The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
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Faculty Clubs

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THE RESEARCH CLUB OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN*

The Research Club as first organized was named the "Society for the Promotion of Research at the University of Michigan." It is now in its fortieth year, and embraces in its membership nearly two hundred members. Though clubs of its type appear in some other American universities, it was the pioneer in this field, and still occupies a unique position. At Michigan it finds a natural atmosphere for which it is probably in some measure directly or indirectly responsible. As stated in its constitution, "The object of the Club shall be to unite those members of the academic staff of the University who are actively engaged in research, and to originate and support such measures as are calculated to foster and advance research in the University." Such a statement today arouses no opposition upon the campus, where in its more important divisions an instructor's accomplishments in research are considered with reference to his promotion or advancement.

When the club was founded in 1900 the case was quite different. Scattered through the institution were a few earnest investigators, but, outside the Medical Department, the capacity of a man to do original work was hardly taken into account by those who controlled advancement. The few researchers felt the need for companionship with others who held similar ideals, and they felt that only through their united efforts could changes promoting research be brought about in University policies.

As a practical idea the club seems to have come first to two early heads of departments at the University, the late Dr. Frederick C. Newcombe and Dr. Jacob E. Reighard, who brought the late Dr. Victor C. Vaughan (Vaughan, pp. 435-38) into their councils. Two or three years earlier Newcombe and Reighard, with Frank R. Lillie, then Instructor in Zoology, and Alexander Ziwet, then Instructor in Mathematics, had met in Ziwet's room to discuss such a project, but nothing came of it at the time (Lombard, pp. 595-96). The consequence was a first meeting which was held at the home of Dr. Vaughan, then just northwest of the campus on North State Street. This meeting was held on January 6, 1900, and besides the three who had called the conference there were present by invitation Robert M. Wenley, Professor of Philosophy, Paul C. Freer, Professor of General Chemistry and head of the Department of Chemistry, afterward head of the Bureau of Sciences at Manila, Philippine Islands, Albert B. Prescott, Professor of Organic Chemistry and of Pharmacy, Dean of the School of Pharmacy, and Director of the Chemical Laboratory, and J. Playfair McMurrich, Professor of Anatomy and Director of the Anatomical Laboratory, who a few years later removed to the University of Toronto.

A temporary organization was started, with Vaughan, chairman, and Newcombe, secretary. A committee which consisted of Wenley, Freer, and Newcombe Page  400was formed to draft a constitution and bylaws. A second meeting to complete the organization was called to meet at the home of Dr. Lombard at 805 Oxford Road. This meeting was held February 15, 1900, and there were present, in addition to those at the earlier meeting: Warren P. Lombard, Professor of Physiology, E. D. Campbell, Junior Professor of Analytical Chemistry, Arthur R. Cushney, Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, G. Carl Huber, Junior Professor of Anatomy and Director of the Histological Laboratory, and Alexander Ziwet, Junior Professor of Mathematics. Invited but not present were H. C. Carhart, Professor of Physics and Director of the Physical Laboratory, George Dock, Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine and Pathology, Frederick G. Novy, Junior Professor of Hygiene and Physiological Chemistry, and Volney M. Spalding, Professor of Botany.

At this meeting the constitution and bylaws were adopted, Vaughan was formally elected president, Wenley, vicepresident, and Newcombe, secretary and treasurer. With the exception that Wenley served but one year and was then replaced by Campbell, the officers remained the same for the first four years of the club's history. During these critical years Vaughan's dominant influence was considered highly important. He had not succeeded in maintaining a high research qualification for appointments in the Department of Medicine and Surgery without an almost constant struggle against members of the Board of Regents who in some cases had tried to influence appointments.

During the first year the Research Club grew by election of members to twenty-four. These included Henry Carter Adams, Professor of Political Economy, Moses Gomberg (afterward Director of the Chemical Laboratory), Alfred H. Lloyd, Professor of Philosophy (afterward Dean of the Graduate School and later Acting President of the University), Aldred S. Warthin, Professor of Pathology (afterward Director of the Pathological Laboratory), James Alexander Craig, Professor of Oriental Languages (afterward Professor of Semitics in the University of Toronto), George Hempl, Professor of English Philology (afterward Professor in Leland Stanford University), Israel Cook Russell, Professor of Geology (afterward president of the Geological Society of America), John C. Rolfe, Professor of Latin (afterward head of the Department of Latin at the University of Pennsylvania), Karl E. Guthe, Professor of Physics and later Dean of the Graduate School, Walter B. Pillsbury, Professor of Psychology (afterward Director of the Psychological Laboratory and Chairman of the Department of Psychology), and Herbert S. Jennings, Professor of Zoology (afterward Director of the Zoological Laboratory in Johns Hopkins University).

This nucleus of sixteen charter members was one of great distinction, as is clear to anyone who is familiar with the history of American science, and it is also clearly shown in Cattell's gradings of American men of science with the aid of well-informed and impartial groups (Cattell, American Men of Science, p. 364, and "Statistical Study, 1906," p. 736). When in 1905 the initial edition of his American Men of Science was published, all save one of the sixteen, with the three next members, were included in the one thousand most distinguished American scientists. Most of them were, moreover, included in the first five hundred American scientists, as is clearly shown by the fact that the entire state of Michigan had but twenty-seven in the thousand list and when this list was graded into first and second five hundreds, twenty-two from Michigan, "thanks to its great University," Page  401fell into the first five hundred and only five into the second.

Such a standard of selection of researchers within the University could not be kept up by later elections, and of the eleven men within the science field who were elected by the club in the next four years (1901-2 to 1904-5) only one came into the first thousand scientists of Cattell's earlier list.

In the fall of 1902 Vaughan, then president of the club, invited Louis M. Gelston and Ward J. MacNeal, his assistants in hygiene, to an open meeting of the club, and shortly thereafter these young men organized the Junior Research Club of the University, a body which is still prosperous and throughout its life has been a training group for the senior organization. Before this club was formed the Research Club had "associate" members who attended the "open" meetings only of the club. By November, 1904, there were in all thirty active and sixteen associate members, and at that time the associate members were all advanced to active membership. With the Junior Research Club functioning, the associate membership was abolished. This infusion of a considerable number of younger men perhaps in part explains the unique inclusion of one additional member selected for Cattell's second list of the first thousand American scientists for the year 1910 (see Part II: Junior Research Club).

Both the parent research organization and the Junior Research Club decided definitely to exclude women from their membership, although there were a number of women researchers in the University, particularly in the Medical Department. These young women, after being refused admission by the Junior Research Club, decided upon a separate organization and founded the Women's Research Club of the University in 1902 (see Part II: Women's Research Club).

From the outset the club has worked to promote research. At the initial open meeting on October 30, 1900, Vaughan read a paper on "The Promotion of Research at the University of Michigan." On March 12, 1902, there was a general discussion on this subject, and on April 7, 1903, another open meeting considered the report of the committee on a memorial which was to be sent to the Board of Regents on the subject of research work. This memorial, after circulation through the faculties for signatures, was, according to the minutes, presented to the Board by the committee, which consisted of Vaughan, Adams, and Newcombe. However, the Proceedings of the Board of Regents, though they include, in full, letters from individual professors, contain no mention of the memorial, nor do the minutes of the club again mention it. It is very possible that the committee was advised by President Angell not to insist on offering to the Board a memorandum with which they were not likely to be in sympathy. In January, 1904, Russell, and again in October, 1906, Newcombe, the latter in a retiring address as president, treated the subject of "Progress of Research at the University During the Past Year." In November, 1904, the club set up a body of eight as a committee to compose with the officers an executive committee to conduct the business of the club.

From the beginning, the club undertook to make known the scholarly publications of the faculties. In April, 1900, it was ordered by the club that each member should supply the secretary with a typewritten list of his publications, and in September of the same year the committee of the club in vain waited upon the University librarian to request a room at the library where recent publications of the faculties could be deposited.

