The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
Page  1073

THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

THE School of Education of the University of Michigan, established by the Board of Regents in May, 1921 (R.P., 1920-23, p. 189), is a direct outgrowth of the chair of the Science and the Art of Teaching which had been a part of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts since 1879.

Even before Michigan was admitted to the Union in 1837 the movement seeking to make teaching a profession was progressing. In the convention which drafted the first constitution John D. Pierce, who later became Michigan's first superintendent of public instruction, espoused high standards of education as fundamental to the state's development and prosperity. As state superintendent he endeavored to have a teacher-training department incorporated into the plan for the University. In this he failed. Nevertheless, some sort of pedagogical work was provided in the branches which were created as preparatory to the University itself. This work, however, was designed for rural school teachers only and was abandoned when the branches disappeared during the next decade.

John Pierce's successor, Superintendent Franklin Sawyer, in referring to the branches stated that "the art of teaching, though well understood, is not adequately taught… A model school … would afford all the aid that a young man or a young woman could want to perfect him or her in the practice as well as [the] theory of teaching …" (Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1841-42, p. 54).

With the continued agitation of successive superintendents of public instruction for the professional training of teachers, it was gradually recognized that some qualifications in addition to scholarship were necessary for the certification of teachers. As a result a bill was introduced in the legislature in 1849 establishing the Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti. The schoolmen were not yet satisfied, for they desired pedagogical training dealing not only with methods of teaching but also with the practical problems of school organization, administration, and management.

President Tappan's report to the Board of Regents in 1856 pointed out for the first time the University's responsibility to supply the state with competent teachers. He said: "The highest institutions are necessary to … raise up Instructors of the proper qualifications, [and] to define the principles and methods of education …" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 655). As a result of this report the Catalogue for 1858-59 (p. 38) announced a teacher's course in ancient languages "for the benefit of those who may wish to prepare themselves for teaching in Union and High Schools."

In 1860 John Milton Gregory, then superintendent of public instruction, claimed that many schools were in the hands of teachers ignorant of the first principles of the art and the science of teaching, and in 1861, 1862, and 1863 without payment he gave a course of lectures to the senior class at the University on the principles and the philosophy of education, the proper organization and administration of schools, and methods of teaching the different branches of knowledge. In 1871 The Michigan Teacher expressed concern over the fact that graduates of the Page  1074University entering the field of teaching began their work "wholly unprepared, in theory and practice, so far as the equipment of the University goes in such preparation." The University student publication, The Chronicle, for March 9, 1872, proposed that "the professor in charge of each branch in which this instruction is needed is best qualified to give it… This instruction should be given in every department of study in which preparation is required for admission to the University."

President James Burrill Angell lent his influence to the movement and in 1874 wrote:

It cannot be doubted that some instruction in Pedagogics would be very helpful to our Senior class. Many of them are called directly from the University to the management of large schools… The whole work of organizing schools, the management of primary and grammar schools, the art of teaching and governing a school, — of all this it is desirable that they know something before they go to their new duties. Experience alone can thoroughly train them. But some familiar lectures on these topics would be of essential service to them.


(R.P., 1870-76, p. 390.)

It was not until 1879 that the Board of Regents finally approved his recommendations. In that year it was resolved "that in accordance with the recommendation of the Faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, a chair of 'the Science and the Art of Teaching,' be and is hereby established in the University" (R.P., 1876-81, pp. 388-89), and William Harold Payne (A.M. hon. '72, LL.D. hon. '88, Litt.D. Western University of Pennsylvania '97) was appointed to the position.

Professor Payne was born at Farmington, Ontario County, New York, May 12, 1836. He received his early education in the common schools, the Macedon Academy, and the New York Conference Seminary at Charlotteville. He began his career as a teacher in the country schools and later served as school principal in Victor, New York, and in Three Rivers and Niles, Michigan. In 1866 he became head of the Union Seminary in Ypsilanti, then the leading preparatory school of the state. From 1869 to 1879 he was superintendent of public schools at Adrian, Michigan, where for ten years his reputation had grown as an administrator and writer on educational subjects. From the time of his appointment until he resigned in 1888, Payne served as the sole member of his department. He left the University to accept the chancellorship of the University of Nashville and the presidency of Peabody Normal School (R.P., 1886-91, p. 193).

