The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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The College of Literature, Science and the Arts II

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THE DEPARTMENT OF GREEK

IN the several departments there shall be established the following professorships. In the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, one of Ancient Languages …" Thus, in section 8 of the act of May 18, 1837, there was laid, in accordance with the universal academic tradition of the times, the first and indispensable cornerstone of a liberal arts college. But it was not only in the intellectual and academic foundation of the University that the ancient languages took first place. In providing for the organization of the branch at Ann Arbor, the Regents at a meeting on July 22, 1841, resolved "to authorize the organization … by the appointment of a Professor of Languages who shall perform the additional duties prescribed in the resolution hereby modified." These duties, as we learn from the resolution of July 8, included "the power to organize collegiate classes and to make such arrangements respecting the buildings and grounds as they may deem necessary." Thus, so to speak, the material as well as the intellectual structure of the University was to be built upon Roman and Greek organization and culture.

The Board then "proceeded to the election of a Professor of Languages in pursuance of the above resolution, and Mr. George P. Williams of the Oakland Branch was appointed such Professor." The Reverend Mr. Williams did not, however, accept this appointment, but shortly afterward became instead Professor of Mathematics. In his place the Reverend Mr. Joseph Whiting (Yale '23, A.M. ibid. '37) assumed the duties of this position in September, 1841. For a short period he and Professor Williams constituted the entire faculty of the University. At the time of his death in 1845, just before the graduation of the first class, Whiting was Professor of the Greek and Latin Languages. The amount of teaching expected of Professor Whiting was, to judge by modern standards, tremendous. Entirely apart from the full schedule in Latin, the Catalogue for 1844-45 offered the following courses in Greek: for freshmen, first term, Xenophon's Cyropaedia and Anabasis (in extracts); second term, Thucydides and Herodotus; third term, Homer's Odyssey; for sophomores, first term, Lysias, Isocrates, and Demosthenes; second term, Greek Tragedy and Grecian Antiquities; third term, Greek Tragedy; for juniors, first and second terms, Greek Poetry; for seniors, first term, Lectures on the Greek and Latin Languages and Literatures. It is interesting to note in passing that the last-mentioned course, given, if at all, for this one year, represents a type of instruction in the classics considerably in advance of the times. Professor Whiting was assisted during this last year of his teaching by Burritt A. Smith, Tutor in Latin and Greek. He remained during the following year, 1845-46, which marked the arrival of Professor Whiting's successor. Thereafter Smith's name disappeared from the Catalogue.

From 1845 to 1852 the professorship of Greek and Latin was held by the Reverend Mr. John Holmes Agnew (Dickinson '23, D.D. Washington Coll. [Pa.] '52). After the loss of B. A. Smith in 1846, he appears to have shouldered alone the burden of instruction in the classics. Under him the Greek course was slightly modified by the omission of the lectures on language and literature, and by some shifting in the terms during which certain authors were read. He seems to have added a course in Plato in Page  606the senior year and to have established the practice of weekly meetings on Mondays throughout all four years, devoted to the study of the Greek New Testament. It is little wonder that we find Professor Agnew, as head of the faculty for that year, reporting to the Regents on July 18, 1848, as follows: "The course of study has been preserved and accomplished in the several departments, except that of languages. Here the failure has resulted from the impossibility of accomplishing the whole under the existing arrangements." How far this complaint refers to his own heavy schedule, and how far to the newly organized work of Professor Fasquelle, who began teaching in the spring of 1847 as Professor of Modern Languages, is now difficult to determine. However that may be, in 1848-49 marked changes appeared in the program. Greek continued uninterrupted in the first two years, but in the junior year French and Spanish supplanted Greek in two terms of the junior year, and Italian accompanied Plato in the senior year. The trend toward "modernity" had now definitely begun. The program in Greek continued without change until the retirement of Professor Agnew in 1852.

With the arrival of Professor James Robinson Boise (Brown '40, Ph.D. hon. Tübingen '68, LL.D. Michigan '68), the Department of Greek became for the first time an independent unit. Boise was called from Brown University in August, 1852, to be Professor of the Latin and Greek Languages, but when a separate chair of Latin was established the next December, became Professor of the Greek Language and Literature, the title held ever since by the head of the Department of Greek. His appointment, made on the day which marked the election of President Tappan, coincided with a general revision of the curriculum under the influence of German educational ideas. In the Catalogue for 1852-53, stress was laid on the desirability of equating undergraduate work with that of the Gymnasia, on the need for scientific and agricultural courses, and on the possibility of a graduate school. The effect of this on Greek is seen immediately in the limitation of the compulsory Greek courses even in the classical program to the freshman year, with a choice of Latin or Greek in the sophomore and junior years. An interesting innovation was introduced by Professor Boise in 1853, for sophomore Greek students, whereby "English Essays are required of the class on topics relating in general to the age of Pericles or more particularly to the authors read." This, combined with his revival of "Sections on Literature," in the junior year, clearly marks an enlightened effort to "integrate," as the new jargon has it, the traditional material with the changing times. The list of standard works which Professor Boise made for the guidance of students in these constructive exercises includes some of the best authorities of the times — Becker, Grote, Kiepert, Kühner, and others. As always, however, in undergraduate work, when the appeal of novelty made by the newer subjects is met by competitive modifications and allurements in the older ones, one result is a necessary diminution of intensity and thoroughness in the latter. Thus, as early as 1853, the familiar complaint was made by Boise: "The limited amount of time allowed to the study of the Greek language and literature in the collegiate course renders it impossible to do anything more than to make a beginning."

Professor Boise was one of a numerous group of Michigan professors who about this period put out textbooks and editions of wide vogue in the country. His editions of Xenophon's Anabasis and Homer's Iliad, as well as his Exercises in Greek Prose Composition, were well Page  607known and justly popular. Proof of his progressive spirit is to be seen in his recommendation, made as early as 1858, that the pronunciation of ancient Greek be in strict accordance with the written accents and with the Continental sound of the vowels — a system now universal, but not adopted in England until much later. Moreover, he and Professor Frieze, of the Department of Latin, established in the next year (1858-59) a policy of teacher training which was to continue until the present day. The Catalogue of that year announced "an advanced class in the Ancient Languages … during the last semester of the Senior Year, for the benefit of those who may wish to prepare themselves for teaching in Union and High Schools." In 1868 Professor Boise resigned to accept a position in the University of Chicago, where for another quarter of a century he continued his high standards of scholarship and effective teaching, as his interests turned more and more to research in the field of New Testament criticism. He died in 1895.

The growth of the department by 1858 had called for an assistant to Professor Boise. Adam Knight Spence ('58, A.M. '61) was appointed Instructor in Greek. He gave instruction in both French and Greek the following year and in 1860 added a course or two in Latin, which he dropped in 1863. From 1865 to 1867 he was Assistant Professor of Greek and French and in the latter year left the Department of Greek to be Professor of the French Language and Literature.

In September, 1867, the assistant professorship of ancient languages was given to a young man of twenty-eight who was for nearly forty-five years to direct with high distinction the policies of the Department of Greek. Professor Martin Luther D'Ooge ('62, Ph.D. Leipzig '72, LL.D. Michigan '89, Litt.D. Rutgers '01) was born in the Netherlands in 1839 and came as a boy to this country. Graduating from the University of Michigan in 1862 as a pupil of Professor Boise, he attended the Union Theological Seminary between 1864 and 1867. In the latter year, before his ordination, he was called to Michigan. On the resignation of Professor Boise he was appointed Acting Professor of Greek. In 1870 he became Professor of Greek, a position which he held continuously, except for brief periods of leave, until his retirement in 1912. During the greater part of this period he shared the instruction in the department with Professor Albert Henderson Pattengill ('68, A.M. '71), who began teaching as Assistant Professor of Greek and French in 1869, and continued successively as Assistant, Associate, and full Professor of Greek up to within a year of his death in 1906. Thus, the period of D'Ooge and Pattengill succeeds as the second unit in the department's history between that of the pioneers Whiting, Agnew, and Boise and the present generation.

In 1870 Professor D'Ooge obtained leave of absence to study in Germany, whence he returned in 1872 with a degree of doctor of philosophy from Leipzig. During his absence his work was taken over by Acting Professor Elisha Jones ('59, A.M. '62), who in 1867 had declined the appointment subsequently given to Professor D'Ooge.

Three significant developments during the seventies may be observed in the offerings of courses, doubtless the result of D'Ooge's German training and of the growing popularity in general of German methods. First, beside the traditional incidental lectures on "Grecian Antiquities," there appeared in 1873 a series of lectures on the history of Greek literature as a part of the regular senior course. Moreover, the regular reading courses were accompanied by such courses as Lectures on Greek Tragedy (1877-78). Page  608Also, for the first time, in 1875-76 there was offered a lecture course on the history of classical philology. Secondly, the range and variety of authors read increased and the traditional order of presentation was shifted. Theocritus, for example, was first offered by Professor Pattengill in 1878, and the range of illustrative material in the course on Greek oratory was extended by Professor D'Ooge's highly successful edition of Demosthenes' On the Crown in 1875.

Thirdly, the teachers' course in Greek, which had had a precarious existence since its establishment by Professor Boise in 1858, was given regularly, beginning in 1875, as the Teachers' Class, in each semester of the senior year.

The following decade brought still further changes. The one-hour lecture course on the history of Greek literature and art, which D'Ooge had started in 1879-80, became by the end of the decade two separate courses, one in literature and one in art. The old incidental lectures on Greek antiquities were revived as an independent unit, and a special lecture course on Homeric antiquities was added (1883-84). The old courses in Sophocles and Euripides reappeared with the modernized title of Masterpieces of Greek Tragedy (1882-83), and the Thucydides course bore the supplementary title, Lectures on the Political History of Athens during the Peloponnesian War. Also, more out-of-the-way fields such as Lucian and the Lyric Anthology were covered. The "Greek Seminary" of the German type first made its appearance in 1883-84, and the Teachers' Class in the same year became the Teachers' Seminary. Hellenistic Greek, replacing New Testament as the traditional course, was revived by D'Ooge in 1882-83.

D'Ooge spent the year 1886-87 in Athens as director of the American School, and his work was carried by Instructor Walter Miller, who in the following year became a member of the Latin staff. The results of this year of inspiration on the Greek program are seen both in increased attention to Greek archaeology, exemplified in a course on Pausanias with particular reference to Athenian monuments, and in the introduction of work in modern Greek. From 1890 to 1897 Professor D'Ooge's labors were increased by the demands of his position as Dean of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

By 1890-91 the graduate seminar, Interpretation of Greek Inscriptions and Study of Dialects, was offered by D'Ooge, and a course in the minor Greek poets (Homeric Hymns, Callimachus, and Musaeus) by Pattengill. By 1889-90, when the total enrollment in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts was 1,001, the number of courses had increased to about fifteen, and the total number of students in all courses in Greek was approximately 350. From the three fields of Latin, Greek, and mathematics the students were required to select two full years in two fields and one in the remaining subject. To take care of such numbers, the work in Hellenistic Greek was turned over in 1891 to the Department of Semitics (see Part IV: Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures), and new instructors were added to the Department of Greek. Herbert Fletcher de Cou ('88, A.M. '90), an exceedingly brilliant if somewhat moody scholar, was appointed in 1892-93 Instructor in Greek and Sanskrit. Besides assisting with freshman Greek he gave the course in the history of Greek literature and that in modern Greek. During the brief period of his tenure he showed extraordinary versatility, offering the courses in Greek dialects, epigraphy, and the Greek rhetoricians. In 1895 he was succeeded by William Henry Wait (Northwestern Page  609'79, Ph.D. Allegheny '88), on a similar appointment. Except for the year 1899-1900, when De Cou returned without salary to substitute for him, Wait continued until 1901, at which time he shifted to the teaching of German. He later had charge of the modern language work in the Department of Engineering.

At this point it is appropriate to attempt a personal appreciation of the two men who served the department longer than have any others.

Pattengill's vigorous but somewhat overbearing personality, coupled with a real mastery of the Greek language, made him an efficient drillmaster, though scarcely a sympathetic and popular instructor for the large classes of undergraduates which, under the closely prescribed curriculum of that time, fell to his charge year after year. Those whose sensibilities were not too harshly ruffled by his often savage comments, or who knew how to defend themselves, felt that they owed him a thorough grounding in the language, and that they gained a valuable insight into the minds of some of the great figures of Greek literary history. Certainly some of the courses that he gave in his later years, when time and happier personal circumstances had mellowed his asperities, are remembered by his pupils as among the permanently valuable experiences of their college life.

His martinet-like attitude toward his classes did not prevent Pattengill from taking a lively interest in student affairs, particularly athletics, and in his capacity as chairman of the Board in Control he became well known to both students and alumni.

Less aggressive in personality than Pattengill, and perhaps less impressive in the eyes of undergraduates, D'Ooge rendered services to his department and to the University in a different direction. Trained in the scientific method of classical study under Georg Curtius and his colleagues of the philological faculty at Leipzig, he was able to develop the graduate study of Greek in the University. His pupils raised the teaching of Greek to a higher level in many of the small colleges of the Middle West, and several of them became valued members of the faculties of other universities, as well as of the University of Michigan. His experience in Greece and his vivid enthusiasm for its history and art stimulated interest in archaeological studies. His personal contacts with other American scholars and the cordial recognition which his qualities won from them helped to give the University an acknowledged position as a trainer of classicists and to lift it from the ranks of provincial colleges. His amiable personality made a deep impression upon his students, many of whom regarded him with a real devotion to the end of his life.

In his earlier days D'Ooge's scholarship, which was sound rather than highly original, leaned somewhat heavily upon German work; but that was true of almost all American classical studies in his time. Hence his editions of classical masterpieces, though widely used for many years, are superseded. His learned study of the Acropolis of Athens was cordially received at the time of its appearance; but new discoveries made it authoritative only for a short time. Thus, his permanent contribution to the University rests, as is true of many devoted teachers, upon the influence which he exerted upon his pupils.

After the passing of Professors D'Ooge and Pattengill the history of the Department of Greek is concerned, down to the end of June, 1940, entirely with persons still living, and only a brief chronicle of facts can fittingly be added. The junior position in the department left vacant by the death of Pattengill was filled in 1906 by the appointment of Arthur Page  610Fairbanks (Dartmouth '86, Ph.D. Freiburg '90, Litt.D. Dartmouth '09), then a member of the faculty of the University of Iowa; but Fairbanks' archaeological studies were attracting attention elsewhere, and in 1907 he accepted the flattering offer of the directorship of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. He was succeeded by Campbell Bonner (Vanderbilt '96, Ph.D. Harvard '00), who came to the University from the George Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville, Tennessee.

From 1907 until Professor D'Ooge's retirement in 1912, the staff of the department consisted of D'Ooge, Bonner, and John Garrett Winter (Hope '01, Ph.D. Michigan '06), one of the ablest of D'Ooge's pupils, who divided his time between the Departments of Greek and Latin, and rose to the position of Professor of Greek and Latin some years before he was transferred to the Department of Latin, of which he became Chairman on the death of Professor Kelsey.

During the period following 1912 a number of younger men were associated with the department for varying periods, and all of them have either been promoted to higher rank in the University of Michigan or have been drawn away to important and responsible positions elsewhere. Frank Eggleston Robbins (Wesleyan '06, Ph.D. Chicago '11), who came from the University of Chicago in 1912, served in the Department of Greek for nine years, and then accepted the position of Assistant to the President. This position he still holds, under an arrangement which enables him to give one course in the department. Emerson Howland Swift (Williams '12, Ph.D. Princeton '21) was called to Columbia, and James Penrose Harland (Princeton '13, Ph.D. ibid. '20) to the University of North Carolina. John Bradford Titchener (Clark '17, Ph.D. Illinois '23) is now the chairman of the department of classics in Ohio State University. Benjamin Dean Meritt (Hamilton '20, LL.D. ibid. '37, Ph.D. Princeton '24) spent five years in the University before migrating first to Johns Hopkins and later to the Institute of Advanced Study at Princeton. Warren Everett Blake (Harvard '20, Ph.D. ibid. '24), who came to the University as Instructor in 1925, is now Professor of Greek; James Eugene Dunlap (Ripon '10, Ph.D. Michigan '20), who has been on the staff since 1923, is now Professor of Latin and Greek; Clark Hopkins (Yale '17, A.M. Oxon. '21, Ph.D. Wisconsin '24), whose chief interest lies in the field of archaeology, is an associate professor of the same subjects.

The abolition, in the early years of the present century, of any requirement of Greek for the degree of bachelor of arts had the same result in the University of Michigan as in other universities. Classes in Greek have become small groups consisting usually of students who are genuinely interested in the subject and are able to profit by the best instruction that the department can supply. A small number of graduate students from other universities is attracted to the courses offered by the department; and in general the graduate work of the department has been tested and approved by the performance of those who have taken the doctorate. By the institution of certain courses that do not require knowledge of the Greek language, an attempt has been made to bring some understanding of ancient life within the reach of non-classical students.

Careful scrutiny of the qualifications of all instructors added to the staff has resulted in an excellent record of researches proceeding from the department, and in recent years special attention has been drawn to the papyrological publications, made possible by the foresight of Professor Kelsey in bringing about the acquisition of the papyri (see Part VIII: Art and Archeological Collections),Page  611 in which the members of both the classical departments have taken part.

The Freer Manuscripts

These old parchment manuscripts were found, probably in a grave, in Egypt by unknown persons early in 1906. They were sold to an Arab dealer named Ali, in Gizeh near Cairo, for some fifteen hundred dollars, according to report. The four manuscripts were offered by Ali first to the Royal Library in Berlin and later to the British Museum at a price of a thousand pounds, but no encouragement was given the dealer at that price. Both the English and the Germans thought the price too high, as not much was expected textually from parchment manuscripts.

On December 19, 1906, Mr. Charles L. Freer of Detroit visited the dealer Ali and bought many art objects. He was then shown the manuscripts and presumably the same price was asked. He had little desire to purchase, though he admired the writing of one of the manuscripts. Finally, urged by Dr. Mann, who was traveling with him, he offered one-half the price asked. It was accepted, and the manuscripts were sent to Detroit. There they remained unnoticed in a vault until the fall of 1907, when Professors Kelsey, D'Ooge, and Sanders of the University were asked to examine them. Their great value textually was at once recognized, and the task of editing was assigned to Professor Sanders; Mr. Freer assumed the expense of publishing.

Manuscript I is of the fifth century A.D. and contains Deuteronomy and Joshua. It once contained the whole Hexateuch, but the first four books are entirely lost. The Septuagint Greek text is found in the manuscript, and it is quite free from the errors generally referred to the influence of the Hexapla edition of Origen.

Manuscript II is a psalter of the fifth century but very fragmentary. No Psalm is complete, though parts of 151 Psalms and one Ode are preserved. It is a text of the Septuagint and of the psalter type, of which it is the oldest example.

Manuscript III is of the fourth century and contains all of the four Gospels except for three missing leaves. It is thus one of the three oldest known parchment manuscripts of the Gospels and has, besides, a most interesting text. The whole of Matthew and most of Luke are from an older Antiochian text, while the first eight chapters of Luke and most of John are of the Alexandrian type. The first quire of John (1-5.11) is in a different hand and of disputed age, yet textually it is Egyptian but uninfluenced by the Alexandrian edition. The first five chapters of Mark belong to the so-called Western text of the North African variety. The rest of Mark is closely allied to the text of Caesarea. Near the end of Mark a new saying of Jesus is added. So mixed a text has had a marked influence on the views of New Testament scholars.

Manuscript IV once contained all of the Epistles of Paul, but it is so badly decayed that only parts of eighty-four leaves were recovered, giving 165 legible fragments. The manuscript belongs to the sixth century and has a characteristic Egyptian text of that time. All four of these manuscripts were published in Volumes VIII and IX of the Humanistic Series.

Some later additions to his Biblical collection were made by Mr. Freer, of which the most important is No. V, a third-century papyrus codex of the Minor Prophets in Greek. This is the oldest and best manuscript of that part of the Bible. It was published in Volume XXI of the Humanistic Series.

Page  612Manuscripts I, III, and V have been published in facsimile by the University. At present all of the manuscripts are in the Freer Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angell, James B., and Others. "Three Memorials …"Mich. Alum., 22 (1915): 94-97.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
The Chronicle, Vols. 1-4 (1869-73).
D'Ooge, Martin L."Professor James R. Boise."Mich. Alum., 12 (1905): 128.
D'Ooge, Martin L., and Others. "Albert Henderson Pattengill."Mich. Alum., 12 (1906): 308-11.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Kelsey, Francis W."The Freer Manuscripts and Their Publication."Mich. Alum., 25 (1918): 96-101.
Miller, Walter."Albert Henderson Pattengill."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 48 (1941): 48-53.
[News notes.]Mich. Alum., 14 (1908): 145; 17 (1910): 72-74; 19 (1913): 257, 279-83; 22 (1915): 1-2; 27 (1921): 289-91; 34 (1927): 264-65.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Dept. of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," Univ. Mich., 1846-1908. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Sanders, Henry A., Ed. Old Testament Manuscripts in the Freer Collection. Univ. Mich. Studies, Humanistic Ser., Vol. VIII. New York: Macmillan Co., 1917.
Sanders, Henry A., New Testament Manuscripts in the Freer Collection. Univ. Mich. Studies, Humanistic Ser., Vol. IX. New York: Macmillan Co., 1918.
Sanders, Henry A., , and Carl Schmidt, Eds. The Minor Prophets in the Freer Collection and the Berlin Fragment of Genesis. Univ. Mich. Studies, Humanistic Ser., Vol. XXI. New York: Macmillan Co., 1927.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Waggoner, Alvin. "Facsimile of Freer Manuscript."Mich. Alum., 20 (1913): 10-11.

THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY

Systematic instruction in the field of history on a scientific basis is comparatively recent, dating in Europe from the early part of the nineteenth century. American, European, and especially German developments set the example. It was only in 1828 that Harvard, which led the way among American universities, established a professorship of civil history. Under these circumstances, the rather meager provision for the subject in the early years of the University of Michigan is not at all surprising.

In 1844-45, the year that the first class was graduated from the University of Michigan and the second year of the University Catalogue, the Reverend Daniel Denison Whedon (Hamilton '28, D.D. Emory '47, LL.D. Wesleyan '67), a Methodist Episcopal theologian and author — though apparently his repertory did not include any historical work of moment — was appointed to the chair of logic, rhetoric, and history. Thus history supplanted grammar in the medieval trivium, and the Reverend Professor continued to occupy his threefold chair until Page  613he left the University in 1852. Evidently ancient history was taught by the Department of Ancient Languages, where portions of Herodotus, Thucydides, and Livy were read by freshmen. Medieval history for sophomores, modern history for juniors, and additional ancient history for freshmen were added in 1846-47. Since each occupied only one of the three terms, the work was doubtless nothing more than a bare series of recitations. As yet, however, this was the method employed throughout the country in the few institutions where history was taught. In 1847-48 the term philosophy of history was substituted for mere history.

For the first two years of the Tappan administration no one was recorded as specially concerned with history, but in 1854 — such was the versatility of the men of those times — Erastus O. Haven, the future President, was transferred from Latin to history and English literature. He resigned in 1856, and, after a varied and useful career in the East, was recalled, in 1863, to succeed President Tappan. Haven taught throughout his administration. He held the chair of rhetoric and English literature until 1865, when he accepted that of logic and political economy. In 1868 he was transferred to the chair of mental and moral philosophy, which he had taught for one year along with his other subjects.

In the meantime, in 1857, a pioneer in historical teaching of the modern type had appeared at the University in the person of Andrew Dickson White (Yale '53, A.M. ibid. '56, LL.D. Michigan '67). A young man barely twenty-five, he had graduated from Yale four years previous to his call to Ann Arbor as the Professor of History and English Literature. Coming from a family of substantial means he had had the advantages of travel and had spent much of the interval in Europe; also, he had begun to collect that remarkable library which is now one of the distinctive possessions of Cornell. In spite of his prospective wealth he early sought a means whereby he could be of service in the world. With great mental alertness and boundless energy, he was at once a rapid reader and a copious and informing talker, who possessed human charm and was interested both in men and in things. Yet, throughout his busy academic and public life, he invariably found time to help and encourage young men, as the present writer can testify. His interest in the possibilities of the West seems to have been first aroused by an address at Yale by President Wayland of Brown.

When the third-year course was still coupled with acoustics and optics* he started with a threefold aim, as announced in the Catalogue of 1857-58: "First — to conduct the student through a careful review of modern history. Secondly — to exercise him in original investigation and close criticism of important periods and noted characters. Thirdly — to give him some insight into the Philosophy of History." His original plan was a modest one: for the first year, John Lord's (Ford's, in the Catalogue) Manual of Modern History; for the second year, private reading under direction; and for the third year, the philosophy of history, with Guizot's History of Civilization as a guide for the students. The fourth year the instruction was mainly by lectures, with collateral reading from the standard historians then available. He threw himself with ardor into the work. Not only did he break away from the old recitation method, he introduced the interleaved syllabus, he had students at his house one evening a week for discussions and reports, he went about the state lecturing, he bought books for the Library, and even planted trees on the campus. Indeed, for four years he was a Page  614member of a committee in charge of improvements on the campus, and for one of these years served as Superintendent of University Grounds, with "power to prepare and perfect a plan for improving and beautifying" them.

Although White retained his nominal connection with the University till 1867 and gave a few lectures, his residence and active teaching ceased in 1863 on his election to the New York Senate. He subsequently became president of Cornell University, 1867-85, and minister and ambassador to Russia and Germany.

In 1862 Charles Kendall Adams ('61, A.M. '62, LL.D. Harvard '86), who was only twenty-six years old but had had some previous experience as a teacher, was added as a second member of the staff. For the first year, while White remained, he was delegated to teach constitutional law and constitutional history. Then for a time, even though his chief was on the eve of departure, he was called upon to teach Latin as well; indeed, in 1865, he was appointed Assistant Professor of History and Latin. However, in 1867, when he was promoted to a professorship, he was able to devote himself solely to history. As a matter of fact, he secured a year's leave of absence for study in Germany. Up to this time he seems to have carried on the traditions of Andrew White in the main, even to the wording of the announcement in the Catalogue. Now he introduced some changes. The greatest of these was a seminar which he began to conduct in 1871-72 on the Prussian model. Though this class was not so described in the Catalogue, he apparently employed the seminar method of reports and discussions (Farrand, p. 269) — a method soon adopted by Moses Coit Tyler, who in 1867 began his brilliant term of fourteen years as a teacher in the University of Michigan.

It is a curious coincidence that three men bearing the historic name of Adams should have introduced the seminary method into their respective universities in the seventies. C. K. Adams apparently was the innovator in point of time (1871-72), but Henry Adams at Harvard and Herbert Baxter Adams at Johns Hopkins first showed tangible results in publication by their students. Moreover, undergraduates were admitted to the course at the University of Michigan, and the work seems to have been of a general character rather than detailed research. When the American Historical Association was founded in 1884, C. K. Adams and Moses Coit Tyler signed the call for the first meeting. Later, Adams was made a member of the council — one of five from the University of Michigan to hold that office. In 1885 he succeeded Andrew D. White as president of Cornell. Although he was energetic in academic and scholarly affairs and lectured with force and clarity, his few publications have not proved of enduring importance.

Meanwhile, history as a subject of study was gaining recognition. President Angell, who became an authority on international law, in his inaugural address on Commencement Day, 1871, included it with modern languages as a subject of increasing importance, and in 1878-79 it was made a part of the new English course leading to the degree of bachelor of letters. In 1881 a School of Political Science was established, with history as one of the required subjects. C. K. Adams was the first Dean. He was succeeded in 1885 by Thomas M. Cooley, the first chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission and one of the most outstanding jurists and legal writers this country has ever produced. Judge Cooley was at the same time appointed to the professorship of American history and constitutional law, which he retained until his death in 1898, though he was absent except for brief intervals after 1886 Page  615and ceased to lecture in 1894. The School of Political Science was absorbed by the Literary Department and did not survive even in name beyond 1890.

Men who afterwards went into other fields began as teachers of history; for example, Harry Burns Hutchins ('71, LL.D. '21), subsequently Dean of the Law School and from 1910 to 1920 President of the University, began as Instructor in Rhetoric and History in 1872-73 and was promoted to an assistant professorship in the following year. He was succeeded in 1876 by Isaac Newton Demmon ('68, A.M. '71, LL.D. Nashville '96), who taught rhetoric and history. Demmon completed the History of the University of Michigan begun by Burke A. Hinsdale. Subsequently, Demmon was for many years head of the Department of English; also, he was the very efficient editor of the Alumni Catalogue of 1911, and, as chairman of the Library committee, rendered invaluable service in building up the present collection. Thanks to the start made by Andrew White, C. K. Adams, and himself, the collection in English history is, after that of Harvard, one of the most complete in the country. During the year 1878-79 Assistant Professor Pattengill, of the Department of Greek, was added to the staff to teach the general history of England, while European history and advanced English constitutional history remained with C. K. Adams. Demmon, during his brief tenure in the department, taught American history.

In the Calendar of 1879-80 the Reverend Richard Hudson ('71, A.M. '77, LL.D. Nashville '01) was listed as Assistant Professor of History. After the first year the "Reverend" was dropped. Pattengill and Frieze for a time taught ancient history, and during the next few years Adams and Hudson took over all the modern history. Hudson had started as a Methodist minister, but finding that a change in his beliefs made it impossible for him to continue his original profession, he utilized his savings to study history for three years in Europe. In 1885 he was made head of the Department of History and in 1897 Dean of the Department (now College) of Literature, Science, and the Arts. He retired in 1911 and died in 1915. Having inherited a substantial fortune from his brother, a Detroit merchant, he left funds in his will for the founding of the Richard Hudson professorship in English history. This was the second of the endowed professorships at present existing in the University of Michigan. Richard Hudson, except for a few scattered articles, published nothing. He read widely and lectured with exceptional clearness, and, in his gentle and mildly humorous way, he had the courage to defend his convictions, but he was timid about expressing himself in print.*

President Tappan, from the time of his inaugural in 1852, had visions of graduate studies, and occasional "lectures" and some seminar and laboratory instruction were provided, particularly after 1870, for graduate students, but there was no specific reference in the catalogues for work leading to the degree of doctor of philosophy until 1874-75. In 1884 the first doctor's degree in history was awarded to George W. Knight, who later became head of the history and political science department of Ohio State University and, for a time, dean of the School of Education in the same institution. Three or four doctorates annually were conferred in the interval, but the second one in history (to Ephraim Douglas Adams) was not obtained till 1890. After a decade at the University of Page  616Kansas, Ephraim Adams was called to Leland Stanford, where he spent the remainder of his life. Altogether, during the fifty-six years from June, 1884, through June, 1940, eighty-eight doctor of philosophy degrees in history were awarded, and in the same period nearly eight hundred master's degrees in history were granted. The number of doctor's degrees might have been somewhat greater except for the inadequacy of graduate fellowships, especially in the earlier years. Moreover, some who have started their graduate work here have been advised to finish it elsewhere.

In 1886, the year after his graduation from the Law Department, Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin ('82, '85l, LL.D. '12) was appointed Instructor in Latin. The following year he was transferred to the Department of History and has taken his place as perhaps the most distinguished scholar ever connected with the department. He was made Professor of American History in 1891 and held that office till 1906, though from 1903 to 1905 he was absent in Washington as director of the Bureau of Historical Research, Carnegie Institution. Also, from 1901 to 1905, he was managing editor of the American Historical Review. Noted as a scholar, "Andy Mac" was an inspiration to students and graduates of the University for a decade. In 1906 he was called to the University of Chicago as head of the Department of History, a position which he held until 1927. He has been president of the American Historical Association and is a corresponding member of the Massachusetts Historical Society — an honor shared by President Angell, Regent Clements, and three of his past and present colleagues in the department. McLaughlin began a considerable list of publications with a life of Lewis Cass for the "American Nation" series in 1891, and since his retirement in 1935 has put forth what is the chief embodiment of his life work, A Constitutional History of the United States.

In the Calendar for 1888-89 it was stated that "with the flexible elective system it has been found unnecessary to retain an independent School of Political Science." McLaughlin seems to have taken over some of the work in American history and in 1890-91 was relieved of the teaching of English history by John H. T. McPherson (Johns Hopkins '88, Ph.D. ibid. '90), who also was assigned Greek and Roman history. Though Hudson and McLaughlin continued on the staff, the nineties witnessed the coming and going of various men well known in the profession who were birds of passage so far as Michigan was concerned. McPherson remained only one year and went to the University of Georgia, where he became chairman of the Social Science Group. He was succeeded by Herman Vandenburg Ames (Amherst '88, Ph.D. Harvard '91, Litt.D. Pennsylvania '25), who became an assistant professor, but left in 1894. At the time of his death in 1935 Ames was a professor of American history at the University of Pennsylvania, and from 1907 to 1928 had been dean of the Graduate School there.

During the absence of Professor Hudson on leave in 1892-93, an assistant professor, David Ellsworth Spencer, whom the writer has been unable to identify, taught in the department for one year. This same year came Earle Wilbur Dow ('91), who, save for two years' leave for study in Europe, taught in the department continuously for a period of more than forty years and retired as Professor Emeritus in 1938. In 1894 he gave the first courses in history to be offered in the summer session, which was formally established in that year.

Again there were temporary sojourners who later accepted positions in other institutions. Marshall Stewart Brown (Brown '92, A.M. ibid. '93) taught here Page  617during the academic year 1893-94 and then accepted a call to New York University, where he became a professor of history and the dean of the College. William Dawson Johnston (Brown '93, Litt.D. Rutgers '11) was three years in the department, from 1894 to 1897; he later went into library work. For some time he was in charge of the American Library in Paris. He died in Washington in 1928. During the absence of E. W. Dow, Frank Haigh Dixon ('92, Ph.D. '95) taught for the year 1896-97. The next year he was Acting Assistant Professor of Political Economy. In 1898 he left for Dartmouth, where he remained till 1919, and then was called to a professorship at Princeton. In 1897-98 two newcomers were Theodore Clarke Smith (Harvard '92, Ph.D. ibid. '96) and Wilbur Cortez Abbott (Wabash '92, A.M. Yale '09). Smith remained only one year. Since 1903 he has been a professor of American history in Williams College. Among his various writings perhaps the most generally known is his Life and Letters of James Abram Garfield (1925). Abbott, who remained for two years, was one of the few young Americans who studied history at Oxford before the days of the Rhodes scholars. After teaching successively at Dartmouth, Kansas, and Yale, he was called to Harvard in 1920. Although his specialty is the Cromwellian and Restoration period, he has written, among other things, a general work on the Expansion of Europe (1917) and two brilliant series of biographical sketches, Conflicts with Oblivion (1924) and Adventures in Reputation (1935).

When Arthur Lyon Cross (Harvard '95, Ph.D. ibid. '99) was called to the University in 1899 he was asked to teach the course in ancient history, which still was handed to the latest comer; but his main work was in English history — a general course primarily for sophomores and an advanced course which later developed into a seminar. The large introductory course was in the field of medieval history, and was given by Dow, who also conducted an advanced course and a seminar in the same field. Hudson devoted himself to modern European history and to the Near and Far East. McLaughlin was in charge of a separate Department of American History.

English history was assigned to a room with a gallery in the north wing of University Hall. There the floor was often littered with old newspapers to tempt an occasional idler to whom note-taking proved too great a strain. Outside the department Alfred Henry Lloyd gave a course in political theory; Roman Law was offered by the Department of Latin and in the Law School. In 1900-1901 John Archibald Fairlie (Harvard '95, Ph.D. Columbia '98) was called as Assistant Professor to teach political science. Political science was taught in the Department of History until the advent of Jesse Siddall Reeves in 1910, who in the next thirty years built up the present flourishing organization (see Part IV: Department of Political Science).

As attendance in the introductory courses in medieval and American history grew and other courses were developed, additional instructors were necessary. The greater number of them remained for a year or for two or three years at most until the depression in 1929, after which it was difficult to find places for young men. It was the policy after they had gained some experience to pass them on to institutions where there was a clear field ahead. Among those who thus went on to win distinction elsewhere were Chauncey S. Boucher, chancellor of the University of Nebraska, Edward S. Corwin, McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton, Professors Paul V. B. Jones and F. G. Randall, of the University of Illinois, and Wynand Wichers, president of Hope College.

Page  618Meanwhile, there have been various changes in the more permanent staff — losses, replacements, and additions. In 1906 Frederic Logan Paxson (Pennsylvania '98, Ph.D. ibid. '03) was called as Assistant Professor of American History; he was promoted to a junior professorship the following year. In 1910 he accepted a professorship at the University of Wisconsin. There he remained till 1932, when he went to the University of California as Margaret Byron Professor. He is one of the better-known members of the profession and has written various works of general interest, including The History of the American Frontier, which was awarded the Pulitzer prize in 1924. He was president of the Mississippi Valley Historical Society in 1917 and was a member of the council of the American Historical Association 1921-25.

In 1908 Hudson's freshman course in general English history was introduced as an alternative to the European history course formerly prerequisite to all other work in the department. Hudson also taught the basic sophomore course in English history from 1909 until it was merged with the freshman course in 1911.

In the autumn of 1909 William Alley Frayer (Cornell '03) was called to substitute for Cross, who was invited to Harvard as a visiting lecturer for the second semester. Frayer proved an effective teacher and a popular lecturer throughout the state and even beyond. He was put in charge of the introductory year course in European history in 1911-12, when its content was changed from the history of the Middle Ages and Renaissance to that of modern Europe. In 1929, five years after being advanced to a full professorship, he went with the Bureau of University Travel. He subsequently became the executive secretary of the Cranbrook School.

The introductory English history was placed under Edward Raymond Turner (St. John's '05, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '10), who came from Bryn Mawr in 1911. Turner also proved to be a clear and forceful lecturer and a prolific writer as well, of a painstaking and literal type. His chief work is an exhaustive History of the Privy Council in four volumes. In 1924 he accepted a call to Yale, but the following year went to Johns Hopkins on the retirement of Professor John M. Vincent. He died December 31, 1929, at the age of forty-eight.

Another newcomer in the year 1911-12 was Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (Georgia '97, Ph.D. Columbia '02). Already he was known as a leading authority in the field of Southern history, particularly with reference to slavery and plantation management — a reputation which he amply confirmed by his subsequent publications. In 1929 he was called to Yale, where he died January 21, 1934, at the age of fifty-seven. In addition to various biographies and special studies, he published American Negro Slavery (1918) and Life and Labor in the Old South (1929), his ripest and most significant productions. During 1918-19 he was in military service, having the rank of captain in the Military Intelligence Division. He was a member of the council of the American Historical Association.

Relieved of his classes in the general history of England, Cross was able to develop a course known as the Constitutional and Legal History of England, to turn his "studies" course into a seminar on the Tudor and Stuart periods, and subsequently (1919) to offer a course on the British Empire.*

Legal History and similar courses were designed mainly for "prelaw" students. Before 1897 a combined curriculum in letters and law had been perfected. By Page  619taking a special amount of required and recommended work and by attaining sufficiently high grades, a student could enter the Department of Law at the end of his third year, and, after a year of satisfactory work there, secure his bachelor of arts degree and his degree of bachelor of laws two years thereafter, thus shortening the requisite period for obtaining the two degrees. Among the required subjects were American constitutional history and subsequently English constitutional history.

With the coming of Arthur Edward Romilly Boak (A.M. Queen's University [Kingston, Ont.] '07, Ph.D. Harvard '14) in 1914 the department for the first time had a specialist in the field of ancient history, and the basic course in that field was opened to freshmen, as a third option for the introductory year in history. Boak's scholarly production and administrative capacity were recognized by rapid promotion. He was made a full professor in 1920 and, on the death of Van Tyne in 1930, was appointed Chairman of the Department of History. William Lytle Schurz (California '11, Ph.D. ibid. '15) came to the University in 1915 and was appointed to an assistant professorship the following year. In 1916-17 Schurz introduced the first course in Latin-American history, and a course was offered by Boak in military history. In 1918 Van Tyne, Turner, and Frayer offered a course on the issues of the war, and Cross gave a course in the summer for army mechanics. Various members of the department lectured to training camps and other groups and contributed to war literature.

After the departure of Schurz in 1920, Latin-American history was omitted for a year, but it was resumed in 1921 on the arrival of Arthur Scott Aiton (California '16, Ph.D. ibid. '23), who rose by successive steps to be a professor in 1929, and through his scholarship and teaching ability has developed Hispanic-American history to the point where it occupies an important place in the curriculum. In 1924 the department was greatly strengthened in the field of early modern European history by the coming of Albert Hyma ('15, Ph.D. '22), who achieved a European reputation by his studies on the early Christian Renaissance (1924) and Erasmus and the Humanists (1930). In 1925 another promising branch was started when Nicholas S. Kaltchas, a Greek, well equipped in languages, including Turkish, was appointed to give work on the Near East. Unfortunately, his health failed and after a leave of absence he was obliged to resign. In 1927-28 Esson McDowell Gale ('07, A.M. '08, Litt.Ph.D. Leiden '31) was a visiting lecturer in Chinese history. In 1932 John William Stanton (Missouri '29, Ph.D. California '32) was brought in, and, well versed in Russian, Chinese, and Japanese, developed courses until 1940 in the Near and Far East.

In 1927-28 the staff had reached a point where there were six professors, one associate professor, three assistant professors, and seven instructors. The associate professor was Preston William Slosson (Columbia '12, Ph.D. ibid. '16), who came as an instructor and was appointed to a full professorship in 1937. He is known as a brilliant and lucid lecturer on contemporary problems and for his books on recent European history. Arthur Louis Dunham (Harvard '14, Ph.D. ibid. '23), who came in 1924, is a specialist in economic history; as his chief work thus far he produced in 1930 a scholarly monograph, The Anglo-French Treaty of Commerce of 1860. He was made an associate professor in 1932. Among the new members attached to the department was Howard Meredith Ehrmann (Yale '21, Ph.D. ibid. '27), who became an associate professor in 1937-38. His studies on the war issues Page  620have made his name known abroad as well as at home. The years 1930 and 1931 were significant for many changes. Claude Halstead Van Tyne ('96, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '00), appointed Assistant Professor in 1903, head of the Department of American History in 1906, and head of the Department of History in 1911, died March 21, 1930. A stimulating teacher, a scholar at once careful and imaginative, a brilliant writer, and a vivid and masterful personality, he was a man of mark in the historical field. Though not afraid to oppose even with sarcasm those of his colleagues who held views contrary to his own, he was sympathetic with young men. His standards, nevertheless, were exacting, and he aimed, with the resources available, to build up a really strong department. He was known in France and in England; he gave the Harvard Foundation lectures in the former (1913-14) and the Sir George Watson lectures in the latter (1927). The Watson lectures were embodied in his suggestive England and America. Four years previously he had been invited to India to study the workings of the Act of 1919, and published his impressions in India in Ferment (1923). Of a long line of works, his two volumes on the Causes of the War of American Independence contain the culmination of his scholarship. The second volume, 1929, received the Henry Russel award of the University of Michigan and the Pulitzer prize posthumously. He had been an editor of the American Historical Review, a corresponding member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Phillips in the meantime (1929) had resigned. This left two major positions to fill. After a temporary appointment of a visiting lecturer, Dwight Lowell Dumond (Baldwin-Wallace '20, Ph.D. Michigan '29) came to take Phillips' work. He has shown his productivity by publishing a book on The Secession Movement (1931) and Roosevelt to Roosevelt (1937), and by editing two substantial collections since his arrival. In 1939 he was promoted to a full professorship. In 1930 Verner Winslow Crane ('11, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '15), a former student and onetime instructor in the department (1916-20) but at the time teaching at Brown University, replaced Van Tyne. Crane has been an editor of the American Historical Review and is known for his Southern Frontier, 1670-1732 (1928) and his studies on Benjamin Franklin. Under him a more general course in American history was introduced and the constitutional course was placed in the capable hands of Lewis George Vander Velde ('13, Ph.D. Harvard '31), author of The Presbyterian Churches and the Federal Union, 1861-1869 (1932). He came as Instructor in 1929, and was promoted to a full professorship in 1940. Since 1935 he has been devoting a portion of his time to assembling original materials relating to the history of the University and of the state and in 1938 was appointed Director of the Michigan Historical Collections.

Perhaps the most significant change in 1930-31 was the substitution of an introductory course known as History of Western Civilization — covering the period from ancient times to the present — in place of the three introductory courses which had been given for nearly twenty years. Although opinion in the department was somewhat divided as to the advisability of the change, the new course was started forthwith. It is now given in four parallel lecture groups, and its success has fully justified the experiment. Boak turned his introductory course, Ancient History, into one for upperclassmen, and the work in modern European history was superseded by new special courses given by various Page  621members of the department. For example, Benjamin Webb Wheeler (California '15, A.M. Harvard '16), who had been Instructor since 1924, was enabled to develop a course in the history of Prussia. Also, the general course in English history was again turned into a course primarily for sophomores and was entrusted to Seaman Morley Scott (British Columbia '21, Ph.D. Michigan '34); he, too, had been teaching in the introductory course since 1924. Wheeler and Scott became assistant professors in 1935.

The members of the faculty of the Department of History in 1940 were as follows: Professors Boak, Aiton, Crane, Hyma, Slosson, Dumond, and Vander Velde; Associate Professors Dunham and Ehrmann; Assistant Professors Scott, Wheeler, Long, and Throop; and Instructors Reichenbach and Stanton, besides five teaching fellows. There were in 1939-40 twenty-two semester courses primarily for undergraduates and twenty-one semesters of work for advanced and graduate students. Included in the graduate work were ten courses continuing throughout the year (two proseminars, a studies course, and seven seminars), as well as one-half of another year seminar, a semester course in historiography, noncredit reading courses, and directed research for doctoral candidates.

Though the William L. Clements Library of American History is described at more length in a separate article (see Part VIII: Clements Library), the Department of History must express its deep obligations to that library and to its efficient and accommodating director, Randolph Greenfield Adams. Housed in a magnificent Renaissance building, it was donated to the University and formally opened in 1923, and with the John Carter Brown, Lennox, and Huntington, ranks as one of the four best existing collections of Americana. During the last ten years previous to his death in 1934, Regent Clements devoted himself to accumulating a remarkable collection of manuscripts supplementing the Shelburne, Brougham, Croker, and other papers. It includes the Greene, Clinton, Germaine, and Gage papers; all of these are now in the Library.

The publications of members of the history staff, past and present, have been not inconsiderable, and recognition and opportunities for service have come to not a few. Three have received Pulitzer prizes, one the Toppan prize at Harvard, and one the Little, Brown and Company's prize. One has received the Henry Russel award, and one the junior award from the same fund. Two have lectured in foundations in England, one in France, and one in Spain. Four are or have been corresponding members of the Massachusetts Historical Society. One has been president of the American Historical Association, five have been members of the council, four have been on the board of editors of the American Historical Review — of whom one was managing editor — one on the board of the Journal of Modern History, and one on the board of editors of the Southern History Journal. Nearer home, at least three have been presidents of the University of Michigan Research Club; one has been president of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, and three have been presidents of the Michigan Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. Moreover, in a recent survey by the American Council of Education, the University of Michigan Department of History has been rated as one among eight starred for distinction in directing research.

Page  622
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1880-1940. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1857-1940.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
White, Andrew D.Autobiography … New York: Century Co., 1905. 2 vols.

THE DEPARTMENT OF JOURNALISM

IT is generally believed that the first course in newspaper writing in the United States was the one instituted at the University of Michigan during the academic year of 1890-91. The course was devised and taught by Fred Newton Scott ('84, Ph.D. '89), Assistant Professor of Rhetoric, under the title of Rapid Writing, and afforded two hours of credit in the Department of English and Rhetoric. The distinctive feature of this pioneering course was its attempt to approximate the conditions of the "city-room" in the preparation of news and editorial "copy."

Rapid Writing was dropped from the curriculum in 1893-94, and no further journalistic instruction was offered until 1903, when the courses in rhetoric were set up as a separate department with Professor Scott as its head. At this time journalism was revived in Rhetoric 13 (Newspaper Writing), a course which was continued, with modest additions, until a special program in journalism was announced in 1916.

The first addition to Rhetoric 13, which was concerned with "theory and practice," was Engineering English 2 (Technical Journalism), in the Department of Engineering, first taught in 1904-5 by Instructor Royal Albert Abbott (Ohio State '00, A.M. ibid. '02) under Professor Scott's supervision. Rhetoric 15 (Reporting and Editorial Work) was added to the curriculum in 1905. This course, open only "to editors and reporters of student publications and those with special permission," was continued the second semester as Rhetoric 16. The following year Rhetoric 13 was taught by Assistant Professor Joseph Morris Thomas ('98, Ph.D. '10) and Rhetoric 15 and 16 were taught by Lewis Burtron Hessler (Pennsylvania '05, Ph.D. ibid. '16), Instructor in Rhetoric. In 1907 Professor Scott resumed the teaching of Rhetoric 13 and Professor Thomas assumed direction of Rhetoric 15 and 16 for one year, after which they were dropped.

The 1909-10 Calendar of the University contained the following statement (pp. 212-13):

Credit will be granted for work on the student or University publications, provided that such work is elected as regular courses in the Department of Rhetoric and is done under the immediate direction of a member of that department.

