The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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PART II

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The President's House

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Organization

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THE UNIVERSITY SENATE AND THE SENATE COUNCIL

WHEN President Tappan appeared for the first time in a Regents' meeting, on December 21, 1852, two departments of the University were in operation, the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, in early days referred to as the "Academical Department," and the Department of Medicine and Surgery, often called the "Medical Department." After Tappan had been here three years a general revision of the code of rules and regulations governing the "academical" faculty was undertaken, with a view to publication. In the completed code, adopted by the Regents in June, 1855, there is no mention of the University Senate. The date of its organization is uncertain. However, there is a record of a joint meeting of the faculties and the Regents on March 26, 1857 (MS, "Faculty Records," 1846-58, pp. 345-47). Also we know that the entire faculty of the University, in December, 1857, joined in a memorial to the Regents on the moral conduct of the students and the means employed to impress upon them sound moral and religious principles. At the same time a similarly signed memorial was directed to the mayor and common council of Ann Arbor, petitioning for a stricter enforcement of the laws of the town.

In March, 1859, the Regents adopted another revision of the rules and regulations. This document provided that, in order "to represent the University in general and as one institution, the professors of the several Faculties shall constitute a University Senate." The bylaws further stipulated that general parliamentary rules, as modified by rules and regulations of the Board of Regents, were to be observed in conducting the business of the University Senate. The Senate was to designate the time of daily prayers, which all the "academical" students were required to attend. The Senate was composed of the professors of all the faculties, but provision was made for a department of study to be represented by an assistant professor when there was no man of full rank. The president of the University served as president of the Senate, and a secretary was chosen from its own members. A majority of the Senate constituted a quorum, but no action of the Senate bound a faculty unless one of its members was present. The regular meetings were held on the first Monday of each month, and provision was made for special meetings. The Senate was charged with the responsibility of communicating its views to the Board of Regents, not only upon questions pertaining to the University, but also upon questions concerning the progress of education, science, and literature throughout the state.

It is possible that the University Senate had been organized for some time before the formulation of the 1859 code and that the Senate procedures as outlined therein were well established. If so, at least this was the first occasion upon which the Senate's existence and powers were formally recognized by the Regents.

On June 28, 1859, the Regents referred to the general faculties for consideration the code of rules and regulations which had been presented by the committee on that subject and requested that the faculties suggest to the Board such modifications as they might deem expedient. Two days later the Board ordered that an exception to the rule be made in the Page  232case of two assistant professors, by which action they were entitled to vote in the Senate meetings. The Board also directed that "it shall be the duty of instructors to attend upon the meetings of the appropriate Faculties and also of the University Senate, where they shall be entitled to sit but not to vote as members of the same." This is the first definite reference to the Senate in the Regents' Proceedings (1837-64, p. 855).

Soon after the change of administration in 1863 the Senate passed resolutions expressing its sense of duty to promote University welfare and pledging its support during that trying period. It also voiced full confidence in the character and ability of President Haven and at the same time expressed personal regard for Dr. Tappan and cordial wishes for his future happiness and usefulness.

The existence of an executive committee of the Senate early in the Haven administration is known from the record of an appointment by the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts on December 5, 1864, when Professor Lucius D. Chapin was designated to serve on such a committee (MS, "Faculty Records," 1864-78, p. 10). The diary of Professor Alexander Winchell reveals that three days earlier the Senate had organized "a system of Literary and Social exercises to embrace all adult members of the Professors' families and such other persons of literary or scientific eminence as the Senate may invite" (Winchell, MS, "Diary," 1864-66, pp. 117-18). A similar proposal had been made by Professors Brünnow and Frieze in 1856 (MS, "Faculty Records," 1846-58, pp. 332-33).

The first "conversazione" of the University Senate was held at the home of President Haven on January 13, 1865, at which time he read an essay entitled "Origin of Public Opinion." Winchell records in his diary that at the Senate social on January 26, 1866, he presented a paper on "Woman"; the essay occupies sixty-six pages in his series of manuscript volumes of nonacademic speeches entitled "Popular" (I: 39-104). He records also that he wrote it in three days, that it took him one and three-eighths hours to present it, and that the discussion lasted until the meeting broke up. In this exposition he observed that by many peoples woman is considered inferior to man, but he maintained the equivalence of the sexes physically and mentally. He advocated that woman should have equal voice with man in affairs of state, the right to vote and to hold public office, equal proprietary rights, and equal educational privileges in all departments of the University. The Ann Arbor newspaper which reported the program related that the conversation which followed this address "was one of pleasantry and gallantry with no distinct opinions."

The Senate, or its executive committee, continued to hold business sessions. There is record of a meeting on January 14, 1864 — with fourteen members present, including President Haven — in which the Senate considered a protest implying interference by the former Board of Regents in the interior management of the University and improper meddling with the administration of University officers. The Senate passed a resolution to the effect that these accusations were false, that the Board had treated the faculty with consideration, and that internal management had not been interfered with; and the matter was referred to the superintendent of public instruction. Thomas M. Cooley was secretary of the Senate at the time.

In 1865 the Regents authorized Andrew Ten Brook, Librarian, to meet with the University Senate as an honorary member ex officio. In 1869 the librarian was constituted a regular member. It was in this same year that the Senate Page  233was called upon to make a report on the possible establishment of a gymnasium and to suggest the relationship of such an institution to the course of study. Four months later, in June, 1870, a committee presented a report advocating the building of an adequate gymnasium and the establishment of a department of hygiene and physical culture, to be in the charge of a man of full academic rank. The Senate did not press for any immediate action, because of the limitations of the University funds.

The social and literary meetings were held for many years. Acting President Frieze thought them conducive of unity and harmony, and in a letter to James B. Angell wrote:

I did not think to speak with you, among other things, of this characteristic institution of ours, the Senate. We meet about once a fortnight during the session of the three departments — for reading literary and scientific papers, one at each meeting, and then for an hour or two of social enjoyment. The meetings are held "round" at the houses of Professors. Result good every way.


(Vermont to Michigan, p. 119.)

The University Senate took an active interest in inviting James Burrill Angell to the presidency of the University. At the special meeting held on September 25, 1869, the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted:

Whereas, We understand that the Regents of the Michigan University have tendered to Dr. James B. Angell the Presidency of the University,

Resolved, That we heartily concur in the appointment, and desire to express to Dr. Angell our confidence in his fitness for the position, our earnest wish that he may be induced to accept it, and an assurance of our faithful co-operation in the discharge of the duties which would be incumbent upon him in the management of the institution.

  • H. S. Frieze, Presid't of the Senate
  • C. K. Adams, Secy. of the Senate

Very little is known of the activity of the University Senate during the first ten years of President Angell's administration. Only one communication of importance to the Board of Regents is recorded during this period. It expresses the opinion that it is not desirable to restrict the power of conferring honorary degrees by the Board, and is signed by H. B. Hutchins.

William H. Pettee, Professor of Mineralogy, Economic Geology, and Mining Engineering, was elected secretary in October, 1881. He recorded on March 15, 1882: "The book containing the earlier records of the University Senate, from the date of its organization down to about the year 1879, has unfortunately been lost or mislaid; and all efforts to recover it have so far been unsuccessful." He began his records by copying from the minutes of November, 1880, and of August 2 and 5 and September 5, 1881, taken by Charles Kendall Adams, Secretary pro tem. The records of the University Senate from 1882 to the present are complete.

During President Angell's administration, the University Senate gave attention to many invitations to participate in the celebration of the anniversaries of other universities. Among them were the University of Bologna, which was celebrating its eight-hundredth anniversary, Harvard University, the University of Halle, and Columbia University, in addition to invitations for official delegates at Edinburgh, at Glasgow, at Winchester, at Moscow, and at the dedication of the Yerkes Observatory on Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. Consideration was also given to a possible exhibit at the New Orleans World's Fair, and plans were formulated for the semicentennial of the University of Michigan in 1887. When President Angell had completed twenty-five years of service, the Senate decided that the occasion deserved recognition and raised Page  234$1,000 to finance the functions of that occasion.

Early in the Angell administration it was customary for the Senate to make a public demonstration of its concern at the death of a member or former member of the staff. Occasionally, when the death occurred outside Ann Arbor, the entire University Senate or one of its committees went to the railroad station, met the relatives who brought the body, and became a part of the cortege to the cemetery. The body of James C. Watson, famous former member of the faculty who died in 1880, lay in state in University Hall until the funeral. The hall was draped in mourning, and the arrangements for the funeral were made by a Senate committee. At the death of Elisha Jones in 1888 the whole Senate attended the funeral. Special sessions were called, on occasion, at which memorials to the deceased were read, but in later years these memorials were presented at meetings called for other purposes. In all, thirty-one faculty members and former governors were memorialized. After the death of Mrs. Angell the Senate convened to express its sympathy and condolences to the President and to record high appreciation of her life and influence in the University community.

During these same years the Senate was concerned with the calendar of the University. The several departments were operating on academic years of different lengths. Gradually these were brought into uniformity. The first use of standard time occurred December 3, 1883, but later the University returned to sun time. This matter was before the Senate for about ten years, and finally standard time was adopted in 1902.

It was during this administration that athletics, in particular intercollegiate athletics, grew in importance in University life. The Senate was continually giving consideration to the supervision of student activities in this direction. Finally a board in control of athletics was organized and its annual reports were required to be read before the Senate. At the same time, to supervise the other student activities, a committee on nonathletic organizations came into existence.

As bicycles became more and more popular they created such a problem that they were considered a menace to the University campus. Regulations were adopted requiring that they travel at no greater speed than seven miles an hour and that they be equipped with bells and lanterns.

Even in the early stages of the Michigan Union that organization was recognized as so important that its financial secretary was elected by the University Senate. Henry M. Bates first served in this capacity. During the same period the Senate was concerned with the question of academic dress at official occasions. It was not until December, 1904, that definite action was taken with respect to this matter. The need for uniformity in admission requirements and in the discipline of students was continually a matter of discussion in the Senate. The development of a gymnasium and the establishment of an interval of five minutes between classes came about as a result of Senate action.

As the University grew, the Senate became so large that an executive committee, called the Senate Council, was organized in June, 1906. This group was composed of the president, the deans, one member each from the professional faculties, selected by them, and two from the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, similarly chosen. Its purpose was to develop the influence of the Senate in University affairs.

One of the first topics that came before the University Senate after Harry B. Page  235Hutchins became President was the problem of campus sanitation, that is, the physical condition and appearance of the campus, protection against contagious diseases, and examination of the water system of Ann Arbor for the protection of the health of the University community. The inadequacy of the temporary quarters of the Michigan Union received the attention of the Senate, which passed resolutions in favor of a new building, with requests for alumni assistance in its erection (see Parts VIII and IX: The Michigan Union). The dedication of Hill Auditorium was planned by the Senate. The scale of University salaries, both in the academic year and in the summer session, received repeated consideration. Student affairs that were frequently discussed included the athletic situation, and arguments were presented relative to the return to the Western Conference. The discipline of students was placed under a standing committee, and the name of the committee on nonathletic organizations was changed to the committee on student affairs. The continuance or discontinuance of the J-Hop was repeatedly discussed.

The problems of foreign students were placed under a committee of advisers, and the Regents were petitioned to create an office of assistant to the president in relation to student activities. The faculty was much concerned with the question of academic dress and acquiesced in its use for Commencement and for a few special events, but objected to its use on numerous other occasions. In 1912, azure blue and maize were readopted from an original act of 1867 as the official colors of the University.

Again, in Hutchins' administration, the Senate passed resolutions in favor of a freer discussion of University problems in that body, voted for four regular meetings with the agenda announced forty-eight hours in advance, and provided for annual reports of all standing committees. At the initiative of Fred L. Keeler, Superintendent of Public Instruction, the University joined in a memorial service to President Angell soon after his death. The public and private schools generally over the state were encouraged to participate in similar meetings.

President Hutchins' leadership covers the period of the World War. It was during that time that military training was developed on the campus. The University Senate was in favor of making it compulsory, but the Regents authorized voluntary training. Prohibition in wartime was favored by the Senate, and resolutions expressing this sentiment were forwarded to President Wilson and to the members of Congress from Michigan. The public expression of members of the faculty in the aftermath of the war was a matter of great concern to the Senate. In the ten years of President Hutchins' administration there were read before the University Senate thirteen memorials to members of the faculty who had died. For this purpose no special meetings were called, the committees reporting either before or after the transaction of business.

During President Burton's administration the University Senate undertook the reorganization of the Executive Board of the Graduate School. It also initiated the committee on publications for the official announcements of the University. The committee on student affairs was reorganized, with the dean of students as chairman and the dean of women as a member ex officio. The purpose and function of the extension lectures received attention, and the University committee on discipline was organized to function by its present methods, though it was at that time a separate entity. The Senate heard memorials Page  236to eleven former members of the faculty read. Upon the initiative of Professor Kelsey, the Senate gave consideration to the revival of daily chapel exercises and midweek religious services. The Honors Convocation was organized in this period. At a number of meetings the question of the functions of the Senate received attention. One proposal was that debates on educational problems be held before the Senate. Favor was expressed toward the development of a naval-training unit. It was during Burton's administration that a definite formulation of academic requirements for appointment and promotion of the faculty was accomplished.

In December, 1922, the membership was authorized by the Regents as follows: the University Senate should consist of the president of the University as ex officio chairman, all the teaching force above the rank of instructor, and other administrative officers whose membership the Regents from time to time might authorize. The Board defined the functions of the Senate as follows (Bylaws, 1922, p. 20):

  • a) The University Senate is authorized and expected to originate and consider measures for the maintenance of a liberal and comprehensive policy of education; for the maximum utilization of the intellectual resources of the University; for the government, guidance, and discipline of the student body and the oversight of its activities; and, generally, to consider all subjects that relate to the usefulness, leadership, and effectiveness of the University, and to the co-ordination of the functions of its several schools and colleges; and to make recommendations thereon to the Regents.
  • b) It may require gymnasium work of the students, under conditions approved by the Board of Regents.

During the short term of Acting President Lloyd, the University Senate had two meetings, both of which were devoted to the reading of memorials to members of the faculty, including Marion LeRoy Burton. It also received from the University of Minnesota and Smith College statements of appreciation of the late President Burton, who had been their former president.

During the four years of President Little's administration the Senate met twenty times. It provided the manner of selection of the recipient of the Henry Russel Award, which had been established by the Regents for conspicuous service to the University by a member of the faculty of lower than professorial rank. The Senate also concerned itself with the congestion which had developed in parking automobiles on the campus and authorized a committee to formulate regulations for this matter. There was a reorganization of the committee on student affairs, and the calendar was revised. The librarian was given the status of a dean. Thirteen memorials were presented.

A matter of great concern in the early months of President Little's regime was the place of physical education in the University and the University's responsibility in such matters. A study was made by a special committee on University athletics, under the leadership of Dean Edmund E. Day, this committee having been appointed by Acting President Lloyd. The study was carried on over a number of months. The report advocated additional requirements of physical education in the curricula of the University, the erection of a stadium for intercollegiate football and of other structures for intramural sports for both men and women, and the recasting of the governing board dealing with these matters.

In an attempt to bring about a freer discussion of University problems, the Senate Council was reorganized to include in its membership, besides the president, deans, and the director of the Extension Division, nineteen members Page  237chosen by the faculties of the several schools and colleges. These elected representatives constituted a committee of the Senate on University affairs, charged with the responsibility of formulating recommendations to the president and the Board of Regents or to the president and the University Senate. During the two years of its existence a wide range of topics received consideration.

To the University Senate, President Little brought a proposal for the organization of a new unit to be known as the University College. This was presented through a large committee on undergraduate studies, which worked for approximately two years on the subject.

President Ruthven presided for the first time at the meeting of the University Senate on November 11, 1929. Shortly, the Senate combined the committee on vocational counsel and placement and the Teachers' Placement Bureau to form the University Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information. Provision was made for University committees on accredited schools, on the lectures of the Oratorical Association, and on theater policy and practice. On April 10, 1930, a special meeting of the Senate was called to receive the memorials to Robert M. Wenley, Charles H. Cooley, Ralph H. Curtiss, and Judge Victor H. Lane. A few months later the Senate decided that memorials in the future were to be presented to the faculty with which the deceased member had been associated.

On May 11, 1931, the Senate Council presented a plan for a new organization, the University Council, to be composed of administrative officers appointed by the president and of representatives selected by the several faculties. The Senate delegated its functions to the new council but retained the right of review. The Senate Council and the Senate committee on University affairs were abolished. A statement of the new council's activities is placed in a separate article (see Part II: The University Council).

At the meetings of December 14, 1936, and January 25, 1937, the Senate considered the possibility of a more adequate expression of faculty opinion in the affairs of the University. It voted that there should be held each year at least two meetings of the Senate and advised that a study be made of the operations of the University Council. It provided for the election by the Senate of an advisory committee on University affairs. This committee consults with the president from time to time and holds membership in the University Council.

The first secretary of the Senate, so far as is known from the records, was Thomas M. Cooley, who signed a document on January 14, 1864, in the aftermath of the Tappan crisis (Ten Brook, p. 249). Charles Kendall Adams was serving in this capacity on September 25, 1869, when the Senate endorsed the invitation to the presidency extended to James B. Angell (Vermont to Michigan, p. 119). Harry B. Hutchins was secretary later, as indicated by a communication to the Regents, dated June 23, 1874, concerning the policy of granting honorary degrees. Charles K. Adams was acting pro tem in the summer and fall of 1881, when memorials were presented to James Craig Watson, Governor J. J. Bagley, Erastus O. Haven, and George P. Williams. The first election of a secretary of which there is record is that of William H. Pettee on October 10, 1881. He served until his death, May 26, 1904. He was succeeded by John O. Reed, whose tenure of office was three and one-half years, and then by Fred N. Scott for one year. Arthur G. Hall was secretary for six years, and Joseph L. Markley and John W. Bradshaw for eight years each. The present secretary, Louis A. Hopkins, was elected May 12, 1930.

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Constitutional Provisions, Laws and By-Laws of the University of Michigan …, 1864. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1864.
Constitutional Provisions, Laws and By-Laws of the University of Michigan …, 1883. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1883.
From Vermont to Michigan; Correspondence of James Burrill Angell: 1869-1871. Ed. by Wilfred B. Shaw. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1936. (Vermont to Michigan.)
General Rules and Regulations, and By-Laws of the University of Michigan …, 1859. Detroit: Univ. Mich., 1859. (Bylaws, 1859.)
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Laws, Ordinances, By-Laws and Regulations …, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1861.
MS, "Minutes of the Senate Council," 1906-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1881-1940. Univ. Mich.
Organization and Aims of the University of Michigan as Reflected in Its By-Laws …, 1922. Comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923. Pp. i-xix, 1-94. (Bylaws, 1922.)
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Dept. of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," Univ. Mich., 1846-78. ("Faculty Records.")
Ten Brook, Andrew. American State Universities: Their Origin and Progress. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke and Co., 1875.
University of Michigan Council and Senate Records, 1929-1932. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1932.
University of Michigan Council and Senate Records, 1932-1934. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1935.
University of Michigan Council and Senate Records, 1934-1936. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1936.
University of Michigan: Its Origin, Growth, and Principles of Government. Comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923. Pp. 1-50.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)
Winchell, Alexander. MS, "Diary," 1864-66. In Alexander Winchell Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, "Popular [Essays]." Vol. I. In Alexander Winchell Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.

THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL

THE University Council was created by the University Senate on May 11, 1931, and was approved by the Regents on May 29. Those constituting the initial membership were the president of the University, ex officio, twenty-two ex officio members selected by him, and thirty-four representatives elected by the several faculties.

In June, 1940, the ex officio membership, which has varied in number from time to time, consisted of the president of the University, the assistant to the president, the vice-presidents, the deans, the directors of several units and divisions (the College of Pharmacy, the Department of Postgraduate Medicine, the Division of Hygiene and Public Health, the Summer Session, the University Extension Service, the University Hospital, and the University Museums), the president of the School of Music, the librarian of the University, and the registrar.

The numbers of representatives of the several schools and colleges are as follows: College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, fourteen members; College of Engineering, four; College of Architecture and Design, two; Medical School, three; Law School, two; School of Dentistry, two; School of Education, three; College of Pharmacy, one; School of Business Administration, one; School of Page  239Forestry and Conservation, one; and School of Music, one.

Also on the University Council are the members of the Senate advisory committee on University affairs, which is composed of twelve persons elected by the University Senate and chosen for staggered terms without regard to their membership in the University Council.

The ex officio members are appointed by the president for indefinite terms. The faculties are at liberty to name their representatives in such manner and for such terms of office as they may severally determine.

To the University Council were transferred the powers of the University Senate, though the latter body retains the right of review over the legislative actions of the University Council.

The University Council holds eight regular meetings each year, the second Monday of the months from October to May, inclusive, and special meetings may be called as occasion requires. The majority of its members constitutes a quorum. The Council is concerned with academic policies which affect the University as a whole, or which concern two or more schools or colleges. All University administrative boards and committees within its jurisdiction are required to report annually.

The Council has five standing committees, which cover the fields, respectively, of (a) program and policy, (b) educational policies, (c) student relations, (d) public relations, and (e) plant and equipment.

The committee on program and policy is composed of the president of the University, the vice-chairman of the Council, the secretary, and the chairmen of the four other standing committees. Each of these committees has seven members appointed by the president. The committee on program and policy considers those matters which may be referred to it by the president or by other standing committees, and is charged with the preparation of the program for the meetings of the Council. The other four standing committees have within their general jurisdiction the University administrative and advisory boards and committees.

During the nine years since its organization, the University Council has abolished a number of University committees which had become inactive, or whose functions more appropriately belonged to other committees. Also it has created or recommended to the Regents the organization of many new administrative and advisory groups. Among them are the committee on honorary degrees, the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, with its subcommittees on relations with secondary schools and on relations with institutions of higher education, an advisory committee on the Department of Military Science and Tactics, one dealing with problems of foreign students, and another administering the program of the Orientation Period.

The methods of procedure in the administration of student affairs received the attention of the Council in a series of meetings, and a definite organization chart was adopted. A University committee on student conduct was set up, with the dean of students as chairman, and within this body, a subcommittee on discipline. The administrative control of broadcasting was put under the University Extension Service. A new committee on University lectures was organized to take over the functions of the Oratorical Association. The personnel of the Board in Control of Student Publications received attention and its functions were outlined, and the duties of the committee on theater policy and practice were redefined. Under the direction of the Council, an experimental advisory group was concerned with the administration Page  240of the General Library resulted in the appointment of a permanent council to advise with the University librarian.

Many meetings were devoted to the consideration of the program of physical education. These discussions resulted in a change of name — the Board in Control of Athletics to the Board in Control of Physical Education — and definite regulations were adopted with respect to the amount and place of physical education in the curricula of the University. Procedure was determined for proposals for material changes and additions in the offerings of departments, particularly departmental changes directly affecting the programs of more than one department. The Council encouraged the several schools and colleges to establish nonfinancial honors for students with the use of the term "scholar" preceded by the name of some distinguished deceased professor. The program of Commencement exercises, the University calendar, and the regulations for academic dress were definitely formulated. The Council recognized a need for the restatement of the standards for promotion of the faculty of the University from one grade to another, and definitely stated the general qualifications represented by each grade.

The Council also formulated the limitations under which the faculty could engage in outside employment. It secured the compilation of all the degrees granted by the University for record in its proceedings and in the minutes of the Regents. It suggested the privileges which men on the faculty should enjoy upon retirement due to age. The development of the Mall and the location of the new buildings, the Burton Memorial Tower and the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, were considered by the University Council before construction began. Also, the problems arising from a proposal to extend the University Library have greatly concerned the Council.

In addition to these special matters, the reports of the administrative and advisory boards and committees have regularly constituted a part of the program. The Council elects the Senate representatives on the Board of Directors of the Michigan Union, and receives for permanent record the memorials to deceased members of the Senate.

Members of the faculty are encouraged to present to the Council their suggestions for the betterment of the University. The usual procedure is to consider the communications at regular meetings of the University Council, and then, in the light of the discussion, refer each communication to the standing committee to which the subject matter seems appropriate. The standing committee then proceeds to a detailed consideration, calling into its deliberations members of the faculty or other officers of the University who may be interested or concerned. After these conferences, the standing committee reports its findings to the University Council, which either takes final action or, should the topic concern the Regents, forwards the report to the Board for consideration, along with the Council's recommendations.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

MS, "Minutes of the University Council," 1931-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1931-40. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1930-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1929-40.
University Regulations Concerning Student Affairs, Conduct, and Discipline, 1937 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 39, No. 39). Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1937. 36 pp.
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THE OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR

THE oldest existing record of the kind of work now done in the Registrar's Office is contained in the first catalogue of the University, which was published by the faculty of four men in 1843. In this interesting twelve-page booklet the students were listed by class, and a small numerical summary, the beginning of an uninterrupted series of enrollment tables, was also included.

The only faculty during the first nine years of instruction in Ann Arbor, 1841-50, was that of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the earliest official who had the duties of a registrar was the secretary of the faculty. It was in the spring of 1846, when the faculty authorized a permanent written record of its proceedings, that this office was created, and it was filled by the election of a different person every year, as was the position of president of the faculty. These two were the only officials in the University before the formation of the Medical School, with faculty officers of its own, in 1850. None of these were officials of the central University administration, as the term is now understood; they were under the authority of their respective faculties, and until the inauguration of President Henry Philip Tappan in 1852, the faculties were directly responsible to the Board of Regents.

The present registrarship, although a part of the central administration, evolved directly from the faculty secretaryship of the Department (now College) of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In the years 1863-72 that faculty elected both a secretary and a registrar, and the two offices were not held by any man simultaneously. With this exception, the officer known as secretary of the faculty until 1888 performed ex officio the services of a registrar. Likewise, from 1888 until 1925, the officer called the registrar sent out notices of faculty meetings and kept the faculty minutes.

Subject to the approval of the Regents, the faculty of the 1840's determined, or at least altered, the requirements for entrance and graduation. Presumably, such of its rules as were not expressly disapproved by the Regents were put into effect.

The rudimentary nature of the education offered by secondary schools made the problem of admissions difficult (see Part I: Branches). It had been expected that the students who completed the work of the University's branch schools could make the transition into the University without special examination. But the Regents thought it wise to establish a special "preparatory school" in Ann Arbor at the time when they opened the University in September, 1841, so that if any students unprepared for even the freshman class should present themselves (supposedly from schools in other localities), they could make up their deficiencies (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 208, 212). It is revealed by a faculty discussion in May, 1846, that up to that time the University had admitted students from its branches without examination, but that the quality of their preparation had not pleased the faculty. One professor proposed a measure to require all students, "without exception," to pass the standard entrance examinations before being admitted, but action was postponed. Two months later several resolutions with regard to admission were passed, and the requirement thereby set up was that no student could be admitted into any class, freshman or higher, without examination satisfactory to the faculty. According to Page  242other rules then drafted, one final examination embracing the year's work was given at the end of the year to all freshmen, another to the sophomores, and so on; and in December, 1846, the faculty decided to give a supplementary examination to each of the four classes just before Easter, over the work of the first two terms. (At that time there were three terms, the last extending from Easter vacation until Commencement in the month of August. It was not until 1852 that the school year was shortened, and the three terms were retained until 1855.)

Secretary of the faculty, 1846. — The duties outlined for the secretary of the faculty in 1846 included the keeping of student records, but not notification to students regarding their delinquencies nor the admission of either freshmen or upperclassmen. All the students lived in the building now called Mason Hall. In accordance with the traditional college system then prevalent in America, the faculty took very seriously its responsibility to act in loco parentis and spent many hours upon disciplinary problems. Each case was separately discussed and settled by the convened faculty, and very often the student himself was summoned.

Registration was simple for all except the new students, since the curriculum was single and inflexible, all courses being "required."

The secretary collected the class "merit rolls" from the instructors and made out an average for each student in every subject. In place of the usual finely distinguished comparative grades, only three marks were used in the Literary Department for the first seventy years — Passed, Conditioned, and Not Passed. The secretary also recorded demerit marks given for all violations of good order and for absence from recitations, prayers, and student rooms during study hours. Both scholastic and deportment records were read aloud to the assembled students and faculty members at the close of each term, and the delinquent students were accordingly admonished, conditioned, or dismissed. A condition could be removed by satisfactory standing on a special re-examination, or by good conduct if imposed for disciplinary reasons. A course not passed had to be taken a second time with the class below.

The first medical students came in 1850. The medical faculty regulated their admission and graduation requirements, subject to the approval of the Regents. Not until the formation of the University Senate, about 1858 or at latest 1859, was there again a unified faculty organization of the entire University (see Part II: University Senate and Senate Council). In the meantime a president of the University had been appointed, and the lines of authority and responsibility between the Regents and the staff led through his hands.

The faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts nevertheless continued to elect its own secretary and president every year. Almost the only duty that remained to the president was to conduct faculty meetings in the absence of the University president. By the end of the decade the officer previously called president of the faculty was designated in the University bylaws as vice-president and dean of the faculty (Bylaws, 1859, p. 13).

University enrollment increased during the Tappan administration, 1852-63, from 216 to 652, and enrollment in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, from 60 to 266. The work of admission, of educational counseling, and of academic record-keeping in the department was affected not only by the increase in numbers but also by various new regulations.

Apparently to be in accord with certain provisions of the act of 1851, the Page  243University opened its doors in the fall of 1852 to students not working for degrees. Even for the four-year students, the time for the single, rigid literary curriculum had passed, for they could, if properly prepared — and this involved an alternative set of admission requirements — choose the scientific course leading to the bachelor of science degree. Engineering was introduced as a subdivision of the scientific curriculum. A special sequence of courses in analytical chemistry also was taught.

The only students not required to take the regular freshman entrance examinations were those not working for degrees. A student coming with advanced standing was examined also in all the previous studies of the class he proposed to enter.

The practice of deciding a surprising number of individual student cases in sessions of the whole literary faculty, although necessarily modified by the rapid rise in enrollment and the disuse of North College (Mason Hall) for living quarters by 1857, was continued. Students could be notified of their standing on final examinations only after the faculty had met to determine by formal vote which ones to pass. By 1859, votes involving suspension, expulsion, or final recommendation for a degree were taken by secret ballot. One method of supervision, at any rate, declined. In Regent Kearsley's time there had been oral finals, which two or three Regents attended and then reported upon to the Board; the rules of 1855 and of 1859 contained provision for the appointment of such a committee, but the bylaws of 1861 did not.

The president of the University relieved the faculty officers of many student interviews, as, for example, interviews for permission to leave town or to be absent from church or chapel. Nevertheless, there were many disciplinary rules still administered by the faculty. Every infraction was likely to bring a demerit mark, and any student could "automatically" dismiss himself by obtaining ten such marks. His parents were notified as soon as he had accumulated five. Such was the academic recording assigned to the secretary of the faculty.

Registrar of the faculty, 1863. — The earliest use of the word "registrar" in a title at the University occurred in the autumn of 1863, the first year of the Haven administration, when the two types of duty performed by the secretary since 1846 were separated. Like the dean and the secretary, the registrar was elected for a term of one year. Edward P. Evans, Professor of Modern Languages, was the first. Edward Olney, Professor of Mathematics, was the only one in the early period to hold the office of registrar longer than one year (1864-67). Before the office was discontinued in 1872, the second year of the Angell administration, six men in all, in addition to their teaching, served as registrar of the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The other faculties formed in the meantime, in medicine and in law, made their own provision for such work, but this early position in the Literary Department was the one out of which the present office grew.

Beginning in the fall of 1863, special students were admitted only by fulfilling the entrance requirements for one of the several four-year curriculums. This restriction was relaxed in the autumn of 1878, but then only for persons twenty-one years of age or older. In the meantime, in 1869, the minimum admission age, for special as well as regular students, had been raised from fourteen to sixteen years.

Preparation for the Latin and scientific course, begun in 1867, and for the Greek and scientific course, in 1869, was a little less strictly prescribed than was that for the older courses. These two sets of entrance requirements did not include Page  244the advanced mathematics and physics required of candidates for the regular scientific and the scientific-engineering courses, but were like the requirements for entry into the classical course, except that high-school work in only one of the ancient languages was demanded.

Within the acting presidency of Henry S. Frieze (1869-71; see Part I: Frieze Administration) came two important reforms — the beginning of admission on diploma from approved Michigan high schools, adopted in March, 1871, and the opening of the doors of the University to women, in January, 1870.

Very few women took advantage of the offer at first, but once a start had been made, and perhaps particularly because of President Angell's strong encouragement of coeducation, the percentage of women students began to increase noticeably. This aspect of the enrollment statistics was especially prepared every year — probably by the secretary of the faculty — and was set forth and commented on with evident interest by the President in his annual reports. Women today comprise nearly one-third of the total University enrollment during the regular academic year, and approximately two-fifths of all students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (see Part IX: Coeducation).

Michigan was probably the first American university to admit students on diploma. At any rate, the venture was unusual at the time, and its effects continued to bring forth comment, mostly favorable, even after it had become commonplace.

President Angell not only took a keen interest in these two reforms, but also was impressed by the absence of grades and after a short time became convinced of the "uselessness" of grades "for students like ours." He reported that the teachers inspired the students with enthusiasm and insisted upon such standards that the classwork was better, on the average, than any that he had ever seen (P.R., 1872, p. 8). He was also pleased to observe that the entrance examinations given to prospective students from non-accredited schools were "splendidly rigid." After his first week's experience with the students, in the fall of 1871, he boasted in a letter to his brother-in-law, Peter Collier: "We turned off several who would certainly have got into any of several New England colleges and most of those admitted were conditioned" (Vermont to Michigan, p. 295).

Secretary of the faculty, 1872. — In contrast with the highly satisfactory state of affairs in scholarship, the state of student discipline was far from encouraging (ibid., pp. 280-81, 292-94). It is probable that the need of a single, influential executive authority to remedy the disciplinary situation had something to do with the faculty decision to dispense with the office of registrar, give the secretary the student record-keeping again, and leave the interviewing mostly to the president. Angell himself was undoubtedly eager for all opportunities, such as conducting interviews and answering letters, by which he could personally exert a strong constructive influence on the students; but faculty registrars, carrying a full teaching load and succeeding one another so often that none could acquire much proficiency in the work, could scarcely be expected to have an effective and consistent influence on student discipline.

A determination to watch the results of the diploma plan closely and to make it succeed may have been responsible for the new recording methods introduced in 1871 and 1872. All the extant records for the years preceding 1871, except those included in the academic and alumni catalogues and in the President's Report, are in manuscript volumes now preserved in the Michigan Historical Collections of the University. In addition to the admission Page  245book, two series of progress records had been kept, one called the "Examination Book" (Vol. I, 1852-60, 1867-74) and later known as the "Record of Examinations" (Vol. II, 1871-75), and the so-called "Mark Book." The only mark used in the examination-record series after 1871 was "P," probably for "Passed." The new record forms were printed on cards, and were adopted in November, 1871. All but a very few of them are intact; they are now in one large set of permanent-record cards for the period 1871-1925, in the basement vault in Angell Hall.

Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 1888. — Upon the resignation of Francis A. Blackburn as Secretary of the Faculty, in May, 1875, Paul R. B. de Pont, Instructor in French, was elected. This date proved to be a turning point, for he was re-elected the next year and regularly thereafter, until, in 1888, the Regents appointed him Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts — the first sign that the tenure of this office might become indefinite. He continued to teach, his promotion to the assistant professorship having come when he was appointed Registrar. Though the word "faculty" was not in his title, he wrote and kept the faculty minutes of the Literary Department as before, but signed them as "registrar."

From a statement of President Angell's it has been commonly supposed that there was no dean in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. What the President said was:

In order to keep in close touch with students, … for several years I discharged the duties now [1912] assigned to a Dean. I registered all newcomers; I granted (or refused) excuses for absence. I took the initiative in examining all cases for discipline.


(Angell, p. 242.)

The faculty minutes show that the election of a dean of the faculty was held every year after Angell's coming as before, until Henry S. Frieze had held it so long that his tenure was taken for granted, although the Calendar of 1885-86 was the earliest published record in which this was given as a part of his full official title. (A dean of the faculty of every school or college had been designated somewhere in the Calendar ever since 1875, however, heading the list of its students, and in the instances of the Department of Law and the Department of Medicine and Surgery, deans had been officially designated even earlier.)

The division of duties among the three officers — president, dean, and registrar — is by no means clear. It was apparently about the time of Professor Frieze's death, December, 1889, that the officers of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts began to take a more active part in dealing with the students. The duties of Frieze as Dean were so light that Dean Effinger, who was then a student and who soon afterward joined the faculty, has written:

It will be remembered that for many years the College… had no Dean.… When Professor D'Ooge was appointed [1890] … he became an assistant to the President in these matters and assumed the duties of an admission officer. Professor Hudson [1897] … had increased responsibility.… With the appointment of Dean Reed [1907], the President gave up almost entirely any active participation in the administrative work of the College.


(Effinger, MS, "Report," 1909-20, p. 5.)

Apparently no attempt was made to assign the deanship to anyone else after Frieze's death until, in the spring of 1890, the Regents requested the faculty to indicate its choice. Martin L. D'Ooge was then nominated, and was made Dean of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts by appointment of the Regents in June, 1890. He continued in the Page  246office by repeated faculty nomination and regental reappointment. The small additional compensation he received as early as 1893 and the registration directions in the Calendar of 1895-96 indicate that more duties were being delegated to his office, but D'Ooge continued to teach about four courses each semester as long as he was Dean, and meanwhile Registrar de Pont also regularly taught three or four classes. As late as 1890-91, when 1,175 were enrolled in the Literary Department, President Angell was still dealing individually with all requests for out-of-town permission, and his personal correspondence with prospective students did not diminish until about 1897. Instructors dealt with tardiness, absence, deficiencies, and violations of good order in their own classes and brought only their worst disciplinary and attendance problems to the whole faculty for settlement.

In 1895-96, for the first time, all incoming students in the department took their credentials directly to the dean (Cal., 1895-96); previously they had gone to the president. Checking of admission credit was divided between dean and registrar, the dean specifically handling all incoming transcripts for credit of one or more college years. The registrar passed upon admissions of freshmen who had the customary preparation, and also of those with a very small amount of advanced credit or with extra high-school credit. Registrar de Pont probably did not have sole authority over freshman admissions, either before or very soon after D'Ooge's appointment as Dean. He had routine responsibilities that required many student interviews, however, and in general acted as intermediary between students and faculty in all matters involving study loads and student records. For example, by 1890-91 it was customary for an undergraduate who wished to proceed in his third year on the university system (see Part III: University System) to present his request to the registrar, who, if the student's work promised success, furnished him with a certificate and referred him to the appropriate faculty committee.

In the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts the academic record-keeping and the work of admission were affected not only by the general rise in enrollment, but also by the inclusion and later separation of certain large groups of professional or advanced students. The Homeopathic Medical College (1875) and the College of Dental Surgery (1876) were begun independently of the Literary Department, but the professional units in pharmacy and engineering and the School of Graduate Studies were originally under literary faculty control. The pharmacy records were probably transferred about 1875, when the separate pharmacy unit was founded. From the time when the Administrative Council of the Graduate School was formed in 1892 until its administration was separated from that of the Literary Department in 1912, the registrar of the Literary Department kept the graduate records and assisted in graduate registration. For several years after the Department of Engineering became a separate unit, in 1895-96, De Pont was Registrar for that department as well as for the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The Calendar of 1900-1901 indicated that a secretary of the engineering staff had been chosen, and two years later De Pont's duties as engineering registrar were dropped, apparently to be taken up by the secretary of the engineering faculty (see Part VII: College of Engineering).

Enrollment in the Literary Department had been 488 in the year before President Angell came and 476 at the time when De Pont was elected secretary of the faculty, with the duties of a recorder. Page  247The removal of the pharmacy students in 1876 caused a drop in the literary enrollment from 452 to 369. By 1889-90 the recording work had greatly increased, as there were 1,001 students in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Miss Marion C. Goodrich was appointed Assistant to the Registrar; she remained in the office until 1921 and in 1910 became Assistant Registrar.

By 1894 the burden of individual student appeals in course selection, records, and discipline had become too heavy to be dealt with in meetings of the entire literary faculty, and the Administrative Board of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts was therefore set up. Its work was so closely related to that of the Registrar's Office that for several years Miss Goodrich transcribed the Board's minutes in longhand into the secretary's record book. The separation of the Department of Engineering in 1895-96 reduced the count of students in the Literary Department from 1,518 to to 1,198. By 1905-6, the last year of De Pont's service as Registrar, the literary enrollment was 1,565.

Admission and recording during the Angell administration. — There were important curricular changes in the time of President Angell that directly affected the administrative work of the Literary Department. Beginning in 1870 the bachelor of philosophy degree had been used for both of the combined classical-scientific programs. In 1878-79 a four-year college program called the English course was added. A new type of high-school program, called by the same name, was thereby recognized and was continued in college. Other changes, even more far-reaching, were made in the same year. The credit system was substituted for a set schedule of four prescribed years, and the number of required courses in the several programs was cut down somewhat to allow for electives.

The university system, which was begun in the autumn of 1882, called for records of a new type. These records, which were kept by the faculty committees for the five general subject groups, are now in the Michigan Historical Collections. Students who had won the bachelor's degree "on examination" — that is, on the university system — were listed separately in the President's Report from 1882 to 1891.

Admission on diploma was extended in 1884 to some of the non-Michigan high schools, particularly in near-by states. In the absence of accrediting associations the University officers relied upon the judgment of the administrators of colleges and universities nearer to these schools (see p. 318). Larger numbers of students from outside the state of Michigan, together with the growth of accrediting associations after 1895, drew the University into much closer relations with other collegiate institutions, so that when the general and unprecedented rush of students into all the universities of America later raised the questions of uniformity in grading techniques and of accuracy and dispatch in dealing with many students at once, it was possible to work out time-saving procedures on a co-operative basis.

Throughout the nineties there were four separate sets of entrance requirements for the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and a high school was given separate appraisals for its work in science, in modern languages, and in other subject groups. Under this system of partial accrediting there was but one of the University's several programs for degrees open to the graduates of certain high schools, and one of only two or three such programs was open to the graduates of certain other schools.

By the new entrance requirements which went into effect in 1897, (1) more work in English literature in the high Page  248school was definitely prescribed, and (2) students who desired to enroll in any of the several degree programs except the strictly classical course — the one curriculum that led to the degree of bachelor of arts — were given three groups of entrance credits from which to choose. Any group was equally acceptable for any one of these three degree programs. Group I covered four years of Latin and two of German or French; Group II, four years of one or more of these languages (in any of six combinations), with chemistry and history added; and Group III, two years of one of these languages, with chemistry and extra work in both history and English.

In May, 1900, a single system of entrance requirements, remarkable for its simplicity, went into effect (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 508), but the old requirements were to be used optionally until after 1900-1901. The first reference to the measuring of high-school work by the "unit," then described as one subject pursued for not less than four periods a week throughout a school year, was made in a supplementary announcement of these new requirements, inserted in some copies of the Calendar for 1899-1900. The awarding of four distinct bachelor's degrees was still contemplated at that time, but in February, 1901, the bachelor of arts degree was substituted for the three degrees in the curriculums in science, in letters, and in philosophy and at the same time was continued for the classical course. The bachelor of philosophy and bachelor of letters degrees were scrapped altogether, and even the bachelor of science degree was not conferred again until 1909 (see Part II: Degrees).

Although the Calendar of 1900-1901 was prepared on the basis of the February plan to give the bachelor of arts degree for any one of the four sets of requirements for graduation, even the four optional sets of graduation requirements were abolished in May, 1901, and in their stead were placed two simple requirements for all students: six hours of freshman English and the restriction of first-year elections to three of nine specified subjects.

This was the culmination of the elective policy which President Angell, following the precedent established at Harvard under President Eliot, had been fostering ever since the early seventies. He believed that the great majority of the students earnestly aimed to secure the best from their college studies, and that restrictive rules hampered them "without getting profitable work out of the indolent and wayward." He also believed that in the absence of a marking system there was a better chance for wise elections, because there was little or no temptation to choose easy subjects and study for class rank. In 1901, as in 1879, a faculty committee investigated the students' elections and reported favorably upon the use of the "larger liberty." Several faculty members, acting as a committee on elections, were on hand at the beginning of each semester, especially to check first-year elections.

On March 1, 1906, De Pont's long term of service ended with his death. The memorial written of him by Professor Albert Stanley for the Michiganensian was particularly appreciative, for De Pont, like Frieze, had been a great lover of music. He had been very active in the University Musical Society from the date of its founding, and also in the Choral Union, of which he had been President during his last seventeen years. He was a man of engaging personality; his bearing and manner endeared him to those he met. He held the students to a high standard of honor, but in his dealings with them was kindly as well as firm.

At the time of De Pont's unexpected death John William Bradshaw ('00, Ph.D. Strassburg '04), who had been Instructor Page  249in Mathematics at the University since 1904, was Secretary of the Administrative Board. He was requested to take over the duties of registrar for the remainder of the year, and then, in May, 1906, was appointed Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts and Secretary of the Administrative Board.

During his two years of service in this capacity the attendance records of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts were centralized. Thereafter, the Administrative Board used them in imposing probation, ineligibility for student activities, or a lump reduction of credit as penalties for excessive absence. Although not observed with uniform strictness by the teaching staff, this procedure remained practically unchanged until about 1924, when it was decided that, because of the high enrollment, the clerical burden was out of all proportion to the value of the records.

Upon the appointment of Dean Reed in 1907 (see p. 245), practically all the administrative affairs of the Literary Department were put into the hands of its own officers, the dean and the registrar. Of the 4,282 students then enrolled in the University, 1,691 were in this department. In consideration of the growing administrative responsibility, the additional administrative budget granted to the dean was increased to an amount one-third as large as his regular academic salary and much larger than the extra compensation to the first appointed dean. Both graduate and undergraduate students had entered through the dean's office in the late nineties, and the registrar and secretary of the (graduate) Administrative Council had had an additional check upon admissions. By 1908 the complications of the elective system required some additional checking of election blanks by the registrar and the assistance of both the committee on elections and the secretary of the Council in graduate registration.

Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts and editor of University publications, 1908. — At the end of 1907-8 Registrar Bradshaw discontinued his administrative work and devoted his full time again to teaching. Meanwhile, in April of that year, Arthur Graham Hall ('87, Ph.D. Leipzig '02) had been secured as Professor of Mathematics, Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and Editor of University Publications. He had previously been on the literary faculty, and was then teaching in Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. In addition to his administrative and editorial work he was to teach two classes.

Before Hall had left the University in 1903 he had been Secretary of the Administrative Board for several terms. In 1908 he again took up this work, as well as that of a de facto secretary of the faculty, in addition to the more customary work of a registrar, and he continued to perform these different tasks through 1924-25.

Yet another type of duty — responsibility for publications — was assigned to the Registrar's Office when Hall returned in 1908. Until that time, although the principal official publications had always been carefully prepared and regularly issued, no one office had been made permanently responsible. At first the faculty had taken charge of publishing the Catalogue, which the Regents had authorized in 1843, and committees of faculty members and administrative officers had usually prepared it, but sometimes the work had been delegated to students altogether. Its literary style in the fifties is unmistakably that of President Tappan, and the new arrangement and title adopted in 1871-72 suggest careful supervision by President Angell. In time the work had come to be a more fixed responsibility, Page  250not of any official as such, but of a faculty member who had special aptitude for it. This was William Henry Pettee, Professor of Mineralogy, Economic Geology, and Mining Engineering. After Pettee's death in 1904 President Angell wrote:

For years he has been of the greatest service to the University in fields quite apart from his teaching, namely, as auditor of the accounts of the University and as editor of its official publications, the Calendar and the Departmental Announcements.


(P.R., 1904, p. 4.)

In June, 1904, several Regents were constituted a committee to consider how this work was to be provided for; they were to report at the next meeting, but their recommendations do not appear in the record. At least two faculty members served as editor in the interim before Hall's return — Assistant Professor Strauss in 1904-5 and Assistant Professor Sanders in 1907-8 (R.P., 1901-6, p. 605; 1906-10, p. 191). In his capacity of University Editor, Hall was the first of the registrars to be listed in the Calendar with the officers of the central administration of the University, but as Registrar he was still an officer of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts exclusively (Cal., 1908-9, p. 35).

The year 1911-12 was remarkable in the history of the Literary Department. There was a change in the deanship; the graduate work was reorganized; the elective system was modified through a revamping of graduation and entrance requirements; and a standard grading system was installed.

In March, 1912, Dean Reed secured a leave of absence because of illness, and John Robert Effinger, Professor of French, was made Acting Dean and thus began his long administrative career. He was appointed Dean in July, 1915.

From the time when the separate Graduate Department was organized, early in 1912, on the basis of official action passed the previous December, it had its own appointed dean and Executive Board, and its student records were kept separately.

In spite of the optimistic predictions with which the free elective system had been ushered into the Literary Department at the turn of the century, the underspecialized and overspecialized student programs were by this time causing concern. The faculty therefore recommended the group system of requirements for the degree, together with restrictions on the number of hours allowed in any one subject and in any one group of subjects, and asked the Regents to require that two-thirds of the junior and senior work be in courses not open to freshmen and that students who were transferred from other colleges fulfill a minimum-residence requirement. The Regents approved these proposals in February, 1912.

The new entrance requirements adopted in June of that year had a threefold effect: (1) They encouraged more continuity and greater concentration in subject matter in the high school. (2) They encouraged the newer, "nonacademic" high-school subjects such as agriculture, commerce, domestic science, manual training, and drawing, even though these were allowed only in admissions on certificate, and although the amount was limited to three of the fifteen minimum units. (The unit had been redefined in 1908-9 as a year's work of five, rather than four, recitations a week.) (3) Specially recommended graduates from schools approved by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and from certain other approved schools were allowed to enter without any specific admission requirement, although with the restriction that twelve of the minimum fifteen units had to be selected from the "academic" listing. Dean Page  251Effinger later commented that, theoretically, this measure permitted entrance without any foreign language, but that in practice such a case was extremely rare because language was required in nearly all the North Central schools.

A new tendency in the attitude toward marks and special distinctions for good scholarship began to be noticeable; the old belief that such rewards set up false goals and encouraged an undesirable type of competition was being abandoned. In the second semester of 1911-12 the Literary Department replaced its traditional marking system (Passed, Not Passed, Conditioned), which had always been supported strongly by President Angell, by a set of comparative grades, as had the Department of Engineering in October, 1907. The engineering system did not provide for honor points until April, 1922, when the present four-point plan was introduced, but in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts a three-point plan went into effect with the first use of letter grades in June, 1912, and has remained for all classes graduating before June, 1941 — i.e., three points for each credit hour of A (excellent), two for B (good), one for C (fair), credit without points for D (barely passing), and no credit and no points for E (failed). Absence from examination was indicated by X and incomplete work by I.

It was announced for four years, beginning in 1911-12, that, in place of the 120 points then needed for the degree, 135 points would be required of all graduates, effective in June, 1916. This demand was dropped, however, four months before the class of 1916 was graduated (R.P., 1914-17, p. 376).

The diploma of merit, forerunner of the degree with distinction or with high distinction, first offered in 1915-16, was established in 1912-13 and was conferred upon the students voluntarily recommended for it by the faculty. By 1912 the University had had a chapter of Sigma Xi for nine years and a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa for five years.

Registrar Hall became a member of the Senate committee on student affairs when he succeeded Professor James Glover as Auditor and Comptroller of Student Organizations in 1912; from then on he carried this additional responsibility.

The Regents appointed the Registrar and Professor Isaac N. Demmon members of a committee on nomenclature in 1914. This committee recommended changing the names of the schools and colleges to accord with national standards adopted by the Association of American Universities and by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; it also recommended changing the names of the official University publications. These recommendations were approved, in January, 1915, and the oldest academic unit of the University became the "College of Literature, Science, and the Arts." The title, Calendar of the University of Michigan…, was changed to Catalogue of the University …, to indicate the contents more precisely. Announcement was approved as the name for the publication of each school or college, and Bulletin for that of a program in a special group of studies within a school or college.

Students were received on diploma in 1914-15 from more than 240 secondary schools which had not sent any the previous year (Effinger, MS, "Report," 1914-15, p. 1). The enrollment was increasing rapidly, the College having become by that time one of the largest in the country, and the work of its dean included correspondence and interviews incident to both freshman admissions on diploma and advanced admissions. Faculty advisers met with incoming students during the rush periods, thus assisting the committee on first-year elections, and also continued to interview students Page  252throughout the year at regular hours; another committee controlling the size of classes kept the sections uniform.

Registrar Hall was in the habit of sending scholarship reports to parents at the end of the students' first semester in the University, and to each high school, in February, a detailed record of the work of freshmen admitted from that school (Effinger, MS, "Report," 1914-15, p. 1).

Registrar, 1915. — In July, 1915, when John R. Effinger was appointed to the full deanship, the Regents transferred the work of admissions on diploma from him to the registrar. Soon afterward they changed Hall's title and set forth the proportions of his salary separately appropriated for his various functions. Three small amounts were set aside for (1) editing, (2) passing upon admissions on diploma, and (3) auditing of the student accounts, whereas nearly three-fourths of his salary was allocated to "his work as Registrar and such incidental teaching as he may do." At the same time the Board of Regents changed his title to that of Registrar and Professor of Mathematics, and accepted a recommendation of its executive committee that, "in order to avoid confusion, … the title of the Registrar of the Homeopathic Medical School be changed to that of Recorder of the Homeopathic Medical School." Hall retained this title of Registrar and Professor of Mathematics even after the pressure of other duties obliged him to give up his classes in mathematics in the fall of 1916. In his capacity of Registrar he was officially regarded as an officer of the central administration after this redefinition of his duties was adopted (Cat. 1915-16, p. 40), but he was still regarded also as Registrar of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In his admission and student-record work, as a matter of fact, he still dealt exclusively with the literary students, and most of the financial support for his office was still included in the budget of the College.

Dean Effinger continued to act as admission officer for students entering on advanced standing. The volume of his work so increased with the rising enrollment that in 1920 he wrote:

With the present large attendance and the corresponding increase in the faculty, it is growing more and more evident that the Dean must give up altogether his work as an admission officer and devote himself to the larger problems involved in the growth and development of the College. In this connection it may not be out of place to add that it would be a very great improvement if the University could establish one admission office, to which all students, without regard to School or College, would be compelled to apply on entering the University.


(Effinger, MS, "Report," 1909-20, p. 6.)

A plan similar, in general, to Dean Effinger's, but with no specific reference to advanced admissions, was adopted by the Regents in December, 1922, as a part of the revised bylaws that Regent Hubbard had codified at the request of the Board, but it was not meant to take effect at once. The section on the work of the registrar was preceded by the explanation: "The following draught of the Registrar's duties … is predicated on the extension of said duties over the entire University"; and the temporary situation was provided for by the provision that, "pending the extension outlined in this section, the rules for registration, the methods in use, and the functions of the different registration officers shall remain as at present, under control of the several University units" (Bylaws, 1922, p. 10). The outline of duties, stated in tentative form, began: "The University Registrar (when authorized) shall have charge of the collection, classification, distribution, and utilization of academic records and statistics (not otherwise regulated) …" The additional duties assigned Page  253were as follows: (1) to conduct preliminary correspondence with prospective students, and speed up and simplify their registration; (2) to act as chairman of a committee on admissions, on which every school or college should be represented and which should decide all questions pertaining to admission, under the rules of the several faculties; (3) to furnish necessary duplicate records to the deans and information for the use of teachers; (4) to keep a record of the use of classrooms and an estimate of the floor space needed per student for the adequate functioning of the University; and (5) to compile the Student Register and the lists of students entitled to degrees, diplomas, and certificates, as well as to keep up the records of grades, absences, and excuses.

