The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.

DEGREES

THE first degrees which the University of Michigan was authorized to give were those of bachelor of arts and master of arts, the original requirements for which were drawn up by the Regents in April, 1845. The former was first conferred when the class which had entered in 1841 was graduated in 1845, and the latter in 1849 upon Merchant H. Goodrich ('45) and Winfield Smith ('46).

These degrees still are given by the University, but the character of the degree master of arts has been entirely changed. Originally it was conferred upon holders of the bachelor of arts degree who had "preserved a good moral character" and had made application to the faculty, and whom the faculty had recommended. In other words, the English custom was substantially followed. The original regulations did not specify how long a candidate must wait after receiving his first degree, but a reference in the requirements as modified in December, 1859, shows that the interval was to be at least three years.

On the latter occasion President Tappan reported a series of regulations for the conferring of master's degrees on examination, which ultimately became the sole method of obtaining these and the other higher degrees, although the older system of granting the master's degree "in course," as it was called, was not formally abandoned until, on June 22, 1874, the Regents adopted a faculty recommendation to that effect, which became operative in 1877.

The master's degree "in course" was opened by the Regents in August, 1847, even to graduates of other colleges, and at the same time the faculty was permitted to recommend from time to time persons to receive the honorary degree of master of arts — the first honorary degree to be authorized. Alvah Bradish, Professor of Fine Arts, and Abram Sager, Professor of Obstetrics and the Diseases of Women and Children and also Professor Page  288of Botany and Zoology, were the first actually to receive it, in 1852. The Regents refused, however, in June, 1856, to vote master's degrees ad eundem to graduates of other institutions, saying that this had not been and should not be the practice. In March, 1858, the Board authorized the statement that "no honorary degrees are conferred here," and until the rescinding of this action in June, 1866, this was the policy of the University.

As it would be a very lengthy and complicated task to give a narrative account of the establishment, modification, and discontinuance of the dozens of degrees given now or formerly by the University, the essential facts have been sought out and are presented in tabular form. The sources (chiefly the Proceedings of the Board of Regents … and the annual Catalogues, Calendars, and Registers) have been consulted for each detail, and references are given in most instances.

It should be borne in mind that in the earlier and more informal days not so much attention was paid as at present to uniformity and precision in referring to these matters. In February, 1937 (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 175-77), the Regents for the first time approved an official list of the titles and abbreviations of degrees, which had for several years previously been used as a style sheet in the editorial offices. Earlier editors, however, had no such guides, and inconsistencies were bound to occur. Uniformity in the use of parentheses was especially hard to secure. One may, for example, find in the printed records alternatively "Bachelor of Science (in Pharmacy)" and "Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy." The rule covering the use of parentheses is now the following:

In general, parentheses are used when a qualification is added to the degree without altering the fundamental character of the degree thus qualified (as for example, the citation of "diploma departments" in engineering and architecture). Parentheses are not used to set off any part of the name of a degree which is distinctly independent and not merely a modification of another degree brought about by specialization.

To avoid unnecessary complication, the erroneous entries in the records are not taken into account in the following table of degrees.

With regard to honorary degrees, it should be stated that the University's present practice is not ordinarily to confer, honoris causa, degrees which may also be taken in course and upon examination. Exception is made in the cases of the master's degree in arts, science, and laws and the doctorate in science, in accordance with the practice of most institutions of comparable standing; today, however, the degrees doctor of medicine and doctor of philosophy, for example, would not be conferred as honorary degrees by the University of Michigan. No written rule on this matter exists, but there is a definite understanding which practically has the force of a regulation. Honorary degrees, also, are no longer conferred on active members of the University faculties or staff.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar, Univ. Mich., 1871-1914. (Cal.)
Catalogue …, Univ. Mich., 1844-71, 1914-23. (Cat.)
Catalogue and Register, Univ. Mich., 1923-27.
General Register Issue, Univ. Mich., 1927-40.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1853-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940. (R.P.)
University of Michigan Regents' Proceedings, with Appendices and Index, 1837-1864. Ed. by Isaac N. Demmon. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1915. (R.P., 1837-64.)
Page  289

