All about Hawaii. The recognized book of authentic information on Hawaii, combined with Thrum's Hawaiian annual and standard guide. [1883]

Page  [unnumbered] 1 t I

Page  [unnumbered] !,1 ~~~" J~-:s~:, ie g;;i` C, t~1 3 a~- ~a i, Yi? jrJ t, '~ t;lLa g' 4 ~ ~;~$ 3 C~ a i. iQ SL`\1 h;Y/. -9 ~Jf a ec F ii; I: -is,3: S )131*. i) ~\?~ C1.~

Page  [unnumbered] t '7 (f 7

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Page  [unnumbered] .... 'i,t '. ' t I. "' / f. -*.. ( i C... %- On Matters!RielaIhtinih' g toliar ir r th Hwiia nL lila nds Oriris- II rG}~ nal and Selet e of aueto M, j-||-HAVJAIIAN 4 '-I 'lrr t# A HAND BOOKOF INFORMATION nal and Selected, of Value to Merchants, Planters, Tourists and Others. ~,, ii7~~~~~. |~ A A MCH HAN FoOK TF N MION |LLD ^-4.,.r ^ 0 0 I — 2-H. -F --- S. v W — r ' ' ' ^ a '- '> 00 i':_S, M ----~ i B --- — M ' ' r f!~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-~S t::,i~- na an MeeRcIIAN AND FOat'1 STS. HONOLULU. i;. Plnes 'orit:n 'tes O ~.r'WX"

Page  [unnumbered] HAWAIIAN ALMANTAC AND ANNUAL. TABLE OF CONTENTS. I oliday, Eclipses.............................................. 4 First Quarter Calendar................,................ 5 Inter-Island Distances, Area, Elevation and Population of the Hawaiian Islands.................................................... 6 Second Quarter Calendar.............................. 7 Distances through awaii........................................... 8 Third Quarter Calendar............................................ 9 Island Distances; Latitudes and Longitudes.......................... 10 Fourth Quarter Calendar............................................ Appropriation Bill...... I2.............. 12-20 Public Debt; Receipts and Expenditures Hawaiian Islands.2......... 21 Comparative View of Commerce from I845........................... 22 Comparative Table of Imports, and of Population....................... 23 Clipper Passages; Passages of Ocean Steamers......................... 24 Hawaiian Registered Vessels....................................... 25 Post Office Statistics; Meteorological Table............................ 26 Hawaiian Islands Postal Service...................................... 27 Selection from Custom House Tables I88I.......................... 28-30 Free by Treaty list......................................... 31 Table Import Values from various countries since 1873; Internal Taxes I862-82.......................................... 32 Hawaiian Woods and Forest Trees.................................. 33-35 Myth of Hliku and Kawelu................................... 36-39 M arine Casualities.................................................. 40- 42 Regulations of Carriages and RIats of Fare............................ 42 —44 The Peelua or Army W or.......................................... 44- 50 Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes.................................. 50 —52 Some Lawaiian Proverbs........................................... 52- 58 Retrospect of the Vear 1882................................;... 58-62 Something about Bnannas........................................... 62-63 Casualities of Shipping 1882......................................... 63- 64 A Stranger's wanderings in Hawaii................................ 65 —69 Sugar Plantations and Mills,..................................... 69-71 Rainfall, various localities'1lHawaiian Islands I882...................... 7I Postage Tables................................................ 72 Countries in the Universal Postal Union.............................. 73 Hawaiian Register and Directory for I883........................... 74-78

Page  1 HAWAI / I HAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANNUAL -FOR v1883] A HAND BOOK OF INFORMATION On Matters Relating to the Hawaiian Islands, Original and Selected, of Value to Merchants, Planters, Tourists and Others. NINTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION. COPYRIGHTED ACCORDING TO LAW. PRINTED BY THOS. G. THRUM,' COMPILER AND PUBLISHER, MERCHANT AND FORT STS., HONOLULU.

Page  2 COUNTING HOUSE CALEN DAR o 1883. JAN. I 2 3 4 5 6 JULY 1 23456 7 8 9 0 1I 12 13 n 8 9 0 II 2 13 14 14151617181920 i151617 18 19 20 21 2122 23 24 252627 H22123 2425 262728 28 293031" 3" I. '.. 29 3031.... '. FEB..1...... 2 3 AUG..... 12 34 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 6 7 8 9I10 11 I 12 13 14 I5 I6 17 U I2 3 I4 I5 I6 I7 I8 18 19 20 21 22 23i241 I9'20 2122 23 24125 x > 25 26 27 28...... 0 26i27 28 29 30 3I.. MARS.. 2 7 I 21 3.Z - u SEPT. 45678 90 3 4 52 6 78 II121314 I5I6I7 C.. 9 10OIIII21I3 1415 l18 1921 20 21 22 23;24 r | I6'I7I81I9120 2I22 251262728 29 30!31 c 1 23,24125 2627 28129 APR. '2 31 4 5 67 OCT.. 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10I11I213114 > 7 8 91 IIi1I2 13 15i6 1I7i8i9 2oi2I 1 114 15I6 17 18 1920 2223 24125126I27128 ' -. 212I22123 24252627 29 30......... ^> 28 29 2930 31.. MAY... 2 3 4 5..> NOV... I 2 3 20121I2212324 25126 0 8 II92O 211 2223 24 27 28 2913031.... C 25126 27 28[2930.. 34567 8 9 > os23456 8 Io 1 1 1314 i 20 i +l 910 1 1121 31 I15 1718 I9 202 212223 16 1718191202122 JUNE........... 3031. 225 2612728 29130 2 ",.....23,24.2512.. i272829 4i 31i:i 9 [ 'rl ' 9 0 I I I2II3'I4 1 -

Page  3 V Or 7A TaI ADV ERTISE MENT. T HE various fattering notices that have appeared in local andoreig, publica lions, as well as written and verbal commendations of the value of the HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL, in the dissemination of information that is relied upon as authority, encourages the compiler to renewed efforts in the preparation of materialfor this, its ninth issue. As heretofore, the principal object aimed at in the preparation of the ANNUAL has been to furnish accurate information on all matters of Hawaiian interest, suitable to its limited space, and to present its statistical information so as to be comprehensive, though condensed. Hawaiian Legendary Lore, by Mr. J. S. Emerson, and Mr. 7. M. Lydgate's Studies of Hawaiian Botany are valuable contributions that, doubtless, will be welcomed by many, while Reminiscence articles are continued from the special interest that is ever attached to by-gone events and personages. Nez subjects andfeatures are suggested from year to year, all of which may be taken up in course, as time and space will allow and interest demand. Retrospect for the Year continues its impartial record of events and gives, at the same time, the outlook for 1883. With grateful feelings to an appreciative public and thanks to the increasing corps of contributors who have assisted so largely in the success of the ALMANAC AND ANNUAL, the Compiler presents the result of his labor, feeling confident that new features of interest will be found with each successive issue. Honolulu, November, i882. THOS. G. THRUMi,(

Page  4 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN ANNUAL CALENDAR FOR 1883. Being the Io5th year since the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands by Captain COOK: The latter part of the Io7th and the beginning of the io8th year of the Independence of the United States of America. Also, The Year 5643-44 of the Jewish Era; The Year 130I of the Mahommedan Era; The Year 2636 since the foundation of Rome, according to Varro. HOLIDAYS OBSERVED AT THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. *New Year.................Jan. I *Kamehameha Day............June II Chinese New Year............ Feb. 6 American Anniversary.........July 4 *Accession of Kalakaua.......Feb. 13 *His Majesty's Birthday......Nov. 16 *Kamehameha III. Birthday...Mar. 17 *Recognition of Hawaiian Inde*Good Friday............. Mar. 23 pendence...................Nov. 28 Birth of Queen Victoria.......May 24 *Christmas...................Dec. 25 Those prefixed by a * are recognized by the Government. CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. Dominical Letter................ G Solar Cycle.......................I6 Epact.............................22 Roman Indiction................ II Golden Number.................... 3 Julian Period....................6506 ECLIPSES IN 1883. CALCULATED FOR TIE ANNUAL BY PROF. W. D. ALEXANDER. In the year 1883 there will be four Eclipses, two of the Sun and two of the Moon, visible at these Islands, as follows: I. Eclipse of the Moon, April 21-22. Moon enters shadow 21 d., I2 h., 29.85 min., Honolulu Time, or about half an hour past midnight on the morning of Apiil 22d. Middle of eclipse, 2I d., 23 h., 38.50 min., Greenwich Time, or 22 d., I h., 7 min. A. M., Honolulu Time. Moon leaves shadow 22 d., I h. 43.6 min. A. M., Honolulu time. II. Eclipse of the Sun, May 6. Barely visible on Maui aud Hawaii between I Ih., 15 min. A. M. and noon, Hilo Time. III. Eclipse of the Moon, October xs. Moon enters shadow i5 d., 7 h., 27 min.. M., Honolulu Time. Middle of eclipse 15 d., 8 h., 22.8 min. P. M., Honolulu Time. Moon leaves shadow 15 d., 9 h., 18.5 min. P. M., Honolulu Time. IV. Annular Eclipse of the Sun, October 3o. Not annular here; visible between Io.45 h. P. M., and 14.5, Greenwich Time, or % h. past noon and 2 r, M., Honolulu Time. o