Burke Aaron Hinsdale (A.M. hon. Williams '71, Ph.D. Ohio State '88, LL.D. ibid. '92), who succeeded Payne, was born at Wadsworth, Medina County, Ohio, March 31, 1837. He was educated in the district schools and at Western Reserve Collegiate Institute, afterward Hiram College. Here he met James A. Garfield, who was about four years his senior, with whom he formed a close and enduring friendship. He became a minister and preached regularly for some years, serving at Solon and at East Cleveland. On the opening of Alliance College in 1868 he was appointed to the chair of history, political economy, and governmental science. He resigned at the end of the first year to accept the chair of philosophy, history, and Biblical literature at Hiram College. He became president of the college in 1870 and served until 1882. On the nomination of General Garfield for the presidency in 1880, Hinsdale took an active part in the campaign and prepared The Republican Textbook. He became superintendent of the Cleveland public schools in 1882 and in 1888 followed Payne in the chair Page  1075of the science and the art of teaching at the University of Michigan. He figured importantly in the life of the University and was well known for his research work and authorship.

On Professor Hinsdale's death in 1900, Professor Payne was recalled to the University. He entered upon his duties in September, 1901, and taught until his death in 1907.

Meantime, in 1899 Allen S. Whitney had been added to the staff as Junior Professor of the Science and the Art of Teaching and Inspector of Schools, and the department became directly responsible for the visitation, inspection, and accreditation of high schools. Shortly thereafter, three others were added to the department: Lewis B. Alger (Ph.B. '97, A.M. Columbia '01), who remained only two years, resigning in 1905 to enter upon a business career; Theodore de Laguna (California '96, Ph.D. Cornell '01), who likewise soon resigned to accept a position at Bryn Mawr College; and Calvin O. Davis ('95, Ph.D. Harvard '10), who remained on the staff. On the death of Professor Payne in 1907, Whitney became head of the department.

Allen Sisson Whitney ('85, Ed.D. hon. '39, LL.D. Syracuse '21) was born in 1858 at Mount Clemens, Michigan, where he received his early education in the public schools. Before serving on the staff of the University he had been superintendent of schools at Mount Clemens and at Saginaw, East Side. His title was changed in 1902 to Professor of Pedagogy and Inspector of Schools and in 1905 to Professor of Education and Inspector of Schools.

Between 1907 and 1921 the department grew in personnel, in curriculum offerings, and in state-wide service. In 1921, when the School of Education became a separate unit, Professor Whitney was made Acting Dean. In 1923 he became the first Dean and continued to head the work of teacher-training until his retirement from active service in 1928. Although Dean Whitney's resignation did not take effect until June, 1929, during his leave of absence preparatory to retirement, an executive committee consisting of Professors J. B. Edmonson, Raleigh Schorling, and George E. Myers was appointed to carry on the administrative work of the School. Dean Whitney was succeeded by James Bartlett Edmonson ('06, Ph.D. Chicago '25) in 1929.

Professor Edmonson was born at Parkersburg, Iowa, in 1882. He served as teacher and principal in the Michigan public schools from 1906 until 1914, when he became Inspector of High Schools and Professor of Secondary Education at the University of Michigan. From 1927 to 1929 he was Director of the Division of University Inspection of High Schools and in 1929 he became Dean of the School of Education.

Teacher training. — President Angell began the advocacy of teacher-training work almost at the outset of his career. Under his leadership the faculty in 1874 voted to grant a teacher's diploma to such graduating students as showed "special fitness for teaching certain branches." The next year the faculty voted to make the teacher's diploma a "certificate of qualification for teaching," provided the candidate sustained a satisfactory special examination in the subject matter he desired to teach. Later, the examination feature was found impracticable, but the diploma itself, although it had no legal value, continued to be granted until 1921. In 1879, as previously stated, a chair of the science and the art of teaching was finally established.

The University in 1870 had opened its doors to women students, and a year later it began the accrediting of high Page  1076schools after inspection and recommendation by a committee of the faculty. Both these steps naturally did much to enhance the development of teachertraining.

Much of Professor Payne's influence upon teacher-training came as a result of his numerous pedagogical writings. Nevertheless, the organizational work which he did for the new department was also of far-reaching significance. He believed firmly that professional education should consist essentially of principles and not of rule-of-thumb procedures. In particular, he held that a foundation of history, philosophy, and science was the best basis upon which to build a career as teacher. Hence these subjects, applied to education, became the essence of the new curriculum.

In formulating his objectives for the new department, Professor Payne laid down certain statements which have ever since been utilized in presenting the aims of the School. They are:

  • 1. To fit university students for the higher positions in public school service.
  • 2. To promote the study of educational science.
  • 3. To teach the history of education and of educational systems and doctrines.
  • 4. To secure to teaching the rights, prerogatives, and advantages of a profession.
  • 5. To give a more perfect unity to our state educational system by bringing the secondary schools into closer relation with the University.

Burke A. Hinsdale was a profound scholar. In educational matters he was known throughout the nation by reason of his public addresses and his writings. He likewise had an administrative mind. Through his influence the state legislature in 1891 authorized the Regents to issue a teacher's certificate, valid legally for life, to any student who received from the University both a degree and a teacher's diploma. It was also through Professor Hinsdale that the office of inspector of high schools was created and attached to the Department of Education.

