The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
The Laboratories

Chemistry. — With the completion of the original Medical Building a limited space became available for practical instruction in chemistry. The first laboratory course in chemistry, in toxicological analysis, was given in 1854 in the Medical Building by Dr. Silas H. Douglass. The demand for this work was such that Douglass felt it desirable to provide instruction after the end of the medical term. In this he gained the support of President Tappan, who in his report in December, 1855, announced that a "summer course in Practical and Analytic Chemistry" would begin the first week in April. It may be assumed that the course was intended primarily for medical students desiring such instruction, and that it was given in 1856 and 1857. This was only a temporary expedient.

In this connection it may be well to point out that another summer course was put into effect in 1857. In that year, Dr. Zina Pitcher recommended that clinical instruction be given in one of the two hospitals in Detroit and that, in order not to conflict with the claims of analytical chemistry, it should begin in June and continue until the end of September. He was appointed Clinical Instructor and the work was given in St. Mary's Hospital, which, at that time, had an average of fifty to seventy-five patients. The course in 1857 was taken by nine students; that in 1858 had thirteen students. Dr. Pitcher resigned in the spring of 1859, and the attempt at summer instruction came to an end.

How long the summer course in chemistry continued to be given is not clear, but it probably was discontinued when the Chemical Laboratory was built. At all events these two courses were modest precursors of the summer session which came about forty years later.

The erection of a chemical laboratory had been under consideration by the Regents in the forties, but the organization of the Medical Department delayed the project. It came to the front in 1855, when President Tappan pointed out the need of a chemical laboratory. The Regents responded in May, 1856, by Page  796appropriating $2,500 for such a building, and later four additional appropriations were made, so that up to the end of June, 1857, the sum of $6,459 had been voted. President Tappan, in his report for 1856 and 1857, referred to the new analytical laboratory as "the most complete and efficient in our country." It was situated just west of the Medical Building, probably to accommodate the large number of medical students.

The laboratory was a small building, with only twenty-six tables, but to Dr. Douglass it was the realization of the dream of a decade. It was the first chemical laboratory in a state university. Within a year after its completion, realizing the need of gas in chemical work, Dr. Douglass organized the Ann Arbor Gas Company. He was permitted in June, 1858, to lay gas pipes from the street to the laboratory at his own expense and to charge students for the use of gas. Six months later, permission to use gas in the Medical Building was granted under like conditions. The title to all gas pipes laid upon the University grounds and in its buildings was acquired by the University, in 1860, by the payment of $350 to Dr. Douglass.

With a steady increase in enrollment there came an ever-increasing demand for practical instruction in chemistry. As many as seven additions or alterations were made to the laboratory, first in 1861, and later in 1866, 1868, 1874, 1880, 1889, and 1901. For years, most of those who took practical courses in "the Laboratory," as it was generally known, were medical students. Thus, in 1871-72, of the 267 students who took lectures and laboratory in chemistry, 195 or 73 per cent, were medical students. At that time there were 135 tables. In 1878 and 1879 the Chemical Laboratory had 374 students, twenty-eight of whom were from the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts and 346 from the Dental, Medical, and Pharmacy departments. After the last addition to the old building, in 1901, there were 362 tables available. The continued increase in students called for the construction of an entirely new building, with 634 tables, which was occupied in 1909 (see Part III: Department of Chemistry).

With the opening of the Medical Department, in 1850, instruction was given by five professors, each of whom taught four hours a week. Chemistry was coequal with the four medical subjects. As the Chemical Laboratory developed, emphasis was placed on practical instruction in qualitative analysis, toxicology, and physiological chemistry.

General Chemistry including physics was given by Dr. Douglass until 1877. The work was then taken over by John W. Langley, who taught it until 1889 when he resigned. His successor, Dr. Paul C. Freer, greatly developed the course. Dr. Samuel Lawrence Bigelow succeeded to the chair. The subject became an entrance requirement in 1900.

After 1889 the instruction in physics was given for medical students by an instructor in general chemistry. Thus, Dr. D. M. Lichty taught the course from 1891 to 1901. It was then given by Dr. John O. Reed, of the Department of Physics, until 1906. The subject had been a prerequisite for entrance to the Medical School since 1892.

Qualitative Chemistry was at first optional, but became required for medical students in 1866 and so continued until 1900, when it became an entrance requirement. This laboratory course at first required daily afternoon work for seven weeks and later was extended to twelve weeks.

With the appointment of Dr. A. B. Prescott as Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Lecturer on Organic Chemistry, in June, 1865, the first separate course in organic chemistry was given. Page  797He continued to lecture on this subject to medical students up to the time of his death in 1905. The course was then continued by Dr. Moses Gomberg who taught it until 1909, when it became a premedical requirement.

