THE UNIVERSITY SENATE AND THE SENATE COUNCIL
WHEN President Tappan appeared for the first time in a Regents' meeting, on December 21, 1852, two departments of the University were in operation, the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, in early days referred to as the "Academical Department," and the Department of Medicine and Surgery, often called the "Medical Department." After Tappan had been here three years a general revision of the code of rules and regulations governing the "academical" faculty was undertaken, with a view to publication. In the completed code, adopted by the Regents in June, 1855, there is no mention of the University Senate. The date of its organization is uncertain. However, there is a record of a joint meeting of the faculties and the Regents on March 26, 1857 (MS, "Faculty Records," 1846-58, pp. 345-47). Also we know that the entire faculty of the University, in December, 1857, joined in a memorial to the Regents on the moral conduct of the students and the means employed to impress upon them sound moral and religious principles. At the same time a similarly signed memorial was directed to the mayor and common council of Ann Arbor, petitioning for a stricter enforcement of the laws of the town.
In March, 1859, the Regents adopted another revision of the rules and regulations. This document provided that, in order "to represent the University in general and as one institution, the professors of the several Faculties shall constitute a University Senate." The bylaws further stipulated that general parliamentary rules, as modified by rules and regulations of the Board of Regents, were to be observed in conducting the business of the University Senate. The Senate was to designate the time of daily prayers, which all the "academical" students were required to attend. The Senate was composed of the professors of all the faculties, but provision was made for a department of study to be represented by an assistant professor when there was no man of full rank. The president of the University served as president of the Senate, and a secretary was chosen from its own members. A majority of the Senate constituted a quorum, but no action of the Senate bound a faculty unless one of its members was present. The regular meetings were held on the first Monday of each month, and provision was made for special meetings. The Senate was charged with the responsibility of communicating its views to the Board of Regents, not only upon questions pertaining to the University, but also upon questions concerning the progress of education, science, and literature throughout the state.
It is possible that the University Senate had been organized for some time before the formulation of the 1859 code and that the Senate procedures as outlined therein were well established. If so, at least this was the first occasion upon which the Senate's existence and powers were formally recognized by the Regents.
On June 28, 1859, the Regents referred to the general faculties for consideration the code of rules and regulations which had been presented by the committee on that subject and requested that the faculties suggest to the Board such modifications as they might deem expedient. Two days later the Board ordered that an exception to the rule be made in the Page 232case of two assistant professors, by which action they were entitled to vote in the Senate meetings. The Board also directed that "it shall be the duty of instructors to attend upon the meetings of the appropriate Faculties and also of the University Senate, where they shall be entitled to sit but not to vote as members of the same." This is the first definite reference to the Senate in the Regents' Proceedings (1837-64, p. 855).
Soon after the change of administration in 1863 the Senate passed resolutions expressing its sense of duty to promote University welfare and pledging its support during that trying period. It also voiced full confidence in the character and ability of President Haven and at the same time expressed personal regard for Dr. Tappan and cordial wishes for his future happiness and usefulness.
The existence of an executive committee of the Senate early in the Haven administration is known from the record of an appointment by the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts on December 5, 1864, when Professor Lucius D. Chapin was designated to serve on such a committee (MS, "Faculty Records," 1864-78, p. 10). The diary of Professor Alexander Winchell reveals that three days earlier the Senate had organized "a system of Literary and Social exercises to embrace all adult members of the Professors' families and such other persons of literary or scientific eminence as the Senate may invite" (Winchell, MS, "Diary," 1864-66, pp. 117-18). A similar proposal had been made by Professors Brünnow and Frieze in 1856 (MS, "Faculty Records," 1846-58, pp. 332-33).
The first "conversazione" of the University Senate was held at the home of President Haven on January 13, 1865, at which time he read an essay entitled "Origin of Public Opinion." Winchell records in his diary that at the Senate social on January 26, 1866, he presented a paper on "Woman"; the essay occupies sixty-six pages in his series of manuscript volumes of nonacademic speeches entitled "Popular" (I: 39-104). He records also that he wrote it in three days, that it took him one and three-eighths hours to present it, and that the discussion lasted until the meeting broke up. In this exposition he observed that by many peoples woman is considered inferior to man, but he maintained the equivalence of the sexes physically and mentally. He advocated that woman should have equal voice with man in affairs of state, the right to vote and to hold public office, equal proprietary rights, and equal educational privileges in all departments of the University. The Ann Arbor newspaper which reported the program related that the conversation which followed this address "was one of pleasantry and gallantry with no distinct opinions."
The Senate, or its executive committee, continued to hold business sessions. There is record of a meeting on January 14, 1864 — with fourteen members present, including President Haven — in which the Senate considered a protest implying interference by the former Board of Regents in the interior management of the University and improper meddling with the administration of University officers. The Senate passed a resolution to the effect that these accusations were false, that the Board had treated the faculty with consideration, and that internal management had not been interfered with; and the matter was referred to the superintendent of public instruction. Thomas M. Cooley was secretary of the Senate at the time.
In 1865 the Regents authorized Andrew Ten Brook, Librarian, to meet with the University Senate as an honorary member ex officio. In 1869 the librarian was constituted a regular member. It was in this same year that the Senate Page 233was called upon to make a report on the possible establishment of a gymnasium and to suggest the relationship of such an institution to the course of study. Four months later, in June, 1870, a committee presented a report advocating the building of an adequate gymnasium and the establishment of a department of hygiene and physical culture, to be in the charge of a man of full academic rank. The Senate did not press for any immediate action, because of the limitations of the University funds.
The social and literary meetings were held for many years. Acting President Frieze thought them conducive of unity and harmony, and in a letter to James B. Angell wrote:
I did not think to speak with you, among other things, of this characteristic institution of ours, the Senate. We meet about once a fortnight during the session of the three departments — for reading literary and scientific papers, one at each meeting, and then for an hour or two of social enjoyment. The meetings are held "round" at the houses of Professors. Result good every way.
(Vermont to Michigan, p. 119.)
The University Senate took an active interest in inviting James Burrill Angell to the presidency of the University. At the special meeting held on September 25, 1869, the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted:
Whereas, We understand that the Regents of the Michigan University have tendered to Dr. James B. Angell the Presidency of the University,
Resolved, That we heartily concur in the appointment, and desire to express to Dr. Angell our confidence in his fitness for the position, our earnest wish that he may be induced to accept it, and an assurance of our faithful co-operation in the discharge of the duties which would be incumbent upon him in the management of the institution.
- H. S. Frieze, Presid't of the Senate
- C. K. Adams, Secy. of the Senate
Very little is known of the activity of the University Senate during the first ten years of President Angell's administration. Only one communication of importance to the Board of Regents is recorded during this period. It expresses the opinion that it is not desirable to restrict the power of conferring honorary degrees by the Board, and is signed by H. B. Hutchins.
William H. Pettee, Professor of Mineralogy, Economic Geology, and Mining Engineering, was elected secretary in October, 1881. He recorded on March 15, 1882: "The book containing the earlier records of the University Senate, from the date of its organization down to about the year 1879, has unfortunately been lost or mislaid; and all efforts to recover it have so far been unsuccessful." He began his records by copying from the minutes of November, 1880, and of August 2 and 5 and September 5, 1881, taken by Charles Kendall Adams, Secretary pro tem. The records of the University Senate from 1882 to the present are complete.
During President Angell's administration, the University Senate gave attention to many invitations to participate in the celebration of the anniversaries of other universities. Among them were the University of Bologna, which was celebrating its eight-hundredth anniversary, Harvard University, the University of Halle, and Columbia University, in addition to invitations for official delegates at Edinburgh, at Glasgow, at Winchester, at Moscow, and at the dedication of the Yerkes Observatory on Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. Consideration was also given to a possible exhibit at the New Orleans World's Fair, and plans were formulated for the semicentennial of the University of Michigan in 1887. When President Angell had completed twenty-five years of service, the Senate decided that the occasion deserved recognition and raised Page 234$1,000 to finance the functions of that occasion.
Early in the Angell administration it was customary for the Senate to make a public demonstration of its concern at the death of a member or former member of the staff. Occasionally, when the death occurred outside Ann Arbor, the entire University Senate or one of its committees went to the railroad station, met the relatives who brought the body, and became a part of the cortege to the cemetery. The body of James C. Watson, famous former member of the faculty who died in 1880, lay in state in University Hall until the funeral. The hall was draped in mourning, and the arrangements for the funeral were made by a Senate committee. At the death of Elisha Jones in 1888 the whole Senate attended the funeral. Special sessions were called, on occasion, at which memorials to the deceased were read, but in later years these memorials were presented at meetings called for other purposes. In all, thirty-one faculty members and former governors were memorialized. After the death of Mrs. Angell the Senate convened to express its sympathy and condolences to the President and to record high appreciation of her life and influence in the University community.
During these same years the Senate was concerned with the calendar of the University. The several departments were operating on academic years of different lengths. Gradually these were brought into uniformity. The first use of standard time occurred December 3, 1883, but later the University returned to sun time. This matter was before the Senate for about ten years, and finally standard time was adopted in 1902.
It was during this administration that athletics, in particular intercollegiate athletics, grew in importance in University life. The Senate was continually giving consideration to the supervision of student activities in this direction. Finally a board in control of athletics was organized and its annual reports were required to be read before the Senate. At the same time, to supervise the other student activities, a committee on nonathletic organizations came into existence.
As bicycles became more and more popular they created such a problem that they were considered a menace to the University campus. Regulations were adopted requiring that they travel at no greater speed than seven miles an hour and that they be equipped with bells and lanterns.
Even in the early stages of the Michigan Union that organization was recognized as so important that its financial secretary was elected by the University Senate. Henry M. Bates first served in this capacity. During the same period the Senate was concerned with the question of academic dress at official occasions. It was not until December, 1904, that definite action was taken with respect to this matter. The need for uniformity in admission requirements and in the discipline of students was continually a matter of discussion in the Senate. The development of a gymnasium and the establishment of an interval of five minutes between classes came about as a result of Senate action.
As the University grew, the Senate became so large that an executive committee, called the Senate Council, was organized in June, 1906. This group was composed of the president, the deans, one member each from the professional faculties, selected by them, and two from the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, similarly chosen. Its purpose was to develop the influence of the Senate in University affairs.
One of the first topics that came before the University Senate after Harry B. Page 235Hutchins became President was the problem of campus sanitation, that is, the physical condition and appearance of the campus, protection against contagious diseases, and examination of the water system of Ann Arbor for the protection of the health of the University community. The inadequacy of the temporary quarters of the Michigan Union received the attention of the Senate, which passed resolutions in favor of a new building, with requests for alumni assistance in its erection (see Parts VIII and IX: The Michigan Union). The dedication of Hill Auditorium was planned by the Senate. The scale of University salaries, both in the academic year and in the summer session, received repeated consideration. Student affairs that were frequently discussed included the athletic situation, and arguments were presented relative to the return to the Western Conference. The discipline of students was placed under a standing committee, and the name of the committee on nonathletic organizations was changed to the committee on student affairs. The continuance or discontinuance of the J-Hop was repeatedly discussed.
The problems of foreign students were placed under a committee of advisers, and the Regents were petitioned to create an office of assistant to the president in relation to student activities. The faculty was much concerned with the question of academic dress and acquiesced in its use for Commencement and for a few special events, but objected to its use on numerous other occasions. In 1912, azure blue and maize were readopted from an original act of 1867 as the official colors of the University.
Again, in Hutchins' administration, the Senate passed resolutions in favor of a freer discussion of University problems in that body, voted for four regular meetings with the agenda announced forty-eight hours in advance, and provided for annual reports of all standing committees. At the initiative of Fred L. Keeler, Superintendent of Public Instruction, the University joined in a memorial service to President Angell soon after his death. The public and private schools generally over the state were encouraged to participate in similar meetings.
President Hutchins' leadership covers the period of the World War. It was during that time that military training was developed on the campus. The University Senate was in favor of making it compulsory, but the Regents authorized voluntary training. Prohibition in wartime was favored by the Senate, and resolutions expressing this sentiment were forwarded to President Wilson and to the members of Congress from Michigan. The public expression of members of the faculty in the aftermath of the war was a matter of great concern to the Senate. In the ten years of President Hutchins' administration there were read before the University Senate thirteen memorials to members of the faculty who had died. For this purpose no special meetings were called, the committees reporting either before or after the transaction of business.
During President Burton's administration the University Senate undertook the reorganization of the Executive Board of the Graduate School. It also initiated the committee on publications for the official announcements of the University. The committee on student affairs was reorganized, with the dean of students as chairman and the dean of women as a member ex officio. The purpose and function of the extension lectures received attention, and the University committee on discipline was organized to function by its present methods, though it was at that time a separate entity. The Senate heard memorials Page 236to eleven former members of the faculty read. Upon the initiative of Professor Kelsey, the Senate gave consideration to the revival of daily chapel exercises and midweek religious services. The Honors Convocation was organized in this period. At a number of meetings the question of the functions of the Senate received attention. One proposal was that debates on educational problems be held before the Senate. Favor was expressed toward the development of a naval-training unit. It was during Burton's administration that a definite formulation of academic requirements for appointment and promotion of the faculty was accomplished.
In December, 1922, the membership was authorized by the Regents as follows: the University Senate should consist of the president of the University as ex officio chairman, all the teaching force above the rank of instructor, and other administrative officers whose membership the Regents from time to time might authorize. The Board defined the functions of the Senate as follows (Bylaws, 1922, p. 20):
- a) The University Senate is authorized and expected to originate and consider measures for the maintenance of a liberal and comprehensive policy of education; for the maximum utilization of the intellectual resources of the University; for the government, guidance, and discipline of the student body and the oversight of its activities; and, generally, to consider all subjects that relate to the usefulness, leadership, and effectiveness of the University, and to the co-ordination of the functions of its several schools and colleges; and to make recommendations thereon to the Regents.
- b) It may require gymnasium work of the students, under conditions approved by the Board of Regents.
During the short term of Acting President Lloyd, the University Senate had two meetings, both of which were devoted to the reading of memorials to members of the faculty, including Marion LeRoy Burton. It also received from the University of Minnesota and Smith College statements of appreciation of the late President Burton, who had been their former president.
During the four years of President Little's administration the Senate met twenty times. It provided the manner of selection of the recipient of the Henry Russel Award, which had been established by the Regents for conspicuous service to the University by a member of the faculty of lower than professorial rank. The Senate also concerned itself with the congestion which had developed in parking automobiles on the campus and authorized a committee to formulate regulations for this matter. There was a reorganization of the committee on student affairs, and the calendar was revised. The librarian was given the status of a dean. Thirteen memorials were presented.
A matter of great concern in the early months of President Little's regime was the place of physical education in the University and the University's responsibility in such matters. A study was made by a special committee on University athletics, under the leadership of Dean Edmund E. Day, this committee having been appointed by Acting President Lloyd. The study was carried on over a number of months. The report advocated additional requirements of physical education in the curricula of the University, the erection of a stadium for intercollegiate football and of other structures for intramural sports for both men and women, and the recasting of the governing board dealing with these matters.
In an attempt to bring about a freer discussion of University problems, the Senate Council was reorganized to include in its membership, besides the president, deans, and the director of the Extension Division, nineteen members Page 237chosen by the faculties of the several schools and colleges. These elected representatives constituted a committee of the Senate on University affairs, charged with the responsibility of formulating recommendations to the president and the Board of Regents or to the president and the University Senate. During the two years of its existence a wide range of topics received consideration.
To the University Senate, President Little brought a proposal for the organization of a new unit to be known as the University College. This was presented through a large committee on undergraduate studies, which worked for approximately two years on the subject.
President Ruthven presided for the first time at the meeting of the University Senate on November 11, 1929. Shortly, the Senate combined the committee on vocational counsel and placement and the Teachers' Placement Bureau to form the University Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information. Provision was made for University committees on accredited schools, on the lectures of the Oratorical Association, and on theater policy and practice. On April 10, 1930, a special meeting of the Senate was called to receive the memorials to Robert M. Wenley, Charles H. Cooley, Ralph H. Curtiss, and Judge Victor H. Lane. A few months later the Senate decided that memorials in the future were to be presented to the faculty with which the deceased member had been associated.
On May 11, 1931, the Senate Council presented a plan for a new organization, the University Council, to be composed of administrative officers appointed by the president and of representatives selected by the several faculties. The Senate delegated its functions to the new council but retained the right of review. The Senate Council and the Senate committee on University affairs were abolished. A statement of the new council's activities is placed in a separate article (see Part II: The University Council).
At the meetings of December 14, 1936, and January 25, 1937, the Senate considered the possibility of a more adequate expression of faculty opinion in the affairs of the University. It voted that there should be held each year at least two meetings of the Senate and advised that a study be made of the operations of the University Council. It provided for the election by the Senate of an advisory committee on University affairs. This committee consults with the president from time to time and holds membership in the University Council.
The first secretary of the Senate, so far as is known from the records, was Thomas M. Cooley, who signed a document on January 14, 1864, in the aftermath of the Tappan crisis (Ten Brook, p. 249). Charles Kendall Adams was serving in this capacity on September 25, 1869, when the Senate endorsed the invitation to the presidency extended to James B. Angell (Vermont to Michigan, p. 119). Harry B. Hutchins was secretary later, as indicated by a communication to the Regents, dated June 23, 1874, concerning the policy of granting honorary degrees. Charles K. Adams was acting pro tem in the summer and fall of 1881, when memorials were presented to James Craig Watson, Governor J. J. Bagley, Erastus O. Haven, and George P. Williams. The first election of a secretary of which there is record is that of William H. Pettee on October 10, 1881. He served until his death, May 26, 1904. He was succeeded by John O. Reed, whose tenure of office was three and one-half years, and then by Fred N. Scott for one year. Arthur G. Hall was secretary for six years, and Joseph L. Markley and John W. Bradshaw for eight years each. The present secretary, Louis A. Hopkins, was elected May 12, 1930.
Constitutional Provisions, Laws and By-Laws of the University of Michigan …, 1864. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1864.
Constitutional Provisions, Laws and By-Laws of the University of Michigan …, 1883. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1883.
From Vermont to Michigan; Correspondence of James Burrill Angell: 1869-1871. Ed. by Wilfred B. Shaw. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1936. (Vermont to Michigan.)
General Rules and Regulations, and By-Laws of the University of Michigan …, 1859. Detroit: Univ. Mich., 1859. (Bylaws, 1859.)
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Laws, Ordinances, By-Laws and Regulations …, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1861.
MS, "Minutes of the Senate Council," 1906-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1881-1940. Univ. Mich.
Organization and Aims of the University of Michigan as Reflected in Its By-Laws …, 1922. Comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923. Pp. i-xix, 1-94. (Bylaws, 1922.)
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Dept. of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," Univ. Mich., 1846-78. ("Faculty Records.")
Ten Brook, Andrew. American State Universities: Their Origin and Progress. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke and Co., 1875.
University of Michigan Council and Senate Records, 1929-1932. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1932.
University of Michigan Council and Senate Records, 1932-1934. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1935.
University of Michigan Council and Senate Records, 1934-1936. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1936.
University of Michigan: Its Origin, Growth, and Principles of Government. Comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923. Pp. 1-50.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)
Winchell, Alexander. MS, "Diary," 1864-66. In Alexander Winchell Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Winchell, Alexander. MS, "Popular [Essays]." Vol. I. In Alexander Winchell Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL
THE University Council was created by the University Senate on May 11, 1931, and was approved by the Regents on May 29. Those constituting the initial membership were the president of the University, ex officio, twenty-two ex officio members selected by him, and thirty-four representatives elected by the several faculties.
In June, 1940, the ex officio membership, which has varied in number from time to time, consisted of the president of the University, the assistant to the president, the vice-presidents, the deans, the directors of several units and divisions (the College of Pharmacy, the Department of Postgraduate Medicine, the Division of Hygiene and Public Health, the Summer Session, the University Extension Service, the University Hospital, and the University Museums), the president of the School of Music, the librarian of the University, and the registrar.
The numbers of representatives of the several schools and colleges are as follows: College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, fourteen members; College of Engineering, four; College of Architecture and Design, two; Medical School, three; Law School, two; School of Dentistry, two; School of Education, three; College of Pharmacy, one; School of Business Administration, one; School of Page 239Forestry and Conservation, one; and School of Music, one.