Beginning in 1889 publications of Page  402faculty members had been listed in the University Record, and in the Michigan Alumnus for the years 1897-1901 (see bibliography). In November, 1903, the Alumni Association, which then had charge of the News-Letter, was requested to publish these lists so as to inform the people of the state concerning research work which was being done at the University. The first list under this arrangement was published in May, 1905, and constituted the inauguration of systematic publication, which has since been kept up and has been a fruitful source of encouragement to research workers within the University.

There were two aims to which from the beginning the club gave expression and on which from time to time it took action and prepared communications to the president and the Board of Regents. These were, first, the formation of a separate graduate department or school to embrace the entire University, and, second, the requirement of productive scholarship as a necessary basis for advancement within the faculties.

An open meeting of the club was called on April 9, 1903, "in order to present an informal report of a memorial on research work to be presented to the Board of Regents. Dr. Vaughan read the paper which he and Professors Lloyd and Adams had drawn up. The paper was approved by those present and they signed their names and appointed Professors Vaughan, Adams, and Newcombe to circulate the paper among the members of the faculties" (MS, "Minutes, Research Club," Apr. 9, 1903). This was presented with its signatures to the Board at its next meeting and quickly disposed of. Regent Dean presented a communication from Dr. Vaughan and fifty others asking the Board to establish in the University a Graduate School, and on his motion the matter was laid on the table (R.P., 1901-6, p. 181).

Though the minutes of the club do not mention it — they are very brief, sketchy, and with unfilled gaps for the period of Newcombe's secretaryship — the club apparently renewed its request, for at the next meeting of the Board:

A communication was received from Dr. A. B. Prescott asking a conference with the Board by a Committee who are interested in the establishment of a Graduate Council in the University. The Communication was referred to the Literary Committee [Regents Hill and Dean] for consideration.


(R.P., 1901-6, p. 203.)

Nothing further was heard of this for a number of years.

No further direct communication was made by the club until 1911, but in the meantime the graduate work in the University had increased in several colleges, and especially in the Summer Session, of which Dr. Edward H. Kraus was secretary. In 1908 President Angell had made a strong appeal to the Board of Regents, pointing out the rapid growth of graduate work in the University and urging that if the University was not to fall behind other institutions it must strengthen its faculties by men capable of carrying the instructional work in most departments beyond the graduation (R.P., 1906-10, p. 387).

In October, 1910, the second issue of Cattell's American Men of Science appeared, and through a careful rating in scholarship by a distinguished committee of scientists, the distribution of these men of science in American universities became apparent. After supplementary correspondence W. H. Hobbs prepared for publication in the Michigan Alumnus a summary discussion of the findings, which were of quite exceptional interest to the University. They showed, among other things, that while no state of the Union save Massachusetts had in the late generation produced so many distinguished scientists, yet Michigan Page  403headed the list of those which had lost their great men to other states. This, with the supplementary data collected, indicated that the University of Michigan was paying lower salaries to its men than were its sister institutions. When this paper was already in type, it came under the eye of President Hutchins, who feared its effect upon alumni would be hurtful, and it was accordingly suppressed. Thereupon, at the request of the Executive Council of the Research Club, it was read at the meeting of the club on February 15, 1911, and was discussed at length by Vaughan, Campbell, Newcombe, Hussey, Wenley, Gomberg, Sanders, Leverett, Van Tyne, Case, Novy, and others, at a meeting which was prolonged until a late hour. At the conclusion a committee of five members — Ziwet (president), Scott, Pearse, Zowski, and Case — was appointed to wait upon the president of the University and convey to him the sentiments of the meeting in in the interest of consideration of scholarship as a basis of appointments and advancement within the University. To fortify the committee, the fifty-eight members present signed their names to the action. The immediate effect was that only a week later the Regents took from the committee on the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, where it had lain since 1902, the earlier communication from the club urging the formation of a separate graduate school and passed the following resolution:

Resolved, That a committee, of which the President shall be chairman, to consist of three members of this Board [Regents Sawyer, Beal and Hubbard] and three members [later changed to five] of the University Senate to be appointed by the President, be raised for the purpose of studying the problem of graduate work in the University and reporting a scheme of organization if such course seems to the committee to be wise.


(R.P., 1910-14, p. 95.)

The Senate members of the committee — Vaughan, Reed, Scott, Wenley, and Ziwet — were appointed in June, after which events moved rapidly. In September the committee's report was presented and adopted without change; in June, 1912, Dr. Guthe was appointed Dean of the new Graduate School; and in December following the first executive committee of the School was appointed — Gomberg, Bates, Wenley, M. E. Cooley, Scott, Vaughan, and H. C. Adams — all, with one exception, members of the Research Club and all outstanding members of the University faculties.

The more specific request of the club concerning appointments, while it brought no action from the Board, yet was put into practice within the Literary Department, where Dean Effinger demanded of department heads advocating appointments for promotions full statements concerning the scholarly publications of the candidates. This practice had already long been observed by Dr. Vaughan within the Department of Medicine and Surgery. A noteworthy departure from this principle, however, occurred in the promotions of 1924, when thirteen of sixteen men advanced either to the rank of professor or of associate professor had made no significant achievement in productive scholarship. This action was the basis of a special memorandum which was presented at the meeting of the Research Club on March 26, 1924. At this meeting Dr. A. M. Barrett, the president of the club, appointed a committee to prepare a memorandum to be presented to the president. This committee consisted of Hobbs, chairman, Huber, Ziwet, Kraus, Bartlett, Bates, and Bonner. After some modification the report of this committee to the club was conveyed to the president of the University by its chairman, to whom Dr. Burton wrote a letter on April 1 in which the following occurs: Page  404

I am glad that the Research Club has interested itself generally in the whole problem of promotions in this University… I think that the departments and committees of various kinds who are charged with the responsibility of recommending promotions should feel very seriously their obligations in these matters and not pass them along to the higher offices with the thought that there is considerable possibility that they will be held up.

I think it is also very important to recognize that already we have the well-established principle that the shortest road to a full professorship is by the route of research.

Again on September 18, President Burton wrote:

I want you to know also that at a Conference of the deans held yesterday I presented your communication in full and the matter was discussed at that time.

If I interpreted correctly the point of view of the Conference, there was no disagreement whatever in regard to the statement of standards or ideals for promotion, but there was some sharp difference in opinion in regard to the method which was proposed.

Early in its history the club took an active interest in the subject of University scholarly publications. The Humanistic Series of publications had in December, 1906, been started on the initiative of Professor F. W. Kelsey of the Department of Latin, and occasional publications had appeared in connection with the Detroit Observatory, but there was no comprehensive series of general University publications.

On February 2, 1909, as a result of consideration at earlier meetings, the club held a special meeting to consider the subject of such publications, and Professor Wenley contributed a paper on the subject. A committee of five (Hobbs, Reighard, Huber, Scott, and Williams) was raised to draw up a report, which was duly rendered and was presented to the University Senate. The plan proposed was approved by the Senate in principle, but it was thought that the time was not favorable for bringing the matter before the Board of Regents. A successful effort was, however, launched in February, 1921, when, on motion of Professor Reeves, action was taken unanimously that the president of the club appoint a committee of three (Hussey, Novy, and Sanders) to make a careful study of the problem of University publications and to arrange a meeting with the president and the Executive Board of the Graduate School in order to make a report and to open a discussion on the necessity of providing additional support for publication by the University. The time was now ripe for such an effort, and nine months later (Nov. 16) the secretary was able to read to the club a letter from Dean Lloyd of the Graduate School in behalf of its Executive Board, in which it was stated that the Regents had granted, in addition to the $1,000 provided in the regular budget, the sum of $11,200 for the purpose of scholarly University publications, and he expressed the thanks of the Executive Board for the important co-operation of the club and of its special committees. He also read a letter from President Burton, which was, in part, as follows:

This whole proposal has meant a good deal to me because of my genuine concern for the scholarly standards of the University and particularly for the fortitude of our best men who are really making contributions to science and knowledge. I hope that you and others will recognize in this action a genuine purpose on the part of the administration and the Board of Regents to foster in practical ways activities looking in the direction of thoroughgoing scholarly efforts by the staff… I believe that it marks the beginning of a real period of expansion in such activities if we avail ourselves of the possibilities which such action indicates.

