all teacher-certificating powers in Michigan were vested exclusively in the State Board of Education. Thus, at that time the University lost the function it had exercised in this respect since 1891. The State Board immediately drafted a regulation whereby teacher training institutions were to continue to recommend candidates for the certificate on substantially the old conditions. Hence, the School of Education retained the substance, if not the form, of certification authority for University students. Effective also under the state code was the requirement that all teachers must be trained in at least three academic fields — a major and two minors (rather than a major and one minor). The recommendation for elementary school teachers was four minors, as previously, although a major and two minors in strictly elementary school subjects were a permissible minimum. The certificate for junior college teaching was based on a master's degree.

In 1937 all candidates for a teacher's certificate were required to make formal application to the Recorder for such credentials. The Recorder thereupon checked all records and, if correct, certified the candidate to the State Board, which granted the legal certificate. In order also to guard against the certification of individuals who were deemed unfit to become teachers by reason of physical, mental, or moral defects or other inadequacies, a Teacher's Certificate Candidacy Committee was appointed. The functions of this committee were to make careful investigation into all cases called to their attention by the faculty and, if evidence warranted, to discourage, or if need be, to block further efforts to secure a certificate.

Students. — In the first year of Dr. Payne's incumbency seventy-one students pursued courses in education. Undergraduate enrollment in the first year of the School totaled 215, and fifty-eight degrees were granted. Later enrollment figures are given in Table II.

According to Dean Whitney, in the summer session of 1900 there were twenty-five elections in education; in 1920, 717 elections; in 1929, 1,989 elections. The outstanding change in recent years has been the fact that the School of Education, particularly in the summer session, has become predominantly a Page  1082

TABLE IIUndergraduate Enrollments in the School of Education and Degrees Granted
Year Enrollment Degrees Granted
Summer Session Academic Year Total
1923-24 350 301 651 108
1928-29 526 476 1,002 204
1933-34 158* 256 414 98
1938-39 367 496 863 111
School serving the needs of advanced students. A master's degree is demanded of teachers and administrative officers in many school systems, and thus it seems that the trend toward graduate study will continue.

The number of students electing courses in education is listed in Table III. The figures include individuals who are enrolled in various schools and colleges on the campus. Course elections are listed in Table IV.

Table V gives the number of teacher's certificates issued through the University. Here exact records extend farther back than they do for some of the other data. One hundred and twenty-five such certificates were granted in 1904; in 1939 the total was 272. As will be observed, the highest number ever issued was 522

TABLE IIIStudents Electing Courses in Education
Year Summer Session Academic Year Total
School of Education Other Schools Total School of Education Other Schools Total
1932-33 278 893 1,171 304 520* 824 1,995
1934-35 194 622 816 272 547 819 1,635
1936-37 328 1,016 1,344 489 818 1,307 2,651
1938-39 367 825 1,192 496 1,906 2,402 3,594
TABLE IVStudent Course Elections in Education
Year Summer Session Academic Year Total
First Semester Second Semester
1928-29* 1,759 3,368 1,789 * 6,916
1930-31 1,933 1,475* 2,048 5,456
1932-33 1,542 1,492 1,426 4,440
1934-35 1,476 1,132 1,225 3,833
1936-37 2,492 1,531 1,483 5,407
1938-39 3,430 1,789* 1,666* 6,885*
in the year 1927. Again the effect of the elevation of standards both in the state and in the University is evident. Time was when teachers in both elementary and high schools in Michigan were certificated on only two years of normal school or collegiate training. During the 1920's and 1930's this situation changed. Hence, many individuals who met standards under the older conditions found it desirable, if not absolutely necessary, to secure college degrees. The teacher's certificate was a natural accompaniment of the degrees.

Graduate work. — Many of the staff of the School of Education are members of the Graduate School faculty. Consequently, much of the instructional work Page  1083

TABLE VTeacher's Certificates Issued
Year Number of Certificates Year Number of Certificates Year Number of Certificates
1892 32 1922 302
1897 55 1910 122 1928 384
1901 78 1916 203 1934 213
1905 132 1921 274 1939 272
of these teachers is on a graduate level, and the courses which they offer carry graduate credit. Indeed, of the total offerings of the School, a very considerable part is of graduate character. The Announcement of the School of Education for 1939-40 listed a total of 223 courses. Of these, sixty-two were designed solely for undergraduates, and eighty-eight were open to both undergraduates and graduates; seventy-five were open only to graduate students. When the plan for utilizing the several teachers colleges of the state for graduate centers went into operation in 1938 the number of course offerings, as well as the number of graduate students in education, increased notably.

Two special aspects of the School's graduate work deserve special mention. These are the late afternoon and Saturday classes held on the campus and designed primarily for part-time students, and the Field Course in Education.

The custom of providing late afternoon and Saturday classes for part-time students began in 1925. At the outset there were only eleven of these courses, and they were only fairly well attended. In 1939-40 forty-nine such courses were listed. Of these, twenty-five were scheduled for the first semester and twenty-four for the second semester; during the first semester they carried a total of 596 course elections. Generally speaking, these late afternoon and Saturday classes have been elected by superintendents, principals, and high-school teachers regularly engaged in educational work in cities and towns situated within a radius of approximately a hundred miles of Ann Arbor. Most of these individuals have been graduate students seeking advanced degrees.

The Field Course in Education was first instituted in 1933. It was a University extension course organized and conducted in a collective manner by the faculty of the School of Education. It sought to meet the needs of teachers in service who desired to continue University studies during the regular academic year, but who resided at such distances from Ann Arbor as to make attendance at Saturday classes extremely difficult, if not impossible. The Field Course met in conveniently located centers throughout the state but was open for credit only to graduate students. The total annual enrollment by 1940 had reached 500.

TABLE VIGraduate Students and Graduate Degrees in Education, 1921-39
Year Students in Summer Session Students in Academic Year Total Students Advanced Degrees Granted in Education
1921-22 ... ... 109 19
1923-24 142 48 190 42
1928-29 359 187 546 81
1933-34 360 205 565 110
1938-39 1,372 670 2,042 280

Each semester the School of Education has offered courses in the University of Michigan Center for Graduate Study in Detroit. During the first semester of 1939-40, the School conducted nine courses in the Center.

Table VI records the development of Page  1084graduate work in education from 1921 to 1939.

The staff. — During the twenty years from 1879 to 1899 all professional courses in education were taught by one incumbent. In 1899 the staff numbered two; in 1905, four; in 1910, six; in 1920, ten; in 1930, fifty-one; and in 1940, seventy-one. It should, however, be pointed out that the figures for 1930 and 1940 include both full-time and part-time instructors. The chief general causes of this phenomenal growth have been the great expansion of instructional materials of an educational sort produced by the development of the scientific movement in education, the successive steps taken by state and University authorities looking to the elevation of teaching standards on all levels of instruction, and the notable influx of college and university students generally — a condition which in many instances made inevitable the multiplying of class sections. But more particularly the main cause for the increase in the number of faculty members of the School of Education from 1921 to 1940 was the introduction of many physical training and public health courses given by the School. Nevertheless, even if such types of work were omitted and comparisons made solely on a basis similar to that known to Professor Payne sixty years ago, the figures would still be impressive. If only those who devoted their entire instructional time to courses in the history, philosophy, psychology, and administration of education and to methodologies relating to academic subjects solely were included, the group would number twenty-two. On the average, more than one member was added to the pedagogical staff of the School each year from 1879 to 1940.

In addition to the staff members mentioned elsewhere in this account, the following also have served the School for extended periods of time. Stuart A. Courtis (Columbia '19, Ph.D. Michigan '25), Professor of Education, Francis D. Curtis (Oregon '11, Ph.D. Columbia '24), Professor of Secondary Education and of the Teaching of Science, Harlan C. Koch (Ohio University [Athens] '19, Ph.D. Ohio State '26), Professor of Education and Assistant Director of the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, Howard Y. McClusky (Park '21, Ph.D. Chicago '29, LL.D. Park '41), Professor of Educational Psychology, Mental Measurements, and Statistics, and Assistant to the Vice-President in charge of University relations in the field of adult education, David E. Mattern (Bush Conservatory of Music '11, A.B. Cornell '15, A.M. Michigan '35), Professor of Music Education in the School of Music and in the School of Education, Arthur B. Moehlman ('12, Ph.D. '23), Professor of School Administration and Supervision, Clarence D. Thorpe (Ellsworth '11, Ph.D. Michigan '25), Professor of English and of the Teaching of English, William Clark Trow (Colgate '15, Ph.D. Columbia '23), Professor of Educational Psychology, Charles C. Fries (Bucknell '09, Ph.D. Michigan '22), Clifford Woody (Indiana '08, Ph.D. Columbia '16), Professor of Education, Director of the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research and Graduate Adviser to the Teachers Colleges, George L. Jackson ('06, Ph.D. Columbia '09), Professor of the History of Education; George C. Kyte (California '15, Ed.D. ibid. '22), Professor of Elementary Education and Supervision, George C. Carrothers (Indiana '09, Ph.D. Columbia '24), Professor of Education and Director of the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, and Warren R. Good (Virginia '26, M.A. Michigan '42), Instructor in Educational Psychology and Secretary Page  1085of the Editorial Board, School of Education.

The laboratory schools. — When the University High School was opened in 1924 it had a faculty of sixteen members and a pupil enrollment of 127. In 1940 the numbers were twenty-nine and three hundred, respectively. The school not only has served as a laboratory for the scientific study of secondary school problems but also has furnished facilities for observational work and directed teaching to approximately one hundred University students each semester. Furthermore, the head of each of the departments of instruction within this school is a member of the faculty of the School of Education, conducts the special methods courses for candidates majoring or minoring in his field, and supervises the directed teaching work of his students. In this way, therefore, a continuing tieup and correlation of theory and practice is assured.

The University Elementary School, which was completed in 1930, organized its work slowly year by year until it finally became articulated with the seventh grade of the high school in 1937. The chief purpose of this school is educational research and the study of child development. No directed teaching for the typical undergraduate is permitted, although advanced students with teaching experience are enabled to conduct experimental classwork. The school in 1940 had a staff of eighteen (together with seven assistants) and enrolled 131 children.

Thus, the two laboratory schools taken together provide instructional facilities ranging from prekindergarten work through the twelfth grade. The two units, however, differ decidedly from each other in motives. The one emphasizes research, the other the practical training of secondary school teachers.

Publications. — Annually or biennially the School of Education issues an Announcement describing its organization and its course offerings, and usually also several Supplementary Announcements giving details relating to particular kinds of problems. The School of Education Bulletin, established in 1929, is a monthly publication which is intended to serve as an agency of stimulation and information both for members of the faculty and for schoolmen and educators generally. Most issues contain one or two editorials on topics of current interest, one or more brief articles relating to educational problems, and certain news items and book reviews. The School sponsors a series of Educational Monographs or studies prepared under the direction of members of the faculty. To 1940 only one such monograph had appeared, but others were in prospect. The one published study, Verbal Influences on Children's Behavior, is by Dr. Marguerite W. Johnson. Several members of the staff have been editors or contributing editors of educational magazines.

Co-operative activities. — Besides its more or less independently conducted activities the School of Education has entered into co-operative arrangements with a number of other agencies which are carrying forward certain types of related work. Some of these undertakings are with units on the campus.

Co-operative arrangements with the University Hospital School have been effected whereby the instructional aspects of the work done there are placed under the supervision of a member of the faculty of the School of Education. Opportunities have also been given for certain students to carry forward their directed teaching assignments in connection with the Hospital School.

Arrangements have been established with the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, of Battle Creek, whereby the foundation's Page  1086summer camps for children have been utilized by the School of Education for the scientific study of children's traits and behavior. Similarly, co-operative arrangements have also been made with this foundation whereby systematic studies of specific problems have been carried forward.

Members of the staff have served as advisers to the officials of various school systems and other public and private institutions, such as Southern Michigan Prison at Jackson, the State Public School at Coldwater, the military schools at Howe, Indiana, and Culver, Indiana, and the schools of Detroit, Dearborn, Flint, Saginaw, Jackson, and other cities in Michigan.

Student teaching facilities have been made available in a number of high schools throughout the country to selected seniors and others interested in types of work not obtainable in the University High School. Further, in several instances teaching internships covering an entire school year have been secured for graduates. Under the conditions imposed the student has usually been permitted to devote part-time to paid instructional service and part-time to study for an advanced degree in the University or in some other institution. Through an agreement with the Merrill-Palmer School of Detroit, students interested especially in primary work may spend one semester of their senior year in attendance at the Merrill-Palmer School and may have the credit earned there accepted as full residence credit toward a degree and a teacher's certificate in the School of Education.

Arrangements have also been made with the four state teachers' colleges of Michigan, and with certain other teacher-training institutions in the nation whereby a student seeking to prepare himself for the state elementary school certificate may, on petition to the School of Education, be granted the privilege of spending one semester of his senior year as an enrollee in one of these institutions and of receiving residence credit in the School of Education for the work done. This privilege was authorized because the School of Education has been unable to provide adequate facilities for directed teaching and other course work relating to the elementary school.

Some of the graduate work formerly conducted by the School of Education for teachers of physically and mentally handicapped children has been expanded through co-operation with the Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti.

The School also co-operates with the sponsors of summer camps — both those conducted under the supervision of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation and the one sponsored by the University of Michigan at Patterson Lake, Michigan. At these camps training has been given to advanced students seeking to become counselors or teachers.

State services. — Annually, the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research has lent its facilities for conducting local surveys, evaluating instructional work, and aiding in carrying forward school testing programs to numerous school systems of the state. The Bureau has also co-operated with the Michigan High School Principals Association in conducting a state-wide testing program in Michigan secondary schools.

Each year the School has sponsored a series of special conferences for teachers. These conferences have included an educational conference relating to problems of administration and supervision; a teacher-training conference treating the problem of better preparation of classroom teachers, a beginning teachers' conference designed especially for the benefit of recent graduates who are in their first year of teaching, a book-week conference providing a display of recently Page  1087published textbooks and discussions relating to them, and a reading conference dealing with reading difficulties. Teachers from all parts of Michigan have attended these conferences.

In connection with the summer session, a clinic dealing especially with the problems of reading and arithmetic has been provided for dull-normal high-school children; a program of preprimary and early elementary schoolwork has been offered to meet the needs of families residing in Ann Arbor during the summer and to provide facilities for observation and research; courses relating to the problems of atypical children and to camping activities have also been given.

Each year the staff of the School of Education has offered a wide range of University extension courses and extension lectures in various centers in the state. For a number of years the School has sponsored or jointly sponsored in Ann Arbor an annual meeting of the Michigan Congress of Parents and Teachers.

Through its Department of Vocational Education the School has offered courses annually for the inservice training of Smith-Hughes teachers, has participated in surveys relating to vocational training needs, and has prepared and distributed numerous bulletins and other instructional materials for teachers in the trades.

Almost constantly through its Department of Physical Education and School Health the School has contributed to the athletic, recreational, and health needs of Michigan by the dissemination of bulletins and leaflets, by supplying officials for competitive games, and by giving advice respecting controversial matters.

Annually, a member of the School's staff has assisted the University's Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions in forwarding the work of high-school inspection and in otherwise seeking to develop and maintain cordial interinstitutional relationship throughout the state.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23.
The Chronicle, Vol. III, No. 12 (1872): 136-37.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Laws, Ordinances, By-laws and Regulations …, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1861.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Michigan, 1841-42, 1860-64.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Ten Brook, Andrew. American State Universities; Their Origin and Progress. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke and Co., 1875.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-64. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
University of Michigan School of Education Bulletin, Vols. I-II (1929-40).
Whitney, Allen S.Training of Teachers at the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: George Wahr, 1931. Pp. 107, 186.
Page  1088

THE UNIVERSITY HIGH SCHOOL

THE idea of an institution designed especially for the training of high-school teachers was in the minds of leaders in education at the University and throughout the state for nearly two decades before the opening of the University High School. In 1907 the Regents granted Professor Allen S. Whitney's petition to visit other universities in order to study their teacher-training work. His findings were presented to the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, which at that time included the Department of Education.

The following year the Regents stated:

If, in the judgment of the President and Board of Regents, the necessary funds for organization and maintenance can be obtained from some source other than the present income of the University, there [shall] be established a Model School providing observation and practice work for both graduates and undergraduates.


(R.P., 1906-10, p. 407.)

Between 1908 and 1917 the project gained in favor. Schoolmen in the state supported the movement. The faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, in January, 1917, resolved "that it is the sense of this Faculty that a properly conducted observation and practice school for the training of teachers would be a valuable adjunct to the Department of Education, and would serve a useful purpose in the community and the state" ("Minutes, … L.S.A.").

Even before this resolution was adopted the Regents had resolved to ask the legislature for funds for a site, building, and equipment, and their request was presented in March, 1917. President Harry B. Hutchins in 1919 again raised the question of an appropriation. Professor Whitney continued to be the inspiration behind many of the efforts in behalf of the school. In 1919 the bill providing for the initial funds became law. In June, 1922, the legislature appropriated $525,000 for a high-school building, which was ready for occupancy in the fall of 1924.

The objectives of the school were stated as follows: to give student teachers teaching experience, to correlate the work in observation and special methods through directed teaching, to demonstrate the best educational theory and practice, to provide an education laboratory for scientific experimentation, and to offer the pupils of the high school an enriched program of studies and school experiences.

Professor Raleigh Schorling, who came from the Lincoln School of Teachers College, Columbia University, to be the first principal of the school, emphasized to the staff the challenge of their task. Most of the year 1923-24 was devoted to careful planning. Two main purposes were kept in view, to set up the best procedure for the training of teachers and to provide the best experience for the boys and girls in the school. It was agreed that two college seniors should be appointed as assistants to the regular teacher of each high-school class and that they should remain with that teacher at least a full semester, engaging in activities and gradually assuming more responsibility.

Each year an elected student council has participated in the actual management of school activities. Students have also served with teachers on various committees.

Those who have served the school as principals are Raleigh Schorling ('11, Page  1089Ph.D. Columbia '24), Heber Hinds Ryan (Whitman '06, A.M. Columbia '11), Edgar Grant Johnston (Wooster '12, Ph.D. Columbia '29), and John M. Trytten (Luther '11, Ph.D. Michigan '43). In addition, among those who have served in the school may be mentioned Charles C. Fries, Clarence D. Thorpe, Marshall L. Bryn, Margaret H. Chapin, Meldon Everett, Marion McKinney, Helen L. Ryder, Fred G. Walcott, Cordelia Hayes, Ruth S. Craig, Fred S. Dunham, Odina Olson, C. Irene Hayner, Hope H. Chipman, Selma Lindell, Katharine S. Hill, David Mattern, Francis D. Curtis, Wesley Darling, Nina H. Sherman, O. W. Stephenson, Edith Hoyle, Lucile Copass, Mabel Rugen, Wilbur L. Carr, Gerald W. Fox, and Elizabeth Robinson.

In 1930, in connection with the training for supervisory positions, Dean Edmonson inaugurated a practice by which many well-trained teachers have been engaged for part-time work in the high school, the remainder of their time being devoted to advanced study and further training.

The heads of different departments teach special methods courses in the School of Education, and at the same time demonstrate in high-school classes the methods studied. Some of the departmental chairmen illustrate a three-way correlation in that they teach subject-matter courses both in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and in the University High School. The chairman of a department serves as critic teacher and supervisor of other critic teachers as well as of student teachers in his own department. Thus, emphasis is put on subject matter, on theory and practice, and on classroom technique.

While the primary purpose of the school is teacher-training, its program and its policy of service to the state and to the cause of education include other important activities. Among these are investigations of educational programs. Almost every department of the high school is engaged in research. Most investigations are projects which have challenged the interest of an individual teacher; others are carried on by an entire department.

The University High School has had an opportunity to influence the practices of other schools. The school has many visitors during the vacations and at the time of the meetings of the Michigan Education Association and Schoolmasters' Club. Visitors are interested in methods, curricular materials, the organization of courses, disciplinary problems, book selection, school library administration, the home room plan, assemblies, and extracurricular activities.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1907-14.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts" (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1917.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Page  1090

THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

IN 1927 President Clarence Cook Little submitted to the legislature a request for an appropriation to provide a research laboratory for the study of problems concerned with the growth and education of young children. As a result an appropriation of $800,000 was made for a "Model Elementary School including Land for Site" payable in the fiscal years ending in June, 1928, and June, 1929.