Also on the University Council are the members of the Senate advisory committee on University affairs, which is composed of twelve persons elected by the University Senate and chosen for staggered terms without regard to their membership in the University Council.
The ex officio members are appointed by the president for indefinite terms. The faculties are at liberty to name their representatives in such manner and for such terms of office as they may severally determine.
To the University Council were transferred the powers of the University Senate, though the latter body retains the right of review over the legislative actions of the University Council.
The University Council holds eight regular meetings each year, the second Monday of the months from October to May, inclusive, and special meetings may be called as occasion requires. The majority of its members constitutes a quorum. The Council is concerned with academic policies which affect the University as a whole, or which concern two or more schools or colleges. All University administrative boards and committees within its jurisdiction are required to report annually.
The Council has five standing committees, which cover the fields, respectively, of (a) program and policy, (b) educational policies, (c) student relations, (d) public relations, and (e) plant and equipment.
The committee on program and policy is composed of the president of the University, the vice-chairman of the Council, the secretary, and the chairmen of the four other standing committees. Each of these committees has seven members appointed by the president. The committee on program and policy considers those matters which may be referred to it by the president or by other standing committees, and is charged with the preparation of the program for the meetings of the Council. The other four standing committees have within their general jurisdiction the University administrative and advisory boards and committees.
During the nine years since its organization, the University Council has abolished a number of University committees which had become inactive, or whose functions more appropriately belonged to other committees. Also it has created or recommended to the Regents the organization of many new administrative and advisory groups. Among them are the committee on honorary degrees, the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, with its subcommittees on relations with secondary schools and on relations with institutions of higher education, an advisory committee on the Department of Military Science and Tactics, one dealing with problems of foreign students, and another administering the program of the Orientation Period.
The methods of procedure in the administration of student affairs received the attention of the Council in a series of meetings, and a definite organization chart was adopted. A University committee on student conduct was set up, with the dean of students as chairman, and within this body, a subcommittee on discipline. The administrative control of broadcasting was put under the University Extension Service. A new committee on University lectures was organized to take over the functions of the Oratorical Association. The personnel of the Board in Control of Student Publications received attention and its functions were outlined, and the duties of the committee on theater policy and practice were redefined. Under the direction of the Council, an experimental advisory group was concerned with the administration Page 240of the General Library resulted in the appointment of a permanent council to advise with the University librarian.
Many meetings were devoted to the consideration of the program of physical education. These discussions resulted in a change of name — the Board in Control of Athletics to the Board in Control of Physical Education — and definite regulations were adopted with respect to the amount and place of physical education in the curricula of the University. Procedure was determined for proposals for material changes and additions in the offerings of departments, particularly departmental changes directly affecting the programs of more than one department. The Council encouraged the several schools and colleges to establish nonfinancial honors for students with the use of the term "scholar" preceded by the name of some distinguished deceased professor. The program of Commencement exercises, the University calendar, and the regulations for academic dress were definitely formulated. The Council recognized a need for the restatement of the standards for promotion of the faculty of the University from one grade to another, and definitely stated the general qualifications represented by each grade.
The Council also formulated the limitations under which the faculty could engage in outside employment. It secured the compilation of all the degrees granted by the University for record in its proceedings and in the minutes of the Regents. It suggested the privileges which men on the faculty should enjoy upon retirement due to age. The development of the Mall and the location of the new buildings, the Burton Memorial Tower and the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, were considered by the University Council before construction began. Also, the problems arising from a proposal to extend the University Library have greatly concerned the Council.
In addition to these special matters, the reports of the administrative and advisory boards and committees have regularly constituted a part of the program. The Council elects the Senate representatives on the Board of Directors of the Michigan Union, and receives for permanent record the memorials to deceased members of the Senate.
Members of the faculty are encouraged to present to the Council their suggestions for the betterment of the University. The usual procedure is to consider the communications at regular meetings of the University Council, and then, in the light of the discussion, refer each communication to the standing committee to which the subject matter seems appropriate. The standing committee then proceeds to a detailed consideration, calling into its deliberations members of the faculty or other officers of the University who may be interested or concerned. After these conferences, the standing committee reports its findings to the University Council, which either takes final action or, should the topic concern the Regents, forwards the report to the Board for consideration, along with the Council's recommendations.
MS, "Minutes of the University Council," 1931-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1931-40. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1930-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1929-40.
University Regulations Concerning Student Affairs, Conduct, and Discipline, 1937 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 39, No. 39). Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1937. 36 pp.
THE OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR
THE oldest existing record of the kind of work now done in the Registrar's Office is contained in the first catalogue of the University, which was published by the faculty of four men in 1843. In this interesting twelve-page booklet the students were listed by class, and a small numerical summary, the beginning of an uninterrupted series of enrollment tables, was also included.
The only faculty during the first nine years of instruction in Ann Arbor, 1841-50, was that of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and the earliest official who had the duties of a registrar was the secretary of the faculty. It was in the spring of 1846, when the faculty authorized a permanent written record of its proceedings, that this office was created, and it was filled by the election of a different person every year, as was the position of president of the faculty. These two were the only officials in the University before the formation of the Medical School, with faculty officers of its own, in 1850. None of these were officials of the central University administration, as the term is now understood; they were under the authority of their respective faculties, and until the inauguration of President Henry Philip Tappan in 1852, the faculties were directly responsible to the Board of Regents.
The present registrarship, although a part of the central administration, evolved directly from the faculty secretaryship of the Department (now College) of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In the years 1863-72 that faculty elected both a secretary and a registrar, and the two offices were not held by any man simultaneously. With this exception, the officer known as secretary of the faculty until 1888 performed ex officio the services of a registrar. Likewise, from 1888 until 1925, the officer called the registrar sent out notices of faculty meetings and kept the faculty minutes.
Subject to the approval of the Regents, the faculty of the 1840's determined, or at least altered, the requirements for entrance and graduation. Presumably, such of its rules as were not expressly disapproved by the Regents were put into effect.
The rudimentary nature of the education offered by secondary schools made the problem of admissions difficult (see Part I: Branches). It had been expected that the students who completed the work of the University's branch schools could make the transition into the University without special examination. But the Regents thought it wise to establish a special "preparatory school" in Ann Arbor at the time when they opened the University in September, 1841, so that if any students unprepared for even the freshman class should present themselves (supposedly from schools in other localities), they could make up their deficiencies (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 208, 212). It is revealed by a faculty discussion in May, 1846, that up to that time the University had admitted students from its branches without examination, but that the quality of their preparation had not pleased the faculty. One professor proposed a measure to require all students, "without exception," to pass the standard entrance examinations before being admitted, but action was postponed. Two months later several resolutions with regard to admission were passed, and the requirement thereby set up was that no student could be admitted into any class, freshman or higher, without examination satisfactory to the faculty. According to Page 242other rules then drafted, one final examination embracing the year's work was given at the end of the year to all freshmen, another to the sophomores, and so on; and in December, 1846, the faculty decided to give a supplementary examination to each of the four classes just before Easter, over the work of the first two terms. (At that time there were three terms, the last extending from Easter vacation until Commencement in the month of August. It was not until 1852 that the school year was shortened, and the three terms were retained until 1855.)
Secretary of the faculty, 1846. — The duties outlined for the secretary of the faculty in 1846 included the keeping of student records, but not notification to students regarding their delinquencies nor the admission of either freshmen or upperclassmen. All the students lived in the building now called Mason Hall. In accordance with the traditional college system then prevalent in America, the faculty took very seriously its responsibility to act in loco parentis and spent many hours upon disciplinary problems. Each case was separately discussed and settled by the convened faculty, and very often the student himself was summoned.
Registration was simple for all except the new students, since the curriculum was single and inflexible, all courses being "required."
The secretary collected the class "merit rolls" from the instructors and made out an average for each student in every subject. In place of the usual finely distinguished comparative grades, only three marks were used in the Literary Department for the first seventy years — Passed, Conditioned, and Not Passed. The secretary also recorded demerit marks given for all violations of good order and for absence from recitations, prayers, and student rooms during study hours. Both scholastic and deportment records were read aloud to the assembled students and faculty members at the close of each term, and the delinquent students were accordingly admonished, conditioned, or dismissed. A condition could be removed by satisfactory standing on a special re-examination, or by good conduct if imposed for disciplinary reasons. A course not passed had to be taken a second time with the class below.
The first medical students came in 1850. The medical faculty regulated their admission and graduation requirements, subject to the approval of the Regents. Not until the formation of the University Senate, about 1858 or at latest 1859, was there again a unified faculty organization of the entire University (see Part II: University Senate and Senate Council). In the meantime a president of the University had been appointed, and the lines of authority and responsibility between the Regents and the staff led through his hands.
The faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts nevertheless continued to elect its own secretary and president every year. Almost the only duty that remained to the president was to conduct faculty meetings in the absence of the University president. By the end of the decade the officer previously called president of the faculty was designated in the University bylaws as vice-president and dean of the faculty (Bylaws, 1859, p. 13).
University enrollment increased during the Tappan administration, 1852-63, from 216 to 652, and enrollment in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, from 60 to 266. The work of admission, of educational counseling, and of academic record-keeping in the department was affected not only by the increase in numbers but also by various new regulations.
Apparently to be in accord with certain provisions of the act of 1851, the Page 243University opened its doors in the fall of 1852 to students not working for degrees. Even for the four-year students, the time for the single, rigid literary curriculum had passed, for they could, if properly prepared — and this involved an alternative set of admission requirements — choose the scientific course leading to the bachelor of science degree. Engineering was introduced as a subdivision of the scientific curriculum. A special sequence of courses in analytical chemistry also was taught.
The only students not required to take the regular freshman entrance examinations were those not working for degrees. A student coming with advanced standing was examined also in all the previous studies of the class he proposed to enter.
The practice of deciding a surprising number of individual student cases in sessions of the whole literary faculty, although necessarily modified by the rapid rise in enrollment and the disuse of North College (Mason Hall) for living quarters by 1857, was continued. Students could be notified of their standing on final examinations only after the faculty had met to determine by formal vote which ones to pass. By 1859, votes involving suspension, expulsion, or final recommendation for a degree were taken by secret ballot. One method of supervision, at any rate, declined. In Regent Kearsley's time there had been oral finals, which two or three Regents attended and then reported upon to the Board; the rules of 1855 and of 1859 contained provision for the appointment of such a committee, but the bylaws of 1861 did not.
The president of the University relieved the faculty officers of many student interviews, as, for example, interviews for permission to leave town or to be absent from church or chapel. Nevertheless, there were many disciplinary rules still administered by the faculty. Every infraction was likely to bring a demerit mark, and any student could "automatically" dismiss himself by obtaining ten such marks. His parents were notified as soon as he had accumulated five. Such was the academic recording assigned to the secretary of the faculty.
Registrar of the faculty, 1863. — The earliest use of the word "registrar" in a title at the University occurred in the autumn of 1863, the first year of the Haven administration, when the two types of duty performed by the secretary since 1846 were separated. Like the dean and the secretary, the registrar was elected for a term of one year. Edward P. Evans, Professor of Modern Languages, was the first. Edward Olney, Professor of Mathematics, was the only one in the early period to hold the office of registrar longer than one year (1864-67). Before the office was discontinued in 1872, the second year of the Angell administration, six men in all, in addition to their teaching, served as registrar of the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The other faculties formed in the meantime, in medicine and in law, made their own provision for such work, but this early position in the Literary Department was the one out of which the present office grew.
Beginning in the fall of 1863, special students were admitted only by fulfilling the entrance requirements for one of the several four-year curriculums. This restriction was relaxed in the autumn of 1878, but then only for persons twenty-one years of age or older. In the meantime, in 1869, the minimum admission age, for special as well as regular students, had been raised from fourteen to sixteen years.
Preparation for the Latin and scientific course, begun in 1867, and for the Greek and scientific course, in 1869, was a little less strictly prescribed than was that for the older courses. These two sets of entrance requirements did not include Page 244the advanced mathematics and physics required of candidates for the regular scientific and the scientific-engineering courses, but were like the requirements for entry into the classical course, except that high-school work in only one of the ancient languages was demanded.
Within the acting presidency of Henry S. Frieze (1869-71; see Part I: Frieze Administration) came two important reforms — the beginning of admission on diploma from approved Michigan high schools, adopted in March, 1871, and the opening of the doors of the University to women, in January, 1870.
Very few women took advantage of the offer at first, but once a start had been made, and perhaps particularly because of President Angell's strong encouragement of coeducation, the percentage of women students began to increase noticeably. This aspect of the enrollment statistics was especially prepared every year — probably by the secretary of the faculty — and was set forth and commented on with evident interest by the President in his annual reports. Women today comprise nearly one-third of the total University enrollment during the regular academic year, and approximately two-fifths of all students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (see Part IX: Coeducation).
Michigan was probably the first American university to admit students on diploma. At any rate, the venture was unusual at the time, and its effects continued to bring forth comment, mostly favorable, even after it had become commonplace.
President Angell not only took a keen interest in these two reforms, but also was impressed by the absence of grades and after a short time became convinced of the "uselessness" of grades "for students like ours." He reported that the teachers inspired the students with enthusiasm and insisted upon such standards that the classwork was better, on the average, than any that he had ever seen (P.R., 1872, p. 8). He was also pleased to observe that the entrance examinations given to prospective students from non-accredited schools were "splendidly rigid." After his first week's experience with the students, in the fall of 1871, he boasted in a letter to his brother-in-law, Peter Collier: "We turned off several who would certainly have got into any of several New England colleges and most of those admitted were conditioned" (Vermont to Michigan, p. 295).
Secretary of the faculty, 1872. — In contrast with the highly satisfactory state of affairs in scholarship, the state of student discipline was far from encouraging (ibid., pp. 280-81, 292-94). It is probable that the need of a single, influential executive authority to remedy the disciplinary situation had something to do with the faculty decision to dispense with the office of registrar, give the secretary the student record-keeping again, and leave the interviewing mostly to the president. Angell himself was undoubtedly eager for all opportunities, such as conducting interviews and answering letters, by which he could personally exert a strong constructive influence on the students; but faculty registrars, carrying a full teaching load and succeeding one another so often that none could acquire much proficiency in the work, could scarcely be expected to have an effective and consistent influence on student discipline.
A determination to watch the results of the diploma plan closely and to make it succeed may have been responsible for the new recording methods introduced in 1871 and 1872. All the extant records for the years preceding 1871, except those included in the academic and alumni catalogues and in the President's Report, are in manuscript volumes now preserved in the Michigan Historical Collections of the University. In addition to the admission Page 245book, two series of progress records had been kept, one called the "Examination Book" (Vol. I, 1852-60, 1867-74) and later known as the "Record of Examinations" (Vol. II, 1871-75), and the so-called "Mark Book." The only mark used in the examination-record series after 1871 was "P," probably for "Passed." The new record forms were printed on cards, and were adopted in November, 1871. All but a very few of them are intact; they are now in one large set of permanent-record cards for the period 1871-1925, in the basement vault in Angell Hall.
Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 1888. — Upon the resignation of Francis A. Blackburn as Secretary of the Faculty, in May, 1875, Paul R. B. de Pont, Instructor in French, was elected. This date proved to be a turning point, for he was re-elected the next year and regularly thereafter, until, in 1888, the Regents appointed him Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts — the first sign that the tenure of this office might become indefinite. He continued to teach, his promotion to the assistant professorship having come when he was appointed Registrar. Though the word "faculty" was not in his title, he wrote and kept the faculty minutes of the Literary Department as before, but signed them as "registrar."
From a statement of President Angell's it has been commonly supposed that there was no dean in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. What the President said was:
In order to keep in close touch with students, … for several years I discharged the duties now  assigned to a Dean. I registered all newcomers; I granted (or refused) excuses for absence. I took the initiative in examining all cases for discipline.
(Angell, p. 242.)
The faculty minutes show that the election of a dean of the faculty was held every year after Angell's coming as before, until Henry S. Frieze had held it so long that his tenure was taken for granted, although the Calendar of 1885-86 was the earliest published record in which this was given as a part of his full official title. (A dean of the faculty of every school or college had been designated somewhere in the Calendar ever since 1875, however, heading the list of its students, and in the instances of the Department of Law and the Department of Medicine and Surgery, deans had been officially designated even earlier.)
The division of duties among the three officers — president, dean, and registrar — is by no means clear. It was apparently about the time of Professor Frieze's death, December, 1889, that the officers of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts began to take a more active part in dealing with the students. The duties of Frieze as Dean were so light that Dean Effinger, who was then a student and who soon afterward joined the faculty, has written:
It will be remembered that for many years the College… had no Dean.… When Professor D'Ooge was appointed  … he became an assistant to the President in these matters and assumed the duties of an admission officer. Professor Hudson  … had increased responsibility.… With the appointment of Dean Reed , the President gave up almost entirely any active participation in the administrative work of the College.
(Effinger, MS, "Report," 1909-20, p. 5.)
Apparently no attempt was made to assign the deanship to anyone else after Frieze's death until, in the spring of 1890, the Regents requested the faculty to indicate its choice. Martin L. D'Ooge was then nominated, and was made Dean of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts by appointment of the Regents in June, 1890. He continued in the Page 246office by repeated faculty nomination and regental reappointment. The small additional compensation he received as early as 1893 and the registration directions in the Calendar of 1895-96 indicate that more duties were being delegated to his office, but D'Ooge continued to teach about four courses each semester as long as he was Dean, and meanwhile Registrar de Pont also regularly taught three or four classes. As late as 1890-91, when 1,175 were enrolled in the Literary Department, President Angell was still dealing individually with all requests for out-of-town permission, and his personal correspondence with prospective students did not diminish until about 1897. Instructors dealt with tardiness, absence, deficiencies, and violations of good order in their own classes and brought only their worst disciplinary and attendance problems to the whole faculty for settlement.
In 1895-96, for the first time, all incoming students in the department took their credentials directly to the dean (Cal., 1895-96); previously they had gone to the president. Checking of admission credit was divided between dean and registrar, the dean specifically handling all incoming transcripts for credit of one or more college years. The registrar passed upon admissions of freshmen who had the customary preparation, and also of those with a very small amount of advanced credit or with extra high-school credit. Registrar de Pont probably did not have sole authority over freshman admissions, either before or very soon after D'Ooge's appointment as Dean. He had routine responsibilities that required many student interviews, however, and in general acted as intermediary between students and faculty in all matters involving study loads and student records. For example, by 1890-91 it was customary for an undergraduate who wished to proceed in his third year on the university system (see Part III: University System) to present his request to the registrar, who, if the student's work promised success, furnished him with a certificate and referred him to the appropriate faculty committee.
In the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts the academic record-keeping and the work of admission were affected not only by the general rise in enrollment, but also by the inclusion and later separation of certain large groups of professional or advanced students. The Homeopathic Medical College (1875) and the College of Dental Surgery (1876) were begun independently of the Literary Department, but the professional units in pharmacy and engineering and the School of Graduate Studies were originally under literary faculty control. The pharmacy records were probably transferred about 1875, when the separate pharmacy unit was founded. From the time when the Administrative Council of the Graduate School was formed in 1892 until its administration was separated from that of the Literary Department in 1912, the registrar of the Literary Department kept the graduate records and assisted in graduate registration. For several years after the Department of Engineering became a separate unit, in 1895-96, De Pont was Registrar for that department as well as for the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The Calendar of 1900-1901 indicated that a secretary of the engineering staff had been chosen, and two years later De Pont's duties as engineering registrar were dropped, apparently to be taken up by the secretary of the engineering faculty (see Part VII: College of Engineering).
Enrollment in the Literary Department had been 488 in the year before President Angell came and 476 at the time when De Pont was elected secretary of the faculty, with the duties of a recorder. Page 247The removal of the pharmacy students in 1876 caused a drop in the literary enrollment from 452 to 369. By 1889-90 the recording work had greatly increased, as there were 1,001 students in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Miss Marion C. Goodrich was appointed Assistant to the Registrar; she remained in the office until 1921 and in 1910 became Assistant Registrar.
