An English-Spanish-Pampango dictionary, together with idioms, common conversation, and an abridgment of English grammar (grammar in a nutshell), various uses of words, similar words, synonyms, abbreviations, etc.
Parker, Luther.

Page  [unnumbered] I i. - I 820.3 -—....... P'242en.iHn Cab= - $panish-lpaPmpaugo: DictiOary I 1 I.. II.I II. II.I 1 MD"~. -.. By Luther Parher ~ ~ MANILA American BooK and News Co., Publishers 1905 r... 1 I~~~

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Page  II Ct,

Page  III O-s; L *- * 7 / 93f Y4'- C/ r PREFACE. This dictionary contains four thousand English words translated into Spanish and Capampangan for the benefit of those who wish to study English. The words selected are those in common use with the meaning that is nmst. nearly connected with them. Obscure and technical English words are left to the more advanced dictionaries. The accent mark is used only to show upon which syllable the force of the voice falls and does not show the finer distinctions of accent. It is further peinted out that owing to the differences in accent and pronunciation to be found in the different towns of Pampanga, there will no doubt arise questions as to the correctness of some words or accents. It is sufficient to say that the spelling an pronunciation herein used is that of Bacolor, which no dpubt uses as correct language as any town in the province, owing to the long time in which it was the capital and contained the best in Pampango literature. It is realized that there will be some mistakes due to translating one language to another for the first time, and the author will be greatly obliged to any one whowill advise him of any mistake found herein, in order that it may be corrected in future editions. The author is deeply indebted to Sr. Modesto Joaquin and Sr. Juan Soto for invaluable assistance rendered in the translation of the Pampango part of thedictionary. TALUGUIGUI. Yting Diccionario a magdalang apat a libung amanung inglis miguit 6 cumulang a mibaldug qng castila amp6n capampangan, macapariquil ya caretang angang magnasang magaral qng sabing ingles. Pinili cu la ding amanung parating magagamit, pablasang qng balac ning lubcu ing magaral at bisang agid mabiasa qng sabing inglis, enopa caministilan abalu detang amanung bijira mung magagamit. Yng Autor 6 micatsa caniting Diccionario, maragul ya picacautangan qng G. Modesto Joaquin at qng G. Juan Soto, uling qng casaupan da merapat ya iting libru. Yng Autor balu na qng insanupamang libru 4A misulat qng metung a amanu at mibalddg yang camumulan qng aliuang amanu, dacal at bina ing mayaquit nang cabalantungan at qng uli nita quilalananang dapat a mayap at picautanganaqng qu6numan nung ipaquilala nasa ing cabalatungan a aquit na quoting librdi ban queta qng cadua nang pangalimbag maliaring mialilan ing cabalatungan qng mayap a causucan. LUTHER PARKER, Bacolor, Pampanga, May, 1905. ---

Page  IV AN XNGIUSH-SPANISH- PAMPANGO DICTIONAR Y Published by The American Book and News Company Price: Board Cover...............- -P-2.oo Leather,,......... "3.00 POSTAGE PAID

Page  V CONTENTS PAGES DICTIONARY............................. I 83 IDIOMS...............................- 84- 91 COMMON CONVERSATION.......................... 92- 95 GRAMMAR IN A NUTSHEI.L.......................... 96-148 NOUN..97-101 N OUN........................................97 - oI PRONOUN............................. 101-103 ADJiCTIVE........................ 103-107 VERB........................... 107-125 VERBAL................. I 25-I 26 ADVERB.............................. 126-127 PREPOSITION.......8.................. 128-13 CONJUNCTION......................... 131-132 INTERJECTION........................... 132 SYNTAX............................. 133- 145 VARIOUS USES OF WORDS........................... 145-148 SIMILAR WORDS........................... 148-150 SYNONYMS............ 150 —155 ABBREVIATIONS.......................... 155-I56 DIVISIONS OF TIME................................. 156 CHRISTIAN NAMES........................ 156-1I6 RULES FOR SPELLING WORDS.................. 1I6-164

Page  VI N

Page  VII THE ALPHABET. ING A. B. C. English a b c C d e f i j k 1 m Kapampangan. e bi si di i ef dchi ech ay dche ke el em English n o p q r S s t u v w x y z Kapampangan. en o pi kiu ar es ti iu vi dable iu eks uay si

Page  VIII

Page  1 AN ENGLISH-SPANISH-PAMPANGO DICTIONARY A A (art. un, uno, una), Abandon (v. a. abandonar), Abase (v. a. abatir), Abate (v. a. minorar), Abbrdviate (v. a. abreviar), Abd6men (s. abdomen), Abd6minal (a. abdominal), Abdict (v. a. abducir), Abh6r (v. a. aborrecer), Ability (s. habilidad), Able (a. fuerte), Ab6de (s. domicilio, habitaci6n), Ab6lish (v. a. abolir), Ab6minable (a. abominable), Ab6minate (v. a. abominar), Aboriginal (a. lo que pertenece a los habitadores primeros), Aborigines (s. pl. aborigenes, primeros habitantes de un pais), Ab6rtion (s. aborto), Abodt (pr. cerca de, por alli, hacia, acerca), Above (pr. encima, sobre), Abrdpt (a. precipitado), Abrtiptness (s. precipitaci6n), Abscess (s. absceso), Absc6nd (v. n. esconderse), Absc6nder (s. la persona que se esconde), Absence (s. ausencia), Absent (a. ausente), Absolute (a. absoluto), Abs6rb (v. a. absorber), Abstain (v. n. abstenerse), Abindance (s. abundancia), Abdndant (a. abundante), 1-35894 metung. ticusan, paimburisan. alimuran, pasucuin. ditacan. cuyaran. pusu, atian. daque ning catauan a sacup ning atian. ilili, icauani. pisauili, picasaman. acayanan, caguiuan, sicanan. masican, aguiu. panucnanganan, tucnangan. labagan, paglalagan, siran. picacasaman, macasnuc. picasaman, picasnucan. ing mangaintulid caring manucnangan. ding minuinang menucnangan qng metung a balen. quicuan. inguil, diquil qng, qng liguid babo, 6 tulid. masandig, 6 miuauangquf. capamiraplan, quealan, panalala. tigsa. salicut. ing taung sAsalicut. pangauale, panlibang. alAyu, macauale. lfibuis. pacamcam, mangamcam. ebalayunan ing nasa, manfti. dacal a dacal, mipallu caracal. dacal.

Page  2 2 Abuse (v. a. abusar), Accelerate (v. a. acelerar), Accent (s. acento, modulaci6n, v. a. acentuar), Accdpt (v. a. aceptar, admitir), Accdptance (s. aceptaci6n), Access (s. acceso, entrada), Accessible (a. accesible), Accident (s. accidente), Accidental (a. accidental), Acc6mmodate (v. a. acomodar), Acc6mmodating (a. servicial), Accommodation (s. comodidad), Acc6mpaniment (s. acompafiamiento), Acc6mpany (v. a. acompafiar), Acc6mplice (s. c6mplice), Acc6mplish (v. a. cumplir), Acc6mplishment (s. cumplimiento- entero de alguna cosa), Acc6rd (s. acuerdo), Acc6rding (pr. segun, conforme), Acc6st (v. a. saludar a uno yendo hacia el), Acc6unt (s. cuenta), Accuimulate (v. a. acumular), Accumulation (s. acumulaci6n), Accurate (a. exacto), Accusation (s. acusacion), Accuse (v. a. acusar), Accdstom (v. a. acostumbrar), Ache (s. dolor continuo), Achieve (v. a. ejecutar), Aching (s. dolor), Acid (a. icido, agrio), Acidity (s. agrura, acidez), Ackn6wledge (v. a. reconocer, confesar), Acquaint (v. a. informar), Acquaintance (s. conocimiento), Acquiesce (v. a. consentir), Acquire (v.a. adquirir), Acquisition (s. adquisici6n), Acquit (v. a. libertar), Acr6ss (ad. de traves, de una parte a otra), Act (v. a. representar, v. n. hacer), Action (s. acci6n), Active (a. activo), Activity (s. actividad), Actor (s. actor [en los teatros]), Actress (s. comedianta, actriz), Actual (a. actual), pamanalig, qng sicanan bang daptan ing e catuliran. pamiraplan, tuldic, tuldican, pamangale. tangapan,tanguanan. pamanangap 6 pamanangu. panlub, panuquiat, lalabis. aralanan. micatagun. asacali, tumpuc 6 tapuc. yagpang, magpang. masuyu. pangayagpang. pamafnaup. abayan. cayabe qng casalanan, casapacat. daptan, ganapanan, tuparan. catuparan qng metung a bague, lubiis a capamintfian. picam6tung. diquil 6 inguil. pamanati ning m6tung a lalapit. cuenta, balac. tumipun, talumpucan. pangatipun, ibuntun. matupad. pamandalum, pamaniumbung. sumbuing. lumon, ugalian, gamitan. saquit a macaparati. daptan, gauan. saquit, lingasu. maslam. caslaman. quilalanan, patutuan, papagtuliran. pabaluan, ipaulat, panabilin. paigabaluan. paintulutan, suclab. manicua, manaquitan. pamanicua. ibulus, iculdas, patauaran. macapacurus, taglustaglus. pamaglague, galo, daptan. dapat, pamipamuc. masipag, masicanan, capamiraplan, cacayanan, casipagan. ing lalagu6 qng pialbayan. laague qng m6tung a pialben. casalucfyan.

Page  3 3 *Adapt (v. a. adaptar), Adaptable (a. adaptable), Add (v. a. aumentar), Addict (v. a. dedicar), Additional (a. adicional), Address (v. a. hablar, dirigir), Adept (a. adepto), Adequate (a. adecuado), Adhere (v. n. adherir), Adhesive (a. pegajoso), Adieu (ad. adi6s), Adjacent (a. adyacente), Adjective (s. adjetivo), Adj6in (v. a. adherir), Administer (v. a. administrar), Admirable (a. admirable), Admiration (s. admiracion), Admire (v. a. admirar, amar), Admission (a. admisi6n), Admit (v. a. admitir, dar entrada), Ad6pt (v. a. adoptar prohijar), Adoration (s. adoracion), Ad6re (v. a. adorar), Ad6rn (v. a. hermosear con adornos), Adrift (ad. flotando), Adult (s. adulto, adulta), Addlterate (v. a. adulterar), Addltery (s. adulterio), Advance (v. a. avanzar, s. avance), Advantage (s. ventaja), Adverb (s. adverbio), Adversary (s. adversario), Adverse (a. adverso), Adversity (s. adversidad), Advertise (v. a. avisar, advertir), Advertlsement (s. aviso), Advice (s. consejo, aviso), Advise (v. a. aconsejar), AfAr (ad. lejos, distante), Affable (a. afable), Affair (s. asunto, negocio), Affect (v. a. afectar), Affection (s. afecci6n), Affectionate (a. afectuoso), Affirm (v. a. afirmar), Afflict (v. a. afligir), Affliction (s. aflicci6n), yagpang qng metung a bague. mamagpang. dagdagan, paquiabe. diquil. dagdag, caragdagan. maniabi, parala. cayalub. ing macayagpang, 6 macabague. mfiib, yungyung. mapecat. lacuan. casiping. bicas, 6 calidad. ambanganan. pamajalan. macapagmulala. capagmulalan. magmulala, nagtingangas. capaintulutan, pamanangap. paintulutan, tangapan. pamayapan, ing quitchana ning aliua, gauan anae anacan 6 lingapan anting ande. pamafiamba, pamalsintang dalise. samba, malsintang dalise. pamutian, palaguan gng pamuti. lungadlungad 6 manifud. taung maragul na. samutanan. pamangalugud qng talasaua. magpaiina, lumaban. calalian, cainguitan. adverbio. casalang, calaban. alang calma. sigalut, quelan calma. pabaluan. capabaluan. ilsuC 6 aral. usuian, aralan. marayu, malacu6. mapamintiu, mayaga. capanintiinan, bague. macaballsa, macacarug-salu. capalsintan, sinta, luguid sintA. ing mayap a lib, mayaga. patutuan. macapanamdam, macasindac, palungceltan. calungcutan, lugma.

Page  4 4 Aff6rd (v. a. dar, proveer), Affr6nt (s. afrenta, v. a. afrentar), Afl6at (ad. flotante, a flota), Afraid (a. espantado, timido), After (ad. despues, detras, seg6n, enseguida), Afterno6n (s. tarde), After-thought (s. reflexi6n), Afterward (ad. despues, enseguida), Again (ad. otra vez), Against (pr. contra), Age (s. edad, vejez), Aged (a. viejo, anciano), Agency (s. agencia), Agent (s. agente), Aggravate (v. a. agravar), Aggravation (s. agravacion), Aggressive (a. ofensivo), Aggressor (s. agresor), Aghast (a. horrorizado), Agile (a. agil), Agility (s. agilidad), Agitate (v. a. agitar), Agitation (s. agitaci6n), Ag6 (ad. pasado, despues), Agony (s. agonia), Agree (v. n. concordar, convenir), Agreeable (a. agradable), Agreement (s. concordia), Agricdlture (s. agricultura), Ah! (int. ah!, ay!), Ahead (ad. mas alla, delante de otro), Aid (v. a. ayudar, s. ayuda), Ail (v. a. afligir), Ailment (s. dolencia, indisposici6n), Aim (v. a. apuntar, dirigir la mirada), Aimless (a. sin designio, sin objeto), Air (s. aire, aire de musica), Air-gun (s. escopeta de viento), Aisle (s. nave de una iglesia), Alacrity (s. alegria, buen humor), Alarm (s. alarma, v. a. alarmar), Alas (int. ay!), Alert (a. vigilante, vivo), Alien (a. s. extranio), Alight (v. n. descender, a. encendido), Alike (a. semejante, igual), Aliment (s. alimento), Alive (a. vivo, viviente), All (a. todo), munie, mamunga. calibacan, v. a. libacan. ing gagato 6 lulutang. misdan, tacutin. caibAt, tauli, gugulutan, agad. ibat, ugtu, gatpanapun. pamigunam caibat, taulf, agaid. pasibayu. casalangsang. edad, quetuan. matua, macatua. bale sanlianan. ing mamajala, qng sanlanan. babayat. cabayvtan. mapaglapastngan. ing darapat calapastangan. mitacutan, mengalimguiman. malicsi. calicsian. culugan. pamangulug, cagutgutan. milabas, caybat. pamagjingalu, mamamate. miagpang, micametung. manayun, calugudluigud. pamiagpang, pamicametung. pamag laulta. ah!, ay! carinpa, arapan ning metung. saupan, lingapan. manandaman, masindac, pasindacan. saquit, capanandaman. tutucan, sipatan. alang casangcanan, alang caririquilan. angin, gale ning musica. escop6tang angin. cafun ning pisamban. tula, masaya. cagutgutan, alingongo. ay! magbante, guising. panibayuan. tfpa, culdas, a. itatar. caldpa. pagcabie. mabie, mabibie. geganagana, sabla. ar — -~ — I I Ir~

Page  5 5 Allege (v. a. alegar), Allegiance (s. lealtad, fidelidad), Alleviate (v. a. aliviar), Alliance (s. alianza), Alligator (s. aligador, caiman), Alldt (v. a. distribuir por suerte),.Alldtment (s. asignaci6n, repartimiento), Al16w (v. a. conceder), All6wance (s. concesi6n), Alldre (v. a. alucinar), Alldsion (s. alusi6n), Alldsive (a. alusivo), Ally' (s. aliado, v. a. hacer alianza), Almanac (s. almanaque), Almighty (a. omnipotente), Almost (ad. casi, cerca de), Alms (s. limosna), Al6ft (ad. arriba, sobre), Al6ne (a. solo, ad. solamente), Al6ng (ad. a lo largo, adelante, junto con), Alud (a. con voz fuerte, recio), Alphabet (s. alfabeto), Already (ad. ya, a la hora de esta), Also (ad. tambien, igualmente), Altar (s. altar), Alter (v. a. alterar), Alternate (a. alternativo), Although (c. aunque, no obstante, bien que), Altogether (ad. del todo), Always (ad. siempre, constantemente), Amaze (v. a. espantar), Amazement (s. espanto, pasmo), Ambition (s. ambici6n), Ambitious (a. ambicioso), Ambuscade (s. emboscada), Ambush (v. a. emboscar), Amend (v. a. enmendar), Amendment (s. enmienda); Amiable (a. amable, amigable), Amid(st) (pr. entre, en medio), Amiss (ad. erradamente), Ammunition (s. munici6n), Amnesty (s. amnistia), Am6ngst (pr. entre, mesclado eon), itutul, gungcas. catapatan. mipaldan, pasnauan. pamianib. mitatAid, caiman. ~ piracayan, pamipaningalu. pamanutdc, pamiraque. ibie, pamayapan. capaintulutan magutgut a ulcul. ing pamanaglaue qng metung i bague. macapasaglaue. campi, pamaquicampi. calendariu. ing macarapat qng sabla, macapaliari, qng sabla. alus 6 cumulang, malapit qng. limus. babo. dili, mu. qng quecaban, arapan, siping nang. masican a siuala, gulisac.. alfabeto, a, b, c. na, ne. naman. pisasamban 6 pipanalanginan. alilan, miblas, ipildis 6 pamildis. miliuAsliuas, paldanan. aguiang. cabilugan, capamisanan. aguiang capilan, capilanman. masdan, dacpan, tucupan. casdan, caingangasan. casaquiman. masaqufm. pamafiubuc ding sundalus caring casalang. manubuc caring casalang. umanan. pamanuman. ing macapacamal, macapalsinta, calugud-lugid, mayaga, pamibasa. macapangalibitad, qng libutad. cabalatungan. municiun, bacal 6 sangcap. ing pamangalinguin qng pardsa, pamamatauad 6 pamangalinguan qng casalanan. macapangalibdtad, macasamut qng.

Page  6 6 Amorous (a. amoroso). Amoint (s. importe), Amphibious (a. anfibio), Ample (a. amplio, largo), Amply (a. ampliamente, copiosamente), Amputate (v. a. amputar), Amputation (s. amputaci6n), Amdse (v. a. entretener, divertir), Amisement (s. diversi6n, pasatiempo), An (art. un, uno, una), Analysis (s. analisis), Analyze (v. a. analizar), Anarchy (s. anarquia), Anathema (s. anatema), Ancestor (s. abuelo), Ancestry (s. linaje de ante pasados), Anchor (s. ancla, ancora), Ancient (a. antiguo), And (c. y, e, aun), Angel (s. angel), Anger (s. ira, c6lera, v. a. enojar), Angry (a. colerico, irritado), Animal (s. a. animal), Animate (v. a. animar, a. viviente), Animation (s. animacion), Anim6sity (s. animosidad), Ankle (s. tobillo del pie), Annex (v. a. anexar), Annihilate (v. a. aniquilar), Annihilation (s. aniquilacion), Ann6unce (v. a. anunciar), Ann6uncement (s. aviso, anuncio), Ann6y (v. a. molestar), Ann6yance (s. molestia), Annual(ly) (a. anual, ad. anualmente), Anndl (v. a. anular), An6int (v. a. untar, ungir), An6ther (a. otro, diferente), Answer (v. a. responder), Ant (s. hormiga), Antemeridian (a. antes de medio dia), Anterior (a. anterior), Antic (a. grotesco), Anticipate (v. a. anticipar), Antidote (s. antidoto, contra veneno), Antipathy (s. antipatia), Antiquated (a. anticuado), masinta 6 malugiid. alaga. ding animales a macapanuenangan qng mamala at quing danuman. masaglauayan, macaba. dacal a dacal. cutuiran ing metung nang luga1l ning catauan. cuturan ing laman a sira. maglimbang. paglimbangan. metung. pamanianac 6 isan-isanan. isan-isanan, sabiain balang amanu nung nanung daque ning oraci6n. ing gobi6rnong alang p6cabuntuc. parisa, pamisauili. apung lalaqui. palipi ding macatuang minina. ancla. miniuna. amp6n, at. angel. mua, camua. mua. animal. pasausiAn, mabibi6. pamipasausi, pamipatapang lub, saya. catapangan, tapang, capangangasan. bucuing bitis. tairanan. siran, palblg qng yatu. pamafifra, pangaala qng yatu. pabalu, ibulalag. capabaluan 6 paquilala. linlanganan, alisuasan. linlangan, 6 aliguat. balang banua, banua-banua. payalan. lanian, pulisan. metungpa, macayaliua. paquibatan. panas. bayu maugtU. minuna. magaspang a caniuan. pauna. paniulu qng lasun. sama. matua, lauin.

Page  7 7 Antique (a. antiguo), Anvil (s. yunque), Anxiety (s. ansiedad), Anxious (ly) (a. ansioso, ad. ansiosamente) Any (a. cualquier, cualquiera, algo), Apart (ad. aparte), Apartment (s. cuarto), Ape (s. mono), Aperture (s. abertura), Apex (s. apice, cima), Ap6logize (v. a. apologizar), Apology (s. apologia), Ap6thecary (s. boticario), Appall (v. a. espantar, aterrar), Apparatus (s. aparato), Apparel (s. traje), Apparent (a. evidente), Apparition (s. aparicion),, Appeal (v. n. apelar), Appear (v. n. aparecer), Appetite (s. apetito), Applaud (v. a. aplaudir), Applaise (s. aplauso), Apple (s. manzana), Applicant (s. aspirante), Application (s. aplicaci6n), Apply (v. a. aplicar), AppOint (v. a. sefialar), *App6intment (s. mandato), Apportion (v. a. proporcionar), Apposition (s. aposici6n), Appreciate (v. a. apreciar), Appreciation (s. aprecio), Apprehend (v. aprehender), Appr6ach (v. a. aproximar), Approbation (s. aprobaci6n), Appr6priate (v. a. apropiar), Appr6val (s. aprobaci6n), Appr6ve (v. a. aprobar), April (s. abril), Apron( s. delantal), -Apt (a. apto), Aptitude (s. aptitud), Arbitrary (a. arbitrario), Arch (s. arco), Archbishop (s. arzobispo), Archer (s. arquero), Ardent (a. ardiente), Arduous (a. arduo), laun. bacal a pipucpucan. capagnasan a maquilaic tacut. magnasa, ad. qng maragul a capagnasan. ninuman, mapilAn. macayaliua, micacauani. silid. s6ngu. buclat. catiting. mangamanung capagmasaquitan,. amanung pamagmastquit. boticariu. pamasdanan, pamatacutan. casangcapan. imalan. malino. lint6, pangalto. tagal qng lalu catas a upaya. lunto, pangalto. ibug, caibugan. purian. puri. manzanas. maninasa. pamagcapilit. magcapilit. tulduan. alala. isadia. pamiayo. pacamalan. pamacamal. dacap, daclut, sacmal, talan. ilapit. pamayapan. bandian. pamayapan. mayapan. abril. tapitapf. aguid. caguiuan. cayupayan. balantuc. arzobispo. mangaua 6 tatalan bal 6 balantic. milalablab. mabayat 6 masaquit.

Page  8 Argue (v. n. disputar), Argument (s. argumento), Arid (a. irido), Arise (v. n. levantarse), Arist6cracy (s. aristociacia), Aristocrat (s. arist6crata), Arm (s. brazo), Army (s. ejercito), Ar6ma (s. aroma), Ar6und (pr. en, cerca), Ar6use (v. a. despertar), -ArrAnge (v. a. colocar), Arrangement (s. colocaci6n) Arrest (s. prisi6n), Arrival (s. arribo), Arrive (v. n. arribar), Art (s. arte), Artificial (a. artificial), As (c. como), Ascend (v. n. ascender), Ascertain (v. a. asegurar), Ash (s. ceniza), Ashamed (a. avergonzado), Ash6re (ad. entierra), Aside (ad. al lado, i parte), Ask (v. a. pedir, rogar), Asleep (a. dormido), Aspire (v. n. aspirar), Assail (v. a. asaltar, atacar), Assassin (s. asesino, matador), Assassinate (v. a. asesinar, matar), Assault (s. asalto), Assemble (v. a. congregar, convocar), Assent (s. asenso, aprobacion), Assert (v. a. sostener, mantener), Assertion (s. aserci6n), Assign (v. a. asignar), Assignee (s. sindico, apoderado), Assignment (s. asignaci6n, sesion), Assist (v. a. asistir, ayudar), Assistance (s. asistencia, socorro), Assistant (s. asistente, ayudante), Ass6ciate (v. a. asociar, acompafar), Assdrtment (s. surtido), Assume (v. a. arrogar, apropiar), Assirance (s. seguridad, certeza), Assure (v. a. asegurar, afirmar), Astonish (v. a. pasmar, sorprender), Astonishing (a. asombroso), mapagmat6lid, mataltal, maquiAyo 6 maquilitlican. pamipagmatulid. malangf. tAlacad. macamal a laji. lajing matas, mapia. {gamat) tacde. caual. banglu. malapit, macapadurut. guisingan. ibili. pigbilian. suculan. sadsad. isadsad. tuntunan. bague a e catutubu. anti. mftas, 6 muquiat. bitasan. abu. mipacarine. quing gabun. casiping, maca allua 6 macabucuid. mauad, maquisabi. matudtud. magnasa. sumping, tagalan. mecamate, talacapate. macamate, paten. sumpungan, salaque. pamitipun, aniaya. pangatas, pamayap. sapnuan, alalayan. tamac, tuntin. tuldui 6 alal. manibaila, panibalan. catulduan, catulitan. dungut, saup, aguiatan. pamandungut, aguiat. duirungut, sasaup. pamiabe, antabe. salatsalat. pasimbalangan, bandian. cabitasan. bitasan, patutuan. magngngas, biglan. macapagmulala.

Page  9 9 Ast6und (v. a. eonsternar, aterrar, pas- galimguim, tacut, galgal. mar), Astride (ad. a horcajadas), At (pr. a, en), Atr6city (s. atrocidad, enormidad), Attach (v. a. prender), Attack (v, a. atacar), Attain (v. a. ganar, conseguir), Attempt (v. a. tentar, probar), Attend (v. a. servir, asistir), Attendance (s. corte, tren), Attest (v. a. atestiguar), Attire (s. atavio, v. a. adornar), Attitude (s. actitud), Attract (v. a. atraer, persuadir), Attraction (s. atracci6n), Attractive (a. atractivo), Audacity (s. audacia), Addible (a. perceptible al oido), Addience (s. audiencia, auditorio), Aunt (s. tia), Authentic (a. autentico), Adthor (s. autor, escritor), Authorize (v. a. autorizar), Auth6rity (s. autoridad), Autumn (s. otofio), Auxiliary (a. auxiliar, asistente), Avenge (v. a. vengarse), Average (v. a. tomar un termino medio), Averse (a. contrario, repugnante), Avert (v. a. desviar, apartar), Av6id (v. a. evitar, escapar), Av6idable (a. evitable), Av6wal (s. declaraci6n), Await (v. a. aguardar, esperar), Awake (v. a. despertar, dejar dormir), Away (ad. ausente, fuera), Awe (s. miedo, temor reverencial), Awful (a. tremendo, funesto), Awhile (ad. un rato, algun tiempo), Adze (s. segur, hacha), Azdre (a. azulado), B Baby (s. nifio pequefio; nene infante), Bachelor (s. soltero), Back (s. dorso, reves de la mano), Backbdne (s. hueso dorsal, espinazo), macasalampac. quing, carin. e caugalian. dacpan, beuan, talanan. sumpungan. sambut, camit. tucsu, subuc. suyu, duingut, antabe. cayabe, casausig. sacsian. ula, panagaulan. anyu. y6yutuc aluic 6 abluc. cayuyutan. macayfyut. capangangasan. mararamdam. piraramdaman. dara. bague nanumang catutuan, milul6pa. migmunicala, manunulat. paupayan. maquiupaya, cayupayan. lacad ning panauin ibat qng 21 ning Sept. angang 21 ning Dic. casaup, sasaup. mamali, parusan. miguit 6 cumulang, balacan. casalang, pangasumamian. sapula, sangi, 6 linlin, idasidg. inlag, 6 paniti, tacas, tiplad. ainlagan, panginlagan. maustang, pasiuala. iling, ilat abatan. guisingan. tacas 6 alayu, lual. tacut, calang-alang, alangalang. catact't, tacut, lugma. saguli. palacho, palacul. asuil. anac, binguit, punguil. baintau. gilut, glilut palad. galudgfid.

Page  10 10 Bdckward (a. opuesto, tardo), macasalansang. sAlang, macIpad, paurung. Bacon (s. tocino), tabA. Bad (a. mal, malo, perverso), dauac, daual. Bag (s. saco, talega, bolsa), susut; suput. Bake (v. a. cocer en horno), lutu qng jurnu. Baker (s. hornero, panadero), gagauang tinape, lulitu qng jurnu; magtitinape. Balance (s. balanza, equilibrio), timbangan. Balk (s. contra tiempo), tagcu. Bale (s. bala), balas. Band (s. venda, faja, union), aptas, babAt. Bandit (s. bandido), mapanamsam, tulisan. Bang (s. pufiada. golpe), tumbuc, dugdug. BAnish (v. a. desterrar, echa fuera), pabal qng marayu; inugse lial. Banjo (s. banjo, guitarra de los negros), calatung ding baliga. Bank (s. orilla, mont6n de tierra), pampang, tumpuc gabi'n. BAnner (s. bandera), bandila. BAptise (r. a. bautizar), miniag 6 bifiagn. Btptism (s. bautismo), biniag. Bar (s. barra, tranca, obstaculo), aldba, baluat, salabat. Barb (s. barba), baba 6 g6mi. Barber (s. barbero), manurud, 6 mangupit. Bare (a. desnudo. descubierto), lubas, alang tacap. BArely (ad. apenas, pobremente), lalat 6 baguia. pacacaluld. Bark (s. corteza, ladra), balat d6tung, caung. Barn (s. granero, henil, pajar), bangain dicutan 6 cumpayan, simpanan. BArrel (s. barril, cafion de escopeta), barflis, cantin escopeta. Barren (a. esteril infructuoso), baug, e mamdnga. Base (s. fondo), laam. taruc. Baseless (a. sin fondo 6 base), alang taruc 6 mula. Baseness (s. bajeza, vileza, mezquineria), quebaban, camusmusan, caimutan. BAshful (a. vergonzoso, modesto, timido), mala marine, majimjim, tacutin. BAsin (s. jofaina, bacia), lumbu, panastan. Basket (s. sesta, canasta), salicap, canastru. Bastard (s. bastardo), anac sulip. Bat (s. garrote, murcielago), palupalu, paniqui 6 talibatab. Bath (s. bafio), pipandiluan. Bathe (v. a. bafar), mandilu. Battle (s. combate, batalla), pamipamac, pamipate. Bawl (v. gritar, vocear, ladrar), gulisac, mangulait. tibAul. Bay (s. puerto donde se abrigan las em- sadsaran saquen. barcaciones), Beach (s. costa, rivera, orilla), bebe, lele, pangpAng. Bear (v. a. llevar alguna cosa como carga), bitbit, pusan, Bear (s. oso), osu Beard (s. barba, arista de espiga), balbas, singut filay. Bearded (s barbado), balbasan. 6 magumi. Bearer (s. portador), magdala.

Page  11 Beast (s. bestia, hombre brutal), Beastly (a. bestial, brutal), Beat (v. a. golpear, batir, tocar), Beating (s. paliza, zurra), Beadtiful (a. hermoso, bello), Beadty (s. hermosura), Beadtify (v. a. hermosear, embellecer), Becduse (c. porque, a causa de), Bec6me (v. a. convenir, estar bien), Bed (s. cama, v. a. meter en la cama), Bed-chamber (s. dormitorio), Bedding (s. ropa de cama), Bed time (s. hora de irse a la cama). Bee (s. abeja), Bef6re (ad. prep. mas adelante, delante), Beg (v. a. mendigar, rogar, suponer), Beggar (s. mendigo, v. a. empobrecer), Begin (v. a. & n. comenzar, principiar), Beginner (s. principiante, novicio), Beginning (s. principio), Beg6ne! (int. fuera, apartate de ahi), Behave (v. comportarse), BehAviour (s. conducta, modo de portarse), Behind (pr. detras, ad. atrasadamente), Beh6ld (v. a. ver, contemplar), Belch (v. n. eructar, vomitar), Belief (s. fk, creencia, opini6n), Believe (v. a. creer, v. n. pensar), Bell (s. campana), Bellow (v. n. bramar, rugir), Belly (s. vientre, panza), Beldng (v. n. pertenecer, tocar a), Bel6ved (a. querido, amado), Bel6w (ad. & pr. debajo, abajo), Belt (s. cinturon, cinto), Bench (s. banco), Bend (v. a. encorvar, inclinar), Beneath (ad. & pr. debajo, abajo), Beneficial (a. beneficioso), Benefit (s. beneficio), Benevolence (s. benevolencia), Benevolent (a. benevolo), Bent (s. encorbadura), Bequeath (v. a. legar en testamento), Bequest (s. legado), Bereave (v. a. despojar, privar), Beside (pr. al lado de, ad. por otra parte), Best (a. mejor), Best6w (v. a. dar, conferir, otorgar), 11 animal, taung animal. cayanimalan. dugdug 6 pucpic, pilpil 6 s8bul. tagquil. paluca. malagu, masanting. lagu. santingan. uling. picam6tungan. dase, pagqueran, matudtud. pitutudtdran. imalan para pitudturan. oras ning pamunta qng catudturan. putiucan. muna, mumina. magpalimfis, salanta, mag amu-amu. taung magpalimuis, macalilu. pagmulan. manimula, bayfi-bayu. camumulan. lisia, dayu ca quean. miitus. pamiutus. gugulitan, mataull. pagmulalan. sumuca. capaniualan. paniualan, v. n. isipan. campana. biyuing. atian. mangaintinggu. calugdran. lalam. babat. bangcu. yugy'ng, iandig. macalalam, lalam. nanabang. capaintunan. mapangalang. galang. cabucutan. pabucud, pamana. pipamana. lubsan, yanat. casiping alluapa, qng dane diquil. ing mayap dili. ibie.

Page  12 12 Bet (s. apuesta), Betray (v. a. hacer traici6n), Betr6th (v. a. contraer esponsales), Betr6thal (s. esponsales), Better (a. ad. mejor; mas bien), Between (pr. entre; en medio de), Beware (v. n. guardarse), Bewilder (v. a. descaminar, v. n. extraviar), Bewitch (v. a. encantar, hechizar), Bey6nd (pr. mas alla, mas adelante), Bible (s. biblia, la sagrada escritura), Bid (v. a. convidar, mandar, ordenar), Big (a. grande), Bilious (a. bilioso), Bill (s. pico de ave), Billow (s. ola grande), Bin (s. cofre), Bind (v. a. atar), Bird (s. ave, pajaro), Birth (s. nacimiento, parto), Birth-day (s. cumpleanios), Birth-place (s. suelo nativo), Bit (s. pedacito), Bite (v. a. morder), Bitter (a. amargo, satirico), Black (a. negro), Blacken (v. a. tefiir de negro), Blackfriar (s. dominico), Blacksmith (s. herrero), BlAdder (s. vejiga), Blade (s. hoja), Blame (v. a. vituperar), Blameless (a. inocente, irreprensible), Blank (a. blanco), Blanket (s. cubierta de cama), Blaze (s. llama), Bleach (v. a. blanquear al sol), Bleed (v. n. sacar sangre, v. a. sangrar), Bless (v. bendecir, alabar), Blind (a. ciego), Blindfold (v. a. vendar los ojos), Blindness (s. ceguedad, alucinacion), Blink (v. a. guifar), Bliss (s. felicidad), Blissful (a. feliz en sumo grado), Blister (s. vejiga, ampolla), Bloat (v. a. hinchar), Block (s. zoquete, horma de sombrero), Bl6ckhead (s. bruto, necio), Blush (s. rubor, sonrojo), pustajan. magtacsfl. pamitangin miasaua. pamitipan 6 pamitangdng miasatsa. lacuas, mAyap. macapalibdtad. isalicut, ingatan. mabating, malili. macayama, culaman. nangaucarin, marayu pa. biblia, santong casulatan. utusan. maragul. dacal a uanang mapecat at mapait. tuctuic ning Ayuip maragul d alun. simpanan A bacal. talian. Ayup. pangabait. pistang pangabait. labuad a que baitan. capirisung malati. quetan. mapait. matuling. tulingan. paring dominico. pande. pantug. bulung. pamalcaran, pumalsala. inocente, alang casalanan. maputi. ulas. lbllab. putian qng aldo. parayan. bendicidn, purian. bulag. tacpain lang mata. pangabulag; malicmata. quindatan. canuanan, tula. ing tutung maligaya. pantuig, mamantdg. limbAg. ulmajan cupia, mapata. loco, mamulAng. dine.

Page  13 13 Boa (s. boa, serpiente), Boar (wild) (s. verraco, jabali), Blo6dshot (a. ensangrentado), Blood-sdcker (s. sanguihuela), Bloody (a. sangriento), Blood-vessel (s. vena, canal de la sangre), Bloom (v. flor, florecer), Bldssom (s. flor), Blot (v. a. manchar), Bldtting-pdper (s. papel de secar), Blouse (s. blusa), Blow (v. n. soplar), Blue (a. azul), Bluff (a. ruistico), Bluinder (s. desatino, error), Blunt (a. bronco), Blur (s. mancha), Board (s. tabla, mesa, tribunal, consejo), Boast (v. n. jactarse), B6astful (a. jactancioso), Boat (s. bote, barca), Body (s. cuerpo, individuo), Bog (s. pantano), Boil (v. n. hervir, bullir), Boisterous (a. borrascoso, tempestuoso), Bold (a. ardiente, valiente), Bolt (s. dardo, flecha), B6ndage (s. esclavitud, servidumbre), Bone (s. hueso), B6neless (a. sin huesos, desosado), B6nnet (s. gorra, bonete), B6ny (a. osudo), Book (s. libro), B6rder (s. orilla, borde), Bore (v. a. taladrar, barrenar), Born (a. nacido, destinado), B6rrow (v. a. tomar fiado, pedir prestado), B6som (s. seno, pecho), Bosom friend (s. amigo fntimo), Boss (s. clavo), Both (a. amhos, entrambos), Bdther (v. a. aturrullar, confundir), B6ttle (s. botella), B6ttom (s. fondo), Bough (s. brazo de arbol), Bdunce (v. n. arremeter, brincar), B6und (s. limite, salto), Boundary (s. lfmite, frontera), Bouquet (s. ramillete de flores), Bow (v. a. encorvar, doblar), camamalu. babing dicut. dayandayan. linta. dayandayanan maraya. uydt. mafampaga. sampaga. mansajan, dusingan. papil panlangi. blusa. tumidp. asul. puguit. cabalatungan. payus. mansa. tablA, dulang, piatulan, st mayabangan. capangayan, maydbang. banca. catAuan. abac. pabucalan. bagyfi. catapangnan. paslh. pangayalipan. buitul. alang butul. buniti, g6ra. mabitul. librd. lele, bebe, pangpang. busbiusdn. baft, tibu. mandam. canddngan, salu. caluguran matalic. pacu. miabe, fla. matilfjan, suatin. b6ti. lalam, sangctn. sangang, dlitung. lundag, bunuan. anginan, lucsu. pangalibudtan, dulun. pungil 6 sampaga. ibaluctfit, tuclip. Inguniinl I I

Page  14 14 Bow (s. arco, arco de violin), B6wels (s. intestinos), Bowl (s. taza), Box (s. caja, cajita), Boy (s. muchacho, niflo), B6yhood (s. muchachez), Bracelet (s. brazalete), Brag (s. jactancia), Braid (s. trenza, v. a. trenzas), Brain (s. cerebro, seso), Branch (s. ramo, rama), Brand (s. tiz6n, nota de infamia), Brave (a. bravo, valiente), Bravery (s. valor), Brawl (s. disputa); Bread (s. pan), Breadth (s. anchura), Break (v. a. romper, vencer), Breakfast (s. almuerzo), Breast (s. pecho, seno), Brdastwork (s. parapeto), Breath (s. aliento, respiraci6n), Breathe (v. a. respirar, exhalar), Breathing (s. respiraci6n), Breeches (s. calzones), Breed (s. casta, raza), Breeze (s. brisa), Bribe (s. cohecho, soborno), Brick (s. ladrillo), Bridal (a. nupcial), Bride (s. novia), Bridegroom (s. novio), Bridge (s. puente, caballete de la nariz), Bridle (s. brida, freno), Brief (a. breve, conciso), Bright (a. claro, luciente), Brightness (s. esplendor, brillantez), Brilliant (a. brillante), Brim (s. borde, extremo), Brine (s. salmuera), Bring (v. a. llevar, traer), Brink (s. orilla, margen), Brisk (a. vivo, alegre), Bristle (a. 'cerda, seta), Brittle (a. quebradizo), Broad (a. ancho), Br6ken (pp. roto, interrumpido), Brood (v. n. empollar), Brook (s. arroyo), arcu, pana, arcu na ning violin. bituca. suli6, 6 mangctip. cajun. anac a lalaqui. cayanacan. pulseras. mangaya, cajambugaln. icat, v. a. icatan. buntdc, fitac. sanga. dupung, tanda ning deuacan 6 casiualan. matapang. catapangnan. pamitua. tinape. lapad. siran, lumupig. almusal. salu, sepupunan. pagsalicutan. pangisnaua. mangisnaua. capangisnauan. sal61. laji. amianm. sujul. larifi. panaacasal. paglolon. capalsintain. tete; tete ning arung. balinganga. malagua, macuiyad. masala, quiquilap. camasalan, casalan. quiquilap, quislap. liguiran. quesiap, patis. magdala. l6le, pangpang. mabie, rmasaya. tuchang. magapuc. malapad. sira, mesira. manisi. paligui.

