The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.

Systematic instruction in the field of history on a scientific basis is comparatively recent, dating in Europe from the early part of the nineteenth century. American, European, and especially German developments set the example. It was only in 1828 that Harvard, which led the way among American universities, established a professorship of civil history. Under these circumstances, the rather meager provision for the subject in the early years of the University of Michigan is not at all surprising.

In 1844-45, the year that the first class was graduated from the University of Michigan and the second year of the University Catalogue, the Reverend Daniel Denison Whedon (Hamilton '28, D.D. Emory '47, LL.D. Wesleyan '67), a Methodist Episcopal theologian and author — though apparently his repertory did not include any historical work of moment — was appointed to the chair of logic, rhetoric, and history. Thus history supplanted grammar in the medieval trivium, and the Reverend Professor continued to occupy his threefold chair until Page  613he left the University in 1852. Evidently ancient history was taught by the Department of Ancient Languages, where portions of Herodotus, Thucydides, and Livy were read by freshmen. Medieval history for sophomores, modern history for juniors, and additional ancient history for freshmen were added in 1846-47. Since each occupied only one of the three terms, the work was doubtless nothing more than a bare series of recitations. As yet, however, this was the method employed throughout the country in the few institutions where history was taught. In 1847-48 the term philosophy of history was substituted for mere history.

For the first two years of the Tappan administration no one was recorded as specially concerned with history, but in 1854 — such was the versatility of the men of those times — Erastus O. Haven, the future President, was transferred from Latin to history and English literature. He resigned in 1856, and, after a varied and useful career in the East, was recalled, in 1863, to succeed President Tappan. Haven taught throughout his administration. He held the chair of rhetoric and English literature until 1865, when he accepted that of logic and political economy. In 1868 he was transferred to the chair of mental and moral philosophy, which he had taught for one year along with his other subjects.

In the meantime, in 1857, a pioneer in historical teaching of the modern type had appeared at the University in the person of Andrew Dickson White (Yale '53, A.M. ibid. '56, LL.D. Michigan '67). A young man barely twenty-five, he had graduated from Yale four years previous to his call to Ann Arbor as the Professor of History and English Literature. Coming from a family of substantial means he had had the advantages of travel and had spent much of the interval in Europe; also, he had begun to collect that remarkable library which is now one of the distinctive possessions of Cornell. In spite of his prospective wealth he early sought a means whereby he could be of service in the world. With great mental alertness and boundless energy, he was at once a rapid reader and a copious and informing talker, who possessed human charm and was interested both in men and in things. Yet, throughout his busy academic and public life, he invariably found time to help and encourage young men, as the present writer can testify. His interest in the possibilities of the West seems to have been first aroused by an address at Yale by President Wayland of Brown.

When the third-year course was still coupled with acoustics and optics* he started with a threefold aim, as announced in the Catalogue of 1857-58: "First — to conduct the student through a careful review of modern history. Secondly — to exercise him in original investigation and close criticism of important periods and noted characters. Thirdly — to give him some insight into the Philosophy of History." His original plan was a modest one: for the first year, John Lord's (Ford's, in the Catalogue) Manual of Modern History; for the second year, private reading under direction; and for the third year, the philosophy of history, with Guizot's History of Civilization as a guide for the students. The fourth year the instruction was mainly by lectures, with collateral reading from the standard historians then available. He threw himself with ardor into the work. Not only did he break away from the old recitation method, he introduced the interleaved syllabus, he had students at his house one evening a week for discussions and reports, he went about the state lecturing, he bought books for the Library, and even planted trees on the campus. Indeed, for four years he was a Page  614member of a committee in charge of improvements on the campus, and for one of these years served as Superintendent of University Grounds, with "power to prepare and perfect a plan for improving and beautifying" them.

Although White retained his nominal connection with the University till 1867 and gave a few lectures, his residence and active teaching ceased in 1863 on his election to the New York Senate. He subsequently became president of Cornell University, 1867-85, and minister and ambassador to Russia and Germany.