Page  5 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUM f. 5 FIRST QUARTER, 1883. JANUARY. D. H. M. x Last Quarter.... 2.18.7 A. M. 8 New Moon..... 7.27.8 P. M. 15 First Quarter... 2.16.0 P. M. 22 Full Moon...... 8.44.0 P. M. 30 Last Quarter....I1.55.1 P. M. I I FEBRUARY. D. H. M. 7 New Moon. 7.38.6 A. M. [3 First Quarter...11.22.4 P. M. ti Full Moon...... I.46.6 P. M. MARCII. o. -Ii. M. iLast Quarter... 6.54.6 P. M. 8 New Moon.... 5.59.8 P. M. i5 First Quarter.. 9.59,8 A. M. 23 Full Moon,.. 7 33.2 A. M. 31 Last Quarter... 9.49.8 A. M. P2 P21 P ~.~, ~ N. '~~~' 11 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0 II 12 13 14 I5 i6 17 i8 '9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 20 30 -1 Mon. Tues.... Wed....' Thurs... Fri.... Sat.... SUN.... Mon. Tues.... Wed.... Thurs... Fri... Sat. SUN.... Mon. Tues.... Wed.... Thurs.... Fri.. Sat.. SUN.... Mon. Tues.... Wed.... Thurs... Fri...... Sat... SUN.... Mon... Tues.... Wed H. M. 6 41 7 6 42 I 6 42 6 5 43 0 6 43 5 6 44 0 6 44 4 6 44 9 6 45 0 6 45 I 6 45 2 6 45 3 6 45 4 6 45 5 6 45 6 6 45 6 6 45 7 6 45 7 6 45 7 6 45 8 6 45 8 6 45 8 6 45 5 6 45 2 6 44 9 6 44 6 6 44 0 6 43 7 6 43 -3 6 43 1 6 42 Q H. M. 5 25 7 5 26 i 5 26 6 5 27 0 5 27 5 5 28 0 5 28 4 5 28 9 5 29 5 5 30 2 5 30 8 5 3' 5 5 32 2 5 32 9 5 33 7 5 34 3 535c 5 35 6 5 36 2 5 36 8 5 37 4 5 37 8 5 38 5 5 39 3 5 40 I 5 40 9 5 4' 7 5 42 5 5 43 3 5 43 7 ' 44 2 I I I I I I I I 0 I: II I I11 i Thurs... 6 42 6 2IFri....6 42 2 3!Sat,.. 6 41 8 4SUN... 6 41 5 5'Mon....6 41 2 61Tues.... 6 40 7 7 Wed....6 40 2 8 Thurs... 6 39 7 9 Fri...... 6 30 21 io Sat...... 6 38 7 Ii SUNN.... 6 38 2 12Mon.... j6 37 5 13 Tues.... 6 36 7 14 Wed.... 6 35 9 I15Thurs... 6.35 1 i6 Fri... -6 34 3 I7 Sat.....6 33 5 I8 SUN....j6 32 8 I9 Mon.. 6 32 1 zo Tues.... 6 32 5 21 Wed.... 6 30 9 22Thurs.6 30 3 23 Fri...16 29 8 24 Sat.... 6 29 3 25 SUN.... 6 28 8 26 Mon.....6 28 3 27 Tues.... 6 27 4 28Wed...6 26 4 H. M. 5 44 7 5 45 3 5 459 5 46 5 5 472 5 478 5 484 5 490 5 496 5 502 5 508 5 51 5521 5 527 553 3 553 9 554 5 555' 555 7 5 56 i 5 56 4 5 56 7 5 57 I 557 5 5 57 9 5 58 3 5 58 7 559 2 Q II -— I I ] I I I I I I I I I II.1I II II II II II II II I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 [0 [I [2 [3 [4 [5 i6 [7 [8 [9 10 12 Z3 Z4 z5 z6 Z7 Z8 Z9 30;I "'1 Thurs... 6 2 55 Fri..... 6 24' 5 Sat....6 23 6 SUN... 6 22 7 Mon.... 6 21 7 Tues. 6 20 7 Wed....6 89 8 Thurs.. 6 i8 8 Fri. 6 17 & Sat. 6 86 9 SUN... 6 15 9 Mon.... 6 14 9 Tues...6 13 9 Wed.... 6 12 9 Thurs.. 6 ii 9 Fri.. 6 0o 9 Sat..... 6 og 9 SUN...6 o8 9 Mon....6 o8 o Tues.... 6 07 2 Wed.... 6 06 5 Thurs... 6 05 7 Fri..... 6 05 0 Sat..... 6 04 2 SUN...6 03'5 Mon.... 6 02 8 Tues.... 6 o0 8 Wed.... 6oo 8 Thurs... 559 8 Fri..... 5 58 7 Sat,.l r 7 7 H. M. 5 59 7 559 2 6 oo 7 6002,6 oo22 6 01 7 6 02 I 6 02 6 6 03 8 6 03 5 6 03 9 6 04 5 6 04 9 6 05 3 6 05 7 6o6i 6o6~ 6 07 1 6 0744 6 07 6 6 07 8 6 o8 o 6 o8 2 6 o8 4 6 o8 6 6 o8 8 6o9 2 6o9 7 6io 6 6 ii 0 Y _ 1. r I. II IJ ~ ~' In 1856 an attempt was made to manufacture the crude Hawaiian Tobacco into a marketable article as we learn that a Messrs E. Owen & Co., made up a salable article, labeled "Sea Island Plantation, Natural Leaf, Honey Dew Tobacco," which was said to have been "proved by connoisseurs to be equal, if not superior, to any Virginia manufactured Tobacco." Doubtless so if the name carried any weight.

Page  6 6 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. INTER-ISLAND DISTANCES BY SEA, IN SEA MILES. AROUND OAHU. FROM HONOLULU, ESPLANADE WHARF, TO: Miles. Miles B ell B uoy............................... I K ahuku................................... 5 Diamond H ead........................... 5 Pearl River Bar............................. 6 Koko H ead.............................. 12 Barber's Point.............................. 14 Makapuu. Kaena Point...., N. W. of Oahu................ 34 Mokapu.............................. 29 Kahuku, N pt. of Oahu, via Kaena.......... 54 HONOLULU TO: Miles. Miles Lae o ka Lua, S. W. pt. of Molokai.......... 35 Kawaihae.................................. 44 West point of Lanai......................... 50 Kealakekua direct............. 157 Kalaupapa Leper Settlement................. 50 Kealakekua via Kawaihae.................... 86 Lahaina.................................. 72 S. W. point Hawaii via Kawaihae........... 233 Kahului.................................. 90 Punaluu....................................250 Hana................................... 125 Hilo direct........................... 92 Maalaea.................................. 85 Hilo windward route........................207 Makena.................................... go Hilo via Kawaihae..........................230.Mahukona............................ 34 HONOLULU TO: Miles. Miles Koloa, Kauai.............................. 02 W aimea........................... N aw iliw ili................................. 98 H analei.................................... 20 N iihau.....................................144 LAHAINA TO: Miles. Miles Kaluaaha................................ 17 Lanai...................................... 9 I M akena.................................... I8 Lanai.9... g Makena...................,. I8 KAWAIHAE TO: Miles, Miles Mahukona................................ 8 Waipio............................. 40 Lae o ka. Mano........ i l 20 H onokaa................................... 50 Kailua.................................. 34 Laupahoehoe............................... 65 K ealakekua................................ 44 HILO TO: Miles. Miles East point of Hawaii.... 20 Punaluu.................. 70 K eauhou, K au............................. 50 K aalualu.................................. 80 North point of Hawaii...................... 70 South point of Hawaii..................... 85 WIDTH OF CHANNELS-EXTREME POINT TO POINT. Miles. Miles Oahu and Molokai...................... 23 Maui and Kahoolawe....................... 6 Diamond Head to S. W. point Molokai....... 3 Hawaii and Maui........................... 26 Molokai and Lanai.......................... 7 Kauai and Oahu.......................... 6r Molokai and Maui.......................... 9 Niihau and Kauai........................... x5 Maui and Lanai........................... 9 OCEAN DISTANCES-HONOLULU TO: Miles. Miles San Francisco........................... 2, Ioo Auckland.......................... 3,810 Portland.................................2,460 Sydney...................................4,484 Panama....................4........ 4,620 Hongkong...............................4,893 Tahiti...................2.......... 2,380 Yokohama................................3,440 AREA, ELEVATION AND POPULATION OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. Areas in stat. sq. miles. Acres. Height infeet. Population. Hawaii..................... 4,210 2,500,000 13,805 I7,034 Maui...................... 760 400,000 10,032 12,x>9 Oahu...................... 600 360,000 4,o60 20,236 Kauai................ 590 350,ooo 4,800 5,634 Molokai................... 270 200,000 3,500 2,58i Lanai.............0...... 150 oo,ooo 3,000 214 Niihau.................. 97 70,000 800 x77 Kahoolwe............... 63 30,000 1,450