During the period from 1899 to 1921, teacher-training work expanded slowly but continuously. In 1900 the staff consisted of but two men — Professors Hinsdale and Whitney; in 1940, including teachers in the University High School and Elementary School, it numbered seventy-one full-time and part-timemembers.

Under Professor Whitney's leadership emphasis was placed more and more on the practical aspects of the profession. To this end persistent efforts were made to provide experience for students in classroom observation and directed teaching. From 1911 these facilities were furnished in the Ann Arbor city schools through co-operation with its Board of Education (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 134-36). This arrangement did not prove wholly satisfactory, however, and renewed efforts were made to establish a high school and an elementary school. Although for many years this hope was deferred, in 1922 the legislature appropriated $525,000 for a high-school building, which was opened to students in the fall of 1924. In 1927 the legislature appropriated $800,000 for a University Elementary School, and this building was first occupied in 1930.

Meanwhile, other expansions were taking place. In 1913 the Regents approved the introduction of teachers' courses in industrial education, drawing, commercial branches, and physical education, and appropriated the sum of $500 for laboratory work in education. In 1917 vocational education, in accordance with the provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act of the federal government, was incorporated into the work of the department; Page  1077the Regents in 1921 authorized a four-year curriculum in physical education, athletics, and school health, which was likewise placed under the administration of the School; and in 1922 the curriculum in public health nursing was added.

Organizational changes. — From 1879 to 1921 the professional training of teachers was carried forward in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the general plan of administering the work remained virtually unmodified, although the name of the unit had been officially changed to the Department of Education as early as 1908. The responsibility for inspecting and accrediting high schools, however, and the immediate direction of the teacher placement bureau were shifted to the department, and these additions caused some slight adjustment of procedures.

With the establishment of the new School in 1921, much additional administrative machinery was thought to be desirable. The scientific movement in education had developed rapidly after 1910. In consequence, the department (and later the School) introduced various courses dealing with educational psychology, tests and measurements, and educational statistics. Similarly, the courses in school administration, school supervision, instructional methods, vocational guidance, and physical training were expanded notably. As a result the work of the School began to be listed under seven departmental headings, indicated first by Roman numerals and later by letters of the alphabet. By 1926-27 these were listed as A. The History and Principles of Education; B. Educational Administration and Supervision; C. Educational Psychology, Mental Measurements, and Statistics; D. The Teaching of Special Subjects, including Directed Teaching; E. Vocational Education and Vocational Guidance; F. Physical Education, Athletics, and School Health; and G. Public Health Nursing.

Each department has a chairman elected by his colleagues for a term of three years, and these individuals organized and administered the departmental work.

The three general officers of the School are the Dean, the Secretary, and the Recorder. Several committees have shared administrative responsibilities with these officers. The standing committees have been Advisory and Administrative, Graduate Work, the Library, and Student Activities. Among the more important special committees are the Friendship Committee, the Committee on Candidacy for the Teacher's Certificate, and the Editorial Board of the School of Education Bulletin. Other organizational units of the School are the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research and the two laboratory schools.

Housing quarters. — For years after the appointment of Professor Payne in 1879 all courses in Education were conducted in University Hall. Later, the offices and the work of the department were moved to Tappan Hall. With the completion of the University Elementary School in 1930 the administrative offices of the School of Education were transferred to that building. In addition, several rooms in the Elementary School were set aside for classwork for University students.

The original building plans for the School of Education included three units — the high school, the elementary school, and another to be built on the site of the present playground of the high school. This third unit was to have been devoted solely to the offices, laboratories, libraries, and classrooms of the School.

Course offerings. — During the first year of Payne's incumbency he offered Page  1078only two courses: a practical course dealing with the problems of school management and supervision and a theoretical one dealing with the history and philosophy of education. The next year, in 1880, these courses were expanded somewhat, and they were still further differentiated a year or two later. But after eight years the department listed only seven courses.

Since Professor Payne's time the processes of course differentiation and addition have gone steadily forward. Table I lists developments in the curriculum from

TABLE ICourse Offerings
Groupings Courses
1921 1939
A. History and Principles 8 12
B. Educational Administration and Supervision 12 44
C. Educational Psychology, Mental Measurements, and Statistics 8 36
D. Special Methods 9 35
E. Vocational Education 7 21
F. Physical Education and School Health .. 56
G. Public Health Nursing .. 19
Total 44 223
1921 to 1940. These courses were not all offered each semester of every year, and many of them were scheduled for the summer session only, when the wide range of educational interests among the hundreds of graduate students who come from all parts of the country seems to make an extensive program of work both justifiable and desirable. Nevertheless, it is a long road from the two courses offered in 1879 to the 223 listed in 1939-40.