In 1862 Charles Kendall Adams ('61, A.M. '62, LL.D. Harvard '86), who was only twenty-six years old but had had some previous experience as a teacher, was added as a second member of the staff. For the first year, while White remained, he was delegated to teach constitutional law and constitutional history. Then for a time, even though his chief was on the eve of departure, he was called upon to teach Latin as well; indeed, in 1865, he was appointed Assistant Professor of History and Latin. However, in 1867, when he was promoted to a professorship, he was able to devote himself solely to history. As a matter of fact, he secured a year's leave of absence for study in Germany. Up to this time he seems to have carried on the traditions of Andrew White in the main, even to the wording of the announcement in the Catalogue. Now he introduced some changes. The greatest of these was a seminar which he began to conduct in 1871-72 on the Prussian model. Though this class was not so described in the Catalogue, he apparently employed the seminar method of reports and discussions (Farrand, p. 269) — a method soon adopted by Moses Coit Tyler, who in 1867 began his brilliant term of fourteen years as a teacher in the University of Michigan.

It is a curious coincidence that three men bearing the historic name of Adams should have introduced the seminary method into their respective universities in the seventies. C. K. Adams apparently was the innovator in point of time (1871-72), but Henry Adams at Harvard and Herbert Baxter Adams at Johns Hopkins first showed tangible results in publication by their students. Moreover, undergraduates were admitted to the course at the University of Michigan, and the work seems to have been of a general character rather than detailed research. When the American Historical Association was founded in 1884, C. K. Adams and Moses Coit Tyler signed the call for the first meeting. Later, Adams was made a member of the council — one of five from the University of Michigan to hold that office. In 1885 he succeeded Andrew D. White as president of Cornell. Although he was energetic in academic and scholarly affairs and lectured with force and clarity, his few publications have not proved of enduring importance.

Meanwhile, history as a subject of study was gaining recognition. President Angell, who became an authority on international law, in his inaugural address on Commencement Day, 1871, included it with modern languages as a subject of increasing importance, and in 1878-79 it was made a part of the new English course leading to the degree of bachelor of letters. In 1881 a School of Political Science was established, with history as one of the required subjects. C. K. Adams was the first Dean. He was succeeded in 1885 by Thomas M. Cooley, the first chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission and one of the most outstanding jurists and legal writers this country has ever produced. Judge Cooley was at the same time appointed to the professorship of American history and constitutional law, which he retained until his death in 1898, though he was absent except for brief intervals after 1886 Page  615and ceased to lecture in 1894. The School of Political Science was absorbed by the Literary Department and did not survive even in name beyond 1890.

Men who afterwards went into other fields began as teachers of history; for example, Harry Burns Hutchins ('71, LL.D. '21), subsequently Dean of the Law School and from 1910 to 1920 President of the University, began as Instructor in Rhetoric and History in 1872-73 and was promoted to an assistant professorship in the following year. He was succeeded in 1876 by Isaac Newton Demmon ('68, A.M. '71, LL.D. Nashville '96), who taught rhetoric and history. Demmon completed the History of the University of Michigan begun by Burke A. Hinsdale. Subsequently, Demmon was for many years head of the Department of English; also, he was the very efficient editor of the Alumni Catalogue of 1911, and, as chairman of the Library committee, rendered invaluable service in building up the present collection. Thanks to the start made by Andrew White, C. K. Adams, and himself, the collection in English history is, after that of Harvard, one of the most complete in the country. During the year 1878-79 Assistant Professor Pattengill, of the Department of Greek, was added to the staff to teach the general history of England, while European history and advanced English constitutional history remained with C. K. Adams. Demmon, during his brief tenure in the department, taught American history.

In the Calendar of 1879-80 the Reverend Richard Hudson ('71, A.M. '77, LL.D. Nashville '01) was listed as Assistant Professor of History. After the first year the "Reverend" was dropped. Pattengill and Frieze for a time taught ancient history, and during the next few years Adams and Hudson took over all the modern history. Hudson had started as a Methodist minister, but finding that a change in his beliefs made it impossible for him to continue his original profession, he utilized his savings to study history for three years in Europe. In 1885 he was made head of the Department of History and in 1897 Dean of the Department (now College) of Literature, Science, and the Arts. He retired in 1911 and died in 1915. Having inherited a substantial fortune from his brother, a Detroit merchant, he left funds in his will for the founding of the Richard Hudson professorship in English history. This was the second of the endowed professorships at present existing in the University of Michigan. Richard Hudson, except for a few scattered articles, published nothing. He read widely and lectured with exceptional clearness, and, in his gentle and mildly humorous way, he had the courage to defend his convictions, but he was timid about expressing himself in print.*