Page  7 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 7 SECOND QUARTER, 1883. APRIL. MAY. JUNE. D. H. M. D. H. M. D. H. M. 7 New Moon..... 3.04.7 A. M. 6 New Moon.....11.26. 7 A. M. 4 New Moon.... 7.41.0 p. M. 13 First Quarter... 10-.7.6 P. M. 13 First Quarter... 0.22.6 p. M. 12 First Quarter.. 4.10.0 A. M. 22 Full Moon...... 0.55.8 A. M. 21 Full Moon.. 4.40.0 P. M. 20 Full Moon..... 6.o00. A. M. 29 Last Quarter... 8.31.8 P. M. 29 Last Quarter... 3.51.2 A. M. 27 Last Quarter... 9.06.2 A. M. ~~c: ~t x x x x;t;t H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H.M: ' SUN.... 5 56 716 II 4 I Tues.. 5 31 5 6 22 5 I Fri....5 20 4 6 34 6 2 Mon. -— 5 55 7 6 II 7 2 Wed...5 38 o 6 22 8 2 Sat....5 20 5 6 34 7 3 Tues.... 5 54 7 16 1 18 3 Thurs.. 530 4 6238 3 SUN... 5 206 634 8 4 Wed.... 5 53 7 6 I I 9 4 Fri....5 29 8 6 23 4 4 Mon.... 5 20 7 6'35 0 5 Thurs...552 716 1 20 5 Sat.... 529 3 6237 5 Tues...5 2086 35 3 6 Fri.... 558 7 6 21 2 6 SUN.... 5 28 86240o 6Wed... 5 20 916 35 6 7 Sat. 5 50 66 1 22 7 Mon....528 26 24 2 7 Thurs... 5 20 9 6 35 9 8 SUN.... 5 49 61,6 1 24 8 Tues.... 5 27 7 6246 8 Fri. 52 1 o6 36 3 9 Mon....5 48 6 6 1 2 6 9 Wed.... 5 27 3 6 25 I 9 Sat. 5 2 1 i 6 36 7 io Tues...54 6 13 0 Io Thurs... 5 26 8 6 25 5 io SUN..5 2t 2 6 37 0 II Wed.... 5 47 26 13 4 II Fri....5 26 46 25 9 ti Mon.... 5 21 36 37 3 12 Thurs... 5 46 516 83 8 82 Sat.....5 26 o 6 26 4 12 Tues....5 21 3 6 37 8 13 Fri.... 5 45 8 6 14 3 I3,SUN....- 5 25 6 6 26 8 13 Wed.... 5 28 4 6 38 3 I4 Sat.. 5 45 8 6 I4 8 I4!Mon....5 25 2 6 27 2 14 Thurs... 5 28 5 6 38 8 i5 SUN.... 5 44 4 6 15 3 I5Tues.... 5 24 8 6 27 6 15 Fri. 5 21 5 6 39 3 16 Mon....5 43 Si6 15 8 i6lWed.... 5 24 4 6 28 1 i6 Sat. 5 28 6 6 39 8 17 Tues.... 5 43066 i6 2 17 Tus... 5 24 o 6 28 5 17 SUN..5 21 7 640 3 IS Wed...54 6i 6 1 8Fri....5 2 3 6 6 2 9 o 8 Mon....- 5 21 8640 8 i9 Thurs..5 48 216 87 0 9gSat. 5 238 I6 29 4 i9 Tues... 5 2 8 86 48 I 2o Fri. 540 36617 5 2OSUN... 5 22 7629 820 Wed... 52 1 9641 3 21I Sat.... 539 416 1 79 2I1MOfl....5 22 3 6303 ~2xThurs... 5 2 196 48 5 22 SUN...5 38 6i6 18 4 221Tues.... 52 1 9 6 30 8 22 Fri...5 22 0 6 48 7 23 Mon.... 537 86 888 23'Wed....5 286.6 31323 Sat. 52216 41 9 24 Tues.... 5 37 9 6 89 3 24 Thurs..5 28 3 5 38 8 24 SUN..5 22 2 6 42 I 25 Wed.... 536 26 19 725Fri.- 5 2 10 532 425 Mon.... 52246 42 3 26 Thurs... 5 35 4 6202 26Sat.... 520 7 5329 26 Tues... 5 22 6 642 4 27 Fri.... 534 6 620 7 27 SUN...5 20 3 5 33 5 27 Wed... 5 22 9 6 42 5, 28 Sat.. 53822 28 Mon..5 200o634 028 Thurs..5362 29fSUN.... 5330o6 2i629 Tues.... 520 1 634 2 29 Fri....5 23 6 6 42 6 30jMon....532 I6 22I30Wed.... 520 2 63R4301Sat.....-5 24o6 42 6 _____ ~~~~~3 8 Thurs... 520 3 634 5 Soap manufacturing was first established in Honolulu in the early part of 1856 by Messrs M. R. Packer & Co. This branch of local industry has grown to keep two establishments in full blast, turning out a quality of yellow soap fully equal to the imported article, and by many parties preferred. We do not know that any effort has been made to produce fine toilet soaps, the capacity of -both factories being fully taken up in that which meets ready sale.

Page  8 8 1HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. DISTANCES ON HAWAII. THROUGH PUNA, FROM THE HILO COURT HOUSE. PREPARED BY J. M. LYDGATE. HILO TO: HILO TO: Miles. Miles. Keaau.................................... Opihikao............. 29 Makuu.................................... 5 Kaimu............................... 37 Sand Hills Nanawale...................... I Kalapana........................... 38 P uula.....................................2 Pauau.............45 Kapoho.................................23 Volcano House............................61 Kapohoiki-Rycroft's................... 26( TO VOLCANO. HILO TO: HILO TO: Miles. Miles. Edge of Woods........................... 4 Kanekoa upper Half-way Houses........6 Cocoanut Grove........................... 7 Upper Woods.............................24 Through Ki Swamp..................... 94 Volcano House...........................304 Hawelu's Half-way House...............14 THROUGH HILO DISTRICT. HILO TO: HILO TO: Miles. Milees. Honolii Bridge.......................... 2.5 Honohina Church......................... 17.8 Paukaa Mill........................... 2.9 Waikaumalo Bridge.......................88 Papaikou-Office........................ 4.7 Pohakupuka Bridge......................21.o Onomea Church........................... Maulaa Gulch......................... 22.0 Kaupakuea Cross Road..................Io.7 Kaiwilahilahi Bridge.....................24.6 Kolekole Bridge..........................14.3 Lidgate's House..........................26. Hakalau, east edge gulch.1................5. Laupahoehoe Church....................26.7 Umauma Bridge.................. 6.o THROUGH HAMAKUA. LAUPAHOEHOE CIURCH TO: LAUPAIIOEHOE CIURCH TO: Mils ies. ie Hind's...........................7 Paauhau Church..........................6.3 Bottom Kawalii Gulch.................. 2.0 Mill's Store, Honokaa.................... 1.o Ookala, Manager's House................ 4. Honokaia Church........................20.5 Soper's................................... 4.9 Kuaikalua Gulch..........................22.0 Kealakaha Gulch......................... 6.0 Kapulena Church........................23.0 Kaala Church............................. 6.8 W aipanihua..............................24.3 Kukaiau Gulch........................... 8.o Bicknell's................................25.8 Catholic Church, Kainehe................ 9.0 Stream at Kukuihaele....................26.0 Notley's, Paauilo.........................10.5 Edge Waipio.......................... 26.5 Kaumoali Bridge.........................1.5 Bottom Waipio...........................27.0 Bottom Kalopa Gulch.................. 14.o Waimanu (approximate).................32.5 R. A. Lyman's, Paauhau................15.2 KUKUIIIAELE TO: KOHALA DISTRICT. Waimea (approximate)..................10.5 Kawaihae to Waimea.................... I.o Gov't Road to Hamakua Mill............ I.O 1 Puako...................... 5.o " " Paauhau Mill............. i.o " Hind's, Kohala, (approx)..14.o "~ " PacificSugarMill, Kuluihaele.7 Waimea to Kohala Plantation, (approx.). 25.0 FOREIGN CHURCH, KOHALA, TO: FOREIGN CHURCHI, KOIIALA, TO: Edge of Pololu Gulch.................. 4.00 Star Mill................................ 1.25 Niulii Mill............................. 2.80 Star Mill R. R. Station.................. 2.50 Dr. Wight's Store, Halawa............. I.15 Union Mill.......................... 2.25 Halawa Mill........................... 1.65 Union Mill R. R. Station............... 3.75 Hapuu Landing......................... 2.15 Honomakau............................ 2.50 Dr. Thompson's..................... I.75 Hind's, Hawaii......................... 3.25 Dramatic Hall, Kaiopihi.................4o Hawi R. R. Station..................... 4.25 Kohala Mill..............................50 Honoipu................................ 7.25 Kohala Mill Landing................... 1.50 Mahukona.................... 10.50 Native Church..............o......... I.oo Puuhue Ranch.................... 7.2

Page  9 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. THIRD QUARTER, I883. JULY. AUGUST. SEPTEMBER. D. H. M. D. H. M. D. H. M. 4New Moon. 4.32.0 A 2New Moon 2547 P New Moon....54.7. 3.42.8 A. M. ii First Quarter... 9.17.8 p. M. o1 First Quarter... 2.57.8 P. M. 9 First Quarter.. 8.06.3 A. M. I9 Full Moon..... 4.59.4 PM. i8 Full Moon...... 2.21.7 A. M. I6 Full Moon.....11.09.7 A. M. 26 Last Quarter... 0.41.8 P. M. 24 Last Quarter.... 7.00.4 P. M.23 Last Quarter... 2.19.2 A. M. 30 New Moon.... 7.22.8 P. M. _~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~3 L as Q u re r.. i92AM - iiSUN.... 2iMon..... 3jTues.... 4 Wed.... 5 Thurs... 6 Fri...... 7 Sat...... 8iSUN.... g9Mon..... IoTues.... 11 Wed.... 12 Thurs... I3 Fri..... I4!Sat...... I5.SUN.... i6lMon..... I71Tues.... I8 Wed.... 19 Thurs. 20 Fri...... 2I Sat...... 22 SUN.... 231Mon..... 24 Tues.... 25 Wed.... 26 Thurs... 27 Fri...... 28 Sat...... 29 SUN.... 3b Mon..... 31 Tues.... a a D.. H. HM. 5 24 3 6 42 7 5 24 7 6 42 7 5 25 o 6 42 7 5 25 3 6 42 8 5 25 7 6 42 8 5 26 o 6 42 8 5 26 36 42 9 5 26 6 6 42 9 5 26 96 42 9 5 27 i 6 42 8 5 27 4 6 42 8 5 27 76 42 8 5 27 9 6 42 7 5 28 2 6 42 7 5 28 5 6 42 6 5 28 7 6 42 6 5 28 9 6 42 3 5 29 i 6 42 o 5 29 316 4i 6 5 29 516 41 2 5 29 7 6 40 8 5 29 9 6 40 5 5 30 2 6 40 2 5 30 9 6 39 8 5 31 616 39 4 5 32 3 6 39 5 33 o6 38 6 5 33 7 6 38 2 5 34 4 6 37 7 5 35 2 6 37 2 35 616 36 6 I I 2t i 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 I0 I 12 13 I4 15 I61 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3I Wed.... Thurs... Fri...... Sat..... SUN.... Mon.... Tues.... Wed.... Thurs. Fri...... Sat..... SUN.... Mon.... Tues.... Wed.... Thurs Fri...... Sat...... SUN.... Mon.... Tues.... Wed.... Thurs... Fri...... Sat..... SUN... Mon.... Tues Wed... Thurs... Fri..... H. M. 5 36 i 5 36 5 5 37 o 5 37 4 5 37 9 5 38 3 5 38 6 5 388 5 39 I 5 39 4 5 39 6 5 399 5 40 2 5 40 5 5 40 9 5 41 2 5 41 6 5 41 9 5 42 3 5 42 7 5 43 I 5 43 5 5 43 9 5 44 3 5 447 5 45 5 45 4 5 45 7 5 45 9 5 46 2 5 46 4 H. M. 6 36 6 355 6 35 o 6 34 4 6 33 9 6 33 4 6 32 8 6 32 2 6 31 6 6 31 0 6 30 4 6 29 8 6 29 2 6 28 5 6 27 8 6 27 0 6 26 2 6 25 4 6 24 6 6 23 8 6 23 0 6 22 3 6 21 5 6 20 7 6 19 6 I9 i 6 8 4 6 17 4 6 I6 6 15 3 6 14 3._I % % Q1 i I Sat.... 2 SUN... 3 Mon.... 4 Tues... 5 Wed.... 6 Thurs... 7 Fri..... 8 Sat... 9 SUN... o1 Mon.... I ITues.... 12 Wed.... 13 Thurs... 14Fri.... 15 Sat.... i6 SUN... I7 Mon.... I8 Tues.... I9 Wed.... 20 Thurs... 2t Fri..... 22 Sat.... 23 SUN... 24 Mon.... 25 Tues.... 26 Wed.... 27 Thurs... 28 Fri..... 29 Sat.... 30 SUN... H. M. 5 46 7 5 47 0 5 47 3 5 47 5 5 47 7 5 47 9 5 48 2 5 485 5 48 7 5 49 o0 5 493 5 49 6 5 49 9 5 50 2 |H I7 550 5 5 50 7 5 51 0 5 5' 3 5 51 7 5 52 o 5 52 3 5 52 6 5 52 9 5 53 I 5 53 3 553 5 553 8 554 o 5 54 2 5 54 4 I? 613 3 6 12 3 6 II 3 6 io 4 6 09 5 6 o8 6 6 07 7 6o6 8 6 05 9 6 05 0 6 04 o 6 03 o 6 02 o 6 oi o 6 00 0 6ooo 5 59 o 5 58o 5 57 o 5 56 5 55 o 5 54 5 53 5 52 0 5 51 I 5 50 2 5 49 3 5 48 4 5 47 5 5 46 6 5 45 7 -- i. - -- Up to I856 but one cargo of ice had been brought to Honolulu, and though it was said to have sold with a perfect rush, yet when it was gone no one thought of procuring another supply. Now there are two factories at work to satisfy the demand of the community, and any cessation of supplies is looked upon as a serious Zalamity, so very general has become its use.