Regent Junius E. Beal and Secretary Shirley W. Smith were authorized by the Board of Regents to acquire a site, and Malcolmson and Higgenbotham, of Detroit, were chosen as the architects. In September, 1928, the Regents appointed a committee consisting of the Executive Committee of the School of Education and A. G. Ruthven, Dean of Administration, to present plans for a building adjacent to the University High School and for a building in the vicinity of University Hospital for the observation and education of infants. At this time Mr. R. T. Lamont gave the University two acres of land near the Hospital for the project. The first architectural plan provided for an organized laboratory for the study of children from infancy through the sixth grade. Further study revealed that building costs and a reduced appropriation would not permit execution of the plan for the infant unit.*

In 1929, Dr. Willard Clifford Olson (Minnesota '20, Ph.D. ibid. '26), of the University of Minnesota, was appointed Associate Professor of Education and Director of Research in Child Development in the School of Education. In 1935 he was promoted to Professor of Education and Director of Research in Child Development. The school, which was formally designated the "University Elementary School of the University of Michigan," included a library, auditorium, gymnasium, and units for examinations and research in the dental, mental, and psychological divisions.

Because of the depression the University was unable to open the school on the scale originally planned; however, an operating budget and some research support were assured through the joint efforts of the Board of Regents and the General Education Board. The school opened in 1930, with seventy-five children and fifteen teachers and special workers. During the first year enrollment was limited to children of nursery and kindergarten ages. A plan for gradual expansion was adopted which provided an additional grade each year so that the children enrolled were carried on through successive grades. By 1937 there were six grades.

Dr. Marguerite Wilker Johnson (Wisconsin '24, Ph.D. ibid. '27) was appointed Director of the Nursery School and Associate Professor of Education and served in a supervisory position from the opening of the school until 1934. Mrs. Myrtle Bevan Firestone ('25, A.M. '34) served as teacher of the kindergarten from the opening of the school through 1934 and was then appointed Supervising Principal and Instructor in Elementary Education.

The University Elementary School has three general objectives: research, demonstration, and advanced training. By 1937 staff members and associates had published approximately one hundred articles. Research problems include Page  1091longitudinal investigations of growth, cross-sectional descriptions, development of new instruments of measurement, statistical analyses of factors conditioning the behavior of children, and experimental and genetic studies.

The school has performed an important function as a demonstration center in which superintendents, supervisors, teachers, parents, physicians, and nurses can observe some of the newer practices in the education of children. The school has also been the scene of frequent conferences of professional workers and has furnished a practical laboratory for persons preparing for various professional positions through advanced training. Many of these have secured important supervisory and college teaching positions. The interest of the University in the Elementary School has been shown by co-operative planning for student and faculty observation and investigation in the fields of anthropology, dentistry, pediatrics, sociology, psychology, educational psychology, public health, nursing, and architecture.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.

THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCHOOL HEALTH

IN the early 1900's changed conditions of living brought about by increasing urbanization forced upon the community a realization of its responsibilities in regard to communicable and organic disease, delinquency and crime, and personal maladjustment. As a result schools were called upon to widen their programs.

School health programs emphasized healthful school environment, and a school health service provided thorough physical examinations and also assisted the child in removing factors that were retarding his health and his academic progress. Knowledge and habits of healthful living were taught. School administrators became aware of the educational contribution offered by athletics. More emphasis was placed upon physical education and play programs. Physical development, social adjustment, and educational use of leisure time were stressed. Community recreation was recognized as a school responsibility, school playgrounds were opened to children in the summer, and gymnasiums were used as evening social centers.

The growing public awareness of these enlarged community functions of the school found expression in laws requiring the teaching of hygiene, particularly in respect to communicable disease; in resolutions urging the use of school buildings as social centers; and in Michigan by legal enactments to establish the teaching of physical education as a school subject. A law passed in 1911 made the teaching of physical education mandatory in communities with populations of 10,000. Another passed in 1919, stimulated by the revelations of the war draft statistics, required such teaching in communities of 3,000. At this time twenty-eight states had such laws.

Page  1092New courses in physical education and school health were added as a result of a report of the National Education Association published in 1918, which listed standards that came to be known as the seven cardinal principles of education.

The four-year course in physical education, hygiene, and athletics was established at the University of Michigan in 1921 as a result of this movement. The various teacher-training schools in the state were supplying teachers of physical education before 1919, but not in the numbers needed after the legislative enactment of that year went into effect.

In 1920 the Department of Education of the University considered offering hygiene and physical education courses in the summer session. Charles S. Berry (Hiram '03, Ph.D. Harvard '07) had given a course in school hygiene during the regular school year in 1908. Floyd Rowe, the state director of physical education, in the summer of 1921 gave two courses, one in "School and Personal Hygiene," and the other in "Administration of Physical Education." In June, 1921, the Regents directed:

Under the guidance and direction of the Board of Regents, acting through the Dean of the School of Education, he [the newly appointed Director of Intercollegiate Athletics] shall be likewise chargeable with the duty of establishing, conducting, or supervising educational courses in the training of coaches, and playground instructors…

A resolution was passed by the School of Education in 1921 endorsing the plan of providing a four-year curriculum for the training of athletic coaches and playground supervisors. A committee consisting of Professors Charles S. Berry, Guy M. Whipple, and George E. Myers, with Fielding H. Yost (LL.B West Virginia '97, LL.D. Marshall College '28), Director of Intercollegiate Athletics, was appointed to prepare a curriculum. The department was enlarged to include hygiene, and the co-operation of Dr. John Sundwall, Director of Physical Welfare, was enlisted. The combined course in physical education, hygiene, and athletics was introduced in the fall of 1921. The required scientific and laboratory work was given in other colleges and schools of the University. Elective courses were made available in other departments.

The course in 1921 required 120 hours and 120 honor points for graduation. In 1927 the requirement was raised to 124 hours and 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit. The curriculum was so constructed that a broad general education was combined with specialized training. Approximately thirty-two hours were required in the field of the laboratory sciences such as biology, chemistry, anatomy, kinesiology, and physical reconstruction, forty hours of work in general educational subjects, twenty-four hours in the Theory and Practice of Physical Education, including gymnastic, corrective, athletic, and recreational activities. Six hours were devoted to directed teaching in the junior and senior years. Students specializing in the course had opportunity to serve as instructors in gymnasium classes, and to act as officials and organizers of intramural teams. Twenty-four hours were available for electives.

One interesting phase of the new program was the summer "coaching school" inaugurated in the summer of 1922, which attracted many students who were not primarily interested in obtaining a degree, but who wished to obtain practical information and training from specialists in their respective fields. The University was fortunate in having a well-trained staff and unsurpassed facilities in the way of athletic fields, tennis courts, gymnasiums, sports buildings, field houses, and golf course. Its prestige Page  1093in athletics also attracted students to the summer course. The need for this type of instruction was acute, since many teachers with little preparation in physical education were being drafted to fill the numerous positions that were available as a result of the compulsory law. Courses were offered in the coaching of the various school sports such as football, basketball, baseball, and track, in playground, intramural, and scouting activities, in organization and administration of athletics, in graded gymnasium programs, and in athletic training and conditioning.

The first coaching school attracted seventy-five students, though no credit was being given for the work. In the next year, when credit was offered, the enrollment more than doubled, and students from twenty-eight states were registered. This enrollment was maintained for about five years, but when teacher-training schools began to offer four years of instruction in physical education the demand for this unique type of summer school work ceased.

A later development in the field was the organization of scientific and professional courses carrying graduate credit. The demand for this training increased as the various programs in health, physical education, athletics, and community recreation became co-ordinated under unified administrations. Graduate work has allowed opportunity for specialization and has also integrated the work in health, physical education, athletics, and recreation. The graduate curriculum in physical education leading to a master's degree was set up during the summer session of 1931. Three different programs were established to meet the varying interests of graduate students: administration of physical education, supervision, and teaching. The following year a fourth program, health education, was organized in co-operation with the Division of Hygiene and Public Health. In 1936-37 there were five different programs, the four mentioned and one in leisure time. These were established according to the general policy of the School of Education in regard to the number of required cognate and elective subjects. Twenty-four hours of credit and a thesis were required for the master's degree. The degree could be either a master of arts or a master of science in education. The graduate curriculums were the same for both men and women. The number of master's degrees granted steadily increased. Between July, 1939, and June 30, 1940, thirty-two such degrees were awarded. The curriculum for the doctor's degree was established in 1938, and the first two degrees were granted in 1940.

The Department of Physical Education for Women introduced two short-term institutes before the opening of the regular summer session in 1932. These institutes were each of one week's duration and gave intensive instruction in such sports as tennis, swimming, golf, hockey, archery, the dance, and riding. No credit was given, the object being primarily to give assistance to teachers who wished to increase their own knowledge and proficiency in motor skills.

Professors Fielding H. Yost, John Sundwall, and Warren Forsythe, George A. May, and Elmer D. Mitchell, of the Men's Physical Education and Intramural Departments, assisted in the work of organization and teaching. Miss Marion Wood, of the Women's Physical Education Department, and her assistants were active in the early development of the program. In 1923-24 Dr. Margaret Bell became Associate Professor of Women's Physical Education in the Division of Hygiene and Physician in the University Health Service and since then has directed the work in teacher training. The activity courses for women were planned and conducted Page  1094entirely by the Department of Physical Education for Women.

The co-ordination of the work of the various departments was entrusted to a chairman elected for a period of three years. By 1939 this office had been filled by the following: Allen S. Whitney (1922-27), John Sundwall (1927-30), James B. Edmonson (1930-36), and Elmer D. Mitchell (1936-39). In May, 1936, an executive committee of five members was formed to administer the department.

The unit in 1921 was called the "Department of Physical Education, Hygiene, and Athletics." In 1923 this was changed to "Physical Education, Athletics, and School Health." In 1932 the title "Physical Education and School Health" was adopted.

In 1937 the School of Education established minors in school health and physical education. These comprised eighteen hours of prescribed courses and provided for students in education not specifically enrolled in the course for teachers. With their establishment it was felt that the need of the smaller communities in teacher preparation would be met.

In addition to the preparation of teachers of school health, gymnasium classwork, athletic coaching, scouting, and playground activities, new courses were added to meet the increasing demands for trained camp counselors and leaders of social recreation. First-aid courses were early instituted, but the courses in safety education were not added until after the period covered by this account.

By 1939 the four-year course for men had graduated about two hundred and twenty students and the course for women about one hundred and sixty-five. Graduates have found positions in elementary schools, high schools, colleges, hospitals, and city recreation departments and industries.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1910-40.

THE DEPARTMENT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

ESTABLISHMENT of the department. — The Smith-Hughes law, enacted in 1917, provided each state with funds for the promotion of vocational education and placed on the state the responsibility for spending a certain amount on the training of teachers. In Michigan this responsibility was divided between Michigan State College, Michigan State Normal College in Ypsilanti, and the University of Michigan. The University was assigned the training of teachers for the division of trade and industrial education.

Allen S. Whitney, then head of the Department of Education, secured the appointment in 1917 of George Edmund Myers (Ottawa University [Kansas] '96, Ph.D. Clark '06) as the first Professor of Industrial Education. Professor Myers had been principal of the Technical High School, Washington, D. C., and superintendent of continuation classes in New York City. He was convinced that industrial teachers should have had industrial experience, and because many of those who had had such experience, could not qualify for college entrance, it Page  1095was necessary to offer training courses in the principal cities of the state at times when craftsmen still employed in industry or recently transferred to teaching positions in the schools could attend. In 1918 he began an evening course in the Cass Technical High School, Detroit. The following year similar courses were offered both in Detroit and in Grand Rapids. In the years that followed the extension work accomplished by the department was more extensive than that done on the campus.

Eli Lewis Hayes ('06e), then head of a department in Cass Technical High School, Detroit, and later principal of the Boys Vocational School of that city, became a part-time member of the staff in 1918-19 and served the department until his retirement in 1940. Hayes gave one or two courses in Detroit each semester, usually dealing with methods of teaching industrial subjects, though work for foremen in industrial plants was included during the earlier years.

In 1919 Miss Cleo Murtland (Teachers College [Columbia] '17, M.A. Columbia '19) became a full-time member of the department with the rank of Associate Professor. She came to the University from the principalship of the Philadelphia Trade School for Girls to give a course in Detroit for teachers of trades which were open to women and girls and to make a study of the need for more of such work in Detroit. She was placed in charge of an office at Cass Technical High School. This office, maintained through the generosity of the Detroit Board of Education, served as the center of the department's activities in the area until the Rackham Center was opened.

Thomas Diamond ('25, A.M. '28) also came to the department in 1919 from the University of Wisconsin, with the rank of Assistant Professor. He had previously been a teacher in the Technical High School of Milwaukee and foreman of the pattern shop of the famous Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company's plant at West Allis, Wisconsin. Professor Diamond organized foreman training work throughout the state, placing special emphasis on the foreman's duties as a teacher of new workers. He was promoted to a full professorship in 1940.

Marshall L. Byrn (Michigan State Normal '23, A.M. Michigan '26), who had come to the University in 1924, was promoted in 1927 to be Assistant Professor of Vocational Education and head of the Department of Industrial Arts in the University High School and gave special courses in industrial arts education. John M. Trytten, who in 1930 was appointed Instructor in Commercial Education, had charge of the program for the training of business teachers in the University and of typing instruction in the high school. He became Acting Principal in 1938 and Principal in 1939. Neither Byrn nor Trytten were able to devote all of their time to this work, since their main responsibilities were with the work of teaching in the University High School.

Program of studies. — From two courses, one dealing with the principles of vocational education and the other with methods of teaching industrial subjects, the work of the department expanded rapidly. After World War I a course was given dealing with the work of the industrial foreman, especially with his teaching responsibilities. With the development of part-time education for workers under seventeen years of age, required by state law after September 1, 1920, special courses for teachers in this field were offered both on the campus and in most of the important cities of the state. A course in vocational guidance was begun in 1920. To take care of a growing demand for industrial teachers a correspondence course without Page  1096University credit was offered in 1922. Later, three additional courses were added. A course in Technique of Selling and another in Merchandise Information were provided (1924-28) for senior women who wished to prepare for educational work in department stores, and two courses for commercial teachers were offered in the summer of 1926. In 1931 provision was made for this work during the academic year. Similar work has since been offered regularly, both in summer sessions and during the academic year. Methods and directed teaching courses in industrial arts were begun in 1929-30. These courses and courses for commercial teachers have been financed from the School of Education budget and not from Smith-Hughes funds.

Graduate work. — A seminar in vocational education and guidance, organized in 1923, and special problems courses were taken almost entirely by graduates. These included an honors reading course in current problems and special seminars. A sequence of courses leading to the master's degree with a major in vocational education or vocational guidance was offered. The sequence in vocational education has permitted the student to stress industrial education, industrial arts education, or commercial education. In 1935-36 seventeen students completed the requirements for the master's degree with a major in vocational education or vocational guidance.

By 1937 three men had been granted the degree of doctor of philosophy in education with vocational education as their special field: Walter L. Harris, F. X. Lake, and Francis W. Dalton.

Departmental publications. — From December, 1922, to June, 1938, the department published the Michigan Vocational News Bulletin, an eight-page publication appearing five times a year and distributed free to those interested in vocational education. Its purpose was to promote vocational education in Michigan and to inform superintendents, principals, and other school administrative officers and vocational teachers of developments in this field. The department also published The Problem of Vocational Guidance by George E. Myers and Planning Your Future by George E. Myers, Gladys M. Little, and Sarah A. Robinson. Professor Murtland assisted in preparing the vocational guidance volume of the White House Conference Report on Child Health and Protection and helped to prepare a volume on Occupations in Retail Stores based on a nationwide survey of retail selling. Since 1923 a series of special bulletins has also been published.

Special activities. — Because of the nature of the work for which the department is responsible, activities have been necessary that are foreign to the work of most departments of a university. Members of the staff have assisted city school authorities in determining the types of vocational education programs best suited to the needs of their respective communities. Vocational education surveys have been made in nearly all the principal cities of the state.

At the suggestion of the state supervisor of industrial education Professor Diamond gave a course (1923-36) at Western State Teachers College, Kalamazoo, for students preparing to teach industrial arts. In the summer of 1934 Professor Diamond engaged in similar work at the Northern State Teachers College, Marquette, Michigan. This work was without expense to the teachers colleges concerned.

Conferences have been held by members of the staff with groups of teachers in different parts of the state. Weekly conferences with individual teachers throughout a semester or a year have Page  1097been numerous and have dealt with courses in refrigeration, the machinist's trade, the malleable iron industry, and trade dressmaking. For two years (1934-36) Frank Dalton conducted conferences with store employees weekly in Lansing and biweekly in Sparta, concerning problems of selling and store management. A program of training for officers of city fire departments, begun in Detroit in January, 1935, has since been extended to other cities of the state.

Members of the Department of Vocational Education have been called upon for consultation concerning the educational activities of the State Vocational School at Lansing, the State Reformatory at Ionia, the Michigan Home and Training School at Lapeer, the Wayne County Home and Training School at Northville, and the Civilian Conservation Corps throughout the state.

Recent limitations on the department. — By action of the State Board for Vocational Education, in September, 1936, in accordance with a report submitted by the United States Office of Education, the work of the department was placed more directly under the State Director of Vocational Education and was narrowed in character. Attendance in the classes taught by members of the staff, whose salaries are paid from Smith-Hughes funds, was limited to prospective Smith-Hughes teachers and those preparing for Smith-Hughes work. One exception to this is a promotional course, Principles of Vocational Education, which may be taken by school administrators and teachers with experience in general education.

The policy followed by the department from 1917 to 1936 was to offer courses suited to the needs of industrial teachers and to admit anyone who was interested. Under the new regulations almost all the work of the department is supported by Smith-Hughes funds, except that of the summer session, which became extramural in character. The number taking campus and regular extension courses of the department was reduced.

THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL SCHOOL

By a series of public acts the state of Michigan has invested in and encouraged the development of child health, affording treatment at the University Hospital for those unable to secure care elsewhere. Afflicted wards of the state and crippled children have benefited by these enactments. The work at first was handled by the probate court of the county of residence and later was taken over by the Michigan Crippled Children Commission.

The assembling of children of different ages and illnesses for treatment has necessitated a consideration not only of medical care but of the child as a whole, so that he can make as much progress as possible under hospital conditions. The actual loss of time from school discourages the child and interferes with his recovery. An educational program compatible with his physical strength and with hospital and medical restrictions, and also satisfactory to the local school was a genuine contribution made possible by private generosity.

For years voluntary teaching service had been provided through the generosity of various women's groups in Ann Arbor, students of the University, Page  1098and other individuals. In 1922 the King's Daughters agreed to finance the services of a paid teacher, and Miss Ruby Bernice Carlton (Olivet '08, A.M. Michigan '25) began her teaching duties in September, 1923. Professor Charles S. Berry advised on educational problems, and the King's Daughters continued their financial and personal interest, but administrative responsibility was given to the Social Service Department of the University Hospital.

The establishment of a recognized professional standard of work acceptable to the group to which the child belonged was of great importance. The aim of the school has been to utilize the child's time, energy, and interest, as conditions permit, along profitable educational lines. Repeated surveys and continuous adjustments were necessary to maintain a satisfactory teaching service. Table I records the enrollment.

TABLE IGrowth of Enrollment by School Level
Year Primary Intermed. Junior High Senior High Special Total
1922-23 43 267 14 ... .. 324
1927-28 580 350 317 132 .. 1,379
1932-33 801 560 252 51 37 1,701*
1935-36 755 457 359 114 73 1,758*

In 1923 legislation made classes available for special groups of handicapped and crippled children. Increased interest in the crippled child culminated in the passage of special protective legislation in 1927, which included a provision relating to the education of hospitalized children, itemizing bedside, academic, and vocational instruction, and making a state appropriation thereto. Many adjustments have been necessary because the University Hospital School is effective only in its ability to meet individual needs.

By provision of this act the office of the state superintendent of public instruction was to approve selection of textbooks, teaching methods, curriculum, and selection of teachers. Dean J. B. Edmonson, of the School of Education, was requested to designate some member of his staff to act as representative of the state office in administering these responsibilities. On October 1, 1932, Assistant Professor Louis W. Keeler was appointed Director of Instruction in the Hospital School. Professor Keeler communicated with the schools from which the children had come in order to ascertain the significance of the Hospital School experience. Two methods of appraising the effectiveness of the Hospital School instruction were carried out. It had been the practice of the school to administer the Stanford Achievement Tests to each new patient in order to determine his level of scholastic achievement and to place him properly. These tests had not been given again during the child's stay in the Hospital. As a rule he had been in the Hospital too short a time to make possible an estimation of his progress, but in the case of a child who had been a member of the school for several weeks the tests were repeated at the time of his discharge from the Hospital. As most of the children came from rural homes, it was decided to make a comparison between the results obtained in the Hospital School and similar results obtained by using the same tests in corresponding grades of rural schools. In all grades the Hospital children were older, but accomplishment as shown by the tests was higher.

