The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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The School of Education

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THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

THE School of Education of the University of Michigan, established by the Board of Regents in May, 1921 (R.P., 1920-23, p. 189), is a direct outgrowth of the chair of the Science and the Art of Teaching which had been a part of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts since 1879.

Even before Michigan was admitted to the Union in 1837 the movement seeking to make teaching a profession was progressing. In the convention which drafted the first constitution John D. Pierce, who later became Michigan's first superintendent of public instruction, espoused high standards of education as fundamental to the state's development and prosperity. As state superintendent he endeavored to have a teacher-training department incorporated into the plan for the University. In this he failed. Nevertheless, some sort of pedagogical work was provided in the branches which were created as preparatory to the University itself. This work, however, was designed for rural school teachers only and was abandoned when the branches disappeared during the next decade.

John Pierce's successor, Superintendent Franklin Sawyer, in referring to the branches stated that "the art of teaching, though well understood, is not adequately taught… A model school … would afford all the aid that a young man or a young woman could want to perfect him or her in the practice as well as [the] theory of teaching …" (Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1841-42, p. 54).

With the continued agitation of successive superintendents of public instruction for the professional training of teachers, it was gradually recognized that some qualifications in addition to scholarship were necessary for the certification of teachers. As a result a bill was introduced in the legislature in 1849 establishing the Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti. The schoolmen were not yet satisfied, for they desired pedagogical training dealing not only with methods of teaching but also with the practical problems of school organization, administration, and management.

President Tappan's report to the Board of Regents in 1856 pointed out for the first time the University's responsibility to supply the state with competent teachers. He said: "The highest institutions are necessary to … raise up Instructors of the proper qualifications, [and] to define the principles and methods of education …" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 655). As a result of this report the Catalogue for 1858-59 (p. 38) announced a teacher's course in ancient languages "for the benefit of those who may wish to prepare themselves for teaching in Union and High Schools."

In 1860 John Milton Gregory, then superintendent of public instruction, claimed that many schools were in the hands of teachers ignorant of the first principles of the art and the science of teaching, and in 1861, 1862, and 1863 without payment he gave a course of lectures to the senior class at the University on the principles and the philosophy of education, the proper organization and administration of schools, and methods of teaching the different branches of knowledge. In 1871 The Michigan Teacher expressed concern over the fact that graduates of the Page  1074University entering the field of teaching began their work "wholly unprepared, in theory and practice, so far as the equipment of the University goes in such preparation." The University student publication, The Chronicle, for March 9, 1872, proposed that "the professor in charge of each branch in which this instruction is needed is best qualified to give it… This instruction should be given in every department of study in which preparation is required for admission to the University."

President James Burrill Angell lent his influence to the movement and in 1874 wrote:

It cannot be doubted that some instruction in Pedagogics would be very helpful to our Senior class. Many of them are called directly from the University to the management of large schools… The whole work of organizing schools, the management of primary and grammar schools, the art of teaching and governing a school, — of all this it is desirable that they know something before they go to their new duties. Experience alone can thoroughly train them. But some familiar lectures on these topics would be of essential service to them.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 390.)

It was not until 1879 that the Board of Regents finally approved his recommendations. In that year it was resolved "that in accordance with the recommendation of the Faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, a chair of 'the Science and the Art of Teaching,' be and is hereby established in the University" (R.P., 1876-81, pp. 388-89), and William Harold Payne (A.M. hon. '72, LL.D. hon. '88, Litt.D. Western University of Pennsylvania '97) was appointed to the position.

Professor Payne was born at Farmington, Ontario County, New York, May 12, 1836. He received his early education in the common schools, the Macedon Academy, and the New York Conference Seminary at Charlotteville. He began his career as a teacher in the country schools and later served as school principal in Victor, New York, and in Three Rivers and Niles, Michigan. In 1866 he became head of the Union Seminary in Ypsilanti, then the leading preparatory school of the state. From 1869 to 1879 he was superintendent of public schools at Adrian, Michigan, where for ten years his reputation had grown as an administrator and writer on educational subjects. From the time of his appointment until he resigned in 1888, Payne served as the sole member of his department. He left the University to accept the chancellorship of the University of Nashville and the presidency of Peabody Normal School (R.P., 1886-91, p. 193).

Burke Aaron Hinsdale (A.M. hon. Williams '71, Ph.D. Ohio State '88, LL.D. ibid. '92), who succeeded Payne, was born at Wadsworth, Medina County, Ohio, March 31, 1837. He was educated in the district schools and at Western Reserve Collegiate Institute, afterward Hiram College. Here he met James A. Garfield, who was about four years his senior, with whom he formed a close and enduring friendship. He became a minister and preached regularly for some years, serving at Solon and at East Cleveland. On the opening of Alliance College in 1868 he was appointed to the chair of history, political economy, and governmental science. He resigned at the end of the first year to accept the chair of philosophy, history, and Biblical literature at Hiram College. He became president of the college in 1870 and served until 1882. On the nomination of General Garfield for the presidency in 1880, Hinsdale took an active part in the campaign and prepared The Republican Textbook. He became superintendent of the Cleveland public schools in 1882 and in 1888 followed Payne in the chair Page  1075of the science and the art of teaching at the University of Michigan. He figured importantly in the life of the University and was well known for his research work and authorship.

On Professor Hinsdale's death in 1900, Professor Payne was recalled to the University. He entered upon his duties in September, 1901, and taught until his death in 1907.

Meantime, in 1899 Allen S. Whitney had been added to the staff as Junior Professor of the Science and the Art of Teaching and Inspector of Schools, and the department became directly responsible for the visitation, inspection, and accreditation of high schools. Shortly thereafter, three others were added to the department: Lewis B. Alger (Ph.B. '97, A.M. Columbia '01), who remained only two years, resigning in 1905 to enter upon a business career; Theodore de Laguna (California '96, Ph.D. Cornell '01), who likewise soon resigned to accept a position at Bryn Mawr College; and Calvin O. Davis ('95, Ph.D. Harvard '10), who remained on the staff. On the death of Professor Payne in 1907, Whitney became head of the department.

Allen Sisson Whitney ('85, Ed.D. hon. '39, LL.D. Syracuse '21) was born in 1858 at Mount Clemens, Michigan, where he received his early education in the public schools. Before serving on the staff of the University he had been superintendent of schools at Mount Clemens and at Saginaw, East Side. His title was changed in 1902 to Professor of Pedagogy and Inspector of Schools and in 1905 to Professor of Education and Inspector of Schools.

Between 1907 and 1921 the department grew in personnel, in curriculum offerings, and in state-wide service. In 1921, when the School of Education became a separate unit, Professor Whitney was made Acting Dean. In 1923 he became the first Dean and continued to head the work of teacher-training until his retirement from active service in 1928. Although Dean Whitney's resignation did not take effect until June, 1929, during his leave of absence preparatory to retirement, an executive committee consisting of Professors J. B. Edmonson, Raleigh Schorling, and George E. Myers was appointed to carry on the administrative work of the School. Dean Whitney was succeeded by James Bartlett Edmonson ('06, Ph.D. Chicago '25) in 1929.

Professor Edmonson was born at Parkersburg, Iowa, in 1882. He served as teacher and principal in the Michigan public schools from 1906 until 1914, when he became Inspector of High Schools and Professor of Secondary Education at the University of Michigan. From 1927 to 1929 he was Director of the Division of University Inspection of High Schools and in 1929 he became Dean of the School of Education.

Teacher training. — President Angell began the advocacy of teacher-training work almost at the outset of his career. Under his leadership the faculty in 1874 voted to grant a teacher's diploma to such graduating students as showed "special fitness for teaching certain branches." The next year the faculty voted to make the teacher's diploma a "certificate of qualification for teaching," provided the candidate sustained a satisfactory special examination in the subject matter he desired to teach. Later, the examination feature was found impracticable, but the diploma itself, although it had no legal value, continued to be granted until 1921. In 1879, as previously stated, a chair of the science and the art of teaching was finally established.

The University in 1870 had opened its doors to women students, and a year later it began the accrediting of high Page  1076schools after inspection and recommendation by a committee of the faculty. Both these steps naturally did much to enhance the development of teachertraining.

Much of Professor Payne's influence upon teacher-training came as a result of his numerous pedagogical writings. Nevertheless, the organizational work which he did for the new department was also of far-reaching significance. He believed firmly that professional education should consist essentially of principles and not of rule-of-thumb procedures. In particular, he held that a foundation of history, philosophy, and science was the best basis upon which to build a career as teacher. Hence these subjects, applied to education, became the essence of the new curriculum.