Page  10 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. ISLAND OF OAHU. HONOLULU POST-OFFICE, TO: HONOLULU POST-OFFICE, TO: Miles. Miles. Waikiki Grove........................... 3 Waimanalo............................. 12 Diamond Head.......................... 4x Kaneohe Plantation..................... 9% Coco Head............................. n, Kaalaea Plantation....................... 5 Ewa Church........................... i Kualoa Ranch.................,,....... 9 Waialua Church........................ Punaluu Rice Plantation................ 26 Waianae Church, Pokai................. 30 Laie Settlement........................ 32 Nuuanu Pali........................... 6 Kahuku........................... 38 ISLAND OF KAUAI. LIHUE TO: KOLOA TO: Miles. Miles. W aialua Falls............................. 5 H anapepe............................... 7 K oloa...................................... 10 W aim ea................................... K ealia................................... 14 K ilauea................................... 22 LIHUE TO: H analei................................ 30 M ana Point............................... o ISLAND OF MAUI. LAHAINA TO: Miles. K aanapali................................. 4 W ailuku.............................. 20 KAHULUI TO W ailuku P. O.............................. 3 M akawao................................. I Hana, through Hamakua................. 45 WAILUKU TO: Kalepolepo............................. 10 Makee's Plantation........................ o2 Makawao............................ 14 KALEPOLEPO TO: Miles. Makee's.......0.................... to Makawao...................... 13i HAIKU LANDING TO: M akawao......................... 7 MAKAWAO, SAYRE'S STORE, TO: Summit of Haleakala..................... 13 MAKENA TO: Makee's Plantation.................... 3 ULUPALAKUA TO: Hana, via Kaupo......................... 45 LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES, AS ADOPTED BY THE HAWAIIAN GOVERNMENT SURVEY. (CORRECTED FOR THE ANNUAL BY PROF. W. D. ALEXANDER.) STATIONS. Honolulu Transit of Venus Observatory, as determined by Captain Tupman.............................................. Honolulu Light House............................. Diamond Head Summit........................................ Tantalus, Puu Ohia........................................... Makapuu Station (east point of Oahu)................. Mokapu Station, Kaneohe......................... Kahuku Point (northeast point of Oahu)...................... Barber's Point, Laeloa....................................... Puuloa (windmill)...................................... Laie Point.................................................. Kaena Point (northwest point of Oahu).......................... Haleakala, Station on Summit.................................. Lahaina Court House......................................... Kauiki Point (east point of Maui)............................. Puu Olai, or "Miller's Hill" (south of Makena)............... Halawa (east end of Molokai)................................. Kahoolawae Summit......................... Kawaihae Light House (approximate)........................... Mauna Kea, Station on Summit (approximate)......:......... Halai Station, back of Hilo................................... Kailua, Hawaii, Transit of Venus Observatory, as determined by Captain Tupman........................................... Waimea, Kauai, Transit of Venus Observatory, as determined by Captain Tupnian............?,,,.,................ LATITUDES. Deg. Min. Sec. 21 17 57 21 I7 54-99 21 I5 20.59 21 19 43.20 21 I8 I5-75 21 27 01.07 21 42 19.207 21 17 32.23 21 19 11.76 21 38 40.65 21 34 13.10 20 42 35.4 20 52 3-4 20 45 1.7 20 37 56.7 21 9 o.8 20 33 39 20 02 12.5 I9 49 16 19 42 44-7 21 57 I2 Deg. Min. Sec. 157 5r 48. 157 52 12.99 157 48 52.17 157 49 03.222 157 39 20.164 157 44 o4.68 157 58 59.79 158 6 32.36 157 58 25.64 157 55 I6.57 158 x6 55-56 156 15 08.i 156 40 50-5 155 59- 3.4 156 27 4.4 156 43 44.13 156 35 21 155 50 5 155 28 x6 155 5 55 156 oo 40 159 40 IQ LONGITUDES. 4

Page  11 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. FOURTH QUARTER, 1883. II OCTOBER. NOVEMBER. DECEMBER. D H. M. D. H M. D." H. M. 8 First Quarter..11.48. P. M. 7 First Quarter... 1.32.9 P. M. 7 First Quarter.. 1.14.4 A. N. I5 Full Moon...... 8.14.0 P.M. Ir4 Full Moon...... 6.05.8 A. M. 12 Full Moon..... 4.56.8 P. M. 22 Last Quarter... 0.47.I P. M. 2i Last Quarter... 3.12.1 A. M. 20 Last Quarter.. 9.36.9 P. M. 30 New Moon.... 25.4 P. M29 New Moon..... 8.22.7 A. M. 29 New Moon.... 5.27.2 A. M. ~~~~~~52.2 A.M I ~ ) D. H. H. M. I Mon.... 5 54 75 44 7 2 Tues.... 5 5 5 43 7 3 Wed.... 5 55 55 42 7 4 Thurs... 5 55 9 5 41 7 5 Fri.... 5 56 3 5 40 7 6 Sat.... 5 56 75 39 7 7 SUN.... 5 57 I5 38 6 8 Mon.... 5 57 5 5 37 6 9 Tues... 5 57 915 36 5 Io Wed.... 5 58 2 5 35 7 II Thurs...5 58 6 5 34 9 12 Fri...... 5 58 95 34 I I3 Sat..... 5 59 2 5 33 3 4 SUN.... 5 59 6 5 32 5 15 Mon,. 5 59 95 31 9 I6 Tues... 6 00 2 5 3I 2 I7 Wed.... 6 oo 65 3~ 4 I8 Thurs.. 6 01 5 29 7 I9 Fri... 6 01 45 28 9 20 Sat...... 6 o 8 5 28 2 2I SUN.. 6 02 2 5 27 4 22 Mon... 6 02 6 5 26 6 23 Tues... 6 03 I 5 25 9 24 Wed.... j6 03 55 25 2 25 Thurs... 6 04 5 24 5 26 ri......6 044 45 23 8 27 Sat.... 6 04 9 5 23 I 28SUN.... 6 05 4 5 22 5 29 Mon..... 6 5 85 21 8 3o Tues.... 6 o6 35 21 2 i wed.... 6 06 95 20 6 { II i I I I II PI s I Thurs... 2 Fri... 3 Sat... 4 SUN.... 5 Mon.... 6 Tues.. 7 Wed... 8 Thurs. 9 Fri...... IO Sat.... II SUN. 12 Mon... 13 Tues 14 Wed.... I5 Thurs... i6 Fri...... 17 Sat... i8 SUN.... IglMon... 20 Tues. 21 Wed 22 Thurs.. 23 Fri... 24 Sat...... 25 SUN.... 26 Mon.. 27 Tues.... 28 Wed.... 29 Thurs... 30 Fri...... H.M. 6 07 4 6 o08 6 o8 5 6 09 I 6 09 7 6 IO 3 6 Io 8 6 II 3 6 ii 8 6 12 3 6 12 8 6 3 3 6 14 0 6 14 8 6 5 5 6 i6 3 6 17 0 6 17 8 6 I8 5 6 19 2 6 19 9 6 20 6 6 21 3 6 22 o0 6 22 7 6 23 4 6 24 0 6 24 7 6 253 6 26 It 519 4 5 I8 8 5 i8 2 5 17 7 5 17 4 I82 5 17 c 5I7 5 i6 7 5 26 3 5 i6 0 5 I5 6 5 I5 3 5 I4 9 5 I4 5 5 14 i 5 I3 7 5 I3 3 5 '3 o 5 12 7 5 82 5 5 12 3 5 12 8 5 9 5 7' 5 I5 5 I3 5 Ir 4 5 I 5 5 5 I 6 I I I II: H. M. I1Sat..... 26 6 2SUN... 6 27 2 3 Mon.... 6 27 9 4+Tues.... 6 28 5 5 Wed.... 6 29 I 6 Thurs... 6 29 7 7 Fri..... 6 30 2 8Sat.... 6 30 7 9gSUN...i6 31 3 loiMon.... 6 31 9 II Tues.... 6 32 5 i2 Wed.... 6 33 l 13 Thurs... 16 33 7 I4 Fri.....6 34 3 I5 Sat.....6 34 9 I6SUN...6 35 5 I7 Mon.... 6 36 2 I8 Tues.... 6 36 7 I9 Wed.... 6 37 21 2z Thurs... 6 37 7 2 Fri..... 6 38 2 22 Sat..... 6 38 7 231SUN....6 39 2 24Mon....6 39 7 25 Tues.... 6 40 II 26 Wed.... 6 40 5 27 Thurs... 6 40 9 28 Fri..... 6 41 3 29 Sat..... 6 41 7 30 SUN....6 42 I 31 Mon.... 6 42 5 H. M. 5 I 7 5 I 8 5 1I 9 5 12 2 5 12 5 I2 8 5 13 I 5 I3 4 5 13 7 5 I3 9 5 I4 2 5 4 5 5 4 8 5 I5 I 5 15 4 515 8 5 I6 2 5 i6 7 5 17 2 5 17 7 5 I8 2 15 i8 7 5 19 2 5 19 7 5 20 4 5 21 I 5 21 8 5 22 5 5' 23 2 5 23 9 5 24 5 I - --..~ a ~ ~ - - =- - -- 1 — - - - - - ---- - 1~ — ~ - — 1.. ~ --- —- _ _ _ A new Royal Hawaiian Standard was displayed for the first time, August i, I860, with a white field, instead of the usual alternate stripes of white, red and blue. Conflicting ideas are current as to its use, as also its origin, though the general. belief was that it was the consort's standard and used only in the temporary absence of the King.. 4S