By 1894 the burden of individual student appeals in course selection, records, and discipline had become too heavy to be dealt with in meetings of the entire literary faculty, and the Administrative Board of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts was therefore set up. Its work was so closely related to that of the Registrar's Office that for several years Miss Goodrich transcribed the Board's minutes in longhand into the secretary's record book. The separation of the Department of Engineering in 1895-96 reduced the count of students in the Literary Department from 1,518 to to 1,198. By 1905-6, the last year of De Pont's service as Registrar, the literary enrollment was 1,565.
Admission and recording during the Angell administration. — There were important curricular changes in the time of President Angell that directly affected the administrative work of the Literary Department. Beginning in 1870 the bachelor of philosophy degree had been used for both of the combined classical-scientific programs. In 1878-79 a four-year college program called the English course was added. A new type of high-school program, called by the same name, was thereby recognized and was continued in college. Other changes, even more far-reaching, were made in the same year. The credit system was substituted for a set schedule of four prescribed years, and the number of required courses in the several programs was cut down somewhat to allow for electives.
The university system, which was begun in the autumn of 1882, called for records of a new type. These records, which were kept by the faculty committees for the five general subject groups, are now in the Michigan Historical Collections. Students who had won the bachelor's degree "on examination" — that is, on the university system — were listed separately in the President's Report from 1882 to 1891.
Admission on diploma was extended in 1884 to some of the non-Michigan high schools, particularly in near-by states. In the absence of accrediting associations the University officers relied upon the judgment of the administrators of colleges and universities nearer to these schools (see p. 318). Larger numbers of students from outside the state of Michigan, together with the growth of accrediting associations after 1895, drew the University into much closer relations with other collegiate institutions, so that when the general and unprecedented rush of students into all the universities of America later raised the questions of uniformity in grading techniques and of accuracy and dispatch in dealing with many students at once, it was possible to work out time-saving procedures on a co-operative basis.
Throughout the nineties there were four separate sets of entrance requirements for the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and a high school was given separate appraisals for its work in science, in modern languages, and in other subject groups. Under this system of partial accrediting there was but one of the University's several programs for degrees open to the graduates of certain high schools, and one of only two or three such programs was open to the graduates of certain other schools.
By the new entrance requirements which went into effect in 1897, (1) more work in English literature in the high Page 248school was definitely prescribed, and (2) students who desired to enroll in any of the several degree programs except the strictly classical course — the one curriculum that led to the degree of bachelor of arts — were given three groups of entrance credits from which to choose. Any group was equally acceptable for any one of these three degree programs. Group I covered four years of Latin and two of German or French; Group II, four years of one or more of these languages (in any of six combinations), with chemistry and history added; and Group III, two years of one of these languages, with chemistry and extra work in both history and English.
In May, 1900, a single system of entrance requirements, remarkable for its simplicity, went into effect (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 508), but the old requirements were to be used optionally until after 1900-1901. The first reference to the measuring of high-school work by the "unit," then described as one subject pursued for not less than four periods a week throughout a school year, was made in a supplementary announcement of these new requirements, inserted in some copies of the Calendar for 1899-1900. The awarding of four distinct bachelor's degrees was still contemplated at that time, but in February, 1901, the bachelor of arts degree was substituted for the three degrees in the curriculums in science, in letters, and in philosophy and at the same time was continued for the classical course. The bachelor of philosophy and bachelor of letters degrees were scrapped altogether, and even the bachelor of science degree was not conferred again until 1909 (see Part II: Degrees).
Although the Calendar of 1900-1901 was prepared on the basis of the February plan to give the bachelor of arts degree for any one of the four sets of requirements for graduation, even the four optional sets of graduation requirements were abolished in May, 1901, and in their stead were placed two simple requirements for all students: six hours of freshman English and the restriction of first-year elections to three of nine specified subjects.
This was the culmination of the elective policy which President Angell, following the precedent established at Harvard under President Eliot, had been fostering ever since the early seventies. He believed that the great majority of the students earnestly aimed to secure the best from their college studies, and that restrictive rules hampered them "without getting profitable work out of the indolent and wayward." He also believed that in the absence of a marking system there was a better chance for wise elections, because there was little or no temptation to choose easy subjects and study for class rank. In 1901, as in 1879, a faculty committee investigated the students' elections and reported favorably upon the use of the "larger liberty." Several faculty members, acting as a committee on elections, were on hand at the beginning of each semester, especially to check first-year elections.
On March 1, 1906, De Pont's long term of service ended with his death. The memorial written of him by Professor Albert Stanley for the Michiganensian was particularly appreciative, for De Pont, like Frieze, had been a great lover of music. He had been very active in the University Musical Society from the date of its founding, and also in the Choral Union, of which he had been President during his last seventeen years. He was a man of engaging personality; his bearing and manner endeared him to those he met. He held the students to a high standard of honor, but in his dealings with them was kindly as well as firm.
At the time of De Pont's unexpected death John William Bradshaw ('00, Ph.D. Strassburg '04), who had been Instructor Page 249in Mathematics at the University since 1904, was Secretary of the Administrative Board. He was requested to take over the duties of registrar for the remainder of the year, and then, in May, 1906, was appointed Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts and Secretary of the Administrative Board.
During his two years of service in this capacity the attendance records of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts were centralized. Thereafter, the Administrative Board used them in imposing probation, ineligibility for student activities, or a lump reduction of credit as penalties for excessive absence. Although not observed with uniform strictness by the teaching staff, this procedure remained practically unchanged until about 1924, when it was decided that, because of the high enrollment, the clerical burden was out of all proportion to the value of the records.
Upon the appointment of Dean Reed in 1907 (see p. 245), practically all the administrative affairs of the Literary Department were put into the hands of its own officers, the dean and the registrar. Of the 4,282 students then enrolled in the University, 1,691 were in this department. In consideration of the growing administrative responsibility, the additional administrative budget granted to the dean was increased to an amount one-third as large as his regular academic salary and much larger than the extra compensation to the first appointed dean. Both graduate and undergraduate students had entered through the dean's office in the late nineties, and the registrar and secretary of the (graduate) Administrative Council had had an additional check upon admissions. By 1908 the complications of the elective system required some additional checking of election blanks by the registrar and the assistance of both the committee on elections and the secretary of the Council in graduate registration.
Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts and editor of University publications, 1908. — At the end of 1907-8 Registrar Bradshaw discontinued his administrative work and devoted his full time again to teaching. Meanwhile, in April of that year, Arthur Graham Hall ('87, Ph.D. Leipzig '02) had been secured as Professor of Mathematics, Registrar of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and Editor of University Publications. He had previously been on the literary faculty, and was then teaching in Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. In addition to his administrative and editorial work he was to teach two classes.
Before Hall had left the University in 1903 he had been Secretary of the Administrative Board for several terms. In 1908 he again took up this work, as well as that of a de facto secretary of the faculty, in addition to the more customary work of a registrar, and he continued to perform these different tasks through 1924-25.
Yet another type of duty — responsibility for publications — was assigned to the Registrar's Office when Hall returned in 1908. Until that time, although the principal official publications had always been carefully prepared and regularly issued, no one office had been made permanently responsible. At first the faculty had taken charge of publishing the Catalogue, which the Regents had authorized in 1843, and committees of faculty members and administrative officers had usually prepared it, but sometimes the work had been delegated to students altogether. Its literary style in the fifties is unmistakably that of President Tappan, and the new arrangement and title adopted in 1871-72 suggest careful supervision by President Angell. In time the work had come to be a more fixed responsibility, Page 250not of any official as such, but of a faculty member who had special aptitude for it. This was William Henry Pettee, Professor of Mineralogy, Economic Geology, and Mining Engineering. After Pettee's death in 1904 President Angell wrote:
For years he has been of the greatest service to the University in fields quite apart from his teaching, namely, as auditor of the accounts of the University and as editor of its official publications, the Calendar and the Departmental Announcements.
(P.R., 1904, p. 4.)
In June, 1904, several Regents were constituted a committee to consider how this work was to be provided for; they were to report at the next meeting, but their recommendations do not appear in the record. At least two faculty members served as editor in the interim before Hall's return — Assistant Professor Strauss in 1904-5 and Assistant Professor Sanders in 1907-8 (R.P., 1901-6, p. 605; 1906-10, p. 191). In his capacity of University Editor, Hall was the first of the registrars to be listed in the Calendar with the officers of the central administration of the University, but as Registrar he was still an officer of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts exclusively (Cal., 1908-9, p. 35).
The year 1911-12 was remarkable in the history of the Literary Department. There was a change in the deanship; the graduate work was reorganized; the elective system was modified through a revamping of graduation and entrance requirements; and a standard grading system was installed.
In March, 1912, Dean Reed secured a leave of absence because of illness, and John Robert Effinger, Professor of French, was made Acting Dean and thus began his long administrative career. He was appointed Dean in July, 1915.
From the time when the separate Graduate Department was organized, early in 1912, on the basis of official action passed the previous December, it had its own appointed dean and Executive Board, and its student records were kept separately.
In spite of the optimistic predictions with which the free elective system had been ushered into the Literary Department at the turn of the century, the underspecialized and overspecialized student programs were by this time causing concern. The faculty therefore recommended the group system of requirements for the degree, together with restrictions on the number of hours allowed in any one subject and in any one group of subjects, and asked the Regents to require that two-thirds of the junior and senior work be in courses not open to freshmen and that students who were transferred from other colleges fulfill a minimum-residence requirement. The Regents approved these proposals in February, 1912.
The new entrance requirements adopted in June of that year had a threefold effect: (1) They encouraged more continuity and greater concentration in subject matter in the high school. (2) They encouraged the newer, "nonacademic" high-school subjects such as agriculture, commerce, domestic science, manual training, and drawing, even though these were allowed only in admissions on certificate, and although the amount was limited to three of the fifteen minimum units. (The unit had been redefined in 1908-9 as a year's work of five, rather than four, recitations a week.) (3) Specially recommended graduates from schools approved by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and from certain other approved schools were allowed to enter without any specific admission requirement, although with the restriction that twelve of the minimum fifteen units had to be selected from the "academic" listing. Dean Page 251Effinger later commented that, theoretically, this measure permitted entrance without any foreign language, but that in practice such a case was extremely rare because language was required in nearly all the North Central schools.
A new tendency in the attitude toward marks and special distinctions for good scholarship began to be noticeable; the old belief that such rewards set up false goals and encouraged an undesirable type of competition was being abandoned. In the second semester of 1911-12 the Literary Department replaced its traditional marking system (Passed, Not Passed, Conditioned), which had always been supported strongly by President Angell, by a set of comparative grades, as had the Department of Engineering in October, 1907. The engineering system did not provide for honor points until April, 1922, when the present four-point plan was introduced, but in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts a three-point plan went into effect with the first use of letter grades in June, 1912, and has remained for all classes graduating before June, 1941 — i.e., three points for each credit hour of A (excellent), two for B (good), one for C (fair), credit without points for D (barely passing), and no credit and no points for E (failed). Absence from examination was indicated by X and incomplete work by I.
It was announced for four years, beginning in 1911-12, that, in place of the 120 points then needed for the degree, 135 points would be required of all graduates, effective in June, 1916. This demand was dropped, however, four months before the class of 1916 was graduated (R.P., 1914-17, p. 376).
The diploma of merit, forerunner of the degree with distinction or with high distinction, first offered in 1915-16, was established in 1912-13 and was conferred upon the students voluntarily recommended for it by the faculty. By 1912 the University had had a chapter of Sigma Xi for nine years and a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa for five years.
Registrar Hall became a member of the Senate committee on student affairs when he succeeded Professor James Glover as Auditor and Comptroller of Student Organizations in 1912; from then on he carried this additional responsibility.
The Regents appointed the Registrar and Professor Isaac N. Demmon members of a committee on nomenclature in 1914. This committee recommended changing the names of the schools and colleges to accord with national standards adopted by the Association of American Universities and by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; it also recommended changing the names of the official University publications. These recommendations were approved, in January, 1915, and the oldest academic unit of the University became the "College of Literature, Science, and the Arts." The title, Calendar of the University of Michigan…, was changed to Catalogue of the University …, to indicate the contents more precisely. Announcement was approved as the name for the publication of each school or college, and Bulletin for that of a program in a special group of studies within a school or college.
Students were received on diploma in 1914-15 from more than 240 secondary schools which had not sent any the previous year (Effinger, MS, "Report," 1914-15, p. 1). The enrollment was increasing rapidly, the College having become by that time one of the largest in the country, and the work of its dean included correspondence and interviews incident to both freshman admissions on diploma and advanced admissions. Faculty advisers met with incoming students during the rush periods, thus assisting the committee on first-year elections, and also continued to interview students Page 252throughout the year at regular hours; another committee controlling the size of classes kept the sections uniform.
Registrar Hall was in the habit of sending scholarship reports to parents at the end of the students' first semester in the University, and to each high school, in February, a detailed record of the work of freshmen admitted from that school (Effinger, MS, "Report," 1914-15, p. 1).
Registrar, 1915. — In July, 1915, when John R. Effinger was appointed to the full deanship, the Regents transferred the work of admissions on diploma from him to the registrar. Soon afterward they changed Hall's title and set forth the proportions of his salary separately appropriated for his various functions. Three small amounts were set aside for (1) editing, (2) passing upon admissions on diploma, and (3) auditing of the student accounts, whereas nearly three-fourths of his salary was allocated to "his work as Registrar and such incidental teaching as he may do." At the same time the Board of Regents changed his title to that of Registrar and Professor of Mathematics, and accepted a recommendation of its executive committee that, "in order to avoid confusion, … the title of the Registrar of the Homeopathic Medical School be changed to that of Recorder of the Homeopathic Medical School." Hall retained this title of Registrar and Professor of Mathematics even after the pressure of other duties obliged him to give up his classes in mathematics in the fall of 1916. In his capacity of Registrar he was officially regarded as an officer of the central administration after this redefinition of his duties was adopted (Cat. 1915-16, p. 40), but he was still regarded also as Registrar of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In his admission and student-record work, as a matter of fact, he still dealt exclusively with the literary students, and most of the financial support for his office was still included in the budget of the College.
Dean Effinger continued to act as admission officer for students entering on advanced standing. The volume of his work so increased with the rising enrollment that in 1920 he wrote:
With the present large attendance and the corresponding increase in the faculty, it is growing more and more evident that the Dean must give up altogether his work as an admission officer and devote himself to the larger problems involved in the growth and development of the College. In this connection it may not be out of place to add that it would be a very great improvement if the University could establish one admission office, to which all students, without regard to School or College, would be compelled to apply on entering the University.
(Effinger, MS, "Report," 1909-20, p. 6.)
A plan similar, in general, to Dean Effinger's, but with no specific reference to advanced admissions, was adopted by the Regents in December, 1922, as a part of the revised bylaws that Regent Hubbard had codified at the request of the Board, but it was not meant to take effect at once. The section on the work of the registrar was preceded by the explanation: "The following draught of the Registrar's duties … is predicated on the extension of said duties over the entire University"; and the temporary situation was provided for by the provision that, "pending the extension outlined in this section, the rules for registration, the methods in use, and the functions of the different registration officers shall remain as at present, under control of the several University units" (Bylaws, 1922, p. 10). The outline of duties, stated in tentative form, began: "The University Registrar (when authorized) shall have charge of the collection, classification, distribution, and utilization of academic records and statistics (not otherwise regulated) …" The additional duties assigned Page 253were as follows: (1) to conduct preliminary correspondence with prospective students, and speed up and simplify their registration; (2) to act as chairman of a committee on admissions, on which every school or college should be represented and which should decide all questions pertaining to admission, under the rules of the several faculties; (3) to furnish necessary duplicate records to the deans and information for the use of teachers; (4) to keep a record of the use of classrooms and an estimate of the floor space needed per student for the adequate functioning of the University; and (5) to compile the Student Register and the lists of students entitled to degrees, diplomas, and certificates, as well as to keep up the records of grades, absences, and excuses.
These rules had no effect upon the status quo. A break with tradition, difficult under any circumstances, was rendered especially hard at the time by Registrar Hall's failing health. Neither these nor any other extensive changes in the position of registrar were put into effect while he was in office, except that the functions of a secretary to the faculty gradually passed to other hands.
Between 1912 and 1922 the enrollment in the College more than doubled; in 1919-20 alone it rose from 3,627 to 5,007. Although the remarkable increase from 1918 to 1921 was clearly a postwar phenomenon, the general upward trend over the longer period was also unmistakable and appeared likely to continue unless a change were made in the work of colleges and public schools. At the close of the Hutchins administration in 1920, classrooms and laboratories were strained to capacity — the building program of the twenties was yet to come. Dean Effinger, disturbed by the apparent impossibility of providing adequate instruction and classroom space for the ever increasing mass of students and by the prospect of a decreasing standard of efficiency, recommended that the congestion of "young and immature students in this university center" be relieved by the development of the junior-college movement throughout the state. Many years before, in the annual reports of 1883 and 1890 (P.R., 1883, p. 12; 1890, p. 16), President Angell also had spoken of the problem of standards, congestion, and immaturity with relation to the high schools and to the other colleges within the state.
The general tendency of the changes in entrance requirements over the decade 1912-22 had been to recognize certain subjects newly introduced into the high school, to insist upon higher teaching standards in the high school (especially in science), to encourage an earlier beginning of preprofessional training in the scientific professions, and to emphasize continuity.
Two classifications of entrance subjects had been specified by the University in 1912 — List A, composed of the older academic studies, and List B, made up of the newer branches of the curriculum, largely practical or vocational. List A was changed in 1917-18 by the addition of one year or one-half year of introductory science as a prerequisite to any other high-school science. The next year, physiography, which had been accepted since 1905, was dropped from List A, and geography was allowed in combination with geology. Geography and introductory science were kept on the list only through 1925-26. A single unit of foreign language in the A group was made conditionally acceptable for admission credit in 1918-19, provided the student satisfactorily completed another year of the same language in the University. A half-unit of economics was also allowed in the early twenties.
List B was almost indefinitely extended in 1918-19. Any certified student could thereafter present, to a limit of Page 254three units, any subject accepted for graduation in his high school but not explicitly mentioned in either list.
Registrar Hall believed that the study habits needed in college could best be acquired in advanced high-school courses and that scholarship standards, both in high school and in college, could thus be raised; he was therefore gratified when the University demanded, in 1921-22, that a third, additional high-school major be continued for one year in college, unless one-third of the required fifteen entrance units were in subjects regularly scheduled for the last two years of high school.
Six-year high schools beginning at the seventh grade were formally encouraged by the University, first by a resolution passed by the Regents in 1914, and then by the invitation to the graduates of such schools (Cat., 1915-16) to apply for special examination leading to advanced University credit for their extra high-school units.
Often between 1917 and 1922 the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts discussed entrance requirements and their relation to University standards. The "alternative plan" of admission, which since 1912 had permitted specially recommended students to enter without any precise subject requirements (p. 250), became the object of increasing dissatisfaction. In the first semester of 1919-20 the freshmen admitted on this plan (one-tenth of the class) did noticeably poorer work than their classmates did, whereupon a faculty committee opened an investigation to find out the causes of freshman failure. Records were studied; many principals and teachers were consulted. The consensus of opinion, reported and endorsed in 1922, was that the presence of a large minority of poor students was causing the colleges and public schools to neglect the more worthy but less attention-demanding majority. University faculty members were informed of causes of failure which they could eliminate, and principals took the lists of high-school failings to be discussed in their faculty meetings. Finally, in 1923, the University announced that no one could enter by the "alternative plan" after February, 1925.
There had been only one regular assistant in the office when Hall became Registrar in 1908, but before his term of service was ended in 1925 there were seven persons on full time. The dean of the College, the registrar, and the dean of the Summer Session all shared the same general suite of offices on the first floor of University Hall until the position of dean of students was created in 1921. Dean Effinger then moved to the northeast corner room on the same floor, and the room formerly his was occupied by the dean of students. When certain other offices were moved into Angell Hall in the fall of 1924 the Registrar's Office acquired additional and much-needed space in University Hall. The most important change of staff between 1908 and 1925 was the retirement of Marion C. Goodrich, Assistant Registrar, in June, 1921. She was succeeded by the Registrar's secretary, Lillian B. Hughes, who remained until 1925.