President Tappan, from the time of his inaugural in 1852, had visions of graduate studies, and occasional "lectures" and some seminar and laboratory instruction were provided, particularly after 1870, for graduate students, but there was no specific reference in the catalogues for work leading to the degree of doctor of philosophy until 1874-75. In 1884 the first doctor's degree in history was awarded to George W. Knight, who later became head of the history and political science department of Ohio State University and, for a time, dean of the School of Education in the same institution. Three or four doctorates annually were conferred in the interval, but the second one in history (to Ephraim Douglas Adams) was not obtained till 1890. After a decade at the University of Page  616Kansas, Ephraim Adams was called to Leland Stanford, where he spent the remainder of his life. Altogether, during the fifty-six years from June, 1884, through June, 1940, eighty-eight doctor of philosophy degrees in history were awarded, and in the same period nearly eight hundred master's degrees in history were granted. The number of doctor's degrees might have been somewhat greater except for the inadequacy of graduate fellowships, especially in the earlier years. Moreover, some who have started their graduate work here have been advised to finish it elsewhere.

In 1886, the year after his graduation from the Law Department, Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin ('82, '85l, LL.D. '12) was appointed Instructor in Latin. The following year he was transferred to the Department of History and has taken his place as perhaps the most distinguished scholar ever connected with the department. He was made Professor of American History in 1891 and held that office till 1906, though from 1903 to 1905 he was absent in Washington as director of the Bureau of Historical Research, Carnegie Institution. Also, from 1901 to 1905, he was managing editor of the American Historical Review. Noted as a scholar, "Andy Mac" was an inspiration to students and graduates of the University for a decade. In 1906 he was called to the University of Chicago as head of the Department of History, a position which he held until 1927. He has been president of the American Historical Association and is a corresponding member of the Massachusetts Historical Society — an honor shared by President Angell, Regent Clements, and three of his past and present colleagues in the department. McLaughlin began a considerable list of publications with a life of Lewis Cass for the "American Nation" series in 1891, and since his retirement in 1935 has put forth what is the chief embodiment of his life work, A Constitutional History of the United States.

In the Calendar for 1888-89 it was stated that "with the flexible elective system it has been found unnecessary to retain an independent School of Political Science." McLaughlin seems to have taken over some of the work in American history and in 1890-91 was relieved of the teaching of English history by John H. T. McPherson (Johns Hopkins '88, Ph.D. ibid. '90), who also was assigned Greek and Roman history. Though Hudson and McLaughlin continued on the staff, the nineties witnessed the coming and going of various men well known in the profession who were birds of passage so far as Michigan was concerned. McPherson remained only one year and went to the University of Georgia, where he became chairman of the Social Science Group. He was succeeded by Herman Vandenburg Ames (Amherst '88, Ph.D. Harvard '91, Litt.D. Pennsylvania '25), who became an assistant professor, but left in 1894. At the time of his death in 1935 Ames was a professor of American history at the University of Pennsylvania, and from 1907 to 1928 had been dean of the Graduate School there.

During the absence of Professor Hudson on leave in 1892-93, an assistant professor, David Ellsworth Spencer, whom the writer has been unable to identify, taught in the department for one year. This same year came Earle Wilbur Dow ('91), who, save for two years' leave for study in Europe, taught in the department continuously for a period of more than forty years and retired as Professor Emeritus in 1938. In 1894 he gave the first courses in history to be offered in the summer session, which was formally established in that year.

Again there were temporary sojourners who later accepted positions in other institutions. Marshall Stewart Brown (Brown '92, A.M. ibid. '93) taught here Page  617during the academic year 1893-94 and then accepted a call to New York University, where he became a professor of history and the dean of the College. William Dawson Johnston (Brown '93, Litt.D. Rutgers '11) was three years in the department, from 1894 to 1897; he later went into library work. For some time he was in charge of the American Library in Paris. He died in Washington in 1928. During the absence of E. W. Dow, Frank Haigh Dixon ('92, Ph.D. '95) taught for the year 1896-97. The next year he was Acting Assistant Professor of Political Economy. In 1898 he left for Dartmouth, where he remained till 1919, and then was called to a professorship at Princeton. In 1897-98 two newcomers were Theodore Clarke Smith (Harvard '92, Ph.D. ibid. '96) and Wilbur Cortez Abbott (Wabash '92, A.M. Yale '09). Smith remained only one year. Since 1903 he has been a professor of American history in Williams College. Among his various writings perhaps the most generally known is his Life and Letters of James Abram Garfield (1925). Abbott, who remained for two years, was one of the few young Americans who studied history at Oxford before the days of the Rhodes scholars. After teaching successively at Dartmouth, Kansas, and Yale, he was called to Harvard in 1920. Although his specialty is the Cromwellian and Restoration period, he has written, among other things, a general work on the Expansion of Europe (1917) and two brilliant series of biographical sketches, Conflicts with Oblivion (1924) and Adventures in Reputation (1935).

