THE ADMINISTRATION OF ALEXANDER GRANT RUTHVEN
THE administration of Alexander Grant Ruthven, which is reviewed in this article up to the end of the academic year 1939-40, clearly is most importantly characterized by the introduction of new forms of administration, just as the rebuilding of the campus was the outstanding feature of Dr. Burton's time. In making this statement there is no intention of overlooking President Ruthven's keen interest in such phases of student life as religious influences and housing problems, nor of forgetting the magnificent benefactions which mark this period, and the educational improvements which were made. The administrative changes, however, seem to stand out as the most prominent and perhaps most lasting feature of the time.
In his first report, Dr. Ruthven set forth at some length his views about the proper method of administering a large educational institution with its manifold functions and its numerous affiliations and relations with other organizations both public and private. The time-honored method of expecting the president and the governing board ultimately to manage everything, with a line of authority extending in each instance from every department of the organization directly to the president, seemed to him to be antiquated, outworn, and more appropriate to a military autocracy than to a democratic community of scholars. Furthermore, the saddling of all the problems upon the shoulders of the president was creating a problem which no one man was physically capable of handling. Consequently, on the one hand, Dr. Ruthven's theory of administration advocates a sharing of administrative duties by as many different Page [unnumbered]
The desire to clear up and co-ordinate the titles and duties of officers and units of the University was also almost instinctive with the new President. Hence there soon came, for example, a clean-cut definition of the term "division," with the organization of several divisions for the purpose of co-ordinating certain types of allied activities, and the organization of institutes to carry out programs of instruction and research. A recodification of the bylaws was necessary, both to bring the old code up to date after more than a decade of changes, and to incorporate the new principles of organization. E. Blythe Stason, Professor of Law, was commissioned by the Regents to perform this task.
Alexander G. Ruthven came to the presidency from the office of Dean of Administration, which he had held during the last year of President Little's administration. Although he had desired to resign from this deanship, the Regents requested him not to do so and in fact to divest himself of the details of his duties as Director of University Museums in order that he might give more attention to the general administration of the University; and it was he who, without change of title, acted as chief administrative officer of the University during the period between Commencement, 1929, and October 4, when he was unanimously elected president.
The agitation, of which there had been so much on the campus, very quickly died down. A committee on the proposed University College was still outstanding, but the report which it presented was permitted to lie on the table until such time as the faculties should desire to renew the project. Dr. Ruthven, in the Michigan Alumnus for February, 1930, expressed himself as favoring the improvement of educational facilities and methods without the fundamental reorganization and the expense which would be involved in the University College plan. As a matter of fact, much was actually accomplished in the next few years, and some of the ends sought by the advocates of the University College were achieved without a general upsetting of old traditions.
The first steps toward giving the University a quasi-corporate organization were taken in the year 1929-30, when Shirley W. Smith was designated Vice-President and Secretary of the University; Clarence S. Yoakum, Vice-President in Charge of Educational Investigations; and Lewis M. Gram, Director of Plant Extension. By giving these officers, respectively, the general supervision of the business and financial dealings of the University, the consideration of educational improvements, and supervision of building operations and the provision of major items of equipment, the President was relieved of a certain amount of detail. In 1931-32 Dr. James D. Bruce was made Vice-President in Charge of University Relations with the special duty of supervising those activities of the institution in which the University came into contact with groups and individuals away from its own campus. In 1933-34 Henry C. Anderson, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, was appointed Director of Student-Alumni Relations in order to co-ordinate the activities of the many agencies in this field, such as the dormitories, the Union, and the League, which have grown up within the University's organization. Professor Carl G. Brandt succeeded to this position after Dean Anderson's death. The Page 100next step was not taken until April 9, 1938, when E. Blythe Stason, Professor of Law, was designated Provost of the University. His duties were at the time broadly defined, so that, in general, certain of the President's responsibilities might be from time to time delegated to him. Professor Stason had for several years previously been associated with the other general officers in an informal way and by the Regents' direction had given much time to the recodification of the bylaws of the University.
Within the schools and colleges, the most important change in administrative procedure was the introduction of a form of government in which the executive responsibility was assigned to both the dean (or other chief officer) and an executive committee. In the President's Report for 1929-30 Dr. Ruthven expressed himself as favoring this policy and as seeking the elimination of the feeling, so characteristic of a university campus, that there is a fixed line of demarcation between the teaching and the executive members of the staff. The scheme was carried out not only in the schools and colleges but also in some of the subdepartments, and in the management of certain of the major interests of the University, such as, for example, the administration of University lands and publications. A committee on University lands used for instruction and research was formed in the year 1929-30, and very shortly thereafter the general supervision of the University's publications was handed over to the managing editor and administrative committee of a newly constituted University of Michigan Press.
The first executive committee to be appointed in any of the schools and colleges was that of the Medical School. In February, 1930, the position of dean of the Medical School, which had been held by Dr. Hugh Cabot, was declared vacant, and an executive committee was appointed to carry on the duties of the deanship for the rest of the year. In the following year this committee was made permanent and was made up of the director of preclinical medicine, the director of clinical medicine, the director of the Department of Postgraduate Medicine, and the director of the University Hospital (the latter in an advisory capacity), together with the secretary of the Medical School. Dr. Frederick G. Novy became Chairman of the Executive Committee and so continued until his appointment as Dean in September, 1933. The committee continued to exist after the restoration of the deanship, and at the time of the appointment of Dr. Albert C. Furstenberg to succeed Dean Novy a detailed resolution on the administration of the School prescribed that the executive committee should consist of the dean, the director of the Hospital, the director of the Department of Postgraduate Medicine, and three more faculty members to be appointed by the president. The secretary of the Medical School was permitted to meet with the committee, although without vote.