Registrar Hall kept himself informed as to the scholarship averages of all schools that regularly sent students to the University, so as to observe any change and inquire at once into its cause, and was usually able to tell offhand how many students from a given state were in attendance. He promoted state and national movements for raising the standards of scholarship and designed a scholarship chart that was widely used.
He was a member of the Board of Education of Ann Arbor, served on many committees on the campus, in the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, and in other state educational societies, and was especially Page 255active in the American Association of Collegiate Registrars. He was elected President of the Association for 1922, but was taken ill in February of that year and could not preside at the annual meeting. Again the next autumn he was on duty, but in the winter a vacation became necessary. After remaining at the University from May, 1923, until July, 1924, he left with his family for the summer vacation. His illness very soon forced him to return to Ann Arbor, where he died at his home January 10, 1925.
During the Registrar's long absences the organization of the office work had been largely in the hands of Miss Hughes. Professor John W. Bradshaw was called in to edit the Catalogue in the spring of 1922. The present dean of the School of Education, James B. Edmonson, was then Inspector of High Schools as well as Professor of Secondary Education. His work naturally had kept him in close touch with that of the Registrar, and upon the recurrence of Mr. Hall's illness in the summer of 1924 he consented to act as an adviser to the office. He continued in that capacity throughout the next school year. It was partly upon his suggestion that the faculty discontinued the attendance-record system.
Between 1922 and 1925 the position of a de facto secretary of the literary faculty gradually became dissociated from the position of registrar. More and more often, beginning about 1922, a secretary pro tem was selected to prepare the minutes in the absence of the Registrar, Assistant Dean Humphreys often substituting. In October, 1924, "on Dean Effinger's nomination and by vote of the Faculty, H. C. Carver was elected temporary secretary, to serve during the illness of Registrar Hall." For the next two years Associate Professor Carver continued to serve as Acting Secretary; he was then Secretary from December, 1926, until he was succeeded by Secretary D. L. Rich in December, 1929. Since then, the two positions have been entirely dissociated.
Registrar of the University since 1925. — Soon after the death of Registrar Hall the Regents requested the conference of deans to consider the problem involved in appointing a successor. The committee named by the deans reported in May, 1925, recommending the appointment of Ira Melville Smith (LL.B. Indiana '09, LL.D. Ashland '37), who was then Assistant Examiner of the University of Chicago. At the same time the following plan for the operation of the Registrar's Office was submitted:
- 1. The Registrar should be a University official in charge of all general correspondence with prospective students.
- 2. The Registrar should act in an advisory capacity with the various record offices about the campus for the purpose of bringing about better organization and the efficient handling of statistical information.
- 3. The admission of all students entering the University directly from the high schools should be in the hands of the Registrar, as well as such other cases of admission as may be delegated to him by the various faculties.
- 4. All other admissions, and all admissions on advanced standing are to remain in the hands of the separate schools or colleges as they are at present and the present procedure continued.
- 5. The various University announcements and bulletins and the University catalogue should be edited under the supervision of the Registrar. It might be advisable to have a committee on publications, appointed by the President to act in conjunction with the Registrar in this matter.
(R.P., 1923-26, p. 610.)
The Regents adopted this plan, appointed Mr. Smith Registrar of the University, with the rank of professor and with membership in the University Senate, and directed that his office be conducted according to this outline. The educational policies committee was requested Page 256to consult with him and then to change the bylaws of the Board to harmonize with this action, making the registrar directly responsible to the Regents through the president of the University.
The registrar's budget was made separate in 1925-26, but provided only for editorial, secretarial, and general office assistance. The preparation of transcripts and the recording and issuing of grades for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were performed in the same suite of offices, but the recorder and clerks who did this work remained on the administrative budget of that College and were under the jurisdiction not of the registrar but of the dean of the College.
Mr. Smith assumed his duties in July, 1925. In that year, while secondary-school officials were familiarizing themselves with the new plan of centralized freshman admissions, arrangements for more active co-operation between the University and the high schools of Michigan were under way. In December, 1925, the high-school principals formally endorsed the new plan of admission procedure which the University had adopted. The State Teachers' Association appointed a standing committee on college entrance requirements with instructions to offer assistance to the University, and the University responded by organizing a committee, widely representative of its various faculties, to modify the admission procedure in collaboration with the principals' group, "not by any change of academic standards from the scholastic standpoint but rather by seeking to understand better the personalities and capabilities of the students" (P.R., 1926-27, p. 170).
The joint committee thus formed recommended that a small booklet of information for prospective freshmen be published and also devised a new form of admission blank divided into three parts: (I) general information (filled out by the applicant), (II) personal qualifications, and (III) scholarship standing and certificate of recommendation. In preparing this blank the joint committee had the following general aims in view: (a) to stimulate prospective students to think carefully about their college plans, (b) to include questions that would acquaint parents and teachers with problems confronting the students in their transition from high school to college, and (c) to secure as far in advance as possible such information as would enable the University officials to advise students how best to anticipate some difficulties of a University course, at the same time helping principals to impress upon their students the sincerity of the University's desire to aid well-prepared, serious-minded, ambitious, and responsible high-school graduates in making their plans for college work. The principals' hearty co-operation made possible the effective use of this new admission blank, which proved so successful that other leading universities, such as Ohio State University and the University of Wisconsin, adopted it almost in full. It furnished University officials with a more adequate factual basis for determining a given candidate's fitness for college; academic counselors have used information from it in student guidance; and a better understanding of the University has inevitably resulted.
During the meetings of the joint committee of the University and the State Teachers' Association, fresh emphasis was placed upon the desirability of recommending for admission only those high-school graduates most likely to profit by University study.
The present Registrar, like his predecessor, has welcomed every opportunity to promote friendship and understanding between the University and the high-school and college officials. He is a Page 257member of the Association of School Administrators of the National Education Association and of the Association of School Administrators of the Michigan Education Association, and also has been active in the Department of High School Principals of both the national and the state associations. He was President of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars for the year 1927-28, and in 1937-38 served as chairman of its committee on special projects. Also, he has participated in the affairs of the Michigan Association of Collegiate Registrars, the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, and the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, and has made many personal visits to the high schools of the state. This close co-operation means much in the way of better understanding between the University and the secondary schools.
When President Little came to the University in the fall of 1925 he was eager to inaugurate Freshman Week, which he had found effective at the University of Maine. Begun at the University of Michigan in September, 1926, it soon put new life into the movement toward an adequate advisory system. In 1930 provision was made for students entering on advanced standing, and the name was changed accordingly to Orientation Period. All freshmen are given college-aptitude and supplementary tests during this period, the program for which is now in the hands of Assistant Professor Philip E. Bursley, Director of the Orientation Period and Counselor to New Students (see Part II: Orientation Period). The Registrar has always co-operated closely with the counselors in this work. At present all underclassmen in the University are provided with regular academic-counseling service. Much credit for its development belongs to Miss Elisabeth Lawrie, Assistant to the Registrar, in Charge of Freshman Admissions.
Freshman orientation and academic counseling, although not under the registrar's charge, naturally have a significant bearing on his work. Accordingly, secretarial service and working space were provided in the Registrar's Office, where the records were available. In 1933-34 the office quarters were remodeled, especially to give conference space to the two assistants to the dean in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Both the academic counselors and the special Orientation-Period advisers have been furnished in advance with the high-school grades and personnel records of their students. Until 1938-39, progress reports from the instructors of freshmen were compiled in the Registrar's Office and sent to the counselors.
The present Registrar, very soon after he came, established individual relations with the principals by mail. Along with the letters sent to them were application blanks, Orientation-Period programs and test scores, programs for Honors Convocation, and invitations to meetings of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club. All official publications of interest to the high schools, including reprints of the registrar's section of the President's Report, were mailed immediately upon receipt from the press.
In December, 1927, on the Registrar's invitation, the principals of the Detroit high schools spent a day at the University interviewing first-year students and others from their respective schools. In time this became a regular annual event, attended by more than one hundred school officials from Michigan and adjacent states. The interviewers are furnished in advance with special reports of the freshmen. The students write out their estimates of their previous preparation and of University instruction, as well as of outside activities and of Page 258the Orientation-Period program. A noon luncheon provides a forum for the exchange of opinions between school and University officials.
With the centralization of all admissions directly from high school and of all correspondence dealing with admissions or general information about the University, the work of the office was greatly increased. In order to ensure giving every prospective student a clear and favorable first impression of the University, special care was devoted to answering all inquiries promptly and completely, duplex window envelopes having been used since 1925 so that the desired publications could be received with the replies.
When the present Registrar was appointed, the official publications were in need of reorganization. Although the Regents had specified in 1908 that the registrar should edit the separate announcements as well as the University Catalogue, all of the announcements except that of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts had continued to be issued by the various units about the campus.
The University Senate had devoted a meeting to the subject of a University editor in the fall of 1920, and after some discussion had appointed an investigating committee, whose recommendations, adopted the next January, had provided that the president appoint nine members of the University Senate as a standing committee on publications. This committee was directed to issue the "forty or fifty different bulletins" and miscellaneous publications assigned to it, to devise a better method of distribution, and to make rules which officers of the academic units could use in preparing copy. The Senate declined to adopt a further provision that the person appointed University editor should be one previously recommended by the standing publications committee.
The only publications edited in the Registrar's Office in 1924-25 were the Catalogue, the Register, more fully described below, the Faculty Directory, and the Announcement of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In accordance with the general plan adopted in 1925 (see p. 255), the president appointed a new University Senate committee on publications, and the Registrar's Office first edited and saw through the press all the separate official announcements prepared by representatives of the respective faculties. The committee members and editorial workers required about a year to familiarize themselves with the contents and purposes of publications then being handled centrally for the first time. The Announcement of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts was carefully revised. The regular editorial reading of the Proceedings … of the Regents, delegated to this office in the same year, enabled the editorial workers to keep the official publications more nearly corrected to date as to regental appointments and changes in title or in University organization.
Between 1907 and 1923 the Catalogue became very unwieldy, for it grew from a volume of less than five hundred to one of about one thousand pages. Most of the copies of the Catalogue proper and of the lengthy official list of faculty members, graduates, and students — a section of nearly five hundred pages newly named the Register — were separately bound for the first time in 1923-24. A limited edition of the combined Catalogue and Register was issued for libraries, high schools, and record offices. One alphabetical list of students in the Register replaced thirty-eight such lists in 1925-26, when symbols were substituted for the separate listing to indicate the respective schools. The new arrangement saved time, lowered office and printing Page 259costs, and reduced the likelihood of inaccuracy in the statistical tables.
For years the Catalogue had been issued too late to "announce" the courses properly. Under this procedure it was no more than history by the time it was published. The publications committee therefore recommended a different plan, which received the Regents' approval in April, 1926, but was not fully carried out for the next two years. The plan provided, first, for a new publication called the Bulletin of General Information. This bulletin could be small and therefore inexpensive (per copy); distributed with the appropriate college Announcement, it would answer the large-scale current demand for a catalogue. Second, to preserve complete information for historical purposes was recognized as one of the principal values of a single, comprehensive publication. Its compilation was therefore to be postponed until student, faculty, and other data for the entire year were available. Third, the extra work and expense of partial duplication of the announcements in a larger catalogue was to be ended by the device of saving out a few hundred copies of the Bulletin of General Information, of the several college announcements, and of the Register of Faculty and Students, and binding them into an annual two-volume General Register Issue for purposes of record. This part of the plan did not go into effect until 1927-28, when the serial title of the official publications was changed from University of Michigan Bulletin to University of Michigan Official Publication.
Between 1925 and 1929 the practice of compiling statistics on enrollment, scholarship, and degrees was extended. A freshman ledger, containing first-year records and other data for the study of admission problems, was begun. The first regular statistical assistant was provided for in the budget of 1927-28, and additional maps, graphs, faculty statistics, and other tabular studies began to appear in the registrar's annual report.
In September, 1928, the Regents authorized President Little to appoint "such a committee as in his judgment would best function to study and report upon certain problems of records and admissions." Regents Hubbard, Sawyer, and Gore, Secretary Smith, Dean Ruthven, Registrar Smith, and Dean Huber were appointed. Regent Hubbard, as chairman, reported progress two months later, and the committee's final recommendations were presented to the Regents and approved by them in April, 1929. By this action "the work of the Recorder's office (not admissions to advanced standing) of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the work of the Committee on Classifications of that College" were put under the immediate supervision of the registrar (R.P., 1926-29, pp. 962-64).
The committee on classifications had been created by the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1925, and Daniel Leslie Rich (Waynesburg '02, Ph.D. Michigan '15) had served continuously as its chairman. When the Regents decided to transfer the records of the Literary College they made his title Associate Professor of Physics and Director of Classification, and reduced his classroom duties to six hours a week.
Just before this action was taken by the Regents, a second study of the central-admission situation was begun. In March, 1929, the Senate committee on University affairs received a suggestion that a policy-forming board of admissions be organized, with the registrar as chairman, but that the administration of both admissions and records be decentralized, and in November President Ruthven was requested to appoint a special committee to study and report upon the question. Three professors and Registrar Page 260Smith were appointed and eventually endorsed the plan of centralization of freshman admissions. The committee also stressed the necessity of a co-operative spirit between the secondary schools and the University and the importance of "an assurance that methods of procedure agreed upon will be uniformly practiced by both parties concerned." The report suggested the appointment of a standing committee on admissions representing the several colleges and schools. The Senate committee on University affairs, however, reported a lack of unanimity of opinion among its members in May, 1930, and suggested that further consideration of the subject be left to those directly concerned with problems of admission. Meanwhile, the recording staff of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts had become a part of the Registrar's Office and had been given the task of keeping current records for the Extension Division and the School of Music. Further centralization occurred in the next three years. All recording of the College of Architecture after December, 1931, was transferred to the Registrar's Office, as was that of the School of Education and of the School of Forestry and Conservation in 1933.
To meet the demands made by these new duties additional space in Mason Hall was acquired in 1929 and 1930, and the various functions of the office became more specialized and were separated into four "divisions," namely, Admissions, Records, the Statistical Division, and the Editorial Division.
Nearly one-half of the registrar's present office staff is employed in the Division of Records, which was under the particular charge of Associate Professor Rich until 1936. Early in that year he asked that his schedule be made either all academic or all administrative and indicated his preference for teaching. Accordingly, he was returned to a full-time teaching schedule in the Department of Physics. At the same time, the full-time position of assistant registrar was again created. It was filled by the appointment of Robert Lewis Williams (Millsaps '25, Ph.D. Northwestern '28), then Registrar of Mississippi State College for Women. Dr. Williams took up his work in Ann Arbor in July, 1936.
Division of Records since 1929. — Between 1929 and 1940 the work of the Division of Records has been characterized not only by (1) the increased centralization of records, but also by (2) improvements in registration and classification techniques, (3) improved methods of academic accounting and the new services made possible by these methods, and (4) recent educational studies by the staff.
Registration for the entire University has been simplified, although in the last seven years, when the students have paid fees twice a year rather than annually, the work of second-semester registration has been much heavier than it was before. The alphabetical schedule, begun in 1936, is shifted each semester so that the privilege of early classification falls to a different group each time. For literary students and students in the School of Music and in the School of Education, the whole registration process, including classification, is now centralized under one roof and is made smoothly consecutive.
A different type of permanent record was first used for students entering in the fall of 1929, and was adapted for the purposes of each school and college as its records were transferred to the Registrar's Office. There have been some alterations in size, wording, and arrangement, but the same general style of record, a sheet of linen tracing-cloth suitable for blueprinting, is still in use. Without it, the various services in other University Page 261offices based on the use of separate sets of undergraduate records could probably not have been begun, because of the excessive cost of duplication. However, the stiff card records are more convenient for permanent filing, and some method combining the advantages of both types is desirable. Beginning in 1939, the student records posted in this office have been photostated on heavy card-stock paper as soon as the students were graduated, and the original tracing-cloth records have then been sent to the Alumni Catalog Office for permanent filing.
Since 1930, each student has annually received a print of his complete college record to date, and beginning in 1936 this print has been sent out in the summer, along with printed directions for registration and classification. The office makes an early check for the completion of graduation requirements in order to give students every assistance in electing and completing the required course of study without last-minute misunderstandings. The adoption of the degree programs in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts practically doubled this type of work for the literary students in 1931, because eligibility for concentration in the junior year depends upon so many specific conditions. This work, together with the transmission of duplicate records, helps the academic counselors and degree-program advisers to fulfill their function more effectively.
Blueprints of the student records posted in this office have been made each semester and sent to the officers of the several units concerned. Up-to-date records are of such value in counseling, classifying, and imposing academic discipline that the Registrar's Office has accepted the responsibility of posting all grades within the next working day after they are received. In 1938 this process was further speeded up by the use of tabulating-card procedures in the office of the Statistical Division. Since 1936, all seniors have received official transcripts with their diplomas at the close of the Commencement ceremony.
In order to bring about greater uniformity in the marking systems and in the calculating of grade-point averages in the various colleges (see p. 251), in September, 1936, this office collaborated with the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in devising a four-point system and a calculation method based on the total amount of work attempted. The new plan was approved by the faculty in December, 1936; the first students under the new system are those who are to be graduated in June, 1941.
The increase in the production of official transcripts has been more than proportional to the increase in the centralization of records, chiefly because transcripts have been more widely used in the employment world in recent years and because there have been more educational investigations — also, however, because the use of duplicate records within the University has been greatly extended by the new facilities for rapid and large-scale production. The record cards which were used from 1925 to 1929 can be photostated at a cost of about fifteen cents apiece, and the photostats can then be converted into official transcripts by the addition of the signature and seal. The older records, not marked by semesters and without course titles, are unsuitable for any photographic reproduction process, and the first transcript of any of these must therefore be typewritten.
Since the establishment of the full-time position of assistant registrar it has been possible to make analyses of the records kept in this office. These have been submitted to the respective deans for consideration in connection with their academic procedure. Many of these studies Page 262were published, but others, because of their confidential nature, were not.
Statistical Division since 1929. — The statistical work was given a fresh impetus when, in 1929, machine accounting was introduced. The machines were later moved from the rooms of the Department of Mathematics to a room in the basement of Angell Hall, and in 1936 the statistician was given an adjacent office. These rooms were recently occupied by the Editorial Division, when the statistical office was moved with the mechanical equipment into the new building of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, and Room 108 at the north end of Mason Hall was then released for the use of the academic counselors of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
One of the standard duties of the statistical office — that of preparing the annual count of degrees and certificates granted — was changed in 1929-30, the count being made to cover the fiscal rather than the calendar year. The punched-card system greatly shortens the many arduous tasks of sorting, listing, and counting assigned to this office, particularly those involved in preparing copy for the Register of Students and in keeping that publication corrected to date as it goes through the press. With the card system it is now possible to select information of a particular kind, use it or furnish it to other departments for use, as needed, and then return the cards quickly enough to be reclassified for another purpose. The names of graduating seniors are sorted geographically by home city or town and placed at the disposal of newspapermen through the facilities of the University News Service. The card system was also used in some of the studies that were made by the Division of Records.
The subjects of studies made in the Statistical Division since 1929 include, besides the regular scholarship chart: the distribution of grades to nonprofessional undergraduate students, according to subjects and departments; freshman admissions with deficiencies and those without, further subdivided by Michigan or non-Michigan preparatory schools; analysis of deficiencies by colleges and high-school units; freshman withdrawals classified by cause; and total withdrawals classified according to college, cause, and date. Other studies have been more limited in aim. For example, the grades received in a certain year by students in the R.O.T.C. were compared with those of the other men students, and by special request a table was prepared showing year-by-year enrollment of students from Korea, Japan, China, and India since 1872.
In addition, the usual tables and charts of geographical distribution and the various analyses of enrollment and faculty have been made annually.
Editorial Division since 1929. — The editorial work had grown considerably by 1929, as is roughly indicated by the increase in the number of pages and in the number of separate publications handled. The figures for 1924-25 were 4 publications and 1,645 pages; those for 1928-29, 63 publications and 4,196 pages exclusive of reprints. There were 174 publications handled by this office in 1939-40; included as one item were 270 School of Music programs. The total for the year, exclusive of reprints, was 8,011 pages.
Ever since the School of Music became a part of the University in 1929, the Editorial Division has annually edited and proofread its publications, including the May Festival libretto and the many concert programs. These programs are reprinted in slightly altered form in an annual volume.