Degrees Authorized by the University of MichiganPage  290Page  291Page  292Page  293Page  294Page  295Page  296Page  297
College of Literature, Science, and the Arts*
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of arts Apr., 1845. R.P., 1837-64, p. 311 1845 ..... From 1901 through 1908 this degree was the only one given to graduates of the College
Bachelor of science 1852. Cat., 1852-53 1855 1901-9 (restored in 1909) In R.P., 1923-26, p. 852, is recorded the only instance of granting the degree of bachelor of science (in nursing). This degree was really the bachelor of science taken as part of the combined course in letters and nursing and was wrongly recorded in the Regents' Proceedings
Bachelor of science in chemistry June, 1884; and May, 1914. R.P., 1881-86, p. 450; 1910-14, p. 988 1886 1901-14 (restored in 1914)
Bachelor of philosophy Mar., 1870. R.P., 1870-76, p. 30; Cat., 1870-71 1870 Feb., 1901. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 626
Bachelor of letters June, 1878. R.P., 1876-81, p. 255; Cal., 1878-79 1881 Feb., 1901. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 626 In the Calendar (catalogue) of 1881-82 "bachelor of letters, Latin (L.B.)" and "bachelor of letters, English (B.L.)" are distinguished, but this distinction is not made in the lists of degrees. In May, 1882 (R.P., 1881-86, p. 191), bachelor of philosophy and master of philosophy were substituted for bachelor of letters and master of letters (Latin)
Bachelor of arts in library science Apr., 1926. R.P., 1923-26, p. 874 1927
Bachelor of science in medicine Mar., 1914; and Dec., 1923. R.P., 1910-14, p. 946; 1923-26, p. 134 1918 1931 A part of the combined curriculum in letters and medicine, automatically abolished when the requirement for admission to the Medical School was raised to ninety hours (effective in 1931). Last given, 1936
Bachelor of science in biology June, 1885. R.P., 1881-86, p. 564 1886 Feb., 1901. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 626
College of Engineering*
Civil engineer 1855. Cat., 1855-56 1860 June, 1878. R.P., 1876-81, pp. 255-56 Continued as a higher degree: see Cal., 1881-82. The change was made effective after Commencement, 1881
Mining engineer 1864. Cat., 1864-65 1867 ..... Probably superseded by degrees given in 1882
Mechanical engineer Dec., 1868. R.P., 1864-70, p. 312; Cat., 1868-69 (Never conferred) June, 1870. R.P., 1870-76, p. 47
College of Engineering (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of science in civil engineering 1881. Cal., 1881-82 1882 1909 These were the degrees in engineering from 1882 until Nov., 1909, when, by action of the Regents (R.P., 1906-10, p. 577) the degrees were to be bachelor of civil engineering, bachelor of mechanical engineering, etc. They are recorded in several ways in the records. The proposed six-year course (1908-9) was in addition to that for which these degrees were given. The 1910 graduates were given their choice between the old and the new degrees
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering 1882 1909
Bachelor of science in mining engineering 1886 1909
Bachelor of science in electrical engineering June, 1889. R.P., 1886-91, p. 321 1890 1909
Bachelor of science in chemical engineering Apr., 1898. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 212 1901 1909
Bachelor of science in marine engineering Oct., 1901. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 732 1902 1909
Bachelor of science in preparation for engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 305 1908 Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 577 Conferred at the end of four years of the six-year course
Bachelor of engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 305 (Never conferred) Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 577 To be conferred at the end of five years of the six-year course. The degree of master of science in engineering was substituted
Bachelor of science in preparation for geological engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 306 (Never conferred) Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 577
Bachelor of science in preparation for engineering in forestry July, 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 525 (Never conferred) Sept., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 543