The committee system was next applied in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Here Dean Effinger had already utilized an advisory committee, which, however, had no executive powers. His death, on June 7, 1933, occasioned the reorganization of the College's administration. On June 15 the faculty voted as a recommendation to the Regents that there be an executive committee of five, that its members should be appointed by the president from a panel of names submitted to him by the faculty, and that the executive committee should carry on the duties of a dean until the vacancy should be filled and should report its recommendation for the permanent government of the College. It was also recommended that Page 101the dean's advisory committee be dismissed. At the summer meeting of the Regents, on August 26, Edward H. Kraus was designated Dean of the College, and it was provided that there should be an executive committee consisting of the dean and six members appointed by the president. The recommendations submitted by the executive committee of the College and approved by the Regents at this time also directed that the departments should be reorganized, that in connection with this faculty reorganization there should be more faculty participation in administration, and that departments should be grouped according to their general fields of interest. It may be noted that, in accepting the recommendation of the faculty of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the Regents declined to require the president to select as members of the executive committee only those members of the faculty who should be recommended to him by the vote of that body. Their reason for this action was their conviction that the chief executive responsibility for the University as a whole must reside in the Regents and president, and they felt it unwise as a matter of general policy to relinquish or delegate any part of this responsibility in the appointment of major executive officials.
Executive committees of a similar kind were later set up in the Summer Session, in the School of Dentistry, in the College of Architecture and Design, and in the College of Engineering. The committee for the Summer Session consists of five members, ordinarily deans of the schools and colleges in which summer instruction is offered. In the School of Dentistry the executive committee was first appointed when Dr. Marcus L. Ward resigned the deanship on September 28, 1934, and was appointed Jonathan Taft Professor of Dentistry. Dr. Chalmers J. Lyons held the chairmanship of the executive committee of this School until his death on May 18, 1935. Dr. Russell W. Bunting succeeded him as acting chairman, but was made Dean of the School on September 24, 1937. The College of Architecture, although a separate college, was administered together with the College of Engineering and by the same dean until September, 1931. On that occasion it was voted by the Regents that henceforth the College should be independently administered, and Professor Emil Lorch was made its Director. This position he held until June 26, 1936. An executive committee in this College was first organized April 27, 1936. Wells I. Bennett, Professor of Architecture, was its chairman, and on February 11, 1938, his title was changed to Dean. In 1939 the name of the College itself was changed to "College of Architecture and Design" in recognition of the importance of the curriculum in decorative design, and at the same time the Department of Landscape Design was transferred to this College from the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
A similar committee system was also adopted for certain of the departments, chiefly in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. It was left to the departments themselves, however, to decide upon their form of government, and in many, particularly in the small, departments, it was decided that the appointment of a committee was superfluous. In the Museum of Zoology an executive committee was instituted in 1940.
With the beginning of President Ruthven's second year, also, the University returned to the policy of entrusting the supervision of its women students to a dean of women rather than to the committee of advisers, which had acted during the latter part of President Little's term of office. Miss Alice C. Lloyd, who had been one of the advisers, was designated Page 102Dean of Women and began her duties as such at the time mentioned.
Another characteristic process of these years was the formation of divisions. Not intended, as in some university organizations, to be administrative units, divisions were defined as "a grouping of units and departments for the purpose of co-ordinating various allied activities and of developing the general field therein represented along consistent, progressive, and noncomplicating lines." The specific duties of the division were enumerated as advice and recommendation concerning the relations of the several curricula, encouragement of individual research, and the promotion of co-operative investigations.
This term had already been used, since the days of President Burton, to designate the Division of Hygiene and Public Health and to describe a teaching unit of somewhat larger size and scope than the ordinary department but not organized as an independent school or college. The new divisions were quite different, as the definition shows. The first to be created was the Division of Fine Arts, in which were grouped: the College of Architecture; the courses in creative art, the Department of Fine Arts, and the Department of Landscape Design, in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; and the play-production courses in the Department of Speech of the same College. The Research Seminar in Islamic Art was later added to the Division, and in 1935-36 the name was changed to Institute of Fine Arts.
In 1933-34 the Division of the Social Sciences was authorized. The noteworthy feature of this event is that its formation came not as an administrative measure but as the result of a petition of the departments concerned. The Division of the Health Sciences was created in January, 1935, and in January, 1937, the Division of Extramural Services was added to the list and was put under the chairmanship of the vice-president in charge of University relations. The latter Division co-ordinates the extramural activities of the University Extension Service, the Library Extension Service, the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information, the Bureau of Alumni Relations, the Bureau of Cooperation with Educational Institutions, the Student-Alumni Relations, the Bureau of Government, and that part of the work of the Department of Vocational Education which is done off the campus.
A very important step in academic organization was the creation of the University Council, the plan for which was finally approved by the Regents May 29, 1931. This body, which, under the chairmanship of the president, consists of the deans and other administrative officers together with elected representatives of the several schools and colleges, has taken over the legislative functions of the University Senate and the supervision of the various Senate committees. The increasing size and unwieldiness of the Senate had for many years made it obvious that a Senate meeting was not the proper place in which to discuss policies and arrive at decisions with regard to them, and the previously existing Senate Council, which had acted in a sense as the executive committee of the Senate, had likewise not proved effective in dealing with these difficulties. The moderate-sized University Council was therefore formed and the functions of the Senate were entrusted to it, with the reservation that the Senate might review any of its legislative actions. The Council was organized with five standing committees, each of which was assigned to some major interest of the University and was expected to discuss questions falling within its particular field — both questions taken up upon its own initiative and those referred to it by other Page 103committees or by the Council. The standing committees were designated educational policies, student relations, public relations, plant and equipment, and program and policy, the last consisting of the president, the vice-chairman and the secretary of the Council, and the chairmen of the four other committees. A system was devised whereby the various administrative and advisory committees, such as the Senate committee on student affairs, the Board in Control of Student Publications, and the like, were divided among the fields represented by the standing committees. Although the administrative and advisory committees owe their responsibility to the Council and the Senate, their reports are customarily referred to the appropriate standing committees, and the latter are expected to conduct preliminary discussions and, if necessary, hearings, finally reporting any necessary recommendations to the University Council.