Dr. Frank E. Robbins remarked in the first annual report of the University Press (P.R., 1929-30, p. 427) that the Page 263work of the Editorial Division had already relieved faculty members almost entirely of the burden, in time and labor, of seeing official announcements through the press. He said, further: "It is in consequence, I think, that the Senate Committee on Publications, which deals only with 'official' publications, is less active now than formerly."
The administrative committee of the University of Michigan Press and its subcommittee on official publications were created in April, 1931, and entirely replaced the Senate committee on University publications. The managing editor, besides serving as ex officio chairman of the central committee, is a member of the subcommittee, of which the registrar is chairman ex officio.
The approval of the managing editor is required before any new bulletin may be undertaken or an order for any regular publication may be delivered to the printer; otherwise, the routine procedure in the Editorial Division of the Registrar's Office was left relatively unchanged. The subcommittee adopted A Manual of Style, of the University of Chicago Press, as a standard for style.
The annual University of Michigan Directory was set up in the autumn of 1935 to replace the separate faculty and campus telephone directories, and all the regular publications have been gradually improved as they passed through the office. Attention has been called to confusing aspects of the numbering of courses, and many inconsistencies have been eliminated, constant watch having been kept as to agreement of the name and description of any course mentioned in more than one publication, and the use of the standard form of course description has been extended.
A master-file of courses has been compiled as a special NYA project. The official announcements of the respective courses are chronologically arranged on large cards filed by subject. This file was intended primarily as a check upon recent and current course descriptions for editorial purposes, but now its record value for educational studies is becoming evident.
Ten years ago, the service on the Proceedings … of the Regents was extended to the complete editing and proofreading process. A file of official faculty titles, begun several years before for use in the annual Register, has been revised and carefully maintained on the basis of reliable last-minute information from the Proceedings and from copies of appointment letters sent out by the president. Although the bulky list of students was left out of the General Register Issue from 1930 to 1937, the Register of Faculty and Graduates (later, … Staff and Graduates) has appeared in it continuously. In 1936-37 the Register of Students, which had appeared meanwhile as a lithoprinted nonserial volume, was again included in the official series, and the next year it was bound up with the other publications in the General Register Issue.
Several scholarly series are now handled by the office, including Michigan Governmental Studies, School of Forestry and Conservation Bulletins and Circulars, and Ars Islamica. Various other series in anthropology, botany, and zoology are proofread.
At present the editorial staff consists of five full-time members and one half-time member in addition to the supervising editor, Walter Arthur Donnelly ('23, A.M. '24), who in July, 1936, was made, in addition to his responsibilities as Editor of Museums Publications, Supervising Editor of Publications in the Registrar's Office. Since 1938 Mr. Donnelly has also been Assistant Editor of the Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review.
The Division of Admissions since 1929. — The Registrar's general policy as Page 264to admission and orientation of freshmen, involving the greatest possible mutual understanding between the high-school and University officials, has been continued. Not only the Registrar but also several other members of the staff have attended national and state conventions and special events such as "college days" in the high schools.
A slightly enlarged and altered application blank was introduced in 1929. A change in the admission requirements of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture became effective in the autumn of 1930. Requirements for admission to the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were changed several times between 1929 and 1932, biology, government, and geology being added to List A and additional half-units in subjects on this list being made acceptable. Some of the restrictions in the College of Pharmacy entrance requirements were withdrawn in 1933, when chemistry and the grouping of certain half-units in science were dropped, one unit of a foreign language was allowed if additional to two units in another, and any subject recognized for graduation by the accredited high school from which the applicant came became acceptable as a free elective. Similar changes in free electives and in half-units of science were approved for the School of Music in that year.
A University committee on entrance requirements, formed to study the situation as a whole, consulted during 1933-34 with a previously appointed Literary College committee and with several high-school principals who were especially concerned. A basic requirement of two three-unit major sequences and two two-unit minor sequences in high school was recommended by this composite committee to the faculties of all schools and colleges receiving freshmen through this office, with the expectation that definite subject requirements would be added by the faculties concerned. A new set of requirements embodying these sequences was adopted by the Regents in 1934, after it had been approved by the eight faculties involved. The new requirements were made optional until September, 1937, when they entirely replaced the existing requirements. The sequences were to be chosen from five specified groups, and the remainder of the minimum fifteen units was to be made up from electives. The Regents authorized the registrar, with the consent of the departments most directly concerned, to accept other courses for certain of the units listed in the various required sequences.
Also in 1934, the part-examination, part-certificate plan went into effect. Formerly, students without fifteen satisfactory units had not been entitled to certification, but, in order to qualify for admission, had been required to take examinations in all the fifteen units presented for admission. This action gave the registrar discretionary power to give examinations in subjects in which the candidates for admission are deficient and to accept certification in all other subjects. One effect has been an increase in the number of entrance examinations, which under the all-or-none plan had been low.
There was a state-wide movement in the thirties toward more uniform entrance requirements and a smoother joining of high-school and college curricula. The need for this was especially evident after the autumn of 1928, when, by a ruling of the State Board of Education, the entrance requirements of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were made effective in the four state teachers' colleges, it being understood that later changes in the requirements should go into immediate effect in those colleges.
The Michigan Education Association committee on articulation, comprised of Page 265representatives from the various branches of the state instructional system, took a particular interest in correlating the work of Michigan's secondary and higher educational institutions. The liberal arts colleges of the state were represented at a meeting in Ann Arbor in 1930-31, when college-entrance requirements proposed by the committee, of which the Registrar was a member, were discussed though not adopted.
The Regents and this University committee on entrance requirements had kept in close touch with the work of the Michigan Education Association committee. When the faculty recommendations for entrance requirements were adopted by the Regents in 1934 it was provided that descriptions of acceptable high-school units be revised with the assistance of the University departments concerned, and the Registrar was authorized to publish a bulletin to the principals outlining one, two, and three units of various high-school subjects, with study-time and reference recommendations, as well as stating the content of freshman courses in the University. A joint committee was made up in February, 1935. Three representatives were appointed by the head of each University department concerned, and the president of the Department of High School Principals of the Michigan Education Association appointed representatives of the preparatory schools. The Articulation of High-School Studies with Freshman Courses in the University (1936), a bulletin resulting from the work of the joint committee, won favorable comment in many quarters.
High-school principals now regularly receive from the Registrar's Office, in addition to Orientation-Period test scores and invitations to principal-student conferences, the first-semester grades of freshmen from their schools, annual summaries of the grades of the entire freshman class in June, and copies of congratulatory letters sent to the parents of freshmen with exceptionally good first-semester records. Since 1932, letters of congratulation have also been sent to the principals of high schools represented by three or more freshmen with especially high standing in the first semester. In the past four years, special invitations to the Honors Convocation have been issued not only to the honor students, as before, but also to their parents.
The University work in accrediting, outside this office but naturally affecting it in many ways, was reorganized in February, 1932. The University committee on accredited schools, the Division of University Inspection of High Schools, and the committee on inspection of junior colleges were replaced by an administrative committee on co-operation with educational institutions. The work of its two subcommittees — on relations with the secondary schools and on relations with institutions of higher learning — is carried on through the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions. The registrar was made, ex officio, one of the nine members of the central standing committee. The subcommittee on relations with secondary schools was asked to advise him on questions of admission from the secondary schools, and the other subcommittee was asked to advise the several deans as to admission on advanced standing. The Registrar, who had been an ex officio member of the former standing Senate committee on accredited schools, approved by the Regents in 1930, has been called upon frequently, as have other members of the office staff, to inspect high schools.
The first "college day" in which the University participated was, curiously enough, at an out-of-state school. It was held at Highland Park, Illinois. The idea was quickly taken up by the high schools of Michigan and of other states, until Page 266requests became so numerous that many of them had to be refused. The problem of meeting the need for educational guidance in high school without the expense and other undesirable features of "college day" has been the special concern of a committee of the Michigan Association of North Central Colleges of which the Registrar has been chairman for several years and also of a co-operating committee of the Michigan Association of High School Principals. Though a plan which would make "college day" less necessary was submitted in 1938, the committees decided to endorse the continuation and improvement of the college-day programs temporarily.
A suitable method of interviewing prospective students in large urban centers has been used for the last few years in Chicago, Boston, and New York.
Probably the most important work of the Division of Admissions in the last decade, aside from procedures already mentioned, is the practice of rating each incoming freshman as to the expected degree of his success in the University. The first predictions were made in 1931-32. The rating is determined on the basis of the scholarship and personality record of the prospective student at the time when the application is read, and the appropriate mark, which is treated confidentially, is then recorded on the back of the blank, where it can be seen in comparison with the scores received in tests during the Orientation Period. A-1 indicates decidedly higher than average; A-2, average or better. If there is a possibility of scholastic difficulty or of difficulty in adjustment, the student is rated A-3.
Comparisons of these predictions with later records are made regularly, in order to reveal any constant error in judgment and thus to show when doubtful admission cases should be decided with greater leniency or with greater strictness. These comparisons have shown that the predictions are essentially sound. The ratings have therefore been freely used by the counselors, to whom they have been of great value.
Angell, James B.The Reminiscences of … New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912.
The Articulation of High-School Studies with Freshman Courses in the University (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 37, No. 42). Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1936.
By-Laws of the Department of Science, Literature and the Arts …, 1855.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914. (Cal.)
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23. (Cat.)
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
Editorial. Mich. Alum., 12 (1906): 249.
Editorial. Mich. Alum., 31 (1925): 337.
Effinger, John R. MS, "Report from the College of Literature, Science and the Arts for the Year 1914-1915." 2 pp. In Harry B. Hutchins Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich. ("Report," 1914-15.)
Effinger, John R. MS, "University of Michigan. College of Literature, Science and the Arts, 1909-10 to 1919-20." 26 pp. In Harry B. Hutchins Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich. ("Report," 1909-20.)
Farrand, Elizabeth M.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Register Publ. House, 1885.
From Vermont to Michigan; Correspondence of James Burrill Angell: 1869-1871. Ed. by Wilfred B. Shaw. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1936. (Vermont to Michigan.)
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1937-40.
General Rules and Regulations, and By-Laws of the University of Michigan … Detroit: Univ. Mich., 1859. (Bylaws, 1859).
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Laws, Ordinances, By-Laws and Regulations …, University of Michigan. Detroit, 1861.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department [College, 1915-] of Literature,Page 267 Science and the Arts," Univ. Mich., 1908-40.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1880-1940. Univ. Mich.
Organization and Aims of the University of Michigan as Reflected in Its By-Laws …, 1922. Comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923. Pp. i-xix, 1-94. (Bylaws, 1922.)
"Paul Rousseau de Pont."Mich. Alum., 12 (1906): 307-8.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1940. (P.R.)
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," Univ. Mich., 1846-1908. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
"Registrar Arthur G. Hall Dies After Long Illness."Mich. Alum., 31 (1925): 334-35.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
Stanley, Albert A."Paul Ro[u]sseau Bellon de Pont."Michiganensian, 10 (1906): 15.
University of Michigan: Its Origin, Growth, and Principles of Government. Comp. by Lucius L. Hubbard. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923. Pp. 1-50.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)
THE FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF THE UNIVERSITY
On the basis of financial support, as well as on the spiritual foundation embodied in the famous "Religion, Morality, and Knowledge" clause in the Ordinance of 1787, the University of Michigan was a national university for thirty years before the time the state accepted responsibility for its support — indeed, for forty-one years if the Detroit period be included. Until 1867 the institution's maintenance, with one controversial exception, was derived from the two townships of land finally granted in 1826 by the Federal Government and in minor degree from student fees (see Part I: The University of Michigan and State Education).
The one exception was involved (in the true sense of the word "involved") in a loan of $100,000 made by the state to the University in 1838. This loan was secured as to both principal and interest by a pledge of income from the federal land sales. By 1852 the loan had been fully repaid, the settlement being aided, it is true, by the state's acceptance of its own depreciated securities at their face value. Within a year or two thereafter, in response to criticism revolving around the administration of the federal land grant, the state began to pay interest to the University on the sum of $100,000 thus exacted. Finally, in 1877, the full amount of $100,000 was placed in the University funds, and at that time it became without question a contribution by the state to the University. Previously it had been first a loan and then a repayment thereof, with a curious history of interest payments first by the institution and then by the state. It cannot be disputed that if the University lands and the proceeds of their sale had been properly protected by the state the University would have been in no need of the loan in the first place.
The proceeds of the sale of the University's federal land grant have remained for some years at the sum of $548,744.40, and this doubtless will prove the ultimate total. On this the state pays interest to the Regents at the rate of 7 per cent per annum. During the early years when the all-important element of Page 268the University's support lay in the proceeds from land sales, the history of the handling of the land and the money derived therefrom bears out the principle that a political body, subject to all sorts of pressure groups, is never a safe trustee. Nobody can doubt that the funds, provided by the national government as an endowment for the University, were hindered and minimized in their accumulation, or that these accumulations were used by the legislature for other than University purposes. On the other hand, the state's obligation was early admitted and has never been seriously questioned, and the annual interest payment at 7 per cent has been fully accepted as one of the state's responsibilities. Further, the two townships of land, 46,080 acres, were sold at an average price of $11.90 per acre, which is believed to be more than twice the price secured for any other educational lands in the Northwest Territory. By the standard of contemporary comparison, therefore, the state of Michigan did not fare so badly.
In 1867 the legislature provided operating support through a tax of one-twentieth of a mill on the taxable property of the state. The proceeds of this tax did not in fact become available until the biennium 1869-71, along with an approximately equal amount, namely, $15,000 a year, which was voted by the legislature of 1869. Also, a building appropriation in 1871 resulted in the erection of University Hall, the first building provided by the state.
It was in 1873 that the legislature of Michigan made what is doubtless its greatest contribution to the University's sustained, vigorous life when it established on a continuing basis the so-called mill tax (see Part I: Constitutional Status and Angell Administration). Nearly fifty years later, in 1920, President David Kinley of the University of Illinois laid down the following essentials of revenue for a state university, a set of specifications to which the mill tax seemed built to order:
- 1. The source must be adequate.
- 2. It should increase steadily from year to year at a rate approximately the same as the growth of the university.
- 3. It should have a broad base, instead of being tied to a single interest or industry.
- 4. Fluctuation from year to year must not be great.
- 5. It should be related to the progress of the state in population and wealth and to the returns from education as far as ascertainable, so that the assignment of the particular source of revenue will commend itself.
- 6. It must be such as to command the approval of the legislature and the people.
The state of Michigan mill tax for the support of its university continued unchanged (except for increases in the rate) from 1873 to 1923, and to it much of the substantial, steady growth of the institution must be attributed. In 1923 (along with an increase in both the rate of tax and the valuation of the state) a limit was placed on the proceeds of the tax. The reason alleged for such limitation was that, as the equalized value of the state could and in fact did increase, the proceeds of the mill tax could increase above the amount which the legislature was willing to vote to the University. In 1927 the limitation on the proceeds of the mill tax was removed, with the new provision that the valuation basis to which the mill-tax rate should be applied would be the valuation next preceding the latest session of the legislature. However, under the influence of the great depression the limitation was reimposed in 1931. Since the abolition of the state real-estate tax in 1935 there has still continued a "mill tax" as a "measuring stick" of the amount to be provided from funds in the state treasury without regard to source. There is thus preserved Page 269the idea of a continuing appropriation based on the wealth of the state.
Student fees throughout later history have accounted for 20-25 per cent of the operating income of the University, exclusive of the University Hospital. The Hospital earns its own way by charges against patients.
Income from endowments and from gifts has become increasingly important in recent years. As of June 30, 1940, the University's endowment funds, in addition to the proceeds of the federal land grant, amounted to $14,215,379.26, with $1,709,735.95 of trust or gift funds additional held for disbursement for certain specified projects and $589,491.60 of student loan funds. Almost all, however, of these types of funds are available only for projects specified by the donors and not for the general needs of the institution.
Income for buildings has been derived since 1873 from the state (either by direct appropriation or through savings from the mill tax), from private benefactions, and, in the case of buildings used for athletics, from income arising out of admissions to athletic events. The Student Publications Building was earned and paid for by the Michigan Daily and other publications. A number of residence halls have recently been erected in part from federal grants and in part from issues of revenue bonds.
Probably the two most detailed discussions of the income of the University, up to the dates of their publication, are parts of the early chapters of Hinsdale's History … (1906) and, especially, "The Financial Support of the University of Michigan; Its Origin and Development," by Price.
Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Hinsdale, Burke A.History of the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1906.
Price, Richard R.The Financial Support of State Universities. (Harvard Stud. Ed., Vol. XI.) Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1924.
Price, Richard R."The Financial Support of the University of Michigan: Its Origin and Development."Harvard Bull. Ed., No. 8 (1923): 1-58.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
THE BUSINESS OFFICE
The business administration of the University of Michigan from 1842 to 1900, if we are to judge by the volume of business of which there is a record, was relatively simple when compared with the University of 1940. For a number of years after the University was established in Ann Arbor, the major items of expenditure consisted of salaries of professors, books for the library, and janitor service. It was not until the first chemical laboratory was built in 1856 that any considerable amount was required for laboratory supplies.
The budget of the University was very simple until instruction in the natural sciences was introduced. The buildings were heated by wood stoves in those days, and the earlier financial reports include expenditures for wood. There was no need for full-time business officers, and although the records indicate that a treasurer Page 270was appointed at one of the first meetings of the Board of Regents, this was a part-time position. The early minutes mention the offices of treasurer and secretary, the secretary being understood to be the secretary of the Regents (see Part I: Regents). Later, the title of "steward," indicating more or less the function of a business manager, was introduced. However, the duties of the steward did not involve the centralization of all the business functions of the University as they are now organized under the control of the vice-president and secretary in charge of business and finance.
One of the early budgets is given here-with to illustrate the expenditures of the University for one year.
|Salaries of president and professors||$16,900|
|Traveling expenses of professor of astronomy from Berlin to Ann Arbor||200|
|Secretary, superintendent and librarian||500|
|Treasurer, including traveling expenses.||120|
|Insurance on buildings||345|
|Expenses of Regents and of visitors appointed by superintendent of public instruction||400|
|Interest on consolidated warrant||350|
|Library and printing||1,200|
|Grounds, buildings, and contingencies, including completion of Medical College||2,500|
In addition to the above, certain expenses of the Library and Medical Departments were paid out of fees, rents, etc.
The janitors, according to tradition, worked only during the winter months, keeping the buildings clean and providing wood for the stoves. One of the janitors of the 1880's, who is still living, has said that during the winter months he served as a janitor and during the summer as a painter. It is probable that it was the general practice in the early days of the University to make repairs to buildings during the summer, using at least part of the time of those who served as janitors during the winter. It should be remembered that the University was closed during the summer, for the summer session, as now constituted, had not yet been organized. As late as 1897 there was agitation to keep the University Hospital open during the summer, and as a result the legislature appropriated the sum of $3,000 for the year 1897-98 toward this purpose. This act was in effect until the year 1919-20, with annual appropriations throughout this period.
As the University plant increased in size, the problems of operation and maintenance of buildings increased. Gradually, departments were developed for the various mechanical trades, and the budgets of the University indicate that appropriations were made for the paint, plumbing, and electrical shops, and for the care of teams. A superintendent of buildings and grounds (Professor Silas H. Douglass) had been appointed in 1847, but the position was eventually discontinued, and the idea of centralizing the control of the entire physical plant under a single individual was not put into effect until the year 1910, when James Harmon Marks ('08e) was appointed Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds. While it is possible that during the early days a single individual may have supervised the entire plant, it had gradually developed that janitors would report to various officers situated in the buildings where they worked. After the centralized control of the physical plant was established in 1910 the entire janitor service became a part of the Department of Buildings and Grounds (see Part VIII: Department of Buildings and Grounds).