The administration of the course in Journalism is entrusted to a standing committee of the Faculty… Upon graduation a special certificate will be given to students who, Page  623in covering the requirements for the Bachelor's degree, shall have completed a program of studies approved by this committee.

This offering was continued until 1916-17, when a special program of study, announced as "Courses in Journalism," increased the studies in journalism from four courses to eight. These courses were taught by Lyman Lloyd Bryson ('10, A.M. '15), who joined the faculty as Instructor in Rhetoric in 1913-14. In the fall of 1917 this special program was under the direction of John Alroy Mosenfelder ('17), Bryson having resigned. In 1918 John Lewis Brumm ('04, A.M. '06), Associate Professor of Rhetoric, took charge of all but the first two courses in journalism, and the following year taught all the courses.

In 1921-22 the Department of Rhetoric became officially known as the Department of Rhetoric and Journalism. The curriculum was increased to twelve courses, and Edwin Grant Burrows (Cornell '13) and Donal Hamilton Haines ('09) were appointed as instructors on the journalism faculty. As Professor of Rhetoric and Journalism, Brumm became the director of the curriculums in journalism.

The expanded curriculums in journalism included the following specialized courses: Elements of Journalism, Interpretative News Writing, Editorial Practice, Special Feature and Magazine Articles, History and Principles of Journalism, Seminar in Newspaper Problems, Newspaper Editing, Newspaper Ethics, Editorial Writing, the Country Newspaper, Written Criticism, and Advertisement Writing. The following year Magazine Writing (Journalism 43 and 44) was added to the list of courses, increasing their number to fourteen.

During the year 1924-25 Wesley Henry Maurer (A.B. Missouri '21, B.S. Public and Bus. Admin. ibid. '22, B.J. ibid. '22) was appointed to an instructorship in journalism to substitute for Professor Brumm, on academic leave. At this time the course in newspaper ethics was absorbed by the course in newspaper problems. In the fall of 1925 Howard Palfrey Jones (Columbia '21) joined the faculty in journalism, taking the place left vacant by the resignation of Mr. Burrows. Jones continued on the faculty until 1928-29, when, resigning, he was succeeded by Robert W. Desmond (Wisconsin '22). A year later, Desmond accepted an appointment to an instructorship at the University of Minnesota, and Wesley H. Maurer was recalled to the faculty in journalism.

Journalism became a separate department of instruction in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1929-30, with Professor John L. Brumm at its head. Its offering of courses was again increased to fourteen, each course carrying three hours of credit. In 1932-33 two one-hour orientation courses were added as Journalism 1 and 2. Editorial Direction (Journalism 110) was established in 1935-36, and Specialized Reporting (Journalism 112) was first given in 1936-37.

The professional curriculums in journalism, carrying forty-six hours of credit, now embrace the following seventeen courses: the American Newspaper (two courses), Principles of Journalism, Advanced News Writing, Copyreading and Editing, Special Article Writing, Editorial Writing, Critical Writing and Reviewing, Advertisement Writing, Editorial Policy and Management, the Community Newspaper, Magazine Writing (two courses), Editorial Direction, the Development of American Journalism, Law of the Press, and Special Reporting. The faculty consists of Professor Brumm, Associate Professor Maurer, and Assistant Professor Haines.

Practice in writing and editing the various types of newspaper articles is afforded Page  624by The Michigan Journalist, a weekly publication instituted by Maurer in 1925 and fostered by the Department of Journalism as a laboratory newspaper (see pp. 625-26). Besides the contact with newspapers afforded by the Michigan Journalist, which is printed without cost to the University by various newspaper companies in the state, the department maintains relations with editors and publishers through the annual conventions of the University Press Club of Michigan. This professional organization of newspaper workers was instituted by Professor Brumm in 1918 for the purpose of bringing the press of the state and the University into a close relationship of mutual helpfulness. The club, embracing the Associated Press, the League of Small Dailies, and the Michigan Press Association, has a membership of about three hundred editors and publishers.

Broad educational interests, with statewide ramifications, are served through the sponsorship, by the Department of Journalism, of the Michigan Interscholastic Press Association, an organization of high-school editors and their teacher advisers. This group was first brought together by Professor Brumm in 1921. Its annual meetings, covering a period of three days, are attended by some six hundred high-school students and teachers. The purpose of the convention is to foster superior practice in secondary-school journalism and to encourage the delegates to continue their education through college and into the various professional callings.

Education for journalism, as developed at the University of Michigan, embraces approximately one-fourth of the 120 credit hours in a four-year course leading to the bachelor of arts degree in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. These specialized courses are restricted to the junior and the senior years. The programs prescribed for the certificate in journalism include background courses comprising the cultural interests served by literature, languages, and the arts, and the critical interests inhering in the physical and the social sciences.

In dealing with education for journalism, one must realize that there is no such thing as an established and authoritative newspaper practice, in the sense of a rule-of-thumb procedure, as in law or medicine. In the range and the quality of its offerings, journalism is as varied as are individual newspapers. Each publication has its own management, its own editor or editors, its own corps of reporters, its own policy, and its own reading public. But regardless of their differences in personnel and substance, newspapers are alike in the purpose they are presumed to serve — the direction of news and opinion in the interest of public enlightenment. A newspaper, therefore, must be judged by the service it performs as a public intelligencer. It may prove acceptable to large numbers of undifferentiated readers for reasons other than this public service, but as a newspaper it can justify itself on no other grounds.

Journalism, more than any other instrumentality, must furnish the facts on which the judgments affecting the common weal may be formed. The journalist, in this view of a changing social order, will practice the art of compelling a popular interest in matters involving government, industry, science, health, justice, and myriads of other activities and forces that must be controlled and directed for the common good. Uncovering the facts, all the facts that are relevant to an intelligently ordered way of life — this is the responsibility of the professional journalist. And the training for this exacting service cannot be left to chance or to selfish interests, but must be scientifically devised and administered by public education.

Page  625It is this power to detect the real news and to record it so that readers shall be interested in it and shall direct their lives intelligently with reference to it that education for journalism seeks to develop in the intending journalist.

The Michigan Journalist

The Michigan Journalist, written and edited by students in the Department of Journalism, was established March 31, 1925, with the publication of Volume 1, Number 1, at the publishing plant of the Port Huron Times Herald, through the co-operation of the late E. J. Ottoway, then president of the Times Herald Publishing Company. Suspended during the period immediately following, it was revived in 1929-30 and has continued regularly throughout the ensuing years. From six to ten issues of the newspaper are published at weekly intervals in the second semester of each year by various Michigan newspaper companies. Included among these at various times have been the Detroit News, the Detroit Polish Herald, the Pontiac Press, the Adrian Telegram, the Owosso Argus Press, the Monroe Evening News, the Lansing State Journal, the Ann Arbor Daily News, the Birmingham Eccentric, the Royal Oak Tribune, the Ypsilanti Press, the Port Huron Times Herald, the Battle Creek Enquirer-News, the Trenton Times, the Coldwater Reporter, and the Washtenaw Post-Tribune. Ninety-six issues having been published in the thirteen years to 1940. More than 750 students have contributed to its columns, which embrace the work of those in several courses — Editorial Writing, Advanced Newswriting, Specialized Reporting, Copyreading and Editing, Feature Writing, Community Newspaper, and Editorial Direction. Its highly specialized and critical reading public, numbering from 2,600 to 3,000, includes members of the University faculties, state legislators, Michigan congressmen, newspaper publishers, high-school teachers, heads of scientific and social foundations, and other public leaders and agencies.

The newspaper is distinctive as a teaching device in journalism. It publishes no advertising, and all its articles and editorials are signed by the writers. It has no editorial or news policy, other than the requirement that the written material must be of social significance. All interview sources are expected to approve manuscripts before they are published, a procedure which, although not customary in newspaper work, enlists the co-operation of specialists in the training of future reporters. Since each issue is published at a different newspaper plant, the typographical and mechanical requirements differ, a circumstance which affords students opportunity to learn a variety of practices in composing rooms as they affect editorial procedures. Materials for publication, prepared and edited in Ann Arbor, are mailed to the various publication plants in advance, beginning two weeks before publication — a requirement which demands meticulous and methodical work. Ten to fifteen students accompany instructors to the plant for make-up and final publication details on the date of publication, the field trips providing occasion for conferences with publishers, editors, and superintendents of composing rooms.

Owing to its experimental character, the Michigan Journalist is free to develop new news sources and new editorial and newswriting patterns. Since its first issue it has encouraged the interpretative article now becoming widely popular in American journalism. Its editorials and news articles represent a serious effort to report and to interpret trends in social movements and the ideas motivating them. Despite the publication of many articles dealing with controversial subjects, Page  626the Michigan Journalist has drawn from its readers, for the most part, only kindly constructive criticism, even when there was divergent opinion.

The following references illustrate the nature of the news articles.

Reports of the Federal Trade Commission's cease and desist orders were published as early as April, 1936. More than a page of information concerning the Copeland Food Bill, published March 30, 1934, brought from W. G. Campbell, director of the regulatory work of the Food and Drug Act, the public citation: "The Michigan Journalist has published the best piece of publicity that has been produced to inform the public of the necessity for adequate food, drug, and cosmetic legislation." Though issued but a few times each year, the Michigan Journalist, by analyzing unpublished engineering reports and presenting startling information on the cost of the hard-water damage to Ann Arbor households, successfully aroused sentiment for a water-softening plant in Ann Arbor.

Reporters and editors of the Michigan Journalist made the first detailed study of local tax delinquency in the state, and the report, published May 27, 1933, presented the result of an intensive study by twenty reporters of the city's delinquent taxes. The study was continued until 1936, when the delinquency tax problem became less acute. Following these reports, similar studies were made in other parts of the state, and the argument that the small-home owner would be the beneficiary of proposed legislative concessions to tax debtors was discredited. The pending legislation, calling for cancellation of delinquent taxes, was subsequently defeated.

Studies of public health, such as county health units, a medical economics survey for Michigan, and proposals for state medical clinics, have been reported regularly since 1929.

Experiments in publishing informational reports regarding organized religion are regularly represented in its pages.

Firsthand reports of the coal strike in Ohio from both labor and employer points of view were published in a series of articles beginning May 14, 1932. General working conditions, problems of pay and standards of living, occupational diseases and accidents, unemployment, and old-age pensions were the subjects of reports and editorials.

These references suffice to illustrate the experimental nature of the content and to suggest the type of training such exploration offers the student.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1879-1914.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 9-46 (1902-40).
The Michigan Journalist, 1924-25, 1929-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1891-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1890-1940.
University of Michigan News-Letter (title varies), 1898-1911.
Page  627

THE DEPARTMENT OF LATIN

THE "Act to establish the Catholepistemiad, or University, of Michigania," of August 22, 1817, provided for "a didaxia, or professorship, of anthropoglossica, or literature, embracing all the epistemiim, or sciences, relative to language." Three weeks later it was enacted that "in Classical Academies the Pupils shall be instructed in the French, Latin, and Greek languages," and authorization was given for the establishment of the "Classical Academy of the City of Detroit," the first branch of the Catholepistemiad.

On the following Candlemas Mr. Hugh M. Dickie was appointed Instructor of the Academy, and a year later Mr. Ebenezer Clapp was named to the same post at a salary of "not over $500, such salary to be retained by him out of tuition." In the spring of 1822 the trustees employed the Reverend A. W. Welton in the same capacity. On the first of December, 1825, they extended for one year the contract of Mr. Ashbel S. Wells, a graduate of Hamilton College, who had been "in charge of the Classical department of this institution" for an unnamed period. The salary was increased to $600 at the same time, but eleven months later, when Mr. Wells resigned, it was $170.19 in arrears, presumably because of low tuition receipts. Mr. Charles C. Sears, the next incumbent, was hired for $500, with a guarantee that if the tuition payments did not equal this amount, the trustees would make good the deficit.

Financial difficulties presently made further appointments and guarantees impractical, and the trustees apparently were glad to place the University building at the disposal of any qualified teacher who was willing to provide instruction in return for tuition fees. In November of 1828, the lower room (English school) of the University was "granted to Mr. Healy … for the tuition of scholars in the classics or such other branch or branches of education as may be useful and necessary in the state of the country," and in the following year it was voted by the trustees that when Mr. Hathon should leave the upper room [classical school], Mr. Delos Kinnicutt should be "permitted to occupy it." Finally, on September 1, 1830, the whole building was lent to the citizens of Detroit for the establishment of a common school. Throughout the history of the first institution in Detroit the classical languages had constituted the core of its academic curriculum.

When the University was reorganized in 1837, it was provided, in language much less picturesque than that of 1817, that among the professorships in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts there should be "one of ancient languages." In July of 1841, before the University at Ann Arbor opened its doors to students, the Reverend George Palmer Williams (Vermont '25, LL.D. Kenyon '49) was appointed Professor of Languages. For four years he had been principal of the Pontiac branch of the University. He had shown executive ability in this position and had devised the first "Administrative Questionnaire," with the purpose of creating standards for the admission of prospective students. Before a month had passed, during which Professor Williams framed the original entrance requirements to the University, his title was changed to Professor of Mathematics, and the Reverend Joseph Whiting (Yale '23, A.M. ibid. '37), principal of the Niles branch, was made Professor of Languages, or, as he Page  628was designated in the first Catalogue (1843-44), Professor of Greek and Latin Languages. For four years he served in this capacity. At his death, the first in the faculty, a plot of campus ground was set apart as a University cemetery, and a sum of $100 was appropriated by the Regents for the erection of a suitable monument. It has not been determined whether any burials were ever made in this cemetery, but Professor Whiting is honored by one of the four inscriptions* on the professors' monument, which now stands just east of the University Library.

In September of 1845, the Reverend John Holmes Agnew (Dickinson '23, D.D. Washington College '52) was appointed to succeed Professor Whiting. He did not assume his duties until the following May. In the interval Burritt A. Smith (Yale '44), tutor in Latin and Greek from 1844 to 1846, must have carried the work of the department, with such help as other faculty members could give him. In his first year at Michigan, Agnew served as president of the faculty. Later, as its secretary, he manifested his independence in the historic secret society controversy. On the last day of 1851 the Board of Regents voted to end the services of Agnew and two others at Commencement, apparently in part because of the struggle for the establishment of fraternities and in part because of the pressure exerted by religious groups, which was made more effective by serious dissensions within the faculty itself. In the following August he was a candidate to succeed himself, but was rejected by a vote of four to three.

The days of Professor Agnew saw the de facto separation of instruction in Latin and Greek which was soon to receive official sanction. Since he was unable himself to conduct all the classes in both languages, he chose to hear all the Greek classes, abandoning instruction in Latin. His colleagues in philosophy, Professors Andrew Ten Brook and Daniel D. Whedon, unwilling to permit the subject to fail, reluctantly assumed the burden.

When asked to suggest a successor to Agnew, Ten Brook proposed his friend James Robinson Boise (Brown '40, Ph.D. hon. Tübingen '68, LL.D. Michigan '68), of Brown University, as Professor of Greek. In August, 1852, Boise was elected Professor of the Latin and Greek Languages, but in December the appointment of a professor of the Latin language and literature gave official recognition to the separation of the two departments and made possible the independent development of the Department of Greek under the able leadership of Professor Boise.

In the Catalogue of 1852-53 appeared a remarkable statement, written probably by Boise before the separation of the Departments of Latin and Greek. As evidence of the purposes and spirit of classical instruction at the middle of the last century, it is worthy of being quoted in full. In general, this statement of policy is valid at the present day. It read:

The primary object of this department is to give the student a critical knowledge of the structure of the ancient languages themselves, of the principles of interpretation, and of those rhetorical principles which will enable a person to express himself in idiomatic and perspicuous English. In this department, therefore, nearly as much attention is paid to the study of English as to the study of Greek and Latin. But another and not less Page  629important object which is aimed at, especially in the later studies in this course, is the full comprehension of all that relates to the author read. It is not merely the words and the outward expression of the thought to which attention is directed, but the thought itself; and in connection with this analysis of the subject matter of each author, the age and other circumstances in which he wrote are carefully considered. This leads to a general study of antiquity, the laws, government, social relations, religion, philosophy, arts, manufactures, commerce, education: in short, everything which belonged to Grecian and Roman life. A constant comparison is also made between the ancient and modern world, and especially of the ancient republics, with the peculiar circumstances and history of our own country. It is not for a moment presumed that any one of the above important topics can be fully considered in the brief space allotted to the study of philology, but it is the constant aim of the instructor in this department to give such hints and suggest such inquiries as will lead to the independent investigation and research of the student.

The new Professor of Latin was the Reverend Erastus Otis Haven (Wesleyan '42, A.M. ibid. '45, D.D. hon. Union '54, LL.D. Ohio Wesleyan '63), later President of the University. He assumed his new duties at what appears now to have been a propitious moment. President Tappan had just begun his administration and was proclaiming a new university program. This involved, it is true, the recognition of a course of scientific studies, which did not include the classical languages, but also it made provision for the establishment of "university" (i.e., graduate) courses. Among the first university courses to be announced was one in the Latin language and literature. Haven appears not to have accepted this invitation to expand the Latin program, but to have devoted much of his time to the teaching of rhetoric and, especially, history. Wisdom undoubtedly dictated his transfer in 1854 to the chair of history and English literature.

To fill the vacancy thus created, Boise suggested, and, on June 29, 1854, the Regents appointed, Henry Simmons Frieze (Brown '41, LL.D. Michigan '85) of Brown University. He began his work the following October, and continued to direct the fortunes of the Department of Latin for three and a half decades. In many ways the developments in the department reflected the character of the man. He was gentle and shy, but a capable administrator, an excellent teacher, and a competent scholar at a time when classical studies had not become highly specialized. Above all, he was a true humanist, with an extraordinary range of interests. His devotion to music is recorded elsewhere (see Part I: Frieze Administration). His lectures on painting, sculpture, and architecture, which were eagerly attended, laid the foundation for the Department of Fine Arts. It is not surprising that to a man of his fine sensibilities Latin was more than a stone on which to whet students' minds. President Angell, who had been his pupil in an Eastern preparatory school, spoke thus of his experience in the classes of Professor Frieze (Reminiscences, p. 17):

Contact with this inspiring teacher formed an epoch in my intellectual life, as in that of so many other boys. He represented the best type of the modern teacher, at once critical as a grammarian and stimulating with the finest appreciation of whatever was choicest in the classic masterpieces. At first, as we were showered with questions such as I had never heard before, it seemed to me, although the reading of the Latin was mainly a review to me, that I should never emerge from my state of ignorance. But there was such a glow of enthusiasm in the instructor and the class, there was such delight in the tension in which we were kept by the daily exercises, that no task seemed too great to be encountered. Though in conjunction with our reading we devoured the Latin grammar Page  630so that by the end of the year we could repeat almost the whole of it, paradigms, rules, and exceptions without prompting, the work of mastering it did not seem dry and onerous, for we now felt how the increasing accuracy of our knowledge of the structure of the language enhanced our enjoyment of the Vergil and the Cicero, whose subtle and less obvious charms we were aided by our teacher to appreciate.

On assuming his duties at the University of Michigan, Frieze undertook a policy of expansion by extending the program in Latin into the senior year. In 1855 he received a leave of absence for travel in Europe for the express purpose of obtaining materials for a classical museum, and Benjamin Braman (Brown '54) was employed as his substitute for 1855-56 with the title of Professor of the Latin Language and Literature. In 1858 Frieze returned with a collection of statuary and other works of art which formed the nucleus of the Museum of Art and Antiquities, of which he was long the curator. He next evinced his concern with the question of secondary education by publishing a series of recommendations for the preparatory course in Latin, and then helped to establish a new course in the second semester of 1858-59 called the Teachers' Class in Ancient Languages, "for the benefit of those who may wish to prepare themselves for teaching in Union and High Schools." This is reputed to have been the first teachers' course offered in the United States and with modifications of title and content has been given uninterruptedly to the present day. Also in that year the subject matter of the graduate course in Latin was first indicated. This course was entitled Latin Literature and dealt with the Roman satirists.

The paucity of suitable textbooks, particularly for use in preparatory schools, led Professor Frieze to undertake, during the closing years of this decade, the editing of Vergil's Aeneid. Labor of love though it was, this task demanded of him a difficult sacrifice. "So passionately was he devoted to music," wrote Professor Andrew White in his Autobiography, "that at times he sent his piano away from his house in order to shun temptation to abridge his professional work, and especially was this the case when he was preparing his edition of Vergil." This book, which was printed in 1860, enjoyed wide popularity and ran through several editions, the last of which was a revision made in 1902 by Professor Walter Dennison. Further to meet the needs of his classes, Frieze produced in 1865 his edition of the tenth and twelfth books of the Institutes of Quintilian.

Because of expansion in the program of the department and the increase in the number of students, Fitch Reed Williams ('58, A.M. '69) was appointed Instructor in Latin in 1858, and in 1860 Adam Knight Spence ('58, A.M. '61) was added to the staff as Instructor in Greek, Latin, and French. After serving the department three years, Spence confined his attention to Greek and French, and later to French alone. Williams later entered politics and became a state senator; Spence was called to the presidency of Fisk University.

In 1863 Charles Kendall Adams ('61, A.M. '62, LL.D. Chicago '79, LL.D. Harvard '86), later to attain distinction as a historian and as president first of Cornell University and then of the University of Wisconsin, was engaged as Instructor in Latin and History, to assist Professor Frieze. At the beginning of his fifth year the history classes demanded his full attention, and the place thus left vacant was filled by the appointment in 1867 of Martin Luther D'Ooge ('62, LL.D. '89, Ph.D. Leipzig '72, Litt.D. hon. Rutgers '01) to an assistant professorship of ancient languages. On January 1, 1868, Boise, who had admirably Page  631administered the Department of Greek, became a member of the faculty of the University of Chicago, and D'Ooge was made Acting Professor of Greek. To make possible the necessary redistribution of courses in the two departments, Edward Lorraine Walter ('68, Ph.D. Leipzig '77), then a senior Latin student and later to become head of the Department of Modern Languages, was employed as an assistant in Latin.

The earliest statement of specific entrance requirements to the University (R.P., 1837-64, p. 183) provided, among other things, that candidates must sustain an examination in "the Grammar of the English, Latin, and Greek Languages, the Exercise and Reader of Andrews, Cornelius Nepos, Vita Washingtonii, Sallust, Cicero's Orations," and other subjects. By 1848, the Catalogue shows, the Vita Washingtonii and Sallust had been replaced by Vergil's Bucolics and six books of the Aeneid, and in the following year the Bucolics was omitted, and all twelve books of the Aeneid were required. As early as 1852 the requirements in Latin had become what they were to remain, except for short intervals, until well into the next century, namely, Latin grammar, Caesar's Commentaries, Cicero's Select Orations, six books of the Aeneid or the equivalent, Latin composition, and Greek and Roman geography. For some reason not now apparent these requirements were reduced in 1855 to all of Caesar's Commentaries (on the Gallic Wars, presumably) and one book of Vergil, but were gradually restored during the succeeding decade to the standard of 1852.

The introduction in 1852 of a scientific course, in which no study of the ancient languages was required, seems to have had little immediate effect upon the work in Latin, for the popularity of the traditional classical course was not diminished. The Latin program appears to have been excellent, with courses in almost all of the more important Latin authors and with lectures on Latin literature, Roman history, and antiquities. Frieze was deeply interested in the expanding field of archaeology, and in the Regents' Proceedings were recorded several appropriations of money for the purchase of pictures for the Departments of Latin and Greek. The large panorama of the city of Rome, which has engaged the attention of many generations of students and is now mounted on the wall of one of the lecture rooms (2003 Angell Hall), was secured in March, 1864.

The decade 1870-79 was marked, especially toward its close, by continued growth of the University and by the enlargement and strengthening of the Department of Latin. Frieze's duties as President pro tempore from 1869 to 1871 placed added responsibility upon Assistant Professor Walter, which was further increased when he was acting head of the department during the absence of Frieze between 1871 and 1873. The "broad and scholarly character of his teaching" received special mention in the President's Report for 1874. In that year he left for three years of study and travel in Europe. Upon his return in 1877 with the degree of doctor of philosophy, he resumed his connection with the Department of Latin, but in 1879 he became Professor of Modern Languages and Literatures, and in this field made his richest contribution to the University.

In 1875 Elisha Jones ('59, A.M. '62) left the superintendency of the Ann Arbor schools and joined the staff as Acting Assistant Professor of Latin in the absence of Professor Walter. On the return of the latter from Europe, Jones was transferred to the Department of Greek, but he became Assistant Professor of Latin in 1879, when Walter accepted the professorship of modern languages. In 1878-79 Calvin Thomas ('74, A.M. '77, Page  632LL.D. '04), an instructor in modern languages who later gained renown as Professor of the Germanic Languages and Literatures, first at Michigan and then at Columbia, gave instruction in Latin. In the following year, under the auspices of the department, he gave the first course in Sanskrit to be offered at this University.

There were no great changes in the program of the Department of Latin during this decade. The Calendar of 1873-74 announced that "the Roman pronunciation of Latin has been adopted at Michigan, as previously in the universities of England and at Harvard and Cornell." For a number of years Frieze had offered courses in Latin to be included in the program for the degree of master of arts. These were in the Roman satirists in the first semester and in the epistolary writings of Pliny the Younger and the works of Seneca in the second semester. In addition to these courses, the Calendar of 1874-75 announced as courses for postgraduate students Seneca's Prose Works and Lactantius. One of the practical difficulties which confronted the department is illustrated by the statement, in the President's Report for 1878, that a course in the thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth books of Pliny's Natural History (on the history of art) had been announced for the preceding year but had been withdrawn because no suitable edition of the text was available.

In the President's Report of 1870, written by Professor Frieze, an effort to improve standards of instruction in the secondary schools was mentioned. In conformity with general University policy, the admission requirements in Latin were subsequently increased to include the whole of Vergil's Aeneid or its equivalent. Frieze, in the same report, also wrote with approbation of the liberalizing of the college curriculum by the introduction of nonclassical programs of study, stating that it would avoid the "false and foolish antagonism, which elsewhere has been provoked between classical and scientific studies." In President Angell's report of 1872 it was stated that there were sixty senior Latin students in that year, and that the combined enrollment in the classical course and in the Latin and scientific course was 65 per cent of the total enrollment of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, which at that time included the Department of Engineering. Angell observed that students in the Latin and scientific course often transferred, if able, to the classical course, and that a certain proportion of those in the scientific course likewise transferred to the Latin and scientific course. After referring to these conditions, he said (p. 7):

Those timid friends of classical learning who have feared that it would be abandoned in our colleges, if scientific studies were admitted to equal honor with the classical, and those scientists who suppose that there is no real and intelligent demand for classical training, especially in the West, may with equal profit scrutinize these figures.

The change in policy brought about in the last two years of the decade, by which courses required for a degree were largely limited to the first two years of a student's program and the work of the last two years was made mostly elective, adversely affected the enrollment in advanced Latin classes. Apparently Frieze endeavored to counteract this result by further developing the courses then offered in antiquities. In 1879 he prepared a catalogue of the Museum of Art and stated in the President's Report (p. 32):

In the lectures on Classical Art and Antiquities, our means and material of illustration have been found painfully deficient… [The collection] has received but very small accessions, and is quite inadequate to the proper illustration of a complete course of lectures… A university which lacks Page  633apparatus of this kind, must be considered imperfectly equipped.

From 1880 to 1882, during President Angell's absence in China, Frieze was again Acting President. In the work of the department he was chiefly assisted by Elisha Jones, who was made Associate Professor in 1881. Although Jones had been trained by Frieze, his scholarly interests were concerned largely with the niceties of language structure, rather than with the broader aspects of classical culture. He was therefore known best by the students whom he drilled, but the love and devotion with which he labored won him the respect of everyone. He was a masterly teacher, a slight, frail man, commonly known as "Shorty" Jones, and the sobriquet bore a goodly measure of affection. His Greek Prose Composition (1872), First Lessons in Latin (1877), and Latin Prose Composition (1879) went through several editions and were widely used in secondary schools throughout the United States, contributing much to the improvement of elementary instruction in the classics and drawing favorable attention to the University. Had he lived to finish his work on an edition of selections from the correspondence of Cicero, there would be more tangible evidence of his refined scholarship and of his ability as a teacher of college students.

In 1880 Charles Mills Gayley ('78, LL.D. '04, LL.D. Glasgow '01) was added to the staff as an instructor, and four years later he became Acting Professor of Latin. He was a vigorous and very popular teacher. Though his connection with the department lasted only six years, his name has been known to the many generations of students who have sung "Laudes atque Carmina" and "The Yellow and the Blue," for which he composed the words.

Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin ('82, '85l, LL.D. '12), after a year as Instructor in Latin, was transferred in 1887 to the Department of History. The rather surprising number of such exceptional teachers transferred from the Department of Latin to other departments during the earlier history of the University is evidence of the thoroughness of training and the consequent versatility of students within the less highly diversified curriculum of the period. There is no doubt that some of these changes were prompted by the popularity of the instructors and by the hope that they would lure students to elect courses in the newer and less highly esteemed departments to which they had been transferred. It was no slight contribution which the Department of Latin thus made to the general interests of the University.

In the death of Professor Jones, on August 16, 1888, the Department of Latin suffered a heavy loss. That Professor Frieze, who had been strongly attached to him, was deeply moved by his death, is apparent in the affectionate tribute which he prepared for the Michigan Argonaut of October 20, 1888:

As to Professor Jones, never has the University had an officer more free from faults, more respected and loved both by his colleagues and by the students under his charge. And my peculiar relations with him will justify me in saying thus publicly, that never in my life, whether in trial or prosperity, have I had a more true and self-forgetful and devoted friend.

During the decade which closed with 1889, further variety was given to the courses in Latin. This change was made possible partly by the development of the elective programs for junior and senior students, and partly by the publication of suitable texts of works not previously available for study. Jones introduced a special course in Plautus, also courses in Martial's Epigrams and Cicero's Letters. Gayley was the first to offer Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius, and in 1885 Frieze gave a course in Lucretius Page  634for the first time. From 1887 to 1889 the course in Sanskrit, which had been offered by Calvin Thomas every year since 1879, was taught in the Department of Latin by Walter Miller (A.M. '84, LL.D. Arkansas '16), who was transferred from an instructorship in Greek to one in Latin in 1887 and the next year became Acting Assistant Professor of Latin. The popularity of the Latin courses continued during the eighties, and it was necessary to provide four sections of the freshman classes.

An almost complete change in the staff of the Department of Latin occurred in the year 1889-90. Early in the first semester Frieze found it impossible to meet his classes regularly because of poor health. When he felt that he had recovered sufficiently he attempted to resume his teaching. It was apparent, however, that his strength was failing, and he died on December 7, 1889. He was deeply mourned, for he had won the genuine affection of students and faculty alike. He had long served as Dean of the Faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, having been returned each autumn to this office, which was then elective. His resting place in Forest Hill Cemetery is marked by a beautiful and dignified monument, a replica, in all save the inscription, of the sarcophagus of one of the great Scipios. It was thus that alumni and colleagues sought to express their love for one of the finest men Michigan has known.*

It is possible that Professor Frieze had some previous intimation that his work was nearing its close. Knowing that Joseph Horace Drake ('85, Ph.D. '00, '02l), who had become an instructor in the department in 1888, was to be abroad for a period of study, he sought another assistant, and, impressed by his scholarship and his interest in music, selected Francis Willey Kelsey (Rochester '80, Ph.D. hon. ibid. '88, LL.D. ibid. '10) to become Professor of Latin in 1889-90. Kelsey's vigor and enthusiasm won him immediate acclaim, and on Professor Frieze's death he was made head of the department.

The task which Professor Kelsey undertook was to develop graduate work in Latin upon the excellent foundation of undergraduate study which had been laid by his predecessor; this involved the further task of providing an adequate library. The deficiency of the classical section, even for undergraduate work, had been realized by the students, one of whom referred in the Chronicle to the generosity of Professor Frieze, who had placed his private collection of books on art and archaeology in the Library for the use of his classes. Professor Kelsey found even the policy of the Library discouraging, since books were not freely placed at the disposal of students. When he insisted that certain volumes be made available to his advanced classes, he gained his point only after giving a guarantee that he would himself replace any books which might be lost. It has been said that he taught the University the proper use of the Library; certainly his efforts were influential in effecting a change in its regulations and in assembling an excellent collection of books for classical studies.

John Carew Rolfe (Harvard '81, Ph.D. Cornell '85) was called from Harvard in 1890 as Assistant Professor of Latin. In 1892-93 Kelsey had leave of absence, and Rolfe, as Acting Professor, directed the department, to which Joseph Drake had returned as Assistant Professor. In 1893, Henry Arthur Sanders ('90, Ph.D. Munich '97) and Clarence Linton Meader ('91, Ph.D. '00) were appointed Page  635instructors in Latin. Both were to be associated with the department for many years. While Professor Rolfe was on leave in 1896-97, his place was taken by Assistant Professor Emory Bair Lease (Ohio Wesleyan '85, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '94), later to be associated with the College of the City of New York and widely known among American classical scholars. At the same time, William Henry Wait (Northwestern '79, Ph.D. Allegheny '88), who had come to the Department of Greek the preceding year, was made Instructor in Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit. Walter Dennison ('93, Ph.D. '98) became Instructor in Latin in 1897. Meader spent the year 1897-98 in Rome and Greece as fellow of the American School of Classical Studies and the following year at Munich. In the fall of 1899 Sanders returned as Instructor after several years of study abroad.

The decade which thus closed was remarkable for the growth in the department and for the many changes, both in personnel and in the courses introduced. The number of freshman sections had increased from four to seven. The first doctor of philosophy degree in Latin and Greek was granted in 1891, the first in Latin in 1892. Six candidates had received the doctor's degree and twenty-three the degree of master of arts when the decade ended.

Professor Kelsey, at the very beginning of his administration, introduced a course called Methods, Province, and Scope of Classical Philology and in both semesters offered a course called Seminary in Latin Philology. He also gave a course designated Seminary in Roman Archaeology: Topography and Architectural History of the City of Rome, and Sculpture and Painting in the Roman Period. Later, he added a museum course in archaeology, and seminars in the study of Roman coins and lamps and the critical examination of the Rhetorica ad Herennium. Rolfe instituted the course in Latin inscriptions. Drake first gave one entitled Seminary in Roman History in 1893-94 and another new course, Introduction to Roman Constitutional Antiquities, three years later. In 1893-94 Meader offered a course in the Institutes of Gaius and Justinian, and the following year he was made Lecturer on Roman Law in the Department of Law while continuing as Instructor in Latin. During his absence in 1898-99 Professor Drake was vested with this lectureship. Assistant Professor Lease gave a course in Christian Latin, and Mr. Dennison offered Introduction to Latin Paleography. With few exceptions and with minor modifications in title these courses have been successfully continued to the present day, for the benefit of graduate and advanced undergraduate students. The courses in Greek and Roman political history, a subject which had been taught in the language departments from their very inception, were eventually transferred to the Department of History. Sanskrit was offered throughout most of the decade by one of the instructors in Latin and Greek.

Professor Kelsey was on leave for the year 1900-1901, and the department was directed by Professor Rolfe, aided by Assistant Professor Drake and four instructors, one of whom also taught Greek and Sanskrit. In 1902 Rolfe accepted a professorship of the Latin language and literature in the University of Pennsylvania, a position which he occupied with distinction until his retirement, and Walter Dennison, who had accepted an associate professorship of Latin at Oberlin College in 1899, returned to the department as Junior Professor of Latin. John Garrett Winter (Hope '01, Ph.D. Michigan '06), who was later to become head of the Department of Latin, was appointed Instructor Page  636in Greek and Latin in 1906, but conducted courses chiefly in the Greek Department. In 1898 Drake, while retaining his position in Latin, was appointed Lecturer in Roman Law in the Department of Law. In 1906 his title was changed to Professor of Latin, Roman Law, and Jurisprudence, and in 1908 to Professor of Law, thus terminating his membership in the Latin Department. At the same time Albert Robinson Crittenden ('94, Ph.D. '08) was added to the staff on temporary appointment, and two years later became Assistant Professor of Latin.

The first decade of the century was marked by an attack upon University traditions which had most serious effects upon the Department of Latin. As early as 1880 it had been necessary for the president to take cognizance of a complaint that too great emphasis was being placed upon classical studies, for in his report he called attention to the fact that classical languages were not required for admission to the University or for graduation from it. It was nevertheless true that most students coveted the bachelor of arts degree, and that for this degree training in both Greek and Latin was still demanded. Both departments of the classical languages vigorously opposed any change which would deprive this degree of its traditional meaning and rob it of the respect which it commanded. After years of agitation, however, the faculty followed the example of other institutions and voted, early in 1901, to grant but one degree, that of bachelor of arts, to all graduates of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Two other changes which were logically implied in this action were the recognition of the assumed equality of all courses, resulting in a system of almost completely free electives, and the abandonment of differentiated entrance requirements. The University is still struggling to reduce the chaos which ensued upon the revolution of 1901.

In the Department of Latin the effects were immediate and appalling. The enrollment in freshman Latin, which had steadily increased until 1901, dropped from seven sections to five in 1901-2, and to four sections in 1905-6, probably representing a loss of more than one-half in the number of students, since, with a declining enrollment, the sections were doubtless smaller. There was some compensation in the improved quality of work which was possible in the freshman and sophomore classes after the weak and uninterested students had transferred to other departments. It was also noticeable that a somewhat larger proportion of students continued in the Department of Latin in their junior and senior years. Thus for some time the more advanced courses were not seriously affected by the changes in requirements for admission and graduation. It was possible even to increase their number, for the decrease in freshman and sophomore sections had reduced teaching schedules to a point which made the addition of new courses feasible. Kelsey now gave lectures on the antiquities of Pompeii and developed the course in Roman archaeology into two courses. Dennison gave a course called the Private Life of the Romans and introduced another, named Martial and Petronius' Banquet, with Special Reference to Private Life. Drake gave a general course in Roman literature in English and expanded his work in Roman law. Sanders gave Vergil's Georgics and, later, a course entitled Lectures on the Sources of the Roman Historians, and Meader, following his work with Wölflin, introduced the study of the Caesarian Bellum Africum and Bellum Hispanicum, and in 1904 first announced a course in comparative linguistics, a study to which his attention was henceforth increasingly Page  637directed until the time of his retirement from teaching in 1938. The addition of advanced courses was not disproportionate to the increase in the number of graduate students. From 1900 to 1910, fifty-seven candidates received the master of arts degree in Latin and twelve that of doctor of philosophy, eleven in Latin and one in Greek and Latin, and of this number nearly all had received their undergraduate training within the department.

The announcement of the new general entrance requirements, specifying a minimum of two years of Latin, French, or German, was attended by a definition of two units in Latin, followed by the statement: "This preparation is not sufficient to enable the student to enter Latin classes in the University." In 1904 this pronouncement was supplemented by the words, "but arrangements are made whereby students who present two or three units may make up full entrance requirements under private instruction." In the Calendar of the next year this statement was replaced by the single sentence: "N.B. This preparation is sufficient to enable the student to enter Latin A or B in the University." There followed, in its proper place, an announcement of these two courses, similar to high-school courses of the third and fourth years and hitherto regarded as preparatory, but carrying full college credit from that date. By anticipation it may be added that in 1910, in response to a demand that the needs of premedical and predental students be more adequately supplied, two courses in elementary Latin were announced. Since they were not recognized as college courses, and no credit was given for them, every student was charged a tutoring fee of $10 for each course until 1927, when, by faculty action, elementary Latin was placed on the same basis as other elementary language courses. The College of Literature, Science, and the Arts had expanded downward to include all of the secondary school's courses in Latin.

Dennison once more, in 1910, withdrew from the department, going to Swarthmore College, where he served as a professor of Latin until his death in 1917. His place was not immediately filled, but in 1911 Instructor John G. Winter, most of whose courses had been in the Department of Greek, was made Assistant Professor of Ancient Languages. Miss Orma Fitch Butler ('97, Ph.D. '07) began her long service to the department in 1912, as an assistant in Roman archaeology. During Kelsey's absence in 1919-20 James Eugene Dunlap (Ripon '10, Ph.D. Michigan '20) served as Instructor in Latin.

The decade which thus ended was one of severe trials. The department had hardly succeeded in adapting its program to the changes of the preceding decade when, in 1912, the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts attempted to prevent certain abuses of the elective system by imposing "group requirements" for graduation and a limitation upon the amount of work which a student might elect in any one group (see Part II: Office of the Registrar). The mandatory diversification of program made it almost impossible for a Latin student to gain the necessary familiarity with Greek and also the practical acquaintance with both French and German which was required and indispensable for research leading to the degree of doctor of philosophy. Thus, the effect of the new legislation upon the Department of Latin was to prevent it from giving its own students the preparation for graduate work which had hitherto been regarded as essential. Henceforth the doctor's degree was more frequently conferred upon students whose undergraduate work was done in other institutions.

Page  638The Department of Latin was also affected adversely by the World War. Since it had little to offer toward the immediate solution of those questions which so completely occupied the attention of the world, its courses attracted a smaller number of students. This was likewise true of Latin in secondary schools, which were preparing a thin crop for subsequent transplanting, with results to be mentioned later.

Kelsey's leave of absence of 1919-20 was renewed for 1920-21, when Dr. Butler was also given leave of absence to assist him in projects which he was developing in Mediterranean lands. Bruno Meinecke (Tennessee '08, Ph.D. Michigan '22) served as Assistant Professor during this year, then left for Hope College, where he served on the faculty for six years. Kelsey was planning further excavation abroad in the interests of the department, and in anticipation of his absence Dunlap, who from 1920 to 1923 had taught at Indiana University, was recalled as Assistant Professor of Latin and Greek. Another instructor was added to the staff, and George Robert Swain ('97, A.M. '14), who had held an assistantship in the department from 1914 to 1917, was appointed teaching assistant in Latin and technical expert in photography. In 1921-22 Professor Winter was on leave of absence for a year of study and travel abroad.

With the establishment of the University High School in 1923, Wilbert Lester Carr (Drake '98, A.M. ibid. '99) was called from Oberlin College as Associate Professor of Latin and of the Teaching of Latin, and head of the Department of Latin in the new school, and the courses in pedagogy which had been taught by Professor Crittenden were now transferred to the School of Education. In 1925 Dr. Meinecke returned to the University and introduced courses in medical Latin and in Medieval Latin.

For many years Meader had devoted his time largely to the teaching of Russian and general linguistics. John Henry Muyskens ('13, Sc.D. '25), Instructor in French, began to assist in the phonetics instruction in 1921 and four years later was appointed Assistant Professor of Phonetics in the Department of Latin. He continued to serve in this department until 1932, when the courses in general linguistics and phonetics were incorporated in the Department of Speech and General Linguistics.

Early in 1927 Kelsey returned from Europe in poor health. He attempted to resume his duties as head of the department, but soon entered the hospital, where his death, on May 14, 1927, ended a service to the University which had extended over nearly four decades. Through all this period he had maintained the vitality and energy which had characterized him on his first arrival on the campus in 1889. He was an exacting but inspiring teacher. His devotion to the welfare of the department and its members was untiring and unselfish. Like Professors Frieze and Jones, he brought wide recognition to the University by his publication of texts, particularly his school editions of selections from Cicero and of Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which were used from coast to coast. So popular was this edition of Caesar that upon one occasion, when Kelsey was to make a public address in Denver, he was introduced as "the man who wrote Caesar's Gallic War." His zeal in promoting sound instruction in the classics led him to maintain close relations with the secondary-school teachers of Michigan. He was similarly active and influential in several national associations and did much to foster high ideals of scholarship. In 1904 he started the Humanistic Series of the Page  639University of Michigan Studies, which has brought renown to the University throughout the world. By his own efforts he secured money for the publication of the earlier volumes, and he was editor of the series until his death. Through the response to his appeals for help, the work upon the great Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, which German scholars could no longer support after the World War, was saved from abandonment. His most widely known scholarly work was the volume, Pompeii: Its Life and Art, based upon the work of Professor Mau; his greatest contribution to classical scholarship was his effective fostering of scholarly ideals and institutions. He pointed the way which the Department of Latin must follow for years to come.

At the death of Professor Kelsey, Professor Sanders was designated as acting head of the Department of Latin, and he continued in this capacity through the next year, 1927-28. The proposed reorganization of the College, which was under discussion at this time, made adjustments within the department doubly difficult. As the year approached its close, Sanders accepted an appointment as director of the American School of Classical Studies in Rome and received an extended leave of absence from the University. By unanimous request of the members of the department, Professor John G. Winter was appointed to succeed him in the task of administration.

Winter's administrative ability had previously been recognized by President Little, and in 1928 he assumed his position as head of the Department of Latin, Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, Director of the Museum of Classical Archaeology, and Director of the Division of Fine Arts. He reorganized the Museum and obtained for it the use of Newberry Hall, thus fulfilling the dream of Professor Frieze. To provide more adequately for instruction in archaeology, which had been one of Professor Kelsey's principal interests, Benjamin Dean Meritt (Hamilton '20, LL.D. ibid. '37, Ph.D. Princeton '24) was called from the assistant directorship of the American School of Classical Studies in Athens to be Associate Professor of Latin and Greek. He revived certain courses in archaeology which had been omitted from the Announcements for several years, and Dr. Butler taught a course in numismatics. During the year 1929-30 Winter held the lectureship of the Thomas Spencer Jerome Foundation in the American Academy in Rome.

The decade which closed in 1930 was one of varied fortunes. In the early years the adverse effects of the World War upon enrollments were a cause of serious concern. Then an increase in the size of classes began, which continued almost to the end of the period. These changes may be illustrated by the enrollment variations in two senior courses, the Teachers' Course in Caesar and the Teachers' Course in Vergil, which were each given in two large sections in 1913-14. In 1923-24 the numbers had fallen to one section of scarcely a dozen students, but in the following year they began to rise, reaching a maximum in 1928-29, when thirty-eight students were enrolled in each course.

Of equal significance was the development of new interests by members of the staff. During his absence in 1919 and subsequent years, Kelsey had supervised excavations in Antioch of Pisidia, had assisted in exploratory excavations at ancient Carthage, and had initiated the University's archaeological work in Egypt on the site of the old town of Karanis in the Fayum. He also arranged for the purchase of numerous Greek and Latin manuscripts and for the acquisition of papyri recovered from the sands of Egypt. A full account of these efforts Page  640and of their very important results is recorded elsewhere (see Part VIII: Art and Archaeological Collections). Here it is sufficient to state that they added stimulus to instruction in archaeology and gave new direction to the research interests of various members of the Departments of Latin and Greek, making possible the remarkable scholarly achievement of this decade and of the one to follow.

When Winter returned in 1930, Carr had resigned from the faculty to accept a position in the Teachers' College of Columbia University, and the vacancy thus created had been filled by the appointment of Fred Sylvester Dunham ('06, A.M. '07), of the Cleveland Public Schools, as Assistant Professor of Latin and of the Teaching of Latin, and head of the Department of Latin in the University High School.

After an absence of three years, Sanders returned to the department in the fall of 1931 as Professor of Latin. In the following year he was also named Chairman of the Department of Speech and General Linguistics, in which were incorporated the courses in phonetics and linguistics which had been developed under the direction of Meader. At the time of this reorganization Meader's long service to the Latin Department was ended by his transfer to the staff in speech and general linguistics. He had contributed much, especially in the organization of new courses, and many generations of students recall with pleasure the hours spent in his classes.

Meritt was given leave of absence for 1932-33 to be visiting professor at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, after which he resigned and accepted a professorship in the Johns Hopkins University.

On December 17, 1933, Albert R. Crittenden died, after a very brief illness. For more than a quarter of a century he had been a quiet but effective teacher in the department, and his loss was a severe blow. He had revived the course in Roman law a few years after Professor Drake had withdrawn from the department and had provided for the needs of his classes by publishing, in 1928, Readings in Roman Law. Professor Emeritus Drake returned to the teaching of Latin to conduct these classes until the close of the year.

In 1934 Meinecke became Associate Professor and Frank Olin Copley (Stanford '30, Ph.D. ibid. '34) was appointed Instructor in Latin. Clark Hopkins (Yale '17, A.M. Oxon. '21, Ph.D. Wisconsin '24) was called to the University in 1935 to be Associate Professor of Greek and Latin. He had been field director of Yale University's excavations at Dura-Europos in Syria and was thus able to continue and develop the courses in archaeology in addition to his teaching of Greek and Latin authors.

As the year 1937-38 was drawing to its close Assistant Professor Butler became too ill to continue her work and died shortly after, on June 16. Her twenty-five years of teaching and of labor on the archaeological collections had ended. In the minutes of the faculty this tribute was paid to her:

Loyalty to friends, devotion to work, and interest in her students were dominant traits in her character. The simple dignified words found in so many of the Latin inscriptions on which she worked may be appropriately applied to a life which, like hers, deserves remembrance: Bene merenti.

In the fall of 1938 Enoch Ernest Peterson (Luther '12, A.M. Michigan '32) a member of the staff of the Museum of Classical Archaeology, assumed Assistant Professor Butler's laboratory course in antiquities and the course in numismatics. At the same time Roger Ambrose Pack ('29, Ph.D. '34), who had been appointed Acting Instructor in Latin and Page  641Greek in 1936, joined the staff as an instructor.

