Economics and Usage of Digital Libraries: Byting the BulletSkip other details (including permanent urls, DOI, citation information)
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17.4 Selection Criteria
Since it is generally accepted that it will not be possible to digitize all journals that have ever been published, an important question for any digitization project is how to select the retrospective content to be made available electronically. In JSTOR a variety of factors are taken into consideration in the selection process, including surveys of faculty and library professionals in the field in question, library subscription levels, citation impact factor measures, and length of the run, among other things.
Looking at JSTOR usage at the article level, it is evident that citations should not be used as the sole factor in determining what content should be digitized. To test the question of whether citation or citation frequency correlates with database usage, we conducted a preliminary analysis on use of particular articles in JSTOR. First, we identified the top ten most frequently used articles for each of the 117 journals in the database. We then looked up their citation data using ISI Social Science Citations. What we found was that usage and citation data were not correlated. For the purpose of illustrating the point, Table 17.3 displays an abbreviated version of the data we collected. Shown below are the top three articles in terms of JSTOR use since 1997 (through March 20, 2000) for three Economics titles. The number of citations to each article in the period from 1997 to 1999 is displayed, as are the average number of citations to each article for the period from 1972 through 1999.
|Journal Title||Number of Times Cited||Average cites/year||JSTOR views||Year of Publication|
|American Economic Review|
|Quarterly Journal of Economics|
|Journal of Political Economy|
Citations do not appear to provide anything like a complete picture of the potential usefulness of a journal article. The most notable example of this point is the number one article for the Journal of Political Economy. Even though this 1973 article has rarely been cited (4 times between 1997 and 1999) and only an average of .5 times per year between 1972 and 1999, it has emerged as the most often-used article from that journal. This article has been viewed 1,895 times and printed 1,402 times during the period that it has been accessible in JSTOR. What this example reveals is not only that citation data may not be the most useful measure for determining what should be digitized, but also that citations focus on what might be called the "reference" or "documentation" value of an article, not its usefulness defined more broadly. Articles with four citations may end up, for a variety of reasons, being the most used. Or, alternatively, highly cited articles may not be used very often at all. This is a factor to keep in mind when selecting content for digitization initiatives.