Page  15 15 Broom (s. escoba de hiniesta), Br6ther (s. hermano), Brdtherhood (s. hermandad), Br6ther-in-law (s. cufnado), Brdtherly (ad. fraternal), Brow (s. ceja; frente), Brown (a. moreno), Bruise (v. a. magullar, machacar), Brush (s. escobilla), Brtital (a. brutal), Brutality (s. brutalidad), Brute (s. bruto), Bibble (s. burbuja, bagatela), Buck (s. gamo), Bdcket (s. cubo, pozal), Bdckle (s. hebilla), Bud (s. pimpollo, bot6n), Bdffalo (s. buifalo), Bug (s. chinche), Build (v. a. edificar, construir), Building (s. fabrica, edificio), Bulk (s. masa, volumen), Bflky (a. macizo, grueso), Bull (s. toro), Ballet (s. bala), Bump (s. hinchaz6n, giba), Bunch (s. tumor), Bdndle (s. atado), Bdngle (v. a. chapucear, chafallar), Bdrden (s. carga), Bdrglar (s. salteador), Bdrial (s. enterramiento), Burn (v. a. quemar), Bdrnish (v. a. brufnir), Buirrow (s. conejera), Burst (v. n. reventar), Bury (v. a. enterrar), Bdrying-ground (s. cementerio), Bush (s. arbusto), Bdshy (a. espeso, lleno de arbustos), Bdsiness (s. empleo, ocupaci6n), Bdsy (a. ocupado), But (c. excepto, menos, pero), Bdtcher (s. carnicero), Bdtter (s. manteca), Buitton (s. bot6n, capullo), Bfttonhole (s. ojal), Buy (v. a. comprar), Buzz (s. susurro soplo), palls. capatad a lalaqui. pamicacapatad. bay6. qng Faquicapatad. quile, canuan. comangul. dunutan. malating escoba, pacaacas 6 palis, malati. queni malan. quenimalan. animal. bula, latilati. gamo. timba. hebilla. supling 6 sulul, bucu. damulag. suldft. mitalacad. pigagauan. degulan. batibut, capal, mapitpit. vacang lalaqui. bala. calbag, bucul. tigsa. babatpugung. samiut-sAmut amis-amas. dala. manamsam. pamicutcut. duldc, silab. buli. lulanan. uasag. atdfs. icutcut. cutcutan. ditung e6 daragfl. caqueuarian. cariquilan tungcil, capangabalan. maqui tungcul, mayabala. suibli, bucid, dApot. gagid. tabA. butuinis, bucu. busbus, busbfis-butunis. sali. bulung buling, tiAp, bibidng

Page  16 16 C Cdbin (s. cabafna camara) Cabinet (s. gabinete), Cage (s. jaula, prisi6n), Cake (s. bollo 6 tortita), Calamity (s. calamidad), Calculate (v. a. calcular), Calculations (s. calculacion), CAlendar (s. calendario), Calf (s. ternero), Call (v. a. llamar, nombrar), Callous (a. calloso, endurecido), Calm (s. calma), Camera (s. aparato para fotografiar), Can (v. n. ir. poder), Canal (s. estanque, canal), Cancer (s. cancer), Candid (a. candido, sencillo), Candidate (s. candidato), Candle (s. candela), Candlestick (s. candelero), Candor (s. candor, sin caridad), Cane (s. calna, bast6n), Can6e (s. canoa), Canon (s. caoi6n), Cap (s. gorra), Capable (a. capaz), Capital (a. capital), Captivate (v. a. cautivar), Captive (s. cautivo, esclavo) Captivity (s. cautividad), Cdptor (s. apresador), Car (s. carreta), Carcass (s. carcasa, cadaver de un animal) Card (s. naipe, carta), Care (s. cuidado), Career (s. carrera, curso), Careful (a. cuidadoso, ansioso), Careless (a. descuidado), Caress (s. caricia), Cargo (s. cargamento), Carpenter (s. carpintero), Carriage (s. porte, coche), Carrier (s. portador, carretero), Carry (v. a. llevar, conducir), Cart (s. carro, carreta), Carve (v. a. cincelar, trinchar), Case (s. estado, situaci6n), clibu, silid. siduan, silid. culungan, suculan. bil'gbflug, tinape 6 biscocho. saquft, tagcfi. balacan. cabalacan. calendario. vacang malati. maus, culait. lipacan, masias. catajimican. casangcapang qng pa ngauang la-ng rauan. upava, acayan. sucat. laug, hlirang, tangqui, paligui. saquit a cancer, bayang cancer. luse. macabucut qng catungculan. candila. taracan candila. luse, calusayan. cuayan, ticud. banca. cafi6n. buniti. agufu, dapat, tanac, tapat. pujunan 6 buntuc. dacpan, alipnan. bijag, alipan. cabijagan. mandaracap. gar6ta. balancas, banqu6 animal. ipis, baraja. bajila, caingatan. pulayi. maingat, mapagnasa. alang caingatan. lambis. dala. aluagui. talacad, garosa. ing magdala, ing magarata. magdala, atad. gar6ta. tatac, tuisuc, duquitan. asqu,. cabilian.

Page  17 17 Cash (s. dinero), Casket (s. cajitas para joyas), Castration (s. capadura), Cat (s. gato), Catarrh (s. catarro), Catch (v. a. coger, agarrar), Cattle (s. ganado), Cause (s. causa, razon), CAution (s. prudencia), Cautious (a. prudente), Cavalier (s. caballero), Cave (s. cueva, bodega), Cease (v. a. parar, suspender), Ceaseless (a. incesante), Ceiling (s. techo 6 cielo), Celebrate (v. a. celebrar), Celebration (s. celebracion), Cell (s. celdilla), Cemetery (s. cementerio), Censure (s. censura), Census (s. censo), Cent (s. centavo), Center (s. centro), Central (a. central), Century (s centuria), Cerem6nial (s. ceremonial), Ceremony (s. ceremonia), Certain (a. cierto, evidente), Certainty (s. certeza), Chain (s. cadena), Chair (s. silla), Chalk (s. greda), Challenge (s. desaffo), Chance (s. ventura), Change (v. a. cambiar), Changeable (a. variable), Changeless (a. constante), Channel (s. canal), Character (s. caracter, sefial), Charge (v. a. encargar), Charity (s. caridad), Charm (s. encanto), Chase (v. cazar, perseguir), Chaste (a. casto, puro), Chastity (s. castidad, pureza), Chat (v. n. charlar), ChAtter (v. n. cotorrear), Cheap (s. barato), Cheat (s. enganar), Cheek (s. carrillo), 2-35894 cualta. lulanan iys 6 guintu. mangapun. puisa. sipun. dacpan, sacmalan. catipunan animal. pignmuln. sangcn., catuliran. cajimjinan, caisipan. maisip. maguinu, mapia. luquib, lulunan, lalam bal6. tucnang, antala. alang tucnang. b6beda 6 sauali. pagmasusian. casusian. silid. cutcutan. pintasAn. bilangan la rin-tau. cadinalan. calibudtan. macalibutad. dinalan a banua ing dapat dapat qng pamagmasusi. ing pamagmasusi. cierto, mausta, bitasa. caustan, cabitasan. tanicala. luclucan, tabur6te. ing atfsa. amun. calma. libe' alisalis. ]aganas 6 san6. ldrang. panugali. tanda. manabilin. lugid. panaulli. mangasu, tagAl. malfnis, uagas. calinfsan, cauagAsan. sumabi, sasabi. mas6bian, magdirila. mura. piraya. pisngf.

Page  18 18 Cheer (s. banquete), Cheerful (a. alegre, vivo) Cheerfulness (s. alegria, buen humor), Cheese (s. queso), Cherish (v. a. mantener), Chest (s. pecho), Chew (v. a. mascar masticar), Chicken (s. polluelo), Chief (a. principal, capital), Child (s. infante, hijo, hija), Childhood (s. infancia), Childish (a. frivolo), Childless (a sin hijos), Childlike (a. pueril), Children (s. pl. ninos), Chill (a. frio). Chilliness (s. calofrio), Chilly (a. friolero), Chin (s. barba), Chip (v. a. desmenuzar), Chirp (v. n. chirriar), Chisel (s. escoplo, cincel), Chivalrous (a. caballerezco), Ch6colate (s. chocolate), Choice (s. elecci6n), Choir (s. coro), Choke (v. a. sufocar), Chdlera (s. c6lera), Choose (v. a. escoger, elegir). Chop (v. a tajar, cortar, picar), Christ (s. Jesucristo), Christen (v. a. cristianar), Christening (s. bautismo), Christian (s. cristiano), Christianity (s. cristianismo), Christmas (s. natividad), Chdckle (v. a. cloquear), Chum (s. compafiero), Church (s. iglesia), Chirchyard (s. cementerio), Churn (s. mantequera), Cigar (s. cigarro), Cigarette (s. cigarrito), Circle (s. circulo), Circuit (s. circuito), Circular (a. circular), Circulate (v. n. circular), Circumcise (s. circuncidar), Circumvent (s. circunvenir), Citizen (s. ciudadano), abala, ampang. masaya, matila. saya; tila. quesu. alalayan. salu. manlanguit, langilt. sisi, tandang. mula, ibaat, pun pujfinlin. anac. cayanacan. dit a ulaga, 6 salauayan. alang anac. dapat antc. ding anac. marimla. galungging. dimlagin. bab&. panlatian, dunitan. salicsit gaga. lucub, panatac, pat. macamal. siculati. pamanAlal. c6ru. patdan, puputan abbua, casbi, latang. mamili, tuldu. mangilf, cum6tud, tadtad. Jesucristo. binniyagan. binyag. biniagan. cabiniagan. pascung panga bait. paquipagsalitan. cayabe 6 casilid pisamban. cutcutan. paltaban 6 Iflan an taba. tabacu. sigarrili6. mabilug. macapabilug 6 macapadurut. macud 6 madurut. patulugan. tulian. patulugan' taung manucnangan qng balen.

Page  19 19 City (s. ciudad), Civil (a. civil, cortes), Civilization (s. civilizacion), Clad (a. vestido. cubierto), Claim (v. a. pedir en juicio), Claimant (s. reclamante), Clamber (v. n. gatear), Clamorous (a. clamoroso), Clang (s. rechino), Clan (s. familia), Clap (v. a. batir), Clarify (v. a. clarificar), Clash (v. n. rechinar), Clasp (s. broche), Class (s. clase, orden), Classify (v. a. clasificar), Clatter (v. resonar, hacer ruido). Clause (s. clausula), Claw (s. garra, garfa), Clay (s. arcilla), Clean (a. limpio), Cldanliness (s. limpieza), Cleanse (v. a. limpiar), Clear (a. claro), Cleave (v. a. & n. hender), Clergyman (s. eclesiastico), Clerk (s. dependiente). Clever (a. diestro), Cliff (s. pefasco, roca), Climate (s. clima), Climb (v. a. escalar), Clinch (v. a. empufiar), Cling (v. n. colgar), Clink (v. a. resonar), Clip (v. a. cortar), Cloak (s. capa), Clock (s. reloj), Clod (s. terr6n), Close (v. a. cerrar 6 concluir), Cl6set (s. retrete, gabinete), Clot (s. grumo, zoquete), Cloth (s. pafio, mantel), Clothe (v. a. vestir, cubrir), Clothes (s. pl. vestidura), Cilthing (s. vestidos); Cloud (s. nube), Cloddy (a. nublado), Club (s. clava), Clump (s. trozo sin forma), cabalenan. magalang. ing cabiasnan 6 pamaqui-agpang maca imlan, macatacap. pa atul. daralung. gapang, mag pusa-puisa. mayacclis. langitngit. catubale. sabul, pulptic. linauan. langitngit. corch6te. pinduan, tinduc. pamitinduc-tindue cariag bague a milupalupa. pacatnian, gauang inge. pinduan. sacmal buangin 6 pila. malinis. calinisan. linisan. masala, malinis. bangalan. ingguil qng pisamban tala silat. uanan sane. cabatuan. singo ning balang lugal. manic, muquiat. talanan, sacmalan. sabit, bitin. pacatnian. cuturan. tibalbal, balabal. rel6s a maragul. bual, gabun. tuclip, arian. cumun. silid. capirasung malati. talicbung, bayucbuic. igani, tacpan. ding gani ding gani. biga. 1uiam. palupalu, tr6sung e melabra; dutung a e baluc. I`

Page  20 20 Climsy (a. tosco, pesado), Cldster (s. racimo), Clutch (s. garra, presa), Coach (s. coche, carrozo). C6achman (s. cochero), Codgulate (v. a coagular), Coal (s. carb6n de piedra), Coast (s. costa), Coat (s. casaca, frac), Coax (v. a lisonjear), Cock (s. gallo), C6ckfighting (s. rifia de gallos), C6ffin (s. feretro, ataud), Cog (s. diente de rueda), C6gitate (v. n. pensar, meditar), Cohabit (v. n. cohabitar), Cohere (v. n. unirse), Coil (v. a. doblar en redondo), Coin (s. rinc6n, moneda), Coincide (v. n. coincidir, concurrir) Coincident (a. coincidente), Cold (a. frio), C6lic (s. c6lico), Collapse (v. n. descaerse, unirse), C6llar (s. collar), Collect (v. a. recoger), C6llege (s. colegio), Collision (s. colisi6n), Colt (s. potro). C6mbat (s. combate) Comb (s. peine), Combine (v. n. combinar), Come (v. n. venir), C6mfort (s. confortaci6n, ayuda), C6mic (a. c6mico), Command (v. n. ordenar), Commemorate (v. a. conmemorar), Commence (v. a. & n. comenzar), Commend (v. a. encomendar), C6mment (s. comento), Commerce (s. comercio), Commission (s. comisi6n), Commit (v. a. cometer), Comm6dity (s. ventaja), C6mmon (a. comuin), Comm6tion (s. tumulto), Commdnicate (v. a. comunicar), Communication (s. comunicaci6n), Compact (a. compacto. solido), bastus, magaspang, buraldAl. cumpul, buli. sacma!, dacap, sucul. carromata. mangut ch6ro. parayuput. uling batu. manlele, mamebe. casaca, frac. patundiin, pasunud. mandc. sabung. cabaung. tela ipan. mucul, misip. pamicuanan catauan, pamipangatauan. pacat, daft. ticlupan mabilug. suluc, cualta. tgun, tabnu. mitabnu. dimla. c6licu. pamitipun. bascal. tipun. pipagaralan. pamiabnu. bulugan. bagbag, lamas. sucle. mibague. datang. pacasican. cumidianti. mutus. alala. pagmulan. panabilin. casalesayan. calacal. mipaupayan. dapat. iguft, lalu. piabayan. sagoso. balu. capabaluan. malimit, masi.s.

Page  21 21 Companion (s. compafiero), C6mpany (s. compafila), Comparative (a. comparativo), Compare (v. n. comparar), Comparison (s. comparaci6n), Compel (v. a. compeler), Compete (v. n. competir), C6mpetent (a. competente, bastante), Competition (s. competici6n), Competitor (s. competidor), Complain (v. n. quejarse, lamentarse), Complaint (s. queja, lamento), Complete (a. completo), Complex (a. complexo), Complicate (v. a. complicar); Compliment (s. cumplimiento), Comply (v. n. cumplir), Comp6se (v. a. componer) Composition (s. composici6n, compuesto), Comp6sure (s. serenidad, calma), Comp6und (v. a. componer, combinar), Comprehend (v. a. comprender. contener), Compress (v. a. comprimir, estrechar), Comprise (v. a. comprender), C6mpromise (s. compromiso), Compilsion (s. compulsion), Compilsory (a. compulsivo), Compdte (v. a. computar), C6mrade (s. camarada), Conceal (v. a. ocultar); Concede (v. a. conceder), Conceit (s. concepci6n), Conceited (a. afectado, vano), Conceive (v. a. concebir), C6ncentrate (v. a. concentrar), Concern (v. a. concernir), Concerning (pr. tocante a), C6ncert (s. concierto), Conciliate (v. a. conciliar), Concise (a. conciso), Conclide (v. a. concluir), Conclision (s. conclusi6n), C6ncord (s. concordia), Concur (v. n. concurrir), Condemn (v. a. condenar), Condense (v. a. condensar), Condescend (v. n. condescender), -Condition (s. situaci6n), Conditional (a. condicional), Conddce (v. a. conducir), abe. cuyug. pami-uangis. uangis. cauangis. suyi. pilit. mipagpalalu. tapat, tampa. miayo 6 mipagpalilu. maquiayo 6 maquilulu. dalung, salbat. dalung, daing, aclis. ganap. cumbo. aua, dame. catuparan. tupad. larin. calarinan. maratun, man6ne. larin, pamibague 6 pamisraut. ustan, talusan. paslan, ascupan yabe, yagum. caligaligan. capilitan, casuiyan. mapilit. balac. cacuyug. salicut. tulut. caglf 6 batas. manamdaman aulingid. mitipun. mangaintdlid. inguil quing. picayarian, pitanguAn. milarin pilubluban. malaman. arian. cayarian. pamicasundu. cdyo, tipun, tumAgun. parusan. parayuput. musig bili. pasubali. atad.

Page  22 22 C6nduct (s. conducta), Conddctor (s. conductor, gufa), Confederate (v. n. confederarse), Confer (v. n. conferenciar), Confess (v. a. confesar), Confide (v. a. confiarse); C6nfidence (s. confianza, seguridad), C6nfident (a. cierto, seguro, confiado), Confine (s. confin. limite), Confirm (v. a. confirmar, ratificar), Conflagration (s. incendio general), C6nflict (s. conflicto), Conf6und (v. a. turbar, confundir), C6nfront (v. a. confrontar, comparar), Confuse (v. a. confundir, desordenar), Confdsion (s. confusi6n, perturbaci6n), Congestion (s. congesti6n), Congritulate (v a. congratular, felicitar), C6ngregate (v. a. congregar, reunir), Congregation (s. congregaci6n, reuni6n). C6ngress (s. congreso, conferencia), Conjecture (s. conjetura), Connect (v. a. combinar), Connection (s. conexion), Connive (v. n. disimular), C6nquer (v. a. conquistar), C6nqueror (s. vencedor, conquistador), Cdnquest (s. conquista), C6nscience (s. conciencia, escrupulo), Conscientious (a. concienzudo), C6nsecrate (v. a. consagrar dedicar), Consent (s. consentimiento), C6nsequence (s. consecuencia), C6nsequent (a. consecutivo, concluyente), Conservative (a. conservativo), Consider (v. a considerar. examinar), Considerable (a. considerable, importante), Consideration (s. consideraci6n), Consign (v. a consignar), Consist (v. n. consistir), Cons6le (v. a. consolar), Cons6lidate (v. a. consolidar), Consolidation (s. consolidaci6n), Conspicuous (a. conspicuo), Conspiracy (s. conspiraci6n), Conspire (v. n. conspirar), C6nstant (a. constante), Constituent (s. constitutivo), panugali. tuturu, tataid. sanguni, tipan, mitipan. misabisabi. pasiag, pasiu!la magtiuala. catiualan, catiuasayan. caustan, catiuasayan, tiuala angganan, dulun. patutuan. silab a laganas. caguluan 6 linglangan. guluan, balig6n. iuangis, ilupa 6 isiiguid. balfgon, gutgutan. cabalig6n, caguluan. biglang saquft a manibatan qng milalung panuquiat ng daya. pat6la, panuan. tipun. catip6nan. catipunan. balac. yabe, yagum daitdait, dugtung-dugtung. ilijim. manabluc. mapaniambut. abluc. isip 6 ucul. maisip 6 maucul. daun, ain. capaintulutan. querasnan, queulian. catuqui, cauacasan. manatili. ganacan, sulitan, talingting. mayalaga capigaganacan. tuldu. mula. patula. pasias. casiasan. sugui, lauit, macamal. sapacat, samaya. sapacat, samaya. laganas, datila. ing bague a maguing sangcap na ning nanuman.

Page  23 23 C6nstitute (v. n. constituir), Constitdtion (s. constituci6n), Constraint (s. constrefimiento), Constrdct (v. a. construir, edificar), ConstrAe (v. a. interpretar), Consdlt (v. a. consultar), Consdme (v. a. consumir), Consdmption (s. consunci6n), C6ntact (s. contacto), Contain (v. a. contener), Contemplate (v. a. contemplar), Contemplation (s. contemplaci6n), Contempt (s. desfrecio, desden), Contend (v. n. contender), Content (a. contento, satisfecho), Contention (s. contencion), Contentment (s. contentamiento), C6ntest (v. a. contestar, disputar), Continual (a. continuo). Continuation (s. continuacion), Continue (v. a. continuar), Contract (v. a. encoger, contraer), Contradict (v. a. contradecir), Contrary (a. contrario, opuesto), C6ntrast (s. contraste, oposici6n), Contribute (v. a. contribuir), Contrive (v. a. inventar), C6ntroversy (s. controversia), Convene (v. a. convocar), Convenience (s. conveniencia), Convenient (a. conveniente), C6nvent (s. convento), Convention (s. convencion), Convdrge (v. n. convergir); Conversition (s. conversaci6n), Converse (v. conversar). Convert (v. a. convertir), Convey (v. a. transportar), Convict (v. a.'probar un delito), Convince (v. a. convencer), Cook (s. cocinero, cocinera), Cool (a. fresco, indiferente), Co-6perate (v. n. cooperar), Copartner (s. companero), C6pious (a. copioso, abundante), C6pper (s. cobre), C6py (s. copia), Cord (s. cuerda). C6rdial (a. cordial, de coraz6n), panga paliari ning nanuman.bague. ing tuntunan 6 cautusan qng m6tung a nacion. pamagbalicungcung. gauan. talacad. micabalduigan. cutang. guisan. caguisanan. sagquil, tuca. lulan 6 cauat. malasmas. camalasmasan. pintas, pula. pamisuguid. matula, absi. pamibangg6. capitutulan. maquibat, mablas. san6, dane. cataid, carugtung. sundu. cuyaran, igutan. salabat, sanggalang. macasalangsang. pamisaiangsang. mambag. micudta, gaua, lalang. attua, ascal. agcat, yaya. nabang. caministilan. cumb6ntu. pisan-m6tung pamitipun. sabi. misabi. halic, alis. lipat. parusan. ablucan. ing manlutu. dimla. cagum, 6 casaup. abe, cuyug. dacal. tangsu. licas. lubid. matatac 6 dalise, lugdd.

Page  24 24 Core (s. interior), Cork (s. alcornoque, corcho), Corn (s. grano, callo), C6rner (s. angulo, rincon), Corpse (s. cadaver), C6rpulent (a. corpulento), Correct (v. a. corregir), Corresp6nd (v. n. corresponder), Corresp6ndence (s. correspondencia), Corresp6ndent (s. correspondiente), Corr6borate (v. a. corroborar), Corrdpt (v. a. corromper), Cost (s. coste, precio), C6stume (s. traje), C6ttage (s. cabafia, casucha). C6tton (s. algod6n), Couch (v. n. echarse), Cough (s. tos) C6unsel (s. consejo), Count (v. a. contar, numerar), C6untenance (s. rostro, aspecto), Counter (s. contador). CodnterAct (v. a. contrariar), Codnterfeit (v. a. contra hacer), Codntermfnd (v. a. contramandar), Counterplot (s. contratreta), Codntless (a. innumerable), Codntry (s. pais). Couple (s. par), Codrage (s. coraje, valor), CourAgeous (a. corajudo), Course (s. curso, carrera, camino), Court (s. corte). Coirteous (a. cort6s), Courtesy (s. cortesia), Court-house (s. foro, tribunal), C6urtly (a. cortesano, elegante), C6urtship (s. cortejo. galanterfa) C6urtyard (s. patio), Codsin (s. primo), Cove (s. ensenada), C6venant (s. contrato), C6ver (s. cubierta), C6vering (s. ropa, vestido), C6vet (v. a. codiciar), Cow (s. vaca), C6ward (a. cobarde), Crab (s. cangrejo), qng lub. balat ddtung, talaran. buttil lipaic. suluc. bangquo 6 bangeala. dabal. atuain, ardlan. iuaran. ngatbanan. cangatbt 6 capaquibat. macangatba, 6 macariquil. pamipatutu. pamiamuyut qng e maiyap a cayasilan. alagai. imalan. cubu, calucub. bul!ac. ugse, balucs6, lucsd. cucu. aral. milang. lupa, asqu6. tala bilang. anggaJang; sanggalang. maquiapus. alilaning minunang utus. dapait ai maca salangsang qng payuyut. alang bilang. tfbuan. milulupa 6 mipaparis. tapang. matapang. lacad, pulay, dalan. juzgado 6 tribunal. magalang. galang. tribunal. magalang, maticdi. ing pamanupad caring tuntuna, ing urbanidad. patiu. pisan. salisalingcung carinan qng danuman a nung nula magsautung ding saquen. tangui, tipan. dalungdung. imalan. saquiman. vaca. duag, bayuguin, tacdt. 6ma.

Page  25 25 Crabbed (a. aspero, aqstero), Crack (s. crujido), Cradle (s. cuna), Craft (s. arte, artificio), Craftsman (a. artifice, artesano), Crafty (a. astuto, artificioso), Crag (s. despefadero), Cram (v. a. embutir), Cramp (s. calambre), Crash (v. n. estallar), Crater (s. crater), Cravat (s. corbata), Crave (v. a. rogar), Craven (s. gallo vencido, cobarde), Craving (a. insaciable), Crawl (v. n. arrastrar), Crazy (a. loco), Creak (v n. crujir), Cream (s. crema, nata), Crease (s. pliegue), Create (v. a. crear, causar), Creation (s. creaci6n), Credtor (s. criador), Creature (s. criatura), Cred6ntials (s. pl. cartas credenciales), Credible (a. creible), Credit (s. credito), Creditor (s. acreedor), Creed (s. credo), Creek (s. arroyo), Creep (v. n. arrastrar), Crescent (a. creciente), Crest (s. cresta), Crevice (s. raja), Crib (s. pesebre), Crime (s. crimen, culpa), Criminal (a; criminal), Crimson (a. & s. carmesf), Cripple (s. & a. estropeado), Crisis (s. crisis), Crisp (a. crespo), Critic(al) (a. & s. critico, critica), Criticise (v. a. criticar, censurar), Croak (v. n. graznar), Crook (s. gancho), Cro6ked (a. torcido, corvo), Crop (s. buche de ave, cosecha), Cross (s. cruz, carga), Crouch (v. n. agacharse), Crow (s. cuervo) masalat, maliap. lagapac, lagutuc, langitngit. tibuan, 6 duyan. arte. mangagaud. mapamayuyut qng sabi 6 dapat. gasgas, landas. sacsac. pulicat. atdas, alsic, bagsac. ing lugal a piatdasan ning volcan. curbata. daing, dalung talunan, mataloti. alang cabsian. guyud, taguinis. mamulang. biting. malutu ning ebun, nata ning gatas. pamituclip, tuclip. lalang, mula. pamaglalang. miglalang. lilangan. sulat, credencial 6 patut6. sucat paniualan. puri, damla. pepautahg. casalpantaylnan, capaniuatln. sapa. guyud, taguinis. daragul. palung. tipac. lalabangan. liuas, sAla. paliuas, siual. carmesi, malutung malutu. sira, lasac. ligAlig, sumbAt. culut. mapamintas. pintas, atuan. gacgAc, gaga. sacbit. palipit, baluctdt. bucsi, pupiil. cruz, dala, pasAn. ducu, suclib. auac.

Page  26 26 Crowd (s, tropel), Crown (s. corona), Crucify (v. a. crucificar), Crude (a. crudo, indigesto), Crdel (a. cruel), Crumb (s. miga), Crdmble (v. a. desmigajar), Crush (v. a. apretar), Crust (s. costra), Crutch (s. muleta), Cry (v. a. & n. gritar), Cue (s. cola), Cuff (s. pufiada), Cull (v. a. escoger, elegir), Culminate (v. n. culminar), Culprit (s. reo, acusado), Cdltivate (v. n. cultivar, mejorar), Cumbersome (a. engorroso, pesado), Cunning (a. experto), Cup (s. copa, taza), Cdpboard (s. armario), Cupola (a. cupula), Cur (s. perro de mala ralea), Curable (a. curable), Curb (s. barbada), Cdrdle (v. a. cuajar), Cure (s. cura, remedio), Curi6sity (s. curiosidad), Curious (a. curioso), Curl (s. rizo de pelo), Cdrrency (s. circulaci6n), Current (a. corriente), Curse (v. a. maldecir), Curtail (v. a. cortar), Curtain (s. cortina, telon), Curve (v. a. encorvar), Cdshion (s. cojin, almohada), Custom (s. costumbre, uso), Cdstomary (a. usual, acostumbrado), Cdstomer (s. comprador), Cut (v. a. cortar, separar), Cdtter (s. cortador), Cutting (s. cortadura), Cy'nic(al) (s. & a. cinico), D Dabble (v. a. rociar), DAgger (s. pufal), Daily (a. diario), malda. puting. ipacu. sagufua, magadtu. mabagsic, masangil. mugmug. mumuan. talican, ascupan. balat. supang. culisac, cullo. iqui 6 pamacat. damplit, dacluit. mamili, tuldu. taluctuic. ing micasala. tayipan. macapangabayat. ma-sibucan. copa, taza. simpanan. taluctic. asung mabangis. mauulu. barbara, talibaba. pangarayuput. ulu. usisa. mausisa. culut-buac. lacad 6 tulug. agus. manageas. c6tud. tabing. cucung. ulunan 6 cogin. ugali, gagamitan. cagamitan, acaugalian, 6 acalum6n. maniali. cuturan, cauanian. tala cutud. picutuiran. ing e marine qng queang mar6c a gagauan. misic 6 tugtug. punial, sundang. aldo-ald6 6 balang ald6.

Page  27 27 Dainty (a. delicado, elegante), Dairy (s. lecheria, queseria), Dam (s. madre en los animales), Damage (s. dafio, detrimento), Damn (v. a. condenar), Damp (a. huimedo), Dance (s. danza, baile), Danger (s. peligro), Dangerous (a. peligroso), Dangle (v. n. temblar, fluctuar), Dare (v. n. osar, atreverse), Daring (s. osadia), Dark (a. oscuro, opaco), Darling (s. predilecto, favorito), Darn (v. a. zurcir), Dash (v. a. arrojar), Date (s. fecha), DAughter (s. hija), Daunt (v a. intimidar, espantar), Dawn (s. alba, albor), Day (s. dia, luz), Daylight (s. luz de dia), Daytime (s. tiempo del dia), Dazzle (v. a. deslumbrar), Dead (&. muerto, flojo), Deadly (a. mortal, terrible), Deaf (a. sordo), Deal (s. parte), Dealer (s. mercader), Dealing (s. conducta, negocio), Dear (a. predilecto, amado), Death (s. muerte), Debar (v. a. excluir), Debase (v. a. humillar), Debate (s. debate), Debauch (s. vida disoluta), Debt (s. deuda), Deciy (v. n. decaer), Decease (s. muerte), Deceit (s. enganfo, fraude), Decdive (v. a. engafiar), Decent (a. decente), Decdption (s. decepci6n), Decide (v. a. & n. decidir), Decision (s. decisi6n), Decisive (a. decisivo), Deck (s. bordo), Declamation (s. declamaci6n), Declaration (s. declaraci6n), Declare (v. a. declarar), masungguft 6 maselan, maticas. tindajan gatas, pibibilian quesu. indung animal. sira. parusan. mamasa-masa. terac, indac. panganib. macapanganib 6 macatibi. galgal. capangangas. capangangasan. madalumdAm. pacamalan. sulci. ugse, buluisuc. bilang (ning bilan). anac A babiy. patacutan, pasdanan. munag. ald6, sala. sala ning ald6. horas ning ald6. ipadalumdum. mete, maina. mAcamate, macatAcut. maclac. tutuc, tungull, daque. magtindang imalan. paungali, capanintunan. pacamalan. camatAyan. icauani. pacumbaba. pamisfiguid. bie panganib. utang. mugnas. camatayan. mepirait. mamirait. macamal. pirait. bitasan. caburiAn. laus. bitasa. ing lub ning saquen. magsuflit. casalesayan. salese. i I I I I j i j i i

Page  28 28 Decline (v. a. declinar), Decomp6se (v. a. descomponer), Decorate (v. a. decorar), Decrease (v. a. disninuir), Decree (s. decreto), Dedicate (v. a. dedicar), Deed (s. acci6n, hecho), Deep (a. profundo, sagaz), Deer (s. ciervo, venado), Defeat (s. derrota), Defect (s. defecto, falta), Defence (s. defensa, protecci6n), Defend (v. a. defender), Defiant (a. desafiado), Deficient (a. deficiente), Defile (v. a. manchar, ensuciar), Definition (s. definici6n), Def6rm (v. a. deformar, desfigurar), Defrdud (v. a. defraudar),.Defy' (v. a. desafiar), Degenerate (v. n. degenerar), DegradAtion (s. degradaci6n), Degrade (v. a. degradar), Deity (s. deidad), Delay (v. a. diferir, retardar), Deliberate (v. a. deliberar), Delicate (a. delicado), Delicious (a. delicioso), Delight (s. delicia, placer), Deliver (v. a. dar, rendir), Delude (v. a. engafiar), Deluge (s. inundaci6n), Demand (s. demanda), Dem6lish (v. a. demoler), Demonstrate (v. a. demostrar), Dem6ralize (v. a. desmoralizar), Demdre (a. reservado), Den (s. caverna), Denial (s. denegaci6n), Den6te (v. a. denotar), Den6unce (v. a. denunciar), Dense (a. denso), Dentist (s. dentista), Deny' (v. n. negar), Depart (v. n. partir[se]), Departure (s. partida), Depend (v. n. depender), Depl6re (v. a. deplorar), Dep6pulate (v. a. despoblar), Dep6rtment (s. conducta), iungydng. masira asque, manibayu asque. pamutfan, panagaulan. culangnan. utus, atul. itAlagd, itungctl 6 idiquil. amba, dapat. malalam. usa. bagbag, sambut. capintasan, balatting, sala. lualu, ampun. ilalu, panlualu. me amun. culang. mansajan, dinatan. casal6sayan. baiuan a talacad, alilan,a bicas. manaco, nmimirait. amun. mugnas. mibaba, libacan. ibaba, 6 culdas. ca-diosan. y-antala, paluatan. uculan, isipan. maselan. macauili. uili, tulia. ibbie, munie. mamirait. albdtg. daldm, sumbing. siran. paquilala. taranta. majinjin. liquib. alhng catulutan. paquilala. magsumbuing. macapal. man fpan. ilingad 6 payalian. maco. panlaco. sacupan. magsalbdt. lacuan. panugali.

Page  29 29 Depdsit (v. a. depositar), - Deprive (v. a. privar), Depth (s. hondura), Derange (v. a. desarreglar), Derision (s. irrisi6n), Descend (v. n. descender), Descent (s. descenso), Describe (v. a. describir, delinear), Desecrate (v. a. profanar), Desert (s. desierto), Desert (v. a. abandonar), Deserve (v. a. merecer, ser digno), Design (v. a. designar), Designate (v. a. apuntar), Desirable (a. deseable), Desire (s. deseo), Desist (v. a. desistir), Desk (s. escritorio, papelera), Despair (s. desesperaci6n), Despatch (v. a. despachar), Desperate (a. desesperado), Despise (v. a. despreciar), Desp6ndency (s. desesperacion), Destrdy (v. a. destruir), Destrdction (s. destrucci6n), Detach (v. destacar), Detail (s. detalle), Detain (v. a. detener), Deter (v. a desanimar), Determine (v. a. determinar), Detract (v. a. detractar), Devastate (v. a. devastar), Develop (v. a. desenvolver), Device (s. proyecto), Devil (s. diablo, demonio), Devise (v. a. trazar), Dev6te (v. a. dedicar), Dev6tional (a. devoto), Dew (s. rocio), Dictate (v. a. dictar), Die (v. a. morir), Differ (v. n. diferenciarse), Difficult (a. dificil), Dig (v. a. cavar, ahondar), Digest (v. a. digerir), Dignified (a. altivo), Dignity (s. dignidad), Diligence (s. diligencia), manilas. ilac6. calalaman. gutgdtan. taru. culdas 6 magbaba. pamanguldds, pamagbaba. gumrilis. pamibirdbiruq ng bgue macatalag; qng religion, lapastdngan qng sablang bague. ilang. lacuan. mangaintulfran, manganintulid. ituldu. tiru. pamitan. pita 6 nAsa. urdngan. pisusulatan, lulanan papil. pamagpatiuacal. ilabas. migpatiuacal. umisan. pamagpatiuacal. sira, bagbag. casiran. yacdac. salseyan. piguilan. patabang lub. tulduan. bauyan. bagbagan, sintangdn. calagan 6 ilac6 balut. tatag 6 tangca. diablo, dem6nio. gumulis. itungcul. patulunan. ambun. dictajan, asboc. mat6. manaliua. masaquit. culcul, ilalam. lasauan, dunut atfan. palalu, dagul, atas. camalan. casipAgan. --------------— I

Page  30 30 Diligent (a. diligente), Dim (a. turbio), Dimension (s. dimensi6n, medida), Diminish (v. a. & n. decrecer, disminuir[se]), Dimple (s. hoyuelo de la mejilla), Din (s. ruido), Dine (v. n. dar de comer), Dingy (a. moreno, oscuro), Dinner (s. comida), Dip (v. a. sumergir), Direct (a. directo, derecho), Dirt (s. lodo, porqueria), Dirty (s. sucio), Disable (v. a. hacer incapaz), Disadvantage (s. desventaja, dafo), Disagree (v. n. disconvenir, discordar), Disappear (v. n. desaparecer), Disapp6int (v. a. frustrar, faltar), Disarm (v. a. desarmar, privar de armas), Disaster (s. desastre), Disastrous (a. desastroso), Discern (v. a. discernir), Discharge (v. a. descargar), Discipline (s. disciplina), Disc6mfort (s. desconsuelo), Disc6nsolate (a. inconsolable), Discontent (s. descontento), Discontinue (v. n. descontinuar), Discodrage (v. a. desalentar), Discourse (s. discurso, tratado), Discourtesy (s. descortesia), Disc6ver (v. a. descubrir), Disc6very (s. descubrimiento), Discreet (a. discreto), Discretion (s. discreci6n), Discriminate (v. a. distinguir), Disctss (v. a. discutir), Disease (s. mal, enfermedad), Disfigure (v. a. desfigurar), Disgrace (s. desgracia), Disguise (v. a. disfrazar), Disgist (s. disgusto), Dish (s. fuente, plat6n), Dishearten (v. a. desalentar), Dishdnest (a. deshonesto), Dish6nor (s. deshonra), Disinfect (v. a. desinfeccionar), Disinherit (v. a. desheredar), Disjdint (v. a. dislocar, desmembrar), masipag. malabug. quecaban, panyucad. culangan, culdas, ognas; bauas. culcuil pisngf. inge. pacanan. comanguf; madalumduin. canan. sungab, albuig. cataglustaglus, matuilid. burac, casalaulan. marinat. pangangasan, magpintas. caculangan, yaya. pisalansangan, sinal, saliua. mauala, lafyap. bigu, mageulang. lubsan 6 ilac6, sandata 6 pataram. tagcu. catagcudn. quilalanan, piuliulidn, liliuia. iculdas 6 ilicas. tuntunan. lungciut. malulungcut a malungcuit. ematula. e isundu, 6 e lulud. patabang lub; painan alub. pasiag. cayalang galang. mamugue, 6 tuclas. macapugue 6 atuclasan. maucul. catalasan icul, mayaga. quilalanan 6 tingiran, liliua. pipagmatuliran. saquit, salun. pamilac6, qng carampatan at sariling asque. cayalang puri, casauilan d calma. bilft cayu. sucal alub. tapac, pingan. patabangan a ldb. alang puri. quealan puri. linisan. ilac6 mana. ilisang.; I I r ----

Page  31 31 Dislike (s. aversi6n, disgusto), Disl6cate (v. a. dislocar), Disl6dge (v. a. & n. desalojar), Disl6yal (a. desleal, infiel), Dismal (s. triste, funesto), Dismiss (v. a. despedir, echar), Dism6unt (v. a. desmontar), Disobey (v. a. desobedecer), Dis6rder (s. desorden), Dispel (v. a. disipar), Dispense (v. a. dispensar), Disperse (v. a. esparcir), Displace (v. a. dislocar), Display (v. a. desplegar), Displease (v. a. desplacer), Disp6se (v. a. disponer), Dispr6ve (v. a. confutar), Dispdte (s. disputa), Disregard (v. a. desatender), Disreputable (a. deshonroso), Disrespect (s. irreverencia), Dissatisfy (v. a. descontentar), Dissent (v. n. disentir), Dissipate (v. a. disipar), Dissolute (a. disoluto), Dissuade (v. a. disuadir), Distance (s. distancia), Distant (a. distante), Distend (v. a. extender), Distinct (a. distinto), Distinguish (v. a. distinguir), Distract (v. a. distraer), Distress (s. secuestro), Distribute (v. a. distribuir), District (s. distrito), Distrdst (v. a. desconfiar), Distdrb (v. a perturbar), Ditch (s. zanja), Dive (v. sumergirse), Divide (v. a. dividir, distribuir), Div6rce (s. divorcio), Dizzy (a. vertiginoso, ligero), Do (v. a. hacer, ejecutar), D6cket (s. r6tulo), D6ctor (s. doctor), Dog (s. perro), Doll (s. mufieca), D6llar (s. moneda, peso), D6minate (v. n. dominar), epangaburi, sucal lub. ilisang. palacuan. paliuas, pagulut. malungcdt, malumb6. palacuan, itabi. culdas. salangsang. cagutgutan. balabag. panupaya. isambulat. ilisang. iladlad. palungcdt. mutus. apsenan. attud 6 ascal. e siacasuan. mababa, malamarine, macarine. cayalang galang. malungcut. ecayagpang, maquitua. palino, yapula. lubacan, maroc a lugali. amuyutan. pilatan 6 dayu. marayu. iatiat. aliua, macaaliua. quilalanan. ilibang. samsam 6 bijag. pangalat. caucuman, nayun 6 barrio. magsalupsupan. guluan. paligui. sungab. piracayan. cauani. masalusu, mayan. gauan, daptan. sulat, piaquitan. doct6r. asu. munica. cualta, pesus. supilan.. i i

Page  32 32 Domineer (v. n. dominar), Don (v. a. meter el vestido), Donation (s. donaci6n), Done (pp. & a. hecho), Door (s. puerta), Dose (s. d6sis), Dodble (a. doble), Doubly (ad. doblemente), Doubt (s. duda, sospecha), Dough (s. masa), Dove (s. paloma), Down (s. plum6n), Doze (v. n. dormitar), D6zen (s. docena), Drag (v. a. arrastrar), Drain (v. a. desaguar), Dram (s. una copita), Drapery (s. ropaje), Draw (v. a. tirar, dibujar), Drawer (s. cajoncito de un escritorio), Dread (s. miedo, terror), Dreary (a. espantoso), Dream (s. suenio), Drench (v. a. empapar), Dress (v. a. vestir), Drift (s. intento), Drink (v. a. & n. beber), Drip (v. a. despedir), Duck (s. pato y pata, v. agacharse), Due (a. debido), Dug (s. t6ta), Dull (a. leido, estuipido), Dumb (a. mudo), Dunce (s. zote, zopenco), Diplicate (s. duplicado), Duplicity (s. doblez, duplicidad), Ddrable (a. durable), Diring (pr. mientras), Dusk (s. oscuridad), Ddsky (-a. oscuro), Dust (s. polvo), Ddsty (a. polvoriento), Dutiful (a. obediente), Ddty (s. deber), Dwarf (s. enano), Dwell (v. n. habitar), Dwindle (v. n. mermar), Dye (v. a. tefnir), miitus. miblas. pigcalub. yari. pasbuil. timbang. dubli. dubli, tidua. picacunu, bintang. masang tinApe. patipati. pacpac a malambit ning Ayup. mapanigli, mamatucbA. ducena 6 labfng adua. guydran, guliatan. pacatian, pamalan. m6tung a copfta. imalan. gulintan, magdibuiju. cajun ning pisusulatan. tacut, galimguim. asdanin. tundiu. ibabag, ipulis. miblas. nasa. minuim. mamun. bibi, v. yucui. sucat, tampA. suisu. mangmang, butang. pipi. alang balu. duplicadu, sunsun. pamitiduatidua. lufd. anggang. caralumduman. matuling, madalumduim. alicabic. licabuqufn. mapamintu. tungeul. pandac. tucnAng. bauasnan. tayunan.