At the end of the first semester of 1938-39 Professor H. A. Sanders, who had reached the age of retirement, became Professor Emeritus of Latin, more than forty-six years after his first appointment in 1893. His unremitting industry in varied scholarly pursuits, but especially in the study of old Biblical texts, has brought distinction to himself and to the University. He has been a shrewd counselor in the affairs of the department and a kindly adviser to its younger members. His insistence upon high standards of scholarship and his courageous defense of the interests of the department have commanded the respect of all his colleagues.

In less than two decades preceding 1940 there was a complete change in the staff of the department except for its present head, Professor J. G. Winter. To him has fallen the difficult task of maintaining the high standards of teaching and of scholarship set by his predecessors. His associates look forward with confidence to the decade which lies before them.

The years 1930-40 have witnessed more clearly than any preceding period the unfortunate results of the confusion which has developed in secondary education. In the high schools there have been an unparalleled influx of pupils (many of them of inferior ability), a resulting shift of emphasis in instruction toward vocational preparation, and a too prevalent abandonment of definite standards of achievement. These factors have affected the department in various ways. Fewer students enter the University with the traditional four years' preparation in Latin, and it has been necessary to give added attention to those courses in the department which were formerly regarded as preparatory to college work. Enrollments in the senior courses are correspondingly smaller than in the preceding decade.

Fortunately, the graduate courses of the department have attracted superior students from an ever widening area which extends beyond the borders of the United States. In the decade ending in 1940 the master of arts degree was conferred upon 189 students in Latin. Seven received the degree of doctor of philosophy in Latin, and six received the same degree in Latin and Greek.

Summer courses were first organized in 1894 and were principally of undergraduate character. Gradually the demand for graduate courses increased, and those designed for undergraduates attracted fewer students until in the early twenties it was no longer practicable to include in the summer program courses for which graduate credit was not given. The number of students seeking advanced degrees through summer work in the department has grown larger, with only an occasional downward fluctuation. During the five years ending in June, 1935, 219 students were enrolled in summer courses in Latin, and in the next five years the number was 303. The University's program in the classical languages is now unsurpassed by any in the country. Two institutes for teachers of Latin have been held during the summer session and have enrolled teachers from Maine to California, and from the Gulf states to the Canadian border. At no time in its history has the Department of Latin been more widely recognized than it is at present.

Recognition must here be given to the generosity of Mr. Theodore D. Buhl, of Detroit, in establishing the Buhl classical fellowships in 1901, and to Mrs. Theodore D. Buhl and her son, Mr. Lawrence D. Buhl, in continuing them. In a period of forty years more than fifty graduate students have been recipients of these fellowships, to many of whom the Page  642continuance of their studies would otherwise have been impossible. In addition to six members of the present University faculty who are occupied in teaching or research in the classics, former Buhl classical fellows are known to be engaged in teaching or administrative work in the University of North Dakota, Butler University, Pomona College, Southwestern University, the University of Illinois, New York City College, Luther College, Colby College, Sweet Briar College, Indiana University, the Michigan State Normal College, and other institutions of similar standing.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angell, James B.A Memorial Discourse on the Life and Services of Henry Simmons Frieze. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1890.
Angell, James B.The Reminiscences of … New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912. P. 17.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Frieze, Henry S."The Late Professor Jones."Mich. Argonaut, 7 (1888): 15-18.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department [College, 1915 — ] of Literature, Science, and the Arts," Univ. Mich., 1908-40.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1880-1940. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1870, 1872, 1879-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings … 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)
White, Andrew D.Autobiography … New York: Century Co., 1905. Vol. I.

THE DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY SCIENCE*

THE University of Michigan, after giving instruction in librarianship in the summer session for many years, opened in the autumn of 1926 a Department of Library Science as part of the undergraduate curriculum in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Four years later the requirements for admission were changed to put the work of the Department of Library Science on a strictly graduate basis.

The Department of Library Science has restricted the numbers of its students, particularly in recent years, to a small and compact group of high academic standing. It has aimed to train a comparatively small number of especially selected students rather than to seek to attract considerable numbers.

The department has been extremely fortunate in its faculty. Margaret Mann, Associate Professor Emeritus since 1939, and Associate Professor Eunice Wead (Smith '02, A.M. Michigan '27) have been connected with the department since its beginning. During its first year, Sydney Bancroft Mitchell (McGill '01, A.M. ibid. '04), of the University of California, held the professorship at Michigan. He was succeeded by Associate Professor Carleton B. Joeckel (Wisconsin '08, Ph.D. Chicago '34, B.L.S. New York State Lib. School '10), who later went to the University of Chicago. Joeckel was succeeded by Harland Abbott Page  643Carpenter (Boston '25, B.S.L.S. Columbia '28), who in turn was followed by Cecil John McHale (Carleton '22, A.M. Harvard '25, A.B.L.S. Michigan '29).

In 1938 the Carnegie Corporation gave the department an endowment of $150,000 (later increased to $200,000). Rudolph H. Gjelsness (North Dakota '16, B.L.S. Illinois '20) was called from the University of Arizona to take an endowed chair thus provided and was afterward promoted to the chairmanship of the department. Katherine Elizabeth Schultz (Smith '18, A.M.L.S. Michigan '34) was appointed Assistant Professor in 1939, succeeding Associate Professor Mann. In addition to the three full-time members of the staff, the department has drawn since its beginning on the staff of the University Library for instruction in the regular academic year. In its early years Francis L. D. Goodrich ('03, B.L.S. '16, A.M. '16), the Associate Librarian, and later his successor, Samuel Wilson McAllister ('16, A.M. '22, B.S.L.S. Columbia '28), had charge of a few courses. R. H. Gjelsness, when he was Assistant Librarian, Edward Henry Eppens (B.D. Yale '96), the chief classifier, and Edith Thomas ('14), the head of the Library Extension Service, have likewise been members of the faculty of the department. In each summer since 1927 the summer session has drawn to the city of Ann Arbor teachers of library science from other institutions and librarians of distinction.

In the first fifteen years of the department's existence, 739 degrees in library science were conferred — 538 bachelor's, 200 master's, and 1 doctor's.

The department is definitely integrated with the work of the University in both the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the Graduate School. The department does not exist as a separate educational unit, as do most university library schools. Admissions to the department and the work of students conform in every respect to the rigid and exacting conditions laid down by the University for work beyond the first bachelor's degree.

While a number of the graduates of the Department of Library Science have gone into public library work, it is noteworthy that the majority of them are to be found in college and university libraries and in libraries of research institutions. This is only natural, in view of the close connection between the University Library and the Department of Library Science, which operated under a single director until 1940.

The department has had an unusual number of students from abroad, particularly from Italy and New Zealand.

In earlier years definite efforts were made to train librarians for high schools in Michigan and the surrounding states. The courses furnishing such training had to be curtailed because of reductions in income owing to the prevailing economic crisis.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement of the Summer Session, Univ. Mich., 1909-40.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1925-27.
Courses in Library Science, Univ. Mich., 1925-40.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1925-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1923-40.
Page  644

THE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

The History of the Department

WHEN the seven young men who constituted the first student body came to Ann Arbor in the fall of 1841 to enter the newly organized University of Michigan, one of the two professors who welcomed them was the Reverend George Palmer Williams (Vermont '25, LL.D. Kenyon '49), Professor of Mathematics. To this year may therefore be assigned the birth of the Department of Mathematics.

Professor Williams, who was thirty-nine years old at that time, had had a varied teaching experience as principal of the preparatory school at Kenyon College, Ohio, for four years, and as a teacher of ancient languages in Western University of Pennsylvania and at Kenyon College for six years. He came to Ann Arbor from Pontiac, where he had been principal of the University's Pontiac branch since 1837 (see Part I: Branches). When the first class graduated in 1845 Professor Williams, as President of the Faculty, gave the members their diplomas.

The history of the Department of Mathematics may be divided into four periods, the first extending from the entrance of the first class in 1841 to the appointment of Edward Olney in 1863, the second to the death of Professor Olney in 1887, the third to the death of Professor Beman in 1922, and the fourth to the present time.

The first period, 1841-63. — For a number of years after 1843 George P. Williams was listed in the annual Catalogue as Professor of Natural Philosophy and Mathematics. The total enrollment in the 1840's was so small that he was able to conduct all of the classes in both of these subjects, but as the University attracted more students it became necessary that his burden of teaching should be divided. Two professorships were formed from his chair in 1854, and his title was changed to Professor of Mathematics. In 1854-55 there were sixty-three freshmen — almost as many students as were in the other three classes combined. The following year Williams was assisted in mathematics by Alexander Winchell, then Professor of Natural History, and William G. Peck, Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering. In May, 1856, William Petit Trowbridge (U. S. Mil. Acad. '48, Ph.D. hon. Princeton '79, LL.D. Michigan '87) was also appointed Professor of Mathematics, but he served for only one year, and later had a distinguished career in engineering. One of the University's own graduates, John Emory Clark ('56, A.M. '59), was Assistant Professor of Mathematics for the following two years. During the remaining four years of the period Williams was assisted by James Craig Watson ('57, Ph.D. Leipzig '70, LL.D. Columbia '77). Watson, a gifted mathematician, was only twenty-one years old when he became Instructor in Mathematics and temporary Professor of Astronomy in 1859. He later brought fame to Michigan as Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Detroit Observatory (see Part III: Department of Astronomy).

In this early period the work in mathematics included algebra and geometry in the freshman year, and plane and spherical trigonometry and some analytical geometry and calculus in the sophomore year. The books used, Davies' translations of Bourdon's Algebra and Legendre's Geometry, Davies and Loomis' Trigonometry, Loomis' Analytical Geometry, and Loomis' Differential and Integral Calculus, give some idea of the ground covered in the early courses. The Page  645new University soon showed its broadminded attitude toward education by providing a scientific course parallel with the classical course. As early as the year 1854-55 the number of freshmen in the scientific course exceeded the number pursuing the classical course, this year marking the beginning of the popularity of the new course. The number of upperclassmen who had chosen it was only eleven — less than one-sixth of the enrollment in the junior and senior classes. The curriculum for students enrolled in the scientific course included an additional term of calculus and such applied subjects as surveying, navigation, descriptive geometry, and drawing and architecture.

Even in these very early days extensive plans were in mind for a more advanced development:

university course

This Course … for those who have taken the degree of Bachelor of Arts or … Bachelor of Science … when completely furnished with able professors and the material of learning, will correspond to that pursued in the Universities of France and Germany.


(Cat., 1852-53, p. 26.)

A skeleton outline of the proposed course lists twenty subjects of study, in which higher mathematics occupies the seventh place. The first step toward a realization of this more advanced program was signalized by the appearance, in the Catalogue of 1856-57, of a list of books for reference. In the higher mathematics mention was made of Church's Analytical Geometry, Church's Differential and Integral Calculus, Courtenay's Calculus, and Peirce's Curves and Functions.

In the Catalogue of 1858-59 appeared the announcement of a "Programme of Studies for the Degrees of A.M. and M.S." Professor Williams offered further work in calculus, and Assistant Professor Clark offered courses in the same program — Higher Algebra; Calculus, which proposed to give a general view of definite integrals, differential equations, including the theory of singular solutions, and partial differential equations; and Method of Variations. It is interesting to speculate what the results might have been if Assistant Professor Clark had remained to perfect this ambitious program.

With a staff consisting of Professor Williams and Instructor Watson it was inevitable that the emphasis during the remaining four years of this first period should be on applied mathematics. Watson, in addition to his instructorship in mathematics, was Professor of Astronomy in 1859-60 and then for three years was Professor of Physics. He offered as Physics in the graduate program analytical mechanics and the mathematical theory of heat, light, and sound.

The second period, 1863-87. — The fall of 1863, with the departure of Brünnow as Professor of Astronomy and the appointment of Edward Olney (A.M. hon. Madison University '53, LL.D. Kalamazoo '73) as Professor of Mathematics, marks the beginning of the second period. Watson became Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Detroit Observatory, and Williams, Professor of Physics, a position which he held until 1875. From that year until his death in 1881 he was Professor Emeritus.

At the opening of the second period Professor Olney and one instructor constituted the staff. Olney was thirty-five years old when he came to the University to take charge of the work in mathematics. He was not a college graduate, but had educated himself while working on a farm. He had served five years as principal of the Perrysburg Union School in Perrysburg, Ohio, and for ten years had held the chair of mathematics in Kalamazoo College. During his first two years at the University of Michigan Olney Page  646was assisted by Allen Jeremiah Curtis (Kalamazoo '60, A.M. Michigan '61), who had been his colleague on the Kalamazoo College faculty. At the University Curtis was an instructor in both mathematics and rhetoric. He was succeeded in 1865 by William Butler Morgan (Haverford '53, A.M. ibid. '57, Michigan '63e), who remained only one year and taught civil engineering as well as mathematics. Then for five years George Benjamin Merriman (Ohio Wesleyan '63, A.M. Michigan '64), Assistant Professor of Mathematics, divided the classes with Professor Olney. Merriman had studied law and had been admitted to the bar. In 1871 he left the department, but continued in the University, in the Department of Physics, through 1874-75. During a part of the time that Merriman taught in the Department of Mathematics Mark Walrod Harrington ('68, A.M. '71, LL.D. '94), an instructor, gave a part of his time to the subject, though his interests were rather in the natural and physical sciences. He definitely entered the fields of geology and biology in 1872 and was later a noted astronomer and meteorologist (see Part III: Meteorology and Department of Astronomy).

In 1871-72 Merriman was replaced by three instructors — Wooster Woodruff Beman ('70, A.M. '73, LL.D. Kalamazoo '08), Edward Laurens Mark ('71, Ph.D. Leipzig '76, LL.D. Michigan '96), and Marcus Baker ('70, A.M. '76, LL.B. Columbian University '96). Of these, Beman was the only one who remained, Mark leaving after one year and Baker after two.

The staff took on greater permanence during 1874-75, for Olney and Beman, who now became an assistant professor, were joined by Charles Nelson Jones (Oberlin '71), and these three, with the addition of an occasional assistant or instructor, constituted the staff of the department for the remaining thirteen years of the period.

The undergraduate curriculum in mathematics at the beginning of this second period was much like that which had obtained from the earliest days. In the classical course there were plane geometry and trigonometry in the first semester of the freshman year, algebra in the second; plane analytical geometry and differential calculus in the first semester of the sophomore year, and solid geometry and integral calculus in the second; in the junior year there was physics, supplemented by spherical geometry and spherical trigonometry. The curriculum in the scientific course devoted more time to calculus and included descriptive geometry and analytical mechanics. Ray's Plane and Solid Geometry and Ray's Algebra, Part II, replaced some of the earlier texts, and soon some of Olney's own books came into use.

The Catalogue for the year 1867-68 contains the following description of the work in mathematics (pp. 63-64):

The course pursued in Pure Mathematics has reference both to intellectual training and the acquisition of practical knowledge. Ray's text-books in Elementary Geometry and Algebra were used in the Freshman year. During this year the student is kept pretty close to the methods of the author; but much stress is laid upon the solution of problems and the performance of all practical exercises tending to promote thoroughness and independent thought. In the Sophomore year, while text-books are used, a part of the course is given by lectures in order to give greater breadth of view, and to develop in the pupil the power of investigation, by following out suggestions made by the lecturer. For General Geometry and Calculus Loomis' class-book is used. In the Scientific courses Davies' Analytical Geometry and Davies' Descriptive Geometry and Warren's Perspective Drawing are used on their several subjects.

Ample provision is made for those who wish to pursue a more extended course of Page  647Mathematical studies, by allowing them to substitute mathematical for other studies, according to the preceding synopsis of the Courses of Instruction. In this way the Geometry, Infinitesimal Calculus, Calculus of Variations, and the Calculus of Finite Differences may be pursued as far as students may desire.

The Catalogue for the following year gives a detailed outline (p. 51), listing with great detail the topics included in the various courses:

VI. — Pure Mathematics Classical Course

Freshmen. — Geometry, Problems in construction, Review of Properties of Triangles, Polygons, Plane Areas, Solid and Spherical Geometry; Algebra, Quadratics, Ratio, Proportion, Progressions, Theory of Indeterminate Coefficients, Binomial Theorem and its application to the development of Functions, Theory and Use of Logarithms, Indeterminate Analysis, and the Elements of the Theory of Equations.

Sophomores. — Trigonometry, Plane and Spherical; General Geometry, Construction of Equations, Production of Equations of Plane Loci, transformation of Coördinates, and the Properties of the Conic Sections; Elective; Calculus, Differential, including Differentiation of Functions of a Single Variable, McLaurin's and Taylor's Theorems with Binomial Theorem and Theory of Logarithms deduced, Maxima and Minima of Functions of a Single Variable, Radius of Curvature, and the Elementary Principles of Tracing Curves; Integral, Elementary Forms, Binomial Differentials, Rectification and Quadrature of Plane Curves, and Surfaces and Volumes of Solids of Revolution.

For the students who took the scientific course there were added topics in algebra: resolution of cubic equations and a more complete view of the theory of equations, including Sturm's theorem and Horner's method of resolving numerical higher equations.

In the civil engineering course there was a further requirement:

Juniors. — General Geometry, Polar Coördinates, Lines, Planes and surfaces in Space including Surfaces of the 2d Order; Calculus, Differential including Functions of Several Variables with a fuller view of the Theory of Curves, and Integral including Functions of two Variables and Special Processes.

When these descriptions were rewritten for the Catalogue of 1872-73, it was possible to mention Olney's Treatise on Special or Elementary Geometry, Part III, and Olney's Algebra, Part III, which had recently appeared, as indicating the ground covered. These texts were fairly complete, beginning with first principles. The Part III in each case embraced the topics especially fitted for university work. The ideal that Olney had in mind for college work in mathematics and for the appropriate high-school preparation is clearly set forth in the following paragraph from the Preface of his Geometry:

Part III, which is contained only in the University Edition, has been written with special reference to the needs of students in the University of Michigan. Our admirable system of public High Schools, of which schools there is now one in almost every considerable village, promises ere long to become to us something near what the German Gymnasia are to their Universities. In order to promote the legitimate development of these schools, it is necessary that the University resign to them the work of instruction in the elements of the various branches, as fast and as far as they are prepared in sufficient numbers to undertake it. It is thought that these schools should now give instruction in Elementary Geometry, which has hitherto been given in our ordinary college course. The first two parts of this volume furnish this amount of instruction, and students are expected to pass an examination upon it on their entrance into the University. This amount of preparation enables students to extend their knowledge of Geometry, during the Freshman year in the University, considerably beyond what has hitherto been practicable. As a text-book for Page  648such students, Part III has been written. At this stage of his progress, the student is prepared to learn to investigate for himself. Hence he is here furnished with a large collection of well classified theorems and problems, which afford a review of all that has gone before, extend his knowledge of geometrical truth, and give him the needed discipline in original demonstration. To develop the power of independent thought, is the most difficult, while it is the most important part of the teacher's work. Great pains have therefore been taken, in this part of the work, to render such aid, and only such, as a student ought to require in advancing from the stage in which he has been following the processes of others, to that of independent reasoning. In the second place, this part contains what is usually styled Applications of Algebra to Geometry, with an extended and carefully selected range of examples in this important subject. A third purpose has been to present in this part an introduction to what is often spoken of as the Modern Geometry, by which is meant the results of modern thought in developing geometrical truth upon the direct method. While, as a system of geometrical reasoning, this Geometry is not philosophically different from that with which the student of Euclid is familiar, and which is properly distinguished as the special or direct method, the character of the facts developed is quite novel. So much so, indeed, that the student who has no knowledge of Geometry but that which our common text-books furnish, knows absolutely nothing of the domain into which most of the brilliant advances of the present century have been made. He knows not even the terms in which the ideas of such writers as Poncelet, Chasles, and Salmon, are expressed, and he is quite as much a stranger to the thought. In this part are presented the fundamental ideas concerning Loci, Symmetry, Maxima and Minima, Isoperimetry, the Theory of Transversals, Anharmonic Ratio, Polars, Radical Axes, and other modern views concerning the circle.

Olney was a master of clear exposition, and the influence of his books was widespread among the high schools of the region.

The Calendar of 1878-79 shows a considerable advance in the direction of our present practice. For the first time, all courses were listed by number and the number of recitations per week was stated. The list (p. 31) follows:

  • first semester
    • 1. Advanced Algebra. Four times a week.
    • 2. General Geometry and Calculus. Four times a week.
    • 3. Advanced General Geometry and Calculus. Five times a week.
    • 4. Determinants. Once a week.
  • second semester
    • 5. Advanced Geometry; Plane and Spherical Trigonometry. Four times a week.
    • 6. General Geometry and Calculus. Four times a week.
    • 7. Modern Geometry and Trilinear Co-ordinates. Twice a week.
    • 8. Calculus of Variations. Twice a week, first half of semester.
    • 9. Quaternions. Twice a week, second half of semester.

In 1879-80 a two-hour course in trigonometry and a four-hour course in analytical mechanics were added, and the following statement appeared (p. 33):

It is proposed to add a two years' course of Mathematical reading as soon as there shall be a sufficient demand for it, in such standard works as Salmon's Higher Algebra, Frost's Solid Geometry, Doctor's Determinants, Todhunter's or Price's Integral Calculus and Taite's Quaternions.

Two years later this reading course was listed as Course 17, and Scott's Determinants and Routh's Rigid Dynamics were mentioned among the suggested books. The course in analytical mechanics was extended to two semesters, the second being devoted to dynamics. Two-hour courses in advanced algebra and geometry were also added, but these represented rearrangements of work already given with but little new subject matter. In 1885-86 the course in geometry was extended to two semesters, and included Page  649synthetic projective geometry. It was, however, a course intended for freshmen. A two-hour course in the elements of the theory of functions, including elliptic functions, was added, completing the list of courses offered in 1886-87, the end of the second period.

Professor Olney was well aware that the department, to do effective work, must be provided with library facilities and other equipment. The inadequate library appropriations permitted few additions to the small group of mathematical books included in the original 3,700 bought in Europe by Asa Gray. The records show that in 1881 Olney addressed the Board of Regents on the needs of the Department of Mathematics, recommending the purchase of additional textbooks. Crelle's Journal was mentioned as being particularly needed. An appropriation of $500 was made for the purchase of the complete set of this Journal, but the appropriation was not used, for Mr. E. C. Hegeler, of La Salle, Illinois, placed the same amount at Professor Olney's disposal for this purpose. On two earlier occasions Olney had asked for funds to procure means of illustration in his department and had been granted $50 in 1864 and $70 in 1865. Some of the models included in the department's collection were doubtless part of these early purchases.

Two circumstances point to the conclusion that the work in mathematics was exacting in those early times: Professor Olney was commonly known among the students by the nickname of "Toughy," and in November, 1880, the Board of Regents found it desirable to pass a resolution directing an investigation of the subject, as follows:

Resolved, That the Literary Faculty be requested carefully to examine as to the amount of time required by the students to prepare their mathematical recitations, and to see that these studies do not interfere with others equally important and necessary to a course of liberal education.


(R.P., 1876-81, p. 609.)

The third period, 1887-1922. — Upon the death of Professor Olney, Associate Professor Beman was promoted to a professorship in mathematics and Assistant Professor Jones was named Professor of Applied Mathematics. With these changes the department entered the third period. Jones held his position only during 1887-88.

By the following year, 1888-89, of the three who had constituted the staff for the last twelve years Beman alone remained; with him were associated as instructors Alexander Ziwet (C.E. Karlsruhe Polytechnic School '80), Charles Puryear (Richmond '81, B.S.[C.E.] Virginia '85, LL.D. Daniel Baker Coll. '14), and Frank Nelson Cole (Harvard '82, Ph.D. ibid. '86), the first doctor of philosophy to have a place on the staff. Both Cole and Ziwet took an active part in the New York Mathematical Society, their names appearing as authors of reviews in the first volume of its Bulletin. Some of the instructors appointed in these years remained only a short time, but the staff was gradually acquiring a more stable character. The appointments that proved more permanent were those of Joseph Lybrand Markley (Haverford '85, Ph.D. Harvard '89) and Elmer Adelbert Lyman ('86, LL.D. Berea College '18) in 1890, Arthur Graham Hall ('87, Ph.D. Leipzig '02) in 1891, James Waterman Glover ('92, Ph.D. Harvard '95) and Edwin Charles Goddard ('89, '99l) in 1895, and William Henry Butts ('78, Ph.D. Zurich '07) in 1898. Cole left in 1895 to accept a professorship in Columbia University. In 1898 Lyman went to Michigan State Normal College.

The year 1899-1900 closed with the staff made up of Professor Beman, Junior Professor Ziwet, Assistant Professor Markley, and four instructors — Hall, Page  650Glover, Goddard, and Butts. Goddard had been studying law at the same time that he was Instructor in Mathematics.

The next few years witnessed a remarkable growth in the staff; there were so many changes that it seems desirable to record by name only those instructors who were later promoted. Walter Burton Ford (Harvard '97, Ph.D. ibid. '05) came as Instructor in 1900-1901. In 1901-2 Junior Professor Ziwet was placed in charge of mathematics for engineering students, a step which initiated the gradual separation of the work in mathematics into two distinct departments (see Part VII: Department of Engineering Mathematics). The three instructors added in 1903-4 who remained more than the one year were: Archie Burton Pierce (California '90, Ph.D. Zurich '03), Theodore Rudolph Running (Wisconsin '92, Ph.D. ibid. '97), and Peter Field (Minnesota '96, Ph.D. Cornell '02). Louis Charles Karpinski (Cornell '01, Ph.D. Strassburg '03) and John William Bradshaw ('00, Ph.D. Strassburg '04) were appointed instructors in 1904-5, and in the same year Ziwet was made a professor. Of those who later advanced in the department, one was added as an instructor in each of the next four years — Clyde Elton Love ('05, Ph.D. '13) in 1905-6, Louis Allen Hopkins (Butler College '05, Ph.D. Chicago '14) in 1906-7, Vincent Collins Poor (Kansas '01, Ph.D. ibid. '15) in 1907-8, and Frank Howard Stevens (Chicago '08) in 1908-9. Markley became a full professor in 1907. Butts, though continuing to teach mathematics in the Literary Department, became Assistant Dean in the Department of Engineering in May, 1908. Pierce was transferred to the civil engineering staff in the autumn. At the same time Bradshaw dropped his administrative work (see Part II: Office of the Registrar), and Arthur G. Hall, who had been a member of the mathematics faculty for several years before 1903, returned to the University as Professor of Mathematics, Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and Editor of University Publications. Several promotions having been made, the staff in 1908-9 consisted of four professors, two junior professors, five assistant professors, and nine instructors.

Theophil Henry Hildebrandt (Illinois '05, Ph.D. Chicago '10) came as Instructor in 1909-10, and Carl Jenness Coe ('09, Ph.D. Harvard '29) in 1910-11. In 1911 Glover was promoted from an associate professorship to a full professorship of mathematics and insurance.

The following five men joined the staff in the next five years: Louis Joseph Rouse (Princeton '08, Ph.D. Michigan '18) and Tomlinson Fort (Georgia '06, Ph.D. Harvard '12) in 1913-14, Alfred Lewis Nelson (Midland College '11, Ph.D. Chicago '15) in 1915-16, Harry Clyde Carver ('15) in 1916-17, and Rainard Benton Robbins (Indiana '09, Ph.D. Harvard '14) in 1917-18. Meanwhile, in 1914-15, the title of junior professor was changed to that of associate professor. In 1915-16 Stevens was transferred to the Department of Engineering Mechanics, and Hopkins accepted, in addition to his teaching duties, the position of Secretary of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture. In 1917-18 Ford was named Professor of Mathematics, and Tomlinson Fort accepted a position at the University of Alabama. William Wells Denton ('07, Ph.D. Illinois '12) came as Instructor in the fall of 1918, and between 1919 and 1921 Field, Karpinski, Butts, and Running were promoted to professorships. Norman Herbert Anning (Queen's University '05, A.M. ibid. '06) came as Instructor in 1920-21. The following year, there were ten professors, four associate professors, seven assistant professors, and fifteen instructors.

Page  651Because of the practice of introducing new courses, often with but slightly modified content, and of giving them new numbers, the list of courses in 1886-87 presents a very confused picture: Courses 10, 12, and 15, which together covered much the same ground as Course 5, were for freshmen, but Courses 2 and 3 were more advanced. In 1887-88 a partial renumbering somewhat improved the situation.

Beyond a good two-year program in trigonometry, analytical geometry, and elementary calculus, only four courses were offered besides the reading course. These were the five-hour course Analytical Mechanics, a two-hour course called Modern Algebra, Differential Equations, a two-hour course, and the three-hour course designated Quaternions. There were eight freshman sections handled by the two instructors; Professors Beman and Jones took care of the other courses. With the coming of Dr. Cole in 1888-89 two new two-hour courses were offered, Mathematical Theory of Elasticity and Elements of the Theory of Functions.

Changes in textbooks and in the names of courses were also made soon after Professor Beman took charge of the department; the term "general geometry," introduced by Olney, disappeared. Olney had a strong antipathy to the name "analytical geometry," as he maintained that its method was no more analytical than that of the so-called "synthetic geometry." He distinguished "special" or "elementary" geometry, which deals with the properties of a particular curve, especially the circle, from "general" geometry, which treats of the common properties of curves and develops methods applicable to the investigation of all curves. The latter is aptly illustrated by the solution of the problem, to find the tangent at a given point on any curve.

Beman did not care to retain this terminology. He accepted the use of the prevalent name of "analytic geometry," and soon replaced Olney's texts, especially with those of English authors. C. Smith's Treatise on Algebra, his Conic Sections and Solid Geometry, Loney's Trigonometry, Williamson's Calculus, and Edwards' Integral Calculus for Beginners were in use in the nineties. A little later, Beman, in collaboration with David Eugene Smith, published a series of texts, but these were for secondary schools — no books of college grade were included.

Two years were sufficient to demonstrate that the new numbering of courses was not satisfactory, and a complete revision took place in 1889-90. Courses in trigonometry, algebra, analytic geometry, calculus, and analytical mechanics were numbered consecutively from one to six, with modifications indicated by an appended "a"; elective courses bore the numbers from seven to thirteen inclusive. Among these we find but one new course, one of two hours in modern geometry. The changes of the next two years merely lengthened courses already included in the list. The University had been empowered to grant the teacher's certificate in 1891, but long before that some of the departments had been giving teachers' courses, and as early as 1880 the teacher's diploma was awarded in certain subjects.

In 1892-93 the department, recognizing its responsibility for the preparation of teachers for the secondary schools, introduced two courses for teachers — Teachers' Seminar in Algebra and Teachers' Seminar in Geometry. There were 128 Michigan high schools on the accredited list of the University in 1893. These teachers' seminars included a review of the content of high-school courses with occasional reference to more advanced points of view, together with a few lectures on the history of mathematics. Each student was expected to write a criticism of some text selected from Professor Page  652Beman's large collection. To one who was willing to undertake the task, a text in a foreign language was assigned.

New courses offered in the years that followed included Fourier Series and Spherical Harmonics, Theory of Substitutions, Partial Differential Equations, Theory of Numbers, Theory of Invariants, and Theory of the Potential.

The present statistical and actuarial work in the department began in 1902-3, when Glover offered three courses in the theory of annuities (see p. 654).

Before the close of the third period, January, 1922, there were other developments in the curriculum. Professor Ziwet, Professor Field, and others worked out a series of courses in applied mathematics — Vector Analysis, Hydrodynamics, and Theory of Elasticity. Professor Ford offered a course in infinite series and products, and another in topics in the theory of divergent series. The teachers' courses were elaborated, and separate courses were introduced in the history of mathematics, graphical methods, and celestial mechanics.

The physical equipment of the department was greatly increased during Professor Beman's administration. During his first year he addressed a letter to the Board of Regents, asking for an appropriation of $500 to buy models and supporting his request by reference to Professor Olney's generosity in turning back into the general fund the appropriation of an equal amount for the purchase of Crelle's Journal. This request was granted, and the purchases made at that time constitute most of the collection of models now in the possession of the department.

The fourth period, since 1922. — Professor Beman began the year 1921-22 in apparently good health, but an attack of arthritis compelled him to turn over his classes to others and was the cause of his death on January 18, 1922. He had completed fifty years of active service as a member of the faculty. Professor Markley was appointed Chairman of the Department of Mathematics in 1922. He directed its affairs until 1926, when, because of failing health, he resigned the chairmanship, but continued teaching for another year before his retirement.

Several important changes in the staff occurred during the chairmanship of Professor Markley. In 1922-23 two instructors came, Ruel V. Churchill (Chicago '22, Ph.D. Michigan '29) and Cecil Calvert Craig (Indiana '20, Ph.D. Michigan '27). Bradshaw and Hildebrandt became professors in 1923-24, and Assistant Professor Robbins left to take a position with the New York State Insurance Department. James Alexander Shohat (Magister of Pure Mathematics, Petrograd '22) came as Instructor in 1924-25. After a long and painful illness, Professor Hall died on January 10, 1925 (see Part II: Office of the Registrar). Assistant Professor Nelson resigned in 1925 to accept a professorship in the College of the City of Detroit. Ben Dushnik ('24, Ph.D. '31) and Walter Otto Menge ('25, Ph.D. '31) began as instructors in 1925-26, the year in which Alexander Ziwet was made Professor Emeritus, Love was promoted to a professorship, and Field was appointed Chairman of the Department of Mathematics in the College of Engineering.

In the spring of 1926 James W. Glover became Chairman, and immediately set himself to the task of revivifying the department. No new major appointment had been made since the death of Professor Beman, and at first the University attempted to secure a man of national reputation as professor. The attempt having proven unsuccessful, it was decided to add several promising younger men to the staff. In the year 1926-27 three assistant professors were Page  653appointed — James Andrew Nyswander (California '13, Ph.D. Chicago '24), George Yuri Rainich (Magister of Pure Mathematics, Kazan '13), and Raymond Louis Wilder (Brown '20, Ph.D. Texas '23). At the close of that year Markley became Professor Emeritus.

By resolution of the Regents in 1928 the Department of Mathematics in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the Department of Mathematics in the College of Engineering were reunited under the chairmanship of Professor Glover. William Dowell Baten (Baylor '14, Ph.D. Michigan '29) was added as an instructor in the fall of 1928. Alexander Ziwet died on November 18, 1928, and Joseph L. Markley a little more than a year later, April 19, 1930. In 1929-30 two new assistant professors were appointed — William Leake Ayres (Southwestern '23, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '27) and Arthur Herbert Copeland (Amherst '21, Ph.D. Harvard '26). Also in that year Assistant Professor Shohat resigned.

Professor Glover was absent on leave during the two years 1930-32 in order to devote his time to the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association, of which he was president, and Field was Acting Chairman of the department. Glover, upon his retirement from the chairmanship in the fall of 1934, was named Edward Olney Professor of Mathematics, a distinction conferred in recognition of his services to the University and to the department. T. H. Hildebrandt was designated as his successor. At the beginning of the year the department lost Assistant Professor Denton.

During the five years 1935-40 the following changes in the staff took place: Glover and Ford retired and were named professors emeritus, and Associate Professor Menge and Assistant Professor Baten left the University; Carver, Wilder, and Rainich were appointed to full professorships; Copeland and Churchill became associate professors; and Edwin Wilkinson Miller ('26, Ph.D. '30), Sumner Byron Myers (Harvard '29, Ph.D. ibid. '32), and Paul Sumner Dwyer (Allegheny '21, Ph.D. Michigan '36) were appointed assistant professors. At the close of the academic year 1939-40 the Department of Mathematics had a staff of nine professors, seven associate professors, seven assistant professors, and eleven instructors.

When the most recent period in the history of the department began in 1922, all the main branches of mathematics were represented by courses. The additions to the staff made possible extension in the fields of topology, differential geometry and relativity, modern algebraic theory, and probability. The number and variety of graduate courses has been increased, and the use of the seminar method has been extended. The most striking characteristic of this period has been the emphasis placed upon research and graduate work. This is reflected in the number of doctor's theses written. Although only eleven doctor's degrees had been conferred up to 1922, seventy-four were conferred in the eighteen succeeding years. Increased interest and activity in mathematical research on the part of members of the staff have naturally accompanied this growth. Other activities of the department have not been neglected. Not only is there adequate provision for those whose interest is along mathematical lines, but the increased need of mathematics in other fields has called for expansion in courses of interest primarily to engineering students and in courses in actuarial science and in mathematical statistics and their applications. The Department of Mathematics is growing not only by furthering its own interests but also by serving the the needs of other departments.

Page  654
Courses in Actuarial Mathematics

In this country university courses in the theory of probability, up to the beginning of this century, were largely confined to the solution of questions of a priori probability, that is, throwing of dice, drawing of cards, tossing of coins, and employment of combinations, permutations, substitutions, and the like, to find the numerator and denominator of the fraction expressing the required chance. This approach to the subject was the natural outcome of adherence to English texts and acceptance of the practices of the British school of mathematicians.

The first volume of Biometrika appeared in 1901-2, but it was a long time before the English and Scotch actuaries knew much about the new methods of approach used by Karl Pearson and his followers. The application of the methods of empirical probability to important practical problems, largely social in character — one of which was life insurance — was hardly known to our college and university mathematicians, and little study had been given by any of them to this unlimited field of useful and interesting material awaiting refined mathematical treatment.

It might fairly be said that students of the natural sciences recognized this situation before the mathematicians did. With mathematical equipment unequal to the task, they were trying as best they could to solve problems which they knew could be solved but with which they were unprepared to deal except by methods of elementary mathematical approach. It was this situation which first decided the writer to introduce in the University of Michigan courses in mathematics involving primarily the study of empirical probability.

One of the most important applications of this theory was actuarial mathematics. Early in the present century a number of foreign universities had developed actuarial courses in their departments of mathematics. This was, of course, to a considerable extent, due to national insurance and pension plans already under way. Although the total insurance in force in the United States was more than that of all the rest of the companies in the world put together, no training of technical actuarial content was available in this country. It was, therefore, under most favorable conditions that such courses were started at the University of Michigan.

Personal conversations and conferences made it apparent that the life insurance companies were favorably disposed toward this new plan. Accordingly, in the fall of 1902, the first course in this field was offered in the University of Michigan. It appeared in the University Calendar for 1902-3 as Mathematics 45, "Theory of Annuities and Insurance (II), two hours, Dr. Glover." It was elected by eleven men and one woman, and was given on Tuesday and Thursday in Room 17, University Hall, North Wing (now known as Mason Hall). Oliver Winfred Perrin ('01, A.M. '04), Associate Actuary of the Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company, was a member of this class and the first graduate of the University to enter and remain in the actuarial profession.

These courses were first announced both in the Department of Mathematics and in the Department of Political Economy (see Part III: Department of Economics). The faculty of the latter department was cordially disposed and was most helpful in the organization of the courses; it co-operated by encouraging election of these courses by students of political economy who had sufficient preparation in mathematics to undertake them with profit. The plan was to supplement the technical courses in actuarial mathematics by courses in Page  655political economy which would develop more fully the social aspects of insurance.

It should be acknowledged here that from the beginning to the present time busy executives and officers of insurance companies throughout the country have given valuable and cordial support to this work and have frequently taken the trouble to come to Ann Arbor and lecture to our classes on various phases of their business. This interest from outside the University has stimulated the students and has undoubtedly contributed much to the success of the venture. The companies also have recognized the training received here by sending their officers year after year to select University of Michigan actuarial graduates for technical positions in various departments of the home offices. Many students from this department have advanced from modest actuarial positions to become secretaries, vice-presidents, presidents, and directors in the important life and casualty insurance companies of this country. University of Michigan students from China, Japan, Mexico, the Philippine Islands, and other countries are now holding responsible positions in such companies organized in their native lands. In a number of cases University of Michigan graduates in actuarial mathematics have organized successful companies which they now head.

Up to the present time about four hundred students have taken all the actuarial courses and most of them are now actively engaged in executive positions of high rank. Not a few of them hold official positions in government insurance offices in this and other countries. Among them are about fifty women graduates, of whom one-third have married and have retired from active business life.

Although the number of professional actuarial graduates is relatively small — about four hundred — the elementary courses necessary to prepare students for advanced actuarial theory led to a new development for students not planning to become actuaries. They wanted an elementary course in financial mathematics, in which the mathematical content included simple and compound interest, annuities, sinking funds, valuation of securities, and depreciation. When such a course was offered, it attracted many students who were interested in the above subjects as a matter of general information and as a preparation for one of the many lines of modern business. This course injected into the classroom work a certain practical interest not ordinarily found in elementary mathematics courses. The result was a steadily increasing demand for Mathematics 51, (now Mathematics 47), for which in some years as many as three hundred students each semester were enrolled. And, since the elementary course in financial mathematics was begun at the University of Michigan in 1902, a similar course has been introduced into the mathematics department of almost every college and university in this country.

These courses at the University were organized and given at first by the writer, but additions to the teaching force were soon required because of the increasing number of students. Most of the work of instruction in actuarial science has been carried on of late by H. C. Carver, C. C. Craig, W. O. Menge, J. A. Nyswander, T. E. Raiford, and R. B. Robbins.

The curriculum in actuarial science has, in effect, developed a small professional field within the Department of Mathematics and a new group of elementary courses in finance, insurance, and statistics which have a strong appeal for many students who do not plan to enter the actuarial profession.

Page  656
Courses in Mathematical Statistics

The first work in mathematical statistics which was offered by this University was presented in a two-hour combined course, Mathematics of Insurance and Statistics, listed in the 1902-3 Announcement of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts by the Department of Political Economy and Sociology. This course was initiated and taught by James W. Glover, and was listed among the mathematical courses with the note: "For a detailed description of the same, consult this Announcement under Political Economy and Sociology."

Although the description of this two-hour course indicated that an important place was given to statistical theory, subsequent Announcements reveal that the course was developed in the direction of insurance, rather than of statistics. Thus, in 1906-7 and the succeeding years the description was as follows: "This course includes an elementary treatment of the following subjects: Interest, investment securities, averages, mortality tables, annuities, computations of life insurance premiums, and reserves."

The first course that was devoted exclusively to statistical theory was offered in 1912 by Professor Glover, and this date should be regarded as marking the birth of our curriculum in statistics. The following year the course was taught by Edward Brind Escott ('95, M.S. Chicago '96) and in the next two years by Chester Hume Forsyth (Butler '06, Ph.D. Michigan '15). It was described (Cal., 1912-13, p. 213) as follows: "The subjects treated in this course are averages, graphical representation of statistics, frequency curves, correlation, smoothing of statistics; with applications to statistical problems in economics, biology, insurance, and physics." It was given for two hours credit and was continued through the second semester as Course 50. Elderton's Frequency Curves and Correlation, recommended by the Actuarial Society of America, was used as a text, and this work was supplemented by lectures on interpolation and mechanical quadrature.

During recent years research workers in nearly all fields have recognized the necessity of utilizing statistical methods in measuring the validity of results derived from observational data, and consequently a number of courses in statistical methodology are now being offered in an effort to serve the particular needs of the various departments and schools. The Department of Mathematics offers a special course in mathematics and statistics designed to meet the needs of students in the School of Forestry and Conservation, another course for students of sociology, the basic Courses 49 and 50 (now listed as Mathematics 43 and Mathematics 44), for which one year's work in freshman mathematics is a prerequisite, an intermediate course requiring a knowledge of calculus, and an advanced course designed for students working for higher degrees and specializing in the more theoretical aspects of probability and statistics. Until the end of June, 1940, nineteen students had received their doctor's degrees in mathematical statistics, the first doctorate in this field having been conferred in 1915.

The members of the mathematical-statistical staff are constantly being consulted on matters concerning statistical research from all corners of the campus. They also offer informal courses in statistics for staff members of the University who use statistical methods in their researches but who cannot afford the time required to master the mathematical background so necessary for a complete understanding of the statistical methodology which they employ.

The unusual success of this University in teaching and utilizing statistical methods Page  657has been achieved largely through the use of excellent mechanical equipment provided by the administration. Since a computing machine is available for each student in all recitation periods, it is possible for the student to work out numerical exercises simultaneously with the presentation of new topics. The University utilizes two complete Hollerith installations, one in the Rackham Building and the other in the University Hospital. The statistical laboratory possesses a very complete set of instruments such as adding machines, integraphs, and harmonic analyzers.

In addition to the personnel of its mathematical-statistical staff, two other factors have contributed largely to the leadership of the University of Michigan in statistical research. The Department of Mathematics is providing an essential mathematical background through courses in probability, finite differences, and other branches of pure mathematics which are of great value in developments of theoretical statistics. Also, the Annals of Mathematical Statistics — the only journal of its kind in the country and the official publication of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, with a worldwide circulation — was founded within the University's Department of Mathematics in 1930 and was edited here until 1938, when its editorial office was transferred to Princeton University.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914. (Cal.)
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23. (Cat.)
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64).

THE DEPARTMENT OF MINERALOGY

THE Department of Mineralogy was one of the earliest departments established at the University, and the first purchase authorized by the Board of Regents was an expenditure for a collection of minerals for this department. At a meeting of the Board held in November, 1837, Dr. John Torrey, of New York City, was asked to examine and report on a collection of 2,600 specimens, largely from European localities, which was offered for sale by Baron L. Lederer, and the Regents, upon receiving a favorable report at their January meeting, 1838, concluded the purchase of this collection for $4,000. When it is recalled that the University did not open its doors to students until the fall of 1841, the foresight of the first Board indicated by this early purchase is evident. This valuable cabinet of minerals became the nucleus of our present museum collections, which in subsequent years have been augmented frequently by additional purchases, or through gifts and exchange of specimens.

At the October meeting of the Regents in 1839, the first appointment was made Page  658to the teaching staff of the Department of Mineralogy. Douglass Houghton (A.M. and M.D. Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. '29) was tendered the position of Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, and also was "charged with the subjects of Chemistry and Pharmacy till the Regents take further order in relation thereto" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 100). Because of his training and experience the selection of Houghton was very fitting. After his college training he had accompanied Schoolcraft on an expedition to the copper-mining region of Lake Superior. He had written a "Report on the Existence of Deposits of Copper in the Geological Basin of Lake Superior," which had attracted so much attention that in 1837 he was appointed state geologist.

His appointment as Professor carried with it a salary of $1,500 a year, but it was stipulated that the salary was not to begin until he entered upon his duties as a teacher, and as circumstances prevented him from assuming regular duties in Ann Arbor, he never received any salary from the University. It is reported, however, that he did give a brief course of lectures (Farrand, p. 55), and some confirmation of this statement may be found in the faculty report for 1842 (Sen. Doc., 1843, No. 5, app., p. 84). Although in the first Catalogues, 1843-44 and 1844-45, mineralogy was scheduled for the third term of the junior year and Houghton was listed as Professor of Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology, there is a lack of evidence in reports of work completed that the mineralogy course was actually given.

While engaged on a geological survey of the Upper Penninsula, Houghton lost his life in a storm on Lake Superior, October 13, 1845. Although his association with the University was all too brief, his influence was enduring, as his collections of mineralogical and geological specimens came into possession of the University through an act of the legislature passed in 1846.

Silas Hamilton Douglass (A.M. hon. Vermont '47), who had formerly accompanied Houghton on his geological surveys of Michigan and had served for one year as his assistant, especially in chemistry, was placed in charge of the department after Houghton's death in 1845. He was a man of unusual ability, and during his thirty-three years with the University he was called upon to serve in many and varied capacities, as indicated by the titles he held at different times. After serving as a lecturer on chemistry and geology in 1845-46 he held the following professorships: chemistry and geology, 1846-47; chemistry, mineralogy, and geology, 1847-50; chemistry, pharmacy, medical jurisprudence, geology, and mineralogy, 1850-55; chemistry, mineralogy, pharmacy, and toxicology, 1855-70; chemistry and mineralogy,* 1870-74; chemistry, 1874-75; and metallurgy and chemical technology, 1875-77. Also, he was Director of the Chemical Laboratory, 1870-77.

Thus it appears that the first actual systematic instruction given in mineralogy dates back to 1845, when Silas Douglass was placed in charge of the department. In 1874, largely because of the increasing demands upon his time as the result of the rapid expansion in the field of chemistry, the Regents, at their October meeting, relieved him of some of his responsibilities by voting to drop the word "mineralogy" from his title.*

Douglass was followed by Eugene Woldemar Hilgard (Ph.D. Heidelberg '53, LL.D. Michigan '87), who had studied at the Royal Mining School at Freiberg and also at Zurich and Heidelberg. When Page  659the invitation was extended to him he was Professor of Chemistry at the University of Mississippi and state geologist. In 1873 he came to Michigan as Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany, but the following year his title was changed to include mineralogy. His tenure was very brief, however, for he submitted his resignation, effective in March, 1875, in order to accept the professorship of agricultural chemistry at the University of California and to be the director of the State Agricultural Experiment Station.

Hilgard received many honorary degrees. In 1903 the University of Heidelberg, reconferring a degree after an interval of fifty years — a very unusual procedure — gave him the honorary diploma of doctor of philosophy.

Certain developments between 1865 and 1875 in a field closely related to that of mineralogy largely determined the choice of the next man who was called to carry on the work. With the early recognition of the importance of the copper and iron deposits in the state, it was but natural that sooner or later agitation for the establishment of a School of Mines at the University would develop. This discussion apparently originated within the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In March, 1865, the president reported that the faculty had considered the propriety of establishing a School of Mines and desired authority to do so. This authorization was granted by a resolution passed on March 28, 1865:

Resolved, That the President and Academic Faculty be requested to prepare an article for insertion in the Annual Catalogue on the subject of a School of Mines, so far as now developed in the University; and that the degree of Mining Engineer be conferred on those who complete the course of study prescribed in the same.