President Burton proved to be a true Page  405prophet, and the University scholarly publications, since much expanded, have reflected great credit upon the institution.

The Russel endowment of $10,000 "to provide additional compensation to members of the instructional staff" was set up through the bequest of Henry Russel ('73, '75l, A.M. '76), of Detroit. In 1925 the Board of Regents determined that from the income of the fund $250 should each year be set aside to provide for a lecture, to be known as the Henry Russel lecture, to be given under the auspices of the University at some time between the April vacation and May 30; and that $250 should also be set aside for an award to be known as the Henry Russel award, which should be announced at the time of the Henry Russel lecture (R.P., 1923-26, p. 617). The selection of the Henry Russel lecturer was committed to the Executive Board of the Research Club of the University, which designates each year that member of the faculties whom the committee of the club appointed for the purpose deems to have attained the highest distinction in the field of scholarship. The award is assigned by a special committee appointed for the purpose to that member of the University faculties of the rank of assistant professor or instructor whose achievements in scholarly activities and whose promise for the future seem most to merit the appointment. Since the first few years the committee for selection of Russel lecturers has consisted of the past Russel lecturers who are still living on the campus. The roll of merit is as follows:

Henry Russel Lecturer Henry Russel Award Date
Moses Gomberg Carter L. Goodrich 1926
Frederick G. Novy Albert Hyma 1927
Henry A. Sanders Laurence M. Gould 1928
Aldred S. Warthin John Alexander 1929
Claude H. Van Tyne Carl L. Hubbs 1930
William H. Hobbs Earl L. Griggs 1931
Jesse S. Reeves William L. Ayres 1932
Walter B. Pillsbury Werner E. Bachmann 1933
Ermine C. Case Paul Mueschke 1934
G. Carl Huber Ralph G. Smith 1935
John G. Winter Lawrence Preuss 1936
Charles W. Edmunds Frank E. Eggleton 1937
Heber D. Curtis Franklin D. Johnston 1938
Campbell Bonner Norman R. F. Maier 1939
Frank N. Wilson Frank H. Bethell 1940
Edgar M. Hoover, Jr.

The memorial lectures of the club, which have been public and began in 1929, grew out of an address by Professor Wenley as retiring president on October 27, 1909. To these lectures, usually in place of the regular April meeting of the club, the Junior and Women's Research Clubs and the Graduate Club have been specially invited. The dates are important, since they have generally been centenaries or multicentenaries of either the birth of the distinguished scholar memorialized or of some outstanding work. They have been as follows:

Date Memorial Lectures and Speakers
1909 Charles Darwin (Case, Hus, Pillsbury, Reighard, and Wenley)
1910 John Dalton (Bigelow, Guthe, and Wenley)
1911 The Evolution of Worlds (Professor Forest R. Moulton, University of Chicago)
1912 Jean Jacques Rousseau (Boucke, Cooley, Pillsbury, and Reeves)
1913 Henry Bessemer (Campbell, Sadler, and Tilden)
1914 Roger Bacon (Dow, Guthe, Lloyd, and Tatlock)
1915 Andreas Vesalius (Cross, Huber, and De Nancrede)
1916 Karl Ludwig (Lombard and Scholl)
1917 Theodor Mommsen and Benjamin Jowett (Bonner, Kelsey, and Sanders)
1919 George Eliot (Wenley)
1920 John Tyndall and Herbert Spencer (C.H. Cooley, Lloyd, and A. W. Smith)
1921 Hermann von Helmholz and Rudolph Virchow (Cooley, Lloyd, Boak, Karpinski, and Weller)
1922 Louis Pasteur (Gomberg and Novy)
1923 Nicolaus Copernicus (Rufus — of the Junior Research Club — and Ziwet)
1924 Immanuel Kant and Blaise Pascal (Bradshaw, Lloyd, and Wenley)
1925 Thomas Huxley (Wenley and Case)
1926 Ohm's Law (Colby) and James Hutton (Hobbs)
1927 Isaac Newton (Hildebrandt and Curtiss) and Lord Lister (Cabot)
1928 Justinian's Appointment of the Commission to Codify the Roman Law (Drake)
Harvey's Exercitatio … de motu cordis et sanguinis (Lombard)
Page  406
1929 Christian Huyghens (Uhlenbeck) and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (Scholl)
1930 John James Audubon (Shull) and Johann Kepler (Rufus)
1931 John Dryden (Bredvold) and Michael Faraday (Laporte)
1932 Benedict Spinoza (Parker) and Antony von Leeuwenhoek (Weller)
1933 Joseph Priestley (Cross and Bigelow) and William Beaumont (Lewis)
1934 Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (George LaRue), Samuel Pierpont Langley (Curtis), and John Wesley Powell (Hobbs)
1935 Maimonides (Sellars), Simon Newcomb (McLaughlin), and Archibald Geikie (Case)
1936 Joseph Louis Lagrange (Rainich) and James Watt (White)
1937 Edward Gibbon (Cross and Boak) and Father Jacques P. Marquette (Crane)
1938 Sir William Perkin (Schoepfle) and James Craig Watson (Curtis)
1939 Charles S. Peirce (Langford) and J. Willard Gibbs (Laporte)
1940 Joseph Justus Scaliger (Blake), Sir William Gilbert (Colby), and Edward Drinker Cope (Case)

At each monthly meeting of the Research Club two papers are presented, usually one in the humanities and one on some scientific subject. Discussions follow and each paper is open to discussion by any member of the club. Refreshments are served in the interval between the two papers. Formerly the meetings of the club were held in the histological laboratory of the old Medical Building, but now they are held in the small amphitheater of the Rackham School of Graduate Studies.

It will thus be seen that the Research Club has played no unimportant role in the life of the University since 1900. On the quarter-centennial of its founding a centennial banquet was held at which various addresses dealt with the history of the club to that time, and notably one by Dr. Lombard, as already referred to. The sudden death of Marion LeRoy Burton transformed this meeting into a memorial to the late President, as well as to one of the club itself. The club has steadily grown in membership despite requirements so strict that election is regarded upon the campus as a signal honor, and the membership throughout more than a third of a century of the life of the club has included most of the productive scholars of the institution.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annual Report of the Librarian, Univ. Mich., 1906-7, 1907-9.
Bibliography of Publications by Members of the Several Faculties, Univ. Mich., 1907-9, 1909-18, 1918-20, 1928-30, 1930-33, 1933-35, 1935-37, 1937-39.
Cattell, J. McKeen (Ed.). American Men of Science; a Biographical Dictionary. New York: Science Press, 1906.
Cattell, J. McKeen (Ed.). American Men of Science; a Biographical Dictionary. 2d ed.; New York: Science Press, 1910.
Cattell, J. McKeen. "A Further Statistical Study of American Men of Science. II."Science, n.s., 32 (1910): 633-48.
Cattell, J. McKeen. "A Further Statistical Study of American Men of Science. II."Science, pp. 672-88.
Cattell, J. McKeen. "A Statistical Study of American Men of Science. III. The Distribution of American Men of Science."Science, n.s., 24 (1906): 732-42. ("Statistical Study, 1906.")
Lombard, Warren P."The University Research Club in Retrospect."Mich. Alum., 31 (1925): 595-600.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 3 (1897), 6 (1899), 7 (1901).
MS, "Minutes of the Research Club of the University of Michigan," 1900-1940. ("Minutes, Research Club.")
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-22, 1923-24, 1925-26, 1927-28. (P.R.)
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940. (R.P.)
The University Record, Univ. Mich., Vols. 1-4 (1889-94).
"University of Michigan Publications, Humanistic Series." Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906-40. 43 vols.
University News-Letter, Nos. 31 (1899), 70 (1901), 183-84 (1905), 208-9 (1906).
Vaughan, Victor C.A Doctor's Memories. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1926.
Page  407

THE JUNIOR RESEARCH CLUB

At the turn of the century there were a few young men and women holding annual appointments as assistants, fellows in the laboratories, or junior staff members, whose duties varied from the setting up of lecture demonstrations to independent investigation on special projects sponsored by fellowships. Most of them were pursuing graduate courses or research, those in the preclinical medical departments continuing their professional training.