Page  12 12 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. APPROPRIATION BILL FOR BIENNIAL PERIOD ENDING MARCH 31, 1884. Civil List. His Majesty's Privy Purse and Royal State................ $ 50,000 Her Majesty the Queen................................ 16,000 H. R. H. the Heir Presumptive......................... 6,000 H. R. H. Princess Likelike............................ 12,000 H. R. II. Princess Kaiulani.......................... 5,000 His Majesty's Chamberlain and Secretary................. 7,000 Household expenses................................... 20,000 His Majesty's expenses around the world.................. 22,500 $I48,500 Permanent Settlement. Her Majesty Queen Dowager Emma.....................$ i6,ooo His Excellency P. Kanoa.......................... 2,400 Henry S. Swinton................................:. 600 H. K uihelani......................................... 1,200 J. P. E. K ahaleaahu................................... 400 N ihoa K ipi.......................................... 600 M rs. P. Nahaolelua................................... 600 $ 2,8oo Legislature and Privy Council, Expenses of Legislature 1882...........................$ 25,000 Secretary of Privy Council..................... 200 Incidentals of Privy Council....................... oo $ 25,300 Judiciary Department. Salary Chief Justice and Chancellor.....................$ I2,000 Salary First Associate Justice........................... 0,000 Salary Second Associate Justice......................... 10,000 Salary Clerk Supreme Court........................... 6,000 Salary Deputy Clerk................................... 3,800 Salary Librarian and Copyist............................ 1,500 Salary Interpreter Supreme and Police Courts.............. 4,000 Salary Circuit Judge, Maui............................. 4,000 His Traveling Expenses................................ 200 Salary Circuit Judge, Hilo and Kau...................... 2,000 Salary Circuit Judge Kohala, Kona, etc................... 2,000 Salary Circuit Judge Kauai................ 4,000 Salary Police Justice Honolulu.......................... 6,ooo Salary Police Justice Hilo............................. 2,400 Salary Police Justice Lahaina........................... 2,000 Salary Police Justice Wailuku........................... 2,400 Salary District Judge North Hilo........................ 800 Salary District Judge Puna............................. 800 Salary District Judge Kau.............................. 1,200 Salary District Judge North Kona....................... 800 Salary District Judge South Kona....................... 800

Page  13 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 13 Balance of Salary due................................. 75 Salary Police Justice North Kohala.......................,600 Salary District Judge South Kohala...................... 800 Salary District Judge Hamakua.......................... 1,200 Salary District Judge Honuaula......................... 800 Salary District Judge Makawao.......................... 1,200 Salary District Judge Hana............................. I,000 Salary District Judge Lanai............................. 600 Salary District Judge Molokai........................,0ooo Traveling Expenses District Judge Molokai...........50 Salary District Justice Ewa....................800 Salary District Justice Waianae.......................... 800 Salary District Justice Waialua.......................... 800 Salary District Justice Koolauloa........................ 800 Salary District Justice Koolaupoko....................... 1,200 Salary District Justice Hanalei.................. I,000 Salary District Justice Kawaihau........................ 800 Salary District Justice Lihue...............1,000 Salary District Justice Koloa............................ 800 Salary District Judge Waimea........................... 800 Salary Clerk Second Judicial Circuit..................... 60o Salary Clerk Third Judicial Circuit....................... I,o6o Salary Clerk Fourth Judicial Circuit................... 400 Expenses of Supreme Court............................ 4,000 Expenses of witnesses in criminal cases to be allowed by presiding Judge at his discretion.............. 1,500 Expense Second Judicial Circuit......................... 2,800 Expenses Third Judicial Circuit......................... 3,000 Expenses Fourth Judicial Circuit............................ 1,200 Purchase of Law Books................................ 500 Stationery and incidentals of all Courts................... 1,500 Translating and Printing Reports, Volume Four........... 5,000 Pay of Clerk Police Justice Honolulu.................... 2,400 Pay of Chinese Interpreter and Translator................ 2,400 Pay of Messengers of Judiciary Department.......... 2,000 $I22,I25 Department of Foreign Affairs. Salary of Minister.....................................$ 2,000 Salary of Secretary.................................... 6,ooo Office expenses of Foreign Agents....................... 3,000 Coronation of His Majesty the King..................... I0,00 Reception of foreign official guests and incidentals.......... 20,000 Expenses Foreign Missions............................. 25,000 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Washington.......................................... 12,000 Expenses incidental to Legation at Washington............. 5,000 Relief and return of indigent Hawaiians from abroad........ 1,500 Salary of Messenger......................1,000

Page  14 14 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Purchase of Decorations.............................. 4,ooo06 Education of Hawaiian youths in foreign countries. 30,600 K ing's Guards........................................ 38,901 Aid-to volunteer military companies......................10,000 D rill shed........................................... 5,000 Band, flags and salutes............................ 33,365 Arms and accoutrements............................... 20,000 Purchase of Ordnance................................. 15,000 National Museum...............................3,00ooo Purchase of books for Government Library................ 3,000 Government Librarian and Curator to the Museum......... 2,000 $259,766 Department of the Interior. Salary M inister........................................$ '12,000 Salary Chief Clerk.................................... 6,000 Clerk of Land Office. 3,600 Clerk of Land Office.................................. 3,600 Third Clerk of Interior Department...................... 3,600 Fourth Clerk of Interior Department..................... 2,400 Salary Governor of Oahu............................... 3,600 Salary Governor of Maui......................... 3,600 Salary Governess of Hawaii............................ 3,600 Salary Governor of Kauai.............................. 3,600 Salary Clerk Governor of Oahu.........................,200 Salary Clerk Governor of Maui.......................... 1,6oo Salary Clerk Governor of Kauai......................... 1,000 Salary Clerk Governess of Hawaii....................... 1,6oo Salary Jailor of Oahu Prison............................ 3,600 Guard of Oahu Prison.............................. 7,oo000 Salary Superintendent of Water Works and Clerk of Marekt 3,000 Salary Clerk Superintendent of Water Works.............. 2,000 Market for Wailuku, Maui............................. 2,000 Market for Hilo, Hawaii..................2,000 Civil Engineer........................................ 8,ooo Salary Superintendent Public Works...................... 6,ooo Incidentals and traveling expenses of Engineer and Superintendent of Public Works........................... 1,500 Salary of Postmaster General............................ 8,ooo Pay Clerks of Post Office........................ 17,000 Pay of Postmasters................................. 0,000 Pay of M ail Carriers.................................. i8,ooo Incidentals of Post Office.............................. 8,ooo Postal Money Orders.................................. 10,000 Marine Telephone Station.............................. 1,500 JPay Keeper Royal Mausoleum.......................... 60oo Expenses of Royal Mausoleum.250 Pay Keeper Lunalilo Mausoleum........................ 5oo Pay Janitor Aliiolani Hale......................960 Pay Messengers Interior Department.......... 2,000

Page  15 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 15 Fire-proof safe Interior Department...................... 600 Incidentals Interior Department......................... 2,000 Incidentals Governors' Offices........................... 500 Books and Stationery for Registration of Conveyances....... 300 Copying Records of Land Commission................... 2,400 Road Damages....................................... 15,000 Pay of Road Supervisors............................... I4,400 ROADS AND BRIDGES, AS FOLLOWS: H onolulu............................................$ 6o,ooo K oolaupoko.......................................... 10,000 K oolauloa............................................ 9,000 E w a................................................ 7,000 W aianae............................................. 3,000 W aialua............................................. 5,400 Road from Lahaina to Waialuku......................... 30,000 Lahaina............................................. 8,00o Bridge at Honokawai, Kaanapali........................ 2,000 W ailuku............................................. 8,ooo M akawao............................................ 5,000 Hana............................................. 7,000 M olokai...........................8,ooo L anai............................................... 1,000 N orth K ohala........................................ 7,000 South K ohala........................................ 4,000 Hamakua............................................10,000 N orth K ona......................................... 2,000 South K ona......................................... 2,000 Kau, from Punaluu to Kapapala......................... 3,000 Other Roads in Kau........................ 4,000 P una................................................ 4,000 H ilo............................................. 20,000 Koloa, improving road and landing...................... 4,000 Lihue, improving road and bridge at Nawiliwili............. 3,000 W aimea, bridge at.................................... 9,000 Waimea, breakwater at.................................. 2,000 K awaihau............................................ 5,000 Wailua, bridge over stream at......................... o10,00 H analei............................................. 5,000 Bridge at Hanalei..................................... 8,ooo N iihau.............................................. I,000 Contingent............................000...............0, [Total, Roads and Bridges, $276,400.J Road Tax unexpended to be used in Districts where Collected 37,759 Leper Settlement..................................... 90,000 Water supply for Kalawao.............................. 10,000 Government physicians and medical treatment............. 50,000 General Expenses Board of Health...................... 35,000 Builjding and maintenance of Hospitals..............50,000

