Economics and Usage of Digital Libraries: Byting the BulletSkip other details (including permanent urls, DOI, citation information)
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1. Kyrillidou and Young (2003) report an average annual increase of 7.7% since 1986, well ahead of general inflation.
2. American Heritage Dictionary, 3rd ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 1992).
3. After the British burned Washington and the original Library of Congress during the War of 1812, the new Library of Congress collection was established when Thomas Jefferson sold his magnificent collection of nearly 7000 books.
4. See Hedstrom and King (2003) for an historical discussion of the emergence of the related institutions of libraries, archives and museums.
5. Values in this case refers to shared perceptions of relative status or perceived worth within a group or community.
6. The median price for all houses sold in the U.S. in 1970 was only $23,000. See U.S. Census Bureau (2000), Table 1201.
7. Recent examples include the durable digital depository (DSpace) initiative from MIT and the University of California's e-scholarship program. Of course, experimental initiatives rise and fall quickly, so the landscape will look considerably different within a few short years. One initiative that appears to have succeeded is JSTOR, described by Kevin Guthrie in a chapter of this book.
8. For a discussion of the influence of open models in prompting new roles for libraries see Lougee (2002).
10. See, e.g., Suber (2002).
11. The Economics Working Papers Archive was created by Bob Parks at the University of Washington, St. Louis, and can be found at http://econwpa.wustl.edu/. 2500 papers is a very small fraction of the working papers disseminated in Economics in the past 10 years. For example, the more recent and commercial albeit not-for-profit Economics Research Network now hosts over 36,000 full-text economics working papers.
12. In actual practice, interlibrary loans involve interactions among three parties: the individual requestor, originating library and lending (distant library). For this example in these three paragraphs we simplify, treating the loan as a direct transaction between the borrower and the distant library.
13. As an example, when a facsimile is made on paper, the quality is necessarily less than in the original document, and this degradation is compounded as copies are made of copies. This fact, among others, limits the extent to which the print-on-paper system could be abused to implement large-scale republishing of a document to avoid copyright payments to the publisher or author. Digital copying, on the other hand, generally maintains perfect fidelity. Thus, publishers are concerned that a digital copy delivered to a user at a different institution might be used to create multiple copies redistributed without associated compensation.
14. Of course, most of the payment to authors for the creation of their works has been through their employers: universities and the owners of government and private research labs. This bifurcation of payments, with one stream from users to publishers, and another stream from sponsors to creators, is a bit unusual, and certainly quite different than in commercial or popular publishing. However, albeit fascinating, in this book we have not addressed the economic interactions between information creators and their sponsors.