Page  33 t -— T L --- — -~ --- — 33 E Each (pn. cualquier, cada), Eager (a. deseoso, fogoso), Eagle (s. aguila), Ear (s. oreja), Earache (s. dolor de oidos), Early (a. temprano), Earn (v. a. ganar), Edrnest (a. ardiente), Earth (s. tierra, terrestre), Edrthquake (s. terremoto), EArthworm (s. lombriz), Ease (s. quietud), EAsily (ad. facilmente), ast (s. oriente, 6ste), Easy (a. facil, cort6s), Eat (v. a. comer), Eatable (a. comestible), aves (s. pl. socarren, alero de tejado), Echo (s. eco), cllpse (s. eclipse), condmic(al) (a. econ6mico), cvnomize (v. a. economizar), Ecnomy (s. economfa), eddy (s. reflujo de agua), Edge (s. filo, punta), Educate (v. a. educar), EffAce (v. a. borrar, destruir), Effect (s. efecto, realidad), Efficient (a. eficaz), Effort (s. esfuerzo, empefio), Egg (s. huevo) Ego(t)ism (s. egoismo), either (pn. cualquiera, uno de dos), ElAborate (v. a. elaborar), Elastic (a. elastico), Elbow (s. codo), Elder (a. mayor), eldest (a. la 6 lo mas anciano), Etlct (v. a. elegir), Election (s. elecci6n), Elegance (s. elegancia), Elegant (a. elegante), Elementary (a. elemental, simple), Elevate (v. a. elevar, alzar), Eligible (a. elegible), Eliminate (v. a. eliminar), Eloquent (a. elocuente), 3-35894 balang. mapagnasa, mapali. aguila. balugbug. saquit balugbug. maranun. sambuit, sumambut. malablab. gabun, yatu. ayun. bulati. caratuinan. alang casulitan. aslagan. alang sulit. mangAn. pamam ananan. pamacpac.. buang. lau. matipid. magtipid. catipiran. pangacati ning danum. taram, sicoti, guilid. magaral. ggatgatn, siran. dyab, patutuan. ing maqui aguii. pamagcapilit. 6bun. maingguitin. insanuman, nindman caring. itali, daptan, gawan. atiatin. sicu. mas matua, ing matua caring micacapitad. p6ca matua. tuldu 6 mamili. pamamili. sintingan. masanting., mayan, e masaquit. i itas. - -: mipipfli.. -., ipana.; siti. tC::

Page  34 34 Else (pn. otro), Emancipate (v. a. emancipar), EmbArrass (v. a. embarazar), Emblem (s. emblema), Embrace (v. a. abrazar), Embr6ider (v. a. bordar), Emerge (v. n. salir, preceder), Emdtic (s. emetico), Eminent (a. eminente, elevado), Em6tion (s. agitaci6n del animo), Emphasis (s. 6nfasis), Empl6y (v. a. emplear), Empty (a. vacio), Enable (v. n. habilitar), Enact (v. a. establecer), Enchant (v. a. encantar), Encl6se (v. a. cercar), Encore (v. a. pedir que un actor repita segunda vez lo que ha cantado), Enc6unter (s. encuentro), Encourage (v. a. animar), End (s. fin), Endanger (v. a. peligrar), Endeavor (v. n.'esforzarse), Endless (a. infinito, perpetuo), Endure (v. a. sufrir, soportar), inemy (s. enemigo), Energy (s. energia), Enfeeble (v. a. debilitar), Enfold (v. a. envolver), Engage (v. a. empefiar), Enj6y (v. a. gozar), Enorm6us (a. enorme), Enodgh (ad. bastante), Enquire (v. a. informarse), Enrage (v. a. enfurecer, irritar), Enrich (v. a. enriquecer, adornar) Enr611 (v. a. registrar, arrollar), Enter (v. a. entrar, admitir), Entertain (v. a. conversar, tratar), Enthdsiasm (s. entusiasmo), Entire (a. entero, cumplido), Entrance (s. entrada), Entrap (v. a. entrampar), Entreat (v. a. rogar, suplicar), Entrust (v. a. confiar), Envious (a. envidioso), Envy (s. envidia), Epidemic (a: epid6mico), Equal (a. igual, justo), aliua, cauani. icabuis, itimaua 6 salabatan. dinayan. tanda 6 quintal. cumaul. magbulda. mac6. pagpasica. matas. carug salu, alingagapan. ing pamitilmid qng sabi. iriquil. alang lamain. agamit. magbili. mamaufli. bacfiran. aduang pasibayu. sagana. pasiglan. uacas. manganib. magcapilit. alang cauacasan, 6 capupusan. pibatan, amiaman. casalang. sicanan 6 cayupayan. painan. ibalut. isanla 6 magcapilit. tumfla. maragul. labis 6 sicat. talastasan. micasbu 6 micalatang. misalapi 6 mibandi; pamutian. siasatan, ilulun. lungib, tanggap. maquipagsalita. tula, pamagdiuata 6 diuata. mabilug, matupad. piluluban. mamirait 6 manarampas. maquisabi 6 manalangin. magtiuala. mapangarfria. capangarfrian. maca-aua, salut. par6ju, miuauangqui, ganap. s — - ~ I II I

Page  35 35 Equality (s. igualdad), Equip (v. a. equipar), Equivalent (a. & s. equivalente), Erase (v. a. cancelar), Erect (v. a. erigir, establecer), Err (v. n. vagar, errar), Errand (s. recado, mensaje), Err6neous (a. err6neo, falso), Error (s. error, yerro), Erfiption (s. erupci6n), Escape (v. a. evitar, escapar), Especial (a. especial); Essential (a. esencial), Establish (v. a. establecer, fundar), Estate (s. estado), Esteem (v. a. estimar, apreciar), Estimate (v. a. estimar), Eternal (a. eterno), Evacuate (v. a. evacuar), Evade (v. a. evadir), Even (a. llano, igual, par, semejante), Evening (s. tardecita), Event (s. evento), Ever (ad. siempre), Every (a. cada uno 6 una), Evidence (s. evidencia), Evil (a. malo, depravado), Ewe (s. oveja), Exact (a. exacto), Exaggerate (v. a. exagerar), Exalt (v. a. exaltar), Examine (v. a. examinar), Example (s. ejemplo), Exceed (v. a. exceder), Excel (v. a. sobresalir), Except (v. a. exceptuar), Excess (s. exceso), Exchange (v. a. cambiar), Excite (v. a. excitar), Excldde (v. a. excluir), Excommunicate (v. a. excomulgar), Excdsable (a. excusable), Execute (v. a. ejecutar), Exempt (a. exento), Exercise (s. ejercicio), Exert (v. a. ejecutar), Exile (s. destierro), Exist (v. n. existir)., Exit (s. partida), Ex6rbitant (a. exorbitante), P* caparejuan, mipapant e. igayac. catumbas. labagan. mitalacd, mibili. magtipas. tubud. balatung. balatung, cabalatungan. sin6o, atdas. mangilag, tumacas., maca-aliua 6 macallu. calamnan, caministilan. mibili. bili, uri. pacamalan, ulagan. pamayuyuitan, lingapan. alang capupusan. ilicas, lacuan. mangilag. patag, milulupa. mabengi. mepallari. capilanman. balang metung. casalan. maro6c. tuipang babay'. tapat. lumalu. mitas. sulitan. alimbaua. palaluan. pasibutan. ibucid. calaluan. alilan. mitimaua. icauani. ibalag 6 icauani. maiiangcan. daptan 6 gauan. ligtas. sane. daptan. ilaco qng labuad a tibuan. manatili. parulac, panlac6. milalalu. I_.

Page  36 36 Expend (v. a. expender), Expdnse (s. expensas), Experience (s. experiencia), Experiment (s. experimento), Expert (a. experto), Expiration (s. expiraci6n), Expldin (v. a. explanar), Explanation (s. explanaci6n), Exp6se (v. a. exponer), Express (v. a. expresar), Expression (s. expresi6n), Exquisite (a. exquisito), Extend (v. a. extender), Exterior (a. & s. exterior), Exterminate (v. a. exterminar), Extinguish (v. a. extinguir), ixtra (a. extra), Extract (v. a. extraer), Extravagant (a. extravagante), Extreme (s. extremo), Exdlt (v. a. triunfar), Eye (s. ojo), Eye-glass (s. anteojo), Eye-lid (s. parpado), F Face (s. cara), Fact (s. hecho), Fade (v: a. decaer), Fail (v. a. & n. omitir), Failure (s. falta), Faint (v. desmayarse), Fair (a. hermoso, bello), Fairly (ad. bellamente), Fairy (s. duende), Faith (s. fe, dogma de fe), Faithful (a. fiel, leal), Fall (v. n. caer), False (a. falso), Falsehood (s. falsedad), Faltar (v. n. tartamudear), Fame (s. fama, renombre Familiar (a. familiar), Family (s. familia), Famine (s. hambre), Famous (a. famoso), Fan (s. abanico), Fancy (s. fantasia, capricho), Far (ad. lejos), ruisali. gdgul. sibucan. suibuc. masalpitic. pangisnaua. patAgan. capatagan. itibi. salesen. capigaganacan. tutung macayama. iladlad. lual. lipulan, pucsa. patdan. labis, lual. bagutan. macasnuc. uacas 6 sepu. maniual. mata. salamin mata. talacap mata. lupa. dapat. mibaba 6 mugnas. lact6n. cdlang. maliping. malagd. malagu. laman, labuad. casalpantayanan. tapat, ganap. manabu. malarAm. calaraman. gagu, utal. balita, bantdg. panibdlus. familia 6 catubale. danup. bunyi. pam6pe. taguimpArn maray6.

Page  37 37 Farewell (s. despedida), Farm (s. tierra, rancho), Faither (ad. mas lejos), FArthest (ad. lo mas lejos), Fast (v. n. ayunar), Fast-day (s. dia de ayuno), FAsten (v. a. asegurar), FAster (s. ayunador), Fat (a. gordo), Fate (s. hado, destino, suerte), Father (s. padre), Fatigue (s. fatiga), Fault (8. falta), Fadltless (a. perfecto), FAvor (s. favor), FAvorable (a. favorable), Farm (s. hacienda, rancho), Fear (v. a. espantar), FeArful (a. medroso), FeArless (a. intrepido), Feast (s. banquete, fiesta), Feat (s. hecho, accion), Feather (s. pluma), Feature (s. rostro), Feed (v. a. nutrir), Feet (s. pie), Fell (a. cruel, barbaro), Female (s. hembra), Fence (s. cerca, palizada), Fertile (a. fertil), Fertility (s. fertilidad), Fervent (a. ferviente), Fervid (a. ardiente), Festival (a. festivo), Festivity (s. festividad), Fetch (v. a. ir por traer algo), Fetter (v. a. atar con cadenas), Feud (s. rifia, contienda), Fever (s. fiebre), Few (a. poco), Fewer (a. menor), Field (s. campo), Fiend (s. enemigo), Fierce (a. feroz), Fiery (a. igneo, fogoso), Fight (v. a. & s. refiir), Figure (s. figura, forma), File (s. fila), Fill (v. a. llenar, henchir), pamamun. dayatan, labd bububsan. lalung marayui. nig laldng marayu. magculaciun, mangAuat. ald6 ning pamag culaciiin, ald6 ning pamangauat. patutuAn. mapagculaciun, mapangauat. mataba. calmA. ibpa 6 tata. pagal. culang. ganap. dapat a mayap. maca-ayun. lauta 6 laulta, gabun, marangl6. capamasdan. matacutfn. bugasuc 6 dalusung. abala. dapat. pacpac. lipa. panalab ning canan. bitis. mabangis, tampalAsan. babay. bacud. mapamuinga. capamdnga. matactac. malablab. masaya. casayan. cabid. itanicala. pamipat6, pamitul. lagnat. ditac. malati, lalung ditac. gutad, marangle. casalang. mabangis. palpipali, milablab. mitua, maquipate. talacad, anylu. quiquil. catmuan, papangalbagan.

Page  38 38 Fin (s. aleta de pez), pamal6pe ning asan. Find (v. a. hallar, descubrir), tuclasdn. Fine (a. fino, agudo), maticmis, matflus, mataram. Finger (s. dedo), taliri. Finish (v. a. acabar), arian. Fire (s. fuego), api. Firewood (s. lefia para la lumbre), dutung a tatangab. Firm (a. firme, estable), patag, alang quimit. First (a. primero), camumulan. Fish (s. pez), asan. Fisher (s. pescador), magliligo. Fish-hook (s. ansuelo), taga. Fishing-rod (s. caina para pescar). paduas. Fist (s. pufio), pulu. Fit (s. paroxismo), ing capalipalian ning mua 6 sucal a lub. Fitting (a. conveniente), caministilan. Fix (v. a. fijar, establecer), pijuan, mitalacad. FlAbby (a. blando, flojo), malambut, malubac. Flag (s. bandera), bandera 6 bandila. Flame (s. llama, fuego), lablab, api Flank (s. ijada), catalindiguingan. Flap (s. falda, faldilla), talanan. Flare (v. n. lucir, brillar), sala, aslag. Flash (s. relampago, llamarada), quildap. Flat (a. llano), patag. Flatter (v. a. adular), is6nu. Flavor (s. aroma, sabor, gusto), bau, lasa. Flea (s. pulga), pulgas 6 nicnic. Fleet (s. flota), dacal a saquen. Flesh (s. carne), laman. Fl1shy (a. carnoso, pulpuso) malaman, malamucut. Fldxible (a. flexible), baluctitin. Flicker (v. a. aletear), mamayagpag. Flight (s. huida), tacas. Flimsy (a. d6bil), maina. Fling (v. a. lanzar), tandusan. Flip (v. a. arrojar), dalusung. Flirt (v. a. arrojar), dalusung. Flit (v. n. volar, huir), sulapo, ligtas. Float (v. a. inundar, flotar), limbug, litang. Flock (s. manada, rebafo), dacAl a animal. Flood (s. inundaci6n), albug. Floor (s. pavimento, suelo), lapag. Flour (s. harina), harina, tapting. Flourish (v. a. exornar, con flores ret6- ing pamamie panaganla qng amanu 6 ricas), sabi Flow (v. n. fluir), magus. Flower (s. flor), sampaga. Flush (v. a. sonrojar), mangalare.

Page  39 39 Fldtter (v. a. & n. turbar, desordenar), Fly (v. a. & n. volar), Foam (s. espuma), Foe (s. adversario, enemigo), Fog (s. niebla), Fold (s. redil, pliegue), F6llow (v. a. seguir), F6llower (v. a. seguidor), Food (s. alimento, comida), Fool (s. loco, tonto), Fo6lish (a. bobo, tonto), Foot (s. pie), Fo6tpath (s. senda), Fo6tprint (s. huella, pisada), For (pr. por, a causa, para), Forbid (v. a. prohibir), Force (s. fuerza, poder), F6rcible (a. fuerte, eficaz), Ford (s. vado), Forecast (v. n. proyectar), F6rehead (s. frente), F6reign (s. extranjero), F6remost (a. delantero), Foreno6n (s. mafiana), Foresee (v. a. prever), F6rest (s. bosque), Foretell (v. a. predecir), F6rfeit (s. multa), Forge (s. fragua), Forget (v. a. olvidar, descuidar), Forgive (v. a. perdonar, remitir), Fork (s. tenedor), Form (s. forma, modelo), F6rmal (a. formal), Formality (s. formalidad), Forsake (v. a. dejar, abandonar), Forth (ad. en adelante, fuera), Forthwith (ad. inmediatamente), F6rtify (v. a. fortificar), F6rtunate (a. afortunado), Fortune (s. fortuna. suerte), F6rtune-tdller (s. sortilego), F6rward (a. apresurado), Foul (a. sucio), Found (v. a. fundar, establecer), Foundation (s. fundaci6n), Fodnder (s. fundador), Frail (a. fragil; debil), Frame (s. cerco), Frank (a. franco, liberal), guluan, gutgutan. sulapo. bula. calaban, casalang, ulap. > culunaan, suri. tuqui. paltuquian. cacanan, canan. mamulang, bugue. mamulangmulang. bitis. gasgas. bacas, pidalpacatn. para, uling, quing. maual. sicanan, upaya. masican. dalaquftan. gayac. canuan. (extranjeru), aliuang labuad. macauna, arapan. abac. addia. gubat. ulan. multa. pigagauan. calinguan. patauaran. tinidur. asque, lulupan. (pormal) e bularan. (capormalan) 6 cajimjiman. paburen, lacuan. ing paintungul, capilanman. ngeningeni, agadagad. tibayan. (maportuna) macalma. (portuna, suerte) calm;i. balintuna. papunta, marapal. marinat. mula, pagmulan. catatagan. mamula ing tatAtag. madbit, maina. bacud. panibulus, malAin

Page  40 40 Fraternity (s. fraternidad), Fraud (s. fraude, engafio)r Fray (s. rina. disputa, querella), Free (a. libre, liberal), Freedom (s. libertad), Freely (ad. libremente), Frenzy (s. frenesi, locura), Frequent (a. frecuente), Fresh (a. fresco, nuevo), Fret (s. enojo), Friar (s. fraile), Friend (s. amigo, amiga), Friendly (a. amigable), Friendship (s. amistad), Fright (s. espanto, terror), Frog (s. rana), From (pr. de), Front (s. frente), Frown (v. a. mirar con cefio), Fruit (s. fruto, producto), Frtiitful (a. fructifero, fertil), Fry (v. a. freir), Full (a. Ileno, repleto), Fully (ad. Ilenamente), Fdmble (r. a. & n. chapucear), Fun (s. chanza, burla), Funeral (s. funeral), Fdnny (a. burlesco, buf6n), Fdrious (a. furioso, fren6tico), Furl (v. a. desdoblar), Fdrnish (v. a. suplir, proveer), Fuirniture (s. ajuar), Ffrrow (s. surco), Firther (a. ulterior), Fury (s. furor, furia), Fuss (s. alboroto), Ffture (s. futuro), G Gag (s. mordaza), Gdiety (s. alegria), Gain (s. ganancia), Gait (s. marcha), GAllop (s. galope), Gambler (s. tahur, garitero), GAmble (v. n. jugar con exceso), Game (s. juego), GAming (s. juego), Gang (s. cuadrilla, banda), pamicapatAd. pirait. pate, attua, dalum. timaua, malAm. catimauan. catimauan. mulang. malaras. siaguiua, bayu. mua. fraile. caluguran. micasundu. pamicalugud. casdAn, galgal. tugAc. na 6 nang. arapan. ilapan. bunga, binuinga. mapamuinga. maniti. mitn-i, sicsac. mitmu. magtampis, salatsalat. tula, biru. pangacutcut. tucsijin. palpimua. calagan. alilan. casangcapan. paligui, culupit. catataulian. casbu. aling6ngo. paintungul. busal. tula. tubu 6 simbut. lacad. pasalsal. taj6r. milalalung pamaquiAlung. piAlung. pialung. tapuc.

Page  41 Gap (s. boquete, brecha), Garb (s. vestidura), Garden (s. huerto, jardin), Garment (s. vestidura), Gash (s. cuchillada), Gasp (v. n. boquear), Gate (s. puerta, puerta de cercado), GAther (v. a. recoger, amontonar), Gaddy (a.'fastoso, ostentoso), Gay (a. gayo, alegre), Gaze (v. n. contemplar), Generous (a. generoso), Gentle (a. suave, d6cil), Gently (ad. dulcemente), Genuine (a. genuino, puro), Gesture (s. gesto, movimiento), Get (v. a. adquirir, ganar), Ghost (s. alma racional), Giant (s. gigante), Giddy (a. vertiginoso) Gift (s. don, dadiva), Ginger (s. jengibre), Girdle (s. cintur6n), Girl (s. muchacha), Give (v. a. & n. dar, donar), Gizzard (s. molleja de ave), Glad (a. alegre, contento), Glance (s. vislumbre, ojeada), Glare (s. deslumbramiento), Glass (s. vidrio), Gloom (s. obscuridad), Glory (s. gloria, fama), Glow (v. n. arder, inflamarse), Gnat (s. cinife), Go (v. n. ir, irse), Goat (s. cabra, chiva), Gobble (v. a. engullir, tragar), God (s. Dios), Gold (s. oro), Good (a. bueno), Good-bye (ad. adi6s), Go6dness (s: bondad), Goose (s. ganso), G6rgeous (a. primoroso, brillante), Gdvern (v. a. gobernar, dirigir), G6vernment (s. gobierno), Gown (s. talar, toga), Grace (s. gricia), GrAceful (a. gracioso), 4i asbuc, busbus. vestidura, imalan. pipanam-nanan. vestidura, pamiblas. tigpis 6 guili. manasbuc. pasbuil. tipunan, ibuntAn. mapagpariria. masanting, mati'la. lumaue, maratna. malam. malambit, manene, mapamintu. manene. puro. pangimut, quilus. apaquirasan, apaquicuanan. caladua. gigante, maragu6l tau. malabug. biaya 6 digalu.. laya. cinturon 6 babAt. anac A babay'. munie. balunbalunan. masaya, matula. sagaling panaquit qng nanumang bague. calabeab. bubug. caralumduman. ligaya. milablab. nicnic. ume. cambing. lagucguc, acmulAn. Dios. guintu. mayAp. adi6s. cayapan. gansa. masanting, maquinAng. mamajala. gubi6rno. musbds, togA biaya. macatulatula. I I ii i i i.1 4 I

Page  42 42 GrAcious (a. gracioso), GrAdual (a. gradual), Grand (s. grande, ilustre), GrAnd-child (s. nieto, nieta), GrandfAther (s. abuelo), GrAndmdther (s. abuela), Grant (v. a. conceder), Grasp (v. a. empufar), Grass (s. yerba, herbaje), GrAssh6pper (s. langosta), GrAteful (a. grato, agradecido), Grave (s. sepultura), GrAvel (s. cascajo, mal de piedra), Gray (s. gris), Grease (s. grasa), Great (a. gran, grande), GreAtness (s. grandeza), Green (a. verde, fresco), Greet (v. a. saludar), Greeting (s. salutaci6n), Grief (s. dolor, aflicci6n), Grieve (v. a. agraviar), Grind (v. a. moler, pulverizar), Grindstone (s. piedra amoladera), Grip (v. a. empufiar), Gripe (v. a. asir, empufiar), Groan (v. n. gemir, suspirar), Ground (s. tierra, pais), Group (s. grupo), Grow (r. a. cultivar), Growl (v. n. grufir), Grudge (s. rencor, resentimiento), Grumble (v. n. grufir), Grunt (v. n. gruflir), Guarantee (v. a. garantir), Guaranty (s. garantia), Guard (s. guarda), GuArdian (s: tutor), Guess (v. a. & n. conjeturar, adivinar), Guest (s. huesped, convidado), Guidance (s. gobierno, direcci6n), Guide (v. a. guiar), Guilt (s. delito, culpa), Gulf (s. golfo), Gum (s. goma), Gun (s. fusil), Gunpowder (s. p6lvora), Gurgle (v. n. salir con ruido), cayamayama. mitdtats. marangal. apu. apung lalaqui. apung babay'. paintulut. talanan, sacmalan. dicut. durun dicut. pangangayamnan. cutclitan. cascajo, capsa. gris. taba. maragil. degulan. verdi, saguiua. piugue. pamanatui. lungcut. lungcit. gumiling, dumunut. taisan. sacmalan. talanan, cauatan, piguilan. mangisnauang mallalam. gabin, labuad. lupung. dagul. bubuingil. taniman. sumiac. mungil, bubfingis. talacaran, tasajan. manalacaran. bante. manibala, pengari. balacan. casulut. gubiernu. tairan. casalanan. danuman. g6ma 6 pamacat baril. ubat. darabulbul.

Page  43 Gush (v. n. brotar), Gust (s. soplo de aire), (ut (s. intestino), 43 paspasan. tidpan. bituca.. H HAbit (s. habito, vestido), Hag (s. bruja), Hair (s. pelo), Hairless (a. calvo), Half. (s. mitad), Half-modn (s. semilunio), Hall (s. vestibulo), Halt (v. n. cojear), Ham (s. jam6n), HAmmer (s. martillo), Hand (s. mano, palmo), HAndful (s. pufnado), HAndkerchief (s. paiuelo), Hdndle (s. mango), H.tindsome (a. hermoso, bello) Hang (v. a. colgar, suspender), HAppen (v. n. acontecer), Happy (a. feliz), HArbor (s. albergue, puerto), Hard (a. duro, firme), HArdship (s. injuria, opresion), Hark! (int. he!, oye!, mira!), Harm (s. mal, dafio), HArmless (a. sencillo, inocente), Harrow (s. grada, rastro), Harsh (a. aspero. agrio), Harvest (s. cosecha), Haste (s. priesa), Hasten (v. a. acelerar, apresurar), Hasty (s. pronto, apresurado), Hat (s. sombrero), Hatch (v. a. criar pollos, empollar), Hatchet (s. destral, hacha pequena), Hate (s. odio, aborrecimiento), Hatter (s. sombrerero), Hadghty (a. altanero, altivo), Haul (v. a. arrastrar), Haunt (v. a. frecuentar), Have (v. a. haber, tener), Havoc (s. estrago, ruina), He (pn. 61), Head (s. cabeza, jefe), Headache (s. dolor de cabeza), caugalian, imalan. magcucilam. buac. panut. capitna. tela bulan. bungad. titiricuil, tuenang. piging bAbi. pamulpuc. gamat 6 palad. daclut. panu. talanan. masanting, malagu. ibitin, isabit. mallari. nuan. pacasautan. masias, matatag. libac, pasaquit. joy, ojoy, lonmu. car6can, casiran. luse. balitang, bacas. masalat, maslam. pupul, pamamupul. calicsian. mamalagua, pamirap]an. malagua, marapal. cupia. papanisi, mapsa. palach6. casangilan, casaman. magcucupiA. palalu. guliutan. pagdatunan. atm. pucsa, lasac. ya. bDuntuc. saquit buntuc.

Page  44 44 HeAdstrong (a. testarudo), Heal (v. a. & n. curar, sanar), Health (s. saltd, sanidad), Healthy (a. sano, sanativo), Heap (s. mont6n), Hear (v. a. oir, entender), Heart (s. coraz6n), Hearty (a. sincero), Heat (s. ardor, calor), Heaven (s. cielo, firmamento), Heave (v. a. alzar, elevar), Heavy (a. grave, pesado), Heed (v. a. atender), Heel (s. talon), Height (s. altura, elevacion), Heir (s. heredero), Hell (s. infierno), Helm (s. tim6n), Help (v. a. ayudar), Hemp (s. cAfiamo), Hen (s. gallina), Hence (ad. de aqui, por esto), Her (pn. de ella), Herb (s. yerba), Herd (s. hato, rebafio), Here (ad. aqui, aca), Hereafter (ad. en el tiempo venidero), Hereby (ad. por esto), Herein (ad. en esto, aqui dentro), Heredf (ad. de esto), Heretofore (ad. antes, en otro tiempo) Herewith (ad. con esto), Herself (pn. ella misma), Hesitate (v. a. dudar), Hew (v. a. lefiar, tajar), Hiccough (s. hipo), Hide (v. a. esconder), High (a. alto, elevado), High-born (a. noble, ilustre por nacimiento), Highway (s. camino real), Hill (s. collado), Him (pn. a 61, le), Himself (pn. a el mismo), Hint (s. sefia), Hip (s. cadera), Hire (v. a. alquilar), His (pn. su, suyo), Hiss (v. a. silbar) masias a buntuic. uluAn, pacayapan. mayap, cayapan. mayap, pagpacayap. buntun, talacsan. paquiramdaman, intindian. pusu. luse. pali. banua. itas. mabayat. sicasuan. talin, sacung. catasan, cataluctuican. mimamana. infierno. tim6n, saquen. saupan. cafiamo, abaca. gaindi. uli-niti. caya. dicut. catipdnan ding animal. qu6ti, queni. qu6ng paintuingul. uli-niti. qu6ni quilub. careti. bayu ng6ni. caniti. ya mismi. macacunu. mafifitung. siguc. salicut. matas, macatas. macamal. dAlan malda, 6 dAlan a matulid. talibunduc. caya. caya mu naman. tanda. balacang. manupa. caya. pasuit.

Page  45 45 History (s. historia), Hit (v. a. golpear), Hoarse (a. ronco), Hoe (s. azada), Hog (s. cerdo, puerco), Hoist (v. a. alzar), Hold (v. a. tener), Hole (s. agujero, cueva), H6llow (a. hueco), Holy (a. santo, pio), Holy-water (s. agua bendita), Hdmage (s. homenaje), Home (s. casa propia), Home-sick (a. nostalgia), H6nest (a. honesto, justo), H6nesty (s. honestidad), H6ney (s. miel), H6nor (s. honra, honor), Hoof (s. pl. casco de las bestias caballares), Hook (s. gancho), Hop (v. a. cojear de un pie), Hope (s. esperanza), Horizon (s. horizonte), Horn (s. cuerno), H6rrible (a. horrible), Horror (s. horror, terror), Horse (s. caballo), Host (s. huesped), H6stile (a. hostil), Hour (s. hora), House (s. casa), Hover (v. n. colgar), How (ad. como, cuanto), How(so)ever (ad. comoquiera), Howl (v. n. aullar), Hug (v. a. abrazar), Huge (a. vasto), Hum (v. n. zumbar), Hdman (s. humano), Hdmble (a. humilde), Humiliate (v. a. humillar), Hdmor (s. humor), Hdnger (s. hambre), Hungry (a. hambriento), Hunt (v. a. montear, cazar), Hdnter (s. cazador), Hurl (v. a. tirar con violencia), Hdrricane (s. huracan), bie delAnan. mucpuic. payo. sarul gAmat. babi. ibuat. talanan. busbbs, luquib. culcul. santo, mapamacalillu. danum 6 bendfta. ain. bal& lugud qng tibuan. majinjfn. cajinjinan. pulut panflan. puri. cucung cabayu. sacbit. paltica. capanaligan. aslAgan. sagu. macatacut. tAcut, galimguim. cabayu. casulut. mapanamun. horas. bal6. sabit. macananu, nuanti. antinfng. tibaul, ngulAngul. caulan. maragul a maragul. gum&ga. tau. mapag cumbaba. pacumbaba.. panugali. danup. talacarhaup, danipan. mamunduc, mangasu. ing mAngasu. balabag. alisus.

Page  46 46 Hdrry (v. a. acelerar), Hurt (v. n. dafiar, herir), Husband (s. marido), Hush! (int. chiton! silencio!), Husk (s. cascara, pellejo), Hut (s. cabania, barraca), Hy'pocrite (s. hipbcrita), I (pn. yo), Idea (s. idea, imagen), Idle (a. ocioso, perezoso), Idleness (s. ociosidad, pereza) If (con. si, aunque), Ignorance (s. ignorancia), 111 (a. malo, enfermo), Illegally (ad. ilegalmente), Illegitimate (a. ilegitimo), Illiterate (a. inducto), Ill-treat (v. a. maltratar), Illiminate (v. a. iluminar). Image (s. imagen), Imagination (s. imaginaci6n), Imagine (v. a. imaginar), Imitate (v. a. imitar, copiar), Imitation (s. imitaci6n), Immediate (a. inmediato), Immense (a. inmenso), Imm6rtal (a. inmortal), Imm6ral (a. inmoral, depravado), Impart (v. a. comunicar), Impartial (ad. imparcial), Impatient (a. impaciente), Imperative (a. imperativo), Imperfect (a. imperfecto), Impertinent (a. impertinente), Impetuous (a. impetuoso), Implement (s. herramienta), Impl6re (v. a. implorar), Imply' (v. a. implicar), Impolite (a. descortes), Importance (s. importancia), Imp6rtant (a. importante), Imp6se (v. a. imponer), Imp6ssible (a. imposible), Imp6tent (a. impotente), Impress (v. a. imprimir). Impression (s. impresi6n), Imprison (v. a. impresionar), mamalagua. sugatan. asauang lalaqui. tajimic! balat. calicub, dalungddng. migagaua. acu. ucul, larauan. matamad. catamaran. nung, aguiang. cabutangan. masaquit, salunan. ala qng matulid. e tdne. alang pegaralan. papagcasaquftan. pasala. larauan. cauculan. uculan. lumupa, lumicas. pamanlupa. calapit, malagua. calalaman 6 caliualasan. alang camatayan. alang ucul. pabalu. e mangabiran. alang capibabatan. uitus. 6 tapat. macasaua. bugasuc. casangcapan. magpacalulu. e macasangcan, cayacmula. alang galang. caministilan. camnnistilan. bilianan. alangan, 6 mallari. alang aguiu. palimbag. panamdam bacas. iculung, isicul.

Page  47 47 Impr6bable (a. improbable), Impr6per (a. impropio), Improve (v. a. & n. mejorar), Impr6vement (s. progreso), Imprddent (a. imprudente), Impulsive (a. impulsivo), Impdre (a. impuro), In (pr. a, en, por, de), Inability (s. inhabilidad), Inaccurate (a. inexacto), Indction (s. inaccion), Indctive (a. flojo, perezoso), Inappr6priate (a. impropio), Inasmdch (ad. visto 6 puesto que), Inb6rn (a. innato), Incapable (a. incapaz), Incense (s. incienso), Incivility (s. incivilidad), Include (v. a. incluir), Income (s. renta), Inc6mpetent (a. incompetente), Incomplete (a. incompleto), Inc6nstant (a. inconstante)i Inconvenient (a. inconveniente), Incorrect (a. incorrecto), Increase (v. a. acrecentar), Incredible (a. increible), Incredulous (a. incredulo), Incdrable (a. incurable), Indebted (a. adeudado), Indecent (a. indecente), Indeed (ad. verdaderamente), Indefinite (a. indefinido), Independence (s. independencia), Indignant (a. indignado), Indigo (s. afil), Indistinct (a. indistinto), Individual (a. individual), Inddlge (v. a. & n. favorecer), Inexcdsable (a. inexcusable), Inexpensive (a. de poco gasto), Infant (s. infante, niflo), Inferior (a. inferior), Infernal (a. infernal), Infidel (s. infiel), Inflict (v. a. castigar, imponer), Influence (s. influencia), Inform (v. a. informar, ensefiar), alang cabitasan. alang pangabandi. pacayapan, pamayapan. panga sulung. alang ingat. aggulag. marinat. carin, qng. alang cayapan. e macatapat. catamaran, painaua, alang quimut. maina. 6 maca agpang. antinfng. mibaft, quebaitan. e caguiuan. adtang dutung a mabanglu asilc. quelan pacundangan. yabe. pabunga, buis. alang upaya. e ganap. salauayan. alang casangeanan. alang caralan, e ma atdd. lumabung 6 dagul. e mapapaniuala. alang capaniualin. e maulu. mautang. e mayap a caniuan. catutuan. alang casalesen. catimauan. maquimua. tayum. e mayayaquit. quetauan, catauan. nayunan. e a tutulan, e mapapanupaya. ditac a alaga, ditac a gasta. anac. mababa. ing mananabu 6 mangaintungul qnri infierno. e bininiagan. parusan. sicanan. - -' ' -, usisan, sabian..'.. 0

Page  48 48 Inf6rmal (a. informal, irregular), Information (s. informaci6n), Ingratitude (s. ingratitud), Inhabit (v. a. & n. habitar), Inhabitant (s. habitador, habitante), Inhale (v. a. respirar), Inherit (v. a. heredar), Inhdman (a. inhumano), Injure (v. a. injuriar), Injustice (s. injusticia), Ink (s. tinta), Innocent (a. inocente), Inquire (v. a. preguntar), Insane (a. insano, loco), Insect (s. insecto), Insensible (a. insensible), Inside (s. interior, adentro), Insight (s. conocimiento), Insist (v. a. insistir, persistir), Insolence (s. insolencia), Insomich (con. de manera que), Inspect (v. a. reconocer, examinar), Instead (of) (pr. en lugar de), Instinct (s. instinto), Instruct (v. a. instruir, ensefar), Instrument (s. instrumento), Insult (v. a. insultar), Insure (v. a. asegurar), Insirgent (s. insurgente), Intellect (s. entendimiento), Intelligence (s. inteligencia), Intemperate (a. destemplado), Intend (v. a. intentar), Intense (a. intenso), Intercourse (s. comercio), Interest (v. a. interesar), Interfere (v. a. entremeterse), Interior (a. interior), Internal (a. interno), Interpret (v. a. interpretar), Interrdpt (v. a. interrumpir), Intestine (a. intestino), Intimacy (s. intimidad), Into (pr. en, dentro), Int6xicate (v. a. embriagar), Intrigue (s. intriga), Introduce (v. a. introducir), Intrude (v. n. entremeterse), e formal, barabara a pangabfli, e matulid a pangagauA. causisan, balita. cayalang pasalamat. manucnangan. (ing) manucnangan. mangisnAua. mimana. 6 dapat tau. umisan. ala qng matulid, e ustu. tinta. alang balu 6 alang casalanan. cutang. salunan, mamulang. animal a malatf, ayupayupan. 6 manamdaman. quilub. pangabaluan. ipilit. capangangasan. nun macanian. quilalanan. quing lugal nang (6 ing). panamdam, panugali. ituru. bague gagamitan qng pamaniApat. managcas. talusayan, 6 tilmid. magalsa. caucuilan. cayisipan. mar6c d sancap. nasa 6 pagnasa. macutcut, malalam, masican. tindang maragdl, calacal. alaman, siacasuan. mangimut, luban. quilub lub. macaluib. ibalduig. salabatan. bituca. masapsap a pamicAlugud. quing lub. lasing. lansi. ilub. liban.

Page  49 49 Intrdst (v. a. confiar), Instrument (s. instrumento), Invalid (a. invalido), Invasion (s. invasi6n), Invent (v. a. inventar), Invert (v. a. invertir), Invest (v. a. investir), Investigate (v. a. investigar), Invisible (a. invisible), InvitAtion (s. convite), Invite (v. a. convidar), Inward (a. interior), Ire (s. ira), Iron (s. hierro), Irregular (a. irregular), Irrigate (v. a. regar), Island (s. isla), Issue (s. salida), It (pn. 61, la, lo, ella), Itself (pn. el mismo), maniuAla. istrum6nto. labag, alAng cabaldugan. salaque. magmunicala. pitumbalican. ibie, ibili. siasat. e mayayaqui4. pamanafiaya. cumbiran, ainya. quilidb. mua. bacal. 6 matulid, macapasubali. basan, tugtugan. lugal A macapaduirut danulm. panlaco. ya, iya. ya dilina. J JAcket (s. chaqueta), Jail (s. carcel), Janitor (s. portero), Jar (v. n. chocar, s. jarro), Jaw (s. quijada), Jealous (a. celoso, envidioso), Jelly (s. jalea, gelatina), Jerk (s. sacudimiento), Jew (s. judio), Job (s. obra), Join (v. a. juntar, unir), Joint (s. coyuntura), Joke (s. burla), Jodrney (s. jornada, viaje) Joy (s. alegria, jibilo), Judge (s. juez), Jddgment (s. 'juicio), Jug(s. jarro), Juice (s. zumo, jugo), Jump (v. n. saltar), Jdngle (s. matorral), Junior (a. mas joven), Just (a. justo, honrado), Jdstice (s. justicia, juez) 4-35894 sacu. sucilan. bant6 pasbul. sumpungan, s. banga. panga, sicang. mapangalalu, mapangariria. al6a, elatina, mayumu. culluit, sapuliut, pagpAg. judius. dapat. piabAyan, tipunan. picalucaluAn. biru. paglacAran, biai. casayan. ju6s. juicio. damajuAna. agta, tuba. lucsu. masucal, caqu6uan. tutfng anAc. maqui puri. ustfcia, jues. L i i i

Page  50 50 K Keep (v. a. tener, mantener). Kernel (s. pepita), Kettle (s. caldera), Key (s. lave), Kick (v. a. patear), Kid (s. cabrito), Kidnap (v. a. robar nifiosJl hombres), Kill (v. a. matar, asesinar), Kind (a. benevolo, benigno), Kindle (v. a. & n. encender), King (s. rey), Kingdom (s. reino), Kiss (s. beso, 6sculo), Kitchen (s. cocina), Knee (s. rodilla), Kneel (v. arrodillarse), Knee-pan (s. r6tula), Knife (s. cuchillo), Knock (v. n. & n. chocar), Knot (s. nudo, lazo), Kn6tty (a. nudoso), Know (v. a. & n. conocer), Kn6wledge (s. conocimiento), Kndckle (s. nudillo), atin. alalayan. bitul, bini. caldera, ciran. suliit. maldac. cani:ng a malati. manguang anac. paten, macamate. maganaca. sindian, salaingan. ari. layarian. uma. cusina, pagcalangan. tud. sicl6d. tela bulacos. cuchillo, palang. tucttc. butnul, silu. mabutnul. quilalanan, abalu. balu. picalucaluan talfri. L LAbor (s. trabajo, labor), LAborer (s. labrador, trabajador), Lace (s. pasamano), Lack (v. a. & n. carecer, necesitar), Lad (s. muchacho), LAdder (s. escala, escalera portatil), Lady (s. sefora, senorita), Lag (v. n. moverse lentamente), Lake (s. lago, laguna), Lamb (s. carnero), Lame (s. lisiado, estropeado), Lament (v. a. lamentar), Lamp (s. lampara), Lance (s. lanza), Land (s. pais, tierra), LAnguage (s. lenguaje), Lap (s. falda), Lard (s. manteca de puerco), Large (a. grande), Lash (s. aItigo) mag6bra, 6bra, dapat. mapag6bra. pasamano, tumpacan gamat. caculangan, ministil. caministilan. anac a lalaqui. (escala) 6ran. babay', dalaga. quimut macacalale. labac, pinac. tupang malati. lumpu, pile. aclis dalung. lampara, quinque. tandds. labuad, gabun. amanu, sabi. canddngan. tabang babi. maragul. paluca.

Page  51 51 Lass (s. doncella, moza), Last (a. ultimo), Latch (s. aldaba de puerta), Late (a. tardio, tardo), Lather (s. jabonadura), Latter (a. posterior, uiltimo), Laugh (v. a. reir), Laighter (s. risa, risada), Lavish (a. pr6digo), Law (s. ley), Lawful (a. legal, legitimo), Lawless (a. ilegal), Lay (v. a. poner), Lazy (a. perezoso, tardo), Lead (s. plomo), Leader (s. guia, conductor), Leading (a. principal), Leaf (s. hoja), League (s. liga, alianza), Leak (s. via de agua), Lean (v. n. apoyarse, recostarse), Leap (v. a. saltar, brincar), Learn (v. a. & n. instruir), LeArned (a. docto), Lease (s. arriendo), Least (s. minimo), Leather (s. cuero), Leave (s. licencia, permiso), Left (a. izquierdo), Leg (s. pierna), Legal (a. legal, legitimo), Legend (s. leyenda), Legible (a. legible),. Legislate (v. a. legislar), Legitimate (a. legitimo), Leisure (s. desocupaci6n), Lemon (s. lim6n), Lend (v. a. prestar), Length (s. duraci6n), Lenient (a. leniente), Leper (s. un leproso), Leprosy (s. lepra), Less (a. menor, menos); Lessen (v. a. minorar, disminuir), Lesson (s. lecci6n), Let (v. a. dejap, permitir), Letter (s. letra, carta), Level (a. llano, igual),, Lewd (a. lascivo), dalaga. tauli 6 uacas. aldaba, panarangcang auang. macupad, mabagal. pisabunan. tauli, 6 uacas. maili. aili, sagacgac. malam. tuntunan. macatuntin, tine. 6macatuntun. ibili. matamad, macuipad. tinggaputi. tuturu, magdala. buntuc. buliung. sanguni. tumuilu. magquiling, magjilig. lucsui. sanayan. biasa. mamuisan. lalung malati. balat. paintulut. caili. puad, butit. macatuntun. delanan 6 mepallali. mababasa. gauang tuntuinan tune. alang daraptan, painaua. dalayap. daraman. quecaban. panampuilas, mapanupaya. ing leprosu. lepra, saquitan a maroc. malati, culang. ilati, bauasnan. lisiun. paburen, paintulutan. letra, suilat. patag, pareju. malibi.