Another of President Ruthven's policies which rapidly found expression was the formation of administrative or advisory committees associated with directors to take charge of certain phases of the University's activities and interests which do not fall within the scope of the schools and colleges. We have already mentioned the committee on University lands used for instruction and research and the University of Michigan Press with its administrative committee. In 1929 the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information was organized with T. Luther Purdom as Director and with an advisory committee. This bureau combined the activities of the former Bureau of Appointments, in the School of Education, and the committee on vocational counsel and placement, which had been established some time before at the instance of the University Senate.
Also in the year 1929-30 the Bureau of Alumni Relations was established, with Wilfred B. Shaw as Director and with an advisory committee. This, it is believed, was a new departure in university administration, for though many institutions have alumni associations there are very few, if any, in which there is a university officer whose duty it is to foster such interests as adult education among the alumni. The Director of the University of Michigan's Bureau of Alumni Relations not only does this but also publishes bulletins for general circulation among the alumni, conducts the business of the Alumni Advisory Council, and in addition edits the Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review and superintends the University News Service, although the latter was placed in Mr. Shaw's charge more because of his knowledge of the situation and ability to handle it than because of the nature of his office.
Two important committees which have much to do with the faculty and staff are the faculty personnel committee, created in 1929-30, and the committee on office personnel, authorized in September, 1931. The former consists of the president, the dean of the Graduate School, and the dean of the school or college in which any proposed appointment to the faculty is to be made; and its duty is to review and finally to recommend to the Regents all appointments, promotions, and changes in salary, with a view to the safeguarding of standards and co-ordination of practices throughout the University. The committee on office personnel functions similarly with reference to appointments to and rearrangements among the clerical staff. Its work has proved valuable in providing means for promoting worthy members of this group when shifts have to be made in any of the University offices, and generally in unifying procedures.
The committee on University archives, created in 1935-36, is associated Page 104with the Michigan Historical Collections, which have been built up very actively in the past few years through the efforts of Lewis G. Vander Velde, Professor of History. Its function is to promote the collection and to facilitate the proper preservation of historical materials pertaining not only to the University of Michigan but also to the state.
In May, 1935, the appointment of the Board of Co-ordination and Financial Control of Student Socioreligious Projects was authorized. Falling within the field of the Director of Student-Alumni Relations, this board has oversight over the plans and budgets of such enterprises as the Fresh-Air Camp.
Other committees of this general type are the University committee on accredited schools (which, though formerly existent, was never actually authorized until June, 1930), and a standing committee on annuities, a committee on engineering research, a University committee on postgraduate education, and a committee on health insurance — all organized in 1933-34.
New organizations also grew up within the University itself or were affiliated with it. The Institute of the Health and Social Sciences was organized as a part of the Graduate School in January, 1935, to oversee the courses, particularly in social work, conducted in Detroit under the auspices of the School. The name of this division, however, has since been changed to Institute of Public and Social Administration, and both the curriculum in public administration and that leading to professional degrees in social work have been placed under its jurisdiction. Similarly, as the result of Mrs. Mary A. Rackham's gift for the purpose, the Institute for Human Adjustment was organized in March, 1938, and as the result of action by the state legislature the Michigan Child Guidance Institute and the Neuropsychiatric Institute came under the jurisdiction of the Regents. The neuropsychiatric unit had existed for many years as the State Psychopathic Hospital, but in placing it in the University's charge the legislative act made certain changes in the plan of the state hospital and eliminated old conditions which had considerably handicapped it in the past as a teaching and research institution.
The Bureau of Government underwent two changes of status. Formerly a part of the Department of Political Science, in June, 1934, it was given independent status, though still affiliated with the department. In April, 1938, when the Institute of Public and Social Administration was reorganized as a part of the Graduate School, the Bureau of Government was brought into that institute, together with the curriculum in public administration, the curriculum in social work, and the program in land utilization. A bureau and a professorship of industrial relations, in the School of Business Administration, were established in August, 1934, as the result of benefactions.
President Ruthven came to office at an inauspicious time in the country's economic history. The depression which began in 1929 was almost at once under way. The enrollment of students was not at first affected, but as time went on a drop occurred, followed by a rise beginning in 1934-35. By 1937-38 the enrollment stood at its highest in the history of the University. The economic situation of course affected the support given by the state to the institution. The essential facts are summarized in Table I.
It is to be noted that from 1931-32 to 1933-34, inclusive, the amount paid to the University was limited by the legislature, and that in the following year the original appropriation of $4,062,365.32 was reduced by 5 per cent. It may also be Page 105noted that though the proceeds of the mill tax have increased since they reached their lowest point, in 1933-35, they are not yet back to the level of 1929-32, when there were far fewer students than at present.
The most important legislative action affecting the University during this time is embodied in Act No. 112 of the Public Acts of 1935. This act was drawn up in order to bring the law into better agreement with changed conditions and at the
|Year||Student Enrollment||Equalized Valuation Governing the Mill Tax||Tax Rate, in Fractions of a Mill||Amount Realized|
|Including Extension||Excluding Extension|
It will be noticed that 1932-33 was the first year in which the University's income was seriously reduced by legislative action. The cut amounted to 15 per cent. In order to meet this situation it was necessary to reduce salaries of faculty and staff, and this was done in accordance with a graduated scale at the rate of 6 per cent, 8 per cent, or 10 per cent. In the next year a still more drastic reduction of the University's income made necessary a very careful study of the situation. When the budget was finally adopted the President reported that the chief methods followed were: first, to make all possible economies in the general services of maintenance and the like; second, as far as possible to consolidate functions; third, to readjust the staffs of the various schools and colleges, eliminating certain positions and reducing the time of others; and fourth, further to decrease salaries. When this second reduction took place, the first $1,500 of each salary was exempted, 8 per cent was cut from the next $2,000, 12 per cent from the next $2,000, 15 per cent from the next, and 20 per cent from anything above that amount. Although these years brought hardship, it was generally recognized that the facts must be faced, and for the most part the inevitable reductions were met in a philosophical spirit. When times became better, salaries were restored as far as possible, but with regard to the merits of each case and not by a general action affecting all alike.