Bachelor of civil engineering Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 577 1910 1916 Mar., 1913 (R.P., p. 698), taking effect on and after Commencement, 1916, bachelor of science in engineering (civil engineering), etc., were substituted for these degrees. The 1916 graduates were permitted to choose between the old and the new degrees
Bachelor of mechanical engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of electrical engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of chemical engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of marine engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of naval architecture and marine engineering 1917 (as of 1915) 1916 Granted but once, to a 1915 graduate who needed a diploma in this form
Bachelor of science in engineering 1910 July, 1912. R.P., 1910-14, p. 497 Given after four years of the six-year course instead of the degree of bachelor of science in preparation for engineering. The six-year course was canceled in July, 1912
Bachelor of science in engineering ( — ) Mar., 1913. R.P., 1910-14, p. 698 1916 ..... This has been the first degree in engineering since Commencement, 1916; the department of specialization is attached in parentheses
(civil engineering) 1916
(mechanical engineering) 1916
(electrical engineering). 1916
(naval architecture and marine engineering) 1917
(chemical engineering) 1917
(engineering mechanics) 1930
(aeronautical mechanics) Mar., 1917. R.P., 1914-17, p. 780 1917
(geodesy and surveying). Dec., 1921. R.P., 1920-23, p. 351 1923 ..... Department established in 1921 (previously in civil engineering)
College of Engineering (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of science in engineering( — ) (Cont.) (mechanical and industrial engineering) May, 1924. R.P., 1923-26, p. 297 1 926 .... Five-year course
(chemical and industrial engineering) June, 1924. R.P., 1923-26, p. 315 1928 .... Five-year course
(electrical and industrial engineering) Mar., 1927. R.P., 1926-29, p. 185 1929 .... Five-year course
(astronomy) Apr., 1928. R.P., 1926-29, p. 550
(physics) 1931
(mathematics) 1929
(law) Dec., 1929. R.P., 1929-32, p. 130 1931 .... Part of combined curriculum
(transportation) Jan., 1930. R.P., 1929-32, p. 157 1931
(forestry-wood utilization) May, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 348 (Never conferred) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 482 Part of combined curriculums
(forestry-wood technology) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 482 (Never conferred) ....
(business administration) May, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 348 1936 ....
(metallurgical engineering) Mar., 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 560 1935
School of Education
Bachelor of arts in education June, 1921. R.P., 1920-23, p. 206 1922
Bachelor of science in education
Medical School*
Doctor of medicine July, 1850. R.P., 1837-64, p. 469 1851
Law School*
Bachelor of laws Dec., 1859. R.P., 1837-64, p. 879 1860
Juris doctor June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, pp. 311-12 1910
Master of laws Oct., 1889. R.P., 1886-91, pp. 345-46 1890
Doctor of juridical science. Feb., 1925. R.P., 1923-26, p. 543 1927
College of Pharmacy*
Pharmaceutical chemist 1869. Cat., 1869-70 1869 June, 1929. R.P., 1926-29, p. 1012 By the resolution abolishing the three-year course the degree could be conferred through 1932
College of Pharmacy (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of science in pharmacy July, 1895. R.P., 1891-96, pp. 485-87 June, 1897. R.P., 1896-1901, p. 81 .... Conferred as an honorary degree in 1896
Graduate in pharmacy Mar., 1913. R.P., 1910-14, p. 695 1915 Nov., 1916 (effective after 1917-18). R.P., 1914-17, p. 611 This was a two-year course, not offered after 1917-18
School of Dentistry*
Doctor of dental surgery 1875. Cal., 1875-76 1876
Doctor of dental science Jan., 1894. R.P., 1891-96, p. 243 June, 1894. R.P., 1891-96, p. 284
College of Architecture and Design*
Bachelor of science in architecture Dec., 1906. R.P., 1906-10, p. 54 June, 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 497 1916 It was at first proposed to grant the degrees of architect and architectural engineer. The degrees, however, were made parallel to those in engineering, and their changes follow the changes in engineering degrees up to 1931
Bachelor of science in architectural engineering