The long hours they spent in assisting and investigating, combined with regular course requirements, too often isolated them and not only precluded the enjoyment of association with kindred spirits in other departments, commonly regarded as an integral part of their work, but also denied them many of the benefits which other University students obtained.

Inspired by the success of the Research Club (see Part II: Research Club), the members of which were older faculty men of established reputation, the younger workers several times considered forming a club of their own in which experimental findings could be regularly reported and research problems could be discussed.

Occasionally, when some distinguished guest was present or when some professor was to report an Arbeit in which an assistant had collaborated, outsiders were invited to the programs of the Research Club. Gelston, Assistant in Hygiene, and Ward J. MacNeal, Assistant in the Hygienic Laboratory, had attended its meetings, and they had been so impressed that they made a definite attempt to found a junior research organization.

Encouraged by Professors Novy, Vaughan, and Warthin, they enlisted the support of a few young men of similar status and on October 20, 1902, held their first meeting. Gelston's enthusiasm was not quite infectious enough to carry them through the preliminary stages of organization, however, and Dr. Novy was therefore hurriedly brought upon the scene. His lucid presentation of the advantages to be derived from the activities of such a club crystallized their ideas on the subject. Not only did they decide to organize the society, but they elected officers at once, levied annual dues rather high for those times ($3.00) payable within the next two weeks, and directed a committee to draft a set of bylaws. These were finished and adopted early in December.

The record shows that sixteen men attended this first meeting, although the statement that thirty were present appeared in the Ann Arbor Daily Argus. The newspaper also reported that the organization would probably be called the Michigan Laboratory Club.

The announcement provoked considerable discussion. Some persons inferred that the new club was to serve only as a preliminary step in the formation of a chapter of Sigma Xi. The women assistants, with some diplomacy, raised the question of their eligibility for membership. One or two members of the Research Club, upon hearing a rumor that despite the newspaper report the name actually selected was Junior Research Club, vigorously protested, believing that the use of a similar name by a less distinguished group would detract from the reputation of their own society. Nevertheless the name Junior Research Club was adopted at a special meeting held about a week after the society was organized. Four new members were received at this time and were allowed to sign the book as charter members, increasing the charter roll to twenty.

Page  408No action was taken on the question of admitting women to membership. By the usual intangible routes the women research workers had been warned of the club's attitude upon the question, however, and, not to be outdone, they gathered that same evening in Room 2 University Hall and organized the Women's Research Club (see Part II: Women's Research Club). The separation into two groups on the basis of sex was unfortunate, but although the question of electing women to membership has been mentioned in recent years it has not been acted upon nor discussed at any length.

Members of the Junior Research Club were active in the establishment of the University of Michigan chapter of Sigma Xi, which took place about a year later (see Part IX: Sigma Xi). The club did not fuse with the newer organization as some had predicted, since it had been ascertained that Sigma Xi would function in an honorary capacity only. Throughout the years most cordial relations have been maintained between the two societies, which have jointly sponsored a number of public lectures and have conducted many programs together.

The feeling between the Research Club and the Junior Research Club also has been exceptionally fine. When, in the fall of 1907, the Research Club began a determined effort to promote the establishment of a separate graduate school, it requested the active co-operation and support of the junior society. Beginning at least as early as 1911, a joint meeting of the two clubs has been held annually. To the Research Club's special session commemorating the services of some great intellectual worker, an annual event begun in the year 1909-10 and opened to the public in 1929, the members of the Junior Research Club and of the Women's Research Club have for a number of years been invited. In this manner the active research workers in all fields are brought together regularly once a year for an evening of instruction and social intermingling.

The aim of the Junior Research Club, as clearly defined in 1908, has been:

… To bring together the men of the University of Michigan who are engaged in research work in pure science, to enable the student in one science to keep in touch with the methods and results in other sciences and to give each member the stimulus which comes from contact with other investigators.

It is probably true that the inclusion of a limited number of well-qualified members from fields other than science would exert a healthful influence, but the group has been adamant in avoiding what some of its members have regarded as a possible "contamination." On the other hand, the several attempts made to insert the word "science" into the name of the club have been unsuccessful.

Since the adoption of the original by-laws in 1902 it has been necessary for a person, in order to be eligible for membership, to be "an assistant, regularly appointed by the Regents, the holder of a fellowship, or a research worker favourably reported on by the membership committee."

Although the active group is much larger than at first, the number of members received annually having been increased as the University has grown, high qualifications for membership have been observed, for the membership committee has carefully scrutinized the achievements of every individual recommended. Once a person is elected he can continue his place in the society merely by the payment of annual dues, but unless he maintains his record of productive research he goes onto the inactive list. Because of the youth of most of the members and the nature of their university status there is a large exodus each year; it is noteworthy, however, that certain outstanding individuals among the Page  409more permanent members of the faculty play a conspicuous role in maintaining the organization, retaining their membership long after they have earned established reputations in science and have joined the ranks of the Research Club. The yearly replacement of outgoing members by young men who possess the ebullitive enthusiasm of graduate students assures intensely interesting meetings.

The presentation and criticism of reports by members upon their own investigations was begun in November, 1902, and has always constituted the principal part of each regular monthly session, after which, also in accordance with custom, refreshments have been served. The interest of the members has been so keen, especially after they have been reinvigorated by the food, that their discussions have frequently lasted until long after midnight, and repeated efforts have been required to close the meetings at a more reasonable hour.

Thirteen of the twenty charter members either had received or eventually received the degree of doctor of medicine. Reflecting the predominant representation of the preclinical departments and the intense research activity of Vaughan, Cushny, Novy, Warthin, and Huber, eight of the twelve topics presented in the first year had to do with medical research. One of the first two papers, read at the November meeting in 1902, was "The Presence of Yellow Elastic Tissue and Reticulum Tissue in the Tumors of the Skin."

The founders of the club, aware of the dangers of one-sidedness and possible departmental jealousies, prescribed that the three who constituted the membership committee should come from different departments, that no two members of the same department should be elected to the different offices during the same term, and that no member should hold the same office for more than one year.

At first the club convened regularly in the old pathological laboratory in the original Medical Building. A classroom on the southwest corner of the structure now known as West Medical Building became available in the spring of 1903 and was used for many years, until, with the erection of more modern buildings, rooms with improved ventilation and more comfortable seating accommodations could be found. Rooms in the Chemistry and Pharmacy Building and in the Natural Science Building have been regularly used at one time or another, and for occasional special programs there have been excursions to other locations such as the naval tank, the East Physics Building, and the University Hospital.

The principal deviations from the ordinary monthly program, aside from joint sessions with the other research organizations, are the first and last meetings of the year. At the first, an impromptu recitation of the members' summer holiday activities usually consumes all the time not demanded by the business essential to beginning the year's program. Every year except 1917-18 has culminated in a banquet, which at times has been a sumptuous affair.

The prominent part of the banquet program is the report of the silent secretary. This officer is appointed by the president early in the year, but remains anonymous to the others until the time of his report. Meanwhile, he carefully notes all the items in the papers and discussions that meet with his disapproval. These shortcomings are then edited and are recalled, sometimes in the form of poetry and with lantern demonstrations, on this far from solemn occasion. The silent secretary's report is usually excellent, and anticipation of it ensures a large attendance.

In spite of the low dues and a system of expenditures designed to keep assets Page  410at a minimum, funds have accumulated, and from time to time money has been appropriated for the support of worthy causes. In 1924 the club contributed $200 to the student friendship fund for destitute European students, and the student loan fund of the University received $100 from the club in the spring of 1933 and $150 in December, 1934.