These rules had no effect upon the status quo. A break with tradition, difficult under any circumstances, was rendered especially hard at the time by Registrar Hall's failing health. Neither these nor any other extensive changes in the position of registrar were put into effect while he was in office, except that the functions of a secretary to the faculty gradually passed to other hands.

Between 1912 and 1922 the enrollment in the College more than doubled; in 1919-20 alone it rose from 3,627 to 5,007. Although the remarkable increase from 1918 to 1921 was clearly a postwar phenomenon, the general upward trend over the longer period was also unmistakable and appeared likely to continue unless a change were made in the work of colleges and public schools. At the close of the Hutchins administration in 1920, classrooms and laboratories were strained to capacity — the building program of the twenties was yet to come. Dean Effinger, disturbed by the apparent impossibility of providing adequate instruction and classroom space for the ever increasing mass of students and by the prospect of a decreasing standard of efficiency, recommended that the congestion of "young and immature students in this university center" be relieved by the development of the junior-college movement throughout the state. Many years before, in the annual reports of 1883 and 1890 (P.R., 1883, p. 12; 1890, p. 16), President Angell also had spoken of the problem of standards, congestion, and immaturity with relation to the high schools and to the other colleges within the state.

The general tendency of the changes in entrance requirements over the decade 1912-22 had been to recognize certain subjects newly introduced into the high school, to insist upon higher teaching standards in the high school (especially in science), to encourage an earlier beginning of preprofessional training in the scientific professions, and to emphasize continuity.

Two classifications of entrance subjects had been specified by the University in 1912 — List A, composed of the older academic studies, and List B, made up of the newer branches of the curriculum, largely practical or vocational. List A was changed in 1917-18 by the addition of one year or one-half year of introductory science as a prerequisite to any other high-school science. The next year, physiography, which had been accepted since 1905, was dropped from List A, and geography was allowed in combination with geology. Geography and introductory science were kept on the list only through 1925-26. A single unit of foreign language in the A group was made conditionally acceptable for admission credit in 1918-19, provided the student satisfactorily completed another year of the same language in the University. A half-unit of economics was also allowed in the early twenties.

List B was almost indefinitely extended in 1918-19. Any certified student could thereafter present, to a limit of Page  254three units, any subject accepted for graduation in his high school but not explicitly mentioned in either list.

Registrar Hall believed that the study habits needed in college could best be acquired in advanced high-school courses and that scholarship standards, both in high school and in college, could thus be raised; he was therefore gratified when the University demanded, in 1921-22, that a third, additional high-school major be continued for one year in college, unless one-third of the required fifteen entrance units were in subjects regularly scheduled for the last two years of high school.

Six-year high schools beginning at the seventh grade were formally encouraged by the University, first by a resolution passed by the Regents in 1914, and then by the invitation to the graduates of such schools (Cat., 1915-16) to apply for special examination leading to advanced University credit for their extra high-school units.

Often between 1917 and 1922 the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts discussed entrance requirements and their relation to University standards. The "alternative plan" of admission, which since 1912 had permitted specially recommended students to enter without any precise subject requirements (p. 250), became the object of increasing dissatisfaction. In the first semester of 1919-20 the freshmen admitted on this plan (one-tenth of the class) did noticeably poorer work than their classmates did, whereupon a faculty committee opened an investigation to find out the causes of freshman failure. Records were studied; many principals and teachers were consulted. The consensus of opinion, reported and endorsed in 1922, was that the presence of a large minority of poor students was causing the colleges and public schools to neglect the more worthy but less attention-demanding majority. University faculty members were informed of causes of failure which they could eliminate, and principals took the lists of high-school failings to be discussed in their faculty meetings. Finally, in 1923, the University announced that no one could enter by the "alternative plan" after February, 1925.

There had been only one regular assistant in the office when Hall became Registrar in 1908, but before his term of service was ended in 1925 there were seven persons on full time. The dean of the College, the registrar, and the dean of the Summer Session all shared the same general suite of offices on the first floor of University Hall until the position of dean of students was created in 1921. Dean Effinger then moved to the northeast corner room on the same floor, and the room formerly his was occupied by the dean of students. When certain other offices were moved into Angell Hall in the fall of 1924 the Registrar's Office acquired additional and much-needed space in University Hall. The most important change of staff between 1908 and 1925 was the retirement of Marion C. Goodrich, Assistant Registrar, in June, 1921. She was succeeded by the Registrar's secretary, Lillian B. Hughes, who remained until 1925.

Registrar Hall kept himself informed as to the scholarship averages of all schools that regularly sent students to the University, so as to observe any change and inquire at once into its cause, and was usually able to tell offhand how many students from a given state were in attendance. He promoted state and national movements for raising the standards of scholarship and designed a scholarship chart that was widely used.

He was a member of the Board of Education of Ann Arbor, served on many committees on the campus, in the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, and in other state educational societies, and was especially Page  255active in the American Association of Collegiate Registrars. He was elected President of the Association for 1922, but was taken ill in February of that year and could not preside at the annual meeting. Again the next autumn he was on duty, but in the winter a vacation became necessary. After remaining at the University from May, 1923, until July, 1924, he left with his family for the summer vacation. His illness very soon forced him to return to Ann Arbor, where he died at his home January 10, 1925.

During the Registrar's long absences the organization of the office work had been largely in the hands of Miss Hughes. Professor John W. Bradshaw was called in to edit the Catalogue in the spring of 1922. The present dean of the School of Education, James B. Edmonson, was then Inspector of High Schools as well as Professor of Secondary Education. His work naturally had kept him in close touch with that of the Registrar, and upon the recurrence of Mr. Hall's illness in the summer of 1924 he consented to act as an adviser to the office. He continued in that capacity throughout the next school year. It was partly upon his suggestion that the faculty discontinued the attendance-record system.

Between 1922 and 1925 the position of a de facto secretary of the literary faculty gradually became dissociated from the position of registrar. More and more often, beginning about 1922, a secretary pro tem was selected to prepare the minutes in the absence of the Registrar, Assistant Dean Humphreys often substituting. In October, 1924, "on Dean Effinger's nomination and by vote of the Faculty, H. C. Carver was elected temporary secretary, to serve during the illness of Registrar Hall." For the next two years Associate Professor Carver continued to serve as Acting Secretary; he was then Secretary from December, 1926, until he was succeeded by Secretary D. L. Rich in December, 1929. Since then, the two positions have been entirely dissociated.

Registrar of the University since 1925. — Soon after the death of Registrar Hall the Regents requested the conference of deans to consider the problem involved in appointing a successor. The committee named by the deans reported in May, 1925, recommending the appointment of Ira Melville Smith (LL.B. Indiana '09, LL.D. Ashland '37), who was then Assistant Examiner of the University of Chicago. At the same time the following plan for the operation of the Registrar's Office was submitted:

  • 1. The Registrar should be a University official in charge of all general correspondence with prospective students.
  • 2. The Registrar should act in an advisory capacity with the various record offices about the campus for the purpose of bringing about better organization and the efficient handling of statistical information.
  • 3. The admission of all students entering the University directly from the high schools should be in the hands of the Registrar, as well as such other cases of admission as may be delegated to him by the various faculties.
  • 4. All other admissions, and all admissions on advanced standing are to remain in the hands of the separate schools or colleges as they are at present and the present procedure continued.
  • 5. The various University announcements and bulletins and the University catalogue should be edited under the supervision of the Registrar. It might be advisable to have a committee on publications, appointed by the President to act in conjunction with the Registrar in this matter.

(R.P., 1923-26, p. 610.)

The Regents adopted this plan, appointed Mr. Smith Registrar of the University, with the rank of professor and with membership in the University Senate, and directed that his office be conducted according to this outline. The educational policies committee was requested Page  256to consult with him and then to change the bylaws of the Board to harmonize with this action, making the registrar directly responsible to the Regents through the president of the University.

The registrar's budget was made separate in 1925-26, but provided only for editorial, secretarial, and general office assistance. The preparation of transcripts and the recording and issuing of grades for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were performed in the same suite of offices, but the recorder and clerks who did this work remained on the administrative budget of that College and were under the jurisdiction not of the registrar but of the dean of the College.

Mr. Smith assumed his duties in July, 1925. In that year, while secondary-school officials were familiarizing themselves with the new plan of centralized freshman admissions, arrangements for more active co-operation between the University and the high schools of Michigan were under way. In December, 1925, the high-school principals formally endorsed the new plan of admission procedure which the University had adopted. The State Teachers' Association appointed a standing committee on college entrance requirements with instructions to offer assistance to the University, and the University responded by organizing a committee, widely representative of its various faculties, to modify the admission procedure in collaboration with the principals' group, "not by any change of academic standards from the scholastic standpoint but rather by seeking to understand better the personalities and capabilities of the students" (P.R., 1926-27, p. 170).

The joint committee thus formed recommended that a small booklet of information for prospective freshmen be published and also devised a new form of admission blank divided into three parts: (I) general information (filled out by the applicant), (II) personal qualifications, and (III) scholarship standing and certificate of recommendation. In preparing this blank the joint committee had the following general aims in view: (a) to stimulate prospective students to think carefully about their college plans, (b) to include questions that would acquaint parents and teachers with problems confronting the students in their transition from high school to college, and (c) to secure as far in advance as possible such information as would enable the University officials to advise students how best to anticipate some difficulties of a University course, at the same time helping principals to impress upon their students the sincerity of the University's desire to aid well-prepared, serious-minded, ambitious, and responsible high-school graduates in making their plans for college work. The principals' hearty co-operation made possible the effective use of this new admission blank, which proved so successful that other leading universities, such as Ohio State University and the University of Wisconsin, adopted it almost in full. It furnished University officials with a more adequate factual basis for determining a given candidate's fitness for college; academic counselors have used information from it in student guidance; and a better understanding of the University has inevitably resulted.

During the meetings of the joint committee of the University and the State Teachers' Association, fresh emphasis was placed upon the desirability of recommending for admission only those high-school graduates most likely to profit by University study.

The present Registrar, like his predecessor, has welcomed every opportunity to promote friendship and understanding between the University and the high-school and college officials. He is a Page  257member of the Association of School Administrators of the National Education Association and of the Association of School Administrators of the Michigan Education Association, and also has been active in the Department of High School Principals of both the national and the state associations. He was President of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars for the year 1927-28, and in 1937-38 served as chairman of its committee on special projects. Also, he has participated in the affairs of the Michigan Association of Collegiate Registrars, the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, and the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, and has made many personal visits to the high schools of the state. This close co-operation means much in the way of better understanding between the University and the secondary schools.

When President Little came to the University in the fall of 1925 he was eager to inaugurate Freshman Week, which he had found effective at the University of Maine. Begun at the University of Michigan in September, 1926, it soon put new life into the movement toward an adequate advisory system. In 1930 provision was made for students entering on advanced standing, and the name was changed accordingly to Orientation Period. All freshmen are given college-aptitude and supplementary tests during this period, the program for which is now in the hands of Assistant Professor Philip E. Bursley, Director of the Orientation Period and Counselor to New Students (see Part II: Orientation Period). The Registrar has always co-operated closely with the counselors in this work. At present all underclassmen in the University are provided with regular academic-counseling service. Much credit for its development belongs to Miss Elisabeth Lawrie, Assistant to the Registrar, in Charge of Freshman Admissions.

Freshman orientation and academic counseling, although not under the registrar's charge, naturally have a significant bearing on his work. Accordingly, secretarial service and working space were provided in the Registrar's Office, where the records were available. In 1933-34 the office quarters were remodeled, especially to give conference space to the two assistants to the dean in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Both the academic counselors and the special Orientation-Period advisers have been furnished in advance with the high-school grades and personnel records of their students. Until 1938-39, progress reports from the instructors of freshmen were compiled in the Registrar's Office and sent to the counselors.

The present Registrar, very soon after he came, established individual relations with the principals by mail. Along with the letters sent to them were application blanks, Orientation-Period programs and test scores, programs for Honors Convocation, and invitations to meetings of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club. All official publications of interest to the high schools, including reprints of the registrar's section of the President's Report, were mailed immediately upon receipt from the press.

In December, 1927, on the Registrar's invitation, the principals of the Detroit high schools spent a day at the University interviewing first-year students and others from their respective schools. In time this became a regular annual event, attended by more than one hundred school officials from Michigan and adjacent states. The interviewers are furnished in advance with special reports of the freshmen. The students write out their estimates of their previous preparation and of University instruction, as well as of outside activities and of Page  258the Orientation-Period program. A noon luncheon provides a forum for the exchange of opinions between school and University officials.

With the centralization of all admissions directly from high school and of all correspondence dealing with admissions or general information about the University, the work of the office was greatly increased. In order to ensure giving every prospective student a clear and favorable first impression of the University, special care was devoted to answering all inquiries promptly and completely, duplex window envelopes having been used since 1925 so that the desired publications could be received with the replies.

When the present Registrar was appointed, the official publications were in need of reorganization. Although the Regents had specified in 1908 that the registrar should edit the separate announcements as well as the University Catalogue, all of the announcements except that of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts had continued to be issued by the various units about the campus.

The University Senate had devoted a meeting to the subject of a University editor in the fall of 1920, and after some discussion had appointed an investigating committee, whose recommendations, adopted the next January, had provided that the president appoint nine members of the University Senate as a standing committee on publications. This committee was directed to issue the "forty or fifty different bulletins" and miscellaneous publications assigned to it, to devise a better method of distribution, and to make rules which officers of the academic units could use in preparing copy. The Senate declined to adopt a further provision that the person appointed University editor should be one previously recommended by the standing publications committee.

The only publications edited in the Registrar's Office in 1924-25 were the Catalogue, the Register, more fully described below, the Faculty Directory, and the Announcement of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In accordance with the general plan adopted in 1925 (see p. 255), the president appointed a new University Senate committee on publications, and the Registrar's Office first edited and saw through the press all the separate official announcements prepared by representatives of the respective faculties. The committee members and editorial workers required about a year to familiarize themselves with the contents and purposes of publications then being handled centrally for the first time. The Announcement of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts was carefully revised. The regular editorial reading of the Proceedings … of the Regents, delegated to this office in the same year, enabled the editorial workers to keep the official publications more nearly corrected to date as to regental appointments and changes in title or in University organization.

Between 1907 and 1923 the Catalogue became very unwieldy, for it grew from a volume of less than five hundred to one of about one thousand pages. Most of the copies of the Catalogue proper and of the lengthy official list of faculty members, graduates, and students — a section of nearly five hundred pages newly named the Register — were separately bound for the first time in 1923-24. A limited edition of the combined Catalogue and Register was issued for libraries, high schools, and record offices. One alphabetical list of students in the Register replaced thirty-eight such lists in 1925-26, when symbols were substituted for the separate listing to indicate the respective schools. The new arrangement saved time, lowered office and printing Page  259costs, and reduced the likelihood of inaccuracy in the statistical tables.

For years the Catalogue had been issued too late to "announce" the courses properly. Under this procedure it was no more than history by the time it was published. The publications committee therefore recommended a different plan, which received the Regents' approval in April, 1926, but was not fully carried out for the next two years. The plan provided, first, for a new publication called the Bulletin of General Information. This bulletin could be small and therefore inexpensive (per copy); distributed with the appropriate college Announcement, it would answer the large-scale current demand for a catalogue. Second, to preserve complete information for historical purposes was recognized as one of the principal values of a single, comprehensive publication. Its compilation was therefore to be postponed until student, faculty, and other data for the entire year were available. Third, the extra work and expense of partial duplication of the announcements in a larger catalogue was to be ended by the device of saving out a few hundred copies of the Bulletin of General Information, of the several college announcements, and of the Register of Faculty and Students, and binding them into an annual two-volume General Register Issue for purposes of record. This part of the plan did not go into effect until 1927-28, when the serial title of the official publications was changed from University of Michigan Bulletin to University of Michigan Official Publication.

Between 1925 and 1929 the practice of compiling statistics on enrollment, scholarship, and degrees was extended. A freshman ledger, containing first-year records and other data for the study of admission problems, was begun. The first regular statistical assistant was provided for in the budget of 1927-28, and additional maps, graphs, faculty statistics, and other tabular studies began to appear in the registrar's annual report.

In September, 1928, the Regents authorized President Little to appoint "such a committee as in his judgment would best function to study and report upon certain problems of records and admissions." Regents Hubbard, Sawyer, and Gore, Secretary Smith, Dean Ruthven, Registrar Smith, and Dean Huber were appointed. Regent Hubbard, as chairman, reported progress two months later, and the committee's final recommendations were presented to the Regents and approved by them in April, 1929. By this action "the work of the Recorder's office (not admissions to advanced standing) of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the work of the Committee on Classifications of that College" were put under the immediate supervision of the registrar (R.P., 1926-29, pp. 962-64).

The committee on classifications had been created by the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1925, and Daniel Leslie Rich (Waynesburg '02, Ph.D. Michigan '15) had served continuously as its chairman. When the Regents decided to transfer the records of the Literary College they made his title Associate Professor of Physics and Director of Classification, and reduced his classroom duties to six hours a week.

Just before this action was taken by the Regents, a second study of the central-admission situation was begun. In March, 1929, the Senate committee on University affairs received a suggestion that a policy-forming board of admissions be organized, with the registrar as chairman, but that the administration of both admissions and records be decentralized, and in November President Ruthven was requested to appoint a special committee to study and report upon the question. Three professors and Registrar Page  260Smith were appointed and eventually endorsed the plan of centralization of freshman admissions. The committee also stressed the necessity of a co-operative spirit between the secondary schools and the University and the importance of "an assurance that methods of procedure agreed upon will be uniformly practiced by both parties concerned." The report suggested the appointment of a standing committee on admissions representing the several colleges and schools. The Senate committee on University affairs, however, reported a lack of unanimity of opinion among its members in May, 1930, and suggested that further consideration of the subject be left to those directly concerned with problems of admission. Meanwhile, the recording staff of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts had become a part of the Registrar's Office and had been given the task of keeping current records for the Extension Division and the School of Music. Further centralization occurred in the next three years. All recording of the College of Architecture after December, 1931, was transferred to the Registrar's Office, as was that of the School of Education and of the School of Forestry and Conservation in 1933.

To meet the demands made by these new duties additional space in Mason Hall was acquired in 1929 and 1930, and the various functions of the office became more specialized and were separated into four "divisions," namely, Admissions, Records, the Statistical Division, and the Editorial Division.

Nearly one-half of the registrar's present office staff is employed in the Division of Records, which was under the particular charge of Associate Professor Rich until 1936. Early in that year he asked that his schedule be made either all academic or all administrative and indicated his preference for teaching. Accordingly, he was returned to a full-time teaching schedule in the Department of Physics. At the same time, the full-time position of assistant registrar was again created. It was filled by the appointment of Robert Lewis Williams (Millsaps '25, Ph.D. Northwestern '28), then Registrar of Mississippi State College for Women. Dr. Williams took up his work in Ann Arbor in July, 1936.

Division of Records since 1929. — Between 1929 and 1940 the work of the Division of Records has been characterized not only by (1) the increased centralization of records, but also by (2) improvements in registration and classification techniques, (3) improved methods of academic accounting and the new services made possible by these methods, and (4) recent educational studies by the staff.

Registration for the entire University has been simplified, although in the last seven years, when the students have paid fees twice a year rather than annually, the work of second-semester registration has been much heavier than it was before. The alphabetical schedule, begun in 1936, is shifted each semester so that the privilege of early classification falls to a different group each time. For literary students and students in the School of Music and in the School of Education, the whole registration process, including classification, is now centralized under one roof and is made smoothly consecutive.

A different type of permanent record was first used for students entering in the fall of 1929, and was adapted for the purposes of each school and college as its records were transferred to the Registrar's Office. There have been some alterations in size, wording, and arrangement, but the same general style of record, a sheet of linen tracing-cloth suitable for blueprinting, is still in use. Without it, the various services in other University Page  261offices based on the use of separate sets of undergraduate records could probably not have been begun, because of the excessive cost of duplication. However, the stiff card records are more convenient for permanent filing, and some method combining the advantages of both types is desirable. Beginning in 1939, the student records posted in this office have been photostated on heavy card-stock paper as soon as the students were graduated, and the original tracing-cloth records have then been sent to the Alumni Catalog Office for permanent filing.

Since 1930, each student has annually received a print of his complete college record to date, and beginning in 1936 this print has been sent out in the summer, along with printed directions for registration and classification. The office makes an early check for the completion of graduation requirements in order to give students every assistance in electing and completing the required course of study without last-minute misunderstandings. The adoption of the degree programs in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts practically doubled this type of work for the literary students in 1931, because eligibility for concentration in the junior year depends upon so many specific conditions. This work, together with the transmission of duplicate records, helps the academic counselors and degree-program advisers to fulfill their function more effectively.

Blueprints of the student records posted in this office have been made each semester and sent to the officers of the several units concerned. Up-to-date records are of such value in counseling, classifying, and imposing academic discipline that the Registrar's Office has accepted the responsibility of posting all grades within the next working day after they are received. In 1938 this process was further speeded up by the use of tabulating-card procedures in the office of the Statistical Division. Since 1936, all seniors have received official transcripts with their diplomas at the close of the Commencement ceremony.

In order to bring about greater uniformity in the marking systems and in the calculating of grade-point averages in the various colleges (see p. 251), in September, 1936, this office collaborated with the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in devising a four-point system and a calculation method based on the total amount of work attempted. The new plan was approved by the faculty in December, 1936; the first students under the new system are those who are to be graduated in June, 1941.

The increase in the production of official transcripts has been more than proportional to the increase in the centralization of records, chiefly because transcripts have been more widely used in the employment world in recent years and because there have been more educational investigations — also, however, because the use of duplicate records within the University has been greatly extended by the new facilities for rapid and large-scale production. The record cards which were used from 1925 to 1929 can be photostated at a cost of about fifteen cents apiece, and the photostats can then be converted into official transcripts by the addition of the signature and seal. The older records, not marked by semesters and without course titles, are unsuitable for any photographic reproduction process, and the first transcript of any of these must therefore be typewritten.

Since the establishment of the full-time position of assistant registrar it has been possible to make analyses of the records kept in this office. These have been submitted to the respective deans for consideration in connection with their academic procedure. Many of these studies Page  262were published, but others, because of their confidential nature, were not.

Statistical Division since 1929. — The statistical work was given a fresh impetus when, in 1929, machine accounting was introduced. The machines were later moved from the rooms of the Department of Mathematics to a room in the basement of Angell Hall, and in 1936 the statistician was given an adjacent office. These rooms were recently occupied by the Editorial Division, when the statistical office was moved with the mechanical equipment into the new building of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, and Room 108 at the north end of Mason Hall was then released for the use of the academic counselors of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

One of the standard duties of the statistical office — that of preparing the annual count of degrees and certificates granted — was changed in 1929-30, the count being made to cover the fiscal rather than the calendar year. The punched-card system greatly shortens the many arduous tasks of sorting, listing, and counting assigned to this office, particularly those involved in preparing copy for the Register of Students and in keeping that publication corrected to date as it goes through the press. With the card system it is now possible to select information of a particular kind, use it or furnish it to other departments for use, as needed, and then return the cards quickly enough to be reclassified for another purpose. The names of graduating seniors are sorted geographically by home city or town and placed at the disposal of newspapermen through the facilities of the University News Service. The card system was also used in some of the studies that were made by the Division of Records.

The subjects of studies made in the Statistical Division since 1929 include, besides the regular scholarship chart: the distribution of grades to nonprofessional undergraduate students, according to subjects and departments; freshman admissions with deficiencies and those without, further subdivided by Michigan or non-Michigan preparatory schools; analysis of deficiencies by colleges and high-school units; freshman withdrawals classified by cause; and total withdrawals classified according to college, cause, and date. Other studies have been more limited in aim. For example, the grades received in a certain year by students in the R.O.T.C. were compared with those of the other men students, and by special request a table was prepared showing year-by-year enrollment of students from Korea, Japan, China, and India since 1872.

In addition, the usual tables and charts of geographical distribution and the various analyses of enrollment and faculty have been made annually.

Editorial Division since 1929. — The editorial work had grown considerably by 1929, as is roughly indicated by the increase in the number of pages and in the number of separate publications handled. The figures for 1924-25 were 4 publications and 1,645 pages; those for 1928-29, 63 publications and 4,196 pages exclusive of reprints. There were 174 publications handled by this office in 1939-40; included as one item were 270 School of Music programs. The total for the year, exclusive of reprints, was 8,011 pages.

Ever since the School of Music became a part of the University in 1929, the Editorial Division has annually edited and proofread its publications, including the May Festival libretto and the many concert programs. These programs are reprinted in slightly altered form in an annual volume.

Dr. Frank E. Robbins remarked in the first annual report of the University Press (P.R., 1929-30, p. 427) that the Page  263work of the Editorial Division had already relieved faculty members almost entirely of the burden, in time and labor, of seeing official announcements through the press. He said, further: "It is in consequence, I think, that the Senate Committee on Publications, which deals only with 'official' publications, is less active now than formerly."

The administrative committee of the University of Michigan Press and its subcommittee on official publications were created in April, 1931, and entirely replaced the Senate committee on University publications. The managing editor, besides serving as ex officio chairman of the central committee, is a member of the subcommittee, of which the registrar is chairman ex officio.

The approval of the managing editor is required before any new bulletin may be undertaken or an order for any regular publication may be delivered to the printer; otherwise, the routine procedure in the Editorial Division of the Registrar's Office was left relatively unchanged. The subcommittee adopted A Manual of Style, of the University of Chicago Press, as a standard for style.

The annual University of Michigan Directory was set up in the autumn of 1935 to replace the separate faculty and campus telephone directories, and all the regular publications have been gradually improved as they passed through the office. Attention has been called to confusing aspects of the numbering of courses, and many inconsistencies have been eliminated, constant watch having been kept as to agreement of the name and description of any course mentioned in more than one publication, and the use of the standard form of course description has been extended.

A master-file of courses has been compiled as a special NYA project. The official announcements of the respective courses are chronologically arranged on large cards filed by subject. This file was intended primarily as a check upon recent and current course descriptions for editorial purposes, but now its record value for educational studies is becoming evident.

Ten years ago, the service on the Proceedings … of the Regents was extended to the complete editing and proofreading process. A file of official faculty titles, begun several years before for use in the annual Register, has been revised and carefully maintained on the basis of reliable last-minute information from the Proceedings and from copies of appointment letters sent out by the president. Although the bulky list of students was left out of the General Register Issue from 1930 to 1937, the Register of Faculty and Graduates (later, … Staff and Graduates) has appeared in it continuously. In 1936-37 the Register of Students, which had appeared meanwhile as a lithoprinted nonserial volume, was again included in the official series, and the next year it was bound up with the other publications in the General Register Issue.

Several scholarly series are now handled by the office, including Michigan Governmental Studies, School of Forestry and Conservation Bulletins and Circulars, and Ars Islamica. Various other series in anthropology, botany, and zoology are proofread.

At present the editorial staff consists of five full-time members and one half-time member in addition to the supervising editor, Walter Arthur Donnelly ('23, A.M. '24), who in July, 1936, was made, in addition to his responsibilities as Editor of Museums Publications, Supervising Editor of Publications in the Registrar's Office. Since 1938 Mr. Donnelly has also been Assistant Editor of the Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review.

The Division of Admissions since 1929. — The Registrar's general policy as Page  264to admission and orientation of freshmen, involving the greatest possible mutual understanding between the high-school and University officials, has been continued. Not only the Registrar but also several other members of the staff have attended national and state conventions and special events such as "college days" in the high schools.

A slightly enlarged and altered application blank was introduced in 1929. A change in the admission requirements of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture became effective in the autumn of 1930. Requirements for admission to the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were changed several times between 1929 and 1932, biology, government, and geology being added to List A and additional half-units in subjects on this list being made acceptable. Some of the restrictions in the College of Pharmacy entrance requirements were withdrawn in 1933, when chemistry and the grouping of certain half-units in science were dropped, one unit of a foreign language was allowed if additional to two units in another, and any subject recognized for graduation by the accredited high school from which the applicant came became acceptable as a free elective. Similar changes in free electives and in half-units of science were approved for the School of Music in that year.

A University committee on entrance requirements, formed to study the situation as a whole, consulted during 1933-34 with a previously appointed Literary College committee and with several high-school principals who were especially concerned. A basic requirement of two three-unit major sequences and two two-unit minor sequences in high school was recommended by this composite committee to the faculties of all schools and colleges receiving freshmen through this office, with the expectation that definite subject requirements would be added by the faculties concerned. A new set of requirements embodying these sequences was adopted by the Regents in 1934, after it had been approved by the eight faculties involved. The new requirements were made optional until September, 1937, when they entirely replaced the existing requirements. The sequences were to be chosen from five specified groups, and the remainder of the minimum fifteen units was to be made up from electives. The Regents authorized the registrar, with the consent of the departments most directly concerned, to accept other courses for certain of the units listed in the various required sequences.

Also in 1934, the part-examination, part-certificate plan went into effect. Formerly, students without fifteen satisfactory units had not been entitled to certification, but, in order to qualify for admission, had been required to take examinations in all the fifteen units presented for admission. This action gave the registrar discretionary power to give examinations in subjects in which the candidates for admission are deficient and to accept certification in all other subjects. One effect has been an increase in the number of entrance examinations, which under the all-or-none plan had been low.

There was a state-wide movement in the thirties toward more uniform entrance requirements and a smoother joining of high-school and college curricula. The need for this was especially evident after the autumn of 1928, when, by a ruling of the State Board of Education, the entrance requirements of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were made effective in the four state teachers' colleges, it being understood that later changes in the requirements should go into immediate effect in those colleges.

The Michigan Education Association committee on articulation, comprised of Page  265representatives from the various branches of the state instructional system, took a particular interest in correlating the work of Michigan's secondary and higher educational institutions. The liberal arts colleges of the state were represented at a meeting in Ann Arbor in 1930-31, when college-entrance requirements proposed by the committee, of which the Registrar was a member, were discussed though not adopted.

The Regents and this University committee on entrance requirements had kept in close touch with the work of the Michigan Education Association committee. When the faculty recommendations for entrance requirements were adopted by the Regents in 1934 it was provided that descriptions of acceptable high-school units be revised with the assistance of the University departments concerned, and the Registrar was authorized to publish a bulletin to the principals outlining one, two, and three units of various high-school subjects, with study-time and reference recommendations, as well as stating the content of freshman courses in the University. A joint committee was made up in February, 1935. Three representatives were appointed by the head of each University department concerned, and the president of the Department of High School Principals of the Michigan Education Association appointed representatives of the preparatory schools. The Articulation of High-School Studies with Freshman Courses in the University (1936), a bulletin resulting from the work of the joint committee, won favorable comment in many quarters.

High-school principals now regularly receive from the Registrar's Office, in addition to Orientation-Period test scores and invitations to principal-student conferences, the first-semester grades of freshmen from their schools, annual summaries of the grades of the entire freshman class in June, and copies of congratulatory letters sent to the parents of freshmen with exceptionally good first-semester records. Since 1932, letters of congratulation have also been sent to the principals of high schools represented by three or more freshmen with especially high standing in the first semester. In the past four years, special invitations to the Honors Convocation have been issued not only to the honor students, as before, but also to their parents.

The University work in accrediting, outside this office but naturally affecting it in many ways, was reorganized in February, 1932. The University committee on accredited schools, the Division of University Inspection of High Schools, and the committee on inspection of junior colleges were replaced by an administrative committee on co-operation with educational institutions. The work of its two subcommittees — on relations with the secondary schools and on relations with institutions of higher learning — is carried on through the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions. The registrar was made, ex officio, one of the nine members of the central standing committee. The subcommittee on relations with secondary schools was asked to advise him on questions of admission from the secondary schools, and the other subcommittee was asked to advise the several deans as to admission on advanced standing. The Registrar, who had been an ex officio member of the former standing Senate committee on accredited schools, approved by the Regents in 1930, has been called upon frequently, as have other members of the office staff, to inspect high schools.

The first "college day" in which the University participated was, curiously enough, at an out-of-state school. It was held at Highland Park, Illinois. The idea was quickly taken up by the high schools of Michigan and of other states, until Page  266requests became so numerous that many of them had to be refused. The problem of meeting the need for educational guidance in high school without the expense and other undesirable features of "college day" has been the special concern of a committee of the Michigan Association of North Central Colleges of which the Registrar has been chairman for several years and also of a co-operating committee of the Michigan Association of High School Principals. Though a plan which would make "college day" less necessary was submitted in 1938, the committees decided to endorse the continuation and improvement of the college-day programs temporarily.

A suitable method of interviewing prospective students in large urban centers has been used for the last few years in Chicago, Boston, and New York.

Probably the most important work of the Division of Admissions in the last decade, aside from procedures already mentioned, is the practice of rating each incoming freshman as to the expected degree of his success in the University. The first predictions were made in 1931-32. The rating is determined on the basis of the scholarship and personality record of the prospective student at the time when the application is read, and the appropriate mark, which is treated confidentially, is then recorded on the back of the blank, where it can be seen in comparison with the scores received in tests during the Orientation Period. A-1 indicates decidedly higher than average; A-2, average or better. If there is a possibility of scholastic difficulty or of difficulty in adjustment, the student is rated A-3.

Comparisons of these predictions with later records are made regularly, in order to reveal any constant error in judgment and thus to show when doubtful admission cases should be decided with greater leniency or with greater strictness. These comparisons have shown that the predictions are essentially sound. The ratings have therefore been freely used by the counselors, to whom they have been of great value.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angell, James B.The Reminiscences of … New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912.
The Articulation of High-School Studies with Freshman Courses in the University (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 37, No. 42). Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1936.
By-Laws of the Department of Science, Literature and the Arts …, 1855.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914. (Cal.)
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23. (Cat.)
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Editorial. Mich. Alum., 12 (1906): 249.
Editorial. Mich. Alum., 31 (1925): 337.
Effinger, John R. MS, "Report from the College of Literature, Science and the Arts for the Year 1914-1915." 2 pp. In Harry B. Hutchins Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich. ("Report," 1914-15.)
Effinger, John R. MS, "University of Michigan. College of Literature, Science and the Arts, 1909-10 to 1919-20." 26 pp. In Harry B. Hutchins Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich. ("Report," 1909-20.)
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
From Vermont to Michigan; Correspondence of James Burrill Angell: 1869-1871. Ed. by Wilfred B. Shaw. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1936. (Vermont to Michigan.)
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1937-40.
General Rules and Regulations, and By-Laws of the University of Michigan … Detroit: Univ. Mich., 1859. (Bylaws, 1859).
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Laws, Ordinances, By-Laws and Regulations …, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1861.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department [College, 1915-] of Literature,Page  267 Science and the Arts," Univ. Mich., 1908-40.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1880-1940. Univ. Mich.
Organization and Aims of the University of Michigan as Reflected in Its By-Laws …, 1922. Comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923. Pp. i-xix, 1-94. (Bylaws, 1922.)
"Paul Rousseau de Pont."Mich. Alum., 12 (1906): 307-8.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1940. (P.R.)
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," Univ. Mich., 1846-1908. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
"Registrar Arthur G. Hall Dies After Long Illness."Mich. Alum., 31 (1925): 334-35.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Stanley, Albert A."Paul Ro[u]sseau Bellon de Pont."Michiganensian, 10 (1906): 15.
University of Michigan: Its Origin, Growth, and Principles of Government. Comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923. Pp. 1-50.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)

THE FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF THE UNIVERSITY

On the basis of financial support, as well as on the spiritual foundation embodied in the famous "Religion, Morality, and Knowledge" clause in the Ordinance of 1787, the University of Michigan was a national university for thirty years before the time the state accepted responsibility for its support — indeed, for forty-one years if the Detroit period be included. Until 1867 the institution's maintenance, with one controversial exception, was derived from the two townships of land finally granted in 1826 by the Federal Government and in minor degree from student fees (see Part I: The University of Michigan and State Education).

The one exception was involved (in the true sense of the word "involved") in a loan of $100,000 made by the state to the University in 1838. This loan was secured as to both principal and interest by a pledge of income from the federal land sales. By 1852 the loan had been fully repaid, the settlement being aided, it is true, by the state's acceptance of its own depreciated securities at their face value. Within a year or two thereafter, in response to criticism revolving around the administration of the federal land grant, the state began to pay interest to the University on the sum of $100,000 thus exacted. Finally, in 1877, the full amount of $100,000 was placed in the University funds, and at that time it became without question a contribution by the state to the University. Previously it had been first a loan and then a repayment thereof, with a curious history of interest payments first by the institution and then by the state. It cannot be disputed that if the University lands and the proceeds of their sale had been properly protected by the state the University would have been in no need of the loan in the first place.

The proceeds of the sale of the University's federal land grant have remained for some years at the sum of $548,744.40, and this doubtless will prove the ultimate total. On this the state pays interest to the Regents at the rate of 7 per cent per annum. During the early years when the all-important element of Page  268the University's support lay in the proceeds from land sales, the history of the handling of the land and the money derived therefrom bears out the principle that a political body, subject to all sorts of pressure groups, is never a safe trustee. Nobody can doubt that the funds, provided by the national government as an endowment for the University, were hindered and minimized in their accumulation, or that these accumulations were used by the legislature for other than University purposes. On the other hand, the state's obligation was early admitted and has never been seriously questioned, and the annual interest payment at 7 per cent has been fully accepted as one of the state's responsibilities. Further, the two townships of land, 46,080 acres, were sold at an average price of $11.90 per acre, which is believed to be more than twice the price secured for any other educational lands in the Northwest Territory. By the standard of contemporary comparison, therefore, the state of Michigan did not fare so badly.

In 1867 the legislature provided operating support through a tax of one-twentieth of a mill on the taxable property of the state. The proceeds of this tax did not in fact become available until the biennium 1869-71, along with an approximately equal amount, namely, $15,000 a year, which was voted by the legislature of 1869. Also, a building appropriation in 1871 resulted in the erection of University Hall, the first building provided by the state.

It was in 1873 that the legislature of Michigan made what is doubtless its greatest contribution to the University's sustained, vigorous life when it established on a continuing basis the so-called mill tax (see Part I: Constitutional Status and Angell Administration). Nearly fifty years later, in 1920, President David Kinley of the University of Illinois laid down the following essentials of revenue for a state university, a set of specifications to which the mill tax seemed built to order:

  • 1. The source must be adequate.
  • 2. It should increase steadily from year to year at a rate approximately the same as the growth of the university.
  • 3. It should have a broad base, instead of being tied to a single interest or industry.
  • 4. Fluctuation from year to year must not be great.
  • 5. It should be related to the progress of the state in population and wealth and to the returns from education as far as ascertainable, so that the assignment of the particular source of revenue will commend itself.
  • 6. It must be such as to command the approval of the legislature and the people.

The state of Michigan mill tax for the support of its university continued unchanged (except for increases in the rate) from 1873 to 1923, and to it much of the substantial, steady growth of the institution must be attributed. In 1923 (along with an increase in both the rate of tax and the valuation of the state) a limit was placed on the proceeds of the tax. The reason alleged for such limitation was that, as the equalized value of the state could and in fact did increase, the proceeds of the mill tax could increase above the amount which the legislature was willing to vote to the University. In 1927 the limitation on the proceeds of the mill tax was removed, with the new provision that the valuation basis to which the mill-tax rate should be applied would be the valuation next preceding the latest session of the legislature. However, under the influence of the great depression the limitation was reimposed in 1931. Since the abolition of the state real-estate tax in 1935 there has still continued a "mill tax" as a "measuring stick" of the amount to be provided from funds in the state treasury without regard to source. There is thus preserved Page  269the idea of a continuing appropriation based on the wealth of the state.

Student fees throughout later history have accounted for 20-25 per cent of the operating income of the University, exclusive of the University Hospital. The Hospital earns its own way by charges against patients.

Income from endowments and from gifts has become increasingly important in recent years. As of June 30, 1940, the University's endowment funds, in addition to the proceeds of the federal land grant, amounted to $14,215,379.26, with $1,709,735.95 of trust or gift funds additional held for disbursement for certain specified projects and $589,491.60 of student loan funds. Almost all, however, of these types of funds are available only for projects specified by the donors and not for the general needs of the institution.

Income for buildings has been derived since 1873 from the state (either by direct appropriation or through savings from the mill tax), from private benefactions, and, in the case of buildings used for athletics, from income arising out of admissions to athletic events. The Student Publications Building was earned and paid for by the Michigan Daily and other publications. A number of residence halls have recently been erected in part from federal grants and in part from issues of revenue bonds.

Probably the two most detailed discussions of the income of the University, up to the dates of their publication, are parts of the early chapters of Hinsdale's History … (1906) and, especially, "The Financial Support of the University of Michigan; Its Origin and Development," by Price.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Price, Richard R.The Financial Support of State Universities. (Harvard Stud. Ed., Vol. XI.) Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1924.
Price, Richard R."The Financial Support of the University of Michigan: Its Origin and Development."Harvard Bull. Ed., No. 8 (1923): 1-58.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.

THE BUSINESS OFFICE

The business administration of the University of Michigan from 1842 to 1900, if we are to judge by the volume of business of which there is a record, was relatively simple when compared with the University of 1940. For a number of years after the University was established in Ann Arbor, the major items of expenditure consisted of salaries of professors, books for the library, and janitor service. It was not until the first chemical laboratory was built in 1856 that any considerable amount was required for laboratory supplies.

The budget of the University was very simple until instruction in the natural sciences was introduced. The buildings were heated by wood stoves in those days, and the earlier financial reports include expenditures for wood. There was no need for full-time business officers, and although the records indicate that a treasurer Page  270was appointed at one of the first meetings of the Board of Regents, this was a part-time position. The early minutes mention the offices of treasurer and secretary, the secretary being understood to be the secretary of the Regents (see Part I: Regents). Later, the title of "steward," indicating more or less the function of a business manager, was introduced. However, the duties of the steward did not involve the centralization of all the business functions of the University as they are now organized under the control of the vice-president and secretary in charge of business and finance.

One of the early budgets is given here-with to illustrate the expenditures of the University for one year.

TABLE IUniversity of Michigan Budget, 1854-55
Salaries of president and professors $16,900
Traveling expenses of professor of astronomy from Berlin to Ann Arbor 200
Secretary, superintendent and librarian 500
Treasurer, including traveling expenses. 120
Insurance on buildings 345
Expenses of Regents and of visitors appointed by superintendent of public instruction 400
Interest on consolidated warrant 350
Library and printing 1,200
Philosophical apparatus 500
Grounds, buildings, and contingencies, including completion of Medical College 2,500
$23,015

In addition to the above, certain expenses of the Library and Medical Departments were paid out of fees, rents, etc.

The janitors, according to tradition, worked only during the winter months, keeping the buildings clean and providing wood for the stoves. One of the janitors of the 1880's, who is still living, has said that during the winter months he served as a janitor and during the summer as a painter. It is probable that it was the general practice in the early days of the University to make repairs to buildings during the summer, using at least part of the time of those who served as janitors during the winter. It should be remembered that the University was closed during the summer, for the summer session, as now constituted, had not yet been organized. As late as 1897 there was agitation to keep the University Hospital open during the summer, and as a result the legislature appropriated the sum of $3,000 for the year 1897-98 toward this purpose. This act was in effect until the year 1919-20, with annual appropriations throughout this period.

As the University plant increased in size, the problems of operation and maintenance of buildings increased. Gradually, departments were developed for the various mechanical trades, and the budgets of the University indicate that appropriations were made for the paint, plumbing, and electrical shops, and for the care of teams. A superintendent of buildings and grounds (Professor Silas H. Douglass) had been appointed in 1847, but the position was eventually discontinued, and the idea of centralizing the control of the entire physical plant under a single individual was not put into effect until the year 1910, when James Harmon Marks ('08e) was appointed Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds. While it is possible that during the early days a single individual may have supervised the entire plant, it had gradually developed that janitors would report to various officers situated in the buildings where they worked. After the centralized control of the physical plant was established in 1910 the entire janitor service became a part of the Department of Buildings and Grounds (see Part VIII: Department of Buildings and Grounds).

The first separate heating plant, constructed in 1879, was erected directly Page  271east of Mason Hall. Some of the adjacent buildings were heated from this plant, and it was the only heating plant until the introduction of electricity and the expansion of the campus made it necessary to construct a central heating and power plant in 1894. This plant was built near the West Engineering Building and was situated in the building now being used as the Reserve Officers' Training Corps headquarters. The operation of this plant was placed directly in charge of the Department of Engineering. After the appointment of Mr. Marks as Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds the various plumbing, painting, and electrical shops, scattered over the campus, were centralized in a new structure adjacent to the heating and power plant on Washington Street. Both of these buildings were completed in 1914 and were placed under the Department of Buildings and Grounds. For many years the Washington Street power plant furnished heat and electricity solely to the main University campus. As a part of the large building program during the Burton administration (1920-25) a new tunnel system, including an extension to the then new University Hospital Building, was constructed, and since then all buildings on the main campus, including the Hospital and dormitories, have been furnished with heat and light by the Washington Street plant. For the past several years electricity has been furnished from the main power plant to some outlying units such as the athletic buildings. After the resignation of Mr. Marks as Superintendent in 1916, Lyman Russell Flook ('13e) served for two years in that capacity. He was followed in 1918 by Edward Charles Pardon ('12e), the present Superintendent.

In the Business Office proper, more or less centralization of financial matters gradually developed, but such centralization was not completely effected until shortly after the year 1900. The office of the secretary of the University gradually developed into the central business office, although the treasurer retained some of those functions ordinarily handled in a central business office. Early in the history of the University the plan of financial organization prevailing in state and municipal governments was followed. This plan provided for a treasurer and a secretary, each serving as a check on the other, in the same way that state auditors and treasurers, county clerks and treasurers, or city officers check each other. This was quite natural, for accounting technique, particularly in our educational institutions, had not developed to a very high point in this country, and modern accounting systems with their checks and balances were unknown. Therefore, in considering the development of the Business Office of the University, it is necessary to include both the secretary's and the treasurer's offices. Although the functions of the two officers were not clearly defined, the treasurer's duties were largely confined to collecting money and making disbursements, whereas the secretary kept the more detailed accounts of receipts and disbursements.

This essentially simple procedure was maintained under James Henry Wade, Secretary of the University from 1883 to 1908, and Harrison Soule, Treasurer during approximately the same period. Both of these men were of the highest character. The inadequate system of accounting, however, which involved the keeping of a special petty cash fund which was not regularly entered upon the University's books, and the practice of the Secretary of using University coal in his home, according to a custom of long standing, led to strong criticisms of the Secretary by the attorney general of the state. This brought about the resignation of the Secretary and the payment Page  272on his part for some of the coal used and a reimbursement of the special fund, which had been used for purposes which he had deemed necessary but had not reported to the auditor-general. The whole discussion led to a reorganization of the business administration of the University and to the appointment of Shirley Wheeler Smith ('97, A.M. '00) in 1908 as Secretary of the University.

For a great many years the budget of the University consisted principally of salaries of professors. With the establishment of many new departments of instruction and the rapid expansion of the plant, the budget became more and more complicated, but there was little effort to simplify it until shortly after 1900, when a new procedure and new forms for preparation of the budget were instituted. The summaries of budgets for 1907-8 and 1911-12 as printed in the Regents' Proceedings show a marked change in form and organization.

After the year 1900, with the rapid development of instruction in the sciences and in the various branches of engineering, the business functions of the larger universities expanded enormously throughout the United States, and the problem of efficient business management of all our larger institutions became more and more complicated. It was evident that centralized financial control was an absolute necessity if budgets were not to be overdrawn and if bills were to be paid promptly.

The appointment of a new superintendent of buildings and grounds in 1910, alluded to previously, brought under central control the various activities connected with the operation and maintenance of buildings and grounds, including the operation of the central heating and power plant. The reorganization of the budget and the establishment of a central purchasing department at about the same time marks the real beginning of centralized accounting and business control. A full-time purchasing agent was appointed in 1911, and on February 1, 1914, John C. Christensen (Kans. State Agricultural Coll. '94) came to the University as Assistant Secretary.

Since that time, by centralizing in the Secretary's Office accounting control of all University departments, the University business administration gradually has been extended to include the entire institution. The purchasing procedure was reorganized, and eventually all purchase orders, including orders for books, went out over the signature of the purchasing agent. The accounting system also was reorganized, and an effective method of budget control was instituted in the Secretary's Office. In 1927, in recognition of these changes, Mr. Smith's title was changed to Secretary and Business Manager. In the previous summer, Herbert Gale Watkins ('12) had been appointed Assistant Secretary of the University, succeeding Louis Paul Buckley ('05l), who had held that position since 1920.

In 1929 Alexander G. Ruthven was appointed President, and shortly thereafter he reorganized the administration of the University along corporation lines with the appointment of three vice-presidents, one of whom was designated as vice-president and secretary. After the resignation of Robert A. Campbell as Treasurer in 1931, the Secretary's Office was reorganized into four major divisions, namely, accounting, purchasing, cashier, and investments. The title of Shirley W. Smith was changed to Vice-President and Secretary in Charge of Business and Finance and that of John C. Christensen to Controller and Assistant Secretary, with the heads of the four major divisions designated as chief accountant, purchasing agent, cashier, and investment officer.

The total force of the Business Office now aggregates approximately seventy-five Page  273

TABLE II
Educational Plant Assets, June 30, 1940
Lands $ 6,346,304.58
Buildings 35,916,137.47
Land improvements 1,952,908.87
Equipment 13,809,181.28
Total $58,114,532.20
Income for Year Ended June 30, 1940
Including Hospital Excluding Hospital
Amount Per Cent Amount Per Cent
Student fees $1,860,181.32 18.41 $1,860,181.32 23.47
State appropriations 4,610,000.00 45.62 4,610,000.00 58.16
Federal land grant 38,428.88 .38 38,428.88 .48
Sales and services 288,655.37 2.86 288,655.37 3.64
Hospital receipts 2,177,476.72 21.55
Income from endowment 547,420.09 5.42 547,420.09 6.91
Gifts for current use 434,470.47 4.30 434,470.47 5.48
Miscellaneous 147,297.95 1.46 147,297.95 1.86
Totals $10,103,930.80 100.00 $7,926,454.08 100.00
Expenditures for Year Ended June 30, 1940
Including Hospital Excluding Hospital
Amount Per Cent Amount Per Cent
General administration $ 508,978.51 5.25 $ 508,978.51 6.65
General expense 591,739.77 6.10 591,739.77 7.73
Instruction 4,619,194.93 47.61 4,619,194.93 60.32
University Hospital 2,045,142.83 21.08
Organized research 207,124.57 2.13 207,124.57 2.70
Extension 131,041.12 1.35 131,041.12 1.71
Libraries 371,922.84 3.83 371,922.84 4.86
Operation and maintenance of physical plant 920,883.51 9.49 920,883.51 12.03
Service departments 115,881.51 1.19 115,881.51 1.51
Physical-plant additions from current funds 5,614.76 .06 5,614.76 .07
Prizes, student aid, and other aid 185,393.62 1.91 185,393.62 2.42
Totals $9,702,917.97 100.00 $7,657,775.14 100.00
persons. In 1940, its functions may briefly be defined as follows:

All financial management is centralized under the vice-president and secretary in charge of business and finance, who is responsible to the president and the Board of Regents. This includes direction of the central Business Office, the Department of Buildings and Grounds, and various other departments or divisions dealing with business or service functions, such as the Printing Department, the Binding Department, and the various storehouses.

Professor Lewis M. Gram, Director of Plant Extension, supervises and directs the expansion of the plant, including new construction. Financial control of new construction, however, is centralized in the Business Office. The vice-president in charge of business and finance serves as secretary of the Board of Regents and Page  274has an assistant secretary to assist him in performing this function, while the controller and assistant secretary is charged with the responsibility of detailed administration of the Business Office and assists the vice-president and secretary in such matters as may be delegated by him.

The growth of the University from 1855 to 1940 may be seen at a glance if the information in Table I be compared with a few excerpts from the annual financial report of the year ending June 30, 1940, given in Table II.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
University of Michigan. Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.

ENDOWMENTS

THE first endowment of the University of Michigan was established by an act of Congress on May 20, 1826, which authorized the secretary of the treasury to set aside two townships of land for the benefit of the University. The proceeds from the sale of this land, which are in the custody of the

TABLE I
June 30, 1924 June 30, 1940
Professorship and lectureship funds $ 288,858.04 $ 771,162.47
Fellowship and scholarship funds 722,295.98 1,498,156.10
Prize and student-aid funds 12,745.10 481,103.90
Library funds 75,524.83 398,218.15
Publication funds 64,875.00 146,962.16
Hospital funds 27,389.84 38,414.84
Miscellaneous funds 130,202.88 10,188,049.25
Endowments for student-loan funds 173,588.13 416,251.96
Unrestricted 547,664.40 548,744.40
$2,043,144.20 $14,487,063.23
state treasurer, amounted to $548,744.40 on June 30, 1940. This endowment is known on the University records as the "original federal endowment," and the state pays the University interest thereon at the rate of 7 per cent per annum (see Part I: Early History).

Many years elapsed before the University received any endowment from private sources (see Part I: Gifts). In 1880 Walter Crane deeded some property in Detroit to the University as an endowment, but this did not function as such until the property was sold in 1902 and the proceeds, amounting to $20,719.28, were turned over to the fund. Since then the income from this fund has been used for miscellaneous purposes.

In 1886 the University received $458.41 from a campaign to raise funds for the purchase of German books for the General Library. This was the first endowment fund turned over to the University in cash and to be invested to yield an income.

Page  275The Williams professorship fund, established by the Alumni Association, was not turned over to the University until 1898, though the fund had been established a number of years earlier and had provided a retiring allowance to Professor George Palmer Williams (see Part II: Alumni Association).

Practically all of the endowment funds given to the University from private sources are for restricted purposes, as only five, totaling $200,000, might be construed as of a general nature. Even expenditures from these funds have been almost invariably for special purposes designated by the president or the Regents. It can therefore be said that only the original federal endowment is used to supplement funds for the general operating expenses of the University. Thus the University still relies principally upon appropriations from the state and student fees for general operation. However, such endowments as the Bates professorship in the Medical School, the Hudson professorship in history, to some extent the William W. Cook endowment, the funds derived from the Horace H. Rackham estate, and the New York University of Michigan Club endowment do supplement funds for general operation to a limited degree.

The comparison between the major classifications of endowment funds as of June 30, 1940, and those of June 30, 1924, the first year such a classification occurred, may be seen in Table I.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.

PROVISIONS FOR PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT

UNTIL the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching established the Carnegie free pensions, there was no plan for large-scale pensioning of college teachers. Organized in 1905 by a gift of ten million dollars from Andrew Carnegie, the Foundation originally made no provision for the faculties of state universities. In 1908, however, Mr. Carnegie extended the benefits of the Foundation to properly qualified state universities and also increased the endowment of the Foundation by an additional five million dollars.

In February, 1909, the Regents of the University of Michigan passed a resolution directing the president to file a formal request for participation of the University in the pension plan of the Foundation.

At the September, 1909, meeting, the president reported to the Regents that one professor who had resigned after long service and the widows of two professors were being provided with retirement allowances by the Carnegie Foundation.

From 1909 until November 17, 1915, the Foundation continued to accept faculty members of qualified institutions as eligible for retiring allowances, but after the latter date no new appointments were accepted. This limitation resulted Page  276from inability to carry out the original plan of Mr. Carnegie to provide free retiring allowances to the faculties of American colleges and universities due to the unforeseen growth in the number of persons eligible for such pensions.

The officers of the Foundation thereupon made a thorough study of pension plans in Europe, and in 1918 the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association was organized for the purpose of providing joint contributory retiring allowances. On January 10, 1919, and on April 25, 1919, the Regents adopted the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association plan embodying the provision that the University would match an annual contribution of 5 per cent of salary by the employee with an annual maximum of $250 for such faculty members as were eligible. This plan has been in effect without interruption and is now the established pension policy for the faculty and for a limited number of administrative officers.