In formulating his objectives for the new department, Professor Payne laid down certain statements which have ever since been utilized in presenting the aims of the School. They are:

  • 1. To fit university students for the higher positions in public school service.
  • 2. To promote the study of educational science.
  • 3. To teach the history of education and of educational systems and doctrines.
  • 4. To secure to teaching the rights, prerogatives, and advantages of a profession.
  • 5. To give a more perfect unity to our state educational system by bringing the secondary schools into closer relation with the University.

Burke A. Hinsdale was a profound scholar. In educational matters he was known throughout the nation by reason of his public addresses and his writings. He likewise had an administrative mind. Through his influence the state legislature in 1891 authorized the Regents to issue a teacher's certificate, valid legally for life, to any student who received from the University both a degree and a teacher's diploma. It was also through Professor Hinsdale that the office of inspector of high schools was created and attached to the Department of Education.

During the period from 1899 to 1921, teacher-training work expanded slowly but continuously. In 1900 the staff consisted of but two men — Professors Hinsdale and Whitney; in 1940, including teachers in the University High School and Elementary School, it numbered seventy-one full-time and part-timemembers.

Under Professor Whitney's leadership emphasis was placed more and more on the practical aspects of the profession. To this end persistent efforts were made to provide experience for students in classroom observation and directed teaching. From 1911 these facilities were furnished in the Ann Arbor city schools through co-operation with its Board of Education (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 134-36). This arrangement did not prove wholly satisfactory, however, and renewed efforts were made to establish a high school and an elementary school. Although for many years this hope was deferred, in 1922 the legislature appropriated $525,000 for a high-school building, which was opened to students in the fall of 1924. In 1927 the legislature appropriated $800,000 for a University Elementary School, and this building was first occupied in 1930.

Meanwhile, other expansions were taking place. In 1913 the Regents approved the introduction of teachers' courses in industrial education, drawing, commercial branches, and physical education, and appropriated the sum of $500 for laboratory work in education. In 1917 vocational education, in accordance with the provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act of the federal government, was incorporated into the work of the department; Page  1077the Regents in 1921 authorized a four-year curriculum in physical education, athletics, and school health, which was likewise placed under the administration of the School; and in 1922 the curriculum in public health nursing was added.

Organizational changes. — From 1879 to 1921 the professional training of teachers was carried forward in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the general plan of administering the work remained virtually unmodified, although the name of the unit had been officially changed to the Department of Education as early as 1908. The responsibility for inspecting and accrediting high schools, however, and the immediate direction of the teacher placement bureau were shifted to the department, and these additions caused some slight adjustment of procedures.

With the establishment of the new School in 1921, much additional administrative machinery was thought to be desirable. The scientific movement in education had developed rapidly after 1910. In consequence, the department (and later the School) introduced various courses dealing with educational psychology, tests and measurements, and educational statistics. Similarly, the courses in school administration, school supervision, instructional methods, vocational guidance, and physical training were expanded notably. As a result the work of the School began to be listed under seven departmental headings, indicated first by Roman numerals and later by letters of the alphabet. By 1926-27 these were listed as A. The History and Principles of Education; B. Educational Administration and Supervision; C. Educational Psychology, Mental Measurements, and Statistics; D. The Teaching of Special Subjects, including Directed Teaching; E. Vocational Education and Vocational Guidance; F. Physical Education, Athletics, and School Health; and G. Public Health Nursing.

Each department has a chairman elected by his colleagues for a term of three years, and these individuals organized and administered the departmental work.

The three general officers of the School are the Dean, the Secretary, and the Recorder. Several committees have shared administrative responsibilities with these officers. The standing committees have been Advisory and Administrative, Graduate Work, the Library, and Student Activities. Among the more important special committees are the Friendship Committee, the Committee on Candidacy for the Teacher's Certificate, and the Editorial Board of the School of Education Bulletin. Other organizational units of the School are the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research and the two laboratory schools.

Housing quarters. — For years after the appointment of Professor Payne in 1879 all courses in Education were conducted in University Hall. Later, the offices and the work of the department were moved to Tappan Hall. With the completion of the University Elementary School in 1930 the administrative offices of the School of Education were transferred to that building. In addition, several rooms in the Elementary School were set aside for classwork for University students.

The original building plans for the School of Education included three units — the high school, the elementary school, and another to be built on the site of the present playground of the high school. This third unit was to have been devoted solely to the offices, laboratories, libraries, and classrooms of the School.

Course offerings. — During the first year of Payne's incumbency he offered Page  1078only two courses: a practical course dealing with the problems of school management and supervision and a theoretical one dealing with the history and philosophy of education. The next year, in 1880, these courses were expanded somewhat, and they were still further differentiated a year or two later. But after eight years the department listed only seven courses.

Since Professor Payne's time the processes of course differentiation and addition have gone steadily forward. Table I lists developments in the curriculum from

TABLE ICourse Offerings
Groupings Courses
1921 1939
A. History and Principles 8 12
B. Educational Administration and Supervision 12 44
C. Educational Psychology, Mental Measurements, and Statistics 8 36
D. Special Methods 9 35
E. Vocational Education 7 21
F. Physical Education and School Health .. 56
G. Public Health Nursing .. 19
Total 44 223
1921 to 1940. These courses were not all offered each semester of every year, and many of them were scheduled for the summer session only, when the wide range of educational interests among the hundreds of graduate students who come from all parts of the country seems to make an extensive program of work both justifiable and desirable. Nevertheless, it is a long road from the two courses offered in 1879 to the 223 listed in 1939-40.

Graduation and teacher's certificate requirements. — As early as 1858, as already mentioned, so-called teachers courses in subject matter fields were instituted at the University, and in 1874 a teacher's diploma was authorized. Six years later, one year after Payne took up his duties on the campus, the requirements for this diploma were that a student should complete "one of the courses in the Science and the Art of Teaching, and some one other course of study with reference to preparation for teaching" and should by special examination show such marked proficiency as to qualify him to give instruction. This teacher's diploma had no legal value; it served merely as the University's special recommendation of a candidate to school authorities.

When Professor Hinsdale succeeded Professor Payne in 1888, he sought to have legal certification status accorded the professional work done on the campus. As a result of his efforts the state legislature in 1891 empowered the University Board of Regents to issue such a certificate to all students receiving the teacher's diploma. Hence, from that time until 1921, students who met the specified requirements received simultaneously three credentials: a diploma of graduation, a special teacher's diploma, and a legal teacher's certificate. The latter entitled the holder to teach in any public school in Michigan throughout his lifetime.

Immediately following the authorization of a teacher's certificate the University set the number of hours of professional work needed to secure it at eleven. When the School of Education was established in 1921, the entire responsibility for teacher training and certification was turned over to it. Since that date many changes have been initiated. The more significant of these are as follows.

At the very outset of its existence the Page  1079School set standards that were specific and definite. It prescribed that all candidates for the teacher's certificate (the special teacher's diploma having been abolished) should complete one course in educational psychology, one in secondary education, and one in teaching methods. The following year (1922) the eleven-hour minimum was raised to fifteen hours. Three years later an introductory course in general psychology was made a prerequisite to all work in education.

In 1927 a number of other far-reaching changes in graduation and certification standards were made: the total of hours required for graduation was set at 124 rather than at 120 as previously, with 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit; new regulations were imposed respecting the student's academic preparation, a major of at least twenty-five hours and a minor of at least fifteen hours being prescribed for all; and the required work in education was made to consist of five three-hour courses selected from five definitely described fields. These five fields were:

  • Educational Psychology
  • Introduction to Secondary Education
  • A choice of
    • a. Introduction to Experimental Education
    • b. Educational and Mental Measurements
    • c. Psychology of Elementary School Subjects
  • A choice of
    • a. History of Education
    • b. Philosophy of Education
  • A methods course in one's major or minor field.

In this same year the Announcement first carried the following statement: "He [the candidate for a certificate] must give evidence of good health, distinctive moral character and personality, and pronounced teaching aptitudes and interests." This paragraph, slightly reworded, has continued to appear in the printed standards.

In 1928 and 1929 other significant changes in requirements were adopted. Educational Psychology (C1) was increased from a three-hour to a four-hour course and was made to include some laboratory experience. History of Education (A1) and Introduction to Secondary Education (B20) were each reduced from three hours to two hours. Directed Teaching (D100), which had been offered without credit during the years 1924-26 and for one hour of credit in 1926, was now made a two-hour course and was definitely prescribed for all. It became a four-hour course in 1932, and after 1938, under the provisions of the new state code, it carried five hours of credit.

Meanwhile, in order to accommodate certain graduate and other students who had not pursued educational courses in the regular order, a Correlated Course in education was established in 1929-30. This course was organized with units covering the work in all the prescribed areas and took the entire time of a student for one semester. After spending six weeks in classroom instruction, students were placed for another six weeks in various city school systems throughout the country in order to devote their time to observation and directed teaching. On the completion of this period the students returned to Ann Arbor and continued classwork for the remainder of the semester. The Correlated Course in 1940 carried seventeen hours of credit.