(R.P., 1864-70, p. 78.)
Thus the University undertook, in a small way and without special appointments or legislative appropriation, to give instruction in this new field. Two degrees of mining engineer were conferred in 1867, six in 1868, and seven in 1869.

It must have become apparent shortly that the limited number of courses given was wholly inadequate in preparation for such a profession, and that in justice to the many people in the state interested in the mining industry, a more comprehensive program of study and greater laboratory facilities should be offered. In 1875 the Regents were authorized to establish a School of Mines (including a Department of Architecture), and the legislature made appropriations of $8,000 for salaries and of $2,500 for apparatus for each of the two college years 1875-76 and 1876-77. Three professorships were provided — in mining engineering, in metallurgy, and in architecture and design — and provision was also made for employing assistants if they should be needed. Accordingly, Douglas* was transferred to the professorship of metallurgy and chemical technology, and William Henry Pettee (Harvard '61) became Professor of Mining Engineering in 1875. At the time of his appointment Pettee had spent three years at the mining school at Freiberg, Saxony, and eleven years teaching at Harvard University, where he was Assistant Professor of Mining Engineering.

As noted above, the appropriations for the School of Mines were made for a two-year period, but the legislature of 1877 failed to provide for its continued support. Hopeful that the legislature might reconsider its action at the following session, the professors of mining engineering and metallurgy "struggled on for two years without pay …" (Farrand, p. 223). No financial support was in sight, and the School of Mines at the University was therefore definitely abandoned. Page  660No precise reason can be assigned to the action of the legislature in changing its attitude within the short period of two years, unless it was the small enrollment in this field of engineering or a growing feeling among some of the members of the legislature that the School of Mines should be situated in the Upper Peninsula.

In June, 1877, upon the abandonment of the School of Mines, Pettee submitted his resignation as Professor of Mining Engineering, but was immediately given the appointment of Professor of Geology in charge of Mining Engineering, effective the next October. He became Professor of Mineralogy and Economic Geology two years later and Professor of Mineralogy, Economic Geology, and Mining Engineering in 1881. He continued to give the instruction in mineralogy until the time of his death in 1904, although during the latter part of his regime he was burdened with an excessive amount of editorial work, especially in connection with the printing of the annual University Calendar(see Part II: Office of the Registrar). This naturally interfered with his teaching to such an extent that only a few courses were offered.

Edward Henry Kraus (Syracuse '96, LL.D. ibid. '34, Ph.D. Munich '01) became Assistant Professor of Mineralogy in 1904, succeeding Professor Pettee. Four years later his title read Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography and Director of the Mineralogical Laboratory. The growth of the department under Kraus's leadership was remarkably rapid, largely because of his energy, enthusiasm, and foresight. The number of courses offered was increased, and the enrollment mounted. The Regents, clearly aware of the needs of an expanding department, graciously voted liberal appropriations which made it possible to enlarge the departmental personnel and to provide the necessary apparatus and equipment. The teaching staff was gradually increased, until at the present time it consists of five members of professorial rank and a number of assistants. Fortunately, during this period of very rapid expansion new quarters for the department were provided in the Natural Science Building.

In addition to being a stimulating teacher, Professor Kraus possesses rare executive and administrative abilities. He has therefore been called upon frequently to serve the University in various additional capacities. From 1911 to 1915 he served as Acting Dean of the Summer Session and from 1915 to 1933 as Dean; in the School (later, College) of Pharmacy, he was Acting Dean from 1920 to 1923, and Dean from 1923 until 1933.

After the death of Dean Effinger in 1933, Professor Kraus was appointed Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (see Part III: Administration and Curriculums). Because of his many duties as head of the largest administrative unit of the University, he has been relieved of all formal teaching, although he is still a member of the staff, and in 1933 the affairs of the department were placed in the hands of Walter Fred Hunt ('04, Ph.D. '15) as Chairman.

In 1939-40 the personnel of the Department of Mineralogy was as follows: Edward Henry Kraus, Professor of Crystallography and Mineralogy and Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; Walter Fred Hunt, Professor of Petrology and Chairman of the Department of Mineralogy; Albert Becker Peck (Syracuse '14, Ph.D. Michigan '25), Associate Professor of Mineralogy; Lewis Stephen Ramsdell ('17, Ph.D. '25), Associate Professor of Mineralogy; Chester Baker Slawson ('19, Ph.D. '25), Associate Professor of Mineralogy; Marion V. Denny ('32, M.S. '33), Assistant Curator; Robert A. Hatch ('37, M.S. '38), Page  661teaching fellow; and William B. Colburn, Honorary Associate Curator.

Program of studies. — The subject of mineralogy might appear to cover a very restricted field of natural science, limited to students desirous of becoming professional mineralogists and geologists. To these groups its appeal is especially direct, but also, as a service science, mineralogy is valuable to students in many related fields. Certain optical methods perfected by the mineralogist find application in other branches of science and in industry, so that present elections in mineralogy include students enrolled in six schools and colleges — the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the Graduate School, and the Colleges of Pharmacy, Forestry, Architecture, and Engineering.

One of the methods commonly employed in the purification of both organic and inorganic compounds is that termed recrystallization, in which bodies bounded more or less completely by natural plane surfaces, called crystals, are formed. A knowledge of crystallography and of the methods employed for determining the optical properties of crystals — especially the recognition of crystal forms and the use of the petrographic microsope for obtaining the required optical data — is essential for the pharmacy student.

Students in forestry are concerned with the various types of soils. For a full understanding of the transformation from a solid rock mass to a residual soil, some knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of the original minerals is absolutely necessary. It is also highly desirable for the student of forestry to recognize the more common minerals and rocks and the important ores.

Not only do the various stones used in construction possess varying degrees of resistance to climatic changes and to the corroding influence of our acid atmosphere, but one and the same stone may show considerable variation in "life," depending upon its location and the construction methods employed. There are numerous instances, both in this country and Europe, in which the architect or the engineer has selected the wrong type of material. In many universities and colleges, therefore, students of architecture and engineering are required to elect courses in mineralogy.

In recent years also the use of X rays has been extended to include their application in the testing of materials, especially steel castings and nonferrous alloys. Here again, a proper interpretation of the behavior of matter when placed in the path of these penetrating rays requires a knowledge of one phase of crystallography. Indirectly, a knowledge of mineralogy also serves the chemist and ceramist, and, if the experience of the past is any indication of the trend in the future, it is not at all unlikely that further diversification of courses in mineralogy will be needed for students in special fields.

Present quarters and facilities. — With the completion of the Natural Science Building in 1915, the Department of Mineralogy moved into its present location from the dingy, cramped, and wholly inadequate quarters in the basement of Tappan Hall. The Natural Science Building was constructed to house the Departments of Botany, Forestry, Geology, Mineralogy, Psychology, and Zoology. In order that this building might contain the best facilities for instruction in these fields, representatives from the departments concerned visited other leading institutions with Mr. Albert Kahn, the architect, in order to study the methods and equipment that had been adopted elsewhere. Many of the valuable suggestions thus obtained were incorporated in the final plans of the building. One of the advantages most Page  662desired was the maximum amount of floor space and light, and it is the universal consent of those who have visited the building that these objectives have been achieved.

Each of the six departments was assigned a vertical section from the basement to the roof. This arrangement permitted the Department of Mineralogy to install heavy machinery and piers for the mounting of special apparatus on the ground floor and also provided excellent facilities for storage and for the shipping and receiving of material. The other floors are utilized for laboratories, lecture rooms, offices, and a large display room for mineral collections.

The Department of Mineralogy occupies the northeast part of the building and comprises thirty-five rooms. This northern exposure is especially desirable for microscopic work because of the uniform and diffused light in both winter and summer. On the first or ground floor there are three research rooms provided with nonvibration piers and equipped with water, gas, compressed air, and alternating and direct current; two offices for those engaged in research conducted on this floor; a laboratory for the preparation of both thin and polished sections; and storage rooms.

On the second floor are the general lecture room, with a seating capacity of one hundred students; model rooms, containing material for demonstration purposes; an office; and a large room, twenty-four by seventy-two feet, devoted to the exhibition of gems, minerals, and rocks. This room is open to the public daily. The corridors on the second floor have been lined with glass cases containing special and unusual exhibits.

The main laboratories for general mineralogy and for the more advanced work in mineral and rock analysis are on the third floor. Also on this floor are two offices, a balance room, and a well-supplied stockroom to furnish all the necessary materials and equipment for the accurate and complete determination of minerals by both physical and chemical means.

On the top, or fourth, floor, ample facilities are afforded for the optical study of minerals and for instruction in crystal measurements. Likewise, the work involving the critical study of rocks, by megascopic methods and by the use of the petrographic microscope, is carried on to advantage on the top floor, as the northern unobstructed exposure furnishes ideal light conditions for such studies. Also, a rather complete library of reprints of articles on mineralogy assembled by the staff has been installed and has been well indexed for reference use by advanced students.

The department is well equipped with crystal models, structure models, natural crystals, and working collections of minerals, rocks, and thin sections. Crystallographic and optical apparatus of the most modern types renders it possible to carry on teaching and research in every phase of crystallography, mineralogy, and petrography.

Publications. — Among the publications from the mineralogical laboratory between 1903 and 1937 are six textbooks and 108 scientific papers. The textbooks cover the general fields of crystallography, descriptive mineralogy, determinative tables, general mineralogy, and gem materials:

  • Essentials of Crystallography (1906), Edward H. Kraus
  • Descriptive Mineralogy (1911), Edward H. Kraus
  • Mineralogy — an Introduction to the Study of Minerals and Crystals (3d ed.; 1936), Edward H. Kraus, Walter F. Hunt, and Lewis S. Ramsdell
  • Tables for the Determination of Minerals (2d ed.; 1930), Edward H. Kraus and Walter F. Hunt
  • Gems and Gem Materials (2d ed.; 1931), Edward H. Kraus and E. F. Holden
  • Petrographic Methods (translation from the German of Weinschenk's book; 1912), Robert W. Clark

Page  663The scientific papers likewise cover a wide range of contributions relating to (a) occurrence and origin of minerals, (b) crystallographic forms observed on crystals, (c) X-ray investigations of crystal structures, (d) variations in microstructure and optical properties of minerals at high temperatures, (e) petrographic studies of rocks and minerals, and (f) new apparatus to determine specific properties of minerals and rocks.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1845-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1874-1940.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
Michigan. Senate Documents, 1843. (Sen. Doc.)
University of Michigan Regent's Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64).

THE DEPARTMENT OF ORIENTAL LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

THE University of Michigan very early sensed the importance of Oriental studies. In the meeting of the Board of Regents of June, 1864, the committee on classical courses and the president were requested to report "whether in their opinion it is not expedient to appoint a professor of the German and Hebrew languages," and on March 31, 1869, the Regents asked the committee on classical courses to consider and report upon the propriety of providing for instruction in Hebrew or the Oriental languages.

The "propriety" was not denied, but "provisions for instruction" in the broad, and, at the time, somewhat indefinite, field of Oriental languages required extended consideration. It is not surprising, therefore, that it was not until twenty years later that the provision for instruction finally materialized. During that interval Sanskrit was still the romantic and remote Oriental study that lay beyond Greek and Latin.* Hebrew was studied by theologians, who sometimes dipped into Biblical Aramaic and Syriac also, but for purely exegetical reasons. Arabic was losing its place as the key to Semitic languages and was not yet of sufficient interest in itself to overcome its reputation for difficulty. Ethiopic and the remoter Semitic languages were below the horizon. Egyptian and Coptic — not really Semitic languages — became the concern of another group of scholars. Assyrian appeared as the Sanskrit of Semitic studies and as the key to most important records relating to the Page  664Bible. William Rainey Harper attempted to popularize Hebrew studies among the laity by organizing the nation-wide American Institute of Hebrew. Latin and Greek were required for the bachelor of arts degree in the University of Michigan. A great deal of effort went into documentary (the so-called "higher") criticism of the text of the Old Testament. A sufficient number of theological students flowed through the colleges into the seminaries. Faculty members taught many hours, and often in several unrelated subjects, with little time for research and publication, yet, nevertheless, found time for Bible classes. Under such circumstances Carl William Belser ('82, Ph.D. Leipzig '89) in a sense became the founder of the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures, although at that time, when several of the larger academic units — in medicine, law, and literature, science, and the arts — were known as departments, the subordinate departments for the separate subjects or subject-groups were rarely spoken of as such.

Belser was the son of a clergyman of Ann Arbor, a graduate of the Ann Arbor High School and of the University. After obtaining his bachelor's and master's degrees in Ann Arbor he taught Latin in Mount Morris College and Carthage College, in Illinois. From 1887 to 1889 he studied with the great ones in Leipzig, and received his doctor's degree under Friedrich Delitzsch. He was called in 1889 as Instructor in German and French. The next year he was Instructor in German and Hebrew, and the third, Assistant Professor of Oriental Languages. In his second year he taught twenty hours of German, twelve of Hebrew, and four of Assyrian; in his third year, ten hours of Sanskrit, four hours of Hellenistic Greek, nine hours of Hebrew, and four hours of Assyrian. That, at least, is what he offered to do (Cal., 1889-92). That his classes were well attended we may well doubt, but we may be sure that they were attended by none but students who were willing to study languages, for he imparted his great learning entirely through his interpretation of texts, in the manner of German orientalists. Reliable reports indicate that some of these students were lacking in both ability and proper scientific interest. He gave no lecture courses. The awkward term "Semitics" does not occur in connection with his title or his work. As Assistant Professor of Oriental Languages he had to give Sanskrit, and as a Biblical scholar he had to give Hellenistic Greek — at that time pretty much confined to the New Testament, for the study of the Greek of the Graeco-Roman period as brought to light by the papyri of Egypt had hardly begun, though Belser was well aware of its potentialities.

His fourth year, and unfortunately his last in the University, found him released from Sanskrit and giving an ambitious program, purely linguistic and, with the exception of Hellenistic Greek, purely semitistic. He offered fourteen hours of Hebrew, four of Assyrian, four of Arabic, and one hour each in Semitic palaeography and epigraphy, besides his nine hours of Greek. At the end of the first semester his failing health compelled him to remove to a better climate, and he went to the University of Colorado as head of its department of Latin. He died on January 28, 1898, of tuberculosis. Among the well-known pupils of this truly remarkable man may be mentioned the Librarian Emeritus of the University, William W. Bishop, and the late senior Professor of Astronomy, Heber D. Curtis.

For the second semester only, Belser was succeeded by a distinguished Assyriologist as Acting Assistant Professor of Oriental Languages, Professor Wilhelm Muss-Arnolt (B.D. Divinity School Page  665[New Brunswick, N.J.] '83, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '88), a German of prodigious bibliographic knowledge and great lexicographical profundity, author of the Concise Dictionary of the Assyrian Language (1905). That he was called at all indicates the serious scientific purpose and spirit of the administration and the times. That he did not please, or was not pleased, must be laid to personal considerations.

James Alexander Craig (McGill '80, Ph.D. Leipzig '86) came to the University in the fall of 1893 with the title of Professor of Oriental Languages. Craig also was a pupil of Delitzsch and an Assyriologist. He differed from Belser in being more concerned with the "higher criticism," and more enamoured of the inductive method, as expressed in the Hebrew textbooks of William Rainey Harper. He appears to have come from an atmosphere of controversy. The Calendar of that year contains the new caption Semitic Languages, prominent mention of the inductive method, and an appeal to the interest of theological students. The inductive method, in the opinion of some who learned Hebrew under him, was a method less profitable to the student than it was interesting to the instructor. However, it must be recorded with gratitude that he was an inspiring teacher who, with George Hempl (see Part III: Department of English Language and Literature), gave some students their first glimpse of German scholarship. He taught at a time when this scholarship was beginning to be secretly opposed, rather than sharply challenged; at a time when the classics were declining and when students were beginning to show the effect of the decline in their preparation and in their tastes.

Craig offered a small selection of courses at first: Hebrew and Assyrian. Hellenistic Greek he gave as a theologian and as Belser's successor; Sanskrit also, as Professor of Oriental Languages, although Belser had got rid of this. Significant is the introduction of a lecture course requiring no knowledge of Semitic or other languages, a one-hour course of general introduction to the study of Semitic peoples. In 1894 his title was changed to Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures and Hellenistic Greek. The courses in Hellenistic Greek were transferred from the list of other Greek courses and placed among the courses in Semitic languages. He dropped the Sanskrit. The effect of these two changes was to make him appear more of a Biblical and Semitic scholar. Nevertheless, the heading Semitic Languages disappeared from the Calendar, and also the general lecture course. His continued interest in languages is shown by the addition of Arabic to the program (1894-95), the increase of Arabic (1896-97), and the introduction of Aramaic, Syriac, and Ethiopic (1900-1901). Arabic and Aramaic were undoubtedly given, the other two almost certainly not. Again (1897-98) a lecture course with no language requirements, Semitic History, appeared. These two-hour, nontechnical courses were increased to four in 1901-2, to eight in 1904-5, to nine in 1905-6, and in 1909-10 to thirteen, nine of which were to be given personally by Professor Craig.

In 1908-9 Craig was on sabbatical leave, and most of his courses were marked as omitted. Some Hebrew and Greek and four of the lecture courses were carried by William Hoyt Worrell ('03, B.D. Hartford '06, Ph.D. Strassburg '09), the Reverend Carl Safford Patton (Oberlin '88, D.D. ibid. '03, Ph.D. Michigan '13), pastor of the Congregational Church, and the Reverend James Leslie French ('99, B.D. Hartford '02, Ph.D. ibid. '05), student pastor of the Presbyterian Church. Upon Craig's return Page  666a new heading appeared — Semitics and Hellenistic Greek and Studies in the English Bible. This is the first appearance of the term Semitics, a pompous and pretentious title, patterned no doubt on physics, but reminding the students of nothing but "athletics," for it was invariably spelled and pronounced "Semetics." Craig was assisted this year by Worrell and French. The following year Craig was alone in the department, and the descriptive matter in course announcements noticeably increased. In the fall of 1912 Craig left the University, for entirely personal and nonacademic reasons, first engaging in business in Canada, but later returning to the teaching of Oriental languages at McGill University and the University of Toronto. The latter part of his life he spent in Paris. He died in Toronto, May 16, 1932. Most of Craig's courses in 1912 were without a teacher, but Dr. French, as Acting Assistant Professor, taught Hebrew and Greek and remained two years with varying titles. Gilbert Hawthorne Taylor (DePauw '09, Ph.D. Michigan '14) was Instructor in Semitics in 1914-15.

Leroy Waterman (Hillsdale '98, B.D. Hillsdale Divinity School '00, Ph.D. Chicago '12) took charge of the department in 1915-16 and remains its Chairman. His title appeared as Professor of Semitics. Hellenistic Greek disappeared from the announcement of the department, being returned to the list of courses offered by the Department of Greek. Under his administration graduate work, with technical requirements, in Assyrian and Hebrew has been carried on and developed. Also the program of nonlinguistic instruction — in history, Oriental civilization, and the Bible and comparative religion — dictated by the age and time in which we live, has been much enlarged and intensified.

In 1925 Worrell returned to the Department of Semitics and assumed the Arabic and Coptic studies, which were stimulated by the papyrus purchases and finds of the late Professor Francis W. Kelsey.

In 1927-28 Waterman was granted a leave of absence to serve as annual professor of the American School of Oriental Research at Baghdad, Iraq. The incumbency involved research rather than teaching, and the year was spent in the Near East, first in the study of and participation in archaeological field work in Egypt, Palestine, and Iraq, and secondly in independent topographical study of the region of the Nahr Malcha (Royal Canal) between the Tigris and Euphrates, at their nearest approach to each other. This investigation resulted in the identification of the site of the city of Seleucia on the Tigris, and led to two months of preliminary excavation and soundings made on the site under the auspices of the Baghdad School, supported by funds contributed by the Museum of Art of Toledo, Ohio. The results gave welcome confirmatory evidence of the city of Seleucia and its late Parthian occupation. (For more complete information regarding the papyri and the University archaeological excavations, see Part VIII: Art and Archaeological Collections.)

The work of the department during the academic year 1927-28 was greatly stimulated and enhanced by the addition to the staff of Caroline Louise Ransom Williams (Mt. Holyoke '96, Ph.D. Chicago '05) as resident lecturer on Egyptian. The courses offered in Egyptian hieroglyphics (Old Egyptian) and in Egyptian art and archaeology met with an enthusiastic response. As a result of the preliminary work done at Seleucia a joint archaeological expedition with a planned five-year program was organized by the University, acting jointly with the Toledo Museum of Art. The Toledo Museum supplied the funds and Page  667the University took the responsibility for the field work and the publication of results. Under this arrangement the University granted Waterman leave of absence for the first semester each year from 1928 to 1932 to direct the work of the expedition at Seleucia. During the four semesters of his absences, his regular courses were very acceptably conducted by Miss Ellen Whitley Moore ('12, Ph.D. '32), a former student of the department who obtained the doctor of philosophy degree in Oriental languages and literatures in 1932.

The department discarded from its name the term Semitics in 1930 and since has been known as the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures, in consonance with Professor Belser's title and the original purpose of the undertaking. In conjunction with the Linguistic Institute the department in the summer of 1936 offered Hittite, Chinese, and Japanese, and in the summer of 1937 Sumerian was added and Chinese and Japanese were continued and further extended.

Special research activities by members of the department have resulted in the publication of thirteen volumes.

The University collections of original documents belonging within the province of the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures consist of the following:

  • 1. Babylonian. Embracing (a) over five hundred cuneiform tablets ranging from Old Akkadian to Neo-Babylonian. A volume of Neo-Babylonian texts by Dr. E. W. Moore was published in 1939; (b) over fifty seal cylinders, button seals, and seal stamps from Jemdet Nasr, Sumerian, Akkadian, Neo-Babylonian, and Persian times.
  • 2. Aramaic. A group of three complete incantation bowls and fragments from the excavations at Seleucia.
  • 3. Coptic. Manuscripts, papyri, and ostraca, obtained chiefly through the efforts of Professor Kelsey and the University of Michigan expedition in Egypt. These consist of fifty-four manuscripts, of which twenty are Biblical, thirty-two are ecclesiastical, and one is magical. Forty-six leaves are from the White Monastery, and are related to the Morgan collection. Some thirty-three of the papyri are Biblical, thirty-two are ecclesiastical, and thirty are magical. There are 112 epistolary or documentary papyri, and 181 of some other sort or unidentified. Of special interest are three early letters in Sahidic, a very old Boheiric letter, a husbandman's calendar, an Old Coptic horoscope(?) of the second century, and twenty-two items of Fayumic (of which fourteen are Biblical, six are documentary, and one is ecclesiastical). Some of the ostraca belong to the "etmoulon" group.
  • 4. Arabic and Islamic. Three collections of Islamic manuscripts were acquired by Professor Kelsey. The so-called Abd ul-Hamid collection has artistic and calligraphic value. The Tiflis collection is mostly juridical. The Yahuda collection contains some nine interesting items. Some 438 of these are Arabic, though many are Persian and Turkish. In Arabic papyri we possess about thirty-four documents, in fine condition and of great interest.
  • 5. Ethiopic. In Ethiopic we have eight manuscripts, Biblical and magical.

The University Library possesses a nearly complete set of photographs of the Coptic manuscripts in the Morgan collection.

In addition to original documents the department possesses a large number of casts of original monuments in the British Museum and the Louvre, from Mesopotamia. These include bas-reliefs of lion hunting and of military operations, a pastoral scene from the palace of Ashurbanipal of Assyria, two boundary stones from the Kassite period, the black obelisk of Shalmaneser, and the East India house inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II.

Page  668
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914. (Cal.)
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1864-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
"A Chair in Hebrew."Chronicle, 1 (1869): 133-34.
The Choice of a Field of Concentration. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. (College of Literature, Science, and the Arts), 1939. Pp. 33-35.
Craig, J. A."The Study of Semitics, a Part of a Liberal Culture."Inlander, 8 (1895): 281-90.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hall, Robert B."The University's Oriental Curriculum."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull., No. 20 (1937): 14-15.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1940.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.

THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY

IN the project for the formation of the Catholepistemiad, 1817, out of which developed the effective plan for the University of Michigan, 1837, provision was made for didaxiim, or professorships, of ethica, or ethical sciences, and ennoeica, or intellectual sciences, the latter embracing "all the Epistemiim, or Sciences relative to the minds of animals, to the human mind, to spiritual existences or to the Deity, and to religion." It was provided, further, that the vice-president of the Catholepistemiad should be the professor of ennoeica. Two men were appointed respectively president and vice-president, the Reverend John Monteith, a Presbyterian, and Father Gabriel Richard, a man of foreign birth and education. To Father Richard was assigned the professorship of ethica and the ennoeica. Thus the professorship of moral and intellectual sciences, as the chair came to be called, uniting the two disciplines, was first occupied by a Roman Catholic. It is not known, however, whether Father Richard conducted any courses, but it is known that he and the Reverend John Monteith drew, together, a salary of $181.25. The founding of this chair was the beginning of the Department of Philosophy. In the so-called "organic act" of March 18, 1837, setting up the constitution of the University of Michigan, provision was explicitly made for professorships of logic, of philosophy of the human mind, of moral philosophy, and of natural theology, including the history of all religions. In the subsequent early history of the University, all these subjects were usually taught by the professor of intellectual and moral philosophy (who, sometimes, also taught other branches of knowledge), with the exception of logic, which was now and then combined with rhetoric rather than with philosophy.

When we look back over the period of nearly one hundred years beginning with the time of the Reverend Edward Thomson, 1843 — the first, so far as we can discover, actually to give instruction in moral and intellectual philosophy — we see that the history of the Department of Philosophy may be divided into two periods — a period which I think may appropriately be called the theological period, and the period of free philosophy which began with Morris, in 1881. In the first period all the professors of intellectual and moral philosophy, without exception, were clergymen, whereas in the second period none has been; in the first period, the occupants of the chair were, therefore, with the possible exception of Page  669Tappan, as we shall note, not trained primarily for their position; it is therefore not unfair to say of them that they were at best amateurs in the field, and that their chief preoccupation was to make use of philosophy as a means for the defense of a point of view already received from the tradition of theology, rather than to transmit and perhaps enrich the tradition of philosophy itself.

Except that it would be unfair to the greatness and subtlety of thought of the medieval philosophers, one might say of these early teachers of philosophy that they represented a kind of Protestant scholasticism, for philosophy was indeed ancilla theologicae. It was not the close contact with religion that distinguished the philosophy of these men — for philosophy has maintained this contact almost throughout its entire history, and a philosophy that does not offer something either to science or to religion is not worth its salt — but the fact that, having independently of the study of philosophy accepted certain theological ideas, these men never did what genuine philosophers must do — freely and candidly examine the presuppositions or set pieces of the game of thought and belief. A Morris or a Wenley was as religious as any of these men, but for them philosophy was not a defense but a clarification. Moreover, such philosophy as these early teachers had was gleaned mostly from the Scottish school — a distinctively eighteenth-century way of thinking — and they knew only at second hand, if at all, the great, original movement of philosophy of their own century — that of German idealism.

Yet in all these respects, early academic philosophy at the University of Michigan was no different from academic philosophy throughout the country. In fact, the change to a more genuine and freer type came earlier here than at the great universities of the East. With all their limitations, these early philosophy teachers undoubtedly served the needs of their time, and anything different would have been impossible.

Something at once of the importance attached to the study of philosophy and its general character in this early period may be seen from its place in the course of study, as announced in the Catalogue of 1843-44. The course of study was divided into three parts: (1) language and literature, (2) mathematics and physics, and (3) intellectual and moral science. Apparently no philosophy was required in the first year. In the first term of the second year, logic was prescribed; in the third year, first term, Abercrombie's Intellectual Powers, and in the second term of that year, Paley's Natural Theology; in the fourth year, first term, Stewart's Intellectual Philosophy and Cousin's Psychology; in the second term, Whately's Logic and Wayland's Moral Science and Political Grammar; in the third term, along with Story's Commentaries on the Constitution and Wayland's Political Economy, Butler's Analogy.

After the reform of the curriculum under President Henry P. Tappan (see Part I: Tappan Administration), Mental Philosophy was prescribed in the third term of the third year, and again in the first and second terms of the fourth year, and Moral Science in the second and third terms of the fourth year. In the classical course Mental Philosophy was prescribed in the fourth year, first and second terms; Logic in the second term, and Moral Science in the second and third terms of that year. In the so-called university course, which marked the beginning of a graduate school, designed for students who had won their bachelor's degrees either in letters or science, provision was made for Systematic Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Logic, and Evidences of Christianity. A brief description of the method employed in teaching Intellectual and Moral Philosophy Page  670was given in the Catalogue of 1854-55 and in ensuing numbers, as follows:

This study is conducted by the use of textbooks, accompanied with lectures. Essays on subjects connected with the course are read by students and criticized by the professor. One is read at each recitation. Reference is made to the standard works of ancient and modern philosophy.

The first professor of moral and intellectual philosophy, as has already been noted, was the Reverend Edward Thomson (M.D. Pennsylvania '29, LL.D. Wesleyan '55), afterward president of Ohio Wesleyan University and a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church. He was appointed in 1843, but resigned in August, 1844. This left the way open for the Reverend Andrew Ten Brook (Madison [Utica, N.Y.] '41), subsequently both librarian and historian of the University, who served until 1851. Ten Brook was followed by the Reverend William Stanton Curtis, who served for only a year and was followed, upon the accession of Tappan to the presidency, by Tappan himself, in 1852.

Of all the men of the early period of the teaching of philosophy at the University of Michigan, Henry Philip Tappan (Union '25, D.D. ibid. '45, LL.D. Columbia '54) was undoubtedly both the best trained and the ablest. Although originally trained for the ministry, he spent many years before he came to Michigan in the study and teaching of philosophy, as professor of intellectual and moral philosophy at the young University of the City of New York, where he had become a professor in 1832. Before coming to Ann Arbor he had already made a name for himself both in this country and abroad through his publications: The Doctrine of the Will, Determined by an Appeal to Consciousness (1840), The Doctrine of the Will Applied to the Moral Agency and Responsibility (1841), and his Elements of Logic (1844; new ed., 1856). Although the two books on the will were in general within the limits of the ideas characteristic of the so-called freewill controversy initiated by Jonathan Edwards' great work, Tappan took the freewill point of view, and in the Doctrine of the Will Determined by an Appeal to Consciousness showed a certain originality in generalizing the notion of contingency from the will to the entire universe, and by developing a conception of "moral certainty" or "probable certainty" as applied to human affairs, to replace the absolute certainty rendered impossible by the doctrine of real contingency. Indeed, it is not extravagant to claim for Tappan that in making contingency consist essentially in the power to attend or not to attend, he anticipated, if he did not inspire, William James's famous formulation of freedom (compare Tappan, Doctrine, p. 65, and James, Psychology, II: 562). In his Elements of Logic, moreover, while following Cousin and Herschel, he showed some novelty in developing the theory of inductive methods, independently of Mill and Whewell. However, it is significant that, although he was acquainted with contemporary European philosophy, Tappan seems to have depended largely upon the translations of French and German works that were appearing in his day.

After the resignation of President Tappan and until the early period ended with Morris' acceptance of a chair in philosophy in 1881, the teaching of philosophy was on a distinctly lower plane. First, the Reverend Lucius Delison Chapin (Amherst '51, A.M. ibid. '54), pastor of the local Presbyterian Church, was appointed. Chapin's qualifications for this office are not easily discoverable. The utter lack of recognition on the part of University authorities, during this period in America, of philosophy as a branch of learning requiring a specific training, is well illustrated by this appointment. One Page  671would demand special training for astronomy or mathematics, but almost any clerical gentleman would serve for philosophy! (Unfortunately, the practice continues among certain of the smaller denominational colleges of America to this day.) While Chapin was on leave in 1867-68 his work was borne by Erastus Otis Haven (Wesleyan '42, A.M. ibid. '45, D.D. hon. Union '54, LL.D. Ohio Wesleyan '63), Tappan's successor in the presidency and at that time also Professor of Logic and Political Economy. On Chapin's resignation in 1868 Haven became Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy.

Haven was, of course, a very able man, but philosophy was not his field. Even the students were aware of what was needed, for in the Chronicle (1: 25), we may read: "We want a man who has made this study his specialty and can infuse life into the dry bones of philosophical discussion." But when President Haven resigned in 1869, the Reverend Benjamin Franklin Cocker (D.D. DePauw '70) was appointed, a man of no university training at all in any subject, who, after an adventurous career in business, had drifted into preaching, in which occupation he had won fame for his eloquence. He occupied the chair of philosophy for fourteen years, that is to say, until 1883. On Cocker's behalf, however, it should be said that he was a man of vigorous personality and of a certain native acuteness of mind, that he exerted a large and beneficent influence on his students, and that he made a heroic effort to compensate for his shortcomings in education by prodigious labor and reading. The extent of his effort is apparent in the books he wrote during his professorial career: Christianity and Greek Philosophy (1870), Lectures on the Truth of the Christian Religion (1873), The Theistic Conception of the World (1875), Evidences of Christianity (1882), and, finally, a Student's Handbook of Philosophy (1881). These books are for the most part of the defensive, apologetic type, and are constructed very largely from secondary sources. Greek philosophy, for example, is viewed as a mere preparation for Protestant Christianity. As for the chaotic Handbook of Philosophy, it must have been a heavy, indigestible meal for the students; yet with Cocker as the one who served it, they seem to have liked it. And, in his other works, there are occasional gleams of insight. Perhaps a summary of his report to the Regents (P.R., 1871-72, pp. 38-39) will throw some light upon his ideas and methods of instruction. Regarding psychology as the fundamental study, "inasmuch as it deals with mental principles and laws which underlie logic and ethics," he had devoted the whole of the first semester to this study alone and had endeavored to do the work thoroughly. The second semester he said he had devoted to the teaching of history of philosophy, applied logic, and ethics, together with the bearing of these studies on the evidences of Christianity. Yet he gave small attention to this last in class, since it was the subject of his Sunday afternoon lectures. He regretted that he had not found a textbook in metaphysics, but hoped to prepare one himself. (As we have seen, this hope was fulfilled.) He wished that he could have two hours a day with his class and that the professor of moral and intellectual philosophy could be relieved of other work. (He was in charge of the instruction in social science as well as of that in philosophy.)

A new spirit came into the teaching of philosophy at the University when, in 1881, George Sylvester Morris (Dart-mouth '61, Ph.D. hon. Michigan '81) was made Professor of Ethics, the History of Philosophy, and Logic, and Cocker became Professor of Psychology, Speculative Page  672Philosophy, and the History of Religion. This spirit was part of a broader quickening of interest in the German idealism of Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, and in the impact of the theory of evolution on philosophical thought.

Morris studied for the ministry in America and went abroad to study philosophy. On his return he sought an opening in the field of philosophy; but none offered itself until ten years later. Temporarily a tutor in the family of a wealthy New Yorker, he was invited by his old counselor, Professor Henry Boynton Smith of Union Theological Seminary, to translate into English and bring up to date the monumental History of Philosophy from Thales to the Present Time of Friedrich Ueberweg, a task peculiarly suited to him because of his intimate knowledge of both the German language and the history of philosophy, and which he performed so well that the work soon took its place as the authoritative English classic on the subject.

Called to the University of Michigan in 1870 on the initiative of Henry S. Frieze, Acting President after the resignation of President Haven, as head of the newly reorganized Department of Modern Languages and Literature, Morris immediately became a close friend of Professor Frieze, their common interest in music contributing to the union of two naturally congenial temperaments.

In spite of his influence in the University and his growing reputation as a philosopher both at home and abroad, it was not until eleven years later, again upon the initiative of Frieze, that Morris was appointed to a chair in philosophy at the University. In the meantime he contributed critical book reviews and original articles to the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, the New England Magazine, and to the Victoria Institute or Philosophical Society of Great Britain.

Morris soon found himself professor of philosophy in two outstanding universities, the Johns Hopkins University and the University of Michigan. For President Gilman of Johns Hopkins, seeking a younger man scientifically trained in philosophy, first invited Morris to lecture in Baltimore during the month of January in 1878 and 1879; and then, recognizing his marked success, offered him a three-year appointment, on the condition that he would remain at Johns Hopkins through three months of each year. Thereupon Morris resigned his modern language professorship, but consented to teach until January, 1880, in place of his successor, who was absent on leave. Although he continued to maintain his home in the city, Morris was not on the Michigan faculty in 1880-81, and it was only when he was about to leave Ann Arbor that the local authorities bestirred themselves and offered him a chair on his own conditions, viz., that he be allowed to spend the first semester of each year lecturing at Baltimore and the second semester in Ann Arbor. This arrangement continued for four years, as a year or more elapsed between the death of Cocker in the spring of 1883 and Morris' decision to leave Baltimore after the first semester of 1884-85. In the eight years he taught at Johns Hopkins, Morris contributed to the molding of a remarkable group of young scholars, among whom were John Dewey, Joseph Jastrow, Henry L. Osborn, Benjamin C. Burt, W. H. Howell, Allan Marquand, Richard C. Burton, and Fred M. Taylor. His lectures at Johns Hopkins furnished the occasion for the writing of his first book: British Thought and Thinkers. He finally took leave of Johns Hopkins and his philosophical friends there at the meeting of the Metaphysical Club on January 27, 1885.

In complete charge of the department from the year 1884-85, Morris called to Page  673his aid one of his most brilliant pupils at Johns Hopkins, John Dewey (Vermont '79, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '84, LL.D. Michigan '04), with whose enthusiastic co-operation he proceeded to change profoundly the orientation, and enlarge the scope, of the instruction in philosophy. While fulfilling his dual role of philosopher at Baltimore and Ann Arbor, Morris introduced on a broad scale the study of German idealism with which he had become imbued during his student years abroad. He is reported to have admitted that he was "saved by Hegel" — by which he meant that, having lost the orthodox Puritan faith of his fathers, during his years of critical study, it was Hegel who furnished him with a new intellectual framework within which he could reincorporate and reaffirm, freed from their theological trappings, the greater number of the older values to which he remained loyal.

The outstanding expression of Morris' thought is to be found in the conception and the working out of the series of philosophical monographs published between 1884 and 1890 by S. C. Griggs and Company of Chicago under the title "German Philosophical Classics for English Readers." This series still stands as the most complete exposition of German idealism in English. As editor, Morris not only conceived the general scope of the series and made the assignments, but also himself contributed two of the most important volumes: Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Hegel's Philosophy of the State and of History. The untimely death of Morris brought the series to an end in 1890.

The change in the orientation of philosophy at Michigan during the Morris regime is further indicated by the new courses of study introduced. Already, while he was on part time at Ann Arbor, Morris had offered such new courses as the History of German Philosophy, Science of Knowledge as Developed in Aristotelian and Post-Kantian German Philosophy, Seminar in Kant, and the Philosophy of the State with special reference to Aristotle, Hegel, and Mulford's The Nation. Professor George H. Howison (Marietta '52, LL.D. ibid. '83, LL.D. Michigan '09), later so influential in establishing the idealistic tradition on the Pacific coast, had given in the first semester of 1883, during Morris' absence in Baltimore, a course called Speculative Philosophy. Free after he accepted the permanent headship of the department in 1884 to revamp the curriculum as he desired, with Dewey's co-operation, Morris not only extended the standpoint of German idealism to the Philosophy of the State and of History, to the Philosophy of Religion, to Aesthetics, and to Real Logic, but he also firmly established the seminar in the study of Kant, Hegel, speculative philosophy, and Herbert Spencer. At the same time Dewey devoted himself primarily to psychology in various new courses: Empirical Psychology, Special Topics in Psychology (Physiological, Comparative, and Morbid Psychology), Psychology and Philosophy, Speculative Psychology — courses which found expression in his first book, Psychology, published in 1887 and used as a textbook at Michigan for ten years.

After four years of the most intimate and single-minded co-operation with Morris, Dewey, who had meanwhile become Assistant Professor, was called to the University of Minnesota in 1888 and was replaced at Michigan by Williston Samuel Hough (Ph.M. '84), a thorough idealist in outlook, who, in turn, later replaced Dewey at Minnesota.

But Dewey's career at the University of Michigan was not ended. During the spring vacation of 1889, while camping at his near-by lake cottage with his son, Morris contracted pneumonia and died on March 23. Dewey was immediately Page  674recalled as Professor of Philosophy and head of the Department of Philosophy.

The Dewey regime (1889-94) continued ostensibly the general orientation which Morris had established. Yet some subtle and profound changes began to manifest themselves in Dewey himself, in the courses offered, and in the kind of men with whom he surrounded himself. Dewey, as a pupil and co-worker with Morris, had been written down by the philosophical public as an idealist. But there was already evident in his thinking the dominance of two new influences: functional psychology and the evolutionary theory of Darwin and Spencer. In his Psychology (1887) he had already interpreted concepts as "plans of action" and psychological processes as functional modes of response. Two small books on ethics, both written primarily for his own classes and published by George Wahr in Ann Arbor — Outlines of a Critical Theory of Ethics (1891) and The Study of Ethics: A Syllabus (1897) — were impregnated with the notions of the organic unity of the individual agent and his environment and the evolution of both through the acts of postulating of the agent. In these writings the germs of Dewey's later instrumentalism are evident.

Dewey himself turned over the courses in psychology more and more to his younger colleagues and interested himself in ethical and social problems, as evidenced by his giving such courses as Anthropological Ethics, the Theory and Institutions of Social Organization, Special Studies in the History of Political Philosophy (topic changed each year), Movements of Thought in the Nineteenth Century, and Political Philosophy or Ethics of Human Relations.

Very much interested in the theory of education, John Dewey was one of the prime movers in founding the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, to which he made some of his earlier contributions on education, and, sympathetically seconded by Mrs. Dewey, he attempted to try out his theories on his own children — with the result that old Ann Arborites still regale one another with tales of how the Dewey methods worked.

Among the men outside of the Department of Philosophy whom Dewey influenced most profoundly were Fred Newton Scott, whom he drew into the department to give a course in aesthetics and with whom he carried on a seminar in aesthetics; Charles Horton Cooley, later Professor of Sociology, who carried out exhaustively Dewey's principle of the organic unity of the individual and society; and James Rowland Angell, afterward professor of psychology at the University of Chicago and later president of Yale University, who developed his theory of functional psychology.

Within his own department of study Dewey's influence was even greater. He grouped about him a number of young men exceptionally able and singularly loyal to himself and his ideas. Two of these were James Hayden Tufts (Amherst '84, LL.D. ibid. '04, B.D. Yale '89, Ph.D. Freiburg '92), Instructor, 1889-91, and George Herbert Mead (A.B. Oberlin '83, A.B. Harvard '88), Instructor and Assistant Professor, 1891-94. When John Dewey went to the University of Chicago as head of its department of philosophy in 1894, Mead accompanied him. Tufts had begun his work at Chicago immediately after receiving the doctor's degree at Freiburg in 1892. These two continued to be Dewey's most ardent collaborators in the development of the doctrine of pragmatism, or, as Dewey has always preferred to christen it, instrumentalism. Since these ideas were already germinating in the minds and teachings of Dewey, Tufts, and Mead while they were in Ann Arbor, it may not be too much to claim that the University of Michigan Page  [unnumbered]

[missing figure]
Harry Burns Hutchins
Page  [unnumbered]Page  675was one of the cradles of the new philosophy which later became more distinctively identified with the University of Chicago.

Another young man, Alfred Henry Lloyd (Harvard '86, Ph.D. ibid. '93), called from Harvard in 1891 just as he returned from two years abroad as the Chapman traveling fellow, became a devoted friend and admirer of Dewey. A pupil of Josiah Royce and William James at Harvard, but falling under the spell of Dewey at the University of Michigan, Lloyd characterized his philosophy as "dynamic idealism," the title of his most typical work, published in 1898. In agreement with Dewey, Lloyd always started from the active, creative, achieving life of the human person; but, unlike Dewey, and more in accord with Royce, he insisted that this active life implied a complete idealistic interpretation of the universe. Lloyd, like Royce, was essentially a metaphysician. An earlier work, Citizenship and Salvation; or, Greek and Jew (1897), a comparative study of the epochs of which Socrates and Jesus were the concrete embodiment, is a speculative interpretation of history somewhat after the manner of Fichte and Hegel. Such a speculative interpretation, expressed in a more comprehensive form in Philosophy of History (1899), was especially congenial to his mind, and he tended to carry it out in his studies of ethics, of the theory of the state, and of religion. Two other works, The Will to Doubt (1907) and Leadership and Progress (1922), set forth the bases of his profound and uncompromising liberalism. Numerous studies along the lines enumerated, which appeared from time to time in various periodicals and reviews, have unfortunately never been published in book form.

Lloyd was not the expounder of a tradition like Morris or the creator of a school like Dewey. His philosophy was peculiarly his own, too subtle and too varied in its different expressions to be crystallized into the principles and program of a group of disciples. But the influence of Lloyd, the thinker, inseparable from Lloyd, the man, on his pupils was quite remarkable.

On the departure of Dewey, accompanied by George H. Mead, for Chicago in 1894, Lloyd was honored with the administration of the Department of Philosophy for two years, 1894-96. During these years he called successively two Harvard doctors of philosophy to take charge of the work in psychology: John Bigham (1894-95) and Edgar Pierce (1895-96). Neither of these men stayed long enough to make any contribution to the philosophical tradition, and both abandoned philosophy as a profession shortly after their departure.

A third man who became associated with the department during Lloyd's interim administration is best known and remembered for the prominence and development he gave to the study of aesthetics, begun by Dewey and Fred Newton Scott: George Rebec ('91, Ph.D. '97), 1894-1909, an unusually enthusiastic and dramatic lecturer and teacher, who stimulated an interest in literature from a new point of view, and, especially in his course, Principles and Problems of Aesthetic History, attracted hundreds of students from the various language departments into philosophy. Rebec has found, since 1909, as director of philosophical studies, dean of the Graduate School, and director of the educational and civic services of the University of Oregon at Portland, an even larger field for his rare talents as an initiator of new interest in philosophy.

During Lloyd's acting directorship the University sought an older man with wider experience to carry out the tradition established by Morris and Dewey. Such a man was finally found in the person Page  676of Robert Mark Wenley (A.M. Glasgow '84, Ph.D. ibid. '95, LL.D. ibid. '01, Sc.D. Edinburgh '91), who was the head of the department from 1896 till his death in March, 1929.

Lloyd was later entrusted with large responsibilities in the administration of the University. Charged with the secretaryship of graduate studies when these were still a department superimposed on the Literary College, he was later honored, when the Graduate School was established, with the deanship for eleven years, from 1915 till his death on May 11, 1926. In 1925, in the interim between the presidency of Marion L. Burton and that of Clarence C. Little, he was Acting President. In the midst of his many and exacting administrative duties he continued to exert, through his classroom instruction, his consultations with advanced students, and his publications, a marked influence on philosophical thought. His sudden death brought to an untimely end a rare personality.

Wenley and Lloyd, during their thirty years of association together, co-operated with rare personal loyalty and singleness of purpose in consolidating and developing the Department of Philosophy, with the result that they saw its enrollment increase proportionately much more rapidly than did the enrollment in the Arts College. During this period the study of psychology, which had been initiated by Dewey, was gradually expanded and developed, under the direction of Walter Bowers Pillsbury (Nebraska '92, LL.D. ibid. '34, Ph.D. Cornell '96), till finally, affiliated more and more with the biological, medical, and social sciences, it was practically a separate department. At the death of Professor Wenley in 1929, this separation was made official.

The appointment of Robert Mark Wenley undoubtedly inaugurated the most significant period in the history of the teaching of philosophy at the University of Michigan; it was not only the longest period of leadership by one man, during which the greatest expansion in the number of the personnel of the department, the variety of special subjects taught, and points of view represented occurred, but also the period during which the department achieved the greatest renown, both within the state and throughout the nation.

Like other distinguished members of the faculty, Wenley came from a foreign country and brought a stimulating contrast of tradition and point of view. Yet the cultural background out of which his life emerged was in all essentials the same as the hitherto dominant American type. For he was brought up in a strictly religious, sober, industrious, and rather conventional, upper-middle-class family of successful Scotch Presbyterian business folk. Moreover, the moral temperature of Glasgow, where he spent his childhood and youth, had many of the characteristics of the large American city "on the make" — optimism, bustle, unreflecting self-confidence, and respect for worldly success earned by productive and beneficent personal talent and effort. When he came to America, therefore, he possessed a basis upon which to carry through the difficult process of adjustment to his new home. Through the smoke of Glasgow's steadily multiplying plants and the ships crowding her harbors, the young Wenley might be said to have already glimpsed something of the American scene which he was afterward to feel so heartily. "When I made my great adventure," he wrote in his unpublished autobiography, "and removed my family and goods and chattels to the United States, I drove from my house to the steamer, two miles off, and so sailed straight into the setting sun, into untried vasty possibilities." Although the formative years of his life were spent in Glasgow, he was born in Edinburgh, Page  677July 19, 1861. Receiving his university education at Glasgow University, he continued his studies in Paris, Rome, and Florence; he recognized a debt to Lord Kelvin, Richard Jebb, and John Nicol, among his Glasgow teachers, and to the Scottish preacher John Service, but the great influence in his intellectual life was Edward Caird, to whose teaching he remained faithful all his life.