Another type of appraisal was undertaken in the form of a questionnaire sent to the home teacher when the patient was discharged from the Hospital. By this method it was hoped to ascertain the patient's progress as compared with that of other children in his grade. Most of these reports, except in cases of irregular Page  1099attendance, indicated that returned patients kept abreast of the home school work and in some instances received extra promotions.

Since its establishment the Hospital School has grown steadily. The original program was primarily an academic one. It soon became evident, however, that performance in both mental and physical activities was important and that personality and individual interests should be taken into consideration. The strength and need of the child control his interests. The Hospital, of necessity, has based its program upon public school requirements for the normal child, but has added whatever it could in the way of interest and diversion.

In 1927, with the increased interest of the state in the school, occupational therapy for children was placed on an educational basis. Shop, crafts, and other recreational activities of the regular school curriculum were introduced. Projects begun in the Hospital were continued in school, and school occupations were duplicated in the Hospital. The success of the work in crafts and occupational therapy for older children and young people emphasized the need for continued educational and vocational training.

Remedial work for children has become a part of the school program. Because of overcrowded conditions in both city and small-town schools the average child receives little individual help. In addition, the handicapped child attends school irregularly, and at the end of the year is usually promoted with the group in spite of his inability to do the advanced work. As a result the Hospital School discovered a great need for remedial work in the lower grades. Because of the brief period of time which can be given to each child's academic program, it has been impossible to meet all his needs in this respect. As reading is the main tool for all subjects, remedial instruction has centered about this subject. The Hospital teachers have been able to discover a child's reading handicap shortly after he has begun his work, and a course of training is started as soon as possible. Classification of reading difficulties can be made soon after the child's program has begun. Remedies used to overcome these difficulties vary with the length of the teaching period and the seriousness of the handicap. If a child's trouble is caused by defective vision or hearing, recommendations are made through the social service worker for further examination and medical care.

The following remedies have served to correct long-standing handicaps: consideration and examination of sight and hearing, individual instruction, phonic drill, oral reading, and reproduction of material. Each year more children benefit from this training. Reports from home schools have indicated that continued remedial work recommended by the Hospital School has been carried out in the majority of cases of normally intelligent children and that reading difficulties have been overcome. As the enrollment increased and added appropriations made possible the introduction of new courses, the curriculum was enlarged for both grade- and high-school students.

A full four-year high-school course was offered in 1927-28. During the next two years a complete two-year commercial course was added, and in 1933 and 1934 a three-year course in the sciences for junior and senior high-school students. Special movable equipment which could be used for bedside instruction added much to the interest and standard of the work. In 1934, 1935, and 1936, adult education received special attention, and vocational courses were offered for men and women who wished to prepare themselves for possible self-support. This program has been Page  1100privately financed. The library service has been used to co-ordinate the interests of all groups. Speech correction work for the children of the primary and intermediate grades was offered by the University Speech Department. Lip-reading for the deaf was included in this program. Work was begun with children of preschool age, and a study was made of reading readiness.

Individual teachers have contributed much to the satisfaction, happiness, and profit of the hospitalized child, guiding and encouraging him during his stay in the hospital and helping him to reestablish his sense of security in his own group. Many of these teachers came to the hospital for their first teaching experience, but there were others who had long taught in the public schools. Through careful choice of personnel over a period of years and by encouragement given to individual teachers who wished to further their education and knowledge,

TABLE IIHospital School Personnel
Year Full Time Part Time Volunteers* Student Teachers for Credit
1922-23 1 1 30 1
1927-28 6 3 26 7
1932-33 5 3 5 17
1935-36 6 3 1 4
the standard of performance in the Hospital School has been exceptionally high. The fostering of ambition in teachers during their time of service has led to unusual contributions made by those who afterward went into other fields.

THE BUREAU OF EDUCATIONAL REFERENCE AND RESEARCH

THE Bureau of Educational Reference and Research of the University was established as a unit of the Department of Education in 1919-20. At that time it was known as the Bureau of Tests and Measurements, but in 1921, with the establishment of the School of Education, the name was changed. The purposes of the Bureau are to aid the school authorities of the state in the proper selection and use of mental and educational tests and in the practical application of scientific methods to schoolroom procedure, to summarize research activities, and to disseminate information concerning them.

Guy M. Whipple (Brown '97, Ph.D. Cornell '00), the first Director of the Bureau, was succeeded in September, 1921, by Clifford Woody (Indiana '08, Ph.D. Columbia '16). There have been two assistant directors: Walter G. Bergman (Greenville '22, Ph.D. Michigan '29) from 1925 to 1929, and Louis W. Keeler ('00, Ph.D. '29) from 1929 until his death in 1939. Both directors held teaching positions in the School of Education and devoted about one-half time to the activities of the Bureau. The assistant directors have divided their time similarly.

The Bureau has been partly self-supporting. Although the salaries of the small staff have been paid from University Page  1101funds, supplementary funds have been provided by outside agencies. The expense of designated investigations has been met by a percentage allowed by publishing companies for distributing standard tests and instruments of measurement, and through the sale of published monographs, bulletins, and other types of materials.

The Bureau established the policy of directing research activities desired by outside agencies on the condition that those agencies provide funds to meet the expense of the investigations and assume responsibility for publishing the results. By 1940 several such investigations had been completed for the Michigan Education Association, as well as others for the American Classical League, the American and Canadian Committees of Modern Languages, the National Society of College Teachers of Education, and the boards of education in various Michigan towns and cities.

In contributing to publications sponsored by various national organizations, the Bureau has supplied sections for yearbooks of several departments of the National Education Association, the National Society of College Teachers of Education, and the American Educational Research Association, and has prepared several complete monographs for the Michigan State Department of Public Instruction.

One of the services rendered by the Bureau has been that of directing testing programs in which the public schools of Michigan have participated. Participation was relatively slight in the high schools until the programs were sponsored by the Department of High School Principals of the Michigan Education Association. From 1933 to 1940 about 20,000 pupils in approximately two hundred accredited high schools of the state took part. From 1928 to 1931, the Bureau, in co-operation with the Michigan Association of Collegiate Registrars, carried out a testing program in which the Psychological Examination of the American Council on Education and the Iowa Placement Examinations in English and Mathematics were given to freshmen in Michigan colleges and universities. In addition, the Bureau directed testing programs in the following local units: Grosse Ile, Grass Lake, Saline, Branch County Public Schools, and the Michigan State Public School for dependent children at Coldwater. These local programs differed in that they were financed entirely by the Bureau or were undertaken as training projects in courses in measurements given in the School of Education.

Another service in connection with the testing programs has been the distribution of standardized tests. For a number of years approximately half a million copies of educational and mental tests were distributed annually. From 1923 to 1927 the ratio of educational tests to mental tests was about seven to one. By 1937, although the total distribution had been reduced to about 60,000, the number of the two kinds of tests was approximately equal. For the use of students in the School of Education and other visitors to the Bureau, an exhibit of several hundred of the principal educational and mental tests is constantly maintained.

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The School of Forestry and Conservation

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Page  1105

THE SCHOOL OF FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION

THE University of Michigan was the first institution in the United States to give regular instruction in forestry. A few lectures on the subject had been offered previously at two or three eastern institutions, but these had not included it as an integral part of their curriculums. That it was made a part of the curriculum of the School of Political Science, organized in 1881, was due chiefly to Professor Volney Morgan Spalding ('73, Ph.D. Leipzig '94), who taught the first course. The description in the University Calendar for 1881-82 indicates that Professor Spalding, himself a botanist and therefore thoroughly cognizant of the need for placing forestry on a sound scientific foundation, also recognized its influence on the social and economic welfare of the country:

Forestry. Lectures on the following topics: 1. Historical: early laws and customs; schools of forestry and the forest service of Europe; position of the science in the United States. 2. Influence of Forests upon Human Affairs: the forest as a physical feature of the earth's surface; climatic and sanitary effects; products. 3. The Forest subject to Human Control: original distribution of forests and changes effected within historical times; preservation and renewal of forests; species for planting; methods of sylvi-culture; regions to be reforested; destructive agents and their control; due proportion of woodland; recent experiments and their results. 4. Forest Legislation: European forest law; existing laws of the United States; necessity of suitable legislation…

This course was offered for four years and dropped shortly before the abandonment of the School of Political Science as a separate unit.

Professor Spalding, however, continued to be active in forestry affairs, both national and state, and wrote several well-known government forestry bulletins. Another advocate of the teaching of forestry in Michigan during this period was Mr. Charles W. Garfield, of Grand Rapids. In 1901, largely at the instigation of these two men, the Board of Regents voted to renew the work started twenty years before. Charles Albert Davis (Bowdoin '86, Ph.D. Michigan '05), was appointed special Instructor in Forestry, but actual instruction was not begun until the fall of 1902. In 1903 a separate Department of Forestry, offering instruction of professional caliber, was organized in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts under the leadership of Professor Filibert Roth ('90, LL.D. hon. Marquette '23), who had been one of Professor Spalding's students, and who was one of the few men in the country who could properly be classed as a technical forester.

The work was organized on a combined undergraduate and graduate basis. Students desiring professional training met the usual requirements for the degree of bachelor of arts, taking a number of forestry electives, and then, after a year's work in the Graduate School, qualified for the degree of master of science in forestry. The first class to receive this degree graduated in 1904 and consisted of two men, Harry D. Everett, who later lost his life while on active service in the Philippine Islands, and Clyde Leavitt, who became assistant dean of the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. The number of students gradually increased, and by commencement of 1914 Page  1106sixteen men had received the degree of master of science in forestry.

The curriculum in 1903-4 consisted of ten courses of professional caliber and one course "designed to meet the needs of teachers, students of political economy, and others who wish to acquire a general knowledge of Forestry." Other courses, both of professional and nonprofessional character, were added as the profession of forestry developed. The staff, which in 1903 consisted of two men, Roth and Davis, increased, and appropriations, equipment, and other facilities for instruction were provided as the department grew. Roth proved to be one of the most capable, inspiring, and beloved teachers known to the forestry profession in America. Foresters from Michigan were conspicuous for the thoroughness of their professional training, their practical ability, enthusiasm, and their high ideals. This helped to gain for the University its position as one of the leading schools of forestry in the country.

An episode which occurred in 1912 showed both Professor Roth's hold on the students and the attitude of the University toward the Department of Forestry. In January of that year he submitted his resignation in order to become head of the newly established School of Forestry at Cornell University. The gloom caused by this announcement was a tribute to "the man who had come to be known affectionately to all his students as 'Daddy' Roth." There was much rejoicing a month later when his decision to remain at Michigan was announced, a change in plans resulting from the unqualified assurance by the Regents, not only of continued support, but of a marked expansion in the University's forestry activities.

In the fall of 1912 an important change in the curriculum was made, as a result of which it became possible for students to obtain the degree of bachelor of science in forestry at the end of a four-year prescribed program of study in forestry and prerequisite nonforestry studies. Fourteen graduates received the new degree in 1916. An additional year of graduate study leading to the degree of master of science in forestry continued to be offered, however, and those desiring full professional training were urged to take the five-year program. This arrangement, with occasional modifications in the specific requirements for degrees, has continued in effect.

In 1923 Professor Roth retired after twenty years of devoted and effective service. A penetrating analysis of the resulting situation was presented by President Burton in his annual report for 1923-24:

Instruction in Forestry. — The retirement of our much-beloved Professor Roth and the search for his successor have brought forward the whole question of forestry at the University and made it a problem of major dimensions. It has been the subject of frequent discussions… On the last of these occasions it was definitely decided to defer for another year the appointment of a chairman of the department… But important as may be the question of departmental organization, much larger issues are in the background, involving the whole future of forestry at the University of Michigan. Hitherto, forestry has been a comparatively small department in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, but it may justly be asked whether this relation should continue. It is at best little more than formal. The department has not many interests in common with the Literary College; its field is naturally well defined and marked off from others; its students and alumni recognize themselves as a separate group. In fairness it must be granted that the place of forestry is rather in the University, as an independent unit, than in any existing college of the University. Furthermore, any Page  1107consideration of this subject must take account of the fact that forestry is also taught by the Agricultural College at East Lansing. Our work must not duplicate theirs. It would seem to be our task to deal with forestry strictly as a University subject; not as an adjunct to agriculture, but as a career in itself. Our department should have in mind the larger services to the state and nation that forestry may contribute, and should give a course which will aim to create experts and investigators as well as recruits for the national forest service and private commercial organizations. In fine, we are at a point where a decision must be made for or against something far more ambitious than we have yet essayed, and providing for the program which a progressive policy would entail necessitates the provision of a very considerable sum of money, perhaps two millions of dollars, as a working basis. No decision has been reached on these important questions, and it is evident that much skillful planning will be called for before the way of the future is clear.

In the fall of 1926 the Regents decided to expand the work in forestry through the establishment of a separate unit to be known as the School of Forestry and Conservation. Samuel Trask Dana (Bowdoin '04, M. F. Yale '07, Sc.D. hon. Syracuse '28), who had had extensive experience in the United States Forest Service, was made Dean. Detailed plans were approved by the Regents in the spring of 1927. These provided that admission to the School should require two years of preliminary college work, and that the unit should "handle instruction, research, and cooperation with other institutions and organizations relating to the protection, production, management, utilization, and influence of forests and their resources," including tree products (such as wood, resins, and gums), forage, game, fish, and other forms of wild life, and also the influence of forests on climate, erosion, the water supply, recreation, health, and community development.

Attendance, which had dropped during the period of uncertainty as to the future of the department following Professor Roth's resignation, increased, particularly in the number of out-of-state students. Noteworthy was the growing enrollment in the Graduate School of candidates for the degree of doctor of philosophy with forestry and conservation as their field of specialization. In recent years candidates for the doctorate have specialized in such diverse fields as silvics, silviculture, forest mensuration, forest pathology, forest entomology, forest zoology, forest economics, and wood technology.

After the establishment of the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1933 and the expansion of governmental activity in the general field of conservation, popular interest in forestry increased. This was reflected by the number of students applying for admission not only at the University of Michigan but at other schools of forestry. Here attendance, which had doubled during the eight years since the establishment of the School, increased by about 50 percent in 1935-36 and again in 1936-37. In 1939-40 enrollment in the School totaled 187 full-time students. This overtaxed the facilities of the School and created a difficult employment situation, particularly in view of the retrenchment in governmental activity and the hesitation of private owners to embark on comprehensive forestry programs during the 1930's.

The extension activities of the School were largely in connection with the public school system. In 1927-28 Dean Dana reported to the President:

Effort is therefore being made … to impart some of the more essential information concerning forestry to the general public and more particularly to the school children of Page  1108the State, not as isolated facts but as an integral part of their regular studies. This work … has the enthusiastic approval of the public school authorities, and in the long run promises to prove particularly effective in bringing about a general understanding of the place of forestry and conservation in the development of the State.

As an aid to this end, the School in 1933 issued a pamphlet, Forestry and School Studies, A Correlation for Elementary Grades, by Professor Ernest V. Jotter. Work was also done in this field with organizations, such as women's clubs and garden clubs.

The increased emphasis on both extension and research was recognized in 1930 by the establishment of definite bureaus in these fields. In 1932 the School initiated a series of Bulletins and in 1937 a separate series of Circulars.

As the University's interest in forestry and conservation has grown the School's physical facilities have increased. In 1904 Regent Hill made provision for a much needed field laboratory through the gift of the "Saginaw Forestry Farm" on West Liberty Street, an area familiar not only to foresters but to students and graduates in other fields. Other gifts of land include the Stinchfield Woods, near Dexter, and Ringwood, near St. Charles. The Eber White Woods, just outside Ann Arbor, was purchased by the Regents in 1915. The School supervises forestry activities on the 3,900-acre tract of the Biological Station in Cheboygan County and also administers the 3,035 acres on Sugar Island in Chippewa County which were presented to the University in 1929 by former Governor Chase S. Osborn. In addition to these properties, which represent a wide variety of forest conditions in different parts of the state, mention should be made of the excellent forestry library and of the mechanical and scientific equipment which is now available for instruction and research.

The School has been fortunate in receiving gifts of money as well as of land and equipment. The most important of these came in 1930, when Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack, of Lakewood, New Jersey, established the George Willis Pack Forestry Foundation of $200,000 for the promotion of forest land management. In his letter offering this gift to the Regents Mr. Pack stated:

This foundation is established in the University of Michigan on account of its prestige, its facilities for teaching … all phases of practical forestry, and its experienced staff; and on the definite assurance from the Board of Regents that the School of Forestry and Conservation has its hearty support and will continue to be developed as an outstanding institution as rapidly as the resources of the University permit.


(R.P., 1929-32, p. 161.)
Substantial additions to the income from this foundation have been made from the Charles Lathrop Pack Forestry Trust through the interest of Captain Arthur N. Pack, director of the trust. As a result of the endowment the University has been able to develop its forest properties and to co-operate with federal, state, and private agencies in the promotion of forestry to an extent that would otherwise have been impossible.

Still further development along similar lines was made possible in 1936 by a three-year grant of $7,500 a year from the same trust for the establishment of the Charles Lathrop Pack Professorship of Wild Land Utilization. This grant, which was made through the interest of Captain Pack, made it possible for the School to participate more effectively than it could otherwise have done in the program of research in land utilization being developed in the University under the auspices of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies.

Page  1109Other financial contributions, chiefly for research, have been received from the Michigan Division of the Izaak Walton League of America, the American Game Association, the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute, the Michigan Department of Conservation, and the Pennsylvania Board of Game Commissioners. The contacts which the School has maintained have been helpful in bringing about a better understanding of the wild land problems of the state and in paving the way for common action in their solution.

The faculty of the School in 1940 consisted of Shirley W. Allen (Iowa State '09, M.F. ibid. '29), Professor of Forestry, Dow V. Baxter ('21, Ph.D. '24), Associate Professor of Silvics and Forest Pathology, Willard S. Bromley (B.S.F. Pennsylvania State '31, M.F. Yale '39), Assistant Professor of Wild Land Utilization, Robert Craig, Jr., (B.S. Alma College '08, M.S.F. Michigan '10), Associate Professor of Forest Utilization, Samuel A. Graham (Minnesota '14, Ph.D. ibid. '21, M.F. Cornell '16), Professor of Economic Zoology, William Kynoch (Toronto '14, F.E. ibid. '18), Professor of Wood Technology, Donald M. Matthews ('08, M.S.F. '09), Professor of Forest Management, Frank Murray (New York State Ranger School), Forest Manager, Earl C. O'Roke (Kansas '12, Ph.D. California '29), Associate Professor of Forest Zoology, Willett F. Ramsdell ('12, M.S.F. '14), George Willis Pack Professor of Forest Land Management, Howard M. Wight (Bates '15, M.S. Oregon State '17), Associate Professor of Forest Zoology, and Leigh J. Young ('09, M.S.F. '11), Professor of Silviculture.

Forestry in the United States achieved recognition as a definite profession at about the beginning of the present century. Since then it has expanded tremendously in scope and in personnel requirements. This evolution in the profession as a whole has been accompanied by a similar evolution at the University of Michigan, which, as occasion arose, has consistently strengthened and enlarged its forestry activities to meet the changing needs of the times. The success of this policy is indicated by the standing of its alumni, who occupy positions of leadership in every part of the country and in every branch of the profession. Practical recognition of the School's standing was afforded by the rating of 94.79 which it received in a study of professional forestry schools made in 1934 and 1935 by the Council of the Society of American Foresters and its designation by the Council as one of the four "distinguished" schools of forestry in the country.

The establishment of the present School of Forestry and Conservation was a logical, perhaps an inevitable, step forward in this evolution. Three features of its program are particularly worthy of note: the broad scope of the activities assigned to the School, comprising as they do the entire range of problems involved in the management of wild lands and their included waters; the emphasis on advanced work leading to the master's and the doctor's degrees; and the inclusion of research and extension, with instruction, as important lines of endeavor. The word "conservation" was added to the name of the School to call attention to its broad range of activities, and to its emphasis on the philosophy of conservation as a guiding principle in the development of the nation's resources. Perhaps one of the most marked features in the evolution of the School has been the flexibility of its program and its readiness to modify its program to meet changing conditions.

Page  1110
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Forestry and Conservation, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1881-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1881-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1881-1940.
Young, Leigh G."Growth and Cultural Experiments on the Saginaw Forest."Papers Mich. Acad., 9 (1929): 541-94.
Wood Technology

Timber research has two general objectives: to establish the facts regarding the physical, anatomical, mechanical, chemical, pathological, and other properties or characteristics of woods and to correlate these with the conditions under which the timber is grown, and to devise means of modifying these properties or characteristics and thus increase the usefulness and value of timber as a material.