Page  16 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Repairs and care of Quarantine......................... Custom House and Stores, Kahului...................... Custom House and Stores at Mahukona................. Custom House and Stores at Hilo....................... Maintenance of Insane Asylum......................... Repairs and Extension of Insane Asylum................ General Aid to Queen's Hospital....................... Aid to the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society............ Encouragement of Agriculture, as per Bill................. Government Survey.................................. Kapiolani Park....................................... Government Printing......................... Compiling, Printing and Binding Laws................... Translating and Printing Master and Servants Law in Hawaiian Support of Prisoners.......................... Honolulu Fire Department............................ Expenses Bureau of Water Works........................ Repairs and Additions to Water Works.................. Running Expenses of Steam Tugs....................... Anchors and Buoys.................................. Landing at Honokaia.................................. Wharf at Pelekunu........................... Landing at Honomalino.................. Landing at Honokaa................................ Landing at Koholalele......................... Landing at Honuapo.................................. Landing at Holualoa...................... Landing at Hoopuloa and Napoopoo..................... Landing at Kailua and 'Keauho.......................... Wharf at Pukoo, Molokai............................... W harf at Kaunakakai.................................. W harf at Kalaupapa................................... Landing at Makena............................ Landing at Heeia, Oahu............................... Wharf at Waimanalo................................ Landing at Kahului................................... Extension of Hilo wharf............................... Repairs of Kaalualu wharf.............................. Extension of wharf at Lahaina.......................... Breakwater at Pohoiki................................ Landing at Waianae................................... Repairs of Landings................................... Wharf at Hookena.................................... Wharf at Waimea, Kauai.......................... Purchase of New Dredge..............................., Wharf at Muolea, Hana................................ Dredging Honolulu Harbor and Entrance...... Landing at Punahoa, Keanae, and Nuu, Hana, Maui........ ~. R.. M; -a ''0'> '". ''t4 '- ' ' '*' k{c' 2,500 15,000 15,000 I5,000 15,000 6,ooo 15,000 5,000 5,000 40,000 5,000 4,000 5,000 I25 6o,ooo 28,000 5,000 82,300 15,000 I 0,000 8,000 500 0,000 10,000 7,000 5,000 500 1,000 1,000 3,0oo 3,ooo 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 5,000 5,000 1,000 4,000.5,000 2,000 10,000 2,000 2,000 8,000 8,ooo 3,000 15,000 2,100 "~; ~-l.~r:.~ n~~- ;~;:

Page  17 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. I 7 Repairs of Wharves Honolulu........................... 20,000 Repairs of Wharves at Punaluu, Kau..................... 1,500 Filling in Waikahalulu................................. 15,000 Completion of Light House Barber's Point................ 3,000 Repairs and running Expenses of Light Houses............ 7,500 Light House South Point of Hawaii......................,000 Repairs of Government Buildings....................... 17,000 Repairs and Furniture for Aliiolani Hale.................. 3,000 Police Court, Public Works, Water Works, Tax Assessor, &c., buildings for...................................... 35,000 Kerosene W arehouse.................................. 7,000 Fire-proof building for Supreme Court and other records..... I5,000 Buildings and repairs of Court House and Lock-ups........ 30,000 Completion and furnishing New Palace................... 47,500 Palace Stables........................................ 5,000 Encouragement of Immigration for re-population as per Loan Bill...................50..0............0..... 5,000 Nuuanu Pali Road.................................... 45,000 Marine Railway for Honolulu........................... 50,000 Artesian Well Boring AS FOLLOWS: For North Kona.................................. 5,000 For Molokai....................,000 For M akua, Oahu.................................. 5,00 Artesian Well Boring.............................. 20,000 Pipe for Makiki well............................ 3,000 Purchase of Lot Alliolani Hale........................... 1,500 Rent of Lot Aliiolani Hale............................. 200 Rent of Aienui....................................... 2,400 Expenses filing certificates of boundaries............... 200 Expenses of election.................................. 500 Additional Wash Houses............................... 7,500 Care of Forests, Nurseries, improvement of lands and public places AS FOLLOWS: Nurseries......................................... 8,ooo Em m a Square........................................,000 Thomas Square....................................... 3,000 Road Tax to be expended in the districts where collected, estimated.......................... 86,ooo Indemnification of J. W. Kahuluna..................... 3 For purchase of ancient feather cloak.................... 1,200 For purchase of Lunalilo and Kekauluohi................. 200 For Chinese Translations............................... 4,000 $2,174,925 Finance Department. Salary of Minister........... $ 12,000 Salary of Auditor General.............................. Io,ooo Salary Registrar of Public Accounts..................... 6,ooo -s,.,. ''':~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Page  18 105 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Salary Collector General......................... 8,000 Salary Deputy Collector............ 5,000 Salary Statistical Clerk.................... 3,600 Salary 2nd Statistical Clerk.............................. 3,000 Salary Surveyor and Guard.............................. 3,000 Salary Entry Clerk............2,400 Salary Store Keeper.................................. 3,600 Salary Collector Kahului................................ 3,000 Salary Collector Mahukona.............................. 2,000 Salary Collector H ilo................................... 2,000 Salary Collector Kawaihae.............................. 300 Salary Collector Kealakekua..................00 Salary Collector Koloa...................... 200 Salary Keeper Steamer Warehouse....................... 1,200 Salary Keeper Kerosene Warehouse. 480 Salary Surveyor and Guard, Kahului...................... 2,000 Salary Surveyor and Guard, Mahukona.................... 1,200 Salary Surveyor and Guard, Hilo......................... 1,200 Assistant Guards.................................. 12,000 Incidentals of Custom House........................... 3,000 Custom House Boat.................................. 200 Pay of Tax Assessors.................................. 28,000 Pay of Tax Collectors........6,000ooo Pay of Tax Appeal Boards..............................,000 National debt falling due......................... 69,300 Interest on National Debt......................... 65,00ooo Hospital Fund, estimated receipts.................... 7,000 Incidentals Finance Department......................... 3,000 Printing Certificates of Deposit..........................,oo Stamps and Dies.................................... 500 Dog Tags............................................ 600 Messenger......................................... 1,000 Subsidy to Ocean Steamship Lines........................ 5o,oo Subsidy for steamer to make a semi-monthly trip round. the Island ot Hawaii subject to public tender and contract with the Minister of Finance........................ 2,000 Return of double taxes........................... 1,500 For J. C. Merrill.............1.. 1,500 $353,880 Department of Attorney General Salary of Attorney General......... $ '.......$ ' 2,000 Salary of Clerk....................................... 5,00 Salary of M arshal...................................... 8,ooo Salary Clerk of Marshal....................2,4400 Salary second Clerk of Marshal, (native).................,oo Salary Sheriff of Maui.................................. 5s00 Salary Sheriff of Hawaii.............................. 5,000

Page  19 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Salary Sheriff of Kauai................................. *Salary Clerk Sheriff of Maui........................... Salary Clerk Sheriff of Hawaii....................... Salary Police of Hawaii AS FOLLOWS: Salary one native captain at $70 per month in Hilo......... Salary one foreign captain at $70 per month in Hilo........ Salary one deputy sheriff North Hilo at $40 per month....... Salary one deputy sheriff Hamakua at $80 per month...... Salary one deputy sheriff in South Kohala at $40 per month... Salary one deputy sheriff in North Kohala at $80 per month.. Salary one deputy sheriff for North Kona at $40 per month... Salary one deputy sheriff for South Kona at $40 per month... Salary one deputy sheriff for Kau at $80 per month......... Salary one deputy sheriff for Puna at $40 per month....... Salary regular paid Police force........................... Incidentals................................... 4,000 i,6oo 1,600 i,68o 1,680 960 1,920 960 1,920 960 960 1,920 960 35,I60 500 $ 49,580 I Pay of Deputy Sheriff and Police Island of Maui AS FOLLOWS: Salary one deputy sheriff for Lahaina at $90 per month......$ 2,160 Salary one native captain at Lahaina at $50 per month....... 1,200 Salary one deputy sheriff at Wailuku at $75 per month...... 1,8oo Salary one deputy sheriff at Makawao at $80 per month...... 1,920 Salary one deputy sheriff at Hana at $40 per month......... 960 Salary one deputy sheriff at Honuaula at $30 per month..... 720 Salary one deputy sheriff at Molokai at $40 per month....... 96 Salary Regular paid Police force................... 22,640 $ 32,360 Pay of Deputy Marshal, Deputy Sheriffs, Police of Oahu and lamps of Honolulu: Pay of the Deputy Marshal............................$ 5,000 Pay of one captain at $Ioo per month.................... 2,400 Pay of five police at $90 per month each..................,800 Pay of two captains at $50 per month each................ 1,400 Pay of one Deputy Sheriff at Koolaupoko at $50 per month.. 1,200 Pay of one Deputy Sheriff at Waialua at $50 per month...... 1,200 Pay of one Deputy Sheriff at Koolauloa at $30 per month... 720 Pay of one Deputy Sheriff at Waianae at $30 per month...... 720 Pay of one Deputy Sheriff at Ewa at $40 per month......... 960 Lamps in Honolulu....................................,o000 Regular paid police force.............................. 52,360 $ 85,760 Pay of Deputy Sheriffs and Police of Kauai: Pay of one Deputy Sheriff of Kauai and Clerk to Sheriff at $80 per month......................................$ 1,9ao Pay of one Deputy Sheriff of Lihue at $50 per month........,2oo 1.J. ~- ~ i!~~...