Page  52 52 Liable (a. sujeto), Liar (s. embustero), Liberal (a. liberal, generoso), Liberty (s. libertad), License (s. licencia, permisi6n), Lick (v. a. lamer, chupar), Lid (s. tapa), Lie (s. mentira), Life (s. vida, conducta), Lifeless (a. muerto, inanimado), Lift (v. a. alzar, elevar), Light (s. luz), Lightning (s. relampago), Like (s. semejante), Likely (a. probable), Likeness (s. semejanza), Likewise (ad. tambien, igualmente), Lily (s. lirio, azucena), Limb (s. miembro, rama), Limber (a. manejable), Limit (s. limite, t6rmino), Limp (v. n. cojear), Line (s. linea), Linger (v. n. retardarse), Lining (s. forro), Link (s. anillo de cadena), Lip (s. labio), Listen (v. n. escuchar), Little (a. pequefio, poco), Live (v. n. vivir), Lively (a. vivo), Liver (s. viviente, higado), Living (s. modo de vivir), Lizard (s. lagarto, lagartija), Load (v. a. cargar), Loaf (s. pan), Loan (s. pr6stamo, empr6stito), L6bster (s. cangrejo de mar), L6cal (a. local), Lock (s. cerradura), L6cust (s. langosta), L6fty (a. alto, sublime), Log (s. leflo, trozo), Lone (a. solo, solitario), Long (a. largo), Look (v. a. & n. mirar), Lo6king-glass (s. espejo), Loop (s. presilla. ojal), Loose (a. suelto), Lord (s. sefior, Dios), macatibf. malaram. malam. catimauan. capaintulutan. dilatan, sipsipan. tacap. calaraman. bie, panugali. mete, alang bie. itas. sulu. quildap. calhipa, cauangis. queraclan maliari. calupa. naman, antimunaman. liriu, asucena. alagad, casaup, sanga. malambut, emasias. angganan, uacas. ticul. gulis. magcapaluat. dibeti. singsingtalicala. labi. paquiramdaman. malati, ditac. mie. malicsf. maq-uibie, ate. pamagcabi6. timbabalac, lupisac. lulanan, saquenan. tinape. pautangan, andam. 6ma qng dayat malat. tucnangan carfnan. paiusi, ceraddra, 6 candAru. durun. matas. dutung, tr6su. dili, magsarfli. macaba. lauan. salamfn. silu. laglag, calag. guini.

Page  53 53 Lose (v. a. perder), Loss (s. perdida, daino), Loud (a. ruidoso), Louse (s. piojo), Love (s. amor, carifno), Ldver (s. amante), L6ving (p. a. aficionado), Low (v. n. mugir, a. bajo), L6wer (a. mas bajo), L6wly (a. humilde), Low-water (s. baja mar), L6yal (a. leal, fiel), Luck (s. acaso, fortuna), Ldcky (a. afortunado), Lump (s. masa), Lungs (pl. pulmones), Lurk (v. n. espiar), Lust'(s. lujuria, sensualidad), Ldster (s lustre, brillantez), Lusty (a. fuerte, vigoroso), Luxury (s. lujuria), Lying (s. acto de mentir), M Mad (a. loco, furioso), Madam (s. madam, sefora), Magic (s. magia), Magistrate (s. magistrado), Maid (s. doncella), Main (a. principal, esencial), Mainly (ad. principalmente), Maintain (v. a. & n. mantener), Make (v. a. hacer, crear), Malady (s. enfermedad), Male (s. masculino), MAlice (s. malicia), Malicious (a. malicioso), Man (s. hombre), Manage (v. a. & n. manejar), Manager (s. administrador), Mane (s. crines del caballo), Manger (s. pesebre), Mangle (v. a. mutilar), Manifest (s. manifiesto), Manifold (a. muchos, varios), Manipulate (v. a. manejar), Manner (s. manera, modo), Manufacture (s. manufactura), mabating. mabAting, casirAn. mainge, masigla. cutu. sinta, lugud. malugud 6 malsintA. mapad 6 maburi. gumaga, a. mababa. lalung mababa. mababa lub. cati 6 mababo. tapat. sacali, calma. macalma. bual. baga. magumasid. calibian. maslag, maningning. masican. calibian. maglaram. mamulang, bugnut. sefi6ra, babafng macamal. salamanca, alicmata. magistradu. dalaga. buntdc 6 pun. (macabuntuc) hllung l4luna. alalayan. gaua, 6 dapat lalang. salin 6 saquift. lalaqui. deu&can. salupsupan. tAung lalaqui. bajalan. mamajala. quiling (ning cabayu). lalabangan. panabacan, panguturan. macabuntalag. dacal. timflan, panibalAn. asque. gauang gamat. A.1 I I I i

Page  54 54 Manure (s. abono, estiercol), Many (a. muchos, muchas), Mare (s. yegua), Mark (s. marca, serial), Market (s. mercado), Marriage (s. maridaje), Marry (v. n. casar [se]), Marsh (s. pantano), Mass (s. masa, misa), Massacre.(s. carniceria, matanza), Master (s. amo, dueio, maestro), Match (s. fosforo), Mate (s. consorte, compafiero), Matter (s. materia), Mature (a. maduro, juicioso), May (v. n. poder), Me (pn. me), Meadow (s. praderfa, prado), Meager (a. magro, flaco), Mean (s. hajo, vil, despreciable), Meaning (s. intenci6n, sentido), Meanness (s. bajeza), Measure (s. medida), Meat (s. came, vianda), Meddle (v.?,. entremeterse), Medicine (s. medicina), Meet (v. a. encontrar), Meeting (s. asamblea), Mellow (a. maduro, meloso), Melon (s. melon), Melt (v. a. derretir, disolver), Member (s. miembro), Memory (s. memoria), Mend (v. a. reparar, remendar), Mention (s. menci6n), Merchant (s. comerciante), Merit (s. merito), Merry (a. alegre, jovial), Middle (a. medio), Midnight (s. medianoche), Might (v. a. poder, fuerza), Mighty (a. fuerte, potente), Mild (a. indulgente), Milk (s. leche), Mill (s. mblino), Mimic (v. a. imitar), Mind (s. mente, entendimiento), Mine (pn. mio, mia), Miner (s. minador), Mirror (s. espejo), pataba, dinat ding animal. dacal. cabayung babay'. tanda. pipagtindan. miasaua. pami-asaua. bana, labac. masa, misa. patayan. guinu, maquibandi, maestru. sacafuego. asaua, cayabe. lulupan, nana. matua, malicul. maliari. cacu. pastfilan. ayat. 'bastlis. nasa cabaldugan. quebaban. panyucad. carni 6 ilam. maqulisalamfi ja. panillu. miquit. catipunan. malulut. milun. lasauan. casaup. mem6ria, 6 tanda. larinan, tapalan. saglaue. magcalacal. cayap a sucat panguntairan. matula, masaya. capitna. capitangan bengi. upaya, sicanan. masican. mapamatauad. gatas. cabi6 6 guilingan. lupan, apusan. paningid. cacu. magmimina. salamin.

Page  55 55 Mischief ( mal, dafio), Miserable (a. miserable, infeliz), Misplace (v. a. colocar mal), Misrepresent (v. a. representar mal), Miss (s. sefiorita), Mistake (v. a. equivocar),. Mister (s. sefor, [titulo]), Misunderstand (v. a. entender mal una cosa), Misdse (v. a. maltratar), Mix (v. a. mezelar), Moan (s. lamento, gemido), Mob (s. populacho, canalla), Mode (s. modo,. forma), M6del (v. a. modelar), Moist (a. humedo, mojado), M6isture (s. humedad, jugo), M6ney (s. moneda, dinero), M6nkey (s. mono), M6nster (s. monstruo), Moon (s. luna), Mop (s. estropajo), M6ral (s. moral), More (a. & ad. mas), More6ver (ad. ademas), M6rning (s. mafiana), Mosquito (s. mosquito), Moss (s. musgo, moho), Most (a. los, las, 6 lo mas), Moth (s. polilla), M6ther (s. madre), M6ther-in-law (s. suegra), M6tion (s. movimiento, moci6n)* M6tionless (a. inmovible, inm6vil), M6tive (s. raz6n, motivo), Mount (s. monte, montafia), Modntain (s. montafia, sierra), Mountaineer (s. montalies), Modntainous (a. montaioso), Mourn (v. a. deplorar, lamentar), Motrner (, lamentador), Mouse (s. raton), Modstache (s. bigotes), Mouth (s. boca, entrada) Move (v. a. mover, proponer), Much (ad. mucho), Mud (s. lodo), Mimble (v. a. barbotar), Murder (s. asesinato, v. asesinar), Murmur (s. murmullo), doc. pacacalulu, alang capalAran. tihis, mar6c a bili. mar6e maquiapus. senorita, guinu. mageamali, mabalating. guinu. mar6c A panifnid. papagcasaquitan. misamut. saingsing, aclis. ing balen a alang tarus 6 alang balu. pangimut 6 pangilus. lumupa. mamasamasa. basa, adta. cualta. machin. paanangatacutan. bulan. basan. bague macariquil qng caugalian. milalu. bucud. abac. yamuc. lumuit. dacal a dacal. pulilla. inda. catuangan a babay'. quilus. alang quimit, 6 pangilus. sangcan. bunduc. cabundican. tau qng bunduc. bulubundfiquin, mabunduc. pagcalungcutan 6 pagpaldasAn. sasaingsing. daguis. big6ti. asbuc. quimutan. dacal. burac. sulac. pamacamat6, v. macamat6. buang.

Page  56 56 Mlscle (s. musculo), Must (v. a. deber), Mute (a. mudo), My (pn. mi, mis, mia, mio), Myself (pn. yo mismo), My'stery (s. misterio), laman ning tau 6 animal A mabi6. tungcfil, sucat. pipi. cacu. cu cabud, ing casarilinancu. misterio, mala. N Nail (s. ufia, clavo), Naked (a. desnudo), Name (s. nombre), Narrow (a. angosto, estrecho), Nation (s. naci6n), Native (a. nativo), Natural (a. natural, sencillo), Naught (s. nada), NAughty (a. malo, malvado), NAvigate (v. n. navegar), Near (pr. cerca de, junto a), Neat (a. hermoso, pulido), Necessary (a. necesario), Necessity (s. necesidad), Neck (s. cuello), Need (s. necesidad), Needle (s. aguja), Neglect (v. a. descuidar), Neighbor (s. vecino), Neither (pn. ninguno), Nephew (s. sobrino), Nest (s. nido, nidada), Net (s. red), Never (ad. nunca, jamas), Nevertheless (ad. no obstante), New (a. nuevo), Next (a. pr6ximo), Nice (a. delicado, exacto), Niece (s. sobrina), Nigh (pr. cerca), Night (s. noche), No (ad. no), N6ble (a. noble), Nobody (s. nadie), Noise (s. ruido), None (pn. ninguno), Noon (s. medio dia), North (s. norte), Nose (s. nariz), Not (ad. no), N6thing (s. nada), cuciI, pacu. lubas. ]aguiu. maquitid, maqufput. balaiyan a tibuAn labuad, tibuan. tubu. piugalian, luse. ala. mar6c. maglayag. macaingul, macasiping. masanting, malinis. caministflan. ministil. b;tal. eaministflan. carayum. malibang. siping bale. ninuman. pangunacan laliqui. sale. lambAt, capilan man. agguiaman. bayu. malapit. mayap. pangunacan (babAy'). malapit. b6ngi. all. uagas. ninuman. fnge. ninuman. ugtung aldo. pangilu. Arung. ali. alA.

Page  57 57 Notice (s. noticia), N6tify (v. a. notificar), Notwithstanding (c. no obstante, aunque), Now (ad. ahora), Nowhere (ad. en ninguna parte), Ndmber (s. numero), Ndmerous (a. numeroso), Nurse (s. ama de cria), Nut (s. nuez), balita. balitanan, pabaluan. aguiang. / ngdni. numan caring lugal. bilang. mabilang, dacal. manese 6 mimfngat anac. butul a maraguil ning bungang dutung. O Oar (s. remo), Obedient (a. obediente), Obey (v. a. obedecer), Object (s. objeto), Obligation( s. obligaci6n), Oblige (v. a. obligar, complacer), Obscdre (a. oscuro), Observe (v. a. observar, mirar), Obstinate (a. obstinado), Obstruct (v. a. obstruir, impedir), Obtain (v. a. obtener, adquirir), Occasion (s. ocasi6n, ocurrencia), Occupant (s. ocupador), Occupation (s. ocupaci6n, empleo), Occupy (v. a. ocupar, emplear), Occdr (v. n. ocurrir), Ocean (s. oceano), Odor (s. olor, fragancia), Of (pr. de), Off (ad. para expresar separaci6n, ausencia, privaci6n 6 distancia), Offend (v. a. ofender, irritar), Offer (v. a. ofrecer, inmolar), Oil (s. aceite, oleo), Old (a. viejo, anciano), Omit (v. a. omitir), On (pr. sobre, encima), Once (ad. una vez), Only (a. unico, solo), Onward (ad. adelante), Open (a. abierto), Operate (v. n. operar, obrar), Opinion (s. opini6n), Opp6se (v. n. oponer), Opposite (a. fronterizo, opuesto), Oppress (v. a. oprimir), Or (con. 6, u), bags6. mapamintu. mamintu. sangcan, bague. catungculan. tungculan. madalumdum. magumasid, lumaue. masias a buntdc. sumpalan, baualan. paquiabutan. pangatagun. ing mangabala. catungculan. paglugalan, tungcul. mallari. cadayatmalatan. bau. qng, cang. marayu. cumasnuc, pamua. idaun, (ialdc). laru. matua. lacton. babo. misan. bucud, dili, sarili. muna 6 'sulung. macabuclat. daptan, gauan. balac. salangsang. sumanga 6 sumangid. talfcan 6 ascupan. 6, caya.

Page  58 58 Orange (s. naranja), Oration (s. oracion), Orator (s. orador), Order (s. orden, regla), Ordinary (a. ordinario), Original (a. original), Ornament (s. ornamento), Other (pn. otro), Otherwise (ad. de otra manera), Ought (v. imp. & def. deber), Our (pn. nuestro, nuestra), Ourselves (pn. pl. nosotros mismos), Out (ad. fuera), Odter (a. exterior), Outfit (s. vestidos), Outlaw (s. proscripto, bandido), Outside (s. superficie, exterior), Outwit (v. a. engafiar a una fuerza de tretas), Over (pr. sobre, encima). Overc6me (v. a. veneer), Overhead (ad. sobre la cabeza), Overlo6k (v. a. mirar desde lo alto), Oversed (v. a. inspeccionar), Oversleep (v. n. dormir demasiado), Overtake (?. a. alcanzar), Overthr6w (v. a. trastornar), Owe (v. a. deber, tener deudas), Own (a. propio, mio, mia), Owner (s. dueno, propietario), Ownership (s. dominio, propiedad), dalandan, sua. panalangin. manalangin. pamituquituquf utus. quecaldan. pigmulan. panagaulan. aliua. qng alfuang bague. sicat. quecatamu. qng casarilinan tamu. lual. malual. imalan. tulisan. lual. I.M. pamiraitnan. babo 6 tdlid. sumambdt. babo buntuc, 6 puntuc. dungdCing, matio. siasatan. mipatudtud. abutan. pitumbalican, gutgutan. manutang. bucid 6 sarili. maquibandi. bandi. P Pacify (v. a. pacificar), Pack (s. liQ, fardo), Package (s. fardo), Paddle (1. n. remar), Page (s. pagina), Pain (s. pena, castigo), Paint (v. a. & n. pintar), Pair (s. par), PAlace (s. palacio), Pale (a. palido), Palm (s. palma), Palsy (s. parilisis), Pan (s. cazuela, vasija), Pant (v. n. palpitar), Paper (s. papel), Pardon (s. perd6n), patajimic. balltan. faldd, balut. magse. pisning librui. casaquitan, parusa. magpinta. mipaparis. palacid, bale maragul. maputl&. (palad) palaspas. pile angin. cuali. carug salu. quibuit. papel. patAuad.

Page  59 59 Parent (s. padre, madre), Part (s. parte, partido), Participate (v. a. participar), PArtner (s. socio, compafiero), Party (s. partido, parte), Pass (v. a. pasar, traspasar), Passage (s. pasaje), Passion (s. pasi6n), Past (a. pasado), Pat (a. apto, conveniente), Patch (s. remiendo), Path (s. senda), PAtience (s. paciencia), Patient (a. paciente), Patriot (s. patriota), Padper (s. un pobre), Pause (s. pausa), Pay (v. a. pagar), Payment (s. paga), Peace (s. paz), Peak (s. cima), Peck (v. a. picar), Peciliar (a. peculiar), Peel (v. a. descortezar), Peep (v. n. asomar, atisbar), Pen (s. pluma), Pencil (s. lapiz), Penetrate (v. a. & n. penetrar), People (s. gente), Pepper (s. pimienta), Perfect (a. perfecto, acabado), Perf6rm (v. a. ejecutar, efectuar), Perfume (s. perfume), Perhaps (ad. quiza, quizas), Permanent (a. permanente), Permit (v. a. permitir), Perplex (v. a. confundir), Persecute (v. a. perseguir), Persevere (v. n. perseverar), Persist (v. n. persistir), Person (s. persona), Perspire (v. n. sudar), Persuade (v. a. persuadir), Pest (s. peste), Pet (s. favorito), Petition (s. memqrial), Pick (v. a. escoger), Pickle (s. salmuera), Picture (s. pintura, retrato), Piece (s. pedazo, pieza), tata, indu. campi, 6 daque, pinduAn. abAlu. manib, caraque. cayagum, cayabe. campi. dumalan, lumabas. pasagi, pamanlabas. damdam. milabas. sucat. tagpi. gasgas. capibabatan. manamdaman. patriota, ing malugud qng tibuaina. ing caliilu. pausa, pilatan qng salita. bayaran. bayad. caratunan. talutuc. tictue. sarili, casarilinan. talipan, bacbacan. tando 6 sumilip. pluma. lapiz. lungub. tau. paminta. ganap. daptan. pabangli. mecad, nun misan. macaparati (pilmi). paintulut. mabalig6. tagalan. magparati. magcapilit. catauan. mamauas. ablucan. pisti 6 salut. sese. paganaca. mamili. patis, palsinan. pintura. capirAsu. o

Page  60 60 Pig (s. cochino, lech6n) Pile (s. estaca, pila), Pillow (s. almohada), Pinch (v. a. pellizcar), Pitch (v. a. tirar), Pity (s. piedad), Place (s. lugar, sitio), Plague (s. peste, plaga), Plain (a. liso, llano), Plan (s. piano, modelo), Plant (s. planta), Plate (s. plancha, plato), Play (s. juego), Player (s. jugador), Plea (s. defensa, excusa), Pleasant (a. agradable), Please (v. a. agradar), Pleasure (s. gusto, placer), Pledge (s. prenda, fianza), Plenty (s. copia, abundancia), Plot (s. pedazo, pequefio de terreno), Pluck (v. a. tirar con fuerza), Plume (s. pluma, plumaje), Plunder (v. a. saquear), P6cket (s. bolsillo), Poem (s. poema), Poet (s. poeta), P6etry (s. poesia), Point (s. punta, punto), P6ison (s. veneno), Polite (a. cortes), Pond (s. estanque de agua), Poor (a. pobre), Pop (s. chasquido), Pop-gun (s. escopetilla con que juegan los muchachos), P6pular (a. popular), Port (s. puerto), Population (s. poblaci6n), P6rtion (s. porci6n, parte), Position (s. posicion, situaci6n), Possess (v. a. poseer, gozar), P6ssible (a. posible), Pour (v. a. hechar 6 vaciar liquidos de una en otra), P6wer (s. poder), Pox (s. viruelas), Practical (a. practico), Praise (s. fama, renombre), Practice (s. practica, uso), abiac, babing malati. andang. ulunan. candutan. ibasibas. pacalulu. (lugal) carinan. peste, camatayan. lisu, patag. lulupan. tanaman. plancha, pingan. pialung. maomialungan. panluilu cambil. cayamayama. miama, patulan. miama. sanla. labislabis. capirasung gabun a malatf. ibalabag, sapuliutan. bulbul. manamsam, manulisan. bulsa 6 suput. versu. mamagversu. pamagv6rsu. sepu. lasun. magalang. paldanuman. calulu. siuc. barilbarflanqu6caldan. sadsaran. cabalenan. capinduan, catumpic. pangabili. sarilinan, bandian. mallari. licas 6 ibulis. upaya 6 cayupayan. bulutung. masibdean. puri, dangalan. ugAli.

Page  61 Pray (v. a. & n. suplicar, rogar), Prayer (s. oraci6n, suplica), Precede (v. a. anteceder), Precious (a. precioso), Prefer (v. a. preferir), Pregnant (a. preflada, fertil), Prejudice (s. perjuicio), Preparation (s. preparacion), Prepare (v. d. & n. preparar), Presence (s. presencia), Present (s. presente, regalo), Preserve (v. a. preservar, conservar), Preside (v. a. presidir, dirigir), Press (v. a. aprensar, apretar), Presime (v. n. presumir, suponer), Pretend (v. a. & n. pretender, presumir), Pretty (a. lindo, bien parecido), Prevent (v. a. prevenir), Previous (a. previo), Price (s. precio, premio), Pride (s. orgullo), Priest (s. sacerdote), Private (a. secreto), Prize (s. premio), Pr6bable (a. probable), Proceed (v. n. proceder), Procdre (v. a. procurar), Prodlce (v. a. producir), PrOduct (s. producto), Profess (v. a. profesar), Pr6fit (s. ganancia), PrOgress (s. progreso), Prohibit (v. a. prohibir), PrOject (v. a. proyectar), Prolong (v. a. prolongar), PrOminent (a. prominente), PrOmise (s. promesa), Prom6te (v. a. promover), Prompt (a. pronto), Proof (s. prueba), Prop (v. a. sostener), Pr6per (a. propio, conveniente), PrOperty (s. propiedad, calidad), Pr6p6se (v. a. proponer), Proprietor (s. propietario), PrOsper (v. a. prosperar), Pr6strate (a. postrado), Protect (v. a. protejer), Protest (v. n. protestar), 61 magparugurugu, manalangin. panalangin. mina. mayulaga. pilinan. mabuctut. (perjuicio) munang pamiucal. pamiadia. miadia. durungutan. lamac. paluatan, paladnan. magbuntuc. dapflan. bintanganan, pamiucilan. paquicuanan. masanting. tangca. macapauna. alaga. catasan. pari. lijim. pala, ablas. mamittamit. isulung. pagpilitan. mamunga. abunga. magparati qng nanumang dapat. paiambut, tubu, paquinabang. mitatas, mumuquiat. ibaual. magmunicala. iluait. cumb6 6 taluctuc. pangacu. pamaniauad qng bague icacayap ning aliua. malagud. 2austan. alalAyan. sarili, cabague. casarilinan. pauaga. propietario, babandi. micalma. siclaud. saupan, campian. tftul 6 tumdtul.

Page  62 62 Proud (a. soberbio), Prove (v. a. probar, justificar), Provide (v. a. proveer), Prov6ke (v. a. provocar), Prddent (a. prudente), Pry (v. n. espiar), Puiblic (a. publico), Puff (s. soplo), Pull (v. a. tirar, coger). Pulse (s. pulso), Pulverize (v. a. pulverizar), Punch (s. punz6n), Punctual (a. puntual), Punish (v. a. castigar, penar), Pupil (s. discipulo), Pirchase (v. a. comprar), Pure (a. puro), Pirity (s. pureza), Purpose (s. intencion), Purse (s. bolsa), Pursuie (v. a. & n. perseguir), Push (v. a. empujar, estrechar), Put (v. a. poner, colocar), Put=off (s. retardo, dilataci6n), Pizzle (s. embarazo), Q matas a lub, mapagmaragul. patutuan, subcean. miadia, misadia. managyag. maingat. magumasid. jayag, capamisanan. tip. ibalabag, cuanan. pulsu. dunutan. punzon. matupad. parusan. alagad. sali. malinis, alang silat. calinisan. nasa. bulsa 6 suput. tagalan. tulac, quiputan. bili, cana. ifuag. salabat. Quake (v. n. temblar), Qualify (v. a. calificar, modificar), Quantity (s. cantidad), Quarrel (s. rifia), Quell (v. a. subyugar), Queer (a. estrafio, ridiculo), Query (s. cuesti6n, pregunta), Question (s. cuesti6n), Quick (a. vivo, viviente), Quick-witted (a. agudo, perspicaz), Quiet (a. quedo, quieto), Quit (v. a. descargar, dejar), Quite (ad. totalmente), Quiver (s. aljaba), R galgal. urian, umauan. timbang, alaga. pate. pabayatnan, ipalalam. macapagmulala, macapacaili. cutang. cutang. mabie, malagua. matilus, maisip. maratun. ilicas. cabiligan. tuquil a lulanan paslu. Race (s. raza, casta), Rag (s. trapo), Rage (s. rabia, furor), Raid (s. invasi6n), Rain (s. lluvia), laji, lipi. basan. mua. salaque. uran. ---------- —;- --------------------— ~ --- —-— ~ --- — ~ — --- —--------— 1 --- —----— - -—

Page  63 Raise (v. a. levantar, alzar), Rake (s. rastro, rastrillo), Rally (v. a. reunir), Ram (s. morueco), Range (v. a. colocar, ordenar), Rank (a. rancio, s. fila), Rap (v. a. & n. dar un golpe vivo y repentino), Rapid (a. rapido), Rapture (s. rapto), Rare (a. raro), Rdscal (s. picaro, brib6n) Rash (a. precipitado), Rasp (s. raspador), Rat (s. rata), Rate (s. tasa, precio), Rather (ad. mejor de gana), RAttle (v. a. & n. charlar), Rave (v. n. delirar), Raw (a. crudo, puro), Reach (v. a. alcanzar, llegar), Read (v. a. leer), Ready (a. listo, pronto), Real (a. real,-verdadero), Reap (v. a. segar), Rear (s. retaguardia), ReAson (s. razon, causa), Rebel (s. rebelde), Rebound (v. a. & n. rechazar), Rebuild (v. a. reedificar), Reblike (v. a. reprender), Recall (v. a. revocar), Receipt (s. recibo), Recent (a. reciente), Recognize (v. a. reconocer), Recommend (v. a. recomendar), Reconcile (v. a. reconciliar), Reconsider (v..a. considerar de nuevo), Rec6rd (v. a. registrar), Rec6ver (v. a. recobrar), Red (a. rejo, rubio), RedLice (v. a. reducir, disminuir), Reel (s. devanadera) Refer (v. a. & n. referir), Refine (v. a. refinar, purificar), Reflect (v. a. & n. reflejar), Reform (v. a. reformar [se]), RefrAin (v. a. refrenar), Refufse (v. a. rehusar), Regain (v. a. recobrar), 63 italacad. bacas. 'tipunan 6 cupcupan. pisun, alu. bili, samasnan, pituquituquian. tindic., s. pamituquituiqui. pulpuic. malicsi, masalusu. tacas. bijira. tampalasan. dapal. pangalis, pangatcat. daguis. balac, alaga. mainaman ya lub. magsalita. malingo6. sagufua 6 magadtu, malinis. dasnan. masa. malicsi. tutu. mamalut. bante tauli. matulid, sangcan. mapanlaban. isacuil. ibayu. sabianan. siran. recibu, pitandanan qng pamanangap. bayungbayu. quilalanan. panabilin. micasundu. magpanibayu. siasatan. bauian. malutu. bauasnan, ilati. calajan. saglauayan. linisan. paslagan. ibayu. piguilan. salangsang. bauian.

Page  64 64 Regard (v. a. estimar), Regenerate (v. a. regenerar), Region (s. regi6n), Regret (s. arrepentimiento), Regular (a. regular), Regulate (v. a. regular), Reign (s. reinado), Reject (v. a. rechazar), Rej6ice (v. a. & n. regocijar [se]), Relapse (v. n. recaer), Relate (v. a. relatar), Relative (s. relativo), Relax (v. a. & n. relajar), Release (v. a. soltar, libertar), Relent (v. n. enternecerse), Reliable (a. digno de confianza), Relief (s. alivio, consuelo), Rely' (v. n. confiar en), Remain (v. n. quedarse), Remark (s. observaci6n), Remedy (s. remedio), Remdmber (v. a. acordarse), Rem6te (a. remoto, lejano, distante), Rem6ve (v. a. remover), PRender (v. a. rendir, dar), Renew (v. a. renovar), Renodnce (v. a. renunciar), Rent (s. renta), Re6pen (v. a. abrir de nuevo), Repair (v. a. reparar), Repeal (v. a. revocar), Repeat (v. a. repetir), Repent (v. n. arrepentirse), Replace (v. a. reemplazar), Reply' (s. r6plica, respuesta), Rep6rt (v. a. referir, relatar), Represent (v. a. representar), Reprdach (v. a. reprochar), Repdlse (v. a. repulsar), Reputation (s. reputaci6n), Request (s. peticion), Rescue (v. a. librar, rescatar), Require (v. a. requirir), Resemble (v. n. asemejarse), Reserve (v. a. reservar), Reside (v. n. residir), Resign (v. a. resignar), Resist (v. a. resistir), Resource (s. recurso), Respect (v. a. respetar), pacamalan. mamalipi. carinan a macacauani caring aliu4. pamanisi. casantingan. salesean. cayarian. isacuil. magpacatila. mipasibayuan, milipat. manalese. camaganac. payalan alaga. ibili, ibulus. liunus, lambut a lub. sucat paniualan. saup. magtiuala quing. malacudn. masid. panulu, dalan. ganacan. maluat, dayu, palac. igogo. ian, ibi6. bayuan. isacquil. buis, bunga. busngi pasibayu. larfnan, ulipan. labagan. ulitan. sumisi. ahlan. paquibat. bangguitan, salesayan sabian. magbili qng lugal ning aliua. paquinaquit. isacuil. puri. cayaduanan. iligtas, atbusan. paquiduang. aniu, abas. illjim. manucnangan. mibata, yamyam. sanggalang, laban. capanintunan. gumalang.

Page  65 65 Resp6nd (v. a. responder), Resp6nse (s. respuesta), Rest (s. reposo, suefo), Restless (a. inquieto), Restdre (v. a. restaurar), Restrain (v. a. restringir), Restrict (v. a. restringir), Resdlt (v. n. resultar), Retain (v. a. retener), Retard (v. a. retardar), Retire (v. a. & n. retirar[se]), Retort (v. a. redarguir), Retreat (s. retirada), Retfirn (v. a. retribuir, devolver), Rednion (s. reuni6n), Reunite (v. a. & n. reunir[se]), Reveal (v. a. revelar), Revenge (v. a. vengar), Revenue (s. renta), Reverse (v. a. trastrocar), Review (v. a. rever), Revise (v. a. revisar), Revive (v. a. revivir), Revl6t (v. n. rebelarse), Revolution (s. revoluci6n), Rev6lve (v. a. revolver), Reward (s. recompensa, prenlio), Rib (s. costilla), Rice (s. arroz), Rich (a. rico), Riches (s. pl. riqueza), Ride (v. n. cabalgar), Right (a. derecho), Rigid (a. rfgido), Ring (s. circulo, v. tocar), Rinse (v. a. lavar), Rip (v. a. rasgar), Ripe (a. maddro), Ripple (v. n. manar), Rise (v. n. levantarse, nacer), Risk (s. riesgo, peligro), Rival (a. 6mulo, rival), River (s. rfo), Road (s. camino), Roam (v. n. andar vagando), Roar (v. n. rugir, aullar), Roast (v. a. asar, tostar), Rob (v. a. robar, hurtar), R6bber (s. robador, ladr6n), Robe (s. manto, toga), 5- 35894 maquibat. paquibat. painaua, paninap. balisa, alang capainauan. larinan. angganan. angganan. cararasnan. piguflan. ilfuag, iluat. musung, mull. manaluntuinan. macarayu, maca-cauani. bayaranan, ibalic, isublf. pipamisanan. mitipun, pipamisanan. pajayag. mamali. buis. alis-alis. subling lauan. siasatan. pasiglan, subling mi6. magalsa, manlaban. caguluan. alig6gon. ablas. taguiang. abias. mabandi, mayaman, masalapi. bandi. manga-bayu. matulid. masias. mabilug, v. tigtigan. mamipi. mangamus, mangfsi. malulut. manalas. talacad, mibangun, sunlag. panganib. cayay6, calig-ligan. ilug. dalan. maglAcu. gaga, gal6ung. inangnang. manaco. mapanaco. tibAbal.

Page  66 66 Rock (s. roca), R6cky (a. peiazco), Rod (s. varilla, cafna), Rogue (s. brib6n, picaro Roll (v. a. rodar), Roof (s. tejado), Room (s. cuarto), Root (s. raiz, origen), Rope (s. cuerda), Rot (v. a. pudrir), R6tfen (a. podrido), Rough (a. aspero, tosco), Round (a. redondo), Row (s. hilera, fila), R6yal (a. real, regio), Rub (v. a. estregar, frotar), Rtibber (s. estropajo, escofina) Ribbish (s. escombro), Ridder (s. tim6n), Rude (a. rudo), Ruin (s. ruina), Rule (s. regla, mando), Rdler (s. reglador), Rdmor (s. rumor), Run (v. a. correr), Rush (s. junco, impetu), Rust (s. herrumbre), S Sacred (a. sagrado), Sack (s. saco), Sad (a. triste), Saddle (s. silla), Safe (a. seguro), Safety (s. seguridad), Sail (s. vela), Sailor (s. marinero), Saint (s. santo), Salad (s. ensalada), SAlary (s. salario), Sale (s. venta), Salt (s. sal), Salute (v. a. saludar), Same (a. mismo), Sample (s. muestra), Sand (s. arena), Sap (s. savia), Sarcasm (s. sarcasmo), Sauce (s. salsa), batu. batung mabi&. taictic. muslac, palamara. dumillang. bubungan. silid. uyat duitung, yamit. lubid. mulic. mabulic. magaspang, bastils. mabilug. telatag. bague sangcap ng panga ari. picascasan, cuscusan. panguscuis. bual. tim6n, uguit. maclae a buntuc, masias a buntiec. casiran. tuntunan. taluntunan, gulis papel. sitsit-sitsit, butung butuing. mulai. bague cauangis ng yantuc. calauang. (sagradu), cagalang-galang. susut, bali. maluncut. sia. bitasa. cabitasan. layag. bugaruil, marineru. santu. (ensalAda), pamutat. upa. pamamisali. asin. mamtigue. mismu, murin. lipaan, tulad, alimbauan. balas. catas. tuya sumu. silsa, patfs.

Page  67 Saucy (a. insolente), Savage (s. salvaje, barbaro), Save (v. a. salvar), -Saw (s. sierra), Say (v. a. decir), Scald (v. a. escaldar), Scale (s. balanza), Scalp (s. craneo), Scdndal (s. escandalo), Scar (s. cicatriz), _Scie (a. raro), Scare (v. a. espantar), Scene (s. escena), Scheme (s. proyecto), School (s. escuela), Scold (v. a. & n. reafiiar), Scoop (s. cuchar6n), Scorn (v. a. & n. despreciar, desdefiar), Scour (v. a. fregar, limpiar), Scrap (s. migaja), Scrape (v. a. & n. raer, raspar), Scratch (v. a. rascar), Scream (v. a. chillar),,Scrub (v. a. estregar), Scum (s. espuma), Sea (s. mar), Sedbreeze (s. viento de mar), SeAcoast (s. costa marftima), 'Seal (s. sello), Seam (s. costura), Search (v. a. examinar, buscar), Sea-sick (a. mareado), SeAson (s. estaci6n), Seat (s. silla), Secret (a. s. secreto), Secdre (a. seguro), Sedice (v. a. seducir), See (v. a. & n. ver, observar), Seed (s. semilla), Seek (v. a. & n. buscar), Seem (v. n. parecer), Seize (v. a. asir, agarrar), Seldom (ad. raramente), Select (v. a. elegir), Self (pr. mismo), Sell (v. a. & n. vender), Send (v. a. enviar), Sense (s. sentido), Set (v. a. poner, fijar), Sentence (s. sentencia), 67 aliDg marine, masias a buntluc. muslac, alang tards. iligtas. lagari. sabian. ibangli. balanza, timbang. bfan buntuc. marauac a alimbAua. biuc. bijira. pamasdanan. palague. catatagan. pipagaralan, escuela. mimu. sandue. Umisan, payalan alaga. man6s, manumalid. mumu, mugmug. calisan, cayasan. mangafihus. galitguit, culisac. pigasgasan. bula. dayat malat. angin ng dayat malat. pangpang dayat malat. s6liu. tai. sulitan. maliliu. lacad ning panaun. luclucan. lijim. (siguro) bitasa. ablucan. lauan. bini, punla. panintunan. balac. sacmal. malagad, bijira. mimili. murin, cabuid. misali. parala. panamdam. ibili, pilmian. atul.

Page  68 68 Sentiment (s. sentimiento), Sentinel (s. centinela), Separate (v. a. & n. separar[se]), Serendde (s. serenata), Serene (a. sereno), Serious (a. serio, grave), Serpent (s. serpiente), Servant (s. criado), Serve (v. a. & n. servir, asistir), Service (s. servicio), Session (s. junta 6 sesi6n), Settle (v. a. colocar, fijar), Several (a. diversos, varios), Sew (v. a. & n. coser), Sex (s. sexo), Shade (s. sombra), Shake (v. a. sacudir, agitar), Shall (v. n. def. deber), Shallow (a. somero), Sham (v. a. engafiar), Shame (s. vergiienza), Shape (v. a. & n. formar), Share (s. parte, porci6n), Sharp (a. agudo), Shave (v. a. resurar, afeitar), She (pn. ella), Shear (v. a. atusar, tundir), Shed (v. a. verter), Sheep (s. oveja), Sheet (s. sabana, pliego de papel), Shelf (s. anaquel), Shell (s. cascara), Shield (s. escudo), Shine (v. n. lucir, brillar), Ship (s. nave, navio), Shirt (s. camisa de hombre), Shiver (s. pedazo, temblor), Shock (s. choque), Shoe (s. zapato), Shoemaker (s. zapatero), Shoot (v. a. tirar), Shop (s. tienda), Short (a. corto, breve), Shot (s. tiro, munici6n), Sh6ulder (s. hombro), Shout (v. n. dar vivas, exclamar), Show (v. a. mostrar), Shut (v. a. cerrar), Shy (a. timido), Sick (a. malo enfermo), capanamdam. bant6, tanud. cauani. (serenata) pamanulid ding musicus. (ser6no) maratun. e bularan. ubingan. utusan, ipus. magsilbi, sumuyu. suyu. pulung. ibili, pilmian. miayaliua, queraclan. manaf. pangalalaque 6 pangababay. anino, lilung. ipagpag, culugan. sucat. mababo. mamiriit. camarinayan. panga gaua. daque. mataram, matilus. calusan, balbasan. ya. tilusan, palduan. tugtugan. tupa. ulas, pliego. gradas ning aparador. balat. calasag. aslag, ningning. saquen. barung lalaqui. capirasu, ayun, galgAl. sumpung. sapin. zapateru, magsasapin. paturan. tindahan. macuyad. patud. pago. (mag viva), cull6 pamagsaya. paquit. icabat, isarA. tacutin. masaquit.

Page  69 69 Sickness (s. enfermedad), Side (s. lado), Sieve (s. taniz, criba, cedazo), Sift (v. a. cerner), Sigh (v. n. suspirar), Signal (s. serial, aviso), Sight (s. vista, mira), Sign (s. sefal, indicio), Silence (s. silencio), Silk (s. seda), Silver (s. plata), Similar (s. similar), Simple (a. simple, puro), Simply (ad. simplemente), Sin (s. pecado), Since (ad. ya que, desde), Sincere (a. sincero), Sing (v. n. & a. cantar), Singing (s. canto), Single (a. simple, solo), Sink (v. a. sumirse, v. n. hundir), Sip (v. a. echar traguitos), Sir (s. sefior), Sister (s. hermana), Sister-in-ldw (s. cuniada), Sit (v. a. sentarse), Site (s. sitio), Size (s. tamaifo, dimensi6n), Skeleton (s. esqueleto), Skill (s. destreza, arte), Skim (v. a. espumar), Skin (s. cutis), Skip (v. n. saltar), Skirt (s. falda), Skull (s. craneo), Sky (s. cielo), Slack (a. flojo), Slam (v. a. arrojar con violencia), Sldnder (v. a. calumniar), Slant (v. n. pender oblicuamente), Slap (s. manotada), Slave (s. esclavo), Sleep (v. n. dormir), Sleeve (s. manga), Slender (a. delgado), Slice (s. rebanada), Slide (v. n. resbalar), Slim (s. delgado), Sling (s. honda), Slip (v n. resbalar, escapar), saquit, salun. siping, catalindiqufngan. panialac, bich6. mits6, magag. mangisnauang malalam 6 saldac. tanda, aviso. panlalaue. tanda, manuyag. catajimican. sutla. pilac. iuangis. alang samut, malinis. alang casamut-samut. casalanan qng Di6s. yarin ita (ibat). alang samut, 6 luse. magcanta, dalit. cant6, dalit. luse. lumbug. malduc, maliup. seinor, guinu. capatad a babai. bay6 a babai. lucluc. lugal. degilan. bancala. licsian. pop6an mamula. balat. lucsu. sala. bican buntuc, bungu. banua. malubac, maina. ibasibas. bintangan. macasandig. tampan. alipan. matudtud. mangas bard. ayat. guili, capirasu. taluras, taldsad. ayat. pamasibas. pamasibas, taluras, taldsad. I I I. I I I I I 1I Ij

Page  70 70 Slope (s. sesgo, declive), Slouch (v. a. & n. estar cabizbajo), Slow (a. tardfo, lento), Sly (a. astuto), Small (a. pequefo), SmIll-pox (s. viruelas), Smart (s. escozor), Smash (v. a. romper), Smell (v. a. & n. oler), Smile (v. n. sonreirse), Smoke (s. humo, vapor espeso), Smooth (a. liso, llano), Smdggle (v. a. hacer el contrabando), Snail (s. caracol) Snake (s. culebra), Snap (v. a. hacer estallar una cosa), Snare (s. lazo, trampa), Snatch (v. a. arrebatar), Sneak (v. n. venir a la sordina), Sneer (v. n. hablar con desprecio), Sneeze (v. n. estornudar), Snort (v. n. resoplar), So (ad. asf), Soak (v. a. & n. remojarse), Soap (s. jab6n), S6ber (a. sobrfo, serio), Society (s. sociedad), Soft (a. blando), Soil (v. a. ensuciar), Sold (pp. vendido), S6ldier (s. soldado), Sole (s. planta del pie), S6lemn (a. solemne), Solicit (v. a. solicitar), Solicitor (s. procurador), S6lid (a. solido), Solve (v. a. resolver), Some (a. algo de, alguno), Snow (s. nieve), S6mebody (s. alguien), S6mething (s. alguna cosa), Sometime (ad. en algun tiempo), S6mewhat (s. alguna cosa), S6mewhere (ad. en alguna parte), Son (s. hijo), Song (s. canci6n), S6n-in-law (s. yerno), Soon (ad. presto, pronto), Sore (s. dolorida, dolor), S6rrow (s. pesar, tristeza), pasandfg. macarucu. macupad, malamlam. mapanalit. malati. bulutung. pitic, gat1l. siran. mau. tumiman. asuc, sing6. malinatnat. dapat A macabaual. susu. ubingan. papacbungAn. silu, pasulu. samsaman. gulung gulung. manlibac. mag aching, manasnA bubugja. macanian. basan. sabun. maingal, mAtas a lib. pamiagum. malambut. dinatin. misali, apisalf. sundalus. talampacan. masusi. aduan. (procurador) talapamic. masias, matibe. arian ing capicacunuan. ditac qng, mapilan. ulap. ninuyaman. nanuman. qng dit apanaun. nanuman. nucarinmAn. anac a lalAqui. canta. maniyang A lalaqui. malagu4. sugat, sAquit. lungcdt.