Application of properly established research findings in the wood industries is a good business. Timber research, however, is relatively new, and a lag has existed in the employment of research results, which undoubtedly has entailed an economic waste and loss of serious proportions.

An appreciation of this state of affairs, arising from contact with the wood industries over a number of years, resulted in a combination in technical education at the University of Michigan. The conception behind this program is that a technical man in the wood industries must be trained both in engineering and in wood technology.

Some work in wood technology had been given at the University since the early days of forestry education, and as far back as 1903 a course known as Timber Physics, dealing with the structure and properties, and with the relationship of these to the uses of woods, was open to students in engineering and forestry. In 1912-13 a course in wood technology included work in wood identification, the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of wood, its seasoning and preservative treatment, and wood distillation.

In 1917-18, and for some years thereafter, a course entitled Forestry for Engineers was offered. In 1927, when the School of Forestry and Conservation was established as a separate unit of the University, William Kynoch was appointed Associate Professor of the Chemical Utilization of Wood, and plans were made to expand the instructional work in wood technology as well as to provide some facilities for research in this field. The courses dealing with the minute structure, identification, and physical properties of wood, and with timber mechanics, were amplified and have since kept pace with advances in these lines. The following year a drying kiln and a pressure wood impregnation plant were installed, and new courses dealing with kiln drying, preservation, and fire retardation, and the chemical utilization of wood were given. Later, a power-operated testing machine and accessory equipment were added, and enlarged laboratory space and facilities were provided.

In 1931-32 the work in wood technology was strengthened by the introduction of courses on the control of insects injurious to wood products and on the pathology of wood, and in 1935-36 a course on plywood and laminated construction, which included work on adhesives and wood-adhesive relations, was added.

These developments made it possible Page  1111for students to obtain a sound and well-rounded training in wood technology. In 1934 a plan was worked out with the College of Engineering for the establishment of a combined curriculum in engineering and wood technology. The combined course required the student to spend three years in the College of Engineering, where his program was essentially the same as that followed by those preparing to qualify in mechanical engineering. On completion of this part of the work, with acceptable standing, the student transferred to the School of Forestry and Conservation. On satisfactory completion of one year's work in this School, following the wood technology program, he became eligible for the degree of bachelor of science in engineering, and after a further year, it was possible to secure the degree of master of forestry (wood utilization). So far as can be ascertained, Michigan is the first institution of higher education in this country to have developed such a program. This combined curriculum has provided an adequate training for technical employment in the wood industries. After gaining the necessary practical experience, men with this preparation were able to assist materially in the effective linking of timber research with industry.

Forest Zoology

Before the organization of the School of Forestry and Conservation in 1927, no courses in forest zoology were offered, and research concerned with the management or control of forest animals was of a casual nature. Increasing recognition of the importance of animal life in the forest led to demands in this field which have been met through courses and research in the School.

In teaching and research it is necessary to consider forest animals not only as individual entities, but also in their relation to each other and to the plants with which they are associated. Thus, forest zoology requires an ecological approach, and courses in this field are strongly influenced by this requirement. They include a general course in forest zoology, courses in the economic relations and management of forest animals, pathology of forest animals, range management, forest entomology, and forest ecology. These courses provide for the needs of students who expect to enter the field of timber production or utilization, those in the general field of wildland management, and those who plan to enter some field of forest zoology. Although a student may elect several courses in forest zoology as an undergraduate, specialization involves graduate study.

Considerable research has been conducted by staff members and graduate students. Attention was given by Professor Howard M. Wight to the ecology and management of the pheasant and to the animals with which it is associated in southern Michigan. Some of the results of this work have been published. A study of the Hungarian partridge and one of the biology and management of the cottontail rabbit were made.

In the field of animal pathology Assistant Professor Earl C. O'Roke has published the results of his studies concerning the Leucocytozoon disease of ducks and the diseases of deer, including those caused by lungworms and other organisms associated with winter mortality.

In the field of forest entomology numerous studies have been carried on by Samuel A. Graham, Professor of Economic Zoology, and have been concerned with defoliators, especially the ecology Page  1112and control of the spruce budworm on pine, the effects of walking-stick insects on forest areas, the larch sawfly, and the larch casebearer. Much time has been devoted to searching for control measures for white grubs in forest plantations.

The research work in forest zoology has been supported in part by regular University funds, but financial and other support has also been given by the State Department of Conservation, the Izaak Walton League of America, the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Association, the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Entomology, and the United States Department of Agriculture. Especially close relationship is maintained with the Forest Service and with the Bureau of Entomology through collaboration arrangements for an official station here.

Forest Pathology

The advances made in plant pathology did not begin until almost the close of the nineteenth century. The United States government first recognized the science in 1885. In 1886 Dr. Erwin F. Smith ('86, ScD. '89, LL.D. hon. '22, Sc.D. Wisconsin '14), "dean of the American phytopathologists," was appointed assistant to Dr. F. Lamson Scribner, mycologist of the newly created section of the Botanical Division of the United States Department of Agriculture. Another man whose name will always be associated with important advances in plant pathology was Lewis R. Jones ('89, Ph.D. '04, LL.D. hon. '35), who had been a fellow student of Filibert Roth at the University. Two years after the first department of plant pathology was formed (Cornell, 1907), a department was established at the University of Wisconsin with Professor Jones at its head. He made important studies on the relation of environment to plant disease.

Forest pathology, like plant pathology, received stimulus in the Department of Botany, and attention in the University was attracted to this field at about the same time that the importance of fungus diseases was first given consideration in the nation. It is difficult to separate the first courses offered at the University on structure and classification of fungi from those which were concerned primarily with diseases of plants and forest trees. Although forest fungi were studied as early as 1905, James B. Pollock (Wisconsin '93, Sc.D. Michigan '97), Assistant Professor of Botany, offered the first course which specifically called attention to forest pathology.

The description of this first course reads in part:

Morphology, and Classification of Fungi. … This course with Course 8 is preparatory to research in pathology. The first part of the semester will be spent in collecting and classifying fungi, with special reference to forms causing diseases of trees. The latter work will include the study of the larger groups, and the preparation of lists of literature and reports on assigned topics.

Michigan's first forestry student, C. L. Hill ('01, M.S.F. ibid. '05), Assistant Professor of Forestry (1909-12), entered the United States Service and worked on the prevention of wood decay by the use of timber preservatives. The preservative treatment of wood received commendation equal to that of conservative use of the forest itself. Both were parts of a great movement to prevent timber famine.

The name of another early graduate, Roy G. Pierce (Nebraska '07, M.S.F. Michigan '08), will always be associated with the control work that the government has done against foreign fungus pests which attack trees. His familiarity Page  1113with the exotic Endothia parasitica and the damage it was causing in the chestnut forests of the East prepared him for a key position in the fight against the blister rust, a pest new to North America.

Forest pathology at that time was still considered as more or less subsidiary to other work. The subject has been required as part of a course in botany and has been given under such names as Forest Protection, Forest Botany, and Forestry. As the Department of Forestry grew, Roth insisted upon forest pathology as a fundamental requirement for a degree in forestry. Work was developed primarily for students intending to study forestry, and later the course was arranged for foresters only. It was given in 1916 by Assistant Professor Calvin H. Kauffman (Harvard '96, Ph.D. Michigan '07), who built up a large reference collection of valuable specimens for timber disease study and did much toward laying the foundation for forest pathology. The required term report on heart rot is remembered by all who came under Kauffman's influence, and older graduates regard the New Richmond field trips with him as high spots in their University careers. During this period emphasis was given not so much to the accumulation of known facts as to stimulating original observation.

New concepts in forest pathology were developed, and old ones were modified when the study of this subject became a definite part of the curriculum in the School of Forestry and Conservation. Professor Dow V. Baxter was given charge of this work. The diseased tree and forest became the central focus, and mycology, although still considered fundamental to the training of the specialist, did not absorb the major interest.

With opportunities strengthened for the training of specialists, emphasis in the beginning course in pathology was designed to give the Michigan forester a background and working knowledge of fundamentals upon which he could draw.

An added course called Pathology of Wood was offered in 1931-32. Intended for students of wood technology and engineering, it dealt with the growth requirements of the decay- and stain-causing fungi by actual experiments made in the laboratory. Toxicity studies were conducted and, in contrast to early policies of conservation, the methods used for stain and decay prevention and control were employed in many ways to extend the usefulness of wood and its products. The laboratory work was supplemented by an annual inspection trip to the United States Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin.

For advanced work in products pathology, and for special problems, a dry kiln, a timber-treating plant, and testing machines were made available. This wood technology laboratory, established in 1927 under the direction of Professor William Kynoch, has been open to students working in both forest and products pathology.

Forest Properties of the School of Forestry and Conservation

A forestry school must have a forestry laboratory. To be of maximum value this should be near enough to the school to be reached at any time. The School of Forestry and Conservation is fortunate in owning forests which are easily accessible.

Shortly after the establishment of the Forestry Department in 1903, Arthur Hill, of Saginaw, former lumberman and Regent of the University, presented a tract of eighty acres to the University for the use of the department. The Page  1114area is about four miles from the campus on West Liberty Road, and under the terms of the deed was designated as the Saginaw Forestry Farm. At that time part of it had so deteriorated that cultivation had been abandoned, and the remainder was still under lease for crop production. In 1904 several coniferous plantations were established on the idle part of the tract. Additional planting was done each year until by 1915 the entire plantable area had been covered. By 1928 fifty-five acres were in forest plantations, consisting of nine coniferous species and twelve hardwoods. The balance of the area comprises a lake of eleven acres, swampy ground, an arboretum, natural second growth on slopes that were never cultivated, and roads. Thirteen additional species were planted in the Arboretum. A detailed history of the various plantations by Professor Leigh J. Young has been published in Volume IX of the Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters under the title, "Growth and Cultural Experiments on the Saginaw Forest."

In 1919 the name was changed to Saginaw Forest. At that time a stone cabin was built near the shore of the lake. Most of the annual forestry camp fires and field days are held there. A short distance from the cabin, a large stone with an appropriate bronze tablet was erected by the students in 1927 as a memorial to Professor Filibert Roth, the first head of the Forestry Department.

A second property became available in 1915 through the purchase by the Regents of a wooded tract of forty-three acres on West Liberty Road just outside the city limits. This area, a part of the former Eber White estate, was named the Eber White Woods. Because of long freedom from fire and grazing these woods were in unusually fine condition. Previous cuttings had been restricted, so that many of the older trees were still standing. The value of the woods was still further enhanced by the richness of its composition.

A plan of management was adopted in 1917. Under this plan, cuttings have been made every year on what is known as a "selection" basis. As a result of this system of cutting, the woods have been maintained in an irregular, uneven-aged condition, which closely resembles that of a natural woods. As the removal of wood has been less than the amount of new growth, the present volume is greater than it was in 1917. The value of the present volume is also higher per unit, because more of it is contained in shapelier trees and trees of the more valuable species.

In 1925 Mrs. Charles Stinchfield, of Detroit, made the University a gift of $10,000 for the purchase of the area known as Stinchfield Woods, so named because the woods are to remain a memorial to Charles and Jacob W. Stinch-field, her husband and his father, respectively. These woods, with an area slightly under 320 acres, are situated south of Portage Lake about fifteen miles from the campus. About 110 acres are in oak-hickory woods. The remainder, cleared fields at the time of purchase, has almost all been planted. Planting began in 1925 and has consisted mostly of seven species of pine with some small groups of other coniferous species. The native hardwoods on this area differ radically from those of the Eber White Woods in a number of important respects, and the composition is much more simple. As soon as the property was acquired, grazing was stopped. Cleared firebreaks, constructed along the boundaries, have helped to prevent the occurrence of any damage from fire. As most of the soils are marginal, if not submarginal, agriculturally, this area has afforded an opportunity to demonstrate what might be done on lands of this general character Page  1115in the direction of forest production.

Three plantings at the Stinchfield Woods have been established as separate memorials. The first of these, an area of about 1,500 trees, was dedicated to George Washington in commemoration of the Washington Bicentennial. In the spring of 1937 a plantation of Norway pine was established in the name of Charles Lathrop Pack, and trees were also planted in honor of the members of the Board of Regents serving at that time.

A tract of 160 acres was presented to the University for the use of the School of Forestry and Conservation by Mr. Clark L. Ring, of Saginaw, in December, 1930. The tract contained thirty to thirty-five year old plantations of European larch, Scotch pine, black locust, white ash, and other species.

The chase s. osborn preserve. — In 1929 Chase S. Osborn presented to the University 3,035 acres of land immediately below Sault Ste Marie on Sugar Island, which is in the St. Mary's River, the connecting link between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. About 2,500 acres near the south end of the island, beautifully situated along the river channel facing the Canadian shore, are well blocked and heavily wooded. Duck Island, which lies close to the Sugar Island shore and is actually connected to it at the lower end during low water, comprises a part of the tract. Mr. Osborn occupied this island with its two log cabins and fireproof library each summer, and the huge log "Gander" cabin on the main island has been headquarters for University activities. The main body of the tract has nearly eight miles of shore line, of which about five miles are highland and three miles lowland.

This magnificent gift to the University was "principally for research and instruction in the natural sciences and forestry." Until November, 1935, its general administration was in the hands of the Committee on University Lands Used for Instruction and Research, at which time it was transferred to the Summer Session, under the continued custodianship of the George Willis Pack Professor of Forest Land Management. Considerable forestry development and research have been carried out.

The George Willis Pack Foundation and Professorship

In 1930 the George Willis Pack Forestry Foundation was established by a gift of $200,000 from Charles Lathrop Pack, of Lakewood, New Jersey. The foundation was named in honor of the donor's father, who was one of the early lumbermen in Michigan, and was given for "the promotion of practical forest land management in the broadest sense of the term." It was stipulated that an experienced forester, to be known as the George Willis Pack Professor of Forest Land Management, should devote his time chiefly to furthering the practice of forestry in the woods rather than in the classroom. In extending the gift to the Board of Regents, the donor stated that the "foundation is established in the University of Michigan on account of its prestige, its facilities for teaching the broad principles of all phases of practical forestry, and its experienced staff."

Since 1930 the foundation income has been supplemented by annual cash grants of from $3,500 to $6,000 from the Charles Lathrop Pack Forestry Trust. These generous gifts have provided funds for the extensive program carried on by the foundation.

In June, 1930, Willett F. Ramsdell, who had had wide experience in the problems Page  1116of forest land management in the United States Forest Service, was appointed to the foundation professorship. At the time of his appointment he was Assistant District Forester of the North Central and Lake States regions.

In accordance with provisions of the foundation, work has been stressed in three primary fields. First, there has been great progress in the development of the University forest and wild land properties, in northern Michigan. At the University Biological Station tract near Douglas Lake, approximately 3,000 acres are under intensive development as a demonstration forest and forestry research center. This work is conducted in co-operation with and according to plans worked out with the Director of the Biological Station, in order that forestry activities may supplement the primary objective of the Station. The University's Chase S. Osborn Preserve on Sugar Island is similarly the center of applied forestry research and practice. Work has also been done at Ringwood, in the Saginaw Valley. In this phase of the foundation program carried out during the summer periods, Professor Leigh J. Young has taken an active part.

The second major field of activity has been co-operation with and participation in the programs of the public forestry and conservation agencies active in Michigan and the Lake States regions. These programs had tremendous impetus during the depression years because they were among the more practical and popular of the so-called work-relief outlets. Through the foundation, the University played an active part in the Civilian Conservation Corps program in Michigan, aiding in the general programs of the State Department of Conservation, the United States Forest Service, and the Land Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration.

The third field of activity consisted of co-operative work with private timberland owners, operators, and companies, particularly the Northern Hemlock and Hardwood Manufacturers' Association. Co-operative studies have been made, special studies and reports on forest taxation prepared, and assistance given in furthering sound tax legislation.

The Charles Lathrop Pack Professorship of Wild Land Utilization

Because of the success of the University activities under the George Willis Pack Forestry Foundation, a new professorship in wild land utilization was established in June, 1936, for a three-year period. This was provided for by a grant from the Charles Lathrop Pack Forestry Trust, of which Arthur Newton Pack, a son of Charles Lathrop Pack, in whose honor the professorship was named, was made trustee. Lee Roy Schoenmann (Wisconsin '11), who was appointed to the position in August, 1936, had been for eight years director of the Michigan Land Economic Survey, and was in immediate charge of the organization and administration of the Michigan CCC state forestry camps. Schoenmann resigned in 1937, and the position was filled in 1938 by the appointment on a twelve months' basis of Horace Justin Andrews ('15, M.S.F. '16).

The Bureau of Forest Extension

The establishment of the Bureau of Forest Extension in the School of Forestry and Conservation in 1930 strengthened the extension work which had been undertaken in 1928 under the direction of Shirley W. Allen. Professor Page  1117Ernst V. Jotter ('08, M.S.F. '09) was assigned full time to the Bureau, and Allen gave half time to the extension projects. Dean Dana headed the work, and other members of the faculty were also called upon by timberland owners for lectures, demonstrations, and advice. The work of Willett F. Ramsdell, George Willis Pack Professor of Forest Land Management, although under the Bureau, was separately financed. Close co-operation with the University Extension Service has been maintained in all forest extension work.

The public spirited efforts of Filibert Roth during his many years of service contributed largely to the success of the Bureau. Typical projects upon which service has been concentrated since 1928 include the preparation of aids for teachers who use forestry subject matter in public school courses. These include actual forestry lessons, Arbor Day programs, lantern slide collections, plans for contests, material and bibliographies, circulars and charts from the federal government, the state, and the forest- and wood-using industries, and loan exhibits of strong construction and up-to-date materials.

At the request of the Michigan Department of Conservation a program of co-operation in training the department's field officers to promote forest fire prevention through work with the rural schools was carried on for four years. From two to four counties a year were covered in the fire-hazardous districts of the state.

From 1928 to 1940 field training of public school teachers in forestry and wild-life instruction methods reached more than 3,000 teachers and prospective teachers. Indoor addresses and demonstrations reached as many more, and help has been given individual high-school teachers in planning field and laboratory projects.

Work by conservation committees and public addresses throughout the state to service clubs, women's organizations, and sportsmen's groups have reached an average of ten to twenty thousand people a year, and the results have included a Community Forest Law passed in 1931, a campaign by the Federated Garden Clubs of Michigan in the spring of 1935 to stop the useless burning of marshes and forest lands, a conservation institute for women held at the University in 1935, the establishment of preforestry curriculums in various colleges in the state, and requests for services of representatives of the Bureau in preparing material for the use of educational advisers in the Civilian Conservation Corps camps.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1930-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1930-40Page  [1118]
Page  [1119]

The University Musical Society and the School of Music

Page  [1120]
Page  1121

THE UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY AND THE SCHOOL OF MUSIC

EARLY history. — The history of the University Musical Society is so interwoven with the development of music in the University, and with the affairs of its subdivisions, the School of Music and the Choral Union, that in order to record the history of any one of these, it is necessary to consider it in relationship to the others.

The first official mention of music by the University was in reference to bells. On January 14, 1845, Regent Kearsley reported that the committee on finance to whom had been referred the matter of the bell and hangings belonging to the Central Railroad, which at that time were being used by the University, "believing said bell to be too small for the permanent purpose of the University," considered its purchase inexpedient. They "borrowed" it, however, promising to return it "on demand."

On June 28, 1864, almost twenty years later, "the Executive Committee was authorized to procure a bell for the University, not exceeding six hundred pounds in weight." The matter evidently was of a controversial nature for the resolution was considered and tabled. Apparently, the University finally purchased a bell, for on March 28, 1865, appears the following item: "For the Bell … $526.09." Five years later, on June 27, 1870, it was ordered, "that the Steward be instructed to procure a new bell, of the same weight as the old one, exchanging the old one and paying the difference from the general fund" (R.P., 1870-76, p. 47). Thus, for a period of twenty-five years, the question of purchasing a bell for the University was under consideration.

What final disposition was made of the bell is not known, but Horace G. Pretty-man of the class of 1885, related that during the seventies there was a bell, perhaps a foot or eighteen inches in diameter, on the north wing of University Hall. It was rung mornings and on other occasions. Students in the upper classes, objecting to being awakened by the same bell which woke the freshmen, on one occasion wrapped up the clapper so that it could not ring. Another time they turned the bell upside down and filled it with water so that the clapper was frozen in ice. Finally, they stole the bell and threw it into the old "cat-hole."