Page  20 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Pay of one Deputy Sheriff of Koloa at $50 per month....... 1,200 Pay of one Deputy Sheriff of Waimea at $50 per month.... 1,200 Pay of one Deputy Sheriff of Kawaihau at $50 per month.... 1,200 Pay of one Deputy Sheriff of Hanalei at $50 per month..... 1,200 Regular paid police force.............................. 9,680 $ 17,600 Apprehension of Criminals................... 5,000 Incidentals........................................... 2,000 Coroners' Inquests.................................. 1,200 Criminal Expenses........................... 20,000 Armed Force, Contigent Fund to be expended by advice of the King and Cabinet Council, for the islands of Maui, Kauai and Hawaii............................. 60,000 $319,300 Bureau of Public Instruction. Salary of Inspector General....................$ 6,000 Traveling Expenses of Inspector General.................. I,000 Salary Clerk Board of Education........................ 6,000 Support of Hawaiian and English Schools................. 75,000 Support of Common Schools............................ 0,000 Industrial and Reformatory School.............................. 19,000 Building and repairs of School Houses.................... I0,000 Aid to Hilo Boarding School............................ 5,000 Building Girls School at Waialua......................... o,ooo0 Aid to Makawao School................................ 2,000 Scholarships at Oahu College............................ 720 Stationery and Incidentals......................... 800 Pay of M essenger.....................................,000 $I37,520 Recapitulation. Civil List............................................. 48,500 Permanent Settlements................................. 2,800 Legislature and Privy Council........................... 25,300 Department of Judiciary................................ 122,25 Department of Foreign Affairs........................... 259,766 Department of Interior................................2,174,925 Department of Finance................................ 353,880 Department of Attorney General...................... 319,300 Bureau of Public Instruction............................ 37,520 $3,563,I I6 The amount asked for by the late Ministry of the same legislative assembly was $2,623,860, divided as follows: Civil List, $94,000; Permanent Settlements; $15,0o0; Legislative and Privy Council, $20,300; Judiciary Department, $114,650; Foreign Department, $I54,202; Interior Department, $I,824,084; Ijnance Department, $339,680; Attorney-General's Department, $248,800; Bureau of Public Instruction, $ 13, I44.

Page  21 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL.2 2 1 THE PUBLIC DEBT. [From Report of Minister of Finance to Legislative Assembly, 1882.] The Debt on the31st of March, i88o, was.................$388,goo Amount paid during the past fiscal period.................89,7oo Amount of Debt April i, 1 882....................$299,200 'The interest charges on the debt are: Twelve per cent per annum on................$ 4!,6oo Nine per cent per annum on................. 214,600 Seven per cent per annumn on.................43,000-$299,200 Of the National Debt there will become due and payable during the current fiscal period, $69,300. Up td November i15th there had been taken up, under the provision of the Two Million Loan Act, the sum of $i20,000, to bear interest at six per cent per annum, free of taxes. COMPARATIVE TABLE OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 1876-78, 1878-80, x88o-8a, AND 882t-84. REVENUE. 1876-78. 187o-8o. i88o-82. Esimated8 Custom House...........$ 361,371 $ 582,846 $ 719,245 $ 71I8,000 Internal Commerce.......... 85,807 122,946 141,744 1 10,260 Internal Taxes............ 331,163 465,252 596,615 564,500 Fines, Fees, Perquisites, etc...... 132,6oo I90,265 99,986 132,950 Government Realizations....... 153,572 318,527 393,586 263,000 Government Stocks......... 87,200 23,900........... Cash in the Treasury April I, 1882......................126,541 Totals............$1,151,713 $1,703,736 $2,050,276 $i,9I5,251 EXPENDITURES. 1876-78. i878-8o. i88o-82. Esimated4 Civil List.............$ 76,000 $ 65,500 $ 100,000 $ 148,500 Permanent Settlement........ 14,025 15,075 19,5121 2i,800 Legislature and Privy Council.... 22,080 16,523 19,338 25,300 Judiciary Department........ 71,743 79,667 92,870 I122,125 Department of War......... 54,642 67,993........... Department of Foreign Affairs... 32,036 36,830 129,353 259,766 Department of Interior....... 370,220 656,810 1,204,703 2,174,925 Department of Finance....... 244,387 260,057 299,436 353,880 Department of Attorney-General.. 95,861 123,664 163,527 319.300 Bureau of Public Instruction..... 71,721 79,605 84,249 137,520 Miscellaneous........... 46,757 93,973 i69,6o8...... Totals............$1,180,472 $1,495,697, $2,282,596 $3,563, I I 6 The Almanac and Annual is made up to November to be issued in time for the December mails. All articles, advertisements, and corrections intended therefor, should be reported to the publisher by the end of October or first of November. Address, THOS. G. THRUM, Publisher, Honolulu. *Merged into Department of Foreign Affairs.

Page  22 COMPARATIVE VIEW OF HAWAIIAN ISLAND'S COMMERCE, FROM t845, GIVING THE TOTALS FOR EACH YEAR.. Domestic Foreign T otal s- Transhipment of Oil and Bone. Shipping. Spi. Haw. RegisDomestic Foreign Total Cus-on Year. Imports. Exports. Prod. Prod. tom House Galls. Galls. ILbs. Nat er. Vessels. WhIrs. Gallons Exported. Exported. Receipts. Spm. Oil. Wh. Oil. Wh. Bone. vess3. N T-.- No. Consumed No Tons..No. Tons. No. Tons. 1845 1846 1847 1848 x849 1850 1851 x852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 I858 1859 1860 1861 z862 I863 1864 1865 I866 1867 1868 I869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 I877 1878 1879 I880 r88i $546,981 598,382 71o0,38 605,618 729,739 1,035,058 1,823,821 759,868 1,401,975 I,590,837 I,383,169 1,151,422 1,130,165 x,089,660 1,555,558 1,223,749 761,109 998,239 I,175,493 1,712,241 1,946,265 I,993,82I g,957,4I0 2,935,790 2,040,068 1,930,227 i,625,884 1,746,178 1,437,611 1,310,827 o1,505,670 I,811,770 2,554,356 3,046,370 3,742,978 3,673,268 4,547,979 $269,710 682,850 264,226 300,370 383,185 783,052 691,231 638,393 472,996 585,122 572,6o0 670,826 645,524 787,082 931,329 807,459 659,774 838,424 2,025,852 1,662,181 I,808,257 1,934,576 1,679,661 1,898,215 2,336,358 2,144,942 1,892,069 1,607,521 2,128,054 1,839,619 2,089,736 2,24I,04I 3,676,202 3,548,472 3,78I,718 4,968,445 6,855,436 $202,700 620,525 209,018 266,819 185,083 536,522 309,828 257,251 281,599 274,029 274,741 466,278 423,308 529,966 628,575 480,526 476,872 586,541 744,413 1,113,328 1,52I,211 1,205,821 1,324,122 t,450,269 I,743,291 1,514,425 1,733,094 I,402,685 1,725,507 I,622,455 1,774,083 2,055,133 2,462,417 3,333,979 3,665,504 4,889,194 6,789,076 $67,00 62,325 55,208 33,551 198,202 246,529 381,401 38,1x42 191,397 311,092 297,859 204,545 222,222 257,115 302,754 326,932 182,901 251,882 281,439 548,852 287,045 428,755 355,539 447,946 623,067 630,517 158,974 204,836 402,547 217,164 254,353 185,908 213,786 2x4,492 II6,214 79,251 66,360 $25.189 36,506 48,80o 55,568 83,23I 121,506 i60,602 113,001 I55,65o 152,125 158,411 123,171 140,777 I66,138 232,129 117,302 IOO,II5 107,490 122,752 159,116 192,566 215,047 220,599 210,076 215,798 223,815 22I,332 228,375 198,655 183,857 213,447 199,036 230,499 284,426 359,671 402, 82 423,192.................................. I04,362 173,490 175,396 I56,484 I09,308 12I,294.I76,3o6 222,464 156,360 47,859 20,435 12,522 56,687 33,860 42,841 118,961 103,215 1o6,778 57,690 105.234 63,310 50,887 56,687 23,187 37,812...................... 909,37S 1,182.738 3,787,348 I,683,922 1,436,8Ic I,64I,579 2,018,027 2,551,382 x,668, I75 782,086 795,988 460,407 675,344 608,502 578,593 1,250,965 821,929 774,913 I,698, I8 I,443,80o 283,055 32,974 573,697 403,876 312,30o.............................. 901,604 3,159,951 2,020,264 1,479,678 872,954 I,074,942 1,295,525 x,624,71c 1. 47,12c 57i,96( 527,91c 193,92C 337,043 339,331 337,394 611,278 405,14c 596,043 627,77c 632,905 29,362 82,998 122,554 174,111 104,71;..................................... 527,9IO... 14 17 4 7 12 12 7 3 7 I6 13 9 10 10 5 10 7 6 6 8 7 3 II 7 6 I6 9 7 12 13 22 14 17 II 6 15 13 4I 53 67 90 I8o 469 446 235 211 125 I54 I23 82 I15 139 II7 93 II3 88 I57 15I 150 134 I13 127 159 I7I I46 o09 120 120 I41 I68 232 251 239 258 90,304 87,920 6I,o65 59,45I 47,288 51,304 42,223 26,817 45,875 59,241 41,226 45,952 48,687 42,930 75,893 67,068 60,628 60,268 54,833 75,656 91,248 I05,993 98,647 62,767 71,266 93,1 0 0o8,706 116,62r i63,640 151,576 141,916 I59,341 163 I67 167 254 274 237 220 519 535 525 468 366 387 526 549 325 I90 73 102 I30 I80 229 243 153 I02 Ix8 47 47 63 43 41 37 33 27 25 16 19.......... 3,271 3,443 5,718 8,25 11,270 14,148 18,203 I7,537 18,528 14,779 I6,144 14,637 I4,158 14,295 9,676 8,940 7,862 10,237 II,745 12,833 I5,119 I6,030 17,0o6 19,948 I8,8I7 18,843 21,2I2 i8,466 21,131 19,707 24,223 36,360 43,i66 44,289 46,085 28 67 78.... 80 75 69 56 54 45 48 54 53 65 68 53 58 44 56 65 74 77 63 61 64 57 54 58 54 51 45 54 55 63 63 60 I,578 2, 60 2,873 3,539 4,460 4,432 3,827 6,271 4,831 4,718 5,795 5,249 6,366 6,935 5,848 6,645 5,497 7,895 0, 70 11,664 II,456 9,793 I0,528 I0,855 8,o68 6,407 8,56i 8,10o 7,376 6,753 8,994 7,949 10,023 I0,149 9,338 51 — z t51 8r 4 z C1 51. z: zj z:.61 NOTE.-Where blanks occur in the earlier years, there was either no record or the figures, when given, were unreliable. The first transhipment of Oil and Bone was in x85x,so far as any record can be found for statistical purposes.

