The teaching of neurology in the Medical School began in 1888-89, when Dr. William James Herdman ('72, '75m, LL.D. Nashville '97) was named Professor of Practical Anatomy and Diseases of the Nervous System. The change of his title to Professor of Diseases of the Mind and Nervous System and of Electrotherapeutics in the following year apparently marked the removal of the subject from the Department of Anatomy and the creation of a new department.
Herdman had a large general and consultation practice. He saw patients at the Hospital, but the teaching of neurology was largely confined to the weekly clinic held each Wednesday afternoon. At this clinic and in the examination and care of the Hospital patients he was assisted by Dr. Jeanne Cady Solis ('92m), Demonstrator of Nervous Diseases. He was greatly interested in electrotherapeutics, and the medical students were taught the subject thoroughly, both by laboratory work and by the treatment of patients. His interest in electricity led to the development of the use of X rays at the Hospital, and for some time roentgenology was taught in the Department of Neurology.
In the nineties he conceived the idea of the establishment of the State Psychopathic Hospital in Ann Arbor. After some delay he persuaded the state legislature to pass the required bill and appropriation, and the building was ready for occupancy in 1906. He was then Professor of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Albert Moore Barrett (Iowa '93, M.D. ibid. '95), who had been at the Danvers State Hospital, Massachusetts, was appointed Associate Professor of Neuropathology and Director of the Psychopathic Hospital.
In December, 1906, Herdman died and Barrett was appointed Professor of Psychiatry and Diseases of the Nervous System. As Barrett was interested only in psychiatry, Carl Dudley Camp (M.D. Pennsylvania '02), who had been instructor in neurology at the University of Pennsylvania, was appointed Clinical Professor of the Diseases of the Nervous System in June, 1907. At this time the department's functions in neurology and in psychiatry were separated, both as to teaching and as to the care of patients. Dr. Solis resigned her position at this time, and Dr. Theophil Klingmann ('90p, '92m) served as Demonstrator of Diseases of the Nervous System until 1917. The Department of Diseases of the Mind and Nervous System remained one administrative unit until March, 1920, when the Board of Regents divided it into two departments and changed the title of Barrett to Professor of Psychiatry and that of Camp to Professor of Neurology.
The number of teaching hours devoted to neurology was increased in 1907. The Wednesday afternoon clinics were continued, but the clinical period was lengthened. In the second semester an introductory lecture course was given to the juniors, and ward-class instruction to groups of senior students was begun.
The junior students received a course of forty-eight lectures, which covered the subject generally and which were illustrated by case presentations and specimens. A clinic for the seniors was held once a week throughout the year. This was scheduled for only one and one-half hours, but, as all the patients were shown Page 857it frequently lasted three or four hours. The seniors also received sixteen hours of ward-class instruction in sections of a quarter of the class. In these smaller groups they were taught the method of examining patients. Since 1929 the senior clinic has been limited to one hour and has been given in the second semester only, but the plan of teaching has remained otherwise unchanged.
At first the department had no graduate intern; a senior student lived in the Hospital and served in that capacity. In 1915 a graduate resident was appointed, and the following year, an instructor. When the new Hospital was opened the increased number of patients to be cared for called for an increase in staff, and an additional instructor was appointed. Raymond Walter Waggoner ('24m, Sc.D. Pennsylvania '30) came as Assistant Professor of Neurology in 1929, on the resignation of John Louis Garvey ('20m), who since his appointment to an instructorship in 1924 had been advanced to an associate professorship. Waggoner resigned in 1937 to take Barrett's place as Professor of Psychiatry and was succeeded by Russell DeJong ('29, '36m).
In 1940 the staff consisted of a professor, an assistant professor, three instructors, an assistant resident in neurology, and one intern. The instructors usually serve for a period of two years.
The most important activity of the department in its graduate program has been the rotation of staff members. Each year a member of the graduating class is selected as a rotating intern, to serve one year in various other departments in the Hospital. The following year, if his work is satisfactory, he becomes assistant resident in neurology. He then serves one year as junior instructor and another as senior instructor. During these two years he has time and opportunity to do work in neuroanatomy and neuropathology and may also spend three months in residence in the State Psychopathic Hospital (now Neuropsychiatric Institute). This training has been accepted as qualifying the candidate for recognition as a neuropsychiatrist.
From time to time medical graduates apply for instruction in neurology. Special courses are arranged for such men, although no certificate is given. During World War I the Surgeon General's Office assigned certain medical officers to receive instruction in neurology here.
The Department of Neurology offers courses for credit in the Department of Postgraduate Medicine. Members of the staff lecture frequently before county medical societies and participate in the program of graduate medical instruction sponsored by the Michigan State Medical Society.