The first separate heating plant, constructed in 1879, was erected directly Page 271east of Mason Hall. Some of the adjacent buildings were heated from this plant, and it was the only heating plant until the introduction of electricity and the expansion of the campus made it necessary to construct a central heating and power plant in 1894. This plant was built near the West Engineering Building and was situated in the building now being used as the Reserve Officers' Training Corps headquarters. The operation of this plant was placed directly in charge of the Department of Engineering. After the appointment of Mr. Marks as Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds the various plumbing, painting, and electrical shops, scattered over the campus, were centralized in a new structure adjacent to the heating and power plant on Washington Street. Both of these buildings were completed in 1914 and were placed under the Department of Buildings and Grounds. For many years the Washington Street power plant furnished heat and electricity solely to the main University campus. As a part of the large building program during the Burton administration (1920-25) a new tunnel system, including an extension to the then new University Hospital Building, was constructed, and since then all buildings on the main campus, including the Hospital and dormitories, have been furnished with heat and light by the Washington Street plant. For the past several years electricity has been furnished from the main power plant to some outlying units such as the athletic buildings. After the resignation of Mr. Marks as Superintendent in 1916, Lyman Russell Flook ('13e) served for two years in that capacity. He was followed in 1918 by Edward Charles Pardon ('12e), the present Superintendent.
In the Business Office proper, more or less centralization of financial matters gradually developed, but such centralization was not completely effected until shortly after the year 1900. The office of the secretary of the University gradually developed into the central business office, although the treasurer retained some of those functions ordinarily handled in a central business office. Early in the history of the University the plan of financial organization prevailing in state and municipal governments was followed. This plan provided for a treasurer and a secretary, each serving as a check on the other, in the same way that state auditors and treasurers, county clerks and treasurers, or city officers check each other. This was quite natural, for accounting technique, particularly in our educational institutions, had not developed to a very high point in this country, and modern accounting systems with their checks and balances were unknown. Therefore, in considering the development of the Business Office of the University, it is necessary to include both the secretary's and the treasurer's offices. Although the functions of the two officers were not clearly defined, the treasurer's duties were largely confined to collecting money and making disbursements, whereas the secretary kept the more detailed accounts of receipts and disbursements.
This essentially simple procedure was maintained under James Henry Wade, Secretary of the University from 1883 to 1908, and Harrison Soule, Treasurer during approximately the same period. Both of these men were of the highest character. The inadequate system of accounting, however, which involved the keeping of a special petty cash fund which was not regularly entered upon the University's books, and the practice of the Secretary of using University coal in his home, according to a custom of long standing, led to strong criticisms of the Secretary by the attorney general of the state. This brought about the resignation of the Secretary and the payment Page 272on his part for some of the coal used and a reimbursement of the special fund, which had been used for purposes which he had deemed necessary but had not reported to the auditor-general. The whole discussion led to a reorganization of the business administration of the University and to the appointment of Shirley Wheeler Smith ('97, A.M. '00) in 1908 as Secretary of the University.
For a great many years the budget of the University consisted principally of salaries of professors. With the establishment of many new departments of instruction and the rapid expansion of the plant, the budget became more and more complicated, but there was little effort to simplify it until shortly after 1900, when a new procedure and new forms for preparation of the budget were instituted. The summaries of budgets for 1907-8 and 1911-12 as printed in the Regents' Proceedings show a marked change in form and organization.
After the year 1900, with the rapid development of instruction in the sciences and in the various branches of engineering, the business functions of the larger universities expanded enormously throughout the United States, and the problem of efficient business management of all our larger institutions became more and more complicated. It was evident that centralized financial control was an absolute necessity if budgets were not to be overdrawn and if bills were to be paid promptly.
The appointment of a new superintendent of buildings and grounds in 1910, alluded to previously, brought under central control the various activities connected with the operation and maintenance of buildings and grounds, including the operation of the central heating and power plant. The reorganization of the budget and the establishment of a central purchasing department at about the same time marks the real beginning of centralized accounting and business control. A full-time purchasing agent was appointed in 1911, and on February 1, 1914, John C. Christensen (Kans. State Agricultural Coll. '94) came to the University as Assistant Secretary.
Since that time, by centralizing in the Secretary's Office accounting control of all University departments, the University business administration gradually has been extended to include the entire institution. The purchasing procedure was reorganized, and eventually all purchase orders, including orders for books, went out over the signature of the purchasing agent. The accounting system also was reorganized, and an effective method of budget control was instituted in the Secretary's Office. In 1927, in recognition of these changes, Mr. Smith's title was changed to Secretary and Business Manager. In the previous summer, Herbert Gale Watkins ('12) had been appointed Assistant Secretary of the University, succeeding Louis Paul Buckley ('05l), who had held that position since 1920.
In 1929 Alexander G. Ruthven was appointed President, and shortly thereafter he reorganized the administration of the University along corporation lines with the appointment of three vice-presidents, one of whom was designated as vice-president and secretary. After the resignation of Robert A. Campbell as Treasurer in 1931, the Secretary's Office was reorganized into four major divisions, namely, accounting, purchasing, cashier, and investments. The title of Shirley W. Smith was changed to Vice-President and Secretary in Charge of Business and Finance and that of John C. Christensen to Controller and Assistant Secretary, with the heads of the four major divisions designated as chief accountant, purchasing agent, cashier, and investment officer.
The total force of the Business Office now aggregates approximately seventy-five Page 273
All financial management is centralized under the vice-president and secretary in charge of business and finance, who is responsible to the president and the Board of Regents. This includes direction of the central Business Office, the Department of Buildings and Grounds, and various other departments or divisions dealing with business or service functions, such as the Printing Department, the Binding Department, and the various storehouses.
Professor Lewis M. Gram, Director of Plant Extension, supervises and directs the expansion of the plant, including new construction. Financial control of new construction, however, is centralized in the Business Office. The vice-president in charge of business and finance serves as secretary of the Board of Regents and Page 274has an assistant secretary to assist him in performing this function, while the controller and assistant secretary is charged with the responsibility of detailed administration of the Business Office and assists the vice-president and secretary in such matters as may be delegated by him.
The growth of the University from 1855 to 1940 may be seen at a glance if the information in Table I be compared with a few excerpts from the annual financial report of the year ending June 30, 1940, given in Table II.
Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
University of Michigan. Catalogue of Graduates, Non-Graduates, Officers, and Members of the Faculties, 1837-1921. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1923.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
THE first endowment of the University of Michigan was established by an act of Congress on May 20, 1826, which authorized the secretary of the treasury to set aside two townships of land for the benefit of the University. The proceeds from the sale of this land, which are in the custody of the
|June 30, 1924||June 30, 1940|
|Professorship and lectureship funds||$ 288,858.04||$ 771,162.47|
|Fellowship and scholarship funds||722,295.98||1,498,156.10|
|Prize and student-aid funds||12,745.10||481,103.90|
|Endowments for student-loan funds||173,588.13||416,251.96|
Many years elapsed before the University received any endowment from private sources (see Part I: Gifts). In 1880 Walter Crane deeded some property in Detroit to the University as an endowment, but this did not function as such until the property was sold in 1902 and the proceeds, amounting to $20,719.28, were turned over to the fund. Since then the income from this fund has been used for miscellaneous purposes.
In 1886 the University received $458.41 from a campaign to raise funds for the purchase of German books for the General Library. This was the first endowment fund turned over to the University in cash and to be invested to yield an income.
Page 275The Williams professorship fund, established by the Alumni Association, was not turned over to the University until 1898, though the fund had been established a number of years earlier and had provided a retiring allowance to Professor George Palmer Williams (see Part II: Alumni Association).
Practically all of the endowment funds given to the University from private sources are for restricted purposes, as only five, totaling $200,000, might be construed as of a general nature. Even expenditures from these funds have been almost invariably for special purposes designated by the president or the Regents. It can therefore be said that only the original federal endowment is used to supplement funds for the general operating expenses of the University. Thus the University still relies principally upon appropriations from the state and student fees for general operation. However, such endowments as the Bates professorship in the Medical School, the Hudson professorship in history, to some extent the William W. Cook endowment, the funds derived from the Horace H. Rackham estate, and the New York University of Michigan Club endowment do supplement funds for general operation to a limited degree.
The comparison between the major classifications of endowment funds as of June 30, 1940, and those of June 30, 1924, the first year such a classification occurred, may be seen in Table I.
Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
PROVISIONS FOR PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT
UNTIL the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching established the Carnegie free pensions, there was no plan for large-scale pensioning of college teachers. Organized in 1905 by a gift of ten million dollars from Andrew Carnegie, the Foundation originally made no provision for the faculties of state universities. In 1908, however, Mr. Carnegie extended the benefits of the Foundation to properly qualified state universities and also increased the endowment of the Foundation by an additional five million dollars.
In February, 1909, the Regents of the University of Michigan passed a resolution directing the president to file a formal request for participation of the University in the pension plan of the Foundation.
At the September, 1909, meeting, the president reported to the Regents that one professor who had resigned after long service and the widows of two professors were being provided with retirement allowances by the Carnegie Foundation.
From 1909 until November 17, 1915, the Foundation continued to accept faculty members of qualified institutions as eligible for retiring allowances, but after the latter date no new appointments were accepted. This limitation resulted Page 276from inability to carry out the original plan of Mr. Carnegie to provide free retiring allowances to the faculties of American colleges and universities due to the unforeseen growth in the number of persons eligible for such pensions.
The officers of the Foundation thereupon made a thorough study of pension plans in Europe, and in 1918 the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association was organized for the purpose of providing joint contributory retiring allowances. On January 10, 1919, and on April 25, 1919, the Regents adopted the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association plan embodying the provision that the University would match an annual contribution of 5 per cent of salary by the employee with an annual maximum of $250 for such faculty members as were eligible. This plan has been in effect without interruption and is now the established pension policy for the faculty and for a limited number of administrative officers.
In 1929 the Carnegie Foundation found it impossible to maintain the original provisions of free retiring allowances for those accepted prior to November 17, 1915. At that time the Regents, with the assistance of the Carnegie Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation, established a plan to provide pensions substantially as originally contemplated by the Foundation, in the following manner:
- 1. All faculty members on the accepted list of the Carnegie Foundation were required to subscribe to an annuity policy in the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association on the same basis as staff members already contributing to the established Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association plan, but with the University matching contributions up to $360 instead of $250 per year.
- 2. The Carnegie Foundation, together with the Carnegie Corporation, agreed to a joint annual contribution not to be in excess of $1,500, toward the pensions of persons on the accepted list of November 17, 1915.
- 3. For the purpose of making up any difference in pension between the original provisions of the Carnegie pension plan and the proceeds of the two preceding sources, the University established the so-called "older faculty members' retirement fund," which is being used to provide supplementary pensions upon retirement for those still remaining on the Carnegie Foundation accepted list when the total pensions provided under 1 and 2 above, are not sufficient.
During the past few years efforts have been made on various occasions to institute some plan of retirement annuities for the so-called nonacademic staff, but in each instance a lack of funds on the part of the University has made it necessary to abandon the proposal. In his report to the president on June 30, 1940, the vice-president and secretary in charge of business and finance mentioned an old-age security plan for nonfaculty employees as one of the outstanding administrative needs of the University.
Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings …, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915.
THE COMMITTEE ON OFFICE PERSONNEL
PRIOR to 1912, appointment, promotion, dismissal, and salary changes were primarily under the direction of the unit utilizing the services of office employees. Requests for such appointments or for changes in salary were either made directly to the Regents or included in the annual budget of the unit. As this group increased in number, the burden of acting upon separate requests during the year led the Regents, in February, 1912, to place final authority for recommendation in the secretary of the University. They also declared at that time "that those employees whose duties are of a stenographic or clerical nature are to be regarded as employees of the University as a whole no matter to what department or office assigned" (R.P., 1910-14, pp. 360-61).
The Regents, in February, 1920, authorized the president, the secretary, and the dean of the school or college concerned to expend sums not exceeding $500, ad interim. The effect of this resolution was broadened in March, giving this committee power over employment and salary adjustments of clerks and stenographers. Later that year (R.P., 1917-20, p. 945) the salaries of the clerical-administrative staff were segregated for separate study by the executive committee and the secretary. No general bylaw was prepared until 1926. The Regents continued, however, to refer specific requests to the secretary, and his office in addition exercised in limited degree the powers implied in the passages just recited.
In June, 1925 (R.P., 1923-26, p. 620), the finance committee of the Regents, in reporting the budget for the next biennium, declined to make any recommendation on one large class of salaries. The committee stated that budget requests seemed conflicting, and that no satisfactory University policy existed. However, they presented a resolution, which was adopted, as follows:
That … Professor Edmund E. Day, Dean of the School of Business Administration, be requested and authorized to make a general survey and report upon all positions on the University staff of the following general classifications:
Assistant secretaries, assistant registrars or recorders of schools or colleges, secretaries to deans and all other University officials, accountants, stenographers, typists, clerks, and in fact all members of the staff with duties of a similar nature to any of those indicated in the above list.
Further, this report should "embody recommendations as to classification of such employees, their salaries, duties, responsibilities and other pertinent matter, if any, and also a general plan of University procedure with respect to matters involved." Dean Day presented his report at the October meeting.
The report contained a classification and an appropriate range of salaries for each class. It recommended maintenance of a file of information on comparable rates of pay elsewhere, smaller increases at shorter intervals, a consistent and significant system of titles, a plan of some centralized review to prevent disparities of treatment, and constant revision and amendment of duties and qualifications. The report also suggested that work of this sort could be satisfactorily carried on in the office of the secretary of the University.
The Regents received and filed the report. In January, 1926, they created a "committee on non-academic and non-officer personnel" charged with advising Page 278them "in every case involving salaries, duties, titles, office hours, vacations, and hours of absence, and other conditions affecting or involved in the service of employees of the general classes mentioned" (in a preceding paragraph of the resolution). This committee consisted of the president, the secretary, and the officer whose staff member was under consideration.
A further study of these positions was authorized in May, 1929. In addition to reclassification, this study was directed to determine "whether any generally applicable, equitable regulations for appointment and for promotion within or between such groups can be advantageously developed, with equitable and just provision for salary payments based on value of services and on responsibilities carried." Professors C. S. Yoakum and Margaret Elliott were directed to make the study.
The informal report of findings was presented to the Regents in September, 1931. The formal report was received and placed on file at the November meeting. After considering the earlier informal report, the Board established a standing committee on office personnel. This committee consisted of the then "two Vice-Presidents and Mr. H. G. Watkins, Assistant Secretary, as 'standing' members, with the addition, in each individual case to be considered, of the Dean or other divisional head concerned." The committee was given authority to employ a permanent secretary and was instructed to function as a personnel office with respect to the general groups of employees previously mentioned. Dr. Haynes, Director of the University Hospital, was made a standing member of the committee in 1935.
The committee on office personnel was organized mainly to promote efficiency and to prevent inequities in working conditions, in work hours, and in salaries. Each of the several hundred positions was studied, classified, and accorded a salary range. Since the establishment of the committee this work has been carried on continuously. It was agreed that vacancies should be filled wherever possible by promotions and transfers from within the clerical staff. This procedure recognizes worthy employees, capable of carrying more difficult duties, or better suited to another task. Continuously, from the establishment of the committee emphasis has been placed on encouragement and growth of each employee; and a constantly increasing number of transfers and promotions has been possible.
To avoid possible hasty consideration which might result from studying hundreds of cases at budget time, the anniversary system for salary increases was adopted. Each month the committee meets and carefully reviews the case of each employee whose anniversary month of employment occurs in the following month. Graphs are prepared so that at a glance committee members and the dean or department head can observe his particular employee's position in relation to other employees within the same classification.
In addition to considerable numbers of permanent appointments, transfers, and promotions, each year hundreds of temporary workers are sent out from the personnel office to departments calling for extra help. An active file is maintained, giving information on approximately seven hundred applicants for all different types of clerical and secretarial work.
The work of the year is summarized in the annual report of the secretary of the University. These reports give briefly the salient points of the year's operations.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1924-25, 1929-30, 1931-32, 1935-39.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1910-40.
FIRE INSURANCE. — On April 18, 1900, the Regents directed the secretary "to cancel all insurance in accordance with the instructions of the Auditor General; the State having by law decided to carry its own insurance." In this record, quite clearly, only fire insurance is referred to. The largest total of fire insurance mentioned in any earlier Regents' record was $200,000 (Apr., 1899). This was presumably the total coverage thus canceled.
The ancient adage "Put not your trust in princes" received a new illustration in the summer of 1911 with the burning of what was then known as the Old Medical Building (see Part VIII: First Buildings). When the Regents sought reimbursement for this burned building through the state insurance fund all responsibility was denied on the ground that the constitutional corporation entitled "The Regents of the University of Michigan," being set off and separated from the state government in general, is ineligible to compensation from a state fund for its loss by fire.
In March, 1912, Regent Clements, chairman of the buildings and grounds committee, reported that as the auditor-general, on the basis of an opinion by the attorney general, would not object to auditing University vouchers for fire-insurance premiums, the committee to which the question of protection had been referred with power had placed specific insurance upon University buildings and contents to a total of $1,750,000. By 1936-37, buildings and contents were covered to approximately $9,500,000.
The rate paid for fire insurance originally was $.80 per hundred for five years, or $.16 per hundred per year. This rate continued until the formation of the companies' so-called Rating Bureau, under whose administration the average rate was early increased to $1.20 per hundred for three years, or an annual rate of $.40. This was an increase of 150 per cent over the original rate. However, with the great increase of fireproof buildings in later years, with the use of coinsurance clauses where these seemed desirable, and on the basis of the University's "fire experience," the rate was gradually reduced again to its figure in 1938, namely, $.535 per hundred for three years, or slightly less than $.18 per hundred per year. In 1939 we rearranged our coverage, placing practically all our property values under blanket form at a rate of $.23 per hundred for three years, or less than $.08 per annum, increasing our coverage $11,000,000 without increasing the amount of our premiums. In December, 1940, all of the University property located in Ann Arbor, with the exception of dwellings, some small, miscellaneous properties, and properties handled by the Investment Office, were covered under a blanket form at a three-year rate of $.215 per hundred of insurance, or $.072 on an annual basis.
The University's fire-loss ratio has been excellent over the whole history of nearly thirty years. A well-organized watchman service, frequent inspections, and extremely careful attention to the recommendations of inspectors have all helped. One important influence in securing Page 280low rates lies in the interior system of fire mains by which pumps, installed in duplicate and connected with the University's naval tank, can be started instantly upon an alarm of fire, and can so increase the pressure in the fire mains reaching every University building as to give to firemen ample water at unusually high pressure.
The chief source of such fires as the University has had seems to be the cigarette. During the six years 1934-40, a total of eighty-nine fires was reported, mostly small, and out of this total, forty, or 45 per cent, were traceable to smokers' carelessness.
Workmen's compensation insurance. — Although the corporation known as "The Regents of the University of Michigan" is exempted from the terms of the Workmen's Compensation Act of the state, the Regents have desired to keep pace, in University operations, with this humane type of legislation and have protected the institution and its employees from the time when workmen's compensation insurance went into effect in Michigan. At first the University was permitted to except from the policy members of the faculty, officers, clerks and stenographers, and similar groups to which the Compensation Act is not in its philosophy particularly applicable. In later years legislation and the regulations of the State Insurance Department have not permitted companies to take such "partial risks." At present every person on the University pay roll, of whatever status, is protected by the workmen's compensation insurance policy, covering hospitalization and other prescribed benefits, and prescribed amounts of pay during incapacity from occupational accident. In cases of employees on a permanent or semipermanent basis whom the University might continue at full salary during temporary incapacity, the amount payable under the insurance policy reduces the net cost of such continuance of salary. In the policy of insurance the company is always required, in its acceptance of responsibility, not to set up as a defense the fact that the Regents are not legally subject to the Workmen's Compensation Act.
Since 1938, the Regents have considerably changed and expanded the insurance protection carried. At this time, February, 1941, there are the following coverages:
Fire insurance: more than $25,000,000, largely in blanket policies, with a rate of $.215 per hundred for three years, or $.072 on an annual basis. Also appropriate specific coverage on investment properties and on certain detached properties.
Automobile insurance: on all University-owned automobiles and trucks, against fire, theft, property damage within $5,000, and public liability with limits of $20,000 to $40,000. The University owns over sixty trucks and trailers.
Boiler insurance: carried largely for the value of the inspection service.
Fidelity bonds: every person on the pay roll is bonded. Certain officials and employees handling cash or securities are bonded to the extent of $150,000 each. Other employees responsible for lesser amounts of cash or securities are covered by smaller bonds, and finally, all other employees are covered to a grand total of $50,000 for this classification.