When Arthur Lyon Cross (Harvard '95, Ph.D. ibid. '99) was called to the University in 1899 he was asked to teach the course in ancient history, which still was handed to the latest comer; but his main work was in English history — a general course primarily for sophomores and an advanced course which later developed into a seminar. The large introductory course was in the field of medieval history, and was given by Dow, who also conducted an advanced course and a seminar in the same field. Hudson devoted himself to modern European history and to the Near and Far East. McLaughlin was in charge of a separate Department of American History.

English history was assigned to a room with a gallery in the north wing of University Hall. There the floor was often littered with old newspapers to tempt an occasional idler to whom note-taking proved too great a strain. Outside the department Alfred Henry Lloyd gave a course in political theory; Roman Law was offered by the Department of Latin and in the Law School. In 1900-1901 John Archibald Fairlie (Harvard '95, Ph.D. Columbia '98) was called as Assistant Professor to teach political science. Political science was taught in the Department of History until the advent of Jesse Siddall Reeves in 1910, who in the next thirty years built up the present flourishing organization (see Part IV: Department of Political Science).

As attendance in the introductory courses in medieval and American history grew and other courses were developed, additional instructors were necessary. The greater number of them remained for a year or for two or three years at most until the depression in 1929, after which it was difficult to find places for young men. It was the policy after they had gained some experience to pass them on to institutions where there was a clear field ahead. Among those who thus went on to win distinction elsewhere were Chauncey S. Boucher, chancellor of the University of Nebraska, Edward S. Corwin, McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton, Professors Paul V. B. Jones and F. G. Randall, of the University of Illinois, and Wynand Wichers, president of Hope College.

Page  618Meanwhile, there have been various changes in the more permanent staff — losses, replacements, and additions. In 1906 Frederic Logan Paxson (Pennsylvania '98, Ph.D. ibid. '03) was called as Assistant Professor of American History; he was promoted to a junior professorship the following year. In 1910 he accepted a professorship at the University of Wisconsin. There he remained till 1932, when he went to the University of California as Margaret Byron Professor. He is one of the better-known members of the profession and has written various works of general interest, including The History of the American Frontier, which was awarded the Pulitzer prize in 1924. He was president of the Mississippi Valley Historical Society in 1917 and was a member of the council of the American Historical Association 1921-25.

In 1908 Hudson's freshman course in general English history was introduced as an alternative to the European history course formerly prerequisite to all other work in the department. Hudson also taught the basic sophomore course in English history from 1909 until it was merged with the freshman course in 1911.

In the autumn of 1909 William Alley Frayer (Cornell '03) was called to substitute for Cross, who was invited to Harvard as a visiting lecturer for the second semester. Frayer proved an effective teacher and a popular lecturer throughout the state and even beyond. He was put in charge of the introductory year course in European history in 1911-12, when its content was changed from the history of the Middle Ages and Renaissance to that of modern Europe. In 1929, five years after being advanced to a full professorship, he went with the Bureau of University Travel. He subsequently became the executive secretary of the Cranbrook School.

The introductory English history was placed under Edward Raymond Turner (St. John's '05, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins '10), who came from Bryn Mawr in 1911. Turner also proved to be a clear and forceful lecturer and a prolific writer as well, of a painstaking and literal type. His chief work is an exhaustive History of the Privy Council in four volumes. In 1924 he accepted a call to Yale, but the following year went to Johns Hopkins on the retirement of Professor John M. Vincent. He died December 31, 1929, at the age of forty-eight.

Another newcomer in the year 1911-12 was Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (Georgia '97, Ph.D. Columbia '02). Already he was known as a leading authority in the field of Southern history, particularly with reference to slavery and plantation management — a reputation which he amply confirmed by his subsequent publications. In 1929 he was called to Yale, where he died January 21, 1934, at the age of fifty-seven. In addition to various biographies and special studies, he published American Negro Slavery (1918) and Life and Labor in the Old South (1929), his ripest and most significant productions. During 1918-19 he was in military service, having the rank of captain in the Military Intelligence Division. He was a member of the council of the American Historical Association.