Bachelor of science in preparation for architecture June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 305 .... Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 527 Given after four years of the six-year course. This course was parallel with that leading to the degrees of bachelor of science in architecture, etc.
Bachelor of architecture .... Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 528 Given after five years of the six-year course. When the prospective curriculum was abandoned the degree of master of science in architecture was substituted
Bachelor of architecture Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 527 1910 1916 Four-year course. For discontinuance of these and corresponding engineering degrees see the rule passed in March, 1913 R.P., 1910-14, p. 698), which took effect at Commencement, 1916
Bachelor of architectural engineering 1910 1916
Bachelor of science in architecture .... 1916 Six-year course
Bachelor of science in architecture ( — ) Mar., 1913. R.P., 1910-14, p. 698 1916 Apr., 1938. R.P., 1936-39, pp. 527-28 Four-year course. Took effect at Commencement, 1916. The degree bachelor of science in architecture (architectural design) was voted to James Auer at the January meeting of the Regents and was changed in February to bachelor of science in architecture (architecture) as being more in accord with custom (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 99, 101). Similar five-year programs mandatory after June, 1939 (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 527-28)
(architecture) 1916
(architectural engineering) 1917
College of Architecture and Design (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Bachelor of architecture ( — ) Sept., 1932. R.P., 1932-36, p. 35 .... .... Five-year course superseded four-year programs for degrees of bachelor of science in architecture (architecture) and bachelor of science in architecture (architectural engineering) in June, 1939 (R.P., 1936-39, pp. 527-28)
(architecture) 1937
(architectural engineering) 1937
Bachelor of science in design June, 1924. R.P., 1923-26, p. 334 1929 May, 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 587 Four-year course. From 1929 through 1933 "(Dec. Des.)" was added, but not in 1934 or later. The official record of the Regents' meeting of June, 1930 (R.P., 1929-32, p. 381), seems to indicate that the degree bachelor of science (dec. des.) was conferred, but this is an error: the degree in question was bachelor of science in design, superseded by bachelor of design
Bachelor of design May, 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 587 1936 .... Remained a four-year course when other degree requirements were raised (R.P., 1936-39, p. 528)
Bachelor of landscape architecture June, 1939. R.P., 1936-39, p. 970 .... .... Substituted for degree of master of arts in landscape design, for the same five-year curriculum. Required of students entering in September, 1940, or later; those enrolled before may continue and receive older graduate degree
School of Forestry and Conservation*
Bachelor of science in forestry Jan., 1913. R.P., 1910-14, p. 612 1916 June, 1929. R.P., 1926-29, p. 1012 Previously the degree master of science in forestry had been the only distinctive degree in forestry
Bachelor of forestry June, 1929. R.P., 1926-29, p. 1012 1930 June, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 354 Discontinued
Master of forestry 1930 Continued with different requirements
Bachelor of science in forestry .... Continued with different requirements
Master of science in forestry .... Supplanted by the degree of master of science by the Graduate School
Bachelor of science in forestry June, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 354 .... .... Forest-production program: preliminary work in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts
Bachelor of science in forestry (wood utilization) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 481 Wood-utilization program: preliminary work in the College of Engineering
Master of forestry
Master of forestry (wood utilization) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 481
Bachelor of science in forestry (wood technology) Nov., 1934. R.P., 1932-36, pp. 481-82
Master of forestry (wood technology) 1936
School of Business Administration
Master of business administration Dec., 1923. R.P., 1923-26, p. 138 1926
School of Music*
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