Burglary, safe, and holdup insurance: carried in what are believed to be appropriate amounts with consideration of the exposure due to vaults inadequate in space and security.
Partly as a matter of satisfactory public relations in case of accidents, liberal public liability insurance is carried on all University premises, including elevators.
Workmen's compensation insurance.
Other risks specifically covered include earthquake (McMath-Hulbert Observatory, at Lake Angelus); films in transit; exhibits of various sorts; certain especially valuablePage 281art pieces; radium; parcel post and registered mail; miscellaneous thefts; windstorm; and builder's risk on new buildings. Also the terms of trust agreements under which revenue bonds are issued require insurance against loss of rent due to fires, etc. The courses in flying require a special policy covering accidents to student participants.
Financial Report, Univ. Mich., 1917-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1941.
THE OFFICE OF THE DEAN OF STUDENTS
IN a letter addressed to the president of the University and to the Senate Council of the University Senate under date of March 20, 1919, Louis A. Strauss, Professor of English and chairman of the committee on student affairs, recommended the creation of the office of dean of men. This was the first time that such an office in the University of Michigan had been suggested. In his letter Strauss mentioned the growth of extracurricular student activities and of the accompanying problems, and pointed out the committee's "inadequacy to the needs of the situation." He also called attention to the fact that "the need of such an official has already been felt by the state universities to which we are nearest akin, namely, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois and Iowa."
In the annual report of the committee to the University Senate, made in May, 1919, Strauss again emphasized the need of a dean. The Senate Council, the University Senate, and the Board of Regents successively approved during the following year a resolution calling for the appointment of a full-time officer to attend especially to student interests. Because negotiations for a new president were then in process, it was deemed wise to postpone the establishment of such a position until the new executive's attitude toward it could be known, so that if he should favor the plan the first incumbent could be one chosen by him.
President Marion L. Burton took office in the fall of 1920. He came from the University of Minnesota, where for some time there had been a dean of student affairs, and consequently he was familiar with the need for such an officer and his duties. The result was the creation at the University of Michigan of the position of dean of students and the appointment, on February 1, 1921, of Joseph A. Bursley ('99e), Professor of Mechanical Engineering, to fill the place.
When the office was established the entire personnel consisted of Dean Bursley and a secretary. The duties were undefined, except that in making the appointment the Regents had provided that the dean of students was to act as "friend, counselor and guide to the student body and to have the general oversight of its welfare and of its several activities."
Within six months the work had grown so that an assistant dean of students had been appointed on a half-time basis to supervise the housing of men students, and a secretary had been added to the personnel to take charge of student employment. Duties later assigned to the dean of students and his staff included the inspection of rooming-houses for men, the administration of the automobile regulation imposed by the Regents, Page 282the auditing of the accounts of student organizations, the supervision of the financial affairs of fraternities, the issuing of student identification cards, the administration of the rules relative to student social affairs and of the rules of eligibility for participation in extracurricular affairs other than athletic, and the maintenance of a personal record card for each student.
The dean of students is the directing head of all of these activities and is concerned with many of the details. In addition, he has many other duties which bring him into intimate contact with individual students and student organizations. He is not, as is sometimes assumed, primarily a disciplinary officer of the University. On the contrary, he is more interested in keeping students out of trouble than in seeing that they are punished for violations of University rules and regulations. Visiting students who are sick in the Health Service or in the University Hospital; trying, from time to time, to locate students who disappear; interviewing anxious parents; consulting with students about all their manifold problems — scholastic, financial, moral, and otherwise — and intervening for them when they are in difficulties with the local police — these are a few of the duties of the dean of students.
The various personal problems of individual students, upon which so much of the time of this office is spent, include those of finances. The dean of students, as chairman of the committee on student loans, interviews every year fifteen hundred to two thousand students who wish to borrow from the loan funds amounts varying from five to five hundred dollars (see Part IX: Student Loan Funds). He is also ex officio chairman of the committee on student affairs and of the committees on student conduct and on the Honors Convocation; he is an ex officio member of the University Senate, the University Council, the deans' conference, the Board of Directors of the Michigan Union, the Board in Control of Student Publications, the committee on theater policy and practice, the executive committee of the Interfraternity Council, and the Orientation-Period committee. These are his official positions. Between meetings, at all hours of the day or night, he is the friend and father confessor of the student body.
The increased duties of the office have necessitated an increased personnel; in 1940 the staff included, in addition to the dean, two assistant deans, a housing inspector, a police officer to assist in enforcing the automobile regulation, six secretarial and clerical assistants, and three student assistants. Even with this help, there are many times when at least a part of the staff is forced to work late at night in order to meet the demands made by the larger extracurricular student affairs.
In an institution of the size of the University of Michigan, such an office must be constantly occupied with the ever changing and ever increasing duties which it performs for the student body, for the faculty, and for the community at large.
MS, "Minutes of the Senate Council," May, 1919. Univ. Mich.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-23, pp. 120-21, 157, 250.
Strauss, Louis A. MS, letter addressed to president and Senate Council as chairman of committee on student affairs, Mar. 20, 1919. Univ. Mich.
THE OFFICE OF THE DEAN OF WOMEN
THE founding of the Women's League in 1890 by the undergraduate women and their friends resulted in a greater feeling of unity than had previously existed among the women, and in a realization of their needs (see Part IX: The Michigan League). Women were coming to the University in ever increasing numbers; in the five-year period 1885-90 their enrollment rose from 196 to 369, and in 1892 there were 531 women students.
Eliza Maria Mosher, 1896-1902. — In 1896 the first dean of women was appointed to give special attention to the needs and welfare of the women students — Dr. Eliza Maria Mosher ('75m). Dean Mosher's special interest was in physical education. It is significant that she developed classes in hygiene, which she herself taught, and organized the Department of Physical Education for Women. She was very influential in the campaign for Barbour Gymnasium and in planning the building, which was to include not only a gymnasium, but also a small auditorium (Sarah Caswell Angell Hall), social rooms, a dining-room, and a kitchen. She resigned in 1902 to return to the practice of medicine, in which her greatest interest lay.
Myra Beach Jordan, 1902-22. — The second dean of women was Myra Beach Jordan. Myra Beach was born near Battle Creek in 1863. She came to study at the University in 1889 and remained two years. After returning in 1893, as the wife of Frederick P. Jordan, Assistant Librarian, she took work in the University, and in June, 1906, took her degree "as of the class of 1893."
As soon as she was appointed Dean of Women, Mrs. Jordan made a great point of knowing the girls personally. She reduced organization and red tape to the simplest terms, moved the office from the faculty room to one of the parlors of Barbour Gymnasium, where it is still situated (1940), and made herself a vital force in the life of the women. Miss Agnes Wells, now Dean of Women at the University of Indiana, wrote:
Mrs. Jordan came as Dean of Women in my senior year and the social life in the women's world began to develop. The girls of 1903 gave their first class play (the Senior Play), very crude to be sure, but we enjoyed it. We also had the first class breakfast with Dr. Angell and Mrs. Jordan as our guests. One hundred and twenty-four out of one hundred and thirty-five girls in the class attended the breakfast. These class activities have been carried out ever since.
In the following year Mrs. Jordan planned and wrote the first Junior Girls' Play, a play given by the juniors in honor of the seniors, now a tradition and one of the more important events on the girls' social calendar (see Part IX: Junior Girls' Play).
Dean Jordan's greatest interest, and perhaps her most noteworthy achievement, was the improvement of actual living conditions of the women. With the help of the Women's League, especially of sorority women, and against a great deal of opposition, she organized the approved houses for women, which were termed "League houses." It was required that women no longer live in men's rooming houses, and that every house for women have decent, well-kept rooms, a parlor in which to entertain callers, and adequate bathroom facilities. Mrs. Jordan's interest in housing went further in the stimulation of interest in dormitories, and during her regime, Helen Newberry Residence and Martha Cook Building (1915), Alumnae House (1917), Betsy Barbour House (1920), and Adelia Page 284Cheever House (1921) were given to the University by interested friends and alumni.
The student employment and placement work now carried out in the Office of the Dean of Women began when, in 1902, Mrs. Jordan helped to find work for a young woman student who had arrived in Ann Arbor with only a small sum of money but with a large determination to get a college education. Mrs. Jordan found homes in which this young woman (now the director of Stockwell Hall) did housework and took care of children to help defray her living expenses. The idea of a college girl's doing such work was new in those days. The group needing such aid slowly increased, and in 1910, when about thirty girl students were working their way through school, a special employment committee composed of Dean Jordan and two others was organized. Its purpose was to put girls' employment on a business basis and to arrange a schedule of wages. As the demand for work grew it became necessary to organize a kind of bureau of employment in the Office of the Dean of Women, where girls in need of work and people interested in employing students might register and be brought together. At the present writing (1940), more than one hundred and fifty women students are earning all of their expenses and more than five hundred are partially self-supporting. The supervision of this group occupies a large part of the time of one of the staff, since it involves arranging employment, adjusting wages and standards of work and hours, supervising the health of the group, and acting as special adviser to all employed women. Since the opening of the women's dormitories, all waitress positions are held by women students. The Michigan League provides others with work, and many private homes and business firms use student help. In general this group of students maintains a high scholastic average.
The work now done by the Office of the Dean of Women is the direct outgrowth of Mrs. Jordan's co-operation with a Women's League committee.
When Mrs. Jordan retired in 1922, she had set the pattern for housing organization, had encouraged and helped to formulate student government, and had sponsored, if not actually planned, many of the now traditional social events of the school year. Although many of the girls now at the University do not know Mrs. Jordan, she is still a very great influence in their campus life. The Regents accompanied their acceptance of her resignation with the following statement:
It is with feelings of genuine regret that the resignation of Mrs. Jordan, as Dean of Women, is accepted. She has served in that capacity for twenty years. When undertaking the work at Ann Arbor problems presented were many, but new. The method of handling the situation as it grew and developed required attention to detail, tact, and a personality — all of which during the entire period of her work she has apparently appreciated. Not alone has she materially improved the housing condition of the women students on the campus but she has throughout her career taken a personal interest in ways not shown in public that should be appreciated by every one interested in the welfare of the University women.
It is strikingly to her credit that thanks to her methods no untoward circumstance or happening of a serious nature has arisen among women students in recent years. When it is considered how many there are and how rapid has been the growth of the University, it is small wonder the Governing Body feels grateful to Mrs. Jordan for the results which must be accredited to her.
(R.P., 1920-23, pp. 364-65.)
Jean Hamilton, 1922-26. — Mrs. Jordan was succeeded by Miss Jean Hamilton (Vassar '00). In 1923-24 the position of assistant dean of women was created. It was held that year by Miss Marion Hollings Blood (Pennsylvania '20, A.M. ibid. '23), and then by Miss Grace Evaleen Page 285Richards (Minnesota '10, A.M. ibid. '17).
Before Mrs. Jordan's resignation, the Alumnae Council had undertaken to raise a million dollars for a woman's building. The organization of this campaign was under way. In 1924, Dean Hamilton assumed the duties of chairman of the campaign, and with the publicity firm of Tamblyn and Brown, Incorporated, of New York City, launched the drive for funds. Because the campaign was to take a great deal of Dean Hamilton's time and attention, Mrs. Amy Hobart was appointed temporary Assistant Dean of Women. In 1926 Miss Hamilton and her assistant, Mrs. Hobart, resigned.
Committee of advisers, 1926-30. — At the suggestion of President Little, the Regents did not continue the office of dean of women, but appointed a committee of three advisers of women — Miss Grace E. Richards, already a member of the staff, Miss Beatrice W. Johnson (Maine '24, A.M. ibid. '25), and Miss Alice C. Lloyd ('16). The task which the advisers undertook was to make the office as informal and friendly as possible, to support student government, and to know the girls personally in as large numbers as possible. During the years 1926-30, the enrollment increased each year, and the housing problem was again a very serious one. Prices were high, and rooms were inadequate (see Part IX: The Housing of Women Students). A report was submitted at this time to the Regents, and the result was the building of Mosher-Jordan Halls to house 440 girls.
Miss Johnson resigned in the fall of 1929. Mrs. Jordan was asked to return for one year in charge of the office, and Mrs. Byrl Fox Bacher (B.M. Univ. Mich. School of Music '29), for many years Dean of Women at the School of Music, which is now a unit of the University, came into the office as the third adviser, to replace Miss Johnson.
Alice Crocker Lloyd, 1930. — Early in the administration of President Ruthven the Board of Regents re-established the position of dean of women, effective July 1, 1930, and appointed Miss Alice C. Lloyd as Dean. Two assistant deans of women were chosen, to begin their new duties at the same time — Mrs. Bryl Bacher and Miss Jeannette Perry (Vassar '04, A.M. Michigan '24).
In 1930 the staff was further increased by two half-time assistants to the dean. Miss Ellen Burden Stevenson ('20, M.S. '30), Instructor in Geology, aided in the inspection of houses, and Miss Ethel Agnes McCormick (Columbia '23), Assistant Professor of Physical Education, was also appointed Social Director in the dean of women's office. With the opening of the University year 1932-33 Miss McCormick left the Department of Physical Education to become a resident social director of the Michigan League Building; in addition, she continued to assist the dean and was at that time designated Social Director of Women in the Office of the Dean of Women. In 1933 Miss Stevenson resigned to become Business Manager of the Dormitories. Mrs. Martha C. Lawton Ray ('36) was in 1935 appointed Assistant to the Dean of Women, on a part-time basis, in addition to her duties as Social Director of Mosher Hall.
Jordan, Myra B. MS, "Report of the Dean of Women, 1914-1915." 2 pp. In Harry B. Hutchins Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
Jordan, Myra B. MS, "Report of the Dean of Women from October 1, 1909, to July 1, 1920." 6 pp. In Harry B. Hutchins Papers. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1896-1909, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940.
THE FELLOWSHIP IN CREATIVE ART
THE establishment of a fellowship in creative art at the University of Michigan was a notable event in the first year of the administration of President Marion LeRoy Burton. It was his belief that the presence of a creative artist on the campus would be stimulating to the whole college community. Even though he taught no classes, the continuation of his own work under favorable circumstances would be a great inspiration. President Burton proposed the creation of such a fellowship at a conference of the deans on December 15, 1920. On the next day the Regents gave formal approval to the plan and expressed the hope that some gift would make its establishment possible. It was also suggested that it might be possible to offer the proposed fellowship to the poet Robert Frost as the first incumbent.
A little later this was made possible through a gift of five thousand dollars from the Honorable Chase S. Osborn, of Sault Ste Marie, former Governor of the State and Regent of the University. A similar gift by an anonymous donor extended the fellowship through the following year and enabled Frost to spend a large part of the two academic years 1921-23 in Ann Arbor, where he carried on a program of informal but highly stimulating conferences with a large group of students. The response to the poet's striking personality and original and highly individual approach to the art of writing was evident in a great increase of students interested in creative writing, especially in poetry. As part of the program a number of distinguished American poets came to Ann Arbor during this period to give lectures and to meet with Frost's students.
A letter quoted in the President's Report for 1921-22 (p. 91) characterizes the experiment in these words:
… No single influence at Michigan has been … more significant or more beneficial than the presence of Robert Frost… We are very certain … that the Frost stability, the Frost honesty, the stray, quiet spirit of the man, is leaving its mark on the student body …
Robert Bridges, the English poet laureate, was invited to Ann Arbor to be the holder of the fellowship for the third year, 1923-24, funds for which were made available by a donor in Detroit. Bridges, however, because of his advanced age, was able to spend only a few months in Ann Arbor, from April through Commencement, when he returned to his home in England. During his residence in Ann Arbor he met many students, to whom he gave a new and somewhat different interpretation of the creative spirit in writing. He was given the honorary degree of doctor of laws in June, 1924.
During his two years' residence in Ann Arbor Robert Frost had not only endeared himself to the students and to friends on the faculty, but had proved a real inspiration to literary endeavor. An effort was accordingly made to bring him back to the University once more as the holder of a fellowship in letters which was to be a continuation of the fellowship in creative art. This fellowship, by action of the Regents, was supported from the University's general funds, and the appointment was for an indeterminate term rather than for a single year.
Frost's appointment to this new fellowship was announced November 20, 1924. He remained, however, for only the one year 1924-25, though he received the Page 287appointment for the year following. He resigned to accept a similar appointment at Amherst College, where he had made his permanent home for some time. The fellowship for the year 1925-26 was held by Jesse Lynch Williams, well known as a dramatist and writer of fiction. His year with the students of the University was in some respects a productive one, particularly through his effective help and suggestions in the practical details of authorship and creative writing.
No appointments were made to the fellowship in the following years, though Robert Frost returned for a short period in the spring of 1927 for lectures and consultation.
Abbot, Waldo. "Jesse Lynch Williams — an Interview."Mich. Alum., 32 (1925): 235-36.
Abbot, Waldo. "Robert Frost — Professor of English."Mich. Alum., pp. 208-9.
"An Appreciation of Robert Frost."Mich. Alum., 29 (1923): 641.
Collins, Nelson. "Robert Bridges, Poet Laureate."Mich. Alum., 30 (1923): 5-8.
Editorials. Mich. Alum., 27 (1921): 600-601; 28 (1922): 837-38, 918-19, 1033; 29 (1922): 185; 30 (1924): 817-18.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-26.
Proceedings of the Boardof Regents …, 1920-26.
THE first degrees which the University of Michigan was authorized to give were those of bachelor of arts and master of arts, the original requirements for which were drawn up by the Regents in April, 1845. The former was first conferred when the class which had entered in 1841 was graduated in 1845, and the latter in 1849 upon Merchant H. Goodrich ('45) and Winfield Smith ('46).
These degrees still are given by the University, but the character of the degree master of arts has been entirely changed. Originally it was conferred upon holders of the bachelor of arts degree who had "preserved a good moral character" and had made application to the faculty, and whom the faculty had recommended. In other words, the English custom was substantially followed. The original regulations did not specify how long a candidate must wait after receiving his first degree, but a reference in the requirements as modified in December, 1859, shows that the interval was to be at least three years.
On the latter occasion President Tappan reported a series of regulations for the conferring of master's degrees on examination, which ultimately became the sole method of obtaining these and the other higher degrees, although the older system of granting the master's degree "in course," as it was called, was not formally abandoned until, on June 22, 1874, the Regents adopted a faculty recommendation to that effect, which became operative in 1877.
The master's degree "in course" was opened by the Regents in August, 1847, even to graduates of other colleges, and at the same time the faculty was permitted to recommend from time to time persons to receive the honorary degree of master of arts — the first honorary degree to be authorized. Alvah Bradish, Professor of Fine Arts, and Abram Sager, Professor of Obstetrics and the Diseases of Women and Children and also Professor Page 288of Botany and Zoology, were the first actually to receive it, in 1852. The Regents refused, however, in June, 1856, to vote master's degrees ad eundem to graduates of other institutions, saying that this had not been and should not be the practice. In March, 1858, the Board authorized the statement that "no honorary degrees are conferred here," and until the rescinding of this action in June, 1866, this was the policy of the University.
As it would be a very lengthy and complicated task to give a narrative account of the establishment, modification, and discontinuance of the dozens of degrees given now or formerly by the University, the essential facts have been sought out and are presented in tabular form. The sources (chiefly the Proceedings of the Board of Regents … and the annual Catalogues, Calendars, and Registers) have been consulted for each detail, and references are given in most instances.
It should be borne in mind that in the earlier and more informal days not so much attention was paid as at present to uniformity and precision in referring to these matters. In February, 1937 (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 175-77), the Regents for the first time approved an official list of the titles and abbreviations of degrees, which had for several years previously been used as a style sheet in the editorial offices. Earlier editors, however, had no such guides, and inconsistencies were bound to occur. Uniformity in the use of parentheses was especially hard to secure. One may, for example, find in the printed records alternatively "Bachelor of Science (in Pharmacy)" and "Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy." The rule covering the use of parentheses is now the following:
In general, parentheses are used when a qualification is added to the degree without altering the fundamental character of the degree thus qualified (as for example, the citation of "diploma departments" in engineering and architecture). Parentheses are not used to set off any part of the name of a degree which is distinctly independent and not merely a modification of another degree brought about by specialization.