Graduation and teacher's certificate requirements. — As early as 1858, as already mentioned, so-called teachers courses in subject matter fields were instituted at the University, and in 1874 a teacher's diploma was authorized. Six years later, one year after Payne took up his duties on the campus, the requirements for this diploma were that a student should complete "one of the courses in the Science and the Art of Teaching, and some one other course of study with reference to preparation for teaching" and should by special examination show such marked proficiency as to qualify him to give instruction. This teacher's diploma had no legal value; it served merely as the University's special recommendation of a candidate to school authorities.

When Professor Hinsdale succeeded Professor Payne in 1888, he sought to have legal certification status accorded the professional work done on the campus. As a result of his efforts the state legislature in 1891 empowered the University Board of Regents to issue such a certificate to all students receiving the teacher's diploma. Hence, from that time until 1921, students who met the specified requirements received simultaneously three credentials: a diploma of graduation, a special teacher's diploma, and a legal teacher's certificate. The latter entitled the holder to teach in any public school in Michigan throughout his lifetime.

Immediately following the authorization of a teacher's certificate the University set the number of hours of professional work needed to secure it at eleven. When the School of Education was established in 1921, the entire responsibility for teacher training and certification was turned over to it. Since that date many changes have been initiated. The more significant of these are as follows.

At the very outset of its existence the Page  1079School set standards that were specific and definite. It prescribed that all candidates for the teacher's certificate (the special teacher's diploma having been abolished) should complete one course in educational psychology, one in secondary education, and one in teaching methods. The following year (1922) the eleven-hour minimum was raised to fifteen hours. Three years later an introductory course in general psychology was made a prerequisite to all work in education.

In 1927 a number of other far-reaching changes in graduation and certification standards were made: the total of hours required for graduation was set at 124 rather than at 120 as previously, with 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit; new regulations were imposed respecting the student's academic preparation, a major of at least twenty-five hours and a minor of at least fifteen hours being prescribed for all; and the required work in education was made to consist of five three-hour courses selected from five definitely described fields. These five fields were:

  • Educational Psychology
  • Introduction to Secondary Education
  • A choice of
    • a. Introduction to Experimental Education
    • b. Educational and Mental Measurements
    • c. Psychology of Elementary School Subjects
  • A choice of
    • a. History of Education
    • b. Philosophy of Education
  • A methods course in one's major or minor field.

In this same year the Announcement first carried the following statement: "He [the candidate for a certificate] must give evidence of good health, distinctive moral character and personality, and pronounced teaching aptitudes and interests." This paragraph, slightly reworded, has continued to appear in the printed standards.

In 1928 and 1929 other significant changes in requirements were adopted. Educational Psychology (C1) was increased from a three-hour to a four-hour course and was made to include some laboratory experience. History of Education (A1) and Introduction to Secondary Education (B20) were each reduced from three hours to two hours. Directed Teaching (D100), which had been offered without credit during the years 1924-26 and for one hour of credit in 1926, was now made a two-hour course and was definitely prescribed for all. It became a four-hour course in 1932, and after 1938, under the provisions of the new state code, it carried five hours of credit.

Meanwhile, in order to accommodate certain graduate and other students who had not pursued educational courses in the regular order, a Correlated Course in education was established in 1929-30. This course was organized with units covering the work in all the prescribed areas and took the entire time of a student for one semester. After spending six weeks in classroom instruction, students were placed for another six weeks in various city school systems throughout the country in order to devote their time to observation and directed teaching. On the completion of this period the students returned to Ann Arbor and continued classwork for the remainder of the semester. The Correlated Course in 1940 carried seventeen hours of credit.

In 1929 the requirements were again overhauled. Departmental fields were classified under two headings: List A, which included those types of work for which directed teaching was available in the University High School, and List B, including those types of work for Page  1080which facilities for directed teaching were not available. A student was required to select a major or a minor from List A; he was privileged to select the second field of specialization from List B. Simultaneously, five group or interdepartmental fields of work were recognized — biology, English-rhetoric, general science, physical science, and social studies. A student was privileged to select both his major and his minor from these larger divisions, but the required hours consisted of thirty-two to thirty-eight for a major and twenty-one to twenty-five for a minor. The same courses might be counted doubly, however; that is, toward satisfying the major and the minor simultaneously.

During 1929 and 1930 two new special curriculums leading to the teacher's certificate were established: a curriculum for teachers of commercial subjects and a curriculum for teachers of art and design. In 1937 the old curriculum in vocational education was reorganized so as to provide a curriculum for teachers of industrial arts in junior and senior high schools. In 1940, therefore, the School of Education provided six special curriculums.