Physiological Chemistry. — Laboratory instruction in medical chemistry, such as urine analysis and toxicology, began very early. Such work was optional and was carried on in the old Medical Building. With the erection of the Chemical Laboratory more students availed themselves of the opportunity. The report of the Chemical Department for 1871-72 states that toxicology was taken by eighteen students and "urology" by 143 students. Thus, of the 350 students in the Medical Department, nearly one-half took the latter course, the instruction being given by Dr. P. B. Rose, a graduate of the medical class of 1862. Rose had served as an assistant in the Chemical Laboratory in 1861-63 and 1866-75.

In October, 1875, Dr. Rose was appointed Assistant Professor of Physiological Chemistry. This probably was the first use of that title in this country. Because of a laboratory defalcation Rose was suspended on December 21, 1875 (see Part I: The Douglas-Rose Controversy).

In 1877, a joint committee of the legislature made an "investigation" and concluded that Rose was innocent and asked for his restoration. The request was repeated in February, 1879, and the Board thereupon appointed him Assistant Professor of Physiological Chemistry. In June of that year he was named Assistant Professor of Physiological Chemistry and Toxicology and Lecturer on Renal Diseases.

A decision of the Supreme Court, in January, 1881, exonerated Dr. Douglas, the Director of the Chemical Laboratory, and awarded him a judgment against the University. Thereupon, Dr. Rose resigned, as of October, 1881.

The immediate result of the suspension of Dr. Rose, in December, 1875, was the appointment of Victor C. Vaughan as temporary assistant in the Chemical Laboratory. In June, 1876, he was given the permanent appointment, which he held until 1879. At the same time, having obtained his Ph.D. degree in 1876, he enrolled in the fall of that year in the Medical Department and received his M.D. degree in 1878.

In 1879 Dr. Vaughan was made Lecturer on Medical Chemistry and Assistant in the Chemistry Laboratory. In November, 1880, he became Assistant Professor of Medical Chemistry and Assistant in the Chemical Laboratory. In 1883 he was made Professor of Physiological and Pathological Chemistry and Associate Professor of Therapeutics and Materia Medica.

On the creation of the Hygienic Laboratory in 1887, Vaughan was given the title of Professor of Hygiene and Physiological Chemistry, and he lectured on these subjects until his resignation in 1921. Dr. Vaughan was Director of the Hygienic Laboratory from 1887 to 1909. He gave the laboratory work in physiological chemistry until 1891, when it was taken over by Frederick G. Novy, who conducted it until 1921. Dr. E. B. McKinley carried on the laboratory work for the following year, when Dr. Howard B. Lewis was appointed Professor of Physiological Chemistry. In 1935 the name of the department was changed to Biological Chemistry.

When Vaughan began to teach physiological chemistry only two poor microscopes were available. In 1876 he obtained six more, and in 1879 another lot of six was added. This was at a time when microscopical work was all but unknown. The committee on microscopes reported in June, 1882, that at that time Page  798there were 104 microscopes in the University, and forty-two of these were reported by Dr. Vaughan.

With the 1880 addition to the Chemical Laboratory, physiological chemistry acquired a large room with forty-eight tables and a room for microscopes and microscopical examinations. A room was also provided for Dr. Vaughan. In 1903 the work was transferred to the present West Medical Building, where it is still given.

The Anatomical Laboratory. — This was actually the first laboratory on the campus. In July, 1849, a year before the Medical Department opened, the Regents appointed Dr. Moses Gunn to be Professor of Anatomy and to discharge such other duties as might be prescribed. He was then twenty-seven years old and the only candidate for the position. As his real interest was in surgery, although he lectured on anatomy, the practical work was turned over to a demonstrator.

In July, 1851, Dr. Edmund Andrews was appointed Demonstrator of Anatomy and Superintendent of Grounds. Three years later he became Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Demonstrator of Human Anatomy. It may be inferred from this title that the course in practical anatomy was based to some extent on animal dissection. Andrews was capable and energetic and as Superintendent of Grounds he devised a comprehensive plan for the planting of trees on and around the campus. At that time the campus, as well as the bordering streets, was treeless. His plan called for 1,640 trees. In June, 1855, he resigned his position and went to Chicago, where he soon rose to distinction.

As early as July, 1851, the Regents had passed a resolution stating "that no anatomical subject shall be introduced into the Medical Building or brought upon the grounds of the University except through the agency of the Professor of Anatomy, and any student of the University violating this resolution shall be expelled" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 497). It may be inferred from this that during the first year medical students had attempted to act as "resurrectionists." Without doubt, during the next twenty-five years, as many stories seem to indicate, material was obtained from outside sources. It may be assumed that from the beginning an important duty of the demonstrator of anatomy was to supply material for dissection. The financial reports included in the early Regents' Proceedings, with one exception, throw no light upon the cost of such supplies. This exception perhaps entered the records inadvertently. For the session of 1861-62, the Demonstrator of Anatomy listed: "To expense of procuring 45 anatomical subjects — $1,367.46."