The years of the depression also brought the University into relations with certain of the projects undertaken by the Federal Government. In 1934-35, for example, the so-called freshman colleges were opened and the University undertook the supervision of a considerable number of them. In the fall of 1935 it was reported that thirty-five students from these colleges had been admitted to the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. A very considerable amount of minor construction and improvement was done through the help of CWA and WPA funds. Furthermore, the Federal Government, through its two agencies, the FERA and later the NYA, contributed considerable sums toward the support of students who in return were expected to work on approved projects of various kinds. The amount of national student aid is given in Table II.
|Year||Agency||Number of Students Aided||Amount Spent|
It will have been seen from the materials already presented that in spite of the depression the enrollment of the University was only temporarily reduced and very quickly rose to a hitherto unprecedented total. The uncomfortable result of this process was an increasing shortage of proper housing facilities both for men and for women students, but possibly felt more acutely by the former, since the University had hitherto made no provisions whatsoever for the housing of men students, with the single exception of those fortunate enough to live in the Lawyers' Club. In 1932-33 it became possible to acquire at very small cost Fletcher Hall, a small dormitory which had been erected at private expense. This, of course, was merely a drop in the Page 107bucket. In 1936-37, however, a more ambitious scheme resulted in the construction of Allen House and Rumsey House, named after two pioneers of Ann Arbor and operated by the Michigan Union. A bond issue of $185,000 made possible the erection of these two dormitories, which house about sixty students each. In the summer of 1938 an opportunity to remedy the situation was offered through grants made by the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works (PWA), originally amounting to $2,522,250, to which the University was expected to add $3,082,750, making a total of $5,605,000. These figures were altered by minor changes in plans which developed later. The University's share was provided, for the most part, by bonds secured by the revenues of the buildings involved, and partly by gift, as will be seen later. The dormitories which were built with PWA assistance were, first, a large group adjacent to the Michigan Union and to Allen-Rumsey House; second, a dormitory for medical students, placed on the Convalescent Hospital grounds at the corner of Catherine Street and Glen Avenue; third, a residence for interns adjoining the University Hospital to the north; fourth, a large dormitory for women on the corner of Observatory and North University avenues; and fifth, a second group of men's residences on the half-block bounded by Church and Willard streets and East University Avenue. Part of the program was an enlargement of the facilities of the power plant, made necessary by the heating requirements of so many new buildings; included also were the erection of a much-needed new Health Service Building for students and a building to house the rapidly growing work in graduate, postgraduate, and children's dentistry.
The new residences more than doubled the student housing capacity of the University, raising it from 1,505 to nearly 3,250. Their construction was in charge of a central building committee consisting of Professor Lewis M. Gram, Director of Physical Plant Extension, and Mr. John C. Christensen, Controller of the University, and a number of assistants. Even during the period of construction what was called the "Michigan house plan" was formulated by the Board of Governors of Residence Halls, under the chairmanship of Karl Litzenberg, Assistant Professor of English, and a personnel was selected to manage the houses. In the fall of 1939 Victor C. Vaughan House, a medical dormitory, was opened, together with the huge West Quadrangle of men's residences, adjacent to the Union. The houses comprising this quadrangle, except for two, Michigan House and Chicago House, were named after well-known teachers of the past — Henry Carter Adams, Alfred Henry Lloyd, Alexander Winchell, George Palmer Williams, and Robert Mark Wenley. In February Madelon Louisa Stockwell Hall opened its doors to about three hundred and ninety women. It was decided, however, to postpone the opening of the East Quadrangle of men's residences until September, 1940. The four houses of this quadrangle bear the names of Charles Ezra Greene, Moses Coit Tyler, Albert Benjamin Prescott, and Burke Aaron Hinsdale.
The unification of the business management of the women's dormitories was initiated in February, 1933. Not only has this proved very advantageous to the existing residences for women, but without a policy of this sort it would be wholly unsafe for the University to embark upon a program of enlarged dormitory facilities such as is now in prospect. It was expected that L. Paul Buckley, Manager of the Michigan Union and formerly Assistant Secretary of the University, would act as business manager. Page 108Buckley's sudden death in June, 1933, however, prevented him from more than making a beginning. His successor, until the winter of 1939, was Mrs. Ellen S. Stanley. Francis C. Shiel is now in general charge of the business and maintenance management of the dormitories for the Board of Governors of Residence Halls. The business management of the League was combined with that of the dormitories from 1934 to 1937.
State building operations lapsed during the depression years. The legislature of 1931 cancelled all outstanding plans, among which were some that concerned the University, and no subsequent legislature has attempted to revive the abandoned projects. There was, however, a very considerable amount of building during the years 1929-40. The University Elementary School was commenced during the summer of 1929 and was made ready for occupancy in the fall of the next year. This was the only building during the period erected from state appropriations made directly to the University. However, the tuberculosis unit, which was added to the University Hospital in the form of additional stories in 1930, and the Neuropsychiatric Institute, the contract of which was let in April, 1938, were built from state appropriations made specifically for these purposes and not as a part of the general building plan of the University itself. The Neuropsychiatric Institute is to the rear of the surgical wing of the University Hospital.