In 1929 the Carnegie Foundation found it impossible to maintain the original provisions of free retiring allowances for those accepted prior to November 17, 1915. At that time the Regents, with the assistance of the Carnegie Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation, established a plan to provide pensions substantially as originally contemplated by the Foundation, in the following manner:

  • 1. All faculty members on the accepted list of the Carnegie Foundation were required to subscribe to an annuity policy in the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association on the same basis as staff members already contributing to the established Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association plan, but with the University matching contributions up to $360 instead of $250 per year.
  • 2. The Carnegie Foundation, together with the Carnegie Corporation, agreed to a joint annual contribution not to be in excess of $1,500, toward the pensions of persons on the accepted list of November 17, 1915.
  • 3. For the purpose of making up any difference in pension between the original provisions of the Carnegie pension plan and the proceeds of the two preceding sources, the University established the so-called "older faculty members' retirement fund," which is being used to provide supplementary pensions upon retirement for those still remaining on the Carnegie Foundation accepted list when the total pensions provided under 1 and 2 above, are not sufficient.
When the remaining staff members on the Carnegie plan have retired, all those eligible for pensions will be on the joint contributory plan of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association. This includes all faculty members of the rank of instructor and above and a few administrative officers.

During the past few years efforts have been made on various occasions to institute some plan of retirement annuities for the so-called nonacademic staff, but in each instance a lack of funds on the part of the University has made it necessary to abandon the proposal. In his report to the president on June 30, 1940, the vice-president and secretary in charge of business and finance mentioned an old-age security plan for nonfaculty employees as one of the outstanding administrative needs of the University.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Page  277

THE COMMITTEE ON OFFICE PERSONNEL

PRIOR to 1912, appointment, promotion, dismissal, and salary changes were primarily under the direction of the unit utilizing the services of office employees. Requests for such appointments or for changes in salary were either made directly to the Regents or included in the annual budget of the unit. As this group increased in number, the burden of acting upon separate requests during the year led the Regents, in February, 1912, to place final authority for recommendation in the secretary of the University. They also declared at that time "that those employees whose duties are of a stenographic or clerical nature are to be regarded as employees of the University as a whole no matter to what department or office assigned" (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 360-61).

The Regents, in February, 1920, authorized the president, the secretary, and the dean of the school or college concerned to expend sums not exceeding $500, ad interim. The effect of this resolution was broadened in March, giving this committee power over employment and salary adjustments of clerks and stenographers. Later that year (R.P., 1917-20, p. 945) the salaries of the clerical-administrative staff were segregated for separate study by the executive committee and the secretary. No general bylaw was prepared until 1926. The Regents continued, however, to refer specific requests to the secretary, and his office in addition exercised in limited degree the powers implied in the passages just recited.

In June, 1925 (R.P., 1923-26, p. 620), the finance committee of the Regents, in reporting the budget for the next biennium, declined to make any recommendation on one large class of salaries. The committee stated that budget requests seemed conflicting, and that no satisfactory University policy existed. However, they presented a resolution, which was adopted, as follows:

That … Professor Edmund E. Day, Dean of the School of Business Administration, be requested and authorized to make a general survey and report upon all positions on the University staff of the following general classifications:

Assistant secretaries, assistant registrars or recorders of schools or colleges, secretaries to deans and all other University officials, accountants, stenographers, typists, clerks, and in fact all members of the staff with duties of a similar nature to any of those indicated in the above list.

Further, this report should "embody recommendations as to classification of such employees, their salaries, duties, responsibilities and other pertinent matter, if any, and also a general plan of University procedure with respect to matters involved." Dean Day presented his report at the October meeting.

The report contained a classification and an appropriate range of salaries for each class. It recommended maintenance of a file of information on comparable rates of pay elsewhere, smaller increases at shorter intervals, a consistent and significant system of titles, a plan of some centralized review to prevent disparities of treatment, and constant revision and amendment of duties and qualifications. The report also suggested that work of this sort could be satisfactorily carried on in the office of the secretary of the University.

The Regents received and filed the report. In January, 1926, they created a "committee on non-academic and non-officer personnel" charged with advising Page  278them "in every case involving salaries, duties, titles, office hours, vacations, and hours of absence, and other conditions affecting or involved in the service of employees of the general classes mentioned" (in a preceding paragraph of the resolution). This committee consisted of the president, the secretary, and the officer whose staff member was under consideration.

A further study of these positions was authorized in May, 1929. In addition to reclassification, this study was directed to determine "whether any generally applicable, equitable regulations for appointment and for promotion within or between such groups can be advantageously developed, with equitable and just provision for salary payments based on value of services and on responsibilities carried." Professors C. S. Yoakum and Margaret Elliott were directed to make the study.

The informal report of findings was presented to the Regents in September, 1931. The formal report was received and placed on file at the November meeting. After considering the earlier informal report, the Board established a standing committee on office personnel. This committee consisted of the then "two Vice-Presidents and Mr. H. G. Watkins, Assistant Secretary, as 'standing' members, with the addition, in each individual case to be considered, of the Dean or other divisional head concerned." The committee was given authority to employ a permanent secretary and was instructed to function as a personnel office with respect to the general groups of employees previously mentioned. Dr. Haynes, Director of the University Hospital, was made a standing member of the committee in 1935.

The committee on office personnel was organized mainly to promote efficiency and to prevent inequities in working conditions, in work hours, and in salaries. Each of the several hundred positions was studied, classified, and accorded a salary range. Since the establishment of the committee this work has been carried on continuously. It was agreed that vacancies should be filled wherever possible by promotions and transfers from within the clerical staff. This procedure recognizes worthy employees, capable of carrying more difficult duties, or better suited to another task. Continuously, from the establishment of the committee emphasis has been placed on encouragement and growth of each employee; and a constantly increasing number of transfers and promotions has been possible.

To avoid possible hasty consideration which might result from studying hundreds of cases at budget time, the anniversary system for salary increases was adopted. Each month the committee meets and carefully reviews the case of each employee whose anniversary month of employment occurs in the following month. Graphs are prepared so that at a glance committee members and the dean or department head can observe his particular employee's position in relation to other employees within the same classification.

In addition to considerable numbers of permanent appointments, transfers, and promotions, each year hundreds of temporary workers are sent out from the personnel office to departments calling for extra help. An active file is maintained, giving information on approximately seven hundred applicants for all different types of clerical and secretarial work.

The work of the year is summarized in the annual report of the secretary of the University. These reports give briefly the salient points of the year's operations.

Page  279
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1924-25, 1929-30, 1931-32, 1935-39.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1910-40.

INSURANCE

FIRE INSURANCE. — On April 18, 1900, the Regents directed the secretary "to cancel all insurance in accordance with the instructions of the Auditor General; the State having by law decided to carry its own insurance." In this record, quite clearly, only fire insurance is referred to. The largest total of fire insurance mentioned in any earlier Regents' record was $200,000 (Apr., 1899). This was presumably the total coverage thus canceled.

The ancient adage "Put not your trust in princes" received a new illustration in the summer of 1911 with the burning of what was then known as the Old Medical Building (see Part VIII: First Buildings). When the Regents sought reimbursement for this burned building through the state insurance fund all responsibility was denied on the ground that the constitutional corporation entitled "The Regents of the University of Michigan," being set off and separated from the state government in general, is ineligible to compensation from a state fund for its loss by fire.

In March, 1912, Regent Clements, chairman of the buildings and grounds committee, reported that as the auditor-general, on the basis of an opinion by the attorney general, would not object to auditing University vouchers for fire-insurance premiums, the committee to which the question of protection had been referred with power had placed specific insurance upon University buildings and contents to a total of $1,750,000. By 1936-37, buildings and contents were covered to approximately $9,500,000.

The rate paid for fire insurance originally was $.80 per hundred for five years, or $.16 per hundred per year. This rate continued until the formation of the companies' so-called Rating Bureau, under whose administration the average rate was early increased to $1.20 per hundred for three years, or an annual rate of $.40. This was an increase of 150 per cent over the original rate. However, with the great increase of fireproof buildings in later years, with the use of coinsurance clauses where these seemed desirable, and on the basis of the University's "fire experience," the rate was gradually reduced again to its figure in 1938, namely, $.535 per hundred for three years, or slightly less than $.18 per hundred per year. In 1939 we rearranged our coverage, placing practically all our property values under blanket form at a rate of $.23 per hundred for three years, or less than $.08 per annum, increasing our coverage $11,000,000 without increasing the amount of our premiums. In December, 1940, all of the University property located in Ann Arbor, with the exception of dwellings, some small, miscellaneous properties, and properties handled by the Investment Office, were covered under a blanket form at a three-year rate of $.215 per hundred of insurance, or $.072 on an annual basis.

The University's fire-loss ratio has been excellent over the whole history of nearly thirty years. A well-organized watchman service, frequent inspections, and extremely careful attention to the recommendations of inspectors have all helped. One important influence in securing Page  280low rates lies in the interior system of fire mains by which pumps, installed in duplicate and connected with the University's naval tank, can be started instantly upon an alarm of fire, and can so increase the pressure in the fire mains reaching every University building as to give to firemen ample water at unusually high pressure.

The chief source of such fires as the University has had seems to be the cigarette. During the six years 1934-40, a total of eighty-nine fires was reported, mostly small, and out of this total, forty, or 45 per cent, were traceable to smokers' carelessness.

Workmen's compensation insurance. — Although the corporation known as "The Regents of the University of Michigan" is exempted from the terms of the Workmen's Compensation Act of the state, the Regents have desired to keep pace, in University operations, with this humane type of legislation and have protected the institution and its employees from the time when workmen's compensation insurance went into effect in Michigan. At first the University was permitted to except from the policy members of the faculty, officers, clerks and stenographers, and similar groups to which the Compensation Act is not in its philosophy particularly applicable. In later years legislation and the regulations of the State Insurance Department have not permitted companies to take such "partial risks." At present every person on the University pay roll, of whatever status, is protected by the workmen's compensation insurance policy, covering hospitalization and other prescribed benefits, and prescribed amounts of pay during incapacity from occupational accident. In cases of employees on a permanent or semipermanent basis whom the University might continue at full salary during temporary incapacity, the amount payable under the insurance policy reduces the net cost of such continuance of salary. In the policy of insurance the company is always required, in its acceptance of responsibility, not to set up as a defense the fact that the Regents are not legally subject to the Workmen's Compensation Act.

Since 1938, the Regents have considerably changed and expanded the insurance protection carried. At this time, February, 1941, there are the following coverages:

Fire insurance: more than $25,000,000, largely in blanket policies, with a rate of $.215 per hundred for three years, or $.072 on an annual basis. Also appropriate specific coverage on investment properties and on certain detached properties.

Automobile insurance: on all University-owned automobiles and trucks, against fire, theft, property damage within $5,000, and public liability with limits of $20,000 to $40,000. The University owns over sixty trucks and trailers.

Boiler insurance: carried largely for the value of the inspection service.

Fidelity bonds: every person on the pay roll is bonded. Certain officials and employees handling cash or securities are bonded to the extent of $150,000 each. Other employees responsible for lesser amounts of cash or securities are covered by smaller bonds, and finally, all other employees are covered to a grand total of $50,000 for this classification.

Burglary, safe, and holdup insurance: carried in what are believed to be appropriate amounts with consideration of the exposure due to vaults inadequate in space and security.

Partly as a matter of satisfactory public relations in case of accidents, liberal public liability insurance is carried on all University premises, including elevators.

Workmen's compensation insurance.

Other risks specifically covered include earthquake (McMath-Hulbert Observatory, at Lake Angelus); films in transit; exhibits of various sorts; certain especially valuablePage  281art pieces; radium; parcel post and registered mail; miscellaneous thefts; windstorm; and builder's risk on new buildings. Also the terms of trust agreements under which revenue bonds are issued require insurance against loss of rent due to fires, etc. The courses in flying require a special policy covering accidents to student participants.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1941.

THE OFFICE OF THE DEAN OF STUDENTS

IN a letter addressed to the president of the University and to the Senate Council of the University Senate under date of March 20, 1919, Louis A. Strauss, Professor of English and chairman of the committee on student affairs, recommended the creation of the office of dean of men. This was the first time that such an office in the University of Michigan had been suggested. In his letter Strauss mentioned the growth of extracurricular student activities and of the accompanying problems, and pointed out the committee's "inadequacy to the needs of the situation." He also called attention to the fact that "the need of such an official has already been felt by the state universities to which we are nearest akin, namely, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois and Iowa."

In the annual report of the committee to the University Senate, made in May, 1919, Strauss again emphasized the need of a dean. The Senate Council, the University Senate, and the Board of Regents successively approved during the following year a resolution calling for the appointment of a full-time officer to attend especially to student interests. Because negotiations for a new president were then in process, it was deemed wise to postpone the establishment of such a position until the new executive's attitude toward it could be known, so that if he should favor the plan the first incumbent could be one chosen by him.

President Marion L. Burton took office in the fall of 1920. He came from the University of Minnesota, where for some time there had been a dean of student affairs, and consequently he was familiar with the need for such an officer and his duties. The result was the creation at the University of Michigan of the position of dean of students and the appointment, on February 1, 1921, of Joseph A. Bursley ('99e), Professor of Mechanical Engineering, to fill the place.

When the office was established the entire personnel consisted of Dean Bursley and a secretary. The duties were undefined, except that in making the appointment the Regents had provided that the dean of students was to act as "friend, counselor and guide to the student body and to have the general oversight of its welfare and of its several activities."

Within six months the work had grown so that an assistant dean of students had been appointed on a half-time basis to supervise the housing of men students, and a secretary had been added to the personnel to take charge of student employment. Duties later assigned to the dean of students and his staff included the inspection of rooming-houses for men, the administration of the automobile regulation imposed by the Regents, Page  282the auditing of the accounts of student organizations, the supervision of the financial affairs of fraternities, the issuing of student identification cards, the administration of the rules relative to student social affairs and of the rules of eligibility for participation in extracurricular affairs other than athletic, and the maintenance of a personal record card for each student.

The dean of students is the directing head of all of these activities and is concerned with many of the details. In addition, he has many other duties which bring him into intimate contact with individual students and student organizations. He is not, as is sometimes assumed, primarily a disciplinary officer of the University. On the contrary, he is more interested in keeping students out of trouble than in seeing that they are punished for violations of University rules and regulations. Visiting students who are sick in the Health Service or in the University Hospital; trying, from time to time, to locate students who disappear; interviewing anxious parents; consulting with students about all their manifold problems — scholastic, financial, moral, and otherwise — and intervening for them when they are in difficulties with the local police — these are a few of the duties of the dean of students.

The various personal problems of individual students, upon which so much of the time of this office is spent, include those of finances. The dean of students, as chairman of the committee on student loans, interviews every year fifteen hundred to two thousand students who wish to borrow from the loan funds amounts varying from five to five hundred dollars (see Part IX: Student Loan Funds). He is also ex officio chairman of the committee on student affairs and of the committees on student conduct and on the Honors Convocation; he is an ex officio member of the University Senate, the University Council, the deans' conference, the Board of Directors of the Michigan Union, the Board in Control of Student Publications, the committee on theater policy and practice, the executive committee of the Interfraternity Council, and the Orientation-Period committee. These are his official positions. Between meetings, at all hours of the day or night, he is the friend and father confessor of the student body.

The increased duties of the office have necessitated an increased personnel; in 1940 the staff included, in addition to the dean, two assistant deans, a housing inspector, a police officer to assist in enforcing the automobile regulation, six secretarial and clerical assistants, and three student assistants. Even with this help, there are many times when at least a part of the staff is forced to work late at night in order to meet the demands made by the larger extracurricular student affairs.

In an institution of the size of the University of Michigan, such an office must be constantly occupied with the ever changing and ever increasing duties which it performs for the student body, for the faculty, and for the community at large.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

MS, "Minutes of the Senate Council," May, 1919. Univ. Mich.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-23, pp. 120-21, 157, 250.
Strauss, Louis A. MS, letter addressed to president and Senate Council as chairman of committee on student affairs, Mar. 20, 1919. Univ. Mich.
Page  283

THE OFFICE OF THE DEAN OF WOMEN

THE founding of the Women's League in 1890 by the undergraduate women and their friends resulted in a greater feeling of unity than had previously existed among the women, and in a realization of their needs (see Part IX: The Michigan League). Women were coming to the University in ever increasing numbers; in the five-year period 1885-90 their enrollment rose from 196 to 369, and in 1892 there were 531 women students.

Eliza Maria Mosher, 1896-1902. — In 1896 the first dean of women was appointed to give special attention to the needs and welfare of the women students — Dr. Eliza Maria Mosher ('75m). Dean Mosher's special interest was in physical education. It is significant that she developed classes in hygiene, which she herself taught, and organized the Department of Physical Education for Women. She was very influential in the campaign for Barbour Gymnasium and in planning the building, which was to include not only a gymnasium, but also a small auditorium (Sarah Caswell Angell Hall), social rooms, a dining-room, and a kitchen. She resigned in 1902 to return to the practice of medicine, in which her greatest interest lay.

Myra Beach Jordan, 1902-22. — The second dean of women was Myra Beach Jordan. Myra Beach was born near Battle Creek in 1863. She came to study at the University in 1889 and remained two years. After returning in 1893, as the wife of Frederick P. Jordan, Assistant Librarian, she took work in the University, and in June, 1906, took her degree "as of the class of 1893."

As soon as she was appointed Dean of Women, Mrs. Jordan made a great point of knowing the girls personally. She reduced organization and red tape to the simplest terms, moved the office from the faculty room to one of the parlors of Barbour Gymnasium, where it is still situated (1940), and made herself a vital force in the life of the women. Miss Agnes Wells, now Dean of Women at the University of Indiana, wrote:

Mrs. Jordan came as Dean of Women in my senior year and the social life in the women's world began to develop. The girls of 1903 gave their first class play (the Senior Play), very crude to be sure, but we enjoyed it. We also had the first class breakfast with Dr. Angell and Mrs. Jordan as our guests. One hundred and twenty-four out of one hundred and thirty-five girls in the class attended the breakfast. These class activities have been carried out ever since.

In the following year Mrs. Jordan planned and wrote the first Junior Girls' Play, a play given by the juniors in honor of the seniors, now a tradition and one of the more important events on the girls' social calendar (see Part IX: Junior Girls' Play).

Dean Jordan's greatest interest, and perhaps her most noteworthy achievement, was the improvement of actual living conditions of the women. With the help of the Women's League, especially of sorority women, and against a great deal of opposition, she organized the approved houses for women, which were termed "League houses." It was required that women no longer live in men's rooming houses, and that every house for women have decent, well-kept rooms, a parlor in which to entertain callers, and adequate bathroom facilities. Mrs. Jordan's interest in housing went further in the stimulation of interest in dormitories, and during her regime, Helen Newberry Residence and Martha Cook Building (1915), Alumnae House (1917), Betsy Barbour House (1920), and Adelia Page  284Cheever House (1921) were given to the University by interested friends and alumni.

The student employment and placement work now carried out in the Office of the Dean of Women began when, in 1902, Mrs. Jordan helped to find work for a young woman student who had arrived in Ann Arbor with only a small sum of money but with a large determination to get a college education. Mrs. Jordan found homes in which this young woman (now the director of Stockwell Hall) did housework and took care of children to help defray her living expenses. The idea of a college girl's doing such work was new in those days. The group needing such aid slowly increased, and in 1910, when about thirty girl students were working their way through school, a special employment committee composed of Dean Jordan and two others was organized. Its purpose was to put girls' employment on a business basis and to arrange a schedule of wages. As the demand for work grew it became necessary to organize a kind of bureau of employment in the Office of the Dean of Women, where girls in need of work and people interested in employing students might register and be brought together. At the present writing (1940), more than one hundred and fifty women students are earning all of their expenses and more than five hundred are partially self-supporting. The supervision of this group occupies a large part of the time of one of the staff, since it involves arranging employment, adjusting wages and standards of work and hours, supervising the health of the group, and acting as special adviser to all employed women. Since the opening of the women's dormitories, all waitress positions are held by women students. The Michigan League provides others with work, and many private homes and business firms use student help. In general this group of students maintains a high scholastic average.

The work now done by the Office of the Dean of Women is the direct outgrowth of Mrs. Jordan's co-operation with a Women's League committee.

When Mrs. Jordan retired in 1922, she had set the pattern for housing organization, had encouraged and helped to formulate student government, and had sponsored, if not actually planned, many of the now traditional social events of the school year. Although many of the girls now at the University do not know Mrs. Jordan, she is still a very great influence in their campus life. The Regents accompanied their acceptance of her resignation with the following statement:

It is with feelings of genuine regret that the resignation of Mrs. Jordan, as Dean of Women, is accepted. She has served in that capacity for twenty years. When undertaking the work at Ann Arbor problems presented were many, but new. The method of handling the situation as it grew and developed required attention to detail, tact, and a personality — all of which during the entire period of her work she has apparently appreciated. Not alone has she materially improved the housing condition of the women students on the campus but she has throughout her career taken a personal interest in ways not shown in public that should be appreciated by every one interested in the welfare of the University women.

It is strikingly to her credit that thanks to her methods no untoward circumstance or happening of a serious nature has arisen among women students in recent years. When it is considered how many there are and how rapid has been the growth of the University, it is small wonder the Governing Body feels grateful to Mrs. Jordan for the results which must be accredited to her.


(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 364-65.)

Jean Hamilton, 1922-26. — Mrs. Jordan was succeeded by Miss Jean Hamilton (Vassar '00). In 1923-24 the position of assistant dean of women was created. It was held that year by Miss Marion Hollings Blood (Pennsylvania '20, A.M. ibid. '23), and then by Miss Grace Evaleen Page  285Richards (Minnesota '10, A.M. ibid. '17).

Before Mrs. Jordan's resignation, the Alumnae Council had undertaken to raise a million dollars for a woman's building. The organization of this campaign was under way. In 1924, Dean Hamilton assumed the duties of chairman of the campaign, and with the publicity firm of Tamblyn and Brown, Incorporated, of New York City, launched the drive for funds. Because the campaign was to take a great deal of Dean Hamilton's time and attention, Mrs. Amy Hobart was appointed temporary Assistant Dean of Women. In 1926 Miss Hamilton and her assistant, Mrs. Hobart, resigned.

Committee of advisers, 1926-30. — At the suggestion of President Little, the Regents did not continue the office of dean of women, but appointed a committee of three advisers of women — Miss Grace E. Richards, already a member of the staff, Miss Beatrice W. Johnson (Maine '24, A.M. ibid. '25), and Miss Alice C. Lloyd ('16). The task which the advisers undertook was to make the office as informal and friendly as possible, to support student government, and to know the girls personally in as large numbers as possible. During the years 1926-30, the enrollment increased each year, and the housing problem was again a very serious one. Prices were high, and rooms were inadequate (see Part IX: The Housing of Women Students). A report was submitted at this time to the Regents, and the result was the building of Mosher-Jordan Halls to house 440 girls.

Miss Johnson resigned in the fall of 1929. Mrs. Jordan was asked to return for one year in charge of the office, and Mrs. Byrl Fox Bacher (B.M. Univ. Mich. School of Music '29), for many years Dean of Women at the School of Music, which is now a unit of the University, came into the office as the third adviser, to replace Miss Johnson.

Alice Crocker Lloyd, 1930. — Early in the administration of President Ruthven the Board of Regents re-established the position of dean of women, effective July 1, 1930, and appointed Miss Alice C. Lloyd as Dean. Two assistant deans of women were chosen, to begin their new duties at the same time — Mrs. Bryl Bacher and Miss Jeannette Perry (Vassar '04, A.M. Michigan '24).

In 1930 the staff was further increased by two half-time assistants to the dean. Miss Ellen Burden Stevenson ('20, M.S. '30), Instructor in Geology, aided in the inspection of houses, and Miss Ethel Agnes McCormick (Columbia '23), Assistant Professor of Physical Education, was also appointed Social Director in the dean of women's office. With the opening of the University year 1932-33 Miss McCormick left the Department of Physical Education to become a resident social director of the Michigan League Building; in addition, she continued to assist the dean and was at that time designated Social Director of Women in the Office of the Dean of Women. In 1933 Miss Stevenson resigned to become Business Manager of the Dormitories. Mrs. Martha C. Lawton Ray ('36) was in 1935 appointed Assistant to the Dean of Women, on a part-time basis, in addition to her duties as Social Director of Mosher Hall.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Jordan, Myra B. MS, "Report of the Dean of Women, 1914-1915." 2 pp. In Harry B. Hutchins Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Jordan, Myra B. MS, "Report of the Dean of Women from October 1, 1909, to July 1, 1920." 6 pp. In Harry B. Hutchins Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1896-1909, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940.
Page  286

THE FELLOWSHIP IN CREATIVE ART

THE establishment of a fellowship in creative art at the University of Michigan was a notable event in the first year of the administration of President Marion LeRoy Burton. It was his belief that the presence of a creative artist on the campus would be stimulating to the whole college community. Even though he taught no classes, the continuation of his own work under favorable circumstances would be a great inspiration. President Burton proposed the creation of such a fellowship at a conference of the deans on December 15, 1920. On the next day the Regents gave formal approval to the plan and expressed the hope that some gift would make its establishment possible. It was also suggested that it might be possible to offer the proposed fellowship to the poet Robert Frost as the first incumbent.

A little later this was made possible through a gift of five thousand dollars from the Honorable Chase S. Osborn, of Sault Ste Marie, former Governor of the State and Regent of the University. A similar gift by an anonymous donor extended the fellowship through the following year and enabled Frost to spend a large part of the two academic years 1921-23 in Ann Arbor, where he carried on a program of informal but highly stimulating conferences with a large group of students. The response to the poet's striking personality and original and highly individual approach to the art of writing was evident in a great increase of students interested in creative writing, especially in poetry. As part of the program a number of distinguished American poets came to Ann Arbor during this period to give lectures and to meet with Frost's students.

A letter quoted in the President's Report for 1921-22 (p. 91) characterizes the experiment in these words:

… No single influence at Michigan has been … more significant or more beneficial than the presence of Robert Frost… We are very certain … that the Frost stability, the Frost honesty, the stray, quiet spirit of the man, is leaving its mark on the student body …

Robert Bridges, the English poet laureate, was invited to Ann Arbor to be the holder of the fellowship for the third year, 1923-24, funds for which were made available by a donor in Detroit. Bridges, however, because of his advanced age, was able to spend only a few months in Ann Arbor, from April through Commencement, when he returned to his home in England. During his residence in Ann Arbor he met many students, to whom he gave a new and somewhat different interpretation of the creative spirit in writing. He was given the honorary degree of doctor of laws in June, 1924.

During his two years' residence in Ann Arbor Robert Frost had not only endeared himself to the students and to friends on the faculty, but had proved a real inspiration to literary endeavor. An effort was accordingly made to bring him back to the University once more as the holder of a fellowship in letters which was to be a continuation of the fellowship in creative art. This fellowship, by action of the Regents, was supported from the University's general funds, and the appointment was for an indeterminate term rather than for a single year.

Frost's appointment to this new fellowship was announced November 20, 1924. He remained, however, for only the one year 1924-25, though he received the Page  287appointment for the year following. He resigned to accept a similar appointment at Amherst College, where he had made his permanent home for some time. The fellowship for the year 1925-26 was held by Jesse Lynch Williams, well known as a dramatist and writer of fiction. His year with the students of the University was in some respects a productive one, particularly through his effective help and suggestions in the practical details of authorship and creative writing.

No appointments were made to the fellowship in the following years, though Robert Frost returned for a short period in the spring of 1927 for lectures and consultation.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abbot, Waldo. "Jesse Lynch Williams — an Interview."Mich. Alum., 32 (1925): 235-36.
Abbot, Waldo. "Robert Frost — Professor of English."Mich. Alum., pp. 208-9.
"An Appreciation of Robert Frost."Mich. Alum., 29 (1923): 641.
Collins, Nelson. "Robert Bridges, Poet Laureate."Mich. Alum., 30 (1923): 5-8.
Editorials. Mich. Alum., 27 (1921): 600-601; 28 (1922): 837-38, 918-19, 1033; 29 (1922): 185; 30 (1924): 817-18.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-26.
Proceedings of the Boardof Regents …, 1920-26.

DEGREES

THE first degrees which the University of Michigan was authorized to give were those of bachelor of arts and master of arts, the original requirements for which were drawn up by the Regents in April, 1845. The former was first conferred when the class which had entered in 1841 was graduated in 1845, and the latter in 1849 upon Merchant H. Goodrich ('45) and Winfield Smith ('46).

These degrees still are given by the University, but the character of the degree master of arts has been entirely changed. Originally it was conferred upon holders of the bachelor of arts degree who had "preserved a good moral character" and had made application to the faculty, and whom the faculty had recommended. In other words, the English custom was substantially followed. The original regulations did not specify how long a candidate must wait after receiving his first degree, but a reference in the requirements as modified in December, 1859, shows that the interval was to be at least three years.

On the latter occasion President Tappan reported a series of regulations for the conferring of master's degrees on examination, which ultimately became the sole method of obtaining these and the other higher degrees, although the older system of granting the master's degree "in course," as it was called, was not formally abandoned until, on June 22, 1874, the Regents adopted a faculty recommendation to that effect, which became operative in 1877.

The master's degree "in course" was opened by the Regents in August, 1847, even to graduates of other colleges, and at the same time the faculty was permitted to recommend from time to time persons to receive the honorary degree of master of arts — the first honorary degree to be authorized. Alvah Bradish, Professor of Fine Arts, and Abram Sager, Professor of Obstetrics and the Diseases of Women and Children and also Professor Page  288of Botany and Zoology, were the first actually to receive it, in 1852. The Regents refused, however, in June, 1856, to vote master's degrees ad eundem to graduates of other institutions, saying that this had not been and should not be the practice. In March, 1858, the Board authorized the statement that "no honorary degrees are conferred here," and until the rescinding of this action in June, 1866, this was the policy of the University.

As it would be a very lengthy and complicated task to give a narrative account of the establishment, modification, and discontinuance of the dozens of degrees given now or formerly by the University, the essential facts have been sought out and are presented in tabular form. The sources (chiefly the Proceedings of the Board of Regents … and the annual Catalogues, Calendars, and Registers) have been consulted for each detail, and references are given in most instances.

It should be borne in mind that in the earlier and more informal days not so much attention was paid as at present to uniformity and precision in referring to these matters. In February, 1937 (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 175-77), the Regents for the first time approved an official list of the titles and abbreviations of degrees, which had for several years previously been used as a style sheet in the editorial offices. Earlier editors, however, had no such guides, and inconsistencies were bound to occur. Uniformity in the use of parentheses was especially hard to secure. One may, for example, find in the printed records alternatively "Bachelor of Science (in Pharmacy)" and "Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy." The rule covering the use of parentheses is now the following:

In general, parentheses are used when a qualification is added to the degree without altering the fundamental character of the degree thus qualified (as for example, the citation of "diploma departments" in engineering and architecture). Parentheses are not used to set off any part of the name of a degree which is distinctly independent and not merely a modification of another degree brought about by specialization.

To avoid unnecessary complication, the erroneous entries in the records are not taken into account in the following table of degrees.

With regard to honorary degrees, it should be stated that the University's present practice is not ordinarily to confer, honoris causa, degrees which may also be taken in course and upon examination. Exception is made in the cases of the master's degree in arts, science, and laws and the doctorate in science, in accordance with the practice of most institutions of comparable standing; today, however, the degrees doctor of medicine and doctor of philosophy, for example, would not be conferred as honorary degrees by the University of Michigan. No written rule on this matter exists, but there is a definite understanding which practically has the force of a regulation. Honorary degrees, also, are no longer conferred on active members of the University faculties or staff.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914. (Cal.)
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23. (Cat.)
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings, with Appendices and Index, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)
Page  289

Degrees Authorized by the University of MichiganPage  290Page  291Page  292Page  293Page  294Page  295Page  296Page  297
College of Literature, Science, and the Arts*
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of arts Apr., 1845. R.P., 1837-64, p. 311 1845 ..... From 1901 through 1908 this degree was the only one given to graduates of the College
Bachelor of science 1852. Cat., 1852-53 1855 1901-9 (restored in 1909) In R.P., 1923-26, p. 852, is recorded the only instance of granting the degree of bachelor of science (in nursing). This degree was really the bachelor of science taken as part of the combined course in letters and nursing and was wrongly recorded in the Regents' Proceedings
Bachelor of science in chemistry June, 1884; and May, 1914. R.P., 1881-86, p. 450; 1910-14, p. 988 1886 1901-14 (restored in 1914)
Bachelor of philosophy Mar., 1870. R.P., 1870-76, p. 30; Cat., 1870-71 1870 Feb., 1901. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 626
Bachelor of letters June, 1878. R.P., 1876-81, p. 255; Cal., 1878-79 1881 Feb., 1901. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 626 In the Calendar (catalogue) of 1881-82 "bachelor of letters, Latin (L.B.)" and "bachelor of letters, English (B.L.)" are distinguished, but this distinction is not made in the lists of degrees. In May, 1882 (R.P., 1881-86, p. 191), bachelor of philosophy and master of philosophy were substituted for bachelor of letters and master of letters (Latin)
Bachelor of arts in library science Apr., 1926. R.P., 1923-26, p. 874 1927
Bachelor of science in medicine Mar., 1914; and Dec., 1923. R.P., 1910-14, p. 946; 1923-26, p. 134 1918 1931 A part of the combined curriculum in letters and medicine, automatically abolished when the requirement for admission to the Medical School was raised to ninety hours (effective in 1931). Last given, 1936
Bachelor of science in biology June, 1885. R.P., 1881-86, p. 564 1886 Feb., 1901. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 626
College of Engineering*
Civil engineer 1855. Cat., 1855-56 1860 June, 1878. R.P., 1876-81, pp. 255-56 Continued as a higher degree: see Cal., 1881-82. The change was made effective after Commencement, 1881
Mining engineer 1864. Cat., 1864-65 1867 ..... Probably superseded by degrees given in 1882
Mechanical engineer Dec., 1868. R.P., 1864-70, p. 312; Cat., 1868-69 (Never conferred) June, 1870. R.P., 1870-76, p. 47
College of Engineering (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of science in civil engineering 1881. Cal., 1881-82 1882 1909 These were the degrees in engineering from 1882 until Nov., 1909, when, by action of the Regents (R.P., 1906-10, p. 577) the degrees were to be bachelor of civil engineering, bachelor of mechanical engineering, etc. They are recorded in several ways in the records. The proposed six-year course (1908-9) was in addition to that for which these degrees were given. The 1910 graduates were given their choice between the old and the new degrees
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering 1882 1909
Bachelor of science in mining engineering 1886 1909
Bachelor of science in electrical engineering June, 1889. R.P., 1886-91, p. 321 1890 1909
Bachelor of science in chemical engineering Apr., 1898. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 212 1901 1909
Bachelor of science in marine engineering Oct., 1901. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 732 1902 1909
Bachelor of science in preparation for engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 305 1908 Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 577 Conferred at the end of four years of the six-year course
Bachelor of engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 305 (Never conferred) Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 577 To be conferred at the end of five years of the six-year course. The degree of master of science in engineering was substituted
Bachelor of science in preparation for geological engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 306 (Never conferred) Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 577
Bachelor of science in preparation for engineering in forestry July, 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 525 (Never conferred) Sept., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 543
Bachelor of civil engineering Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 577 1910 1916 Mar., 1913 (R.P., p. 698), taking effect on and after Commencement, 1916, bachelor of science in engineering (civil engineering), etc., were substituted for these degrees. The 1916 graduates were permitted to choose between the old and the new degrees
Bachelor of mechanical engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of electrical engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of chemical engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of marine engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of naval architecture and marine engineering 1917 (as of 1915) 1916 Granted but once, to a 1915 graduate who needed a diploma in this form
Bachelor of science in engineering 1910 July, 1912. R.P., 1910-14, p. 497 Given after four years of the six-year course instead of the degree of bachelor of science in preparation for engineering. The six-year course was canceled in July, 1912
Bachelor of science in engineering ( — ) Mar., 1913. R.P., 1910-14, p. 698 1916 ..... This has been the first degree in engineering since Commencement, 1916; the department of specialization is attached in parentheses
(civil engineering) 1916
(mechanical engineering) 1916
(electrical engineering). 1916
(naval architecture and marine engineering) 1917
(chemical engineering) 1917
(engineering mechanics) 1930
(aeronautical mechanics) Mar., 1917. R.P., 1914-17, p. 780 1917
(geodesy and surveying). Dec., 1921. R.P., 1920-23, p. 351 1923 ..... Department established in 1921 (previously in civil engineering)
College of Engineering (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of science in engineering( — ) (Cont.) (mechanical and industrial engineering) May, 1924. R.P., 1923-26, p. 297 1 926 .... Five-year course
(chemical and industrial engineering) June, 1924. R.P., 1923-26, p. 315 1928 .... Five-year course
(electrical and industrial engineering) Mar., 1927. R.P., 1926-29, p. 185 1929 .... Five-year course
(astronomy) Apr., 1928. R.P., 1926-29, p. 550
(physics) 1931
(mathematics) 1929
(law) Dec., 1929. R.P., 1929-32, p. 130 1931 .... Part of combined curriculum
(transportation) Jan., 1930. R.P., 1929-32, p. 157 1931
(forestry-wood utilization) May, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 348 (Never conferred) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 482 Part of combined curriculums
(forestry-wood technology) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 482 (Never conferred) ....
(business administration) May, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 348 1936 ....
(metallurgical engineering) Mar., 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 560 1935
School of Education
Bachelor of arts in education June, 1921. R.P., 1920-23, p. 206 1922
Bachelor of science in education
Medical School*
Doctor of medicine July, 1850. R.P., 1837-64, p. 469 1851
Law School*
Bachelor of laws Dec., 1859. R.P., 1837-64, p. 879 1860
Juris doctor June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, pp. 311-12 1910
Master of laws Oct., 1889. R.P., 1886-91, pp. 345-46 1890
Doctor of juridical science. Feb., 1925. R.P., 1923-26, p. 543 1927
College of Pharmacy*
Pharmaceutical chemist 1869. Cat., 1869-70 1869 June, 1929. R.P., 1926-29, p. 1012 By the resolution abolishing the three-year course the degree could be conferred through 1932
College of Pharmacy (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of science in pharmacy July, 1895. R.P., 1891-96, pp. 485-87 June, 1897. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 81 .... Conferred as an honorary degree in 1896
Graduate in pharmacy Mar., 1913. R.P., 1910-14, p. 695 1915 Nov., 1916 (effective after 1917-18). R.P., 1914-17, p. 611 This was a two-year course, not offered after 1917-18
School of Dentistry*
Doctor of dental surgery 1875. Cal., 1875-76 1876
Doctor of dental science Jan., 1894. R.P., 1891-96, p. 243 June, 1894. R.P., 1891-96, p. 284
College of Architecture and Design*
Bachelor of science in architecture Dec., 1906. R.P., 1906-10, p. 54 June, 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 497 1916 It was at first proposed to grant the degrees of architect and architectural engineer. The degrees, however, were made parallel to those in engineering, and their changes follow the changes in engineering degrees up to 1931
Bachelor of science in architectural engineering
Bachelor of science in preparation for architecture June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 305 .... Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 527 Given after four years of the six-year course. This course was parallel with that leading to the degrees of bachelor of science in architecture, etc.
Bachelor of architecture .... Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 528 Given after five years of the six-year course. When the prospective curriculum was abandoned the degree of master of science in architecture was substituted
Bachelor of architecture Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 527 1910 1916 Four-year course. For discontinuance of these and corresponding engineering degrees see the rule passed in March, 1913 R.P., 1910-14, p. 698), which took effect at Commencement, 1916
Bachelor of architectural engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of science in architecture .... 1916 Six-year course
Bachelor of science in architecture ( — ) Mar., 1913. R.P., 1910-14, p. 698 1916 Apr., 1938. R.P., 1936-39, pp. 527-28 Four-year course. Took effect at Commencement, 1916. The degree bachelor of science in architecture (architectural design) was voted to James Auer at the January meeting of the Regents and was changed in February to bachelor of science in architecture (architecture) as being more in accord with custom (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 99, 101). Similar five-year programs mandatory after June, 1939 (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 527-28)
(architecture) 1916
(architectural engineering) 1917
College of Architecture and Design (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of architecture ( — ) Sept., 1932. R.P., 1932-36, p. 35 .... .... Five-year course superseded four-year programs for degrees of bachelor of science in architecture (architecture) and bachelor of science in architecture (architectural engineering) in June, 1939 (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 527-28)
(architecture) 1937
(architectural engineering) 1937
Bachelor of science in design June, 1924. R.P., 1923-26, p. 334 1929 May, 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 587 Four-year course. From 1929 through 1933 "(Dec. Des.)" was added, but not in 1934 or later. The official record of the Regents' meeting of June, 1930 (R.P., 1929-32, p. 381), seems to indicate that the degree bachelor of science (dec. des.) was conferred, but this is an error: the degree in question was bachelor of science in design, superseded by bachelor of design
Bachelor of design May, 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 587 1936 .... Remained a four-year course when other degree requirements were raised (R.P., 1936-39, p. 528)
Bachelor of landscape architecture June, 1939. R.P., 1936-39, p. 970 .... .... Substituted for degree of master of arts in landscape design, for the same five-year curriculum. Required of students entering in September, 1940, or later; those enrolled before may continue and receive older graduate degree
School of Forestry and Conservation*
Bachelor of science in forestry Jan., 1913. R.P., 1910-14, p. 612 1916 June, 1929. R.P., 1926-29, p. 1012 Previously the degree master of science in forestry had been the only distinctive degree in forestry
Bachelor of forestry June, 1929. R.P., 1926-29, p. 1012 1930 June, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 354 Discontinued
Master of forestry 1930 Continued with different requirements
Bachelor of science in forestry .... Continued with different requirements
Master of science in forestry .... Supplanted by the degree of master of science by the Graduate School
Bachelor of science in forestry June, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 354 .... .... Forest-production program: preliminary work in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts
Bachelor of science in forestry (wood utilization) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 481 Wood-utilization program: preliminary work in the College of Engineering
Master of forestry
Master of forestry (wood utilization) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 481
Bachelor of science in forestry (wood technology) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, pp. 481-82
Master of forestry (wood technology) 1936
School of Business Administration
Master of business administration Dec., 1923. R.P., 1923-26, p. 138 1926
School of Music*
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
(Certificate) 1880 .... 1895 No Commencement exercises were held prior to 1892-93, when the Ann Arbor School of Music was reorganized as the University School of Music
Artist's diploma 1896 1896 1929
Teacher's diploma
Certificate
Bachelor of music 1927 1927 1929 Under amended charter of the University School of Music
Bachelor of music in education
Master of music (honorary)
Bachelor of music ( — ) 1930 1930 .... After the amalgamation in 1929 the School of Music continued to give the degrees formerly given, except bachelor of music in education and the honorary degree of master of music. Diploma departments are indicated in parentheses after the degree
(public school music) 1930
(piano) 1930
(voice) 1930
(organ) 1930
(violin) 1932
(theory) 1932
(music literature) 1933
(composition) 1934
(violoncello) 1935
Master of music ( — ) 1930 1930
(public school music) 1930
(composition) 1931
(theory) 1931
(organ) 1931
(musicology) 1932
(voice) 1932
(violin) 1933
(piano) 1933
(violoncello) 1936
Graduate Degrees*
Master of arts "in course". Apr., 1845. R.P., 1837-64, p. 313 1849 June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 345, effective in 1877 Given to graduates of three years' standing. Last conferred in 1882
Master of arts "on examination" Dec., 1859. R.P., 1837-64, p. 875 1859
Master of science "in course" 1858. Cat., 1858-59; R.P., 1837-64, p. 875 1859 June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 345, effective in 1877 Last conferred in 1876
Master of science "on examination" 1862 .... DeVolson Wood received the master of science degree in 1859, but there is no direct evidence that it was "on examination." On the other hand, the Commencement program of 1862 shows that the two master of science degrees then conferred were given "on examination" and not "in course"
Graduate Degrees (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Master of philosophy "in course" June, 1874. Cal., 1874-75; R.P., 1870-76, p. 345 1875 June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 345, effective in 1877
Master of philosophy "on examination" 1877 1881 The Calendar of 1878-79 announced that after 1881 the master of letters degree would be substituted for the degree of master of philosophy (R.P., 1876-81, pp. 255-56)
Master of letters "in course" Cal., 1878-79 .... June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 345, effective in 1877
Master of letters "on examination" 1882 .... Presumably discontinued together with the bachelor of letters degree (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 626)
Master of pharmacy Cal., 1881-82 1887 July, 1895. R.P., 1891-96, pp. 485-87 Abolished when the degree of bachelor of science in pharmacy was established
Master of science in engineering May, 1906. R.P., 1901-6, p. 696 June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 284 .... In June, 1896 (R.P., 1891-96, p. 632), the faculty of the College of Engineering presented its first candidate for the degree of master of science, as it was called until 1906. The first degree of master of science in engineering recorded as conferred in this form was given in June, 1908
Master of civil engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 305 (Never conferred) .... This series of degrees required six years' work. Not changed by the action of Nov., 1909 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 598), and apparently never officially withdrawn
Master of mechanical engineering
Master of electrical engineering
Master of chemical engineering
Master of marine engineering
Master of architecture
Master of geological engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 306
Master of conservation engineering Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 576
Master of science in architecture May, 1906. R.P., 1901-6, p. 696 1916
Master of science in architectural engineering Dec., 1906. R.P., 1906-10, p. 54
Master of science in forestry June, 1904. R.P., 1901-6, p. 356 1904 June, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 354 Granted by the Department (College) of Literature, Science, and the Arts and later by the School of Forestry and Conservation; replaced by the master of science degree granted by the Graduate School
Master of science in pharmacy June, 1905. R.P., 1901-6, p. 547 1905
Graduate Degrees (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Master of landscape design. Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 582 1916 June, 1939. R.P., 1936-39, p. 971 Superseded by degree of bachelor of landscape architecture, same five-year curriculum, when the Department of Landscape Design in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts became the Department of Landscape Architecture in the College of Architecture and Design. Old degree optional for students entered before Sept., 1940
Master of science in public health June, 1911. R.P., 1910-14, p. 180 1914
Master of arts in municipal administration Feb., 1914. MS, "Minutes of the Executive Board of the Graduate School" 1917 1936 These degrees were never formally established by the Regents, though conferred by them. They were suspended in 1935-36 and discontinued the next year
Master of science in municipal administration 1922
Master of science in chemistry Sept., 1919. R.P., 1917-20, p. 678 1920
Master of arts in library science .... 1927
Master of science (industrial engineering) May, 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 588 1935 .... Part of combined course, five years; degree of bachelor of science in engineering (mechanical engineering) given after the fourth year
Master of public health Feb., 1935. MS, "Minutes of the Executive Board of the Graduate School" 1935 1935 Conferred but once
Master of public administration May, 1936. R.P., 1932-36, p. 835
Master of social work
Master of arts in social work Announcement, Institute of the Health and Social Sciences, May and Dec., 1935 1936 .... Though not formally established by the Regents, this degree was announced (in the form of master of arts in social science) in the May bulletin and as master of arts in social work in the Dec. bulletin; it was partly in error, as what was intended was the regular degree of master of arts, with specialization in social work. The degrees were finally changed in May, 1936, when the Institute was renamed the Institute of Public and Social Administration (R.P., 1932-36, p. 835)
Master of design May, 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 587 1936
Master of science in public health engineering Mar., 1937. R.P., 1936-39, p. 203
Civil engineer June, 1878. R.P., 1876-81, p. 256; Cal., 1881-82 1890
Mining engineer 1889-90 .... Last conferred in 1918-19
Mechanical engineer May, 1906. R.P., 1901-6, p. 696; Cal., 1881-82 1885
Graduate Degrees (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Electrical engineer May, 1906. R.P., 1901-6, p. 696 1895 .... Certain of the professional degrees in engineering were apparently not specifically approved by the Regents, but given after the establishment of the departments, after the analogy of the earlier degrees. Thus, the recapitulation in May, 1906 (R.P., 1901-6, p. 696) mentions several which had actually been conferred but had not figured in previous Regents' actions
Chemical engineer 1911-12
Naval architect 1935
Marine engineer ....
Architect ....
Architectural engineer ....
Aeronautical engineer Feb., 1919. R.P., 1917-20, p. 532 1934
Geodetic engineer Feb., 1927. R.P., 1926-29, p. 147
Metallurgical engineer .... 1934 .... No record of formal authorization of this degree in Regents' Proceedings
Public health engineer Mar., 1937. R.P., 1936-39, p. 203
Doctor of philosophy June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 346; Cal., 1874-75 1876
Doctor of science May, 1882. R.P., 1881-86, p. 190; Cal., 1882-83 1889
Doctor of letters .... .... Never formally discontinued, but, since this degree was to be given to candidates holding the degree of bachelor of letters or the degree of master of letters, it was presumably abandoned when the latter were discarded in 1901
Doctor of public health May, 1911. R.P., 1910-14, pp. 143-44 1916
Honorary Degrees*
Master of arts 1852
Doctor of medicine 1865 .... Last given as an honorary degree in 1902
Doctor of laws 1866
Master of science 1868
Doctor of philosophy 1875 .... Last given as an honorary degree in 1892
Civil engineer .... 1879 .... Given only twice as an honorary degree — 1879 and 1884
Doctor of dental surgery 1879 .... Given only once as an honorary degree
Mechanical engineer 1885 .... Given only once as an honorary degree
Master of pharmacy 1885
Master of laws 1895
Bachelor of science in pharmacy 1896
Doctor of science 1897
Doctor of engineering 1908
Master of engineering 1910
Doctor of public health 1911
Doctor of humane letters 1917
Juris doctor .... 1921
Doctor of music 1924
Doctor of letters 1924
Master of architecture 1928
Doctor of business administration 1929
Doctor of architecture 1930

Page  298

THE HONORS CONVOCATION

A PLAN to establish some annual public occasion especially for the encouragement of intellectual endeavor was considered by certain honor societies in 1915 (see Part IX: Sigma Xi), but was not put into effect. The annual Honors Convocation actually arose through a suggestion made by President Burton at a meeting of the conference of deans in April, 1922, that steps be taken to accord public recognition of high scholastic achievement to deserving members of the student body. A committee of deans was appointed to study the problem, and later presented a report including the following recommendation:

… That there be held annually early in May a special convocation to be called the Honors Convocation, for the purpose of giving public recognition … to those students who have been elected to societies, or who hold positions where scholarship is a primary qualification, or who have distinguished themselves in scholarly pursuits though not included otherwise in the honor list.

This plan, with some minor changes in detail, was later given approval by the Senate Council and by the Regents, and the first Honors Convocation was held May 13, 1924, with President Burton as the principal speaker.

The rules provide that the printed program shall contain the names of (1) all students who hold scholarships and fellowships in the Graduate School, (2) all students in the highest 10 per cent of the senior class of each school and college on the campus, excepting any student whose average is less than B, (3) every freshman, sophomore, and junior having scholarship average equivalent to one-half A and one-half B or higher, and (4) the holders of other fellowships, scholarships, and prizes awarded on the basis of high scholastic standing or exceptional proficiency in a particular field. After each student's name are listed the honorary societies of which he is a member.

Student interest in the event has been increased by the device of making the Honors Convocation program the occasion of the first public announcement of spring elections to such societies as Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and Phi Kappa Phi — a plan conceived by the committee on Honors Convocation and concurred in by officers of the scholastic honorary societies.

At the request of officers of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, the time of holding the Honors Convocation was changed after a few years to coincide with the time of that society's annual meetings. The new arrangement, which enabled teachers in attendance to hear the Convocation speaker and see some of their former pupils publicly honored for scholastic success, proved so beneficial to all concerned that it was permanently adopted.

Persons of distinction have been selected as speakers, and have attracted large audiences. Among the speakers in recent years have been Ernest M. Hopkins, President of Dartmouth College, James R. Angell, then President of Yale University, Harry W. Chase, then President of the University of Illinois and now Chancellor of New York University, and Presidents Frank Aydelotte of Swarthmore, and Robert M. Hutchins of the University of Chicago. To judge from the evident enthusiasm, these addresses have inspired the entire University community and have provoked thoughtful consideration of the problems of citizen, student, and educator. The interest of the students has grown from year to Page  299year. As a means of obtaining recognition for the merit of scholarship, particularly through the unification of scattered forces already operating toward that general goal, the Honors Convocation has proven effective.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 31-46 (1925-40).
The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, Vols. 42-43 (1936-37).
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1922-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the Senate Council," 1922-31. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-40.

THE ORIENTATION PERIOD

AT the end of the first decade of the twentieth century a system of mentors was introduced into the College of Engineering (see Part VII: Mentor System). They were concerned with the freshman and his troubles, especially those of an academic origin. Although the plan worked well, no similar steps were taken in the other undergraduate colleges of the University for fifteen years.

In 1925 Clarence Cook Little became President of the University. He came from the University of Maine, where, chiefly through his efforts, a Freshman Week had been organized. Orientation work had been known as far back as 1888, but there had been no widespread movement to introduce a system of orientation activities into our colleges and universities in general before the postwar period.

In the fall of 1926 about thirty members of the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were tentatively appointed as advisers, and the freshmen of that year were assigned to these men for aid in the problem of election of studies (see also Part II: Office of the Registrar; Part III: Administration and Curriculum).

At a convocation held in University Hall in the fall of 1926, President Little said: "The establishment of Freshman Week has been considered. Next autumn we hope to have the freshmen come on a week before the upperclassmen so that they may become oriented before entering the real work of college."

September, 1927, saw the creation of the first official Freshman Week, as it was called then, under the direction of Professor William A. Frayer. The change in the name of this work to Orientation Period came in 1930, when it was felt that some help might well be offered to new students who came not as freshmen but as members of the higher classes.

In 1927 the program was extended to cover eight days, with a full series of activities every day. Experience soon showed, however, that it was possible to overdo the matter. In 1929 Frayer resigned from the University faculty and Philip E. Bursley ('02, A.M. '09) was put in charge. The length of the program was then reduced from eight days to approximately five, and at the same time the number of activities was reduced, in order to give the student a "breathing spell" from time to time.

The program of events has varied Page  300somewhat from year to year. It will never become fixed, in all probability, since changing demands and varying conditions must be recognized in the formation of the schedule for any year. The idea of advisers for the entire first year has finally won approval, and in every undergraduate college of the University mentors or counselors are now functioning, ever ready to assist any freshman. In the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts advisers are provided for students in their sophomore, junior, and senior years. These men attempt to help the student to solve difficulties which hamper him in his college career.

The complexity of rules and regulations laid down by the authorities of the University have made imperative some kind of a check and guidance for all students. Such guidance seems to be best given at present by our Orientation Period and current freshman counseling.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts," 1925-40, Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1925-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1923-40.

THE UNIVERSITY AUTOMOBILE REGULATION

IN President Burton's administration the rapidly increasing use by students of privately owned automobiles was recognized as a problem which would soon demand attention. University officials felt that the automobile was necessary to a student only in exceptional instances, and that it often proved a positive detriment to the best interests of the individual owner.

In the summer of 1923, the following resolution, adopted by the conference of deans on June 6, was approved by the Regents on June 14:

Resolved, That this Conference reiterate its recommendation to the Board of Regents regarding the use of automobiles by students, namely, that the policy be that of disapproval, and that the University students and their parents should be asked to cooperate with the University authorities toward lessening the use of automobiles by students.


(R.P., 1920-23, p. 811.)
President Burton addressed a letter to the parents and guardians of Michigan students to explain the purpose and spirit of this action, and to request their co-operation in limiting the student use of cars in Ann Arbor.

The effects of this appeal were at best only temporary, and by 1925-26 it was apparent that the situation called for University legislation. Many students were maintaining cars in Ann Arbor, and serious accidents had occurred. Moreover, it was the opinion of the University administration that the unlimited use of automobiles by students too often was leading to a serious waste of time, to the growth of many forms of extravagance, and to an increase in practices which, besides distracting the students from the purposes for which they came to the University, involved moral risk.