Students in increasing numbers elected work in practical anatomy, which, of course, they would not have done if there had been a scarcity of anatomical subjects. As a result increased space for dissection had to be provided. The anatomical law of 1875 provided relief from the difficulties of the past and assured a solution of the problem for the future. Even then the Regents, in appointing a professor of practical anatomy (1875), required that he "shall give his attention to the procuring of anatomical material." Two years later the demonstrator of anatomy was "charged with the duty of procuring the supplies of material needed for the use of the students." During the succeeding years action had to be taken frequently because of attempts to evade the law by those whose duty it was to send unclaimed bodies to the Anatomical Laboratory.

Dr. Moses Gunn, in July, 1852, was made Professor of Surgery and Lecturer on Anatomy. At the same time Dr. Alonzo B. Palmer was named Professor Page  799of Anatomy. He never served in that capacity; in 1854, after the dismissal of Dr. Jonathan A. Allen, he was given the chair of materia medica and diseases of women and children.

In 1854 Dr. Gunn relinquished his work in anatomy, but served as Professor of Surgery until he resigned in 1867 to accept a position at Rush Medical College in Chicago. When Gunn had been a student at Geneva Medical College Dr. Corydon L. Ford was the demonstrator of anatomy. The two became intimate friends, and in discussing their futures the young Gunn dreamed of the time when they would be associated in a medical college, he as professor of surgery and Ford as professor of anatomy. The dream came true in 1854, when Dr. Ford was offered and accepted the professorship of anatomy at the University of Michigan. At the same time Dr. Edmund C. Andrews was made Professor of Comparative Anatomy.

In 1860 after the death of Dr. Samuel Denton, Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine and Pathology, which necessitated a change in the duties of the professors, Ford became Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. This title he held until his death in 1894, which occurred two days after he had completed his fortieth course of lectures on the campus and just when he was about to retire as Professor Emeritus. He had tendered his resignation in 1892, but at the request of the Regents he had withdrawn it. Dr. Ford's whole life was devoted to the teaching of anatomy in various medical colleges. As long as the University medical course was only of six months' duration, he was able to teach in other medical schools during the spring and summer.

Dr. James Playfair McMurrich occupied the chair of anatomy from 1894 to 1907, when he was succeeded by Dr. George L. Streeter, who served as Professor of Anatomy from 1907 to 1914. After the resignation of Dr. Streeter, the chairs of anatomy and histology were combined under the direction of Dr. G. Carl Huber, who, however, retained his active interest in histology, while Dr. Rollo E. McCotter conducted the anatomical work, as Professor of Anatomy. In 1935, Dr. Bradley M. Patten (Ph.D. Harvard '14) succeeded to the position previously held by Dr. Huber. With the discarding of the title of Director, in 1938, he became Professor of Anatomy and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy.

Physiology and Histology. — Dr. Jonathan Adams Allen, one of the original faculty of five members in the Medical Department, was appointed, in January, 1850, Professor of Pathology and Physiology. But actually he served as Professor of Therapeutics, Materia Medica, and Physiology. After he left in 1854 the medical faculty was reorganized, and Dr. Abram Sager, in addition to his duties in botany and zoology, occupied the chair of obstetrics and physiology.

Upon the death of Dr. Denton, Dr. Ford succeeded to the chair of anatomy and physiology. At that time physiology was purely a didactic subject, and the experimental method was hardly available. The natural approach to physiology was through the microscopical study of the tissues. Hence it was that in April, 1869, Professor Ford was given the additional title of Instructor in Microscopy, and the students taking the course were required to pay an additional fee of ten dollars.

In June, 1872, at the earnest request of Dr. Ford, and in order to secure a more extended course of instruction in physiology, the Regents, at the request of the medical faculty, transferred this subject to Dr. Henry S. Cheever, who, from 1872 to 1876 was Professor of Therapeutics, Page  800Materia Medica, and Physiology.

From 1873 to 1875, when Dr. Cheever was on leave of absence in Colorado, Dr. Frederic H. Gerrish was first Lecturer on Therapeutics, Materia Medica, and Physiology, and then, in 1874, Professor. He resigned his chair in 1875.

Cheever resumed his duties in 1875, but was compelled by illness to resign his position in March, 1876. Dr. Burt G. Wilder, of Cornell University, was appointed Lecturer on Physiology for the session of 1876-77.