In 1929 the requirements were again overhauled. Departmental fields were classified under two headings: List A, which included those types of work for which directed teaching was available in the University High School, and List B, including those types of work for Page  1080which facilities for directed teaching were not available. A student was required to select a major or a minor from List A; he was privileged to select the second field of specialization from List B. Simultaneously, five group or interdepartmental fields of work were recognized — biology, English-rhetoric, general science, physical science, and social studies. A student was privileged to select both his major and his minor from these larger divisions, but the required hours consisted of thirty-two to thirty-eight for a major and twenty-one to twenty-five for a minor. The same courses might be counted doubly, however; that is, toward satisfying the major and the minor simultaneously.

During 1929 and 1930 two new special curriculums leading to the teacher's certificate were established: a curriculum for teachers of commercial subjects and a curriculum for teachers of art and design. In 1937 the old curriculum in vocational education was reorganized so as to provide a curriculum for teachers of industrial arts in junior and senior high schools. In 1940, therefore, the School of Education provided six special curriculums.

Since 1930 qualifying and comprehensive examinations have constituted two formal requirements for students seeking the teacher's certificate. The first of these, which is to be taken before admission to the course in directed teaching, tests the student's knowledge of the subject matter in his academic major or minor; the second, which is to be taken just before graduation, tests the student's mastery of certain professional matters.

The University Elementary School was not designed to give training to the typical undergraduate student; on the contrary it was meant to serve primarily as an experimental school where educators might carry forward systematic studies in child development. Yet, for students who already had had considerable pedagogical work (including directed teaching) at other institutions, an undergraduate program in elementary school training was provided, which required a minimum of one hundred hours of credit in academic work. The number of individuals enrolling for the work on the undergraduate level was small. This was due in part to the fact that the old University certificate permitted the holder to teach in any grade he might choose — in high school or elementary school. There was, consequently, no necessity for a prospective elementary teacher to tread an unusual path.

A new certification code went into effect in Michigan on July 1, 1939. Under it, all blanket certificates were abolished. Henceforth, students in training prepared themselves for one definite type of school work — elementary, secondary, or junior college. To qualify for elementary- and secondary-school certificates they were required to have had directed teaching on a corresponding level. Up to this time the teacher-training program of the School of Education was on the secondary level only. Because of student interest and the need for elementary school teachers, a training program was arranged with the teachers colleges of the state — and with various other institutions. The School of Education developed a plan whereby students were, under certain conditions, permitted to spend one semester of their senior year in these institutions in order to secure the specific training for elementary school work not available at the University. For students granted this privilege the usual residence requirements were waived, and an elementary school certificate was awarded upon graduation.

In 1932 another notable change in Page  1081graduation and certification requirements went into effect. Since 1927 the two sets of standards had been identical: both graduation and certification had required 124 hours of credit and 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit. The two goals were separated in 1932, and an individual could graduate without being certificated. Graduation thus rested upon the basis of 124 hours of credit and 124 honor points, or a C average; certification rested upon the completion of 124 hours of credit, or, on the new basis of marking, 25 per cent more points than hours. Also in 1932, the prescribed number of hours in education was raised from fifteen to seventeen. Both for graduation and for certification at least seventeen hours in professional training were required for all.

In 1934 course A1 (History of Education) and course B20 (Introduction to Secondary Education) — each previously a two-hour course — were abolished, and their instructional materials were organized into a single three-hour course, A10, Education in the United States. The prescribed certificate standards were set as follows: A10, Education in the United States, three hours; C1, Educational Psychology, four hours; D, Special Methods in major or minor, three hours; D100, Directed Observation and Teaching, four or five hours; and an elective in education, two or three hours.

In 1937, by law, all teacher-certificating powers in Michigan were vested exclusively in the State Board of Education. Thus, at that time the University lost the function it had exercised in this respect since 1891. The State Board immediately drafted a regulation whereby teacher training institutions were to continue to recommend candidates for the certificate on substantially the old conditions. Hence, the School of Education retained the substance, if not the form, of certification authority for University students. Effective also under the state code was the requirement that all teachers must be trained in at least three academic fields — a major and two minors (rather than a major and one minor). The recommendation for elementary school teachers was four minors, as previously, although a major and two minors in strictly elementary school subjects were a permissible minimum. The certificate for junior college teaching was based on a master's degree.

In 1937 all candidates for a teacher's certificate were required to make formal application to the Recorder for such credentials. The Recorder thereupon checked all records and, if correct, certified the candidate to the State Board, which granted the legal certificate. In order also to guard against the certification of individuals who were deemed unfit to become teachers by reason of physical, mental, or moral defects or other inadequacies, a Teacher's Certificate Candidacy Committee was appointed. The functions of this committee were to make careful investigation into all cases called to their attention by the faculty and, if evidence warranted, to discourage, or if need be, to block further efforts to secure a certificate.

Students. — In the first year of Dr. Payne's incumbency seventy-one students pursued courses in education. Undergraduate enrollment in the first year of the School totaled 215, and fifty-eight degrees were granted. Later enrollment figures are given in Table II.

According to Dean Whitney, in the summer session of 1900 there were twenty-five elections in education; in 1920, 717 elections; in 1929, 1,989 elections. The outstanding change in recent years has been the fact that the School of Education, particularly in the summer session, has become predominantly a Page  1082

TABLE IIUndergraduate Enrollments in the School of Education and Degrees Granted
Year Enrollment Degrees Granted
Summer Session Academic Year Total
1923-24 350 301 651 108
1928-29 526 476 1,002 204
1933-34 158* 256 414 98
1938-39 367 496 863 111
School serving the needs of advanced students. A master's degree is demanded of teachers and administrative officers in many school systems, and thus it seems that the trend toward graduate study will continue.

The number of students electing courses in education is listed in Table III. The figures include individuals who are enrolled in various schools and colleges on the campus. Course elections are listed in Table IV.

Table V gives the number of teacher's certificates issued through the University. Here exact records extend farther back than they do for some of the other data. One hundred and twenty-five such certificates were granted in 1904; in 1939 the total was 272. As will be observed, the highest number ever issued was 522

TABLE IIIStudents Electing Courses in Education
Year Summer Session Academic Year Total
School of Education Other Schools Total School of Education Other Schools Total
1932-33 278 893 1,171 304 520* 824 1,995
1934-35 194 622 816 272 547 819 1,635
1936-37 328 1,016 1,344 489 818 1,307 2,651
1938-39 367 825 1,192 496 1,906 2,402 3,594
TABLE IVStudent Course Elections in Education
Year Summer Session Academic Year Total
First Semester Second Semester
1928-29* 1,759 3,368 1,789 * 6,916
1930-31 1,933 1,475* 2,048 5,456
1932-33 1,542 1,492 1,426 4,440
1934-35 1,476 1,132 1,225 3,833
1936-37 2,492 1,531 1,483 5,407
1938-39 3,430 1,789* 1,666* 6,885*
in the year 1927. Again the effect of the elevation of standards both in the state and in the University is evident. Time was when teachers in both elementary and high schools in Michigan were certificated on only two years of normal school or collegiate training. During the 1920's and 1930's this situation changed. Hence, many individuals who met standards under the older conditions found it desirable, if not absolutely necessary, to secure college degrees. The teacher's certificate was a natural accompaniment of the degrees.

Graduate work. — Many of the staff of the School of Education are members of the Graduate School faculty. Consequently, much of the instructional work Page  1083

TABLE VTeacher's Certificates Issued
Year Number of Certificates Year Number of Certificates Year Number of Certificates
1892 32 1922 302
1897 55 1910 122 1928 384
1901 78 1916 203 1934 213
1905 132 1921 274 1939 272
of these teachers is on a graduate level, and the courses which they offer carry graduate credit. Indeed, of the total offerings of the School, a very considerable part is of graduate character. The Announcement of the School of Education for 1939-40 listed a total of 223 courses. Of these, sixty-two were designed solely for undergraduates, and eighty-eight were open to both undergraduates and graduates; seventy-five were open only to graduate students. When the plan for utilizing the several teachers colleges of the state for graduate centers went into operation in 1938 the number of course offerings, as well as the number of graduate students in education, increased notably.

Two special aspects of the School's graduate work deserve special mention. These are the late afternoon and Saturday classes held on the campus and designed primarily for part-time students, and the Field Course in Education.

The custom of providing late afternoon and Saturday classes for part-time students began in 1925. At the outset there were only eleven of these courses, and they were only fairly well attended. In 1939-40 forty-nine such courses were listed. Of these, twenty-five were scheduled for the first semester and twenty-four for the second semester; during the first semester they carried a total of 596 course elections. Generally speaking, these late afternoon and Saturday classes have been elected by superintendents, principals, and high-school teachers regularly engaged in educational work in cities and towns situated within a radius of approximately a hundred miles of Ann Arbor. Most of these individuals have been graduate students seeking advanced degrees.