Thirteen years later at a meeting of the Board of Regents on January 3, 1883, in reference to the installation of the Library chimes, which were used for more than half a century, Professor C. K. Adams reported:

In the contract for the peal of bells ordered for the Library Building, it was agreed that Mr. Meneely should take the old bell with its hangings at full price in case the University should desire to dispose of them. I expect to put the new bells in their place in the tower without any cost to the University whatever; but, in case the fund in my hands should be insufficient to pay for the mounting, I should be glad to be authorized to supplement it from a part of the proceeds from the sale of the old bell. The balance (and perhaps the whole,) will, of course, be turned into the University Treasury, in case the Regents authorize the sale.

I make the suggestion with the understanding that the old bell is not to be taken down till the new ones are in working order.

In June, 1883, Adams also stated:

In the spring of 1882 President White of Cornell University volunteered to be one of three of four persons to place a peal of bells Page  1122in one of the towers of the new Library Building. "Find two or three persons to join me in the matter," said he, "and we will put four or five bells in place without cost to the University." This suggestion was acted upon… The requisite money was put at my command; and I received direction to make a selection of bells.

.....

Of all musical instruments, a group of bells is probably the most difficult to select. The sound of a bell consists of not less than six individual tones, more or less distinct to an acute and cultivated ear; and the quality of the note emitted depends upon the harmonic adjustment of these several tones. No science can prescribe the exact conditions by which this adjustment can invariably be secured; and no art seems able to correct a defective adjustment when once a bell has been cast. A perfect peal would consist of a group of bells in which all these harmonic conditions were perfect in every bell, and in which all the bells were in perfect musical accord with one another. These conditions are so difficult of fulfillment that there is probably not a peal in the world in which they are perfectly realized. A close approximation of these conditions is what gives the especial charm to some of the famous bells of Europe.

After a somewhat extended correspondence with founders in Europe and America, it was decided to give the order to the Clinton H. Meneely Bell Company at Troy, New York. Two visits to the founders were made, one in company with Mr. Battell, and one in company with Professor C. B. Cady, of our School of Music. In the visit for final inspection we examined the chime in Albany, cast by the Clinton H. Meneely Company, as well as the chimes in Buffalo, one of which is the largest and probably the most satisfactory in America. Professor Cady is of the opinion that the bells cast for this University, though not quite perfect when judged from a standard of ideal excellence, are more nearly in tune than were the bells of any of the chimes we visited. The acquaintances of Professor Cady need not be reminded that he is not accustomed to find musical perfection.

The bells are tuned respectively to G, F, E, B, and E, — a succession which provides for the striking of the so-called Cambridge quarters besides the strike of the hour on the large bell. The bells range in weight from 210 to 3,071 lbs.

On the large bell are two inscriptions. That on the east side is the following: universitati michiganensium / ab / iacobo i. hagerman / edvino c. hegeler / andrea d. white / donata / mdccclxxxiii./

On the opposite side is inscribed: bonarum artium / rerumque / humanarum ac divinarum / studiosos / convocamus.

.....

In fulfillment of instructions from the donors and in their behalf, I now present these bells to the University. Through the years to come may they speak out their own words: — call together those who are studious of all good things both human and divine.


(R.P., 1881-86, pp. 340-42.)

At the same meeting the President was requested to thank the Messrs. J. J. Hagerman, E. C. Hegeler, and President Andrew D. White, for the present of the bells for the "new Library Building."

These chimes remained in the tower of the old Library Building until it was demolished in 1918, to make place for the present Library Building, when they were transferred to the tower of the Engineering Building.

The subject of bells apparently did not arise again until President Burton developed the postwar University building program. Dr. Burton had frequently expressed the hope that sometime the University might have a campus tower with a carillon. Those who knew him realized that only the necessity for buildings to meet the immediate needs of an increasing student enrollment restrained him from giving more attention to the project of a bell tower.

It was natural, therefore, upon Dr. Burton's death in 1925, that his interest in a carillon and tower should have been remembered. The Ann Arbor Alumni Page  1123Club, by investigation and enthusiasm, did much to forward the plan of the carillon and tower. Had it not been for the depression of 1929, it is likely that the efforts of this group would have been successful at that time.

In 1935 Charles Baird ('95, LL.B. '95, A.M. hon. '40) generously gave the University $50,000 "for the purchase of a carillon, to be known as the Charles Baird Carillon." Later gifts by Mr. Baird for additional bells and for the Tower brought his total contribution "for the carillon, clock, and tower to the sum of $77,500" (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 597, 776).

Efforts were begun to provide additional funds in the amount of approximately $200,000 for the construction of a tower to be known as the Marion LeRoy Burton Memorial Tower, to house the Charles Baird Carillon. Trust funds held by the University were supplemented by gifts.

Work was begun on the construction of the Tower in 1936. In the meantime a carillon of fifty-three bells had been ordered from the J. H. Taylor Bell Foundry, of Loughborough, England. Earl V. Moore, Musical Director of the University, visited the foundry for the purpose of inspecting and approving the bells before they were shipped. The largest, or Bourdon bell, weighs more than twelve tons and has the pitch of E-flat below middle C. The smallest bell weighs twelve pounds and sounds the note of G-sharp, four and one-half octaves above the Bourdon.

In August, 1936, Wilmot F. Pratt, of New York City, a graduate of the Carillon School, Malines, Belgium, was appointed University Carillonneur.

Dedicatory exercises were held December 4, 1936, in the formal presentation of the Charles Baird Carillon. Mr. Frank Cecil Godfrey acted on behalf of the bell founders, and Mr. Charles Baird made the presentation to President Ruthven, who accepted on behalf of the University. The Charles Baird Carillon and the Marion LeRoy Burton Memorial Tower serve as memorials to a loyal alumnus and an able President. As space in the School of Music Building is limited, the several floors in the Tower, as well as Harris Hall and Lane Hall, are used for practice and teaching studios.

On the outer wall of the Burton Memorial Tower is a large stone plaque, bearing the following inscriptions:

The / Burton Memorial / Tower / Erected to the Memory of / Marion LeRoy Burton / President of / the University of Michigan / 1920.25

The / Charles Baird / Carillon / Presented to / the University of Michigan / by / Charles Baird / Class of 1895

During the quarter century from 1845 to 1870, the single reference to music by the Regents, other than that relating to bells, is found in a report of November 3, 1869: "Regent Johnson moved that the President be authorized to procure one hundred copies of a music book for use in the Chapel exercises." Seven years later, on July 12, 1877, it was resolved "that in view of the increase of the diploma fee the University shall hereafter furnish the music on Commencement occasions, which has heretofore been paid for by the graduating classes."

In the late seventies and in the beginning of the eighties great interest developed in music, both in the community and in the University. In the spring of 1879 a Messiah Club was formed by singers from several of the church choirs. "In the autumn the organization was perfected, under the name of the 'Ann Arbor Choral Union' … Its membership embraced without discrimination, persons connected with the University and persons not so connected" (Winchell, "Our Musical Interests"). It undertook the program of the Messiah Page  1124Club to give concerts in the local churches. Almost before this movement had crystallized the University Musical Society was organized in order to "bridge the music of the community with that of the University." The Ann Arbor School of Music was in its infancy and in the deliberations which followed, frequent references were made to the Amphion Club, to the Chequamegon Orchestra, which not only played for parties but also "did better things," and to the University Glee Club.

At a meeting of the Regents, March 24, 1880, the following communication from the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, advocating instruction in music, was read:

  • 1. Music as a science is closely allied to our existing scientific course, and, properly taught, would be no less useful as a disciplinary study.
  • 2. As an art it comes in contact with life and society more universally than any other of the aesthetic arts, while it is so inseparable from many of the duties as well as the pleasures of life, that it may justly be reckoned also among the useful arts.
  • 3. As a profession scarcely any is more in demand at the present moment than that of music-teaching, and on scarcely any is more money expended by all classes of people — rich and poor.
  • 4. Music was one of the seven liberal arts originally embraced in the attainments necessary to the Bachelor's and Master's degrees, and though it is now omitted from the prerequisites to a degree in Arts, no University can be found, or scarcely any, of the rank of the University of Michigan, in which provision is not made for the teaching and cultivation of music. At the same time, music in its present state of development, emphatically a modern art, is far more worthy of a place in liberal studies than in those times when it was one of the conditions of a degree.
  • .....
  • 8. We believe that for all these reasons this University should no longer be left without some provision for teaching the science and art of Music.
  • 9. The objects to be accomplished are two: First, the establishment of theoretic and scientific courses in music, such as can be given by class instruction, and placed, as lately, in some other institutions, among the elective studies. Second, the encouragement and culture of music in the University at large, by means of classes, for the practice of choral and instrumental music, open to all students of the University possessing the requisite qualifications.
  • The work of the Professor of Music should be such as can be performed in the way of class instruction; consisting of lectures on the history of music, and instructions in the principles of the science of music, and of practical teaching or drill of such students as are sufficiently advanced to participate in exercises in choral and instrumental music.
  • As no provision can be made by the University for the teaching of individual pupils, consistently with the principle of free tuition, established by the State Constitution, it should be understood that the Professor of Music shall be at liberty to organize and direct, outside of his University work, a school of music, providing for instruction on the organ, piano, and other instruments, as well as for individual or class instruction in vocal music, and to derive a part of his support from the tuitions of such school; the same to have no official relation to the University.
  • 10. We believe that in case these views meet with favorable consideration of the Honorable Board, a gentleman of superior musical education and experience can at this time be secured to take charge of organizing and conducting such a work in the University.

(R.P., 1876-81, pp. 472-73.)

On June 30, it was reported:

Your Committee is of the opinion that the time has arrived when this University should do something for the encouragement and cultivation of aesthetic Art. We recognize the fact that there is a widespread demand for musical culture and instruction throughout the State, and our duty as the State University, to meet that demand.

Page  1125Moreover, we believe that so favorable an opportunity has never before occurred, and is not likely to again occur, for inaugurating this department of instruction, inasmuch as we have now the certainty of securing a teacher to assume the charge of the instruction, possessing eminent fitness; and it will be directly under the fostering care of the Acting President[Dr. Frieze], who has long desired the inauguration of this movement.

We believe that the establishment of systematic and thorough musical instruction will meet a want long felt, and will constitute a positive attraction to a large class of students, and not only enlarge the scope of culture at the University, but draw new members to her classes.

We do not consider it wise at this time to establish a Professorship of music, but think the appointment of an Instructor of music would secure the inauguration of a course, which, if successful and satisfactory, could be hereafter extended and enlarged.

We therefore recommend that the prayer of the memorialists be effectuated by the adoption of the following resolution:

Resolved that an Instructorship of Music be, and the same is hereby established in the University, and that Calvin B. Cady be, and is hereby appointed to said Instructorship, with a salary of $900 per annum, to commence with the next college year.


(R.P., 1876-81, pp. 543-44.)
The report was adopted without dissenting vote.

These records clearly indicate that while the Regents and the faculty were in sympathy with a progressive music policy, they were ultraconservative in their efforts to solve the problem of providing individual instruction in practical music. Their conservatism is further revealed by the adoption on September 15, 1880, of the following resolution which provided meagerly for the equipment of the music room: "The Committee on the Literary Department recommend, that an appropriation of thirty dollars be made to equip the music room with charts and works of instruction."

Five years later on June 24, 1885, Cady's title was changed to Acting Professor of Music, and on June 27, 1887, a motion to increase his salary from $900 to $1,600 was amended and compromised with one dissenting vote fixing the salary at $1,200. Later, on the grounds that he had done extra work in preparing the music for the SemiCentennial Commencement week, an additional sum of $200 was allowed him. He resigned in July, 1888, and President Angell, in his annual report to the Regents, said:

Professor Cady, who has resigned after a connection of eight years with [the] University, has rendered a most valuable service to us and to this community by elevating the standard of musical taste and by awakening an enthusiasm for the study of classical music. Upon him fell the somewhat difficult task of organizing the work of musical instruction in the University and of convincing men that such instruction was a proper and useful part of the work of the University.


(R.P., 1886-91, p. 254.)

At the same meeting "Albert A. Stanley was appointed Professor of Music in the place of Professor Cady, resigned, at the salary of $1,200."

It was not until seventeen years later that the problem of providing instruction in applied music was partly solved, when on June 20, 1905, a resolution was adopted permitting students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts to elect courses in practical music in the School of Music for which they were to receive credit toward the bachelor of arts degree. Almost a quarter of a century later, in 1929, the problem was completely solved when the School of Music became an integral unit of the University.

The School of Music continued to be administered by the Board of Directors Page  1126of the Musical Society, but matters of policy and principle were subject to the approval of the Regents. The title to the real estate owned by the Musical Society passed to the University, which, in return, made an annual appropriation to assist in payment of salaries and other expenses of the School of Music. In 1933 elections to the Board of Directors of the Musical Society also became subject to confirmation by the Regents. This action placed the School still more directly under University control.

The early conservatism of the University with reference to provisions for the study of music as an art, by circumstance, served in large measure to bring about the affiliation. The School of Music, as a separate and independent institution, had been stimulated to extraordinary effort by the assurance that it was performing a service desired by the University but not in competition with it. Consequently, the directors of the School of Music had been encouraged to maximum effort in meeting the problems with which they had been confronted. As a result, at the time that the School was merged with the University in 1929, the curriculums were so comprehensive that only minor adjustments were required to conform with the general educational standards of the University.

Formation of the University Musical Society. — With the establishment in the University of an instructorship in music in 1880, the efforts of the several music groups in the community were rewarded by the organization and incorporation of the University Musical Society, which "was especially intended to serve as a means of bringing … [the Choral Union] into such relations with the University as would justify the appropriation of certain advantages which the University was able to afford."

After a preliminary meeting on February 4, 1880, the members of the Choral Union who were on the faculty of the University were called together on February 14 by President Frieze to consider the organization of a "University Musical Society." Present in addition to Frieze were C. K. Adams, E. L. Walter, P. R. B. dePont, B. L. D'Ooge, B. C. Burt, W. W. Burt, John Ayers, and W. T. Whedon. Representatives of this new group held joint meetings with those members of the Choral Union and of the Orchestra who were associated with the University and explained to them the plans of the proposed new society. On February 21, 1880, the Choral Union formally adopted a constitution and elected the following officers: H. S. Frieze, P. R. B. dePont, D. E. Osborne, C. B. Cady, W. H. Dorrance, and F. A. Robinson.

On February 24 the name "University Musical Society" was decided upon. The constitution was almost identical with that of the Choral Union except for a change of names. The two organizations, the Choral Union and the University Musical Society, were administered by the same officers and their affairs were conducted almost jointly. On May 4, 1880, a semipublic rehearsal and on June 28 a commencement concert were given under the auspices of the University Musical Society and the Choral Union.

The University Musical Society did not propose in itself to become a performing body but to be an executive and administrative organization. Its purpose was to stimulate musical taste in the University and in the community. It planned to establish a school of music and to maintain a choral society and an orchestra, and to give "such concerts, lectures, and other public entertainments as might seem practicable and desirable." The simplicity, breadth of vision, and wisdom shown in the framing Page  1127of its constitution were so comprehensive that the Society, since several times reincorporated, still operates, with slight amendments, under the original provisions.

In 1880 Calvin B. Cady, a distinguished young musician from Oberlin, Ohio, who had studied at the Leipzig Konservatorium and who had been elected conductor of the Choral Union and of the University Musical Society, was appointed by the Regents to the newly established instructorship in music in the University. He desired to incorporate the Ann Arbor School of Music, which he had established as a private venture. This was considered, but it was finally decided that the School would be on a firmer basis by the incorporation of the University Musical Society. Under this charter all three divisions, the School of Music, the Choral Union, and the University Orchestra, enjoyed the benefits of corporate existence, and at the same time, each in large measure controlled its own affairs.

After several meetings in April, 1881, the following Board of Directors for the University Musical Society was elected: H. S. Frieze, A. S. Winchell, C. K. Adams, T. P. Wilson, E. L. Walter, C. B. Cady, P. R. B. dePont, W. H. Dorrance, W. W. Beman, B. L. D'Ooge, F. A. Robinson, and D. E. Osborne. At this meeting the articles of incorporation were adopted and signed. On April 22 the first meeting of the Board of Directors was held, and the following officers were elected: President, H. L. Frieze; Vice President, A. S. Winchell; Secretary, W. W. Beman; and Treasurer, C. K. Adams. An ordinance providing for the administration of the Ann Arbor School of Music was also adopted, and the following Board of Trustees was elected to conduct the affairs of the School: B. M. Cutcheon, E. O. Grosvenor, P. B. Loomis, H. S. Frieze, A. S. Winchell, C. K. Adams, T. P. Wilson, W. J. Herdman, C. Mack, I. Hall, Rev. S. S. Harris, and Rev. J. H. Bayliss. These trustees elected the following officers for the School: H. S. Frieze, A. S. Winchell, W. J. Herdman, and C. K. Adams.

In the organization and administration of the several interlocking organizations, because of the duplication of personnel, only a small group was concerned. As a result the functions of the subordinate boards declined in importance, and the Board of Directors of the Musical Society became dominant. Because the same people in many cases served on both major and subsidiary boards, vacancies in the latter were seldom filled, and responsibility devolved more and more heavily upon the parent board. Thus, the orchestra soon lost its identity as a separate organization. The Choral Union Board continued for a longer period, more in name, however, than in reality. The Board of Trustees of the School continued with diminishing powers until 1892, when a second reorganization took place. At that time the ordinance creating its board was repealed, and the affairs of the chorus, the orchestra, and the School were placed under the direct control of the Board of Directors of the Musical Society.

The Choral Union. — According to Paul R. B. dePont, first secretary, the Choral Union, organized in October, 1879, was "grafted on the old Messiah Club, founded in 1879 [early spring] under the direction of Professor Frieze, and which ultimately toward the end of the [school] year, was pledged to give 4 concerts for the benefit of the 4 churches then represented among its members" ("Choral Union Record," 1879-86, p. 1). On October 21, 1879, a constitution was adopted and the following officers elected: President, H. S. Frieze; Secretary, Page  1128P. R. B. dePont; Treasurer, D. E. Osborne; Librarian, B. L. D'Ooge; First Conductor, C. B. Cady; Second Conductor, B. C. Burt.

A memorial prepared by Alexander Winchell in 1889 on the death of Henry Simmons Frieze gives something of the background of musical life in Ann Arbor as well as an account of the part he had played in the development of music in the University:

Dr. Frieze was endowed with a delicate perception of the charms of music. His soul thrilled in unison with all the tender or lofty themes which the muses inspire; but with a soul responsive to the charms of beauty under all its forms, music was from early life, his companion and his solace.

When, in 1854, he became connected with the University of Michigan, he promptly established a reputation as an organist and pianist. For some years he consented to preside at the organ of St. Andrew's Church, and at a more recent period, he rendered the same service for one of the other churches of the city. He was an admirable conductor, and a helpful and invigorating teacher of music. Around him the musicians of the city gathered themselves, and he led and taught them with zeal and inspiration. It was he who first introduced the higher musical compositions to our people. He aggregated our choirs, and encouraged them to undertake the choruses from the oratorios. He trained them till they were competent to offer public performances of merit; and a large number of public concerts were given under his direction in the twenty years between 1860 and 1880.


("Musical Society Record," Dec. 9, 1889, pp. 76-79.)

On May 4, 1880, the first semipublic rehearsal was held. On Sunday, June 27, the group sang the first chorus of "As the Hart Pants" at the baccalaureate service, and the next day gave a commencement concert. The following year a program consisting of three semipublic rehearsals, three recitals by the School of Music, and a final concert in June was outlined and evidently was successfully carried out.

In the fall of 1881, arrangements were made for the presentation of Haydn's Creation. That the chorus had its difficulties in the matter of attendance is indicated by a resolution passed by the Executive Board in 1882 instructing the secretary, Charles M. Gayley ('78, LL.D. '04, Litt.D. Glasgow '01), who was later to write "The Yellow and the Blue," (see Part III: English Language and Literature) "to invite all irregular members [of] the Union to be present at the next regular rehearsal, or forever after to keep away."

In 1882 rehearsals were poorly attended, those present numbering not more than twenty to forty. The Misse Solennelle of Gounod was studied. In the autumn of 1883 the chorus studied Mendelssohn's Saint Paul, and on November 21, with the choir of the Baptist Church, a concert was presented in honor of Saint Cecilia. In November the chorus voted to participate in the dedicatory exercises in connection with the new Library Building. The Ypsilanti Chorus under Professor H. Pease was invited to join in two performances of Saint Paul. It was arranged to present the work in April, 1884, in Ann Arbor and in Ypsilanti. Later in the spring rehearsals were begun on Samson. In October it was voted to invite the Ypsilanti Chorus again to join in giving some suitable oratorio, a project which seems not to have been successful. The chorus decided to study "The Dream" by Costa, the "Rosebud" by Blumenthal, and the cantata Rebekah by Barnby.