During this year both Dr. Ford and Dean Alonzo B. Palmer pressed the need of a physiological laboratory and of a permanent professor for that subject. The Regents appealed to the legislature, which responded by an appropriation of $2,500 for 1877, and one of $1,000 for 1878.

In June, 1877, Dr. Charles H. Stowell was appointed Instructor in the Physiological Laboratory and was authorized to go to New York and examine instruments and other appliances needed. He visited Bausch and Lomb, and also Spencer at Geneva and examined their microscopes and lenses. As a result fifteen microscopes and a number of minor items were purchased at a cost of about $1,300.

In June, 1878, Dr. Ford presented a report to the Board of Regents describing the work done during the year in the Physiological Laboratory. With fifteen microscopes it was possible to give a course to six classes, each class consisting of fifteen students. A class devoted one afternoon every week for ten weeks to practical work with the microscope. It thus appears that ninety students received instruction during each ten-week period. Three courses were given, and more than 250 students received instruction during the year. Such was the beginning of actual class instruction in microscopical work in the Medical Department.

In 1880 Stowell was made Assistant Professor of Physiology and Histology. In the second semester of 1880-81, Dr. Henry Sewall began his service in physiology in the Medical School. Since Dr. Stowell was not in the new department, his title was changed to Assistant Professor of Histology and Microscopy (1881-83), Shortly thereafter, the Regents changed the name of the Physiological Laboratory to the "Histological Laboratory." In 1883 Stowell was made Professor of Histology and Microscopy, which position he held until he left the University in 1889.

The microscope had been introduced into the University as early as October, 1854, for in an addendum to the Annual Report of President Tappan, it is stated that "several fine microscopes are also in the use of the [Medical] Department." Nothing is known of these instruments, and it may be assumed that they were not of an expensive type.

In March, 1856, Professors Sager and Winchell were made a committee to contract for the construction of a suitable microscope for the University. The committee spent $300, and in December a further sum of $150 was voted to cover the balance due. In September, 1857, the committee received an additional grant of $19 for accessories. The total cost of the instrument was $469. Since this amount was charged to the account of "Natural History" it follows that this was the first microscope in the Literary Department. Undoubtedly, it was the transfer of this microscope from the Department of Botany to the Physiological Laboratory that the Regents authorized in October, 1877, with the provision that the Laboratory should furnish a suitable one in return. At all events, the report of the committee on microscopes in 1882 lists a W. and J. Grunow microscope, Page  801purchased in 1856 at a cost of $500, as being in the custody of Dr. Stowell of the Histological Laboratory. This would seem to explain the statement in Hinsdale's History of the University that the first course in histology was given in 1856.

The next record of the purchase of a microscope was in March, 1860, when the medical faculty was authorized to buy a "superior" microscope and certain anatomical preparations offered for sale by Dr. DeVille for $275. The actual amount was $228 as shown by the warrant paid on April 3. This instrument, also in the custody of Dr. Stowell, was listed as a Powell and Leland microscope of English make, and purchased "20 or 25 years ago" at a cost of $150.

A third instrument, listed about 1861 by the committee, as a J. Grunow inverted microscope, was probably acquired by the Chemical Laboratory, and thus came into the custody of Dr. Victor C. Vaughan. Of the remaining sixteen microscopes bought before 1877, two were acquired in 1872, twelve in 1875, and two in 1876. These were used in microscopical botany.

From January, 1877, to June, 1882, the University acquired eighty-five microscopes. The "Report on the Use of Microscopes in the University" (R.P., 1888, pp. 201-10) lists 104 microscopes, twenty-three of which were in the custody of Dr. Stowell (histology); forty-two in the care of Dr. Vaughan (physiological chemistry), making sixty-five (62 per cent) in the Medical Department. Of the remaining thirty-nine microscopes, which were in the Literary Department, thirty-three were used in botany, four in zoology, and two in geology.

In July, 1889, following the resignation of Dr. Stowell, the medical committee of the Board of Regents recommended that the chairs of pathology and histology be combined under Dr. Heneage Gibbes and that Dr. G. C. Huber be appointed Instructor in Histology. This recommendation was adopted, but two weeks later, the title of Dr. Gibbes was changed back to Professor of Pathology, and that of Dr. W. H. Howell, the newly appointed Lecturer in Physiology, was changed to include histology. The following year he became Professor of Physiology and Histology and held that title until he resigned.

Dr. Howell's successor was Dr. Warren P. Lombard, who was appointed in June, 1892, Professor of Physiology and Histology. To Dr. Lombard the connection of histology with physiology was purely formal, and in 1898 his title was changed to Professor of Physiology.