(Certificate) 1880 .... 1895 No Commencement exercises were held prior to 1892-93, when the Ann Arbor School of Music was reorganized as the University School of Music
Artist's diploma 1896 1896 1929
Teacher's diploma
Certificate
Bachelor of music 1927 1927 1929 Under amended charter of the University School of Music
Bachelor of music in education
Master of music (honorary)
Bachelor of music ( — ) 1930 1930 .... After the amalgamation in 1929 the School of Music continued to give the degrees formerly given, except bachelor of music in education and the honorary degree of master of music. Diploma departments are indicated in parentheses after the degree
(public school music) 1930
(piano) 1930
(voice) 1930
(organ) 1930
(violin) 1932
(theory) 1932
(music literature) 1933
(composition) 1934
(violoncello) 1935
Master of music ( — ) 1930 1930
(public school music) 1930
(composition) 1931
(theory) 1931
(organ) 1931
(musicology) 1932
(voice) 1932
(violin) 1933
(piano) 1933
(violoncello) 1936
Graduate Degrees*
Master of arts "in course". Apr., 1845. R.P., 1837-64, p. 313 1849 June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 345, effective in 1877 Given to graduates of three years' standing. Last conferred in 1882
Master of arts "on examination" Dec., 1859. R.P., 1837-64, p. 875 1859
Master of science "in course" 1858. Cat., 1858-59; R.P., 1837-64, p. 875 1859 June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 345, effective in 1877 Last conferred in 1876
Master of science "on examination" 1862 .... DeVolson Wood received the master of science degree in 1859, but there is no direct evidence that it was "on examination." On the other hand, the Commencement program of 1862 shows that the two master of science degrees then conferred were given "on examination" and not "in course"
Graduate Degrees (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Master of philosophy "in course" June, 1874. Cal., 1874-75; R.P., 1870-76, p. 345 1875 June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 345, effective in 1877
Master of philosophy "on examination" 1877 1881 The Calendar of 1878-79 announced that after 1881 the master of letters degree would be substituted for the degree of master of philosophy (R.P., 1876-81, pp. 255-56)
Master of letters "in course" Cal., 1878-79 .... June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 345, effective in 1877
Master of letters "on examination" 1882 .... Presumably discontinued together with the bachelor of letters degree (R.P., 1896-1901, p. 626)
Master of pharmacy Cal., 1881-82 1887 July, 1895. R.P., 1891-96, pp. 485-87 Abolished when the degree of bachelor of science in pharmacy was established
Master of science in engineering May, 1906. R.P., 1901-6, p. 696 June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 284 .... In June, 1896 (R.P., 1891-96, p. 632), the faculty of the College of Engineering presented its first candidate for the degree of master of science, as it was called until 1906. The first degree of master of science in engineering recorded as conferred in this form was given in June, 1908
Master of civil engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 305 (Never conferred) .... This series of degrees required six years' work. Not changed by the action of Nov., 1909 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 598), and apparently never officially withdrawn
Master of mechanical engineering
Master of electrical engineering
Master of chemical engineering
Master of marine engineering
Master of architecture
Master of geological engineering June, 1908. R.P., 1906-10, p. 306
Master of conservation engineering Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 576
Master of science in architecture May, 1906. R.P., 1901-6, p. 696 1916
Master of science in architectural engineering Dec., 1906. R.P., 1906-10, p. 54
Master of science in forestry June, 1904. R.P., 1901-6, p. 356 1904 June, 1934. R.P., 1932-36, p. 354 Granted by the Department (College) of Literature, Science, and the Arts and later by the School of Forestry and Conservation; replaced by the master of science degree granted by the Graduate School
Master of science in pharmacy June, 1905. R.P., 1901-6, p. 547 1905
