5. On the one hand, two events A and B are statistically (or probabilistically) independent if and only if Pr(A ∩ B) = Pr(A) · Pr(B). On the other hand, two events A and B are causally independent if and only if A does not cause B, B does not causes A, and A and B do not have a common cause. The fact that two events A and B are statistically independent does not provide any evidence about their causal independence, and vice versa.


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