As mentioned above, Dr. G. C. Huber was made Instructor in Histology in 1889. After graduating from the Medical Department in 1887 he served two years as Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy. His entrance into the field of histology, in 1889, marked the beginning of a long and successful career. In 1898 he became Junior Professor of Anatomy and Director of the Histological Laboratory, which position he held until 1903, when he was made Professor of Histology and Director of the Histological Laboratory. When anatomy and histology were combined in 1914, Dr. Huber became Professor of Anatomy and Director of the Anatomical Laboratories. He continued, however, to give the work in histology and embryology until his death in 1934, thus completing forty-five years of service in that field. From 1928 to 1934 he served as Dean of the Graduate School.

Dr. Bradley M. Patten became Professor of Anatomy and Director of the Anatomical Laboratories in 1935. He took direct charge of the work in histology, and in this he has been ably assisted by Dr. Elizabeth C. Crosby.

Work in histology began in 1877 in what was known at that time as the Page  802Physiological Laboratory. The space which it then occupied in the old Medical Building continued to be used for that purpose until 1903, when new quarters were provided in the West Medical Building. In 1926 anatomy and histology were moved into the new East Medical Building.

Physiological Laboratory. — The designation Physiological Laboratory was in use as early as 1877, but the work was in histology and microscopy. By the spring of 1881 the medical faculty recognized the need of a chair in modern experimental physiology. Three names were submitted in answer to letters sent by Dr. Vaughan. H. Newell Martin, professor of biology at the newly established Johns Hopkins University, recommended his assistant, Dr. Henry Sewall. When the vote of the faculty was taken Dr. Sewall received a majority, and his name was sent to the Board of Regents. His first appointment was that of Lecturer on Physiology for the second semester of 1881-82. His ability, enthusiasm, and training were promptly recognized, and in June, 1882, at the age of twenty-seven, he was made Professor of Physiology.

The advent of Dr. Sewall marked a new era in the history of the Medical Department. The purely didactic method gave way to demonstrations and to the experimental approach. His meager laboratory, under the slanting side of the upper amphitheater, became the scene of active research. A number of scientific papers resulted, the most striking of which appeared in 1887 under the title "Experiments on the Preventive Inoculation of Rattlesnake Venom." This work was the precursor of all subsequent studies on immunity to snake venoms and to bacterial toxins. When Dr. A. Calmette, the eminent authority on venom immunity, visited Ann Arbor in 1908, he asked particularly to see the room in which Sewall had done this pioneer work.

Between Dr. Sewall and Dr. Vaughan, both young men, an intimate friendship developed which undoubtedly widened their horizons. Dr. Sewall's year abroad in 1879-80 familiarized him to some extent with the pioneer work of Pasteur and Koch, and when he returned to Johns Hopkins he already knew of the work being done by Dr. Sternberg, who was working as a guest in Dr. Martin's laboratory. As part of their Sunday afternoon stroll, Sewall and Vaughan were wont to sit on a hill overlooking the Huron River and discuss the "germ theory." The enthusiasm of Dr. Sewall found an eager listener in Dr. Vaughan, who in this way became convinced of the important relation of bacteria to disease. The immediate result of these discussions is probably reflected in the note in The Chronicle of January 31, 1885, to the effect that "Dr. Vaughan is giving to the Seniors some interesting talks on Bacteria," and again, on March 14, 1885, in the remark that Dr. Sewall gives the freshmen weekly talks on the "Bacteria Theory."

In spite of an active and vigorous constitution, Dr. Sewall developed in the spring of 1886 the first signs of illness. He spent the summer of that year in Denver and returned in October much improved in health. In November of that year he began his famous "Experiments on Preventive Inoculation of Rattlesnake Venom." The work was interrupted by another attack of illness, and Dr. Sewall was obliged to seek relief in the mountains of North Carolina. On his return, in April, he completed the investigation which marked the beginning of immunology as regards soluble toxins. During the summer of 1887 anatomy was transferred to a new building, and Sewall moved his laboratory into the renovated old dissecting room. In the Page  803spring of 1888 Dr. Sewall asked for a year's leave of absence, and during his absence, in 1888-89, the work in physiology was given by Dr. Joseph W. Warren.

Dr. Sewall returned in April, 1889, and, although not greatly improved in health, he planned to give a course in practical physiology. At the same time he taught the second laboratory course in bacteriology offered in the University. It was there that he examined his own sputum and found the tubercle bacillus present. This was decisive for him, and, in June, he regretfully resigned his position.

Dr. Sewall's successor was Dr. W. H. Howell. He was appointed, in 1889, Lecturer on Physiology and Histology. He was Professor from 1890 to 1892, when he resigned to accept a position at Harvard. Dr. Warren P. Lombard succeeded Dr. Howell, first as Lecturer (1892) and a year later as Professor of Physiology and Histology. Largely at his request histology was dropped from his title in 1898, and he then became Professor of Physiology and held this appointment until his retirement in 1923.