Since 1930 qualifying and comprehensive examinations have constituted two formal requirements for students seeking the teacher's certificate. The first of these, which is to be taken before admission to the course in directed teaching, tests the student's knowledge of the subject matter in his academic major or minor; the second, which is to be taken just before graduation, tests the student's mastery of certain professional matters.

The University Elementary School was not designed to give training to the typical undergraduate student; on the contrary it was meant to serve primarily as an experimental school where educators might carry forward systematic studies in child development. Yet, for students who already had had considerable pedagogical work (including directed teaching) at other institutions, an undergraduate program in elementary school training was provided, which required a minimum of one hundred hours of credit in academic work. The number of individuals enrolling for the work on the undergraduate level was small. This was due in part to the fact that the old University certificate permitted the holder to teach in any grade he might choose — in high school or elementary school. There was, consequently, no necessity for a prospective elementary teacher to tread an unusual path.

A new certification code went into effect in Michigan on July 1, 1939. Under it, all blanket certificates were abolished. Henceforth, students in training prepared themselves for one definite type of school work — elementary, secondary, or junior college. To qualify for elementary- and secondary-school certificates they were required to have had directed teaching on a corresponding level. Up to this time the teacher-training program of the School of Education was on the secondary level only. Because of student interest and the need for elementary school teachers, a training program was arranged with the teachers colleges of the state — and with various other institutions. The School of Education developed a plan whereby students were, under certain conditions, permitted to spend one semester of their senior year in these institutions in order to secure the specific training for elementary school work not available at the University. For students granted this privilege the usual residence requirements were waived, and an elementary school certificate was awarded upon graduation.

In 1932 another notable change in Page  1081graduation and certification requirements went into effect. Since 1927 the two sets of standards had been identical: both graduation and certification had required 124 hours of credit and 25 per cent more honor points than hours of credit. The two goals were separated in 1932, and an individual could graduate without being certificated. Graduation thus rested upon the basis of 124 hours of credit and 124 honor points, or a C average; certification rested upon the completion of 124 hours of credit, or, on the new basis of marking, 25 per cent more points than hours. Also in 1932, the prescribed number of hours in education was raised from fifteen to seventeen. Both for graduation and for certification at least seventeen hours in professional training were required for all.

In 1934 course A1 (History of Education) and course B20 (Introduction to Secondary Education) — each previously a two-hour course — were abolished, and their instructional materials were organized into a single three-hour course, A10, Education in the United States. The prescribed certificate standards were set as follows: A10, Education in the United States, three hours; C1, Educational Psychology, four hours; D, Special Methods in major or minor, three hours; D100, Directed Observation and Teaching, four or five hours; and an elective in education, two or three hours.

In 1937, by law, all teacher-certificating powers in Michigan were vested exclusively in the State Board of Education. Thus, at that time the University lost the function it had exercised in this respect since 1891. The State Board immediately drafted a regulation whereby teacher training institutions were to continue to recommend candidates for the certificate on substantially the old conditions. Hence, the School of Education retained the substance, if not the form, of certification authority for University students. Effective also under the state code was the requirement that all teachers must be trained in at least three academic fields — a major and two minors (rather than a major and one minor). The recommendation for elementary school teachers was four minors, as previously, although a major and two minors in strictly elementary school subjects were a permissible minimum. The certificate for junior college teaching was based on a master's degree.

In 1937 all candidates for a teacher's certificate were required to make formal application to the Recorder for such credentials. The Recorder thereupon checked all records and, if correct, certified the candidate to the State Board, which granted the legal certificate. In order also to guard against the certification of individuals who were deemed unfit to become teachers by reason of physical, mental, or moral defects or other inadequacies, a Teacher's Certificate Candidacy Committee was appointed. The functions of this committee were to make careful investigation into all cases called to their attention by the faculty and, if evidence warranted, to discourage, or if need be, to block further efforts to secure a certificate.

Students. — In the first year of Dr. Payne's incumbency seventy-one students pursued courses in education. Undergraduate enrollment in the first year of the School totaled 215, and fifty-eight degrees were granted. Later enrollment figures are given in Table II.

According to Dean Whitney, in the summer session of 1900 there were twenty-five elections in education; in 1920, 717 elections; in 1929, 1,989 elections. The outstanding change in recent years has been the fact that the School of Education, particularly in the summer session, has become predominantly a Page  1082

TABLE IIUndergraduate Enrollments in the School of Education and Degrees Granted
Year Enrollment Degrees Granted
Summer Session Academic Year Total
1923-24 350 301 651 108
1928-29 526 476 1,002 204
1933-34 158* 256 414 98
1938-39 367 496 863 111
School serving the needs of advanced students. A master's degree is demanded of teachers and administrative officers in many school systems, and thus it seems that the trend toward graduate study will continue.