On February 25, 1885, a concert was given with sixty participating. Before the concert, which was a great success, William H. Dorrance, on behalf of the chorus, presented Conductor Cady with a new baton and announced that a new platform and a desk had been provided.

Page  1129Melusina, by Hoffman, was given in June, 1885, with eighty-two participants. According to the secretary, the performance was evidently something of an anticlimax: "Small house, cold audience, spiritless performance, small proceeds." Two concerts were given during the next year, apparently with only moderate success, including the Messiah, in May. Orrin* B. Cady, accompanist, offered his resignation, which apparently was not accepted, for records indicate that he continued in this capacity for several years thereafter.

By 1888 the efforts of the Choral Union seem to have reached a low ebb. In March of that year the secretary recorded:

Small attendance. Efforts made to revive a fit of enthusiasm in order to get through the proposed concert. Task almost hopeless; no one has time to do it; no one seems to care to do it. The Society has dwindled down to a very small size; it is like the last glimmer of a dying fire. The Board tried to meet but could get no quorum.


("Choral Union Record," 1879-86, p. 25.)
In 1888 Calvin Cady, apparently discouraged, resigned, for in the "Record" of the Choral Union, Albert A. Stanley is mentioned for the first time as conductor.

A communication was received in April, 1889, by the Choral Union from the directors of the University Musical Society stating "that the Choral Union [is] advised to take such measures as shall give new life to that organization, — making such changes in their by-laws as seem necessary; changing the name of the society if desirable; and taking such other steps as shall perfect the plan …," such action to be submitted to the Board of Directors of the University Musical Society ("Choral Union Record," 1886-91, pp. 54-55). As a result of this recommendation the Choral Union, while retaining its name, simplified its administration and brought its activities more directly under the control of the University Musical Society. Apparently, interest was slow in reviving, for on November 12, 1889, "Prof. Stanley scolded a good deal tonight, but the attendance was good. Sopranos 28, altos 15, tenors 10, bassos 22."

The Society sponsored a concert by the Philharmonic Club and the St. Cecilia Quartet, of Detroit, in October, 1889, and, deciding on a bold stroke, voted to engage the Boston Symphony Orchestra "at as low a figure as possible" for a concert to be given in University Hall, on May 16, 1890. The concert was so successful that for three succeeding years the orchestra was re-engaged.

In December, 1889, a chorus of eighty-five sang selections from Gallia, including "Lovely Appear" and "Hail Bright Abode," at a concert in which vocal solos were offered by Ida Winchell, piano numbers were played by Julius L. Seyler, and orchestral selections were given by the Chequamegon Orchestra. On June 25, 1890, a chorus of ninety and an orchestra of thirty participated in a special commencement concert, at which The Light of Asia by Dudley Buck was given. The soloists were Ida B. Winchell, Jules Jordan, and F. Campbell.

A performance by the New York Philharmonic Club was scheduled in 1890. A choral concert was given in November, and it was reported that "never before in its history has the Choral Union and its work been so popular." A program was also given in behalf of the Student Christian Association. In March, 1891, the chorus gave a successful performance of Rhineberger's Christopherus with an orchestra of thirty, and in May the chorus sang at exercises commemorating the death of its president, Dr. Alexander Winchell. In the early nineties the Choral Union, under Page  1130Stanley's leadership, seemed to have entered upon an era of great achievement.

The ann arbor school of music. — The Ann Arbor School of Music was formally opened on September 28, 1881. Classes were conducted in a building at the corner of State and Huron streets. Its early faculty included Calvin B. Cady, Director, theory; Orrin B. Cady, piano; Marion Smith, piano; and Ada Le Van, organ. For the most part rehearsals took place in the University Chapel in University Hall.

When it became a division of the incorporated Musical Society later in 1881, its instruction and concerts were carried on in co-operation with the Choral Union, and at times it was difficult to distinguish one from the other. According to the "Record" of the University Musical Society, the first faculty included Calvin B. Cady, Jeannice May, Anna Nichols, S. F. Schultz, Orrin B. Cady, Anna E. Warden, and Marion Smith.

In October, 1882, it was proposed to give four popular concerts, for which an admission fee of ten cents was to be charged, and four chamber music concerts.

The progress of the School lagged, and in 1888 upon the resignation of Calvin Cady, Albert A. Stanley (grad. Leipzig Konservatorium '75, A.M. hon. Michigan '90, D. Mus. Northwestern '16, D. Mus. Michigan '30) was chosen his successor. Stanley, a young musician from Providence, Rhode Island, came to the University after extensive study abroad and had already won distinction as teacher, organist, conductor, and composer. The outlook in Ann Arbor was not promising. Many students were unable to pay the relatively high fees required for individual lessons, and consequently, because of insufficient resources, it became difficult to maintain a good faculty. The situation in the Choral Union was comparable. Attendance grew irregular and the membership fell off. This precluded adequate public performance; as a result enthusiasm waned, and concerts were poorly attended. In August, 1889, Stanley also tendered his resignation, but it was not accepted, and the Board of Directors appointed a committee to help adjust the affairs of the School. In May, 1890, Levi D. Wines reported that a piano belonging to the School had been sold for $200 to help settle indebtedness. A special committee was appointed, probably as a result of this report, to consider plans for the rehabilitation of the School.

Stanley, in 1891, proposed definite plans for a second reorganization. After a special committee of the Board of Directors conferred with representative Ann Arbor business men, Professor William H. Pettee reported in December, 1891: "The University Musical Society has all the power it needs to proceed to the establishment of a School of Music." The old ordinance providing for the administration of the School through a separate Board of Trustees was repealed, and it was resolved "that the University Musical Society, in accordance with the powers granted by its charter, proceed to the organization of a School of Music, … as soon as the necessary financial support is secured." It was proposed that $6,500 to cover expenses, payable over a period of three years, should be guaranteed by subscription.

It was further resolved that four members of the present Board of Directors should resign to make room for four new directors, two of whom were President Angell and J. H. Wade. The other two, recommended by the contributing business men, were A. L. Noble and Ottmar Eberbach.

Page  1131In January, 1892, the committee reported that one hundred subscriptions of sixty-five dollars each had been secured, whereupon the Board of Directors passed a resolution establishing the "University School of Music." The board instructed Stanley to go to Chicago for the purpose of engaging teachers for the new school.

Comprehensive rules of administration were adopted, and in October, 1892, the University School of Music opened for instruction in rooms rented in Newberry Hall. According to the "Record" of the University Musical Society, the faculty of the reorganized School consisted of: Albert A. Stanley, Musical Director; J. Erich Schmaal, piano; Silas R. Mills, voice; Frederic Mills, violin; Frederic L. Abel, violoncello; Frederic McOmber, flute; Gerald W. Collins, brass instruments; and Miss Grace A. Povey, piano. Special lecturers were John Dewey, psychology; Henry S. Carhart, physical basis of music; Fred N. Scott, aesthetics; Victor C. Vaughan, hygiene; William H. Howell, physiology of the voice; Isaac N. Demmon, songs of the Elizabethan age; Martin L. D'Ooge, music of the ancient Greeks.

The rented rooms were inadequate, and it was proposed that the University School of Music should be moved to Main Street. This proposal was not favorably received, and a special committee was appointed to study the problem of securing a suitable site and providing ways and means for the construction of a building especially designed to meet the needs of a music school. It was decided to send a communication to all subscribers to the $6,500 fund, setting forth the necessity of a new building.

Approximately $15,000 was subscribed, and the School of Music Building Association was organized and incorporated. A site was purchased, and the building constructed on Maynard Street was occupied in the fall of 1893. On October 31 the recital hall was dedicated in memory of Henry Simmons Frieze.

The school of music and the choral union. — Although interest in music lagged during the nineties, Stanley finally succeeded in arousing new enthusiasm. In 1892 Levi D. Wines ('74e), who was a member of the Choral Union, and who had served as treasurer of the University Musical Society since 1884, was elected treasurer of the reorganized University School of Music. Upon the death of Professor Winchell in 1890, Professor Francis W. Kelsey, who had been vice-president, became president. Upon his death in 1927 he was succeeded by Charles A. Sink ('04, M.Ed. Michigan State Normal '29, LL.D. Battle Creek '30), who had been Executive Secretary since 1904.

Thus it was that three men of vision and sound judgment became identified at about the same time with the University Musical Society. They contributed to the Society's progress in music for many years. Dr. Kelsey served effectively as president until his death in 1927. Dr. Stanley resigned in 1921, but remained a member of the Board of Directors until his death in 1932. Wines served as treasurer of the Society until his death in 1938.

During this period interest in music increased. The University acquired the Stearns Collection of musical instruments and the Frieze Memorial Organ. Well-known artists and organizations were engaged for concerts. In the fall of 1893 Stanley proposed that the series of concerts should end, not with a single choral program as had been the custom, but with a festival of three concerts, to be given on a Friday evening, a Saturday afternoon, and Saturday evening. This plan was approved, and negotiations for the Boston Symphony Orchestra Page  1132apparently having failed, the Boston Festival Orchestra of fifty players, with Emil Mollenhauer, conductor, was engaged. The first festival was a great success, and it was decided to establish the May Festival as a permanent annual event.

In 1896, at the first commencement exercises of the School, a class of nine was graduated. Concerts given by members of the faculty and by the students improved. Series of historical lecture-recitals in piano, voice, and violin were added. Requirements for graduation were raised and courses were included in the history and theory of music, sight-singing, harmony, counterpoint, and public school music. In 1902 an annual summer session was inaugurated. A special normal course for music teachers was instituted. In 1913 the office of Dean of Women of the School was created. Byrl F. Bacher filled this position until the School was affiliated with the University in 1929, when she was appointed Assistant Dean of Women of the University.

In 1926 the University Musical Society was empowered in its own right to grant degrees. Entrance and graduation requirements for the degrees of bachelor and master of music were set up.

Because the School and the concerts were not endowed and derived no financial support except through the sale of tickets and the income from tuition fees, the directors were constantly confronted with financial problems.

Recognizing the principle that the concert hall is the music students' laboratory, the School of Music from the beginning arranged to give concerts. Faculty concerts were given at frequent intervals, and with the acquisition of the Frieze Memorial Organ vesper services and organ recitals were instituted. When the organ was remodeled and moved to Hill Auditorium in 1913, interest in organ music increased. Earl V. Moore ('12, hon.D.Mus. Rochester '29) was appointed University Organist in 1915 and gave many recitals. In 1923 he was succeeded by Palmer Christian (hon. Mus.D. American Conservatory of Music, Chicago '39), a distinguished concert organist, and the annual series of Twilight Organ Recitals was instituted.

A policy of providing five concerts annually in the Choral Union series had been established in the early nineties, and the number of concerts in the Festival was increased first to four, and then to five, thus providing ten concerts each year. The Choral Union and May Festival series continued on a basis of ten concerts until 1909, when a sixth concert was added to the Festival. In 1913 the Choral Union was supplemented by a Young People's Festival Chorus of 400 voices. This chorus, selected from the children of the Ann Arbor public schools, has been heard at each Festival since that time. In 1919 a sixth concert was added to the Choral Union series, making a total of twelve concerts each year. The following year a supplementary series of five concerts, designated "The Extra Concert Series," was instituted, which, in 1929, in commemoration of the semicentennial anniversary of the founding of the University Musical Society, was merged with the Choral Union series. This greater series consisted of ten concerts, and the May Festival continued with six. During the season of 1940-41 an annual Chamber Music Festival was instituted, consisting of three concerts by distinguished visiting ensemble groups.

At the closing concert of the first May Festival on May 19, 1894, the Choral Union sang Verdi's Manzoni Requiem, directed by Stanley, with the Boston Festival Orchestra, Emil Mollenhauer, concert-master; Emma Juch, soprano; Page  1133Gertrude Stein, mezzo-soprano; Max Heinrich, baritone; and Edward C. Towne, tenor.

In the sixty-first annual Choral Union concert series (1939-40) the artists and organizations presented by the University Musical Society included Sergei Rachmaninoff, Fritz Kreisler, Alexander Kipnis, the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, John Barbirolli, conductor, Jussi Bjoërling, the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Serge Koussevitzky, conductor, Kirsten Flagstad, Robert Virovai, Bartlett and Robertson, and Artur Rubinstein.

In December, 1939, the Society, in accordance with long-standing tradition, presented Handel's Messiah for the twenty-first time, with Beal Hober, William Hain, Joan Peebles, Theodore Webb, Palmer Christian, the University Choral Union, and the University Symphony Orchestra, Thor Johnson, conductor.

In the forty-seventh Annual May Festival in 1940 six concerts were given, and the artists and organizations participating included: Lily Pons, Dorothy Maynor, Rosa Tentoni, Enid Szantho, Giovanni Martinelli, Robert Weede, Norman Cordon, Alexander Kipnis, Richard Hale, Joseph Szigeti, Emanuel Feuermann, Artur Schnabel, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the University Choral Union, The Young People's Chorus, Thor Johnson, choral conductor, Eugene Ormandy, Saul Caston, Harl McDonald, Thor Johnson, and Roxy Cowin. The principal choral works were Samson and Delilah by Saint-Saëns, and the cantata The Inimitable Lovers by Vardell.

Supplementary to the Choral Union and May Festival concerts in that year, twenty concerts were given in the Faculty and Organ Recital series. Fifty-eight formal concerts in addition to numerous informal programs were played by Professor Percival Price on the Charles Baird Carillon; and seventy-nine recitals were performed by students.

Two musical directors have presided over the May Festivals to 1940: Albert A. Stanley, who conducted the first twenty-eight (1894-1921), and Earl V. Moore, who has conducted the festivals since 1922. Three orchestras have participated: the Boston Festival Orchestra (1894-1904), the Chicago Symphony (1905-1935), and since that time the Philadelphia Orchestra.

An important contributing factor to the success of the Society has been the early recognition by the Board of Regents of the importance of centralizing and supporting a single, strong, concert-giving organization. In 1906 "it was voted that the University Musical Society shall have the exclusive use of University buildings for the purpose of giving musical entertainments, except such as are rendered by student organizations" (R.P., 1901-6, p. 691).

The school of music of the university. — The inscription, "Ars longa vita brevis," on the seal of the University Musical Society was undoubtedly suggested by the first President, Henry Simmons Frieze. Its truth has been proved by the musical heritage which has come down as a result of the vision, foresight, and sound policies of the early administrators of the School.

Although students in other units of the University had taken courses in music for credit since 1905, when the School of Music was affiliated with the University in January, 1929, music degrees were conferred directly by the University. The School of Music profited because the recognition of its work as being on a par with that in other fields of education lent dignity to the profession and developed an appreciation for the basic values of music.

Students in other units of the University Page  1134were given greater opportunities to study music and to avail themselves of musical facilities. The student body was made up of three principal types or groups: students matriculated in the School who carried full-time work and were candidates for graduation; students enrolled in other schools or colleges of the University who elected one or more subjects in the School of Music, receiving credit in their respective units; special students, not candidates for graduation, who desired to acquire a general knowledge of music, or to supplement their professional equipment by special study.

To earn the degree of bachelor of music, four years of study, amounting to 120 hours of credit and 130 honor points were required. A student offered credits in his major field, in historical and theoretical music, and in nonmusic or regular academic subjects. A candidate for the degree of master of music was required to devote at least two years after receiving his bachelor's degree to the study or practice of music. One year was spent in full-time residence study, while the other could be devoted to professional activity, a thesis of the work covered during the year of absentia study being required. The second group, made up of students enrolled in other schools or colleges, by reciprocal arrangement, was permitted to elect certain courses in music, receiving credit in the respective units. Thus, music credit could be earned by candidates who were working for the degrees of bachelor of arts, bachelor of education, master of arts, or doctor of philosophy. Combined curriculums were also established whereby students could earn both the degree of bachelor of music and that of bachelor of arts or of education in a minimum length of time. Special students were admitted without academic entrance requirements and were allowed to pursue such subjects as their musical abilities warranted.

By 1929, 340 certificates, 431 diplomas, and seventy-five degrees had been granted, representing a total of 846 graduates. From 1929 through the 1940 summer session, 721 degrees had been conferred, a total of 1,567 graduates. In the regular session and in the summer session of 1939-40, 1,569 individuals received instruction in the School. A conservative estimate of the number of students enrolled from the founding of the School in 1880 through 1940 reaches 17,055. Many of the students are filling important positions as concert artists, directors, conductors, composers, writers, publishers, supervisors, teachers, church singers, and choral directors.

Commensurate with this growth in the student body has been an advancement in faculty personnel. From the first, teachers of recognized standing were secured. From the original small group of instructors, the faculty membership increased until by 1940-41, in addition to Dr. Earl V. Moore, Professor of Music and Director of the School, the staff included Wassily Besekirsky, Professor of Violin; Palmer Christian, Professor of Organ and University Organist; Arthur Hackett, Professor of Voice; David Mattern, Professor of Music Education; Hanns Pick, Professor of Violoncello; Percival Price, Professor of Composition and University Carillonneur; Otto Stahl, Professor of the Theory of Music; Joseph Brinkman, Associate Professor of Piano; William D. Revelli, Associate Professor of Wind Instruments and Conductor of the University Bands; and Mabel Ross Rhead, Associate Professor of Piano. There were also eight assistant professors and seventeen instructors. The faculty assisted in the organization of many musical groups such as the University Band, the Varsity Glee Club, and the Stanley Page  1135Chorus of women students. These groups, which include students from all the schools and colleges of the University, received regular direction under members of the School of Music faculty. Productions such as the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, in addition to works for student performance, have contributed to the University's cultural entertainment.

Gifts, bequests, and scholarships. — Musical development in the University has been stimulated by the generous assistance of many individuals and groups. The Stearns Collection of musical instruments, assembled from all parts of the world over a period of many years, was presented to the University in 1899 by the late Frederick Stearns, of Detroit. In the following year, his son Frederick Kimball Stearns gave the University a valuable collection of music scores, sheet music, and books (R.P., 1899-1900, p. 13).

In 1896, when the need for a suitable music hall and school building was urgent, Mr. Edward C. Hegeler, (A.M. hon. '83), of LaGrange, Illinois, made an initial contribution of $1,000 for this purpose. This gift was used to help in the construction of the Burton Memorial Tower.

In 1893, upon the reorganization of the School of Music, a suitable home was provided, largely by the generous aid of local citizens. A building association was incorporated in which stock was issued in the amount of approximately $15,000, from which amount the building on Maynard Street was constructed. Eventually, the stock was presented by the subscribers to the University Musical Society, and upon the affiliation of the School of Music with the University in 1929, the title to this property, appraised at $106,393.04, passed to the Board of Regents.

At the close of the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, the famous Columbian organ, purchased for $15,000 by the University Musical Society, was presented to the University and set up in old University Hall. It was dedicated December 14, 1894, to the memory of Henry Simmons Frieze. It represented the highest achievement of the organ builder's art, and was one of the first great organs to be operated entirely by electricity.

In 1906, at a time when the financial affairs of the May Festival were at a low ebb and it seemed that the event might have to be abandoned, a group of Ann Arbor citizens headed by Mr. Walter C. Mack, raised a fund of $1,000 in order that the three-day event not only might continue, but might become an even greater occasion, covering four days. This help aroused such interest that the Society overcame its financial distress.

In 1910 Arthur Hill ('65e), for many years a member of the Board of Regents, bequeathed to the University the sum of $200,000 for the construction of an auditorium wherein music festivals and other University gatherings might be held. The completion in 1913 of the auditorium, which bears his name, contributed much to the development of the University's musical activities.

William H. Murphy, of Detroit, bequeathed to the University the sum of $50,000 in 1930 in these terms: "Although I do not intend to place any limitations on this gift, I hope the Regents of the University will find it possible to use the principal, or the income therefrom, either in the erection of a building devoted to music, or the maintenance thereof, or in giving worthy students the benefit of a musical education."

In 1931 the School of Music received $100,000, known as the Oliver Ditson Endowment, from the late Charles H. Ditson, a distinguished music publisher of New York City who died in 1929. The Page  1136income from this fund has been employed largely for scholarships.

As mentioned previously, Charles Baird gave to the University more than $75,000 in 1935-36, for the purchase of a carillon and clock to be installed in the Tower to be erected to the memory of President Burton. Funds for the construction of the Tower to house the Charles Baird Carillon were provided through several sources. The Murphy and Hegeler music building funds were transferred to the Tower fund, and the Regents supplemented these by adding other available money. Citizens of Ann Arbor and alumni of the University contributed to an extent which has made possible the completion of the Tower at a total cost, including the Baird gift, of approximately $250,000.