Far more extensive was the building which was done at the expense of donors or by affiliated institutions such as the Michigan Union. Between 1929 and 1933 three important units of the Law Quadrangle were completed and put into service — the John P. Cook Building, the William W. Cook Legal Research Library, and Hutchins Hall, which contains the offices and classrooms of the Law School. Mosher-Jordan Halls, a combination of dormitories housing approximately four hundred and fifty girls, was completed in the summer of 1930. The Detroit alumni contributed the site of this building, and its erection was financed by issuing certificates of participation in the income of the Halls. The Michigan League Building, a completed structure, was formally turned over to the Regents in April, 1930, and in the next year the University acquired by gift of Dexter M. Ferry, Jr., of Detroit, the University Publications Building, on Maynard Street, in which are housed the University's printing plant and the sales and storage departments of the University of Michigan Press.
In 1935-36 the erection of one of the most beautiful buildings on the campus, the new building of the Graduate School, was begun. This is a memorial to the late Horace H. Rackham, of Detroit, and was presented to the University by the trustees of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund. It was dedicated on June 17, 1938, during the Commencement week. The Burton Memorial Tower, which houses the Charles Baird Carillon, was built during 1936; the carillon was dedicated on December 4 of that year with appropriate ceremonies. This tower was erected on land adjacent to Hill Auditorium and paid for by contributions from the Ann Arbor University of Michigan Club and from other friends of the University, together with certain trust funds which could appropriately be devoted to the purpose. Its entire cost was approximately $250,000. To this must be added mention of the new Health Service and the new dentistry building which formed part of the PWA building program carried out in 1939 and 1940. These structures stand side by side on Fletcher Street between Felch Park and North University Avenue, the latter of these being adjacent to Page 109and connected with the older Dentistry Building. The new Health Service was financed, like the residence halls, by a bond issue; its facilities, needless to say, represent a very great improvement over what was previously available.
The University's share of the cost of a new dentistry building, amounting to more than $250,000, was donated by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation of Battle Creek, and the name, W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute of Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry, was assigned to it in commemoration of this fact. The Foundation had for several years been interested in a public health program in the southwestern counties of Michigan and had frequently co-operated with the University in this connection. The Kellogg Foundation Institute is superbly equipped for work in children's dentistry and for graduate study, research work, and the postgraduate courses which enable dental practitioners to keep themselves abreast of the times. The new building was dedicated April 3, 1940.
The erection of Allen House and Rumsey House in connection with the Michigan Union has already been mentioned. The Union itself also undertook, with the approval of the Regents, to erect an addition which provides many more guest-rooms, together with headquarters for the University Club and the International Center for foreign students. This $400,000 addition was completed in 1938.
The completion of Hutchins Hall in 1933, which made it possible for the Law School to vacate its building on the campus, permitted also a rearrangement of the space allotted to a number of the University departments. The old Law Building was named Haven Hall in honor of former President Erastus O. Haven; it is now occupied by the departments of history, sociology, and journalism, the University Extension Service, and the Bureau of Government. The President's office, which since President Angell's time had been located in University Hall, was moved to the quarters in Angell Hall vacated by the Department of History, and an adjacent room was designated the Regents' room.
To the improvement of the teaching personnel and its regulation, and of the personnel of graduate instruction in particular, the University gave considerable attention during these years. In 1929-30 a survey was made of all faculty members called by a title not higher than that of instructor. It appeared that only 11.5 per cent of the full-time instructors had received the doctor of philosophy or doctor of science degree, and only 18.2 per cent professional degrees. Nearly half of this group were registered in the Graduate School, and it was apparent that the departments were in the habit of using their instructorships for the encouragement of their more promising advanced students. The survey disclosed a far from satisfactory situation, and accordingly it was decided, in May, 1932, to substitute such terms as teaching fellow, research assistant, and technical assistant for the titles junior instructor, part-time instructor, and the like. A revision of the official standards for appointment to the several faculty ranks and for promotion from rank to rank was adopted by the University Council and approved by the Regents in April, 1935. In this statement also the term teaching fellow was used to designate a member of the instructing staff who had not yet attained the doctorate or its equivalent.
A serious situation, affecting a large group of the University's most respected teachers, was corrected by the revision of the scheme for retiring allowances which took place in June, 1930, and was made effective the following year. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement Page 110of Teaching, as is well known, found it impossible to provide retiring allowances for all college teachers on the scale originally intended. Members of the younger group were enabled to provide for the future by means of a participating scheme, wherein both the University and the teachers contribute to the premium. Another group, however, 162 in all, consisting of those who were teaching in 1915 and whose sixty-fifth birthday occurred in 1932 or thereafter, were seriously affected by the reduction of their expectations from the Foundation and were not eligible to join the participating plan. The scheme which was proposed and adopted stipulated that the teachers should contribute 5 per cent of their salaries and the University the balance, in order to provide pensions on the original scale with a maximum of $4,000. To do this, a considerable increase had to be made in the University's budget. Unfortunately, although a similar scheme for nonacademic employees has been studied and outlined, the cost, in view of the general economic situation, has made it impossible as yet to extend the system to cover this group. A low-cost hospitalization plan, however, was made available to all University employees in 1939 and a medical insurance plan was put into operation in 1940.
In November, 1934, the Regents, on Dr. Ruthven's recommendation, formally adopted the policy of permitting faculty members who have carried on administrative duties for fifteen years or more to retire from such duties in the expectation of being appointed to distinguished professorships. Thus, when Marcus L. Ward relinquished the deanship of the School of Dentistry he became Jonathan Taft Professor of Dentistry, and on Herbert C. Sadler's resignation of the deanship of the College of Engineering in October, 1934, which was caused by ill health, he was appointed Alexander Ziwet Professor of Engineering. Henry C. Anderson succeeded him as Dean of the College.