The number of students electing courses in education is listed in Table III. The figures include individuals who are enrolled in various schools and colleges on the campus. Course elections are listed in Table IV.

Table V gives the number of teacher's certificates issued through the University. Here exact records extend farther back than they do for some of the other data. One hundred and twenty-five such certificates were granted in 1904; in 1939 the total was 272. As will be observed, the highest number ever issued was 522

TABLE IIIStudents Electing Courses in Education
Year Summer Session Academic Year Total
School of Education Other Schools Total School of Education Other Schools Total
1932-33 278 893 1,171 304 520* 824 1,995
1934-35 194 622 816 272 547 819 1,635
1936-37 328 1,016 1,344 489 818 1,307 2,651
1938-39 367 825 1,192 496 1,906 2,402 3,594
TABLE IVStudent Course Elections in Education
Year Summer Session Academic Year Total
First Semester Second Semester
1928-29* 1,759 3,368 1,789 * 6,916
1930-31 1,933 1,475* 2,048 5,456
1932-33 1,542 1,492 1,426 4,440
1934-35 1,476 1,132 1,225 3,833
1936-37 2,492 1,531 1,483 5,407
1938-39 3,430 1,789* 1,666* 6,885*
in the year 1927. Again the effect of the elevation of standards both in the state and in the University is evident. Time was when teachers in both elementary and high schools in Michigan were certificated on only two years of normal school or collegiate training. During the 1920's and 1930's this situation changed. Hence, many individuals who met standards under the older conditions found it desirable, if not absolutely necessary, to secure college degrees. The teacher's certificate was a natural accompaniment of the degrees.

Graduate work. — Many of the staff of the School of Education are members of the Graduate School faculty. Consequently, much of the instructional work Page  1083

TABLE VTeacher's Certificates Issued
Year Number of Certificates Year Number of Certificates Year Number of Certificates
1892 32 1922 302
1897 55 1910 122 1928 384
1901 78 1916 203 1934 213
1905 132 1921 274 1939 272
of these teachers is on a graduate level, and the courses which they offer carry graduate credit. Indeed, of the total offerings of the School, a very considerable part is of graduate character. The Announcement of the School of Education for 1939-40 listed a total of 223 courses. Of these, sixty-two were designed solely for undergraduates, and eighty-eight were open to both undergraduates and graduates; seventy-five were open only to graduate students. When the plan for utilizing the several teachers colleges of the state for graduate centers went into operation in 1938 the number of course offerings, as well as the number of graduate students in education, increased notably.

Two special aspects of the School's graduate work deserve special mention. These are the late afternoon and Saturday classes held on the campus and designed primarily for part-time students, and the Field Course in Education.

The custom of providing late afternoon and Saturday classes for part-time students began in 1925. At the outset there were only eleven of these courses, and they were only fairly well attended. In 1939-40 forty-nine such courses were listed. Of these, twenty-five were scheduled for the first semester and twenty-four for the second semester; during the first semester they carried a total of 596 course elections. Generally speaking, these late afternoon and Saturday classes have been elected by superintendents, principals, and high-school teachers regularly engaged in educational work in cities and towns situated within a radius of approximately a hundred miles of Ann Arbor. Most of these individuals have been graduate students seeking advanced degrees.

The Field Course in Education was first instituted in 1933. It was a University extension course organized and conducted in a collective manner by the faculty of the School of Education. It sought to meet the needs of teachers in service who desired to continue University studies during the regular academic year, but who resided at such distances from Ann Arbor as to make attendance at Saturday classes extremely difficult, if not impossible. The Field Course met in conveniently located centers throughout the state but was open for credit only to graduate students. The total annual enrollment by 1940 had reached 500.

TABLE VIGraduate Students and Graduate Degrees in Education, 1921-39
Year Students in Summer Session Students in Academic Year Total Students Advanced Degrees Granted in Education
1921-22 ... ... 109 19
1923-24 142 48 190 42
1928-29 359 187 546 81
1933-34 360 205 565 110
1938-39 1,372 670 2,042 280

Each semester the School of Education has offered courses in the University of Michigan Center for Graduate Study in Detroit. During the first semester of 1939-40, the School conducted nine courses in the Center.

Table VI records the development of Page  1084graduate work in education from 1921 to 1939.