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate the influence of the club on the social and intellectual life of its members. Graduate students as a group are looked upon as a peculiar lot, and this criticism is justified to no small degree. Too often, graduate study is a converging process. The presentation of one's own research before representatives from practically every branch of science is stimulating as well as humanizing. The speaker must logically justify every step of his work in this arena, and the questions and comments quickly reveal the ramifications of what at first may have seemed a very narrow project. Thus the rigid boundaries of individual research are demolished and co-operative research is envisioned, an ideal state in any university program.

The long list of members who have later achieved distinction for original research, either in industry or in institutions of learning, is impressive, although to single out a few names for particular citation would be inexcusable. How much of their success stems from membership in the Junior Research Club is a question. However, there is no gainsaying the fact that the members consider the activities of the club and the fellowship it affords with earnest and stimulating workers as of inestimable value.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Ann Arbor Daily Argus, Oct. 21, 1902.
MS, "Minutes of the Junior Research Club of the University of Michigan," 1902-40.

THE WOMEN'S RESEARCH CLUB

THE formation of the Research Club in 1900 by men in charge of the various phases of scientific study in the University inspired some of the younger members of the teaching and research staff in the fall of 1902 to found a similar organization, the Junior Research Club. The women engaged in scientific research tried to persuade the officers of this new club to open its doors to them. Having met with refusal, they took counsel together and quickly formulated plans for an independent organization.

On the evening of October 27, while the Junior Research Club was holding its second meeting, eight women gathered in Room 2 University Hall and, after a brief discussion, organized the Women's Research Club and adopted a constitution. Their first regular meeting was held in November. Mrs. Lydia Maria DeWitt, who was Instructor in Histology from 1902 until 1910, was elected president, Maude Mary DeWitt and Frances Jewett Dunbar, advanced students in the Department of Zoology, were elected vice-president and treasurer, respectively, and Ellen Bottsford Bach, of the Department of Botany, secretary. Other members were May Wheeler, Rockefeller scholar in hygiene, Iva May Lichty, then engaged in anatomical research, and two advanced biological students, Jean Dawson and Clara Henriette Hasse.

The club was defined in its constitution Page  411as an association of women carrying on regular research in science, organized for the presentation and discussion of new and important facts and for the creation of a greater interest in original work.

The earnestness of the charter members and their serious determination to make the club an active and constructive factor in University life are reflected in the titles of reports presented that first year. Among these were "The Morphology of the Pyloric Glands," "The Chemistry of the Colon Bacillus," and "The Chemistry of the Typhoid Bacillus."

Such reports served to broaden the human interests and enlarge the horizon of the members of the group, as well as to remove the sense of isolation in a special field of investigation. For those who presented the papers there was also the stimulus which arose from discussion of their problems by a critical audience. Best of all was a realization on the part of all members that the pursuit of knowledge inevitably leads to broader contacts outside the scope of any particular problem.

The membership was increased to eleven in the first few months. At the close of the year two important decisions were made with regard to policy. Women engaged in nonscientific research were also made eligible for membership in May, 1903. At the same meeting the constitution was amended to provide the status of honorary membership for those who had formerly been active members but who had discontinued their research. Some years later an associate membership was created for predoctoral students in the Graduate School who had not started a research problem. At the present time the membership is limited to women actively engaged in research.

More than six hundred women have been members. Many of them have attained positions of distinction and responsibility; among them are college presidents and professors, experts in public-health work, and research workers in the great laboratories of the country. Their success has reflected great credit not only upon themselves but also upon the club and upon the University. Former members who have returned for occasional meetings have been an inspiration to the younger members.

In addition to fostering an interest in research among the women of the University the Women's Research Club has, with the help of a few small gifts, established and maintained a loan fund. Beginning with $60 in 1922, the fund has gradually increased to a sum of more than $750, from which fifteen loans have been made to graduate women.

In each of the six years 1921-22 through 1926-27 Jeanne Cady Solis ('92m), an active member of the club, offered a prize of $25 for the best published research in medicine or natural science done during the year by a woman student. The only women eligible for this prize were those enrolled in the Graduate School and at the same time members of the teaching staff and those who had formerly been connected with the University and had continued research on this campus within three years. The successful contestant was selected by a special committee. The press announcement of the winner was attentively awaited by the club members, who felt a direct, personal interest in the award.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

MS, "Minutes of the Women's Research Club of the University of Michigan," 1902-40.
Page  412

THE APOSTLES AND THE CHURCHWARDENS

THERE have been two clubs organized among the bachelor members of the faculty as a means of providing themselves with homelike places to eat and live. The older of these, the Apostles, is still in existence, and the other, the Churchwardens, after having been a separate club from 1905-6 to 1918, was merged with the Apostles.

In October, 1900, J. A. Fairlie, A. Ziwet, H. D. Carrington, E. B. Escott, A. H. White, W. B. Pillsbury, G. A. Hulett, E. C. Sullivan, M. Winkler, I. N. Demmon, F. N. Dunlap, and J. S. P. Tatlock decided to form an organization of this kind, upon which the name "Apostles" is said to have been conferred by Mrs. James B. Angell. The next year A. L. Cross, H. C. Sadler, E. W. Dow, and S. J. Holmes joined the group, and the roster has been added to and subtracted from ever since, as new members have come in and old ones have left the club on marriage or departure from Ann Arbor. For some ten years the club contracted with its landlady, Mrs. Stowe, to furnish the members a dining-room, but eventually they rented a house at 1008 Hill Street, which has now been removed to make way for the Psi Upsilon house. In 1913 a larger house at 819 South State Street was taken, and in 1924 the club bought its present home at 1015 Church Street.

The Churchwardens originated in informal gatherings of a group of young instructors for Sunday-night suppers at the rooms of Herbert A. Kenyon. Others in the original group included W. A. McLaughlin, W. V. N. Garretson, J. G. Winter, F. B. Marsh, R. R. Kirk, H. P. Breitenbach, and W. E. Bohn. In 1906 this group took a room of its own at Mrs. Morrell's boarding house on Monroe Street, later moving to Mrs. Tower's on College Street. After two years at this place, quarters were secured at Mrs. Cline's on Washtenaw Avenue, which was the headquarters of the club until the entry of the United States into the war began to decimate the membership. At that time, as has been stated above, the two clubs combined, and the Churchwardens did not attempt to reorganize separately after the return of more normal conditions.

During their forty years of existence the Apostles have claimed a very large membership; typically this club consists of younger, unmarried members of the faculties with a sprinkling of older bachelors, and not infrequently it has been used as a place of sojourn by former members whose families are temporarily absent from Ann Arbor. Other delightful visitors have been persons like the late Jesse Lynch Williams, holder of the fellowship in creative art in 1925-26, and Professor H. A. Brouwer, of the University of Delft, during his year at Ann Arbor as an exchange professor.

Several picturesque customs have survived from the earliest days; for example, the custom of sitting around one large table and that of levying fines for puns or other indecorous behavior at the table. To enforce the latter regulation, a somewhat informal officer with unlimited powers, called the "Bouncer," has been in existence since the time of the late Professor Alfred O. Lee. Chess, card games, and music have been the after-dinner amusements, and in their day both the Apostles and the Churchwardens have promoted dances. While both clubs were still in existence, it was Page  413customary for them to engage in an annual baseball game, which was continued for several years after the merger of the two clubs, in the form of a game between the active members and the so-called "henpecked husbands." The war, of course, took its toll of both clubs. All four ranking officers of the two divisions of naval militia were recruited on the campus. Professors A. E. R. Boak, J. R. Hayden, O. M. MacNeil, and E. A. Harrington were Apostles, and many others of the active members went into service of one kind or another. For a year or two the Apostles existed with a more or less temporary membership, but the club soon recruited its full strength after the return of peace.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Robbins, Frank E."The Apostles — Organized in 1900."Mich. Alum., 38 (1932): 424-26.