Page  71 71 Sort (s. suerte, genero), Soul (s. alma, esencia), Sound (a. sano, entero), Soup (s. sopa), Source (s. manantial, origen), Sow (v. a. sembrar), South (s. sur), Sdwing-time (s. sementera), Space (s. espacio), Spade (s. laya, azada), Span (s. palmo), Spare (v. a. & n. ahorrar, conservar), Spasm (s. espasmo), Speak (v. a. hablar), Speaker (s. el que habla), Spear (s. lanza, arpon), Speech (s. habla, discurso), Speed (s. prisa), Spell (s. hechizo, turno), Spend (v. a. gastar, disipar), Spider (s. arafia), Spill (v. a. derramar), Spin (v. a. hilar), Spine (s. espinazo), Spirit (s. espiritu), Spit (s. asador), Splendid (a. esplendido), Split (v. a. hender), Spoil (v. a. pillar, robar), Sport (s. juego), Spot (s. mancha, lugar), Spread (v. a. extender), Spring (v. n. bratar, saltar), Sprinkle (v. a. regar, rociar), Sprout (s. vastago), Spur (s. espuela), Spurn (v. a. acocear), Spy (s. espia),' Squall (s. fugada de viento, chubasco, chillido), Square (a. cuadrado), Squeal (v. n. plafiir, gritar), Squeeze (v. a. apretar), Squirt (v. a. jeringar), Stab (v. a. matar a pufialadas), Stable (s. establo), Stage (s. tablado, teatro), Stagnant (a. estancado), Stain (v. a. manchar), Stair (s. escalon), capalaran. caladua. mayap. sopa. sibul. tanam. abagat, abagatan dayatan. pilatan, liualas. sudsud. dangan. magtipid. pasma. mafiabi. (ing) mafiabi. tandis. sabi, discurso. dapal. culam, lugal. gasta, sintang. babagua. mubu, mulus. gauang sinulad, mabal. galudgud. pangisnaua, caladua. nangnangan. malam, masaya. ilalam. manamsam, manaeo. pialung. (mansa, lugal) dungis. iladlad. lucsu. tugtugan. suili. espu6la. maldac. asdap. culisac. (cuadradu) balingbaling. managul6le. tallcan. mibulus danAm. panacsacanan angang eya mat6. culungan. pilalagu6n. macacubut. (mansajan), dungisan. 6ran. II I I i

Page  72 72 Stake (s. estaca, poste), Stall (s. pesebre), Stamp (v. a. patear), Stand (v. n. estar en pie 6 derecho), Star (a. estrella), Start (v. a. saltar), Starve (v. a. perecer de hambre), Statement (s. relaci6n), Station (s. estaci6n), Stay (s. estancia, descanso), Steady (a. firme, fijo), Steal (v. a. & n. hurtar), Stem (s. vastago), Step (s. paso, escalon), Step-br6ther (s. medio hermano), Stdp-sister (s. medio hermana), Step-son (s. hijastro), Stern (a. austero), Step-daughter (s. hijastra), Step-father (s. padrasto), Stdp-m6ther (s. madrasta), Stick (s. palo, palillo, palito), Stiff (a. tieso), Still (v. a. aquietar), Sting (v. a. picar, morder), Stingy (a. mezquino), Stink (v. n. heder), Stdmach (s. est6mago), Stir (v. a. remover, agitar), Stone (s. piedra), Stop (v. a. detener, parar), Store (s. abundancia, almacen), Storm (s. tempestad), St6ry (s. historia), Stout (a. robusto), Stove (s. estufa), Straight (a. derecho), Strain (v. a. colar, filtrar), Strange (s. extranio), Strangle (v. a. ahogar), Strap (s. correa), Straw (s. paja), Stray (v. a. descarriarse), Stream (s. arroyo), Street (s. calle), Strength (s. fuerza), Stretch (v. a. & n. extender), Strict (a. estrieto), String (s. cuerdecita), andang, tuad. lababangan. dacuracan. talacad. batuin. lucsu. mat6 qng danup. listajan. pituctucnangan. tucnangan. matiguit. manaco. tangque. lacbang. eapatad a 6 casang ibpa 6 indu (lalaqui). capatad a 6 casang ibpa 6 indi (babaf). pangunacan a lalaqui. matupad, banal. pangunacan a babai. bapang caduang asaua ng inda. darang caduang asaua ng tata. paluca, tingting, patpat. matulid, masias a talacad. dumatun. tuctie, cumet, asiaran. alang cabaldugan. sing6 mar6e a bau. dungus. galogon, culugan. batu. tucnang. labislabis, almacen. mar6e a panaun, baguiui. salita. mataba, masican a catauan. calang. matuilid. salacan. tubu qng aliuang carinan. malumud, ilumud. (correa) babat a balat. are. mabating, malili. sapa. dalan. sicanan. yatiat. matupad. pisi, lting.

Page  73 73 Strong (a. fuerte), Strdggle (v. n. esforzarse, bregar), Stddy (s. estudio), Stdpid (a. estupido), Style (s. estilo), Sdbject (a. sujeto), Sublime (s. sublime), Submit (v. a. & n. someter), Subscribe (v. n. suscribir), Subside (v. n. sumergirse), Sdbstance (s. sustancia), Substitute (v. a. sustituir), Succeed (v. n. & a. suceder), Success (s. suceso), Such (d. tal, semejante), Suck (v. a. & n. chupar), Strike (v. a. & n. golpear), Sddden (a. repentino), Suffer (v. a. & n. sufrir), Sdffocate (v. a. sofocar), Sugar (s. azucar), Suggest (v. a. sugerir), Sdicide (s. suicidio), Suit (s. vestido), Sditable (a. conforme), Sulky (a. regainon), Sdmmer (s. verano), Sun (s. sol), Sdnrise (s. salida del sol), Sdnset (s. puesta del sol), Sdnshine (s. solana), Superior (a. superior), Sdpper (s. cena), Supply' (v. a. suplir), Supp6rt (v. a. sostener), Suppdse (v. a. suponer), Suppress (v. a. suprimir), Supreme (a. supremo), Sure (a. seguro, cierto), Sdrface (s. superficie), Surpass (v. a. sobre salir), Sdrplus (s. sobrante), Surprise (v. a. sorprender), Surrender (v. a. & n. rendir, ceder), Surrodnd (v. a. circundar), Survey (v. a. inspeccionar, apear), Survive (v. n. sobrevivir), Suspect (v. a. & n. sospechar), Suspend (v. a. suspender), Suspense (s. suspension), masican, matibe. magcapilit. pamagaral. macmtAc. aniu. macalub, macapamint6. matas. maglalam qng upaya ning aliuA. pasulat. sungab, lumbdig. calasAn, calamnan. libian, alilan. alilan, mapallari. millari, capallarinan. antimo. sipsip. pulpucan. bigla. mibata. patdan, puputan. asdcal. ganacan. pamagpacamat6. imalan. causig. palpi-mua. calaldo. ald6. pamanaslag ng ald6. pangalbdg ng ald6. sala, aslag ng ald6. matas a matas. apunan. alilan. alalayan. inucul, uculan. balAcan. ilaco, lact6n. catas catasan. bitasa. lapad. maca-una, maca-iguit. tagan, labis. biglajan, magmulala sumucu. patulugan. siasatan. luid i biW. mamiucul. patucnang. piguil. - ---

Page  74 74 Suspicion (s. sospecha), SwAllow (v. a. tragar), Swamp (s. pantano), Swarm (s. enjambre), Swear (v. a. & n. jurar), Sweat (s. sudor), Sweep (v. a. & n. barrer), Swell (v. n. hincharse), Swift (a. veloz), Swing (v. n. balancear), Sword (s. espada), Sympathy (s. simpatia), System (s. sistema), T TAble (s. mesa, tabla), Tail (s. cola), TAilor (s. sastre), Take (v. a. tomar, coger), Tale (s. cuento, fabula), Talk (v. n. hablar, conversar), Tall (a. alto, elevado), Tame (a. amansado, domado), Tap (v. a. tocar ligeramente), Tar (s. alquitran), TArdy (a. tardo), Task (s. tarea, trabajo), Taste (s. gusto, sabor), Tax (s. contribuci6n), Taxation (s. tasacion), Tea (s. te), Teach (v. a. ensefnar, maestrar), Teacher (s. preceptor, ensefador), Team (s. tiro de caballos), Tear (v. a. rasgar), Tear (s. lagrima), Teeth (s. pl. dientes), Tell (v. a. & n. decir), Temper (v. a. templar), Temperance (s. templanza), Tempest (s. tempestad), Tenant (s. arrendador), Term (s. termino), Terrible (a. terrible), Test (s. examinaci6n), Than (ad. que, de), Thank (v. a. agradecer), Thanks (s. pl. gracias), That (pn. aquello, aquel), pamaniicul. malddc. labac, pinac. bal6 tamulmu. sumpa. pauas. mamalis. mangalbag. masalu'su. magyuyu. (espada) talibung. ufli. taluntunan, tuntunan. lamesa. fqui. sastre, mamanaf. cuanan. salita. manabi. matas. mamu, matunud. sagquilan. (alquetran) agta. macupad. casiang, 6bra. tacman. ambag. buis. sA. turu. t6tiru. parejang cabayu. gabacan. lua. ipan (dacAl). sabi. timplan, pandan. capalanan. baguiu. mamuisan. amanu. catAcutacut. pamagsdlit. 6, nAng. pasalamat. salamat. yan, itA.

Page  75 75 The (art. el, la, lo, los, las), Theatre (s. teatro), Thee (pn. te, a ti), Their (pn. sus, suyos, suyas), Them (pn. los, las, les), Then (ad. entonces), There (ad. alli, alli), Therefore (ad. por esto, por eso), These (pn. pl. estos, estas), They (pn. pl. ellos, ellas), Thick (a. espeso, denso), Thief (s. ladr6n), Thigh (s. muslo), Thin (a. delgado, flaco), Thine (pn. tuyo, tuya), Thing (s. cosa), Think (v. a. & n. pensar), This (pn. este, 4sto, esta), Thorn (s. espina), Th6roughly (ad. enteramente), Those (pn. pl. aquellos), Thou (pn. t6), Thought (s. pensamiento), Thread (s. hilo), Threat (s. amenaza, v. a. amenazar), Thrift (s. ganancia), Thrive (v. n. prosperar), Throat (s. garganta), Through (pr. de medio a4medio, por entre), Thumb (s. pulgar), Thump (s. porrazo, golpe), Thus (ad. asi), Thy (pn. tl), Thdnder (s. trueno), Thyself (pn. a ti mismo), Tickle (v. a. hacer.cosquillas), Tie (v. a. anudar, atar), Tight (a. tirante, tieso), Till (pr. & c. hasta que), Timber (s. madera), Time (s. tiempo), Timely (ad. con tiempo), Timid (a. timido), Tin (s. estafno), Tip (s. punta), Tipsy (a. borracho), Tire (s. cerco de hierro en un reudo), Tiresome (a. tedioso), To (pr. al, t la, A), Toast (v. a. tostar), fng, ding. pilalagu6n, teAtru. qng qu6ca. carela. qng carela. nun macaniin, canita. carin, quen. uli niti, ifiapin. deti, d6ni. fla. macapal, liquit. mapanaco. puad. malati, ayat. queca. bague. mucul. iti, ini. sucsuc. cabilugan. d6ta, d6n. ica. cauculan. sinulad. bala, v. a. balin. tubu, paquinabang. micalma. acmulan. mangangapitna, qng cabusalan. tindaragul. sacsac. macanian. qu6ca, qng qu6ca: duld1l. qng quecamdrin. quiliquitian. ibutnfil, aptasan, talian. mamabit, matiguit. anggang. ddtung. panaun. maqui-panadn. tacutin, matal6ti. tingapdti. s6pu. mapalasing. culung a bacal. macasnic. cang, para cang, para. inang-nang. -------------- ~~ ~

Page  76 76 To-day (ad. hoy), Toe (s. dedo del pie), Together (ad. juntamente), Toil (v. n. trabajar), Tomb (s. tumba), To-m6rrow (ad. mafana), Tone (s. tono de la voz, tono), Tongue (s. lengua), To-night (ad. esta noche), Too (ad. tambien), Tool (s. herramienta), Tooth (s. diente), Top (s. cima), Torch (s. antorcha), T6rrent (s. torrente), T6rture (s. tortura), Toss (v. a. tirar, lanzar), T6tal (a. total), Touch (v. a. & n. tocar), Tough (a. correoso, tieso), T6ward (pr. & ad. hacia), T6wel (s. toalla), T6wer (s. torre), Town (s. pueblo), Toy (s. juguetes), Track (s. vestigio, rastro), Trade (s. comercio), Tradition (s. tradici6n), Traffic (s. trafico), Traitor (s. traidor), Tramp (s. vagabundo), Transact (v. a. negociar), Transfer (v. a. transferir), Transform (v. a. & n. transformar), Translate (v. a. traducir). Transparent (a. trasparente), Transport (v. a transportar), Trap (s. trampa), TrApper (s. cazador de animales). Trash (s. porqueria), Travel (v. n. viajar), Tray (s. artesa), Treachery (s. perfidia), Treason (s. traici6n), Treasure (s. tesoro), Treat (v. a. & n. tratar), Treaty (s. tratado), Tree (s. arbol), Trdmble (v. n. temblar), Trespass (v. a. traspasar), ngeni. talfring bitfs. miabe. galo, dapat. (tumba) cutcutan. bidcas. siudla, catni ning siualA. dila. potang b6ngi. naman. casangcpan. ipan. babo, taluctuc. sumbu. bulds. pasaquit. basibas, micha. cabilugan, catipunan. sagquilan, apisan. macuniat. banda, nangan. tualla. torre. bal4n. pilungan. bacas. calacal. acamulatan, amulatan. calacal. sucab, tacsil. layas, tipas tipas. lumAue. ilipat, yutaba. ibayu. ibaldug ing metung a sabi qng aliua. mamaninag. milipat. payuyut 6 pasulu. mangasu. palac, leac. maglacb6, maglacad. batia, lalabangan. casucaban. catacsilan. bandi. maqui, cayAri. picayari. duitung. galgal. magcilang.

Page  77 77 Trial (s. prueba), Trick (s. engafio), Trifle (s. bagat6la), Trim (a. compuesto, bonita), Trip (v. a. hacer, caer a uno), Triumph (s. triunfo), Trivial (a. trivial), Trodble (v. a. disturbar, molestar), True (a. verdadero), Truly (ad. verdaderamente), Trunk (s. tronco, baul), Trust (s. confianza), Truth (s. verdad), Try (v. a. & n. examinar, probar), Tug (v. a. sacar con fuerza), Tdmble (v. n. caer), Timult (s. tumulto), Tune (s. tono, musica), Turn (v. a. volver), Tdrtle (s. t6rtola, tortuga), Twine (v. a. enroscar), Twist (v. a. & n. torcer); Tyrant (s. tirano), U Ugly (a. feo), Ultimate (a. ultimo), Umbrdlla (s. parasol), Unanimous (a. unanime), Unarmed (a. inerme), Undsked (a. no llamado), Unawdre (ad. inopinadamente), Unbearable (a. intolerable), Unbend (v. a. aflojar), Unbr6ken (a. ind6mito), Unbdried (a. insepulto), Uncertain (a. incierto), Uncle (s. tio), Unclean (a. inmundo, sucio), Unc6mmon (a. raro), Unc6mfortable (a. desconsolado), Unconcern (s. indiferencia), Unconditional (a. sin condici6n), Unc6rk (v. a. destapar), Uncover (v. a. descubrir), Uncdltivated (a. inculto), Uncut (a. no cortado), Under (pr. & ad. debajo), Undercl6thing (s. vestido), caustan. pirait. alang ulaga. samutsamut, masanting. patiraniragta. uagui. bague alang ulaga. labugan, lingasngasan. tutu. qng catutuan. pun ning dutung, baul. catiualan. catutuan. sulitan, subucan. sapuliutn. mabaldug. gumgum, alingongo. (tonu) tigtigan. mibalic. batubatu; pau. palipitan. lubiran. tampalAsan. maichfra, manauang. tauli. payung. micacam6tung. alang sandata. emeyaus. cabiglabigli. e6a pihata. lubacan. maliap. e macacutcut. alang cabitasan, e pilmi. bapa. marinat. malagad, bijira. malungcut. quealan capigagaucan. alang pasubali. ilac6 tacap, ibuclat. mamuge, buclatan. alang tanam. e cutud. lalam. imAlan, piblasan. I - i II 4 1 I II I I I II

Page  78 78 Underg6 (v. a. sufrir), Undergr6und (a. subterraneo), Underneath (ad. debajo), Understand (v. a. entender), Undertake (v. a. & n. emprender), Undesirable (a. lo que no es deseable), Undivided (a. indiviso), Und6 (v. a. deshacer), Undodbted (a. indubitado), Undress (v. a. desnudar), Unearth (v. a. desenterrar), Uneasy (a. inquieto), Unemployed (a. desocupado), Unequal (a. desigual), Uneven (a. desigual), Unfair (a. doble, falso), Unfaithful (a. infiel), Unfamiliar (a. desacostumbrado), Unfasten (v. a. desatar), Unfed (a. falto de alimento), Unfinished (a. imperfecto), Unfit (a. desconveniente), Unf6ld (v. a. desplegar), Unf6rtunate (a. desafortunado), Unfriendly (a. aspero), Unhappily (ad. infelizmente), Unhappy (a. infeliz), Unhealthy (a. enfermizo), Unheard(of) (a. sin ejemplo), Unh6ly (a. profano), Unhirt (a. ileso), UninhAbited (a. inhabitado), Uninjured (a. ileso), Unite (v. a. & n. unir[se]), Unjust (a. injusto), Unkind (a. nada cortes, desbondadoso), Unkn6wn (a. inc6gnito, deseonocido), Unlawful (a. ilegitimo), Unless (c. a menos, que sino), Unlike (a. diferente, desemejante), Unl6ad (v. a. descargar), Unl6ck (v. a. abrir alguna cerradura), Unmarried (a. soltero), Unnecessary (a. innecesario), Unn6ticed (a. no observado), Un6ccupied (a. desocupado), Unpaid (a. no pagado), Unpleasant (s. desagradable), Unprepared (a. no preparado), Unproductive (a. est6ril), mibata. lalam gabun. llalam. talastasan, intindian paquirasan. e sucat pagnasan. 6pa miraque. calagan, siran. alang capicacunuan. mag lubas. anguan. balisa. alang dapat. e pareju. 6 pAtag. d6bli, adua. paliias. e piugalian, e sane, 6 lum6. calagan. culang pamangan. e ganap. e caministilan 6 cabAgue. iladlad, yatyat. alang calma. e maluguid. alang tila. alang tula. maina catauan, salun6ru. e dimdam. mar6c, e mayap. miligtas. licuan. miligtas. piabayan. 6 tapat. alang galang, alang ganacA. e maquilala, 6 picabaluan. 6 tun6. nun uarit, nun 6. aliua, maca aliua, 6 calupa. ilac6 laman. busniAn. baintAu. 6 magsilbi, e caministilan. e melasmas. alang dapat, alang abala. 6 mebayad, alang bAyad. mar6c a lasa, malungcft. 6 macasadia. e mamunga 6 baug.

Page  79 79 Unpr6fitable (a. inutil), Unprotected (a. desvalido, sin protecci6n), Unreasonable (a. desrazonable), Unrdly (a. desenfrenado, 6 desarreglado), UnsAfe (a. no seguro), Unseemly (a. indecente), Unseen (a. invisible), Unselfish (a. desinteresado), Unsound (a. falto de salud, enfermo), Unsteady (a. voluble), Unthought(of) (a. impensado), Untidy (a. sucio), Untie (v. a. desatar), Until (ad. hasta), Unt6 (pr. a para, en), Unt6ld (a. secreto, no dicho), Untrue (a. falso), Untried (a. que no se ha ensayado), Undsual (a. inusitado), Unwelcome (a. desagradable), Unwell (a. enfermizo), Unwilling (a. desinclinado), Unwise (a. imprudente), Unw6rthy (a. indigno), Up (ad. arriba), Uphill (a. dificil, penoso), Up6n (pr. sobre, encima), Upper (a. superior), Upright (a. derecho), Upr6ar (s. tumulto), Upset (v. a. trastornar), Upside-down (ad. de arriba abajo), Upward (a. lo que se dirigir hacia arriba), Urge (v. a. & n. incitar, hurgar), Us (pr. nos, nosotros), Usage (s. tratamiento, uso), Use (s. uso), Useful (a. util), Usual (a. usual), Utilize (v. a. utilizar), Utmost (a. extremo), Utter (a. exterior), V Vacant (a. vacio, desocupado), Vague (a. vago), Vain (a. vano), Valley (s. valle), e masilbi. salanta. alang catuliran. alang panpan a asbuc 6 gusut. e bitasa, alang cabitasan. manauang. e mayayaquit. alhng casaquiman, 6 masaquim. manamdaman. mapamuri. alhng isip, 6 ucul. marinat. calagan. angga. para, carin. e masaglaue. calaraman, 6 tutu. e misane, e mesubue. 6 maca usu, e magagamitan, 6 masilbi. mar6c a lasa. maina catauan. alang yungyung. alang ingat, 6 biasa. emangaintulid, emaulaga. babo. masaquit. babo. matas. matulid. aling6ngo. guluan. manibat babo, munta lalam. talanga-nangan babo. yagyagdn. itamu. galang. ugali, usu, gamit. magsilbing, gamitan. gamitin. gamitan. uacas, calulualan. lual. alang lamAn. layas. alang cu6nta. parang.

Page  80 80 VAlor (s. valor), VAluable (a. precioso), Value (s. precio), Vanish (v. n. desvanecerse), Vanity (s. vanidad), Variety (s. variedad), Various (a. vario, diverso), VAry (v. a. & n. variar), Veil (s. velo), Vein (s. vena), Vengeance (s. venganza), Venison (s. carne de venado), Ventilate (v. a. ventilar), Venture (s. riesgo), Very (ad. muy), Vessel (s. vasija, buque), Vice (s. vicio), View (s. vista), Vigor (s. vigor), Vile (a. vil, bajo), Village (s. aldea), Vine (s. vid), Vinegar (s. vinagre), Violate (v. a. violar), Violent (a. violento), Virgin (s. virgen), Virtue (s. virtud), Visible (a. visible), Vision (s. visi6n), Visit (v. a. & n. visitar[se]), Visitor (s. visitador), Vivid (a. vivo), Voice (s. voz), V6yage (s. viaje por mar), Vulgar (a. vulgar), W Wade (v. n. vadear), Wag (v. a. mover lijeramente), WAgon (s. carro grande), Waist (s. cintura), Wait (v. a. & n. esperar), WAiter (s. mozo de cafe), Wake (v. n. velar), Walk (v. n. & n. pasear), WAlking (s. paseo), Wall (s. pared, muralla), Wander (v. a. & n. errar), alaga. maulaga, mayalaga. alaga. mapda. catasan. pamiyayalili. mialiua, queraclan. piayaliuan, piyayaliuan. tacap, velu. uyat. (venganza) taniman. usa, lam&n usa. payangin, magpayangin. panganib. tutung. gugdling, saquen. (viciu) mar6c a paungali. panlalaue. sican. mababa. gutad, a maquf bale. tanaman a cuculate. aslam. pilitan. sAy. virgen, itang e micasala ibat qng pang a bait na. cabanalan. mayayaquit. manuyag. apa. talasiasat. mabie. siuala. pamaglayag qng dayat malat. picabaluan, a queraclan. lumipat qng daniman. quimut, galo. garreta. auacan. manaya. utus-utusan. magpuyat. magpasial. pasial. pader, bacud a batu. luyungluyung, melili.

Page  81 81 Want (v. a. & n. necesitar), War (s. guerra), Warm (a. calido), Warn (v. a. avisar), Wash (v. a. lavar), Warp (v. n. torcer), Waste (v. a. disminuir, malgastar Watch (s. desvelo, vigilancia), Water (s. agua), Watermelon (s. zandia), Watery (a. acuoso), Wave (s. olas, honda), Wax (s. cera) Way (s. camino), We (pn. nosotros), Weak (a. d6bil), Wealth (s. riqueza), Wean (v. a. destetar), Weapon (s. arma), Wear (v. a. gastar, usar), Weary (v. a. cansar), Weather (s. tiempo), Weave (v. a. tejer), Web (s. tela, tejido), Wed (v. a. & n. casar[se]), Wedding (s. nupcias, casamiento) Weed (s. mala yerba), Week (s. semana), Weep (v. a. llorar), Weigh (v. a. & n. pesar), Welcome (a. recibido con agrado) Welfare (s. prosperidad), Well (s. fuente, pozo), West (s. poniente, occidente), Wet (a. humedo), What (pn. que), Wheel (s. rueda), When (ad. cuando), Where (ad. donde), Whereas (ad. por cuanto), Whereby (ad. por lo cual), Wherever (ad. donde quiera que), Whether (ad. si, sea), Which (pn. cual), While (ad. mientras), Whim (s. antojo, capricho), Whine (v. n. llorar sin ruido), Whip (s. azote), Whirl (v. a. & n. girar), 6-35894 magminlstil. (guerra) labandn. mapali. pabalu. mamipi mandilu, uasan. salingcu, magpacli, pacliin. culangan. pamagpfiyat, pamagbant6. dandm. pacuan. daranum, marandm. alun. pagquit. dalan. itamu, icamf. maina. bandi. yauat qng sdsu. sand&ta, pataram. gasgas, pupud. magal. panaun. mabal. inabtl. maquias&ua. pamiasaua. mar6c a dicut. parumingu. quiac. timbangan. mayap a panga tangap; n ting. calmang mayap. talaga. albuigan. mamasamasa. nanu. dulang parulang. capilan. nucarin. qng ulining. qng uli niti. nun nuya. sanu man. isanu. anggang. pita. quiac. paluca. tumulug. i I I 4 0 nayap A pafia-.

Page  82 82 Whiskers (s. mostacho), Whisper (v. n. enchichear), Whistle (v. a. & n. silbar), White (a. blanco), Whither (ad. adonde), Who (pn. qui6n, que), Whole (a. todo, total, entero), Whom (pr. acusativo de "who"), Why (ad. porque), Wide (a. ancho), Widow (s. viuda), Width (s. anchura), Wife (s. esposa, marida), Wild (a. silvestre), Wildly (ad. sin cultivo, desatinadamente) Will (s. voluntad), Win (v. a. ganar), Wind (s. viento), Window (s. ventana), Windy (a. ventoso), Wing (s. ala), Wink (v. n. cerrar los ojos, 6 pestafiar), Winner (s. ganador), Winter (s. invierno), Wipe (v. a. limpiar), Wire (s. alambre), Wisdom (s. sabidurfa), Wise (s. sabio), Wish (v. a. desear), Witch (s. bruja), With (pr. con, de, en), Withdraw (v. a. quitar, retirar), Within (pr. dentro), With6ut (pr. sin, con falta de, fuera), Withstand (v. a.'resistir), Witness (s. testimonio, testigo), Woe (s. dolor), W6man (s. mujer), W6nder (s. milagro), W6nderful (a. maravilloso), Woo (v. a. cortejar), Wood (s. bosque), Wool (s. lana), Word (s. palabra), Work (v. a. & n. trabajar, s. trabajo), World (s. mundo), Worm (s. gusano, lombriz), W6rry (v. a. molestar), Worse (a. & ad. peor), W6rship (s. culto), gumi. sitsit. masuft, magpasiuc. maputi. nucarin. ninu. cabilugan. a nung ninung. baquet. malapad. mabalu. lapad. asauang babaf. alang casal6sen. taris tari's. lub, pilubluban. sambut. angin. auang. mayangin. pacpac. ipiac at imulagat, quindatAn. ing sasambiit. panaun ning dimla. linisan. cauad. cabiasnan. biasa, pantas. mag nasa. magcucfilam. cang, caring, qufng. ilac6. quilub. ala. lumaban. patutu. lungcut, saquit. babai. mAla. masanting, macapagmulAla. mamasi6g qng sinta. pulu 6 gdtad. bulbull tpa. amanu. gal6, dapat. yAtu. ulad, bulatf. alinglanganan, 6 lingasngasin. lAlung mar6c. pamAniamba.

Page  83 83 Worst (a. pesimo), Worth (s. valor), Wound (s. herida), Wring (v. a. torcer), Write (v. a. escribir), Wrong (s. injuria, error), Y Yard (s. corral, yarda, patio), Yawn (v. n. bostezar), Year (s. afio), sadsad dauac. alaga. sugat. malipit, 6 palipitan. sumdlat. umfs, cabalatungan, balatdng. culungan, bara 6 panucad, patio. mandyab. banuA. END —FIN-CAUCASAN.

Page  84 84 IDIOMS About 1. I carry no money abbut me, (1. No traigo dinero), 2. To be about to, (2. Estar para), 3. To go about a thing, (3. Emprender alguna cosa), 4. All about, (4. En todo lugar), 5. To go about, (5. Andar aca y aculla), Above 1. Above all, (1. Sobre todo), 2. Above mentioned, (2. Ya mencionado), Accord 1. With one accord, (1. Unanimamente), 2. Of one's own accord, (2. Espontaneamente), According 1. According as, (1. Segun que). Account 1. On no account, (1. De ninguna manera), 2. On account of, (2. Por motivo de), 3. To call to account, (3. Pedir cuenta), 4. To turn to account, (4. Hacer provechoso), Across 1. To come across, (1. Sobrevenir algun impedimento), Add 1. To add up, (1. Sumar), Addict 1. To addict one's self, (1. Entregarse a), Aaminister 1. To administer an oath, (1. Prestar juramento), Advantage 1. To take advantage of, (1. Sacar provecho de), Afar 1. From afar, (1. De algun lugar distante), 1. Ecum&gdalang cualta. 2. Magbili ban. 3. Pagmulan ing metung I bague. 4. Masqui nucarin a lugal, qng angang lugal. 5. Lumacad banda qu6n at carin. 1. Lalut laluna. 2. Me sabi na babo. 1. Picacametungan. 2. Cusa ning lub. 1. Aguiaman. 1. Masqui macapanaun, qng nanuiman bague. 2. Ulina ning. 3. Mafiad cuenta. 4. Gauang paquinabagan. 1. Datang ing m6tung a casangcanan. 1. Pipamisanan. 1. Ibie cang. 1. Mandam sumpa. 1. Cumang paquinabang qng. 1. Nungnucarin lugal a marayu.; n" I I IL I I II la

Page  85 85. Afraid 1. I am afraid, (1. Temo), After 1. After all, (1. En fin, en suma), Again 1. Again and again, (1. Muchas veces), 2. As much again, (2. Otra vez tanto), Against 1. Against the grain, (1. A contrapelo), Age 1. Under age, (1. Menor), Ago 1. How long ago? (1. ZCuanto ha?), Agreeable 1. Agreeable with, (1. Segun, conforme a), A 1. All at once, (1. De reAll 1. All of a sudden. pente), i 2. All the same, (2. Absolutamente lo mismo), 3. All the better, (3. Tanto mejor), 4. Not at all, (4. No por cierto), 5. Once for all, (5. Una vez por todos), Alone 1. To let alone, (1. Dejar en paz), Along 1. Along side, (1. Al lado, al costado), Ambuscade 1. To lie in ambuscade, (1. Estar emboscado), Another 1. One another, (1. Uno a otro), Any 1. Any body, (1. Alguno, cualquiera), 2. Any how, (2. De cualquier modo que sea), 3. Any more, (3. Mas), 4. Anything, (4. Algo), 5. Anywhere, (5. Encualquier lugar), Apothecary 1. Apothecary's shop, (1. Botica), Apple 1. Apple of discord, (1. Manzana de la discordia), Ark 1. Ark of the covenant, (1. Arca del testamento), 1. Tatacut ciu. 1. Ing catataulian. 1. Maralas. 2. Antipacanian. 1. Catuilid, cangaba, macasalangsang. 1. Edad a carampatan. 1. Capilanpa? 1. Qng, agpang qng. * 1. Bigla. 2. Pareulangan. 3. Lalung mayap. 4. Nung qng tutu all. 5. Misan balang m6tung carela. 1. Paburen dilina. 1. Casiping. 1. Mag umasfd caring casalanan. 1. Metung at metung. 1. Mapilan, ninuman. 2. Aguiang macapacananu. 3. Pa. 4. Aguiang narinu, nanuman. 5. Masquf nucarin lugal. 1. Butica. 1. Manzana ning picasalA. 1. Caban nfng tipan. t i i iI 1 e i

Page  86 86 As 1. As for, (1. En cuanto a), 1. Ifiang. 2. As to, (2. En cuanto 6), 2. Ifiang. At 1. At once, (1. Al instante, 1. Agad, aga de un golpe), 2. At all, (2. Generalmente), 2. Queraclar 3. At all events, (3. Atodo 3. Qng mac trance), mepalli 4. At first, (4. En el prin- 4. Qng prin cipio), 5. At last, (5. Por el ilti- 5. Qng catal mo), 6. His honour is at stake, 6. Daralanir (6. Le va en ello de su riana. honor), Ashore 1. To get ashore, (1. Des- 1. Miculdas. embarcar), Ask 1. Ask out, (1. Convidar), 1. Cumbiran Asleep 1. To fall asleep, (1. Dor- 1. Matudtud mirse, caerse dormido), Back 1. Back of, (1. Detras), 1. Gugulutal 2. A few years back, (2. 2. Pilanan b Algunos anios ha), Bill 1. Bill of exchange, (1. Le- 1. Letra de i tra de cambio), 2. Doctor's bill, (2. Receta 2. Receta ni de medico), 3. Bill of lading, (3. Cono- 3. Cabaluin cimiento), 4. Bill of fare, (4. Minuta 4. Piaquftan 6 lista de una comida), 5. Bills, (5. Letras de cam- 5. Tanda nil bio), 6. Bills payable, (6. Le- 6. Tanda nil tras pagaderas), 7. Bills receivable, (7. Le- 7. Pitandani tras aceptadas), Bite 1. Bite the dust, (1. Mor- 1. Sudsuran. der la tierra), Body. 1. Any body, (1. Cual- 1. Ninuman quiera), 2. Every body, (2. Cada 2. Balang m uno), Box 1. Box on the ear, (1. Bo- 1. Tumbuc. fetada), Break 1. To break out, (1. Abrir- 1. Busbu3an se salida),,d-agad. i, cabilugan. ananupaman, qng angang ari. anru, qng mamuna. taulian. ig camalana, tin qng ca6 aniayan. 1, mipatudtdd. n. anuS. cambio. ng medicu. i ning macasadiang canAn. Ig panlibe. ng pamibayaran. in. 6tung., dinan dAlan.

Page  87 87 Brown 1. To be in a brown study, (1. Estar melanc6lico), 1. Magcalumb6. Brush 1. To brush off, (1. Huir, 1. Magum, tur acepillar), Burst 1. To burst into tears, (1. 1. Manangis, I Prorrumpir en lagrimas), 2. To burst with laughing, 2. Milalalu ti (2. Descoyuntarse de risa), By 1. By and by, (1. De aquf, 1. Penandit. a poco), 2. By the by, (2. De paso), 2. Daralan. 3. By much, (3. Con mu- 3. Qng dacal. cho), 4. By all means, (4. Cueste 4. Maliarina i lo que cueste), Call 1. To call for, (1. Pregun- 1. Ipangutang tar por alguien), 2. To call attention. (2. 2. Apansing, p Llamar la atenci6n), 3. To call names, (3. Inju- 3. Umisan. riar), 4. To call upon, (4. Visi- 4. Yapa. tar), Carry 1. To carry, (1. 1. Maiambut. Quedar victorioso), 2. To carry it high, (2. 2. Magmaragfi Afectar grandeza), 3. To carry on, (3. Condu- 3. Yatad. cir), Cast 1. To cast an account, 1. Isiguid. (1. Ajuntar una cuenta), 2. To cast lots, (2. Echar 2. Magpalama: suertes), Cat 1. Cat o'nine tails, (1. Azo- 1. PalucA ning te con nueve cuerdas), Catch 1. To catch cold, (1. Res- 1. DimlA. friarse), 2. To catch fire, (2. En- 2. Mitad, 6 pa cenderse), Close 1. Close fright, (1. Viva 1. Masipit A pi pelea),. 2. Close by, (2. Muy ar- 2. Masiping 6 rimado), Down 1. To sit down, (1. Sen- 1. Lucldc. tarse), nAcas. nafambftan. la. ng maliarf. >ansingAn. l. ng lAmang., siam aldbid. tauAn. amipat6. malele.

Page  88 88 Down 2. Upside down, (2. Lo de 2. Manibat babo, babot lalam. arriba abajo), 3. Up and down, (3. Aca y 3. Qu6ni at carin. aculla), 4. Down cast, (4. Apesa- 4. Malungclt. dumbrado), 5. Down fall, (5. Ruina), 5. Casiran. 6. Down ward, (6. Incli- 6. Magcayungyung, nanganldlam nado hacia abajo), End 1. To the end that, (1. Para 1. Ban. que), 2. To no end, 2. (En va- 2. Alang cabaldugan. no), 3. On end, (3. En pie), 3. Macatalacad. Every 1. Every where, (1. En 6 1. Carin 6 numan carin. por todas partes), 2. Every thing, } (2,3,4. Cada 3. Every one, uno, cada 2. Balang metung. 4. Every body. una), Fall 1. To fall asleep, (1. Dor- 1. Matudtud 6 mipatudtud. mirse), 2. To fall short, (2. Fal- 2. Magcilang. tar), 3. To fall sick, (3. Enfer- 3. Misalunan. marse), 4. To fall in love, (4. Ena- 4. Magl6lo. morarse), 5. To fall off, (5. Desapa- 5. Mauala, mitacpan qng panimaman recer), 6. To fall out, (6. Refir), 6. Mipat6 6 mibungil. 7. To fall upon, (7. Atacar), 7. Tagalan. Fine 1. In fine, (1. Final), 1. Capupusan. Fill 1. To fill out, (1. Proveer), 1. Misadia. Foot 1. Foot by foot, (1. A pie), 1. Talacad. For 1. As foame, (1. Tocante 1. Ingguil cacu. a mi), 2. For as much, (2. Res- 2. Diquil cacu. pecto), 3. What for. (3. A que), 3. Qng nanu. Hand 1. At hand, (1. A la mano), 1. Qng gamat. 2. Hand in hand, (2. De 2. Agpang qng. acuerdo), 3. Hand book, (3. Manual), 3. Manual. Hard 1. Hard of hearing, (1. Me- 1. Liima panamdam. dio sordo), 2. Hard by, (2. Muy cerca), 2. Tutung malapit. Help 1. I can not help it, (1. No 1. Ecu alarin. puedo remediarlo),

Page  89 89 Horse 1. Horse back, (1. A caballo), 2. Horse man, (2. Vaquero), 3. Horse race, (3. Corrida de caballos), 4. Horse shoe, (4. Herradura), House 1. House hold, (1. Familia), 2. House bread, (2. (Pan casero), 3. House keeper, (3. Amo de casa), 4. House maid, (4. Criada de casa), 5. House wife, (5. Ama de una casa), How 1. How do you do, (1. C6mo esta usted?), 2. How so? (2. Por que?), Last 1. Atlast, (1. Ultimamente), Leading 1. Leading hand, (1. El que juega primero en las partidas naipes), 2. Leading article, (2. Articulo de fondo de una gaceta), 3. Leading' horse, (3. Caballo de silla), Least 1. At least, 1. (A lo menos), 2. Not in the least, (2.' Ni lo mas minimo), Life 1. High life, (1. (El gran mundo), 2. For life, (2. Por toda la vida), 3. To the life, (3. Al natural), Lift 1. At one lift, (1. De un golpe), 2. Alift, (2. Ayudar& uno), Like 1. As you like it, (1. Como quisiere), Little 1. Little by little, (1. Poco a poco), Lock 1. To lock one out, (1. Cerrar la puerta -a uno para que no entre), 1. Mangabayu. 2. Baqueru. 3. Lulung cab ayu. 4. Bacal. 1. Familia, maganac. 2. Tinape bale. 3. Guinu, talasiasat qng bale. 4. Ipus a babai. 5. Guinu ning metung a bai)16 1. Cumusta c6pu? 2. Baquet? 1. Catataulian. *1. Ing mauna. 2. Lacu. 3: Cabayung sasaquen milna 1. Nanupata, 6 bancanita. 2. Ing lalung malatf. 1. Ing maliualas ayatu. 2. Anggang bie, cabang biW. 3. Qng caugalian. 1. Qng misan. 2. Paranupan. 1. Quetang burf na. 1. Mac&calale, ditac-ditac. 1. Cabatanan.

Page  90 90 Man More Off Once Over Pant Purpose Recover Shake That Thick 1. Man of war, (1. Navfo de guerra), 2. Man to man, (2. El uno como el otro), 1. Never more, (1. Nunca mas), 2. One more, (2. Una vez, uno mas), 3. More and more, (3. Mas y mas), 4. So much the more, (4. Cuanto mas), 1. Off hand, (1. Derepente), 2. Off, (2. Fuera), 1. Once for all, (1. Una vez por todos), 2. At once, (2.. De un golpe), 3. All at once, (3. De una vez), 4. Once more, (4. Mas todavia), 1. All over, (1. Por todos lados), 2. Over again, (2. Otra vez), 3. Over against, (3. Enfrente), 4. Over and over, (4. Repetidas veces), 1. To pant, 1. (Suspirar por), 1. To the purpose, (1. Al prop6sito), 2. To no purpose, (2. Inutilmente), 3. On purpose, (3. De prop6sito), 1. To recover one's self, (1. Volver en sf), 1. To shake hands, (1. Darse las manos), 1. So that, (1. De modo que), 1. To speak thick, (1. Hablar conmedialenguaje), 1. Ding miqui guerra. 2. Micametung lamu. 1. Capilan man. 2. Pasibayu, metung pa. 3. Sulung at sulung. 4. LAlu na. 1. Bigla. 2. Lual. 1. Misanan. 2. Misanan. 3. Qng mfsan. 4. Laluna, misan pa. 1. Misusumangid. 2. Pasibayu. 3. Catulid 6 carapan. 4. Maralas. 1. Mangisnauang saldAc quing. 1. Macayagpang. 2. Alang cabalduigan. 3. S6ria. 1. Mimasmas. 1. Miduang lang gamat. 1. Nun macanian. 1. Garil mafiAbi. 1. Mingatba-ngatba 6 misusumangid. Through 1. Through and through, (1. De un lado al otro),

Page  91 91 Time Tongue Way Week Well Where Wide World Worship 1. In time, (1. A tiempo), 2. From time to time, (2. De cuando en cuando), 1. Hold the tongue, (1. I Callar), 1. To give away, (1. Ceder), 1, Tomorrowweek, (1. Mafiana en una semana), 1. As well as, (1. Asi como), 1. Any where, (1. En cualquier parte), 2. Every where, (2. En todas partes), 1. Far and wide, (1. Por todos lados), 1. World to be, (1. El otro mundo), 1. Your worship, 1. (Usia, tu eminencia), 1. Qng panadn. 2. Mamisan mfsan. 1. Tajimic 6 tucning. 1. Itdlut. Bucas angang parumingd. 1. Anti m6. 1. Insanuman lugal, ndman carin. 2. Numan caring lugal. 1. Numan banda. 1. Ing aliuang bi6. 1. Ing catAsan mu.; -- -- -- - - --

Page  92 92 COMMON CONVERSATION Good morning. Good afternoon, Good evening. Good night. Good day. Good bye. How do you do? Very well. How are you to-day? I am well. How are you getting along? Well, thanks. How are your folks? They are well. They are not very well. How is your mother? How is your father? What are you doing now? What were you doing yesterday? What were you doing: This morning. Day before yesterday. Last Monday. Last night. Last evening. Last week. Last year. Last month. Two days ago. Two weeks ago. What was your father doing yesterday? May I ask where you are going? (Polite form). Where are you going? (To intimate friends or inferiors), I am going: To town. Down the street. Away. Home. To work. To school. Mayap ayabac. Mayap a gatpanapun. Mayap a bengi. Bengi ning Dispu; mayap a bengi dinandacayu ning Dios, pu. Mayap a yald6. Mamuncupfi; lacu<ln daco papu; maconacupi. Manamica? Mayap. Mananuca ng6ni? Mayapcu. Nanung daralan qu6ca. Mayap, salamat. Mananula ding pengarimu? Ila mayapla. Ela bifang mayap. Mananuya y indamu? Mananuya y tatamu? Nanung daraptanmu ngeni? Nanung depatan yu napun? Nanung depatanmu: Ngening abac. Nacaduana. Quetang Lunes. Na bengi. Na b'6ngi. Qng peparamingung milabas. Qng banuang milabas. Qng bulan milabas. Aduang ald6 milabas. Aduang dumingu milabas.. Nanung depatanang tata, napun? Acutangcu nung nuca munta? Nuca munta? Muntacung: Qng balen. Qng dalan. Lual. Bale. Mag-bbra. Qng escuela.