The Field Course in Education was first instituted in 1933. It was a University extension course organized and conducted in a collective manner by the faculty of the School of Education. It sought to meet the needs of teachers in service who desired to continue University studies during the regular academic year, but who resided at such distances from Ann Arbor as to make attendance at Saturday classes extremely difficult, if not impossible. The Field Course met in conveniently located centers throughout the state but was open for credit only to graduate students. The total annual enrollment by 1940 had reached 500.

TABLE VIGraduate Students and Graduate Degrees in Education, 1921-39
Year Students in Summer Session Students in Academic Year Total Students Advanced Degrees Granted in Education
1921-22 ... ... 109 19
1923-24 142 48 190 42
1928-29 359 187 546 81
1933-34 360 205 565 110
1938-39 1,372 670 2,042 280

Each semester the School of Education has offered courses in the University of Michigan Center for Graduate Study in Detroit. During the first semester of 1939-40, the School conducted nine courses in the Center.

Table VI records the development of Page  1084graduate work in education from 1921 to 1939.

The staff. — During the twenty years from 1879 to 1899 all professional courses in education were taught by one incumbent. In 1899 the staff numbered two; in 1905, four; in 1910, six; in 1920, ten; in 1930, fifty-one; and in 1940, seventy-one. It should, however, be pointed out that the figures for 1930 and 1940 include both full-time and part-time instructors. The chief general causes of this phenomenal growth have been the great expansion of instructional materials of an educational sort produced by the development of the scientific movement in education, the successive steps taken by state and University authorities looking to the elevation of teaching standards on all levels of instruction, and the notable influx of college and university students generally — a condition which in many instances made inevitable the multiplying of class sections. But more particularly the main cause for the increase in the number of faculty members of the School of Education from 1921 to 1940 was the introduction of many physical training and public health courses given by the School. Nevertheless, even if such types of work were omitted and comparisons made solely on a basis similar to that known to Professor Payne sixty years ago, the figures would still be impressive. If only those who devoted their entire instructional time to courses in the history, philosophy, psychology, and administration of education and to methodologies relating to academic subjects solely were included, the group would number twenty-two. On the average, more than one member was added to the pedagogical staff of the School each year from 1879 to 1940.

In addition to the staff members mentioned elsewhere in this account, the following also have served the School for extended periods of time. Stuart A. Courtis (Columbia '19, Ph.D. Michigan '25), Professor of Education, Francis D. Curtis (Oregon '11, Ph.D. Columbia '24), Professor of Secondary Education and of the Teaching of Science, Harlan C. Koch (Ohio University [Athens] '19, Ph.D. Ohio State '26), Professor of Education and Assistant Director of the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, Howard Y. McClusky (Park '21, Ph.D. Chicago '29, LL.D. Park '41), Professor of Educational Psychology, Mental Measurements, and Statistics, and Assistant to the Vice-President in charge of University relations in the field of adult education, David E. Mattern (Bush Conservatory of Music '11, A.B. Cornell '15, A.M. Michigan '35), Professor of Music Education in the School of Music and in the School of Education, Arthur B. Moehlman ('12, Ph.D. '23), Professor of School Administration and Supervision, Clarence D. Thorpe (Ellsworth '11, Ph.D. Michigan '25), Professor of English and of the Teaching of English, William Clark Trow (Colgate '15, Ph.D. Columbia '23), Professor of Educational Psychology, Charles C. Fries (Bucknell '09, Ph.D. Michigan '22), Clifford Woody (Indiana '08, Ph.D. Columbia '16), Professor of Education, Director of the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research and Graduate Adviser to the Teachers Colleges, George L. Jackson ('06, Ph.D. Columbia '09), Professor of the History of Education; George C. Kyte (California '15, Ed.D. ibid. '22), Professor of Elementary Education and Supervision, George C. Carrothers (Indiana '09, Ph.D. Columbia '24), Professor of Education and Director of the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, and Warren R. Good (Virginia '26, M.A. Michigan '42), Instructor in Educational Psychology and Secretary Page  1085of the Editorial Board, School of Education.

The laboratory schools. — When the University High School was opened in 1924 it had a faculty of sixteen members and a pupil enrollment of 127. In 1940 the numbers were twenty-nine and three hundred, respectively. The school not only has served as a laboratory for the scientific study of secondary school problems but also has furnished facilities for observational work and directed teaching to approximately one hundred University students each semester. Furthermore, the head of each of the departments of instruction within this school is a member of the faculty of the School of Education, conducts the special methods courses for candidates majoring or minoring in his field, and supervises the directed teaching work of his students. In this way, therefore, a continuing tieup and correlation of theory and practice is assured.

The University Elementary School, which was completed in 1930, organized its work slowly year by year until it finally became articulated with the seventh grade of the high school in 1937. The chief purpose of this school is educational research and the study of child development. No directed teaching for the typical undergraduate is permitted, although advanced students with teaching experience are enabled to conduct experimental classwork. The school in 1940 had a staff of eighteen (together with seven assistants) and enrolled 131 children.

Thus, the two laboratory schools taken together provide instructional facilities ranging from prekindergarten work through the twelfth grade. The two units, however, differ decidedly from each other in motives. The one emphasizes research, the other the practical training of secondary school teachers.

Publications. — Annually or biennially the School of Education issues an Announcement describing its organization and its course offerings, and usually also several Supplementary Announcements giving details relating to particular kinds of problems. The School of Education Bulletin, established in 1929, is a monthly publication which is intended to serve as an agency of stimulation and information both for members of the faculty and for schoolmen and educators generally. Most issues contain one or two editorials on topics of current interest, one or more brief articles relating to educational problems, and certain news items and book reviews. The School sponsors a series of Educational Monographs or studies prepared under the direction of members of the faculty. To 1940 only one such monograph had appeared, but others were in prospect. The one published study, Verbal Influences on Children's Behavior, is by Dr. Marguerite W. Johnson. Several members of the staff have been editors or contributing editors of educational magazines.

Co-operative activities. — Besides its more or less independently conducted activities the School of Education has entered into co-operative arrangements with a number of other agencies which are carrying forward certain types of related work. Some of these undertakings are with units on the campus.

Co-operative arrangements with the University Hospital School have been effected whereby the instructional aspects of the work done there are placed under the supervision of a member of the faculty of the School of Education. Opportunities have also been given for certain students to carry forward their directed teaching assignments in connection with the Hospital School.

Arrangements have been established with the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, of Battle Creek, whereby the foundation's Page  1086summer camps for children have been utilized by the School of Education for the scientific study of children's traits and behavior. Similarly, co-operative arrangements have also been made with this foundation whereby systematic studies of specific problems have been carried forward.

Members of the staff have served as advisers to the officials of various school systems and other public and private institutions, such as Southern Michigan Prison at Jackson, the State Public School at Coldwater, the military schools at Howe, Indiana, and Culver, Indiana, and the schools of Detroit, Dearborn, Flint, Saginaw, Jackson, and other cities in Michigan.

Student teaching facilities have been made available in a number of high schools throughout the country to selected seniors and others interested in types of work not obtainable in the University High School. Further, in several instances teaching internships covering an entire school year have been secured for graduates. Under the conditions imposed the student has usually been permitted to devote part-time to paid instructional service and part-time to study for an advanced degree in the University or in some other institution. Through an agreement with the Merrill-Palmer School of Detroit, students interested especially in primary work may spend one semester of their senior year in attendance at the Merrill-Palmer School and may have the credit earned there accepted as full residence credit toward a degree and a teacher's certificate in the School of Education.

Arrangements have also been made with the four state teachers' colleges of Michigan, and with certain other teacher-training institutions in the nation whereby a student seeking to prepare himself for the state elementary school certificate may, on petition to the School of Education, be granted the privilege of spending one semester of his senior year as an enrollee in one of these institutions and of receiving residence credit in the School of Education for the work done. This privilege was authorized because the School of Education has been unable to provide adequate facilities for directed teaching and other course work relating to the elementary school.

Some of the graduate work formerly conducted by the School of Education for teachers of physically and mentally handicapped children has been expanded through co-operation with the Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti.

The School also co-operates with the sponsors of summer camps — both those conducted under the supervision of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation and the one sponsored by the University of Michigan at Patterson Lake, Michigan. At these camps training has been given to advanced students seeking to become counselors or teachers.

State services. — Annually, the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research has lent its facilities for conducting local surveys, evaluating instructional work, and aiding in carrying forward school testing programs to numerous school systems of the state. The Bureau has also co-operated with the Michigan High School Principals Association in conducting a state-wide testing program in Michigan secondary schools.