Upon the recommendation of University Page  301officers and representatives of the Student Council and other student organizations, the Regents authorized regulations to prohibit lowerclassmen, beginning with the class of 1930, from owning or operating a car while the University was in session; and beginning with the second semester of 1926-27, students scholastically ineligible to take part in extracurricular activities. Registration of cars with the Office of the Dean of Students was required, and the administration and enforcement of the rules was placed in the hands of a committee, appointed by the president of the Student Council, which was to try cases of infringement of the rules.

During the year 1926-27 these rules were enforced by a committee consisting of five students and two faculty members. At the conclusion of the year, this committee recommended various changes, particularly in the interpretation and enforcement of the ruling. Among other things, the committee report suggested that necessary driving be approved by the issuance of individual permits, that students who were more than thirty years of age or were married should be allowed the use of their cars, and that the enforcement of the ruling be delegated to the department of the Dean of Students and assisted by campus policemen.

On June 17, 1927, after careful consideration of the situation, the Regents of the University passed the following resolution:

Resolved, That no student in attendance at the University from and after the beginning of the first semester of the University year 1927-28 shall operate any motor vehicle. In exceptional and extraordinary cases in the discretion of the Dean of Students this rule may be relaxed.


(R.P., 1926-29, p. 244.)

The clause "exceptional and extraordinary cases" has been interpreted to include the operation of cars for family, commuting, health, and business purposes. Driving for personal or social reasons was not interpreted as exceptional and was forbidden by the regulation. Those students over thirty years of age or who held a faculty ranking of teaching assistant or higher or who were enrolled as part-time students were granted exemption from the ruling.

This interpretation was based largely upon the recommendations made by the student-faculty committee which had attempted to enforce the restrictions on the operation of cars during the year 1926-27. An assistant to the dean of students was appointed to administer the ruling, and two men were employed to patrol Ann Arbor and vicinity for the purpose of apprehending violators of the regulation.

The several classifications of driving permits originally established have been found satisfactory and remain unchanged. The age limit for exemption has been reduced from thirty years of age to twenty-six years. Students whose homes are located at least 150 miles from Ann Arbor are allowed to store cars in Ann Arbor for vacation use, provided the cars are promptly registered at the Office of the Dean of Students.

The Regents in December, 1927, extended the automobile regulation to apply to the summer session of 1928, and the following month they directed that during the summer session the prohibition of the use of automobiles would not apply to those who in the academic year are engaged in professional pursuits (as, for example, teachers, lawyers, physicians, and dentists), those attending the Public Health Institute, or those special cases in which, within his discretion, the dean of students waives the restrictions.

In accordance with the authority granted to the dean of students the recreational use of cars was granted to summer session students not included Page  302in the above classification. Under this arrangement students were allowed to drive for outdoor athletic recreation such as golf, tennis, and swimming. The carrying of passengers was permitted with the restriction that mixed company would not be allowed in student cars after 9:00 p.m. These summer privileges have not been changed.

Since the Regents' action in June, 1927, there has been a definite decrease in the number of accidents and injuries resulting from the student operation of cars. During that period and while the ruling has been in force, only two students have been killed while driving cars. The regulation has reduced week-end trips by students, thereby increasing interest and participation in campus activities.

At first this restriction of driving privileges was disapproved by many members of the student body, and rather severe disciplinary penalties were required in order to secure a general observance of this rule of the Regents. After a time, however, it became quite generally accepted by the student body, and in the fall of 1933 an all-campus poll, conducted by the Michigan Daily, favored a continuation of the automobile ban by a vote of nearly three to one.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Michigan Daily, 1922-33.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1922-23, 1925-27.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-40.

THE DIVISION OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES

AT a special meeting in January, 1935, the Board of Regents adopted the following resolutions (R.P. 1932-36, p. 511):

Resolved, That the Division of the Health Sciences be recognized to consist at the present time of the following units and services:

  • Medical School
  • School of Dentistry
  • Division of Hygiene and Public Health
  • University Hospital School of Nursing and subsidiary services
  • College of Pharmacy
  • Postgraduate Education

Resolved, further, That a Committee of the Division be established to consist of the heads of the several units and the Director of the Hospital. This committee shall act as a coordinating agency in accordance with the definition of a "division" as given in Regents' Proceedings, May, 1934, page 348;

Resolved, further, That Dr. James D. Bruce be made Chairman of the Division of Health Sciences in addition to his other duties.

The formal definition of a division set forth by the Regents in May, 1934 (p. 348) was as follows:

A division is a grouping of units and departments for the purpose of coordinating various allied activities, and of developing the general field therein represented along consistent, progressive, and nonconflicting lines. Its function is advisory. Its specific duties of advice and recommendation concern the interrelations of its several curricula, the encouragement of individual research, and the promotion of cooperative investigations.

The Division of the Health Sciences acts in an advisory capacity and is concerned with the teaching and administrative Page  303methods of its various units, with the view of developing a better understanding between them, of increasing their effectiveness, of bringing to the undergraduate an understanding of the unity of the health-science professions, and of stimulating and supporting research in these various contributory fields.

Heretofore, in this and other American universities, the several schools or curriculums concerned with professional education for the health services have been detached and isolated. Each has gone along in its own way with little if any understanding of, and interest in, the educational problems of the other. The students and, in large measure, the faculty in one school do not come into close relationship with those of the others. As a result of this traditional procedure in professional education for the health services, understanding and co-operation between the several educational units do not always exist, and, too often, these attitudes are carried into the practicing professions.

An increasing number of opportunities for meeting with graduates in all health fields through the various programs of teaching has permitted observations of attitudes as well as of degrees of professional fitness. Though much effort has been directed toward lessening the gap between current practices and advancing knowledge, it has become evident that much of the ineffectiveness of professional practice, as well as certain difficulties in social relationships, may be assessed to faulty and immature concepts which have their origin in the undergraduate period.

Although certain of the social sciences may relate only occasionally to the field of health, others in this group — notably sociology, psychology, economics, and political science — are coming rapidly into closer relationship with the health sciences. In order to strengthen the healthsocial relationship, the chairman of the Division of the Social Sciences attends by invitation all meetings of the Division of the Health Sciences.

The development of the divisional idea modifies the usual practices in educational administration. Formerly, the outstanding ability of some individual has marked the inception of a subdepartment which gradually grew into a department and, not infrequently, into an independent administrative unit. Occasionally a definite contribution was made, but not infrequently the result has been a duplication of activities to a greater or lesser degree and an unwarranted increase in personnel and equipment, all of which have added to administrative difficulties.

Retrenchment in expenditures because of periodic drops in institutional income has been made in the easiest, but not always the best, way, through a general reduction in salaries and maintenance. As certain subjects are basic to any program, so certain teachers are equally essential if an acceptable rate of progress is to be maintained. An outstanding faculty will continue to be attracted and retained by a liberal, forward-looking policy and by relative security of position and income. No loyal and interested teacher will abandon a well-planned program on account of a reduction of income which is due to an emergency, but it is equally certain that the individual with a marketable product will not continue his association with an institution which operates on an administrative policy of expediency. Thus, from an administrative standpoint, an assurance against duplication, an appreciation of basic policies, and the nurturing of talent are enhanced by such a division.

The divisional idea is not a new one. It has been experimented with in other institutions, with varying degrees of success. Page  304It is not unlikely that unsuccessful results have been brought about by the attitude of administrators who have believed, consciously or unconsciously, that certain units of the group might well be absorbed by others. This is not our concept. The purpose is to bring about the understanding that there is a natural unity in the health-science professions, and that medicine, dentistry, public health, nursing, pharmacy, and the ancillary services are but parts of the whole. Although the Division has been in operation but a short time, part of which was necessarily consumed by the process of organization, there is increasing evidence that this broadening interest will lead to a professional and social outlook that more adequately equips the graduate for the many-sided obligations of the modern community.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1935-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1932-40.

THE DIVISION OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

The Division of the Social Sciences did not come into existence officially until 1934, but it may be said that the concept originated when the Social Science Research Council of Michigan was organized.

On January 6, 1930, in the rooms of the Department of Political Science in Angell Hall, eight members of the University staff signed the articles of association of the Social Science Research Council of Michigan, a nonprofit corporation registered with the office of the secretary of state of Michigan. The corporation was indebted to Robert T. Crane, then Professor of Political Science in the University, for originating the idea, and for aiding very materially in establishing the corporation upon a sound basis. Its purpose was to encourage, support, and conduct if necessary, research in any of the general fields of the social sciences. The original eight directors of the corporation represented eight different fields in the social sciences, as follows:

  • Anthropology, Carl E. Guthe
  • Economics, Charles F. Remer
  • Geography, Preston E. James
  • History, Arthur E. R. Boak
  • Law, Henry M. Bates
  • Political Science, Joseph R. Hayden
  • Psychology, Henry F. Adams
  • Sociology, Robert C. Angell

At a meeting on January 18, 1930, Dean Bates was elected chairman of the corporation, and Professor Boak, vicechairman. Dr. Guthe and Professor Remer were elected secretary and treasurer, respectively. During the spring, steps were taken to further the objectives of the corporation. A committee on ways and means was created to canvass the possibility of securing funds, and a committee on projects was established to study the extent and nature of research then in progress at the University of Michigan.

In the succeeding few years the Social Science Research Council of Michigan was recognized by the national Social Science Research Council in New York. The personnel of the original Board changed slightly, as the directors either were re-elected or were succeeded by Page  305others as representatives of the eight units. In the meantime the Board was also increased slightly by the addition of a few directors at large. Through consultations with various members of the faculty and discussions at the meetings of the Board, a list of University research projects worthy of the support of the Council was prepared.

In the spring of 1933 negotiations were begun whereby the potential facilities of the Social Science Research Council of Michigan would be integrated with the administrative procedures of the University, through the president's office and the Graduate School. It is probable that these discussions were partly responsible for the development of the concept of the Division of the Social Sciences. On May 5, 1934, President Ruthven met with the directors of the Council to discuss mutual problems.

At a meeting of the professorial members of ten University units, on May 9, 1934, a suggested plan of organization was discussed, and a motion was passed requesting the President to recognize the ten units as a tentative Division of the Social Sciences. Within this tentative Division a committee on social science research was set up, which consisted in large measure of the incumbent directors of the Social Science Research Council of Michigan. This latter corporation, by unanimous agreement of the directors, ceased to exist at the close of the meeting on May 9.

The Regents, at their May meeting (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 347-48), recognized the Division of the Social Sciences as a grouping of the Departments of Anthropology, Economics, Geography, History, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the Law School, and the School of Business Administration. The function of the Division is advisory. Its specific duties of advice and recommendation concern the interrelations of its several curriculums, the encouragement of individual research, and the promotion of cooperative investigations. The first committee on social science research included the following members, elected by their respective departments:

  • Anthropology, Carl E. Guthe
  • Business Administration, Olin W. Blackett
  • Economics, Charles F. Remer
  • Geography, Preston E. James
  • History, Lewis G. Vander Velde
  • Law, John P. Dawson
  • Philosophy, Roy W. Sellars
  • Political Science, James K. Pollock
  • Psychology, Charles H. Griffitts
  • Sociology, Roderick D. McKenzie

During the school year 1934-35, additional steps were taken in the organization of the Division. At a dinner meeting on December 13, a special committee of three was named (Professor Boak, chairman, and Professors E. Blythe Stason and Robert C. Angell) to consider the further organization of the Division. At a meeting of the Division on February 19, 1935, the report of this committee was received and discussed. The committee on social science research was replaced by a general committee, consisting of one representative from each of the co-operating units of the University, which was empowered to deal with all matters concerning the Division as a whole, including the appointment of a research committee and the nomination of a chairman of the Division from among its members for appointment by the president of the University. In March a research committee of five within the Division was created, and later in the month the Regents (R.P., 1932-36, p. 559) appointed Dr. Carl E. Guthe Chairman of the Division. The general committee had elected Professor Remer as vice-chairman and Professor James as secretary. Since the spring of 1935 Page  306the organization of the Division has remained unchanged.

The committee on social science research, established in the spring of 1934, inherited the data assembled by the committee on projects of the former Social Science Research Council of Michigan, and studied them further. At the close of the school year, in June, 1934, Professor Remer, then chairman of this committee, submitted a long report to President Ruthven upon the status and needs of social science research at the University. This committee continued to serve through the school year of 1935 until the appointment of the research committee of five in the spring. Both of these committees of the Division have maintained their contact with the national Social Science Research Council, the headquarters of which are in New York City. The research committee of the Division has felt that part of its duty is to discuss policies and encourage progress in social science research at the University. More specifically, it has co-operated actively with the Graduate School in advising upon those research projects in the social sciences for which requests have been made for grants-in-aid from the funds at that School's disposal. It has served the Executive Board of the Graduate School continuously as an advisory committee on research in the social sciences. The Executive Board's establishment of a series of small advisory committees in the several major fields of knowledge was perhaps based upon the example set by the Division of the Social Sciences in creating its committee on research.

The general committee of the Division has held several meetings each year at which a variety of subjects of interest to the social sciences as a group was discussed. These included such items as concentration programs, the development of the Graduate School faculty, the Institute of the Health and Social Sciences, the proposal for a laboratory of statistics, and the honors system.

The personnel of the general committee has changed each fall as the staggered three-year terms of members have ended. Each fall the general committee has elected a new committee on research, since membership in the smaller group is for one year only. Not infrequently individuals were elected to succeed themselves upon this committee. In the fall of 1938 Robert B. Hall, Professor of Geography, was appointed Chairman of the Division of Social Sciences by the Board of Regents (R.P., 1936-39, p. 764) to succeed Dr. Guthe, whose three-year term of office had expired.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1934-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1932-40.
Page  [307]

Services

Page  [308]
Page  309

THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION AND STATE SERVICE

THE School of Education recognizes as a primary obligation its responsibility to render educational services to the schools of this state. In addition to its functions in the education of prospective teachers the School has developed a program of instruction for teachers and administrators holding regular positions. Part of this service is furnished through courses given in Ann Arbor on Saturdays, and part of it is furnished through off-campus instruction. The School offers several courses at the Detroit Center for Graduate Study and co-operates with the University Extension Service in a program of instruction through extension courses. One of the newest developments of state service has been a field course which is offered through the co-operative efforts of the faculty of the School, with class sections provided in cities in the various areas of Michigan. In the University year 1940-41 this course was offered in eighteen cities, and the total enrollment was approximately five hundred and fifty advanced students. The major objective of the service has been to aid school authorities in their efforts to modify school practice in terms of the findings of studies and educational research.

As a further part of its program of state service the School has developed a series of special conferences. Since 1929 an annual conference on teacher education has been sponsored in Ann Arbor during the spring months, and a similar conference on important issues in state education has been held in Ann Arbor during the summer months. The School has also participated in an annual Parent Education Institute in co-operation with the University Extension Service. In addition to working in these regular conferences, staff members have participated in many meetings sponsored by the state professional organizations of teachers.

As another means of furnishing service to the schools, the School of Education Bulletin has been established. This monthly publication is sent to the heads of the public and private schools of the state, and much helpful information relating to educational problems is presented through its pages. The School of Education maintains the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research, a service agency designed to help schools in carrying forward testing programs and in studying local problems of instruction. The Bureau plays a part in initiating and carrying forward investigations of educational problems of state-wide significance. The staff of the Bureau gives a great deal of time to conferences with state educational authorities and to aiding professional groups interested in studying school problems. The Department of Vocational Education places its major emphasis on state service through a series of extension courses for teachers and special programs of instruction for workers in trades and industries.

The two laboratory schools of the School of Education, the University High School and the University Elementary School, provide a large amount of service to the schools of the state in a variety of ways, in addition to providing opportunities for student teaching and for observation. Much of this service is rendered through special conferences, consultations, writings, special reports, and demonstration teaching.

Page  310
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Announcement of the School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-40.
University of Michigan School of Education Bulletin, Vols. 1-11 (1929-40).

THE BUREAU OF APPOINTMENTS AND OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION

THE University Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information is a University agency resulting from the union of the Bureau of Appointments of the School of Education and the Senate Committee on Vocational Counsel and Placement. It is now in its thirteenth year.

In the earlier years of the University, no effective medium between the superintendents of schools and prospective teachers had existed. The few students desiring to teach for the most part were known to the president and to members of the faculty. With the rapid expansion of the teaching profession, however, a better knowledge of the capacities of the candidates for positions and a more effective means of placing teaching opportunities before the students became desirable. This service the president and faculty were unable to render effectively.

Appointment committee. — The Bureau of Appointments, originally designated the "appointment committee," was created in 1898 by the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, "to devise a scheme for securing teaching positions for graduates and students of the University." The president of the University later was authorized to appoint a second committee to supervise the work of this body. Fourteen members of the faculty were appointed to serve on this supervisory committee, of which Professor B. A. Hinsdale was elected chairman and E. C. Goddard, secretary, succeeded the following year by Professor A. S. Whitney as chairman and J. W. Markley as secretary. Much of the work of this committee was performed by an executive committee composed of three members. In 1906 the Bureau was made one of the activities of the University's Department of Education. Its work was carried on in Tappan Hall under the active charge of A. S. Whitney, then Dean of the Department of Education, in co-operation with Professor Calvin O. Davis and an office force of four assistants.

The Senate committee on vocational counsel and placement. — The need for a similar agency for students interested in occupations other than teaching led to a proposal in 1923 that the Michigan Union establish a placement bureau. The conference of deans, however, disapproved this proposal, since the University itself was planning to undertake the work, and a committee to gather data concerning a placement bureau and related problems was authorized. Dean Edmund E. Day, of the School of Business Administration, served as chairman of this committee on vocational guidance and placement appointed by the president. The committee made a formal report in November, 1924, which was approved by the Senate and was referred to Page  311the Regents. It contained the following recommendations:

  • 1. That a Senate Committee on Vocational Counsel and Placement be appointed by the President, the committee to consist of the Dean of Students, the Dean of Women ex officio, and one representative from each college and school.
  • 2. That appointments to the Committee be for a term of four years the initial appointments being "staggered" so that the term of two members of the committee will expire each year.
  • 3. That the Committee have the services of an executive officer and an adequate subordinate staff, the executive officer to give not less than one-half of his time to the work of the Committee.
  • 4. That the Committee report at least once each year to the University Senate.
  • 5. That the Regents of the University be requested to grant the Committee all necessary financial support for a period of not less than four or five years, that the work may be assured of a reasonable trial.

(R.P., 1923-26, p. 809.)
Final action on these recommendations was not taken, because of President Burton's death and subsequent administrative changes, until January, 1926, when the president was authorized by the Regents to appoint a committee on vocational guidance and placement. Its activities, however, were limited to research on the occupations and characteristics of individual students. This committee undertook to make a survey, which was authorized in March, 1926, with Clarence Stone Yoakum, then Professor of Applied Psychology, as part-time executive secretary. Professor John W. Bradshaw was elected chairman. The task before the committee developed so rapidly that in May, 1927, it requested the appointment of a full-time executive secretary, as well as authorization of a more adequate placement service. During the next two years this work was carried on in accordance with the plan authorized by the Regents. Professor Yoakum was succeeded as executive secretary by Willard Eagleston Parker ('23, A.M. '27), who, with his assistant, Donald Howe Moyer (Harvard '27, A.M. Michigan '28), prepared a bibliography of vocational information for college and high-school students. Mr. Parker resigned in 1929, and at the same time the secretary of the Bureau of Appointments for teachers, Mrs. Hellen Ramsdell Shambaugh ('19), also resigned, and the work of the two offices was combined in a new organization known as the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information. The creation of this Bureau was authorized in August, 1929, with the approval of a committee composed of Chairman Bradshaw, Professor Yoakum, representing the committee on vocational guidance and placement, and Dean Edmonson and Professor Schorling, representing the School of Education. T. Luther Purdom (Centre '10, Ph.D. Michigan '25) was made Director of the new Bureau, which was organized at the opening of the academic year 1929-30. The budgets of the two preceding organizations were combined, and the director was made directly responsible to the president of the University.

The committee on vocational counsel and placement was discontinued, and an advisory Senate committee of five for the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information, to be chosen by the president, was authorized. The first such committee was appointed in February, 1930.

The present Bureau functions under three main divisions: teacher placement, general placement, and guidance and research.

Teacher placement. — Teacher placement — the oldest of the three divisions — has grown because of the demands of the people and because of the wide and continually growing range of acquaintances. Page  312In brief, the placement of teachers consists first of registration of all prospective teachers and alumni who want assistance; second, of keeping in touch with all educational institutions of higher learning outside the state and all educational institutions in the state: elementary schools, high schools, colleges, and universities; and third, in presenting the credentials of the people desiring positions to prospective employers.

The registration consists of bringing together in a folder such information about the individual as his age, place of birth, educational background, religion, experience, record, and recommendations for each step in his development.

The Bureau establishes contacts with educational institutions by correspondence at least once a year, calling attention to the service it renders and to the fields of work in which the University of Michigan prepares candidates. Representatives of the Bureau attend the state educational meetings, the national educational meetings when it is advisable, and in every way possible the Bureau keeps administrative officers in education informed of University of Michigan students and alumni.

The next step in teacher placement is to bring the credentials of the qualified registrants to the attention of the prospective employer; that is, when a call is received for an applicant in certain fields the credentials of those people meeting the qualifications are presented to the prospective employer, and where possible arrangements are made for interviews. The registrants are encouraged to keep their records up to date in order that they may be known and will be available for promotion, and it should be said that approximately four out of five of all placements in the teaching field are for the people who have had experience. In other words, the great number of calls which come to the University are those asking for people with advanced degrees and successful experience. Last year more than 12,000 sets of credentials were presented to prospective employers. This gives an indication of the amount of work which has to be carried on to render efficient service to the registrant, to the employer, and to the public.

Since the teaching division has been running for over fifty years, the Bureau has records of almost all the people who have gone into the teaching field and who have been successful. The Bureau aids those who have been successful by recommending them for better positions, and assists those who have not been successful by pointing out the errors which have prevented their advancement and by helping them to correct these errors.

At the end of each fiscal year, a card is sent to every registrant on the active list, asking him to give the Bureau his status regarding his position and desire for promotion. This is done in order that the University of Michigan men and women will not be overlooked when calls for trained people come in.

General placement. — General placement includes everything outside of teacher placement and calls for co-operation with business and professional institutions of all kinds. It would be difficult to say how wide the range is, because calls of every imaginable type come in, including those for factory work, business, and industry — for accountants, salesmen, and technicians. Representatives of a large number of companies annually come to the office of the Bureau to interview prospective employees. The arrangements are made beforehand and the prospective employers spend from a short period to three days interviewing a large number of candidates, in order that they may find just what they want. As in the teacher division, the various companies receive at least once a year a Page  313letter which is designed to inform them of the services rendered by the Bureau and how the services can be used to a good advantage. In addition to meeting the prospective employer, our students and alumni are given a few thousand cards of introduction to all types of organizations all over the world, and these cards, without exception so far as is known, have been honored by all organizations, such as banks, publishing houses, and laboratories.

The alumni organizations in many of our cities co-operate by organizing committees through which certain members of the group meet the Michigan graduate. A member will usually give him an introduction to employers in his own line of work, as well as refer him to the director of employment in other fields of work. This help has been most generously given and appreciated. However, it is kept in mind that at no time should any of these organizations or individuals be burdened with too many callers.

In connection with general placement has been the growth in the number of applicants seeking summer positions. Many of these people in summer employment are taken by the employer so that he may have an opportunty to look them over for permanent service, and in this sense, much aid has been rendered. Also, many students have been able to secure through the Bureau positions that help them pay their tuition for the coming year. Between four and five hundred in all are thus enabled to find summer positions which not only help them earn a living, but have a tremendous effect on their future lives through the opportunity given them to continue in school.

The Bureau does not have as many names in the general placement division as it does in the teacher placement division, because the latter is much older. However, it is adding to the general placement list as time goes on in order to be able to recommend applicants from the alumni when calls are received which demand mature people of experience and training.

The attendance by members of the staff at state and national organization meetings continually increases the number of registrants by calling attention at the meetings to the service rendered the alumni; this practice alone is helping to give more service to the alumni and to the public in general.

Guidance. — Since the reorganization of the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information in 1929, its guidance functions have increased steadily in volume and importance. It was realized that efficient placement could result only in proportion to a correct estimate and evaluation of the capabilities and personal qualities of the candidates who register for assistance. Thus the Bureau has become a central and official department of the University, organized to give personal guidance directed toward satisfactory vocational adjustment. This service is extended, not only to the students on the campus, but also to alumni, teachers, parents, and high-school students of the state. It was among the first of state university placement offices to recognize that guidance and placement are inseparable functions. The correctness of that view of its functions is evidenced by the fact that it is now becoming a general policy among college and government employment agencies to incorporate guidance and personal adjustment assistance in the services offered.

The guidance department renders a varied service, depending upon individual needs. For some it provides information about the various occupations and professions and about opportunities for useful work as graduates. It helps to analyze and solve individual problems by studying abilities, skills, interests, and Page  314personalities. For teachers and guidance workers particularly, information is provided as the result of research work in personnel problems constantly going on in the office of the Bureau. An effort is made to discover the factors affecting success or failure and to point out how the conclusions from these services may be applied to guidance work.

Not only has the Bureau constantly collected occupational information for students, but since 1933 it has also sponsored speeches and round-table discussion groups on vocational problems in an effort to arouse a more general interest in vocational planning for students. Student organizations have co-operated in the selection of occupational fields to be discussed and in informing the student body of the schedule of meetings; likewise, business, industrial, and professional leaders have willingly co-operated in the program. They have come to the campus at their own expense to present in a series of vocational discussions their views as to the personal qualifications and training required.

Today, ten years after the inauguration of this program, the large number of students coming voluntarily for these services far overtaxes the present staff.

A further development was initiated by the Bureau in 1935 through a guidance internship for qualified graduate students who have specialized in personnel work in their programs for advanced degrees. These internships can give the graduate students an opportunity to assist counselors in certain secondary schools. It is now planned to provide similar opportunities for field work in business and industry.

A twofold research program is continually under way in the Bureau. Not only the accumulation of personal and vocational data from records of students on the campus, but also follow-up information giving personal-experience records of alumni in permanent positions is being studied. These researches aim to discover the factors associated with success or failure and their practical application in helping students in the correct choice of a vocation, or a better adjustment or advancement for alumni.

In summary, the Bureau seeks to prevent students from pursuing an aimless, unfruitful, or wrong program and to help them to discover the right vocation and prepare for it.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

MS, "Minutes of the Faculty Meetings of the School of Education," 1921-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department [College, 1915 — ] of Literature, Science, and the Arts," 1908-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1898-1940. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," 1896-1908. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1898-1909, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940.
Vocational Information; a Bibliography for College and High School Students. Comp. by Willard E. Parker and Donald H. Moyer. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1929 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 30 [1928], No. 15).
Page  315

THE BUREAU OF CO-OPERATION WITH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

UNTIL 1871, the one acceptable plan whereby graduates of secondary schools could gain entrance into colleges and universities had been that of the formal academic examination. In that year, however, the University of Michigan, then a small but growing state university, decided to try out a new plan, that of so unifying the educational system of the state that young men and women might proceed without interruption along educational paths from the kindergarten to college graduation. This was accomplished through the "diploma relationship of high schools to the University," inaugurated by Acting President Frieze and carried forward enthusiastically by President Angell and his successors. The Presidents' Reports and Regents' Proceedings are replete with passages explaining this new development in education and giving it hearty endorsement at every step of the way. The following brief account is taken very largely from the publications just mentioned, and is reported in the original language insofar as possible.

In 1869 Acting President Frieze in his annual report stated that while preparatory training of students was steadily improving, if a genuine university were ever to exist it would have to be "built on a much higher scholarship in the preparatory schools and academies." He felt that our colleges and universities were decidedly inferior to the European high schools, or Gymnasia. The remedy lay in gradually raising the requirements for admission to the Literary Department of the University until the local high schools "shall have occupied their proper ground and the university … [shall have been] enabled to take on its true character and functions." A year later he observed that conditions were favorable for the development of the equivalent of Gymnasia in America which would "secure to us the true university."

One high school already had sent to the University thirty-five well-prepared students, and, in general, high schools were sending increasing numbers of students to the University. Professor Frieze recognized that full co-operation between the school authorities and the University would be the work of time, but he looked forward to the possible elimination of elementary teaching on the part of the University, with the faculty of its Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts becoming a genuine faculty of philosophy and science. Hearty sympathy and co-operation on the part of the state union schools and high schools was assured, and he reported:

… Some of our best educators … have proposed that a commission of examiners from the Academic Faculty, should visit annually such schools as may desire it, and give certificates to those pupils who may be successful in their examinations, entitling them to admission, without further examination, to the University.


(P.R., 1870, p. 8.)

During the year 1870-71 there were 222 applicants for admission to the Literary Department. Candidates from the high schools of Detroit, Flint, Jackson, and Ann Arbor were especially well prepared and gave evidence of a gradual rise in scholarship standards. Also, requests had been received to send visiting committees from the University to several prominent schools, including those of Adrian, Jackson, Flint, Ann Arbor, and Detroit.

Page  316President Angell, in his first report (1872), mentioned the admission of women and the establishment of our relations with the high schools as two very important events in the development of the University which took place under the influence of his predecessor, Acting President Frieze. He also pointed out that the University was "gradually demanding a larger range, as well as a better quality, of preparatory work" and that "the superintendents and teachers … show a most praiseworthy desire to push up the scale of their work." Fifty freshmen had been received during the preceding year under the new certificate plan — three from a Detroit high school, eight from Flint, seven from Jackson, three from Kalamazoo, one from Adrian, and twenty-eight from Ann Arbor.

In commenting on this first year's experience President Angell said: "We see nothing in the result of the experiment to deter us from repeating it… Those who predicted filling up the Freshman class with poor material or the lowering of the standard of scholarship … have proved false prophets" (P.R., 1872, p. 10). The smallness of the number of students in this group "conditioned" or "failed to pass" made the success of the new system evident. He looked forward to a time when, with all the high schools in the state enlisted in the program, "we shall have a completely graded system of substantially free public education stretching from the primary school through the University." Five schools were visited during the year and others announced that they would be prepared to invite inspection the next year.

During the next four years the development of the new relationship with the high schools of the state was rapid. In 1873 Dr. Angell was able to report: "We are certainly approximating toward a more substantial unity in our system of public education than any other State in the Union." The following year, requirements for admission had risen so rapidly that in some respects they were higher "than [those] of any other institution in the country." Apparently the close relationship which had developed between the secondary schools and the University continued to be satisfactory, at least to the University. In 1875 President Angell acknowledged the indebtedness of the University to the public schools and reported again that "no other State in the Union, I think, has an educational system so nearly approaching to organic completeness and unity as Michigan." More than half of the freshman class by that time was coming from the inspected schools, and the average preparation of these freshmen was found to be better than that of the rest of the class. The net result of this program was a very apparent elevation of the standard of work in the schools and a corresponding rise in the standards of admission to the University (see Part II: Office of the Registrar).

The teachers' point of view of the diploma relationship, as set forth in a paper which J. C. Jones, Superintendent of the Pontiac Schools, read before the State Teachers' Association in 1875, is an indication of the way in which the school administrators of the state received this innovation in the relationship between the University and the secondary schools:

1st. It has intensified, deepened and dignified the work of the high school…

2d. The visits of the University committee are looked forward to … with excellent spirit and interest, which leads to much conversation about the University and its requirements… This increased amount of talk is one of the greatest benefits to the school, for it brings the University within the pupil's vision and constantly augments his desire to enter its walls …

3d. Parents manifest more interest and Page  317greater pride in the school and its success …

4th. It increases the number preparing for college …

5th. Then this method makes it better for the pupil physically as well as mentally … He becomes possessed of a certificate, which ends the worry and cram of the long vacation just previous to entering college …

9th. One of its best effects is upon the teacher. This is, perhaps, its very best. Considering, as they do, that their reputation rests upon well prepared pupils, they are induced to acquaint themselves with the best methods of instruction …

In conclusion, nothing has awakened a deeper sympathy among the people for the University and its prosperity, than this reciprocal relation of the high schools and the University, and it would be a sad blow to higher education in this State to sever it.


(P.R., 1875, pp. 7 n.-8 n.)

It must be admitted that the establishment of the diploma relationship was not carried out without formidable opposition. President Eliot of Harvard was critical of the innovation and was quoted by President Angell as saying: "That the University should have been willing to try so unpromising an experiment proves that the lack of connection between the secondary and the higher instruction in Michigan must have been painfully felt" (P.R., 1875, p. 8 n.). President Angell went on to observe that it was singular that it should not have occurred to President Eliot "that the University could have ventured on the experiment only because fortunately the connection between the secondary and the higher instruction is probably closer than in any other State."

From 1871 to 1876, high schools were accredited by the University only when they were so organized and equipped as to be able to prepare students simultaneously for all three undergraduate courses of study leading to the degrees of bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, and bachelor of philosophy (see Part II: Degrees). In 1876 it was decided that it would be better to encourage schools to train pupils well in one or two courses rather than, by undertaking more, to force them to do a poorer quality of work. After that date schools were accredited even though they were unable to prepare students for all the curriculums offered in the University (see p. 247). In the President's Report for 1876 (p. 7) Dr. Angell stated that "there seems no reason why a school which can prepare its pupils satisfactorily for our Scientific and Engineering courses alone should not be recognized by us as competent to do that particular work."

Not only had the movement for the admission of students on diploma spread to some of the other state universities by this time, but also some of the Eastern colleges were receiving students without examination from academies of established reputation.

While President Angell was on leave of absence in 1880, Acting President Frieze took occasion to comment again on the severe criticism the plan had received from some distinguished educators, who feared that it would bring down the standard of scholarship. He reported, however, that, just as in the case of the admission of women, experience proved there was no ground for fear "except that the thing was new, and not practiced in the mother colleges." His conclusions were borne out by the results of an investigation covering the nine-year period during which the new plan had been in effect, made by Professors Wooster W. Beman and William H. Pettee and presented as Appendix C of the President's Report for that year (pp. 26-30).

By this time sixteen of the most flourishing and important high schools of the state were included in the plan, and its success was evidenced, not only by an Page  318increasing number of high schools co-operating with the University, but also by the spreading of the plan to secondary schools and academies in other states. These developments led the faculty to recommend that the privileges granted to the schools of Michigan be extended to those of other states on equal terms, a suggestion which met approval by the Regents on March 18, 1884. Within a year schools in New York, Illinois, Minnesota, and California had availed themselves of the privilege of sending students on diploma to the University. A further step came in 1891, when the President reported that the diploma relations with high schools were so firmly established and the benefits so obvious that it had been deemed wise for the University to assume the expense of sending committees of the faculty to visit the schools in Michigan.

On February 13, 1899, the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts approved and submitted to the Regents a recommendation that the University have a "special examiner to inspect our diploma schools." It was not intended, however, "that our present system of inspection be wholly abandoned, but that it shall be used whenever it is found necessary or desirable." The Regents unanimously approved the plan and appointed Allen S. Whitney ('85, Ed.D. hon. '39) to the position. So far as can be learned, this was the first appointment by any university of a special high-school examiner.

With the appointment of Whitney as special examiner of high schools, the co-operative relationships between the University and secondary schools of the state seemed to take on new life. The years which followed saw larger numbers of schools asking to be accredited for diploma admission by the University. By September, 1903, the number of schools had increased to 127. President Angell's Report of that year states (pp. 6-7):

… Not the least important part of the work of the University has been its influence, exerted both directly and indirectly, in the development of the high schools. In its earliest days it accomplished excellent results by the establishment of the branch schools, which were finally transformed into the earliest high schools organized in the State … We have established this so-called diploma relation with a considerable number of schools in the states adjacent to Michigan. Since it is burdensome to us to visit schools in those states, the official examiners of this University and of our sister universities in those states are endeavoring, with good prospects of success, to fix upon some plan by which each university may safely receive the verdict of the other universities on the merits of at least the stronger schools in their respective states …

For the first time, I think, in the history of the University we can record the interesting fact that among our students were one or more representatives from every one of the states of our Union. All of our territories, except Alaska, and all of our new possessions, the Hawaiian Islands, Porto Rico, and the Philippines, and the following foreign states and provinces were represented, Japan, China, India, South Africa, Turkey, Austria, Germany, England, Bulgaria, Mexico, Jamaica, Ontario, Quebec.

Whitney served as Inspector of Schools until April, 1905. In that year Calvin Olin Davis ('95, Ph.D. Harvard '10) was appointed Instructor in Education and Inspector of Schools. In October, 1906, Irving King (Earlham '96, Ph.D. Chicago '04) was added to the Department of the Science and the Art of Teaching as Assistant Professor of Education and Examiner of Schools. The statement was made that "work falling upon that department is rapidly growing more heavy and important." In June, 1910, Davis was appointed Assistant Professor of Education and Inspector of Schools for the three years beginning the next October.

Page  319In December, 1913, after a rather prolonged discussion, a report was presented recommending that an "inspector be appointed who shall devote his entire time to the inspection of the secondary schools of the state, both accredited and non-accredited…"

In accordance with this action James Bartlett Edmonson ('06, Ph.D. Chicago '23) was engaged as Inspector of High Schools in February, 1914, to begin his work the next October.

It appears that no summarized report of activities of high-school inspection was made during the first forty-five years of diploma-school relations. The records in the Regents' Proceedings, in the annual President's Report, and in the files of correspondence exchanged with secondary schools were considered sufficient. After the appointment of a full-time high-school inspector an annual report was rendered, the report of 1915-16 being the first one officially recorded in the Regents' Proceedings (1914-17, p. 550).

In April, 1920, the Regents directed that the placing of a secondary school upon the accredited list of the University should thereafter be recognized by a suitable certificate, which should serve as evidence of the relationship between the school and the University for the period accredited.

James B. Edmonson, with the assistance of other members of the University faculty, handled the inspection of public and private secondary schools for the University, within and without the state, from 1914 to 1919. He received the additional appointment of Professor of Education in 1916. During 1919 he and the deputy state superintendent of public instruction worked out an arrangement whereby the University men inspected certain schools for tuition purposes for the State Department of Public Instruction and members of the high-school division of the state department inspected certain schools for accrediting purposes for the University. This plan, by eliminating duplication of activities, provided for greater efficiency in the work with the secondary schools of Michigan.

On the retirement of Whitney from the deanship of the School of Education in 1928 and the appointment of Edmonson to this position, it became necessary to secure another member of the faculty to care for high-school inspection, and in September, 1928, George Ezra Carrothers (Indiana '09, Ph.D. Columbia '24) was appointed High School Inspector and Associate Professor of Secondary Education. A further change occurred in February, 1929, when he became Director of the Division of University Inspection of High Schools, to succeed Dean Edmonson.

In 1929, after the resignation of Clarence C. Little from the presidency of the University, Alexander G. Ruthven was appointed to the position, and almost immediately the present administration began a study of the whole administrative organization of the University. Since that time, whenever pertinent information and sufficient thoughtful consideration of University problems have made it seem advisable, reorganizations have taken place.

In keeping with this policy, the work and the organization of the Division of University Inspection of High Schools received consideration by the University Council during 1931-32. A reorganization was approved which provided for a more efficient, unified co-operation between the University and other educational institutions.

The activities of the committee on accredited schools, the committee on junior colleges, and the Division of High School Inspection were consolidated by action of the Regents on February 26, 1932. A committee on co-operation with Page  320educational institutions supplanted the two earlier committees, the Division was renamed the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, and Carrothers was appointed Director of the Bureau and was asked to serve also as secretary of the committee on co-operation.

The University Council and the Board of Regents thus set up a central committee on co-operation with educational institutions as the policy-forming and unifying body with respect to the work of the subcommittees and of the Bureau. This central committee, of which the vice-president of the University in charge of educational investigations, the registrar, several deans, and the state superintendent of public instruction are members, co-operates with all educational institutions both within and without the state in the development of the work and in the promotion of co-operative relationships. The central committee appointed a subcommittee on relations with secondary schools, which took over the work of the former committee on accredited high schools and continued the work of inspection and accrediting. A second subcommittee on relations with institutions of higher education was appointed. This committee took over the work of the junior-college committee and of certain other committees and continued co-operation with institutions of higher education in matters which concerned these institutions and the University as a whole.

When the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions was organized in 1932, the high-school inspector, Wray H. Congdon (Syracuse '14, Ph.D. Michigan '30), was appointed Assistant Director of the Bureau, and Freda S. Kuebler, secretary to the director. In 1934 Congdon resigned, and Harlan Clifford Koch (Ohio Univ. '19, Ph.D. Ohio State Univ. '26) was secured as Assistant Director of the Bureau, with full professorial rank. Koch came here from the University of Nebraska, where he had been a professor of secondary education, chairman of the committee on graduate studies in the Teachers College, and a member of the Graduate Council. For the next few years he devoted full time to the work of the Bureau and was engaged primarily in co-operative activities with secondary schools. In 1939 he was appointed half-time Professor of Education in the School of Education in addition to his half-time assistant directorship of the Bureau, and Edgar Grant Johnston (Wooster '12, Ph.D. Columbia '29), while continuing his part-time professorship of secondary education, took up the duties of part-time High School Visitor in the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions in place of his former work as Principal of University High School.

As Director of the Bureau of Co-operation, and formerly as Director of the Division of University Inspection of High Schools, Dr. Carrothers has given one-half of his time to teaching in the School of Education, where he is Professor of Education. The other half of his time is devoted to the work of the Bureau, which consists of visiting secondary schools, junior colleges, four-year colleges, and any other educational institution which may make request, and to the numerous administrative problems which arise in connection with the work.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1869-1909, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Page  321

THE MICHIGAN SCHOOLMASTERS' CLUB

THE Michigan Schoolmasters' Club was organized at Ann Arbor in 1886, by a group of forward-looking educators who desired closer personal acquaintance between the college teachers and the secondary-school teachers of the state, a better understanding of the problems mutually affecting the colleges and the secondary schools, and a serious co-operative study of the relationships between the secondary schools and the institutions of higher learning in Michigan.

For its first seven years the club met three times a year for one-day sessions. This arrangement proved so inconvenient for teachers throughout the state that attendance gradually dwindled to the vanishing point. One meeting a year was accordingly decided upon; the sessions were then extended through two, and eventually through three, days. The attendance rapidly increased from less than three hundred to between three and four thousand.

In the first years all the sessions were general, and the topics treated were largely those affecting secondary education — curriculum, electives, proper content of subjects, general methods of teaching, and proper uses of a library. As the attendance increased the program was divided into short, general sessions and many specific sessions or conferences stressing the various academic subjects, such as Greek, modern languages, mathematics, chemistry, and biology.

A graphic conception of the development of the club may be gained by comparing the program offered in 1893 with that of 1938. The 1893 program consisted of three general topics: Electives in the High School, German Below the High School, and Mathematics in the High School — What and How Much? In 1938 a twenty-seven-page pamphlet was filled with announcements of the six general sessions, the nineteen special conferences, and the several subsidiary meetings. The special conferences clearly indicated the aim of the club to meet modern educational situations and covered a wide range of subjects.

During the entire half century of its existence the club has exerted an exceedingly wholesome influence on the secondary schools. It has brought together the leading college and secondary-school men of the state for face-to-face discussions of their common problems and of prospective solutions and has drawn to this campus distinguished scholars of other universities — Toronto, Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Princeton, Cornell, Ohio State, Indiana, Missouri, Illinois, Chicago, Northwestern, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. One notable discussion was held in 1908: "Formal Discipline in the Light of Modern Psychology," by James R. Angell of the University of Chicago, Walter B. Pillsbury of the University of Michigan, and Charles H. Judd of Yale University. This discussion attracted the attention of educators throughout the entire nation.

The introduction of the special conferences has greatly increased the attendance and has multiplied the influence of the club. From their very inception these conferences have profoundly stimulated the special classroom teachers to higher academic attainments and to better methods of teaching and have also provided these teachers with proper library lists for their respective fields. The most notable conference has been the classical, under the leadership of the late Professor Francis W. Kelsey. This conference attracted Page  322classical scholars from all parts of the country, and in consequence it came to exert a nationally recognized influence in this field.

The benefits rising from the operations of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club were so helpful to the schools of the state that the club early desired to share these accumulated advantages with other states. Accordingly, at the Ypsilanti meeting on December 1, 1894, Principal W. H. Butts, of the Michigan Military Academy, offered a resolution requesting the University of Michigan, the University of Wisconsin, Northwestern University, and the University of Chicago to "unite with a committee of the Club in issuing a call for a meeting to form an association of schools and colleges in the North Central States." This request was accepted, and delegates from ten states met at Northwestern University, March 29 and 30, 1895, formed the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, and elected James B. Angell, of the University of Michigan, president (see Part I: Angell Administration; Part II: Office of the Registrar). This association has since become an exceedingly powerful factor in developing higher standards in the north central states.

From 1905 to 1936, the chief papers presented before the groups of the club have been published in its Journal. They form a very creditable contribution to educational literature.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Journal of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, 1906-40.
MS, "Proceedings of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club," 1894-1905.

THE MICHIGAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ARTS, AND LETTERS

LIKE most organizations, the Michigan Academy had its inception in the vision and the initiative of a few men. The idea was conceived by Professor Jacob E. Reighard in the early nineties, while he was head of the Department of Animal Morphology of the University of Michigan. His plan was to bring together the college and university teachers and other persons in the state of Michigan who were interested in research. The desirability of founding a state academy was obvious. The only question in Professor Reighard's mind was whether there was sufficient interest at that time. In order to reassure himself he broached the matter to various persons individually. Among them were Dean C. Worcester, then Instructor in Zoology at the University of Michigan, F. C. Newcombe, Instructor in Botany at the same institution, Frank McFarland, Professor of Biology at Olivet College, and W. J. Beal, Professor of Botany at Michigan Agricultural College. These men and others gave Professor Reighard enough encouragement to warrant the taking of further steps.

Page  323On March 22, 1892, Professor Reighard, together with V. M. Spalding, Professor of Botany, W. H. Howell, Professor of Physiology, and J. B. Steere, Professor of Zoology, all of the University of Michigan, addressed to a score of men well known in the state a proposal "to organize in Michigan a state society of naturalists to comprise zoologists, botanists, and physiologists." The chief purpose of this letter was to elicit expressions of opinion on the scope of the work that was to be done and on the character of the membership.

In the spring of 1894 the time seemed ripe for further action, but, owing to Professor Spalding's absence in Europe, Professor Reighard's preparations to go abroad, and Professor Howell's having left the University, the task of organization fell upon others. Under these circumstances Professor F. C. Newcombe, of the Botany Department, prepared, with the help of Professors J. B. Steere and W. P. Lombard, a circular letter, dated June 21, 1894, calling for a meeting of interested persons at Ann Arbor on June 27 for purposes of organization.

This meeting, which was attended by over twenty-five persons, was called to order by F. C. Newcombe, who nominated W. J. Beal for chairman. He was elected unanimously, and F. C. Newcombe was made the first secretary. The need of such an organization and its opportunities for usefulness were recognized by all present. "The general opinion expressed was that the society should hold stated meetings for the reading and discussion of scientific papers, and should also seek to forward the scientific [study of the] resources of the state as well as [that of] the fauna, flora and so forth."

A motion was made and carried "that the officers of the association with the addition of two members be constituted an advisory board to report a constitution and by laws, to arrange a program and to call the next meeting." The problem of a suitable name was referred to this board.

As officers of the temporary organization, W. J. Beal was chosen president, J. B. Steere vice-president, F. C. Newcombe secretary and treasurer. Professor W. B. Barrows, of the Michigan Agricultural College (now Michigan State College), and Professor I. C. Russell, of the University of Michigan, were elected as the two other members of the Advisory Board.

The organization of the society was completed at the first formal meeting, which was held, quite appropriately, in the Pioneer Room of the state capitol at Lansing on December 26-27, 1894. At that time the constitution and bylaws, which had been drawn up by the Advisory Board, were adopted. The constitution declared: "The objects of this Academy shall be scientific research and the diffusion of knowledge concerning the various departments of science."

The society was incorporated as the Michigan Academy of Science on February 6, 1895. Since 1894 meetings have been held annually, except in the years 1896 and 1914. All but the first, second, fifth, and sixth have taken place in Ann Arbor.

For the first few years of its existence the affairs of the Academy were carried on by a president, a secretary, a treasurer, and vice-presidents (chairmen of sections). Together they constituted an executive committee called the Council. In 1898 the past presidents were made members of the Council. The office of librarian was created in 1903, when G. P. Burns became the first incumbent. At that time only three Reports had been published. The offices of secretary and treasurer were combined in 1904, but they were again separated in 1926. In 1924 the title of the officer in charge of a section was changed from "vice-president" Page  324to "chairman," and the office of vice-president as it is now known was established.

At a meeting of the Advisory Board held prior to September 15, 1894, it had been unanimously agreed that the principal object of the Academy should be "the study of agriculture, archaeology, botany, geography, geology, mineral resources, zoology, etc., etc., of the state of Michigan, and the diffusion of the knowledge thus gained among men. It is not the opinion of the advisory board, however, that the work of the society should be restricted to the subjects named, but should be enlarged from time to time as occasion may require." In 1921, when plans were being formulated to have the University take over the publication of the Academy volumes, it was decided to widen the scope of activities by the formation of sections in arts and letters, an addition which caused the name of the Academy to be changed to "Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters." At the present time there are sections in anthropology, botany, economics, fine arts, folklore, forestry, geography, geology and mineralogy, history and political science, landscape architecture, language and literature, philosophy, psychology, sanitary and medical science, sociology, and zoology.

The enormous growth of the Academy in the half century since its founding is evidenced by the programs. Nineteen titles were announced on the first program, but some of the recent ones have listed as many as three hundred. The number of authors now far exceeds the total attendance ("thirty to fifty") at the first meeting. One may well recall the words of Seneca: "The world is a small place unless there is in it a subject for everybody to investigate."

The struggle for an adequate vehicle of publication, which began at the first meeting of the Academy, was destined to be a long one. It was not until 1900 that the First Report of the Michigan Academy of Science, consisting of 180 pages and a few illustrations, made its appearance. Twenty-two volumes of Reports were printed with the aid of appropriations made by the state legislature. When the University assumed the publication of the volumes the title was changed to Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters. Twenty-five volumes have been printed to date (1940). Reports are still being published, but they are devoted to the proceedings of the society.

At the present time a board of section editors, under the supervision of the general editor for the Academy, passes upon the manuscripts submitted for publication. The work of preparing the articles for the printer and of seeing them through the press is done by the editor of scholarly publications of the University of Michigan Press.

One of the most valuable results of the increased facilities for publication has been the growing exchange list. Before the outbreak of the second world war restricted communication with foreign nations the volumes of the Papers were being sent to about 550 learned societies and institutions. At the turn of the century the Reports were striving to attain state-wide importance; the Papers have now become cosmopolitan.

The influence of the Academy in proposing and encouraging certain kinds of legislation has been marked. It has always had among its members scientists thoroughly familiar with the natural resources of the state of Michigan and alert to the dangers which threatened them. If it was the first body which recognized some of the state's most complex problems and took action in regard to them, the explanation is simple, for it was organized just after the lumber industry in Michigan had passed its peak Page  [unnumbered]

[missing figure]
Henry Philip Tappan
Page  [unnumbered]Page  325and when the adverse results of destructive lumbering, with its corollaries of idle land and taxation problems and of great changes affecting the fauna and the flora of the state, were beginning to be noticed and felt.

At the first meeting there were resolutions relating to a topographic map of the state, better registration of births and deaths in Michigan, passage of a bill in regard to forest reservations, endorsement of the work of the Michigan Fish Commission, increased appropriation for the continuance of the biological examination of the waters of the state by the Michigan Fish Commission, and the inauguration of a natural-history survey of the state. This was an ambitious program. Not a great deal was accomplished immediately as a result of it, but it was important in blazing the trail for future sessions.

Since the first meeting the Academy has never ceased to follow the precedent so well established by its early members. Copies of resolutions take up an increasingly large part of the minutes as the years go by. The Academy has urged or furthered legislation for topographical, archaeological, biological, geological, and land-economic surveys. It has worked for the protection and conservation of plant and animal life; the establishment of parks to preserve things of scientific, historical, and recreational value, as well as the setting aside of areas of natural scenic beauty; and the restoration to productivity of idle and waste lands caused by deforestation. Perhaps no subject has received more consideration than forestry and its attendant problems.

There are now about a thousand members of the Academy. Both officers and members deeply appreciate the University's part in fostering its growth and in enabling it to attain its present position in the world of scholarship.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

McCartney, Eugene S."The Beginnings and Growth of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters."Papers Mich. Acad., 19 (1934): 1-19; Repts. Mich. Acad., 35 (1933): 118-33.
Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, Vols. 1-25 (1923-40).
Reports of the Michigan Academy of Science, Vols. 1-22 (1900-1921).
Reports of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, Vols. 23-42 (1924-40).
Page  326

THE NEUROPSYCHIATRIC INSTITUTE AND THE STATE PSYCHOPATHIC HOSPITAL

THE State Psychopathic Hospital. — Michigan has the distinction of being the first state to establish a psychopathic hospital in connection with its state university. In 1901, due in no small measure to the efforts of Dr. William J. Herdman, who was at that time Head of the Department of Nervous and Mental Diseases at the University (see Part V: Department of Neurology), the legislature passed an act (No. 161) to provide for the construction and equipment of a so-called "Psychopathic Ward" on the hospital grounds at the University. The stated purpose of this act was to establish an institution for the study and care of persons who were mentally diseased.

It was considered essential that there should be close co-operation between this psychiatric unit and the state "asylums." At the same time, it was felt necessary that the Psychopathic Ward should be an integral part of the University Medical School and Hospital. It was so organized that it might receive patients from any part of the state and that, when necessary, patients might be transferred between it and the other state hospitals. A sum of $50,000 was appropriated by the 1901 legislature for the purpose of building this unit. Before the building was completed, certain changes were made in the control of the institution by another legislative act (P.A., 1905, No. 140). This act provided that a joint board of trustees, composed of members from the boards of trustees of the "Asylums for the Insane" and from the University Board of Regents, should control the new institution and should employ an experienced investigator in clinical psychiatry as its superintendent. His duties were outlined as follows:

… To conduct clinical and pathological investigations and to direct the treatment of such patients as are inmates of the ward, as well as to guide and direct the work of clinical and pathological research in the several asylums of the State, and to instruct the students of the Medical Department of the University in the diseases of the mind.

This act also provided for the establishment of a clinical laboratory of research in which investigations should be continuously carried out with a view of determining the nature and causes of insanity and of developing means of prevention and cure of mental diseases.

The first meeting of the Board in Control of the State Psychopathic Hospital was held on August 9, 1905. At the second meeting, on September 13, formal organization of the Board was completed, with Chauncey F. Cook as chairman, F. S. Case and C. J. Linton, of the asylum boards, and Regents Charles D. Lawton, Loyal E. Knappen, and Henry W. Carey. This committee appointed Dr. Albert M. Barrett as head of the new institution. He began work on January 1, 1906, and the institution was formally opened February 7, 1906, by the transfer of thirty-seven patients from the institutions at Kalamazoo and Pontiac. By further legislation in 1907, the Psychopathic Ward became the State Psychopathic Hospital at the University of Michigan. Its control was vested in a Board of Trustees composed of eight members, four of whom were to be chosen from the boards of trustees of Page  327Michigan asylums, and four from the Board of Regents of the University.