Page  93 May I ask where you come from? ( superiors). Where do you come from? (To equals inferiors). I come from home. When do you return? I returnf in an hour. When are you coming back? I am coming back next year. When do you intend to return. I do not know. I can not say. When shall you return? I shall return tomorrow. How long shall you be gone? I shall be gone three days. How long before you return? I return in a week from now. How many days shall you be gone? I shall be gone five days. How long may I stay? You may stay an hour. What did you do while I was gone? What must I do when I return? What can I do for you? You can give me a drink. What do you want? I want to study. How much do you want? I want twenty pesos. How many do you want? I want three. When do you want it? I want it soon. What is this worth? It is worth one peso. How much does this cost? What is the price of this? What do you ask for it? I ask two pesos. How much do you charge? I charge five cents a cup. How much do I pay for this? You pay four pesos. What must I pay for that? You must pay very much. 93 'To Acutangcu nung nuca ibat? or Nuca ibat? Ibat cu bale. Capilanca mibalic? Mibalicu lubning metung A horas. Capilanca mibalic? Mibalicu qng tutuquing banua. Capilan mu uculan mibalic? Ecupa balu. Ecu asabi. Capilanca mibalic? Mibalicu buicas. Nu anti luat mipuntaca? Mipuntacu qng atlung ald6. Nu anti luat bayuca mibalic? Mibalicu lubning metung a dumingu ibat ngeni. Pilan ald6 mipuntaca? Mipuntacu limang ald6. Nu anti caluat mallaring carincu? Mallaring carinca metung a horas. Nanung depatanmu cababang mamacocu? Nanung sucat cung daptan nung mibalicu? Nanung mallaricung daptan queca? Ica mallari mucung dinan inuman. Nanung burimu? Visacung magaral. Magcanung burimu? Visacung aduang pulung pesus. Pilan ing burimu? Visacung atlu. Capilan me buri? Buriqueng agad. Nanung alagana niti? Iti alagayang pesus. Magcanung alagayang iti? Nanung alagana nini? Nanung cucutang mu canini? Cucutang cu aduang pesus. Magcanung panabilinmu? Panabilin cu limang centimos qng metung a tasa. Magcanuyang bayarancu ini? Bayaranmeng apat a pesus. Magcanung sucat cung bayaran canita? Surat meng bayaran dacal a dacal.

Page  94 94 How many pesos is it worth? What charge do you make for this work? How much do you gain on each? Come in. Will you come in? Can you come in for awhile? Will you come into the house? Will you come to my house this evening? May I come to your house? When are you coming to see me? Why do you not-visit me? I shall expect you this evening. I looked for you last night till ten o'clock. When can you.come again? Come again to see me. I have enjoyed your visit. When may I see you again? Will you please close the door? Please give me my hat. Please hand me my cane. Will you please move over? Will you stand further away, please? Stand closer, please. Please, give me a drink? Please, get me something to eat. Please, pass me the bread. Hand me that cup, if you please. I should be obliged if you would give me some tea. Please, hand me my book. Will you lend me your pencil? I should like to borrow your dictionary. Will you please pay this bill? I should be obliged to you, if you would pay me what you owe me. When can you pay this debt? I thank you. Thank you. Thanks. Many thanks. I am much obliged to you. Much obliged. I beg your pardon. Pilan yang pesus a alagang ini? Nanung panabilinang gagauan caniting obra? Magcanung tubu mu balang m6tung? Lungubca; salang ica pamu. Visacang lungub? Mallaring lungub capamu? Visacang lungub qng bale? Munta queta bale qng benging iti? Mallaricung munta qng bale mu? Capilan mucu paquiquitan? Baquet emucu yapa? Panayan daca potang bengi. Penayaraca na b6ngi angang, las diez. Capilanca macapibalic? Mibalicang pasibayu. Metulacu qng pamanapamu. Capilan daca mallaring acquit pasibayu? Utangalub isara me ing pasbul? Utangalub bie me ing cupiacu. Utangalub iduang me ing tucudcu. Burimung dasugca? Talacad cang marayu, utangalub? Talacad cong lalung malapit, utangalub. Utangalub, dinanmucung inuman? Utangalub, icua mucung aguing nanung apangan. Utangalub, dinanmucung tinape. Iduing me yang tasa, nung burimu. Acu sucat cung pasalamat nung arinan mucu ditac a sa. Utangalub, iduang me ing librucu. Burimeng param cacu ing lapismu? Acu buriqueng daman ing diccionariu mu. Burimeng bayaran' ining utang? Acu sucat cung pasalamat queca, nung bayaran mula ding utang mu cacu. Capilanmu abayaran ining utang? Pasalamat cu quecayu. Salamat queca. Salamat. Dacal A salamat. Dacalcu quiquilalanan queca. Dacal a quiquilalanan. Aduan cu ing patauartn mu.

Page  95 95 Pardon me. Excuse me. Do not trouble yourself. It is no trouble. I beg to be excused. What is the matter with you? What is the matter with them? Where have you been today? Why do you cry? Because I am unhappy. Why are you angry? Wait a moment. Put out the light. You are very proud. Command me in all that I can do for you. What are you doing? Come here. Let us go home. You are without shame. When I command, you must obey quickly. You are very lazy. You are very diligent. For what do you wait? What are you guarding? I have been away for some time. He has been here Let us go. Patauaran mucu.:Panapaya mucu. Emu lilingasngasan ica munaman. Iti elingasngas. Aduancu ing mipanupaya. Nanung mallari queca? Nanung mallari carela? Nuca minta ngeni? Baquet quiquiaca? Uling ecu matula. Baquet muaca? Manayacang ditac. Patdan me ing sulu. Capagmaragul mo. Mutus nacaman qng sablang aguiu 'nanining abe mu. Nananu co canian? Meco queni. Tana mulitana. Tutucang masias a dungus. Pati yutus cu agad mung pamintuan. Tutucang matamad. Tutucang masipag. Nanung panayan mu? Nanung babanten mu? Mecocung mapilan ald6. Ya mintaya queti. Tarana.

Page  96 PART II GRAMMAR IN A NUTSHELL. The essential definitions, uses, rules, parsing, etc., of English Grammar, for advanced students, or for aid in Civil Service Examinations. Carefully adapted from actual school room work in the Normal Institute. Grammar is a study that treats of the properties, classifications, and use of words in sentences, and of the structure, classification, and use of sentences. Grammar is divided into two parts: etymology and syntax. Etymology or "parts of speech," as is it sometimes called, treats of the properties, classification, and use of words in sentences. Syntax treats of the structure, classification, and use of sentences. There are eight parts of speech, viz: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Conjunction, Preposition and Interjection. DEFINITIONS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 1. A Noun is a word that names something. 2. A Pronoun is a word that means the same thing as the noun for which it stands. 3. An Adjective is a word that limits a noun, pronoun, or substantive in some way. (a) By substantive is meant a word or group of words used as a noun may be used. 4. A Verb is a word that asserts the action, being, or state of being of something. (a) A Verbal is a word derived from a verb, partaking of the properties of a noun or an adjective, and, when used with a noun standing as a kind of subject, is not limited by such noun to person and number. 5. An Adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, or another adverb. 6. A Conjunction is a word used to join words, phrases, and clauses. 7. A Preposition is a word used to join a noun or substantive to some word or words in a sentence, showing relation of some kind between the word or words so joined. 8. An Interjection is a word that expresses emotion of some kind: as, joy, sorrow, surprise, etc. (a) An Expletive is a wbrd without any particular meaning, used in a sentence to change the form, or merely as an introductory word. NOTE:-One of the most important rules in grammar is that usage determines the parts of speech, and it is therefore impossible to determine absolutely the part of speech of any word unless it is used in a sentence. Words, by themselves, have "no part of speech," properly speaking, but words that are usually used as one part of speech, and seldom as another, are classified as the former. Some words may be used as several different parts of speech in different sentences, therefore it is evident that they do not belong absolutely to one or the other.

Page  97 97 PARTS OF SPEECH IN DETAIL, OUTLINED, DEFINED, USED, AND PRINCIPAL RULES GIVEN. Outline of the divisions and the subdivisions of the noun. The Noun. c. In apposition with a I. Classes as to meaning. nominative. 1. Proper. d. By direct address. 2. Common. e. By exclamation. a. Concrete. f. By pleonasm. b. Abstract. g. With. a participle. c. Collective. 2. Possessive. II. Properties. Denotes: '1. Person. 1. Ownership. a. First. 2. Authorship. b. Second. 3. Origin. c. Third. 4. Kind. 2. Number. 3. Objective. a. Singular. a. Object of a finite verb. b. Plural. 1. Direct object. 3. Gender. 2. Indirect object. a. Masculine. -3. Factitive object. b. Feminine. 4. Cognate object. c. Common. b. After a preposition. d. Neuter. c. Subject of an infinitive. 4. Case. d. Attribute complement 1. Nominative. of an infinitive. a. Subject of a finite e. In apposition with an verb. objective. b. Predicate nomi- f. Adverbial objective. native. DEFINITION IN DETAIL OF TERMS USED IN THE OUTLINE OF NOUNS WITH EXAMPLES OF USE IN SENTENCES. A Proper noun is the name of some particular (a) person, (b)-place, or (c) thing. Example: (a) John is here. (b) Manila is a city. (c) The Oregon is a battleship. A Common noun is the name of any one of a class of similar objects; as, The house is big. A Concrete common noun is the name of something that can be known by means of sense impressions, or through the senses; as, (a) The stone is hard and white. (Seeing and feeling.) (b) The wind is strong and cold. (Feeling and hearing.) (c) The lemon is sour and fragrant. (Tasting and smelling.) (d) Gold is heavy. (Sense of weight.) An Abstract common noun is the name of some (a) quality, (b) condition, or (c) action; as, (a) Whiteness is a quality of snow. (b) Manhood has its responsibilities. (c) Running is a good exercise. A Collective common noun is a name given to a whole whose parts are similar; as, The Army contains many soldiers 7-35894 --

Page  98 98 Property is a peculiar quality belonging to a part of speech. The properties of nouns are Person, Number, Gender, and Case. Person is that property of a noun that distinguishes the speaker, the person spoken to, or the person spoken of. First person is that property of a noun that distinguishes the speaker: as, I am he. Note:-In the above example "he" is not in the same person as "I." Rule:-The noun or pronoun in the predicate nominative is in the third person though the subject may be in the first or second person: Ex. (a) You are the boy. (b) We are friends. Second Person is that property of a noun that distinguishes the person spoken to; as, You are a good man. Third person is that property of a noun that distinguishes the person spoken of; as, He is here. Number is that property of a noun which distinguishes one from more than one. Singular number is that property of a noun which distinguishes one; as, A man came here. Plural number is that property of a noun which distinguishes more than one; as, The men went away. (ender is that property of a noun which distinguishes sex or lack of sex. Masculine gender is that property of a noun which distinguishes the male sex, as, man. Feminine gender is that property of a noun which distinguishes the female sex; as, woman. Common gender is that property of a noun which distinguishes either sex or both; as, children, parents. Neuter gender is that property of a noun which'distinguishes the lack of sex; as, box. Case is that property of a noun which denotes its use in the sentence. The nominative case denotes that the noun is usually used nominatively. The nominative has two divisions: nominative dependent and nominative independent or absolute. The dependent construction is a construction in which the sense of the sentence depends upon the noun. The following are examples: (a) Subject of a finite verb; as, John went away. (b) Predicate nominative; as, Tom is a tailor. (c) In apposition with the subject; as, Jack, the sailor, is happy. The independent construction is a construction in which the sense of the sentence does not depend upon the noun. Examples are: (a) By direct address; as, Henry, give me a book. (b) By exclamation; as, The thief! how dare he! (c) By pleonasm; as, "The hills they towered high." Note:-Not used in prose but sometimes in poetry. (d) With a participle; as, The man being angry, we desisted. The Possessive case denotes that the noun is used to show possession. A possessive may denote: (a) Ownership; as, This is William's book. (b) Authorship; as, I have a Frye's geography. ____....[I I... I.............. —.........______. I 1 1___ __ _.m...!.....

Page  99 99 (c) Origin; as, The moon's rays are soft. (d) Kind; as, These are boy's boots. A possessive ordinarily refers to a different object; as, That is Jane's handkerchief. But a possessive may refer to the same object; as, We returned. to Smith's the farmer. Here "Smith's" and "farmer" have the same case. The objective case usually denotes that the noun is used objectively. An objective may be used: (a) As object of a finite verb. 1. Direct object; as, I lost my knife. 2. Indirect object; as, We gave the boy a dollar. 3. Factitive object; as, They chose him chief. 4. Cognate object; as, He slept the sleep of death. (b) After a preposition; as, They are in the house. (c) As subject of an infinitive; as, We wanted him and his cousin to stay longer. Note:-A noun used as subject of an infinitive which is dependent upon a finite verb is in the nominative case. Ex.: He wishes to be a soldier. Here "soldier" is in the nominative case according to the following rule. Rule:-An attribute complement has the same case as its corresponding word. (d) An attribute complement of an infinitive; as, We wanted him to be our captain. (e) In apposition with an objective; as. I saw Jones, the merchant, yesterday. Rule:-An appositive agrees in case with the word with which it is in apposition. (f) An adverbial objective; as, He jumped a rod. Definition: An adverbial objective is a noun of measure used without a.prep-.osition to modify (a) a verb, (b) an adjective, or (c) an adverb: Ex.: (a) They ran a mile. (b) The wall is six feet high. (c) You may return a week later. PARSING. Parsing is the classification of a word as to its part of speech, class, properties, use, and reason for use, and rule for the construction. In parsing a noun the following points should be mentioned; viz., class (common or proper), properties (person, number, gender, and case), reason for case and rule. EXAMPLES OF COMPLETE PARSING OF NOUNS. (a) John went away. John is a noun, proper, third person, singular number, masculine gender, nominative case, subject of the finite verb "went." Rule: A substantive used as subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case. (b) Tom is a tailor. Tailor is a noun, common, concrete, third person, singular number, masculine gender, nominative case, predicate nominative of "Tom." Rule: A substantive used as a predicate nominative is in the nominative case. EXAMPLES OF ABBREVIATED PARSING. (c) Jack, the sailor, is happy. Sailor, n., com., con., 3rd, sing., mas., nom., app. with subj. Rule: A substantive used in apposition with a nominative is in the nominative case.

Page  100 100 (d) Henry, give me a book. Henry, n., prop., 2nd, sing., mas., nom., direct address. Rule: A substantive used in direct address is in the nominative case. (e) The thief! how dare he! Thief, n., com.,-con., 3rd, sing., mas., nom., by ex. Rule: A substantive used independently by exclamation is in the nominative case. (f) The hills they towered high. Hills, n., com., con., 3rd, plu., neu., nom., by pleonasm. Rule: A substantive is in the nominative case by pleonasm. (g) The man being angry, we desisted. Man, n., com., con., 3rd, sing., mas., nom., used with a participle. Rule: A substantive used with a participle is in the nominative case. (h) This is William's book. William's, n., prop., 3rd, sing., mas., poss., denotes ownership. Rule: A substantive denoting ownership is in the possessive case. (i) I have a Frye's geography. Frye's, n., prop., 3rd, sing., mas., poss., denotes authorship. Rule: A substantive denoting authorship is in the possessive case. (j) The moon's rays are soft. Moon's, n., com., con., 3rd, sing., neu., poss., denotes origin. Rule: A substantive denoting origin is in the possessive case. (k) These are boy's boots. Boy's, n., com.; con., 3rd, sing., mas., poss., denotes kind. Rule: A substantive denoting kind is in the possessive case. (1) I lost my knife. Knife, n., com., con., 3rd, sing., neu., obj., direct obj. fin. V. "lost." Rule: The direct object of a finite verb is in the objective case. Definition: A direct object of a finite verb is a substantive naming the direct receiver of the action expressed by the verb. (m) We gave the boy a dollar. Boy, n., com., con., 3rd, sing., mas., obj., ind. obj. of fin. V. "gave." Rule: A substantive used as the indirect object of a finite verb is in the objective case. Definition: The indirect object of a finite verb is a substantive that names the indirect receiver of the action expressed by the verb. Note: It denotes to whom or for whom an act is performed. (n) They chose him chief. Chief, n., com., con., 3rd, sing., mas., obj., factitive obj. of fin. V. "chose." Rule: A substantive used as the factitive object of a finite verb is in the objective case. Definition: A factitive object is a substantive that names the result of the action expressed by the verb. Note: Other terms for this use are "dative object," "predicate objective," "complementary object," and "objective attribute." (o) He slept the sleep of death. Sleep, n.,'com., abs., 3rd, sing., neu., obj., cognate obj. of fin. V. "Slept." Rule: A substantive used as the cognate object of a finite verb is in the objective case. Definition: A cognate object is a substantive that repeats the meaning of a verb whose sense is already complete. (p) They are in the house. House, n., com., con.,.3rd, sing., neu., obj., obj. of prep. "in." Rule: A substantive used as object of a preposition is in the objective case. Note: A substantive is said to be the object of a preposition which it usually follows and by which it is brought into some kind of relation with other words in the sentence. -I I I I I II I

Page  101 101 (q) We wanted him and his cousin to stay longer. Cousin, n., corn, con., 3rd, sing., corn., obj., subj. of an inf. after a fin. V. Rule: A substantive used as subject of an infinitive after a finite verb is in the objective case. Note: In the following sentences: I expect him to come tomorrow. I expect he will come tomorrow, observe that him and he are not governed in case by the verb "wanted" but by the infinitive "to come" and the verb phrase "will come." (r) We wanted him to be our captain. Captain, n., com., con., 3rd, sing., mas., obj., att. comp. of the inf; "to be." Rule: The attribute complement of an infinitive is in the objective case. (s) I saw Jones, the merchant, yesterday. Merchant, n., com., con., 3rd, sing., mas., obj., in app. with an objective "Jones." Rule: A substantive used in apposition with an objective is in the objective case. (t) He jumped a rod. Rod, n., com., con., 3rd, sing., neu., obj., adv, obj. modifying "jumped." Rule: A substantive used as adverbial objective is in the objective case. THE PRONOUN. I. Kinds. 1. Personal. (a) Simple. (b) Compound. i 2. Relative. (a) Simple. (b) Compound. (c) Double. 3. Interrogative. 4. Demonstrative. 5. Indefinite. II. Properties and Constructions the same as for nouns. DEFINITIONS AND EXAMPLES OF USE. A Pronoun is a word used to take the place of a noun; as, John saw James. John saw him. A Personal pronoun is a pronoun that stands for the name of a person (or thing); as, I, you, he, she, (it), myself, yourself, themselves. A Simple personal pronoun is a personal pronoun in its simplest form; as, I, you. A Compound personal pronoun is a personal pronoun consisting of some form of the simple personal pronoun with the suffix self or selves. Example: myself, themselves. A Relative pronoun is a pronoun that joins the subordinate clause in which it stands to its antecedent in the principal clause, and at the same time has a use of its own in the subordinate clause. Example: This is the pen that I lost. Principal clause "This is the pen," subordinate clause "that I lost"; "that" joins the subordinate clause to its antecedent "pen" and at the same time serves as the direct object of the finite verb "lost". Note: The "antecedent" of a relative pronoun is the word to which the pronoun refers and which stands for the same thing.

Page  102 102 A Simple relative pronoun is a relative pronoun in its simplest form; as, who, that, which. A Compound relative pronoun is a relative pronoun composed of some form of a simple relative pronoun and the suffix ever or soever; as, whoever, whomsoever. A Double relative pronoun is a relative pronoun that is equivalent to two words, one of which stands as the antecedent of the other; as, "I found what you lost," which is equivalent to "I found that which you lost," in which "that" is the antecedent of "which." "That" is here a demonstrative pronoun used as direct object of the finite verb found, and which is a relative pronoun joining the subordinate clause to the principal clause, and acting also as the direct object of the finite verb lost. An Interrogative pronoun is a pronoun that is used in asking a question. Ex.: Who? Which? and What? A Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that is used to point out the thing for which it stands. Ex.: This, that, these, those. An Indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to some indefinite person or thing. Ex.: some, many, such, all. Some examples of the use of pronouns. SIMPLE PERSONAL PRONOUNS: 1. I saw you. 2. He found it. 3. She told me. 4. We heard them. 5. You are good boys. 6. They lost her. 7. They sought him. 8. This is his hat. 9. That is her book. 10. These are their things. 11. Give me my hat. 12. These are ours. 13. Give them theirs. 14. He did not see us. 15. It rains. 16. It is wrong to steal. 17. It is mine. COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS: 1. I myself, saw it. 2. Do not deceive yourself. 3. He hurt himself. 4. She thinks of herself. 5. The snake bit itself. 6. We pleased ourselves. 7. They helped themselves. 8. Seat yourselves. RELATIVE PRONOUNS: 1. He who studies will learn. 2. This is the book that I lost. (Subject and object). (Subject). (Subject and object). (Possessive form). (Object). (Impersonal subject). (Expletive use). (Possessive). (Apposition). (Object). (Reflexive Object). (Object of preposition). (Reflexive object). v;. (Adjective clause). It (I

Page  103 103 3. This is the trial which decides. (Adjective clause). 4.. He will do what is right. (Object). 5. There is not one here but knows. (Descriptive clause). 6. Whoever goes will win. (Subject). 7. I'will take whichever I choose. (Double). 8. Whatever is done is right. " 9. You may have whosoever you wish. (Possessive). INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: 1. Who is he? (Subject). 2. Which do you like? (Object). 3. What was done? (Subject). 4. Which of you did this? " 5. Whose did you get? (Possessive). 6. Whom did you see? (Object). DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: 1. This is good. 2. That was mine. 3. These are good books. 4. Those were pretty flowers, INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: 1. One can tell one's friend a secret. 2. None could deny the truth. 3. Some said this and some said that. 4. If any wish to stay they may. 5,. Do not speak aught in malice. 6. Naught could deter them. 7. Each took a pear. 8. They spoke to each other. (Compound). 9. I know no other. " 10. It may be' either or neither. 11. He went with certain of his friends. 12. If he is a tyrant, sorrow has made him such. 13. If I act the buffoon, do not think me so. ADJECTIVES. I. Classes. ( 1. 1. Descriptive 2 2. ' 3. 2. Definitive (a) Articles 2. (b) Demonstrative (c) Distributive (d) Indefinite (e) Interrogative (f) umeal 1. (f) Numeral 2. 3. Common Proper Verbal (good). (German). (running). Definite (the). Indefinite (a, an). (this). (each). (all). (what). Cardinal (one). Ordinal (first). Multiplicative (twofold). i z

Page  104 104 II. Forms. 1. Simple (long). 2. Compound (deep-blue). 3. Complex (one hundred fifty). III. Comparison.; 1. Degree. (a) Positive (good). (b) Comparative (better). (c) Superlative (best). IV. Constructions. 1. Predicate adjective. (Snow is white.) 2. Adverbial predicate. (The water runs smooth.) 3. Appositive. (The boy, anxious to learn, studied.) 4. Factitive. (He made the stick straight.) 5. Attributive. (Read good books.) Adjectives explained and defined. An Adjective is a word used to describe or define a substantive. A Descriptive adjective is an adjective used in describing a substantive. A Common descriptive adjective is an adjective commonly used in description; as, big, good. A Proper descriptive adjective is an adjective derived from a proper noun; as, American. A Verbal descriptive adjective is an adjective derived from a verb; as, running water, delayed train. A Definitive adjective is an adjective used to define or point out without describing in particular. An Article is a definitive adjective used in pointing out a substantive. A Definite article points out the substantive definitely; as, the man. An Indefinite article points out the substantive indefinitely; as, a boy, an orange, an hour. Note: The indefinite article a is used before words beginning with a consonant sound while an is used before words beginning with a vowel sound. A Demonstrative adjective is an adjective used to limit a substantive by pointing it out in a definite manner; as, this book. A Distributive adjective is an adjective that is used to limit a substantive by representing the objects as apart from each other; as, each man. An Indefinite adjective is an adjective that refers to an object in a general or indefinite way; as, all persons. A Numeral adjective is an adjective used in enumeration. A Cardinal adjective is an adjective used to denote the number of objects; as, one, two. An Ordinal adjective is an adjective used to denote the position of an object in a series; as, first, second. A Multiplicative adjective is an adjective used to denote how many fold; as, twofold, fourfold.

Page  105 105 COMPARISON. Comparison is a variation of the adjective to express difference in degree. There are three degrees of comparison; viz., positive, comparative and superlative. The Positive degree is the degree of simple or equal quality; as, good. The Comparative degree is the degree that gives to one object a higher or lower quality than to another; as, better, less worthy. The Superlative degree is the degree that gives to one of a group of objects the highest or lowest quality of all; as, best, least worthy. CONSTRUCTIONS. A Predicate adjective is an adjective used after the predicate to describe the subject. An Adverbial predicate is an adjective that qualifies the subject after the manner of a predicate adjective and at the same time has an adverbial value. An Appositive adjective is an adjective used to qualify the substantive loosely. The Factitive use of an adjective is a usage in which the adjective is made to qualify the object of the verb through the action expressed by the verb. The Attributive use of an adjective is the usual use to describe, limit or define a substantive. A LIST OF ADJECTIVES IN COMMON USE. 1. Signifies that the word so marked is compared by means of prefixing more and most for the augmentative and less and least for the diminutive forms. 2. Signifies that the word so marked is irregular in comparison. x. Signifies that the word so marked cannot be compared. All unmarked words are compared regularly. 1-Active 1-Careless Dizzy Fresh Airy x-Central Drowsy Full x-All Cheap Dry Funny Angry Clean Dull Gay x-Another Clear x-Dumb Gentle x-Any Coarse Dusty Glad 1-Awful Cool x-Each x-Golden 1-Awkward x-Correct 1-Eager 2-Good 2-Bad Crazy Early Grand Bald Cruel Easy Gray 1-Bent Damp x-Empty Greedy 2-Best Dark x-Equal Gross 2-Better Deaf 1-Evil Gruff Big Dear x-Extra Happy Bitter 1-Decent Fast Hard Black Deep Fat Healthy Blue Dense Feeble Hilly Bold 1-Different Few Hoarse Brave Dim Fine Holy Bright x-Direct Firm Honest Broad Dirty x-Flat Hot 1-Careful 1-Distant Free Idle

Page  106 106 1-11l 2-Most x-Right Swift 2-Inner 2-Much Ripe Tall 1-Jealous Muddy Rough Tame Jolly x-Mute x-Round x-That 1-Just Nasty Rude x-The Keen 1-Natural Rusty x-These Kind Naughty Sad Thin Lame Neat Safe x-This Large Nervous x-Same- x-Those 2-Last New 1-Secret Tight Late 2-Next Shady 2-Top Lazy Nice Shallow True Lean Old Sharp Ugly 2-Least x-Open Shy 1-Useful x-Left x-Other Sick 1-Useless 2-Less 1-Painful 1-Silent Vile x-Level Pale. Sleepy 1-Vulgar Light 1-Patient Slim Warm 2-Little 1-Peaceful Slow Weak Lively x-Perfect Sly Weary x-Local Pink Soft 2-Well Long Plain 1-Solid Wet Loud Pleasant x-Some White Low 1-Polite Sore x-Whole Lucky Poor x-Square Wide x-Main Proud Steep Wild x-Many Queer Still 2-Worse Mean Quick x-Straight 2-Worst Merry Raw Strange 1-Wrong Mild Ready Strong Young 1-Modest x-Real Sunny x-Moist Red Sure 2-More Rich Sweet Some of the above adjectives mnay be used as nouns, but are not marked. Their use as nouns may be learned later on when the pupil has a more intimate knowledge of the language. COMPARISON OF SOME COMMON IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. Positive Comparative Superlative Bad Worse Worst Good ) [Goodl ~ Better Best Well i Inmost Inner Innermost Later Late Last! Latter

Page  107 107 Little Less Least Much More Most Nearest Near Nearer Next Nighest Nigh Nigher N Next VERB. A Verb is a word that expresses action or existence; as, He goes; I am. (The verb is necessary to the expression of a complete thought, and is one of the most important parts of a sentence. Since the verb is so important and has so many changes of form, its complete mastery is recommended as the most essential step in the study of the English language.) Each complete thought requires for its expression at least the name of something and its action or state of being, and is expressed in a sentence. The name used in the expression of a thought is called the subject. The verb used in the expression of a thought is called the predicate. The subject and predicate with their modifiers form what is called a sentence. The thing acted upon by the subject is called the object. The subject or object of a sentence may be a name or some word or words used in the place of the name. The predicate of a sentence is always a verb element. Example:n. v. n. v. n. pro. v, pro. v. pro. v. Juan ran. Tomas ate dinner. I am. You are. He is. pro. v. pro. pro. v. n. pro. v. We saw them. She heard voices. It flew. In the above sentences the name or noun and its equivalent or pronoun are used as subject or object as the case may be. The verb in each case is used as the predicate and asserts or tells something about the subject. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. Verbs are divided into two great classes, according to use, called Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. A Transitive verb is a verb that may be followed by an object; as, Birds eat rice. Carabao pull sleds. Horses carry loads. An intransitive verb is a verb that cannot be followed or that is not followed by an object; as, I am. He was. We were. They are. You may be. Fish swim. Men eat. Horses drink. A transitive verb may be used intransitively; as, The child played. A bird sang. Some verbs commonly intransitive may be used transitively, the object being used in a reflexive sense; as, I slept a long sleep. The girl smiled a sweet smile. He dreamed a pleasant dream. The soldier fought a good fight. The verb exist is an example of a true intransitive verb.

Page  108 108 The verb does not change to indicate the transitive or intransitive forms, as the distinction is in meaning only. Examples: Int. The duck flies. Trans. The ship flies a flag. The transitive verb is not complete when used without an.object; as in the sentence, I like, there is something else needed to complete the thought, while if we say, I like oranges, the thought is complete. In the use of the transitive verb the action denoted by the verb passes on to an object which is acted upon by the subject; for example, The boy struck the dog. An eagle caught a bird. The intransitive verb may denote action that does not pass over to an object, or it may denote a condition or a state of being; as, Children cry. We exist. They are. The different forms of the verb to be can be used purely as intransitive to denote existence, or can be used with complementary words to complete the meaning of the verb when making a statement regarding some subject. Ex:COMPLETE PREDICATION. I am well. You are good He is happy. She is sleepy. It is wild.. We are few. You are many. They are a brave people. Tomas was sick. You were proud. He was unhappy. They were very humble. THE FORM OF VERBS. REGULAR AND IRREGULAR. Verbs are divided into two classes according to the way in which they change form to express difference in the time of the action. Verbs that express past time by adding d or ed to the present form are called regular verbs. These verbs also form the past participle in the same way. Examples: Pres. call Past called Past Part. called love. loved loved Verbs that express past time in some other way than by adding d or ed to the present forms are called irregular verbs. There are several ways in which this change is made. Examples:1. By a change in the verb; as, Pres. Past Past Part. am was been do did done 2. By a change in second and third forms, from the first; as, bind bound bound bleed bled bled build built built burn burnt burnt buy bought bought catch caught caught 3. By a change of the vowel in the last syllable; as, begin began begun

Page  109 109 4. By a change in the vowel; as, swim swam spring sprang sink sank drink drank 5. By a change only in the past; as, become became come came run ran swum sprung sunk drunk become come run 6. In an irregular manner; as, swear tear wear swore tore wore 7. By no change at all; as, bet bet cost cost let let spread v spread 8. By a change in pronunciation only; as, read read plead plead 9. And in several other unclassified ways; as, arise arose blow blew cleave clave lie lay see saw sworn torn worn bet cost let spread read plead i arisen blown cloven lain seen LIST OF THE COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS. (r DENOTES "REGULAR".) Pres. Past awake awoke be, am was bear (to bring forth) bore bear (to carry) bore, bare beat beat begin began bend bent (r) beseech besought bet bet (r) bid bid, bade bind bound bite bit bleed bled bless blest (r) Pres. Part. awaking being bearing bearing beating beginning bending beseeching betting bidding binding biting bleeding blessing Past Part. awaked been born borne beaten, beat begun bent (r) besought bet (r) bidden, bid bound bitten, bit bled blest (r) i i i I I i

Page  110 110 LIST OF THE COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS-Continued. (r DENOTES "REGULAR".) Pres. blow break breed bring build burn burst buy can cast catch choose cling clothe come cost creep crow cut dare deal dig do draw dream dress drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find flee fling fly forget get give go grow hang have hear Past blew broke, brake bred brought built (r) burnt (r) burst bought could cast caught (r) chose clung clad (r) came cost crept crew (r) cut durst (r) dealt dug (r) did drew dreamt (r) drest (r) drank drove ate, eat fell fed felt fought found fled flung flew forgot got gave went grew hung (r) had heard Pres. Part. blowing breaking breeding bringing building burning bursting buying casting catching choosing clinging clothing coming costing creeping crowing cutting daring dealing digging doing drawing dreaming dressing drinking driving eating falling feeding feeling fighting finding fleeing flinging flying forgetting getting giving going growing hanging having hearing Past Part. blown broken bred brought built (r) burnt (r) burst bought cast caught (r) chosen clung clad (r) come cost crept crowed cut dared dealt (r) dug (r) done drawn dreamt (r) drest (r) drunkj drank driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flown forgotten, forgot got, gotten given gone grown hung (r) had heard

Page  111 11l LIST OF THE COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS-Continued. (r DENOTES "REGULAR".) Pres. hide hit hold hurt keep kneel know lay (to place) lead lean leap leave lend let lie (to recline) lie (to falsify) light lose make may mean meet pay put quit rap read ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set (to place) shake shall shave shine shoe shoot show Past hid hit held hurt kept knelt (r) knew laid led leant (r) leapt (r) left lent let lay lied (r) lit (r) lost made might meant met paid put quit (r) rapt (r) read rode rang, rung rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set shook should shaved shone shod shot showed Pres. Part. hiding hitting holding hurting keeping kneeling knowing laying leading leaning leaping leaving lending letting lying lying lighting losing making meaning meeting paying putting quitting rapping reading riding r ringing rising running sawing saying seeing seeking selling sending setting shaking shaving shining shoeing shooting showing Past Part. hidden, hid hit held, holden hurt kept knelt (r) known laid led leant (r) leapt (r) left lent let lain lied (r) lit (r) lost made meant met paid put quit (r) rapt (r) read ridden rung risen run sawn (r) said seen sought sold sent set shaken shaven (r) shone (r) shod shot shown (r) I

Page  112 112 LIST OF THE COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS-Continued. (r DENOTES "REGULAR".) Pres. shrink shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sling slink smell sow speak spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spring stand stay steal stick sting strew strike string strive swear sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw tread wake wear Past shrank, shrunk shut sang, sung sank, sunk sat slew slept slid slung slunk smelt (r) sowed spake, spoke spelt (r) spent spilt (r) span, spun spat, spit split spoilt (r) sprang stood staid (r) stole stuck stung strewed struck strung strove sware, swore swept swelled swam, swum swung took taught tore, tare told thought throve threw trod woke wore Pres. Part. shrinking shutting singing sinking sitting slaying sleeping sliding slinging slinking smelling sowing speaking spelling spending spilling spinning spitting splitting spoiling springing standing staying stealing sticking stinging strewing striking stringing striving swearing sweeping swelling swimming swinging taking teaching tearing telling thinking thriving throwing treading waking wearing Past Part. shrunken, shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid, slidden slung slunk smelt (r) sown (r) spoken spelt (r) spent spilt (r) spun spit split spoiled sprung stood staid (r) stolen stuck stung strewn (r) struck, stricken strung striven sworn swept swollen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thriven thrown trod, trodden woke worn

Page  113 113 LIST OF THE COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS-Continued. (r DENOTES "REGULAR".) Pres Past Pres. Part. Past Part. weep wept weeping wept will willed willing willed will would...... win won winning won wind - wound winding wound work wrought (r) working wrought wring wrung wringing wrung write wrote writing written CONJUGATION. The verb has different forms and combinations to express variations of meaning, time, mode of activity, number of persons or things acting or acted upon and the first, second or third person. The orderly arrangement of a verb to express these variations is called Conjugation. Variations: 1. Of meaning, are expressed by different modes. 2. Of time, by different tenses. 3. Of mode of activity, by different voices. 4. Of person and number, by changes in the verb to agree in person and number with the subject of the verb. MODE. Verbs may be divided according to meaning into five modes, viz., Indicative, Subjunctive, Potential, Imperative and Infinitive. The Indicative mode is the most commonly used, and.usually expresses a fact. Ex.: He is good. Are you the owner of this hat? How beautiful this is! The Subjunctive mode is used to express a doubt, a supposition or a wish. Ex.: If it be true, I am sorry. Suppose that you were he. If I only had a fortune how happy I should be! The Potential mode is used to express power, possibility, duty, or permission. Ex.: I can lift this weight. He could go if he wished. You may read your lesson. You should obey your parents. 'The Imperative mode is used in a command or entreaty. Ex.: Go! Give me my hat. Please, help me. The Infinitive mode is used to name the action or being without confining it to a particular or finite object. Ex.: To live is to enjoy. He wishes to learn. The Participle, while not classed as a mode, is a form of the verb that partakes of the nature of an adjective or a noun, and assumes the action or being expressed. There are three participles; the Present, which expresses an action or condition as in progress; as, Playing, he sang a song. Singing, she wrought. The Past, which expresses the action or condition as finished; as, The boy, blinded by the rain, lost his way. And the Perfect, which expresses the action or condition as just completed; as, Having found his hat, he went away. 8-35894

Page  114 114 TENSE. Tense is the variation in the form of the verb to denote time. There are three simple tenses, present, past and future, and three compound tenses, present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. The present tense denotes present time; as, I go. He plays. We are. The boy laughs. They cry. The past tense denotes past time; as, I went. He played. We were. The boy laughed. They cried. The future tense denotes future time; as, I shall go tomorrow. He will play again. We shall be. The boy will laugh after school. They will cry when sorry. The present perfect tense denotes time complete in the present; as, I have gone. He has played. We have been. The boy has laughed. They have cried. The past perfect tense denotes time complete in the past; as, I had gone. He had played. We had been. The boy had laughed. They had cried. The future perfect tense denotes time complete in the future; as, I shall have gone. He will have played. We shall have been. The boy will have laughed. They will have cried. The compound tenses are composed of the past participles of the principal verb and one or more auxiliary verbs. The principal verbs used as auxiliaries are the various forms of the verb "to be," of the verb "to have," of the verb "to do," and the defective verbs may, can, shall, will, might, could, should, would, must and ought. There are three tense forms, Common, Progressive and Emphatic. The common and progressive forms run through all the modes in the active voice, and the progressive form may be used in the present and past tenses of the indicative mode, passive voice. The emphatic tense may be used in the present and past tenses, indicative mode, active voice and in the imperative, common and progressive. A complete plan of the tenses follows, in the singular number, the three persons, all the modes, both voices, regular or irregular and transitive or intransitive verbs. TENSES OF THE TRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE VERBS. PRESENT TENSE. Common Form. Positive. Negative. Interrogative. 1. I go. I go not. Go I? Do I go? 2. You go. You go not. Go you? Do you go? 3. He (she or it) goes. He goes not. Goes he? Does he go? Progressive Form. 1. I am going. I am not going. Am I going? or Am I not going? 2. You are going. You are not going. Are you going? or Are you not going? 3. He is going. He is not going. Is he going? or Is he not going? a III I I -- - --

Page  115 115 1. I do go. 2. You do go. 3. He does go. Positive. 1. I went. 2. You went. 3. He went. 1.I was going. 2. You were going. 3. He was going. 1. I did go. 2. You did go. 3. He did go. 1. I shall or will go. Emphatic Form. I do not go. You do not go. He does not go. PAST TENSE. Common Form. Negative. I went not. You went not, He went not. Progressive Form. I was not going. You were not going. He was not going. Emphatic Form. I did not go. You did not go. He did not go. FUTURE TENSE. I shall or will not go. Do I go? or Do I not go? Do you go? or Do you not go? Does he go? or Does he not go? Interrogative. Went I? or Went I not? Went you? or Went you not? Went he? or Went he not? Was I going? or Was I not going? Were you going? or Were you not going? Was he going? or Was he not going? Did I go? or Did I not go? Did you go? or Did you not go? Did he go? or Did he not go? Shall or will I go? or Shall or will I not go? Will or shall you go? or Will or shall you not go? Will or shall he go? or Will or shall he not go? Shall or will I be going? or not be going? Will or shall you be going? or not be going? Will or shall he be going? or not be going? 2. You will or shall go. You will or shall not go. 3. He will or shall go. He will or shall not go. 1. I shall or will be going. 2. You will or shall be going. 3. He will or shall be going. Progressive Form. I shall or will not be going. You will or shall not be going. He will or shall not be going. 1. I have gone. 2. You have gone. 3. He has gone. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. I have not gone. Have Igone? or not gone? You have not gone. Have you gone? or not gone? He has not gone. Has he gone? or not gone?

Page  116 116 Progressive Form. I have been going. I have not been going. 1. 2. 3. You have been going. He has been going. You have not been going. He has not been going. Have I been going? or not been going? Have you been going? or not been going? Has he been going? or not been going? 1. I had gone. 2. You had gone. 3. He had gone. PAST PERFECT TENSE. Common Form. I had not gone. You had not gone. He had not gone. Progressive Form. 1. 2. I had been going. I had not been going. You had been going. You had not been going. Had I gone? or not gone? Had you gone? or not gone? Had he gone? or not gone? Had I been going? or not been going? Had you been going? or not been going? Had he been going? or not been going? 3. He had been going. He had ot been going. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 1. I shall or will have gone. 2. You will or shall have gone. 3. He will or shall have gone. 1. I shall or will have been going. Common Form. I shall or will not have gone. You will or shall not have gone. He will or shall not have gone. Progressive Form. I shall or will not have been going. Shall or will I have gone? or not have gone? Will or shall you have gone? or not have gone? Will or shall he have gone? or not have gone? Shall or will I have been going? or not have been going? Will or shall you have been going? or not have been going? Will or shall he have been going? or not have been going? 2. You will or shall You will or shall not have have been going. been going. 3. Hewillorshallhave He will or shall not have been going. been going. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. The best modern writers commonly use the indicative mode instead of the subjunctive in all the tenses except the present and past, although the subjunctive may hAve all the tenses as given below.... I1... I I... II I I II

Page  117 Positive. 1. If I go. 2. If you go. 3. If he go. 1. If I be going. 2. If you be going. 3. If he be going. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. If I do go. If you do go. If he do go. If I went. If you went. If he went. If I were going. If you were going. If he were going. PRESENT TENSE. Negative. If I go not. If you go not. If he go not. Progressive Form. If I be not going. If you be not going. If he be not going. Emphatic Form. If I do not go. If you do not go. If he do not go. PAST TENSE. Common Form. If I went not. If you went not. If he went not. Progressive Form. If I were not going. If you were not going. If he were not going. Emphatic Form. If I did not go. If you did not go. If he did not go. FUTURE TENSE. Common Form. If I shall hot go. If you shall not go. If he shall not go. Progressive Form. If I shall not be going. If you shall not be going. If he shall not be going. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. Common Form. If I have not gone. If you have not gone. If he have not gone. 117... I 1. If I did go. 2. If you did go. 3. If he did go. 1. If I shall go. 2. If you shall go. 3. If he shall go. 1. If I shall be going. 2.- If you shall be going. 3. If he shall be going. 1. If I have gone. 2. If you have gone. 3. If 'he have gone.