Already before he was invited at the early age of thirty-five to head the department at the University of Michigan, Professor Wenley had had a distinguished career as a teacher of philosophy in Scotland. He had occupied various positions at Glasgow and Queen Margaret College and had received many prizes and honors in philosophy and theology — among the latter, an honorary vice-presidency of the Teachers' Guild, a life fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a fellowship of the Royal Society of Literature, and membership in the Aristotelian Society.

Thus, despite his comparative youth, Wenley came to his work at Michigan with a splendid training and many years of experience. In any account of the significance of this work, his importance as a teacher should take first place. His was a subject which, because of its critical and controversial spirit and the high generality of its basic concepts, presents peculiar difficulties to the mind of the immature student. Yet, because he knew life equally well with books, he was able to show the connection of these concepts with even the most familiar and commonplace affairs — like Socrates, bringing philosophy down to earth and within the reach of the average intellect. He vivified exposition with imagination and seasoned it with a keen wit, which, though it often disconcerted the unwary, made them, as he often said, "sit up and take notice." He created a direct personal contact between himself and the students by doing what people who had never heard him lecture would deem impossible — dramatizing philosophy. Thus he made plain to them that their own problems were problems of philosophy and that only through philosophy, in the broad sense, could they be solved. If at the beginning they were puzzled and felt their moorings in tradition shaken, in the end, many left college with the conviction that they owed to him as to no one else, a new and saving perspective upon life. Moreover, his relationship with his students did not end with graduation; for he followed many of them with help and guidance throughout their later careers. The typical courses that he gave for undergraduates were an introductory course in problems and methods — the enrollment in this course reached six hundred at one time — and a course in ethics, varying in content from year to year, in which he illustrated moral principles through a survey of some highly significant period of cultural history.

Though supreme in the difficult business of initiation into philosophy, it was as a teacher of graduate students that he could, and did, most fully use the equipment of his ripe scholarship. The character and method of his more advanced teaching is described by one of his pupils as follows:

In his seminar he did not pursue the easy method of having his students do the work, but himself always did the giving. On the one hand, encouraging mature students by quietly assuming that they could work independently, without constant supervision, on the other hand, consciously guiding and inspiring that independent effort by dint of continual giving without stint, he united successful inspiration with fruitful communication of knowledge. It was always evident that what was given was the result of prodigious effort and meticulous preparation. In his seminars in Kant, Hegel and the philosophy of religion, he ever offered the most solid of solid meat. But even then, Page  678though no longer under the necessity of dramatic presentation to retain the attention of large groups of undergraduates, the solid meat was spiced with the characteristic "Wenleyisms" without which he could not have been what he was. His graduate lectures not only manifested his astounding erudition, but patently bore the impress of his own convictions. Though in no sense attempting to proselyte, he did frankly and vigorously express his own philosophical and religious convictions to his graduate students. Such factors as these undoubtedly account in large measure for the increasing number of students who were attracted to him for their professional training in philosophy, with and for whom he so enjoyed working.

Not only was Professor Wenley influential as a university teacher; he also did very effective work as an extramural lecturer. Already, in Britain, before he came to America, he had distinguished himself by his university extension work and as a public speaker. And from the date (1911) when University Extension became a part of the regular program of the University, Wenley was one of the professors most in demand.

Despite his varied activities as teacher, lecturer, and administrator, Wenley found time and energy for an amazing literary output. The total list of his publications contains over six hundred titles. A large number of these are, to be sure, reviews of books. He was rather too generous in giving himself to this valuable, but ephemeral and unhonored and unremunerated, work. But, counting out the reviews, we find over two hundred encyclopedia articles, some fifty technical articles and as many more on educational and literary subjects, several pamphlets, and ten books. Many of the encyclopedia articles were contributed to Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, for which he drew up the list of names in philosophy and religion, and to Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Four of his books, including his maiden volume, are in the field of the philosophy of religion. Of these, Socrates and Christ (1889), Contemporary Theology and Theism (1897), and The Preparation for Christianity in the Ancient World (1898) are mainly historical and critical in import, whereas the Baldwin lectures, Modern Thought and the Crisis in Belief (1909), are of a more constructive character. Four more are in the field of the history of philosophy — Aspects of Pessimism (1894), An Outline Introductory to Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason" (1897), Kant and His Philosophical Revolution, in the "World's Epoch-Makers Series" (1910), a book highly praised even by German critics for its profound and acute scholarship, and Stoicism and Its Influence (1924), being No. 21 of the series, "Our Debt to Greece and Rome." The volume entitled The Anarchist Ideal, and Other Essays (1913) consists of essays on anarchism in the ancient world, on Plutarch, physiological psychology, heredity, and the university in the United States. Last, there is his contribution to the University of Michigan scholarly publications, The Life and Work of George Sylvester Morris (1917), notable not only as a graceful and sympathetic biography of a former professor in the department but as a penetrating study of the background of thought and culture in the United States in the nineteenth century. He also made an extensive contribution to The Life of Robert Flint, by Donald Macmillan (1914). Mention should be made of the delightful literary essays which he wrote as recreations, such as the essay, "Marian Evans and George Eliot," in the Washington University Studies (Ser. II, Vol. IX [1921], No. 1), Poems of John Davidson, Selected, with an Introduction and Bibliography, in the "Modern Library" (1924), and the two essays on Kipling published in the Inlander, March and April, 1899. Finally, there Page  679should be mentioned the partly autobiographical, partly philosophical, contribution to the second volume of Contemporary American Philosophers, in the "International Library of Psychology, Philosophy and Scientific Method." As expressed in his writings and lectures, Professor Wenley's general philosophical position may be described, I think, as Hegelianism of the Right, interpreted in terms of his Scotch pietism, and modified by a certain skepticism born of his knowledge of science. Profoundly religious, even mystical by training and conviction, a Christian and a church member, he was yet skeptical of the sanctity and literal truth of creeds and dogmas. On the other hand, he knew the history of thought too well to be swept off his feet by fashionable currents of opinion in religion and philosophy. Although he never developed an original system of thought in any of his writings, all of his publications in whatever field are distinguished by broad and accurate learning, knowledge of the human spirit, especially in its relation to its historical and social background, and, particularly in the writings of his later period, by a brilliant, epigrammatic, characteristic style. To his students who followed his advanced courses and knew what lay unwritten in his mind, it will always be a matter of regret that he never found the opportunity to bring to completion a systematic work on the philosophy of religion.

During the headship of Professor Wenley, the work of the department grew to such an extent that, in addition to the collaboration given by Professor Lloyd, it became necessary to appoint new members to the staff. Among those who were appointed, the following became permanent members of the department and are now carrying on in the room of Professors Wenley and Lloyd — two University of Michigan men, Charles Bruce Vibbert ('04) and Roy Wood Sellars ('03, Ph.D. '09), appointed in 1905, and, after George Rebec's resignation, DeWitt Henry Parker (Harvard '06, Ph.D. ibid. '08).

On the death of Wenley and the separation of philosophy from psychology, the old headship system of organization was abandoned in the department in favor of the chairmanship system. DeWitt Parker was appointed Chairman in 1929. In 1935 the department was further reorganized along "democratic" lines through the adoption of a written constitution giving authority to the department as a whole, including instructors, with regard to all matters concerning appointments, promotions in rank and salary, and educational policy. In 1940 the department consisted of six men, excluding teaching fellows, the three new members being Professor Cooper Harold Langford (Clark '21, Ph.D. Harvard '24), who was appointed in 1929, and Assistant Professors Paul Henle (Harvard '29, Ph.D. ibid. '33) and William Frankena (Calvin '30, Ph.D. Harvard '37), both appointed in 1937.

The following books, exclusive of those that may be regarded as primarily of the textbook variety, have been published by present members of the department: Cooper H. Langford, Symbolic Logic (in collaboration with Clarence I. Lewis, 1932); DeWitt H. Parker, The Self and Nature (1917), The Principles of Aesthetics (1920), The Analysis of Art (1926), Human Values (1931), and Experience and Substance (1941); Roy W. Sellars, Critical Realism (1916), The Next Step in Democracy (1916), The Next Step in Religion (1918), Essays in Critical Realism (1921), Evolutionary Naturalism (1922), The Principles and Problems of Philosophy (1926), Religion Coming of Age (1928), and The Philosophy of Physical Realism (1932).

Page  680
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
The Chronicle, Vol. 1 (1869).
Frieze, Henry S.A Memorial Discourse on … Henry Philip Tappan … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1882.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1880-1929. Univ. Mich.
Parker, DeWitt, , Walter B. Pillsbury, , and Herbert C. Sadler. "Robert Mark Wenley." In: University Council and Senate Records, 1929-1932. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1932. Pp. 92-101.
Perry, Charles M.Henry Philip Tappan … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1933.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1872-1909, 1926-40. (P.R.)
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Rebec, George. "George Sylvester Morris."Mich. Alum., 14 (1908): 188-90.
Stalker, Arthur W."Benjamin Franklin Cocker."Mich. Alum., 14 (1907): 103-4.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Wenley, Robert M.The Life and Work of George Sylvester Morris. Univ. Mich. Publications. New York: Macmillan Co., 1917.

THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

The subject of physics was first taught in the University in the autumn of 1843, under the name of natural philosophy. Some eleven juniors constituted the first class, and the instruction was conducted by George Palmer Williams (Vermont '25, LL.D. Kenyon '49), who also taught mathematics under the title of Professor of Natural Philosophy and Mathematics. From this modest beginning there has been a continuous evolution into the present Department of Physics, comprising in the various ramifications of its activities a staff of some sixty men, including assistants and technicians, and occupying two large buildings.

In Detroit, first as the "Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania" in 1817, then as the University of Michigan in 1821, the institution had been unable to find sufficient students of collegiate grade. It had therefore confined itself largely to secondary instruction, and for a time continued to do so even when, on Michigan's admission to statehood in 1837, the Board of Regents was established and the site at Ann Arbor was determined upon. Regular university instruction began in Ann Arbor only in 1841. At the same time the Regents withdrew a large part of the support which they had been pouring into the several University-sponsored and University-controlled secondary schools about the state, called branches (see Part I: Early History and Branches).

In anticipation of the opening of the central institution, the Regents, in July, 1841, appointed George P. Williams to be Professor of Languages; but in August, upon his own request, they made him Professor of Mathematics instead, and appointed the Reverend Joseph Whiting to the professorship of languages. Both took up residence in Ann Arbor in September, and, announcement having been previously made that college instruction would begin, seven students presented themselves. Only freshman and sophomore classes were organized the first year; the sophomore class consisted of one student, who was later absent for one year, but returned Page  681and graduated with the class below in 1845. The subjects of instruction consisted of mathematics and the ancient languages and literature. Professors Williams and Whiting constituted the entire resident staff.

During the next academic year, 1842-43, the same subjects of instruction were continued for the original class, now sophomores, with a brief course in logic perhaps added. Some additional students joined this class from time to time, and a new freshman class had entered.

In the third and fourth years of the curriculum the study of the ancient languages was much reduced and natural philosophy, astronomy, chemistry, zoology, geology, and some of the social sciences were studied. The academic year was at first, and until 1856-57, divided into three terms.

By the autumn of 1843, according to the Catalogue, Williams' title had been changed to Professor of Natural Philosophy and Mathematics, and, as previously stated, he conducted the instruction of the first class in natural philosophy, consisting of junior students; the instruction was given in the first and second terms of the third year of the curriculum.

The textbook was the two-volume Introduction to Natural Philosophy by Denison Olmsted, professor of natural philosophy and astronomy in Yale College. This was first published in 1832. In 1837 the same author published also a more elementary text in one small volume, for "schools and academies." A copy of the elementary text is at hand, but the college text in its two-volume form is not available. After several revisions, however, the college text was stereotyped in 1844 and was thereafter issued in a single octavo volume of nearly six hundred pages, as occasion demanded. In an 1858 reprint of this text, which is at hand, mechanics, acoustics, electricity, magnetism, and optics are treated.

The text is on the whole thorough and excellent, but under electricity, to which seventy pages are devoted, not a word is said on the subject of electric currents, for the reason that "in Yale College, Galvanism and its kindred subjects are assigned to the chemical department." Thus Ohm's law, which had been announced in 1826, is not mentioned; moreover, under magnetism nothing is said concerning Oersted's epoch-making discovery made in 1820, of the effect of the electric current on the magnetic needle, nor of the equally momentous discoveries made some twelve years later by Faraday and by Joseph Henry of the phenomena of electromagnetic induction and of self-induction.

This is strange, especially in view of the fact that Joseph Henry's work was carried on first at Albany and then at Princeton, two cities both rather near New Haven. Were the Yale chemists appropriating all of these marvelous advances in physics of the time, or were these great discoveries as yet too little understood to permit of treatment in a college text? In the part of the book which is devoted to optics, the phenomenon of polarization by reflection, discovered by Malus in 1808, is adequately treated, as is also Fraunhofer's discovery of the dark lines of the solar spectrum, announced in 1817. But Young's development of the principle of interference, 1801-4, is accorded only a few sentences (with no mention of Young's name), and Fresnel's great researches of the years 1815-24 are ignored (though Fresnel is incidentally mentioned in a footnote).

In the early years at Ann Arbor, as elsewhere at the time, instruction was almost entirely from textbooks. Recitation of subjects assigned for study consumed the greater part of the class periods, combined, of course, with discussion. Lectures Page  682were only occasional, and there were no demonstration lectures, which we now hold as important in the experimental sciences. Moreover, the student was offered no opportunity whatever to carry out experiments for himself. Laboratory instruction in physics at the University lay as yet nearly forty years in the future.

During the decade 1843-53 the instruction in physics was conducted in the manner just outlined.

Williams, as senior member of the faculty, and through his genial spirit coupled with an alert mind and kindly humor, held a unique place in the University during its first forty years at Ann Arbor. A multitude of students came to him for counsel, and all loved him. To them he was affectionately known as "Punky." But, though revered, he did not escape the crude pranks occasionally played by the students in the early days. It is recorded that early one morning the students led a donkey into his classroom, and tied it behind his desk. When he entered, the students were all in their seats. He bowed and said, "Good morning, gentlemen! I see you have no need of me this morning, having already provided yourselves with an instructor fully qualified to instruct you," and thereupon he walked out.

While Professor Williams was now by career a mathematician and natural philosopher, he maintained his interest in languages and in theology, in both of which he was proficient. Throughout his life he was deeply religious and had had and retained a desire to be some day ordained a minister. Once he had been accepted for ordination, but he then refused because of doubts in regard to his own worthiness. At length he was ordained, in 1846, as a minister of the Protestant Episcopal church and subsequently, while retaining his duties at the University, served for about two years as rector of Saint Andrew's Church of Ann Arbor, without salary, in order to help this church out of financial difficulties.

President Tappan, who entered upon his duties in the autumn of 1852, at once wisely stressed the need for augmentation of the faculty. Inasmuch as Williams had become overburdened in his dual professorship of mathematics and natural philosophy, and since a need for an engineering course had developed, Tappan urged the appointment of a professor of physics and civil engineering. The Regents created the proposed professorship and selected a man recommended by the Reverend Erastus Haven, then Professor of Latin in the University and later its President, as well as by the famous botanist Louis Agassiz and others, as an individual of superior and versatile attainments, qualified to hold a professorship in almost any branch of science.

The man in question was Alexander Winchell (Wesleyan '47, LL.D. ibid. '67). He was called in the autumn of 1853, but was delayed until January, 1854, in Alabama, where he had been teaching, by an outbreak of yellow fever. Immediately after his arrival Winchell entered upon his new duties, and by the autumn of 1854 the title and functions of George P. Williams had been limited to those of a professor of mathematics, as Winchell was filling the professorship of physics and civil engineering. It devolved upon Winchell, moreover, to select and purchase the first physical apparatus for the University, an initial appropriation of $500 having been made for this purpose.

Unfortunately, Winchell soon fell into disfavor with President Tappan. Probably the chief source of their discord was personal incompatibility, but in any event Tappan felt that Winchell had been inattentive to his duties, and, after a year, effective in the autumn of 1855, had him transferred to what he considered Page  683a less important chair. Another factor in the situation may have been that Winchell's dominant interests were in fields other than physics and engineering. He subsequently had a distinguished career, principally as a geologist.

Simultaneously with the transfer of Alexander Winchell, Lieutenant William Guy Peck (U.S. Mil. Acad. '44, A.M. Trinity [Conn.] '53, LL.D. ibid. '63) was called to the chair of physics and civil engineering. Graduated first in his class at West Point, he had served in the Mexican War and then as an assistant professor of mathematics at West Point. He filled his professorship in Ann Arbor for two years, 1855-57, and then was called to Columbia University.

During the period of Peck's incumbency of the chair of physics the first Chemical Laboratory Building was erected. It was a small building which, after numerous and extensive enlargements, is now known as the Economics and Pharmacology Building. The facilities thus provided for laboratory work in chemistry were among the best of the day in America. At this University as well as elsewhere, chemistry was the science which first introduced laboratory instruction.

No provision had been made in the late summer of 1857 for the courses in physics and engineering for the coming year. At that time a recent graduate of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute stopped over in Ann Arbor, to visit the University, on his way to Chicago, where he intended to seek employment. He called upon President Tappan, and in the ensuing conversation Dr. Tappan suggested that the young man, DeVolson Wood by name, remain in Ann Arbor and for the time being undertake the instruction in the courses in question, with the understanding that he would have to content himself with such remuneration for this service as the Regents might deem proper to allot to him. Wood accepted. He proved himself capable and was soon given an appointment as an assistant professor, which he held for two years. In June, 1859, he was made Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering, but he held this title for only one year.

The time was ripe for the creation of a separate professorship of engineering, and DeVolson Wood (C.E. Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. '57, M.S. Michigan '59) was chosen for this chair. In 1860 James Craig Watson ('57, Ph.D. Leipzig '70), who had for a year been Professor of Astronomy, was appointed to the professorship of physics, which he held for the three years 1860-63. Williams then became Professor of Physics and retained this appointment until his retirement in 1875.

In 1871 George Benjamin Merriman (Ohio Wesleyan '63, A.M. Michigan '64) was transferred from an assistant professorship of mathematics to an adjunct professorship of physics. Williams was aging and needed relief from the burden of his post. In view of his long and conspicuous service, however, he was continued in the rank and with the salary of professor of physics, but without duties.

Merriman was the first native son of the state to have charge of or take part in the instruction of physics at the University. He was born at Pontiac on April 13, 1834.

The lecture rooms and chapel of University Hall were ready for occupancy in October, 1872 (the auditorium not until a year later), and the situs of the instruction in physics was now transferred to this new building; space was allotted in the southeast corner of the fourth floor. Just previous to this removal the classes in physics had been held in the North College (Mason Hall). In the very early years, when this was the only college building, the instruction in all branches of learning had been given there. Upon Page  684completion of the South College (South Wing) in 1848, the classes in some subjects were transferred to it. Rather more likely than not, physics remained in the North College until removed to University Hall. A fact which bears upon this question but yet furnishes no definite clue is that the above-related donkey episode, which occurred in 1857, was reported concurrently in the Detroit Free Press as having taken place in the North College. But this episode occurred while Williams was Professor of Mathematics only. Mr. Levi Wines, an alumnus of keen intellect who entered the University in the autumn of 1870, stated that he, as a prospective freshman, went to interview Williams, at that time again Professor of Physics, and that Williams' office and classroom were then in the North College. Accordingly, the instruction in physics was either still or again being given in the North College. Mr. Wines could not recall with certainty just where within the North College Williams' rooms were situated, but he was inclined to believe that they were in the southeast corner of the second floor.

Mr. Wines also said that when he attended the course in physics, probably in 1872-73 and in any event during the years that it was conducted by Professor Merriman in University Hall, the course included lectures as well as recitations, and the lectures were accompanied by ample demonstrations. The students, however, were given no opportunity to perform experiments themselves. Also, the well-known Ganot's Physics was then being used as a text. This continued to be used for many years.

At this period the students annually celebrated at the conclusion of the course the "burning of physics" or the "burning of mechanics," which was a comic ceremony in which an effigy representing physics or mechanics was by way of climax to appropriate obsequies cast upon a burning pyre. This custom originated in 1860 and was continued with perhaps an occasional omission until 1881. The class of 1875, moreover, feeling that the "burning of physics" was not enough, arranged in addition an entertainment in Hangsterfer's Hall in downtown Ann Arbor, of which the principal attraction was a parody on a demonstration lecture in physics — featuring experiments which didn't work!

In June, 1875, Merriman terminated his service at the University to accept the professorship of mathematics at Albion College. In the interim the alumni had generously raised a liberal pension fund for Professor Williams (see Part II: Alumni Association), and he was at this same time definitely retired with the title of Emeritus Professor of Physics. He continued to reside in Ann Arbor until his death on September 4, 1881, at the age of seventy-nine years.

John Williams Langley (Harvard '61, M.D. hon. Michigan '77, Ph.D. hon. ibid. '92), a brother of the famous Samuel Pierpont Langley, replaced him. A graduate of the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard, Langley had studied medicine for a year at Michigan, and had been in succession an acting assistant surgeon in the United States Navy, an assistant professor of natural philosophy at the Naval Academy, and a professor of chemistry at the Western University of Pennsylvania. He conducted the instruction in physics here for two years in conjunction with work in chemistry, under the titles of Acting Professor of General Chemistry and Physics for the year 1875-76 and Professor of the same subjects during 1876-77. Thereafter, he was Professor of General Chemistry only.

In the autumn of 1877 Charles Kasson Wead (Vermont '71, A.M. ibid. '74) assumed the work in physics under the title of Acting Professor of Physics. He had done graduate study in this country, and Page  685this was followed by three years of teaching and a year of study in Berlin. Under C. S. Wead the first instructional laboratory in physics was inaugurated in February, 1878; it extended along the east side of the fourth floor of University Hall. Wead's field of principal interest was acoustics. He remained at the University until 1885 and then, or soon after, returned to the East. After a period of some years he entered the United States Patent Office.

During the year 1885-86 the professorship of physics was vacant. To provide instruction in the interim, however, Mark Walrod Harrington ('68, A.M. '71, LL.D. '94), Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory, assumed temporary charge of the courses in physics, and DeWitt Bristol Brace was Assistant Professor of Physics from February until June. The latter subsequently became a professor of physics at the University of Nebraska.

Henry Smith Carhart (Wesleyan '69, Sc.D. Northwestern '12, LL.D. Michigan '12) assumed his duties in the fall of 1886 with the title of Professor of Physics and remained at Michigan in that capacity until 1909. He came from Northwestern University, where he had been for fourteen years. Born at Coeymans, New York, on March 27, 1844, he had obtained his bachelor's degree at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, and had then studied at Yale for a year before going to Northwestern.

When Carhart arrived the time was ripe for the erection of a laboratory building for physics and hygiene. Construction was begun in 1887, and the building was ready for occupancy in the autumn of 1888. The original Physics Building was considerably enlarged on its west side in 1905, the added part including the room known as the West Lecture Room. The structure is now called the West Physics Building.

With the facilities provided by the completion of the Physics Building in 1888 the functional activities in the field of physics at the University began a rapid advance in status and expansion in scope. Playing equally important roles in bringing about this advance and expansion were two additional factors. First, the University as a whole was growing and maturing rapidly, and second, a great developmental influence was exerted personally by Carhart, through his energy and ability as a scientific investigator. He was internationally known for his contributions to the progress in electricity which was being made in his day. In 1890 the additional title of Director of the Physical Laboratory was conferred upon Carhart.

During the decade 1890-1900 several appointments were made in physics in the ranks of instructor, assistant professor, and junior professor, with advance in rank of the incumbents from time to time. There thus evolved during this decade what may properly be called a staff in physics and a Department of Physics. Those holding appointment continued in the department into the new century.

The six men conducting the instruction in physics in 1901-2 included two recent additions and were as follows: Henry Smith Carhart, Professor of Physics and Director of the Physical Laboratory; John Oren Reed ('85, Ph.D. Jena '97), Junior Professor of Physics; Karl Eugen Guthe (Ph.D. Marburg '89), Assistant Professor of Physics; Harrison McAllister Randall ('93, Ph.D. '02), Instructor in Physics; George W. Patterson, Junior Professor of Electrical Engineering; and Benjamin F. Bailey, Instructor in Electrical Engineering. Of these six, it is rather remarkable that all have been, or are at present, heads of departments in the University, and three have been deans. Carhart was succeeded Page  686as Director of the Physical Laboratory by Reed, Guthe, and Randall, in the order named. Randall continued as Director until his retirement in 1941, when Ernest Franklin Barker (Rochester '08, Ph.D. Michigan '15) was made Chairman of the Department of Physics. Patterson became the head of the Department of Electrical Engineering in 1905 and continued in that capacity until 1915. He was also head of the Department of Engineering Mechanics from 1914 until his death in 1930. Bailey became the head of the Department of Electrical Engineering in 1922, and holds that position at the present time (1942). The three who became deans were John O. Reed, who was the first Dean of the Summer Session and later was Dean of the Literary Department, Karl E. Guthe, who was chosen the Dean of the Graduate School upon its reorganization in 1912, and George W. Patterson, who was Assistant Dean of the Engineering College from 1922 to 1927, Acting Dean for the year 1927-28, and Associate Dean 1928-30. Dean Patterson died May 22, 1930. For many years he conducted the more advanced courses in electricity in the Department of Physics, even after his title became Professor of Electrical Engineering. He was joint author with Professor Carhart of a textbook, Electrical Measurements, which was in use for a number of years. Perhaps one of the most popular high-school texts on physics was one known as Carhart and Chute, from the names of the authors. The second author was Horatio Nelson Chute ('72, A.M. '75, LL.D. Denison '09), of the Ann Arbor High School. Carhart's Physics for University Students was also used as a text in the courses in general physics, especially by engineering classes. His most important contributions to physics were on electrical and electrochemical subjects. He established courses in electrochemistry in the physics curriculum, and was an authority on standard cells. He was made Professor Emeritus in 1909 and died in 1920. Most of his years after retirement were spent in California.

Professor Reed is remembered by all his students as a very vigorous and efficient teacher, who had little patience with sham and nonsense, but who labored with boundless energy to aid those who proved themselves capable and eager to learn. His interest was principally in the subjects of sound and light, and he prepared excellent laboratory courses in those branches. In March, 1912, he obtained a leave of absence because of illness. He died January 23, 1916.

Karl E. Guthe, after having been a member of the Department of Physics for some years, resigned and engaged in research at the Bureau of Standards from 1903 to 1909, then returned as Professor, and later succeeded John O. Reed as Director of the Physical Laboratory. Together with Reed he published College Physics, a text which enjoyed wide use in courses in general physics. Guthe's reputation for scholarship and research made him the choice for the first Dean of the Graduate School. Unfortunately, his inspiration and services in this capacity were cut short by his sudden death in Oregon, September 10, 1915.

The death of Professor Guthe occurred so near the opening of the school year that there was practically no time left for his successor to make plans to carry the load thus suddenly thrust upon him. Upon H. M. Randall devolved the responsibility of directing the affairs of the department and of providing for the needs of graduate students, who were coming in increasing numbers. How well he assumed these duties is indicated by the enormous increase of the research facilities and activities of the department under his directorship, by the large number of students pursuing advanced work, and by the expansion of the teaching Page  687curriculum to include instruction in the most modern and advanced aspects of physics. Randall is a joint author, with N. H. Williams and W. F. Colby, of General College Physics, a text which is used at present in the general physics classes of the University. His major research interest is in radiation, particularly that of the infrared region of the spectrum. To this field he has made fundamental contributions, important not only for the information they yield, but even more because of the extensive developments that have followed, in which similar methods have been utilized. His own investigations and those of his associates have brought to the laboratory high distinction, and established it as a leading center for infrared research. Randall in 1937 was president of the American Physical Society.

The courses of instruction. — Until about 1880 it could scarcely be said that anything beyond elementary physics was offered in the courses of instruction. Under C. K. Wead, however, more work in optics, acoustics, and electrical measurements was initiated. Commercial applications of electricity had been developing rapidly, and soon after Carhart took charge in 1886 new courses began to appear. Thus, in 1888 was instituted a course in dynamoelectric machinery, and in 1889 there were courses in mathematical electricity, in electric batteries, and in the photometry of electric lamps. In 1891-92 were added the study of transformers, more laboratory work in electricity, and the theory of light. A course in the theory of heat was first offered in 1893-94, and advanced studies in sound and light in 1895-96. The courses in sound and light were taught by John O. Reed; those in electricity were given by Carhart and Patterson.

In the year 1900-1901 a colloquium was added, for which one hour of credit was given each semester. In this colloquium advanced students joined with the teaching staff in presenting reports on research and on other topics of interest.

Although the courses in general physics have been modified from time to time to meet the needs of those preparing for the different professional schools, it may be said that since 1887 a full year's course of at least five class or laboratory periods per week has been given. At present the students preparing for medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy take the same course in physics as those in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Of engineering students an additional amount of work in the solution of problems is required.

The subject of thermodynamics had been well developed for many years previously, but there was not sufficient demand for advanced study in this subject until the year 1901-2, when Karl E. Guthe first offered a course under this name. A course in electrochemistry was introduced by Carhart in 1902-3, and one entitled Advanced Electricity and Magnetism by Patterson in 1904-5. In 1907-8 instruction in the measurement of high temperatures was begun by Randall. Two courses in advanced physics were given by Guthe, beginning in 1910-11. These have since given way to separate intermediate courses in mechanics, sound, heat, and light. In the same year were announced a seminar and courses on electromagnetic theory by Guthe, on direct and alternating currents by Neil Hooker Williams (93e, Ph.D. '12), and on radiation by Randall. For ten years following Carhart's resignation the laboratory course in electrochemistry was carried on by William D. Henderson ('03, Ph.D. '06), who later became Director of the University Extension Service.

Courses in German and French reading for students of the sciences were first listed in the physics group in 1912-13. A course in X rays was first offered by Page  688David Locke Webster (Harvard '10, Ph.D. ibid. '13) in 1917-18, and one on the theory of gases by Walter Francis Colby ('01, Ph.D. '09) in 1920-21. Work in modern physics was introduced by Colby in 1921-22, as was also the study of vacuum tubes by Williams. In 1923-24 appeared announcements of courses in quantum mechanics by Colby, on physical optics by William Warner Sleator ('09, Ph.D. '17), and on atomic structure by Ernest Franklin Barker; in 1924-25, geometrical optics by Ralph Alanson Sawyer (Dartmouth '15, Ph.D. Chicago '19), theoretical mechanics by Oskar B. Klein (Fil.Dr., Inst. for teor. Fysik [Copenhagen] '21), spectral series by Randall, X-ray equipment and apparatus by George Allan Lindsay ('05, Ph.D. '13), and electronics and conduction of electricity through gases by Ora Stanley Duffendack (Chicago '17, Ph.D. Princeton '22); in 1925-26, laboratory work in radioactivity by Arthur Whitmore Smith (Dartmouth '93, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '03); in 1926-27, high-frequency measurements by Williams, architectural acoustics by Daniel Leslie Rich (Waynesburg '02, Ph.D. Michigan '15), and theory of spectra by Otto Laporte (Ph.D. Munich '24); in 1927-28, quantum mechanics by Laporte, theory of band spectra by David Mathias Dennison (Swarthmore '21, Ph.D. Michigan '24), infrared radiation by Randall, and contemporary physics by George Eugène Uhlenbeck (Ph.D. Leiden '27); in 1928-29 a proseminar for the master's degree and a year's work in molecular physics for graduate students not specializing in physics, and quantum theory and atomic structure by Dennison. In 1929-30 the theory of atomic spectra was introduced by Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (Ph.D. Leiden '27), and some eleven courses of special investigation were provided for graduate students with the idea of offering preliminary investigation in any line to those not quite ready to begin a subject for the doctor's degree. In 1934-35 a non-technical course in general physics was introduced by Rich especially for students not intending to continue work in physics; in 1937, mechanics of fluids by Lindsay; in 1939, nuclear physics by Horace Richard Crane (California Inst. Technol. '30, Ph.D. ibid. '34); and in 1942, introduction to aerodynamics by Uhlenbeck. Since 1920 Charles Ferdinand Meyer (Johns Hopkins '06, Ph.D. ibid. '12) has had charge of the laboratory in physical optics.

The average numbers of courses listed each year during five-year intervals are given in Table I.

TABLE I
Interval Number of Courses Offered
1901-6 23
1906-11 25
1911-16 34
1916-21 38
1921-26 40
1926-31 51
1931-36 64
1936-41 48

Nearly all of the courses which are now considered as advanced work for graduate students have been added since 1920. Among the few exceptions to this are courses in electricity and magnetism and in thermodynamics.

The inclusion of new courses in the curriculum follows rather closely the advance of research in any particular phase of the subject. For example, the great activity in research concerning the structure of the atom in the years about 1920 corresponds with the introduction of a course in atomic structure in 1923, and the development of new types of vacuum tubes and their application to radio communication were followed by a course in vacuum tubes in 1921. In general, there has been a great increase in Page  689the amount of theoretical physics offered since 1920. The same period has witnessed a remarkable growth in the research productivity of the department. This growth was unquestionably favored by the unusual conditions in physics during these years, for so many new experimental results were obtained through such agencies as optical and X-ray spectra — in fact, through measurements of electromagnetic radiation, from the greatest wave length down to cosmic radiation at the other extreme of the spectrum — that there was almost unparalleled opportunity for new investigation. The policy of Karl E. Guthe, Director of the Physical Laboratory from 1911 until 1915, and of H. M. Randall since that time, was definitely to encourage research to the fullest extent. This encouragement by word, by example, and by every effort to provide the necessary apparatus for the problems undertaken has been a source of continual inspiration to the members of the staff. Fortunately, the new building (East Physics Building), erected in 1924, afforded more space and other facilities without which many of the investigations since successfully carried on would have been quite impossible. In this new structure, renamed the Harrison M. Randall Laboratory of Physics in 1940, are conducted the advanced classes as well as the research work. The offices of the permanent members of the staff are also located there. The elementary class and laboratory work is carried on in the older West Physics Building.

The number of graduate students in physics has increased rather steadily, and the increase has been rapid since 1925. Because of the different manner of publishing registers of students in different years, it is difficult to obtain complete and reliable figures on the total number specializing in the department for all the years. In Table II, which has been compiled from various tabulations, the net numbers of graduate students specializing in physics are given for every fifth year. Previous to 1890 the subject of specialization was not recorded in the registers. The record of the master's and doctor's degrees begins with 1891.

Laboratories. — Although the teaching of physics began in 1843, laboratory work was not started until the beginning of the second semester, February 18, 1878. The space then devoted exclusively

TABLE II
Year Number of Graduate Students Specializing in Physics Master's Degrees Granted Doctor's Degrees Granted
1890-91 1 .. ..
1895-96 4 2 ..
1900-1901 6 2 ..
1905-6 15 5 1
1910-11 28 2 1
1915-16 23 2 2
1920-21 27 7 ..
1925-26 57* 10 7
1930-31 118* 15 7
1935-36 100 20 5
1940-41 101 21 8
to the Department of Physics extended, as stated in the catalogues of the time, "in a direct line over 125 feet," was "well lighted from the north, east, and south," and "was provided with gas, steam, and water." This laboratory was in a suite of rooms on the top floor of University Hall adjacent to the office occupied by Professor C. K. Wead, who was then in charge of the instruction in physics.

A new $30,000 physics laboratory, the first unit of what is now known as the West Physics Laboratory, was ready for Page  690occupancy in October, 1888. The basement and the second story were occupied by physics and the third story by the laboratory of hygiene. On the completion of the then "new" Medical Building in 1903, the laboratory of hygiene was removed to new quarters, thus leaving much needed room for the development of physics (see VIII: West Physics Building).

In 1905 an addition, costing, with equipment, about $45,000, was made. An important feature of this addition was a well-equipped lecture room (the West Lecture Room) accommodating four hundred students. The entire building is still used exclusively by the department. It houses a well-equipped shop employing five full-time instrument makers, a liquid-air plant with a capacity of four quarts per hour, a glass-blowing room in which two professional glass blowers work, a large lecture room, six apparatus rooms, a battery room, eight rooms for elementary laboratory work, six classrooms, and a few offices.

In 1920, two large rooms at the north end of the basement in Tappan Hall were taken over. One was used for spectrographic research, and the other served as a light laboratory. These continued to be occupied as physics laboratories for four years.

During 1923 and 1924 a new building, standing in part on the site occupied from 1850 to 1913 by the first Medical Building, was erected. This new structure, the East Physics Building, cost, exclusive of equipment, about $450,000 and was ready for occupancy in February, 1924. It is an L-shaped building, the outside of the L being 144 feet by 132 feet and the wings 60 feet wide. There are four floors above ground, and a full-lighted basement; under about three-fourths of this basement is a subbasement, and under one-half of this subbasement is a subsubbasement, making the building, in part, seven stories high. The soil on which the structure stands is good building gravel to a depth of about 300 feet, and the water table is about 80 feet below the surface. This very favorable soil condition makes the lower basements not only dry but also exceptionally free from vibration. These lower rooms, well ventilated, well lighted artificially, and easily kept at a uniform temperature, have proved to be the rooms most in demand for research (see Part VIII: Randall Laboratory of Physics).

The building is of the skeleton-type construction, the reinforced concrete columns and floor slabs carrying the entire weight and providing almost the entire strength of the structure. This type of construction permits the interior walls and partitions to be of light, easily removable hollow tile. The floors were finished before these light partitions were erected, and the partitions themselves have been kept almost entirely free from permanent wiring and piping. The result is that rooms may easily be made larger or smaller by the removal or by the insertion of a wall. Experience has proven this type of construction to be a very wise one; in spite of careful planning, many changes in the locations of partitions have been found desirable. The skeleton columns were so spaced as to make the natural unit of construction twelve by twenty-four feet; that is, nearly all rooms are either of this size or of a small integral multiple of this size. A two-unit room is twenty-four feet square, a three-unit room, a third larger on one side.

Probably the most elaborate single item in the building is the electrical wiring. In addition to 110- and 220-volt D.C. and 110- and 220-volt three-phase A.C., the laboratory has three battery rooms and several motor generators. Each unit room, in addition to ordinary lighting and power service, is provided Page  691with circuits which permit any of the available sources to be used. On the average about six individual circuits for experimental purposes are available in each unit room. The interconnecting of this electrical system requires over thirty separate plug- and switch-boards ranging in size from six square feet to eighty square feet each, and literally thousands of circuits. The electricians who wired the building made the remark that reinforcing steel might have been dispensed with, the concrete being sufficiently strengthened with electrical conduits.

Several other unusual features were incorporated, which permit flexibility and expansion of the various services supplying electricity, water, gas, steam, and compressed air; also special wood mounting strips and hundreds of threaded inserts were imbedded in the concrete walls and ceilings, to provide facilities for the rigid attachment of apparatus.

A four-unit, two-story room was provided for high-voltage research; also a separate two-story building on its own separate and very special foundation was provided, within the main building, for work in sound. This sound building contains two soundproof rooms and a large reverberation room, adjacent to other rooms planned for observation in sound. This sound building, a relatively heavy structure, is the most nearly free from vibration of any place in the Randall Laboratory. The lower walls and floors of the main building, because of the nature of the gravelly soil in which the building stands, are also nearly vibrationless; but, contrary to expectation, the special piers in the openings of the lowest basement floor are not so free from vibration as are the lower basement walls.

The East Physics Building is used mainly for advanced work. About 55 per cent of it is given over wholly to research. Advanced instructional laboratories occupy an additional 25 per cent, and the remaining 20 per cent is taken up by offices, a library, and three classrooms. The elementary work has remained in the old West Physics Building.

According to present plans the East Physics Building will at some future time be extended toward the west and north and will thus, in conjunction with the structure now existing, form a U. Within this U would be two large lecture rooms, and north of these would be an instrument shop. Accordingly, the ground area which is occupied by the present building is less than one-half the area which the contemplated complete structure will occupy. With the realization of this development the West Physics Building would no longer be needed.

Research. — The extent of the contributions to the science of physics from the University of Michigan is indicated by a long list of papers and reports, some five hundred in all, originally published in various journals, but now available in collected form. They appear in the following two series:

  • University of Michigan Physical Laboratories, Papers. 1879-1910, 6 volumes.
  • Contributions from the Physical Laboratory of the University of Michigan. 1911-41, 6 volumes.
Some of these papers are concerned with problems in the teaching of physics, but the great majority deal with fundamental principles, either presenting significant experimental results, or discussing their interpretation, or both. A very few may be assigned to the category of applied physics, since they aim primarily at the utilization of scientific information rather than at the extension of knowledge. The relatively small proportion of such "practical" studies does not by any means signify that research in physics is of little value to the community, nor that the specialists in this field are insensitive Page  692to the needs which their science might supply. It is, in fact, the result of a somewhat artificial classification which tends to transfer to the realm of engineering any development the aim of which is primarily utilitarian. A case in point is provided by the history of the dynamoelectric machinery laboratory. The principle of electromagnetic induction was discovered almost simultaneously by Joseph Henry and by Michael Faraday in the year 1831, but it remained a matter of "academic" interest until 1876, when the first practical generator was built. This machine was exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia by its inventor, Mr. Charles Brush of Cleveland, a former Michigan student. For the first time in history it made possible the operation of an arc lamp without batteries. Professor Langley, after seeing the demonstration, returned to the laboratory here and constructed a dynamo of similar design but with some improvements and a larger output, so that three arc lamps could be operated at once. This early machine is still in the possession of the University. It constituted the beginning of a laboratory of dynamoelectric machinery, organized at first in the Department of Physics and later developed into the extensive laboratories of the Department of Electrical Engineering.

That type of research which aims at a more nearly complete understanding of natural laws, without concern for utilitarian or commercial values, is often called pure science. Investigations of this sort dealing with a very great variety of subjects have been included in the research program of the physics laboratory. Most of them may be listed in a rough classification (Table III).

By the end of the nineteenth century the so-called classical physics had assumed a fairly complete and consistent form, the last major developments having been in the field of electricity and magnetism. In 1889 Henry S. Carhart wrote in his vice-presidential address before the American Association for the Advancement of Science:

Even popular interest in electricity is now well-nigh universal. Its applications increase with such prodigious rapidity that only experts can keep pace with them. At the same time the developments in pure electrical theory are such as to astound the intelligent layman and to inflame the imagination of the most profound philosopher.

Carhart was himself a profound scholar in this field, and his own researches, together with those of his associates, contributed greatly to its development. Of particular note was his series of studies (1899; 1903) on primary cells, revealing TABLE III
Published Reports
Mechanics, optics, sound, and heat 70
Electricity and magnetism 95
Radiation and the structure of matter 375
Mathematical and theoretical developments 65
experimentally and explaining thermodynamically the relation of the electromotive force in a cell to the temperature and concentration as well as the chemical nature of the constituents. This led directly to the specifications for the famous Carhart-Clark standard cell, and for the legal standard volt. The legal standard unit for the measurement of electric current is the international ampere, which depends upon the electrochemical equivalent of silver. The value of this constant was measured with great precision by Guthe in 1905. These and similar fundamental researches attained international recognition and contributed materially to the high standard of accuracy which now characterizes electrical measurements. In subsequent years, however, the primary interest of the department turned to other fields, and contributions to electrical theory have been less significant. Page  693An exception should be made, however, for the recent direct measurements by Neil H. Williams of the charge per electron transported by a current crossing a vacuum gap. Although the electron charge had previously been known, it was only through indirect measurements on ions. Williams' value, of course, agreed with that determined by Millikan in 1913 for the charge upon a monovalent ion. The observations upon electrons were later extended and corroborated by similar measurements upon metallic ions.

Researches in electrical conduction through metals, gases, and high vacua, which established the corpuscular nature of electrical charges, led directly to the problem of the fundamental nature of matter, i.e., the constitution of atoms, molecules, and crystals. Bohr's theory of atomic structure, first announced in 1913, supplied a tremendous stimulus to such investigations, indicating a new line of attack through spectroscopic observations. It is not surprising that during the last three decades the major interest, and in fact almost the exclusive research activity, of the department should have been devoted to this field. The first spectroscopic studies at Michigan, published in 1911 by Randall, dealt with the emission of infrared (low-frequency) radiations by metallic vapors and the reflection of infrared rays by crystals. His measurements began near the end of the visible spectrum and extended to wave lengths about four times as great. As glass becomes opaque in this region it is necessary to dispense with lenses and use only mirrors in the optical system.

The dispersion is effected by means of a diffraction grating ruled upon a polished metal surface. These infrared rays can be detected neither by the eye nor by a photographic plate, but only through their heating effect, which is extremely minute. The temperature change resulting when they fall upon a sensitive thermopile gives rise to an electric current which is recorded by means of a galvanometer of high sensitivity. Randall brought the technique of these measurements from Tübingen, where he had been associated with one of the greatest of spectroscopists, Professor F. Paschen. No suitable apparatus being available on the market, it was necessary from the first to construct and adapt the equipment, including thermopiles, galvanometers, and mirrors. This development in measuring apparatus has been almost continuous in subsequent years, with vital contributions from all members of the group associated with this research, including Randall, Sleator, Barker, Meyer, Colby, Firestone, Hardy, Wright, and others.

In 1915 Sleator, working with Randall, set up a prism-grating spectrometer for the study of the molecular absorption of water vapor, the design of which has been frequently copied. The following year this instrument was used by Randall and Imes for their famous analysis of the absorption bands of hydrogen chloride. These studies mark the beginning of a long and continuous sequence of investigations upon the characteristic vibrational and rotational motions of various gaseous molecules, which have yielded much valuable information about the geometric form and actual dimensions of different molecules. Very important contributions in connection with the interpretation of the observed data have been made by Dennison and Colby.

In all, about one hundred and twenty papers dealing with spectroscopy of the infrared have been published, and this laboratory is generally recognized the world over as the principal center for such work. Major improvements in apparatus have been made from time to time, not only increasing precision and sensitivity, but also very greatly extending Page  694the range of wave lengths which may be studied. With an instrument completed by H. M. Randall in 1936, consisting of a large recording spectrometer completely enclosed in a case which may be evacuated, measurements are possible to wave lengths more than two hundred times those of red light, in fact, practically to the lower limit for radio waves.

A second important type of spectroscopic investigation deals with visible and ultraviolet radiations, both from atoms and from molecules. In these the records are photographic. R. A. Sawyer and O. S. Duffendack, with their associates, have been responsible for most of this work, which is represented by some ninety-five papers. The earliest of these appeared in 1921. Studies of the excitation of various spectral lines from different atoms and their classification are of great interest not only from the standpoint of atomic mechanics but also because they find applications in rather widely separated fields. Astronomy and astrophysics, for instance, depend very much upon spectroscopic information for their determinations of the temperature and other physical conditions in stars and nebulae. Such observations may also be utilized for chemical analysis in the quantitative determination of very small traces of different metals. Duffendack has pioneered in this type of work and also in studies of the critical potentials of atoms and molecules through controlled impacts. Sawyer is responsible for recent developments in precision spectrochemical analysis, particularly of ferrous metals, a contribution of very considerable importance from the industrial point of view. He has been concerned also with measurements in the extremely short-wave ultraviolet region, and with the determination and interpretation of hyperfine structure in spectral lines.

The study of X radiation yields intimate and characteristic information regarding the structure of atoms and their geometrical arrangement in crystals. In 1920, when this field was just beginning to be systematized, G. A. Lind-say adopted it as his special interest, emphasizing particularly the precise measurement and classification of absorption edges. His first report appeared in 1922. Very shortly thereafter J. M. Cork began a program of work in the same field, extending the systematic classification of atomic levels to some of the less well-known elements. Of particular interest in this connection was his work on element No. 61, one of the very last chemical elements to be discovered. Cork also made some of the earliest grating measurements of the wave lengths of X rays, showing an inconsistency in the previous crystal measurements, which demanded a slight increase in the accepted value of the electron charge. This result has since been abundantly confirmed.

The optical gratings, by means of which wave lengths are determined, consist of polished metal surfaces ruled with parallel and equidistant lines. The distances between successive lines must be greater than the wave length measured, but preferably not much greater. Even the finest gratings, having perhaps thirty or forty thousand lines per inch, are very coarse in comparison with X rays. For the far infrared, on the other hand, gratings with twenty-five to one hundred lines per inch are required. Effective work throughout the spectrum is possible only when a considerable selection of suitable gratings is available, and the Department of Physics is peculiarly fortunate in this respect, since it possesses an excellent ruling machine (one of perhaps half a dozen such machines in existence). The development work in connection with this mechanism and in the preparation and ruling of surfaces Page  695has been largely under the direction of Barker, since his infrared investigations were among the first which required gratings not obtainable elsewhere.

Entirely different methods must usually be employed for measurements in the range of radio waves. An interesting recent development in Williams' laboratory, however, involves the production of radio waves less than half an inch in length and their measurement by means of gratings built up of narrow metal strips. The problem of producing such waves is one requiring much ingenuity, since tubes having almost microscopic dimensions must be constructed, and never before have grating measurements of this sort been attempted. These radiations are found to yield further information concerning the structure of certain molecules.