Dr. Barrett remained in charge of the State Psychopathic Hospital from the day he began his duties on January 1, 1906, until his death on April 2, 1936. Animated by a passion for research, possessed of a scientific rectitude unexcelled by anyone in his field, and gifted with extraordinary administrative ability, Dr. Barrett organized the State Psychopathic Hospital at the University of Michigan, directed its medical research activities, guided its clinical and pathological research program in the several asylums of the state, and maintained a fine spirit of co-operation between the state institutions for the insane and the State Psychopathic Hospital. In his capacity as pathologist for the state hospitals and Professor of Psychiatry in the Department of Medicine and Surgery of the University, Dr. Barrett devoted the best years of his life to the administration of his institution, extensive programs of research, medical education, and care of the mentally ill. He created an epoch in the progress of psychiatry which will not fail of lasting recognition in the history of Michigan. At the time of his death in 1936, he was President of the American Neurological Association, a signal honor which comes only to those who have made very important contributions to neurology or psychiatry.

From time to time the legislature made certain changes in the control and function of the State Psychopathic Hospital. In 1929 it appropriated $330,000 for the construction of a new building and for the repair of the existing structure. The financial depression, with its attendant need for economy, resulted in subsequent repeal of this appropriation. In 1935, the control of the State Psychopathic Hospital was changed and was vested solely in the Board of Regents of the University.

Following the death of Dr. Barrett in April, 1936, Dr. Harley A. Haynes was made Acting Director of the State Psychopathic Hospital until the appointment of Dr. Raymond W. Waggoner as Director on January 1, 1937.

The Neuropsychiatric Institute of the University Hospital. — In 1937, by legislative action, the Neuropsychiatric Institute of the University Hospital of the University of Michigan was brought into being to replace the former State Psychopathic Hospital. Certain changes, primarily concerned with the admission of patients, were made in the functioning of the new unit, although its purpose remained the same as that which had been so well stated in the original enabling act of 1901. At the same time an appropriation of $400,000 was made for the construction of a new unit directly attached to the University Hospital. With this change, a larger number of yearly admissions to the hospital and a larger out-patient service were made possible. The physical connection with the University Hospital has facilitated co-operation and co-ordination with the activities of other hospital departments and has thereby benefited both institutions.

The purpose of the Institute is best defined by an extract from the statute which brought it into being. The adoption of Act No. 85 of the Public Acts of 1937 transferred to the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan all the properties of the State Psychopathic Hospital, on condition that the Regents maintain a neuropsychiatric institute as a part of the University of Michigan Hospital, to be devoted to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders. The act provides (sec. 4):

The neuropsychiatric institute of the University of Michigan shall be open so far as facilities are available, and under rules and regulations to be prescribed by the board of Page  328regents of the university, for the care and treatment of persons suffering from mental disorders, but who have not been committed by the probate courts as insane, feeble-minded, or epileptic. It is the further purpose and intention to establish a clinic for the study of prevention of mental illness, and for the conduct of training and research in all phases of mental disease. With the approval and under the rules of the board of regents, there shall be maintained as a part of the neuropsychiatric institute a neuropathological laboratory, which shall be a central laboratory for the Michigan state hospitals for mental disease.

Its functions are as follows:

To study and develop methods of treatment of mental disease and pursue research in the field of psychiatry.

To serve as a center for the diagnosis and treatment of incipient mental disease in an effort to stress particularly the great importance of prevention.

To render special service to mentally ill children and to those who exhibit behavior abnormalities. The establishment of a children's ward provides for the segregation of children under conditions which will greatly facilitate careful examination, observation, and treatment of those who have shown mental symptoms.

To serve as a training center for physicians, nurses, and persons engaged in the study of psychiatry and charged with the duties of serving those who are mentally ill.

To provide a center for both clinical and laboratory research in the field of neuropsychiatry.

Every patient who is to be admitted to the Neuropsychiatric Institute must bring a letter from a referring physician or must come to the hospital with an order of conveyance issued under one of the public acts of Michigan authorizing hospitalization.

Patients may be detained in the Institute during a period of observation pending possible commitment to a state hospital.

Patients may also be transferred to the Neuropsychiatric Institute from other state hospitals on the approval of the superintendent of the hospital concerned and the State Hospital Commission.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Michigan. Public Acts [of the Session of …], 1901-40. (P.A.)
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1901-3, 1906-9, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1901-40.
"The Neuropsychiatric Institute."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull. (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 39, No. 68), No. 25 (1938): 3-4.
The Neuropsychiatric Institute. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1939 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 41 [1939], No. 34).
Page  329

THE MICHIGAN CHILD GUIDANCE INSTITUTE

LEGALLY distinct from the University and supported by a small, separate appropriation, yet administratively part of the University because it is under the control of the Board of Regents acting as trustees, is the Michigan Child Guidance Institute, which was established by a special legislative act, the Palmer-Flynn-Martin Bill, in 1937 (P.A., 1937, No. 285).

Created to inquire into the causes of child delinquency, to study methods of improving treatment of such cases, and to co-ordinate the work of public and private agencies in examining and caring for such children, the Institute was the outcome of a number of different influences working in the same general direction for several years. As early as 1932 President Ruthven had directed the attention of the Department of Sociology and of the School of Education to the need of studying the adjustment-status of boys treated at the University Fresh Air Camp. Out of this came a local co-ordinating council in Ann Arbor, the President's treatment planning committee, and later, through Dr. Ruthven's influence, a privately financed educational activity connected with the Department of Sociology, the Michigan Juvenile Delinquency Information Service, which for several years circulated a monthly Delinquency News Letter to several thousand officials and community leaders throughout the state. As a result of this interest, when the vice-chairman of the State Crime Commission, the late State Senator Herbert P. Orr of Caro, asked for technical assistance in 1934 in drafting a plan for providing clinical advice for juvenile courts in the state, the late Dr. Albert M. Barrett and other faculty members collaborated in preparing a plan which, with a few modifications, became the Palmer-Flynn-Martin Bill.

Under this act the Institute was set up as a research, educational, and organizing agency to study the causes of juvenile delinquency in individual children and in communities, and to carry on experimental research to improve methods of treatment and the efficiency of community organization. The first director, Lowell Juilliard Carr ('20, Ph.D. '24), Associate Professor of Sociology, was appointed November 1, 1937, and the Institute began examining cases March 1, 1938. By December 1, 1940, it had examined 995 cases from 35 counties and had assumed continuing responsibility for the ultimate adjustment of 271 of those cases, mainly in Oakland, Monroe, Montcalm, and Shiawassee counties, where local leadership had been organized to co-operate; and its educational and organizing activities had reached into 81 communities in 51 counties in all parts of the state. In its program for educating local leadership to assume responsibility for controlling delinquency at home the Institute was unique in the United States, and in its combination of research, education, and community organization to discover and prevent delinquency before it reached the courts the Institute was performing a function no other agency in the state was touching.

During its first three years the Institute staff consisted of twelve full-time persons and one or two part-time graduate assistants. The full-time staff included, in addition to secretarial assistants, a psychiatrist, a psychologist, a field sociologist, a field research man, and two (later, three) social workers.

Page  330In a report published early in 1941, the Institute estimated that 73 per cent of its cases under treatment had either made satisfactory adjustments or were showing improvement.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Delinquency News Letter, 1934-40.
Michigan. Public Acts [of the Session of …], 1937.

THE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SERVICE

IN 1912, students and faculty members recommended that an organized medical service to students comparable to services at several other universities be established at the University of Michigan, Professors M. P. Tilley, L. A. Hopkins, and F. N. Menefee, Dr. C. L. Washburne, and Elizabeth Holt, R.N., taking especially active interest. Student petitions from the Union, the League, and the Druids probably hastened action. A unit for ambulatory patients was opened in the fall of 1913, under the direction of Dr. Howard Hastings Cummings ('10m), with a staff of two physicians, a nurse, and a clerk. A budget of $10,000 was provided. During the early years, a large administrative board was in control of what soon came to be known as the University Health Service. President Hutchins, Dean Vaughan, Dean Cooley, and Secretary Smith constituted the executive committee of the first board, with Mr. Benjamin Hanchett of the Board of Regents, chairman of the committee representing that body.

Attention was first directed to the sanitation of the campus, but care of student illnesses and efforts toward their prevention soon occupied all the time of the meager staff. Minor illnesses of students were cared for in the rooms of students, while the more critical conditions were provided for in the University Hospital. An addition of $2.00 annually was made to all tuitions and a small fee was collected for house calls. A converted residence located on the present site of the Burton Memorial Tower was the first University Health Service building. The meager professional staff required the assistance of senior medical students during the first few years.

In June, 1915, recognizing the inadequacy in building, personnel, and equipment, the Alumni Association urged an enlargement of the service. In October, 1917, an addition to the building was provided, services were extended, which included compulsory vaccination against smallpox, and upon resignation of Dr. Cummings, Dr. Warren Ellsworth Forsythe (Oregon Agricultural College '07, Michigan '08p, '13m, Dr.P.H. Johns Hopkins '25) became the head of the service. By 1919, a complete medical examination was required of all entering men students and six lectures on the more urgent health requisites were given for freshmen.

New quarters with infirmary beds. — The need for improved and extended service, including bed care, was becoming increasingly apparent. In 1921, Page  331the Division of Hygiene and Public Health was created and the University Health Service was included therein. This Division was planned to bring under one administration all interests and activities concerned with the physical health and welfare of students, and was directed by John Sundwall (Chicago '03, Ph.D. ibid. '06, M.D. Johns Hopkins '12). The annex of the Homeopathic Hospital was assigned to the Health Service; this provided a modern forty-by-seventy-foot building of three stories, twenty beds, offices for clinic purposes, including X-ray, laboratory, and pharmacy. With the increasing demand for service, enlarged quarters, and bed-patient care, the staff was increased to six full-time and two half-time physicians, five nurses, one clerk, two stenographers, a pharmacist, and a laboratorian. Since about 1922, each new entering student has received the complete medical examination during registration week. Since 1935, this examination has included an X-ray film study of the heart and lungs, and defects found at this time have been carefully followed and corrected whenever possible.

Expansion and reorganization. — Because of the growing student population and the ever increasing demand for improved service, funds were appropriated in 1928 to provide for a larger staff, more space, and modern equipment. The ground floor of the old Homeopathic Hospital was allotted to the Health Service. This provided a waiting room, two offices, and extended facilities for physiotherapy with a full-time technician and, in accord with the general policy, it was supervised by the head of that department at the University Hospital. Modern X-ray equipment and facilities were installed, and four infirmary beds were added.

At about this time it became apparent that the extreme cost for a few individuals restricted the services to the student body as a whole. It was thought necessary, therefore, to reduce the provision for sixty days hospital service to thirty days.

The desirability of employing physicians on a full-time basis had become increasingly apparent. Accordingly, part-time attendants were gradually replaced by full-time practitioners, except in the more highly specialized fields. In order to maintain a closer relationship with students, a full-time physician was appointed as adviser to each entering class and continued in that relationship throughout the four-year period of the college course. This more intimate acquaintance has fostered the ideal patient-physician relationship. Similar services are rendered to women students by full-time women physicians, one of whom devotes part of her time to the duties of Director of Physical Education for Women — Margaret Bell (Chicago '15, M.D. Rush Medical College '21), who was appointed with these dual duties in 1923. The staff also obtained the valuable services of a general medical adviser, James Deacon Bruce (M.D. Detroit College of Medicine '96), who is now Vice-President in Charge of University Relations. In 1928, a staff surgeon assumed full-time duty with athletes and in the treatment of surgical conditions at the Health Service Building.

Mental hygiene. — Staff service in personality adjustment began in 1927, with a part-time worker and psychiatrist. Since 1930, a full-time psychiatrist, Dr. Theophile Raphael ('13, A.M. '15, '19m), has directed the unit, with two full-time and one part-time psychiatric workers and a secretary. A full-time neuropsychiatrist and another part-time social worker were added in 1935. This work includes, in addition to time-consuming interviews with students themselves, numerous contacts with faculty Page  332members, administrative officers, friends, parents, and class medical advisers.

Allergy. — In 1928, a sensitization clinic which deals with the body's reaction to foreign proteins was established under the direction of a physician, on half-time service, with a clerical assistant. It has been necessary to secure a full-time physician, six assistants, and other clerical help. Intradermal tests are being made now by this unit at a small personal charge to the student, many desensitization treatments are given, and diets are arranged.

Health education. — The educational program includes six freshman lectures given by members of the staff, and health education is further promoted by the contact of students and physicians in their patient-physician relationship, and by the distribution of pamphlets on health topics in the waiting rooms. During their incumbency staff physicians are encouraged to avail themselves of educational opportunities in fields of special interest in the regular University program.

Sanitation. — From the beginning, campus sanitation has received attention by the Health Service. A part-time member inspects swimming pools, student eating places, and campus buildings. Proprietors are encouraged to adopt improved sanitary measures, without effort upon the part of the University to take over the authority of the city health officer. The deans of men and women are assisted with inspection of rooming houses, dormitories, sororities, and fraternities. The three University swimming pools have been regularly tested. The sanitarian acts as deputy health officer of the city.

Camps. — Since 1915, students in summer session camps of the University have had Health Service privileges. This has required the residence of staff physicians and, at times, nurses at two camps.

Dormitory nursing. — For several years registered nurses who were resident students in the dormitories for women have worked under the direction of Dr. Bell in the care of these students. This arrangement has proved to be valuable for all concerned.

In 1938, with a student population of 15,358 and a budget of $142,000, the total visits to the Health Service numbered 132,946. The staff consisted of about sixty regularly appointed members, including a dietitian, added in 1933. A small addition to the building provided five more offices and six additional beds. Every available square foot of building space was utilized to the utmost and much more was needed. Many ill students who required bed care and most major surgical cases were sent to the University Hospital. Some were hospitalized at private hospitals. In November, 1938, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the establishment of the Health Service was observed, at which time President Alexander G. Ruthven announced a PWA plan for a new, beautiful, and ample building for the department. The new building was occupied in April, 1940. It is one block north of the campus on Fletcher Avenue. It is fifty feet by two hundred feet in dimensions, including a short rear wing, and has four floors. The ground floor provides kitchen, dining-rooms, and other service and storage facilities. The first floor has general physicians' offices, nurses' treatment space, a pharmacy, a classroom, an entrance lobby, and an administrative section. The second floor provides for special services to ambulatory patients, and the third provides a sixty-bed infirmary divided into small rooms. The use of the building with its new equipment has shown it to be the most satisfactory for the present program and suitable for expansion of activities.

Almost constant additions to staff and Page  333equipment have been made to keep up with demands and opportunities for service. Co-operation on the part of the members of the University Hospital and Medical School has from the beginning helped to make this very complete medical service available to students. Data have been collected upon which many reports have been given. More than forty papers dealing with these data have been published. These are of value in the study of many health questions in young adults. Many problems of research in this population have been recognized by staff members, but resources and energy have generally been so much absorbed by student illness that not much original invesigation could be fostered. Deaths have been much fewer than among nonstudents of the same age.

The University Health Service appears to be well recognized and established as a vital factor in student welfare at Michigan and is constantly improving its facilities for service.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1881-1941. (R.P.)
University of Michigan Health Service; Twenty-fifth Anniversary, 1919-1938. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. [1938].

UNIVERSITY LECTURES

AS early as 1896, President Angell said in his annual report: "It would be of value to us to have a small fund, as many universities have, with which to bring scholarly lecturers on special topics before our classes." This suggestion was not carried out until fifteen years had passed, but in the meantime there were sporadic references in the Proceedings of the Regents to requests from members of the faculty for small appropriations to defray the expenses of lectures by specifically named visiting scholars. These were usually granted, but on some occasions, unfortunately, the money was not forthcoming, for lack of funds. In the summer of 1908 John R. Effinger, Dean of the Summer Session, and Secretary Edward H. Kraus had organized a regular series of afternoon lectures for the benefit of the students. The success of these lectures undoubtedly led to a reconsideration of the idea expressed by President Angell.

At the meeting of the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts on March 7, 1910, upon a motion by Professor William H. Hobbs, a committee of five was raised to report to the faculty a memorial addressed to the Board of Regents asking that the sum of $1,000 be set aside for the purpose of securing eminent nonresident lecturers. Accordingly, Professors William H. Hobbs, Fred M. Taylor, Joseph L. Markley, Fred N. Scott, and Lawrence S. Bigelow were appointed to present this memorial, of which an action taken by the Regents at their June meeting in 1911 was presumably the result. At that time $1,000 was added to the budget for the purpose of securing lectures by distinguished scholars, with expenditures Page  334to be made at the discretion of the president on recommendation of a committee of three members of the faculty. This money was to be available for lectures in any department of the University.

An appropriation of this nature, but of varying amount, has been included in the budget of each year mentioned since 1911, and the lectures have come to be called "University lectures." It is understood that the lectures so provided are to be regarded as a part of the instructional program of the several departments, though admission is always free and open to any student, teacher, or other person who desires to attend. The allotment of sums from the budget account, on request of the departments of instruction, is still made in the President's Office, but practical difficulties have made it impossible to organize the University lectures as a series with a fixed program of dates and lecturers. Ordinarily between twenty and thirty University lecturers come to Ann Arbor in the course of a year. The majority are professors or research scholars from other universities, American or foreign, but explorers, writers, and men in public life are also included in their numbers. The University lectures, it is believed, fulfill a useful purpose in permitting both students and faculty to see and hear eminent men of the time, and to get from them new and authoritative points of view upon questions of various kinds.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bulletin of General Information, Univ. Mich., 1928-40.
The Michigan Daily, 1911-40.
MS, "Minutes of the Faculty of the Department [College, 1915 — ] of Literature, Science, and the Arts," 1908-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the Senate Council," May, 1908. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1907-22. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1896, p. 16.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1910-40.

ADULT EDUCATION

THE term "adult education" has within the past few years become extremely popular with educators and others, and as a result it is used in widely different senses. What is adult education? This question was settled officially by the American Association for Adult Education a few years ago, when it decided to apply the term to that education which is given to adults who are studying but are not in residence in colleges and universities, and especially to those who, at the same time, are engaged in their regular life occupations. In other words, most of the people who are taking part in adult education programs are giving a very appreciable part of their leisure time to study.

Adult education, as the term is now understood, began in England in 1867, with the extension movement in Cambridge University (see Part II: University Extension Service). Today such instruction is carried on in the United States by practically every university and by many of the colleges. Enrollment in these off-campus courses, including correspondence courses, is equal to about Page  335one-fifth of the entire resident enrollment in these institutions.

Meanwhile, adult education as exemplified by university extension courses has been taken up and modified by other agencies. The work has a wide range in content and character. It includes instruction given to alumni groups, instruction groups classified as conferences and institutes, the public-night-school courses now conducted in most of our cities, and the more or less informal educational programs of the radio.

The present University Extension Service of the University of Michigan was established in 1911, and its extension credit courses were begun two years later in Detroit (p. 344). More recently, noncredit courses also have been given, and upon a rather large scale. Cities in the Upper Peninsula are among the larger centers in Michigan in which credit and noncredit courses are conducted.

A study has been made of the vocational and academic status of those who took University of Michigan extension courses in the first twenty-five years. Teachers comprised 45 per cent; business and profession persons, 35 per cent; and technical workers, 8 per cent. The remaining 12 per cent was miscellaneous or unclassified. Nearly one-third of the students (31 per cent) held college or university degrees, of which 85 per cent were bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degrees; 8 per cent, master of arts; 6 per cent, professional degrees; and 1 per cent, doctor of philosophy degrees.

The informal types of adult education, i.e., short courses, institutes, and lectures on topics of special interest, have also been utilized by the University. The Library Extension Service has distributed books, pamphlets, and bibliographies for such programs, both University-sponsored and otherwise, and the University radio programs on literary, professional, and vocational subjects disseminate useful information to the people of the state. The entire radio audience is estimated as six hundred thousand, on the average, and the number reached directly or indirectly by the University through its other agencies for adult education as five hundred thousand annually — more than one million persons each year, in all.

More specific descriptions of the University's program of adult education, in its various phases, are given in this Encyclopedic Survey under the headings of University Lectures, the Division of Extramural Services, the Department of Postgraduate Medicine, the School of Dentistry (section on postgraduate instruction), the Alumni University, the Bureau of Alumni Relations, the University News Service, the University Broadcasting Service, the Library Extension Service, and the University Extension Service. All these articles are in Part II, except that on the Department of Postgraduate Medicine (Part V) and that on the School of Dentistry (Part VII).

Through the medium of adult education programs of the extension type, people in practically every county of the state are enabled to meet members of the faculty. So far as the benefits accruing to the University from this type of work are concerned, these personal contacts are most important. That this service has been appreciated by the people of the state is attested by the constantly increasing number of requests related to adult educational problems.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annual Adult Education Institute …, Univ. Mich., 1-9 (1932-40).
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1932-40.
Page  336

THE DIVISION OF EXTRAMURAL SERVICES

THE increasing complexities of community life have been bringing to the University more and more requests for advice, guidance, and assistance. These relate to educational needs and personal and community problems in addition to those involving formal academic courses of study.

Interest in the general field of adult education, apart from the professional fields, has warranted a rather critical study of the operations of those various units within the University having to do with extramural service. This study also included frequent discussions with members of the teaching profession and various interested organizations of the state and revealed certain community educational needs as well as difficulties experienced by many school systems and by other local agencies in meeting these needs. Many schools have become centers of educational activities in addition to their formal classroom work. There has been an increasing demand, however, for new subject matter within the school curriculum, and also for instruction and educational guidance for those beyond local-school years, which reflects the needs of other members of the community as well as those of the school child.

The University has long maintained various agencies designed to assist in local educational and community problems. In order to assure the most effective operation of these various units and to guard against duplication of effort, at the January, 1937, meeting of the Board of Regents the following action was taken:

Resolved, That a Division of Extramural Services be organized in accordance with the general principle stated in the definition of a division as approved by the Board of Regents
(R.P. 1932-1936, p. 348). In view of the nature of the units involved in exercising advisory functions in accordance with the controlling definition of a division, special emphasis shall be placed upon co-ordinating the various allied activities and developing in a sound and progressive manner the educational services which can be properly rendered by the University to the citizens of the State. The administration of each unit included in the Division of Extramural Services and the responsibilities of the chief officer of each unit are not hereby affected.

Resolved, further, That there shall be included within the Division of Extramural Services all postgraduate activities, all of the sections and bureaus within the present University Extension Division, the Library Extension Service, the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information, the Bureau of Alumni Relations, the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, the extramural work of Student-Alumni Relations, the in-service training of the Bureau of Reference and Research in Government, the industrial teacher-training of the Department of Vocational Education, and such other units and activities which may from time to time by regental action be placed within the Division. Official representatives shall be the responsible heads but the Division may include, as regular members, additional representatives from the various bureaus and units; and

Resolved, further, That Dr. James D. Bruce, in his capacity as Vice-President in Charge of University Relations, shall act as Chairman of the Division.


(R.P., 1936-39, pp. 137-38.)

During the three years since its organization, the Division of Extramural Services has been helpful in clarifying the functions and responsibilities of the extramural service units within the University, and also has led to closer associations with other state and privately supported institutions. In this development complete autonomy is maintained Page  337within the various University units as well as by the affiliated institutions.

At present this community of interests is confined largely to adult education, but promises the inclusion of other fields as community needs become clearly defined and the effectiveness of extramural co-operation becomes more apparent.

The willingness with which our institutions of higher learning, both state and private, have accepted this obligation lends encouragement to the belief that many state-wide needs, social as well as educational, may be more adequately met by still closer collaboration.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1936-40. (R.P.)
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1937-40.

THE BUREAU OF ALUMNI RELATIONS

The Bureau of Alumni Relations is an agency developed by the University of Michigan to stimulate and maintain a co-operative relationship between the institution and its alumni on the basis of their educational and intellectual interests. It is designed as a means of continuing into postcollege years the educational experience and interests of the undergraduate period.

The history of the Bureau began with a plan for a postcollegiate, or alumni, educational venture to be denominated the "Alumni University," which was devised by President Clarence Cook Little of the University and Elmer J. Ottaway, President of the Alumni Association from 1927 to 1930. For some years the officers of the Alumni Association had recognized the need of a program in adult education as it concerned the college alumnus. It was gradually becoming recognized that there was a deeper implication in alumni relations than that comprised in the editorial, organizing, and financial activities of the usual alumni organization. Many discussions of this new conception appeared in the Michigan Alumnus during the years 1925-29. The object of the plan was described in 1928, in a sixteen-page supplement to the Alumnus, as "active participation by individual alumni in individual activities of the University in which they have a special and personal interest." This supplement carried the description of a rather elaborate plan of organization, as well as statements by University department heads with regard to the many opportunities which interested alumni had for co-operation and study in various university subjects.

In October, 1928, the Regents appropriated $24,000 for a two-year period "for the expenses of carrying on extension work through alumni fellows and other activities of the movement known as the Alumni University." At the next meeting, in November, a communication was received from the directors of the Alumni Association expressing their appreciation of the Regents' action and their readiness to co-operate in every possible way, and authorizing the appointment of a committee "to meet with the representatives of the Regents and Faculties in formulating plans for its establishment." The specific plan, as outlined by President Little, included the appointment of four officers, to be called Page  338"alumni fellows," who were to act as liaison officers between the University and the alumni in developing the program, and in accordance with his recommendation Wilfred B. Shaw was appointed as the first alumni fellow charged with the development of the plan.

President Little's resignation at just this time, however, left the details of its actual inauguration with Alexander G. Ruthven, at that time Dean of Administration. When the plan as outlined received more mature consideration, it seemed impracticable in certain respects, since the appropriation included $12,000 annually for the salaries of the four fellows, but made no provision for the equally important office personnel which would necessarily have been involved in such an effort. The result was a resurvey, which in turn resulted in the creation of the University Bureau of Alumni Relations, with a director and office staff and financial means to carry out the program. An advisory committee of five was also authorized, to be appointed from the faculty by the President.

To the position thus created Wilfred Byron Shaw ('04), who for twenty-five years had been General Secretary of the Alumni Association, was appointed by the Regents in the spring of 1929. For some years he had been interested in the concept of alumni education, and at the time of his appointment was engaged in a six-month investigation of the entire field for the American Association for Adult Education, under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. His published study, The Alumni and Adult Education, revealed that many university executives were interested in a comprehensive program of adult education as it refers to the college graduate, but that few specific measures had been taken. He returned in September, 1929, to set up the new program in the University of Michigan — a pioneering effort in that field.

Bulletins. — One of the first projects undertaken by the University was the issuing of a series of sixteen-page bulletins addressed to all its eighty thousand alumni, giving information upon such of the institution's fundamental concerns as would be of interest to them. These bulletins have been issued periodically and have formed the first regular message ever sent to the alumni on the part of the University. The first one bore the date of November 16, 1929, and contained the statement of President Ruthven upon his acceptance of the presidency on October 4, 1929. By the end of June, 1940, thirty-one of these bulletins had been issued.

An appropriation from the Carnegie Corporation in 1929 enabled the University also to finance an investigation of the possibilities of alumni group educational programs, lecture courses, and discussion groups in centers near the University. This resulted in the establishment of courses of lectures in Detroit and elsewhere held for a number of years under the auspices of the University of Michigan clubs.

The Alumni University. — There was also established on the campus throughout the week immediately following Commencement and before the opening of the summer session an annual program of classes and lectures known as the Alumni University. This week of study for alumni has preserved the name of President Little's original conception and has become an important part of the University's alumni program. The ten sessions since its establishment in 1930 have been attended by an average of about one hundred alumni students, a large proportion of them graduates of the University of Michigan.

Reading lists. — It became evident soon after the program was established that the University's great alumni body, being scattered all over the world, constituted a special problem in any extended program in alumni education, and it became Page  339increasingly clear that the ultimate objective must be, not specific educational efforts, which could by their very nature reach only a limited number of alumni, but rather, the creation of sympathetic understanding of the University's program and co-operative interest in the specific educational efforts and problems of the University.

Thus, a program of reading lists was developed in co-operation with the Extension Service of the University Library >(see Part II: Library Extension Service). Over a period of years about six hundred lists have been compiled in answer to specific requests from some five thousand alumni, who have learned of the service through announcements in the bulletins. In response to alumni letters, the Bureau of Alumni Relations has furnished help and suggestions in many different fields, and the co-operation of other University agencies — such as the Extension Service and the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information — has been enlisted. The Bureau of Appointments has found satisfactory positions for many alumni. By these means a closer fellowship between the University and the alumni is encouraged.

The scholarly, scientific, and literary interests of the University have been interpreted through the Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, edited by the director of alumni relations. This special publication was established in 1934.

To meet the constant demand of alumni for more detailed information regarding the University, the University News Service has also been located in the office of the Bureau and under the general charge of the director, although it is a separate University division and is not directly a part of the program in alumni relations (see Part II: University News Service).

The result of the efforts of the Bureau over the ten years of its existence up to 1940 have been positive, and there has been a constructive development in the relationship between the University and the alumni. No concrete assessment of its accomplishments, however, is practicable. Nevertheless, it is clear that the alumni, on the whole, have become increasingly aware of the University's desire to keep in communication with them on some basis more constructive than its need for financial support or their interest in athletics, and their response to that policy has become increasingly effective.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Speek, Frances V. (Comp.). "One Hundred Twenty-eight Outstanding Changes and Experiments."Nat. Soc. Study Ed. Yearb., 31 (1932), Pt. 2: 103.
The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, Vols. 40-46 (1934-40).
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1929-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1929-40.
Shaw, Wilfred B."Adult Education for the Educated."N. Y. Times Mag., Dec. 29, 1929.
Shaw, Wilfred B."The Alumni." In: Higher Education in America. Ed. by R. A. Kent. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1930. Chap. XXII, pp. 652-90.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The Alumni and Adult Education. New York: Amer. Assn. Adult Ed., 1929.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The Bureau of Alumni Relations; a Review of Two Years' Effort in Developing a Program in Alumni Education. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1931 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 33, No. 10).
Shaw, Wilfred B."College Education Continued."J. Adult Ed., 3 (1931): 165-72.
Shaw, Wilfred B."Educating the Alumni."Scribner's Mag., 86 (1929): 515-20.
Shaw, Wilfred B."An Educational Week for Alumni at the University of Michigan."School and Soc., 32 (1930): 231-32.
Shaw, Wilfred B."The Intellectual Needs of Alumni."Amer. Scholar, 1 (1932): 163-66.
University of Michigan Bureau of Alumni Relations, General Bulletin, Nos. 1-33 (1929-40).
Page  340

THE ALUMNI UNIVERSITY

THE Alumni University as it has developed at the University of Michigan forms one aspect of a broad plan designed to carry the educational and intellectual stimulation of student days into postcollegiate years. In concrete form it carries on an idea first expressed by President Clarence Cook Little, who advocated a broad program in continuing educational effort based on a co-operative movement on the part of both the University and the alumni, to which he gave the name of the Alumni University.

Upon the establishment of the Bureau of Alumni Relations in 1929, one of the first projects to be planned was a week of lectures and classes for such alumni as desired to return to the University for a period of recreative study under conditions similar to those of their student days. Such a project had been tried with great success by President William Mather Lewis at Lafayette College the previous year, under the name of the Alumni College. This was attended by Wilfred B. Shaw, at that time with the American Association for Adult Education, and on his return to Ann Arbor as Director of Alumni Relations he made plans for a similar project, the first to be held in a large institution.

The first session began on Tuesday, June 24, 1930, and ended on Saturday, June 28. Ten courses in all were given — American History, Modern Art, Heredity, the Far East, the Symphony, Investments, Geology, Aesthetics, Landscape Design, and Contemporary Drama — with five lectures in each course. In addition, there were special programs in the evenings, including a reception in the William L. Clements Library, lectures, and plays in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The attendance at this first session was seventy-two.

In the ensuing years the attendance grew slowly. Although the general program of courses remained about the same, different members of the University faculty were asked each year to give the courses. In the 1938 session, the courses were grouped roughly into three sections: the World Abroad, which included a program of four lectures each on the Far East, the European Crisis, the Situation in Spain, and the Near East; Contemporary Society, with Monetary Policy, Security, and the Youth Problem; and finally, Science and the Arts, in which Evolution of the Earth, the Symphony, Modern Architecture, and Modern Drama completed the program.

The Alumni University has always opened on the afternoon of Monday of the week between Commencement and the summer session. At the 1938 session 115 alumni were registered, many of whom had attended previous sessions. The students represent all classes and divisions of the University, and in addition, a number of graduates of other institutions are always in attendance.

The programs have generally been arranged to meet the varied interests of a widely diversified group of college graduates, as well as to emphasize contemporary thought and problems. Reading lists have been furnished by the members of the faculty who gave the courses, and notes of some of the more recent lecture series have been published and distributed to those who have asked for them.

Since the establishment of alumni week at Lafayette College and at the University of Michigan, many other colleges and universities have begun similar efforts in alumni education. Although Page  341some institutions have been content with short programs of single lectures by different members of their faculties, the program of the University of Michigan has been unique in its emphasis on courses of lectures in related subjects rather than on single lectures. This integration has given a greater solidity to the work and has vitalized its serious educational purpose. The fee of ten dollars and the duration of the series for six days have limited the enrollment somewhat as compared with the attendance at similar enterprises in some other institutions.

The evening programs in recent years have included plays, an open house by President and Mrs. Ruthven, and visits to the Observatory, the William L. Clements Library, and the University Museums.

No Alumni University was held in 1937 because of the week's centennial celebration of the establishment of the University in Ann Arbor held in June of that year. The Alumni University, in June, 1938, was the first educational body to utilize the facilities of the newly dedicated Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1929.
Shaw, Wilfred B."An Educational Week for Alumni at the University of Michigan."School and Soc., 32 (1930): 231-32.

THE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION SERVICE

THE forms of education which a university conducts apart from its regular schedule of academic and professional courses for students who live in the university community and devote their full time to study come under the head of university extension service. Throughout the greater part of the nineteenth century certain adult education activities that have since been undertaken by the universities were being carried on outside such institutions. Among the speakers on lecture programs in the United States — lyceum programs, for example — were members of university faculties. In one sense they "represented" their institutions, for which reason the institutions were glad to have them take part in the work, but it appears that the universities left the planning and financing of such programs in the hands of separate organizations or of individual managers.

The event which may be regarded as the beginning of university extension work, in the strict sense of the term, occurred in England in 1867, when regular courses on the history of astronomy were offered, chiefly for workers, under the auspices of Cambridge University but outside the city of Cambridge. These courses were given in Manchester and in three other English cities by Professor James Stuart, a member of the Cambridge University faculty. The new kind of instruction was taken up by Oxford and other English universities, and also in Continental Europe, where, particularly in the Scandinavian countries, it was greatly developed.

At least as early as in the administration of President Haven, 1863-69, and Page  342possibly in the time of his predecessor, President Tappan, the University of Michigan was interested in the public-lecture movement. Andrew D. White, who joined the faculty in 1857 and left for the presidency of Cornell University in the very year when direct university sponsorship of adult education was begun abroad, has recorded having lectured frequently in the cities of Michigan and of neighboring states. He wrote:

It was the culminating period of the popular-lecture system, and through the winter months my Friday and Saturday evenings were generally given to this sort of duty. It was, after its fashion, what in these days [he was writing in 1906] is called "university extension"; indeed, the main purpose of those members of the faculty thus invited to lecture was to spread the influence of the university.


(White, I: 268-69.)

As a part of the same system and for the sake of the University — although the University's interest was probably not more than semiofficial — Professor White entertained the visiting lecturers in his home on the campus. He regarded the friendships which he made on tour, and also the privileges of having such men as Emerson and Bayard Taylor at his fireside and of bringing them into closer relations with the students and faculty, as more than compensating for the difficulties he underwent in lecturing outside Ann Arbor at a time when transportation itself was a difficult problem.

The first plan for university extension work in the United States known to be comparable to the Cambridge venture was that presented at a librarians' meeting in 1887 by Professor Herbert Adams of Johns Hopkins University, but the first university in this country actually to follow the lead of Cambridge and Oxford was the University of Chicago. When this institution, completely reorganized, opened its doors in the fall of 1892 under the presidency of William Rainey Harper, extension service constituted one of the five principal University divisions. Within a month, the University of Michigan was invited to join with other "western" universities to form a University Extension Association, but the invitation was "respectfully declined" by the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

This decision was based upon a year's experience in extension work, the administration and faculty having launched an extension program which had been outlined by a faculty committee and approved by the Regents in November, 1891. President Angell had foreseen many difficulties which the University was scarcely prepared to meet, and set them forth in his annual report of 1892, as follows:

So much public interest was evinced in what is called the work of University Extension that early in the college year the Literary Faculty matured a plan for entering upon it, and the plan received your [i.e., the Regents'] approval. It contemplated the offering of courses of lectures by members of the Faculty at a moderate rate to local organizations in towns and cities not too remote from us. Several of our professors offered their services at considerable inconvenience to themselves. Courses consisting of six lectures each were given at Detroit, East Saginaw, Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Hillsdale, and Toledo. Professor Demmon lectured on English Literature, Professor Adams on Political Economy, Professor Carhart on Electricity, Professor Hudson on the German Empire, Professor Steere on Zoology, and Professor Scott on Art. Quizzes and examinations were held on the subjects of the lectures. The experiment showed that there is at present a certain demand for such instruction, and the examination papers indicated, in the opinion of the lecturers, that a considerable number of the hearers were much profited by it. It is, perhaps, too early to say whether the interest in such lectures, which are given primarily for instruction rather Page  343than entertainment, is to be abiding. It is clear that the lecturers find the task, taken in addition to their regular duties, rather a heavy draught on their strength. It is also impossible for them to discharge this duty without some absence from their classes here. … It seems worth while, even at the cost of a little inconvenience, to repeat the experiment of last winter. Should, however, the demand for University Extension teaching become as general as some anticipate it will, it would be beyond our power to meet it, unless provision should be made for special lecturers who could give a large part of their time to the work. We can safely postpone for the present the consideration of that subject. It is, however, desirable to call attention to the fact that there is a limit to the amount of this outside work which a College Faculty can do without injustice to the regular college classes. The public should understand this, if we fail to respond to all the calls they may make upon us for courses of lectures.


(P.R., 1892, pp. 12-13.)

After the first year, Kalamazoo and Hillsdale were dropped from the list, but Cadillac was added. A brief restatement of President Angell's point of view in his annual report of 1894 was the last official reference to this project, the University's earliest genuine extension work. In 1897-98, however, by agreement with the Michigan State Board of Agriculture and at no cost to itself, the University sent out several professors to speak at the farmers' county institutes.

Extension work received no further attention for more than a decade, but was again brought before the Regents by President Hutchins in 1911. He apparently did this at least partly at the instigation of the Michigan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, which desired the University to conduct a preventive campaign.

After the subject had been considered at several meetings of the Regents, the sum of ten thousand dollars was allocated to extension service in the regular budget for 1911-12. In October, 1911, an administrative plan for the work was adopted. The President and the deans comprised a committee which selected the lecture subjects. The President personally directed the work.

Three objectives of the new extension service were set forth in the original announcement: (1) to serve the general cause of education and the advancement of culture, (2) to serve local communities insofar as the technical and experimental knowledge of the men doing university work might be available, and (3) to acquaint the members of the various faculties with local conditions throughout the state. Traveling expenses and a fee of twenty dollars for each lecture were paid to the speaker. Only the local costs were borne by the society or organization under whose auspices a lecture was given.

The Regents created the part-time position of director of University extension work in June, 1912, and appointed William D. Henderson ('03, Ph.D. '06), then Junior Professor of Physics. His connection with this work came about partly by chance. One day while passing President Hutchins' door he had been called in by the President, who said: "I have here a letter from a place called Gwinn, asking for a lecture on city planning. Where is Gwinn?" Henderson, who had formerly lived at Petoskey, replied that Gwinn is a small mining town in the Upper Peninsula, between Escanaba and Negaunee. "Why in the world," asked the President, "should a small town in the Upper Peninsula want a lecture on city planning?" Henderson explained that this was a newly organized mining community, and that some of the local leaders, instead of allowing the miners' houses to grow up in a hit-or-miss way, as is common in mining communities, had conceived the idea of building a model town. With this in mind, it was natural that they should call upon the University for expert counsel and advice. Page  344President Hutchins was so impressed by the circumstances under which the request had been made that he asked Henderson to give a half day each week to the consideration of requests for extension lectures. This half day a week grew into two days a week, and by 1918 the extension work had grown to such proportions that he was asked to sever his connection with the Department of Physics and accept a new appointment as Professor and Director of the Extension Division.

Begun as an auxiliary service of the President's Office, extension work in the University of Michigan has now become a task that involves the direction of the off-campus activities of some ten University bureaus and co-operation with them. It reaches every part of the state and brings the University directly or indirectly into contact with more than a million people every year. The University Extension Service furnishes single lectures and series of lectures outside Ann Arbor, radio broadcasts from the campus, and systematic extension courses conducted in person, as well as correspondence study courses and intensive short courses in Ann Arbor of the nature of conventions, known as institutes. It participates in the activities of the joint committee on health education and in those of the Michigan High School Forensic Association, described below, and, through the Library, furnishes library extension service.

When William D. Henderson reached his seventieth birthday in the autumn of 1936 he expressed the wish to retire from active service. The Regents granted this request, effective with the beginning of the second semester, and gave him the title, Professor Emeritus and Director Emeritus of the University Extension Division. When the Division of Extramural Services was set up in January, 1937 (see Part II: Division of Extramural Services), the University Extension Division was renamed University Extension Service, and Charles A. Fisher (DePauw '10, Ph.D. Michigan '30), Assistant Director for the previous ten years, was designated Director, beginning with the second semester of 1936-37.

Extension lectures. — At first, as requests were received, a few extension lectures were given by members of the faculty. The work has gradually grown. Representatives of the University now speak in many localities of the state on various subjects related to their specialties. For several years more than six hundred lectures a year were given — approximately four hundred of these by members of the regular University faculty and two hundred or more by selected members of the medical and dental professions, who were chosen by the Michigan State Medical Society and by the Michigan State Dental Society.

Because the sum allocated for this work is small, organizations have, as a rule, been charged for speakers, and the few free lectures have been reserved for those groups and communities that are unable to contribute toward the expense of bringing their speakers. Since luncheon clubs, women's clubs, and similar organizations have treasuries upon which to draw, it has been customary to ask them for a contribution ranging from traveling expenses to the entire cost.

Extension courses. — In 1913 a request for the organization of extension classes with regular academic credit was received from Detroit. After some consideration the University approved the plan. Accordingly, in 1913-14, courses were organized and given there — in philosophy by Professor Robert M. Wenley and in English and history by Assistant Professors Thomas E. Rankin and William A. Frayer. The enrollment was relatively large; there were more than one hundred and twenty students in Professor Wenley's course alone. Credit was Page  345given for these classes, which corresponded to similar courses on the campus. The fee established was five dollars per credit hour. Some fifteen hundred such courses were given outside Ann Arbor in the period 1913-19, with a total class enrollment of more than thirty-eight thousand.

Several colleges and schools on the campus accept some extension credit toward the bachelor's degree, provided all the residence, scholarship, and other graduation requirements are satisfied. The maximum of extension credit and the conditions under which it is granted vary from one unit to another; the School of Education and the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts accept a total of thirty hours.

In February, 1926, Charles A. Fisher, who was at the time Principal of Kalamazoo Central High School, was appointed Assistant Director of the University Extension Division. He began his duties that fall, it being understood that the organization and development of extension courses should receive the greater share of his attention. The growth of this work has not been phenomenal, but the enrollment has continued to increase regularly. In 1938-39 more than six thousand students were enrolled, and in 1939-40 there were 6,585.

An important forward step in the organization of adult classes has been the recent development of the noncredit phase of extension work. Nearly four thousand persons were enrolled in noncredit classes in 1939-40. The number and variety of requests for this type of work, as well as the educational and vocational status of the persons from whom the requests come, indicates that the future of adult classes lies more largely in this field than in the field of credit courses, although the latter will continue to be given. The noncredit class, by its freedom from restrictions regarding hours, examinations, and certain prerequisites, offers much more flexibility than the credit course and is therefore more attractive to adults who are interested in cultural advancement but have so little time that they are unable to meet more exacting requirements.

Because Ann Arbor is as far away from the western end of the Upper Peninsula as it is from New York City, it has been and still is difficult to organize extension classes in that section of the state. One way of overcoming this difficulty has been utilized in the field course in education. The class meets four times in the fall and four times in the spring, and thus the number of trips necessitated for a two-hour course is reduced by one-half. Another method was successful in the Upper Peninsula: a competent local person was appointed instructor, and his work was supervised by a member of the regular University staff who visited the class two to four times during the semester.

Correspondence courses. — At the beginning of his administration at the University of Chicago, President Harper organized a bureau of correspondence study, which for nearly fifty years has continued to function as an integral part of the adult education program of that university. Correspondence study, when properly supervised, seems to have established itself as a necessary part of any well-rounded adult education program.

During Henderson's term as Director of the Extension Division, he was instructed by a faculty committee to investigate the possibility of offering credit courses by correspondence. The faculty did not then feel disposed to go forward with the work, and nothing was done until the second semester of 1935-36. At that time the Michigan Works Progress Administration offered to finance a supervised correspondence study center at the University. The center was established in order to furnish instruction to certain individuals in the state who Page  346wished to go forward with some college work, but who, for valid reasons, were unable to attend the University.

The executive committee of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts gave the Extension Division permission to offer correspondence courses, and the courses were begun in January, 1936. It was decided that this work should give credit in the freshman year at the University. The Extension Division was also authorized to give certain noncredit courses of an industrial and vocational nature for the specific benefit of adults, including boys in the Civilian Conservation Corps camps, throughout the state of Michigan. The correspondence work, both in its credit phase and in its more vocational aspects, has grown very rapidly; the total number enrolled for one or more courses increased from 3,232 in 1937-38 to 4,915 in 1939-40.

Joint committee on health Education. — During President Burton's administration the Michigan State Medical Society and the University of Michigan entered into a joint program for health education within the state, under the name, Michigan joint committee on public health education. From the beginning the work has been carried on through the Extension Service. As years have passed, representatives of other organizations have been added to the committee, until at present twenty-four professional and nonprofessional organizations in the field of health education are represented.

The work of the joint committee is carried on under four main divisions:

  • (1) Lectures on cancer control, on dental hygiene and child problems, on syphilis, and on mental hygiene are given to adult groups. One hundred and forty-two of these lectures were given in 1937-38.
  • (2) The work of the subcommittee on school health education, headed by Dr. Mabel Rugen, has so far consisted in the preparation of two bulletins (School Health Bull.) entitled "The Problem Solving Approach in Health Teaching" and "Health Goals of the School Child." These bulletins have been widely distributed to schools throughout the state and the nation, and their popularity is attested by the fact that 20,590 of them have been distributed upon request.
  • (3) The joint committee prepares a daily health-and-hygiene column for the Detroit News and for numerous other daily and weekly newspapers in the state.
  • (4) A series of health talks is broadcast over Michigan radio stations, November 1-March 31.

The aim of the committee is aptly expressed by the following creed, which was adopted when the organization was formed:

The function of the Joint Committee is to present to the public the fundamental facts of modern scientific medicine for the purpose of building up sound public opinion relative to the questions of public and private health. It is concerned in bringing the truth to the people, not in supporting or attacking any school, sect, or theory of medical practice. It will send out teachers, not advocates.

Michigan High School Forensic Association. — In 1917, Thomas C. Trueblood, Professor of Oratory, suggested the advisability of organizing a highschool debating league. The suggestion was favorably acted upon. The work of the league has been carried on through the Extension Service by a manager who devotes a part of his time to the Department of Speech and a part to the Extension Service.

The name Michigan High School Debating League was changed in 1933 to Michigan High School Forensic Association, and the activities of the High School Oratorical Association and of the Extempore Speech Association were absorbed. The present organization sponsors contests in debate, oratory and declamation, Page  347and extempore speech in Michigan high schools. The Detroit Free Press and the Detroit News co-operate with the Extension Service in giving individual and school awards to the winners in these various contests. In 1939-40, 327 different high schools participated in contests sponsored by the Michigan High School Forensic Association. Twenty thousand students had a part in the work, and the total attendance at the various contests was nearly 180,000.

Library Extension Service. — The Library Extension Service was organized in 1916, and since that time has been carried on, in part through the Extension Service (see Part II: Library Extension Service).

The Library Extension Service plays an important part in the work of the Michigan High School Forensic Association. In 1939-40, 217 packages containing 4,340 pamphlets and bibliographies on the government ownership of railroads (the subject used for debate) were sent to schools enrolled in the debate contests. Many other pieces of material were sent to high-school students engaged in extempore speaking and declamation contests.

University specialists frequently furnish the information that enables this office to perform a requested service, and they are often called upon to deal completely with such requests; nevertheless, there remains for the Library Extension Service itself a large and highly specialized task, and its activities are widely appreciated and utilized by schools and adults throughout the state.

Radio broadcasting. — The University Broadcasting Service was organized in 1925 under the direction of Waldo M. Abbot, Assistant Professor of English. In 1933-34 the radio service was placed under the direction of the Extension Division. Its activities have multiplied many times in content and scope since its organization. During the academic year 1939-40, 315 programs were broadcast from Detroit — some over Station WJR and others over WMBC (see Part II: University Broadcasting Service).

In 1937-38, for the first time, Joseph E. Maddy, then Professor of Music Education in the School of Music, presented his "Fun in Music" series over a coast-to-coast hookup of the National Broadcasting Company, from Chicago. This program of music instruction is now broadcast from the University broadcasting station on the campus to the schools of the entire nation.

More than 936,000 radio homes in Michigan are reached by the University's educational broadcasts, which are also heard regularly in Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, western Pennsylvania, western New York, Ontario, and northern Indiana. This primary area, which has a total population of 8,743,399, is the one regularly served by Station WJR, of Detroit. Within the area are more than 3,777,000 homes in which there are radios, according to reports of the United States government.

Adult education institutes. — When the extension work was organized at the University of Michigan nearly thirty years ago, the term "adult education" was practically unknown, although most of the work of the Extension Division from the beginning would now be classified as adult education.

The first of the adult education institutes conducted by the Extension Division was held in the autumn of 1929 in co-operation with the Michigan Congress of Parents and Teachers and was organized by Charles A. Fisher, then Assistant Director. An institute brings many people to the campus for three to ten days' intensive study of a particular subject. The organization of institutes has grown so rapidly that it is now a major part of the Extension Service program. Page  348More than five thousand persons attended the eight institutes which the University held in 1939-40 in co-operation with the National Association of Foremen, the Foremen's Club of Michigan and Ohio, the Fuel Engineers Conference, the Ann Arbor Chamber of Commerce, and several state organizations of Michigan — the Congress of Parents and Teachers, the Council of Churches, the Board of Control for Vocational Education, the Federation for Women's Clubs, and the state district of Kiwanis International.

Similar work is carried on in other universities under the general head of "short courses," and it is rapidly assuming an important place in all state universities and agricultural colleges, as well as in many private institutions. In some universities — for example, the University of Minnesota — the work is considered so important as to necessitate the appointment of a full-time director and the erection of a building in which institutes may be held. No special effort has been made to expand this work at the University of Michigan, but the University has co-operated with groups which have requested that institutes be organized. An increasing number of adults throughout the state are arranging their work so that they are able to come to the University for a short period of rather intensive instruction each year. The institutes are of value not only to them but also to the University faculty. It is clear that requests for meetings of this sort will increase as the years go by.

Visual education. — The visual-education program of the Extension Service originated in 1916, when a small collection of slides was purchased and sent out on request to schools, churches, women's clubs, and other organizations. This service has continued uninterruptedly for a number of years. With a special University appropriation for educational motion pictures in 1937-38 the Visual Education Bureau of the Extension Service was organized, and forty silent films and thirty sound films were purchased for the Bureau. The silent films were shown by schools and adult groups 521 times during the first year, and the sound films 321 times. Reports from the organizations using them indicate that the teaching film has already taken its place as an important educational adjunct at the elementary, secondary, and collegiate levels.

Beginning in 1938-39 the University undertook to deliver a specified number of films during the year to any school or other organization in the state, provided a flat rental fee was paid and arrangements were made for the particular films and for exhibition dates. Before November of the first year, 135 schools had entered into this co-operative arrangement, and as a consequence the number of films on new subjects in the Extension Service film library was materially increased; there are now 300 member schools. The films, worth about $25,000, are used not for entertainment but exclusively as an instructional aid in school and college classes. Requests for their use on the campus and throughout the state increase daily.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Extension Credit and Noncredit Courses, Univ. Mich., 1911 — .
Miscellaneous pamphlets on broadcasting, highschool forensics, visual education, and numerous institutes.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1892-1909, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1911-40. (R.P.)
School Health Bulletin, Nos. 2-3 (1937).
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
White, Andrew D.Autobiography … New York: Century Co., 1905. Vol. I.
Page  349

THE LIBRARY EXTENSION SERVICE

IN May, 1916, Librarian William W. Bishop and the director of the Extension Division, William D. Henderson, brought before the Regents a suggestion that the University furnish an information service for debating organizations and other educational groups throughout the state. The Library Extension Service was established at the next monthly meeting of the Regents. An appropriation for its support was included in the General Library budget for 1916-17, and funds for its annual announcement were provided through the budget of the Extension Division.

Each year since the formation of the Michigan High School Debating League in 1917, the Library Extension Service has collected and organized the information on the topic specified for debate. The pamphlets and briefs, bibliographies, and clippings have then been distributed to the schools without charge. Quantities of free material have often been available, but the number of member schools grew from the original 66 to 327 in 1939-40, and the costs of the service were necessarily increased. Accordingly, funds were provided through the Extension Division, to which membership dues of the League were paid. Other organizations joined with the League to form the Michigan High School Forensic Association in March, 1933, and the Library Extension Service began to supply information for extempore speaking, oratory, and declamation as well as material for the annual debates (see Part II: University Extension Service).

Public-speaking classes have required the most attention, but classes in the social sciences, in English, and in current affairs also have been furnished with material supplementing textbooks and local library resources. The University has furnished communities that have inadequate local libraries, or none at all, with the core materials for class and reference work. As the facilities of the Library Extension Service were increased and as its work became more widely known, many adult-education groups such as granges, parent-teacher associations, women's clubs, and child-study groups, began to depend upon it for their study materials. Likewise, within the University, older units and newer bureaus and divisions which have been concerned with developing extramural study rely upon the Library Extension Service, regarding it as a medium for transmitting special lectures, study outlines, and reading lists. The University of Michigan Broadcasting Service, the School of Education, and the Bureau of Alumni Relations are typical of the University agencies with which the Library Extension co-operates in this way (see Part II: University Broadcasting Service, School of Education and State Service, and Bureau of Alumni Relations). Closely correlated as its work is with that of the University Extension Service (see Part II: University Extension Service), the Library Extension Service prepares the library materials for use in the institutes, in the special lecture series, and in the regular extension courses.

It has also provided steady assistance for a new branch of work undertaken by the University as an emergency measure in 1934-35, with the help of the Federal Government — the freshman or community colleges, from which have developed the present supervised correspondence study courses under the joint direction of the University Extension Service and the Works Progress Administration. Page  350The Library Extension Service has had charge of a special collection of books purchased for this purpose through a gift from the Rackham Fund.

From the carefully planned activities which make up the greater part of Library Extension work there have developed other and varied kinds of service which might be called collateral. Files of pamphlets and clippings have been maintained as a basis for the hundreds of reading lists and bibliographies compiled every year in response to specific individual requests, in order to help correspondents make good use of the magazines and books in their local libraries. A large collection of pictures, mounted on heavy paper and covering a wide range of subjects, has been built up, chiefly for use in the teaching of history, literature, and art.

The making of study-club outlines — some covering one subject for a single meeting but most of them sufficient for a year's study — has become such an important specialty that many club officers regularly rely upon the Library Extension Service for assistance with their programs.