Page  118 118 Progressive Form. 1. If I have been going. If I have not been going. 2. If you have been going. If you have not been going. 3. If he have been going. If he have not been going. PAST PERFECT TENSE. Common Form. 1. If I had gone. If I had not gone. 2. If you had gone. If you had not gone. 3. If he had gone. If he had not gone. Progressive Form. 1. If I had been going. If I had not been going. 2. If you had been going. If you had not been going. 3. If he had been going. If he had not been going. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. Common Form. 1. If I shall have gone. If I shall not have gone. 2. If you shall have gone. If you shall not have gone. 3.. If he shall have gone. If he shall not have gone. Progressive Form. / 1. If I shall have been going. If I shall not have been going. 2. If you shall have been going. If you shall not have been going. 3. If he shall have been going. If he shall not have been going. The word if is not a part of the subjunctive inflection, and such words as though, although, unless, that, lest, before, until and some others, may be used in place of if, depending on the sense to be expressed. POTENTIAL MODE. PRESENT TENSE. Common Form. Positive. Negative. 1. I may, can or must I may, can or must not go. go. 2. You may, can or must You may, can or must go. not go. 3. He may, can or must He may, can or must not go. go. Interrogative. May, can or must I go? or May, can or must I not go? May, can or must you go? or May, can or must you not go? May, can or must he go? or May, can or must he not go? May, can or must I be going? or not be going? May, can or must you be going? or not be going? May, can or must he be going? or not be going? 1. I may, can or must be going. 2. You may, can or must be going. 3. He may, can or must be going. Progressive Form. I may, can or must not be going. You may, can or must not be going. He may, can or must not be going.

Page  119 119. 1. I might, could, would or should go. 2. You might, could, would or should go. 3. He might, could, would or should go. i, 1. I might, could, would or should be going. 2. You might, could, would or should be going. 3. He might, could,would or should be going. 1. I may or must have gone. 2. You may or must have gone. 3. He may or must have gone. 1. I may or must have been going. PAST TENSE. Common Form. I might, could, would or should not go. You might, could, would or should not go. He might, could, would or should not go. Progressive Form. Might, could, would or should I go? or not go? Might, could, would or should you go? or not go? Might, could, would or should he go? or not go? I might, could, would or Might, could, would or should not be going. should I be going? or not be going? You might, could, would Might, could, would or or should not be going. should you be going? or not be going? He might, could, would Might, could, would or or should not be going. should he be going? or not be going? PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. Common Form. I may or must not have x gone. You may or must not 1A have gone. He may or must not A have gone. Progressive Form. I may or must not have A been going. 2. 3. You may or must have You may or must not been going. have been going. He may or must have He may or must not been going. have been going. Vay or must I have gone? or not have gone? lay or must you have gone? or not have gone? lay or must he have gone? or not have gone? lay or must I have been going? or not have been going? lay or must you have been going? or not have been' going? lay or must he have been going? or not have been going? vight, could, would or should I have gone? or not have gone? Mlight, could, would or should you have gone? or not have gone? Might, could, would or should he have gone? or not have gone? PAST PERFECT TENSE. Common Form. 1. I might, could, would I might, could, would or or should have gone. should not have gone. 2. You might, could, would or should have gone. 3. He might, could, would or should have gone. You might, could, would or should not have gone. He might, could, would or should not have gone. ---- _.._ _ _____

Page  120 120 1. I might, could, would or should have been going. 2. You might, could, would or shouldhave been going? 3. He might, could, would or should have been going. Progressive Form. I might, could, would or Might, could, would or should not have been should I have been going? going. or not have been going? You might, could, would Might, could, would or or should not have should you have been been going. going? or not have been going? He might, could, would Might, could, would, or or should not have should he have been gobeen going. ing? or not have been going? -" Note:-The true potential thought is expressed by the use of the auxiliaries may, can, might, and could. Should and would used as auxiliaries sometimes express a conditional, sometimes an obligative, thought. Must and ought express an obligative thought and are used in the present and present perfect tenses, common and progressive forms. Must and ought are incomplete verbs, originally used in the past tense, but now usually used in the present. Ought may be used in the past tense in such an expression as, I knew they ought to have been there yesterday. Ought is followed by the sign of the infinitive, when used as an auxiliary. IMPERATIVE MODE. Positive. Pres. Go. Pres. Be going. Positive. Present. To go. Pres. Per. To have gone. Common. Negative. Do not go. -Progressive. Do not be going. INFINITIVES. Common Form. Emphatic. Do go. Do be going. Present. To be going. Pres. Per. To have been going. Common. Pres. Going. Past. Gone. Perfect. Having gone. Negative. Not to go. Not to have gone. Progressive Form. Not to be going. Not to have been going. PARTICIPLES. Progressive. Being going (rare). Being gone. Having been going. t.

Page  121 121 Note:-Infinitives partake of the nature of nouns and verbs, being used substantively and at the same time being modified as a verb; as, To give freely is the sign of a good heart. Participles partake, of the nature of adjectives and verbs; as, Being learned in history, he sought the position. PASSIVE CONJUGATION. (Reg. or Irreg.; Passive Voice; Indicative Mode; Transitive Verbs. A true intransitive verb has no passive voice.) Positive. I am paid. You are paid. He (she or it) is paid. 1. I am being paid. 2. You are being paid. 3. He is being paid. 1. I was paid. 2. You were paid. 3. He was paid. 1. I was being paid. 2. You were being paid. 3. He was being paid. 1. I shall be paid. 2. You will be paid. 3. He will be paid. PRESENT TENSE. Common Form. Negative. I am not paid. You are not paid. He is not paid. Progressive Form. I am not being paid. You are not being paid. He is not being paid. PAST TENSE. Common Form. 1 was not paid. You were not paid. He was not paid. Progressive Form. I was not being paid. You were not being paid. He was not being paid. FUTURE TENSE. I shall not be paid. You will not be paid. He will not be paid. Interrogative. Am I paid? or Am I not paid? Are you paid? or Are you not paid? Is he paid? or Is he not paid? Am I being paid? or not being paid? Are you being paid? or not being paid? Is he being paid? or Is he not being paid? Was I paid? or not paid? Were you paid? or not paid? Was he paid? or not paid? Was I being paid? or not being paid? Were you being paid? or not being paid? Was he being paid? or not being paid? Shall I be paid? or shall I not be paid? Will you be paid? or not be paid? Will he be paid? or not be paid?

Page  122 122 1. I have been paid. 2. You have been paid. 3. He has been paid. 1. I had been paid. 2. You had been paid. 3. He had been paid. 1. I shall have been paid. 2. You will have been paid. 3. He will have been paid. PRESENT PERFECT. I have not been paid. You have not been paid. He has not been paid. PAST PERFECT. I had not been paid. You had not been paid. He had not been paid. FUTURE PERFECT. I shall not have been paid. You will not have been paid. He will not have been paid. Have I been paid? or Have I not been paid? Have you been paid? or Have you not been paid? Has he been paid? or Has he not been paid? Had I (not) been paid? Had you (not) been paid? Had he (not) been paid? Shall I (not) have been paid? Will you (not) have been paid? Will he (not) have been paid? Positive. 1. If I be paid. 2. If you be paid. 3. If he be paid. 1. If I were paid. 2. If you were paid. 3. If he were paid. 1. If I shall be paid. 2. If you shall be paid. 3. If he shall be paid. 1. If I have been paid. 2. If you have been paid. 3. If he have been paid. 1. If I had been paid. 2. If you had been paid. 3. If he had heen paid. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. PRESENT. Negative. If I be not paid. If you be not paid. If he be not paid. PAST. If I were rot paid. If you were not paid. If he were not paid. FUTURE. If I shall not be paid. If you shall not be paid. If he shall not be paid. PRESENT PERFECT. If I have not been paid. If you have not been paid. If he have not been paid. PAST PERFECT. If I had not been paid. If you had not been paid. If he had not been paid.

Page  123 123 FUTURE PERFECT. 1. If I shall have been paid. If I shall not have been paid. 2. If you shall have been paid. If you shall not have been paid. 3. If he shall have been paid. If he shall not have been paid. Note:-Should and Would may be used in the Future and Future Perfect when not preceded by the conditional conj. POTENTIAL MODE. PRESENT. Common Form. Positive. 1. I may, can or must be paid. 2. You may, can or must be paid. 3. He may, can or must be paid. Negative. I may, can or must not be paid. You may, can or must not be paid. He may, can or must not be paid. Interrogative. 1. May, can or must I (not) be paid? 2. May, can or must you (not) be paid? 3. May, can or must he (not) be paid? Progressive Form. (Future sense, possible use.) Positive. Negative. 1. I may, can or must be being paid. I may, can or must not be being paid. 2. You may, can or musf be being paid. You may, can or must not be being paid. 3. He may, can or must be being paid. He may, can or must not be being paid. Interrogative Form. 1. May, can or must I (not) be being paid? 2. May, can or must you (not) be being paid? 3. May, can or must he (not) be being paid? PAST TENSE. Common Form. Positive and Negative. Interrogative. 1. I might, could, would or should (not) Might, could, would, or should I (not) be paid. be paid? 2. You might, could, would or should Might, could would or should you (not) (not) be paid. be paid? 3. He might, could, would or should Might, could, would or should he (not) (not) be paid. be paid? Progressive Form. (Future conditional, possible use.) 1. I might, could, would or should (not) Might, could, would or should I (not) be be being paid. being paid? 2. You might, could, would, or should Might) could, would or should you (not) (not) be being paid. be being paid? 3. He might, could, would or should Might, could, would or should he (not) (not) be being paid. be being paid?

Page  124 124 Note:-Although the foregoing is called the past tense, it does not necessarily refer to past time, but is probably so called because its auxiliaries are the past forms of may, can, will and shall. Ought, followed by the infinitive, can be used in the same way as the above past auxiliaries. Might usually expresses possibility or doubt; could, power or possibility; would, assertion; should, probability or obligation; ought, duty or obligation. PRESENT PERFECT. Common Form. Positive and Negative. Interrogative. 1. I may, can or must (not) have been May, can or must I (not) have been paid. paid? 2. You may, can or must (not) have May, can or must you (not) have been been paid. paid. 3. He may, can or must (not) have been May, can or must he (not) have been paid? paid? PAST PERFECT. 1. I might, could, would or should (not) Might, could, would or should I (not) have been paid. have been paid? 2. You might, could, would or should Might, could, would or should you (not) have been paid. (not) have been paid? 3. He might, could, would or should (not) Might, could, would or should (not) he have been paid. have been paid? Note:-The potential mode has been rejected by some high authorities on English Grammar, and when used to state a fact is considered as indicative; when used to state a supposition, as subjunctive, may, might, can, could, etc., being treated as auxiliaries in verb phrases. The use of the potential mode simply defers close analysis. IMPERATIVE MODE, PASSIVE. PRESENT TENSE. Common Form. Positive and Negative. Emphatic. Be paid or be not paid, or do not be paid. Do be paid. INFINITIVES. PRESENT TENSE. Common Form. Positive. Negative. To be paid. Not to be paid. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. To have been paid. Not to have been paid. PRESENT TENSE. PROGRESSIVE FORM. Being paid. Not being paid.

Page  125 125 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. Having been paid. Not having been paid. PARTICIPLES. Present. Being paid. Not being paid. Past. Paid. Past Per. Having been paid. Not having been paid. VERBALS. A Verbal is a word derived from a verb and used as a noun, adjective or adverb, retaining at the same time some of the properties of the verb from which derived.. An Infinitive is a verbal that may be used in the sense of a noun, adjective or adverb. A Participle is a verbal usually used in an adjective sense, but sometimes used as a noun. Examples of the use of Infinitives. I. As a noun: 1. Subject of a verb or verbal; as, (a) To deceive is wrong. (b) He thought to deceive to be wrong. 2. Attribute of a verb or verbal; as, (a) To save is to earn. (b) He thought to study to be to read the exercise. 3. In apposition; as, What a task to teach! 4. Object of verb or verbal; as, (a) She likes to sing. (b) She intends to begin to study today. 5. Object of a preposition; as, She did nothing but laugh. 6. Independent; as, (a) By exclamation; To murder! How terrible! (b) By pleonasm; To be or not to be, that is the question. (c) By inscription; To rent. (d) With a participle; To study being impossible, we left the room. II. As an adjective: 1. To limit a noun; as, He has bread to eat. 2. To limit a pronoun; as, He is-to be punished. III. As an adverb: 1. To modify a verb or verbal; as, (a) They come to visit me. (b) He began to study to learn his lesson. 2. To limit an adjective; as, (a) He is anxious to learn. (b) These apples are good to eat. 3. To limit an adverb; as, He is large enough to do the work. IV. With its subject to form a clausal phrase: 1. She desired him to leave. (Object.) 2. For him to deceive us is wrong. (Subject.) EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF PARTICIPLES. I. As a noun: 1. Playing tennis is good exercise. 2. He boasted of having met the president.

Page  126 126 II. As an adjective: 1. As predicate adjective; as, (a) He came whistling into the room. (b) He stood waiting a long while. 2. As adverbial predicate; as, (a) He came stumbling along. (b) She came running to me. Note:-The difference between the predicate adjective use and that of adverbial predicate lies in the fact that in the predicate adjective the participle describes the subject, while in the adverbial predicate the participle tells the manner in which the action is accomplished. In the sentence, "He came whistling," if he should stop whistling it would not necessarily affect the coming, but in the sentence, "She came running," if she should stop running she would stop coming. 3. As an appositive; as, (a) Truth, crushed to earth, shall rise again. (b) The horse running away, broke the buggy. 4. In a factitive sense; as, (a) They kept him waiting outside. (b) The officer had the thief arrested. 5. As a descriptive adjective; as, (a) The running brook laughs sweetly. (b) The man has a crippled horse. III. With its subject to form a clausal phrase; as, 1. His being a teacher does not excuse him. 2. The man having sold the horse, we walked. Note on the past participle. ' The past active participle is used in sentences to combine with forms of the verb have to make up the tenses in the active voice; as, 1. He has gone. 2. Jane had seen the boy. The past passive participle combines with forms of the verb to be to make up the passive forms; as, 1. The boy is seen by his mother. 2. The birds were killed by the dog. ADVERB. An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective or an adverb. I. Office: An adverb may modify: 1. A verb: He runs swiftly. 2. Verbal: He, running swiftly, won the race. 3. Adjective: You are very good. 4. Adverb: He speaks too slowly. 5. Preposition: He swam almost across the river. 6. Prepositional phrase: He labors chiefly for himself. 7. Sentence: Perhaps he will go. 8. Expletive: Why, is that so? II. Classes: 1. Pure: here. 2. Interrogative: where? 3. Conjunctive: He came when I did. 4. Responsive: Yes, no.

Page  127 127 III. Form: 1. Simple: there. 2. Flexional: bravely. 3. Complex: by and by. KINDS OF ADVERBS. 1. Time: They are coming now. 2. Place: You may stand there. 3. Manner: He spoke loudly. 4. Degree: This is a very large book. 5. Cause or reason: Why will you go? 6. Order: I was here first. 7. Number: I have seen you twice. 8. Addition: You may play also. 9. Direction: The stone went down. 10. Certainty: Verily I say unto you. 11. Affirmation: Yes, I am happy. 12. Negation: You must not go. 13. Condition: However, I will defeat them. 14. Doubt: Perhaps he will be sorry. MODAL ADVERBS. 1. Affirmative: Certainly, indeed, surely, verily, amen. 2. Negative: Not, never. 3. Potential: Possibly, perhaps, probably, may be. 4. Causal: Hence, accordingly, therefore. LIST OF ADVERBS. Already. Certainly. Less. Nowhere. Too. Wisely. Ably. Daily. Least. Only. There. When. Away. Downward. Likewise. Out. Thither. Well. Always. Easily. Lately. Once. Thence. Where. Anywhere. Ever. More. Often. Today. Why. Again. Forthwith. Much. Off. Tomorrow. Wherefore. Afterward. Hither. Most. Partly. Then. Whence. Aloud. Hence. Now. Quite. Twice. Yonder. Almost. How. Nobly. Seldom. Thrice. Yesterday. Aye. Here. Not. Still. Thus. Yes. Backward. Ill. No.. So. Truly. Yet. Badly. Justly. Nay. Somehow. Until....... By-and-by. Little. Never. Since. Very....... The list of words given above are adverbs only when used as such. Many of them may be used as more than one part of speech, as, for example, Off, which may be used as four different parts of speech. A few of them are always adverbs. Reference to the dictionary or some advanced grammar will serve to decide the difficult ones. Pronunciation of some of them can not be represented without re-spelling. In all such cases refer to the dictionary, or a teacher of English.

Page  128 128 PREPOSITION A preposition is a word used to show the relation between its object and some other part of the sentence. I. Terms of relation: A. Object may be: 1. A noun: H 2. Pronoun: T 3. Adverb: I 4. Adjective: H 5. Verbal: H 6. Prepositional phrase: TI 7. Clause: M B. Antecedent may be: 1. A noun: H 2. Pronoun: VI 3. Adjective: T 4. Verb: Ji 5. Verbal: It 6. Adverb: T1 7. Interjection: " II. Classes on basis of form: 1. Simple: in. 2. Compound: from under. 3. Complex: in place of. III. Classes on basis of idea expressed: 1. Time: Ho 2. Place: TI 3. Cause: W 4. Purpose: TI 5. Agent: He 6. Instrument: H( 7. Means: TI 8. Possession: He 9. Kind: Hi 10. Subject: TI 11. Object: Tl 12. Accompaniment: Hi 13. Division: TI 14. Reference: H; 15. Direction: TI 16. Occupation: Sl 17. Identity: TI 18. Similarity: Y< 19. Separation: I 20. Arrival: Jc [e walked to the house. he work was done by him. can go from here. [e tries in vain. [e has nothing to do but to study. he bird flew from under the cage. [uch has been said about who wrote the first book. e has a flock of sheep. /ho of us can aid you? he girl is kind to her parents. ane ran to the well. is pleasant to ride in the sun. his goes too slowly for me. Alas for maiden, alas for Judge." e came after dinner. ie man in the boat is sick. e are grateful for all pleasure. iey went for a ride. e was detained by the sheriff. e mashed his finger with a stone. he race was lost through accident. ere is the ring of my aunt. e has a drove of hogs. ie hate of an enemy is disquieting. ie desire for money is productive of evil. e rode with me. hey took some of the flowers. ave you ever heard of John Paul Jones? hey went down the lane. ie as a doctor is busy. iat is the rock of Gibraltar. ou are like your uncle. came from my home. >hn came to Manila.

Page  129 129 LIST OF PREPOSITIONS (SIMPLE). After. For. On. Round. Under. At. From. Over. Since. Up. By. In. Till. Through. With. Down. Of. Past. To. LIST OF PREPOSITIONS (DERIVED). Aboard. Amidst. Below. Into. Upon. About. Among. Beneath. Throughout. Within. Above. Amongst. Beside. Toward. Without. Across. Around. Besides. Towards. Against. Athwart. Between. Underneath. Along. Before. Betwixt. Until. Amid. Behind. Beyond. Unto. The above words are prepositions only when used as such. They may be used as other parts of speech. PREPOSITIONS USED IN SENTENCES. J SIMPLE. After He went after his hat. I shall go after you. She will sing after awhile. At Some one is at the door. I looked at him. He threw at me. Go at once. He stood at one side. By He will come by noon. I went by the house. It missed me by a little. I can tell by your eyes. Take the book by the table. Down I shall go down the street. The seed slipped down my throat. The house down the road is deserted. He went down the ladder. For Get one for me. This is for you. Let us play for fun. Leave that one for the next lesson. I have not seen you for weeks. 9-35894 From We came from the house. We have not heard from him. They went from home. The book fell from the desk. In You came in time to see the play. The flower in the vase is a rose. He will return in five years. I saw you in the market. Of Have you heard of the accident? Take care of yourself. I can not think of it. Did you buy that of him? The man of the house is absent. On The book is on the desk. The ship is on the sea. Are you on this list? The boy on the horse is happy. Over I went over the ground thoroughly. Do not pay over one dollar. What do you see over the house-tops? They gained a victory over the enemy.

Page  130 130 Past We saw you go past the window. It is twenty minutes past ten. It is almost past belief. Round The train came round the bend. The children played round the door. Since He has not been seen since yesterday. No one has heard since then. I feel better since my bath. Through The boy ran through the house. The soldiers marched through town. Did you see through the problem? I can not get it through my head. Till Wait till next time. They staid till three o'clock. Do not come till Monday. To Let us go to church. Give this to him. Do to others as you wish them to do to you. He came to the well. They succumbed to disease. They beat him to death. Under The limb broke under the weight. The dog ran under the chair. I am under his supervision. Turn to the left under that tree. Up Look up the street. He went up to town. She came slowly up the stairs. With Come with me. I shall go with pleasure. What has he with him. The girl with her mother came here. COMPOUND. Aboard He went aboard the ship. About She walks idly about the house. He does not care about time. Above The sky is blue above the clouds. This gem is above price. What is that above you? Across We swam across the river. He took the boy across his lap. Take a trip across the ocean. Against Do not lean against the case. They are all against me. It is useless to strive against death. Along The dog. trotted along the road. Those houses along the street are mine. Amid We may go amid pleasure. Amidst They are amidst enemies. Among The bird flew among the branches. Amongst To play amongst the flowers is sweet. Around The children ran around the house. Athwart The oar fell athwart the boat. Before You may go before me. That happened before the war. Behind The boy hid behind the door. You are behind time. - ~ I I II II

Page  131 131 Below Do not go below the second landing. He stood below the crossing. We can cross below the ferry. Beneath 'The man stood beneath the tree. The boy weakened beneath the gaze of the judge. Lay me beneath the sod. Beside We sat beside the flowing stream. Come, sit beside me. He was beside himself with rage. The house stands beside the river. Besides He took many articles besides that. What, besides this, do you want? Between That is a secret between us. Put the paper between the pages of the book. Betwixt He was betwixt the two fires. Beyond My home is beyond the sea. We fear he is beyond recovery. Into She went into the house. The cat fell into the water. Throughout This flower blooms throughout the year. It is warm throughout the summer. Toward It is getting toward morning. Towards Do not look towards the sun. The lion came towards me. Underneath The rat hid underneath the plank. Until Do not go until tomorrow. Stay here until four o'clock. Unto He said unto them, "Follow me." Do unto others as you would that others do unto thee. Upon The crew rested upon their oars. Put the hat upon the hook. Within He came within the circle of fire. The besieged were within the city walls Without We can not do without you. Do not come without a recommendation. CONJUNCTION. A Conjunction is a word used to join words, phrases and clauses. Classes: I. On basis of form: 1. Simple: but. 2. Correlative: both=and. 3. Phrasal: in order that. II. On basis of rank: A. Coordinate: A Coordinate conjunction is a conjunction used to join words, phrases and clauses of equal rank..1. Copulative: The man and the boy came here. 2. Alternative: You or William may go.

Page  132 132 3. Adversative: He tries but he does not succeed. 4. Illative: You have energy, therefore you will learn B. Subordinate: A Subordinate conjunction is a conjunction used in connecting elements of unequal rank. 1. Conditional: I will sing if I am well. 2. Concessive: Although the spider failed, it tried again and again. 3. Consecutive: It was so hot that the water boiled. 4. Final: Be careful lest you make a mistake. 5. Comparative: You are richer than your brother. 6. Casual. She was happy because she received a present. 7. Introductory: You all understand that he was unhappy to begin with. LIST OF CONJUNCTIONS. Although. And. As. As-well-as. Because. Both-and. But. Either. Either-or. Except. For. If. In-case-that. In-order-that. Lest-that. Neither. Neither-not. Notwithstanding. Nor. On-condition-that. Or. Provided. Provided-that. Since. So-that. Unless. LIST OF CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS. Accordingly. Hence. Otherwise. When. After. How. Since. Whence. Also. However. So. Whenever. As. Likewise. Still. Where. Before. Moreover. Than. Whereby. Besides. Nevertheless. That. Wherein. Consequently. Notwithstanding. The. While. Also. Now. Then. Why. Ere. On-the-contrary. Therefore. Furthermore. On-the-other-hand. Until. Conjunctions like in-order-that may be considered as phrase conjunctions and probably will not have a corresponding term in the dialects. Only simpler conjunctions need be memorized, the difficult ones being considered as a table of reference. INTERJECTION. An Interjection is a word used to express some strong and sudden emotion. Classes: I. On basis of feeling expressed: T T....... A d B e _ Al...... 4-] - I...... -— t s e Iuor. 1. Joy or surprise: 2. Pain or suffering: 3. Disapproval: 4. Call for attention: 5. Call for silence: 6. Imitation of sounds: IIurran! l.tly art: ul-tlc.. Alas! how unhappy I am. Fie! fie! that is naughty. Hark! the soldiers come. Sh! hear the wind sighing. Tick, tock! says the clock. -n sr II I I I I

Page  133 133 SYNTAX. Syntax is the study of sentence construction. OUTLINE FOR SENTENCES. As to meaning: 1. Declarative. 2. Interrogative. 3. Imperative. 4. Exclamatory. As to form: 1. Simple. 2. Compound. 3. Complex. Elements: (Simple, Compound or Complex). 1. Subject (with qualifiers). a. noun. b. pronoun. c. substantive. (a) word. (b) phrase. 1. prepositional. 2. infinitive. (c) clause. 2. Predicate (with modifiers). a. Verb. (a) word. (b) phrase. 3. Object (same as subject). 4. Complement. a. substantive. b. adjective. Elements of a compound sentence. Clauses, independent and equal joined by coordinate conjunctions. Elements of a complex sentence: a. Clauses. (1) Principal; a complete proposition joined to a subordinate proposition by a subordinate conjunction. (2) Subordinate; an incomplete proposition joined to the principal clause by a subordinate, adverbial or pronominal conjunction. SENTENCES IN DETAIL DEFINED AND USED. A declarative. sentence is a sentence used in stating a fact; as, I go (simple); The dog barks and the horse runs (compound); The man left because he was sick (complex). An interrogative sentence is a sentence used in asking a question; as, Where are you goingr An imperative sentence is a sentence used in expressing a command or entreaty; as, Go away. Please, do me a favor.

Page  134 134 An exclamatory sentence is a sentence used in the expression of some strong emotion; as, How I hate him! A simple sentence is a sentence containing a single idea; as, The good old man went slowly away. A compound sentence is a sentence that expresses two or more distinct ideas of equal value; as, The boy cried, but the girl laughed. A complex sentence is a sentence consisting of principal and subordinate ideas; as, I will wait because you desire it. An element of a sentence is one of the parts of the sentence. A principal clause is the clause that makes a complete assertion; as, "I will wait." A subordinate clause is a clause that depends upon the principal clause to which it is joined by a subordinate, conjunctive word; as, "because you desire it." The subject of a sentence is the principal element about which the assertion is made; as, The man ate the apple. The predicate of a sentence is the word or phrase which asserts something of the subject; as. The man ate. The dog was killed. The object of a sentence is the element representing that upon which the subject acts through the predicate; as, The man ate the apple. The complement is an element of a sentence that serves to complete the meaning of the subject through following a verb of incomplete predication; as, The boy is a pupil (noun complement); The child is happy (adjective complement). A substantive is here used to mean a word, phrase or clause used in a noun sense or as a noun may be used; as, John laughed; To be happy is the best condition; That he was good was not disputed. OUTLINE FOR SYNTAX. Divisions: I. Analysis. II. Synthesis. Parts of sentences: I. Essential. 1. Subject. a. noun. b. pronoun. c. substantive, 2. Predicate. a. verb. b. verb phrase. 3. Object. a. noun. b. pronoun. c. substantive. 4. Complement. a. substantive. b. adjective. _:ill --------- ---------!1! — I --- --— 1I. I -....~ [ — __. I.

Page  135 135 II. Qualifying or modifying. - 1. Words. a. adjective. b. adverb. c. conjunctive adverb. d. pronominal adjective. e. relative pronoun. 2. Phrases (absolute, independent or explanatory). a. prepositional. (a) adjective. (b) adverbial. b. infinitive. (a) noun. (b) adjective. (c) adverb, c. noun. d. participial. (a) adjective.,(b) adverbial. 3. Clauses. a. adjective... b. adverbial. c. noun. III. Connecting, 1. conjunction. a. coordinate. b. subordinate. 2. preposition. 3. conjunctive adverb. 4. relative pronoun. IV. Independent:1. Words. 2. Phrases.. a. exclamatory. b. by address. c. explanatory. Syntax is divided into two parts, Analysis and Synthesis. Analysis is the separation of a sentence into its elements. Synthesis is the construction of a sentence froin words. The essential parts of a sentence are those parts which are necessary to express a complete idea. The essential parts are subject, predicate and object.. Of these, the subject and predicate are absolutely necessary, while the object may or may not be.needed, depending upon the sense to be-expressed. Qualifying or modifying elements are joined to the essential or non-essential elements according to the degree of accuracy desired in the expression of thought. Words 'and phrases are used independently in exclamation, by address or in explanation. ---- -- ----- . --- ---

Page  136 136 Examples to Demonstrate the Various Syntactical Arrangements. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS. I. Subject. a. Noun: The boy runs. b. Pronoun: He is brave. c. Substantive: 1. Word: "While" is an adverb. 2. Phrase: a. Over the fence is out. '.(prep.). b. To shoot well is desirable. (Inf.). 3. Clause: That it is true was proven. II. Predicate. a. Verb: The crow flies. b. Verb phrase: He had been deceived. III. Object. a. Noun: I saw the flower. b. Pronoun: We heard him. c. Substantive. 1. Word: Spell "delightful." 2. Phrase: (a) He wanted "over the house" to be a forbidden phrase. (Prep.). (b) He wanted to be praised. (Inf.). 3. Clause: He said, "I am wise." QUALIFYING AND MODIFYING ELEMENTS. I. Words: 1. Adjective: (a) I saw an old man. (b) She is happy. (c) Tom, the foolish, ran away. 2. Adverb: (a) The soldier fought bravely. (mod. verb). (b) The very best man makes mistakes. (mod. adj.). (c) It was most cruelly done. (mod. adv.). (d) Perhaps he will go. (mod. sentence). 3. Conjunctive adverb: (a) This is the season when flowers bloom. (adj. clause). (b) Stand where I show you. (adv. clause). 4. Pronominal adjective: (a) This is the man. (subj.). (b) I do not like that. (obj.). (c) Some are good. (indef. pron. adj.). (d) Either may go. (distrib. pron. adj.). 5. Relative pronoun: (a) This is the house that Jack built. (adj. use). (b) I saw a man who had been to China. (adj. use). (c) I met a friend whom I knew. (tij. use). -I II I I..

Page  137 137 II. Phrases: 1. Prepositional: (a) Who is the man of the house? (adj. use). (b) The boy ran into the house. (adv. use). 2. Infinitive: (a) To be or not to be, that is the question. (noun use). (b) The desire to study is praiseworthy. (adj. use). (c) He came to destroy, not to build. (adv. use). 3. Noun: The passing of the guard was quite audible. 4. Participial: (a) Leaving his horse, he walked on. (adj. use). (b) He went sliding his gun ahead. (adv. use). 5. Independent phrase: To say the least, it was unpleasant. (inf.). 6. Explanatory phrase: The hunter, he of the long hair, came slowly down the trail. 7. Absolute phrase: The sun being hot, we rested a while. III. Clauses: 1. Adjective: That is the place where I fell. 2. Adverbial: The birds flew when we approached. 3. Noun: Where Paul Jones was buried has been discovered. Connecting words: 1. Conjunction: (a) The man and the dog were hunting. (coordinate). (b) I arose when the bell rang. (subordinate). 2. Preposition: (a) She ran down the stairs. (b) Give this book to him. 3. Conjunctive adverbs: He sang while he was happy. 4. Relative pronoun: (a) Are you sure who he is? (b) I hear that you are sick. Independent words: 1. By exclamation: Oh! I see him. 2. By address: John, come here. 3. In explanation: Tom Shaw, the miller, was rich. Independent phrases: 1. By exclamation: Oh! the deceit, I can not believe it. 2. By address: Men of the West, arise in your might. 3. Explanatory: Blame not them, they of the noble blood.

Page  138 138 PARSING. Parsing consists in naming the part of speech, in telling its properties, in pointing out the relation to other words or elements of the sentence, in giving the rule for its construction or use in the sentence. NOUN, In parsing a noun, state that it is a noun, class of noun, person, number, gender, case, and rule for use. Examples: 1. Birds sing. Birds-noun; common; third person; plural number; common gender; nominative case, used as subject. Rule I. A substantive used as the subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case. 2. An apple is a fruit. Fruit noun; common; third person; singular number'; neuter gender; nominative case, used as a predicate noun. Rule II. A substantive used as a predicate noun is in the nominative case. 3. Jones, the lawyer, was there. Lawyer —noun; common; third person; singular number; masculine gender; nominative case, used in apposition with subject. Rule III. A substantive used in apposition with a subject is in the nominative case. 4. Julia, come here. Julia —noun; proper; second person; singular number; feminine gender; nominative absolute case. Rule IV. A substantive used in direct address is in the nominative absolute case. 5. William's hat is lost. William's —noun; proper; third person; singular number; masculine gender; possessive case, used to denote possession. Rule V. A substantive used to show possession is in the possessive case. 6. We saw the crowd. Crowd —noun; common; collective; third person; singular number; common gender; objective case, used as object of the finite verb "saw." Rule VI. A substantive used as object of a finite verb is in the objective case. 7. Your hat is on the table. Table noun; common; third person; singular number; neuter gender; objective case, used as object of the preposition "on.". Rule VII. A substantive used as object of a preposition is in the objective case. PERSONAL PRONOUN. To parse a personal pronoun, state that it is a pronoun, personal, simple or compound, antecedent, person, number, gender, case, and rule for use. Examples: 1. I gave him your address. I- pronoun; personal; simple; antecedent understood; first person; singular number; common gender. Rule of agreement: A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number, and gender; nominative case, used as subject; Rule I. Him —pronoun;' personal; simple; antecedent understood; third person; singular number; masculine gender; (Rule of agreement); objective case, used as object of a finite verb; Rule VI. ------------------- - -------------— ~ --- —-~ --- —---— ~ --- —~ ---

Page  139 139 Your-pronoun;' personal; simple; antecedent understodd; second person; singular number; common gender; (Rule of agreement); possessive case, used to denote possession; Rule V. 2. James gave her a flower. Her —pronoun; personal; simple; antecedent understood; third person; singular number; feminine gender; (Rule of agreement); objective case,. used as indirect object of a finite verb; Rule VI. 3. They injure themselves. Themselves —pronoun; personal; compound; antecedent understood; third person; plural number; common gender; (Rule of agreement); objective case, used as reflex object of a finite verb "injure"; Rule VI. 4. I, myself, saw him. Myself —pronoun; personal; compound; antecedent is the speaker; first person;-singular number; common gender; (Rule of agreement); nominative case, used in apposition with the subject; Rule III. 5. This book is mine. There are two methods of parsing "mine." FIRST METHOD. Mine —pronoun; possessive; antecedent "book"; third person; singular number; neuter gender; (Rule of agreement); nominative case, used as predicate nominative; Rule II. SECOND METHOD. "Mine" is equivalent to "my book." My —pronoun; personal; simple; antecedent, speaker; first person; singular number; common gender; (Rule of agreement); possessive case, denotes possession; Rule V. RELATIVE PRONOUN. To parse a relative pronoun, state that it is a pronoun, relative, simple or compound, antecedent, person, number, gender, rule of agreement, case and rule for use. Examples: 1. A boy who studies will learn. Who pronoun; relative; simple; antecedent, "boy"; third person; singular number; masculine gender; to agree with the antecedent "boy" (Rule of agree-.ment);nominative case, used as subject of the finite verb "studies";Rule I. 2. This is the man whom I know. Whom —pronoun; relative; simple; antecedent, "man"; third person; singular number; masculine gender; to agree with the antecedent; (Rule); objective case, used as object of finite verb "know"; Rule VI. 3. I know what you think. What — pronoun; relative; double; equivalent to "that which," "that" being the antecedent of the relative part "which;" "that" is a pronominal adjective used substantively as object of the finite verb "know"; "which" —pronoun; relative; simple; antecedent "that"; third person; singular number; neuter gender; to agree with antecedent; objective case, object of finite verb "think;" Rule VI. -- -- -- -- - --

Page  140 140 4. This is the boy whose top was lost. Whose-pronoun; relative; simple; antecedent, "boy"; third person; singular number; masculine gender; Rule; possessive case; denotes possession of "top"; Rule V. 5. Whoever tries will succeed. Whoever- pronoun; relative; compound; equivalent to "he who," "he" being the antecedent part and "who" the relative part. Who — pronoun; relative; simple; antecedent, "he"; third person; singular number; masculine gender, to agree with antecedent "he"; Rule; nominative case, used as subject of finite verb "tries"; Rule I. 6. As many as wished were paid. As —pronoun; relative; simple; antecedent "many"; third person; plural number; common gender, to agree with antecedent "many"; nominative case; subject of finite verb "wished"; Rule I. "As" is equivalent to "who" and joins the subordinate clause "as wished" to "many," the subordinate clause being used adjectively. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. To parse an interrogative pronoun state that it is a pronoun, interrogative, subsequent, person, number, gender and case, with rule for use. Examples: 1. Who are you? Who- pronoun; interrogative; subsequent is the person addressed; second person; common number; common gender, to agree with the subsequent; Rule: An interrogative pronoun must agree with its subsequent in person, number and gender; nominative case, used as subject of finite verb; Rule I. The subsequent of an interrogative pronoun is that part of the answer which it represents; as, Which is mine?-This one is yours. The subsequent of "Which" is "one." ADJECTIVE. To parse an adjective state that -it is an adjective, its class, give its comparison, if any, name the word qualified and give the Rule. Examples: 1. Every good man is worthy of praise. Every ---adjective; definitive; distributive; can not be compared; qualifies "man." Rule VIII. An adjective qualifies a substantive. Good —adjective; descriptive; compared, good, better, best; qualifies"man." Rule VIII. Worthy — adjective; descriptive; worthy, more worthy, most worthy; is used as predicate adjective qualifier of "man." Rule VIII. 2. The first three men are Russian soldiers. The ---adjective; definitive; definite article; qualifies "men"; Rule VIII. First — adjective; definitive; numeral; ordinal; qualifies "men"; Rule VIII. Three —adjective; definitive; numeral; cardinal; qualifies "men"; Rule VIII. Russian —adjective; descriptive; proper; qualifies "soldiers"; Rule VIII. I ill - i~~~ONO

Page  141 141 VERB. To parse a verb state that it is a verb, regular or irregular, give the principal parts, transitive or intransitive, voice, mode, tense, person and number, with rule for agreement. Examples: 1. He studied his lesson. Studied --- verb; regular; study, studied, studied; transitive; active voice; indicative mode; past tense; third person, singular number, to agree with the subject "he." Rule: A verb must agree with its subject in person and number. 2. I go. Go verb; irregular; go, went, gone; intransitive; active voice; indicative mode; present tense; first person, singular number, to agree with its subject "I". Rule. 3. They can work. Can work —verb phrase, consisting of the principal verb "work" and the auxiliary verb "can"; regular; work, worked, worked; intransitive; active voice; potential mode; present tense; third person, plural number, to agree with the subject. Rule. 4. If I were rich I would travel. Were —verb; irregular; be, was, been; intransitive; active voice; subjunctive mode; past tense; first person, singular number to agree with the subject. Rule. Would travel —verb phrase, principal verb "travel," auxiliary verb "would"; regular; travel, traveled, traveled; active voice; potential mode; past tense; first person, singular number, to agree with the subject. Rule. 5. Play in the house. Play — verb; regular; play, played, played; intransitive; active voice; imperative mode; present tense; second person, common number, to agree with the subject "you" understood. Rule. 6. The book was printed neatly. Was printed ---verb-phrase, principal verb "printed" and auxiliary "was"; regular; print, printed, printed; intransitive; passive voice; indicative mode; past tense; third person, singular number, to agree with the subject. Rule. 7. ~ The apple is red. Is- verb; irregular; be or am, was, been; intransitive; copulative; active voice; indicative mode; present tense; third person, singular number, to agree with the subject. Rule. 8. 1 am going away. Am going — progressive verb phrase; principal verb the present participle "going," auxiliary verb "am"; irregular, go, went, gone; intransitive; active voice; indicative mode; present progressive tense; first person, singular number, to agree with the subject. -Rule. VERBALS. INFINITIVE. To parse an infinitive, state that it is an infinitive, regular or irregular, principal parts, transitive or intransitive, voice, use in the sentence, and rule for use.

Page  142 142 Examples: 1. To live happily is to be desired. To live infinitive; regular; live, lived, lived; intransitive; active voice; present tense; used as a noun; nominative case, used as subject of the finite verb. Rule I. To be desired — infinitive; regular; desire, desired, desired; passive voice; present tense; used as a predicate nominative. 2. I like to swim. To swim- infinitive; irregular; swim, swam, swum; active voice; present tense; used as a noun, object of the finite verb "like". 3. The reaper went forth to reap. To reap —infinitive; regular; reap, reaped, reaped; active voice; past tense; used as adverbial modifier of the adverb "forth." Rule IX. An infinitive belongs to the word that it limits. 4. Bread to eat was not plentiful. To eat —infinitive; irregular; eat, ate, eaten; used as an adjective phrase to qualify "bread." Rule IX. 5. I am sorry to see that. To see —infinitive; irregular; see, saw, seen; active voice; present tense; used as an adverbial phrase to modify the adjective "sorry." Rule IX. 6. He told them to run. To run —infinitive; irregular; run, ran, run; active voice; past tense; used as part of the noun phrase "them to run," used as object of the verb "told". PARTICIPLE. To parse a participle, state that it is a participle, regular or irregular, principal parts, transitive or intransitive, voice, tense, use in the sentence and rule for use. Examples: 1. Reading thoughtfully improves the mind. Reading is a participle; irregular; read, read, read; intransitive; active voice; present progressive tense; used as the subject of the finite verb "improves." Rule X. A participle may be used as a noun, adjective or adverb. 2. The general, defeated and sick, surrendered. Defeated is a participle; regular; defeat, defeated, defeated; intransitive; passive voice; past tense; used as an adjective to limit the noun general. Rule X. 3. Having found the house, we went in. Having found is a perfect participle; irregular; find, found, found; transitive; active voice; past perfect tense; used as the predicate of the absolute construction, the subject being we understood or implied. Note:-(In this construction the participle appears to have the weight of a mode since it is not as clearly adjective as in some other constructions, but appears to take the part of a true verb followed by'an object, and having a subject understood.) 4. She came running along. Running is a participle; irregular; run, ran, run; intransitive; active voice; past tense. Rule XI. A participle or infinitive is governed in tense by the finite verb upon which it depends; used adverbially to modify the finite verb came. Rule X.

Page  143 143 5. Running water is pleasant to hear. Running is a participle; irregular; run, ran, run; intransitive; Rule XI; used as an adjective to limit the noun water. Rule X. 6. It all hinges upon his keeping his word. Keeping is a participle; irregular; keep, kept, kept; transitive; active; present tense; Rule XI.. Used as object of the preposition "upon." Rule X. (Note: —In this sentence the participle while used as a noun seems to have the property of mode inasmuch as it has a subject "his" and an object "word". The subject of a participle is in the possessive or nominative absolute case when it does not depend upon another word in the sentence.) Examples of nominative absolute case. The horse being crippled, we walked to town. (Note:-There are three uses of verbals that are apparently very similar and require some thought to distinguish; viz., the adjective use, the participle use, and the noun use. These may be called, for convenience, the participial adjective, participle and participial noun.) Examples. 1. Participial adjective. a. Singing birds are pleasant companions. b. Laughing rills ran idly to the meadow. c. Crying babies are unpopular. In the above examples the participle is clearly used as an adjective to limit the noun following. 2. Participle. a. The water, roaring in my ears, confused me. b. The old man, hobbling along, excited pity. c. The little girl, singing a song, came to school. In these examples the participle has a subject, as a pure verb, and in c. has an object as well. 3. Participial noun, gerund and abstract noun. a. -The opening of the door drew my attention. b. Firing was heard at a distance. c. I am fond of singing. d. Shooting a gun is sport for some people. In the above, examples a, b, and c contain abstract common nouns, while d contains what some grammars call a gerund. The gerund is nearly like the abstract noun, the difference being that the gerund takes an object while the abstract noun does not. The gerund is also called a verbal noun by some authorities. The participial noun is also called the present infinitive or the infinitive in ing. As to the mode of infinitives and participles, there is much difference of opinion among the highest authorities, some claiming that the infinitives and participles have no modes but are either nouns, adjectives or adverbs according to use. Others claim that, as mode means "manner of expression," they have modes as distinct as those of the finite verbs.