Among gifts especially designated for scholarships are the Elsa Gardner Stanley Fund, the Chamber Music Society Fund, the Albert Lockwood Fund, the Delta Omicron Sorority Fund, and the Albert A. Stanley Fund.

In 1933 the Board of Directors of the University Musical Society placed on the walls of the main corridor in the School of Music Building bronze tablets in memory of three people who had contributed much to the School of Music. They read as follows:

Francis Willey Kelsey, Ph.D., LL.D. / 1858-1927 / President of the University Musical Society / and of the / University School of Music / 1891-1927 / Professor of the Latin Language and Literature / University of Michigan / 1889-1927 / Ars longa vita brevis

Albert Augustus Stanley, A.M., Mus.D. / 1851-1932 / Professor of Music in the University of Michigan / and / Musical Director of the University Musical Society / 1888-1921 / Founder of the Ann Arbor May Festival 1894 / Ars longa vita brevis

Albert Lockwood / 1871-1933 / Head of Pianoforte Department / University School of Music / 1900-1933 / Professor of Pianoforte / University of Michigan / 1929-1933 / Ars longa vita brevis

In 1940 these tablets were transferred to the walls of the Society's offices in Burton Memorial Tower.

By 1940 in the Choral Union and May Festival series, approximately 750 programs had been heard. With a conservative estimated average attendance of 2,000 at each concert during the period that they were given in University Hall up to 1913, and of 4,200 for those given after that time in Hill Auditorium, the total number of admissions approached 1,812,000. For the approximately 1,200 programs of the faculty and organ recitals series, 2,400,000 more admissions have been recorded. For the 800 or more student recitals, another 160,000 admissions are estimated; a grand total of 4,000,000 admissions.

In the Choral Union and May Festival series approximately 380 larger works of a choral or symphonic nature by some 300 composers had been performed. These, with smaller compositions covering practically the entire field of music literature, brought the grand total of compositions performed in this series to approximately 3,000. In addition, in the Faculty, Organ, and Student series, approximately 12,000 compositions had been heard.

Participating artists and organizations numbered more than 600. Included were practically all of the major orchestras, ensemble groups, and celebrated soloists, both vocal and instrumental. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra had been heard in 173 concerts, the Detroit Symphony in forty-one, the Boston Symphony in thirteen, the Philadelphia Orchestra in fourteen, and the Cleveland, the Cincinnati, the St. Louis, the New York Philharmonic, the New York Page  1137Symphony, and Pittsburgh orchestras in one or more each. Leading string quartets, other chamber music groups, bands, concert opera companies, and many celebrated soloists were presented. More than 8,000 singers had served as members of the Choral Union Series chorus and had appeared in its performances by 1940.

At the close of the 1940 summer session, the University Musical Society relinquished its rights and responsibilities in the control and maintenance of the School of Music to the University, but retained other privileges, particularly those having to do with the giving of concerts in University buildings. The Musical Society turned over to the University all property and equipment (valued in 1940 at $51,979.19) except what it required for its own activities. The University prepared the first floor and basement of the Burton Memorial Tower as administrative offices for the use of the Musical Society.

Since its organization in 1879, and its incorporation in 1881 as a nonprofit educational organization, the Board of Directors of the University Musical Society has included all presidents of the University as well as other executive and administrative officers and many distinguished citizens of Ann Arbor and its environs.

The following persons have served as president of the Society: Henry Simmons Frieze, 1879-81, 1883-89; Alexander Winchell, 1881-83, 1889-91; Francis W. Kelsey, 1891-1927; and Charles A. Sink, 1927-. Conductors have included Calvin B. Cady, 1879-88; Albert A. Stanley, 1888-1921; Earl V. Moore, 1922-39; and Thor Johnson, 1939-.

Through the years officers and directors have ever been mindful of the legend of its founding fathers: "Ars Longa Vita Brevis."

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Music, Univ. Mich., 1929-40.
Choral Union, "Record Book," MS, 1879-1940.
dePont, P. R. B."Secretary's Report. Oct. 5, 1880."In Alexander Winchell Papers.
D'Ooge, B. L."Librarian's Report. Oct. 5, 1880."In Alexander Winchell Papers.
"How Old Is the Engineering Clock."Mich. Technic, 47 (Jan. 1885): 10.
"Music Festival Was Three-Concert Affair."Michigan Daily, April 21, 1950.
Osborne, D. E."Treasurer's Report. Oct. 5, 1880."In Alexander Winchell Papers.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
"Program Notes." Ann Arbor Choral Union, University Musical Society, and School of Music. In Alexander Winchell Papers.
University Musical Society, "Record Book," MS, 1880-1940.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, "Our Musical Interests."In Alexander Winchell Papers, Vol. XXVIII, Univ. Mich.
Winchell, Alexander. Papers, MS, "Diary,"In Alexander Winchell Papers. Univ. Mich.
Winchell, Alexander. "The University Musical Society."The Chronicle, May 10, 1890.Page  [1138]
Page  [1139]

The Institute of Fine Arts

Page  [1140]
Page  1141

THE INSTITUTE OF FINE ARTS

IN October, 1928, the Carnegie Corporation granted to the Board of Regents the sum of $20,000 annually for a period of five years for the purpose of promoting the teaching of the history of the fine arts and of stimulating creative work in them. As a result of this gift the Regents, in January, 1929, created the Division of Fine Arts and appointed Professor John Garrett Winter as Director, to administer the funds and to organize projects along lines intended by the grant. The director was made responsible to the President and the Board of Regents.

In 1931, when the College of Architecture was separated from the College of Engineering and was established as an independent unit, the definition of the Division was restated by the Regents and was made to include specifically the College of Architecture, the Department of Fine Arts (in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts), the Department of Landscape Design (also, at that time, in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, but now in the College of Architecture and Design), the courses in play production (a part of the Department of Speech and General Linguistics in the Literary College), and the courses in creative art, which were under the immediate supervision of the director. The purpose of the Division was further defined as a grouping of the various units mentioned to co-ordinate various allied activities and to develop the general field of the fine arts along consistent, progressive, and unconflicting lines. This grouping did not, however, affect the general independence and budgetary provisions of the constituent units insofar as these had been specifically established prior to the creation of the Division of Fine Arts.

When advanced and graduate work in Islamic art was introduced by Mehmet Aga-Oglu and in Far Eastern art by Benjamin March in 1933, it was placed in the immediate charge of the director, and all graduate courses in the fine arts and all advanced degrees were put under the control and direction of the Division of Fine Arts. In May, 1936, the name Division of Fine Arts was changed by the Regents to Institute of Fine Arts, but no change was made in its organization.

In addition to developing the general program of correlating various activities and of establishing courses leading to advanced degrees, the Institute of Fine Arts has improved the facilities for teaching the history of art by assembling a large collection of prints and photographs, by equipping a study room as a special fine arts reference library, by adding to the material in the General Library, by organizing advanced instruction in Islamic and Far Eastern art, by introducing work in creative sculpture, and by providing exhibitions of paintings, sculpture, textiles, and etchings.

After the Carnegie grant expired, the University, in accordance with the terms of the gift, carried on the work that had been begun, but the budget was greatly reduced, and certain projects, especially creative work in painting, awaited development. The details of the various activities of the Institute can be found in the annual reports to the President (P.R., 1928-40). An enterprise of major importance since 1934 has been the publication by the Institute of Ars Islamica, a semiannual journal issued by the Research Seminary in Islamic Art, from special funds at the disposal of the University.

Mr. March died on December 13, 1934. Page  1142In the University he found the type of work in teaching and research for which he was ideally fitted, and his enthusiasm and happiness in it continued unabated to the end. In September, 1935, James Marshall Plumer was appointed Lecturer on Far-Eastern Art in the Division of Fine Arts, and Dr. Aga-Oglu's title was changed from Freer Fellow and Lecturer on Oriental Art to Associate Professor of the History of Islamic Art. Aga-Oglu left in 1938 and was replaced by Richard Ettinghausen. Plumer's courses, which originally were taught in the University Museums Building, have been given in Alumni Memorial Hall since 1939. Although he had been ill for several months, the death of Associate Professor Bruce M. Donaldson early in 1940 came as a shock to his colleagues in the Department of Fine Arts. Harold E. Wethey was appointed Associate Professor of Fine Arts and Chairman of the Department of Fine Arts in his place (see Part III: The Department of Fine Arts).

In addition to the members of the several units and departments who are directly responsible to their respective departmental officers and deans, the staff of the Institute of Fine Arts in 1940 comprised the following persons: Richard Ettinghausen, Associate Professor of the History of Islamic Art (since 1938), Avard T. Fairbanks, Associate Professor of Sculpture (since 1929), Helen B. Hall, Curator (since 1930), Helen Ladd, Assistant Curator (since 1939), Dorothy March Goss, Assistant (since 1935), James M. Plumer, Lecturer on Far Eastern Art (since 1935), and John G. Winter, Director (since 1929).

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, Graduate School [Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, 1937-], Univ. Mich., 1928-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1928-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1931-40.
Far Eastern Art

The University had been interested in the Orient ever since President Angell had served as United States Minister to China in 1880-82. This interest was strengthened with the establishment of the Levi Barbour scholarships in 1917. In 1933, when the Detroit Institute of Arts discontinued the curatorship of Far Eastern art, the curator, Benjamin March (Ph.B. Chicago '22), came to the University to teach new courses in Far Eastern anthropology and art. He died in December, 1934, but 1935 saw the appointments of two men to carry on the work he had started. Mischa Titiev (Harvard '23, Ph.D. ibid. '35) came to teach anthropology, and James M. Plumer (Harvard '21, A.M. ibid. '37), who had been in Chinese government service, was appointed Lecturer on Far Eastern Art.

Introductory courses were offered in the art of India and China. The art of Japan and the art of Siam were taught in advanced courses. A regular course Page  1143was offered in Chinese ceramics, and in 1940 a graduate seminar entitled Our Pacific Heritage in Art was introduced.

The introductory courses were attended by fifteen to forty students a semester, with limited numbers admitted to advanced work. Special research has included investigations of early Chinese ceramics and of bronze mirrors, conducted both in Europe and in Ann Arbor under faculty research grants.

The quarters in Alumni Memorial Hall combine the facilities of seminar room, archeological study room, and office, and include a few exhibition cases. Frequent exhibitions have been held on the campus.

Oriental materials are made available to students in the School of Architecture and Design who are interested in techniques in the fields of painting, ceramics, textiles, or bronze casting.

Far Eastern art courses acceptable in the Oriental degree program were offered in three successive summer institutes of Far Eastern studies at Ann Arbor in 1937, 1938, and 1939. The attempt has been made not only to acquaint students with Far Eastern art but also to present it as documentary of an ancient culture and, contrary to the common aesthetic approach to art, to emphasize less the physical accomplishment and the sensory appeal of art than its meaning and metaphysical significance.

Sculpture

In the spring of 1929, as a result of the grant from the Carnegie Corporation, in order to stimulate creative work and thus promote one of the two objectives of the Carnegie Corporation in giving the money, Avard T. Fairbanks (B.F.A. Yale '25, Ph.D. Michigan '36) was appointed Associate Professor of Fine Arts. He had studied at the École Nationale des Beaux Arts and at the Grande Chaumière Academie Colarossi under such teachers as James E. Fraser, G. Rossi, A. E. Zardo, and Dante Sodini. He was a Guggenheim fellow in 1927-28 and came to Michigan from the University of Oregon, where he had served as assistant professor of art from 1920 to 1927. Examples of his work include the State Memorial of Idaho, the memorial to Pioneer Mothers in Vancouver, Washington, the 91st Division memorial, medals, and busts.

With a selected group of students who were interested in sculpture, Fairbanks organized his classes on the fourth floor of University Hall. Life studies were instituted, and the students were given creative compositions to develop. The aim of the work was to train students in the technique and appreciation of sculpture. These classes have continued to attract a small but interested group of students. When the Carnegie grant terminated after five years, the program in sculpture was continued as one of the units of the Institute of Fine Arts.

Each spring an exhibition of the work of Professor Fairbanks and his students was held in the Michigan League and was viewed by thousands of visitors. In connection with the exhibit a small illustrated catalogue was published.

Page  1144

THE RESEARCH SEMINARY IN ISLAMIC ART

THE University of Michigan was the first institution in the United States to establish a chair of the history of Islamic art and to have a special unit devoted to its study. In June, 1933, Mehmet Aga-Oglu (Litt.D. Moscow '16, Ph.D. Vienna '27) was appointed Freer Fellow and Lecturer on Oriental Art. Dr. Aga-Oglu, a Turkish scholar, had received his education in Berlin, Moscow, Jena, and Vienna and had come to the United States in 1929 to be curator of Near Eastern art at the Detroit Institute of Arts. Miss Isabel Hubbard ('29, M.A. '35) was appointed Assistant Curator and assisted Dr. Aga-Oglu in the work of organization.

A program of courses, publications, and research activities for a proposed research seminary in Islamic art was drawn up in 1933 (Ruthven, pp. 285-88). The curriculum was designed particularly for advanced students who were interested in future museum work or in teaching, but it also offered a unique opportunity for students of fine arts and Oriental civilizations to round out their programs of study. General courses in the history of Islamic architecture and the decorative arts such as carpets, pottery, and glass were outlined. A course, Introduction to the History of Islamic Art (Fine Arts 181), was given by Dr. Aga-Oglu in the first semester. It was attended by six graduate students, one senior, and several visitors.

In addition to the courses it was planned to publish a journal, Ars Islamica, which was to contain articles by various scholars in the field, and also a series of monographs to be contributed by members of the Research Seminary in Islamic Art. The first number of Ars Islamica, edited by Aga-Oglu, appeared in January, 1934. Subscriptions came from all parts of the world, and the journal received an enthusiastic welcome internationally. To stimulate public interest in this comparatively little-known field the Research Seminary in Islamic Art sponsored many public lectures, three of which were given the first year.

In the autumn of 1934 Aga-Oglu was granted a leave of absence to represent the University and to take part in the program of the International Congress of Orientalists and the millennial celebration of the Persian poet, Firdausi, held in the cities of Teheran and Tus, Iran. He was accompanied on this expedition by Peter Ruthven, a graduate student of Islamic art. Of special interest was Aga-Oglu's study of the shrine at Nedjef, where he photographed many examples of rugs and textiles hitherto unknown to the western world. During the remainder of the year 1934-35 he also conducted an extension course in Detroit, and in the summer of 1935 he conducted courses in Islamic art at Princeton University.

A large exhibition of Islamic decorative art was arranged at the Detroit Institute of Arts, and two smaller exhibits of similar material were assembled in Alumni Memorial Hall. The Research Seminary in Islamic Art began to draw prominent visitors, among whom was Professor L. A. Mayer, a noted Islamic scholar from Palestine, who gave a public lecture on Saracenic heraldry in the spring of 1935.

Page  1145After the proposed plan had been in successful operation for two years, in May, 1935, the Regents recognized the Research Seminary in Islamic Art as part of the Division of Fine Arts, and in September of that year Aga-Oglu was promoted to Associate Professor of the History of Islamic Art. Further recognition was given to the Research Seminary in Islamic Art by its election to honorary membership in the Institut d'Archéologie et d'Historie de L'Art, a branch of the Institut International de Cooperation Intellectuelle. In 1935 Aga-Oglu's book, Persian Bookbindings of the Fifteenth Century, appeared as a monograph from the University Press. It presented a selection of characteristic specimens from the period in which Persian bookbinders produced their best work.

During the first two years of organization a collection of slides and photographs was built up, and in 1935, after the Research Seminary in Islamic Art had been made a part of the Division of Fine Arts, the work was expanded. New quarters were obtained in Angell Hall, and room 4006 was made a study room, containing a collection of books, slide cases, study tables, photograph files, magazine racks, and office equipment. Magazines were received regularly as exchange or review copies. Exhibits of Islamic wood, Islamic and Coptic textiles, and pottery were arranged from the University's own collections, and there was also a loan exhibition of Islamic decorative art.

To continue its plan of stimulating interest in Islamic art the Research Seminary organized a series of eight lectures which were presented by members of the faculty in their own special fields of Near Eastern culture. Those participating were Professors Worrell, Boak, C. Hopkins, E. E. Peterson, Aga-Oglu, and Mrs. Adele Weibel from the Detroit Institute of Arts.

In 1936-37 the teaching curriculum included five lecture courses and five seminars. Ars Islamica was edited by Aga-Oglu with the following consultative committee: Laurence Binyon, Ananda Coomaraswamy, Maurice S. Dimand, Halil Ethem, Albert Gabriel, Ernst Herzfeld, Ernst Kühnel, John E. Lodge, Alexander G. Ruthven, Friedrich Sarre, Josef Strzygowski, Gaston Wiet, and John G. Winter. The first volume was a joint enterprise of the University and the Detroit Institute of Arts, but beginning with the second volume (1935) the University took full responsibility for the publication. The articles, contributed without honorarium, were printed in one of three languages, French, German, or English. In four years Ars Islamica was well established in its unique position as the only journal devoted to Islamic art, and it has received continued recognition for its high standards.

The curriculum established in the fall of 1936 was continued in 1937-38. A second lecture series was organized with the following persons participating, W. C. Rufus, J. W. Stanton, C. Hopkins, R. McDowell, J. Plumer, and M. Aga-Oglu.

In March, 1938, Professor Eustache de Lorey, of the École de Louvre, Paris, a distinguished scholar in the field of Islamic art, appeared on the University Lecture Series.

In May, 1938, Dr. Aga-Oglu resigned. He was succeeded by Richard Ettinghausen (Ph.D. Frankfurt '31), who in August, 1938, became Associate Professor of Islamic Art. In 1940 there were twenty-two graduate students, and one degree of doctor of philosophy was conferred.

Page  1146
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aga-Oglu, Mehmet. "Islamic Art in San Francisco."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 43 (1937): 566-68.
Aga-Oglu, Mehmet. Persian Bookbindings of the Fifteenth Century. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1935.
Aga-Oglu, Mehmet. "Pilgrimage to the Tomb of Firdausi."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 18 (1935): 611-18.
Announcement, Graduate School [Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, 1937-], Univ. Mich., 1935-40.
Ars Islamica. Ed. by Mehmet Aga-Oglu. Univ. Mich., 1934-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1933-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1932-40.
Ruthven, Peter. "The Research Seminary in Islamic Art."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 42 (1936): 285-88.
Page  [1147]

The Division of Hygiene and Public Health

Page  [1148]
Page  [1149]

THE DIVISION OF HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

SOCIAL, economic, religious, and governmental interests have contributed to the growth of public health in this country since the 1850's. Until about 1870, however, little professional health education was needed, since community health efforts were confined, for the most part, to the appointment of a "sanitary inspector," who had charge of the disposal of rubbish and environmental filth.

With the work of Pasteur and the birth of modern preventive medicine, departments or institutes of bacteriology and hygiene were established, and bacteriologist laboratorians were trained. Before this, Snow had indicated water as a cholera route, and in 1873 Budd discovered that it was a carrier of typhoid. Trained sanitary engineers were employed, and procedures for blocking disease transmission were set up.

As the prevention or control of endemics and of most of the major epidemics became possible, the necessity for wide-spread systematized attention to other important health factors was seen. Findings of World War I draft examinations emphasized the extent of this need. The present phase of the public health movement came with the recognition that sanitation should be improved and communicable disease controlled. The necessity for health education, periodic health examinations, the prevention, early detection, and amelioration or correction of physical and mental defects was recognized. Public health work calls for the physician, dentist, nurse, nutritionist, and psychologist — with prevention rather than cure as the goal — as well as for the bacteriologist laboratorian and the sanitary engineer. The educator, the sociologist, economist, and political scientist all play a part, since many ailments have to an increasing extent social and economic etiological factors.

It is a common experience for a social need to meet with delay before a public act results unless an emergency compels action. Progress in public health work has not infrequently come as a result of epidemics. One may say that cheese — or, rather, outbreaks of illness from the eating of cheese — promoted the University's early participation in public health work (Kleinschmidt, MS, pp. 310-17). In 1883 reports came to the State Board of Health from several communities in Michigan that "persons eating cheese had become suddenly and violently ill." In 1884-85 some three hundred such cases were reported. Dr. Vaughan and his associates "finally isolated a poisonous principle," which Dr. Vaughan named "tyrotoxicon." This outbreak and a later one, in Milan, furthered the cause of the laboratory.

The University of Michigan was one of the first universities to recognize its public health obligations. The Hygienic Laboratory was established in 1887 for investigations concerning the causation, nature, and prevention of disease and to serve as an educational center in hygiene subjects. Two dates mark important points in the University's public health activities subsequent to the establishment of the laboratory; the inauguration of systematic professional public health education in 1911; and the organization of the Division of Hygiene and Public Health in 1921. The School of Public Health was established in July, 1941.