The death of G. Carl Huber on December 26, 1934, made necessary a reorganization of the Graduate School. He was succeeded in the deanship by Clarence Stone Yoakum, and Professor Peter Okkelberg was appointed Assistant Dean of the School. The principle that the Graduate School is interested in and should foster the research activities of the University, in addition to its advanced teaching, was recognized in the ensuing reorganization. For a number of years the University had provided the faculty research fund, from which the expenses of miscellaneous research projects were paid. It had been under the supervision of a special committee, but at this time was placed officially in the charge of the Executive Board of the Graduate School, and the policy of centering in the Graduate School all research projects the expenses of which are paid by or through the University was adopted. The budgets of these projects are regularly reviewed and approved by the Executive Board and reported by the School to the Regents. When in 1935 the generous gift of the trustees of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund provided an endowment of $4,000,000, the income of which was to be used for research and similar purposes of the School, the new Board of Governors was created, consisting of the president, the dean of the School, and three members of the Board of Trustees of the Rackham Fund. Proposals for the expenditure of this money are regularly reviewed in the first instance by divisional committees, secondly by the Executive Board of the Graduate School, and finally by the Board of Governors. The name of the School itself was changed in 1935 to the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies.
Page 111Research in papyrology and archaeology has continued during President Ruthven's administration, at first under the auspices of the committee on Near East research which had been formed during Professor Francis W. Kelsey's lifetime. In 1931 a more permanent organization, under the name, Institute of Archaeological Research of the University of Michigan, was authorized by the Regents. During this period the work at Karanis, Egypt, was completed and several annual campaigns were conducted in Iraq at Seleucia on the Tigris. Increased legal research was permitted as a result of the receipt of the Cook bequest. At first the establishment of a legal research institute was planned, and, as a matter of fact, such an organization existed during parts of the years 1930 and 1931. This was, however, discontinued, since the present organization of the Law School was believed sufficient to care for these activities. Astronomical research in South Africa continued throughout the whole period; all current expense after July 1, 1937, has been assumed by the municipality of Bloemfontein and the South African government. The Bureau of Forest Research and the Bureau of Forest Extension were created and placed under the direction of the dean of the School of Forestry and Conservation in April, 1930, and in the same year the state Department of Conservation established the Institute for Fisheries Research at the University.
In the spring of 1938 came a very interesting development: the proposal was made that the University conduct graduate work at the state teachers' colleges. A method of doing this was promptly worked out, and the courses were first offered in the year 1938-39. Professor Clifford Woody, of the School of Education, as Graduate Adviser to the Teachers Colleges, is the co-ordinator of this work on behalf of the University.
The gifts received by the University during the first years of President Ruthven's administration reached figures entirely unprecedented in the history of the institution. During the very first year of this period, by the death of William W. Cook, of New York, the University fell heir to an estate at that time valued at $14,800,000 — a sum which was very quickly and materially reduced, however, by reason of the fall in security prices. In the same year former Governor Chase S. Osborn presented a large tract of land on Sugar and Duck Islands, the Honorable Charles Lathrop Pack established the George Willis Pack Forestry Foundation of $200,000, and the Charles H. Ditson bequest of $100,000 for musical purposes came to the University. In 1930-31 the estimated total of gifts accepted by the Regents was $315,000. In the next year, 1931-32, Messrs. Francis C. McMath, Robert R. McMath, and Henry S. Hulbert, of Detroit, presented to the University their observatory on Lake Angelus in Oakland County, a benefaction for which the institution was to become increasingly grateful as the solar research, with instruments designed by Robert R. McMath, produced, in the years that followed, more and more spectacular results. A total of nearly $385,000 in gifts was announced in 1933-34. The largest of these was the bequest of $100,000 from the late Horace H. Rackham, of Detroit, to provide an educational loan fund. In the following year Charles Baird, of Kansas City, Missouri, gave the University the splendid carillon which bears his name and which has been hung in the Burton Memorial Tower. A total of $8,370,994.35 in gifts made in 1935-36 was formally recorded in the Regents' Proceedings. The largest part of this amount is accounted for by the gift of the Graduate School Building and an endowment of $4,000,000 for the School from the trustees of the Horace Page 112H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund. To this amount Mrs. Rackham personally added $1,000,000 to provide for research in the problems of human adjustment. In 1936-37 the total amount of new gifts reported to the Regents was $1,190,383.10, and in 1937-38 the total of similar items reached $1,027,594.83. During that year the trustees of the Rackham Fund provided a fund of $100,000 for undergraduate scholarships and $500,000 to finance a sociological research unit. The first work under the auspices of this unit is being done in the Flint area. In 1938-39 it was announced that provision had been made for erecting a building in Detroit to be shared by the University, for its extension work in the city, and the Engineering Society of Detroit. The initial gifts for this purpose were $1,000,000, to which the donors, the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, and Mrs. Rackham personally, added later. The gift of the W. K. Kellogg Institute of Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry, originally $236,500, but later increased, also came in this year. With the PWA appropriations of $2,541,330, the gifts of 1938-39 totaled $4,160,503.33; but without the federal grants they amounted to $1,619,173.33. Gifts to the University in 1939-40 reached a total of $1,809,027.64, included in which were $500,000 additional for the Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial Building in Detroit, and, from an anonymous source, $500,000 to be added to the endowment of the Institute of Human Adjustment. Another notable benefaction was the gift of $200,000 which was made by John W. Anderson, to establish the James Orin Murfin Professorship of Political Science, in honor of former Regent Murfin, a friend of many years; there were also $100,000, from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, to make possible a reorganization of the Department of Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases, and $100,000 from the McGregor Fund, of Detroit, to defray the cost of the new solar tower and laboratory building of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory at Lake Angelus.