Page  144 144 It seems to be clear in some cases that they have modes, while in others it is difficult to detect any modal sense, as, for example: a. Singing birds are pleasant companions. b. The man, singing a song, came into view. In a the word singing is purely adjective while in b the word singing has a subject and object as well as an adjective or limiting sense. In the sentence, "A man to have success should have perseverance," the infinitive to have has a subject and an object and therefore seems to be worthy of being classified as a mode, but in the sentence, "Time to come is called future," to come loses the modal sense to a certain degree and appears as an adjective. The subject is one that requires much study on the part of the student and can not be gone into exhaustively in a short treatise, but should be placed in a list of those subjects to be studied in the more advanced courses. ADVERB. To parse an adverb state that it is an adverb, kind, compare it, tell what it modifies, and give the rule for its use. Examples. 1. They talked foolishly. Foolishly adverb; manner; foolishly, more foolishly, most foolishly; modifies the verb "talked." Rule XII: Adverbs modify verbs, verbals, adjectives, and adverbs. 2. Where are you going? Where — dverb; interrogative of place; can not be compared; modifies the verb phrase "are going." Rule XII. 3. He rolled over and over. v Over and over — adverbial phrase; manner; can not be compared; modifies the verb "rolled." Rule XII. 4. Certainly, I have it. Certainly — adverb; modal; not compared; modifies the sentence, "I have it." Rule XIII: Modal adverbs sometimes modify clauses or sentences. 5. I shall leave whenever I can. Whenever- adverb; conjunctive; not compared; connects two clauses and modifies the verb "leave," showing time. PREPOSITION. To parse a preposition state that it is a preposition, tell what relation it shows, and give the rule for use. Examples. 1. The cat ran into the house. Into — preposition; shows the relation of place between its object "house" and the verb "ran." Rule XIV: A preposition shows the relation between its object and the word upon which the preposition depends. 2. The dog crawled from under the bed. From under —preposition, complex; shows the relation of place between its object "bed" and the verb "crawled". 3. He went without his dinner. Without —preposition; shows the relation between its object "dinner" and the verb "went." II- II I I......._. -1_.-_..__ I. - -11.................... I __.

Page  145 145 CONJUNCTION. To parse a conjunction, state that it is a conjunction, class, what it connects, and give rule for use. Examples. 1. He and I went to town. And —conjunction; coordinate; connects "he" and "I." Rule XV: A coordinate conjunction connects similar elements 2. I am happy because you came. Because —conjunction; subordinate; connects the independent clause "I am happy" to the dependent clause "you came." Rule XVI: Subordinate conjunctions connect dissimilar elements. 3. Either you or I must go. Either-or —conjunction; correlative; "either" introduces the sentence and "or" connects "you" and "I." Rule XVI. 4. I am entitled to learn as well as you. As-well-as —conjunctive phrase; coordinate; connects two similar clauses. Rule XV. INTERJECTION. To parse an interjection, state that it is an interjection, and give, the rule for its use. Examples: 1. "Hark! the herald angels sing." Hark! interjection because it denotes strong feeling. Rule XVII: An interjection is used independently. VARIOUS USES OF WORDS. Above. 1. Rain comes from above. (noun). 2. Read the sentence above. (adj.). 3. The eagle soars above. (adv.). 4. She went above me. (prep.). All. 1. My all is lost. (noun). 2. All men are mortal. (adj.). 3. The work is all wrong. (adv.). Any. 1. Has he any property? (adj.). 2. Is your work any better? (adv.). As. 1. This is the same as I read. (pronoun). 2. We shall be as gods. (adj.). 3. You are as tall as he. (adv.). 4. As he was ambitious, I slew him. (conj.). 5. As a teacher he is a success. (prep.). 6. Expletive: They regard him as innocent. 10-35894 i.:

Page  146 146 7. As for me, I can not say. (Part of prep. phrase). 8. He as well as she came. (Part of conj. phrase). 9. He has not come as yet. (Part of adv. phrase). Better. 1. She got the better of him. (noun). 2. He does better work now. (adj.). 3. They did not better matters. (verb). 4. He works better now. (adv.). Both. 1. Both men were present. (adj.). 2. Both he and she came. (cor. conj.). 3. I saw both of them. (ind. pronoun). But. 1. There is no one but knows better. (pro.). 2. She is but a child. (adj.). 3. He has but two children. (adv.). 4. All but him had fled. (prep.). 5. He came but did not stay. (conj.). Else. 1. I met no body else. (adj.). 2. Where elS did he go? (adv.). 3. I have no tears, else I would weep for thee. (conj.). Enough. 1. Enough is as good as a feast. (noun). 2. They have enough money. (adj.). 3. The fruit is not ripe enough. (adv.). Even. 1. He chose an even number. (adj.). 2. They will even all inequalities. (verb). 3. Even then he should have said so. (adv.). Except. 1. They except. him. (verb). 2. They all left except John. (prep.). 3. Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish. (conj.). Far. 1. He came from a far country. (adj.). 2. He did not walk far. (adv.). 3. He went as far as Paris. (part of prep. phrase). Fast. 1. The fast was not long. (noun). 2. He has a fast horse. (adj.). 3. Some people fast in Lent. (verb). 4. They walk fast. (adv.). -----—; ----~ ~ — ---—;.-- —.c.-...,-- —_. _______:_

Page  147 147 For. 1. Do this for me. (prep.). 2. He came for he wished to see me. (conj.). 3. For him to remain is impossible. (expletive). Full. 1. He planted corn in the full of the moon. (noun). 2. They had a full house. (adj.). 3. The moon will full tonight. (verb). 4. He knew full well. (adv.). How. 1. He knows the how and the why of it. (noun). 2. How is the sick man? (adj.). 3. How did he go? (adv.). III. 1, He has a cure for every ill. (noun). 2. The child is ill today. (adj.). 3. 111 fares the land. (adv.). Like. 1. Like begets like. (noun.). 2. Like causes produce like results. (adj.). 3. They like oranges. (verb). 4. He ran like a deer. (adv.). 5. He is like his father. (prep.). Much. 1. Where much is given much is required. (noun). 2. He has much money. (adj.). 3. The sick man is much better. (adv.). No. 1. The noes have it. (noun). 2. He has no money. (adj.). 3. He will stay no longer. (adv.). Only. 1. The meeting is for men only. (adj.). 2. He caught only a few fish. (adv.). 3. It will do, only it is small. (conj.). Since. 1. He has not been here since. (adv.). 2. I have not seen him since June. (prep.). 3. Since you are here I will go. (conj.). )0. 1. As is the teacher, so will be the school. (adj.). 2. You should not act so. (adv.). 3. John is here so you may go. (conj.). I

Page  148 148 Still. 1. In the still of night, the peal rang out. (noun). 2. Still waters run deep. (adj.). 3. He stills the noisy sea. (verb). 4. He is still at work. (adv.). 5. It is small, still it will do. (conj.). That. 1. This is the man that I saw. (pro.). 2. That man is honest. (adj.). 3. That far I hold that we are taught. (adv.). 4. It was so cold that the water froze. (conj.). 5. James said that he would go. (expletive). The. 1. The man is rich. (adj.). 2. The more the merrier. (adv.). There. 1. He stood there a long time. (adv.). 2. There are two pints in a quart. (expletive). 3. There! that will do now. (interjection). What. 1. "In building of chaises, I tell you what." (noun). 2. What did he say? (pro.). 3. What book have you? (adj.). 4. What! has he escaped? (inter.). 5. What (partly) by intrigue and what by bribery he accomplished his purpose. (adv.). While. 1. They worked well for a while. (noun). 2. They will while away their time. (verb). 3. You may read while you wait. (adv.). 4. They are dark while we are light. (conj.). Worth. 1. His worth was acknowledged. (noun). 2. The book is worth a dollar. (adj.). 3. Woe worth the day. (verb). Wrong. 1. I do thee no wrong. (noun). 2. You took the wrong number. (adj.). 3. You wrong me in this. (verb). 4. "Ten censure wrong for one that writes amiss." (adv.). SIMILAR WORDS. There are many words in the English language spelled alike but pronounced differently; others spelled differently but pronounced alike. As these words are very confusing to a student of the language, a partial list is here given. i~' I I I I

Page  149 149 Definitions may be found in the dictionary, All Aloud Ant Ate Aught Ball Bare Be Been Berry Blew Board Boulder Bough Brake Bread Buy-by Cell Cent-sent Cents-sense Creak Currant Dear Die Doe Done Earn Eye Fair Fined Fir Flea Flew Flour Fore Forth Foul Gait Grate Groan Guessed Hair Hall Heal Hear Heard Him Higher Awl Allowed Aunt Eight Ought Bawl Bear Bee Bin Bury Blue Bored Bowlder Bow Break Bred Bye Sell Scent Scents Creek Current Deer Dye Dough Dun Urn I Fare Find Fur Flee Flue Flower Four Fourth Fowl Gate Great Grown Guest Hare Haul Heel Here Herd Hymn Hire Hoes Hole Hoop Hour Knead Knew Know Knows Lain Lead Lie Made Mail Meat Might Nay Oar-O'er One Pail Pain Pair-Pare Peace Plain Pore Praise Pray Quarts Quiet Rain-Rein Raise Rap Read Read Right-Rite Ring Road Rose Rote Sail Scene Scull Sea Seam Seas So Shone Side Sighs Hose Whole Whoop Our Need New No Nose Lane Led Lye Maid Male Meet Mite Neigh Ore Won Pale Pane Pear Piece Plane Pour Prays Prey Quartz Quite Reign Rays Wrap Red Reed Write-Wright Wring Rowed Rows Wrote Sale Seen Skull See Seem Seize Sow Shown Sighed Size I I

Page  150 150 Slay Sleigh Tide Tied Soar Sore To-Too Two Sold Soled Toe Tow Sole Soul Told Tolled Some Sum Vain Vane Son Sun Wade Weighed Stake Steak Wait Weight Steal Steel Ware Wear Tacks Tax Way Weigh Tail Tale Ways Weighs Their There Weak Week Threw Through Wood Would The following synonyms are introduced in order to enrich the vocabulary of the pupil as regards common English words. V signifies Verb. N Noun. Aj. Adjective. Av. Adverb. Abuse (v.), asperse, calumniate, slander, vilify. Abuse (n.), contumely, obloquy, scurrility. Accept (v.), admit, receive, take. Accident (n.), casualty, chance, incident. Account (v.), calculate, compute, estimate. Act (v.), do, enact, make, perform, play. Afraid (aj.), fainthearted, fearful, timid. Age (n.), date, epoch, era, period, time. Agree (v.), accede, assent, coincide. Aid (v.), assist, conduce, forward, help. Aid (n.), assistance, help, relief. Aim (v.), direct, level, point. Aim (n.), design, end, intent, purpose. Air (n.), aspect, look, manner, mien. Alarm (n.), consternation, dismay, fright. Always (av.), constantly, continually, ever. Anger (v.), enrage, incense, irritate, vex. Anger (n.), fury, ire, passion, rage. Angry (aj.), enraged, hasty, hot, passionate. Argue (v.), debate, discuss, dispute. Art (n.), expertness, skill, tact. Ask (v.), beg, claim, bequest, solicit. Bad (aj.), baneful, evil, noxious, wicked. Battle (n.), combat, conflict, contest, fight. Bear (v.), carry, suffer, support, sustain. Beat (v.), conquer, knock, strike, thump. Beg (v.), ask, crave, entreat, implore. Bend (v.), distort, inclose, lean, stoop. Bid (v.), call, invite, offer, propose. Bind (v.), connect, restrain, restrict, tie. Bland (aj.), gentle, gracious, kind, mild, soft. Blind (aj.), eyeless, sightless, unseeing. Bold (aj.), brave, daring, dauntless, fearless. Break (v.), burst, rack, rend, violate. Bright (aj.), brilliant, clear, lucid, luminous. Build (v.), construct, erect, found, raise. By-and-by (av.), anon, ere long, shortly, soon. Calm (aj.), allay, hush, pacify, soothe. Care (n.), anxiety, caution, concern, regard. Caress (v.), embrace, fondle, hug. Catch (v.), arrest, capture, grasp, grip. Change (v.), alter, barter, exchange, vary. Charge (v.), accuse, arraign, impeach. Charge (n.), attack, care, expense, price. Cheat (v.),, deceive, delude, dupe, gull. Cheat (n.), deceit, deception, fraud, imposture. Chief (n. and aj.), head, leader, main, supreme. Choose (v.), call, pick, prefer, select. Claim (v.), ask, challenge, demand, plead. Class (n.), caste, degree, order, rank, tribe. Clean (v.), Clarify, cleanse, purify. -s I I I I

Page  151 151 Clear (aj.), evident, lucid, plain, trans- Draw (v.), describe, drag, haul, pull, parent. sketch. Close (v.), conclude, end, finish, shut. Dress (n.), attire, clothing, garb, garClose (aj.), compact, dense, firm, solid. ments. Clothes (n.), apparel, array, garments, Drive (v.), direct, force, guide, press, vestments. urge. Color (n.),, complexion, hue, tint. Dry (aj.), arid, dull, lifeless, parched. Common'(aj.), frequent, low, mean, vul- Dull (a;.), dismal, gloomy, sad, stupid. gar. Early (av.), anon, betimes, shortly, soon. Company (n.), assembly, corporation, Earn (v.), achieve, acquire, gain, obtain, society, troop. win. Companion (n.), ally, associate, comrade, Edge (n.), brim, brink, border, margin. partner. End (n.), aim, close, object, purpose, Conduct (v.), direct, guide, lead, manage. result. Conduct (n), behavior, carriage, deport- Enemy (n.), adversary, antagonist, foe. ment. Enough (aj.), abundance, plenty, sufContract (n.), agreement, bargain, cove- ficient. nant. Entrance (n.), entry, ingress, inlet, Control (v.), check, curb, govern, restrain. porch. Conversation (n.), conference, parley, Entrance (v.), bewitch, charm, enchantr talk. fascinate. Cool (a].), calm, cold, composed, frigid. Equal (a].), alike, equivalent, even, uniCopy (n.), imitation, model, pattern. form. Correct (aj.), accurate, exact, precise, Error (n.), blunder, fallacy, fault, misproper. take. Cost (n.), charge, expense, price. Even (aj.), equal. level, plain, smooth. Count (v.), calculate, number, reckon, Evil (aj.), bad, ill, unfair, wicked. sum. Explain (v.), elucidate, expound, interCruel (aj.), barbarous, inhuman, savage. pret. Custom (n.), habit, manner, use. Extreme (av.), farthest, most distant, Cut (v.), avoid, sever, slice, sunder. utmost. Dark (aj.), black, dim, obscure, sable. Fair (a].), clear, honest, impartial, just. Dead (a].), deceased, lifeless, spiritless. Fall (v.), droop, drop, sink. Debt (n.), fault, liability, obligation. False (aj.), mendacious, untrue. Deed (n.), act, achievement, document. Falsehood (n.), fib, lie, story, untruth. Deep (aj.), abstruse, profound, subter- Fame (n.), credit, glory, honor, renown. ranean. Family (n.), ancestry, house, household, Depart (v.), go, leave, quit, retire, start. race. Desert (n.), solitude, void, waste, wild. Fashion (n.), custom, form, manner, Die (v.), depart, expire, fade, perish. mode. Discipline (t.), order, punishment, train- Fast (aj.), firm, gay, solid, steady, wild. ing. Fat (aj.), corpulent, obese. Disease (n.), complaint, disorder, sick- Fear (n.), alarm, dread, fright, terror. ness. Fee (n.), account, bill, charge, reckoning. Dishonest (aj.), cheating, deceitful, un- Fellow (n.), companion, comrade, equal, just. mate. District (n.), clime, country, quarter, Fertile (aj.), fruitful, pregnant, prolific, region. rich. Doubt (n.), scruple, suspense, uncertain- Festival (n.), banquet, feast, fete, treat. ty. Fierce (aj.), ferocious, furious, savage.

Page  152 152 Filthy (a].), dingy, dirty, gross, unclean. Fine (a].), delicate, handsome, pure, refined. Firm (aj), robust, steadfast, strong, sturdy. First (a].), primary, primeval, primitive. Get (v.), earn, gain, obtain, procure. Gift (n.), alms, grant, talent. Give (v.), bestow, confer, grant, impart. Glad (a].), cheerful, joyful, pleased. Glide (v.), roll, slide, slip. Go (v.), depart, move, proceed, stir. Good (n.), benefit, boon, profit, weal. Good (aj.), just, true, upright. Govern (v.), direct, manage, rule. Grand (a].), magnificent, splendid, superb. Grave (n.), sepulchre, tomb, vault. Grave (aj.), sedate, serious, solemn. Great (aj.), august, big, huge, noble. Grief -(n.), affliction, sorrow, woe. Grieve (v.), hurt, lament, mourn, wound. Group (n.), class, clump, cluster, order. Grow (v.), advance, expand, increase. Growl (v.), grumble, murmur, snarl. Guard (v.), defend, keep, protect, shield. Guard (n.), defense, security, watchman. Guess (v.), conjecture, suppose, surmise. Guilt (n.), crime, offense, sin. Halt (v.), falter, limp, pause, rest. Hand (n.), agency, influence, workman. Handsome (a].), elegant, fine, graceful, pretty. Happy (aj.), fortunate, glad, lucky. Hard (aj.), cruel, firm, harsh, solid. Hasty (a].), angry, fiery, hot, quick, rash. Hate (v.), abhor, detest, dislike, loathe. Heal (v.), cure, reconcile, remedy. Healthy (aj.), hale, hearty, sound, strong. Hear (v.), harken, listen, overhear. Heavy (a].), drowsy, dull, weighty. Height (n.), apex, climax, top, zenith. Help (v.), aid, assist, relieve, reserve. Hide (v.), cancel, cover, disguise, screen. Hide (n.), bark, peel, rind, skin. Hint (v)., allude to, intimate, suggest. Hire (n.), allowance, pay, salary. Hit (v.), dash, strike, thump. Hold (v.), have, keep, possess, retain. Holy (aj.), devout, divine, pious, sacred. Home (n.), abode, domicile, residence. Honest (a].), honorable, upright, virtuous. Hot (aj.), ardent, burning, fiery, intense. Hurry (v.), expedite, hasten, speed. Hurt (n.), damage, injury, harm. Hurt (v.) annoy, grieve, vex, wound. Hush (n.), calm, lull, quiet, still. Idle (aj.), indolent, inactive, lazy. Ill (n.), evil, harm, mischief, wickedness. Ill (a].), diseased, indisposed, sick. Imitate (v.), copy, counterfeit, mock. Improve (v.), amend, better, reform. Impure (a].), adulterated, foul, mixed. Inclose (v.), cover, surround, wrap. Indeed (av.), certainly, truly, veritably. Inform (v.), communicate, report, tell. Inspect (v.), examine, overhaul. Instruct (v.), educate, inform, teach. Jealous (n.), envy, suspicion. Join (v.), add, append, go with, unite. Joy (n.), charm, delight, gladness, pleasure. Jump (v.), bound, leap, spring. Keen (a].), acute, cutting, sharp. Keep (v.), detain, hold, preserve, retain. Key (n.), explanation, guide, translation. Kill (v.), assassinate, murder, slay. Kind (a].), gentle, good, meek, thoughtful. Kind (n.), class, genus, sort, species. Labor (n.), exertion, task, toil, work. Language (n.), dialect, speech, tongue. Large (a].), big, extensive, great, huge, vast. Last (aj.), final, hindmost, latest, utmost. Leap (v.), bound, jump, spring. Leave (v.), quit, relinquish, renounce. Legal (aj.), lawful, legitimate. Letter (n.), epistle, communication, note. Life (n.), animation, career, history. Lift (v.), elevate, erect, hoist, raise. Limit (n.), border, bound, extent. Listen (v.), hark, heed, list. Little (a].), diminutive, dwarf, small. Live (v.), exist, subsist. Look (v.), eye, see, view, witness. Loose (aj.), dissolute, lax, slack. Loud (aj.), blustering, noisy, vociferous. 1 111

Page  153 Love (n.), affection, endearment, fondness. Lover (n.), suitor, sweetheart, wooer. Many (aj.), numerous, several, various. March (v.), pace, step, tramp, tread, walk. Mark (n.), note, sign' token, trace. Mark (v.), notice, print, show, stamp. Marriage (n.), matrimony, nuptials. Masculine (aj.), brave, hardy, manly, virile. Master (n.), head, owner, proprietor. Mean'(aj.), niggardly, stingy, vile, vulgar. Mean (v.), design, intend, purpose. Mend (v.), amend, better, correct, improve. Merchant (n.), dealer, trader, tradesman. Mercy (n.), lenity, pity, compassion. Mind (n.), idea, notion, sentiment. Miss (v.), fail, lose, omit. Motion (n.), action, change, movement. Music (n.), harmony, melody, symphony. Naked (aj.), bare, nude, uncovered, rude. Name (n.), fame, reputation, repute, title. Nation (n.), community, people, state. Neat (aj.), nice, pure, spruce, trim. New (aj.), fresh, novel, recent. Nice (aj.), delicate, exact, fine, good. Noise (n.), cry; clamor, din, outcry. Number (n.), crowd, figure, host, swarm. Object (n.), aim, end, mark, purpose. Object (v.), contravene, impeach, oppose. Odd (aj.), droll, eccentric, peculiar, strange. Odor (n.), fragrance, perfume, scent, smell. Offer (v.), bid, extend, present, tender. Office (n.), duty, post, service. Old (aj.), aged, ancient, antique, elderly. Open (v.), expand, spread, unclose, unlock. Over (av.), above, across, more than, upon. Pain (n.), anguish, distress, grief. Parent (n.), author, origin, source. Part (v.), break, divide,.separate. Party (n.), clique, combination, faction, league. 153 Path (n.), course, pathway, road, track. Peace (n.), calm, quiet, repose, tranquillity. People (n.), mob, populace, race, tribe. Peace (n.), calm, quiet. Peril (n.), danger, hazard, risk, venture. Persons (n.), folks, individuals, men, people. Pick (v.), choose, cull, gather, select. Pitch (v.), cast, fling, launch, throw. Place (n.), post, spot, station. Place (v.), array, lay, put, set. Play (n.), drama, gambol, game, sport. Please (v.), content, delight, gratify, satisfy. Plenty (aj.), enough, fulness, sufficient. Polite (aj.), civil, genteel, refined, wellbred. Poor (a].), indigent, needy, penniless. Prefer (v.), choose, exalt, fancy, raise, select. Present (n.), benefaction, donation, gift. Present (v.), exhibit, give, offer. Pretty (aj.), beautiful, comely, fine, neat. Price (n.), charge, cost, expense, value. Principal (aj.), chief, first, leading, supreme. Principle (n.), ground, motive, reason, rule. Print (n.), impress, imprint, mark, stamp. Prize (n.), booty, capture, loot, plunder. Prize (v.), assess, esteem, rate, value. Pronounce (v.), deliver, express, speak, utter. Proud (a].), boastful, lofty, stately, vain. Public (aj.), common, general, open. Pull (v.), drag, draw, gather, haul, tug. Punish (v.), castigate, chastise, correct, whip. Pupil (n.), disciple, scholar, student. Push (v.), drive, press, thrust, urge. Quarrel (n.), altercation, brawl, feud, tumult. Query (n.), inquiry, interrogative, question. Quit (v.), cede, forego, leave, resign. Race (n.), clan, family, match, pursuit. Rage (n.), anger, fury, passion. Rage (v.), chafe, fret, fume, storm.

Page  154 154 Raise (v.), exact, heave, hoist, lift. Rare (aj.), scarce, uncommon, unique. Rate (n.), duty, tax, value, worth. Rate (v.), abuse, compute, estimate, value. Reach (v.), attain, gain, stretch, touch. Ready (aj.), apt, handy, prepared, ripe. Real (a;.), actual, certain, literal, positive. Reap (v.), acquire, gain, get, obtain. Reel (v.), fall, roll, stagger, totter. Refuse (v.), decline, deny, reject, withhold. Refuse (n.), dregs, dross, rubbish. Remember (v.), mind, recall, recollect. Repeat (v.), recite, rehearse, relate. Reply (n.), answer, rejoinder, response. Rescue (n.), preserve, recapture, recover, save. Rest (n.), peace, quiet, repose, slumber. Retire (v.), depart, leave, recede, retreat. Rich (aj.), abundant, ample, fertile, wealthy. Right (a].), correct, fit, lawful, proper. true. Right (n.), claim, justice, privilege. Ripe (a].), complete, mature, mellow, ready. Road (n.), course, highway, route, way. Roll (v.), peal, revolve, trundle, wheel. Roll (n.), schedule, scroll, list, register. Room (n.), apartment, chamber, hall. Rough (aj.), blunt, gruff, rugged, uneven. Round (aj.), circular, entire, plump, spherical. Row (n.), broil, commotion, riot, tumult. Rude (aj.), harsh, impudent, rough. Rule (n.), guide, law, maxim, precept. Run (v.), flee, fly, hasten, scamper. Rush (v.), dash, stream, sweep,'roll. Sacred (aj.), devoted, divine, holy. Sad (aj.), downcast; gloomy, sorrowful. Safe (a].), certain, reliable, secure, sure. Salary (n.), hire, stipend, wages. Saw (n.), adage, maxim, proverb, saying. Scrap (n.), bit, crumb, fragment, morsel. See (v.), behold, descry, understand. Sell (v.), dispose of, hawk, retail, vend. Send (v.), despatch, forward, transmit. Several (aj.), divers, many, sundry, various. Shake (v.), quiver, shiver, shudder, tremble. Shame (n.), disgrace, dishonor. Sharp (a].), acute, biting, keen, pointed. Shine (v.), gleam, glisten, glitter, glow, sparkle. Short (aj.), brief, compendious, concise, curt. Shun (v.), avoid, elude, evade. Shut (v.), close, preclude. Shy (aj.), reserved, timid. Sick (aj.), disordered, ill, infirm, unwell. Side (n.), border, edge, margin, party. Sign (n.), emblem, symbol, token, type. Silence (n.), calm, quiet, stillness. Silence (v.), gag, hush, refute, stifle. Sleepy (aj.), drowsy, lazy, sluggish. Slender (aj.), fragile, slight, slim, small. Slow (a].), dull, sluggish, tardy, tedious. Sly (aj.), artful, astute, crafty, cunning. Smell (n.), fragrance, odor, perfume, scent. Soak (v.), drench, moisten, steep, wet. Song (n.), ballad, carol, ditty, lay, strain. Sorrow (n.), affliction, distress, grief, trouble. Sorry (aj.), hurt, pained, sad, shabby. Soul (n.), life, person, reason, spirit. Sour (a].), acid, harsh, sharp, tart. Speak (v.), converse, say, talk, tell, utter. Speedy (aj.), early, fast, quick, rapid, swift. Spot (n.), blot, place, site, speck. Spring (n.), foundation, origin, rise, source. Spring (v.), bound, flow, leap, rise. Spy (v.), discover, see, view. Stain (n.), blot, color, dye, spot, taint. Stand (v.), endure, halt, rest, stop. Stay (v.), abide, arrest, dwell, hinder. Steal (v.), embezzle, filch, pilfer, purloin. Stingy (aj.), close, mean, niggardly, sparing. Story (n.), incident, narrative, tale. Stranger (aj.), alien, foreigner. Stream (n.), current, drift, tide. Strict (aj.), accurate, close, correct, nice. Subtract (v.), deduct, remove, withdraw. I I II ~

Page  155 Suffer (v.), admit, allow, hear, let, tolerate. Suit (n.), action, prayer, request. Sum (n.), amount, problem, total, whole. Sure (aj.), certain, firm, safe, secure. Swamp (n.), bog, fen, marsh, morass. Sway (v.), bias, swing, wave, wield. Swear (v.), affirm, curse, declare. Sweep (v.), clean, clear, brush, remove. Sweet (a].), delicious, mild, sugary. Swift (aj.), eager, fleet, quick, ready, speedy. System (n.), order, plan, rule. Take (v.), accept, catch, receive. Tale (n.), fable, legend, story. Task (n.), labor, lesson, toil, work. Taunt (v.), gibe, jeer, mock, scoff, twit. Tax (n.), customs duty, rate, toll. Teach (v.), advise, educate, guide, train. Tease (v.), plague, provoke, vex. Tell (v.), count, report', reveal, state. Tempest (n.), blast, gale, hurricane, squall. Tempt (v.), draw, lure, prove, test, try. Tend (v.), guard, keep, lean, watch. Thick (aj.), close, dense, foggy, misty. Think (v.), believe, cogitate, hold, ponder. Thought (n.), fancy, idea, sentiment, view. Tiny (aj.), little, small, wee. Toil (n.), labor, pain, task, work. Tone (n.), mode, pitch, sound, style. Tongue (n.), dialect, language, speech, talk. Total (a].), 6omplete, entire, gross, whole. 155 Tough (aj.), firm, hard, strong. Tow (v.), drag, draw, haul, pull. Toy (v.), frolic, play, sport, trifle. Track (n.), path, road, mark, way. Tract (n.), plot, quarter, region. Treasure (n.), riches, stock, store, wealth. Trial (n.), cause, proof, suit, test. Trick (n.), cheat, fraud, freak, guile. Trunk (n.), body, box, chest, stalk, stem. Trust (v.), believe, credit, expect, hope. Trust (n.), charge, duty, faith, hope. Tune (n.), air, melody, strain, tone. Turf (n.), clod, peat, sod, sward. Type (n.), figure, kind, letter, sign, sort. Ugly (aj.), hideous' homely, plain. Undo (v.), destroy, unfasten, untie. Use (n.), custom, benefit, habit. Use (v.), annoy, employ, occupy. Vain (aj.), proud, unreal, useless. Vapor (n.), fog, mist, smoke, steam. Victuals (n.), bread, fare, food, meat. Virgin (n.), damsel, girl, maid, maiden. Volume (n.), book, bulk, scroll, size. Wait (v.), abide, bide, stay. Want (v.), crave, lack, need, wish. Want (n.), need, penury, poverty. Ward (v.), defend, guard, repel. White (aj.), clean, pure, snowy, spotless. Win (v.); achieve, effect, gain, get. Wish (v.), covet, desire, hanker, long. Word (n.), order, signal, term. Yawn (v.), gape, open wide. Yell (v.), bellow, cry out, scream. Youth (v.), boy, lad. Zest (n.), gusto. ABBREVIATIONS The following list of abbreviations in common use are here introduced for the sake of composition work in which some of them may be used to advantage and also that the pupil may become familiar with the abbreviated method of writing, so much employed in business correspondence, in the English language. Ace. A. D. A. M. Apr. At Account Anfno Domino Forenoon April Feb. Fri. Hon. i. e. in. February Friday Honorable that is to say inch

Page  156 156 Aug. bbl. Capt. Co. C. O. D. Col. Cwt. Dec. Doz. Dr. E. e. g. etc. P. M. Pres. qt. rec. R. R. S. Sat. Sept. St. sq. inst. August barrel Captain Company Collect on delivery Colonel hundredweight December Dozen Doctor, debtor East for example et cetera Afternoon President quart received railroad south Saturday September -street square instant Jan. Jr. lb. m. mo. Mon. N. No. Nov. Oct. Oz. P. I. pkg. Sun. Supt. Thurs. Tues. U. S. viz. W. Wed. Xmas. yd. January Junior pound noon month Monday North Number November October ounce Philippine Islands package Sunday Superintendent Thursday Tuesday United States namely West Wednesday Christmas yard DIVISIONS OF TIME. Second. Minute, Hour, Day, Week, Month, Year, Century. Morning, Forenoon, Noon, Afternoon, Evening, Night, Midnight. Today, Yesterday, Tomorrow, Day before'yesterday, Day after tomorrow. DAYS OF THE WEEK. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. THE MONTHS. January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October. November, December. THE SEASONS. Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter. CHRISTIAN OR GIVEN NAMES TRANSLATED TO ENGLISH WITH THE ENGLISH NICKNAMES. (Names marked with a star (*) are in common use.) Spanish Abrahan Absalon Adan English *Abraham Absalom *Adam English Nicknames Abe. Ab. Ad. I 1 = 1 1 I I -_ -,I - -

Page  157 157 Adolfo Adriano Agustin Alarico Alberto Alejandro Alfonso Alfredo Aluino Amadeo Ambrosio Andres Anibal Anselmo Antonino Antonio Archibaldo Arist6teles Arnaldo Arturo Aureliano Aurelio Atanasio Augusto Bernabe Bartolome Bernabe Basilio Benito Benjamin Bernardo Beltran Bias Buenaventura Carlos Cesar Cipriano Cirilo Ciro Claudio Clodoveo Conrado Constancio Cornelio Cristiano Cristobal Daniel David Diego Dionisi, *Ad6lphus Dolph. Adriano Ade. *Augustin or Austin Gus, Gussie. Alaric Al, Allie, Larry. *Albert Al, Bert, Bertie. *Alexander Alex, Alec, Sandy. Alph6nse Alph, Alf. *Alfred Al, Fred, Freddie. Alwin Al, Winnie. Am ad6us......................... *Ambrose......................... *Andrew Andy. H annibal.......................... A nselm.......................... Anthonine.......................... *Anthony Tony, Antonie. *Archibald Archie. A rist6tle.......................... Arnold............ *Arthur Art, Artie. Aur6lius......................... A urelius.......................... Athanasius.......................... *Augdstus Gus, Gussie. Barnabus Barney. *Barth6lomew Bart. *Barnaby Barney. Basil.......................... *Benedict Ben, Dick. *B6njamin Ben, Benny. *B6rnard Bernie. *B6rtram Bert. B lase.......................... Bonaventura Bony. *Charles Charley. *Caesar...................... Cy'prian.......................... Cy'rilus........................... *Cy'rus Cy. *Claude.......................... C l6vis.......................... *C6nrad Con. Constantius Con. *Cornelius Neil. *Chris'tian Chris. *Christopher Chris, Kit. *Daniel Dan, Dannie. *David Dave, Davy. *James Jim. *D6nnis Denny.

Page  158 158 Edmundo Eduardo Eliseo Eliseo Emilio Enrique Ernesto Esopo Esquilo Estevan Euclidis Eugenio Eusebio Eustaquio Federico Felipe Fernando Francisco Gaspar Gerardo Gervasio Geronimo Geronimo Gil Gilberto Godofredo Gregorio Gualterio Guido Guillermo Gustavo Herberto Hilario Huberto Hugo Hunfredo Horacio Ignacio Irineo Isidro Jacobo Jenofante Joaquin Jonatan Jorge Jose Josue Juan Julio Lamberto *Edmond *E'dward *E'llis *Eli'sha Emi'llius *H6nry *E'rnest A'esop AMschilus *Stephen Euclid *Eugene Eusebius *Efustice *Frederick *Philip *Ferdinand *Francis *Jaspar *Gerard Gervas Hierome *Ger6me *Giles *Gilbert *G6dfred *Gregory *Walter *Guy *William *Gustavus *Herbert *Hilary *Huibert *Hugh *Humphrey *H6race Ignatius Ireneus *Isidor *Jacob Zenophon Joachim *J6nathan *George *J6seph *J6shua *John *Julius *Lambert Ed, Eddie. Ed, Eddie, Ned. El. Lish. Hank, Harry, Hal. Ern, Ernie. Steve. Gene. Fred, Freddie. Phil. Ferdie. Frank, Frankie. Jap. Jerry. Jerry. Bert. Fred. Greg. Walt, Wat................. Will, Willie, Bill. Gus, Gussie. Herb, Bert. Hi, Larry. Bert. Nate. Izzie. Jake, Jakie. Jonah. Joe, Joey, Josy. Josh. Jack. Jule. Bert. - I I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -----

Page  159 159 Lazaro Leandro Leon Leonardo Leopoldo Livio Lorenzo Lucas Lucio Luis Luis Luterio Marcos Mateo Matias Mauricio Mauricio Maximiliano Miguel Natanael Nicolas Noe Octavio Olivero Oton Pablo Patricio Pedro Peregrino Plutarco Quintiliano Rafael Raimundo Randolfo Raymon Reinaldo Renaldo Renato Ricardo Roberto Rodolfo Rodolfo Rodrigo Rogerio Rolando Ruben Ruperto Salomon Samuel Sebastian *Lazarus *Leander *Leo *LUonard Leopold Livy *Laurence *Luke Lucius *Lewis *Louis Luther *Mark *Matthew Matthias *Maurice M6rice Maximilian *Michael *Nathaniel *Nicholas *Noah Octavius *O'liver O'tho *Paul *Patrick *Peter Peregrine Plutarch Quintfiian *Raphael *Raymond *Rindal *Rdymond Reynold *R6nald Rene *Riehard *R6bert *Ralph Rod6lphus *Roderick *R6ger R6wland *Redben Rupert *S1lomon *Samuel Sebastian Lee, Andy. Len. Leo. Laury. Lu. Lew. Lou. Lu. Matt. Matt. Max. Mike. Nat. Nick. Olie, N o................. Pat, Paddy. Pete. Pel. Ray. Ray. Rich, Dick, Dickie. Rob, Robbie, Bob, Bobby. Dolph. Rod........................... Rube......................... Sol. Sam, Sammy. Sib, Sibby.

Page  160 160 Santiago Sigismundo Silvano Silvestre Simon Tadeo Teobaldo Teodorico Teodoro Teodosio Teofilo Terencio Timoteo Tito Tomas Urbano Valentin Veremundo Vicente Zacarias Zenon Spanish Adelaida Agueda Alicia Ana Ana Ana Arabela Barbara Beatriz Beatriz Benita Brigida Carlota Carolina Catalina Cecilia Clara Claudia Diana Dionisia Dorotea Elena Elena Eliza Ema James Sigismund *Silvanus *Silvester *Simon *Thaddeus *Th6obald The6doric Theodore Theod6sius The6philus *Terence *Timothy Titus *Th6mas Urban *Valentine Veremond *Vincent *Zachary Zeno FEMININE. English *A'delaide *A'gatha *A'lice *Anne *Ann *Hannah *Arab6lla *Barbara *Beatrix *Beatrice Benedicta *Bridget *Charl6tte *Caroline *Catherine *Cicely *Clare Clauldia Diona Diona *D6rothy *E'llen *H61len *Eliza *E'mnma Jim, Jimmie......................... Sim. Thad, Tad. Theo. Theo. Ted, Teddy. Theo. Theo, Phil. Terry. Tim. Tom, Tommy........................... Val........................... Vin. Zach. English Nicknames Adie, Addie. Aggie, Ag. Allie, Al. Nancy Nan. Bell. Bab. Bee, Trix. Bee, Trissie. Benny. Biddy. Lotty. Carrie. Cathie, Kate, Kitty, Katie. Cis, Cissie..................................................... Di. Di. Dot, Dol, Dolly. Ella, Nell. Ella, Nellie. Liz. Em. I I IIII II r I "

Page  161 Engracia Enriqueta Ester Eufenlia Eufrosina Eugenia Eva Federica Felicia Felipa Felisa Florencia Francisca Gertrudis Guillermina Inez Isabel Juana Juana Judit Juana Leonor Leticia Lucia Lucrecia Luisa Magdalena Manuela Margarita Maria Mariana Marta Matilde Paula Prudencia Raquel Rebeca Rosa Sofia Susana Susana Teresa *Grace *HalTiet *H6ster Euph6mia Euphr6syne Eug6ne *Eve Frederica Felicia Phillippa Felicia *F16rence *FrAnces *Gertrude Wilhelmina *A'gnes *Elizabeth *Jane Joan *Judith Joanna *E'leanor Lsetitia *Lucy Lucretia *Louisa Magdalen *E'mma *Margaret *Mary *Marianne *Martha *Matilda Paulina *Prddence *Rachael *Reb6cca *Rose *S6phia *Susan *Susanna *Theresa Gracie. Hattie. Mttie.+i 161 e.........., ~.......................................... I Gene. h71-.............................................. Flora. Frankie, Fan, Fanny. Gertie, Gert. Minnie. Aggie. Beth, Bess, Bessie, Lizzie, Liz. Jenny, Jinny. Jo. Judy, Jude. Jo, Ann. Ellen, Nora. Letty...L.................... Lou. Mag, Lena. Em. Margie, Maggie, Peggy. May..........a................ Mat, Mathie, Patty. Tilda. Lena. Prue. Rach. Beck. o..................... Soph. Sue. Sue, Annie. Tracy. GENERAL RULES FOR IE AND El WORDS Class 1. (ie). 1. About two-thirds of the words in which i and e occur in combination belong to class 1 or i before e. I 11-35894

Page  162 162 2. A word in which e is sounded long belongs to class 1, when the diphthong is preceded by br, gr, fr, pr, shr, ch, th, f, p, s, w, or y. 3. A word in which i is sounded long belongs to class 1: Exceptions: height, sleight and derivatives. 4. A word in which e is sounded long belongs to class 1 when the diphthong is preceded by 1: Exceptions: leisure and derivatives. 5. A word in which s precedes the diphthong belongs to class 1: Exceptions: seize, seignor and derivatives. 6. A word in which the diphthong is sounded as short e belongs to class 1: Exceptions: foreign and heifer. 7. A word in which the diphthong is sounded like e in ere, belongs to class 1 Exception: heir. 8. A word in which the diphthong is sounded like long u belongs to class 1. Class 2 (ei). 9. A word in which e is long belongs to class 2 when the diphthong is preceded by c, d, h, and n: Exception: niece. 10. Words in which e is sounded as long a belong to class 2. 11. A word in which the diphthong is sounded like short i, when preceded by f belongs to class 2. e sound belief believe besiege........ s field f fiend frieze fr grief grieve gr grievance grievous CLASS I. List 1. i before e. 1 sound diet dietary d dietetic dieting fief tf fiery hierarch Oh hieroglyphic ) parietal........r quiet.......... qu tie............t e sound fierce..........f. pier pierce tier t tierce 1 sound. kerchief...... ch. sieve......... s. specie t s -. es c species II _I II.....iU[....L I _1 I U I — I I[._ I II_[ I _]11.,I.....1...... —II

Page  163 lief liege lien lieve niece......... n piece..........p priest reprieve shriek.........shr variety....... r 6 sound alien..........1 conscience s sc conscientious expedient.......d friend......... fr omniscient.... sc e sound. terrier.........r ii sound adieu.......... d lieutenant ) 1 purlieu ) view..........v siege..........s ariel thief orient [th thieve )patient t wield......... w sentient yield..........y spaniel........n CLASS II. List 2. e before i. esound 1 sound ceil counterfeit ceiling forfeit conceit, surfeit conceive deceit sound deceive J foreign..................r deify heifer...................h deism deist d i long deity height................... h heinous............. h leisure...............1 sleight................... sl neither.............. n perceive ) sound c heiress.............. h receive ) seize.............s... seigniorage.......... s

Page  164 164 e like long a. deign..................d feign....................f neigh, neighbor sleigh................. sl veil - vein weight # weigh IIII II IIII I I IL ]_1~ [J[..!_![J I!!! [I. II!![ I... __.~.I___ ~ _!,..._.__.~-.[1/....... IL MI

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