THE FACULTY DINNER CLUBS

WITHIN the faculty of the University three clubs with scholarly as well as social objectives have exercised a strong influence toward faculty solidarity. Composed of members representing all divisions of the University, both the humanities and the sciences, these clubs have served effectively in keeping their members informed of the problems and programs of the different departments of the University. In all but a very few instances membership in these clubs is confined strictly to the University staff. Each club meets at regular intervals at the home of one of the members, who is responsible for the program for the evening. While the organization of these clubs is extremely informal, in all of them traditions have developed over the years of their existence which give each special characteristics.

Scientific Club. — The oldest of these organizations is the Scientific Club, founded in the autumn of 1883. It was an outgrowth of an earlier club known as the Ann Arbor Scientific Society, composed of faculty members and citizens of Ann Arbor interested in the sciences, which met "with more or less regularity" in the old Chemical Laboratory Building. Interest in this early organization gradually weakened, and in 1883 Henry Sewall, Professor of Physiology, president-elect of the Society, in talking with Professor John W. Langley, remarked that when he became president he would "put the Society to sleep and out of its ashes would spring something worth while."

Further discussion on the part of the two members led to a plan for a new club composed of faculty members to be drawn from the scientific faculties, which would hold biweekly meetings in rotation at the residences of the members. No set program was to be provided, but "free and spontaneous discussion was to be invited" and this "scientific conversation" was to be succeeded by a "light collation provided by the hostess in absentia."

In October of 1883 six members of the Page  414faculty accepted Dr. Sewall's invitation and met at his home on the north side of Jefferson Street, a few doors from State Street. These were: John W. Langley, Professor of General Chemistry, Mark Harrington, Professor of Astronomy, Albert B. Prescott, Professor of Organic and Applied Chemistry and of Pharmacy, Dr. V. C. Vaughan, Professor of Physiological and Pathological Chemistry, Mortimer E. Cooley, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Alexander Winchell, Professor of Geology and Paleontology. This group of seven drew up plans for the club and chose five other members: Charles E. Greene, Professor of Civil Engineering, William H. Pettee, Professor of Mineralogy, Economic Geology, and Mining Engineering, Charles K. Wead, Acting Professor of Physics, Volney M. Spalding, Acting Professor of Botany, and Otis Coe Johnson, Assistant Professor of Applied Chemistry. This augmented group later chose seven more members: Dr. William J. Herdman, Professor of Practical and Pathological Anatomy, Joseph Beale Steere, Professor of Zoology, Calvin Thomas, Assistant Professor of German and Sanskrit, Edward L. Walter, Professor of Modern Languages and Literatures, Dr. William H. Dorrance, Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry and Dental Metallurgy, Byron W. Cheever, Acting Professor of Metallurgy, and J. B. Davis, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering.

This group of nineteen formed the original club. While most of them were scientists in the strict interpretation of the term, there were in this first group, as there have since continued to be, members who represented the humanities. An evening gathering followed by the "collation" was customary at first, but at the present time the members meet for a dinner followed by a paper and discussion. Tradition has it that the hospitality became so excessive that it was felt desirable to begin with the dinner.

The officers of the Scientific Club consist of a "principal servant" and a "viceprincipal servant," known as the "Vice," whose duty is to arrange for the meetings and pass the hat for ballots at the time of election. The present members of the club (1941) are as follows: Arthur S. Aiton, Harley H. Bartlett, Henry M. Bates, William W. Bishop, Arthur E. Boak, Louis I. Bredvold, Mortimer E. Cooley, Samuel T. Dana, John P. Dawson, Earl W. Dow, Joseph H. Drake, Sr., Moses Gomberg, Carl E. Guthe, Robert B. Hall, Joseph R. Hayden, William H. Hobbs, Clarence T. Johnston, Hayward Keniston, Walter B. Pillsbury, Jesse S. Reeves, Jacob E. Reighard, Alexander G. Ruthven, Malcolm H. Soule, Cyrus C. Sturgis, and John G. Winter.

Katholepistemiad. — The second oldest of the faculty clubs is the Katholepistemiad, which was founded in June, 1897, when the first regular meeting was held at the home of Andrew C. McLaughlin, Professor of American History. Its establishment was the result of a feeling that with the steady increase of the University staff there should be room for at least one other organization similar to the Scientific Club, which had been functioning for some fourteen years. The original group, in addition to Professor McLaughlin, was composed of G. Carl Huber, then Assistant Professor of Histology, George Dock, Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine and Pathology, Fred M. Taylor, then Junior Professor of Political Economy and Finance, Dr. J. Playfair McMurrich, Professor of Anatomy, George A. Hench, Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures, Burke A. Hinsdale, Professor of the Science and the Art of Teaching, Israel C. Russell, Professor of Geology, Martin L. D'Ooge, Professor of the Greek Language and Literature, Alfred Page  415H. Lloyd, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Harry B. Hutchins, Dean of the Department of Law, Dr. Arthur R. Cushny, Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, and Floyd R. Mechem, Tappan Professor of Law.

It will be noted that although there are a number of members on this list who were scientists, a majority of the members represented the humanities. In its name the club preserves the first name of the University given to the earliest institution established in Detroit in 1817 by Judge A. B. Woodward — "the institution of universal knowledge." Unlike the Scientific Club, the Katholepistemiad has a constitution and bylaws, which limit its membership to fifteen, except in the case of the president of the University, who may be asked to become an honorary member. Meetings are held every third Saturday night during the academic year. The present membership is as follows: Randolph G. Adams, Arthur W. Bromage, Frederick A. Coller, Ivan C. Crawford, Heber D. Curtis, John W. Eaton, Albert C. Furstenberg, Robert R. McMath, Frederick G. Novy, DeWitt H. Parker, Bradley M. Patten, Alexander G. Ruthven, Herbert C. Sadler, and E. Blythe Stason.

The Azazels. — The third faculty club, the Azazels, came into existence in the autumn of 1908, under the inspiration of Alfred H. White, Professor of Chemical Engineering. The club was projected with two equal purposes: to promote good fellowship and to promote literary and scientific attainments. The charter members of the club included, in addition to Professor White, Hugo P. Thieme, Assistant Professor of French, John R. Effinger, Professor of French and Dean of the Summer Session, Emil Lorch, Professor of Architecture, Fred N. Scott, Professor of Rhetoric, Morris P. Tilley, Assistant Professor of English, Dr. Charles W. Edmunds, Lecturer on Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Shirley W. Smith, Secretary of the University, John A. Fairlie, Professor of Administrative Law, Dr. George L. Streeter, Professor of Anatomy, Charles J. Tilden, Junior Professor of Civil Engineering, and the Reverend Dr. Carl S. Patton, Instructor in Hebrew. The name of this club apparently arose from a story told by Dr. Patton in which a student, translating the old Hebrew story of the scapegoat, the "azazel," succeeded "in a way that amounted almost to genius" in endowing the azazel with "elements of Jehovah, the devil, and the scapegoat." "As this seemed to illustrate our predicament," in the words of one member of the club, "the name was chosen as a happy way out of our difficulties."

As in the instance of the Scientific Club, the Azazels have no regular form of organization or constitution, the members presiding in turn more or less as the spirit moves. The president of the University is an honorary member. Present membership is as follows: Campbell Bonner, Ermine C. Case, William A. Frayer, William C. Hoad, Fred J. Hodges, Howard B. Lewis, Emil Lorch, John W. Riegel, Alexander G. Ruthven, Wilfred B. Shaw, Shirley W. Smith, Morris P. Tilley, John E. Tracy, Lewis G. Vander Velde, Henry Vaughan, and Alfred H. White.