The alumni body, as well as the University itself, has experienced some of the benefits of the movement toward simpler and more effective organization which has been characteristic of these years. The creation of the University's own Bureau of Alumni Relations has already been briefly mentioned. Perhaps quite as important was the general reorganization of the Alumni Association early in 1934, the most notable feature of which was the provision of an executive committee of seven to act for the Board of Directors in the long periods between the meetings of that body. It consists of the president of the Alumni Association and the president of the University ex officio, an administrative officer of the University, two faculty members of alumni status, and two directors of the Alumni Association. The committee was intended and has proved to be an effective means of liaison between the University and its alumni association. At the same time a rearrangement of the financial affairs of the Association took place. The depression years had much reduced the Association's income, and its indebtedness had mounted. Through the allocation of a part of the student dues to the Union and the sale of the assets comprised in the printing plant owned by the Alumni Association, much of the difficulty was eliminated, and at the same time it was possible to begin, in March, 1934, the printing, in connection with the Michigan Alumnus, of the Quarterly Review, a need for which had long been felt.
In May, 1930, was held the first meeting of the Alumni Advisory Council, a large group of alumni and alumnae including past officers and directors of the Page 113Association, representatives of groups, and members nominated by the president of the University, who have assembled each Commencement week thereafter to hear and discuss reports on various phases of the University's work. The Council is the outgrowth of less formal gatherings which came together at President Burton's invitation and, on occasion, even before his administration. President Ruthven gave it a permanent status and associated it directly with the University through the University's Bureau of Alumni Relations. Special alumni advisory committees, in connection with the central Council, were arranged for specific divisions of the University, the members being selected with a view to their individual interests and preferences.
The ten-year program of the Alumni Association, strictly speaking, terminated in 1937. When this time was reached, however, the results had been so productive and the interest aroused among the alumni had become so active that the Association voted not to drop the program but to make it a continuing activity, with a review of results at the end of each ten-year period.
The Commencement season of 1937 was marked by the celebration of the completion of one hundred years of the University in Ann Arbor. An elaborate program of addresses, round tables, and discussions was arranged, the participants being almost without exception alumni of the University who had attained high distinction in their various fields. The community dinner held in the Intramural Building, marking the completion of one hundred years of relations between the University and the city, was an especially noteworthy event. The University of Michigan Press later published the proceedings of the Celebration in the form of a book entitled A University Between Two Centuries.
The Student Christian Association in 1935-36 transferred to the University all its property and was in 1937 succeeded by the Student Religious Association, the change in name marking the intention to broaden the purposes of the organization.
The organization of women students also was definitely improved by combining in the Michigan League Council the former Women's League and the Michigan League. This was done in the second semester of 1933-34. Two general revisions of student fees were made, one in July, 1933, and the second in February, 1936. By the latter the matriculation and diploma fees were entirely abolished and the entire expense to the student was confined to the payment of a single fee to the University. Since 1936 the Commencement exercises have been held on Saturday evening in order to make it easier for alumni and the friends of the graduates to attend. Small-sized diplomas were introduced after Commencement, 1937, for all receiving degrees except those in the law, medical, and dental schools; in 1939, however, the College of Pharmacy and the College of Engineering returned to the use of the larger form.
Previous to President Ruthven's administration the University did very little in the way of scholarship aid for its undergraduate students, although there were means for making educational loans, and scholarships and fellowships in the Graduate School had been maintained for many years past. In May, 1931, the Regents took a new step by establishing the Michigan Alumni Undergraduate Scholarships, a specified number of which may be granted by the University to residents of the state from a list of candidates proposed by the alumni clubs. At approximately the same time there were established also the University Scholarships in the professional schools, three each being allotted to the Page 114Medical School and the Law School, two each to the School of Education and the School of Dentistry, and one each to the School of Forestry and the School of Business Administration. The recipients of these scholarships are outstanding and deserving students recommended by the faculties. It is interesting to observe, too, that in 1932 the Regents recognized the fact that the first benefaction made to the University in the days of its infancy came from the Indians of this vicinity in the form of the gift of a tract of land. This recognition took the form of the establishment of five American Indian scholarships in the University.
The Board of Regents during the first part of President Ruthven's administration experienced a number of changes in personnel. In October, 1929, Regent Benjamin S. Hanchett, of Grand Rapids, was succeeded by Mrs. Esther Marsh Cram, of Flint. Regent Victor M. Gore retired from the Board the same year and was succeeded by the Honorable R. Perry Shorts, of Saginaw. In April, 1931, Dr. Walter H. Sawyer, of Hillsdale, who had served on the Board since January 1, 1906, suddenly died. His place was taken in May of the same year by Dr. Richard R. Smith, of Grand Rapids. January, 1933, saw the retirement of Regent Lucius L. Hubbard, of Houghton. The Honorable Edmund C. Shields, of Lansing, was appointed by Governor Comstock to fill out the term of Regent Hubbard and Messrs. Franklin M. Cook, of Hillsdale, and Charles F. Hemans, of Lansing, who had been successful in the 1932 election, took the places that were vacated by Regents James O. Murfin and William Lawrence Clements. In March, 1934, Regent Shorts resigned and former Regent Murfin was appointed to fill out his term. In 1935, as the result of the election held that year, the Honorable David H. Crowley, of Detroit, took Regent Shields's place, but Mr. Shields and the Honorable John D. Lynch, of Detroit, were successful in the elections of 1937 and replaced Regents Murfin and Smith. In 1939 Regents Ralph Stone and Junius E. Beal retired from the Board and were succeeded by Messrs. J. Joseph Herbert, of Manistique, and Harry G. Kipke, of Ypsilanti. Regent Beal's term of office, thirty-two years, was the longest in the history of the Board of Regents.
It remains to speak of the important changes in University personnel which took place between 1929 and 1940. By death the University lost the following full professors and administrative officers: Ralph H. Curtiss, Max Winkler, Claude H. Van Tyne, George W. Patterson, Preston M. Hickey, Albert J. Rousseau, Aldred S. Warthin, Roy Bishop Canfield, Evans Holbrook, Fred M. Taylor, Charles W. Cook, George Slocum, John R. Effinger, L. Paul Buckley, Albert R. Crittenden, Charles H. Fessenden, Albert Lockwood, Samuel Moore, G. Carl Huber, Tobias J. C. Diekhoff, Chalmers J. Lyons, Albert M. Barrett, Louis A. Strauss, Ura G. Rickert, Alfred O. Lee, Henry C. Anderson, Max S. Handman, D. Murray Cowie, Roderick D. McKenzie, Hugo P. Thieme, and Arthur L. Cross.