Each year the School has sponsored a series of special conferences for teachers. These conferences have included an educational conference relating to problems of administration and supervision; a teacher-training conference treating the problem of better preparation of classroom teachers, a beginning teachers' conference designed especially for the benefit of recent graduates who are in their first year of teaching, a book-week conference providing a display of recently Page  1087published textbooks and discussions relating to them, and a reading conference dealing with reading difficulties. Teachers from all parts of Michigan have attended these conferences.

In connection with the summer session, a clinic dealing especially with the problems of reading and arithmetic has been provided for dull-normal high-school children; a program of preprimary and early elementary schoolwork has been offered to meet the needs of families residing in Ann Arbor during the summer and to provide facilities for observation and research; courses relating to the problems of atypical children and to camping activities have also been given.

Each year the staff of the School of Education has offered a wide range of University extension courses and extension lectures in various centers in the state. For a number of years the School has sponsored or jointly sponsored in Ann Arbor an annual meeting of the Michigan Congress of Parents and Teachers.

Through its Department of Vocational Education the School has offered courses annually for the inservice training of Smith-Hughes teachers, has participated in surveys relating to vocational training needs, and has prepared and distributed numerous bulletins and other instructional materials for teachers in the trades.

Almost constantly through its Department of Physical Education and School Health the School has contributed to the athletic, recreational, and health needs of Michigan by the dissemination of bulletins and leaflets, by supplying officials for competitive games, and by giving advice respecting controversial matters.

Annually, a member of the School's staff has assisted the University's Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions in forwarding the work of high-school inspection and in otherwise seeking to develop and maintain cordial interinstitutional relationship throughout the state.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23.
The Chronicle, Vol. III, No. 12 (1872): 136-37.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Laws, Ordinances, By-laws and Regulations …, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1861.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Michigan, 1841-42, 1860-64.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Ten Brook, Andrew. American State Universities; Their Origin and Progress. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke and Co., 1875.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-64. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
University of Michigan School of Education Bulletin, Vols. I-II (1929-40).
Whitney, Allen S.Training of Teachers at the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: George Wahr, 1931. Pp. 107, 186.
Page  1088

THE UNIVERSITY HIGH SCHOOL

THE idea of an institution designed especially for the training of high-school teachers was in the minds of leaders in education at the University and throughout the state for nearly two decades before the opening of the University High School. In 1907 the Regents granted Professor Allen S. Whitney's petition to visit other universities in order to study their teacher-training work. His findings were presented to the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, which at that time included the Department of Education.

The following year the Regents stated:

If, in the judgment of the President and Board of Regents, the necessary funds for organization and maintenance can be obtained from some source other than the present income of the University, there [shall] be established a Model School providing observation and practice work for both graduates and undergraduates.


(R.P., 1906-10, p. 407.)

Between 1908 and 1917 the project gained in favor. Schoolmen in the state supported the movement. The faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, in January, 1917, resolved "that it is the sense of this Faculty that a properly conducted observation and practice school for the training of teachers would be a valuable adjunct to the Department of Education, and would serve a useful purpose in the community and the state" ("Minutes, … L.S.A.").

Even before this resolution was adopted the Regents had resolved to ask the legislature for funds for a site, building, and equipment, and their request was presented in March, 1917. President Harry B. Hutchins in 1919 again raised the question of an appropriation. Professor Whitney continued to be the inspiration behind many of the efforts in behalf of the school. In 1919 the bill providing for the initial funds became law. In June, 1922, the legislature appropriated $525,000 for a high-school building, which was ready for occupancy in the fall of 1924.

The objectives of the school were stated as follows: to give student teachers teaching experience, to correlate the work in observation and special methods through directed teaching, to demonstrate the best educational theory and practice, to provide an education laboratory for scientific experimentation, and to offer the pupils of the high school an enriched program of studies and school experiences.

Professor Raleigh Schorling, who came from the Lincoln School of Teachers College, Columbia University, to be the first principal of the school, emphasized to the staff the challenge of their task. Most of the year 1923-24 was devoted to careful planning. Two main purposes were kept in view, to set up the best procedure for the training of teachers and to provide the best experience for the boys and girls in the school. It was agreed that two college seniors should be appointed as assistants to the regular teacher of each high-school class and that they should remain with that teacher at least a full semester, engaging in activities and gradually assuming more responsibility.

Each year an elected student council has participated in the actual management of school activities. Students have also served with teachers on various committees.

Those who have served the school as principals are Raleigh Schorling ('11, Page  1089Ph.D. Columbia '24), Heber Hinds Ryan (Whitman '06, A.M. Columbia '11), Edgar Grant Johnston (Wooster '12, Ph.D. Columbia '29), and John M. Trytten (Luther '11, Ph.D. Michigan '43). In addition, among those who have served in the school may be mentioned Charles C. Fries, Clarence D. Thorpe, Marshall L. Bryn, Margaret H. Chapin, Meldon Everett, Marion McKinney, Helen L. Ryder, Fred G. Walcott, Cordelia Hayes, Ruth S. Craig, Fred S. Dunham, Odina Olson, C. Irene Hayner, Hope H. Chipman, Selma Lindell, Katharine S. Hill, David Mattern, Francis D. Curtis, Wesley Darling, Nina H. Sherman, O. W. Stephenson, Edith Hoyle, Lucile Copass, Mabel Rugen, Wilbur L. Carr, Gerald W. Fox, and Elizabeth Robinson.

In 1930, in connection with the training for supervisory positions, Dean Edmonson inaugurated a practice by which many well-trained teachers have been engaged for part-time work in the high school, the remainder of their time being devoted to advanced study and further training.

The heads of different departments teach special methods courses in the School of Education, and at the same time demonstrate in high-school classes the methods studied. Some of the departmental chairmen illustrate a three-way correlation in that they teach subject-matter courses both in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and in the University High School. The chairman of a department serves as critic teacher and supervisor of other critic teachers as well as of student teachers in his own department. Thus, emphasis is put on subject matter, on theory and practice, and on classroom technique.

While the primary purpose of the school is teacher-training, its program and its policy of service to the state and to the cause of education include other important activities. Among these are investigations of educational programs. Almost every department of the high school is engaged in research. Most investigations are projects which have challenged the interest of an individual teacher; others are carried on by an entire department.

The University High School has had an opportunity to influence the practices of other schools. The school has many visitors during the vacations and at the time of the meetings of the Michigan Education Association and Schoolmasters' Club. Visitors are interested in methods, curricular materials, the organization of courses, disciplinary problems, book selection, school library administration, the home room plan, assemblies, and extracurricular activities.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1907-14.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts" (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1917.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Page  1090

THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

IN 1927 President Clarence Cook Little submitted to the legislature a request for an appropriation to provide a research laboratory for the study of problems concerned with the growth and education of young children. As a result an appropriation of $800,000 was made for a "Model Elementary School including Land for Site" payable in the fiscal years ending in June, 1928, and June, 1929.

Regent Junius E. Beal and Secretary Shirley W. Smith were authorized by the Board of Regents to acquire a site, and Malcolmson and Higgenbotham, of Detroit, were chosen as the architects. In September, 1928, the Regents appointed a committee consisting of the Executive Committee of the School of Education and A. G. Ruthven, Dean of Administration, to present plans for a building adjacent to the University High School and for a building in the vicinity of University Hospital for the observation and education of infants. At this time Mr. R. T. Lamont gave the University two acres of land near the Hospital for the project. The first architectural plan provided for an organized laboratory for the study of children from infancy through the sixth grade. Further study revealed that building costs and a reduced appropriation would not permit execution of the plan for the infant unit.*

In 1929, Dr. Willard Clifford Olson (Minnesota '20, Ph.D. ibid. '26), of the University of Minnesota, was appointed Associate Professor of Education and Director of Research in Child Development in the School of Education. In 1935 he was promoted to Professor of Education and Director of Research in Child Development. The school, which was formally designated the "University Elementary School of the University of Michigan," included a library, auditorium, gymnasium, and units for examinations and research in the dental, mental, and psychological divisions.

Because of the depression the University was unable to open the school on the scale originally planned; however, an operating budget and some research support were assured through the joint efforts of the Board of Regents and the General Education Board. The school opened in 1930, with seventy-five children and fifteen teachers and special workers. During the first year enrollment was limited to children of nursery and kindergarten ages. A plan for gradual expansion was adopted which provided an additional grade each year so that the children enrolled were carried on through successive grades. By 1937 there were six grades.

Dr. Marguerite Wilker Johnson (Wisconsin '24, Ph.D. ibid. '27) was appointed Director of the Nursery School and Associate Professor of Education and served in a supervisory position from the opening of the school until 1934. Mrs. Myrtle Bevan Firestone ('25, A.M. '34) served as teacher of the kindergarten from the opening of the school through 1934 and was then appointed Supervising Principal and Instructor in Elementary Education.