Dr. Robert Gesell, the present incumbent of the chair of physiology, was appointed in 1923. He and his associates have carried on valuable researches on respiration and allied subjects.

As already stated, the modern Physiological Laboratory had its beginning under Dr. Sewall. He saw it develop from poor, makeshift rooms to commodious quarters in the old Medical Building. The laboratory was wiped out in the fire of 1907 which destroyed the western end (built in 1867) of the old Medical Building. Work, however, was carried on in the east half of the building until 1909, and thereafter transferred to the old Chemical Laboratory. Under Dr. Gesell the Physiological Laboratory acquired, in 1925, thoroughly modern quarters in the south wing of East Medical Building.

Pathology. — As stated before, one of the six professorships provided for in the Act of 1837 was that of physiology and pathology. Accordingly, in January, 1850, Dr. Jonathan Adams Allen was appointed Professor of Pathology and Physiology, but with the reservation that pathology was to be given by Dr. Samuel Denton, Professor of the Practice of Physic. Hence, Dr. Denton was in charge of pathology from 1850 until his death in 1860. The title of his chair was apparently changed after 1851, for in President Tappan's report for 1853-54 Denton is designated "Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine and of Pathology." No record of this change is noted in the Regents' Proceedings. Upon the death of Dr. Denton in September, 1860, Dr. Alonzo B. Palmer was appointed Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, Pathology, and Materia Medica. A year later, with the appointment of Dr. Samuel G. Armor, this title was amended by leaving off "Materia Medica."

In 1863 the surgeon general of the United States Army determined to require at least one course of lectures on hygiene and military surgery from candidates for the Army medical staff. The Regents thereupon provided for a course of lectures on hygiene to be offered in the Literary Department. Dr. Palmer was appointed Lecturer for that purpose. In June, 1864, Palmer was appointed "Professor of Pathology, Practice of Medicine and Hygiene," with the stipulation that the course in hygiene was to be given in the Literary and Law departments. This course was discontinued in April, 1869, and at the same time Palmer was appointed Instructor in Auscultation. Incidentally, it may be added that a course in hygiene was not given again in the University until 1887, when Vaughan was appointed Professor Page  804of Hygiene and Director of the Hygienic Laboratory.

The title of Dr. Palmer's chair from 1869 to 1880 was that of Professor of Pathology and Practice of Medicine. As a result of the growth of the Hospital, in 1880, "and Clinical Medicine" was added to this title, which he held until his death in 1887.

The lack of a large hospital made it difficult to secure material for gross pathology. The anatomical law of 1875 relieved the situation to some extent by supplying unclaimed bodies from state institutions. Some of these could be used for pathological demonstrations, and undoubtedly it was with this object in view that Dr. William J. Herdman was made Lecturer of Pathological Anatomy and Demonstrator of Anatomy in 1879. He held the title of Professor of Practical and Pathological Anatomy and Demonstrator of Anatomy from 1882 to 1888.

Dr. Herdman performed occasional autopsies and gave demonstrations of pathological material in the large amphitheater before hundreds of students. The medical faculty, in October, 1887, recognizing the lack of laboratory work in pathology, asked the Board to establish a chair of pathology and to appoint Dr. Heneage Gibbes, of Westminster College, London, England, as Professor of Pathology. This was done by the Board, and modern pathology thus began in the University.

The service of Dr. Gibbes as Professor of Pathology began in January, 1888. He established a laboratory in the basement of the new Anatomy Building, but the quarters were inadequate for the laboratory instruction of students. After the transfer of the Homeopathic Hospital to its new building Dr. Gibbes, in 1892, acquired ample space for his work.

Dr. Gibbes, unfortunately, had an arbitrary and intolerant disposition which brought on clashes with his colleagues. The appointment of a nonmedical man, Dr. James P. McMurrich, as Professor of Anatomy gave him an ally in the person of Dr. W. A. Campbell, Assistant Professor of Anatomy, who aspired to the chair. Together they formulated and presented to the Regents a sweeping plan for reorganizing the Medical Department. A somewhat similar plan was presented by Dean Obetz, of the Homeopathic Department. As a result, the chair of pathology was abolished, as of October 1, 1895, and the title of Dr. George Dock was amended to Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine and Clinical Medicine and Pathology.

Dr. Aldred S. Warthin was made Assistant to the Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine in 1891. In June, 1892, he became Demonstrator of Clinical Medicine and held this position until 1895, when he became Instructor in Pathology. In 1899 he became Assistant Professor. In 1902 he was made Professor of Pathology and in 1903 Director of the Pathological Laboratory.