With regard to honorary degrees, it should be stated that the University's present practice is not ordinarily to confer, honoris causa, degrees which may also be taken in course and upon examination. Exception is made in the cases of the master's degree in arts, science, and laws and the doctorate in science, in accordance with the practice of most institutions of comparable standing; today, however, the degrees doctor of medicine and doctor of philosophy, for example, would not be conferred as honorary degrees by the University of Michigan. No written rule on this matter exists, but there is a definite understanding which practically has the force of a regulation. Honorary degrees, also, are no longer conferred on active members of the University faculties or staff.
Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914. (Cal.)
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23. (Cat.)
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings, with Appendices and Index, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)
THE HONORS CONVOCATION
A PLAN to establish some annual public occasion especially for the encouragement of intellectual endeavor was considered by certain honor societies in 1915 (see Part IX: Sigma Xi), but was not put into effect. The annual Honors Convocation actually arose through a suggestion made by President Burton at a meeting of the conference of deans in April, 1922, that steps be taken to accord public recognition of high scholastic achievement to deserving members of the student body. A committee of deans was appointed to study the problem, and later presented a report including the following recommendation:
… That there be held annually early in May a special convocation to be called the Honors Convocation, for the purpose of giving public recognition … to those students who have been elected to societies, or who hold positions where scholarship is a primary qualification, or who have distinguished themselves in scholarly pursuits though not included otherwise in the honor list.
This plan, with some minor changes in detail, was later given approval by the Senate Council and by the Regents, and the first Honors Convocation was held May 13, 1924, with President Burton as the principal speaker.
The rules provide that the printed program shall contain the names of (1) all students who hold scholarships and fellowships in the Graduate School, (2) all students in the highest 10 per cent of the senior class of each school and college on the campus, excepting any student whose average is less than B, (3) every freshman, sophomore, and junior having scholarship average equivalent to one-half A and one-half B or higher, and (4) the holders of other fellowships, scholarships, and prizes awarded on the basis of high scholastic standing or exceptional proficiency in a particular field. After each student's name are listed the honorary societies of which he is a member.
Student interest in the event has been increased by the device of making the Honors Convocation program the occasion of the first public announcement of spring elections to such societies as Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and Phi Kappa Phi — a plan conceived by the committee on Honors Convocation and concurred in by officers of the scholastic honorary societies.
At the request of officers of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, the time of holding the Honors Convocation was changed after a few years to coincide with the time of that society's annual meetings. The new arrangement, which enabled teachers in attendance to hear the Convocation speaker and see some of their former pupils publicly honored for scholastic success, proved so beneficial to all concerned that it was permanently adopted.
Persons of distinction have been selected as speakers, and have attracted large audiences. Among the speakers in recent years have been Ernest M. Hopkins, President of Dartmouth College, James R. Angell, then President of Yale University, Harry W. Chase, then President of the University of Illinois and now Chancellor of New York University, and Presidents Frank Aydelotte of Swarthmore, and Robert M. Hutchins of the University of Chicago. To judge from the evident enthusiasm, these addresses have inspired the entire University community and have provoked thoughtful consideration of the problems of citizen, student, and educator. The interest of the students has grown from year to Page 299year. As a means of obtaining recognition for the merit of scholarship, particularly through the unification of scattered forces already operating toward that general goal, the Honors Convocation has proven effective.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 31-46 (1925-40).
The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, Vols. 42-43 (1936-37).
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1922-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the Senate Council," 1922-31. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-40.
THE ORIENTATION PERIOD
AT the end of the first decade of the twentieth century a system of mentors was introduced into the College of Engineering (see Part VII: Mentor System). They were concerned with the freshman and his troubles, especially those of an academic origin. Although the plan worked well, no similar steps were taken in the other undergraduate colleges of the University for fifteen years.
In 1925 Clarence Cook Little became President of the University. He came from the University of Maine, where, chiefly through his efforts, a Freshman Week had been organized. Orientation work had been known as far back as 1888, but there had been no widespread movement to introduce a system of orientation activities into our colleges and universities in general before the postwar period.
In the fall of 1926 about thirty members of the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts were tentatively appointed as advisers, and the freshmen of that year were assigned to these men for aid in the problem of election of studies (see also Part II: Office of the Registrar; Part III: Administration and Curriculum).
At a convocation held in University Hall in the fall of 1926, President Little said: "The establishment of Freshman Week has been considered. Next autumn we hope to have the freshmen come on a week before the upperclassmen so that they may become oriented before entering the real work of college."
September, 1927, saw the creation of the first official Freshman Week, as it was called then, under the direction of Professor William A. Frayer. The change in the name of this work to Orientation Period came in 1930, when it was felt that some help might well be offered to new students who came not as freshmen but as members of the higher classes.
In 1927 the program was extended to cover eight days, with a full series of activities every day. Experience soon showed, however, that it was possible to overdo the matter. In 1929 Frayer resigned from the University faculty and Philip E. Bursley ('02, A.M. '09) was put in charge. The length of the program was then reduced from eight days to approximately five, and at the same time the number of activities was reduced, in order to give the student a "breathing spell" from time to time.
The program of events has varied Page 300somewhat from year to year. It will never become fixed, in all probability, since changing demands and varying conditions must be recognized in the formation of the schedule for any year. The idea of advisers for the entire first year has finally won approval, and in every undergraduate college of the University mentors or counselors are now functioning, ever ready to assist any freshman. In the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts advisers are provided for students in their sophomore, junior, and senior years. These men attempt to help the student to solve difficulties which hamper him in his college career.
The complexity of rules and regulations laid down by the authorities of the University have made imperative some kind of a check and guidance for all students. Such guidance seems to be best given at present by our Orientation Period and current freshman counseling.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts," 1925-40, Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1925-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1923-40.
THE UNIVERSITY AUTOMOBILE REGULATION
IN President Burton's administration the rapidly increasing use by students of privately owned automobiles was recognized as a problem which would soon demand attention. University officials felt that the automobile was necessary to a student only in exceptional instances, and that it often proved a positive detriment to the best interests of the individual owner.
In the summer of 1923, the following resolution, adopted by the conference of deans on June 6, was approved by the Regents on June 14:
Resolved, That this Conference reiterate its recommendation to the Board of Regents regarding the use of automobiles by students, namely, that the policy be that of disapproval, and that the University students and their parents should be asked to cooperate with the University authorities toward lessening the use of automobiles by students.
(R.P., 1920-23, p. 811.)
The effects of this appeal were at best only temporary, and by 1925-26 it was apparent that the situation called for University legislation. Many students were maintaining cars in Ann Arbor, and serious accidents had occurred. Moreover, it was the opinion of the University administration that the unlimited use of automobiles by students too often was leading to a serious waste of time, to the growth of many forms of extravagance, and to an increase in practices which, besides distracting the students from the purposes for which they came to the University, involved moral risk.
Upon the recommendation of University Page 301officers and representatives of the Student Council and other student organizations, the Regents authorized regulations to prohibit lowerclassmen, beginning with the class of 1930, from owning or operating a car while the University was in session; and beginning with the second semester of 1926-27, students scholastically ineligible to take part in extracurricular activities. Registration of cars with the Office of the Dean of Students was required, and the administration and enforcement of the rules was placed in the hands of a committee, appointed by the president of the Student Council, which was to try cases of infringement of the rules.
During the year 1926-27 these rules were enforced by a committee consisting of five students and two faculty members. At the conclusion of the year, this committee recommended various changes, particularly in the interpretation and enforcement of the ruling. Among other things, the committee report suggested that necessary driving be approved by the issuance of individual permits, that students who were more than thirty years of age or were married should be allowed the use of their cars, and that the enforcement of the ruling be delegated to the department of the Dean of Students and assisted by campus policemen.
On June 17, 1927, after careful consideration of the situation, the Regents of the University passed the following resolution:
Resolved, That no student in attendance at the University from and after the beginning of the first semester of the University year 1927-28 shall operate any motor vehicle. In exceptional and extraordinary cases in the discretion of the Dean of Students this rule may be relaxed.
(R.P., 1926-29, p. 244.)
The clause "exceptional and extraordinary cases" has been interpreted to include the operation of cars for family, commuting, health, and business purposes. Driving for personal or social reasons was not interpreted as exceptional and was forbidden by the regulation. Those students over thirty years of age or who held a faculty ranking of teaching assistant or higher or who were enrolled as part-time students were granted exemption from the ruling.
This interpretation was based largely upon the recommendations made by the student-faculty committee which had attempted to enforce the restrictions on the operation of cars during the year 1926-27. An assistant to the dean of students was appointed to administer the ruling, and two men were employed to patrol Ann Arbor and vicinity for the purpose of apprehending violators of the regulation.
The several classifications of driving permits originally established have been found satisfactory and remain unchanged. The age limit for exemption has been reduced from thirty years of age to twenty-six years. Students whose homes are located at least 150 miles from Ann Arbor are allowed to store cars in Ann Arbor for vacation use, provided the cars are promptly registered at the Office of the Dean of Students.
The Regents in December, 1927, extended the automobile regulation to apply to the summer session of 1928, and the following month they directed that during the summer session the prohibition of the use of automobiles would not apply to those who in the academic year are engaged in professional pursuits (as, for example, teachers, lawyers, physicians, and dentists), those attending the Public Health Institute, or those special cases in which, within his discretion, the dean of students waives the restrictions.
In accordance with the authority granted to the dean of students the recreational use of cars was granted to summer session students not included Page 302in the above classification. Under this arrangement students were allowed to drive for outdoor athletic recreation such as golf, tennis, and swimming. The carrying of passengers was permitted with the restriction that mixed company would not be allowed in student cars after 9:00 p.m. These summer privileges have not been changed.
Since the Regents' action in June, 1927, there has been a definite decrease in the number of accidents and injuries resulting from the student operation of cars. During that period and while the ruling has been in force, only two students have been killed while driving cars. The regulation has reduced week-end trips by students, thereby increasing interest and participation in campus activities.
At first this restriction of driving privileges was disapproved by many members of the student body, and rather severe disciplinary penalties were required in order to secure a general observance of this rule of the Regents. After a time, however, it became quite generally accepted by the student body, and in the fall of 1933 an all-campus poll, conducted by the Michigan Daily, favored a continuation of the automobile ban by a vote of nearly three to one.
The Michigan Daily, 1922-33.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1922-23, 1925-27.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-40.
THE DIVISION OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES
AT a special meeting in January, 1935, the Board of Regents adopted the following resolutions (R.P. 1932-36, p. 511):
Resolved, That the Division of the Health Sciences be recognized to consist at the present time of the following units and services:
- Medical School
- School of Dentistry
- Division of Hygiene and Public Health
- University Hospital School of Nursing and subsidiary services
- College of Pharmacy
- Postgraduate Education
Resolved, further, That a Committee of the Division be established to consist of the heads of the several units and the Director of the Hospital. This committee shall act as a coordinating agency in accordance with the definition of a "division" as given in Regents' Proceedings, May, 1934, page 348;
Resolved, further, That Dr. James D. Bruce be made Chairman of the Division of Health Sciences in addition to his other duties.
The formal definition of a division set forth by the Regents in May, 1934 (p. 348) was as follows:
A division is a grouping of units and departments for the purpose of coordinating various allied activities, and of developing the general field therein represented along consistent, progressive, and nonconflicting lines. Its function is advisory. Its specific duties of advice and recommendation concern the interrelations of its several curricula, the encouragement of individual research, and the promotion of cooperative investigations.
The Division of the Health Sciences acts in an advisory capacity and is concerned with the teaching and administrative Page 303methods of its various units, with the view of developing a better understanding between them, of increasing their effectiveness, of bringing to the undergraduate an understanding of the unity of the health-science professions, and of stimulating and supporting research in these various contributory fields.
Heretofore, in this and other American universities, the several schools or curriculums concerned with professional education for the health services have been detached and isolated. Each has gone along in its own way with little if any understanding of, and interest in, the educational problems of the other. The students and, in large measure, the faculty in one school do not come into close relationship with those of the others. As a result of this traditional procedure in professional education for the health services, understanding and co-operation between the several educational units do not always exist, and, too often, these attitudes are carried into the practicing professions.
An increasing number of opportunities for meeting with graduates in all health fields through the various programs of teaching has permitted observations of attitudes as well as of degrees of professional fitness. Though much effort has been directed toward lessening the gap between current practices and advancing knowledge, it has become evident that much of the ineffectiveness of professional practice, as well as certain difficulties in social relationships, may be assessed to faulty and immature concepts which have their origin in the undergraduate period.
Although certain of the social sciences may relate only occasionally to the field of health, others in this group — notably sociology, psychology, economics, and political science — are coming rapidly into closer relationship with the health sciences. In order to strengthen the healthsocial relationship, the chairman of the Division of the Social Sciences attends by invitation all meetings of the Division of the Health Sciences.
The development of the divisional idea modifies the usual practices in educational administration. Formerly, the outstanding ability of some individual has marked the inception of a subdepartment which gradually grew into a department and, not infrequently, into an independent administrative unit. Occasionally a definite contribution was made, but not infrequently the result has been a duplication of activities to a greater or lesser degree and an unwarranted increase in personnel and equipment, all of which have added to administrative difficulties.
Retrenchment in expenditures because of periodic drops in institutional income has been made in the easiest, but not always the best, way, through a general reduction in salaries and maintenance. As certain subjects are basic to any program, so certain teachers are equally essential if an acceptable rate of progress is to be maintained. An outstanding faculty will continue to be attracted and retained by a liberal, forward-looking policy and by relative security of position and income. No loyal and interested teacher will abandon a well-planned program on account of a reduction of income which is due to an emergency, but it is equally certain that the individual with a marketable product will not continue his association with an institution which operates on an administrative policy of expediency. Thus, from an administrative standpoint, an assurance against duplication, an appreciation of basic policies, and the nurturing of talent are enhanced by such a division.
The divisional idea is not a new one. It has been experimented with in other institutions, with varying degrees of success. Page 304It is not unlikely that unsuccessful results have been brought about by the attitude of administrators who have believed, consciously or unconsciously, that certain units of the group might well be absorbed by others. This is not our concept. The purpose is to bring about the understanding that there is a natural unity in the health-science professions, and that medicine, dentistry, public health, nursing, pharmacy, and the ancillary services are but parts of the whole. Although the Division has been in operation but a short time, part of which was necessarily consumed by the process of organization, there is increasing evidence that this broadening interest will lead to a professional and social outlook that more adequately equips the graduate for the many-sided obligations of the modern community.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1935-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1932-40.
THE DIVISION OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
The Division of the Social Sciences did not come into existence officially until 1934, but it may be said that the concept originated when the Social Science Research Council of Michigan was organized.
On January 6, 1930, in the rooms of the Department of Political Science in Angell Hall, eight members of the University staff signed the articles of association of the Social Science Research Council of Michigan, a nonprofit corporation registered with the office of the secretary of state of Michigan. The corporation was indebted to Robert T. Crane, then Professor of Political Science in the University, for originating the idea, and for aiding very materially in establishing the corporation upon a sound basis. Its purpose was to encourage, support, and conduct if necessary, research in any of the general fields of the social sciences. The original eight directors of the corporation represented eight different fields in the social sciences, as follows:
- Anthropology, Carl E. Guthe
- Economics, Charles F. Remer
- Geography, Preston E. James
- History, Arthur E. R. Boak
- Law, Henry M. Bates
- Political Science, Joseph R. Hayden
- Psychology, Henry F. Adams
- Sociology, Robert C. Angell
At a meeting on January 18, 1930, Dean Bates was elected chairman of the corporation, and Professor Boak, vicechairman. Dr. Guthe and Professor Remer were elected secretary and treasurer, respectively. During the spring, steps were taken to further the objectives of the corporation. A committee on ways and means was created to canvass the possibility of securing funds, and a committee on projects was established to study the extent and nature of research then in progress at the University of Michigan.
In the succeeding few years the Social Science Research Council of Michigan was recognized by the national Social Science Research Council in New York. The personnel of the original Board changed slightly, as the directors either were re-elected or were succeeded by Page 305others as representatives of the eight units. In the meantime the Board was also increased slightly by the addition of a few directors at large. Through consultations with various members of the faculty and discussions at the meetings of the Board, a list of University research projects worthy of the support of the Council was prepared.
In the spring of 1933 negotiations were begun whereby the potential facilities of the Social Science Research Council of Michigan would be integrated with the administrative procedures of the University, through the president's office and the Graduate School. It is probable that these discussions were partly responsible for the development of the concept of the Division of the Social Sciences. On May 5, 1934, President Ruthven met with the directors of the Council to discuss mutual problems.
At a meeting of the professorial members of ten University units, on May 9, 1934, a suggested plan of organization was discussed, and a motion was passed requesting the President to recognize the ten units as a tentative Division of the Social Sciences. Within this tentative Division a committee on social science research was set up, which consisted in large measure of the incumbent directors of the Social Science Research Council of Michigan. This latter corporation, by unanimous agreement of the directors, ceased to exist at the close of the meeting on May 9.
The Regents, at their May meeting (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 347-48), recognized the Division of the Social Sciences as a grouping of the Departments of Anthropology, Economics, Geography, History, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the Law School, and the School of Business Administration. The function of the Division is advisory. Its specific duties of advice and recommendation concern the interrelations of its several curriculums, the encouragement of individual research, and the promotion of cooperative investigations. The first committee on social science research included the following members, elected by their respective departments:
- Anthropology, Carl E. Guthe
- Business Administration, Olin W. Blackett
- Economics, Charles F. Remer
- Geography, Preston E. James
- History, Lewis G. Vander Velde
- Law, John P. Dawson
- Philosophy, Roy W. Sellars
- Political Science, James K. Pollock
- Psychology, Charles H. Griffitts
- Sociology, Roderick D. McKenzie
During the school year 1934-35, additional steps were taken in the organization of the Division. At a dinner meeting on December 13, a special committee of three was named (Professor Boak, chairman, and Professors E. Blythe Stason and Robert C. Angell) to consider the further organization of the Division. At a meeting of the Division on February 19, 1935, the report of this committee was received and discussed. The committee on social science research was replaced by a general committee, consisting of one representative from each of the co-operating units of the University, which was empowered to deal with all matters concerning the Division as a whole, including the appointment of a research committee and the nomination of a chairman of the Division from among its members for appointment by the president of the University. In March a research committee of five within the Division was created, and later in the month the Regents (R.P., 1932-36, p. 559) appointed Dr. Carl E. Guthe Chairman of the Division. The general committee had elected Professor Remer as vice-chairman and Professor James as secretary. Since the spring of 1935 Page 306the organization of the Division has remained unchanged.
The committee on social science research, established in the spring of 1934, inherited the data assembled by the committee on projects of the former Social Science Research Council of Michigan, and studied them further. At the close of the school year, in June, 1934, Professor Remer, then chairman of this committee, submitted a long report to President Ruthven upon the status and needs of social science research at the University. This committee continued to serve through the school year of 1935 until the appointment of the research committee of five in the spring. Both of these committees of the Division have maintained their contact with the national Social Science Research Council, the headquarters of which are in New York City. The research committee of the Division has felt that part of its duty is to discuss policies and encourage progress in social science research at the University. More specifically, it has co-operated actively with the Graduate School in advising upon those research projects in the social sciences for which requests have been made for grants-in-aid from the funds at that School's disposal. It has served the Executive Board of the Graduate School continuously as an advisory committee on research in the social sciences. The Executive Board's establishment of a series of small advisory committees in the several major fields of knowledge was perhaps based upon the example set by the Division of the Social Sciences in creating its committee on research.
The general committee of the Division has held several meetings each year at which a variety of subjects of interest to the social sciences as a group was discussed. These included such items as concentration programs, the development of the Graduate School faculty, the Institute of the Health and Social Sciences, the proposal for a laboratory of statistics, and the honors system.
The personnel of the general committee has changed each fall as the staggered three-year terms of members have ended. Each fall the general committee has elected a new committee on research, since membership in the smaller group is for one year only. Not infrequently individuals were elected to succeed themselves upon this committee. In the fall of 1938 Robert B. Hall, Professor of Geography, was appointed Chairman of the Division of Social Sciences by the Board of Regents (R.P., 1936-39, p. 764) to succeed Dr. Guthe, whose three-year term of office had expired.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1934-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1932-40.