The University Elementary School has three general objectives: research, demonstration, and advanced training. By 1937 staff members and associates had published approximately one hundred articles. Research problems include Page  1091longitudinal investigations of growth, cross-sectional descriptions, development of new instruments of measurement, statistical analyses of factors conditioning the behavior of children, and experimental and genetic studies.

The school has performed an important function as a demonstration center in which superintendents, supervisors, teachers, parents, physicians, and nurses can observe some of the newer practices in the education of children. The school has also been the scene of frequent conferences of professional workers and has furnished a practical laboratory for persons preparing for various professional positions through advanced training. Many of these have secured important supervisory and college teaching positions. The interest of the University in the Elementary School has been shown by co-operative planning for student and faculty observation and investigation in the fields of anthropology, dentistry, pediatrics, sociology, psychology, educational psychology, public health, nursing, and architecture.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.

THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCHOOL HEALTH

IN the early 1900's changed conditions of living brought about by increasing urbanization forced upon the community a realization of its responsibilities in regard to communicable and organic disease, delinquency and crime, and personal maladjustment. As a result schools were called upon to widen their programs.

School health programs emphasized healthful school environment, and a school health service provided thorough physical examinations and also assisted the child in removing factors that were retarding his health and his academic progress. Knowledge and habits of healthful living were taught. School administrators became aware of the educational contribution offered by athletics. More emphasis was placed upon physical education and play programs. Physical development, social adjustment, and educational use of leisure time were stressed. Community recreation was recognized as a school responsibility, school playgrounds were opened to children in the summer, and gymnasiums were used as evening social centers.

The growing public awareness of these enlarged community functions of the school found expression in laws requiring the teaching of hygiene, particularly in respect to communicable disease; in resolutions urging the use of school buildings as social centers; and in Michigan by legal enactments to establish the teaching of physical education as a school subject. A law passed in 1911 made the teaching of physical education mandatory in communities with populations of 10,000. Another passed in 1919, stimulated by the revelations of the war draft statistics, required such teaching in communities of 3,000. At this time twenty-eight states had such laws.

Page  1092New courses in physical education and school health were added as a result of a report of the National Education Association published in 1918, which listed standards that came to be known as the seven cardinal principles of education.

The four-year course in physical education, hygiene, and athletics was established at the University of Michigan in 1921 as a result of this movement. The various teacher-training schools in the state were supplying teachers of physical education before 1919, but not in the numbers needed after the legislative enactment of that year went into effect.

In 1920 the Department of Education of the University considered offering hygiene and physical education courses in the summer session. Charles S. Berry (Hiram '03, Ph.D. Harvard '07) had given a course in school hygiene during the regular school year in 1908. Floyd Rowe, the state director of physical education, in the summer of 1921 gave two courses, one in "School and Personal Hygiene," and the other in "Administration of Physical Education." In June, 1921, the Regents directed:

Under the guidance and direction of the Board of Regents, acting through the Dean of the School of Education, he [the newly appointed Director of Intercollegiate Athletics] shall be likewise chargeable with the duty of establishing, conducting, or supervising educational courses in the training of coaches, and playground instructors…

A resolution was passed by the School of Education in 1921 endorsing the plan of providing a four-year curriculum for the training of athletic coaches and playground supervisors. A committee consisting of Professors Charles S. Berry, Guy M. Whipple, and George E. Myers, with Fielding H. Yost (LL.B West Virginia '97, LL.D. Marshall College '28), Director of Intercollegiate Athletics, was appointed to prepare a curriculum. The department was enlarged to include hygiene, and the co-operation of Dr. John Sundwall, Director of Physical Welfare, was enlisted. The combined course in physical education, hygiene, and athletics was introduced in the fall of 1921. The required scientific and laboratory work was given in other colleges and schools of the University. Elective courses were made available in other departments.

The course in 1921 required 120 hours and 120 honor points for graduation. In 1927 the requirement was raised to 124 hours and 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit. The curriculum was so constructed that a broad general education was combined with specialized training. Approximately thirty-two hours were required in the field of the laboratory sciences such as biology, chemistry, anatomy, kinesiology, and physical reconstruction, forty hours of work in general educational subjects, twenty-four hours in the Theory and Practice of Physical Education, including gymnastic, corrective, athletic, and recreational activities. Six hours were devoted to directed teaching in the junior and senior years. Students specializing in the course had opportunity to serve as instructors in gymnasium classes, and to act as officials and organizers of intramural teams. Twenty-four hours were available for electives.

One interesting phase of the new program was the summer "coaching school" inaugurated in the summer of 1922, which attracted many students who were not primarily interested in obtaining a degree, but who wished to obtain practical information and training from specialists in their respective fields. The University was fortunate in having a well-trained staff and unsurpassed facilities in the way of athletic fields, tennis courts, gymnasiums, sports buildings, field houses, and golf course. Its prestige Page  1093in athletics also attracted students to the summer course. The need for this type of instruction was acute, since many teachers with little preparation in physical education were being drafted to fill the numerous positions that were available as a result of the compulsory law. Courses were offered in the coaching of the various school sports such as football, basketball, baseball, and track, in playground, intramural, and scouting activities, in organization and administration of athletics, in graded gymnasium programs, and in athletic training and conditioning.

The first coaching school attracted seventy-five students, though no credit was being given for the work. In the next year, when credit was offered, the enrollment more than doubled, and students from twenty-eight states were registered. This enrollment was maintained for about five years, but when teacher-training schools began to offer four years of instruction in physical education the demand for this unique type of summer school work ceased.

A later development in the field was the organization of scientific and professional courses carrying graduate credit. The demand for this training increased as the various programs in health, physical education, athletics, and community recreation became co-ordinated under unified administrations. Graduate work has allowed opportunity for specialization and has also integrated the work in health, physical education, athletics, and recreation. The graduate curriculum in physical education leading to a master's degree was set up during the summer session of 1931. Three different programs were established to meet the varying interests of graduate students: administration of physical education, supervision, and teaching. The following year a fourth program, health education, was organized in co-operation with the Division of Hygiene and Public Health. In 1936-37 there were five different programs, the four mentioned and one in leisure time. These were established according to the general policy of the School of Education in regard to the number of required cognate and elective subjects. Twenty-four hours of credit and a thesis were required for the master's degree. The degree could be either a master of arts or a master of science in education. The graduate curriculums were the same for both men and women. The number of master's degrees granted steadily increased. Between July, 1939, and June 30, 1940, thirty-two such degrees were awarded. The curriculum for the doctor's degree was established in 1938, and the first two degrees were granted in 1940.

The Department of Physical Education for Women introduced two short-term institutes before the opening of the regular summer session in 1932. These institutes were each of one week's duration and gave intensive instruction in such sports as tennis, swimming, golf, hockey, archery, the dance, and riding. No credit was given, the object being primarily to give assistance to teachers who wished to increase their own knowledge and proficiency in motor skills.

Professors Fielding H. Yost, John Sundwall, and Warren Forsythe, George A. May, and Elmer D. Mitchell, of the Men's Physical Education and Intramural Departments, assisted in the work of organization and teaching. Miss Marion Wood, of the Women's Physical Education Department, and her assistants were active in the early development of the program. In 1923-24 Dr. Margaret Bell became Associate Professor of Women's Physical Education in the Division of Hygiene and Physician in the University Health Service and since then has directed the work in teacher training. The activity courses for women were planned and conducted Page  1094entirely by the Department of Physical Education for Women.

The co-ordination of the work of the various departments was entrusted to a chairman elected for a period of three years. By 1939 this office had been filled by the following: Allen S. Whitney (1922-27), John Sundwall (1927-30), James B. Edmonson (1930-36), and Elmer D. Mitchell (1936-39). In May, 1936, an executive committee of five members was formed to administer the department.

The unit in 1921 was called the "Department of Physical Education, Hygiene, and Athletics." In 1923 this was changed to "Physical Education, Athletics, and School Health." In 1932 the title "Physical Education and School Health" was adopted.

In 1937 the School of Education established minors in school health and physical education. These comprised eighteen hours of prescribed courses and provided for students in education not specifically enrolled in the course for teachers. With their establishment it was felt that the need of the smaller communities in teacher preparation would be met.

In addition to the preparation of teachers of school health, gymnasium classwork, athletic coaching, scouting, and playground activities, new courses were added to meet the increasing demands for trained camp counselors and leaders of social recreation. First-aid courses were early instituted, but the courses in safety education were not added until after the period covered by this account.

By 1939 the four-year course for men had graduated about two hundred and twenty students and the course for women about one hundred and sixty-five. Graduates have found positions in elementary schools, high schools, colleges, hospitals, and city recreation departments and industries.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1910-40.