Graduate Degrees (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Master of landscape design. Nov., 1909. R.P., 1906-10, p. 582 1916 June, 1939. R.P., 1936-39, p. 971 Superseded by degree of bachelor of landscape architecture, same five-year curriculum, when the Department of Landscape Design in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts became the Department of Landscape Architecture in the College of Architecture and Design. Old degree optional for students entered before Sept., 1940
Master of science in public health June, 1911. R.P., 1910-14, p. 180 1914
Master of arts in municipal administration Feb., 1914. MS, "Minutes of the Executive Board of the Graduate School" 1917 1936 These degrees were never formally established by the Regents, though conferred by them. They were suspended in 1935-36 and discontinued the next year
Master of science in municipal administration 1922
Master of science in chemistry Sept., 1919. R.P., 1917-20, p. 678 1920
Master of arts in library science .... 1927
Master of science (industrial engineering) May, 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 588 1935 .... Part of combined course, five years; degree of bachelor of science in engineering (mechanical engineering) given after the fourth year
Master of public health Feb., 1935. MS, "Minutes of the Executive Board of the Graduate School" 1935 1935 Conferred but once
Master of public administration May, 1936. R.P., 1932-36, p. 835
Master of social work
Master of arts in social work Announcement, Institute of the Health and Social Sciences, May and Dec., 1935 1936 .... Though not formally established by the Regents, this degree was announced (in the form of master of arts in social science) in the May bulletin and as master of arts in social work in the Dec. bulletin; it was partly in error, as what was intended was the regular degree of master of arts, with specialization in social work. The degrees were finally changed in May, 1936, when the Institute was renamed the Institute of Public and Social Administration (R.P., 1932-36, p. 835)
Master of design May, 1935. R.P., 1932-36, p. 587 1936
Master of science in public health engineering Mar., 1937. R.P., 1936-39, p. 203
Civil engineer June, 1878. R.P., 1876-81, p. 256; Cal., 1881-82 1890
Mining engineer 1889-90 .... Last conferred in 1918-19
Mechanical engineer May, 1906. R.P., 1901-6, p. 696; Cal., 1881-82 1885
Graduate Degrees (Cont.)
Degree Established First Conferred Discontinued Remarks
Electrical engineer May, 1906. R.P., 1901-6, p. 696 1895 .... Certain of the professional degrees in engineering were apparently not specifically approved by the Regents, but given after the establishment of the departments, after the analogy of the earlier degrees. Thus, the recapitulation in May, 1906 (R.P., 1901-6, p. 696) mentions several which had actually been conferred but had not figured in previous Regents' actions
Chemical engineer 1911-12
Naval architect 1935
Marine engineer ....
Architect ....
Architectural engineer ....
Aeronautical engineer Feb., 1919. R.P., 1917-20, p. 532 1934
Geodetic engineer Feb., 1927. R.P., 1926-29, p. 147
Metallurgical engineer .... 1934 .... No record of formal authorization of this degree in Regents' Proceedings
Public health engineer Mar., 1937. R.P., 1936-39, p. 203
Doctor of philosophy June, 1874. R.P., 1870-76, p. 346; Cal., 1874-75 1876
Doctor of science May, 1882. R.P., 1881-86, p. 190; Cal., 1882-83 1889
Doctor of letters .... .... Never formally discontinued, but, since this degree was to be given to candidates holding the degree of bachelor of letters or the degree of master of letters, it was presumably abandoned when the latter were discarded in 1901
Doctor of public health May, 1911. R.P., 1910-14, pp. 143-44 1916
Honorary Degrees*
Master of arts 1852
Doctor of medicine 1865 .... Last given as an honorary degree in 1902
Doctor of laws 1866
Master of science 1868
Doctor of philosophy 1875 .... Last given as an honorary degree in 1892
Civil engineer .... 1879 .... Given only twice as an honorary degree — 1879 and 1884
Doctor of dental surgery 1879 .... Given only once as an honorary degree
Mechanical engineer 1885 .... Given only once as an honorary degree
Master of pharmacy 1885
Master of laws 1895
Bachelor of science in pharmacy 1896
Doctor of science 1897
Doctor of engineering 1908
Master of engineering 1910
Doctor of public health 1911
Doctor of humane letters 1917
Juris doctor .... 1921
Doctor of music 1924
Doctor of letters 1924
Master of architecture 1928
Doctor of business administration 1929
Doctor of architecture 1930