The most recent and perhaps the most spectacular experimental development in atomic physics sponsored by this department is an attack upon the problem of nuclear constitution through artificial disintegration of atoms and induced radioactivity. It was begun by Cork in 1934, when he constructed a Van de Graaff generator designed to develop a potential difference of one million volts. This instrument was replaced in 1936 by the million-volt transformer equipment planned and assembled by H. R. Crane and by the cyclotron, for which Randall and Cork were responsible. The latter apparatus has a magnet weighing ninety tons, with pole pieces thirty-six inches in diameter. It is capable of accelerating ions by means of successive impulses up to speeds corresponding to twelve million equivalent volts. This instrument has made possible the production of a great variety of radioactive atoms which do not occur in nature and which are useful as tools in many new types of investigation. It also supplies neutrons in very large numbers. Researches in physics which are dependent upon the cyclotron include studies of nuclear energy levels, the production and measurement of gamma radiations, the upper limits of beta-ray energies, the scattering of neutrons, and the precise determination of atomic masses.

A very considerable portion of the output from the cyclotron is utilized in activities outside the Department of Physics. These include tracer chemistry, studies in plant and animal metabolism of the physiological effects of neutrons, and the treatment of certain diseases by radiotherapy.

During the decade 1915 to 1925 the accumulation of experimental data, particularly upon atomic problems, was so enormous and the necessary changes in point of view were so far-reaching that the department came to feel acutely the need for specialists in systematization and in interpretation. Throughout this period W. F. Colby had generously consulted and co-operated with various experimentalists, meanwhile carrying most of the responsiblity for instruction in theoretical physics. In 1923 Dr. Oskar B. Klein was appointed to the staff and assigned courses in mechanics and quantum theory. His contributions, both in the classroom and in the seminar, were of great value during the three years of his residence in this country. Otto Laporte, who had already attained distinction in the field of complex atomic spectra, was appointed in 1926. His analysis and interpretation of the spectrum of iron are especially well known. In 1927 the department materially enlarged the group in theoretical physics by the addition of D. M. Dennison, S. A. Goudsmit, and G. E. Uhlenbeck.

Dennison has made contributions of the very first rank in the field of molecular mechanics, co-operating effectively in the studies of infrared radiation and Page  696band spectra. Several of his papers are very well known, in particular his discussion of ortho- and para-hydrogen, and the prediction regarding their separation, and his masterly summary of the mechanical problem of molecular vibrations.

Goudsmit's field is also that of complex atomic spectra. Uhlenbeck and he were the first to introduce the concept of electron spin which is now an indispensable element in the solution of all spectroscopic problems. This idea and its implications have also been extended by Goudsmit to the realm of nuclear structure and the mutual interaction of elementary particles. Both Uhlenbeck and Laporte have made significant contributions to quantum mechanics and also to purely mathematical developments upon which it depends.

It has always been the policy of the Department of Physics to co-operate to the fullest extent with other departments and research units whenever this can be done to advantage. For example, the Department of Engineering Research, since its organization, has maintained an extensive program in physics and has occupied space in the Randall Laboratory. One member of the departmental staff is assigned to each research project as consultant. These projects originate with various industrial organizations and have included such problems as noise reduction in automobiles and other mechanisms, the development of devices for testing and inspecting bearing surfaces, the improvement of spark plugs and ignition apparatus, and the spectrum analysis of steel and of metallic alloys. Judged by the satisfaction of its clients, the staff has a high record of success in the field of applied physics. Floyd Alburn Firestone (Case '21, Ph.D. Michigan '31) was appointed in 1923 as the first research physicist under this program, but since 1926 has been a member of the regular staff. Most of his contributions are in the field of acoustics, with particular emphasis upon industrial applications.

Another typical co-operative research has been carried on for some years with the assistance of the Medical School and a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. This has developed, under Duffendack and Thompson, a spectroscopic procedure for the rapid quantitative analysis of body fluids for minute traces of various metallic constituents. Randall and Wright, also associated with this project, devised spectroscopic means for the detection by infrared measurements of several amino acids which are of great physiological importance.

A second association of physics and medicine has been developed, under a grant from the Rackham Fund, for the production and study of neutrons and artificially radioactive atoms and the determination of their physiological and therapeutic significance. The cyclotron and high-tension equipment are being utilized for these investigations.

The most recent addition to the departmental equipment is the electron microscope now being operated under Duffendack's supervision. It is an instrument of great promise and wide applicability, providing very much higher magnifications than are available by any other means. It is being applied in investigations on the structure of matter and also in the fields of bacteriology, biology, metallurgy, and engineering.

In any field of knowledge the University has two responsibilities: the discovery and interpretation of new truths and the conservation and transmission of existing information. Almost from the beginning of its scholarly activities the Department of Physics has developed both of these functions simultaneously. One of its very important scientific activities has been the production of textbooks of the first rank. The texts by Page  697Carhart were particularly famous and were very widely used for many years.

The scientific standing which has been attained by the Department of Physics during the last two decades, its most active period, is due not simply to the individual eminence of various staff members, but arises in large measure from two other factors. One is the spirit of cordiality and co-operation which pervades the group, and the other, even more significant, is Randall's inspiring and sympathetic leadership, extending through almost the whole of this period.

The instrument shop. — A summary of the research activities in physics would not be complete without mention of the effective service rendered by the instrument shop. Its staff includes five trained instrument makers, under the supervision of Mr. Hermann Roemer, and a very skillful glass blower, Mr. Gunther Kessler. The shop not only supplies a service department, but also undertakes without hesitation and handles in the most competent way the construction of elaborate and delicate apparatus for all sorts of precision work. Of especial note is the ruling machine previously mentioned, which was designed and constructed here, and is now under the charge of Mr. Paul Weyrich, who also builds the sensitive thermopiles and makes the optical mirrors. Vacuum systems, gauges, and other apparatus of glass and quartz also are continually in demand.

The summer symposia on theoretical physics. — The summer symposia had their rather modest beginnings in the summer of 1923. In that year two nonresident lecturers, Professor K. T. Compton, then of Princeton University, and Professor F. A. Saunders, of Harvard University, were invited to give courses in modern physics. The results of this innovation were sufficiently gratifying to warrant a continuation of the policy, and during the next few years the following men were called as lecturers to the Department of Physics (the institutional connections given are those which they had at the time they lectured in the symposia at Ann Arbor):

  • 1924 W. L. Bragg, University of Manchester, England
  • 1925 P. D. Foote, Bureau of Standards
  • W. P. Davey, Research Laboratory of the General Electric Company
  • H. Fletcher, Research Laboratory of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company
  • 1926 Dr. C. E. St. John, Mount Wilson Solar Observatory
  • K. F. Herzfeld, University of Munich, Germany
  • 1927 E. A. Milne, University of Manchester, England

The year 1927 closed the first period of development of the physics symposia. When this period was reviewed, several points stood out clearly. The nonresident lecturers had been stimulating both to the graduate students and to the regular staff of the department. The influence of the lecturers, however, had been purely local in character; their presence had not attracted any great attention outside of the University. Moreover, those lecturers who were primarily theoretical physicists had been able to give more to their audiences than had the experimental physicists. This was probably caused by the difficulty of satisfactorily describing an experimental technique — it must be learned from actual experience — and by the fact that the principal advances then being made in physics were in the field of theoretical research.

In the summer of 1928 a series of special courses was offered in theoretical physics; these were supplemented by informal colloquia on the most recent developments of the subject. Professor H. Page  698A. Kramers, then of the Rijks Universiteit, Utrecht, Holland, gave courses on wave mechanics. Professor E. C. Kemble, of Harvard University, lectured on band spectra. In addition to the nonresident lecturers, S. A. Goudsmit and G. E. Uhlenbeck, who had recently been called to the University of Michigan, gave courses on the quantum theory of spectra and on Einstein-Bose and Fermi-Dirac statistics, respectively.

The success of this first symposium on theoretical physics was unmistakable. Not only were many graduate students attracted to the University to attend the courses, but, better still, a considerable number of distinguished visitors came, who participated in the colloquia and held discussions with the lecturers. These visitors were men, all holders of doctor of philosophy degrees, who were themselves actively engaged in productive research. It was possible during the ensuing year to trace in a number of articles in scientific journals ideas which had had their inception in the discussions of the symposium. The influence of this meeting was national and international rather than local.

The character of the summer symposia on theoretical physics was established by the symposium of the summer of 1928, and during the ensuing years it has only become more permanent and definitely determined. Each succeeding year has seen men of international reputation in physics come to Ann Arbor as lecturers; these men have played and are now playing the most prominent roles in the development of the subject. In addition to the nonresident lecturers, members of the regular physics staff have usually appeared on the programs. In Table IV are listed the symposium lecturers and their topics for the years 1929 to 1941. Except where explicitly stated otherwise, the courses ran for the full length of the session.

TABLE IVPage  699Page  700
1929
P. A. M. Dirac, Cambridge University, England Advanced Quantum Mechanics
E. A. Milne, Oxford University, England Problems in Astrophysics
Leon Brillouin, University of Paris, France Quantum Statistics
K. F. Herzfeld, Johns Hopkins University Statistical Mechanics
Edward U. Condon, Princeton University Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
D. M. Dennison, University of Michigan Band Spectra
1930
Paul S. Ehrenfest, University of Leiden, Holland Problems in Modern and Classical Physics
Enrico Fermi, Royal University of Rome, Italy Quantum Electrodynamics
Philip M. Morse, Princeton University Quantum Mechanics (seven weeks)
S. A. Goudsmit, University of Michigan Quantum Theory of Atomic Spectra
G. E. Uhlenbeck, University of Michigan Applications of the Theory of Probability in Physics
1931
Arnold Sommerfeld, University of Munich, Germany Electron Theory of Metals (four weeks); Selected Problems of Wave Mechanics (four weeks)
TABLE IV (Cont.)
Wolfgang Pauli, University of Zurich, Switzerland Problems of Nuclear Physics (four weeks); Application of Quantum Theory to Problems of Thermal Equilibrium (four weeks)
H. A. Kramers, University of Utrecht, Holland Quantum Mechanics and Classical Models
J. R. Oppenheimer, California Institute of Technology General Quantum Theory of Transitions (four weeks)
W. F. Colby, University of Michigan Theory of Band Spectra
G. E. Uhlenbeck, University of Michigan The Theory of Probability in Physics
Otto Laporte, University of Michigan Quantum Theory of Atomic Spectra
1932
Werner Heisenberg, University of Leipzig, Germany Selected Problems in Quantum Mechanics
Gregory Breit, New York University The Quantum Theory of Radiation and Dispersion
S. A. Goudsmit, University of Michigan Theory of Hyperfine Structure of Spectral Lines
D. M. Dennison, University of Michigan Theory of Band Spectra
1933
Niels Bohr, University of Copenhagen, Denmark The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (two weeks)
Enrico Fermi, Royal University of Rome, Italy Structure of the Atomic Nucleus
J. H. Van Vleck, University of Wisconsin Recent Developments in the Theory of Magnetism
S. A. Goudsmit, University of Michigan Structure of Atomic Spectra
G. E. Uhlenbeck, University of Michigan Quantum Mechanics
D. M. Dennison, University of Michigan Theory of Band Spectra
1934
George Gamow, Polytechnical Institute of Leningrad, Russia The Atomic Nucleus
J. R. Oppenheimer, University of California The Theory of the Positron (three weeks)
E. O. Lawrence, University of California Artificial Disintegration of Atomic Nuclei (four weeks)
Thomas H. Johnson, Bartol Research Foundation Cosmic Rays (two weeks)
Arthur H. Compton, University of Chicago Cosmic Rays (three lectures)
G. E. Uhlenbeck, University of Michigan The Dirac Theory of the Electron (four weeks)
D. M. Dennison, University of Michigan Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
1935
Enrico Fermi, Royal University of Rome, Italy Selected Subjects in Quantum Mechanics
Felix Bloch, Stanford University The Quantum Theory of the Metallic State (four weeks)
S. A. Goudsmit, University of Michigan Theory of Atomic Structure
G. E. Uhlenbeck, University of Michigan Advanced Quantum Mechanics (four weeks)
1936
P. P. Ewald, Technische Hochschule, Stuttgart, Germany The Theory of the Solid State
E. O. Lawrence, University of California The Design and Technique of Cyclotrons (four weeks)
H. A. Bethe, Cornell University The Physics of High Speed Particles (four weeks)
Edward U. Condon, Princeton University The Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Selected Problems (six weeks)
TABLE IV (Cont.)
Gregory Breit, University of Wisconsin Special Topics in Nuclear Theory (two weeks)
I. Rabi, Columbia University Nuclear Moments (two weeks)
D. M. Dennison, University of Michigan Theory of Band Spectra
Otto Laporte, University of Michigan Structure of Atomic Spectra
1937
Enrico Fermi, Royal University of Rome, Italy Theory of Beta Disintegration (three weeks)
G. E. Uhlenbeck, University of Utrecht, Holland Nuclear Structure
James Franck, Johns Hopkins University Photochemistry and Photosynthesis (one week)
L. H. Thomas, Ohio State University Numerical Solution of Wave Functions (two weeks)
F. N. D. Kurie, University of California Beta and Gamma Radiation (six weeks)
Kasimir Fajans, University of Michigan Chemical Forces and Atomic Structure (three weeks)
1938
H. A. Kramers, University of Leiden, Holland Relativity and Spin; Radiation Theory
P. P. Ewald, Cambridge University, England X Rays and Crystal Structure (one week)
Gregory Breit, University of Wisconsin Nuclear Forces (four weeks)
H. A. Bethe, Cornell University Nuclear Physics (three weeks)
E. B. Wilson, Harvard University Infrared and Raman Spectra (two weeks)
F. Seitz, General Electric Company Theory of the Solid State (two weeks)
1939
Enrico Fermi, Columbia University Cosmic Rays
E. J. Williams, University of Wales Scattering of Cosmic Ray Particles (five weeks)
G. Herzberg, University of Saskatchewan Band Spectra
J. A. Wheeler, Princeton University The Interaction Between Radiation and the Nucleus (six weeks)
G. B. B. M. Sutherland, Cambridge University, England Infrared Spectra (two weeks)
1940
E. P. Wigner, Princeton University Theory of the Atomic Nucleus
R. Serber, University of Illinois Theory of the Meson (two weeks)
W. H. Furry, Harvard University Theory of Radiation (two weeks)
F. W. London, Duke University Low Temperature Physics (three weeks)
B. Rossi, University of Chicago Cosmic Rays (two weeks)
D. M. Dennison, University of Michigan Band Spectra
G. E. Uhlenbeck, University of Michigan Theoretical Aspects of Cosmic Rays
1941
Wolfgang Pauli, Princeton University Recent Field Theories
F. Seitz, University of Pennsylvania Theory of Solids (five weeks)
J. Schwinger, University of California Nuclear Forces (four weeks)
V. F. Weisskopf, University of Rochester Nuclear Reactions (two weeks)

As has already been mentioned, the summer symposia at Michigan have exerted an influence on physics which is both national and international in its scope. The distinguished guests have contributed much to the discussions and colloquia. These men have come from the important centers of physics in the United States and abroad. In Table V are listed the numbers of students and guests attending within a sequence of typical years.

Page  701The role which the symposia have played in the development of the Department of Physics has been of very real importance. The meetings have been

TABLE V
Year Graduate Students Guests
1928 43 18
1929 59 40
1930 51 25
1931 80 35
1932 79 29
1933 57 47
1934 62 39
an inspiration to the members of the regular staff as well as a direct practical aid in furthering many research programs. The influence of the symposia upon the number of graduate students in the department enrolled during the summer session is indicated in the foregoing table, although it must be remembered that these years also coincide with a period of rapid expansion of the Department of Physics, and it would be difficult to distinguish between the two effects. In addition to the increase in the number of graduate students, there has been a marked advance in the quality and degree of ability of the students, which may be largely attributed to the symposia.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Campbell, James V.A Memorial Discourse on the Life and Services of George Palmer Williams. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich, 1882.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1843-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Harrington, Mark W.A Memorial Address on the Life and Services of Alexander Winchell. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1891.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1880-1940. Univ. Mich.
Perry, Charles M.Henry Philip Tappan, Philosopher and University President. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1933.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1940.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Records of the University of Michigan, 1817-1837. Ed. by Frank E. Robbins. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1935.
Rich, Daniel L."The New Physics Laboratory."Mich. Technic, 37 (1924): 17-20.
Shaw, Wilfred B."The Early Days of the University of Michigan."Mich. Hist. Mag., 16 (1932): 439-63; 17 (1933): 52-107.
Ten Brook, Andrew. American State Universities: Their Origin and Progress. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke and Co., 1875.
University of Michigan. Catalogue of Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, "Diary," 1853-59. In Alexander Winchell Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Page  702

THE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

THE Department of Political Science was formally established at the University of Michigan in 1910. At the February meeting of that year, the Regents authorized Acting President Hutchins to make an investigation and report to the Board for appointment a professor of political science, "this chair to be regarded as part of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts" (R.P., 1906-10, p. 660). At the April meeting, the election of a professor of political science was made upon Dr. Hutchins' recommendation. Jesse Siddall Reeves (Amherst '91, L.H.D. hon. ibid. '26, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '94, LL.D. Williams '33), then an assistant professor of political science at Dart-mouth College, was so chosen and entered upon his duties in September, 1910.

Instruction in the field which has come to be set apart as the Department of Political Science seems to have been begun in 1860, when the Regents voted as follows:

Resolved, That the resident Law Professor be required during the vacation of the Law Department to deliver before the Senior Class of the Academical Department a Course of Lectures on Constitutional Law and History and that he receive therefore an additional salary of $500 per annum.


(R.P., 1837-64, p. 907.)
That this resolution was adopted in 1860 is significant. It was a time when the great American constitutional crisis impended, and the Regents recognized the duty of a state educational institution to inform its students on the constitutional system under which they were living. The resident professor of law was Thomas McIntyre Cooley, then just beginning his long and invaluable services to the University. It was fortunate that such a man could be called upon. It may be surmised that it was in these lectures, given to the senior class of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, that Judge Cooley began that exposition of the Constitution the influence of which came in time to extend far beyond the confines of the University in his classical works, Constitutional Law and Constitutional Limitations. The coming of the Civil War seriously reduced the attendance at the University. The students were in the field, engaged in maintaining the theory of the Constitution which they might have had from Cooley had they remained in college. The lectures seem to have continued until 1865, when, by action of the Board, Professor Cooley was "excused from his present duties connected with the Literary Department" (R.P., 1864-70, p. 80).

When next the curriculum provided for instruction in the field of government, it was under the auspices of the Department of History, and there it remained, for the most part, until 1910. This was a natural arrangement at the time. Except at Columbia University, where a school of political science was founded in 1880 under Professor John W. Burgess, the study of political science was centered about the history of political institutions, and even at Columbia the influence of the historical school was strong. At Johns Hopkins, Professor Herbert B. Adams refused to make a distinction between history and political science. Upon the wall of his seminar room appeared in large letters the words of Freeman: "History is past politics and politics present history" — a half-truth which he took as his motto. The teaching of history at Page  703the University of Michigan, as elsewhere, was largely political, and the meaning of institutions was sought in their origin and development.

In 1868-69 Charles Kendall Adams ('61, A.M. '62, LL.D. Harvard '86) offered in the Department of History lecture courses entitled the Growth of Liberty in England and the History and Characteristics of the Constitution of the United States (see Part IV: Department of History). It was the abiding interest and activity of three men — President Angell, Thomas M. Cooley, and C. K. Adams, that led to the development here of studies in political science, although for a long time that generic term was not used. With the coming of President Angell (see Part I: Angell Administration), there was added to the curriculum Public International Law, a course available to the students of the Department of Law as well as to those in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. From 1872 until 1910, except when he was absent from the University as Minister to China and as Minister to Turkey, President Angell gave this course in international law, which was soon supplemented by another course, the History of Treaties. The development of the Department of History under Charles Kendall Adams provided for additional courses — Political Institutions, English and American Constitutional History, and Comparative European Government. During Angell's absence as Minister to China in 1880 and 1881, International Law was given by Herbert Tuttle, who was designated Lecturer in International Law. Tuttle had been a student under Angell at Vermont, and this was his first academic appointment. With Angell's return, Tuttle gave lectures in history at the University of Michigan for another year, when he was called to Cornell University by Andrew D. White. There he had a brilliant career as a professor of modern history, until his death in 1894.

During Angell's absence in China, there was organized a School of Political Science within the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, with Charles Kendall Adams as Dean in charge. As announced in the University Calendar, "the aim of the School is to afford exceptional opportunities for students interested in public questions to specialize in History, Political Economy, International Law, and kindred subjects under guidance of their instructors." The students were required to complete two years in the University before being eligible for admission to the School. The work of the School of Political Science was organized within the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, but was not limited to the undergraduate years. Although the Graduate School was not organized until 1892 and graduate studies were then integrated within the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the plan of the School of Political Science extended through to the doctorate of philosophy:

Besides the regular examinations at the close of the semesters, every candidate for a degree was required to present and defend a thesis before a Committee of the Faculty, as well as to pass a satisfactory examination in three branches of study, a major and two minors. The student who met all the requirements would be recommended for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


(Hinsdale, p. 85.)

The curriculum of the School of Political Science brought together the courses offered by Adams in American, British, and Continental European governments, Cooley's Taxation and the Growth of Cities, and Angell's International Law and Diplomacy, to which were added courses in political economy, social science, sanitary science, and forestry administration. Cooley added to the curriculum in 1883-84 a course on comparative Page  704administrative law, with special reference to local government.

It is probable that the example set by Columbia University in organizing a school of political science was in the minds of Cooley, Frieze, and Adams when they undertook to organize the School of Political Science at the University of Michigan, although it was an awkward arrangement. A School of Political Science, with a dean, established within the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, gave rise to many difficulties of administration and control, especially as the teaching personnel of the School continued to give instruction in various fields outside of the School of Political Science. Notwithstanding the administrative difficulties, an increasing number of literary students was enrolled in the School, and the curriculum, with minor changes, continued to be announced annually through 1887-88. The University Calendar for 1888-89 noted: "It has been found unnecessary to retain an independent School of Political Science, under the form of organization described in calendars of previous years," and afterward the announcement of the curriculum of the School of Political Science disappeared from the Calendar. There is no record that the School was ever formally abolished by action of the Regents.

There were, however, in addition to the administrative difficulties, other reasons for the discontinuance of the School of Political Science. Charles Kendall Adams resigned to accept the presidency of Cornell in 1885 and was succeeded as Dean by Thomas McIntyre Cooley (LL.D. '73, LL.D. Harvard '86). The latter, however, was soon to interrupt his University activities in order to become chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission upon its establishment in 1887. Apparently there were no men upon the faculty who were disposed to undertake the burden of carrying on the School. In addition, the so-called university system, which was first announced in the Calendar for 1882-83, provided a method by which specialized instruction in the field of political science could be carried on without the special organization of a school. The university system was, in effect, an undergraduate concentration system upon an honors basis but closely integrated with postgraduate work in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The system was continued actively until the early nineties and nominally until 1901, and the name was later used only to describe graduate programs in general (see Part III: University System).

Under the leadership of Adams and Cooley, the University of Michigan School of Political Science attracted considerable attention both in the United States and in Europe, and during those years the University shared with Columbia and Johns Hopkins pre-eminence among the universities of the United States for training in political science. One outcome of the activities of the School was the organization of the Michigan Political Science Association, which for a number of years brought together from the state, outside of the University, men and women interested in political science. Its proceedings were published, and, under its auspices, a series of monographs was published, some of them of enduring value.

With the virtual disappearance of the university system the curricular development of subjects in political science was again taken over by the Department of History. In 1900 John Archibald Fairlie (Harvard '95, Ph.D. Columbia '98) was appointed Assistant Professor of Administrative Law and gave courses in the Department of History. That department now listed its courses as divided between those in history and those in government. Page  705In the latter group were the courses by Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin ('82, '85l, LL.D. '12), in succession to Thomas M. Cooley, American Constitutional Law and Political Institutions, and by Fairlie, Comparative Administrative Law and Municipal Administration. Graduate research courses in the same fields were given by these men. Since 1891 McLaughlin had been teaching Constitutional Law and Political History of the United States, and Richard Hudson ('71, A.M. '77, LL.D. Nashville '01), a course called Comparative Constitutional Law. In 1896-97 Hudson offered a new course known as Municipal Government in Great Britain in the first semester and Municipal Government in Continental Europe during the second. McLaughlin left in 1903 to become director of the Bureau of Historical Research in the Carnegie Institution in Washington.

In 1903-4 Professor Fairlie offered a course known as the Government and Administration of Michigan. His interest thus shown bore valuable fruit in the services which he rendered as a member of the state constitutional convention of 1907, which drafted the present constitution of this state. Fairlie resigned at the close of 1908-9, to become a professor of political science at the University of Illinois. His subsequent career has been distinguished by continued scholarly productivity and by his election to the presidency of the American Political Science Association. Upon Fairlie's resignation, William L. Bailey was appointed Acting Assistant Professor of Administrative Law for the year 1909-10, an appointment which he declined, having accepted a permanent position at the University of Wisconsin. Thereupon Blaine F. Moore (Kansas '01, Ph.D. Columbia '09) was appointed Instructor in Political Science for 1909-10, continuing the courses formerly given by Fairlie.

With the year 1909 the long and memorable administration of President Angell ceased, and with it were discontinued the courses in international law and diplomacy which he had given for so many years. Continuance of instruction in these allied fields required the selection of a new man to give Dr. Angell's courses and also to relieve the Department of History from the burden of instruction in the field of government by providing for a professorship of political science, to which might be allocated as many of these courses as possible — the idea being to expand the work by the creation of a department of political science as rapidly as the needs warranted. Reeves was appointed to the new professorship, as has been stated. His courses in 1910-11 were American Government (federal, state, and local), Municipal Government, Public International Law, and History of American Diplomacy, together with a seminar in the history of political theory. The total elections for the year were about two hundred and fifty. American Government, intended as the foundation course for all undergraduate work in political science, soon proved popular, and expansion of the teaching staff was indicated. Benjamin Bruce Wallace (Macalester Coll. '02, Ph.D. Wisconsin '12), of the University of Wisconsin, served as Instructor in Political Science for the academic year 1911-12 and was succeeded in the instructorship by Joseph Ralston Hayden (Knox '10, Ph.D. Michigan '15), then an assistant in history. The curriculum was enlarged by Hayden's courses known as British Government and Administration and Comparative European Government. Hayden has been a member of the staff since the autumn of 1912. In 1918, returning to the University after active service in the United States Navy, he was appointed to an assistant professorship, and his promotion to a full Page  706professorship was made in 1925. Soon after his return from service in the World War, he became especially interested in the administration of the Philippines and made several visits to the Islands for purposes of study and investigation. He was there throughout the year of his sabbatical leave, 1930-31, and from November, 1933, until February, 1936, again upon leave of absence from the University, he served as Vice-Governor of the Philippines. Since 1937, when Reeves retired from the departmental chairmanship while retaining the William W. Cook professorship, Hayden has been Chairman of the Department of Political Science.

As the years passed, a marked increase of interest in the field of municipal administration was clearly shown. This was partly owing to the provision in the Michigan constitution, introduced upon John A. Fairlie's insistence, for a system of home rule for cities in Michigan. In 1913 Robert Treat Crane (Johns Hopkins '02, Ph.D. ibid. '07, LL.B. Maryland '07), who had spent some years in the United States Foreign Service, was called to the University as Assistant Professor of Political Science and was given charge of the work in municipal administration. Under his direction, a curriculum leading to the special degree of master of arts in municipal administration was worked out and the Bureau of Government was established as a laboratory for the work in municipal administration (see Part VI: Bureau of Government). The direction of this work under Professor Crane was markedly successful, and men trained under him quickly found positions as city managers and administrative officers in the state of Michigan and elsewhere. In 1922 he expressed a desire to be relieved of the teaching of municipal administration, in order that he might devote himself to his primary interest, namely, political theory. Accordingly, Thomas Harrison Reed (Harvard '01, LL.B. ibid. '04), who was then at the University of California, was appointed Professor of Political Science. He succeeded Crane as Director of the Bureau of Government in 1923 and continued in charge of the work in municipal administration until 1936, when he resigned to become the head of the Municipal Consultant Service of the National Municipal League. Crane offered a group of courses in political theory from 1922 until his resignation in 1932. At that time he became secretary of the Social Science Research Council. In 1922 James Hart (Virginia '18, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '23), of the Johns Hopkins University, was called as an assistant professor in order to strengthen the work in American government. In 1926 Hart returned to Johns Hopkins, leaving there in 1935 to accept a professorship in the University of Virginia.

Others who have been upon the staff of the department as instructors are Messrs. Robert P. Lane, 1915-17; Hessel E. Yntema, 1918-20; Walter M. Dunn, 1921-23; John E. Kirkpatrick, 1921-24; William M. Strachan, 1923-27; W. Roland Maddox, 1927-31; John J. George, 1927-28; Robert Phillips, 1928-29; H. Arthur Steiner, 1920-31; Earl E. Warner, 1930-31; and Floyd E. McCaffree, 1931-37.

After the World War the registration in the introductory course, American Government, continued to increase until more than six hundred were enrolled. For some time it was a lecture course with quiz sections, but when the class became too large to be accommodated in any of the lecture rooms of the University, it was broken into several sections and the instruction was given by various members of the department. Since 1930 the course has been open to freshmen, and a more advanced course in the same field has been provided for upperclassmen. Page  707The enrollment in these courses in American government at the present time is about eight hundred each semester.

A steadily increasing interest in government has resulted everywhere in a great expansion in the number of political science courses, especially in political theory, in comparative government, in administration and administrative law, in colonial administration, and in foreign relations. At the University of Michigan, the Department of Political Science has responded to the demand with a consequent increase in the number of courses offered and in the teaching personnel. The department has been enlarged by the appointment of assistant professors to give the instruction which the increased enrollment and expanding interest in political science have from time to time required. Everett Somerville Brown (B.L. California '07, Ph.D. ibid. '17) came to the department in 1921 and was advanced to a full professorship ten years later. For the most part, Brown has been in charge of instruction in the field of American federal government. Paul Miller Cuncannon (Swarthmore '15, Ph.D. Princeton '25), appointed Instructor in Political Science in 1923 and promoted to an assistant professorship in 1929, has given courses primarily in American government; and James Kerr Pollock, Jr. ('20, Ph.D. Harvard '25), who came to the University of Michigan from Ohio State University as an instructor in 1925 and was appointed to a full professorship in 1934, has developed the studies dealing with political parties and with European governments. Arthur Watson Bromage (Wesleyan '25, Ph.D. Harvard '28) came to an instructorship in political science in February, 1928, when Reed was granted a leave of absence. Bromage, whose work has been in the field of municipal and local government and administration, received his promotion to a full professorship in 1938. Howard Black Calderwood, Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan '21, Ph.D. Wisconsin '27), was appointed as an instructor in 1927 and was promoted in 1936 to an assistant professorship. He has specialized in the field of international relations. After serving for two years as an assistant, Lawrence Preuss ('27, Ph.D. '32) became an instructor in 1928 and was promoted to an associate professorship in 1937. He gives instruction largely in international law, political theory, and comparative government. Harold M. Dorr ('23, Ph.D. '33), appointed as an instructor in 1929 and promoted to an associate professorship in 1939, has been primarily engaged in instruction in American government. Harlow James Heneman (Minnesota '28, Ph.D. London '34), appointed an instructor in 1933 and an associate professor in 1940, has given much of the work in British and European governments. During the period 1910-37 Reeves was Chairman of the Department of Political Science. In 1931 he was appointed William W. Cook Professor of American Institutions. As the departmental personnel increased, he relinquished the work in American government to others and became primarily interested in the field of international law and American foreign relations.

During the academic year 1935-36, in fourteen courses open to undergraduates only and providing for forty-six semester hours, there were 1,928 elections; and in nineteen courses open to both graduates and undergraduates and providing fifty-five semester hours, there were 1,732 undergraduate and 136 graduate elections; sixteen courses, primarily seminars, with forty-four semester hours, were open to graduate students only, and in these there were 200 elections — the total number of elections for the year being 2,996. Since that time there has been a considerable increase in graduate enrollment. Page  708Response to the demand for undergraduate instruction in political science in the expanded collegiate curriculum has, however, necessitated preponderant attention by the department to undergraduate instruction, as is shown by the foregoing figures; graduate instruction, however, has not been neglected since the seminar in political theory was instituted in 1910.

The department has not recommended a large number of candidates for the degree of doctor of philosophy. Those who have taken this degree, however, since the department was instituted, have by their subsequent careers abundantly justified themselves. Three are now members of the department — Professor Hayden and Associate Professors Preuss and Dorr. Hessel E. Yntema (Hope '12, Ph.D. Michigan '19, S.J.D. Harvard '21), who has served as a professor in the Columbia Law School and at the Johns Hopkins University, later returned to the University of Michigan, where he is Professor of Law. Edwin B. Schultz is teaching political science at Lehigh University, John J. George at Rutgers, Roland M. Egger at the University of Virginia, William M. Strachan at Ohio Wesleyan University, Robert Phillips at Purdue, and Maximo M. Kalaw, Bernabe Africa, and Maria Lanzar-Carpio are professors at the University of the Philippines. Another recipient of the doctor's degree in political science, now deceased, was Howard MacDonald, late president of Parsons College, Iowa.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1860-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Frieze, Henry S. MS, letter to James B. Angell, July 9, 1881. In James B. Angell Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1871-1940.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)

THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

THE history of the Department of Psychology merges with that of the Department of Philosophy, since the two were not separated officially until 1929 (see Part IV: Department of Philosophy).

In Europe psychology did not begin to be recognized as a separate subject until the period 1872-80, and in America there was no modern psychology until the middle of the eighties or the beginning of the nineties. The work in psychology was given usually as "mental philosophy" by the professor of philosophy.

Two men in the early period may be mentioned because of their interest in psychology. Henry Philip Tappan (Union '25, D.D. ibid. '45, LL.D. Columbia '54), President of the University and Professor of Mental Philosophy from 1852 to 1863, wrote a book on the will. This work, supporting the doctrine of Page  709free will as against determinism, was in certain respects a psychological contribution. Of the early holders of the chair of philosophy, he was probably the strongest man in his subject.

His successor, Erastus Otis Haven (Wesleyan '42, A.M. ibid. '45, D.D. hon. Union '54, LL.D. Ohio Wesleyan '63), a professor of philosophy as well as of other subjects, was not so able a man as Tappan, but he did write a textbook on mental philosophy which had wide use as a text in other institutions as well as at the University of Michigan.

The work in psychology proper began when John Dewey (Vermont '79, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '84, LL.D. Michigan '04) came to the University in 1884. He was Instructor and Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Michigan from 1884 to 1888. Then after a year as Professor of Philosophy at the University of Minnesota, he returned to Michigan in 1889 to become head of the Department of Philosophy, and continued in that capacity until 1894, when he left for a similar position at the University of Chicago.

Both philosophy and psychology prospered markedly under Dewey's influence. Of course he has always been primarily a philosopher, but his contributions to psychology are also noteworthy. His first book, Psychology (1886), was written under the influence of the Hegelian system; nevertheless, it shows some indications of the work that he was to do later. Dewey taught psychology at times, and he also encouraged the founding of the first psychological laboratory at the University.

The first course that might be regarded from its title as distinctly a modern psychology course was given in 1890 by James Hayden Tufts (Amherst '84, LL.D. ibid. '04, B.D. Yale '89, Ph.D. Freiburg '92), who came as Instructor in Philosophy in 1889. This course, in which experimental work was offered, was entitled Physiological Psychology and was the first laboratory course in psychology at the University. Tufts resigned in 1891 and after a year abroad became an assistant professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago, where he was again associated with Dewey from 1894 to 1904 and later headed the philosophy department for many years. In 1891 George Herbert Mead (A.B. Oberlin '83, A.B. Harvard '88) took over the course and added to it a certain amount of experimental work. He was Instructor in Philosophy from 1891 to 1893 and Assistant Professor in 1893-94; then, with Dewey, he also went to Chicago. There he advanced to a full professorship and remained in the philosophy department, of which he was the chairman in his later years, succeeding Tufts.

Mead offered four courses in various phases of physiological and experimental psychology in the early nineties. He changed the title of the course in physiological psychology to Advanced Psychology in 1893-94. He had taken over the two courses in experimental psychology, and continued them during the two years. He also, in 1893-94, offered a research course, which was apparently experimental psychology.

Neither Tufts nor Mead had had special training in laboratory psychology or physiological or experimental psychology, but their later work showed them to be men of the greatest ability. At this distance it is hard to say exactly what the content of their course was, although, to judge from the textbooks used, it was obviously a traditional course, treated from the viewpoint of physiological rather than of experimental psychology. The tradition that still held in 1897 was that Mead had started a fire in the South Wing of University Hall, where the laboratory was at that time, by permitting a brain that was being prepared and Page  710shellacked to catch fire; the fire then extended to the partitions of the laboratory proper.

During this early period a keen interest in psychology was evidently aroused among the undergraduates, to judge from the presence of students who later did work of importance in psychology. Thaddeus L. Bolton ('89, Ph.D. Clark '95) was a professor in various universities; later, from 1917 until he retired, he was in charge of the work in psychology at Temple University in Philadelphia. In 1891 James Rowland Angell received a master's degree, having taken his bachelor's degree in 1890. His interest in psychology developed, of course, under the influence of Dewey and Tufts. Immediately after receiving a second master's degree from Harvard in 1892, he, like Dewey, spent a year in the philosophy department of the University of Minnesota and then was called to the University of Chicago, where he was appointed director of the psychological laboratory in 1894. The careers of these two men may be regarded as ample evidence that outstanding students came under the influence of Dewey and his colleagues during the period when he was in charge of the work in psychology at the University of Michigan.

When Dewey left, the work in psychology became more definitely subordinated to the work in philosophy. Alfred Henry Lloyd (Harvard '86, Ph.D. ibid. '93), long connected with the Department of Philosophy, was elected Acting Chairman, and he and his followers gave the general courses in psychology. For one year, 1894-95, John Bigham (Amherst '87, B.D. Yale '92, Ph.D. Harvard '94), who had studied under Münsterberg, was Instructor. He came specifically to do work in psychology, although his title was Instructor in Philosophy. Apparently a man of the mechanically minded type, he was fairly successful with the laboratory, for which, in his one year at the University, he gathered together a supply of apparatus rather unusual at that time. At the end of the year he went into business.

His successor, Edgar Pierce (Harvard '92, Ph.D. ibid. '95), had also studied under Münsterberg. Primarily, he carried on the laboratory work, at which, according to Professor Lloyd, he was very successful. However, he too left at the end of the year. He married the daughter of the proprietor of a chain of fashionable hotels in Boston. Pierce took an active part in the management of the hotels and abandoned work in psychology, but not, apparently, his interest in the subject. He continued to be a member of the American Psychological Association.

In the year 1896-97 Robert Mark Wenley (A.M. Glasgow '84, Ph.D. ibid. '95, LL.D. ibid. '01, Sc.D. Edinburgh '91) was appointed Professor of Philosophy and head of the Department of Philosophy. He decided not to fill the instructorship in psychology until after further consideration; so the place was left vacant, the laboratory equipment was stored, and the psychological work had a year's vacation.

In 1897-98 Walter Bowers Pillsbury (Nebraska '92, LL.D. ibid. '34, Ph.D. Cornell '96) was appointed Instructor in Psychology and revived the laboratory on a small scale. In the earlier years, the psychological laboratory ordinarily occupied a single unit on the first floor of the South Wing of University Hall. In 1897-98, a room on the first floor of the building now called Mason Hall was set aside for psychology. Although the room was small, it was divided into four smaller rooms, one of which was a general laboratory. Another was a small darkroom, and two other smaller rooms were available for purposes of research.

Up to that time the elementary course in psychology had ordinarily been given Page  711by one of the members of the staff of the Department of Philosophy. The introductory course in philosophy in 1897-98 was given by Wenley. The first half of the course covered work in general philosophy, and in the middle of the semester the class was divided into two sections, one of which studied psychology and the other logic. Pillsbury was in charge of the psychology section in that year; and from that time on the work in psychology was entirely distinct from the work in philosophy as far as personnel was concerned. All the courses in psychology were given by Pillsbury and his assistants; philosophy proper was taught by others on the staff of the department. This arrangement continued until the required courses in the Department (later, College) of Literature, Science, and the Arts were discontinued. When the elective system went into effect, the original Course 1 in philosophy, which was made up of general philosophy and psychology or general philosophy and logic, was abandoned, and separate elective courses replaced it. In 1901 the words "Director of the Psychological Laboratory" were added to Pillsbury's title, in recognition of the separateness of the two disciplines.

From 1897-98 through 1900-1901 Psychology was a year course of three, four, or five hours each semester. There was an option of one or two hours of laboratory work in addition to the three hours of basic lectures and recitations. The maximum five-hour course was regarded as the normal one, however, and a full year's work was required to cover the subject. Professor Allen S. Whitney, of the Department of Education, suggested that the students of education needed a shorter course, and in the second semester of 1900-1901 a course of two hours complete in one semester was introduced specifically for their benefit. The latter course was afterwards extended to a one-semester course of three hours offered twice a year to all students of the University. Although the original year course was continued, the newer course quickly became the more popular. Both are still offered, the longer one for students who wish a thorough survey of the subject in one course, and the other for those who need only a brief introduction, to be followed later by other courses in education or in psychology.

Of the several assistants in the early period who did not remain, perhaps the most important man was John Edward Wallace Wallin (Augustana '97, Ph.D. Yale '01), since become a specialist in educational psychology and mental hygiene and now in charge of the Division of Special Education of the State Department of Public Instruction of Delaware.

In 1903 John Frederick Shepard (St. Lawrence '01, Sc.D. ibid. '25, Ph.D. Michigan '06), then a student at the University of Chicago, came as an assistant and has continued with various titles to the present time. With the growth of the number of students and of the University resources, the staff gradually expanded. Shepard was appointed Instructor in 1906; he became Professor of Psychology in 1918. He specially developed animal psychology.

In 1910-11 Pillsbury received his promotion to a full professorship. The only other staff members in psychology at that time were Shepard and one assistant, Harry W. Crane.

The next addition to the staff was Henry Foster Adams (Wesleyan '05, Ph.D. Chicago '10), who, after a year at the University of Kansas, came to Michigan as Instructor in 1911. He now holds a professorship. He early began to specialize in advertising, and extended his interest to applied psychology in general.

The other additions to the staff have been mainly from the ranks of assistants who have proved themselves in the department. Charles Hurlbut Griffitts Page  712(Campbell '13, Ph.D. Michigan '19) was assistant for one year and was then appointed Instructor in 1917. He has advanced to a professorship. Martha Guernsey ('19, Ph.D. '22), who later became Mrs. Walter Colby, was appointed Instructor in 1921 and was made Associate Professor in 1935. She devoted herself especially to child psychology. Carl Richards Brown (Kansas '11, Ph.D. Michigan '28) was appointed to the staff in 1921 and was promoted to an assistant professorship in 1929.

Adelbert Ford ('20, Ph.D. '26) was appointed Instructor in 1923, and in 1931 was appointed Professor of Psychology and head of the Department of Psychology at Lehigh University. He was succeeded in the same year at the University of Michigan by Norman Raymond Frederick Maier ('23, Ph.D. '28), who, after receiving his doctorate here, had spent one year at Long Island University and two years as National Research fellow at the University of Chicago. He advanced through the grades to an associate professorship in 1939. Maier was trained by Dr. Lashley for experimental work in brain lesions and their effects. He has developed work along that line here. Burton Doan Thuma ('23, Ph.D. '30) was appointed Instructor in 1928, and succeeded Ford as lecturer in the elementary course, Course 31, in 1931. At that time he was made Assistant Professor. He was promoted to be Associate Professor in 1939. George Meyer (California '27, Ph.D. Michigan '34) was appointed Instructor in 1930 and has continued to the present time, giving one of the courses in statistics. He was advanced to an assistant professorship in 1940.

Another staff member appointed from outside was Edward Barrows Greene (Amherst '18, Ph.D. Columbia '28), Instructor in 1928 and Assistant Professor in 1936, who devotes himself principally to tests and clinical psychology.

As to the laboratory, additional space was provided when, in 1903, the wooden building that had been used by Dr. Warthin as a pathological laboratory, and at times by the students of the College of Dentistry, was vacated upon Dr. Warthin's moving into the new Medical Building (West Medical Building). This greatly increased the space devoted to psychological laboratory work, and, moreover, made available a number of small rooms, but as permanent quarters the building was inadequate. Erected as an addition to the older building, originally a residence, that occupied the eastern part of the site of the present Natural Science Building, it had been intended as a homeopathic hospital. This addition had been made soon after Lord Lister's discovery of the importance of freedom from bacterial infection, and, in accordance with the widespread belief that hospitals should be torn down every few years to destroy sources of infection, it had been designed as only a temporary structure. However, after the erection of the new hospitals, it had been used for various purposes until finally the psychology laboratory fell heir to it. The many small rooms were partitioned off for privacy for students doing research work or for those working in the general course. It was here that Shepard started his laboratory maze, the maze that has seen continual service for more than thirty years with a constant accumulation of results, not many of which, unfortunately, have as yet been published. The old building fulfilled its function with a fair degree of efficiency, if not aesthetically, until 1915, when the psychology laboratory was established in the newly completed Natural Science Building.

Shepard was in temporary charge of the work in psychology in the year 1913 while Pillsbury was abroad on sabbatical leave, and so distinguished himself in his Page  713work on planning a laboratory that the Regents asked him to take charge, first, of the building of the Natural Science Building itself, and later, for a period of years, of the general building program of the University. His title was Supervisor of the Building Plans during the years 1921-26.

The new laboratory which was developed in the Natural Science Building includes about forty rooms. Of special interest is the maze room, which is designed so as to offer no cues to the rat in running the maze, and so that the rats can be observed from a trap door in the room above. Another room of special design was a soundproof room, which was as free from sound as most rooms of that type. Extensive darkrooms were provided in addition to rooms for the main type of investigation in psychology. This available space was quickly outgrown, and in 1925 it was necessary to ask for space in the old Pharmacology Building; and later other space was provided on the third floor in the West Medical Building.

Some of the earlier students who have attained distinction in relatively recent times include Herbert H. Woodrow ('04, Ph.D. Columbia '09), Floyd C. Dockeray ('07, Ph.D. '15), John E. Winter ('06, Ph.D. '17), Joseph E. de Camp (A.M. '12, Ph.D. '14), Clark L. Hull ('13, Ph.D. Wisconsin '18), and Harry W. Crane ('09, Ph.D. '13). Woodrow went to Columbia for his doctor's degree, but did his research problem for his thesis at the University of Michigan in the summer. He is now chairman of the department of psychology at the University of Illinois. Dockeray, after completing the work on his doctorate at the University of Michigan, went to the University of Kansas, from there to Ohio Wesleyan University, and then to Ohio State University. Winter became chairman of the department of psychology at the University of West Virginia. De Camp, immediately after receiving his doctor's degree, went to Pennsylvania State College, where he is a professor. His thesis was one of the first in America on retroactive inhibition, and started much discussion. Clark Hull was appointed an assistant at the University of Wisconsin, where he did the work for the doctor's degree, aided by Professor Shepard, who had suggested the topic. Hull is now at the Yale Institute of Human Relations, and was president of the American Psychological Association in 1936. Harry W. Crane, Instructor in the University from 1913 to 1915, is now professor of psychology at the University of North Carolina and director of mental health and hygiene for the state of North Carolina.

Sven Froeberg (Bethany '03, Ph.D. Columbia '08), who held an instructorship from 1913 to 1917, is now professor of psychology and education at Gustavus Adolphus College. Ernest Burton Skaggs ('16, Ph.D. '23) was Instructor from 1922 to 1924. He is now a professor at Wayne University in Detroit. Forrest Lee Dimmick (Cornell '15, Ph.D. ibid. '20) served as Instructor from 1921 to 1925, when he left to become professor of psychology at Hobart College. John Duncan Finlayson (A.B. '12, B.D. Auburn Theological Seminary '14, Th.D. Harvard '16) was Instructor from 1921 to 1922, when he left to be president of Fairmont College; he was later president of the University of Wichita, and still later chancellor of the University of Tulsa. Howard Roscoe Mayberry (Ohio Univ. '18) came into the department as Instructor in 1924 and left in 1927 for a similar position in the University of Pittsburgh. Clarence Edwin Ragsdale (Missouri '13, Ph.D. Michigan '27) was Instructor in 1924-25, and then left for the University of Wisconsin, where he is now assistant professor of educational psychology. In 1928 Thorlief Grüner Page  714Hegge (Ph.D. Royal Norwegian Univ. [Oslo] '18) came to the University on a National Educational Committee fellowship. After two years he became director of research at the Wayne County Training School and Lecturer in Clinical Psychology at the University of Michigan.

Heinz Werner (Ph.D. Vienna '14), compelled to leave the University of Hamburg through political disturbances, was a lecturer for the three years ending in June, 1936, on characterology and Gestalt psychology.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1884-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Perry, Charles M.Henry Philip Tappan … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1933.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1871-72, 1879-1905.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1884-1940.