Under Dr. Warthin the Department of Pathology was developed into the foremost of its kind. With the completion of the West Medical Building, in 1903, the laboratory acquired new quarters which it still occupies. Dr. Warthin died in 1931 and was succeeded by Dr. Carl V. Weller, who was Director of the Pathological Laboratories from 1931 to 1938, when he was named Chairman of the Department of Pathology.

Materia Medica and Therapeutics. — The sixth and last of the professorships prescribed for the Medical Department, as indicated under the "Original Faculty," was that of materia medica, pharmacy, and medical jurisprudence. Therapeutics was not mentioned in the legislative act and hence the term does not appear until after 1851.

Page  805Dr. Douglass was appointed, in January, 1848, Professor of Materia Medica and was also to discharge the duties of Professor of Pharmacy and Medical Jurisprudence, but, as specified in 1850, he would teach only pharmacy and toxicology. In other words he was given the title required by law, but was not to teach materia medica.

The Board in 1850 appointed Jonathan Adams Allen Professor of Pathology and Physiology. It was specified that besides physiology he should also perform in part the duties of the Professor of Materia Medica. The teaching of pathology was assigned to the chair of physics.

At the time of his dismissal in 1854, Dr. Allen though nominally Professor of Physiology and Pathology, was still "acting as Professor of Therapeutics, Materia Medica, and Physiology." In the reorganization that followed Dr. Alonzo B. Palmer was given the chair of materia medica and the diseases of women and children. At the same time Dr. Abram Sager was transferred to the chair of obstetrics and physiology.

After the death of Dr. Samuel Denton in 1860, another rearrangement of duties took place. The work in materia medica and therapeutics was divided. Dr. Palmer was appointed Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, of Pathology, and of Materia Medica. At the same time Dr. Gunn was made Professor of Surgery and Therapeutics; Dr. Sager, Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children; and Dr. Ford, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology.

In 1861 the Regents amended the titles of Dr. Palmer and Dr. Gunn by dropping materia medica and therapeutics, respectively. At the same time a chair of the principles of medicine and materia medica was established to which Dr. Samuel G. Armor was appointed. At the next meeting of the Regents, at the request of Dr. Armor, the title was changed to "Institutes of Medicine and Materia Medica." Dr. Zina Pitcher, in 1851, had been named "Emeritus Professor of the Institutes of Medicine and Obstetrics."

Dr. Armor resigned in 1868, having served for seven years. He was succeeded by Dr. H. S. Cheever, after Dr. Robert C. Kedzie had declined the position. Dr. Cheever, made Lecturer on Therapeutics and Materia Medica in 1868, became professor of these subects in 1870. In 1872 physiology was added to the title, thus making it essentially the same as the acting title held by Dr. Allen from 1850 to 1854. Cheever held this position until 1876, interrupted by leave of absence for two years because of ill-health (1873-74). He resumed his teaching in 1875 and resigned in 1876. During his absence the work was carried on by Dr. Frederic H. Gerrish, first as Lecturer and then as Professor of Therapeutics, Materia Medica, and Physiology. Dr. Gerrish resigned in 1875.

After the resignation of Dr. Cheever the duties, in part, were passed on to Dr. George E. Frothingham, who was designated Professor of Materia Medica and Ophthalmology (1876). In 1880 "and Clinical Ophthalmology" was added to this title.

Dr. Frothingham came to Ann Arbor in 1867, as Prosector of Surgery and Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy, with Dr. William Greene, his former preceptor, who had been appointed to the chair of surgery. From 1872 to 1875 he was Professor of Ophthalmology and Aural Surgery, and Demonstrator of Anatomy; and in 1875-76 he bore the title of Professor of Practical Anatomy and Ophthalmic and Aural Surgery. In 1876 Anatomy was replaced by Materia Medica in this title, which, with the addition of "and Clinical Ophthalmology" in 1880, Page  806he held until his resignation in 1889.

Although materia medica was included in Dr. Frothingham's title from 1876 to 1889, it does not follow that he taught the subject for thirteen years. As a matter of fact, Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, in 1883, was appointed Professor of Physiological and Pathological Chemistry and Associate Professor of Therapeutics and Materia Medica. He taught the latter subject to pharmacy students and perhaps to medical students. His connection with materia medica and therapeutics ended in 1887, when he was appointed Professor of Hygiene and Physiological Chemistry and Director of the Hygienic Laboratory. In the fall of 1887, Dr. Conrad Georg was appointed Instructor in Materia Medica. This title he held for two years and in 1889, when Dr. Frothingham resigned as Professor of Materia Medica and Ophthalmology, Dr. Georg was appointed Instructor in Materia Medica and Therapeutics, which position he held for one year.

During the forty years that had elapsed since the opening of the Medical Department, the teaching of materia medica and therapeutics had been purely didactic and often had been combined with some other discipline. Like a poor relative it was passed around from one professor to another. Thus, during four decades the names of ten men, from Douglas to George, were associated with materia medica and therapeutics. By contrast, during the fifty years that followed, these subjects were presented by only three men.