Relieved of his classes in the general history of England, Cross was able to develop a course known as the Constitutional and Legal History of England, to turn his "studies" course into a seminar on the Tudor and Stuart periods, and subsequently (1919) to offer a course on the British Empire.*

Legal History and similar courses were designed mainly for "prelaw" students. Before 1897 a combined curriculum in letters and law had been perfected. By Page  619taking a special amount of required and recommended work and by attaining sufficiently high grades, a student could enter the Department of Law at the end of his third year, and, after a year of satisfactory work there, secure his bachelor of arts degree and his degree of bachelor of laws two years thereafter, thus shortening the requisite period for obtaining the two degrees. Among the required subjects were American constitutional history and subsequently English constitutional history.

With the coming of Arthur Edward Romilly Boak (A.M. Queen's University [Kingston, Ont.] '07, Ph.D. Harvard '14) in 1914 the department for the first time had a specialist in the field of ancient history, and the basic course in that field was opened to freshmen, as a third option for the introductory year in history. Boak's scholarly production and administrative capacity were recognized by rapid promotion. He was made a full professor in 1920 and, on the death of Van Tyne in 1930, was appointed Chairman of the Department of History. William Lytle Schurz (California '11, Ph.D. ibid. '15) came to the University in 1915 and was appointed to an assistant professorship the following year. In 1916-17 Schurz introduced the first course in Latin-American history, and a course was offered by Boak in military history. In 1918 Van Tyne, Turner, and Frayer offered a course on the issues of the war, and Cross gave a course in the summer for army mechanics. Various members of the department lectured to training camps and other groups and contributed to war literature.

After the departure of Schurz in 1920, Latin-American history was omitted for a year, but it was resumed in 1921 on the arrival of Arthur Scott Aiton (California '16, Ph.D. ibid. '23), who rose by successive steps to be a professor in 1929, and through his scholarship and teaching ability has developed Hispanic-American history to the point where it occupies an important place in the curriculum. In 1924 the department was greatly strengthened in the field of early modern European history by the coming of Albert Hyma ('15, Ph.D. '22), who achieved a European reputation by his studies on the early Christian Renaissance (1924) and Erasmus and the Humanists (1930). In 1925 another promising branch was started when Nicholas S. Kaltchas, a Greek, well equipped in languages, including Turkish, was appointed to give work on the Near East. Unfortunately, his health failed and after a leave of absence he was obliged to resign. In 1927-28 Esson McDowell Gale ('07, A.M. '08, Litt.Ph.D. Leiden '31) was a visiting lecturer in Chinese history. In 1932 John William Stanton (Missouri '29, Ph.D. California '32) was brought in, and, well versed in Russian, Chinese, and Japanese, developed courses until 1940 in the Near and Far East.

In 1927-28 the staff had reached a point where there were six professors, one associate professor, three assistant professors, and seven instructors. The associate professor was Preston William Slosson (Columbia '12, Ph.D. ibid. '16), who came as an instructor and was appointed to a full professorship in 1937. He is known as a brilliant and lucid lecturer on contemporary problems and for his books on recent European history. Arthur Louis Dunham (Harvard '14, Ph.D. ibid. '23), who came in 1924, is a specialist in economic history; as his chief work thus far he produced in 1930 a scholarly monograph, The Anglo-French Treaty of Commerce of 1860. He was made an associate professor in 1932. Among the new members attached to the department was Howard Meredith Ehrmann (Yale '21, Ph.D. ibid. '27), who became an associate professor in 1937-38. His studies on the war issues Page  620have made his name known abroad as well as at home. The years 1930 and 1931 were significant for many changes. Claude Halstead Van Tyne ('96, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '00), appointed Assistant Professor in 1903, head of the Department of American History in 1906, and head of the Department of History in 1911, died March 21, 1930. A stimulating teacher, a scholar at once careful and imaginative, a brilliant writer, and a vivid and masterful personality, he was a man of mark in the historical field. Though not afraid to oppose even with sarcasm those of his colleagues who held views contrary to his own, he was sympathetic with young men. His standards, nevertheless, were exacting, and he aimed, with the resources available, to build up a really strong department. He was known in France and in England; he gave the Harvard Foundation lectures in the former (1913-14) and the Sir George Watson lectures in the latter (1927). The Watson lectures were embodied in his suggestive England and America. Four years previously he had been invited to India to study the workings of the Act of 1919, and published his impressions in India in Ferment (1923). Of a long line of works, his two volumes on the Causes of the War of American Independence contain the culmination of his scholarship. The second volume, 1929, received the Henry Russel award of the University of Michigan and the Pulitzer prize posthumously. He had been an editor of the American Historical Review, a corresponding member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Phillips in the meantime (1929) had resigned. This left two major positions to fill. After a temporary appointment of a visiting lecturer, Dwight Lowell Dumond (Baldwin-Wallace '20, Ph.D. Michigan '29) came to take Phillips' work. He has shown his productivity by publishing a book on The Secession Movement (1931) and Roosevelt to Roosevelt (1937), and by editing two substantial collections since his arrival. In 1939 he was promoted to a full professorship. In 1930 Verner Winslow Crane ('11, Ph.D. Pennsylvania '15), a former student and onetime instructor in the department (1916-20) but at the time teaching at Brown University, replaced Van Tyne. Crane has been an editor of the American Historical Review and is known for his Southern Frontier, 1670-1732 (1928) and his studies on Benjamin Franklin. Under him a more general course in American history was introduced and the constitutional course was placed in the capable hands of Lewis George Vander Velde ('13, Ph.D. Harvard '31), author of The Presbyterian Churches and the Federal Union, 1861-1869 (1932). He came as Instructor in 1929, and was promoted to a full professorship in 1940. Since 1935 he has been devoting a portion of his time to assembling original materials relating to the history of the University and of the state and in 1938 was appointed Director of the Michigan Historical Collections.