The requests from teachers, students, and club officers have become so numerous that in the last five years more than five thousand letters a year have been sent out. Preparation of this correspondence demands much attention, for usually each letter contains an analysis of the specific problem presented, or suggestions for using the library material which is being sent. Although the range of information which the Library Extension Service can furnish is constantly being increased, many letters are received which can be adequately answered only by specialists in other offices and departments of the University. On the other hand, faculty members and staff members in other University offices frequently ask the Library Extension Service to answer requests for assistance they receive.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alumni Reading Lists. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1931.
Alumni Reading Lists; Second Series. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1934.
Library Extension Service, Univ. Mich., 1933-40.
A List of Selected Books for Secondary School Libraries. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1938 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 39, No. 71).
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1916-40.
What to Read. Comp. by Edith Thomas, Fred L. Dimrock, and Nelis R. Kampenga. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1939.
Page  351

THE UNIVERSITY BROADCASTING SERVICE

THE state of Michigan is justly proud of the part that it has played in the development of broadcasting, for in the summer of 1920 Station WWJ of Detroit took the lead in radio broadcasting by establishing the first station to broadcast regularly scheduled programs. The Extension Division of the University was prompt to enter the educational broadcasting field; members of the faculty went to Detroit in 1922 to broadcast over WWJ.

In 1923 the Department of Electrical Engineering constructed a small station, and on January 14, 1924, a federal license was issued, authorizing the operating of this equipment on 1,070 kilocycles, with 200 watts' power, for "unlimited" time. The call letters were WCBC. Ten months later the station's wave length was shifted to 1,310 kilocycles.

The equipment of this station was experimental and inefficient. Consequently a request was made to the Regents for $20,000 with which to build a broadcasting station and for an early appropriation of $3,000 for maintenance. The administrative authorities, believing that the University's broadcasting program could be carried out with less expense through the co-operation of a commercial station which had an established audience, refused the request. As a result, when the station's license expired in June, 1925, no application for renewal was filed, and the station privilege was canceled on October 24.

In the fall of 1925, Edward H. Kraus, Dean of the College of Pharmacy and Dean of the Summer Session, arranged with Station WJR, then owned by the Jewett Radio Corporation, for the broadcasting of twelve one-hour programs from the campus during the University year. Waldo Abbot, Assistant Professor of English, was appointed Director of the Broadcasting Service. The studio in which these programs originated was the top floor of old University Hall, and had been chosen principally because it contained a piano and a rug. As the acoustics were very poor, a tent of painters' dropcloths was constructed within it in order to reduce the reverberation. From this studio, in June, 1927, was broadcast the ninetieth-anniversary program, featuring such well-known members of the faculty as Mortimer E. Cooley, Victor H. Lane, Myra B. Jordan, and Clarence Cook Little.

Broadcasting was continued from this crude studio for three years, until a modern studio was built in Morris Hall, formerly the home of George Sylvester Morris, Professor of Philosophy (see Part VIII: Morris Hall). In this building were constructed an announcer's booth, a studio for ensemble groups, and a large auditorium from which the University Band and Glee Club could broadcast, as well as an office for the director, a mailing room, and a control room. Since 1925, broadcasting from the campus has been continued through the facilities of Station WJR, of Detroit, with the exception of two years when the facilities of Station WWJ were used.

In the fall of 1933 the Broadcasting Service was made a part of the Extension Division. Assistant Professor Waldo Abbot continued as Director of the Broadcasting Service. He was transferred from the Department of English Language and Literature to the Department of Speech and General Linguistics, in which he instituted courses in radio speech, dramatics, Page  352and writing. The functions of the Broadcasting Service were increased to include class instruction, the recording of speech for students and for faculty research, and the making of recordings to be used by the University of Michigan alumni clubs.

The music classes conducted by Joseph E. Maddy, Professor of Radio Music Instruction in the University Extension Service, constitute the University's only direct teaching by radio, the other programs having been designed chiefly to inform and inspire the general listener or to supplement the work of the local teacher.

In addition to the educational programs which were broadcast on the regular band over Station WJR, students of the University Reserve Officers Training Corps, in co-operation with the Department of Electrical Engineering, built a continuous-wave radio-telegraph station in the fall of 1927 and began broadcasts over it. This equipment was granted an experimental license under call letters W8AXZ.

The station was used chiefly for code practice for members of the Signal Corps and for communication with the University expedition to Greenland conducted by Professor William H. Hobbs. The transmitter was made possible by a grant of $100 from the United States Army and a gift of a 250-watt vacuum tube used as the main power amplifier, the latter coming from the General Electric Company. The Department of Electrical Engineering donated the room and the high-voltage motor generator used for power.

With this equipment, communication was maintained directly with the Hobbs expedition. Furthermore, contact was maintained with Bloemfontein, South Africa, messages being exchanged with a branch of the University's observatory situated there (see Part III: Lamont-Hussey Observatory). Contact is also maintained with the University summer camps and expeditions.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1928-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1926-40.

THE UNIVERSITY NEWS SERVICE

THE history of the news-service program began in 1897, when, on October 20, the Regents requested the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, "to report to the Board some general plan for getting University news before the people of the State." A report was made at the December meeting of the Regents by a committee appointed for the purpose, which was composed of Acting President Harry B. Hutchins and six others. This committee recommended:

  • 1. That a bureau of University news be organized with some member of the literary faculty in charge, who is to be known as the University Editor and who should receive "such compensation as may be commensurate with the extra labor imposed."
  • 2. That the University Editor be placed in charge of a certain portion of the alumni news, and that this portion of the paper be regarded as an official publication of the University.
  • 3. That the University issue every second week a small bulletin or newsletter, to consist of material which will appear the following Page  353week in the official columns of the Alumni News.

In actual practice, the official news appeared first in the Michigan Alumnus and then was published separately in the form of a newsletter.

The committee also suggested that while some might feel that no member of the literary faculty should accept this office, since it represented a division of the energy which the instructor should devote to his proper field of work, there was one department, that of English composition, to which such work as the organization of a bureau of news and the preparation of the newsletter might be said properly to belong. It was pointed out that a considerable amount of work of this character had already been undertaken by certain advanced classes, and that some of the matter thus prepared had been published as correspondence in local papers. This practice could be carried a step further, in the committee's opinion, and a small class of advanced students could eventually be organized to report, systematically and under the direction of an instructor, the various activities and interests of the University. Here we have the germ out of which the Department of Journalism eventually developed, since "the tedious labor of news gathering … could be performed to some extent by members of the class as part of their regular work." The report of the faculty committee also included a memorandum of costs which gave $120.60 for eight issues of the proposed newsletter. The report was concluded by a survey of methods in vogue in other institutions.

The Regents took prompt action, appointed as University editor Fred Newton Scott ('84, Ph.D. '89), Junior Professor of Rhetoric, one of those who signed the report, and appropriated $100 for the inauguration of the program. Scott had been for some time communications editor of the Michigan Alumnus, which at that time was published under private auspices. The magazine was purchased by the Alumni Association in 1897, and in the first issue under the new auspices, January, 1899, Scott's name appeared as news editor.

Under his direction the special news section in the Michigan Alumnus was reprinted and distributed to the editors of the state in the form of a newsletter. The first issue appeared January 6, 1898, and thirteen more issues appeared in the late winter and spring. The following year, second-class postal privileges were secured for the publication, and a number of special editions appeared. A meeting of the Michigan State Farmers' Institute in Ann Arbor in February, 1900, was the occasion of a double-sized, two-column issue, of which hundreds of copies were sent out over the state.

Fred N. Scott continued as news editor until the fall of 1900, when Shirley W. Smith ('97, A.M. '00) became General Secretary of the Alumni Association and took over the editorial responsibility of the News-Letter. In 1901 the Regents granted the Alumni Association an annual appropriation of $1,400, of which $300 was allocated to the editing and printing of this publication, enabling the Alumni Association to engage a special student editor. The first appointment was that of Reginald P. Dryer, an engineering student of the class of 1903. Later student editors were George Bion Denton ('07, Ph.D. '16) and G. William Barnum ('05, A.M. '06).

During this period the News-Letter gradually expanded. In 1904-5, twenty-five issues, 114 pages in all, appeared, and there were 2,000 monthly subscribers. It was first a small, four-page leaflet, which was printed on only one side of the sheet and folded so that the editors could clip the material easily. Gradually more pages were added, and eventually an illustration Page  354service was established, through which half-tone illustrations were distributed to the newspapers. In the year 1905 some seventeen half-tone blocks were distributed to eighty-two papers in the state, which used some or all of the material furnished. The News-Letter also undertook the continuation of the bibliography of publications by the University faculty. This had first appeared in the University Record in 1891 and had been continued in the Michigan Alumnus, where it appeared in the June and July issues of 1897. Later this bibliography was included for several years in the President's Report, and now it is published separately by the Graduate School (see Part II: Research Club).

Eventually the news-service program exceeded considerably the appropriation made by the Regents. In his annual report for June, 1907, the General Secretary of the Alumni Association observed that the News-Letter had cost $800 annually for the preceding three years, an expense which was in great measure responsible for the Association's deficit. In 1907, the Regents gave an additional $500 to balance the overdraft. This extra assistance, however, was not continued, and for the year 1907-8 only ten numbers of the News-Letter were issued. For some years the publication was continued on this basis, but eventually, in 1912, readjustments became necessary. At this time the service was taken over by the University. A special office was established, and John Lewis Brumm, Assistant Professor of Rhetoric, was appointed news editor.

The nature of the new office was indicated in a letter which President Harry B. Hutchins addressed to the Board of Regents and which the Board approved on January 26, 1912. The relevant items in the letter were as follows:

… I have appointed Assistant Professor John L. Brumm of the Department of Rhetoric as University News Editor, to take charge of the work embodied for a number of years in the University News-Letter. As it is believed that better results can be secured without the publication of a printed bulletin for general distribution such as the News-Letter, the News-Letter itself has been discontinued. In place of it, Mr. Brumm will furnish letters concerning the University at frequent intervals and as regularly as possible to newspapers in the State and elsewhere. The general purpose of these letters is to place the University before the public, especially of this State, and to approach the matter from the point of view of the interests of the local paper … It is not intended in any sense that his office shall be made exclusive for the giving out of news … In general it is understood that he will originate and plan methods by which proper publicity of University affairs shall be secured, all his efforts, however, being with due regard to our limitations as to money and time. The expense of this work will be kept within the allowance made for the News-Letter and every effort will be made to determine so far as it may be possible, the results actually achieved.

… Should he need any assistance in carrying on his work in the Department of Rhetoric, he is to make provision for that expense out of his allowance of $200. The University is to furnish him with such stenographic help as the work may require, together with such office equipment as may be needed.


(Hutchins, letter, Dec. 8, 1911.)
The words "and University News Editor" were added to Brumm's title and his salary was increased by $200.

At the October meeting of the Regents in 1912 the sum of $700 was appropriated to cover the expenses of the University news editorship. In 1916 the Regents authorized the purchase of a "multigraph duplicating machine" and the fitting up of a room in West Hall for the news service. Lack of an appropriation for expenses resulted in the lapse of the news service in 1918, but it was revived, with an appropriation of $800, in 1919-20.

Page  355Owing to the economic stringency in 1920, the president raised the question as to the desirability of continuing the news bulletins. The Regents directed that the service be continued. It was carried on through the years 1921-23, as Brumm, then Professor of Rhetoric and Journalism, offered to do the work without editorial compensation. In 1924, the sum of $275 was added to the annual appropriation of $600 for the issuance of the news bulletin. The arrangement was continued until 1928, when administrative duties compelled Professor Brumm to give up this additional editorial work.

The need, however, for some agency which would serve as the distributing center for news of the University, particularly to the press of Michigan, was becoming increasingly apparent. As a result, in September, 1930, Wilfred B. Shaw, as Director of the Bureau of Alumni Relations, was requested to develop a program in this field, since it was felt that the dissemination of accurate news concerning the University was one desirable objective in any alumni program. A budget of $1,600 was allowed by the Regents and an assistant in news dissemination was engaged. For the first few years the program consisted largely of weekly mimeographed news releases, sent, for the most part, to the newspapers of Michigan.

Requests from editors all over the state for personal items regarding students from their communities also made it necessary eventually for the News Service, as it had by that time come to be called, to inaugurate a program to meet this demand from the Michigan press by the employment of Mrs. Ruth Trezise ('36, A.M. '37). In 1937 Donald K. Anderson ('37) was appointed assistant in general charge of the whole program, and by 1940 the services of three assistants and of some eight students under the National Youth Administration were required.

This rapidly expanding program has enabled the University to meet many of the demands of the state press, as well as of the larger newspapers outside Michigan for interesting and authoritative material regarding the University. A study of published items shows that a large proportion of the material published about the University has arisen from material sent out by the News Service. In addition to the personal items regarding students and the general information distributed through the weekly releases, special articles are continually prepared, pictures are sent out in answer to an increasing demand, and personal contacts are maintained, not only with newspaper editors throughout the state, but also with the correspondents of the various press associations and leading Michigan papers in Ann Arbor. The Service also acts as consultant to various University departments in developing publicity programs.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940).
"Questions on the University."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull., No. 30 (1939): 3-5.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1897-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940.
University of Michigan News-Letter (title varies), 1898-1911.
Page  356

THE OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL INVESTIGATIONS

THE office of educational investigations represents one of the functions of the office of the president. Its budget is included therein. The vice-president in charge of educational investigations is a consulting member of the president's staff with respect to the general educational policy of the University. As such, he is in part responsible for studies which concern the interrelations of curriculums, their development, and their efficiency in attaining objectives finally agreed upon as appropriate functions of the University. He is a member of the committee on office personnel and of the committee on faculty personnel. In order that he may perform these functions, budget curves, salary ranges, teaching loads, faculty activities, and changes in curriculum are collected and recorded.

The staff is also charged with the duty of assisting in the general program of selection and progress of students. The office maintains oversight of the mechanical equipment such as sorting and tabulating machines used in these studies and in all research projects. Its technical staff is available for consultation on all such investigations. The program of selection is in part directly performed by this staff; however, they are also consulted with respect to all major studies and issue studies of their own. The function of examining includes testing for selection of students, achievement examinations, and aptitude measurements.

Historically, the several activities just enumerated stem from many sources, and in turn others once largely a function of the president have now become separate bureaus and University offices. The offices of the dean of students, the dean of women, the director of student-alumni relations, the counselor to new students, and the recently appointed director of residence halls have been developed in this way, as have the student advisory systems that have grown up in the several schools and colleges. Also from the general function of student supervision have arisen such specific activities as the University Health Service and the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information. The Board in Control of Physical Education and the Board in Control of Student Publications represent other types of subdivision. Likewise, the Bureau of Alumni Relations, the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, the University Extension Service, and the office of the vice-president in charge of University relations indicate subdivisions of earlier presidential duties.

In general these varied activities had for many years been largely distributed among regular administrative officers and members of the faculty. During the administration of President Burton many of them were brought together in formal organizations. President Little continued the trend in the phases of student personnel, and President Ruthven's administration began the collection and study of data relating to the more general administrative and educational policies, while still continuing the development of services to the students.

The question of providing special facilities for the educational and vocational guidance of students was discussed by President Burton with the Regents and in his annual reports from the beginning. The University Senate appointed a committee which brought in a report in 1924 Page  357recommending that a bureau of placement and guidance should be established. The year before, a committee of students had requested permission to establish such a service in the Michigan Union. The autumn of 1927 saw the first steps of this program in action. William A. Frayer, Professor of History, was in charge of orientation work and of certain related problems in curriculum adjustment and housing (R.P., 1923-26, p. 805). The same year, a separate office for vocational advice and educational guidance was established. An all-University testing program for freshmen was also begun. In June, 1927, these functions and others were brought together under the general title "Bureau of University Research."

During 1911 and 1912 the Regents were especially concerned with the problem of obtaining satisfactory data on the general efficiency of educational administration. They passed a series of resolutions differently worded but with this same general import during this period. The final resolution of the series (Oct., 1912) empowered the president to secure information by departments on the teaching and consultation hours of each staff member, the number of courses taught, and the number of students in each course. This resolution also asked for room capacity and the frequency of use of each room.

Details of this sort were well known to the Regents in the earlier years of the University's history because of their close association with the smaller staff and their concern with all details of administration. Yet, as early as 1875, President Angell found it desirable to request members of the faculty to furnish data on all these activities. His request included a statement that these data were for information of the legislature. A more systematic method of reporting had become necessary.

No full report covering all the details requested was forthcoming until some years later. During President Burton's administration the need for additional space and for new buildings became so apparent that requests for them were prepared for presentation to the legislature. To demonstrate this need, the President and the deans requested Frank E. Robbins, then Assistant Professor of Greek, to obtain detailed data on existing capacity and its use. This report was presented in November, 1921, and constitutes the first complete summary dealing with use of classroom space of which there is record. At intervals, Robbins continued to prepare further reports of this nature until the work was taken over in 1927 by the Bureau of University Research.

The preparation of periodical reports on use of rooms was continued for several years by this bureau. These reports were gradually enlarged to include data on size of class, number of courses and sections offered by semesters, and number of these taught by each instructor. Later, additional reports were requested covering the activities of the staff of a University nature not included in the teaching function. Each year, or biennially, a fairly comprehensive view of the numerous duties of a staff member can be obtained from these reports. During 1929, a detailed study of the teaching and technical personnel below the rank of professor was prepared. The office-personnel study was also brought to a conclusion at this time.

The titles director of educational investigations and Bureau of Educational Investigations were discontinued in 1930 and the office of vice-president of educational investigations was created. The previous functions of the Bureau were continued under the new organization. In addition, this office began to assist the Page  358faculties in studying curricular changes, in improving examination procedures, and in developing educational experimentation.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1875, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-40. (R.P.)
Page  [359]

Alumni

Page  [360]
Page  361

THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION

On the day when the first class was graduated from the University of Michigan, August 6, 1845, the newly created alumni body numbered exactly eleven. The smallness of this number, however, did not prevent the formation of an organization. Immediately after the Commencement exercises, at a meeting of the graduates of the different "collegiate institutions" in Ann Arbor, a Society of the Alumni was formed and an executive committee of seven was appointed to prepare a plan of organization and to "procure an orator and poet" for the next annual meeting. The following membership provision was adopted:

The graduates of all other colleges resident in the State desirous of becoming members of this society are requested to send in their names to any member of the executive committee with the name of the institution at which they were graduated and the degree and date of graduation.

It is of interest to note that of the executive committee thus authorized two were members of the University's class of 1845 — P. W. H. Rawls, of Kalamazoo, and Edmund Fish, of Bloomfield. The other members were the Reverend Dr. Duffield (Pennsylvania '11), J. M. Howard (Williams College), George V. N. Lathrop (Brown), George E. Hand (Yale), and Professor Andrew Ten Brook (Madison [Hamilton] '39).

Few records are available of the activities of this early organization, though we have an account of the second meeting in 1846, in which a poem on "New England," by William Pitt Palmer, was characterized as a "very handsome production." In 1848 Professor J. Holmes Agnew, President of the Faculty for that year, announced that the degree of master of arts would not be conferred on the graduates of 1845, in accordance with custom in colleges of that period, but would be postponed until the annual Commencement of 1849. The next year Merchant H. Goodrich, of Ann Arbor, and Winfield Smith, of Monroe, were given the degree. This practice was continued until 1882.

In 1853 the alumni met in the Presbyterian Church on the afternoon of Commencement Day, elected officers, and chose an orator for the following Commencement — the invariable agenda for those early meetings. A further action was taken, however, in the passage of the following resolutions, setting forth the objects of the organization:

Resolved, That as Alumni of the University of Michigan, feeling a solicitude for its success, and for the promotion and development of the educational interests of this State, — knowing that to those who have passed the portals of our University, it has a right to look for some effort for its welfare, — and, being satisfied that by this organization alone, can any united action be attained, we earnestly call the attention of our fellow graduates to its objects, and commend it to a more hearty support.

Resolved, That to its annual meeting and exercises we must, in a great measure, look for the promotion of friendly feeling among our graduates, and for a continuance of interest in the commencement exercises of our university.

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be instructed to consult with the Faculty of the University, and to make such arrangements for the social and literary exercises of our next meeting as will induce a more full attendance and general interest.

Resolved, That the Secretary be instructed to procure the publication of the minutes of this meeting in Detroit and Ann Arbor papers.

Since all the officers elected at this meeting Page  362were graduates of the University it may be supposed that the alumni of other institutions had either been dropped from the list or had assumed the role of honorary members.

The active interest of the alumni in the administration of the University was shown in what was evidently a heated discussion of a second series of resolutions eventually adopted at the meeting in 1854, reflecting current dissension within the faculty. The attitude of the alumni is reflected in the second section:

[Resolved], That we have the utmost confidence in the integrity and ability of its Professors (both as men and as instructors), and are sanguine in the hope, that under their auspices, it will attain and preserve a high standard of educational excellence and fulfill the warmest expectations of its founders and the people of the State.

In the program of toasts, "drank in ice-cool lemonade," President Tappan responded to the toast, "The Government of the University," which "elicited much applause," for, although "he was severe upon some of the factious opposers of the University," "his severity was considered well timed."

Other meetings in the ensuing years evidenced an active interest on the part of the alumni in the progress of the University and in its problems. At first, meetings were held in the different churches and in the Union School Building; later, in the law lecture-room and in the University chapel. The dinners were held either at the old Franklin Hotel or at Hangsterfer's Hall. Officers and speakers were elected with regularity, but there is little evidence in the earliest years of any participation of alumni, except as critics, in the affairs of the institution. It is to be noted that the conventional master of arts degrees were often, if not always, conferred upon the alumni at the alumni meeting. The first master of science degree "upon examination" was conferred upon Professor DeVolson Wood at the alumni meeting in 1859, when James Craig Watson, later Professor of Astronomy, received the degree of master of arts. These were the first regular graduate degrees conferred by the University (see Part VI: Graduate School).

It is probably true that the alumni organization "was not taken very seriously" in these early years. Not until a movement for its reorganization was instituted at a meeting in the old Union School Building at Ann Arbor did the society seek to participate more actively in University affairs. At this meeting Merchant H. Goodrich, of the first graduating class, presided. A new constitution adopted on June 26, 1860, set forth the aims of the society in the following terms: "Improvement of its members, the perpetuation of pleasant associations, the promotion of the interests of the University and through that of the interests of higher education in general."

A year later a committee reported on efforts to raise a permanent fund and to have the society incorporated. Evidently little progress was made, undoubtedly because of the war, for no business was transacted at the annual meetings of 1862 and 1863, and practically all the officers were absent. In 1864, however, the movement which eventually resulted in the erection of Alumni Memorial Hall was begun through the approval of a plan for a memorial chapel, although the effort at first proved unsuccessful and was not revived for nearly forty years.

The dismissal of President Tappan just before Commencement in 1863 brought a storm of disapproval from the alumni which was reflected in resolutions adopted at a special meeting of the alumni and students in Ann Arbor on July 2, and at a similar meeting in Detroit. These led to a convention of about fifty alumni in Ann Arbor on July 9 to protest Page  363against the removal of President Tappan and to take "such measures as might be thought advisable to procure a reversal of the action of the Regents." This meeting was held in Hangsterfer's Hall, "the Chapel having been closed against them." A contemporary account reports that the discussions, "though spirited, were mainly in good temper." The indignation of the alumni at Dr. Tappan's dismissal, expressed in these gatherings and in a long series of resolutions, proved ineffective, however, and Dr. Haven became President.

In 1866 a committee was appointed "to memorialize the Legislature … on the subject of increasing the endowment of the University." This action was the result of agitation of this question on the part of the alumni as well as of the people of the state and very probably had its influence in the final establishment of the mill tax as a permanent source of support of the University (see Part I: Haven Administration; Part II: Financial Support).

This committee reported, at the meeting on June 25, 1867, that it was "known to all that the prayer of the petitioners was granted, and that the Legislature by the twentieth of a mill tax provided and secured to the University an increase of resources equal to about one-half of the increase of the present fund." At the same meeting a committee was appointed to ask the state constitutional convention to include a permanent one-twentieth of a mill tax in aid of the University in the organic law of the state.

At the meeting in 1868 the interest of the alumni in the financial position of the University was further evidenced in an oration by the Reverend L. R. Fiske, of the class of 1850, who protested against the lack of financial support from the state, pointing out the support given other public institutions. He cited the case of the University of Wisconsin, which, with an endowment fund greater by $200,000 than that of Michigan, had only about 230 students, as contrasted with Michigan's 1,200 students. The speaker set forth the favorable situation at such institutions as Yale, Harvard, Cornell, and Columbia universities, in contrast to that at the University of Michigan.

The resignation of President Haven in 1869 revived again the agitation for the return of President Tappan on the part of his former students. A resolution advocating his recall was laid on the table as the result of the opposition of some alumni, but the appointment of a committee of five "to confer with the Regents in reference to the vacancy" was authorized after "considerable filibustering, dilatory motions, and motions to adjourn." Evidently the sentiments of the alumni did not reflect those of the student body, for in the Michigan University Magazine (p. 403) we read:

If there are still any persons who have faith in the ability of the alumni as a body, to manage properly the affairs of the University, their confidence must have been sorely shaken by the business meeting on Tuesday afternoon … For the institution to place her destinies in the hands of the society of alumni would be simple suicide.

For many years the Society of the Alumni had functioned only as an organization of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts — or Department, as it was then called. But the establishment of the professional schools eventually brought about the creation of separate alumni organizations for the separate schools, or "departments." The first to be organized were the 1,024 alumni of the Department of Law, on March 29, 1871. Though the Department of Medicine and Surgery had been opened twenty years earlier, the Association of Medical Alumni did not come until 1875, when a Page  364resolution offered at a meeting of the Washtenaw Medical Society advocating such an organization was followed by a meeting of a few resident alumni in the office of Dr. William F. Breakey, and a constitution prepared by Dr. A. B. Prescott was adopted. The object of the organization was defined as "not only to enlist and muster the outgoing graduates, but to keep up lines of communication with them in the field and to invite them each year to come back." In a call to the medical alumni issued as a result of this action it was stated that the medical graduates numbered 1,200. The first meeting was held at the McGregor House in Ann Arbor, on March 23, 1875. Dr. Bolivar Barnum, of the class of 1854, of Schoolcraft, was elected president, and Dr. A. B. Prescott, secretary. Similar organizations soon sprang up in the College of Dental Surgery, in the School of Pharmacy, and in the Homeopathic Medical College, so that in the University Calendar of 1884-85 the officers of six organizations were listed.

As was to be expected, however, the Society of the Alumni in the Literary Department continued to evince the most signs of life. One indication of its strength was a meeting held at the Vendome Hotel in Boston in February, 1882. At this meeting John D. Pierce, who was then living at Ypsilanti in retirement and who died six weeks later, was an honored guest (Hoyt and Ford, p. 146).

The society was strengthened particularly after 1874, when action was taken looking toward the establishment of a fund of $25,000, the income from which was to be used for the support of George Palmer Williams, Professor of Physics, the first member of the faculty actually to teach classes, who had retired in 1871. The fund was known as the Williams professorship fund, and $26,000 was subscribed within a short time. For some years it served the purpose for which it was raised, but in 1889 Professor Calvin Thomas, as chairman of the auditing committee of the Alumni Association, insisted upon examining the bankbooks and securities called for by the report of the treasurer of the Association. The result revealed a sad state of affairs. Not only had the treasurer, Zina P. King, embezzled a good part of the funds, but the affairs of the bank in which they were deposited were also in a questionable state. King for years had been balancing the books of the society with the use of his own money.

At the meeting held in June, 1890, the deficit, which amounted to $19,054.05, was the chief topic of discussion. The audit revealed that the books had not been posted since 1881, a period of about eight years, and that there had been no entry since 1882; the defalcations did not begin probably until 1880 or 1881. Moreover, the treasurer's bond was made in 1878 and had not been renewed, and since some of the bondsmen were dead and had left insolvent estates, collection on the bond was considered most doubtful.

In the meantime a committee had made a settlement with King, following a similar settlement made by the bank. King turned over all he possessed — his home, stocks, bonds, and law library — and gave a note of $10,579.04 to balance the deficit. A criminal action was unsuccessful, since the directors had already made a settlement. The remainder thus left in the fund, some $15,000, was turned over to the Regents in 1897 for administration. For many years the interest was allowed to accumulate, until the fund now amounts to some $36,000. In accordance with an action of the Alumni Society in 1897, it is now used to provide allowances for members of the faculty upon retirement.

This episode in the history of the society is important, not only because it led Page  365eventually to a drastic reorganization of the whole plan of alumni organization, but also because it was one of the first efforts on the part of college alumni to set up a fund of this character, and was the first considerable alumni contribution to the University.

One of the earliest efforts for the establishment of fellowships by the alumni was inaugurated at about the same time. Some $3,000 was pledged, but the straitened circumstances of the Association, unfortunately, led to the discontinuance of the effort.

As a result of these financial difficulties, former Treasurer Samuel S. Walker ('61), Regent of the University from 1876 to 1884, recommended that there should be a "united alumni" which should have "such an organization as will have their entire confidence and execute the trusts that … arise, with honesty and efficiency." He also suggested that a "Board of Trustees of the Associated Alumni of the University," made up of representatives from each of the different alumni societies and reporting to the Board of Regents, be elected, and that the State Banking Department should be empowered to examine the books. This recommendation was considered a year later, in 1891, and a committee was appointed to study the plan.

This committee made a report in 1892 and was asked to continue its study of the consolidation of the various departmental alumni organizations. A significant action was taken at this meeting in the abolition of the time-honored practice of electing an annual orator and poet. It was also voted that badges should be worn and refreshments served at all alumni meetings.

The following year a new committee on reorganization, empowered to negotiate with the other departmental alumni societies, was appointed. No action was taken at the next meeting, and not until 1896 was the matter of the proposed reorganization again seriously considered. This time the proposal came as a result of an appeal from President Angell, just before his departure as Minister Plenipotentiary to Turkey. The President had expressed a hope that he would find the reorganization an accomplished fact upon his return. Eventually the movement was inaugurated through a resolution made by G. Frank Allmendinger ('78), of Ann Arbor, who moved that the chair appoint a committee to consider some plan of union of the alumni societies of the different departments of the University. This committee was composed of Levi L. Barbour ('63, '65l), Professor George Hempl ('79, Ph.D. Jena '89, LL.D. Michigan '15), Junius E. Beal ('82), and the newly elected secretary, Louis P. Jocelyn ('87).

The annual meeting held on June 30, 1897, with Regent William J. Cocker as chairman, was the last meeting of the old Society of the Alumni of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. At this meeting the report of the committee on unification was approved. It presented five recommendations, as follows: (1) a unification of all alumni societies of the University, (2) the appointment of a committee to meet with like committees from the other departments, for the purpose of organizing a new society, (3) an annual membership fee of one dollar, (4) a paid general secretary and (5) that the Williams professorship fund, all fellowship funds, and all of the monies belonging to the Literary Department Society of the Alumni be turned over to the Board of Regents in trust.

Upon previous advice by President Angell the secretary had familiarized himself with the method of organization in other institutions and had ascertained the reasons for their success or failure. Most of them were organized in one general Page  366alumni body. The University of Pennsylvania reported a salaried secretary at $600, and the Lehigh University alumni paid their secretary $200. Obviously, however, these were not full-time officers. There was naturally some opposition to the consolidation movement, particularly in the old Society of the Alumni, which had thousands of dollars whereas the other associations had very little, but this was met by making the Regents custodians of the funds. Moreover, the literary degree meant four college years and strict entrance requirements, but in the Law and Medical Departments, even the entrance requirement of high-school graduation and the nine-month academic year were relatively new, and the courses had only recently been extended to three and four years respectively, the law degree representing but three years of training beyond the high school.

To answer these objections to the plan for consolidation, Judge Lawrence Maxwell ('74, A.M. hon. '93, LL.D. '04, LL.B. Cincinnati '75) of Cincinnati, Judge Claudius B. Grant ('59, A.M. '62, LL.D. '91) of Detroit, Dean Jerome Knowlton ('75, '78l) of the Law School, and other prominent alumni were stationed strategically and were called upon at the meeting. After a report by the secretary upon the practice of other colleges and universities, the recommendations of the committee were adopted. The old officers were asked to continue in office until the affairs of the society were closed and the funds turned over to the Regents.

Meanwhile the alumni associations in the other departments had taken similar action, and a meeting composed of representatives of the different departments was held in the old chapel in University Hall on the evening of the same day.

At this meeting it was voted that all departmental societies become one united body, that an annual fee be imposed, and that a paid general secretary be employed. Also, a constitution was adopted, providing for a board of five directors, chosen from the alumni at large and not as representatives of the different departments, which would choose from among its own members a president, a vice-president, a recorder, and a treasurer. The directors were also to elect the general secretary annually from outside their own number. Under this constitution Levi L. Barbour ('63, '65l) was elected president, with E. Finley Johnson (LL.M. '91), Louis P. Jocelyn ('87), Professor Frederick C. Newcombe, ('90, Ph.D. Leipzig '93), and Dr. G. Carl Huber ('87m) the other directors. Ralph C. McAllaster, who had graduated from the State Normal School at Indiana, Pennsylvania, in 1884, and had later attended the Literary Department (1885-86) and then the Law Department (1886-87) at the University of Michigan, was elected the first general secretary. He served only for a few months, however, and was succeeded by James H. Prentiss ('96), who held the position for three years.

Plans were immediately set on foot to expand the activities of the Association, and within a few months negotiations were concluded for the purchase of the Michigan Alumnus, which had been established in 1894 by Alvick A. Pearson ('94; see Part II: Michigan Alumnus). One of the first efforts of the new organization was to stimulate the organization of local alumni clubs, and a strong plea for the creation of such organizations was made by the acting president, Harry Burns Hutchins, in the Alumnus for June, 1898. The result was a very considerable expansion of the number of alumni clubs.

The finances of the new organization, however, remained in a precarious condition. Page  367The income, arising from the annual memberships of one dollar and from advertising in the Michigan Alumnus, proved insufficient to carry on the expanded program of the Association, and an additional source of revenue became necessary. After some study the Board of Directors announced, in July, 1899, the establishment of endowment memberships in the Alumni Association. This plan provided for the payment of $35 in seven annual installments of $5.00 each, with $1.00 of each payment to be retained as equivalent of the annual dues until the endowment of $28 should be completed. To provide for immediate expenses, the whole amount in the case of a certain proportion of these endowment memberships was made at once available, but within the first year the endowment fund was actually set up. It grew steadily from that time on, and in June, 1940, amounted to almost $69,000.

The years immediately after this reorganization formed an era of slow growth and consolidation. Shirley W. Smith ('97, A.M. '00) became General Secretary in October, 1901. His principal tasks were the publication of the Alumnus, the stimulation of contributions to the alumni fund, and correspondence with local alumni groups and classes. In addition to these activities he also served as editor of the University News-Letter and director of the general alumni catalogue, functions since merged with the general University program which are discussed elsewhere (see Part II: University News Service and Alumni Catalog Office). Special funds were voted to the Alumni Association in June, 1901, when an annual appropriation of $1,400 was granted — $600 for advertising the University in the Michigan Alumnus, $300 for the editing and publishing of the News-Letter, and $500 for the maintenance of the alumni catalogue. Support from the University for such advertising and for the catalogue has continued to the present time.

At the alumni meeting in July, 1899, an alumni clubhouse, to cost approximately $30,000, had been suggested, and the general secretary reported that some seven or eight thousand dollars had been subscribed. The project was carried no further, but a year later a room formed from a section of the old chapel in University Hall was set aside for the Association and was furnished as an office with a reception room at a cost of $324.50. This was made possible through a gift from the Students' Lecture Association and through action by the Regents. This room was used until the opening of the Alumni Memorial Hall in 1909.

The Alumni Association had an intimate interest in two projects which developed in 1903 — the plans for an alumni memorial hall, sponsored by a committee of the Alumni Association, and the Michigan Union, first advocated by a student group. These two projects to a certain extent divided the interests of the Association in their campaigns for funds, though the members of the memorial committee, who were well-known, distinguished alumni, insisted that the official interest of the Alumni Association lay with the project of a memorial building. However, the general secretary of the Alumni Association was made ex officio a member of the Board of Directors of the Union, and both causes were actively sponsored by the officers of the Association and through the columns of the Michigan Alumnus.

After three years of service as General Secretary, Shirley W. Smith resigned in the fall of 1904, to be succeeded by Wilfred B. Shaw ('04), who held the position for the following quarter century. During these years the successive annual reports show a gradual increase in the number of members of the Association, the establishment of alumni clubs, and a small, Page  368steady addition to the endowment fund through the enrollment of new members.

With the appointment of Harry Burns Hutchins as Acting President of the University, in 1909, a new era in the relationship between the University and the Alumni Association began. During the previous administration the attitude had been one of friendly but not especially active co-operation.

In order to prevent further conflicts such as had arisen between the several zealous bodies of alumni in their efforts to help the University, President Hutchins, with his characteristic astuteness, went directly to the Regents, and in their meeting of July, 1911, at his suggestion, they resolved "that no University organization of a general nature shall hereafter solicit funds for any purpose from the alumni of the University without first having obtained the approval of this Board" (R.P., 1910-14, p. 196).

He realized fully the implications of the alumni organization as a source of support for the University, and set about its immediate development. He made a special point of addressing as many gatherings of alumni as possible and actively encouraged their organization, particularly in the state of Michigan; as a result of his encouragement the Alumni Association made a special effort to organize the alumni in every county in Michigan where it was practicable to do so. In 1909 he was accompanied on a trip through the Middle West by Dean John O. Reed of the Literary Department, Dean Mortimer E. Cooley of the Department of Engineering, and Wilfred B. Shaw. These representatives of the University, after leaving Chicago, were met and cordially entertained by the alumni in Des Moines and Omaha. There the President was compelled to turn back, but the other members of the party continued to the Pacific coast.

Accounts of organization and meetings of alumni clubs were increasing in the pages of the Alumnus. By 1913 there were forty-six alumni associations within and sixty-nine outside the state of Michigan — a total of 115 — and at the end of the Hutchins era in 1920 there were 141.

Also during the Hutchins administration the alumnae of the University were becoming well organized, and as a result of an action taken by the Alumni Council it was recommended by the Board of Directors, in June, 1914, that the number of directors be increased by a change in the bylaws to seven instead of five, allowing for one director representing the alumnae (see Part II: Alumnae Council). A further measure taken at this time came as a result of a report by Professor I. N. Demmon on the Williams professorship fund. This fund had increased to $30,000 after lying dormant for twenty years, and the Board of Directors recommended the establishment of a Williams emeritus professorship to be supported by the income from the fund, the Board of Directors to make the nomination and the incumbent to be appointed upon approval by the Board of Regents. The Regents confirmed this measure. Certain matters of significance to the alumni organization also developed throughout this period as a result of actions of the Alumni Advisory Council, which had been created with the co-operation of the Alumni Association (see Part II: Alumni Advisory Council).

Declaration of war in the spring of 1917 materially affected the activities and the policies of the Association and may be said to mark the end of a period in its development. The general secretary's report made at this time shows that there were then 135 local alumni clubs, of which thirteen represented the alumnae, and that there were 6,500 subscribers to the Michigan Alumnus. For the next twelve months the energies of Page  369the Association were very largely concerned with the activities of the alumni in war service; succeeding numbers of the Alumnus gave the names of the faculty and alumni who were enlisted. For the time being, efforts toward organization lapsed, and no meetings of the Alumni Council were held.

During the next few years changes in the organization of the Association materially strengthened its effectiveness and made it more responsive to the interests of the alumni scattered all over the United States. Various means for enlarging the scope of the activities of the Association were considered by the Board of Directors and by the Alumni Advisory Council in the immediate postwar years, and as a result $7,500 was pledged in 1922 by a group of alumni to finance an expansion of the work of the Association. This permitted the appointment of a second executive, T. Hawley Tapping (Iowa '11, Michigan '16l), with the title of Field Secretary. At this time provision was made in the bylaws for eight new directors to be elected to the board from outside Ann Arbor, making a total of fifteen, and the treasurer of the University was made also treasurer ex officio of the Association. It was also provided that all former students of the University with credit for one year or more were eligible to membership upon payment of the annual dues. Also, an executive committee was created.

These changes in organization were suggested by a study of the basis of the alumni organizations in a number of leading American universities, made by the general secretary in 1922. He recommended in his report a federation of alumni clubs to be organized in districts, each district to be represented by a director. The creation of a class secretaries' organization was also recommended, to co-ordinate the work of the classes and to assist them through advice and help in the problems which confronted them.

As a result the organization of the Alumni Association was changed at the annual alumni meeting, June 16, 1923. Instead of the annual meeting, the local alumni groups were made the basis of the central Association. The whole alumni body was divided into ten districts, each of which elected a director of the Association, with the exception of the two Michigan districts, each of which elected two directors. (Very soon afterward one of the Michigan districts and, later, the far western district, were divided.) In addition, the Alumnae Council elected two directors, and six directors were elected at large. A few years later this plan was further changed. The past presidents of the Alumni Association were made ex officio members of the Board of Directors, and the three officers of the Class Secretaries' Council, composed of the chairman, vice-chairman and secretary-treasurer, took the place of three of the directors elected at large. The new plan also provided that the local alumni clubs pay annual dues of fifty cents a member to the general association. It was also provided that triennial meetings of the representatives of the alumni clubs be held at central locations outside of Ann Arbor. As part of this general expansion of the Association's program, the directors also authorized the creation of a small printing plant in the basement of the old Chemistry Building, known as the Alumni Press. The sum of $20,000 was borrowed to set up this press, which continued in operation for seven years.

These changes in the organization of the Association have proved on the whole effective. For the most part the districts have functioned as expected, holding annual meetings with fair regularity at which representatives of the general Association, the field secretary or general secretary, and sometimes the Page  370president have been present. The directors of the Association have met two or three times each year to receive reports from the various districts and to discuss the fundamental policies of the Association. The first triennial meeting was held in Detroit in 1925. The second was held in Chicago, the third in Cleveland, and the fourth in Grand Rapids; and the 1937 celebration in Ann Arbor served as the fifth triennial.

Wilfred B. Shaw ('04) resigned as General Secretary in 1929 to become a University officer with the title of Director of Alumni Relations. He had been active in organizing, in 1913, the Association of Alumni Secretaries, a national body of alumni executive officers, of which he was elected president in 1915 and again after its reorganization as the American Alumni Council, in 1927. For many years he had been interested in the broader and more fundamental applications of alumni organization, represented in the programs in alumni education considered as part of the then new movement in adult education. Michigan became a pioneer in this field. For six months following his resignation he was engaged in a study of alumni education for the American Association for Adult Education, under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. He was succeeded by T. Hawley Tapping, Field Secretary of the Alumni Association since 1922, who had been largely responsible for the development of the district organization within the Association and the rapid growth of alumni groups throughout the country.

The beginning of the depression in 1929 brought a gradual recession in the activities of the Association; the number of alumni clubs decreased materially, dues declined, and the number of subscribers to the Michigan Alumnus fell off by about one-third. This naturally limited the program of the Association, while the drastically reduced income was reflected in an increasing deficit, which amounted to over $24,000 in 1934.

To meet this situation, paralleled in the alumni organization of almost every institution in the country, the help of the University was enlisted and an arrangement was made whereby $2.50 from the dues paid to the Michigan Union by the men was allocated to the Alumni Association. In 1939 this revenue was supplemented by a one-dollar allotment from the fees paid by women students. As a corollary to this action, the executive committee of the Board of Directors was reorganized to include four members of the University faculty, all alumni of the University, and placing in the executive committee the fiscal control of the Association. This measure proved a most fortunate one, and within three years the indebtedness was wiped out and the money which had been borrowed from the capital fund of the endowment was repaid.

At the present time the alumni of the University are organized into some 195 local clubs, and 275 classes are organized, have class officers, and hold reunions normally at five-year intervals. The endowment fund has gradually grown until on June 30, 1940, it amounted to $68,698.32, with a total of 1,750 living alumni enrolled as life members of the Association and recipients of the Michigan Alumnus for life. Since the dedication of Alumni Memorial Hall in 1910 the headquarters of the Alumni Association have been in that building, with the large room on the first floor as the general offices. In the basement of the same building, along with the Alumni Catalog Office, are a large storeroom for the Association and the editorial offices of the Michigan Alumnus.

The alumni organization has thus developed with the University from almost the first days of the institution. Page  371Michigan has always been aware of the place of the alumni in the University's whole educational program. In a creed drawn up by President Ruthven in 1932 this principle was stated as follows: "We believe that the student should be trained as an alumnus from matriculation. He enrolls in the University for life and for better or worse he will always remain an integral part of the institution."

This has been the cardinal concept upon which the Alumni Association has built, and it has met with general acceptance from the University's great body of graduates and former students, which totaled 98,914 in July, 1940. While it is difficult to assess the contribution alumni have made through personal efforts, advice, and co-operation in University undertakings, one concrete evidence of this support is revealed in the $22,034,609.88 given to the University by the alumni (see Part I: Gifts).

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
"Catalogus Senatus Academici … Alumnorum Catalogus."Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1849, pp. 26-27.
"Catalogus Senatus Academici … Alumnorum Catalogus."Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1852, pp. xxv-xxvii.
Chase, Theodore R. (Comp.). The Michigan University Book, 1844-1880. Detroit: Richmond Backus and Co., 1881.
Editorial.Mich. Univ. Mag., 3 (1869): 403.
Hoyt, C. L., , and R. Clyde Ford. John D. Pierce, Founder of the Michigan School System … Ypsilanti, Mich., 1905.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940).
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1897-1940. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1852-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Dept. of Literature, Science, and the Arts], 1846-1908." Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
MS, "Records of the Society of the Alumni," 1859-97. Univ. Mich.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
State University of Michigan. General Catlaogue of Officers and Graduates from Its Organization in 1837 to 1860. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1861.
University of Michigan. Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.
University of Michigan. A General Catlogue of the Officers and Graduates from Its Organization in 1837 to 1864. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1864.
University of Michigan. General Catalogue of Officers and Students, 1837-1890. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1891.
University of Michigan — General Catalogue of Officers and Students, 1837-1911. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1912.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)
Page  372

THE ALUMNI ADVISORY COUNCIL

THE Alumni Advisory Council is a selected body of representative alumni which meets at the University at least once a year to consider the University's problems and its accomplishments. As organized at the present time, the program at the annual meetings consists largely of answers from various University officers setting forth different aspects of the University's activities in response to questions submitted by members of the Council. Ordinarily, no definite action is expected from the alumni present. In its advisory capacity the Council works through committees, set up from time to time to consider questions in which the University administration feels that the alumni can give effective and helpful co-operation. At the present time the Council consists of about two hundred members.

The first alumni advisory body of this type came at the suggestion of Shirley W. Smith when he was Secretary of the Alumni Association. He recommended that an advisory committee from the alumni at large be created by the directors of the Alumni Association. This recommendation was approved, and the Board of Directors appointed a committee composed of Henry W. Ashley ('79), of Toledo, John D. Hibbard ('87e), of Chicago, Edward C. Hinman ('74), of Battle Creek, H. Clark Ford ('75), of Cleveland, and Clarence M. Burton ('73) of Detroit. This committee met on November 11, 1904, and considered some of the problems that faced the Association, particularly plans for increasing its membership, for collecting unpaid dues, and for the possible appointment of an assistant general secretary in Chicago.

The next year this committee met again, but there was little in the way of concrete results from the movement until James Rowland Angell ('90, A.M. '91, LL.D. '31), at that time (1909) a member of the faculty of the University of Chicago, advocated the formation of an alumni council on a much broader basis (Angell, pp. 399-406). A letter from the Chicago Alumni Association suggested the appointment of a committee of alumni "to devise and establish means for rendering the relations of the alumni to the University more intimate and effective than at present." After these proposals had been extensively considered, a committee of twenty, with power to act, was appointed, and an amendment to the bylaws of the general Association, creating an advisory council, was passed. This amendment authorized each local alumni club with fifty or more members to elect a member, and to elect an extra representative for every two hundred members in excess of fifty. An executive committee of the Advisory Council of seven members was also created.

At the first meeting of the Council, in June, 1911, the University authorities were asked to give suggestions as to the principal needs of the University, and the Dix plan for reunions was approved. This is a plan designed to bring together, for reunion, groups of four classes which were in college at the same time.

In 1914 the Council recommended that the number of members of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association be increased to seven and that the directors also be authorized to nominate the holders of the Williams professorship, subject to the approval of the Regents. Other measures considered and approved by the Council were the addition of an extra day to the reunion season, the use of Hill Auditorium for Page  373alumni entertainment during the Commencement season — a practice followed for some years — and the adoption of a permanent alumni button.

The next year a committee on student living conditions was appointed by the executive committee of the Council. This committee recommended to the Council in 1917 the establishment of approved rooming and boarding houses, and its report, referred to the Senate Council of the University Senate, led to changes in the University's policy with regard to the control of student housing.

During the war years and the period immediately after the war the Council held no meetings. In June, 1921, a revival of the Council was advocated by the general secretary of the Alumni Association, who suggested that the Council should "have some recognized status in relation to the University." No action was taken at that time, however, and there was no official organization for some years.

President Marion L. Burton meanwhile had called together at various times four groups of well-known and active alumni, who spent a day in Ann Arbor in conference with him and with the other University authorities. These more or less informal gatherings in reality performed effectively the functions of the earlier Council. Similar alumni groups were also called together by President C. C. Little.

It was not until 1928 that plans were finally inaugurated, at a conference held in Detroit, to organize a national advisory council of some one hundred and fifty members, under the auspices of the Alumni Association. As a result, on May 3, 1930, the reorganized Council was called together more or less informally. In 1931, however, at a second session under the inspiration of President Ruthven, a definite plan of organization was approved. A meeting has been held every year since that time except in 1937, when it was omitted because of the centennial celebration.

Although there is no constitution, a summary of the proceedings of the meeting of June 19, 1931, published in pamphlet form, served as a scheme of organization of the Alumni Advisory Council. The purpose of the organization, as stated at that meeting, is "to consider and advise the President on matters affecting policies, or other questions which he may desire to submit." The membership is to consist of three types: (1) representatives appointed by the local alumni clubs and alumnae groups, (2) former directors and officers of the Alumni Association, and (3) members at large appointed by the president of the University. The final decision as to the size of the Council is to be left to the University president. The organization is to have one annual meeting, and "such other meetings as shall seem desirable" to the chairman and the secretary, the only officers of the organization. Also, the chairman of the Council is empowered, in consultation with the president, to appoint such committees "as shall best carry on the express purposes of the Council."

Under this elastic charter the present Council has held ten successful meetings, at which many of the problems and accomplishments of the University have been freely and intimately discussed. Reports of these discussions have been distributed to all the members of the Council, and sometimes sent to the alumni at large. In accordance with the plan of organization, some seven committees of the Council have also been appointed and have met from time to time to consider the special problems laid before them by the officers of the University. These specially appointed committees have been called together to consider such widely varied subjects as University publications, Page  374the University Arboretum, engineering research, the development of a program in social problems, alumni relations, and the program of the School of Dentistry.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angell, James R."A Plea for More Vital Relations Between the University and Its Alumni."Mich. Alum., 15 (1908-9): 399-406.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1897-1940. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-40.
"The University Today."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull., No. 27 (1939).
"Questions on the University."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull., No. 30 (1939).
"Student Problems."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull., No. 33 (1940).

ALUMNI FUNDS

THE Alumni Association of the University of Michigan has sponsored two funds, one of which has been utilized for the support of the Association and the other, in theory at least, for the general welfare of the University (see also Williams professorship fund, in Part II: Alumni Association).

The first is the endowment fund of the Alumni Association, established at the time of the reorganization of the Association in 1897. At that time a plan was inaugurated whereby the alumni who so desired might become life members of the Alumni Association and life subscribers to the Michigan Alumnus by the payment of $5.00 a year for seven years, or $35 in all. Of every five-dollar payment, $1.00 was reserved for the running expenses of the Association and the other $4.00, or $28 in all, was deposited in the permanent fund, only the interest of which could be used for Association purposes. Subsequently, in June, 1921, with the increased subscription price of the Alumnus, the individual memberships were increased to $60 on a basis of six annual payments or $50 if paid at one time.

At the time when this fund was put in force the finances of the Alumni Association were very low, and a certain number of immediate payments of $25 were solicited; the amount received was to be made available for the support of the Association. Within three years, or at the end of the general secretaryship of James H. Prentiss, who had first sponsored the plan, the total amount of this endowment was $4,526.30 in cash and $35,780.40 in life memberships pledged but not due. Through many years the endowment fund has grown, although in the period 1930-38 it suffered some losses, until in 1940 it amounted to a total of $68,698.32. It is now administered by the University officials who handle trust funds, but is kept as a separate account and is not included with the other University investments. Normally it returns some $2,000 to the Alumni Association each year.

The second fund, known as the alumni fund, is administered by a board of trustees, originally created on action of the Alumni Association but now a self-perpetuating, incorporated body. The fund now amounts to $7,271.27.

Page  375Funds operated on a similar basis had been created in a number of other college and universities prior to the establishment of such a fund at this University and have become decisive factors in the support of their respective institutions. With this record in mind the class of 1916 recommended to the Alumni Association that such a fund be established and gave the sum of $387.03 toward it as a class memorial. The plan was approved by the Alumni Association and by the Regents, and was incorporated (P.A., 1903, No. 171) under the name, "Trustees of the University of Michigan Alumni Fund." The articles of Association were dated June 19, 1920.

This fund was designed as a reservoir for gifts to the University, and the trustees were empowered to administer the income in any way they saw fit for the benefit of the institution. It was provided, however, that special funds designated for specific purposes might also be incorporated in the fund and administered by the trustees in accordance with the specifications.

The fact that Michigan is a state university, however, has seemed to limit the growth of the fund, which has never developed as have similar undertakings in some of the endowed institutions. There has been a general feeling that if the University were to set up a large fund with no specific limitations as to its administration the legislature might at some time insist on its use for certain specific objectives rather than make an appropriation for them from the state funds, and alumni support has therefore developed in other ways.

In 1935 it was proposed that the alumni fund function as a temporary depository of monies ultimately to go to the University through the functioning of the Michigan Alumni Ten-Year Program. Only one occasion arose in the next five years, however, for this use of the fund, as it was discovered that the normal procedure of the ten-year program made advisable the immediate transmittal of contributed monies to the University.

The result has been that the fund has maintained its organization, but has developed very little since it was originally created.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Alumni Fund of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Board of Trustees, Univ. Mich. Alumni Fund, 1921.
Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940).
Michigan. Public Acts [of the Session of …], 1903. (P.A.)
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1897-1940.
A Program for the Promotion of the University of Michigan Alumni Fund. Ann Arbor: Board of Trustees, Univ. Mich. Alumni Fund, 1924.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Page  376

THE GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION

THE office of alumni secretary, which has come to have a recognized place in college and university administration, originated at the University of Michigan in 1897, when the Alumni Association was reorganized and co-ordinated. Although certain other universities, notably the University of Pennsylvania and Lehigh University, had had part-time secretaries of their alumni organizations who received small fees for their services, the position and its duties had not been precisely recognized or defined.

What may be taken as a first step toward the creation of the office is to be noted in the minutes of the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts for February 1, 1864. It was provided that the name of Edward P. Evans ('54), Professor of Modern Languages and Literature, "be placed in the general catalogue as a person to whom the alumni of this department are requested to communicate information in relation to their place of residence, occupation, etc." (MS, "Faculty Records," 1858-64, p. 420). Thus some of the duties comprised in the present office of the general secretary were recognized more than thirty years before the office actually came into existence. There is little evidence that Professor Evans ever took these duties very seriously. He resigned from the University faculty in 1870.

The need for some officer whose duty it should be to keep in touch with the alumni, maintain the alumni records, and stimulate their interest in the University was long recognized, but for many years no feasible way appeared in which to finance such an office. With the consolidation of the departmental societies in 1897, however, and the expansion of the whole alumni program in the University, almost the first practical step was the appointment of a general secretary.