The staff. — During the twenty years from 1879 to 1899 all professional courses in education were taught by one incumbent. In 1899 the staff numbered two; in 1905, four; in 1910, six; in 1920, ten; in 1930, fifty-one; and in 1940, seventy-one. It should, however, be pointed out that the figures for 1930 and 1940 include both full-time and part-time instructors. The chief general causes of this phenomenal growth have been the great expansion of instructional materials of an educational sort produced by the development of the scientific movement in education, the successive steps taken by state and University authorities looking to the elevation of teaching standards on all levels of instruction, and the notable influx of college and university students generally — a condition which in many instances made inevitable the multiplying of class sections. But more particularly the main cause for the increase in the number of faculty members of the School of Education from 1921 to 1940 was the introduction of many physical training and public health courses given by the School. Nevertheless, even if such types of work were omitted and comparisons made solely on a basis similar to that known to Professor Payne sixty years ago, the figures would still be impressive. If only those who devoted their entire instructional time to courses in the history, philosophy, psychology, and administration of education and to methodologies relating to academic subjects solely were included, the group would number twenty-two. On the average, more than one member was added to the pedagogical staff of the School each year from 1879 to 1940.

In addition to the staff members mentioned elsewhere in this account, the following also have served the School for extended periods of time. Stuart A. Courtis (Columbia '19, Ph.D. Michigan '25), Professor of Education, Francis D. Curtis (Oregon '11, Ph.D. Columbia '24), Professor of Secondary Education and of the Teaching of Science, Harlan C. Koch (Ohio University [Athens] '19, Ph.D. Ohio State '26), Professor of Education and Assistant Director of the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, Howard Y. McClusky (Park '21, Ph.D. Chicago '29, LL.D. Park '41), Professor of Educational Psychology, Mental Measurements, and Statistics, and Assistant to the Vice-President in charge of University relations in the field of adult education, David E. Mattern (Bush Conservatory of Music '11, A.B. Cornell '15, A.M. Michigan '35), Professor of Music Education in the School of Music and in the School of Education, Arthur B. Moehlman ('12, Ph.D. '23), Professor of School Administration and Supervision, Clarence D. Thorpe (Ellsworth '11, Ph.D. Michigan '25), Professor of English and of the Teaching of English, William Clark Trow (Colgate '15, Ph.D. Columbia '23), Professor of Educational Psychology, Charles C. Fries (Bucknell '09, Ph.D. Michigan '22), Clifford Woody (Indiana '08, Ph.D. Columbia '16), Professor of Education, Director of the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research and Graduate Adviser to the Teachers Colleges, George L. Jackson ('06, Ph.D. Columbia '09), Professor of the History of Education; George C. Kyte (California '15, Ed.D. ibid. '22), Professor of Elementary Education and Supervision, George C. Carrothers (Indiana '09, Ph.D. Columbia '24), Professor of Education and Director of the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, and Warren R. Good (Virginia '26, M.A. Michigan '42), Instructor in Educational Psychology and Secretary Page  1085of the Editorial Board, School of Education.

The laboratory schools. — When the University High School was opened in 1924 it had a faculty of sixteen members and a pupil enrollment of 127. In 1940 the numbers were twenty-nine and three hundred, respectively. The school not only has served as a laboratory for the scientific study of secondary school problems but also has furnished facilities for observational work and directed teaching to approximately one hundred University students each semester. Furthermore, the head of each of the departments of instruction within this school is a member of the faculty of the School of Education, conducts the special methods courses for candidates majoring or minoring in his field, and supervises the directed teaching work of his students. In this way, therefore, a continuing tieup and correlation of theory and practice is assured.

The University Elementary School, which was completed in 1930, organized its work slowly year by year until it finally became articulated with the seventh grade of the high school in 1937. The chief purpose of this school is educational research and the study of child development. No directed teaching for the typical undergraduate is permitted, although advanced students with teaching experience are enabled to conduct experimental classwork. The school in 1940 had a staff of eighteen (together with seven assistants) and enrolled 131 children.

Thus, the two laboratory schools taken together provide instructional facilities ranging from prekindergarten work through the twelfth grade. The two units, however, differ decidedly from each other in motives. The one emphasizes research, the other the practical training of secondary school teachers.

Publications. — Annually or biennially the School of Education issues an Announcement describing its organization and its course offerings, and usually also several Supplementary Announcements giving details relating to particular kinds of problems. The School of Education Bulletin, established in 1929, is a monthly publication which is intended to serve as an agency of stimulation and information both for members of the faculty and for schoolmen and educators generally. Most issues contain one or two editorials on topics of current interest, one or more brief articles relating to educational problems, and certain news items and book reviews. The School sponsors a series of Educational Monographs or studies prepared under the direction of members of the faculty. To 1940 only one such monograph had appeared, but others were in prospect. The one published study, Verbal Influences on Children's Behavior, is by Dr. Marguerite W. Johnson. Several members of the staff have been editors or contributing editors of educational magazines.