THE DEPARTMENT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

ESTABLISHMENT of the department. — The Smith-Hughes law, enacted in 1917, provided each state with funds for the promotion of vocational education and placed on the state the responsibility for spending a certain amount on the training of teachers. In Michigan this responsibility was divided between Michigan State College, Michigan State Normal College in Ypsilanti, and the University of Michigan. The University was assigned the training of teachers for the division of trade and industrial education.

Allen S. Whitney, then head of the Department of Education, secured the appointment in 1917 of George Edmund Myers (Ottawa University [Kansas] '96, Ph.D. Clark '06) as the first Professor of Industrial Education. Professor Myers had been principal of the Technical High School, Washington, D. C., and superintendent of continuation classes in New York City. He was convinced that industrial teachers should have had industrial experience, and because many of those who had had such experience, could not qualify for college entrance, it Page  1095was necessary to offer training courses in the principal cities of the state at times when craftsmen still employed in industry or recently transferred to teaching positions in the schools could attend. In 1918 he began an evening course in the Cass Technical High School, Detroit. The following year similar courses were offered both in Detroit and in Grand Rapids. In the years that followed the extension work accomplished by the department was more extensive than that done on the campus.

Eli Lewis Hayes ('06e), then head of a department in Cass Technical High School, Detroit, and later principal of the Boys Vocational School of that city, became a part-time member of the staff in 1918-19 and served the department until his retirement in 1940. Hayes gave one or two courses in Detroit each semester, usually dealing with methods of teaching industrial subjects, though work for foremen in industrial plants was included during the earlier years.

In 1919 Miss Cleo Murtland (Teachers College [Columbia] '17, M.A. Columbia '19) became a full-time member of the department with the rank of Associate Professor. She came to the University from the principalship of the Philadelphia Trade School for Girls to give a course in Detroit for teachers of trades which were open to women and girls and to make a study of the need for more of such work in Detroit. She was placed in charge of an office at Cass Technical High School. This office, maintained through the generosity of the Detroit Board of Education, served as the center of the department's activities in the area until the Rackham Center was opened.

Thomas Diamond ('25, A.M. '28) also came to the department in 1919 from the University of Wisconsin, with the rank of Assistant Professor. He had previously been a teacher in the Technical High School of Milwaukee and foreman of the pattern shop of the famous Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company's plant at West Allis, Wisconsin. Professor Diamond organized foreman training work throughout the state, placing special emphasis on the foreman's duties as a teacher of new workers. He was promoted to a full professorship in 1940.

Marshall L. Byrn (Michigan State Normal '23, A.M. Michigan '26), who had come to the University in 1924, was promoted in 1927 to be Assistant Professor of Vocational Education and head of the Department of Industrial Arts in the University High School and gave special courses in industrial arts education. John M. Trytten, who in 1930 was appointed Instructor in Commercial Education, had charge of the program for the training of business teachers in the University and of typing instruction in the high school. He became Acting Principal in 1938 and Principal in 1939. Neither Byrn nor Trytten were able to devote all of their time to this work, since their main responsibilities were with the work of teaching in the University High School.

Program of studies. — From two courses, one dealing with the principles of vocational education and the other with methods of teaching industrial subjects, the work of the department expanded rapidly. After World War I a course was given dealing with the work of the industrial foreman, especially with his teaching responsibilities. With the development of part-time education for workers under seventeen years of age, required by state law after September 1, 1920, special courses for teachers in this field were offered both on the campus and in most of the important cities of the state. A course in vocational guidance was begun in 1920. To take care of a growing demand for industrial teachers a correspondence course without Page  1096University credit was offered in 1922. Later, three additional courses were added. A course in Technique of Selling and another in Merchandise Information were provided (1924-28) for senior women who wished to prepare for educational work in department stores, and two courses for commercial teachers were offered in the summer of 1926. In 1931 provision was made for this work during the academic year. Similar work has since been offered regularly, both in summer sessions and during the academic year. Methods and directed teaching courses in industrial arts were begun in 1929-30. These courses and courses for commercial teachers have been financed from the School of Education budget and not from Smith-Hughes funds.

Graduate work. — A seminar in vocational education and guidance, organized in 1923, and special problems courses were taken almost entirely by graduates. These included an honors reading course in current problems and special seminars. A sequence of courses leading to the master's degree with a major in vocational education or vocational guidance was offered. The sequence in vocational education has permitted the student to stress industrial education, industrial arts education, or commercial education. In 1935-36 seventeen students completed the requirements for the master's degree with a major in vocational education or vocational guidance.

By 1937 three men had been granted the degree of doctor of philosophy in education with vocational education as their special field: Walter L. Harris, F. X. Lake, and Francis W. Dalton.

Departmental publications. — From December, 1922, to June, 1938, the department published the Michigan Vocational News Bulletin, an eight-page publication appearing five times a year and distributed free to those interested in vocational education. Its purpose was to promote vocational education in Michigan and to inform superintendents, principals, and other school administrative officers and vocational teachers of developments in this field. The department also published The Problem of Vocational Guidance by George E. Myers and Planning Your Future by George E. Myers, Gladys M. Little, and Sarah A. Robinson. Professor Murtland assisted in preparing the vocational guidance volume of the White House Conference Report on Child Health and Protection and helped to prepare a volume on Occupations in Retail Stores based on a nationwide survey of retail selling. Since 1923 a series of special bulletins has also been published.

Special activities. — Because of the nature of the work for which the department is responsible, activities have been necessary that are foreign to the work of most departments of a university. Members of the staff have assisted city school authorities in determining the types of vocational education programs best suited to the needs of their respective communities. Vocational education surveys have been made in nearly all the principal cities of the state.

At the suggestion of the state supervisor of industrial education Professor Diamond gave a course (1923-36) at Western State Teachers College, Kalamazoo, for students preparing to teach industrial arts. In the summer of 1934 Professor Diamond engaged in similar work at the Northern State Teachers College, Marquette, Michigan. This work was without expense to the teachers colleges concerned.

Conferences have been held by members of the staff with groups of teachers in different parts of the state. Weekly conferences with individual teachers throughout a semester or a year have Page  1097been numerous and have dealt with courses in refrigeration, the machinist's trade, the malleable iron industry, and trade dressmaking. For two years (1934-36) Frank Dalton conducted conferences with store employees weekly in Lansing and biweekly in Sparta, concerning problems of selling and store management. A program of training for officers of city fire departments, begun in Detroit in January, 1935, has since been extended to other cities of the state.

Members of the Department of Vocational Education have been called upon for consultation concerning the educational activities of the State Vocational School at Lansing, the State Reformatory at Ionia, the Michigan Home and Training School at Lapeer, the Wayne County Home and Training School at Northville, and the Civilian Conservation Corps throughout the state.

Recent limitations on the department. — By action of the State Board for Vocational Education, in September, 1936, in accordance with a report submitted by the United States Office of Education, the work of the department was placed more directly under the State Director of Vocational Education and was narrowed in character. Attendance in the classes taught by members of the staff, whose salaries are paid from Smith-Hughes funds, was limited to prospective Smith-Hughes teachers and those preparing for Smith-Hughes work. One exception to this is a promotional course, Principles of Vocational Education, which may be taken by school administrators and teachers with experience in general education.

The policy followed by the department from 1917 to 1936 was to offer courses suited to the needs of industrial teachers and to admit anyone who was interested. Under the new regulations almost all the work of the department is supported by Smith-Hughes funds, except that of the summer session, which became extramural in character. The number taking campus and regular extension courses of the department was reduced.

THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL SCHOOL

By a series of public acts the state of Michigan has invested in and encouraged the development of child health, affording treatment at the University Hospital for those unable to secure care elsewhere. Afflicted wards of the state and crippled children have benefited by these enactments. The work at first was handled by the probate court of the county of residence and later was taken over by the Michigan Crippled Children Commission.

The assembling of children of different ages and illnesses for treatment has necessitated a consideration not only of medical care but of the child as a whole, so that he can make as much progress as possible under hospital conditions. The actual loss of time from school discourages the child and interferes with his recovery. An educational program compatible with his physical strength and with hospital and medical restrictions, and also satisfactory to the local school was a genuine contribution made possible by private generosity.

For years voluntary teaching service had been provided through the generosity of various women's groups in Ann Arbor, students of the University, Page  1098and other individuals. In 1922 the King's Daughters agreed to finance the services of a paid teacher, and Miss Ruby Bernice Carlton (Olivet '08, A.M. Michigan '25) began her teaching duties in September, 1923. Professor Charles S. Berry advised on educational problems, and the King's Daughters continued their financial and personal interest, but administrative responsibility was given to the Social Service Department of the University Hospital.

The establishment of a recognized professional standard of work acceptable to the group to which the child belonged was of great importance. The aim of the school has been to utilize the child's time, energy, and interest, as conditions permit, along profitable educational lines. Repeated surveys and continuous adjustments were necessary to maintain a satisfactory teaching service. Table I records the enrollment.