The first incumbent of the office, Ralph C. McAllaster, had been a student in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1885-86, and in the Law Department the next year, after which he had had three years' experience in editing one of the Ann Arbor papers. He was appointed on October 1, 1897, but resigned during the last week of the following December. James H. Prentiss ('96) was appointed as his successor and entered upon his duties January 10, 1898. For some years the new general secretary had been active in college journalism, and, although in addition to his other duties he served as editor-in-chief of the Michigan Alumnus, his main interest proved to be the building up of financial support of the Association through the solicitation of life memberships and subscriptions to that periodical. Louis A. Pratt ('96), the former editor of the Michigan Alumnus, remained as managing editor. Prentiss' efforts during the three years of his service as General Secretary resulted in giving the Alumni Association an assured financial status which formed an effective basis for future expansion.

Prentiss was succeeded in 1901 by Shirley W. Smith ('97, A.M., '00), who for the three previous years had been Instructor in English. With a broad vision of the possibilities of alumni organization, he took active charge of the editorial program of the Michigan Alumnus, systematized not only the financial records of the organization but also the records of the alumni, and undertook at Page  377once the stimulation of class organization and the development of alumni clubs throughout the country. In great measure the pattern upon which the activities of the Alumni Association subsequently developed were set during his three years of service. Mr. Smith resigned in October, 1904, to accept a position with the Pennsylvania Mutual Life Insurance Company of Philadelphia. He returned in the fall of 1908 to become Secretary of the University and eventually Vice-President and Secretary in Charge of Business and Finance.

Wilfred B. Shaw ('04) succeeded him as General Secretary on October 1, 1904. Since his graduation the previous February he had been engaged in newspaper work in Chicago. For twenty-five years he remained as General Secretary, and at the time of his resignation, in October, 1929, he was the oldest alumni secretary in point of service in the country. Throughout the quarter century of his administration the Alumni Association grew slowly but steadily. The Alumnus expanded, its circulation rising to a total of about eleven thousand just before the depression years. In 1921 it had become a weekly magazine. The Alumni Association itself was reorganized in 1923, largely upon the basis of a report which he prepared for the Board of Directors. Throughout this quarter century the number of class organizations steadily increased, until almost all the classes in the different departments had elected secretaries and had met for reunions in June. The local clubs likewise increased in number, until there were 140 alumni clubs listed in the Michigan Alumnus in 1929, in addition to the organized alumnae groups.

A special aspect of the work of the program of the Alumni Association during the later years of his incumbency was the emphasis on what has come to be called alumni education — a program designed to keep the alumni interested in continuing their own educational efforts after college years, and informed upon the scholarly and intellectual interests of the University. To carry out this program, a new department of the University, the Bureau of Alumni Relations, was accordingly set up by President Ruthven, and Mr. Shaw resigned to become Director of this Bureau in the fall of 1929.

When the Alumni Association was reorganized in 1923 a new executive officer had been appointed, a field secretary, whose duties were to keep in touch with the local alumni organizations all over the country, to stimulate their development, and to supervise them. This program developed rapidly, and, in 1929, T. Hawley Tapping (Iowa '11, Michigan '16l), who had been Field Secretary for six years, became General Secretary. Although Tapping's administration as General Secretary has coincided for the most part with the difficult years of the depression, the Alumni Association has, nevertheless, continued to expand. A growing indebtedness, arising in part from the unpaid balance of the cost of Alumni Memorial Hall and in part from a sharp decline in income due to the depression years, which eventually totaled some $30,000, was wiped out through co-operation with the University and a reorganization which gave the University representation on the executive committee of the Board of Directors. The publication schedule of the Michigan Alumnus was changed to permit the publication of a quarterly issue. The Class Officers' Council became an active factor in the whole alumni program, with an assistant general secretary of the Association, Robert O. Morgan ('31ed), appointed in 1935 as secretary of the Council. The district organization not Page  378only was kept alive through difficult years, but also was expanded and consolidated through personal visits on the part of Tapping and other officers to district and local club meetings.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940). (Especially annual reports of the general secretaries of the Alumni Association.)
MS, "Minutes of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1898-1940.
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Dept. of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," 1858-64. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich. ("Faculty Records.")
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Tapping, T. Hawley. "The Field Secretary."Rept.… Ann. Conf. Amer. Alum. Counc., 14 (1927): 97-104.

CLASS REUNIONS AND THE CLASS OFFICERS' COUNCIL

THE history of class organization in the University centers largely about the annual class reunions, which led naturally and inevitably to the appointment of class secretaries and other officers. Although at Commencement time there were, undoubtedly, informal reunions of the earliest classes, no formal reunions were recorded prior to 1868. The first class to hold a reunion, as far as the official records indicate, was the class of 1858, which met on June 23, 1868, and inspected the trees which its members had planted as the first recorded class memorial, under the inspiration of Professor Andrew D. White.

From that time on, a few classes met every year. The records show that in 1876 the classes of 1866, 1869, 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874 met at Commencement time. Eleven years later, in 1887, at the time of the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the University, the class of 1845 held a reunion, apparently its first. Other classes which met at that time were those of 1861, 1863, 1867, 1872, 1873, 1875, and 1886.

Very little has survived, however, in the way of records of these early reunions. It was not until the Alumni Association took over the publication of the Michigan Alumnus in 1898 that official reports of reunions began to appear; thenceforth they were included in the Commencement issues of the magazine. In 1898 the reunions of the classes of 1848, 1858, 1868, 1873, 1878, 1888, and 1896 were recorded, although no reports were given, but in 1901 there were reports of seven reunions. A few years later, in 1904, the Alumnus contained reports of the reunions of thirteen classes and of a semicentennial reunion held by the class of 1854. This class held another very successful gathering in 1905.

From this time on, the number of classes holding reunions at Commencement time gradually increased. Reunions of the alumni of the professional departments also began to have an increasingly important place in the program. By 1915 the general secretary reported that 125 classes in the different schools and colleges of the University were organized and were represented by regularly elected or appointed class secretaries. Thirty classes held reunions in 1915, when the alumni registrations numbered 1,420.

Page  379The first effort toward an organization of class officers came as the result of a report made by a committee of the Alumni Advisory Council in June, 1913. This committee recommended (1) that steps be taken to enlist the services of the most efficient members of the classes as alumni officers, especially for classes in which no secretary had yet been appointed, (2) that the necessity of electing class secretaries be impressed upon the graduating classes, and (3) that measures be taken to effect a general organization of all the class secretaries which would serve as a clearinghouse for suggestions and as a means of stimulating the interest of the class secretaries in their work. It was also thought that such an organization would serve to standardize methods of obtaining statistics and information for incorporation in University and class records. This plan, however, proved premature, for the general secretary reported the following year (1914) that the projected organization did not appear practicable or desirable, in view of the fact that the class officers seemed disposed to leave the burden of the work with him, as theretofore, rather than undertake certain of the duties themselves.

The plan for creating such an organization was only held in abeyance, however, and when the Alumni Association was reorganized in 1923 it was revived. As a result of a letter sent out by President Little, seventy-five class officers met on March 5, 1927, and effected a new organization known as the Class Secretaries' Council. The expenses of organization and the salary of a permanent secretary were to be financed by assessing annual dues against the classes to the amount of fifteen cents for each living member, as shown by the records. The first secretary of the Class Secretaries' Council was Charles J. Rash ('22), who assumed his duties on January 1, 1928. Subsequently the name of the organization was changed to the Class Officers' Council.

Since 1928 this "bureau" of the Alumni Association has grown steadily in prestige and effectiveness. The three officers of the Council were given posts as directors on the Board of the Association, and it was significant of the place assumed by the Council in Association affairs that two of the presidents of the Alumni Association "graduated" from the Council to the chief executive position in the national organization.

On September 1, 1929, Fred S. Randall, who had attended the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts between 1919 and 1921, became Secretary of the Council; he retired in 1935, and was succeeded by Robert O. Morgan ('31ed), the present Secretary.

The response of the classes to the opportunities offered in the Council was immediate and effective. Through the Council's operations, officers for practically all classes were secured, and these officers took their duties seriously. Attendance at reunions mounted as the officers planned programs carefully and promoted attendance.

One of the first and most interesting developments was the organization of the Emeritus Club, unique in character. In June of 1930 Luther Conant, a retired newspaperman of Chicago, conceived the idea of a so-called "Tappan reunion" on the campus, designed as a homecoming for alumni who had known the campus in President Tappan's time or shortly thereafter. From this beginning there developed, the following year, the Emeritus Club, embracing in its membership all those graduates and former students who were members of classes older than the Golden Anniversary Class. Formal organization was perfected, emeritus professors were included in the membership, and the club was launched for a career which has been increasingly significant Page  380and enjoyable with each year. In 1938 the University started the practice of presenting membership pins to the Emeritus Club members and to the home-comers of the Golden Anniversary Class who were inducted into the Emeritus Club. Membership certificates were awarded by the Alumni Association.

As the mechanism of the Council has been perfected, increasing emphasis has been placed on continuing activity by the various class organizations. Formerly the sole function of the officers was the planning and organizing of reunions. Secretaries took pride in maintaining contact with class members throughout the five-year periods between reunions. Class directories and books were published. Conferences of officers were held.

In line with this progress came attention to the Michigan Alumni Ten-Year Program. Classes adopted projects which required planned solicitation through the years. At the 1939 reunion eight classes announced adoption of objectives in the ten-year program.

Class organization is based on a mechanism which calls for the election of officers in each class of each college and school. Reunions are held on the same basis, which means that more than fifty classes hold reunions every five years. The so-called "Dix plan," approved by the Alumni Advisory Council in 1911, was followed for a number of years. This brought back a group of classes which were in college together for a general reunion, but it was eventually abandoned in favor of the more simple and apparently more popular five-year scheme. Upwards of two thousand alumni, graduates and nongraduates, attend these home-comings each June, convening during the two or three days preceding Commencement.

Save for a brief period, when the lobby of Angell Hall was used, general registration headquarters have been in Alumni Memorial Hall. Here the alumni register on their arrival and are given the now official reunion badge, an attractive yellow and blue, oval lapel button displaying their name and class in large type. In 1937 the first all-class dinner was held. This has come to be a regular feature of the commencement-week program, and is scheduled for Thursday evening, normally the opening day of reunions. On Friday evening the University decorates the mid-campus with Japanese lanterns, creating a beautiful setting for the "alumni sing." The alumni luncheon on Saturday noon, at which time the alumni are guests of the University, has grown to be the climax of the week. At this annual meeting certain directors of the Alumni Association are elected, the status of "honorary alumnus" is conferred upon conspicuous and active friends of the University who have never attended it, and the president delivers an annual report on the University's progress.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Chronicle (title varies), 1867-91.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940).
The Michigan Daily (title varies), 1890-1940.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1897-1940.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1852-1909, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
MS, "Records of the Society of the Alumni," 1859-97. Univ. Mich.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Page  381

ALUMNI CLUBS AND GROUPS

AT the time of the 1937 celebration, the University of Michigan had 195 alumni clubs and 53 alumnae groups, including several in foreign countries. This wide distribution of the alumni forces is the real basis upon which the University of Michigan's Alumni Association rests. Membership in the general Alumni Association arises only through membership in the local clubs, which send in national membership dues of fifty cents from the annual club dues received from each of their members.

The organization of the alumni of the University of Michigan by local clubs and associations undoubtedly began in the earlier years of the University, though this cannot be said with certainty, as definite information is meager. It is known, however, that the alumni in Detroit were accustomed to assemble as a group from time to time, especially in such a crisis as the dismissal of President Tappan, and reports of some of these meetings are still available. Whether a definite continuing organization was effected as early as the end of the Tappan administration is not clear. It is very probable that on occasion groups of alumni gathered to welcome some visitor from the University, particularly the president. Since there was no general alumni association prior to 1897, the arrangements for these meetings, as far as they concerned the University, were carried on through the office of the University president, and no records have survived except in some occasional newspaper reports.

The first local alumni meeting of which a record is preserved took place at the Tremont House in Chicago, on February 7, 1868. A constitution was adopted making graduates of the Literary Department only eligible for active membership. On December 28, 1876, thirty alumni met at the Pacific Hotel at San Francisco and effected a definite organization, with Professor Bernard Moses ('70, LL.D. '02), of the University of California, as president. Occasional reports of other meetings are recorded. A newspaper note that the New York alumni held their annual meeting on April 3, 1884, apparently indicates that there had been previous meetings. Another report informs us that on May 28, 1885, about thirty Chicago alumni again met to form an organization and on June 18 of the same year a banquet was held at which fifty-four were present and President Angell was the guest of honor. The Washington alumni held their third annual banquet in February, 1887. The alumni in Detroit were somewhat slower in effecting a definite organization. We have record of a "first annual meeting" held on March 19, 1897 at the old Russell House, with former Postmaster General Donald M. Dickinson ('67l) as president.

In the first issue of the Michigan Alumnus, October, 1894, in an article entitled "The Alumni Question — a Review," Ralph Stone ('92l) mentioned alumni centers located at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington; at Grand Rapids and Battle Creek in Michigan; and at Chicago, Milwaukee, Kansas City, and Denver in the central and western states; and wrote, further:

All of these are regularly organized and officered and arouse at times considerable annual banquet enthusiasm. At Detroit and San Francisco there are loyal alumni, but there are no ties of organization binding them together. Our only foreign association is located in Japan, which recently organized and cabled an affectionate greeting to President Angell.

Page  382From this we may gather that the auspicious start of the alumni club in San Francisco fell by the wayside during the ensuing eighteen years.

In 1894 the alumni body of the University was probably one of the largest, if not the largest, alumni body in any educational institution in America. In 1892 there were 11,449 alumni, and the graduating class numbered 699. In 1898 Dean Harry Burns Hutchins ('71, LL.D. '21), at that time Acting President of the University, called for the organization of local clubs, and from that time on the movement developed rapidly. In the Michigan Alumnus for October, 1904, the officers of thirty-one clubs were listed. The number of clubs had increased to sixty-eight in 1911, when the first great meeting of the alumni was held. This national dinner, held in the Hotel Astor in New York City on February 4, was attended by nearly one thousand alumni of the University — the largest gathering of its type ever held up to that time. Earl D. Babst ('93, '94l, A.M. hon. '11), later president of the American Sugar Refining Company, was chairman (see Part I: University of Michigan Celebrations).

By 1917 there were recorded 135 local clubs, of which 13 were women's organizations, and in 1922 the number had increased to 184, with 50 alumnae groups. Not all of these, however, were active. With the reorganization of the Alumni Association in 1923, the effectiveness of this local organization of the alumni all over the country was definitely recognized, and these organizations were made the actual basis of the University's entire alumni organization. The country was divided into districts, the clubs of each to hold an annual district meeting, at which a director of the general Association, as well as district officers, should be elected. Originally it was arranged that each district contain approximately five thousand alumni, though one district, that in the southeastern portion of Michigan, was nearly twice this size and therefore was given two directors as its representation. The original total of ten districts was subsequently increased to twelve, when the Upper Peninsula of Michigan was made a separate district and was allotted one of the two directors at first given to a second Michigan district and the district comprising all the far western states was divided.

One of the significant results of the organization of alumni by clubs and districts has been the recruiting of a large number of active alumni workers and leaders. These men and women have been enthusiastic over their work in the interest of the University, and have given generously of their time and attention. The representative nature of the government of the Alumni Association has encouraged them to continue their efforts and to gain promotion, so to speak, up through the district organization ranks into places of leadership in the Association.

The annual district conferences, beside offering ideal opportunity for district administration, also serve as forums for the discussion of the technique of club operation. One result has been the development of a high degree of efficiency in club work and the adoption of uniform formulae for the operation of the various units.

The efficiency thus developed has enabled clubs to undertake successfully many activities beneficial to the University. The alumni have been able to help the University in its contact with preparatory-school students and with the introduction of students to University life. Scholarship and loan funds have been established as objectives in the Michigan Alumni Ten-Year Program. Other gifts to the University, often suggested by campus officials, have been made by these local groups, alumni and alumnae. The clubs have been able to facilitate Page  383close contact with the campus, as their meetings offer an ideal opportunity for visits by speakers from Ann Arbor.

At the time of the reorganization in 1923 there was written into the constitution a provision for holding national meetings once every three years — therefore called triennials. The first was held in Detroit in 1925, the second in Chicago in 1928, the third in Cleveland in 1931, the fourth in Grand Rapids in 1933, and the fifth in Ann Arbor in connection with the 1937 celebration. The University cooperated with the Alumni Association in planning these meetings, with the result that they had an educational phase as well as the anticipated alumni reunion and conference aspect. No regular triennial meeting, however, was held in 1940, since it was felt that other meetings could well take the place of such a formalized program.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Editorial. Mich. Univ. Mag., 2 (1868): 230.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940).
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1897-1940.
Tapping, T. Hawley. "The Field Secretary."Rept. … Ann. Conf. Amer. Alum. Counc., 14 (1927): 97-104.
Tapping, T. Hawley. "The Practical Organization of Clubs."Rept. … Ann. Conf. Amer. Alum. Counc., 26 (1940): 104-12.

THE ALUMNI TEN-YEAR PROGRAM

THE Michigan Alumni Ten-Year Program, designed as a tangible means by which the graduates and former students of the University could evince their interest in the institution, was announced formally on March 12, 1927. A few days later, March 18, it was described in a broadcast by Elmer J. Ottaway, President of the Alumni Association, as a "new and higher ideal of alumni relations."

This ten-year program was Ottaway's conception. When he was asked, in the summer of 1926, to accept election as president of the Alumni Association, he stated that he did not desire the honor unless he could devise some constructive program for the organization. The Michigan Alumni Ten-Year Program was the result of his study of the problem and of his numerous conferences with alumni leaders and with University officers.

Ottaway accepted the presidency on December 14 and at once issued to the alumni a call to service, which was really an announcement of the ten-year program. As the project developed it became a threefold program — first, a survey of the alumni to determine their interests and attitude; second, participation in President Little's plan for an Alumni University and the development, within the Alumni Association, of a perfected mechanism of alumni activity; and, third, the cataloguing of the special needs of the University and the satisfaction of those needs by the alumni, either as groups or as individuals.

The program was launched officially at the third national dinner of the Alumni Association at the Michigan Union in Ann Arbor on January 21, 1928, when President Little described his Alumni University idea and President Ottaway told of the Alumni Association plans. Several months later, at the second triennial Page  384celebration of University of Michigan clubs in Chicago, May 10-12, the University of Michigan clubs of Detroit and Ann Arbor announced the adoption of projects in the program, Ann Arbor offering its help in the financing of a campanile and Detroit affirming its espousal of the campus dormitory program.

The ten-year program, in its financial phase, is unique among alumni efforts in behalf of educational institutions. It abandoned, in principle, the popular scheme of alumni funds, that is, of general campaigns for the raising of endowment or operating funds, and has also avoided the plan of a widespread solicitation of money for any large, but specific, enterprise. It is based, primarily, on the idea that each individual or group shall undertake to satisfy some specific need of the University, large or small, and that such accomplishment is the sole achievement of that individual or group.

Its name, as time developed, proved a not particularly happy one. Originally, it was believed that the goal could be accomplished in ten years and that an "achievement celebration" could be held at the time of the observance of the University's centennial in 1937. But before the ten-year period had passed the Regents recognized the real birth date of the University of Michigan as August 26, 1817, and — still more important — the depression prevented the alumni from giving financial help to the University.

As the years went by the Michigan Alumni Ten-Year Program became, in popular conception, not the threefold project, but merely the financial program of the alumni. President Little resigned and the Alumni University idea took on a different character. The survey of the alumni was completed, the progressive steps in the internal organization of the Alumni Association were accomplished, and the alumni turned to this third phase of Ottaway's proposals.

In spite of all obstacles the program prospered. University of Michigan clubs, alumni class organizations, and individuals espoused their own particular objectives and carried them to completion. The largest project adopted was the faculty salary endowment fund of the University of Michigan Club of New York City. An endowment of $250,000 was set as the goal, and more than $200,000 was pledged, for payment over a ten-year period. By 1939 more than half of this amount had been paid in to the University, the depression notwithstanding. In his statement to the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association in June, 1939, the general secretary announced that upwards of $182,000 had passed through the Alumni Association offices, in transit to the University, representing contributions of the alumni under the ten-year program. This was in addition to the funds which went directly to the University from the alumni under the program.

Projects of many types, with a variety of conditions attached, have been adopted by the alumni as objectives in the Michigan Alumni Ten-Year Program. In 1928 President Little had a comprehensive statement of the special needs of the University prepared. This statement gave to the alumni the information they needed in selecting their projects. From time to time alumni and University officials suggested additional projects, and in many cases these were adopted as objectives. In March, 1938, President Ruthven completed another survey of University needs, which was published as a second roster of ten-year program objectives in the March 26 issue of the Michigan Alumnus, and in the Alumni Relations Twenty-Sixth General Bulletin.

By 1934 the program had proven so popular with the alumni and had become such an effective medium for alumni support of the University that steps were taken to make it a continuing activity. Page  385In the fall of that year the Board of Directors decreed that the program, unchanged in name, should be a continuous alumni effort, divided into ten-year cycles, with a so-called "jubilee" at each succeeding anniversary of the launching of the program. At this jubilee there was to be an accounting of progress, an announcement of new objectives selected, and a renewed emphasis on the endeavor.

The first of these jubilees came during the 1937 celebration on the campus. Held at about the time originally planned for the depression-retarded conclusion of the program, the jubilee was one of the high lights of the celebration. Nearly five hundred representatives of University of Michigan clubs and alumni classes gathered at luncheon in the ballroom of the Michigan Union, and there heard a roll call of the projects adopted, completed, or under way. Thirty-seven of the more than forty projects were reported.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 34-46 (1927-40).
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1927-40.
"The Needs of the University."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull., No. 26 (1938): 7-9.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
A University Between Two Centuries: the Proceedings of the 1937 Celebration of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Wilfred B. Shaw. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1937. Pp. 443-54.

ALUMNAE AND THE ALUMNAE COUNCIL

THE University of Michigan was among the first of the large universities to become coeducational; its first woman student came in February, 1870, and its first women graduates received their degrees in 1871.

University of Michigan women were not formally united in an alumnae body of their own until 1917, but from the first they were distinguished in the field of general alumnae organization. They took a leading part in building up the society now called the American Association of University Women, which was founded as the Association of Collegiate Alumnae and retained that name until 1921. In 1881 three Michigan alumnae in the East were invited to a meeting of a number of college women, including Marion Talbot (Boston '80, A.M. ibid. '82), the originator of the idea of forming such a society, and there helped to lay the plans for its immediate organization.

One of the Michigan women was at that time the acting president of Wellesley College, Alice Elvira Freeman ('76, Ph.D. hon. '82), well known as Alice Freeman Palmer. It was she who proposed the resolution "that a meeting be called for the purpose of organizing an association of women college graduates, with headquarters at Boston" (Talbot and Rosenberry, p. 10). The society was established early in 1882. The only other state university represented by charter members was Wisconsin; the other coeducational institutions were Oberlin College, Boston University, and Cornell University. The women's colleges represented were Vassar, Smith, and Wellesley.

Alice Freeman (Palmer) was twice president of the Association, from 1885 to 1887 and again for the term 1889-90. As a member of its first committee on the admission of institutions she helped to establish the Association's strict accrediting Page  386policy for selecting the colleges whose graduates were to be considered eligible for membership. This policy was directly responsible for raising both instructional standards and living conditions for women students throughout the United States, but, in order to be effective, had to be maintained for a number of years. Such an undertaking was especially difficult in the formative period of the society, when members and funds were badly needed, but as soon as the policy began to prove successful the prestige of the Association itself was strengthened. After her presidency of Wellesley College and her marriage, Mrs. Palmer spent three years at the University of Chicago, where, as one of the first deans of women, she ably demonstrated the possibilities of that office for bettering the lot of the undergraduate woman.

Among other early leaders in the movement to improve women's education was Lucy Maynard Salmon ('76, A.M. '83). She, too, was a charter member of the Association, as well as Professor of History at Vassar College and author of Education in Michigan During the Territorial Period (1885).

Thus, indirectly, the University has always participated in the affairs of the Association through the membership of its alumnae; more direct and local participation came somewhat later. A Midwestern subdivision, covering several of the north central states, was formed only a year after the Association of Collegiate Alumnae was established, but seceded before long (1884), because of some issue involving Western freedom and the authority of the central organization in the East. It remained autonomous until 1889, although for all practical purposes it functioned as if it were a Western section of the same organization. This regional society, which convened at Ann Arbor in 1888, offered a graduate fellowship of $350 that year, to be won in competition — probably the first fellowship for a woman and given by women. The winner, Ida Maria Street (Vassar '80, A.M. Michigan '89), used the proceeds for a year's graduate study at the University of Michigan. The award in 1889 went to a Michigan graduate, Arlisle Margaret Young ('89, A.M. '90).

Among the local chapters that became branches of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae in the merger of 1889 was one with both Detroit and Ann Arbor residents as members, but centered in Detroit. A separate Ann Arbor branch was formed in 1902, and has continued to hold an important place in the activities of collegiate alumnae in this city, where the national convention met in 1912.

For some time before the World War the Association of Collegiate Alumnae sponsored, in connection with its biennial convention, a conference of deans of the institutions which it accredited. In 1915 a similar conference for professors was launched, and before 1917 a third conference of a similar nature for representatives of the institutional alumnae organizations, called the "alumnae conference," had been begun. In that year an invitation to the "alumnae conference" in Washington was extended to the alumnae organization of the University of Michigan, but, partly because Michigan was a coeducational institution and its Alumni Association was therefore not an alumnae association as well, as in a women's college, no such organization had ever been built up. There were fourteen alumnae clubs at various points throughout the country, which, except as units of the Alumni Association, had no co-ordinated program. The alumnae leaders now saw in such a possible organization a means of meeting certain University needs and those of its women students.

The Alumni Association provided $150 for the institutional membership fee, and Page  387the full number of delegates allowed the new organization, on the basis of the total number of the University's living alumnae, attended. This was the first coeducational institution represented, only the larger Eastern colleges for women having previously sent delegates. The first entry in the official alumnae record was dated 1917 and was a report of this convention — a turning point in the alumnae history of the University. Knowing that the quotas allotted to the various colleges were strictly proportional, the Michigan representatives were surprised to find that the Smith College delegation was the only one larger than their own. They decided that the Michigan alumnae, through their new organization, should become comparable in accomplishment, and they determined "to do more for Michigan women and to stand loyally by all interests and achievements of the University as expressed through her Alumni Association."

The first functioning organization was a central correspondence committee of three members: Mary Bartron (Mrs. William D.) Henderson ('04) of Ann Arbor, Marie Louise Hall (Mrs. Charles H.) Walker ('77) of Toledo, and Miss Claire Mabel Sanders ('04) of Detroit. The purpose of this committee was to keep closely in touch with the life and the needs of the women at the University and to report to the alumnae. The whole plan was an effort to give the Alumni Association added support from the women. This alumnae organization was to be an integral part of the Alumni Association, and its sole purpose was to be of service to the University, with its activities centering around the needs of the women students.

From the beginning, interest in the new organization was spirited. The fourteen alumnae groups which were known to be organized in 1917 were those of Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Grand Rapids, Kansas City, Minneapolis, New York, Pasadena, Philadelphia, Saginaw, St. Louis, Toledo, and Washington. Scattered as they were, they had until that time acted independently of one another, and the first task of the central correspondence committee was to build up an effective, unified association by co-ordinating their activities. At a meeting of all alumnae, called at Commencement time, 1917, alumnae affairs were thoroughly considered and an organization was effected. By this plan, a corresponding member of each group was appointed to suggest to the committee projects important for University women.

After a canvass in 1914 had revealed a need of a women's residence, Detroit alumnae had assumed the responsibility of adding to the funds of the Women's League already available for the purpose. The other alumnae, who later joined them, stipulated that this should be a self-help house, the students sharing the duties of maintenance. A beautiful old home on Washtenaw Avenue was purchased in 1917, at a final cost of about $18,000, and was occupied until it was razed for the extension of Forest Avenue. In May, 1926, the Regents acquired the spacious old Harriman residence, on the triangle bounded by Washtenaw, Geddes, and Forest Avenues, and made it "definitely and permanently" a residence for women. The valuation of this property by the University in June, 1940, was over $49,000.

Alumnae House is still regarded by the alumnae as their favorite project, for in its existence of over twenty years it has more than justified the faith with which it was established. It furnishes a pleasant home and congenial companionship to a group of eighteen girls. No finer group spirit is found in any house or dormitory at the University, and for the past two years it has carried off the highest record for scholarship on the campus. This project was not achieved without united Page  388effort, hard work, and a small debt, but it proved to the alumnae that their organization was of value.

The three years 1917-20 were spent in removing the debt from Alumnae House, in perfecting the alumnae organization as a part of the Alumni Association, in order that it might work for the mutual benefit of both groups, and in centralizing alumnae effort in the further founding of University of Michigan alumnae chapters, or groups, throughout the United States (see Part II: Alumni Clubs and Groups).

With the continued growth of alumnae groups, both in numbers and in strength, it was felt that the name central correspondence committee no longer represented the real function of the central organization. Accordingly, in 1920, the name was changed to Alumnae Council of the Alumni Association. A representative from every organized group was taken into membership on the new Council. In 1921, a constitution, basically the same as the one used today, was adopted.

In 1920 the president of the Women's League reported to the central correspondence committee (then often called the C. C. C.) that the greatest need and the greatest interest of the undergraduate women centered in the hope for a women's building. With the ever increasing enrollment, a place in which to carry on women's activities had become almost a necessity. Barbour Gymnasium, used as headquarters, had been built when there were about four hundred women students on the campus. Although this number had increased by 1920 to some sixteen hundred, no extension of facilities had been made to meet the social and educational requirements of so large a group. Committees and special gatherings tumbled over one another as they met in the corners of Barbour Gymnasium, or were crowded out altogether, and the constructive work of developing a general social program for all girls on the campus was badly hampered. As evidence of the earnestness of their proposal, the undergraduate women, in 1921, through the president of the Women's League, offered a sum of $1,200 which had already been set aside by women's organizations on the campus for financing a campaign for such a women's building (see Part VIII: Michigan League Building; Part IX: Michigan League).

In January, 1921, the Alumnae Council voted to embark on a campaign to raise $1,000,000 for a women's building. Once the campaign was launched, the alumnae met the challenge. An attempt was made to reach every alumna and invite her to become a member of the new Women's League. Organized groups gladly took the responsibility of raising campaign expenses in addition to pledging the quotas assigned to them. A. B. Pond and I. K. Pond, who had designed the Michigan Union, were selected as architects. New and unusual moneymaking ideas were devised as the alumnae entered upon five long years of hard and constant work.

Always in the background, in loyal support of the alumnae, were the Regents, the president of the University, and the Alumni Association, whose moral support and belief in the project carried the women through many a depressing situation. The Regents promised a site for the building as soon as half the required sum should be raised. In 1926 this sum was on hand, and the Regents, therefore, gave the land on which the building now stands. By 1927 the whole million was pledged and the building was assured. The cornerstone was laid March 29, 1928, and on June of the following year the formal dedication took place.

Today, as the League hums with life and activity, serving the purpose of a perfectly equipped women's center for students, alumnae, and the University Page  389community, one wonders how life at the University ever went on without it.

The League, the greatest achievement of Michigan women to date, could never have been built without the unflagging energy and the superb leadership of Mrs. Mary Bartron Henderson, Executive Secretary of the Alumnae Council. She was a woman who never knew the meaning of discouragement and who never admitted a failure. Her vision and her will to succeed carried the project to successful completion. When Mrs. Henderson retired from the secretaryship, in June, 1930, she was succeeded by Marguerite Chapin (Mrs. Edward D.) Maire ('20). Mrs. Maire left the position in February, 1932, and was followed by the present Executive Secretary, Lucile Bailey (Mrs. Seymour B.) Conger ('04).

The Council still follows the plan of organization adopted twenty years ago, with the national chairman, the Board of Directors, and the Council forming the governing body. Through the simple method of direct representation on the national Alumnae Council, each group has a feeling of vital participation in the shaping of alumnae policy, a fact which has contributed largely to the continued success of the organization. At present about fifty groups are represented at the three Council meetings held annually in Ann Arbor. All projects are sponsored and developed by the Council as a whole with the full consent of all local groups and with their pledged support. In addition to this centralized work, many groups have extended their usefulness by recruiting valuable students for the University, by promoting student-alumnae relations, by assembling information concerning alumnae in various fields, and by establishing local loan or scholarship funds (see Part II: Alumnae Fellowship and Scholarship Program).

The relationship of the Alumnae Council to the Alumni Association remains almost unique in the history of alumni activities. Though an integral part of the Alumni Association, the Council maintains freedom of activity through its own national organization. Though alumnae projects to be undertaken and the method of developing them are left to the alumnae, they are never undertaken without the full consent and approval of the president of the Alumni Association and the approval of the Board of Regents. To tie the relationships of the two bodies more closely, the Council since 1923 has been represented on the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association by two alumnae. The University of Michigan is the only large state university enjoying such an organization and the only state university with so great a record of achievement credited to its alumnae — an adequate proof of the practicability of this form of alumnae organization.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940).
MS, "Minutes of the Alumnae Council [Central Correspondence Committee, 1917-20]," 1917-40.
MS, "Minutes of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1898-1940.
Talbot, Marion, , and Lois K. M. Rosenberry. The History of the American Association of University Women, 1881-1931. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931.
Page  390

THE ALUMNAE COUNCIL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM

UNTIL January, 1930, the alumnae, absorbed with the financing and erection of the Michigan League Building, could not participate in the University's ten-year program. With the League completed, however, attention and interest were directed toward the selection of some special project which would fit into that program. The Alumnae Council, after considering the various existing needs enumerated by the University, and after consulting with Dean Huber of the Graduate School and General Secretary Tapping of the Alumni Association, adopted a program of student aid based on broad and flexible lines. This program provided for the immediate awarding of current scholarships and fellowships and for the establishment of permanent endowments in $10,000 units as basic funds for graduate fellowships.

In this program, the general aim has been to fulfill the original purpose of the organization, that is, "to assist the University through special attention to the needs of the women on campus," and the more specific aims have been (a) to help the women students who were poor in purse but gifted in intellect and (b) to co-operate with the Graduate School in maintaining the highest standards of advanced scholarship and thus bring added prestige to the University among scholars and leaders of thought.

In the beginning no goal was set as to the amount to be raised and no time limit was put upon this project, as this is a type of work which can continue through the years and one which always claims the interest and support of University women. It is hoped that eventually the sum of $150,000 will be credited to alumnae gifts for this purpose.

Machinery for the development of this program was immediately set up, and alumnae groups were invited to participate. Detroit took the initial step in establishing a fellowship in memory of Lucy Elliott, a well-known and beloved alumna of Detroit who met a tragic death in 1930. Gifts contributed in her memory made up a capital sum of $12,000, which the University holds in trust and the increment from which maintains an annual award known as the Lucy Elliott fellowship. This was the first capital fund or endowment to be completed by University of Michigan alumnae.

The undergraduate women, who have traditionally shared in the alumnae plans (see Part IX: Michigan League), followed shortly with their plan to establish the Alice Crocker Lloyd fellowship fund, with a capital investment of $15,000 — a project which is fast approaching completion. The Elliott and Lloyd fellowships are to be used solely for supporting graduate women. Designed both to bring to the campus outstanding graduates of other institutions and to enable University of Michigan graduates to continue their studies wherever the provisions for instruction and research are most advantageous, these fellowships should produce rather farreaching benefits for the University.

In addition to these capital funds, (1) memorial scholarships have frequently been included in the program; (2) current awards, both for graduate students and for junior and senior women, have been contributed by various alumnae Page  391groups; and (3) loan funds, through which many excellent students have been sent to the University, have been built up in various cities and have come into very active use. Scholarship and fellowship funds to be administered by the University and the Council have been contributed by alumnae in Ann Arbor, Battle Creek, Marshall, Detroit, Flint, Kalamazoo, Cleveland, Philadelphia, and in the region of San Francisco Bay; loan funds and scholarships locally administered have been made available in Pontiac, Grand Rapids, Detroit, Royal Oak, Bay City, Chicago, Washington, D.C., Buffalo, and other cities. Aside from the permanent graduate fellowship endowments, the scholarship aid contributed by the alumnae to date has exceeded $21,000.

The program has lately taken on new form in the plan for a $50,000 women's co-operative dormitory, in which residence is to be based on high scholarship. The dormitory is to be a memorial to Mrs. W. D. Henderson, and the residents will be known as Henderson scholars. This will be one more step toward the $150,000 goal.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1896-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1914-23.
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-28.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 3-46 (1896-1940).
MS, "Minutes of the Alumnae Council," 1917-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1917-40.
Scholarships, Fellowships, Prizes, and Loan Funds (title varies), Univ. Mich., 1928-40.

THE ALUMNI CATALOG OFFICE

FROM its earliest years the University of Michigan published occasional records of its students and alumni, although these publications were, it has been discovered, more or less incomplete. In 1849 and again in 1852 there appeared a Latin "Alumnorum Catalogus" (see Part VIII: Official Publications, for a more extended account of University publications). This first catalogue contained lists of the Regents and alumni of the University from the establishment of the Board in 1837. It also gave a list of the ninety-seven graduates up to that time, arranged according to classes. The first name of each was latinized, if possible: under the class of 1845, the name of Edmundus Fish appeared, and under 1851, Josephus Webb Bancroft and Georgius W. Perry.

Eight years later, in 1860, the University published a General Catalogue … containing lists of officers and alumni from 1837 up to that time, including the alumni of the Department of Medicine and Surgery, from which the first class had been graduated in 1851. In this book the Latin forms were dropped. A third General Catalogue …, published in 1864, contained a register of the additional classes since 1860 and a roster of the Law Department graduates beginning with the first class, that of 1860.

The first and only Triennial Catalogue …, with index, was published by the University in 1871. It listed the names of all the graduates, primarily according Page  392to the degrees received, and secondarily according to classes. The names of students who had received the degree of pharmaceutical chemist were also included for the first time, since the first class was graduated in pharmacy in 1869.

A privately printed venture, The Michigan University Book, 1844-1880, edited by Theodore R. Chase (A.M. '49), was published in Detroit in 1881. Brief biographical notes of officers and alumni appeared in this book for the first time, and the names of the graduates of the College of Dental Surgery and of the Homeopathic Medical College, both of which had been established about five years before, were included. There were also alphabetical and geographical arrangements of the names, and the book was interleaved with blank pages for later notes by purchasers. Although it was not authorized by the University, apparently some contribution was made by the Regents toward its publication.

The value of these periodical lists of alumni had by this time become obvious and led the Regents in 1889 to undertake the publication of a complete General Catalogue … of alumni and students of the University from the time of its organization, and President Angell, Regents Charles S. Draper and Charles R. Whitman, and Professors Isaac N. Demmon and William H. Pettee were appointed to take charge of the work. The results of their labors were the publication in 1891 of a General Catalogue of Officers and Students, 1837-1890, and the real beginning of the department of the University later known as the Alumni Catalog Office (and as the Alumni Catalog Office since 1933). It was several years, however, before the first steps toward systematic organization of this work were undertaken.

Professor Demmon for some time carried on the recording of the names and addresses of the alumni as a labor of love; but when the Alumni Association was reorganized in 1897, the maintenance of the catalogue of alumni was recognized as one of its duties by the Regents' action appropriating $25 for a "catalogue case"; and in 1901 the sum of $500 was granted the Association for the purpose of "keeping at all times a correct list of the alumni of the University in such a manner as to be ready for publication at any time in the General Catalogue …" (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 651).

This program was carried on in connection with the Alumni Association by Professor Demmon, and in 1901 and 1911 the second and third general catalogues were published under his editorship, a monument to his patience and painstaking care. His intimate knowledge of the University and its thousands of alumni formed a solid basis upon which the present remarkably complete records of its faculty and alumni rest.

After the publication of the third general Catalogue of Graduates … it became apparent that the appropriation was far from sufficient to maintain the catalogue satisfactorily, in view of the continually increasing size of the alumni body. Accordingly, in 1912, the University created a separate alumni catalogue organization and placed it under the general charge of Professor Demmon. This was installed in the basement of Alumni Memorial Hall, in the offices now occupied by the Alumni Association, and was adjacent to the editorial room of the Michigan Alumnus. By the same action of the Regents the general Alumni Association was relieved of further responsibility in connection with the general catalogue.

The last general alumni catalogue of the University, covering the years through 1921, was published in 1923, under the editorship of Harley L. Sensemann ('11, Page  393A.M. '15), who succeeded Demmon as Director of the Alumni Catalogue Office in 1915. This also followed the plan of the three preceding general catalogues.

Upon Sensemann's resignation in 1925, Mrs. Lunette Hadley was appointed Director.

As may be seen, it had been the custom of the University in the past to publish a general catalogue decennially. If this plan had been pursued, another catalogue would have been published in 1931, but the Regents voted in 1929 not to publish one at that time. This action was based on the expense of publication and on the fact that the alphabetical and geographical lists of alumni are on file in the Alumni Catalog Office for proper consultation.

The function of the Alumni Catalog Office is twofold: (a) to keep for the University certain official records, and (b) to maintain a directory for the purpose of serving the alumni. The office at present possesses: (1) the early registration books and student registration cards to date, (2) the diploma fee cards, (3) the corrected copies of all annual catalogues, (4) the necrology file, containing obituary data, and records of all deceased alumni, (5) bound copies of the Regents' Proceedings, (6) the files of approximately 99,000 folders containing biographical material, registration cards, correspondence, circulars, etc., (7) the alphabetical card file of full names, degrees, years of attendance if no degree, and latest address of all living former students, as well as the names and degrees (or years of attendance) of all deceased alumni, (8) the card file of complete and detailed military record of University of Michigan men and women who served in the Mexican, Civil, Spanish-American, and World wars, (9) the files of University of Michigan men who died while serving in the first World War or as a result of such service, (10) the geographical files of addressograph stencils of all living graduates and former students, and an addressograph-plate list of all graduates since 1921 by schools and colleges, (11) three addressograph machines and two electric graphotypes, (12) the folder file of all past and present administrative officers and teaching faculty members of the University, (13) complete undergraduate files from the Registrar's Office since 1937, and (14) a large collection of various directories and other miscellaneous material.

Many supplementary addressograph-plate lists are also made up and kept for addressing purposes. These include lists for many fraternities, honorary societies, local churches, nearly all campus departments, the University faculty, local clubs of the Alumni Association, the State Bar of Michigan, editors of weekly and daily newspapers, teachers within the state, and many others. Many of these groups are addressed weekly. The financial charges for such labor are added to the annual budget of the Alumni Catalog Office.

The complete alumni body is addressed many times each year by the director of alumni relations and others, and there is less than a 2 per cent return of unclaimed mail. Nearly all schools and colleges of the University address their own graduates periodically. The list is used as a basis of all alumni and alumnae club organizations and for the preparation of all such special meetings as class reunions. An address or information is not given out for any purpose that might be a source of annoyance to the alumni.

At the present time, the Alumni Catalog Office contains detailed information of a chronological nature of every alumnus from the time of his application for admission until he finally leaves the University, and all subsequent information about him or her is carefully catalogued. Page  394Thus it is made possible for those needing biographical information to obtain such data with ease and accuracy. Approximately three thousand changes of address are entered each month.

The Alumni Catalog Office prepares a necrology list which appears in alternating issues of the Michigan Alumnus, and at the end of each year the list of deaths is published in pamphlet form.

In 1930, the work of the Alumni Catalog Office had entirely outgrown the room which it had originally occupied. At this time the Alumni Association vacated its adjacent editorial rooms, and this space was added to the original quarters used for the alumni catalogue work. The long hall leading to these rooms was used for biographical files.

The number of alumni has nearly doubled since 1921. The staff has been gradually increased until it now consists of six persons in addition to the director. The space utilized by this University unit again became entirely inadequate for its efficient operation. When the University Club moved to the Michigan Union Building in 1938 (see Part II: University Club), the large, northwest, basement room formerly occupied by the club at last provided commodious quarters for the Alumni Catalog Office.

The following summary indicates the scope of the work of this office:

    Total number of degrees conferred, 1845-July 1, 1940
  • 88,287
  • Total number of persons who have received degrees, 1845-July 1, 1940
  • 76,280
  • Number of nongraduates in all schools and colleges, calculated to July 1, 1938
  • 48,510
  • Total number of former students, including graduates to July 1, 1940, and nongraduates to July 1, 1938
  • 124,790
  • Total number of former students known to be deceased (graduates, 14,518; nongraduates, 11,358)
  • 25,876
  • Total number of living alumni (graduates, 61,762; nongraduates, 37,152)
  • 98,914
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914.
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-28.
"Catalogus Senatus Academici … Alumnorum Catalogus."Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1849, pp. 26-27.
"Catalogus Senatus Academici … Alumnorum Catalogus."Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1852, pp. xxv-xxvii.
Chase, Theodore R. (Comp.). The Michigan University Book, 1844-1880. Detroit: Richmond, Backus and Co., 1881.
Death Notices …, Univ. Mich., 1913-40.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1928-40.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940).
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1871, pp. 12-13.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1937. (R.P.)
School of Dentistry Alumni Bulletin, Univ. Mich., 1936-40.
State University of Michigan. General Catalogue of Officers and Graduates from Its Organization in 1837 to 1860. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1861.
(Triennial) Catalogue of the Academic Senate of the University of Michigan … Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1871.
University of Michigan. Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.
University of Michigan. A General Catalogue of the Officers and Graduates from Its Organization in 1837 to 1864. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1864. (Alumni Cat., 1864.)
University of Michigan. General Catalogue of Officers and Students, 1837-1890. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1891.
University of Michigan — General Catalogue of Officers and Students, 1837-1911. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1912.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings…, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
Page  395

THE MICHIGAN ALUMNUS

The Michigan Alumnus is the oldest existing alumni publication in the country, with the exception of the Yale Alumni News, and was the first alumni monthly. It was established in 1894 by Alvick A. Pearson ('94), and for some years was continued as a private venture. The first issue contained as its leading article "The Alumni Question — A Review," by Ralph Stone (Swarthmore '89, Michigan '92l), in addition to the class notes, University news, and comment and book reviews which have always formed a feature of the publication. During the first years of publication of the Alumnus, the Commencement Annual, containing a list of the graduating classes and the Class Day and Commencement speeches, which had been published in the University since 1881, was included as a special number of the Alumnus.

Growth of the magazine was slow, however, and in 1898, after the Alumni Association had been reorganized through the consolidation of the departmental organizations, one of the first actions taken by the new Board of Directors was the purchase of the magazine. The subscription price was continued at one dollar a year, and the publication was mailed to all the members of the Alumni Association. Thus, in practice, the subscription payments to the Alumnus became the annual fees of the organization.

James H. Prentiss ('96), just appointed General Secretary of the Alumni Association, became editor-in-chief, Louis A. Pratt ('96), editor of the magazine at the time of its purchase, remained as managing editor, and Professor F. N. Scott ('84, Ph.D. '89) served as University editor. His task was the preparation of news of the University for publication in the alumni magazine. This news was also published in a little fortnightly bulletin known as the News-Letter, which was sent out to the press of the state in the University's first news-service program (see Part II: University News Service). For this service the Alumnus received an appropriation of $100 from the University.

When Shirley W. Smith ('97, A.M. '00) became General Secretary of the Alumni Association in 1901, the monthly issues of the Alumnus were made larger and the appropriation for the News-Letter was increased to $300. In 1902 the total number of subscribers to the Alumnus was 2,849. During the next few years the publication gradually became larger and had more and more subscriptions. In 1904 Wilfred B. Shaw became General Secretary of the Alumni Association and also editor of the Michigan Alumnus. He continued the general form and policy of the magazine, making modifications and improvements in its general appearance as fast as they were justified by the increasing subscription list. This list comprised 7,000 subscriptions in 1907, including copies sent to the senior class.

During the first World War the number of subscribers decreased considerably, but in the expansion after the end of the war the subscription list rapidly grew, so that in 1926 the total was about eleven thousand. The period 1930-39 again saw a circulation loss.

For some time it had been felt desirable to bring the news of the campus and the report of athletic events more promptly to the alumni than was possible in the old monthly form. Therefore, in an editorial in the March, 1910, issue, a change from a monthly to a weekly, with the addition of a quarterly review, Page  396was suggested, but it was not until 1921 that the change to a weekly form for the magazine was authorized by the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association (see Part VIII: Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review).

The Michigan Alumnus was published as a weekly until the next important change, in 1934. At that time it was made a fortnightly, with the Quarterly Review issues included in the publication schedule. Although "fortnightly" best describes the scheduled appearances of the magazine, the term is not entirely descriptive of the manner in which the successive numbers are used to meet the varied demands of subscribers. A weekly schedule is maintained for the first two months of the school year, but a single issue per month suffices for the summer.

Shaw had left the Alumni Association in 1929 to become Director of Alumni Relations, and T. Hawley Tapping had assumed the editorship of the Michigan Alumnus. When the Quarterly Review was created, Shaw was named editor of those issues and Tapping retained editorial charge of the other twenty-two.

Progressively the price of the magazine and the dues to the Association have been increased. In 1911 the subscription was increased to $1.50; in 1916 it was advanced to $2.00; and later increases finally, in 1926, brought the subscription price to $4.00.

Meanwhile publication difficulties had led the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association to consider carefully the problem of printing the magazine. In 1924 an Alumni Press was set up, and for the next seven years the Alumnus was printed in its own plant. The Press also printed a number of other publications, as well as occasional books, and for a period its future seemed assured. Opposition from printers to a printing establishment in effect subsidized by the University to the extent of furnishing quarters, power, and light, however, led to eventual abandonment of the enterprise.

Within this period the page-size of the Alumnus was increased and the typography was redesigned to conform to the formats used by other universities in their weekly alumni publications. The adoption of the larger page-size enabled the Alumnus to join with other magazines in a program of selling space to national advertisers.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Commencement Annual, Univ. Mich., 1881-94.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940).
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Alumni Association," 1897-1940.
The University of Michigan News-Letter, 1898-1911.
The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review Vols. 40-46 (1934-40).
Page  [397]

Faculty Clubs

Page  [398]
Page  399

THE RESEARCH CLUB OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN*

The Research Club as first organized was named the "Society for the Promotion of Research at the University of Michigan." It is now in its fortieth year, and embraces in its membership nearly two hundred members. Though clubs of its type appear in some other American universities, it was the pioneer in this field, and still occupies a unique position. At Michigan it finds a natural atmosphere for which it is probably in some measure directly or indirectly responsible. As stated in its constitution, "The object of the Club shall be to unite those members of the academic staff of the University who are actively engaged in research, and to originate and support such measures as are calculated to foster and advance research in the University." Such a statement today arouses no opposition upon the campus, where in its more important divisions an instructor's accomplishments in research are considered with reference to his promotion or advancement.

When the club was founded in 1900 the case was quite different. Scattered through the institution were a few earnest investigators, but, outside the Medical Department, the capacity of a man to do original work was hardly taken into account by those who controlled advancement. The few researchers felt the need for companionship with others who held similar ideals, and they felt that only through their united efforts could changes promoting research be brought about in University policies.

As a practical idea the club seems to have come first to two early heads of departments at the University, the late Dr. Frederick C. Newcombe and Dr. Jacob E. Reighard, who brought the late Dr. Victor C. Vaughan (Vaughan, pp. 435-38) into their councils. Two or three years earlier Newcombe and Reighard, with Frank R. Lillie, then Instructor in Zoology, and Alexander Ziwet, then Instructor in Mathematics, had met in Ziwet's room to discuss such a project, but nothing came of it at the time (Lombard, pp. 595-96). The consequence was a first meeting which was held at the home of Dr. Vaughan, then just northwest of the campus on North State Street. This meeting was held on January 6, 1900, and besides the three who had called the conference there were present by invitation Robert M. Wenley, Professor of Philosophy, Paul C. Freer, Professor of General Chemistry and head of the Department of Chemistry, afterward head of the Bureau of Sciences at Manila, Philippine Islands, Albert B. Prescott, Professor of Organic Chemistry and of Pharmacy, Dean of the School of Pharmacy, and Director of the Chemical Laboratory, and J. Playfair McMurrich, Professor of Anatomy and Director of the Anatomical Laboratory, who a few years later removed to the University of Toronto.

A temporary organization was started, with Vaughan, chairman, and Newcombe, secretary. A committee which consisted of Wenley, Freer, and Newcombe Page  400was formed to draft a constitution and bylaws. A second meeting to complete the organization was called to meet at the home of Dr. Lombard at 805 Oxford Road. This meeting was held February 15, 1900, and there were present, in addition to those at the earlier meeting: Warren P. Lombard, Professor of Physiology, E. D. Campbell, Junior Professor of Analytical Chemistry, Arthur R. Cushney, Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, G. Carl Huber, Junior Professor of Anatomy and Director of the Histological Laboratory, and Alexander Ziwet, Junior Professor of Mathematics. Invited but not present were H. C. Carhart, Professor of Physics and Director of the Physical Laboratory, George Dock, Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine and Pathology, Frederick G. Novy, Junior Professor of Hygiene and Physiological Chemistry, and Volney M. Spalding, Professor of Botany.

At this meeting the constitution and bylaws were adopted, Vaughan was formally elected president, Wenley, vicepresident, and Newcombe, secretary and treasurer. With the exception that Wenley served but one year and was then replaced by Campbell, the officers remained the same for the first four years of the club's history. During these critical years Vaughan's dominant influence was considered highly important. He had not succeeded in maintaining a high research qualification for appointments in the Department of Medicine and Surgery without an almost constant struggle against members of the Board of Regents who in some cases had tried to influence appointments.

During the first year the Research Club grew by election of members to twenty-four. These included Henry Carter Adams, Professor of Political Economy, Moses Gomberg (afterward Director of the Chemical Laboratory), Alfred H. Lloyd, Professor of Philosophy (afterward Dean of the Graduate School and later Acting President of the University), Aldred S. Warthin, Professor of Pathology (afterward Director of the Pathological Laboratory), James Alexander Craig, Professor of Oriental Languages (afterward Professor of Semitics in the University of Toronto), George Hempl, Professor of English Philology (afterward Professor in Leland Stanford University), Israel Cook Russell, Professor of Geology (afterward president of the Geological Society of America), John C. Rolfe, Professor of Latin (afterward head of the Department of Latin at the University of Pennsylvania), Karl E. Guthe, Professor of Physics and later Dean of the Graduate School, Walter B. Pillsbury, Professor of Psychology (afterward Director of the Psychological Laboratory and Chairman of the Department of Psychology), and Herbert S. Jennings, Professor of Zoology (afterward Director of the Zoological Laboratory in Johns Hopkins University).

This nucleus of sixteen charter members was one of great distinction, as is clear to anyone who is familiar with the history of American science, and it is also clearly shown in Cattell's gradings of American men of science with the aid of well-informed and impartial groups (Cattell, American Men of Science, p. 364, and "Statistical Study, 1906," p. 736). When in 1905 the initial edition of his American Men of Science was published, all save one of the sixteen, with the three next members, were included in the one thousand most distinguished American scientists. Most of them were, moreover, included in the first five hundred American scientists, as is clearly shown by the fact that the entire state of Michigan had but twenty-seven in the thousand list and when this list was graded into first and second five hundreds, twenty-two from Michigan, "thanks to its great University," Page  401fell into the first five hundred and only five into the second.

Such a standard of selection of researchers within the University could not be kept up by later elections, and of the eleven men within the science field who were elected by the club in the next four years (1901-2 to 1904-5) only one came into the first thousand scientists of Cattell's earlier list.

In the fall of 1902 Vaughan, then president of the club, invited Louis M. Gelston and Ward J. MacNeal, his assistants in hygiene, to an open meeting of the club, and shortly thereafter these young men organized the Junior Research Club of the University, a body which is still prosperous and throughout its life has been a training group for the senior organization. Before this club was formed the Research Club had "associate" members who attended the "open" meetings only of the club. By November, 1904, there were in all thirty active and sixteen associate members, and at that time the associate members were all advanced to active membership. With the Junior Research Club functioning, the associate membership was abolished. This infusion of a considerable number of younger men perhaps in part explains the unique inclusion of one additional member selected for Cattell's second list of the first thousand American scientists for the year 1910 (see Part II: Junior Research Club).