Those who retired during this period by reason of age were the following: Joseph H. Drake, Reuben Peterson, Robert A. Campbell, Walter R. Parker, James B. Pollock, William H. Hobbs, Frederick G. Novy, Edwin C. Goddard, Moses Gomberg, S. Lawrence Bigelow, William D. Henderson, Theodore R. Running, Earle W. Dow, James W. Glover, Clarence L. Meader, Horace W. King, Henry A. Sanders, Herbert C. Sadler, Emil Lorch, and Walter B. Ford.
New appointments to the faculties included Verner W. Crane, who in 1930 took charge of the courses in American history, succeeding Professor Van Tyne; Page 115Heber D. Curtis, who succeeded the late Ralph H. Curtiss as Chairman of the Department of Astronomy and Director of the Observatories; Howard Mumford Jones in the Department of English from 1930 until June, 1936; Roderick D. McKenzie, who succeeded the late Charles Horton Cooley as Chairman of the Department of Sociology and was, in turn, upon his death in the spring of 1940, succeeded by Robert Cooley Angell; Edward B. Mains and William Randolph Taylor in the Department of Botany; E. L. Eriksen as Chairman of the Department of Engineering Mechanics; C. L. Jamison as Professor of Business Policy; John E. Tracy, Laylin K. James, Hessel E. Yntema, and Lewis M. Simes in the Law School; Willett F. Ramsdell as George Willis Pack Professor of Forest Land Management; Wassily Besekirsky and Arthur Hackett in the School of Music; Theophile Raphael in psychiatry; Max S. Handman and William Haber in economics; Jean Hébrard in architecture; Norman F. Miller in obstetrics, succeeding Dr. Reuben Peterson; Fred J. Hodges in roentgenology, succeeding the late Preston M. Hickey; Carl E. Badgley in orthopedic surgery; Thomas A. Knott in English, succeeding the late Samuel Moore; Robert W. Kelso as the director of the program in social work; H. W. Nordmeyer, who succeeded John W. Eaton as Chairman of the Department of German; Bradley M. Patten in anatomy, succeeding the late G. Carl Huber; Kasimir Fajans in chemistry; and Jesse Ormondroyd and E. T. Vincent in engineering mechanics and mechanical engineering respectively. Lieutenant Colonel Basil D. Edwards was Professor of Military Science and Tactics from 1929 to 1933 and again was assigned to the University of Michigan in 1937. In the interval of his absence Lieutenant Colonel Frederick C. Rogers held the position.
Several who came to the University in the autumn of 1929 have since been advanced to the full professorship. Among these are Edgar H. Gault in the School of Business Administration; Cooper H. Langford in the Department of Philosophy, Warner G. Rice and Hereward T. Price in the Department of English, Willard C. Olson in the School of Education, and, in the Medical School, F. Bruce Fralick and Raymond W. Waggoner, chairmen of the departments of ophthalmology and psychiatry, respectively. Professor Waggoner is also Director of the Neuropsychiatric Institute, and Professor Olson is Director of Research in Child Development in the University Elementary School.
Of the present staff, the other men who came during the present administration and subsequently have been given full professorial rank, are as follows: Roger Bailey, who came in 1932, now Professor of Architecture; Dr. Paul H. Jeserich (1933), now Professor of Operative Dentistry, Director of the Operative Clinic, and Director of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute: Graduate and Postgraduate Dentistry; and in 1934, Thomas S. Lovering, now Professor of Economic Geology, and Harlan C. Koch, now Professor of Education and Assistant Director of the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions.
Among the well-known professors who left the University's service by resignation during the period were Charles S. Berry of the School of Education and Theodore Harrison of the School of Music in 1930; Carter L. Goodrich of the Department of Economics in 1931; Robert T. Crane of the Department of Political Science and Samuel P. Lockwood of the School of Music in 1933; Aubrey Tealdi of the Department of Landscape Design in 1934; Robert K. Brown of the School of Dentistry, Carleton B. Joeckel of the Department of Page 116Library Science, and James M. O'Neill of the Department of Speech in 1935; Oscar J. Campbell and Howard Mumford Jones of the Department of English, Morris A. Copeland of the Department of Economics, Thomas H. Reed of the Department of Political Science, Stephen Timoshenko of the Department of Engineering Mechanics, George L. Jackson of the School of Education, and Ernest M. Fisher of the School of Business Administration in 1936; Walter L. Badger of the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and Erwin E. Nelson of the Department of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in 1937.
The Ann Arbor News, Oct. 28, 1939.
"Many Gifts Honor Ruthven Achievements."Mich. Alum., 46 (1939): 125-26, 130.
"Performs President's Duties."Mich. Alum., 36 (1929): 5.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1929-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1929-40. (R.P.).
Ruthven, Alexander G."A Brief for the Large University."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull. (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 32, No. 37), No. 5 (1931): 3-10.
Ruthven, Alexander G."A Decade of University History."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull. (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 41, No. 68), No. 31 (1940): 3-8.
Ruthven, Alexander G."Education and Service."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 44 (1938): 296-97.
Ruthven, Alexander G."The Red Schoolhouse."Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., pp. 213-15.
Ruthven, Alexander G."Some Problems of the University."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull. (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 31, No. 27), No. 1 (1929): 3-16.
Ruthven, Alexander G."The University College."Mich. Alum., 36 (1930): 347-48.
"Ruthven Is Seventh President."Mich. Alum., 36 (1929): 27-28.
A University Between Two Centuries: the Proceedings of the 1937 Celebration of the University of Michigan. Ed. by Wilfred B. Shaw. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1937.
The University Record, Vols. 1-3 (1938-40).