Co-operative activities. — Besides its more or less independently conducted activities the School of Education has entered into co-operative arrangements with a number of other agencies which are carrying forward certain types of related work. Some of these undertakings are with units on the campus.

Co-operative arrangements with the University Hospital School have been effected whereby the instructional aspects of the work done there are placed under the supervision of a member of the faculty of the School of Education. Opportunities have also been given for certain students to carry forward their directed teaching assignments in connection with the Hospital School.

Arrangements have been established with the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, of Battle Creek, whereby the foundation's Page  1086summer camps for children have been utilized by the School of Education for the scientific study of children's traits and behavior. Similarly, co-operative arrangements have also been made with this foundation whereby systematic studies of specific problems have been carried forward.

Members of the staff have served as advisers to the officials of various school systems and other public and private institutions, such as Southern Michigan Prison at Jackson, the State Public School at Coldwater, the military schools at Howe, Indiana, and Culver, Indiana, and the schools of Detroit, Dearborn, Flint, Saginaw, Jackson, and other cities in Michigan.

Student teaching facilities have been made available in a number of high schools throughout the country to selected seniors and others interested in types of work not obtainable in the University High School. Further, in several instances teaching internships covering an entire school year have been secured for graduates. Under the conditions imposed the student has usually been permitted to devote part-time to paid instructional service and part-time to study for an advanced degree in the University or in some other institution. Through an agreement with the Merrill-Palmer School of Detroit, students interested especially in primary work may spend one semester of their senior year in attendance at the Merrill-Palmer School and may have the credit earned there accepted as full residence credit toward a degree and a teacher's certificate in the School of Education.

Arrangements have also been made with the four state teachers' colleges of Michigan, and with certain other teacher-training institutions in the nation whereby a student seeking to prepare himself for the state elementary school certificate may, on petition to the School of Education, be granted the privilege of spending one semester of his senior year as an enrollee in one of these institutions and of receiving residence credit in the School of Education for the work done. This privilege was authorized because the School of Education has been unable to provide adequate facilities for directed teaching and other course work relating to the elementary school.

Some of the graduate work formerly conducted by the School of Education for teachers of physically and mentally handicapped children has been expanded through co-operation with the Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti.

The School also co-operates with the sponsors of summer camps — both those conducted under the supervision of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation and the one sponsored by the University of Michigan at Patterson Lake, Michigan. At these camps training has been given to advanced students seeking to become counselors or teachers.

State services. — Annually, the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research has lent its facilities for conducting local surveys, evaluating instructional work, and aiding in carrying forward school testing programs to numerous school systems of the state. The Bureau has also co-operated with the Michigan High School Principals Association in conducting a state-wide testing program in Michigan secondary schools.

Each year the School has sponsored a series of special conferences for teachers. These conferences have included an educational conference relating to problems of administration and supervision; a teacher-training conference treating the problem of better preparation of classroom teachers, a beginning teachers' conference designed especially for the benefit of recent graduates who are in their first year of teaching, a book-week conference providing a display of recently Page  1087published textbooks and discussions relating to them, and a reading conference dealing with reading difficulties. Teachers from all parts of Michigan have attended these conferences.

In connection with the summer session, a clinic dealing especially with the problems of reading and arithmetic has been provided for dull-normal high-school children; a program of preprimary and early elementary schoolwork has been offered to meet the needs of families residing in Ann Arbor during the summer and to provide facilities for observation and research; courses relating to the problems of atypical children and to camping activities have also been given.

Each year the staff of the School of Education has offered a wide range of University extension courses and extension lectures in various centers in the state. For a number of years the School has sponsored or jointly sponsored in Ann Arbor an annual meeting of the Michigan Congress of Parents and Teachers.

Through its Department of Vocational Education the School has offered courses annually for the inservice training of Smith-Hughes teachers, has participated in surveys relating to vocational training needs, and has prepared and distributed numerous bulletins and other instructional materials for teachers in the trades.

Almost constantly through its Department of Physical Education and School Health the School has contributed to the athletic, recreational, and health needs of Michigan by the dissemination of bulletins and leaflets, by supplying officials for competitive games, and by giving advice respecting controversial matters.

Annually, a member of the School's staff has assisted the University's Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions in forwarding the work of high-school inspection and in otherwise seeking to develop and maintain cordial interinstitutional relationship throughout the state.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23.
The Chronicle, Vol. III, No. 12 (1872): 136-37.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Laws, Ordinances, By-laws and Regulations …, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1861.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Michigan, 1841-42, 1860-64.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Ten Brook, Andrew. American State Universities; Their Origin and Progress. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke and Co., 1875.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-64. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
University of Michigan School of Education Bulletin, Vols. I-II (1929-40).
Whitney, Allen S.Training of Teachers at the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: George Wahr, 1931. Pp. 107, 186.