THE DEPARTMENT OF ROMANCE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

THE study of Romance languages at the University was provided for in 1846 by the appointment of Louis Fasquelle to the professorship of modern languages, a chair that had been specifically listed in the organic act of 1837 as one for which provision should be made. His actual service did not begin, however, until May, 1847.

French was the first modern language taught in the University; it has been given continuously since the spring of 1847. According to the Catalogue, a short course in Italian was introduced in the fall of 1848 and one in Spanish in the spring of 1849, but, when German was begun the next fall, Italian and Spanish were dropped, and neither was revived for about twenty years.

This early development of modern language instruction was in accord with a general recognition among Eastern colleges of the desirability of these studies. Longfellow had been appointed professor of modern languages at Bowdoin in 1829 and professor of modern languages and belles-lettres at Harvard in 1836. Nevertheless, few permanent chairs in the modern languages were established; most of the colleges offering such studies gave them only sporadically and unsystematically. The early appointment of Fasquelle to a professorship of modern languages — perhaps the first to be maintained in the Middle West — was evidence of the progressive spirit characteristic of the framers of the curriculum, although the claim made by the Board of Visitors in 1848 that "in this respect the University possesses superior privileges" no doubt indicated a limited point of view (see Part III: Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures).

Throughout the period 1847-87 there was a professor of modern languages. A second full professorship was set up in the department in 1867, when Adam K. Spence, who had taught French continuously since the fall of 1859, as well as Greek (1858-67) and Latin (1860-63), Page  715was appointed Professor of the French Language and Literature. In the autumn of 1870, upon the resignations of Spence and of Edward P. Evans, Professor of Modern Languages, the Board of Regents found the time opportune for a change of policy. Henry S. Frieze, who was then Acting President, later described the situation in the following words:

In 1870 the resignation of the professors of German and French in the University of Michigan led the regents to adopt the plan of organizing the instruction in modern languages under one professor with assistant instructors; and they authorized the Acting President to engage someone competent to take charge of the department.


(Frieze, p.70.)

The professorship of the French language and literature was thereupon discontinued for the time, and an attempt was made to bring in foreign-born instructors to teach the elementary work in their native languages. Soon afterward two instructors in French and one in German were giving the elementary and intermediate work, and the department head was teaching the intermediate and advanced French and senior German, in addition to a class in Italian.

In 1887 the Regents granted a departmental petition requesting the formation of the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures and the Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures.

In 1889 special courses in French and German for engineering students were segregated. The Department of Engineering was made a separate unit in 1895, but until 1904 the French and Spanish credited toward graduation in engineering continued to be given in the Department of Romance Languages. In May of that year the Regents appointed William Henry Wait (Northwestern '79, Ph.D. Allegheny '88), who had conducted German classes for engineering students since 1901, Professor of Modern Languages in the Department of Engineering, and it was not until 1928 that the work in German and the Romance languages was transferred back to the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In 1931, by a vote of the faculty of the College of Engineering, foreign languages were eliminated as subjects required for graduation, and as a result the enrollment in Romance languages dropped from 2,571 (1930-31) to 2,201 (1931-32). As early as 1914, to provide for the special needs of students in science, Alfred O. Lee, then Assistant Professor of Modern Languages in the Department of Engineering, offered a course in the reading of French scientific works and current journals.

Aside from the changes in the method of providing language instruction for engineering students, the only major change in the structure of the Department of Romance Languages was the introduction in 1933 of the new form of administration by a committee acting with the chairman, similar to the reorganized government of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts which went into effect in August of that year (see Part III: Administration and Curriculums).

During the past hundred years the Romance language staff has been augmented to meet increases in enrollment, courses have been multiplied to satisfy the growing demand and a constantly developing interest, new fields of study have been opened up in response to various needs as these became apparent, and graduate work has been fostered and intensified. From its very modest beginnings the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures has expanded until at the present its staff numbers three professors, seven associate professors, seven assistant professors, thirteen instructors, and four teaching fellows. In 1940 it had an enrollment of 1,893 at the end of the second semester and offered Page  716forty courses — seven elementary, nine intermediate, and twenty-four advanced.

The old Museum was remodeled for the use of the department in 1928 and was designated the Romance Language Building.

French

Louis Fasquelle, 1847-62. — A course in French was announced for the first time in the Catalogue for 1846-47. This course was given in the last third of the sophomore year. Another term was added in the autumn of 1848, the first term of the junior year. There was no indication of the content or character of these courses. However, in the Catalogue for 1852-53, under the heading of modern languages, was the following statement: "The course of instruction in this department occupies one daily recitation during six terms, or two years. One half of the time is devoted to the French language, the other half to the German." There followed a description of each term's work, with the titles of the textbooks used and of the literary works read.

Although in the Catalogue Fasquelle was designated as Professor of Modern Languages and Literature from 1854 onward, the instruction offered in French presented no change of consequence until 1858-59, when it was extended from one year to three semesters, beginning in the sophomore year and continuing through the junior year. In 1859-60 the program was again limited to two semesters, but Adam Knight Spence ('58, A.M. '61), formerly Instructor in Greek only, was made Instructor in Greek and French.

The professors at the University in its early days are reputed to have been rather picturesque characters, and not the least picturesque among them, apparently, was Louis Fasquelle, whose struggles with the intricacies of English pronunciation, accent, and emphasis, not to mention idiom, gave rise to many stories that ultimately became classic and of general application. He was born in 1808 near Calais, France. His education he received at the famous École Polytechnique in Paris. He studied also in Germany. Because of his participation in the revolutionary movement of 1830, he left France for England, where he taught French and married. In 1832 he came to the United States. "He bought a farm in Michigan and divided his time between farming and the teaching of French to private pupils until his appointment to the chair of Modern Languages…" (Hinsdale, p. 223). For this post he was well fitted, because of his training, travels, and teaching experience. Virtually a pioneer in the field, he published during the last decade of his life (1852-61) a comprehensive series of textbooks for the teaching of French which, widely used throughout the country, contributed not a little to the prestige of the University. As a professor he proved "peculiar but very learned and proficient." He was considered one of the University's "brightest ornaments and one of the most faithful, devoted and useful members of its Academic Faculty," and his death in October, 1862, left a vacancy "not easily to be supplied" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 1033).

Edward P. Evans, 1862-70. — After serving for a year as an instructor Edward Payson Evans ('54) became head of the department as Professor of Modern Languages and Literature in October, 1863. It may be noted in passing that he was apparently the first University officer charged officially with keeping the records of the alumni.

Evidence of increased interest in the study of modern languages and literature, or of greater ambition on the part of the staff, may be seen in the announcement Page  717in the Catalogue for 1863-64 that the subjects taught in the department were: (1) the French and German languages, (2) French and German literature, and (3) the general principles of comparative philology.

In 1864 another year of French was added to the scientific curriculum, and when the Latin and scientific course was introduced in 1867, two and one-half semesters of French were included in it. At the same time, however, one-half of the recommended year of French in the classical course was made optional.

George S. Morris, 1870-79. — George Sylvester Morris (Dartmouth '61, Ph.D. hon. Michigan '81) was appointed to the professorship of modern languages and literature in 1870. In his first year he was assisted by Instructor Jules Frederick Billard (Hobart '58, A.M. ibid. '61, M.D. Howard Univ. '84) in French and by Augustus Maasberg in German. The next year Robert Harbison replaced Maasberg, and there were two younger men teaching French, Billard and Paul Rousseau Bellon de Pont, Instructor in French and Drawing, who had prepared in both arts and science at the Collège Rollin, Paris. The content and number of the courses in 1871-72 remained substantially the same, except that in all French classes French conversation and composition were included. Alfred Hennequin (A.M. hon. '73, Ph.D. Lenox Collegiate Inst. '82) became Instructor in French in 1872, succeeding Billard. In 1872-73 it was announced that the courses in French would thereafter be essentially changed, and the following year it was stated that the work would be "directed in general towards increased practical facility in speaking and writing." Candidates for admission to the classical course were advised to study French at least one year before entering the University, but for admission to the other courses French was required. Mention was made in the Calendar for 1874-75 of the "large facilities for the study of the Modern Languages with reference to the oral use of them, or to the reading of foreign treatises on Science."

Morris had had excellent preparation in philosophy and was eager to continue in that subject. For several years after 1877 he divided his time between Johns Hopkins and the University of Michigan, teaching at Baltimore from Christmas vacation until the second semester. He attempted to resign from the University of Michigan in June, 1879, but consented to remain one more semester while his successor, Edward Lorraine Walter ('68, Ph.D. Leipzig '77), completed certain studies abroad. Walter had been an assistant professor in the Department of Latin since 1868 and acting head of that department for two years. In 1881-82 Morris returned to Ann Arbor to teach his favorite subject, philosophy. From 1870 until his death in 1889, he served on the faculty during at least a part of every academic year except 1880-81, and his thought had a profound effect upon the scholarly life and reputation of the University.

Edward L. Walter, 1879-98. — In July, 1887, Edward L. Walter and another member of the department, Calvin Thomas ('74, A.M. '77, LL.D. '04), presented to the Regents a memorial in which they urged that the Department of Modern Languages be divided, and that there be established "in lieu of the present single professorship of Modern Languages, two professorships, one of Romance Languages and Literatures and one of Germanic Languages and Literatures." Figures were presented to show that the Department of Modern Languages was then the largest in the University, and reference was made to the growth of modern philology and to the practice in German universities and in some of the universities of this country, Page  718such as Johns Hopkins, Bryn Mawr, Cornell, and Indiana. The memorial read in part as follows:

So far as our own University is concerned, a considerable extension in the scope of its instruction is desirable. There should be continuous instruction in both Italian and Spanish. Opportunity should also be offered as soon as possible to advanced students for the study of Old French, Provençal and Portuguese, and also for work in the Comparative Philology of the Romance tongues. In the Germanic field, more work of a philological character for advanced students is needed.


(R.P., 1886-91, p. 135.)

The Board immediately took favorable action and appointed Calvin Thomas to the professorship of the Germanic languages and literatures and E. L. Walter to that of the Romance languages and literatures — a position which, along with the headship of the department, he held until his death in the wreck of "La Bourgogne" on July 4, 1898.

George A. Hench, 1898-99. — George Allison Hench (Lafayette '85, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '89), head of the Department of German, was then made acting head of the Department of Romance Languages, but this interim appointment was brought to an unfortunate end by his death in an accident in the summer of 1899. President James B. Angell thereupon assumed personal charge and directed the affairs of the department throughout the next academic year.

Arthur G. Canfield, 1900-1926. — In 1900 Arthur Graves Canfield (Williams '78, A.M. ibid. '81, Litt.D. Michigan '35) was appointed Professor of Romance Languages and head of the department. He retired as administrative head of the department in May, 1926, but continued his teaching until he became Emeritus Professor in 1929.

Registrar de Pont died March 1, 1906, after thirty-five years of teaching French in the department. In 1912 John Robert Effinger ('91, Ph.D. '98), who had entered the department as Instructor in 1892, was promoted to a full professorship and made Acting Dean of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. He was appointed to the deanship three years later. In spite of the increase in his administrative duties Dean Effinger continued his services to the department until his death in 1933.

During Canfield's chairmanship of the department the number of courses offered was increased from thirty to well over fifty, the teaching staff was correspondingly enlarged, seminars were organized, principally for graduate students, the journal club was organized (see p. 721) to give to members of the department and advanced students an opportunity to review and discuss in common at frequent regular intervals the results of current research, and the teachers' course was further developed. Gradually the offerings in French conversation and writing, in Romance philology, and in modern and contemporary French literature and civilization were increased.

Professor Canfield did much by precept and example — both in his teachers' course and outside it — to encourage and improve modern language teaching in the schools throughout the state. His own special fields of interest were and still are the study of the beginnings of romanticism and realism, various aspects of the study of Balzac and his works, particularly the question of chronology and the matter of reappearing characters. His published contributions on these subjects are recognized by competent scholars as distinctly significant. When on his retirement the Regents in a tribute mentioned his "quietly efficient devotion to his work and his unusual ability to co-operate with others, and a gentleness of nature which have made him a delightful colleague and well-beloved Page  719teacher," they were but voicing the feelings of his fellows both inside and outside the department, in fact of all privileged to know him.

Hugo P. Thieme, 1926-40. — At the June meeting of the Regents in 1926 Professor Hugo Paul Thieme (Johns Hopkins '93, Ph.D. ibid. '97) was appointed Chairman. He had come to the University as an instructor in French in 1898 and had advanced to a full professorship in 1914. In the fourteen years of his chairmanship he displayed remarkable energy and exercised his gift for organization and his talent for systematization. Under his vigorous guidance the previous development of courses was continued. In oral French and French composition the work was reorganized and new courses were introduced, the offerings in Romance philology were further expanded, and more intense and specialized instruction in modern and contemporary literature was provided. He paid particular attention to the development of the courses on the graduate level.

Professor Thieme was to have retired on June 30, 1940, but he died on June 2, after a severe illness of several months, and Hayward Keniston (Harvard '04, Ph.D. ibid. '11) was called from the University of Chicago to be Professor of Romance Languages and Chairman of the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures. Professor Thieme had been in the department for forty-two years and was a member of the council of the Société des textes français modernes and American correspondent of the Revue d'histoire littéraire de la France. For his scholarly work and for his tireless efforts in behalf of an understanding of French culture in this country, he was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1923; in 1929 he received the Prix de la langue of the French Academy; and his great bibliography was crowned, upon its publication, by the Academy.

Since the new organization was adopted in 1933 (see p. 715), the department has been administered by a chairman and an executive committee of four appointed by the dean and executive committee of the College. This provides for greater participation on the part of the staff in matters of administration and policy.

The period of the World War. — As might be expected, the peak in the study of French was reached in 1918-19, when French 1, a four-hour course, was given at every hour from 8 A.M. to 3 P.M. inclusive, and seventeen instructors were employed, two of whom were women. These two, Mme Pargment and Mme Pawlowski, were designated as teaching assistants in French. That year several members of the University faculty who normally taught German — Professors Wait, Scholl, and Lee — were busy teaching beginning French. Among those teaching second-year French were Professors Bonner and Winter of the Departments of Greek and Latin. Michael S. Pargment (Dipl. d'études univ., Paris '11) gave an intermediate course in military French for enlisted men in the Students' Army Training Corps. In this course special emphasis was placed on the spoken language. Jean Petit gave an advanced course in military French, which was open to men in military training who had had more than two years of French. Emphasis was placed on spoken French for the military services. Similar courses were given in the College of Engineering. During the war, several members were on leave: Assistant Professor René Talamon (Lic.-ès-lettres [lettres], Paris '00, Lic.-ès-lettres [langues], ibid. '01), for the duration of the war in service with the French army; Herbert Alden Kenyon, then an assistant professor, in Washington with the Military Intelligence Division of the General Staff; Instructor Harry Carleton Barnett (Dartmouth '12, A.M. Michigan '17), with a Page  720hospital unit in a southern camp; Assistant Professor Philip Everette Bursley ('02, A.M. '09), in Paris at the American University Union; and Instructor Eugène Étienne Rovillain (Columbia '15, A.M. Michigan '18), in France with the French forces. As soon as the army was installed at Camp Custer, Battle Creek, Michigan, Canfield, accompanied at first by Rovillain and William Aloysius McLaughlin (Harvard '03, A.M. ibid. '20), then Assistant Professor, and later by Professor Thieme, set out once a week to give three lessons in French to the officers. This continued for months. Eventually Thieme superseded Canfield and during the summer was in uniform in complete charge of French at the camp and attached to the Y.M.C.A.

French conversation. — To make certain that students have an ample opportunity to perfect themselves in French pronunciation and to acquire facility in conversation, the staff has always included a number of teachers whose native tongue was French or who were bilingual. Notable among these have been Assistant Professors Paul R. B. de Pont and André Béziat de Bordes (Ph.D. Chicago '99), Jean B. Cloppet (Lic. en phil., Coll. Propaganda [Rome] '06, Doc. en phil., ibid. '08), and Louis Chapard (Dipl. d'études supérieures de droit publique, Paris '25, Dipl. d'études supérieures de droit privé, ibid. '26). This work is now under the direction of Associate Professor Talamon, assisted by other staff members, particularly by Assistant Professor Charles Emile Koëlla (Lic.-ès-lettres classiques, Lausanne '11).

Visiting professors. — In 1925-26 Professor Charles Cestre (Lic.-ès-lettres, Paris '93, Agrégé d'anglais, ibid. '95, Doc.-ès-lettres, ibid. '06), lecturer on American literature at the Sorbonne, gave a course called La Société française contemporaine d'après la littérature et d'après la vie. Already in 1921 he had given a course of six University lectures on the contribution of France to the universal ideal of mankind. In 1929-30 Professor Henri Chamard (Lic.-ès-lettres, Paris '88, Agrégé des lettres '90, Doc.-ès-lettres, Paris '00), of the Sorbonne, offered two courses, one on French literature of the sixteenth century and the other on that of the seventeenth century. In 1922-23 an innovation was introduced by the appointment to the staff of Marcel Clavel (Lic.-ès-lettres, Paris '19, Dipl. d'études supérieures, Lille '20, Agrégé d'anglais, Paris '21), who announced a course called French Classicism in England, intended for students specializing in English or French. The following year Clavel offered in addition La Littérature française par l'explication de textes and a course on Rousseau and England. In 1929, after Clavel's return to France, Jean Edouard Ehrhard (Lic.-ès-lettres, Paris '23, Dipl. d'études supérieures, ibid. '27, Agrégé des lettres '28) was appointed Assistant Professor. He gave a course in French literature dealing with the main literary movements in France from the middle of the nineteenth century to the present day, and another, Explication de textes. Ehrhard returned to France after a few years.

Graduate studies. — Graduate courses in the field of the Romance languages have been given at the University for over eighty years. In 1858-59 the Catalogue contained a "Programme of Studies for the Degrees of A.M. and M.S.," in which a course in French literature by Fasquelle was announced for the first semester. For many years thereafter a similar course was offered. In the petition for the establishment of separate departments for the Germanic and the Romance languages in 1887 it was urged that the instruction in both Italian and Spanish should be continuous, and that as soon as possible advanced students Page  721should have an opportunity to study Old French, Provençal, and Portuguese. In fact, Old French was offered for the first time in 1889, Provençal in 1900, and Portuguese in 1894. Old French and Provençal have been announced continuously since those dates, but, up to June, 1940, Portuguese was not offered again. Since 1914 the work in Provençal has been given by Edward Larrabee Adams (Harvard '00, Ph.D. ibid. '07).

Only a very general statement regarding graduate work in French appeared in the Graduate School Announcement before 1899, when the names of instructors and more detailed course descriptions were first given and the number of courses began to increase. In 1900 there was a distinct expansion in this work — an expansion which has continued until at present there are advanced courses dealing with every period of French literature from its origin to the present day, the various literary genres — criticism, drama, lyric poetry, the novel — the early history of the language, civilization, and the history of ideas. Today, requirements for advanced degrees, as well as programs of preliminary examinations according to the field of major interest, are very definitely set forth. The department has been enriched by the advent of specialists in various fields who devote much of their time and attention to initiating candidates into the problems of research, training them in methods, and critically supervising their work as it progresses. There has been a marked increase of late in the number of doctorates granted and in the number of doctoral theses in preparation in this department.

Summer session. — Courses in French have been offered in the summer session since its inception in 1894. Of late years a sufficient number of graduate students have been in attendance to warrant the offering of an increased number of graduate courses in French. In order to give summer session students an opportunity for a practical use of French, a Maison Française has been organized, in which board, room, and recreation facilities for a limited number of women are provided. A Cercle Français has also been organized for the benefit of summer session students, both men and women.

Societies. — In the Calendar of 1901-2 an announcement was made of a journal club in which reviews were given of current research in the field of Romance languages and literatures by the instructors in the department and advanced students. The journal club continues — though under another name, the Romance club — and now meets periodically throughout the year for the same purpose as indicated in 1901.

The Cercle Français (see Part IX: Cercle Français), organized in 1902 by and for students interested in French, has effectively supplemented the oral work.

Publications. — Among the more outstanding publications by the staff, aside from editions of textbooks, are Thieme's three-volume Bibliographie de la littérature française de 1880 à 1930 (1933), Adams' Word Formation in Provençal (1913), Newton S. Bement's French Modal Syntax in the Sixteenth Century (1934), and Warner F. Patterson's Three Centuries of French Poetic Theory (1935).

Spanish

Spanish was listed for the first time in the Catalogue of 1848-49. A short course was offered by Professor Louis Fasquelle in the third term of the junior year. This course must have been given as announced, for on July 16, just before Commencement, the secretary of the faculty recorded that a certain junior, Samuel Harper, was found deficient in Spanish.

There was no further mention of Spanish until the spring of 1868, when it was listed with Italian as a senior elective in Page  722all the curriculums in the Literary Department except that for mining engineering. Instruction in these two languages was offered again during parts of the next two academic years. It appears that from 1870-71 through 1886-87 Italian and Spanish were given alternately, first by Professor George S. Morris, and then, beginning in 1880, by Professor Edward L. Walter. A prerequisite of one year of French was established in 1881, not to be removed until 1909. In 1884 Spanish was expanded to a two-semester course. Instruction in Spanish has been continuous since 1886, except for one semester in 1888.

When the first-year Spanish work was taken over by Eugene Leser (Ph.D. Berlin '87) in 1893-94 an additional course was offered — a one-semester, one-hour course on Calderon by Professor Walter. Benjamin Parsons Bourland ('89, Ph.D. Vienna '97) had charge of the elementary courses in 1894-95. The following year he went abroad to study, and Moritz Levi ('87) taught the elementary courses. A fourth semester of Spanish, a one-hour course on Don Quixote, was introduced in 1895-96. In 1898, with the return of Bourland to take full charge of the work in Spanish, the two first-year courses became three-hour courses, and those in the second year were also increased to two hours each. It was not until 1909 that the two courses comprising the first year's work were converted into four-hour courses. A third-year course on Cervantes and the literary history of the Golden Age was added in 1900. From 1901 to 1904, when all the work in Spanish except that for the engineering students was in the hands of Winthrop Holt Chenery (Mass. Inst. Technol. '96, Ph.D. Harvard '04), there were no changes made in the courses offered.

In 1904, with the coming of Charles Philip Wagner (Yale '99, Ph.D. ibid. '02), there began a period of gradual growth and expansion that has continued to the present day. Until 1913 evidence of this interest in Spanish was to be seen in the constant increase in the number and variety of advanced courses offered; after 1913 that interest was most apparent in the addition of sections and the consequent increase in personnel. For example, in 1903 one section was sufficient to care for all beginning students, but in 1914 it was necessary to provide five sections, in 1916 twelve, and in 1919 fifteen. To care for the greater teaching load, one assistant was provided from 1909 to 1914, three were required in 1914, seven in 1916, and fifteen in 1920, when the total enrollment in Spanish classes reached a maximum of 4,339 semester hours.

As it was neither expedient nor physically possible to offer all of the courses every year, a system of rotation was devised that would make the more fundamental courses available every two years, and the more specialized courses every three or four years. The study of Don Quixote, which started as an irregular, one-hour, one-semester course, developed first into a two-hour course, then, in 1907, into a sequence of two two-hour courses, and in 1910 into a year course of three hours each semester offered practically every year. Spanish-American literature has been taught every year since 1925.

Special courses for engineering students in the first two years of Spanish were conducted between 1901 and 1928. At first this work was in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts and was under the direction of Colman Dudley Frank ('97, A.M. '02), Instructor in French and Spanish. When the Department of Modern Languages was formed within the Department of Engineering in 1904, James Pyper Bird ('93, Ph.D. '18) was put in charge of this work. In 1915 he was succeeded by Herbert Alden Kenyon (Brown '04, A.M. ibid. '05), who continued in that Page  723capacity until, in 1928, the department was reabsorbed into the corresponding departments of the Literary College. In the peak year 1921-22 nine sections of Spanish were provided in the College of Engineering and additional instructors were engaged.

In 1939-40 the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures gave twenty-six courses in Spanish, in some of which, especially the elementary courses, there were many sections. In all, seventy-nine separate sections or classes were conducted — forty-eight elementary, twenty-seven intermediate and advanced, and four exclusively graduate.

Today a student interested in Spanish may go from his first two years of elementary work into courses devoted to literature, conversation, or composition, where he will receive special training and preparation for more advanced work. For the graduate student and the prospective teacher, various basic courses are offered in Old Spanish language and literature, philology, phonetics, pedagogy, and grammar. Outside the classroom the interest of the faculty and students has found expression in Spanish plays, radio, and in the social activities of the Sociedad Hispanica.

Charles P. Wagner was coeditor, with Louis How, of The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes (1917), and in 1929 the first volume of his El Libro del Cauallero Zifar appeared.

Italian

In the autumn of 1848 the seniors in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts were permitted to take a one-term course in Italian, taught by Louis Fasquelle, Professor of Modern Languages. It was recorded in the faculty minutes that sixteen seniors (exactly two-thirds of the senior class) were examined in Italian on December 20, 1848, and that all but one of them passed.

Italian was not offered again for nearly a score of years. In 1867-68 it was listed, along with Spanish, as a second-semester senior elective in five of the six programs in the Literary Department. For the next several years, although neither language was mentioned in the list of requirements and electives, a course in Italian extending through "a portion of the collegiate year" and a similar one in Spanish were announced in the brief general description of the work in modern languages. It was at least tentatively decided in 1870-71 that these two courses should be alternated, each of them to be given once in two years. In 1872 George S. Morris, then head of the Department of Modern Languages and Literature, reported that during the second semester, "with the permission of the faculty," he had taught a two-hour elective course in Italian for juniors and seniors. From the Calendar it appears likely that the plan of alternating Spanish and Italian was followed continuously, though with some irregularities, until June, 1887.

The Calendar of 1878-79 was the first in which the names of the teachers regularly appeared with the names of all courses, and also the first in which the content of the Italian course was definitely, though briefly, outlined. Cuore's Italian Grammar and Foresti's Italian Reader were the texts which Morris used. According to the definition of "full" (i.e., five-hour) courses, a fixed number of which were required for graduation under the regular "credit system" that went into effect the same year, the two-hour course in Italian was regarded as a "two-fifths course."

E. L. Walter took charge of the Department of Modern Languages in the winter of 1880. He taught Italian to thirty-eight students, who, he reported, completed about half the grammar and read about twenty-five pages in the Page  724reader. In his published report to the president he urged that greater facilities in Romance languages be offered, for "no earnest student of literature can afford to be ignorant of the languages of Dante and Cervantes."

Some progress toward this goal was made when, in 1883-84, a one-year course in Italian (two hours credit each semester) was offered. In the meantime, beginning in 1881-82, a prerequisite of a year of French, or its equivalent, had been established, and I Promessi sposi had been substituted for Foresti's Italian Reader. Even more significant, however, was the introduction of a two-hour semester course in Dante, first given by Professor Walter in 1888, only a year after he had been made head of the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures. In addition to the course devoted to the Divina Commedia, a one-hour course in the Vita Nuova was begun in 1892-93 by Raymond Leslie Weeks (Harvard '90, Ph.D. ibid. '97), Instructor in French. After Weeks left in 1893 Professor Walter took charge of the course and continued to give it and the regular Dante course until 1898, the year of his death.

From 1893 to 1923, the date of his retirement, Professor Moritz Levi, in addition to teaching French, offered courses in Italian. Others who at one time or another have been engaged in the teaching of Italian are: William A. McLaughlin, Herbert Douglas Austin (Princeton '00, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '11), George Livingstone Hamilton (Harvard '95, Ph.D. Columbia '03), Stephen Scatori (Tulane '14, A.M. Michigan '18), Michele de Filippis (Brown '20, Ph.D. California '33), John Revell Reinhard (Harvard '15, Ph.D. ibid. '21), and Aubrey Tealdi (Lic., R. Ist. Tec. Livorno '00).

At one time or another between 1898 and 1930, Levi, McLaughlin, Hamilton, Austin, and Reinhard gave the Dante course, which had been expanded to include the Vita Nuova and a consideration of Dante's minor works, and which was extended over two semesters. In 1914-15 Austin introduced a graduate course of two semesters called the Origins of Italian Literature, and in 1925-26 Reinhard introduced as graduate courses the Renaissance, the Novellieri, and Petrarch.

In 1930 Camillo Pascal Merlino (Harvard '23, Ph.D. ibid. '28) was invited to take charge of all instruction in Italian. In addition to the courses available up to this time, the following new offerings, usually given in cycles, were admitted to the curriculum: Composition and Conversation; Italian Literature from 1870 to the Present Day; the Masterpieces of Italian Literature; and Introduction to Old Italian Language and Literature, including special treatment of Petrarch and Boccaccio. A Dante course in English was offered for the first time in the summer session of 1936. In 1937 Merlino accepted a position at Boston University.

The elementary Italian course, in addition to advanced work, is taught by Vincent Anthony Scanio (Buffalo '30, Ph.D. Michigan '37), who joined the department in 1931 as an instructor. There are at present three sections of this course, one of which is designed especially to meet the needs of the students of the School of Music.

There is now a complete curriculum in Italian with courses of a practical, literary, and historical nature, thus allowing for an undergraduate major as well as for a program of studies leading to the master's and doctor's degrees.

Library facilities. — In addition to a very adequate collection of Italian texts and scholarly publications on the language, literature, and history of Italy, the General Library now contains several special collections of much value. Professor Walter bequeathed to the University his own library of about 2,100 volumes, of which some 800, including Page  725nearly 500 Dante items, comprised the nucleus of the Italian collection.

The Pèrcopo collection of 1,500 volumes, the private library of the late Professor Erasmo Pèrcopo, of the University of Naples, was purchased in 1928. It includes, besides many single publications, 278 volumes containing more than four thousand research articles and monographs, many of which are very rare or otherwise inaccessible in this country. The collection is now fully catalogued.

In 1932, Mrs. LeRoy Crummer presented to the University thirty-nine rare editions of Castiglione's Il Cortegiano. These, added to the ten already in the library, make this without a doubt one of the finest collections of its kind in the world. Probably the largest and most valuable library of Italian dialect dictionaries outside Italy is the special collection of 124 purchased in 1933.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, Department [College, 1915 — ] of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Univ. Mich., 1878-1940.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1846-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Frieze, Henry S."George Sylvester Morris."Mich. Argonaut, 5 (1886): 69-71.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1871-72, 1879-80, 1899-1906.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," Univ. Mich., 1846-57. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
University of Michigan. Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)
Wenley, Robert M.The Life and Work of George Sylvester Morris. New York: Macmillan Co., 1917.

THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY

THOUGH the Department of Sociology of the University has been in existence only since 1931 the history of the teaching of the subject runs back into the last century. Three periods of its development are distinguishable preceding the establishment of an independent department.

The first period, 1881-94. — It may be assumed that during this period there was an interest in what later came to be called sociology because of the offering in three entirely separate departments of courses which touched upon sociological subjects. Of these, perhaps the most interesting from a historical standpoint is one entitled Social Science, which was given five times between 1881 and 1887 by Edward Swift Dunster (Harvard '56, M.D. New York College of Medicine '59), Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children. This course, which was in the School of Political Science (see Part IV: Department of Political Science), was described in the University Calendar for 1881-82 (pp. 80-81) as follows:

Lectures on the following topics: 1. Introductory: Page  726the scope and purposes of Social Science, and its relations to socialism, so called, to sanitary science, and to political economy. 2. Historical: theoretical or ideal systems, Plato's Republic, Campanella's Civitas Solis, More's Utopia; practical efforts to establish social systems or communities, the Essenes, the Shakers, the Perfectionists of Oneida, the Colonies of St. Simon, Robert Owen, Charles Fourier. 3. Poverty and its Prevention: causes of poverty; organized efforts for the relief of the worthy poor; treatment of the unworthy poor; the problem of the tramp; almshouses and their superintendence. 4. The Prevalence of Crime, and the means of diminishing or preventing it: (a) the relation of crime to poverty, to vicious habits, and to hereditary influences; (b) prostitution, its causes, prevalence, and dangers, and the means of preventing it; (c) care of the children of the criminal and pauper classes, State schools for abandoned or neglected children, the Michigan State School at Coldwater; (d) the punishment of crime, the object of punishment, prison labor, treatment of criminals after release; (e) penal institutions, their construction and management. 5. Practical Questions in Social Science: (a) the care of the insane and the management of asylums, the cottage system, the associated or central system, qualifications of superintendents and assistants; (b) the care and training of the feebleminded; (c) the care and training of the blind. 6. Economic Problems: (a) conservation of life, the prevalence and increasing frequency of suicide, means of preventing suicide; (b) conservation of property; (c) conservation of food, game laws, pisciculture.

This course of Dunster's has received mention (Bernard, p. 13) as one of the more successful early attempts to assemble materials which would constitute the new academic discipline for which many college heads were groping.

During the eighties and early nineties, Henry Carter Adams (Iowa College '74, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '78), first as Lecturer on Political Economy and later as Professor of Political Economy and Finance, was touching on the sociological field from the angle of political economy. He gave, under various titles, courses in economic problems in which he discussed proposed social and industrial reforms. Among other topics he gave attention to immigration, industrial classes, poor laws, and socialism. It should be noted that Adams was the one who first suggested to Charles Horton Cooley, then a graduate student in economics but later the chief figure in the development of sociology at the University, that he attempt to develop courses in sociology within the Department of Political Economy (see Part III: Department of Economics). Therefore to Professor Adams must be accorded chief credit for the introduction of the new discipline. Cooley himself was glad to acknowledge help from another source. He said:

Indeed, one of the Regents, Levi L. Barbour, a man of real distinction in mind and character, greatly interested at that time in penal reform, was most appreciative both of my work and of the promise of sociology. It was through his exertions, largely, that an instructorship in sociology was formally established in 1895, and that my later promotions were obtained.


(Cooley, p. 10.)

The third avenue through which sociology was being approached was the political philosophy of John Dewey, then Instructor in the Department of Philosophy (see Part IV: Department of Philosophy and Department of Psychology). In 1889-90 he gave his first course in this field, and by 1892-93 he was giving two, the first of which was designated Political Philosophy: the Theory and Institutions of Social Organization, and the second, Special Studies in the History of Political Philosophy. In the latter course Spencer's Sociology was specifically mentioned as one of the texts. Cooley notes that he attended these lectures in 1893-94 (Cooley, p. 6). Although he felt that he was more influenced by Dewey's personality than by his lectures, Page  727we may surmise that his later psychological approach to sociology was not uninfluenced by Dewey's viewpoint.

The development of a curriculum, 1894-1917. — A sound but not elaborate curriculum in sociology was established in this second period, in which Charles Horton Cooley ('87, Ph.D. '94) was the central figure; in fact, his influence has been dominant throughout the period in which sociology has been taught at the University. Cooley had been prepared for this work not so much by specialized study in the field as by broad grounding in the humanities and in the political economy of his day. The son of Judge Thomas McIntyre Cooley, he had had unusual opportunities for study and travel and had already been employed on two research projects in Washington of an economic character. He had begun teaching courses in economic theory and statistics in 1892, and he took his doctorate in political economy in 1894 with a thesis on the theory of transportation. For a number of years after he began to teach sociology he continued his courses in political economy, the last course in this field which he relinquished being that in statistics, which he gave for the final time in 1900-1901.

Cooley gave the first courses bearing the name Sociology during the academic year 1894-95: Principles of Sociology, and Problems of Sociology. As other members were added to the staff, he assumed general charge of the work. Though his undergraduate courses soon became large, it was with the more thoughtful graduate students that his success as a teacher was most marked. To the brilliance of his own thought he added painstaking criticism of the thought of those less mature. Through his writing he exerted an influence beyond the campus; his great trilogy, Human Nature and the Social Order (1902), Social Organization (1909), and The Social Process (1918), gained for his sociological theory a wide acceptance. Indeed, these books have become classics which are referred to wherever sociology is taught. He was given national recognition by being selected as president of the American Sociological Society for the year 1918.

During the period 1894-1917 Cooley carried most of the teaching burden in sociology. In addition to the courses already mentioned, he had added by 1903 Special Studies in Sociology, Historical Development of Sociological Thought, Psychological Sociology, and Social Development of the Church. In the year 1902-3 Kenyon L. Butterfield (Michigan State '91, A.M. Michigan '02, LL.D. Amherst '10), later president of Michigan State College, gave a course known as Rural Sociology. This was probably the first use of the term which has since come to designate so large a branch of sociological study. Not until 1910-11 did a second teacher of sociology appear again. This was Carl Eugene Parry ('05, Ph.D. '09), who, besides teaching political economy, taught Criminology and Social Origins and repeated the course Social Origins in the two following years. Parry has since had a distinguished career as a research economist with the Federal Reserve Board. He is now Chief of the Division of Security Loans of the Federal Reserve System.

The year 1913-14 marked the first appointment of a full-time instructor to aid Professor Cooley. He was Warren Simpson Thompson (Nebraska Wesleyan '07, Ph.D. Columbia '15), now the director of the Scripps Foundation for Research in Population Problems and an authority on population questions. In 1914-15 he offered the courses Social Evolution and Social Problems of Rural Life, and the following year added Social Statistics and Immigration. Thus, as the second period closed there were two full-time Page  728men teaching sociology in some thirteen courses.

Expansion and specialization, 1917-30. — The years 1917-30 constituted a period of rapid expansion and differentiation of the work in sociology. Especially notable was the development of courses in social problems and social work which followed the advent of Arthur Evans Wood (Harvard '06, S.T.B. ibid. '11, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '20) in 1917. It is true that Cooley had offered since 1913-14 a course entitled Seminary in the Principles of Social Case Work, but Wood, besides taking this over, added Criminology, Community Problems, and Problems of Poverty, and made arrangements for a limited number of students to receive credit for field work in social agencies. The Family was a course added by him in 1919-20. In 1921 he was made director of the curriculum for the training of social workers and thereafter arranged for the offering of courses by specialists in various fields of social work, both from other units of the University and from outside.

In 1918 Thompson gave up his teaching to do war work in Washington, and Roy Hinman Holmes (Hillsdale '11, Ph.D. Michigan '27) took over the instruction in social evolution, rural sociology, and immigration. From time to time during the next ten years other instructors were added to the staff, mainly to help with the introductory course, but occasionally giving courses of their own. Of this number, only Lowell Juilliard Carr ('20, Ph.D. '25) and Robert Cooley Angell ('21, Ph.D. '24) have remained with the department to expand its offerings, the former in the fields of social psychology, public opinion, and juvenile delinquency, the latter in the fields of general theory and social institutions.

During this third period there were in residence as graduate students and instructors men who have since made their mark either in sociology proper or in social work. In the former category are Professor Read Bain (Willamette '16, Ph.D. Michigan '26), of Miami University, and Walter Abram Terpenning (Kalamazoo '14, Ph.D. Michigan '24), of Albion College; in the latter are Harry Lawrence Lurie ('22, A.M. '23), executive director of the National Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds, and Robert Tucker Lansdale (Oberlin '21, A.M. Columbia '25), of the committee on public administration, Social Science Research Council.

It may seem surprising that so flourishing a field did not come to constitute a separate department before the death of Charles Horton Cooley in 1929. The explanation lies partly in his temperament, and partly in the justice of the treatment which sociology received from the heads of the Department of Economics — Henry Carter Adams, Edmund Ezra Day, and I. Leo Sharfman. Cooley had no taste for administrative work and was only too glad to shift as much of it as possible to the shoulders of someone else. In fact, he argued that it was better to be a part of a strong department than to be an independent weak one. The equality which the staff teaching sociology enjoyed within the Department of Economics is shown by the fact that after the first year's teaching of sociology the heading of the department's offering of courses in the Calendar (1895-96) read, "Political Economy and Sociology."

The Department of Sociology, since 1930. — The last period follows upon the death of Cooley and the selection in 1930 of Roderick Duncan McKenzie ('12 Manitoba, Ph.D. Chicago '16), then of the University of Washington, to become the head of a department of sociology separate from the Department of Economics. Though the department did not become a distinct budgetary unit until 1931-32, to all intents and Page  729

TABLE INumber of Courses, Number of Student Elections, and Number of Graduate Students Specializing in Sociology at Ten-Year Intervals
Academic Year Number of Courses Listed Number of Elections by Students in College of Literature, Science, and Arts Number of Elections per 100 Students in College of Literature, Science, and Arts Total Number of Elections from All Schools and Colleges Number of Graduate Students Specializing in Sociology
1895-96 5 116 9.6 .... ....
1905- 6 8 201 12.8 .... ....
1915-16 13 531 17.7 604 ....
1925-26 28 1,374 26.3 1,817 25
1935-36 40 2,398 51.0 2,881 64
purposes it started on its separate career in 1930-31. McKenzie brought to the department an interest not theretofore represented — that of human ecology. In addition to a general course in that field, he offered the courses Population, the City, and Migration and Race Relations. It was under his direction that the seminar the Metropolitan Community was set up for the holders of Earhart fellowships. This seminar has been continued since the cessation of the Earhart grants. The curriculum of the Department of Sociology has also been enriched by the new courses given by Richard Corbin Fuller ('28, A.M. '30, J.D. '35): Modern Social Problems, Fields and Methods of Sociology, and Social Legislation. For a period of two years Clark Tibbitts (Lewis Institute [Chicago] '24) taught courses in social statistics. He left to become a regional director in the United States Government Health Survey, but has since returned as Director of the Institute for Human Adjustment and Lecturer in Sociology.

Perhaps the most striking features of this latest period are the increasing interest in sociology shown by students during the depression, the greater attention given to the integration of curricular offerings, and the increasing emphasis placed upon the development of the graduate work in the department. Also notable has been the adoption of a policy of bringing distinguished sociologists from other universities to teach for a semester or a summer session. Relations with the University of Chicago have been particularly close, Professors Robert E. Park, Ellsworth Faris, Herbert Blumer, and Louis Wirth all having taught here during the past decade.

Two members of the staff have carried on projects during this period which are of more than usual interest to the people of the state. Since 1934 Lowell J. Carr has been directing the Michigan Juvenile Delinquency Information Service (see Part II: Michigan Child Guidance Institute); Roy H. Holmes has been doing research on the problems of the Michigan farmer through a correspondence technique which has kept him in touch with hundreds of farm families throughout the state.

Beginning in the academic year 1937-38, the professional courses leading to the certificate in social work were taken out of the department and placed in a special curriculum in the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. Courses in social problems have continued to be offered in the department, but the professional training constitutes part of the work for the master's degree. This has given the opportunity for a closer integration of the work of the department and increased emphasis on graduate work in pure sociology.

Page  730The manner in which the work in sociology has expanded over a period of forty years is roughly indicated in Table I. Also of interest is the growth in the amount of graduate work: In the decade 1904-14 ten master's degrees were obtained in sociology and one doctor's degree; in the next ten years there were two doctor's degrees and thirty-four master's degrees, but between 1924 and 1934, fifteen students specializing in sociology earned the degree of doctor of philosophy, and sixty-six the degree of master of arts.

On May 6, 1940, the University suffered a severe loss through the death of Roderick D. McKenzie, who had been Professor of Sociology since 1930 and Chairman of the Department of Sociology since it became distinct in 1931. The Board of Regents selected Robert Cooley Angell as his successor in the chairmanship.

Social Work

In May, 1921, the Regents of the University authorized the establishment of a curriculum in social work. This was in response to an urgent request from leaders of social work in Detroit that the University undertake to encourage students to enter this field and give them the necessary training. A "curriculum," in terms of University organization, meant a group of courses selected from various departments and so arranged as to constitute a unified program centering about a given subject. It was thus that the courses in business administration were first organized within the Department of Economics. The staff teaching courses in sociology, then within the Department of Economics, was given charge of the curriculum in social work, which covered courses in sociology, economics, political science, psychology, and history. Elementary courses in these fields might be elected as early as the sophomore year, but the main convergence of the program was upon the junior and senior years, with additional offerings on the graduate level. Besides the courses in the various social sciences there were later added to the curriculum certain professional courses specifically related to social work, such as case work, medical social work, psychiatric social work, and child welfare. A final aspect of these developments was the provision for supervised field work, designed to give students actual contacts with social agencies in Ann Arbor and Detroit, under the direction of a supervisor of field work who joined the staff in 1927. Thus, the three major aspects of education in social work were provided for in the curriculum, viz., background courses in the social sciences, specialized professional courses, and field work.

On the foregoing basis the training program of the University was carried on for a period of fourteen years. Scores of students within this period were graduated to positions with social agencies throughout Michigan and in other states, adding thereby to their academic training actual experience on the job. Many persons who have since become leaders in the profession acquired their initial interest and training through facilities established by the University. In 1927 a certificate in social work was authorized by the Regents, to be granted to those who had added to their academic work in the curriculum a year's experience in a responsible agency under supervision of both the agency and the supervisor of field work on the University staff in charge of the curriculum in social work. This certificate, analogous to that awarded in journalism or nursing, was adopted instead of a specialized degree, which as yet had not been authorized.

Meanwhile, important developments were taking place elsewhere in this new Page  731educational field, emanating largely from leaders and teachers of social work. Even before the University curriculum for the training of social workers was established the Association of Schools of Professional Social Work had been organized. In this association the staffs of the New York School of Social Work and of the Chicago School of Social Service Administration, established by the University of Chicago, took a leading role. Throughout the decade 1920-30 the demand for training in social service had greatly increased, and a large number of schools or curriculums had come into being, both within and outside established educational institutions. Obviously there was a very great need for the authorized expression of educational standards as to types and content of courses and the personnel engaged in giving them. To this task of developing educational standards the Association of Schools of Professional Social Work applied itself. Its efforts were aided by the appearance of such significant monographs as Education and Training for Social Work, by James H. Tufts of the University of Chicago, and by the organization of the American Association of Social Workers, a professional group which seeks to do for social work what professional organizations have accomplished in the respective fields of medicine, law, and education. The University of Michigan, by virtue of its curriculum in social work, became eligible for membership in the Association of Schools of Professional Social Work and was admitted in 1925. In 1940 there were thirty schools in this Association, all of them having met the requirements as to courses of instruction and personnel.

For continued membership in the Association of Schools of Professional Social Work it has recently been required that all instruction of a professional or technical character be raised to the graduate level and preceded by undergraduate work in the social sciences. Consequently, in 1935 the University reorganized its program in this field through the establishment of what was first called the Institute of the Health and Social Sciences, and later, the Institute of Public and Social Administration. The purpose of organizing this new graduate unit has been to correlate the training program in public administration, which has its backgrounds in the Department of Political Science, with the program in social administration, which, as we have seen, was long organized as a curriculum in the Department of Sociology.

In social work a two-year graduate program within the Institute has been established leading to the degree of master of social work. For entrance upon this graduate program the student must have had thirty hours of credit in the social sciences during his undergraduate period. The graduate work is for the most part of strictly professional or technical character. The work is now given entirely in Detroit at the Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial, on the corner of Woodward Avenue and Farnsworth Street.

In some academic circles these training programs for public and social service are criticized as being outside the field of formal intellectual interests which should, it is held, be the primary concern of our educational institutions. Over against this contention it may be urged that the needs of our democratic civilization are many, not the least of which is the existence of a body of trained personnel in the various fields of public service. The depression has served, as nothing else could, to throw into strong relief the multifarious social problems which must be dealt with sympathetically and expertly if even greater chaos is not to ensue. It would seem as if a democratically supported Page  732state university would be under the necessity of devoting some of its attention and resources to the recruiting and training of students for public service in the field of social work.

The Earhart Foundation

In the autumn of 1930 the Earhart Foundation (a family enterprise established by H. B. Earhart of Ann Arbor) offered the president of the University a sum of money to finance an experiment in the training of a selected group of University students for more intelligent and effective leadership in the affairs of the modern American community. The sum assigned by the foundation was not to exceed $10,000 annually, and the period of experimentation was set at four years.

The president decided that the Department of Sociology was the logical unit to set up and administer this project. R. D. McKenzie was assigned the position of director of the enterprise by the president and the Board of Regents.

The plan of operation proposed and followed throughout the four-year period was as follows: a limited number (from eight to twelve) of advanced graduate students from the various social science disciplines were chosen each year on the basis of scholarship and personality, and were awarded fellowships in the Graduate School, each bearing a stipend of $500 for the academic year. In addition, a somewhat larger number (from twenty-five to thirty) of selected undergraduate students, most of them in their senior year, were awarded scholarships averaging around $100 for the academic year. Both fellows and scholars thus selected were required to devote a stipulated minimum amount of time each week to the investigation of some community problem in the field, primarily in the Detroit metropolitan region. The problems selected were carefully chosen, and the scholars, for the most part, worked under the field guidance of the fellows. Two seminars, each meeting for a two-hour period once a week, were set up, one for the fellows and one for the scholars. The two seminars were closely interrelated. The scholars working under the direction of a particular fellow always attended the senior seminar when the fellow in question reported on his work, and frequently the fellows made reports in the junior seminar.

One feature of these seminars was rather unique; namely, the participation in them by members from the various social science departments and also by invited persons from the outside community. As each student reported in the seminar, those most closely associated with his research project, both professors and outsiders, attended the seminar and took part in the discussion. This, together with the fact that the student members of the seminar represented different social science disciplines, and were engaged in the study of different types of community problems, made for a cross-fertilization of ideas and for a broader perspective of the interrelationships of human activities in our modern social order. It tended to break down the narrow academic divisions which characterize university specialization and to focus attention upon the interrelationships of social phenomena.