The Club. — In addition to the three strictly faculty clubs, a fourth club known merely as "The Club" has drawn its membership for many years from both the University and the city of Ann Arbor. It was formed November 25, 1902, at the home of Robert M. Wenley, Professor of Philosophy. In addition to Professor Wenley, the charter members were Thomas A. Bogle, Professor of Law, James A. Craig, Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures and Hellenistic Greek, William D. Harriman, Hart-wig H. Herbst, and Carl S. Patton. Samuel Page  416A. Jones, physician, was also named one of the founders, though not present at that meeting. The present membership of the club residing in Ann Arbor is as follows: William W. Bishop, George Burke, Arthur G. Canfield, Ermine C. Case, Wilbert B. Hinsdale, Clarence T. Johnson, Frederick P. Jordan, Ernest F. Lloyd, and Alexander G. Ruthven.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Canfield, Arthur G."'The Club' Unites Town and Gown."Mich. Alum., 38 (1932): 544-45, 550.
Cooley, Mortimer E., , and Warren P. Lombard. MS, "History of the Scientific Club of Ann Arbor, 1883-1932."
Cross, Arthur L."The Katholepistemiad Club, 1897-1932."Mich. Alum., 38 (1932):364-66.
Lombard, Warren P."The Ann Arbor Scientific Club."Mich. Alum., 38 (1932): 304-6.
Smith, Shirley W."The Society of the Azazels."Mich. Alum., 39 (1932): 73-74.
University of Michigan. Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.

THE UNIVERSITY CLUB

THE University Club of the University of Michigan may be said to have come into existence, officially, on December 6, 1911, when its constitution was presented to a meeting of eighty-seven potential members and was accepted. That constitution was prepared by a committee consisting of Professors Bates, Bonner, Guthe, Huber, Lane, Novy, Ziwet, and DeMuralt, after a period of discussions and investigations.

Shortly thereafter, at its December meeting, the Board of Regents of the University granted to the club the use of the large room on the basement floor of the newly opened Alumni Memorial Hall. The room was furnished at a cost of $770, and the club started operations.

Professor Carl Leonard DeMuralt was credited by colleagues on the organization committee for furnishing the stimulus to the movement which resulted in the formation of the club. He came to the faculty in 1907 and very soon enlisted the interest of kindred spirits in the formation of an organization to encourage fencing and boxing among faculty members. A group was formed and quarters were rented, an instructor was hired, and new members were solicited. Recruits were few, however, and the thoughts of Professor DeMuralt turned to means for enlisting the interest of others. Out of this came the proposal for a faculty club. He secured the attention of several and the result was the formation of the committee, above named, on November 22, 1911. This committee secured the attention of the faculty and the action which resulted in the adoption of the constitution.

The name "Faculty Club" was retained for only about one year, the title then becoming University Club. At about the same time a prospectus was prepared, calling for the purchase of property near the campus and the erection thereon of a University Club building. An architect's drawing was produced, and plans and specifications were prepared. These plans included space for Page  417fencing and boxing, as did also the original conception of the use of the Alumni Memorial Hall quarters. A request for financial help was refused by the Board of Regents in October of 1912, and from that time on the proposal for a separate building received little attention at University Club meetings. In February, 1912, the Regents also refused to make provision for shower baths in the basement of Alumni Memorial Hall, so the plan for the practice of fencing and boxing in quarters adjacent to the club was abandoned. The resignation of Professor DeMuralt from the faculty in 1913 resulted in the abandonment of plans for any sports adjunct to the club, and they never cropped up again.

The University Club prospered for two decades after it first occupied its new quarters. There was recurrent discussion of a project first proposed in 1911, namely, that the University Club should acquire more elaborate facilities in the Michigan Union, but little save expressed hope came from the debate. When the architects' plans for the Michigan Union were first presented, they included quarters for the University Club, but the proposed wing of the Union designed to contain these clubrooms was not built.

When reduced state appropriations were reflected in faculty salary cuts, club membership began to decrease. Equipment suffered from lack of sufficient maintenance funds. Members realized that their University Club suffered by comparison with similar organizations in other universities. The facilities were admittedly inadequate to the needs of a large university. Six pool and billiard tables, a few unattractive tables for cards and chess, one long table as a "library," and a few lounging chairs comprised the equipment.

In 1936 the Michigan Union projected an addition to the Michigan Union Building. Space was provided for University Club quarters. But funds were not available for the finishing of all the addition. In 1938, however, the Michigan Union financed the completion of all portions of the addition, and the University Club quarters were opened to the members in the fall of that year. The membership jumped from less than two hundred to approximately six hundred during the first year in the new home.

The University Club in the Michigan Union includes a beautiful lounge, two floors in height, with an adjacent library. On the floor below is a spacious recreation room, and very soon another room near by was made available for the serving of lunch to the members. The financial arrangement was most satisfactory to the club, calling for the payment of the entire dues revenue as rental, the Michigan Union to handle all maintenance and operating costs.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

MS, "Minutes of the Faculty Club," 1911-12.
MS, "Minutes of the University Club," 1912-40.
"University Club Enjoys Beautiful Home."Mich. Alum., 45 (1938): 143-144.
Editorial (in"Conning the Campus" column). Mich. Alum., 45 (1939): 227.
Page  418

THE FACULTY WOMEN'S CLUB

THE Faculty Women's Club of the University of Michigan owes its inception to the inspiration of Mrs. Marion LeRoy Burton, who had been greatly interested in the work of a similar club at the University of Minnesota and who was thoroughly convinced of the value to a university community of such an organization.

Accordingly Mrs. Burton invited a representative group of fifty University women to meet at her house on October 26, 1921. At this time Mrs. Burton explained the function of the club at Minnesota and its value in welcoming newcomers and through its various sections providing an opportunity for bringing together groups of women interested in the same subjects for study or recreation. It was also agreed that such a club should have no connection with any federation of women's clubs and should not duplicate their activities in any way.

After some discussion, the motion that the Faculty Women's Club of the University of Michigan be formed was made by Mrs. George W. Patterson and seconded by Mrs. Fred N. Scott, and was unanimously carried. A nominating committee was selected, and at a meeting held December 10, 1921, the first officers were elected — Mrs. Marion LeRoy Burton as president, Mrs. Henry M. Bates as vice-president, and Mrs. Emil Lorch as secretary.

The first list of women eligible to membership was decided upon at this time and consisted of "wives and women of the faculty beginning with the rank of instructor. Wives of directors and women holding that title and members of the library staff according to selection to be made by the Librarian." The membership fee was set at $1.00 per annum. Since that time there have been many changes made in the eligibility lists, but the dues have always remained the same.

In addition to the newcomers' section, which had begun its work as soon as the club was started, with calling on strangers, the first sections formed were day-nursery, dramatic, and athletic. The athletic section was discontinued after a short time, but the day-nursery section assumed great importance for some time, and the dramatic section has continued to the present.

In January, 1923, the Regents of the University granted to the Faculty Women's Club, as a meeting place and as a center for the work of the day nursery, the use of the building which had housed the University Health Service, and which stood on the site now occupied by the Burton Memorial Tower. From a very simple beginning, with voluntary helpers to care for the children of the club members who might wish to leave them there during certain afternoons of the week, this work grew to great proportions. The upper rooms of the building were given over to the use of the children. Equipment for lunches and for play activities was installed, and a helper was hired. Later, in January, 1925, by an arrangement with the Regents of the University, the Merrill-Palmer School of Detroit took over the day nursery and operated it as a branch. This work was continued until June, 1929.

Meanwhile the club continued to hold its meetings in the lower rooms of the building. Arrangements for the serving of simple teas necessitated the purchase of some dishes and silver, which the club still owns. The sections were increased as interest in various subjects was manifested, until, at the present Page  419time (June, 1940), nine divisions are very active. They are: art (with three subdivisions), painting, music, garden, drama, play-reading, bibliophiles, bookshelf and stage, and newcomers.'

In 1929, with the opening of the Michigan League Building, the old clubhouse was given up and the general meetings of the club have since been held there.