Perhaps the most significant change in 1930-31 was the substitution of an introductory course known as History of Western Civilization — covering the period from ancient times to the present — in place of the three introductory courses which had been given for nearly twenty years. Although opinion in the department was somewhat divided as to the advisability of the change, the new course was started forthwith. It is now given in four parallel lecture groups, and its success has fully justified the experiment. Boak turned his introductory course, Ancient History, into one for upperclassmen, and the work in modern European history was superseded by new special courses given by various Page  621members of the department. For example, Benjamin Webb Wheeler (California '15, A.M. Harvard '16), who had been Instructor since 1924, was enabled to develop a course in the history of Prussia. Also, the general course in English history was again turned into a course primarily for sophomores and was entrusted to Seaman Morley Scott (British Columbia '21, Ph.D. Michigan '34); he, too, had been teaching in the introductory course since 1924. Wheeler and Scott became assistant professors in 1935.

The members of the faculty of the Department of History in 1940 were as follows: Professors Boak, Aiton, Crane, Hyma, Slosson, Dumond, and Vander Velde; Associate Professors Dunham and Ehrmann; Assistant Professors Scott, Wheeler, Long, and Throop; and Instructors Reichenbach and Stanton, besides five teaching fellows. There were in 1939-40 twenty-two semester courses primarily for undergraduates and twenty-one semesters of work for advanced and graduate students. Included in the graduate work were ten courses continuing throughout the year (two proseminars, a studies course, and seven seminars), as well as one-half of another year seminar, a semester course in historiography, noncredit reading courses, and directed research for doctoral candidates.

Though the William L. Clements Library of American History is described at more length in a separate article (see Part VIII: Clements Library), the Department of History must express its deep obligations to that library and to its efficient and accommodating director, Randolph Greenfield Adams. Housed in a magnificent Renaissance building, it was donated to the University and formally opened in 1923, and with the John Carter Brown, Lennox, and Huntington, ranks as one of the four best existing collections of Americana. During the last ten years previous to his death in 1934, Regent Clements devoted himself to accumulating a remarkable collection of manuscripts supplementing the Shelburne, Brougham, Croker, and other papers. It includes the Greene, Clinton, Germaine, and Gage papers; all of these are now in the Library.

The publications of members of the history staff, past and present, have been not inconsiderable, and recognition and opportunities for service have come to not a few. Three have received Pulitzer prizes, one the Toppan prize at Harvard, and one the Little, Brown and Company's prize. One has received the Henry Russel award, and one the junior award from the same fund. Two have lectured in foundations in England, one in France, and one in Spain. Four are or have been corresponding members of the Massachusetts Historical Society. One has been president of the American Historical Association, five have been members of the council, four have been on the board of editors of the American Historical Review — of whom one was managing editor — one on the board of the Journal of Modern History, and one on the board of editors of the Southern History Journal. Nearer home, at least three have been presidents of the University of Michigan Research Club; one has been president of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, and three have been presidents of the Michigan Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. Moreover, in a recent survey by the American Council of Education, the University of Michigan Department of History has been rated as one among eight starred for distinction in directing research.