The period of this experiment terminated at the close of the academic year 1934-35, but in recognition of the value of this type of activity, the University has continued the project, though on a somewhat more limited scale, by setting aside a number of specially designated fellowships in the Graduate School to be awarded to students selected for this work.

Aside from the student-training feature of this work, which, of course, Page  733was the main objective, a considerable amount of research material has been collected which is made available to interested parties and which, when amplified and interpreted, will be presented in published form.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bernard, Jessie. "History and Prospects of Sociology." In: Trends in American Sociology. Ed. by George A. Lundberg and others. New York: Harper and Bros., 1929. P. 13.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1881-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Cooley, Charles H.Sociological Theory and Social Research. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1930. Pp. 3-14.
"Curriculum in Social Work Is Success."Mich. Alum., 39 (1933): 401-2.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Jandy, Edward C.Charles Horton Cooley; His Life and His Social Theory. New York: Dryden Press, 1942.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1881-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1881-1940.
Wood, Arthur E., and Others. "Charles Horton Cooley." In: University Council and Senate Records, 1929-1932. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1932. Pp. 54-64.

THE DEPARTMENT OF SPEECH

THE University of Michigan is unique in the development of instruction in the field of speech. The first credit-bearing course in speech in any of the leading universities was given at Michigan, and the first separate speech department in any of the large universities was also established at this institution. And, carrying on the tradition of distinction, the University has at present one of the largest and most complete departments of speech in the United States.

The organization of the Department of Speech and its early development were largely the result of the ability and inspiration of Thomas Clarkson Trueblood (A.M. Earlham '86, Litt.D. ibid. '21) and his three early associates: Richard D. T. Hollister, Ray K. Immel, and Louis M. Eich.

Trueblood came to the University in 1884 to give a six-week course of lectures. For this innovation the University provided classrooms and other equipment, but the students were required to pay a tuition fee and to take the work without academic credit.

Returning in 1885-86, Trueblood found even greater interest in the study of speech, an interest which culminated in the presentation to the dean of the Department of Law of a petition by most of the law students for free tuition and a longer term of instruction. When it was found that Trueblood could arrange his engagements in other universities accordingly, Angell presented the petition to the Regents and recommended the inauguration of a ten-week course, the instructor to be a member of the University faculty for that period at least. This request was granted, and the longer course was made available.

Finally, upon the insistence of the students in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, a credit course for one semester was made available. The establishment of this course was a new educational venture, for at that time Page  734no college or university in the United States offered credit for work in speech. In the second semester of 1887-88 Trueblood was given the title of Assistant Professor of Elocution and Oratory in the Department of English. This arrangement was continued for the next two years, Trueblood relinquishing some of his other lectureships and also combining his courses at Ohio Wesleyan into the first semester of each year.

In 1889, college work in speech was extended to the full year, and Trueblood devoted his entire time to the University of Michigan. So successful was the development of new courses to meet the demands of all classes of students in both the Law and the Literary Departments that in 1892 a Department of Elocution and Oratory was created and the chairman was granted a full professorship. By this step, the University of Michigan created the first separate department and also the first professorship in speech in any of the large universities in the United States.

For the next eleven years, or until the end of 1903, the courses in elocution and oratory were handled entirely by Professor Trueblood. Soon, however, the enrollment became so heavy that assistance was needed, and in 1904 an instructor was added. In 1909, two more persons were added to the staff; others were added in 1914 and thereafter, until, at the time of Professor Trueblood's retirement in 1926, the departmental personnel consisted of nine members. Since that time it has continued its rapid growth; at present there are fifteen full-time staff members and an equal number of teaching fellows and assistants.

During the nearly fifty years of its existence (to 1940), the department has had several titles: Department of Elocution and Oratory, 1892-1908; Department of Oratory, 1908-19; Department of Public Speaking, 1919-27; Department of Speech, 1927-32; Department of Speech, Phonetics, and General Linguistics, 1932; Department of Speech and General Linguistics, 1932-39; and Department of Speech, since 1939.

In the years since Professor Trueblood's retirement the department has been under the chairmanship of three persons. Professor James Milton O'Neill (Dartmouth '07), who came to Michigan from the chairmanship of the Department of Speech at the University of Wisconsin, served from 1927 to 1932. Henry Arthur Sanders ('90, Ph.D. Munich '97), for many years a member of the faculty and now Professor Emeritus of Latin, served from 1932 until his retirement in 1939. Since that time Professor Gail Ernest Densmore ('22, A.M. '24), who joined the staff of the department in 1922, has been Chairman.

In addition to the departmental chairmen, the following persons of University Senate rank have been appointed to the staff, in the order indicated: Richard Dennis Teall Hollister ('02, Ph.D. '36); Ray Keeslar Immel (Albion '10, Ph.D. Michigan '31), now dean of the School of Speech at the University of Southern California; Louis Michael Eich ('12, Ph.D. '23), also secretary of the Summer Session; Carl Gunard Brandt ('21l, LL.M. '22), also Chairman of the Department of Engineering English in the College of Engineering and Director of Student-Alumni Relations; John Henry Muyskens ('13, Sc.D. '25); Valentine Barthold Windt (Cornell '21, A.M. Princeton '22), also Director of Play Production; Henry Michael Moser (Ohio State '24, Ph.D. Iowa '37), also academic counselor in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; Clarence Linton Meader ('91, Ph.D. '00), now Professor Emeritus; Waldo Mack Abbot ('11, '13l), also Director of the Broadcasting Service; Henry Harlan Bloomer (Illinois '30, Ph.D. Michigan '35), also manager of Page  735the Speech Clinic in the Institute for Human Adjustment; William Perdue Halstead (Indiana '27, Ph.D. Michigan '35); Kenneth Gordon Hance (Olivet '24, Ph.D. Michigan '37); David Owen (Leland Stanford '23); and Ollie Lucy Backus ('29, Ph.D. Wisconsin '33).

During the years from 1892 to the present, the department has extensively broadened its curricular and extracurricular work from its original offerings in public speaking and interpretation. In particular, instruction has been added and developed in play production, speech science, and radio.

From 1892 to 1915, the courses in Shakespearean reading and interpretative reading constituted the only work in both interpretation and dramatics. Occasionally plays would be presented informally in connection with these courses, but it was not until 1915 that a course entitled Play Production was organized. In 1916 the first public play under the auspices of the department was presented, thus beginning a long and successful program in play production which has continued to the present time. This performance of Charles Rann Kennedy's The Servant in the House was presented in University Hall before a set of curtains and without special lighting effects or stage equipment.

The growth of interest in play production, however, was rapid. Courses were extended from a single course in 1915 to six courses in 1922, and to eight in 1926, with more than one hundred fifty students enrolled each semester. In 1927 the scenic aspects of production were expanded, and with the removal of the work in play production to the Mimes Theater in 1928 there was undertaken a more elaborate and finished mounting of plays with better staging and lighting facilities. Through successive directorships of play production, the program has been expanded, with improved facilities and an increasing number of students, until at present seven or eight plays are presented during each academic year and an equal number during the summer session. The former Mimes Theater, now called the Laboratory Theater, is used for some classes and the workshops; and the public performances are presented in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. So great has been the public's response to the offerings of the play production classes that from four to seven performances of each play are necessary.

Work in speech science was first offered by the department in 1926, with courses in phonetics and biolinguistics.* Expanding from limited beginnings to more than twelve courses requiring the services of four members of the staff, this field developed rapidly to the point where, in 1937, a fully equipped and fully staffed speech clinic was opened. This clinic, which is operated in conjunction with the Institute for Human Adjustment, now includes a staff of fifteen persons and handles more than four hundred cases annually (see Part VI: Institute for Human Adjustment).

Through the co-operation of the Institute for Human Adjustment, the Medical School, and the School of Dentistry, the department has been able to provide distinctive opportunities to students in speech science. Not only the traditional courses in phonetics, voice science, and Page  736speech correction, but also specialized courses in the anatomy and physiology of the organs of speech, courses in clinical methods, and work in connection with the Department of Pediatrics and the University Hospital are available.

Similarly, the work in the field of radio has developed rapidly under the direction of the Department of Speech. In 1934 a specialist in this field was added to the staff of the department, and facilities in Morris Hall were made available for classroom work and broadcasting (see Part II: Broadcasting Service). Shortly thereafter, arrangements were made with commercial broadcasting stations in Detroit and Pontiac for allotments of time; and the University has since been "on the air" each day of the academic year and the summer session.

The course offerings in radio have increased from one in 1934 to seven at the present time, with a corresponding increase in the number of programs planned, directed, and produced under the auspices of the department. Each semester approximately one hundred and fifty students elect courses in this field, which prepares candidates for positions in commercial broadcasting as well as in educational radio.

The developments in these fields of dramatics, speech science, and radio, as well as similar developments in the original fields of public speaking and interpretation, and the number of students enrolled, have necessitated a significant increase in the total number of staff members and the breadth of the work done. At present the more than thirty staff members offer approximately seventy courses leading to the bachelor of arts, the master of arts, and the doctor of philosophy degrees. The courses are designed to provide abundant opportunities for the development of personal proficiency in speech, as well as to convey a body of information useful not only to teachers but also to clinical practitioners.

In addition, the department sponsors a wide array of extracurricular activities in various fields. Schedules in debating and oratory are developed in conjunction with the Western Conference Debate League and the Northern Oratorical League, and each year approximately thirty students represent the University in various forensic events. As previously mentioned, the extracurricular work in dramatics consists of a winter and a summer season presented by the classes in play production.

The physical equipment of the department has evolved extensively from the one classroom used by Professor Trueblood for his classes in 1884. The present facilities include not only a number of classrooms in Angell Hall and Mason Hall but also the Laboratory Theater, a broadcasting studio with ample electrical and mechanical equipment, a phonetics laboratory, and a complete speech clinic. In addition, the Department of Speech has the use of the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater for all of its public dramatic performances.

During its approximately fifty years the Speech Department has been instrumental in the establishment of a number of associations and leagues, many of which are active at the present time. In 1890 the Oratorical Association was organized for the purpose of co-operating with like organizations of other Midwestern universities to sponsor debate and oratorical contests. In the Northern Oratorical League, also organized at Michigan in 1890, were the universities of Chicago, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Northwestern, and Wisconsin, and later Oberlin College, the University of Illinois, and Western Reserve University; this association has continued with only slight changes in membership until the present day.

Several debating leagues have also Page  737been organized by the Department of Speech (see Part IX: Debating). In 1893, an association including Michigan, Chicago, Northwestern, and Wisconsin was created. A few years later the Central Debating League was formed, and the Mid-West League was organized in 1915. Shortly thereafter the department, in co-operation with the Extension Division of the University, formed the Michigan High School Debating League, which is recognized as one of the outstanding organizations of its kind in the United States. For women debaters the Michigan-Ohio-Indiana League was created in 1922, and in December, 1923, there was secured for the University of Michigan an endowment of $8,000 from Mrs. Eleanor Clay Ford, to provide testimonials and gold medals annually for each of a selected number of Michigan women participating in intercollegiate debates.

Probably the largest organization created through the co-operation of the Department of Speech is Delta Sigma Rho, a national honorary forensic society with seventy-one chapters and more than ten thousand members at the present time. Not only was the University of Michigan one of the eight leading universities of the country to be charter members, but Professor Trueblood was one of the founders of the society and served as the chairman of the organization meeting held at Chicago in 1906.

Finally, the Oratorical Association Lecture Course, which had been functioning as a Student Lecture Association for several years, was placed under the sponsorship of the department in 1911 (see Part IX: Student Lecture Association). Professor Trueblood was chairman of the committee until the time of his retirement in 1926, and since that time a member of the Department of Speech has served in a similar capacity. During its years of management, the Association has presented such famous persons in the field of public affairs as William Jennings Bryan, William Howard Taft, Newton D. Baker, Winston Churchill, William E. Borah, Ruth Bryan Owen, and Albert J. Beveridge. In the field of literature and the theater, such personalities as John Galsworthy, John Drinkwater, Irvin S. Cobb, Alexander Woollcott, Cornelia Otis Skinner, Gilbert K. Chesterton, William Butler Yeats, Thomas Mann, and Edna St. Vincent Millay have appeared. In the field of exploration and travel almost every famous explorer of recent years — including Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Donald MacMillan, Carl Akeley, Roald Amundsen, Richard E. Byrd, Fritdjof Nansen, William Beebe, and Martin and Osa Johnson — has also been scheduled.

This Oratorical Association is one of the oldest institutions on the University of Michigan campus, is perhaps the oldest of such organizations in the country, and, throughout its long career, has been recognized as outstanding.

The summer of 1940 witnessed the establishment by the Department of Speech of a campus organization which promises to contribute much to the entire University as well as to the one field. This is the annual speech conference, conducted each summer, which makes available to all departments in the institution demonstrations and lectures in public speaking, debating, interpretation, the drama, radio, and speech correction. Each year one or more nationally prominent persons in the field of speech are to be brought to the campus for the speech conference, and the lectures and demonstrations conducted by these authorities will extend the usefulness of the department beyond the boundaries of its courses and of the contributions of its staff members.

The first university department of speech in the United States has evolved Page  738greatly from the one-person staff in 1884 to the more than thirty person staff in 1940 and from the work in elocution to that in five widely diversified fields — that is, from an undergraduate curriculum in platform arts alone to one designed to develop both graduates and undergraduates in public speaking, interpretation, drama, radio, and speech science. Throughout these years, not only has it grown within the University of Michigan, but also it has maintained its place as one of the strong departments of speech in the leading universities of the United States.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1887-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
[News Notes.] Mich. Alum., 34 (1927): 199; 34 (1928): 671, 781; 35 (1929): 511, 561, 694, 746; 36 (1930): 553; 37 (1930): 205-6; 37 (1931): 334; 38 (1932): 590; 39 (1932): 63; 39 (1933): 399; 40 (1933): 96, 181; 40 (1934): 345; 41 (1934): 114, 148, 171; 41 (1935): 225, 272; 42 (1935): 91, 151; 42 (1936): 516; 43 (1937): 194; 44 (1937): 67; 44 (1938): 322, 505-6; 46 (1939): 107; 46 (1940): 328, 544.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1887-1940.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1884-1940.

THE DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY

INDICATIVE of the generally greater esteem in which the sciences have been held in the Middle West as compared with their status in institutions of the East, provision was made for the study of botany and zoology from the very beginning of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. That these subjects were to be well taught was made evident in the first appointment to the faculty, that of the immortal Asa Gray (M.D. Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons [West. Dist., N.Y.] '31, A.M. Harvard '44, LL.D. Michigan '87), whose compendium on taxonomic botany has been standard for many decades (see Part III: Department of Botany). On July 17, 1838, the Regents adopted the following resolution (R.P., 1837-64, p. 50): "Resolved, That Dr. Asa Gray be and he is hereby appointed Professor of Botany and Zoology in the University of Michigan, and that the committee on Professorships be instructed to correspond with Dr. Gray in detail relative to his appointment." His salary was to be $1,500.

Gray, whose doctorate was in medicine, not philosophy, did not, however, come to Ann Arbor. He was given leave of absence for a year to travel in Europe, was paid his stipulated salary to defray the expenses of the trip, and was asked to purchase books for the University library while abroad, to cost not more than $5,000. Even the following year (1839-40), Professor Gray did not come to the University, for it was not until the autumn of 1841 that the buildings and staff were ready for students in Ann Arbor. In April, 1840, Gray was asked to agree to a suspension of his salary for the second half of the school year, and assented. In the Regents' annual report of December 31, 1840, he was listed as Professor of Botany and Zoology in the Central Institute of the University at Ann Arbor, but he was not actually in residence. The only other faculty position similarly listed was that of Douglass Page  739Houghton as Professor of Mineralogy and Geology. Houghton was also state geologist, and received his salary in that capacity, but Asa Gray received no compensation. Although his professorship formally continued through the year 1841-42, it was still without service, residence, or salary. In May, 1842, he resigned to accept an appointment at Harvard College. Thus ends the first chapter of the history of zoology at the University of Michigan. The reasons for its hesitant start are well outlined by the resolution adopted by the Regents on Gray's resignation, namely, to accept the resignation, expressing regrets that the unavoidable delay in opening the University and the embarrassed condition of the finances for the last two years had occasioned the loss of the services of a gentleman whose qualifications were highly estimated.

The professorship of botany and zoology promptly went to Abram Sager (Rensselaer '31, M.D. Castleton Medical College '35, A.M. hon. Michigan '52), who like Asa Gray was a doctor of medicine. Sager seems not to have given the junior zoology course announced for the three autumn terms 1843-45, but was present in the summer term of 1845 and intermittently thereafter. Apparently, though he was urged to stay, he contemplated leaving the faculty in the fall of 1845, when the professorship of botany and zoology was added to that of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology, held by Douglass Houghton. Houghton was drowned in Lake Superior before he could assume his multiple duties, and Dr. Sager was again invited to serve during the following spring term. He declined, since he was practicing medicine in Jackson and did not wish to interrupt this private work for so short an engagement at so small a compensation. "As the Committee did not consider the subject of sufficient importance no other gentleman was engaged."

Sager was retained on the staff, at least by title, though with comparatively little teaching. In January, 1848, he was given a second position, that of Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the newly organized Department of Medicine and Surgery, and in July of that year a third position, that of University Librarian. His medical title was changed in January, 1850, to Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, and later that year he was elected to the presidency of the medical faculty. In 1854 his medical title was again changed to that of Professor of Obstetrics and Physiology. All this time Dr. Sager was still Professor of Botany and Zoology and served as such in intermittent fashion. His medical work apparently claimed more and more of his time, however, and in March, 1855, he asked to be relieved of his duties in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, but retained his position in the Department of Medicine and Surgery.

Succeeding to the work in biology in 1855 was Alexander Winchell (Wesleyan '47, LL.D. ibid. '67), who became Professor of Geology, Zoology, and Botany. He came to this position from the chair of physics and civil engineering. In 1859 he became also state geologist. Under Winchell the college work in zoology promptly expanded, as is more especially noted later in connection with the curriculum. Under him also the development of the Museum appears to have started, with the appointment in 1863 of Carl Rominger, M.D., as Assistant Curator of the Museum of Natural History (see Part VIII: University Museums). Though a taxidermist had been employed ten years earlier under Sager, on a piecework basis, Rominger was apparently the first on annual appointment.

Winchell remained for many years, and from 1868 Mark Walrod Harrington Page  740('68, A.M. '71, LL.D. '94) was associated with him in the Museum as Assistant Curator. In 1873 Winchell resigned to become the chancellor of Syracuse University and was succeeded by Eugene Woldemar Hilgard (Ph.D. Heidelberg '53, LL.D. Michigan '87), to whose professorship mineralogy was added in 1874.

Hilgard remained only two years, then resigned to accept a position in the University of California. Under him for the first time there appeared more than two names on the roster of the staff of the department. Mark Harrington was promoted to an assistant professorship, and there were two assistants in the Museum. Harrington's position at first was in geology, zoology, and botany, but in 1874 it was narrowed by the omission of geology. When Hilgard left in 1875 Harrington was put in charge of zoology and botany, and never again was geology (except as paleontology) included with biology as the appointed field of any one member of the faculty (see Part III: Department of Botany and Department of Geology).

Joseph Beal Steere ('68, '70l, Ph.D. hon. '75) joined the department in 1876 as Assistant Professor of Paleontology and Curator of the Museum, and Volney Morgan Spalding ('73, Ph.D. Leipzig '94) came the same year as Instructor in Zoology and Botany. In 1879 zoology was separated from both botany and paleontology; Spalding's title was thereupon changed to Assistant Professor of Botany and Steere's to Professor of Zoology and Curator of the Museum; at the same time, Winchell returned to a chair of geology and paleontology. Thereafter, until 1885, only Steere's name and that of an assistant in the Museum appeared in connection with work in zoology.

In that year Howard Ayers joined the staff of the Department of Zoology for one year. He was succeeded by Jacob Ellsworth Reighard ('82, Sc.D. hon. '36), who continued many years. Others who were added to the faculty with the rank of instructor or higher were the following: Frederic Leonard Washburn (Harvard '82), 1887-88; Louis Murbach ('89, B.S.[Bio.] '90, Ph.D. Leipzig '94), 1891-93; Henry Baldwin Ward (Williams '85, Ph.D. Harvard '92, Sc.D. Cincinnati '20), 1892-93; and Dean Conant Worcester ('89, Sc.D. hon. '14), 1893-98.

Steere resigned in 1894, and Reighard, who had become Professor of Animal Morphology in 1892, took charge of the department. In 1895 he was officially designated as Professor of Zoology and Director of the Zoological Laboratory and Museum, and he continued as head of the Department of Zoology until 1925. Of the many new members added to the faculty of the department in this period, those who held the rank of instructor or higher included the following: Charles Atwood Kofoid (Oberlin '90, Sc.D. hon. ibid. '15, Ph.D. Harvard '94), 1894-95; Frank Rattray Lillie (Toronto '91, Ph.D. Chicago '94), 1894-99; John Black Johnston ('93, Ph.D. '99), 1897-99; Fanny Elizabeth Langdon ('96, M.S. '97), 1898-99; Herbert Spencer Jennings ('93, Ph.D. Harvard '96), 1899-1903; Samuel Jackson Holmes (California '93, Ph.D. Chicago '97), 1899-1905; Karl Wilhelm Genthe (Ph.D. Leipzig '97), 1899-1901; Raymond Pearl (Dartmouth '99, Sc.D. ibid. '19, Ph.D. Michigan '02), 1902-6; James Edwin Duerden (Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '00), 1903-5; Dana Brackenridge Casteel (Allegheny '99, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '03), 1905-9; Otto Charles Glaser (Johns Hopkins '00, Ph.D. ibid. '04), 1905-18; Horatio Hackett Newman (McMaster [Toronto] '96, Sc.D. ibid. '33, Ph.D. Chicago '05), 1905-8; Arthur Sperry Pearse (Nebraska '00, Ph.D. Harvard '08), 1908-11; Robert William Hegner (Chicago '03, Ph.D. Wisconsin '08), 1908-17; J. Frank Daniel, 1909-10; Peter Olaus Okkelberg Page  741(Minnesota '06, Ph.D. Michigan '18), 1910 — ; Aaron Franklin Shull ('08, Ph.D. Columbia '11), April 1911 — ; George Rogers La Rue (Doane '07, Ph.D. Illinois '11), 1911 — ; George Edwin Johnson (Dakota Wesleyan '13, M.S. Chicago '16), 1917-18; Paul Smith Welch (James Millikin '10, Ph.D. Illinois '13), 1918 — ; Lewis Victor Heilbrunn (Cornell '11, Ph.D. Chicago '14), 1919-29; Lloyd Evans Thatcher (Missouri '11), 1919-24; Frank Nelson Blanchard (Tufts '13, Ph.D. Michigan '19), 1919-37; Harry Thomas Folger (Indiana '17, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '22), 1922-29; Amos Henry Hersh (Franklin and Marshall '14, Ph.D. Illinois '22), 1922-23; Carl Olaf Carlson (A.M. Columbia '18), 1924-25; and Arthur E. Woodhead (Clark '14, Ph.D. Michigan '28), 1924 — .

In the Museum, still connected during part of this time with the department, positions which were substantially equivalent to instructorships, but without teaching duties at first, were filled by: Herbert Edward Sargent, beginning in 1898; Charles Christopher Adams, 1903; and Alexander Grant Ruthven (Morningside '03, Ph.D. Michigan '06), 1906. Adams was made Instructor shortly after his service began, and he gave one course in the department. Dr. Ruthven had the rank of an instructor from the first, gave one course during his second year, and was designated Instructor in Zoology as well as Curator of the Museum in 1908. After that time he regularly gave instruction and remained a member of the teaching department, although the Museum was given wholly separate organization in 1909.

Professor Reighard withdrew from the chairmanship in 1925, and retired in 1927. The executive position in the department has been since 1925 successively held by A. Franklin Shull (two years), Alexander G. Ruthven (two years), Peter O. Okkelberg (four years), and George R. La Rue. More staff members were added during this period — Arthur M. Chickering, 1925-26; Melville H. Hatch, 1925-26; Theodore C. Byerley, 1926-28; Frank Egbert Eggleton (Hillsdale '22, Ph.D. Michigan '30), 1926 — ; Horace Wenger Feldman (Purdue '21, Sc.D. Harvard '25), 1927-29; Gordon Lynn Walls (B.S.Eng. Tufts '26, Sc.D. Michigan '31), 1927-31; Harry Wilbur Hann (Indiana '17, Ph.D. Michigan '26), 1928 — ; Alfred Henry Stockard (Wyoming '25, Ph.D. Michigan '32), 1928 — ; Wendell Henry Krull (Upper Iowa University '21, Ph.D. Michigan '31), 1928-29; and Alvalyn Eunice Woodward (Rochester '05, Ph.D. Michigan '18), 1929 — . Omitted from these lists are names of recognizedly temporary appointees — in the classification of well advanced students doing graduate work, then called instructors (on a part-time basis) but now called teaching fellows. Names not followed by a definite term of service are those of the present staff.

The considerable number of those named in the preceding paragraphs who were at the University only a few years gives point to the comment made long ago that the University of Michigan was preparing the faculties of other universities for them. Among the institutions to receive zoologists directly or indirectly from the University of Michigan are Amherst College and the following universities: California, Chicago, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Maine, Texas, Washington, Iowa, Johns Hopkins, and Western Reserve.

The zoology curriculum. — When the department consisted of one man, and only a few courses could be given, the nature of the offerings fluctuated considerably over a period of years, for the courses reflected the faculty's training and interest. Had Asa Gray ever taught at the University, it is certain Page  742that systematic botany would have received a large share of attention. Dr. Sager's courses were scattered in time, and there are few descriptions of them to indicate their content. A junior course was announced for the three fall terms before 1846 but probably not given. He taught biology in the summers of 1845, 1847, and 1848. After that time both zoology and botany were scheduled for the third term of the freshman year, again without description. In the 1852-53 Catalogue is given the first inkling of the nature of any course: seniors were given "the general and comparative physiology of animals, their classification, habits, and relation to human interests." In 1845 the Regents had considerately allowed the faculty to choose books to accompany the course in zoology; the texts selected, as specified in the 1852-53 Catalogue, were Agassiz and Gould's Zoology and Edward's Cours de zoologie. In 1852-53 an agricultural course was planned (though it was probably never given) and was described as follows: "Lectures on Animal and Vegetable Physiology, and Physiology in general, Physiology and diseases of domestic animals in particular, and the structure and habits of insects, in relation to grains, trees and horticultural plants."

With the advent of Alexander Winchell in 1855 the zoology curriculum expanded, and so did the descriptions of courses. Seniors were required in the first semester to take a course which was described at length in the Catalogue as involving the "organization of … animals as the basis of their systematic classification; … physiology, comprising … sources and modes of nutrition, … development and dissemination; … geographical distribution and economical history." Laboratory work was available at choice: "Besides the instruction of the lecture room, the professor will afford facilities for those who desire them, for the more careful and minute examination and study of objects, and the determination of species." Vacations were wisely used: "Short excursions will be undertaken in term times, and longer ones in vacation for the purpose of bringing students into actual and direct communication with nature."

In Winchell's second year the required course was shifted to the junior year, and seniors might elect the flexible three- or six-day, one- or two-semester course, Comparative Anatomy and Physiology and the Principles of Classification in the Animal Kingdom. It consisted of lectures "amply illustrated by a complete suite of the birds which visit Michigan and a collection of 2,000 species of shells, … and means unsurpassed for microscopical observations." The student, the Catalogue said, "is accompanied on frequent excursions into the neighborhood, and such as desire it are permitted to engage in investigations under the eye of the Professor, in the Laboratory attached to this department." To the textbooks and references announced in Sager's time were added: Agassiz, Gould, and Perty, Lehrbuch der Zoologie; Woodward, Recent and Fossil Shells; Carpenter, General and Comparative Physiology; and a year later, Owen, Vertebrate Skeleton and Teeth.

In 1862-63 and thereafter Professor Winchell offered, for candidates for the master's degree, a course of lectures known as the Vertebrate Skeleton — Its Morphology and Homologies. In 1874-75 a Polytechnic School was organized as a part of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts — which then included the work in pharmacy, as well as in engineering — to administer advanced courses in the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences and their applications to the arts. The Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts required that juniors in the scientific Page  743course "pursue a course in structural and physiological zoology, with a free use of the microscope, diagrams, magic-lantern slides, and specimens from the Museum." The effect of combining in one chair the fields of geology and zoology is evident in the following statement: "The elective course of the Senior year is a course in systematic zoology as a preparation for geology." The textbooks in zoology were "Nicholson's series." In the Polytechnic School: "A special course in Zoology runs through the whole year. During the first semester the student pursues Comparative Anatomy and Physiology … In the second semester Anatomy and Physiology are completed, and a class of animals is selected and their classification studied."

The first biology course was given in 1875, when Assistant Professor Harrington combined plants and animals in one presentation, which was announced as follows (Cal., 1875-76, pp. 43-44):

The members of the Scientific and of the Latin and Scientific Sections of the Junior Class can elect a course in Biology … [in] the first semester. It consists of the study of as many typical forms of animals and plants as can be considered in the time allotted … The text-book … is McGinley's Biology. …

In the second semester of the Junior year, the members of the Scientific Section are required to take a course … in Embryology. The development of the chick in the hen's egg will be followed in detail, microscopically and otherwise. The text-book … will be Foster and Balfour's Elements of Embryology, Part I.

An elective course for seniors, Paleontology, was offered. Comparative Anatomy and Physiology, followed by Systematic Zoology, were available in the Polytechnic School, and advanced students had an opportunity to do some work in histology (mostly human).

Embryology was omitted when Steere took charge of the department in 1877, but was restored five years later. Emphasis was put upon comparative anatomy and classification. Insects and mollusks were favored as material for classification, for the separate courses Entomology (1879) and Conchology (1880) were introduced. Histology, with Physics and Chemistry as prerequisites, was offered to zoology students, but by a Medical Department professor.

Professor Reighard joined the faculty in 1886. A year later the elementary course again became a biology course, this time given jointly by a botanist and a zoologist, an arrangement which continued until 1916. In 1889 the work in zoology was divided into General Zoology, taught by Steere, and Animal Morphology, given by Reighard. This separation was made more complete in 1892 by the formation of distinct departments, Steere becoming Professor of Systematic Zoology and Reighard Professor of Animal Morphology. In the Department of Animal Morphology were the courses Invertebrate Morphology, Mammalian Anatomy, Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, and Embryology. Histology, though offered to zoology students, was largely provided by the Department of Medicine and Surgery. A journal club and field club were established and flourished many years.

With the resignation of Professor Steere in 1894, the Department of Systematic Zoology suffered a decline. Two years later the whole curriculum in zoology underwent reorganization. Invertebrate zoology was expanded; a separate course in evolution was introduced; the work in embryology included a course on the mechanism of development which had begun under Kofoid in 1894 with the title the Animal Egg, but which was now changed, first to Physiological Morphology, then to Experimental Morphology; and a course entitled Morphology and Page  744Development of the Frog was made prerequisite to Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates. Courses in entomology and parasitology were added temporarily in 1899 to fit the interests of a new member of the staff. To help with the work of the laboratory there was created among the students a corps of voluntary assistants, who, in return for their service, received credit in teacher training.

Because of the multiplicity of courses given since 1900 — introduced partly in recognition of the expansion of the subject and partly in response to demand from other units of the University or because of changes in secondary schools — a strict adherence to chronological order becomes confusing, and the developments are better followed by subjects.

As to physiology, the first course definitely in this field was established as Physiological Zoology in 1901, though Holmes's course of the year before, Animal Behavior, was largely physiology. Physiological Zoology was divided into two courses in 1915, under Glaser, but with his resignation in 1918 these were changed to Physiology and Mammalian Anatomy, with Okkelberg in charge. When Heilbrunn came General Physiology was resurrected, and both this and Mammalian Anatomy and Physiology, as well as the Seminar in Physiology, were offered. Physiology was dropped in 1928, but restored in 1930 as Comparative Physiology under Woodward.

Natural history, aside from the field work included in a number of courses, had its first recognition in the ecology course given by Adams in 1903. Ecology was taken over later by Dr. Ruthven and its subject matter was partly included in his course Zoogeography after 1909. Fresh-Water Biology was started by Pearse in 1908, was taken over by Shull in 1911, and was incorporated in Reighard's Natural History of Invertebrates in 1916. The latter course went to Blanchard in 1925 with the more inclusive title Natural History of Animals, but a year later Fresh-Water Biology was made a separate course, whereas the natural history course concerned only the vertebrates. Fresh-Water Biology was finally abandoned in 1928 in favor of the related Limnology, by Welch. Ornithology became a separate course in 1930-31, first given by Blanchard, later by Hann.

Genetics was represented only in the experimental morphology course until 1904, when Pearl offered the lecture course called Heredity. This course was taken over by Newman in 1906, by Glaser in 1909, and by Shull in 1919. Genetics, a more advanced, one-semester lecture course given by Shull, was first scheduled in 1911. In 1916 a second semester, including laboratory work, was offered, but it was discontinued in 1919. For some years thereafter Genetics was given co-operatively by the Department of Botany (represented by Professor H. H. Bartlett) and the Department of Zoology, but this plan was discontinued in 1927. There was an expansion of the work in genetics during President Little's administration, but no additional course was offered. Feldman gave Genetics in 1927-28, with laboratory work, and Shull took it over in 1929-30. From then until 1932 the work covered the entire year, but since that date it has occupied only the first semester.

Biometry was represented by a course entitled Statistical Zoology, by Pearl, from 1902 to 1906. Thereafter it was omitted — except as a part of Genetics when the latter course was given jointly by the Departments of Botany and Zoology throughout the year — until 1932. At that time a course called Quantitative Biology was started by Shull.

Embryology was a standard course during all this period, sometimes branching out into its genetic implications, as in Page  745Holmes's Morphogenesis in 1904. The main course was given by Glaser in 1905, and has been given by Okkelberg since 1918. Entomology was revived when Hegner came to the University, was variously subdivided by him, and was then contracted to a single course under Welch in 1917; finally, it was supplemented by Insect Morphology and Insect Histology, in 1928. Cytology was begun by Hegner under the title Cellular Biology in 1913, was discontinued when he left the University in 1917, and was partially restored in 1928 by Okkelberg along with Histology and Microtechnique. Comparative Anatomy was given by Reighard until 1916, then was turned over to Okkelberg, and, finally, was turned over to Stockard, in 1933. Parasitology was first given by George R. La Rue in 1914-15, Helminthology was added in 1928-29, and the related Protozoology was first given as a separate course in 1931-32 by Assistant Professor Woodhead with the co-operation of Assistant Professor O'Roke of the School of Forestry and Conservation. Fishes were treated in a separate course as early as 1904 in Fish and Fisheries of Michigan, by Reighard; this was changed to Fish and Game of Michigan, for forestry students, in 1909; and, finally, Elementary Ichthyology was given in 1930-31 by John Richard Greeley of the Museum staff. Evolution, long given by Reighard as a one-hour lecture course in the evening, was expanded to two hours and was given in the morning; then in 1925 it was turned over to Shull.

The training of teachers and of other professional biologists began with the corps of voluntary assistants under Holmes, as already mentioned (p. 744). In 1909-10 this work was expanded into Comparative Histology (still largely technique), in the first semester, and Zoology for Teachers, in the second. When Histology was revived in 1928-29 the laboratory-methods course was reduced to one semester. Educational methods have been dealt with in Biology for Teachers, given co-operatively for a number of years by George R. La Rue, of the Department of Zoology, and Felix G. Gustafson, of the Department of Botany. Museum Methods, given by Ruthven and various members of the Museum staff since 1918, provided training for museum workers.

Several attempts to reach students not specializing in biology have been made from time to time. In a sense, the courses Evolution and Heredity belong here, but they are intended for biologists also. In 1906 a course called Short Course in Zoology was offered to forestry students, but it was open also to others. This became Economic Zoology in 1912, and in 1915, Wild Animals: Their Conservation and Value to Man. At about the same time, an evening lecture course known as Functions and Activities of Animals was given co-operatively by the staff, but this course was short-lived.

The elementary course underwent certain radical changes, beginning in 1916. Before that time it consisted of two courses, one in botany, one in zoology, each one extending through the year and having no relation to the other except that students elected both courses at the same time. These courses were now separated, each was given in one semester, and students elected them successively, either one first. That arrangement still prevails. In the spring semester of 1917, beginning students were offered an alternative course, devoted not to dissection of animal types but to biological principles, and one section pursued this course. The next fall the entire beginning class was given the new-style course, which has been widely copied, in whole or in part, in other institutions. Essentially the same course prevails today. In 1929-30 beginning students were again Page  746offered a biology course given by the Departments of Botany and Zoology co-operatively, but this was discontinued two years later.

The general policy determining the selection of courses to be offered has been to provide training in all the fundamental branches of zoology, and from these as a base to extend as far as possible, or as far as the demand warrant's into the specialized fields represented by the interests of the staff.

Research in zoology. — Sager, the first Professor of Zoology actually to serve in that capacity, published little or nothing in zoology; no articles by him have been found. Winchell was primarily a geologist, and only his paleontological contributions in that field, of which there were several, belong in this account. Those which may be said to represent investigation concerned the succession of organic types (1858), fossil elephants (1863, 1864), and a family of fossil hydrozoans (1866). Along strictly zoological lines, he described a new species of gar pike in 1864, and perhaps his article on the currant worm (1864) represents original work. Besides these he wrote many popular articles on natural science, education, and religion.

Steere traveled round the world, and a number of his articles relate to the animals observed and collected, particularly in the Philippines. These publications based on his travels appeared chiefly in the years 1874-94; there was one belated article in 1903. His other papers dealt chiefly with the birds and mammals of Michigan.

Reighard had shown an early interest in meteorology, but by the time he came to the University he had transferred his interests to anatomy and histology, in which fields he had published studies as early as 1884. His early work at the University was on the embryology of fishes (1888-93). By 1893, however, his interests were turning to plankton studies, and his papers up to 1899 were mostly in that field. In 1900 he returned to fishes, primarily the embryology, but also the breeding habits, of the fresh-water dogfish Amia. This study of breeding habits initiated a long period of investigation of behavior of animals in nature, which was reflected in the work of his students of that period, and which included a notable study of the supposed warning color of coral-reef fishes (1908). Fishes still constituted Reighard's chief research interest until toward the time of his retirement, when an unfortunate deafness led him to investigate methods of speech reading; and since 1924 he has published many articles on speech reading. Among his publications was the celebrated study Anatomy of the Cat, issued jointly with Herbert S. Jennings in 1901, which was based partly on first-hand research.

The trend of research in the Department of Zoology, aside from the research carried on by Reighard himself, has been determined by the interests of many people, some connected with the department only a few years. Jennings, a specialist in rotifers before he came to the University, turned to protozoa while he was here, and through them to animal behavior. Lillie was interested in regeneration and embryology. Johnston was already a neurologist. Most of Holmes's published work dealt with animal behavior. Pearl started in animal behavior, but showed a strong leaning toward biometric studies of variation before he left. Behavior of turtles and fishes, leading to developmental studies of heredity in fishes, occupied Newman during his short stay. Ruthven has been interested in ecology and geographic distribution, particularly of reptiles (see Part VIII: Museum of Zoology). Embryology was the subject of Glaser's early researches; he later turned gradually to physiology. Hegner's many published Page  747researches show a long-continued interest in the germ-cell cycle, particularly in insects. At the time of his stay here, Pearse was concerned with diverse phases of natural history. Shull has worked chiefly on the parthenogenetic-bisexual reproductive cycle in several groups of animals (rotifers, thrips, white flies, aphids), and on the genetic, developmental, and physiological problems connected with these cycles, with a turn in late years to the genetics of Drosophila. La Rue's field has been parasitology, his publications largely having dealt with trematode cycles and morphology; Woodhead's interests are similar. Germcell cycles and various morphological and developmental problems related to them have occupied Okkelberg and his students. Since coming to the University, Welch has worked on aquatic life — biology of oligochaete worms, physiology of aquatic insects, and limnological studies of Michigan lakes. Aquatic life is also Eggleton's field of research. Heilbrunn was a general physiologist, working mainly on marine eggs. Blanchard published a number of works on the natural history of reptiles and amphibia. Woodward has published studies of the physiology of fertilization, and is directing her students in research in the physiology of reproduction in vertebrates. Hann started with the germ-cell cycle of fishes, but has turned to ornithology.

An indication of the growth of research in zoology at the University is the number of doctor of philosophy degrees in that field. The first was granted in 1899 to John B. Johnston, the second in 1902 to Raymond Pearl. Up to and including the year 1924 a total of fourteen doctorates had been given. In 1925 there was a notable increase, and since that time there has been an average of more than seven each year, the highest number in any one year being seventeen. The total, through June, 1940, is 143.

The publications of the department, most of them based on research, number at least 617; it has been impossible to locate all of them. This number includes only books and articles published while the authors were at the University of Michigan or based on work they have done at the University either as students or as members of the faculty.

The standing of the University as a research center in the field of zoology is indicated by a study made in 1933-34 by the American Council on Education, in which the universities of America were rated by a vote of eminent scholars in the several fields. This study indicated that the University of Michigan is one of eleven institutions which are distinguished as places for graduate study leading to the doctorate in zoology, and that the Department of Zoology is one of fourteen departments in the University holding such distinction.

Plant and equipment. — When the first classes in zoology assembled, presumably in 1845, the instruction was given entirely by means of lectures, sometimes with meager demonstrations. There was no laboratory, no equipment, and there were only such collections as the professor privately owned. Abram Sager made the first collections, and the Regents paid a taxidermist to care for some of them. Around the "cabinet of specimens" the entire work of the department was organized. The Catalogue described the collections of the Department of Natural History in 1850-51 (p. 24) as embracing "a valuable cabinet of Minerals, consisting of between four and five thousand specimens and suits of specimens illustrative of the Geology, Zoology and Botany of Michigan." In 1853 the Regents appropriated "the sum of $138.00 for the Zoological Department," and this money was used to add to the collections.

It seems evident that the first microscope Page  748used in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts was that provided by action of the Regents in March, 1856: "Resolved, That Professors Sager and Winchell be a committee to contract for the construction of such a microscope with accessories as they may deem the interests of the University demand" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 640). This instrument cost $450; later, a two-inch objective costing $19 was added to it.

In 1858 a most important addition to the teaching material was made by the acquisition of the Trowbridge collection. The Catalogue of that year says:

… The Trowbridge Collection … is an extensive series of specimens in all the classes of the Animal Kingdom, made by Lieut. Trowbridge (late Professor in the University) upon the Pacific coast of our country; it furnishes a complete illustration of the Fauna of that coast, and will raise the University collection to a rank among the very first in the country.


(Cat., 1858-59, p. 56.)
As was stated in connection with the curriculum, there was at that time also a "complete suite of Birds which visit Michigan," and a collection of two thousand species of snails; and the one microscope owned constituted "means unsurpassed for microscopical observations."

An oven "to protect the Zoological Specimens" was provided in 1861 at a cost of $15, and by 1867 the department had "a very large Zoological Collection … The whole number of entries in the Zoological Cabinet [was] over 6,300, and the whole number of specimens not less than 16,000." Important additions to the collections were made by Steere on his five-year tour of the world in the early seventies and were mentioned in the Calendar of 1875-76: "The Steere Zoological Collection, comprising about 25,000 insects, 1,500 shells, 8,000 birds, and numerous representatives of other groups; total, about 10,000 entries and 60,000 specimens." Steere also brought numerous botanical and mineral specimens.

Just when additional microscopes were purchased is uncertain, but in 1875 it was said: "The Microscopical Laboratory is now so well supplied with instruments that it can respond to any moderate demand" (Cal., 1875-76, p. 73). There were instruments for making slides, for drawing and measuring with the microscope, for "microchemical work and other methods of observation," and for physiological studies. Furniture, skeletons, and dissection materials were being acquired annually, and from this time on there was a continuous but uneven growth of the equipment for zoological work. But the acquisitions were crude, judged according to present standards. The microscopes purchased even as late as 1885 were, as described by Professor Reighard, "simple in type with no fine adjustment, no condenser, no nose-piece; provided only with the two objectives and two oculars."

The building which first housed the Department of Zoology was, so far as the oldest records show, Mason Hall, which for some years after 1848 was called North College (see Part VIII: First Buildings). Winchell's lecture room, according to Edward Laurens Mark ('71, LL.D. '96), was on the first floor between the two corridors, and other near-by rooms were used for storage. During the greater part of Steere's incumbency the room above this lecture room and the first floor at the north end were museum space, and the southeast corner of the first floor was also occupied by the Department of Zoology. A little later the three main rooms of the department were: (1) a combined lecture room and laboratory, about forty feet square, used largely for identification of species, (2) a smaller room of similar function, about twenty by twenty-five feet, and (3) a third-floor room of about twenty by forty feet. Kitchen tables of oak and Page  749chairs to match were the principal furniture, of which a few articles are still in occasional use.

Some easement of the space limitations was provided by the erection in 1879-80 of the Museum Building (now Romance Language Building). This structure was described in the University Calendar of that year as of Neo-Gothic style, one hundred and twenty feet long and forty-seven feet wide, and four stories high. The natural history collections were moved into it in the fall of 1880. In 1885 another large room on the third floor of Mason Hall was turned over to the Department of Zoology; it was first occupied by Howard Ayres, then by Professor Reighard.

An epoch in the expansion of the department was marked by its removal from Mason Hall to the third floor of the South Wing in the summer of 1892. Shortly thereafter the second floor was also acquired, and these two floors constituted the zoological laboratory until 1915. New furniture — including standard tables for two or four students — was built for the new quarters; a departmental library was established; the collection of lantern slides grew rapidly; and various other rooms for storage, private laboratories, and live animals were provided through remodeling. At the time of this removal the department owned only one set of microscope slides, a set illustrating cell division; it was the policy to have students make their own slides in courses. The supplies of the department were accessible to the staff, and each man helped himself, leaving no record of his withdrawals. Equipment suitable for the expanding subject was steadily added — microtomes, paraffin baths, photographic apparatus, aquaria, more microscopes — though never as rapidly as the staff of the department wished. A significant feature of this increase in equipment was that a large part of it was intended primarily for research. It was a steady growth, unmarked by any startling new development or change of policy.

The next important year for the department was 1913. The legislature of the state voted that year an appropriation of $375,000 for the construction of the present Natural Science Building. Scarcely had the first steps been taken to plan the building when, on May 28, the old laboratories in the South Wing were destroyed by fire. Courses were left unfinished, but credit was given, and students who had taken this work in the previous year wondered why they never had any luck. Fortunately, the building and its contents were covered by insurance. The reconstruction and replacement were promptly begun, and by the autumn of 1913 the rebuilt laboratories, with a number of new microscopes and some other new apparatus, were ready for students. Some things destroyed, however, were unfortunately irreplaceable. One tragic result was the loss of all data and specimens pertaining to the investigations of a graduate student, who had to start all over again.

In 1915 the department moved into its new fireproof quarters in the Natural Science Building. This structure was still not quite finished, and for a time lecturers competed with hammers and saws and the shouts of workmen. The Department of Zoology occupied the northwest part — in all, about one-fourth of the building, substantially the same part of each of the four floors. Much new equipment was obtained for the new laboratories. In a brochure prepared for an exhibit arranged by all the departments in the Natural Science Building in 1917 was the following description of the section reserved for zoology:

There are seventy rooms in all, including class rooms, student laboratories, private laboratories for instructors and assistants, Page  750a cave in the subbasement, and rooms for aquaria, for making preparations, for chemicals, for photographic work, for constant temperature experiments, for light-reaction studies, for charts, for storage, and a shop for making scientific apparatus.

Changes in the zoology curriculum, exceptional expansion of certain types of work, and the general growth of the University have necessitated modification of these quarters. Some walls have been removed, others have been built in, and the functions of rooms have been changed. Among other things not in the original building but described in the Announcement of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts for 1939-40 are laboratories for parasitology, a laboratory for genetics, and laboratories for groups of graduate students. A dispensary replaced a seminar room; the shop was moved to larger quarters previously used as a preparation room; a class laboratory replaced the departmental museum; and many other exchanges were made.

Commodious as the department's quarters were in the early years of the Natural Science Building, they are now badly crowded. The laboratories used for the elementary course are occupied from early morning to late afternoon on every teaching day, and no more can be done without seriously impairing the quality of the work. Additions to the building are probably not feasible. At the beginning of the University's second century in Ann Arbor a physical transfer of the department comparable to that of 1892 or of 1915 is, as pharmacopoeia books are wont to say, "indicated."

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement, Department [College, 1915 — ] of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Univ. Mich., 1878-1940.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914. (Cal.)
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23. (Cat.)
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
La Rue, George R., and Others. MS, "Jacob E. Reighard."In MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty … College of Literature, Science, and the Arts," Univ. Mich., Apr. 6, 1942. 1940 — , pp. 834-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1871-1909, 1926-27.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Shull, A. Franklin. "Jacob Ellsworth Reighard."Science, n.s., 95 (1942): 344-46.
Steere, Joseph B."A Naturalist Pioneer in South America."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 44 (1938): 331-44.
Steere, Joseph B."An American Naturalist in the Far East."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 45 (1938): 47-61.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)