Both the parent research organization and the Junior Research Club decided definitely to exclude women from their membership, although there were a number of women researchers in the University, particularly in the Medical Department. These young women, after being refused admission by the Junior Research Club, decided upon a separate organization and founded the Women's Research Club of the University in 1902 (see Part II: Women's Research Club).

From the outset the club has worked to promote research. At the initial open meeting on October 30, 1900, Vaughan read a paper on "The Promotion of Research at the University of Michigan." On March 12, 1902, there was a general discussion on this subject, and on April 7, 1903, another open meeting considered the report of the committee on a memorial which was to be sent to the Board of Regents on the subject of research work. This memorial, after circulation through the faculties for signatures, was, according to the minutes, presented to the Board by the committee, which consisted of Vaughan, Adams, and Newcombe. However, the Proceedings of the Board of Regents, though they include, in full, letters from individual professors, contain no mention of the memorial, nor do the minutes of the club again mention it. It is very possible that the committee was advised by President Angell not to insist on offering to the Board a memorandum with which they were not likely to be in sympathy. In January, 1904, Russell, and again in October, 1906, Newcombe, the latter in a retiring address as president, treated the subject of "Progress of Research at the University During the Past Year." In November, 1904, the club set up a body of eight as a committee to compose with the officers an executive committee to conduct the business of the club.

From the beginning, the club undertook to make known the scholarly publications of the faculties. In April, 1900, it was ordered by the club that each member should supply the secretary with a typewritten list of his publications, and in September of the same year the committee of the club in vain waited upon the University librarian to request a room at the library where recent publications of the faculties could be deposited.

Beginning in 1889 publications of Page  402faculty members had been listed in the University Record, and in the Michigan Alumnus for the years 1897-1901 (see bibliography). In November, 1903, the Alumni Association, which then had charge of the News-Letter, was requested to publish these lists so as to inform the people of the state concerning research work which was being done at the University. The first list under this arrangement was published in May, 1905, and constituted the inauguration of systematic publication, which has since been kept up and has been a fruitful source of encouragement to research workers within the University.

There were two aims to which from the beginning the club gave expression and on which from time to time it took action and prepared communications to the president and the Board of Regents. These were, first, the formation of a separate graduate department or school to embrace the entire University, and, second, the requirement of productive scholarship as a necessary basis for advancement within the faculties.

An open meeting of the club was called on April 9, 1903, "in order to present an informal report of a memorial on research work to be presented to the Board of Regents. Dr. Vaughan read the paper which he and Professors Lloyd and Adams had drawn up. The paper was approved by those present and they signed their names and appointed Professors Vaughan, Adams, and Newcombe to circulate the paper among the members of the faculties" (MS, "Minutes, Research Club," Apr. 9, 1903). This was presented with its signatures to the Board at its next meeting and quickly disposed of. Regent Dean presented a communication from Dr. Vaughan and fifty others asking the Board to establish in the University a Graduate School, and on his motion the matter was laid on the table (R.P., 1901-6, p. 181).

Though the minutes of the club do not mention it — they are very brief, sketchy, and with unfilled gaps for the period of Newcombe's secretaryship — the club apparently renewed its request, for at the next meeting of the Board:

A communication was received from Dr. A. B. Prescott asking a conference with the Board by a Committee who are interested in the establishment of a Graduate Council in the University. The Communication was referred to the Literary Committee [Regents Hill and Dean] for consideration.


(R.P., 1901-6, p. 203.)

Nothing further was heard of this for a number of years.

No further direct communication was made by the club until 1911, but in the meantime the graduate work in the University had increased in several colleges, and especially in the Summer Session, of which Dr. Edward H. Kraus was secretary. In 1908 President Angell had made a strong appeal to the Board of Regents, pointing out the rapid growth of graduate work in the University and urging that if the University was not to fall behind other institutions it must strengthen its faculties by men capable of carrying the instructional work in most departments beyond the graduation (R.P., 1906-10, p. 387).

In October, 1910, the second issue of Cattell's American Men of Science appeared, and through a careful rating in scholarship by a distinguished committee of scientists, the distribution of these men of science in American universities became apparent. After supplementary correspondence W. H. Hobbs prepared for publication in the Michigan Alumnus a summary discussion of the findings, which were of quite exceptional interest to the University. They showed, among other things, that while no state of the Union save Massachusetts had in the late generation produced so many distinguished scientists, yet Michigan Page  403headed the list of those which had lost their great men to other states. This, with the supplementary data collected, indicated that the University of Michigan was paying lower salaries to its men than were its sister institutions. When this paper was already in type, it came under the eye of President Hutchins, who feared its effect upon alumni would be hurtful, and it was accordingly suppressed. Thereupon, at the request of the Executive Council of the Research Club, it was read at the meeting of the club on February 15, 1911, and was discussed at length by Vaughan, Campbell, Newcombe, Hussey, Wenley, Gomberg, Sanders, Leverett, Van Tyne, Case, Novy, and others, at a meeting which was prolonged until a late hour. At the conclusion a committee of five members — Ziwet (president), Scott, Pearse, Zowski, and Case — was appointed to wait upon the president of the University and convey to him the sentiments of the meeting in in the interest of consideration of scholarship as a basis of appointments and advancement within the University. To fortify the committee, the fifty-eight members present signed their names to the action. The immediate effect was that only a week later the Regents took from the committee on the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, where it had lain since 1902, the earlier communication from the club urging the formation of a separate graduate school and passed the following resolution:

Resolved, That a committee, of which the President shall be chairman, to consist of three members of this Board [Regents Sawyer, Beal and Hubbard] and three members [later changed to five] of the University Senate to be appointed by the President, be raised for the purpose of studying the problem of graduate work in the University and reporting a scheme of organization if such course seems to the committee to be wise.


(R.P., 1910-14, p. 95.)

The Senate members of the committee — Vaughan, Reed, Scott, Wenley, and Ziwet — were appointed in June, after which events moved rapidly. In September the committee's report was presented and adopted without change; in June, 1912, Dr. Guthe was appointed Dean of the new Graduate School; and in December following the first executive committee of the School was appointed — Gomberg, Bates, Wenley, M. E. Cooley, Scott, Vaughan, and H. C. Adams — all, with one exception, members of the Research Club and all outstanding members of the University faculties.

The more specific request of the club concerning appointments, while it brought no action from the Board, yet was put into practice within the Literary Department, where Dean Effinger demanded of department heads advocating appointments for promotions full statements concerning the scholarly publications of the candidates. This practice had already long been observed by Dr. Vaughan within the Department of Medicine and Surgery. A noteworthy departure from this principle, however, occurred in the promotions of 1924, when thirteen of sixteen men advanced either to the rank of professor or of associate professor had made no significant achievement in productive scholarship. This action was the basis of a special memorandum which was presented at the meeting of the Research Club on March 26, 1924. At this meeting Dr. A. M. Barrett, the president of the club, appointed a committee to prepare a memorandum to be presented to the president. This committee consisted of Hobbs, chairman, Huber, Ziwet, Kraus, Bartlett, Bates, and Bonner. After some modification the report of this committee to the club was conveyed to the president of the University by its chairman, to whom Dr. Burton wrote a letter on April 1 in which the following occurs: Page  404

I am glad that the Research Club has interested itself generally in the whole problem of promotions in this University… I think that the departments and committees of various kinds who are charged with the responsibility of recommending promotions should feel very seriously their obligations in these matters and not pass them along to the higher offices with the thought that there is considerable possibility that they will be held up.

I think it is also very important to recognize that already we have the well-established principle that the shortest road to a full professorship is by the route of research.

Again on September 18, President Burton wrote:

I want you to know also that at a Conference of the deans held yesterday I presented your communication in full and the matter was discussed at that time.

If I interpreted correctly the point of view of the Conference, there was no disagreement whatever in regard to the statement of standards or ideals for promotion, but there was some sharp difference in opinion in regard to the method which was proposed.

Early in its history the club took an active interest in the subject of University scholarly publications. The Humanistic Series of publications had in December, 1906, been started on the initiative of Professor F. W. Kelsey of the Department of Latin, and occasional publications had appeared in connection with the Detroit Observatory, but there was no comprehensive series of general University publications.

On February 2, 1909, as a result of consideration at earlier meetings, the club held a special meeting to consider the subject of such publications, and Professor Wenley contributed a paper on the subject. A committee of five (Hobbs, Reighard, Huber, Scott, and Williams) was raised to draw up a report, which was duly rendered and was presented to the University Senate. The plan proposed was approved by the Senate in principle, but it was thought that the time was not favorable for bringing the matter before the Board of Regents. A successful effort was, however, launched in February, 1921, when, on motion of Professor Reeves, action was taken unanimously that the president of the club appoint a committee of three (Hussey, Novy, and Sanders) to make a careful study of the problem of University publications and to arrange a meeting with the president and the Executive Board of the Graduate School in order to make a report and to open a discussion on the necessity of providing additional support for publication by the University. The time was now ripe for such an effort, and nine months later (Nov. 16) the secretary was able to read to the club a letter from Dean Lloyd of the Graduate School in behalf of its Executive Board, in which it was stated that the Regents had granted, in addition to the $1,000 provided in the regular budget, the sum of $11,200 for the purpose of scholarly University publications, and he expressed the thanks of the Executive Board for the important co-operation of the club and of its special committees. He also read a letter from President Burton, which was, in part, as follows:

This whole proposal has meant a good deal to me because of my genuine concern for the scholarly standards of the University and particularly for the fortitude of our best men who are really making contributions to science and knowledge. I hope that you and others will recognize in this action a genuine purpose on the part of the administration and the Board of Regents to foster in practical ways activities looking in the direction of thoroughgoing scholarly efforts by the staff… I believe that it marks the beginning of a real period of expansion in such activities if we avail ourselves of the possibilities which such action indicates.

President Burton proved to be a true Page  405prophet, and the University scholarly publications, since much expanded, have reflected great credit upon the institution.

The Russel endowment of $10,000 "to provide additional compensation to members of the instructional staff" was set up through the bequest of Henry Russel ('73, '75l, A.M. '76), of Detroit. In 1925 the Board of Regents determined that from the income of the fund $250 should each year be set aside to provide for a lecture, to be known as the Henry Russel lecture, to be given under the auspices of the University at some time between the April vacation and May 30; and that $250 should also be set aside for an award to be known as the Henry Russel award, which should be announced at the time of the Henry Russel lecture (R.P., 1923-26, p. 617). The selection of the Henry Russel lecturer was committed to the Executive Board of the Research Club of the University, which designates each year that member of the faculties whom the committee of the club appointed for the purpose deems to have attained the highest distinction in the field of scholarship. The award is assigned by a special committee appointed for the purpose to that member of the University faculties of the rank of assistant professor or instructor whose achievements in scholarly activities and whose promise for the future seem most to merit the appointment. Since the first few years the committee for selection of Russel lecturers has consisted of the past Russel lecturers who are still living on the campus. The roll of merit is as follows:

Henry Russel Lecturer Henry Russel Award Date
Moses Gomberg Carter L. Goodrich 1926
Frederick G. Novy Albert Hyma 1927
Henry A. Sanders Laurence M. Gould 1928
Aldred S. Warthin John Alexander 1929
Claude H. Van Tyne Carl L. Hubbs 1930
William H. Hobbs Earl L. Griggs 1931
Jesse S. Reeves William L. Ayres 1932
Walter B. Pillsbury Werner E. Bachmann 1933
Ermine C. Case Paul Mueschke 1934
G. Carl Huber Ralph G. Smith 1935
John G. Winter Lawrence Preuss 1936
Charles W. Edmunds Frank E. Eggleton 1937
Heber D. Curtis Franklin D. Johnston 1938
Campbell Bonner Norman R. F. Maier 1939
Frank N. Wilson Frank H. Bethell 1940
Edgar M. Hoover, Jr.

The memorial lectures of the club, which have been public and began in 1929, grew out of an address by Professor Wenley as retiring president on October 27, 1909. To these lectures, usually in place of the regular April meeting of the club, the Junior and Women's Research Clubs and the Graduate Club have been specially invited. The dates are important, since they have generally been centenaries or multicentenaries of either the birth of the distinguished scholar memorialized or of some outstanding work. They have been as follows:

Date Memorial Lectures and Speakers
1909 Charles Darwin (Case, Hus, Pillsbury, Reighard, and Wenley)
1910 John Dalton (Bigelow, Guthe, and Wenley)
1911 The Evolution of Worlds (Professor Forest R. Moulton, University of Chicago)
1912 Jean Jacques Rousseau (Boucke, Cooley, Pillsbury, and Reeves)
1913 Henry Bessemer (Campbell, Sadler, and Tilden)
1914 Roger Bacon (Dow, Guthe, Lloyd, and Tatlock)
1915 Andreas Vesalius (Cross, Huber, and De Nancrede)
1916 Karl Ludwig (Lombard and Scholl)
1917 Theodor Mommsen and Benjamin Jowett (Bonner, Kelsey, and Sanders)
1919 George Eliot (Wenley)
1920 John Tyndall and Herbert Spencer (C.H. Cooley, Lloyd, and A. W. Smith)
1921 Hermann von Helmholz and Rudolph Virchow (Cooley, Lloyd, Boak, Karpinski, and Weller)
1922 Louis Pasteur (Gomberg and Novy)
1923 Nicolaus Copernicus (Rufus — of the Junior Research Club — and Ziwet)
1924 Immanuel Kant and Blaise Pascal (Bradshaw, Lloyd, and Wenley)
1925 Thomas Huxley (Wenley and Case)
1926 Ohm's Law (Colby) and James Hutton (Hobbs)
1927 Isaac Newton (Hildebrandt and Curtiss) and Lord Lister (Cabot)
1928 Justinian's Appointment of the Commission to Codify the Roman Law (Drake)
Harvey's Exercitatio … de motu cordis et sanguinis (Lombard)
Page  406
1929 Christian Huyghens (Uhlenbeck) and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (Scholl)
1930 John James Audubon (Shull) and Johann Kepler (Rufus)
1931 John Dryden (Bredvold) and Michael Faraday (Laporte)
1932 Benedict Spinoza (Parker) and Antony von Leeuwenhoek (Weller)
1933 Joseph Priestley (Cross and Bigelow) and William Beaumont (Lewis)
1934 Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (George LaRue), Samuel Pierpont Langley (Curtis), and John Wesley Powell (Hobbs)
1935 Maimonides (Sellars), Simon Newcomb (McLaughlin), and Archibald Geikie (Case)
1936 Joseph Louis Lagrange (Rainich) and James Watt (White)
1937 Edward Gibbon (Cross and Boak) and Father Jacques P. Marquette (Crane)
1938 Sir William Perkin (Schoepfle) and James Craig Watson (Curtis)
1939 Charles S. Peirce (Langford) and J. Willard Gibbs (Laporte)
1940 Joseph Justus Scaliger (Blake), Sir William Gilbert (Colby), and Edward Drinker Cope (Case)

At each monthly meeting of the Research Club two papers are presented, usually one in the humanities and one on some scientific subject. Discussions follow and each paper is open to discussion by any member of the club. Refreshments are served in the interval between the two papers. Formerly the meetings of the club were held in the histological laboratory of the old Medical Building, but now they are held in the small amphitheater of the Rackham School of Graduate Studies.

It will thus be seen that the Research Club has played no unimportant role in the life of the University since 1900. On the quarter-centennial of its founding a centennial banquet was held at which various addresses dealt with the history of the club to that time, and notably one by Dr. Lombard, as already referred to. The sudden death of Marion LeRoy Burton transformed this meeting into a memorial to the late President, as well as to one of the club itself. The club has steadily grown in membership despite requirements so strict that election is regarded upon the campus as a signal honor, and the membership throughout more than a third of a century of the life of the club has included most of the productive scholars of the institution.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annual Report of the Librarian, Univ. Mich., 1906-7, 1907-9.
Bibliography of Publications by Members of the Several Faculties, Univ. Mich., 1907-9, 1909-18, 1918-20, 1928-30, 1930-33, 1933-35, 1935-37, 1937-39.
Cattell, J. McKeen (Ed.). American Men of Science; a Biographical Dictionary. New York: Science Press, 1906.
Cattell, J. McKeen (Ed.). American Men of Science; a Biographical Dictionary. 2d ed.; New York: Science Press, 1910.
Cattell, J. McKeen. "A Further Statistical Study of American Men of Science. II."Science, n.s., 32 (1910): 633-48.
Cattell, J. McKeen. "A Further Statistical Study of American Men of Science. II."Science, pp. 672-88.
Cattell, J. McKeen. "A Statistical Study of American Men of Science. III. The Distribution of American Men of Science."Science, n.s., 24 (1906): 732-42. ("Statistical Study, 1906.")
Lombard, Warren P."The University Research Club in Retrospect."Mich. Alum., 31 (1925): 595-600.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 3 (1897), 6 (1899), 7 (1901).
MS, "Minutes of the Research Club of the University of Michigan," 1900-1940. ("Minutes, Research Club.")
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-22, 1923-24, 1925-26, 1927-28. (P.R.)
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940. (R.P.)
The University Record, Univ. Mich., Vols. 1-4 (1889-94).
"University of Michigan Publications, Humanistic Series." Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906-40. 43 vols.
University News-Letter, Nos. 31 (1899), 70 (1901), 183-84 (1905), 208-9 (1906).
Vaughan, Victor C.A Doctor's Memories. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1926.
Page  407

THE JUNIOR RESEARCH CLUB

At the turn of the century there were a few young men and women holding annual appointments as assistants, fellows in the laboratories, or junior staff members, whose duties varied from the setting up of lecture demonstrations to independent investigation on special projects sponsored by fellowships. Most of them were pursuing graduate courses or research, those in the preclinical medical departments continuing their professional training.

The long hours they spent in assisting and investigating, combined with regular course requirements, too often isolated them and not only precluded the enjoyment of association with kindred spirits in other departments, commonly regarded as an integral part of their work, but also denied them many of the benefits which other University students obtained.

Inspired by the success of the Research Club (see Part II: Research Club), the members of which were older faculty men of established reputation, the younger workers several times considered forming a club of their own in which experimental findings could be regularly reported and research problems could be discussed.

Occasionally, when some distinguished guest was present or when some professor was to report an Arbeit in which an assistant had collaborated, outsiders were invited to the programs of the Research Club. Gelston, Assistant in Hygiene, and Ward J. MacNeal, Assistant in the Hygienic Laboratory, had attended its meetings, and they had been so impressed that they made a definite attempt to found a junior research organization.

Encouraged by Professors Novy, Vaughan, and Warthin, they enlisted the support of a few young men of similar status and on October 20, 1902, held their first meeting. Gelston's enthusiasm was not quite infectious enough to carry them through the preliminary stages of organization, however, and Dr. Novy was therefore hurriedly brought upon the scene. His lucid presentation of the advantages to be derived from the activities of such a club crystallized their ideas on the subject. Not only did they decide to organize the society, but they elected officers at once, levied annual dues rather high for those times ($3.00) payable within the next two weeks, and directed a committee to draft a set of bylaws. These were finished and adopted early in December.

The record shows that sixteen men attended this first meeting, although the statement that thirty were present appeared in the Ann Arbor Daily Argus. The newspaper also reported that the organization would probably be called the Michigan Laboratory Club.

The announcement provoked considerable discussion. Some persons inferred that the new club was to serve only as a preliminary step in the formation of a chapter of Sigma Xi. The women assistants, with some diplomacy, raised the question of their eligibility for membership. One or two members of the Research Club, upon hearing a rumor that despite the newspaper report the name actually selected was Junior Research Club, vigorously protested, believing that the use of a similar name by a less distinguished group would detract from the reputation of their own society. Nevertheless the name Junior Research Club was adopted at a special meeting held about a week after the society was organized. Four new members were received at this time and were allowed to sign the book as charter members, increasing the charter roll to twenty.

Page  408No action was taken on the question of admitting women to membership. By the usual intangible routes the women research workers had been warned of the club's attitude upon the question, however, and, not to be outdone, they gathered that same evening in Room 2 University Hall and organized the Women's Research Club (see Part II: Women's Research Club). The separation into two groups on the basis of sex was unfortunate, but although the question of electing women to membership has been mentioned in recent years it has not been acted upon nor discussed at any length.

Members of the Junior Research Club were active in the establishment of the University of Michigan chapter of Sigma Xi, which took place about a year later (see Part IX: Sigma Xi). The club did not fuse with the newer organization as some had predicted, since it had been ascertained that Sigma Xi would function in an honorary capacity only. Throughout the years most cordial relations have been maintained between the two societies, which have jointly sponsored a number of public lectures and have conducted many programs together.

The feeling between the Research Club and the Junior Research Club also has been exceptionally fine. When, in the fall of 1907, the Research Club began a determined effort to promote the establishment of a separate graduate school, it requested the active co-operation and support of the junior society. Beginning at least as early as 1911, a joint meeting of the two clubs has been held annually. To the Research Club's special session commemorating the services of some great intellectual worker, an annual event begun in the year 1909-10 and opened to the public in 1929, the members of the Junior Research Club and of the Women's Research Club have for a number of years been invited. In this manner the active research workers in all fields are brought together regularly once a year for an evening of instruction and social intermingling.

The aim of the Junior Research Club, as clearly defined in 1908, has been:

… To bring together the men of the University of Michigan who are engaged in research work in pure science, to enable the student in one science to keep in touch with the methods and results in other sciences and to give each member the stimulus which comes from contact with other investigators.

It is probably true that the inclusion of a limited number of well-qualified members from fields other than science would exert a healthful influence, but the group has been adamant in avoiding what some of its members have regarded as a possible "contamination." On the other hand, the several attempts made to insert the word "science" into the name of the club have been unsuccessful.

Since the adoption of the original by-laws in 1902 it has been necessary for a person, in order to be eligible for membership, to be "an assistant, regularly appointed by the Regents, the holder of a fellowship, or a research worker favourably reported on by the membership committee."

Although the active group is much larger than at first, the number of members received annually having been increased as the University has grown, high qualifications for membership have been observed, for the membership committee has carefully scrutinized the achievements of every individual recommended. Once a person is elected he can continue his place in the society merely by the payment of annual dues, but unless he maintains his record of productive research he goes onto the inactive list. Because of the youth of most of the members and the nature of their university status there is a large exodus each year; it is noteworthy, however, that certain outstanding individuals among the Page  409more permanent members of the faculty play a conspicuous role in maintaining the organization, retaining their membership long after they have earned established reputations in science and have joined the ranks of the Research Club. The yearly replacement of outgoing members by young men who possess the ebullitive enthusiasm of graduate students assures intensely interesting meetings.

The presentation and criticism of reports by members upon their own investigations was begun in November, 1902, and has always constituted the principal part of each regular monthly session, after which, also in accordance with custom, refreshments have been served. The interest of the members has been so keen, especially after they have been reinvigorated by the food, that their discussions have frequently lasted until long after midnight, and repeated efforts have been required to close the meetings at a more reasonable hour.

Thirteen of the twenty charter members either had received or eventually received the degree of doctor of medicine. Reflecting the predominant representation of the preclinical departments and the intense research activity of Vaughan, Cushny, Novy, Warthin, and Huber, eight of the twelve topics presented in the first year had to do with medical research. One of the first two papers, read at the November meeting in 1902, was "The Presence of Yellow Elastic Tissue and Reticulum Tissue in the Tumors of the Skin."

The founders of the club, aware of the dangers of one-sidedness and possible departmental jealousies, prescribed that the three who constituted the membership committee should come from different departments, that no two members of the same department should be elected to the different offices during the same term, and that no member should hold the same office for more than one year.

At first the club convened regularly in the old pathological laboratory in the original Medical Building. A classroom on the southwest corner of the structure now known as West Medical Building became available in the spring of 1903 and was used for many years, until, with the erection of more modern buildings, rooms with improved ventilation and more comfortable seating accommodations could be found. Rooms in the Chemistry and Pharmacy Building and in the Natural Science Building have been regularly used at one time or another, and for occasional special programs there have been excursions to other locations such as the naval tank, the East Physics Building, and the University Hospital.

The principal deviations from the ordinary monthly program, aside from joint sessions with the other research organizations, are the first and last meetings of the year. At the first, an impromptu recitation of the members' summer holiday activities usually consumes all the time not demanded by the business essential to beginning the year's program. Every year except 1917-18 has culminated in a banquet, which at times has been a sumptuous affair.

The prominent part of the banquet program is the report of the silent secretary. This officer is appointed by the president early in the year, but remains anonymous to the others until the time of his report. Meanwhile, he carefully notes all the items in the papers and discussions that meet with his disapproval. These shortcomings are then edited and are recalled, sometimes in the form of poetry and with lantern demonstrations, on this far from solemn occasion. The silent secretary's report is usually excellent, and anticipation of it ensures a large attendance.

In spite of the low dues and a system of expenditures designed to keep assets Page  410at a minimum, funds have accumulated, and from time to time money has been appropriated for the support of worthy causes. In 1924 the club contributed $200 to the student friendship fund for destitute European students, and the student loan fund of the University received $100 from the club in the spring of 1933 and $150 in December, 1934.

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate the influence of the club on the social and intellectual life of its members. Graduate students as a group are looked upon as a peculiar lot, and this criticism is justified to no small degree. Too often, graduate study is a converging process. The presentation of one's own research before representatives from practically every branch of science is stimulating as well as humanizing. The speaker must logically justify every step of his work in this arena, and the questions and comments quickly reveal the ramifications of what at first may have seemed a very narrow project. Thus the rigid boundaries of individual research are demolished and co-operative research is envisioned, an ideal state in any university program.

The long list of members who have later achieved distinction for original research, either in industry or in institutions of learning, is impressive, although to single out a few names for particular citation would be inexcusable. How much of their success stems from membership in the Junior Research Club is a question. However, there is no gainsaying the fact that the members consider the activities of the club and the fellowship it affords with earnest and stimulating workers as of inestimable value.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Ann Arbor Daily Argus, Oct. 21, 1902.
MS, "Minutes of the Junior Research Club of the University of Michigan," 1902-40.

THE WOMEN'S RESEARCH CLUB

THE formation of the Research Club in 1900 by men in charge of the various phases of scientific study in the University inspired some of the younger members of the teaching and research staff in the fall of 1902 to found a similar organization, the Junior Research Club. The women engaged in scientific research tried to persuade the officers of this new club to open its doors to them. Having met with refusal, they took counsel together and quickly formulated plans for an independent organization.

On the evening of October 27, while the Junior Research Club was holding its second meeting, eight women gathered in Room 2 University Hall and, after a brief discussion, organized the Women's Research Club and adopted a constitution. Their first regular meeting was held in November. Mrs. Lydia Maria DeWitt, who was Instructor in Histology from 1902 until 1910, was elected president, Maude Mary DeWitt and Frances Jewett Dunbar, advanced students in the Department of Zoology, were elected vice-president and treasurer, respectively, and Ellen Bottsford Bach, of the Department of Botany, secretary. Other members were May Wheeler, Rockefeller scholar in hygiene, Iva May Lichty, then engaged in anatomical research, and two advanced biological students, Jean Dawson and Clara Henriette Hasse.

The club was defined in its constitution Page  411as an association of women carrying on regular research in science, organized for the presentation and discussion of new and important facts and for the creation of a greater interest in original work.

The earnestness of the charter members and their serious determination to make the club an active and constructive factor in University life are reflected in the titles of reports presented that first year. Among these were "The Morphology of the Pyloric Glands," "The Chemistry of the Colon Bacillus," and "The Chemistry of the Typhoid Bacillus."

Such reports served to broaden the human interests and enlarge the horizon of the members of the group, as well as to remove the sense of isolation in a special field of investigation. For those who presented the papers there was also the stimulus which arose from discussion of their problems by a critical audience. Best of all was a realization on the part of all members that the pursuit of knowledge inevitably leads to broader contacts outside the scope of any particular problem.

The membership was increased to eleven in the first few months. At the close of the year two important decisions were made with regard to policy. Women engaged in nonscientific research were also made eligible for membership in May, 1903. At the same meeting the constitution was amended to provide the status of honorary membership for those who had formerly been active members but who had discontinued their research. Some years later an associate membership was created for predoctoral students in the Graduate School who had not started a research problem. At the present time the membership is limited to women actively engaged in research.

More than six hundred women have been members. Many of them have attained positions of distinction and responsibility; among them are college presidents and professors, experts in public-health work, and research workers in the great laboratories of the country. Their success has reflected great credit not only upon themselves but also upon the club and upon the University. Former members who have returned for occasional meetings have been an inspiration to the younger members.

In addition to fostering an interest in research among the women of the University the Women's Research Club has, with the help of a few small gifts, established and maintained a loan fund. Beginning with $60 in 1922, the fund has gradually increased to a sum of more than $750, from which fifteen loans have been made to graduate women.

In each of the six years 1921-22 through 1926-27 Jeanne Cady Solis ('92m), an active member of the club, offered a prize of $25 for the best published research in medicine or natural science done during the year by a woman student. The only women eligible for this prize were those enrolled in the Graduate School and at the same time members of the teaching staff and those who had formerly been connected with the University and had continued research on this campus within three years. The successful contestant was selected by a special committee. The press announcement of the winner was attentively awaited by the club members, who felt a direct, personal interest in the award.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

MS, "Minutes of the Women's Research Club of the University of Michigan," 1902-40.
Page  412

THE APOSTLES AND THE CHURCHWARDENS

THERE have been two clubs organized among the bachelor members of the faculty as a means of providing themselves with homelike places to eat and live. The older of these, the Apostles, is still in existence, and the other, the Churchwardens, after having been a separate club from 1905-6 to 1918, was merged with the Apostles.

In October, 1900, J. A. Fairlie, A. Ziwet, H. D. Carrington, E. B. Escott, A. H. White, W. B. Pillsbury, G. A. Hulett, E. C. Sullivan, M. Winkler, I. N. Demmon, F. N. Dunlap, and J. S. P. Tatlock decided to form an organization of this kind, upon which the name "Apostles" is said to have been conferred by Mrs. James B. Angell. The next year A. L. Cross, H. C. Sadler, E. W. Dow, and S. J. Holmes joined the group, and the roster has been added to and subtracted from ever since, as new members have come in and old ones have left the club on marriage or departure from Ann Arbor. For some ten years the club contracted with its landlady, Mrs. Stowe, to furnish the members a dining-room, but eventually they rented a house at 1008 Hill Street, which has now been removed to make way for the Psi Upsilon house. In 1913 a larger house at 819 South State Street was taken, and in 1924 the club bought its present home at 1015 Church Street.

The Churchwardens originated in informal gatherings of a group of young instructors for Sunday-night suppers at the rooms of Herbert A. Kenyon. Others in the original group included W. A. McLaughlin, W. V. N. Garretson, J. G. Winter, F. B. Marsh, R. R. Kirk, H. P. Breitenbach, and W. E. Bohn. In 1906 this group took a room of its own at Mrs. Morrell's boarding house on Monroe Street, later moving to Mrs. Tower's on College Street. After two years at this place, quarters were secured at Mrs. Cline's on Washtenaw Avenue, which was the headquarters of the club until the entry of the United States into the war began to decimate the membership. At that time, as has been stated above, the two clubs combined, and the Churchwardens did not attempt to reorganize separately after the return of more normal conditions.

During their forty years of existence the Apostles have claimed a very large membership; typically this club consists of younger, unmarried members of the faculties with a sprinkling of older bachelors, and not infrequently it has been used as a place of sojourn by former members whose families are temporarily absent from Ann Arbor. Other delightful visitors have been persons like the late Jesse Lynch Williams, holder of the fellowship in creative art in 1925-26, and Professor H. A. Brouwer, of the University of Delft, during his year at Ann Arbor as an exchange professor.

Several picturesque customs have survived from the earliest days; for example, the custom of sitting around one large table and that of levying fines for puns or other indecorous behavior at the table. To enforce the latter regulation, a somewhat informal officer with unlimited powers, called the "Bouncer," has been in existence since the time of the late Professor Alfred O. Lee. Chess, card games, and music have been the after-dinner amusements, and in their day both the Apostles and the Churchwardens have promoted dances. While both clubs were still in existence, it was Page  413customary for them to engage in an annual baseball game, which was continued for several years after the merger of the two clubs, in the form of a game between the active members and the so-called "henpecked husbands." The war, of course, took its toll of both clubs. All four ranking officers of the two divisions of naval militia were recruited on the campus. Professors A. E. R. Boak, J. R. Hayden, O. M. MacNeil, and E. A. Harrington were Apostles, and many others of the active members went into service of one kind or another. For a year or two the Apostles existed with a more or less temporary membership, but the club soon recruited its full strength after the return of peace.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Robbins, Frank E."The Apostles — Organized in 1900."Mich. Alum., 38 (1932): 424-26.

THE FACULTY DINNER CLUBS

WITHIN the faculty of the University three clubs with scholarly as well as social objectives have exercised a strong influence toward faculty solidarity. Composed of members representing all divisions of the University, both the humanities and the sciences, these clubs have served effectively in keeping their members informed of the problems and programs of the different departments of the University. In all but a very few instances membership in these clubs is confined strictly to the University staff. Each club meets at regular intervals at the home of one of the members, who is responsible for the program for the evening. While the organization of these clubs is extremely informal, in all of them traditions have developed over the years of their existence which give each special characteristics.

Scientific Club. — The oldest of these organizations is the Scientific Club, founded in the autumn of 1883. It was an outgrowth of an earlier club known as the Ann Arbor Scientific Society, composed of faculty members and citizens of Ann Arbor interested in the sciences, which met "with more or less regularity" in the old Chemical Laboratory Building. Interest in this early organization gradually weakened, and in 1883 Henry Sewall, Professor of Physiology, president-elect of the Society, in talking with Professor John W. Langley, remarked that when he became president he would "put the Society to sleep and out of its ashes would spring something worth while."

Further discussion on the part of the two members led to a plan for a new club composed of faculty members to be drawn from the scientific faculties, which would hold biweekly meetings in rotation at the residences of the members. No set program was to be provided, but "free and spontaneous discussion was to be invited" and this "scientific conversation" was to be succeeded by a "light collation provided by the hostess in absentia."

In October of 1883 six members of the Page  414faculty accepted Dr. Sewall's invitation and met at his home on the north side of Jefferson Street, a few doors from State Street. These were: John W. Langley, Professor of General Chemistry, Mark Harrington, Professor of Astronomy, Albert B. Prescott, Professor of Organic and Applied Chemistry and of Pharmacy, Dr. V. C. Vaughan, Professor of Physiological and Pathological Chemistry, Mortimer E. Cooley, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Alexander Winchell, Professor of Geology and Paleontology. This group of seven drew up plans for the club and chose five other members: Charles E. Greene, Professor of Civil Engineering, William H. Pettee, Professor of Mineralogy, Economic Geology, and Mining Engineering, Charles K. Wead, Acting Professor of Physics, Volney M. Spalding, Acting Professor of Botany, and Otis Coe Johnson, Assistant Professor of Applied Chemistry. This augmented group later chose seven more members: Dr. William J. Herdman, Professor of Practical and Pathological Anatomy, Joseph Beale Steere, Professor of Zoology, Calvin Thomas, Assistant Professor of German and Sanskrit, Edward L. Walter, Professor of Modern Languages and Literatures, Dr. William H. Dorrance, Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry and Dental Metallurgy, Byron W. Cheever, Acting Professor of Metallurgy, and J. B. Davis, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering.

This group of nineteen formed the original club. While most of them were scientists in the strict interpretation of the term, there were in this first group, as there have since continued to be, members who represented the humanities. An evening gathering followed by the "collation" was customary at first, but at the present time the members meet for a dinner followed by a paper and discussion. Tradition has it that the hospitality became so excessive that it was felt desirable to begin with the dinner.

The officers of the Scientific Club consist of a "principal servant" and a "viceprincipal servant," known as the "Vice," whose duty is to arrange for the meetings and pass the hat for ballots at the time of election. The present members of the club (1941) are as follows: Arthur S. Aiton, Harley H. Bartlett, Henry M. Bates, William W. Bishop, Arthur E. Boak, Louis I. Bredvold, Mortimer E. Cooley, Samuel T. Dana, John P. Dawson, Earl W. Dow, Joseph H. Drake, Sr., Moses Gomberg, Carl E. Guthe, Robert B. Hall, Joseph R. Hayden, William H. Hobbs, Clarence T. Johnston, Hayward Keniston, Walter B. Pillsbury, Jesse S. Reeves, Jacob E. Reighard, Alexander G. Ruthven, Malcolm H. Soule, Cyrus C. Sturgis, and John G. Winter.

Katholepistemiad. — The second oldest of the faculty clubs is the Katholepistemiad, which was founded in June, 1897, when the first regular meeting was held at the home of Andrew C. McLaughlin, Professor of American History. Its establishment was the result of a feeling that with the steady increase of the University staff there should be room for at least one other organization similar to the Scientific Club, which had been functioning for some fourteen years. The original group, in addition to Professor McLaughlin, was composed of G. Carl Huber, then Assistant Professor of Histology, George Dock, Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine and Pathology, Fred M. Taylor, then Junior Professor of Political Economy and Finance, Dr. J. Playfair McMurrich, Professor of Anatomy, George A. Hench, Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures, Burke A. Hinsdale, Professor of the Science and the Art of Teaching, Israel C. Russell, Professor of Geology, Martin L. D'Ooge, Professor of the Greek Language and Literature, Alfred Page  415H. Lloyd, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Harry B. Hutchins, Dean of the Department of Law, Dr. Arthur R. Cushny, Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, and Floyd R. Mechem, Tappan Professor of Law.

It will be noted that although there are a number of members on this list who were scientists, a majority of the members represented the humanities. In its name the club preserves the first name of the University given to the earliest institution established in Detroit in 1817 by Judge A. B. Woodward — "the institution of universal knowledge." Unlike the Scientific Club, the Katholepistemiad has a constitution and bylaws, which limit its membership to fifteen, except in the case of the president of the University, who may be asked to become an honorary member. Meetings are held every third Saturday night during the academic year. The present membership is as follows: Randolph G. Adams, Arthur W. Bromage, Frederick A. Coller, Ivan C. Crawford, Heber D. Curtis, John W. Eaton, Albert C. Furstenberg, Robert R. McMath, Frederick G. Novy, DeWitt H. Parker, Bradley M. Patten, Alexander G. Ruthven, Herbert C. Sadler, and E. Blythe Stason.

The Azazels. — The third faculty club, the Azazels, came into existence in the autumn of 1908, under the inspiration of Alfred H. White, Professor of Chemical Engineering. The club was projected with two equal purposes: to promote good fellowship and to promote literary and scientific attainments. The charter members of the club included, in addition to Professor White, Hugo P. Thieme, Assistant Professor of French, John R. Effinger, Professor of French and Dean of the Summer Session, Emil Lorch, Professor of Architecture, Fred N. Scott, Professor of Rhetoric, Morris P. Tilley, Assistant Professor of English, Dr. Charles W. Edmunds, Lecturer on Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Shirley W. Smith, Secretary of the University, John A. Fairlie, Professor of Administrative Law, Dr. George L. Streeter, Professor of Anatomy, Charles J. Tilden, Junior Professor of Civil Engineering, and the Reverend Dr. Carl S. Patton, Instructor in Hebrew. The name of this club apparently arose from a story told by Dr. Patton in which a student, translating the old Hebrew story of the scapegoat, the "azazel," succeeded "in a way that amounted almost to genius" in endowing the azazel with "elements of Jehovah, the devil, and the scapegoat." "As this seemed to illustrate our predicament," in the words of one member of the club, "the name was chosen as a happy way out of our difficulties."

As in the instance of the Scientific Club, the Azazels have no regular form of organization or constitution, the members presiding in turn more or less as the spirit moves. The president of the University is an honorary member. Present membership is as follows: Campbell Bonner, Ermine C. Case, William A. Frayer, William C. Hoad, Fred J. Hodges, Howard B. Lewis, Emil Lorch, John W. Riegel, Alexander G. Ruthven, Wilfred B. Shaw, Shirley W. Smith, Morris P. Tilley, John E. Tracy, Lewis G. Vander Velde, Henry Vaughan, and Alfred H. White.

The Club. — In addition to the three strictly faculty clubs, a fourth club known merely as "The Club" has drawn its membership for many years from both the University and the city of Ann Arbor. It was formed November 25, 1902, at the home of Robert M. Wenley, Professor of Philosophy. In addition to Professor Wenley, the charter members were Thomas A. Bogle, Professor of Law, James A. Craig, Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures and Hellenistic Greek, William D. Harriman, Hart-wig H. Herbst, and Carl S. Patton. Samuel Page  416A. Jones, physician, was also named one of the founders, though not present at that meeting. The present membership of the club residing in Ann Arbor is as follows: William W. Bishop, George Burke, Arthur G. Canfield, Ermine C. Case, Wilbert B. Hinsdale, Clarence T. Johnson, Frederick P. Jordan, Ernest F. Lloyd, and Alexander G. Ruthven.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Canfield, Arthur G."'The Club' Unites Town and Gown."Mich. Alum., 38 (1932): 544-45, 550.
Cooley, Mortimer E., , and Warren P. Lombard. MS, "History of the Scientific Club of Ann Arbor, 1883-1932."
Cross, Arthur L."The Katholepistemiad Club, 1897-1932."Mich. Alum., 38 (1932):364-66.
Lombard, Warren P."The Ann Arbor Scientific Club."Mich. Alum., 38 (1932): 304-6.
Smith, Shirley W."The Society of the Azazels."Mich. Alum., 39 (1932): 73-74.
University of Michigan. Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.

THE UNIVERSITY CLUB

THE University Club of the University of Michigan may be said to have come into existence, officially, on December 6, 1911, when its constitution was presented to a meeting of eighty-seven potential members and was accepted. That constitution was prepared by a committee consisting of Professors Bates, Bonner, Guthe, Huber, Lane, Novy, Ziwet, and DeMuralt, after a period of discussions and investigations.

Shortly thereafter, at its December meeting, the Board of Regents of the University granted to the club the use of the large room on the basement floor of the newly opened Alumni Memorial Hall. The room was furnished at a cost of $770, and the club started operations.

Professor Carl Leonard DeMuralt was credited by colleagues on the organization committee for furnishing the stimulus to the movement which resulted in the formation of the club. He came to the faculty in 1907 and very soon enlisted the interest of kindred spirits in the formation of an organization to encourage fencing and boxing among faculty members. A group was formed and quarters were rented, an instructor was hired, and new members were solicited. Recruits were few, however, and the thoughts of Professor DeMuralt turned to means for enlisting the interest of others. Out of this came the proposal for a faculty club. He secured the attention of several and the result was the formation of the committee, above named, on November 22, 1911. This committee secured the attention of the faculty and the action which resulted in the adoption of the constitution.

The name "Faculty Club" was retained for only about one year, the title then becoming University Club. At about the same time a prospectus was prepared, calling for the purchase of property near the campus and the erection thereon of a University Club building. An architect's drawing was produced, and plans and specifications were prepared. These plans included space for Page  417fencing and boxing, as did also the original conception of the use of the Alumni Memorial Hall quarters. A request for financial help was refused by the Board of Regents in October of 1912, and from that time on the proposal for a separate building received little attention at University Club meetings. In February, 1912, the Regents also refused to make provision for shower baths in the basement of Alumni Memorial Hall, so the plan for the practice of fencing and boxing in quarters adjacent to the club was abandoned. The resignation of Professor DeMuralt from the faculty in 1913 resulted in the abandonment of plans for any sports adjunct to the club, and they never cropped up again.

The University Club prospered for two decades after it first occupied its new quarters. There was recurrent discussion of a project first proposed in 1911, namely, that the University Club should acquire more elaborate facilities in the Michigan Union, but little save expressed hope came from the debate. When the architects' plans for the Michigan Union were first presented, they included quarters for the University Club, but the proposed wing of the Union designed to contain these clubrooms was not built.

When reduced state appropriations were reflected in faculty salary cuts, club membership began to decrease. Equipment suffered from lack of sufficient maintenance funds. Members realized that their University Club suffered by comparison with similar organizations in other universities. The facilities were admittedly inadequate to the needs of a large university. Six pool and billiard tables, a few unattractive tables for cards and chess, one long table as a "library," and a few lounging chairs comprised the equipment.

In 1936 the Michigan Union projected an addition to the Michigan Union Building. Space was provided for University Club quarters. But funds were not available for the finishing of all the addition. In 1938, however, the Michigan Union financed the completion of all portions of the addition, and the University Club quarters were opened to the members in the fall of that year. The membership jumped from less than two hundred to approximately six hundred during the first year in the new home.

The University Club in the Michigan Union includes a beautiful lounge, two floors in height, with an adjacent library. On the floor below is a spacious recreation room, and very soon another room near by was made available for the serving of lunch to the members. The financial arrangement was most satisfactory to the club, calling for the payment of the entire dues revenue as rental, the Michigan Union to handle all maintenance and operating costs.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

MS, "Minutes of the Faculty Club," 1911-12.
MS, "Minutes of the University Club," 1912-40.
"University Club Enjoys Beautiful Home."Mich. Alum., 45 (1938): 143-144.
Editorial (in"Conning the Campus" column). Mich. Alum., 45 (1939): 227.
Page  418

THE FACULTY WOMEN'S CLUB

THE Faculty Women's Club of the University of Michigan owes its inception to the inspiration of Mrs. Marion LeRoy Burton, who had been greatly interested in the work of a similar club at the University of Minnesota and who was thoroughly convinced of the value to a university community of such an organization.

Accordingly Mrs. Burton invited a representative group of fifty University women to meet at her house on October 26, 1921. At this time Mrs. Burton explained the function of the club at Minnesota and its value in welcoming newcomers and through its various sections providing an opportunity for bringing together groups of women interested in the same subjects for study or recreation. It was also agreed that such a club should have no connection with any federation of women's clubs and should not duplicate their activities in any way.

After some discussion, the motion that the Faculty Women's Club of the University of Michigan be formed was made by Mrs. George W. Patterson and seconded by Mrs. Fred N. Scott, and was unanimously carried. A nominating committee was selected, and at a meeting held December 10, 1921, the first officers were elected — Mrs. Marion LeRoy Burton as president, Mrs. Henry M. Bates as vice-president, and Mrs. Emil Lorch as secretary.

The first list of women eligible to membership was decided upon at this time and consisted of "wives and women of the faculty beginning with the rank of instructor. Wives of directors and women holding that title and members of the library staff according to selection to be made by the Librarian." The membership fee was set at $1.00 per annum. Since that time there have been many changes made in the eligibility lists, but the dues have always remained the same.

In addition to the newcomers' section, which had begun its work as soon as the club was started, with calling on strangers, the first sections formed were day-nursery, dramatic, and athletic. The athletic section was discontinued after a short time, but the day-nursery section assumed great importance for some time, and the dramatic section has continued to the present.

In January, 1923, the Regents of the University granted to the Faculty Women's Club, as a meeting place and as a center for the work of the day nursery, the use of the building which had housed the University Health Service, and which stood on the site now occupied by the Burton Memorial Tower. From a very simple beginning, with voluntary helpers to care for the children of the club members who might wish to leave them there during certain afternoons of the week, this work grew to great proportions. The upper rooms of the building were given over to the use of the children. Equipment for lunches and for play activities was installed, and a helper was hired. Later, in January, 1925, by an arrangement with the Regents of the University, the Merrill-Palmer School of Detroit took over the day nursery and operated it as a branch. This work was continued until June, 1929.

Meanwhile the club continued to hold its meetings in the lower rooms of the building. Arrangements for the serving of simple teas necessitated the purchase of some dishes and silver, which the club still owns. The sections were increased as interest in various subjects was manifested, until, at the present Page  419time (June, 1940), nine divisions are very active. They are: art (with three subdivisions), painting, music, garden, drama, play-reading, bibliophiles, bookshelf and stage, and newcomers.'

In 1929, with the opening of the Michigan League Building, the old clubhouse was given up and the general meetings of the club have since been held there.

At this time no doubt remains in the mind of anyone as to the value to the University community of the Faculty Women's Club. It has functioned with increasing success for nineteen years, has a paid membership of 468, and is enjoying a period of great and worth-while activity.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Ann Arbor News (title varies), 1921-40.
The Michigan Daily, 1921-40.
MS, "Minutes of the Faculty Women's Club of the University of Michigan," 1921-40.

THE ANN ARBOR ART ASSOCIATION

THE Chicago World's Fair of 1893 brought a new realization to the nation of the potentialities of the arts of design and caused a general awakening of interest in art. Inspiration was given for the creation of art galleries and schools, art courses in universities and teachers' colleges and for a reappraisal of the function of art in education. Activities inspired or renewed in large centers were in the course of time followed by efforts in small communities, including Ann Arbor and other university centers; many of the local efforts were not isolated phenomena but part of the widespreading movement.

The Ann Arbor Art Association was formed early in 1909 to promote "the art interests of the city of Ann Arbor." Thus it was not strictly a faculty club. It was stated at the preliminary meeting that there was to be fostered a more general appreciation of art among citizens and students, and one of the objectives was the establishment of a chair of fine arts in the University; current art was to be reflected in exhibitions and lectures and local creative effort was to be encouraged. Dues were fixed at fifty cents per annum, with every walk of life represented in the membership.

Alumni Memorial Hall, with its galleries and other facilities, then in course of construction, was to be the center of activities. This building, however, was not available in 1909 and the first exhibition of the Art Association was held in the Ann Arbor High School, May 12 to 22. Screens were built in the school auditorium forming alcoves for showing a wide range of art objects loaned by residents and others. This first exhibition proved a success, and the receipts sufficed to pay all expenses; school children were admitted free.

For thirty-two years an unbroken series of exhibitions followed, one of the most unique of which was one held in connection with the dedication of Alumni Memorial Hall. This exhibition, composed of pictures by representative American artists, including a special group of works by Michigan painters, and Mr. Charles L. Freer's superb collection of painted Oriental screens not only attracted the general public but Page  420drew experts from distant cities. A beautifully illustrated catalogue was provided, the net income from which was presented to the Association by Mr. Freer, who also paid all the expenses of the exhibition, and at its close presented to the University a full-sized cast of the Winged Victory of Samothrace. No more important exhibition had ever been held in the state, and did much to establish and give art a place on the campus.

Other exhibitions of the first rank were the International Water Color Exhibit in 1924, and paintings from the Carnegie International Exhibition, Pittsburgh, in 1925; to the latter there were nearly 3,000 paid admissions. Nicholas Roerich, the Russian painter and founder of the Roerich Institute in New York, provided the first one-man exhibition in 1922; while Charles Herbert Woodbury, Birge Harrison, and other American painters were similarly featured. A retrospective exhibition of the state's most famous painter, Gari Melchers, was hung in 1934.

The Association's program was gradually extended until hardly a month passed without something of art interest on view. All phases of art have been represented in the more than 225 exhibitions at a cost of above $20,000. First-class art collections can rarely be brought to Ann Arbor, not only because they are very expensive — the Carnegie collection cost nearly $1,000 — but because of the paucity of sales. Yet in spite of these limitations the Association's exhibitions have included works illustrating the entire field of painting, during a time when artists were seeking new modes of expression, ranging from the ultraconservative to the other extreme.

The annual exhibition of works by local professional, amateur, and student artists has steadily improved in quality; the local group of exhibitors has grown so that it is now regularly represented in Detroit and other exhibition centers. Local public-school art teachers have been encouraged to bring their classes to the exhibitions, and for them studies by the gifted children in Professor Cizek's classes in Vienna, subsequently shown at the Chicago Exposition in 1933, were brought to Ann Arbor.

Receptions, teas, and gallery talks on the exhibits have been features of the program. The attendance at exhibitions, however, has consisted so largely of members and nonpaying students that receipts from admission fees have not bulked large in the annual budget of the Association. Experience in Ann Arbor as well as elsewhere indicates that art exhibitions, unlike certain other attractions, must in general be subsidized. Most of the income from all sources has been absorbed by expenses — exhibition rental fees, transportation, insurance, labor and printing costs, the University permitting use of the galleries without cost.

Partly through the initiative of the Association, the teaching of art history in the University became a reality in 1911, after the Association had been providing a lecture program for some years by professors from other universities.

The Association was incorporated in 1922, from which time until 1932 its modest income was augmented by an annual grant of $500 from the Board of Regents, since the exhibitions were considered of value to students, who enjoyed free admission. Moreover, the large lecture courses in art history were conducted in the west gallery, and therefore an admission charge was ordinarily impossible. The appreciation of the Ann Arbor School Board was also shown in 1925 by a gift of $100 to the Association.

A bequest of $1,000 by Miss Katherine H. Douglas was made in 1922 for the purchase of paintings. With a view to increasing income and starting an art collection, for which the University lacked Page  421funds, a campaign was conducted during the presidency of Dr. W. P. Lombard in 1926 for life members and patrons; the first made a single payment of $100, others contributed $10 or more annually. Payments by life members were to form an endowment fund the income from which could be used to purchase pictures; while expenditures for current expenses were to be limited to receipts from patrons and other annual members. From these sources a substantial sum was raised from which, together with the Douglas fund, a number of paintings and prints were purchased in 1932, which are now housed in Alumni Memorial Hall.

Among other early activities of the Association was the organizing of visits to art exhibits in near-by cities; notable was that to the distinguished inaugural exhibit of the Toledo Museum of Art in 1912 by 409 art lovers via special train. A lending service through which pictures could be rented to individuals was carried on for a time and a state federation of art associations was started for the circulation of exhibitions, which proved impractical. Affiliation with the American Federation of Art and the College Art Association, of more recent organization, has been maintained and has facilitated securing exhibits at reduced cost.

During recent years, and increasingly since the University withdrew its support in 1932, the Association's program has been limited necessarily. Exhibitions were continued, nevertheless, and some further purchases made, largely of prints, to encourage artists, who, like musicians, actors, and lecturers, must also eat. An article of the original bylaws in 1909 provided for the purchase of art works after current expenses have been met, and in the course of time some substantial purchases of desirable pictures were made with the aim of building an art collection. Financially, the status of the Association remains sound, with a substantial savings account, with part of its investments intact, and as owner of some valuable paintings and prints.

The experience of the Association reveals that all too few persons are sufficiently interested to pay for art exhibitions a fraction of the amount freely expended on other forms of entertainment. Yet many residents and many students who have left Ann Arbor have gained some knowledge of current art who without the Association's initiative would have had no opportunities for first-hand observation, which is all the more important because so many of the students come from communities where art exhibits cannot be seen.

The Ann Arbor Association has demonstrated the value of having a large group of individuals, University affiliates and Ann Arbor citizens, willing to contribute time and funds for a cultural interest. Its operation has to some extent shown the limitations imposed by dependence on largely volunteer work. However, the original and fundamental aims of the Association have been realized and the groundwork has been laid for development in Ann Arbor's art field. A constructive service has been rendered in a direction practically barren of effort before 1909, when the Association was born, and both the community and the University are the richer because of the devotion of a long line of enthusiasts who shared the belief that an essential part of a liberal education and of a well-rounded life is some appreciation of meaning and beauty as interpreted in the arts of design.

Art Works Owned by the Association

    Oil Paintings
  • Alexander Brook.....Nude on a Navajo Blanket
  • Th. Hagen.....The Park
  • Henry Lee McFee.....Buildings
  • Niles Spencer.....In the Town
Page  422
    Water Colors
  • Edmund S. Campbell.....Sunset After Rain, Luxembourg Gardens, Paris
  • Myron B. Chapin.....Willows at East End
  • Francis Danovich.....Ambassador Bridge
  • David Fredenthal.....Subway
  • (Julius) Lars Hoftrup.....Harbor Scene
  • Jean Paul Slusser.....The Green Cottage
    Prints
  • 7 lithographs, 3 etchings 1 mezzotint, 1 aquatint, 1 woodblock