Pharmacology. — In 1890 the Regents established a chair of materia medica and therapeutics, and Dr. John J. Abel was appointed Lecturer on these subjects, to begin his duties on January 1, 1891. In June, 1891, he was made full Professor, which post he held for the next two years, when he resigned to accept the chair of pharmacology in the new Medical School of Johns Hopkins University.

Just as the appointment of Dr. Sewall marked the beginning of a new era in physiology, so the appointment of Dr. Abel was equally significant for pharmacology. Although he did not have the title he was, in fact, the first professor of pharmacology at Michigan. He introduced the experimental, scientific approach to the subject of materia medica and therapeutics. Like Dr. Sewall he had to begin his research work in a small room under the sloping sides of the lower amphitheater in the old Medical Building. The facilities were meager, but the enthusiasm for research was uppermost.

Dr. Abel was a stimulating, prolific, and tireless investigator. He was succeeded in 1893 by Dr. Arthur R. Cushny, who resigned in 1905. Under Dr. Cushny the laboratory space was enlarged by taking over a large room in the old Medical Building. It was well equipped, and it became possible to give the practical course in pharmacology to medical students. The first course, given in 1894-95, was optional for a limited number of junior medical students. In 1909 after removal of the department to the old Chemistry Building, it became possible to make the laboratory course in pharmacology a required one for all medical students.

After Dr. Cushny's resignation, Dr. C. W. Edmunds, who had been his assistant, was given charge of the Pharmacology Department, as it was commonly designated. In 1907 he became Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics and Director of the Pharmacological Laboratories. Under the supervision of Dr. Edmunds the laboratory, through its research work, became recognized as the foremost of its kind. Dr. M. H. Seevers succeeded Dr. Edmunds in 1941 as Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics.

Page  807Electrotherapeutics. — In 1875, the Board appointed Dr. John W. Langley of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as Acting Professor of General Chemistry and Physics, and a year later he was made full professor. Early in 1880 Langley offered an elective course in electrotherapeutics to the medical students, which consisted of practical laboratory work in its applications to medicine. The faculty report in 1882 recorded that the assistant in charge gave seventy-two lessons in electrotherapeutics to sections of the class and a quiz once a week during the first semester.

Incidentally, charges were preferred against this same assistant for unethical advertisement of an "electrical belt" through local dealers. The Board brought in a Scotch verdict, whereupon Dr. Frothingham and Dr. D. Maclean tendered their resignations. A month later, the Board reversed itself, and the resignation of the assistant was requested and at the same time the resignations of the professors were tabled.

In 1888 Dr. W. J. Herdman gave up his connection with pathology and was named Professor of Practical Anatomy and of Diseases of the Nervous System. In 1890 he was made Professor of Nervous Diseases and Electrotherapeutics. A practical course in the latter subject was organized and required of all medical students. It was given in the old Chemical Laboratory, but after the death of Dr. Herdman it was discontinued. In 1898 Herdman was given the title of Professor of Diseases of the Mind and Nervous System and of Electrotherapeutics.

Hospital Laboratories. — The old Hospital on the campus provided few or no facilities for diagnostic purposes, although the rules of 1891, providing for the government of the hospitals, required the resident physician to "see that all analyses and examinations of sputum, urine, etc., as required by the clinical Professors are made and properly reported to them."

When the Catherine Street Hospital was occupied in 1892, there was no provision for laboratories, and Dr. George Dock was obliged to convert a water closet into a diagnostic laboratory. Under most unfavorable conditions he organized and equipped a suitable laboratory which soon demonstrated its usefulness. The other clinical departments followed the example set by Dr. Dock.

With the erection of the new Hospital in 1925, provision was made for a central laboratory. Dr. Kenneth Fowler was in charge of it. After his resignation in 1928, Dr. Reuben L. Kahn was placed in charge and given the rank of Assistant Professor of Bacteriology. In addition to the diagnostic work in chemistry, hematology, bacteriology, and serology, some instruction was given in special methods.

The full impact of the laboratory type of instruction was soon felt by the clinical branches. In May, 1892, the Board authorized the establishment of six new courses for junior students, and the appointment of demonstrators to do the work. These courses in the clinical departments were known as demonstration courses and were required of all junior students. Later, they came to be known as junior sections. They are given in medicine, obstetrics, surgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, and roentgenology. Incidentally, the first work in roentgenology was done by Dr. Herdman in 1896, shortly after Roentgen's discovery, but it was not until Dr. James G. Van Zwaluwenberg became a member of the staff in 1907 that the program in roentgenology was really inaugurated.