The early establishment of a state board of health in Michigan contributed to the University's pioneer work in public health. Only a few states preceded Page  1150Michigan in this respect — Massachusetts, 1869, California, 1870, Virginia and Minnesota, 1872, and the state of Louisiana, which, in 1855, organized in conjunction with New Orleans a board of health which exercised authority in the city and quarantine stations. Impressed by a report of the Massachusetts State Board of Health, Dr. Henry B. Baker, of Winona, Michigan, framed a bill, which, enacted in 1873, established the Michigan State Board of Health.

Dr. Victor Clarence Vaughan (see Part V: Medical School) was appointed assistant in the Chemical Laboratory in 1875, and his achievements in research, medical education, and in hygiene and public health are widely known. He became a member of the State Board of Health in 1883 and served for many years. He stimulated interest in the laboratory work and at a meeting of the State Board of Health on January 8, 1884, spoke of "the need of a fully equipped sanitary laboratory at the University" (Rept. Mich. State Bd. of Health, 1884, p. xxxvii).

The State Board of Health, in October, 1886, adopted a resolution requesting the Regents to consider the advisability of establishing a laboratory of hygiene which would regularly report important results of laboratory work to the State Board of Health. The Regents referred this request to the medical faculty and the State Board of Health "to consider fully, and report at some future meeting …" (R.P., 1886-91, p. 73). As recorded in the minutes of the State Board, Dr. Vaughan called the Regents' attention to typhoid in the state, estimating about fifteen thousand cases a year. He emphasized the importance of instruction in methods of preserving health and preventing disease as well as of doctors to cure diseases, and stated:

Some place was needed where every health officer could have samples of drinking water or articles of food tested. He said that such a laboratory should be made an educational center in hygiene subjects and should carry on original investigations concerning the causation, nature and prevention of disease. Instruction offered by such a laboratory would fit students to be advisers in sanitary matters.

On July 8, 1887, a special committee appointed to prepare a "scheme" for the organization of such a department recommended that a Department of Hygiene be established and that "inasmuch as hygiene is closely related to physiological chemistry, … these two subjects be united under one chair," and also "that the title of the chair be that of Professor of Hygiene and Physiological Chemistry and Director of the Hygienic Laboratory" (R.P., 1886-91, pp. 143-44).

Meanwhile, the State Board of Health presented a petition to the legislature to the effect that since knowledge "which tends directly to the preservation of life, and to the perfection of physical and mental health and strength" was not well provided for at the University, the legislature "take such action as shall lead to the maintenance of a well-equipped laboratory of hygiene at the University of Michigan and of such instruction in sanitary science at that institution, as shall place that subject on a plane not inferior to that of any other subject taught at the University" (Rept. Mich. State Bd. of Health, 1887, p. xlv).

In 1887 the legislature appropriated $35,000 for the construction of a building and for its equipment (P.A., 1887, No. 243), and in 1889 authorized two grants of three thousand dollars each, one to be made in 1889 and one in 1890, for "furniture and apparatus" (P.A., 1889, No. 145).

The Hygienic Laboratory was first situated in the left wing of the West Physics Building, but moved into the Page  1151West Medical Laboratory in 1903 (see Part V: Medical School). It was moved again in 1926, with the Department of Bacteriology, into the East Medical Building. Dr. Vaughan and Dr. Frederick George Novy, successively directors of the Hygienic Laboratory, began the work in October, 1887, "using rooms and apparatus belonging to the chemical laboratory." One of Dr. Novy's early achievements in connection with the laboratory was the exposure of the stenocarpine fraud, showing that the so-called "new local anaesthetic" contained cocaine. Others identified with the early days of the laboratory were Dr. Henry Sewall (see Part V: Department of Physiology) and Albert B. Prescott, Dean of the School of Pharmacy (1876-1905). Pharmacy played an important part in public health work, particularly with reference to food adulterations.

A state legislative act in 1897 provided for the analysis of water in use by the public (P.A., No. 43). According to this measure, a sample of water "which might be the cause of disease or "epidemic" could be sent to the University for analysis, free of charge except for the actual cost of materials. In 1903 the legislature enacted a law providing for the immediate treatment of indigent persons supposed to have been infected with rabies (P.A., No. 116).

The State Board of Health began to develop public health laboratory work at Lansing. An act passed in 1907 provided for the appointment of a bacteriologist by the State Board, and for equipment for bacteriological examinations, including water analysis (P.A., No. 109); another, in 1915 (No. 164), provided for a branch bacteriological laboratory in the Upper Peninsula; one in 1919 (No. 146) provided for the appointment of a state commissioner of health and an advisory council.

Through its Bureau of Laboratories the State Department of Health has taken over some of the original functions of the Hygienic Laboratory. The Medical School Announcement for 1939-40 states, relative to the Hygienic Laboratory: "The Pasteur Institute and the Department of Bacteriology are divisions of this laboratory. Parasitology and Medical Jurisprudence are also included."

From 1881 to 1911, first in the School of Political Science and later in the Hygienic Laboratory, public health practices were taught under the direction of Dr. Vaughan, Dr. Novy, and others (see Part V: Department of Bacteriology). The first degree in hygiene was conferred in 1897, ten years after the establishment of the Hygienic Laboratory. Between 1897 and 1911, the first year of systematic professional public health education, the degree of master of science in hygiene was conferred on six students and the degree of master of arts in hygiene on two.

Systematic professional public health education and the degree of doctor of public health were established May 11, 1911, when the Regents approved the recommendations in the following communication from the Dean of the Department of Medicine and Surgery:

I am instructed by the Medical Faculty to request … that you give permission to said Faculty to provide for a course of two years' instruction, leading to the degree of Doctor of Public Health (D.P.H.)… There is a great demand, and a growing one, for health officials who should know not only medicine, but the principles of heating, ventilating, plumbing, sewage and garbage disposal, water supplies, methods of purification of water, etc… We propose to demand for admission to this course the degrees of B.S. and M.D. from this medical department, or a medical school of equivalent standing. The course will extend through two years, about half of it will be given in the Medical Department, and the other half Page  1152in the Engineering Department…


(R.P., 1910-14, pp. 143-44.)
In June, 1911, the Regents established the degree of master of science in public health and approved curriculums for that degree and for the degree of doctor of public health:

Course I. A one-year course leading to the degree of Master of Science in Public Health. Candidates must possess the degrees of B.S. or A.B., and M.D.… In addition to the taking of the prescribed courses and the successful passing of these courses the candidate shall carry out a piece of original investigation of sufficient value, and shall present a thesis on the same,…

Course II. Course leading to the degree of Doctor of Public Health. Candidates must possess the degree of A.B. [or] B.S. in addition to that of M.D., and must pursue a course of two years after the degree of M.D. has been received. The first year's course is identical with that prescribed for the degree of Master of Science in Public Health. The second year's work must be spent in research work in one or more of these subjects, with the presentation of a thesis containing original work of sufficient merit,…

The first announcement of these programs of study appeared in the 1912-13 Announcement of the Department of Medicine and Surgery. The Graduate School's first statement regarding public health degrees, in its 1912-13 Announcement, called attention to the statements in the Medical Announcement. Through 1913-14 these statements were in accordance with the 1911 action of the Regents (R.P., 1910-14, p. 179) that a candidate for public health degrees must possess the bachelor's degree and the degree of doctor of medicine.

For some unexplained reason a radical change in admission requirements for public health degrees appeared in the medical and graduate announcements for 1916-17 and the ensuing years; "and" was changed to "or," to the effect that candidates for public health degrees must possess the bachelor's degree or the degree of doctor of medicine. The work requirements also were changed. The Medical School Announcement from 1915 to 1921 stated: "For the degree of Doctor of Public Health no course is outlined as the work required of an individual student will be in charge of a committee of the faculty who will arrange the course according to the special needs of the applicant for the degree." In the Graduate School Announcement for the same period it was stated: "The degree of Doctor of Public Health is reserved for those candidates who specialize in public health work."

The courses reflected the public health interests of the time. Personnel were trained, for the most part, as bacteriologist laboratorians, who acquired an understanding of the nature, sources, identification, and distribution of bacteria and other parasites, and sanitary engineers, whose knowledge dealt particularly with environmental conditions, disease-transmission routes, and procedures for blocking or controlling these routes. William C. Hoad, who came to the University in 1912 as Professor of Sanitary Engineering, and other members of the engineering faculty co-operated with Dr. Vaughan and the medical faculty in this training.

Marion L. Burton, who became President of the University in 1920, was interested in broadening professional public health education at the University, so that it would be in keeping with developments in the public health field and with increasing demands for trained personnel. He wanted to establish a "University division" which would correlate professional public health education programs, public health courses for the various schools in the University desiring such courses, general courses in hygiene and community health for college students, a more comprehensive University Health Page  1153Service, the Department of Physical Education, and the Department of Intramural Recreational Activities.

In June, 1921, a committee consisting of Regent Murfin and President Burton recommended to the Regents that there be established two departments: "(a) A University Department of Hygiene and Public Health, including a Department of Physical Education, and (b) A Department of Intercollegiate Athletics."

The Division of Hygiene, Public Health, and Physical Education was established by the Regents in June, 1921, and its functions outlined as follows:

Section 1. This Division has for its objects (1) the promotion of the physical welfare of the students; (2) the dissemination of knowledge concerning the application of hygiene and sanitation as affecting both the individual and the community; (3) co-operation in the training of experts in these subjects.


(Organization and Aims …, p. 70.)

To organize and direct the work John Sundwall (Chicago '03, Ph.D. ibid. '06, M.D. Johns Hopkins '12), Professor of Hygiene and Public Health and Director of the University Health Service at the University of Minnesota, in 1921 was appointed Professor of Hygiene and Public Health and Director of the Division of Hygiene, Public Health, and Physical Education.

Before the organization of the Division six noncredit health lectures were required of freshmen. A course in hygiene and public health was given for sophomore medical students and as an elective for upperclassmen in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The course was given by Dr. Vaughan, who made reference to "students who in relays of from two to three hundred for quite some forty years listened to my talks on hygiene" (Vaughan, p. 249). Medical students are now given three courses in public health and preventive medicine. An elective college course in hygiene and community health has also been given.

The Health Service, opened in 1913 as a "dispensary," was doing excellent work in cramped quarters, but was still equipped for ambulatory patients and room calls only. Two months of instruction at the University, with two months of field work, made up a public health nursing course, for which a certificate in public health nursing was given; and the annual Announcement of the Medical School and of the Graduate School included statements relative to graduate work in public health.

During the Division's first year, its interest centered on student physical welfare and physical education needs, and plans were made for a larger Health Service with infirmary, increased services, and a larger staff.

In 1921 the activities of the Division of Hygiene, Public Health, and Physical Education were divided into two general classifications: (1) instruction in hygiene, public health, and physical education and (2) the physical-welfare activities, regarded as a laboratory correlative to teaching. Instruction was given in the Graduate School, the School of Education, the Medical School, the College of Dental Surgery, the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the College of Pharmacy, and the School of Nursing. Included in the physical welfare activities of the University Health Service were the required freshman hygiene lectures, special health lectures, individual instruction, campus and off-campus sanitary inspection and surveys, and the service of the hospital "dispensary." Separate programs were planned for men and women in physical education, intramural sports, and recreational activities (P.R., 1921-22, pp. 293-313).

Page  1154The staffs of the units were headed by John Sundwall, Warren E. Forsythe, Barbara H. Bartlett, George A. May, Elmer D. Mitchell, Elton E. Wieman, Marion O. Wood, and Marion Dawley. In 1923, in order that women's physical education might be supervised by a woman trained in medicine as well as in physical education, Margaret Bell (Chicago '15, M.D. Rush Medical College '21) was appointed Physician in the University Health Service and Associate Professor of Women's Physical Education in the Division of Hygiene.

A four-year program of study in physical education and school health in the School of Education was arranged. In 1925, with plans for a large stadium, it was suggested that physical education and intramural recreation be placed under the direction of the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. In May, 1925, Acting President Lloyd, at the request of the Senate Council, named a committee (E. E. Day, Chairman; R. W. Aigler, J. A. Bursley, A. H. Lovell, and A. E. R. Boak) "to survey and study the whole subject of intercollegiate athletics at Michigan." The report of the committee calling attention to the need of more funds and better facilities for physical education and intramural recreation and sports was interpreted by President Little as follows:

… the committee recommended a reconstitution of the Board in Control of Athletics to include beside the present members five more faculty representatives (including the Director of the Division of Hygiene, Public Health and Physical Education)… It was proposed to charge this board with responsibility for all athletics and physical education — not simply intercollegiate games.


(P.R., 1925-26, p. 49.)
The Regents in April, 1926, delegated to the Board in Control of Athletics, authority to formulate and submit plans to carry out the recommendations in the Day Report (R.P., 1923-26, p. 869). At the same meeting the Board stipulated (p. 871):

Said Board in Control shall likewise … have general supervision of intramural sports, physical education, and allied matters, being expressly hereby charged with the duty of forthwith providing an adequate and proper plan for giving speedy effect to the general program outlined in the Senate Committee report on University athletics dated January 18, 1926.

The Department of Physical Education for Men, the Department of Intramural Sports, and the Department of Physical Education for Women were accordingly separated from the Division of Hygiene, Public Health, and Physical Education and placed under the direction of a board of fourteen, composed of two students, three alumni, and nine faculty representatives, of which group the President of the University and the Director of Intercollegiate Athletics were to be permanent members, the other seven to be appointed by the President.

When the Regents placed physical education and intramural recreation under the Board in Control of Athletics, later the Board in Control of Physical Education, the Division of Hygiene, Public Health, and Physical Education became the Division of Hygiene and Public Health, including general health education, the University Health Service, and the professional education of public health personnel. The history of the development of the University Health Service, one of the most important parts of the Division of Hygiene and Public Health, is given in a separate article (see Part II: University Health Service).

In 1922-23, for the first time, a separate bulletin was issued announcing professional courses in public health. With increasing recognition of the widespread need that attention be directed to other Page  1155factors in health conservation, man himself became a center of public health interest.

In addition to professional programs of study for public health personnel, the Division of Hygiene and Public Health has given public health courses in the School of Medicine and in the School of Dentistry as well as general courses in hygiene and community health.

Public health nursing education at the University, as initiated in 1918-19 under Miss Dora Magdalene Barnes (Mt. Holyoke '03, R.N. Johns Hopkins '06, A.M. Peabody '22), had consisted of a four-month course, half the work being done at the University and the other half devoted to directed field work in Detroit. Mrs. Barbara Haecker Bartlett (Columbia '17, A.M. Michigan '23, R.N.) succeeded Miss Barnes in 1920 as Professor of Public Health Nursing and served from 1920 to 1938. Four of these short-term courses were given, with an average of nineteen students. Public health nursing was transferred in 1922 to the newly established Division of Hygiene and Public Health, and its curriculum, leading to a certificate in public health nursing, was expanded to one academic year and later to a year and a half. In 1923-24 with the co-operation of the School of Education, a four-year curriculum in public health nursing leading to the degree of bachelor of science in education was established. Following Mrs. Bartlett, Miss Ella Elizabeth McNeil ('23, R.N. '23) was appointed to direct the public health nursing courses.

In 1921-22, the Division's first year, two professional public health curriculums were offered: (1) a general program of study in public health, open to graduate students with the necessary preparation; and (2) the public health nursing work leading to a certificate in public health nursing. In 1940-41, with the co-operation of other University units and of public health agencies in the state, in order to provide a specialized type of training for the various fields of public health, thirteen curriculums leading to the degree of master of public health were presented: I. Public Health Administration, II. Epidemiology, III. Public Health Nursing, IV. Public Health Engineering, V. Public Health Laboratory Practice, VI. Public Health Statistics, VII. Industrial Health, VIII. School Health Programs, IX. Public Health Education, X. Public Health Dentistry, XI. Venereal Disease Control, XII. Public Health Nutrition, XIII. Health Councils and Voluntary Health Agencies.

The Division began early in its professional public health teaching to co-operate with the Medical School, the College of Engineering, the School of Nursing, the School of Dentistry, the School of Education, the College of Pharmacy, the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the Graduate School. This was done because it could be foreseen that work in public health and administration would be closely related to the health-medical professions and to social and public welfare services. Co-operation also made it unnecessary at that time for the University to equip and operate additional science laboratories.

The co-operation of the Michigan State Health Department and of other state health agencies was invaluable. Students in public health laboratory methods, for example, have worked at Lansing in the laboratories of the State Department of Health, and those taking the venereal disease control program have studied special laboratory methods in the clinical laboratories of the University Hospital. Those studying epidemiology and acute syphilis have completed part of their work in Detroit Page  1156under the auspices of the Detroit Department of Health.

In 1936-37, because of the Federal Social Security Act and the designation of the Division of Hygiene and Public Health by the United States Public Health Service as a training center for public health personnel, the Division began to receive federal funds amounting to $22,500 annually. This has been supplemented by $3,000 a year for a program of study in venereal disease control.

In the development of its professional programs the Division aimed (1) to engraft professional public health education to those educational disciplines or channels in the University through and from which come the professional public health students and the basic materials (sciences) of public health work and public health education; (2) to emphasize the concept of unity of public health work and administration — bringing out the position and role played by each of the special fields of public health in making up the whole — and their interrelationships, also the relation of public health administration to other agencies concerned with public and social services; (3) to make direct preparation for the effective practice of public health the primal objective of the curriculums; (4) to foster a genuine professional spirit; and (5) to give due consideration to the costs of this education, and, when possible, to avoid unnecessary duplication of expensive laboratories and equipment.

In 1921-22 there were three graduate public health students and seventeen nurses in the public health nursing curriculum, and three graduate public health degrees were granted. In 1939-40 there were 338 professional public health students — 181 graduate students, 146 public health nurses, and eleven special students. In 1921-22, in the five courses offered, including professional and general courses, the enrollment was 400. In the fifty-three courses offered in 1939-40 the total enrollment was 4,004. In 1921-22 there were two staff members, in 1939-40 there were eighteen.

In addition to persons already referred to in connection with various interests of the Division, the following deserve mention: Nathan Sinai (M.S.P.H. '24, D.P.H. '26), Allan J. McLaughlin (London Collegiate Institute '88, M.D. Detroit College of Medicine '96), Herman H. Riecker (Marietta College '17, M.D. Johns Hopkins '23), Mabel E. Rugen (Wisconsin '25, Ph.D. New York University '31), Leon A. Fox (M.D. University of Cincinnati '12, M.S. American University '31, Ph.D. ibid. '32, D.P.H. Johns Hopkins '35), Marguerite F. Hall (Oberlin '14, Ph.D. Michigan '34), Harry Edgar Miller, Sr. (B.C.E. '16, M.S.P.H. '44), Lloyd R. Gates ('28, M.S.P.H., '29, D.P.H. '32, '47e), Catherine F. Mackinnon (Montana '24, M.S. Michigan '36), Lavinia G. MacKaye ('17, M.D. '31, M.S.P.H. '41), Hazel G. Herringshaw (B.S. '31, A.M. '38), Claire E. Healey (Mt. Holyoke '17, M.D. Rush '31).

Nonresident lecturers in 1939-40 came from the Institute of Public and Social Administration, the Detroit Department of Health, the Detroit Visiting Nurse Association, the Children's Fund of Michigan, the Michigan Tuberculosis Association, and the State Department of Health. For several years a special lecture each week at a public health assembly has been given by some man outstanding for his work in public health or in fields related to public health.

In addition to extension work and instruction offered each summer, during the year the Division has held short conferences and institutes. A Public Health Review published by the Division each month from October to June, has had a wide circulation.

Page  1157
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, Graduate School [Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, 1937-], Univ. Mich., 1913-40.
Announcement, Medical School, Univ. Mich., 1915.
Announcement, School of Public Health, Univ. Mich., 1940-41.
Constitutional and Legislative Acts, Legal Decisions, and By-Laws of the University of Michigan, comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.
Garrison, F. H.An Introduction to the History of Medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders & Co., 1929.
General Register, Univ. Mich., 1940-41.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Kleinschmidt, Earl E. MS, "History of the Public Health Movement in Michigan, 1850-88." Gen. Lib., Univ. Mich., pp. 310-17.
Michigan. Public Acts.
1887. Act 243
1889. Act 145.
1897. Act 43.
1903. Act 116.
1907. Act 109.
1915. Act 164.
1919. Act 146.

Michigan State Board of Health Report, 1884-87.
Organization and Aims of the University of Michigan as Reflected in its Bylaws …, 1922. Comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1887-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, Univ. Mich., 1885-1940.
Vaughan, Victor C.A Doctor's Memories. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1926.Page  [unnumbered]