At this time no doubt remains in the mind of anyone as to the value to the University community of the Faculty Women's Club. It has functioned with increasing success for nineteen years, has a paid membership of 468, and is enjoying a period of great and worth-while activity.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Ann Arbor News (title varies), 1921-40.
The Michigan Daily, 1921-40.
MS, "Minutes of the Faculty Women's Club of the University of Michigan," 1921-40.

THE ANN ARBOR ART ASSOCIATION

THE Chicago World's Fair of 1893 brought a new realization to the nation of the potentialities of the arts of design and caused a general awakening of interest in art. Inspiration was given for the creation of art galleries and schools, art courses in universities and teachers' colleges and for a reappraisal of the function of art in education. Activities inspired or renewed in large centers were in the course of time followed by efforts in small communities, including Ann Arbor and other university centers; many of the local efforts were not isolated phenomena but part of the widespreading movement.

The Ann Arbor Art Association was formed early in 1909 to promote "the art interests of the city of Ann Arbor." Thus it was not strictly a faculty club. It was stated at the preliminary meeting that there was to be fostered a more general appreciation of art among citizens and students, and one of the objectives was the establishment of a chair of fine arts in the University; current art was to be reflected in exhibitions and lectures and local creative effort was to be encouraged. Dues were fixed at fifty cents per annum, with every walk of life represented in the membership.

Alumni Memorial Hall, with its galleries and other facilities, then in course of construction, was to be the center of activities. This building, however, was not available in 1909 and the first exhibition of the Art Association was held in the Ann Arbor High School, May 12 to 22. Screens were built in the school auditorium forming alcoves for showing a wide range of art objects loaned by residents and others. This first exhibition proved a success, and the receipts sufficed to pay all expenses; school children were admitted free.

For thirty-two years an unbroken series of exhibitions followed, one of the most unique of which was one held in connection with the dedication of Alumni Memorial Hall. This exhibition, composed of pictures by representative American artists, including a special group of works by Michigan painters, and Mr. Charles L. Freer's superb collection of painted Oriental screens not only attracted the general public but Page  420drew experts from distant cities. A beautifully illustrated catalogue was provided, the net income from which was presented to the Association by Mr. Freer, who also paid all the expenses of the exhibition, and at its close presented to the University a full-sized cast of the Winged Victory of Samothrace. No more important exhibition had ever been held in the state, and did much to establish and give art a place on the campus.

Other exhibitions of the first rank were the International Water Color Exhibit in 1924, and paintings from the Carnegie International Exhibition, Pittsburgh, in 1925; to the latter there were nearly 3,000 paid admissions. Nicholas Roerich, the Russian painter and founder of the Roerich Institute in New York, provided the first one-man exhibition in 1922; while Charles Herbert Woodbury, Birge Harrison, and other American painters were similarly featured. A retrospective exhibition of the state's most famous painter, Gari Melchers, was hung in 1934.

The Association's program was gradually extended until hardly a month passed without something of art interest on view. All phases of art have been represented in the more than 225 exhibitions at a cost of above $20,000. First-class art collections can rarely be brought to Ann Arbor, not only because they are very expensive — the Carnegie collection cost nearly $1,000 — but because of the paucity of sales. Yet in spite of these limitations the Association's exhibitions have included works illustrating the entire field of painting, during a time when artists were seeking new modes of expression, ranging from the ultraconservative to the other extreme.

The annual exhibition of works by local professional, amateur, and student artists has steadily improved in quality; the local group of exhibitors has grown so that it is now regularly represented in Detroit and other exhibition centers. Local public-school art teachers have been encouraged to bring their classes to the exhibitions, and for them studies by the gifted children in Professor Cizek's classes in Vienna, subsequently shown at the Chicago Exposition in 1933, were brought to Ann Arbor.

Receptions, teas, and gallery talks on the exhibits have been features of the program. The attendance at exhibitions, however, has consisted so largely of members and nonpaying students that receipts from admission fees have not bulked large in the annual budget of the Association. Experience in Ann Arbor as well as elsewhere indicates that art exhibitions, unlike certain other attractions, must in general be subsidized. Most of the income from all sources has been absorbed by expenses — exhibition rental fees, transportation, insurance, labor and printing costs, the University permitting use of the galleries without cost.

Partly through the initiative of the Association, the teaching of art history in the University became a reality in 1911, after the Association had been providing a lecture program for some years by professors from other universities.

The Association was incorporated in 1922, from which time until 1932 its modest income was augmented by an annual grant of $500 from the Board of Regents, since the exhibitions were considered of value to students, who enjoyed free admission. Moreover, the large lecture courses in art history were conducted in the west gallery, and therefore an admission charge was ordinarily impossible. The appreciation of the Ann Arbor School Board was also shown in 1925 by a gift of $100 to the Association.

A bequest of $1,000 by Miss Katherine H. Douglas was made in 1922 for the purchase of paintings. With a view to increasing income and starting an art collection, for which the University lacked Page  421funds, a campaign was conducted during the presidency of Dr. W. P. Lombard in 1926 for life members and patrons; the first made a single payment of $100, others contributed $10 or more annually. Payments by life members were to form an endowment fund the income from which could be used to purchase pictures; while expenditures for current expenses were to be limited to receipts from patrons and other annual members. From these sources a substantial sum was raised from which, together with the Douglas fund, a number of paintings and prints were purchased in 1932, which are now housed in Alumni Memorial Hall.

Among other early activities of the Association was the organizing of visits to art exhibits in near-by cities; notable was that to the distinguished inaugural exhibit of the Toledo Museum of Art in 1912 by 409 art lovers via special train. A lending service through which pictures could be rented to individuals was carried on for a time and a state federation of art associations was started for the circulation of exhibitions, which proved impractical. Affiliation with the American Federation of Art and the College Art Association, of more recent organization, has been maintained and has facilitated securing exhibits at reduced cost.

During recent years, and increasingly since the University withdrew its support in 1932, the Association's program has been limited necessarily. Exhibitions were continued, nevertheless, and some further purchases made, largely of prints, to encourage artists, who, like musicians, actors, and lecturers, must also eat. An article of the original bylaws in 1909 provided for the purchase of art works after current expenses have been met, and in the course of time some substantial purchases of desirable pictures were made with the aim of building an art collection. Financially, the status of the Association remains sound, with a substantial savings account, with part of its investments intact, and as owner of some valuable paintings and prints.

The experience of the Association reveals that all too few persons are sufficiently interested to pay for art exhibitions a fraction of the amount freely expended on other forms of entertainment. Yet many residents and many students who have left Ann Arbor have gained some knowledge of current art who without the Association's initiative would have had no opportunities for first-hand observation, which is all the more important because so many of the students come from communities where art exhibits cannot be seen.

The Ann Arbor Association has demonstrated the value of having a large group of individuals, University affiliates and Ann Arbor citizens, willing to contribute time and funds for a cultural interest. Its operation has to some extent shown the limitations imposed by dependence on largely volunteer work. However, the original and fundamental aims of the Association have been realized and the groundwork has been laid for development in Ann Arbor's art field. A constructive service has been rendered in a direction practically barren of effort before 1909, when the Association was born, and both the community and the University are the richer because of the devotion of a long line of enthusiasts who shared the belief that an essential part of a liberal education and of a well-rounded life is some appreciation of meaning and beauty as interpreted in the arts of design.

Art Works Owned by the Association

    Oil Paintings
  • Alexander Brook.....Nude on a Navajo Blanket
  • Th. Hagen.....The Park
  • Henry Lee McFee.....Buildings
  • Niles Spencer.....In the Town
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    Water Colors
  • Edmund S. Campbell.....Sunset After Rain, Luxembourg Gardens, Paris
  • Myron B. Chapin.....Willows at East End
  • Francis Danovich.....Ambassador Bridge
  • David Fredenthal.....Subway
  • (Julius) Lars Hoftrup.....Harbor Scene
  • Jean Paul Slusser.....The Green Cottage
    Prints
  • 7 lithographs, 3 etchings 1 mezzotint, 1 aquatint, 1 woodblock