TABLE IGrowth of Enrollment by School Level
Year Primary Intermed. Junior High Senior High Special Total
1922-23 43 267 14 ... .. 324
1927-28 580 350 317 132 .. 1,379
1932-33 801 560 252 51 37 1,701*
1935-36 755 457 359 114 73 1,758*

In 1923 legislation made classes available for special groups of handicapped and crippled children. Increased interest in the crippled child culminated in the passage of special protective legislation in 1927, which included a provision relating to the education of hospitalized children, itemizing bedside, academic, and vocational instruction, and making a state appropriation thereto. Many adjustments have been necessary because the University Hospital School is effective only in its ability to meet individual needs.

By provision of this act the office of the state superintendent of public instruction was to approve selection of textbooks, teaching methods, curriculum, and selection of teachers. Dean J. B. Edmonson, of the School of Education, was requested to designate some member of his staff to act as representative of the state office in administering these responsibilities. On October 1, 1932, Assistant Professor Louis W. Keeler was appointed Director of Instruction in the Hospital School. Professor Keeler communicated with the schools from which the children had come in order to ascertain the significance of the Hospital School experience. Two methods of appraising the effectiveness of the Hospital School instruction were carried out. It had been the practice of the school to administer the Stanford Achievement Tests to each new patient in order to determine his level of scholastic achievement and to place him properly. These tests had not been given again during the child's stay in the Hospital. As a rule he had been in the Hospital too short a time to make possible an estimation of his progress, but in the case of a child who had been a member of the school for several weeks the tests were repeated at the time of his discharge from the Hospital. As most of the children came from rural homes, it was decided to make a comparison between the results obtained in the Hospital School and similar results obtained by using the same tests in corresponding grades of rural schools. In all grades the Hospital children were older, but accomplishment as shown by the tests was higher.

Another type of appraisal was undertaken in the form of a questionnaire sent to the home teacher when the patient was discharged from the Hospital. By this method it was hoped to ascertain the patient's progress as compared with that of other children in his grade. Most of these reports, except in cases of irregular Page  1099attendance, indicated that returned patients kept abreast of the home school work and in some instances received extra promotions.

Since its establishment the Hospital School has grown steadily. The original program was primarily an academic one. It soon became evident, however, that performance in both mental and physical activities was important and that personality and individual interests should be taken into consideration. The strength and need of the child control his interests. The Hospital, of necessity, has based its program upon public school requirements for the normal child, but has added whatever it could in the way of interest and diversion.

In 1927, with the increased interest of the state in the school, occupational therapy for children was placed on an educational basis. Shop, crafts, and other recreational activities of the regular school curriculum were introduced. Projects begun in the Hospital were continued in school, and school occupations were duplicated in the Hospital. The success of the work in crafts and occupational therapy for older children and young people emphasized the need for continued educational and vocational training.

Remedial work for children has become a part of the school program. Because of overcrowded conditions in both city and small-town schools the average child receives little individual help. In addition, the handicapped child attends school irregularly, and at the end of the year is usually promoted with the group in spite of his inability to do the advanced work. As a result the Hospital School discovered a great need for remedial work in the lower grades. Because of the brief period of time which can be given to each child's academic program, it has been impossible to meet all his needs in this respect. As reading is the main tool for all subjects, remedial instruction has centered about this subject. The Hospital teachers have been able to discover a child's reading handicap shortly after he has begun his work, and a course of training is started as soon as possible. Classification of reading difficulties can be made soon after the child's program has begun. Remedies used to overcome these difficulties vary with the length of the teaching period and the seriousness of the handicap. If a child's trouble is caused by defective vision or hearing, recommendations are made through the social service worker for further examination and medical care.

The following remedies have served to correct long-standing handicaps: consideration and examination of sight and hearing, individual instruction, phonic drill, oral reading, and reproduction of material. Each year more children benefit from this training. Reports from home schools have indicated that continued remedial work recommended by the Hospital School has been carried out in the majority of cases of normally intelligent children and that reading difficulties have been overcome. As the enrollment increased and added appropriations made possible the introduction of new courses, the curriculum was enlarged for both grade- and high-school students.

A full four-year high-school course was offered in 1927-28. During the next two years a complete two-year commercial course was added, and in 1933 and 1934 a three-year course in the sciences for junior and senior high-school students. Special movable equipment which could be used for bedside instruction added much to the interest and standard of the work. In 1934, 1935, and 1936, adult education received special attention, and vocational courses were offered for men and women who wished to prepare themselves for possible self-support. This program has been Page  1100privately financed. The library service has been used to co-ordinate the interests of all groups. Speech correction work for the children of the primary and intermediate grades was offered by the University Speech Department. Lip-reading for the deaf was included in this program. Work was begun with children of preschool age, and a study was made of reading readiness.

Individual teachers have contributed much to the satisfaction, happiness, and profit of the hospitalized child, guiding and encouraging him during his stay in the hospital and helping him to reestablish his sense of security in his own group. Many of these teachers came to the hospital for their first teaching experience, but there were others who had long taught in the public schools. Through careful choice of personnel over a period of years and by encouragement given to individual teachers who wished to further their education and knowledge,

TABLE IIHospital School Personnel
Year Full Time Part Time Volunteers* Student Teachers for Credit
1922-23 1 1 30 1
1927-28 6 3 26 7
1932-33 5 3 5 17
1935-36 6 3 1 4
the standard of performance in the Hospital School has been exceptionally high. The fostering of ambition in teachers during their time of service has led to unusual contributions made by those who afterward went into other fields.

THE BUREAU OF EDUCATIONAL REFERENCE AND RESEARCH

THE Bureau of Educational Reference and Research of the University was established as a unit of the Department of Education in 1919-20. At that time it was known as the Bureau of Tests and Measurements, but in 1921, with the establishment of the School of Education, the name was changed. The purposes of the Bureau are to aid the school authorities of the state in the proper selection and use of mental and educational tests and in the practical application of scientific methods to schoolroom procedure, to summarize research activities, and to disseminate information concerning them.

Guy M. Whipple (Brown '97, Ph.D. Cornell '00), the first Director of the Bureau, was succeeded in September, 1921, by Clifford Woody (Indiana '08, Ph.D. Columbia '16). There have been two assistant directors: Walter G. Bergman (Greenville '22, Ph.D. Michigan '29) from 1925 to 1929, and Louis W. Keeler ('00, Ph.D. '29) from 1929 until his death in 1939. Both directors held teaching positions in the School of Education and devoted about one-half time to the activities of the Bureau. The assistant directors have divided their time similarly.

The Bureau has been partly self-supporting. Although the salaries of the small staff have been paid from University Page  1101funds, supplementary funds have been provided by outside agencies. The expense of designated investigations has been met by a percentage allowed by publishing companies for distributing standard tests and instruments of measurement, and through the sale of published monographs, bulletins, and other types of materials.

The Bureau established the policy of directing research activities desired by outside agencies on the condition that those agencies provide funds to meet the expense of the investigations and assume responsibility for publishing the results. By 1940 several such investigations had been completed for the Michigan Education Association, as well as others for the American Classical League, the American and Canadian Committees of Modern Languages, the National Society of College Teachers of Education, and the boards of education in various Michigan towns and cities.

In contributing to publications sponsored by various national organizations, the Bureau has supplied sections for yearbooks of several departments of the National Education Association, the National Society of College Teachers of Education, and the American Educational Research Association, and has prepared several complete monographs for the Michigan State Department of Public Instruction.

One of the services rendered by the Bureau has been that of directing testing programs in which the public schools of Michigan have participated. Participation was relatively slight in the high schools until the programs were sponsored by the Department of High School Principals of the Michigan Education Association. From 1933 to 1940 about 20,000 pupils in approximately two hundred accredited high schools of the state took part. From 1928 to 1931, the Bureau, in co-operation with the Michigan Association of Collegiate Registrars, carried out a testing program in which the Psychological Examination of the American Council on Education and the Iowa Placement Examinations in English and Mathematics were given to freshmen in Michigan colleges and universities. In addition, the Bureau directed testing programs in the following local units: Grosse Ile, Grass Lake, Saline, Branch County Public Schools, and the Michigan State Public School for dependent children at Coldwater. These local programs differed in that they were financed entirely by the Bureau or were undertaken as training projects in courses in measurements given in the School of Education.

Another service in connection with the testing programs has been the distribution of standardized tests. For a number of years approximately half a million copies of educational and mental tests were distributed annually. From 1923 to 1927 the ratio of educational tests to mental tests was about seven to one. By 1937, although the total distribution had been reduced to about 60,000, the number of the two kinds of tests was approximately equal. For the use of students in the School of Education and other visitors to the Bureau, an exhibit of several hundred of the principal educational and mental tests is constantly maintained.

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