Page  23 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 23 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF LEADING IMPORTS OF HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 1875. 1877. 1879. x88i. _-. Ale, Porter, Beer, Cider......................$ 32,826 59 $ 27,317 I7 $ 43,255 64 $ 62,193 69 Animals and Birds........................... 434 00 11,796 78,571 71 8,073 42 Building Materials.......................... 3I,o6 91 59,535 02 89,512 12 107,44I 61 Clothing, Hats, Boots................. 68,377 61 294,097 14 251,584 86 257,116 17 Crockery, Glassware and Lamps.............. 3,278 42 28,2I6 20 31,107 42 37,548 83 Drugs and Medicines........................ 20,996 56 23,560 68 29,750 69 36,000 76 Dry Goods —Cottons...................... 163,464 54 I93,776 20 179,927 43 212,405 30 Linens.......................... 2,322 25 25,208 46 13,048 62 i6,oo2 97 Silks............................ 3,831 39 I4,255 51 33,764 26 20,830 75 Woolens........................ 39,142 20 69,I82 68 82,213 46 74,300 53 Mixtures........................ 40,952 17 46,3I6 73 37,642 97 38,070 90 Fancy Goods, Millinery, etc........... 44,776 31 65,580 47 68.444 1 I 75,102 84 Fish (dry and salt)........................... 14,781 74 26,594 82 66,978 33 63,576 95 Flour....................................... 55,93~ 57 77,326 2I 81,820 38 96,548 76 Fruits (fresh)............................. 2,232 00 2,359 23 4,982 0 4,868 68 Furniture................................... 9,082 52 46,058 I0 65,0o6 95 76,968 8i Furs and Ivory............................. 5,540 95 1,902 40 3,222 80............ Grain and Feed.............................. 2,732 23 22,266 95 55,402 I0 119,690 59 Groceries and Provisions..................... I03,328 02 I60,028 78 334,409 99 377,639 64 Guns and Gun Materials..................... 5,625 2 o10,456 66 I2,425 76 I3,569 67 Gun Powder................................,180 41 4,7I7 84 4,650 41 8,653 51 Hardware, Implements, Tools................. 77,5I9 38 I59,059 27 204,492 80 267,531 27 Iron, Steel, etc............................... 18,075 88 45,694 46 6I,709 98 22o,oI5 50 Jewelry, Plate, Clocks....................... 15,856 i6 58,014 56 86,47 o0 46,556 6o Leather.................................... 8,549 33 I7,597 87 23,542 69 40,508 o8 Lumber.................................... 78,652 19 136,940 o6 I89,887 79 224,712 40 Machinery.....................23,605 12 146,522 47 543,045 12 I79,724 27 Matches.................................... 11,089 40 I6,626 70 4,049 43 13,677 92 Musical Instruments.....................4..... 4,764 53 t2,I52 58 10,033 17 I5,183 24 Naval Stores................................ 30,625 88 50,483 32 47,410 25 53,229 20 Oils (cocoanut, kerosene, whale, etc.).......... 47, 77 71 49,201 86 64,815 o5 67,I67 72 O pium...................................... 22,5 6 26.................................. Paint and Paint Oils.......................... 5,396 6r 20,830 74 23360 47 49,544 85 Perfumery and Toilet Articles................ 8,020 34 20,354 97 0i,801 78 I6,322 99 Saddlery, Carriages, etc...................... 21,515 96 62,315 55 78,706 53 65,353 71 Shooks and Containers....................... 40,544 97 37,504 00 45,585 39 122,972 46 Spirits............................... 49,446 30 49,094 62 72,519 78 145,360 47 Stationery and Books........................ 25,472 07 37,929 49 44,098 6i 53,694 79 Tea.................................... 10,292 92 9,I69 02 20,799 53 20,764 98 Tin and Tinware........................... 3,637 56 4,481 77 6,566 90 10,472 02 'Tobacco, Cigars, etc........................ 42,072 63 6I,496 02 82,618 98 112,298 I5 W halebone.................................. 4,095 o8 54,533 I2 I9,363 45........... W ines (light)................................ 14,688 80 11,741 93 9,178 17 15,921 55 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF POPULATION OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. ISLANDS. Est. enCensus Census Census Census Census Census IS823. L832. 836. 1853-. 860. i866. 1872. Hawaii......................... 85, 45,792 39,364 24,450 21,481 i9,808 i6,0oo Maui......................... 20,000 35,062 24,199 17,574 I6,400 14,035 I2,334 Oahu............................. 20,000 29,755 27,809 x9, 26 21,275 19,799 20,67r Kauai............................ 0o,o000 10,977 8,934 6,99I 6,487 6,299 4,96r Molokai.......................... 3,500 6,ooo 6,ooo 3,607 2,864 2,299 2,349 Lanai.......................... 2,500 i,600 x,200 6oo 646 394 348 Niihau......................,000 1,047 993 790 647 325 233 Kahoolawe....................... 50 80 80........................... Totals........................ 142,050 30,33 08,579 73, I38 69,800 62,959 56,897 _ _ _ ~~~~~.................. Parties having clean copies of the Annual for 1879, for disposal, will confer a favor on the publisher by reporting the same. They will be purchased, or new issues supplied in exchange.

Page  24 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AN4D ANNUAL. CLIPPER PASSAGES TO AND FROM THE COAST. The following is a list of the most remarkable passages between the Islands and San Francisco and other po~rts on the Coast for the last twenty-four years: 1858-Am. bark Yankee, i days to San Francisco. 1859-Am. ship Black Hawk, 9 days and 9 hours from San Francisco. i86i-Am, ship Fair Wind, 8 days and 17yz hours from San Francisco. x86i-Am, ship Norwester, 9 days and i6 hours from Sau Francisco. i86i-Am. bark Comet, 9 days and 20 hours from San Francisco. i 86 i-Am. bark Comet, i0 days and 12 hours to San Francisco. i862-Am, ship Storm King, 9 days and io hours from San Francisco. i1864-Am. ship Matapan, io',.2 days from San Francisco. i864 —Am. bark A. A. Eldridge, ii days to San Francisco. i866-Am, bark Ethan Allen, i i days to San Francisco. 1887-Am-. barkentine J. A. Falkinburg, i i days to Astoria. 1879-Am. barkentine' Catherine Sudden, 9 days and I17 hours to Cape Flattery. 1879-Am. schooner Claus Spreckels, 9Y4 days from San Francisco to Kahului. 188o-Am. schooner Jessie Nickerson, io days from Honolulu to Humboldt. 188o-Am. brigantine J. D. Spreckels, 10 days and 13 hours from San Francisco. i 88o-Am. brigantine J. D. Spreckels, 12 days to San Francisco. i88i-Am. brigantine Consuelo, io days 20 hours from San Francisco to Kahului. i88i-Am. brigantine Win. G. Irwin, 8 days and I7 hours from S. F. to Kahului. Quick Passages of Ocean Steamers. Miles. Steamer. Date. d. h. m. New York to Queenstown...... 2,950.....Arizona.........Sept., ills.... 7 8 32 New York to Queenstown......2,950.....Britannic.........Dec., 1167.... 7 22 46 New York to Queenstown......2,950.....City of Berlin......Oct., 31875.... 7 25 48 Queenstown to New York......2,950.....City of Berlin......Sept., 1875.... 7 i8 02 New York to Queenstown......2,950.....Russia.J.........uly, x869.... 8 6 30 Queenstown to New York......2,950.....Russia..........June, 21869.... 8 2 - Liverpool to New York.......3,050.....Russia..1..........i869.... 9 7 21 Philadelphia to Queenstown.....3,020.....Illinois..........Dec., 1876.... 8 18 3 New York to Havana.. 2....,225.....City Of Vera Cruz.....Aug., 1876.... 4 0 43 Havana to New York..... 2..,225.... City of New York.....May, 2875.... 3 10 7 New York to Aspinwall.......2,300o.....Henry Chauncey........2875.... 6 24 Aspinwall to New York.......2,300o.....Henry Chauncey.2...... 875.... 6 5 30 San Francisco to Yokohama.....4,764.....City of Peking.........-.... r5 9 Yokohama to San Francisco.....4,764.....Oceanic.....2....... 876.... 14 13 San Francisco to Honolulu..... 2,ioo.....City of Sydney.........i88o.... 6 214 Honolulu to San Francisco.....2,100.....Zealandia.........Aug., i88i.... 6 23 30 New York toQueenstown......2,950.....Alaska..........Sept., 1882.... 6 25 29' New York to Queenstown......2,950.....Servia.J........an., 2882.... 7 4 23 Queenstown to New York......2,950.....Alaska..........June, 1882.... 7 150* Queenstown to New York......2,950.....Servia.2.........._882... 7 7 40 Shanghai to London........ -.......Sterling Castle.......May, 1882....29 22 5 Amoy to New York........ -.......Glenavon.........June, 2882.....44 24. Plymouth, Eng., to Sydney.... -.......Austral..........May, 1882.... 32 122 Yokohama to San Francisco.....4,764.....Arabic..........Oct., z882.... 23 22 43 San Francisco to Honolulu.....2,200.....Zealandia.........April, 1882.... 6 23 25 Honolulu to Auckland........3,820.....Zealandia.........April, 2882.... I 23 San Francisco to Honolulu......2,200.....Australia.J....... n 're, 1882.... 6 x6. Honolulu to San Francisco.....2,200.....Zealandia.........Oct., 2882.... 6 20 45* *Best on record. tTotal time. Actual steaming time, 27d., 23h. and 45m. ~Including all stoppages. IISteaming time; or a little over 36 days, including all stoppages.

Page  25 HtAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTEREb VESSEILS. MERCHANTMJ8N, TRADERS, AND WHALERS. REGISTER. 250 new 154 do 273 do 175 do 2193 do 216 do 227 do 226 do 222 do 232 do CLASS. NAME. ITONS. Bark Bark Brig Bark Bark Schr Bark Brig Schr Schr Kale.......... Mattie Macleay. Elise.......... lolani.......... Kalakaua........ J ennie Walker...... Starlight......... Ninito.......... Julia........... Moi Keiki........ 867 73.95 308 65.95 312 77.9! 924 76.95 404 89.95 137 85.95 636 2. 9! 245 7. 9! 287 89.95 22 80.95 REGISTERED OWNERS. H Hackfeld James I Dowsett Charles K Clark H Hackfeld S Walker William Greig J S, Walker A F Cooke, J F Colburn A F Cooke COASTERS. REGISTER. CLASS. NAME? j TONS. REGISTERED OWNERS. 149 new 2122 do, 270 do x66 do 274 do 172 old 176 new 127 do 158 do 232 do 69 do 16I do 68 do 277 do 279 do i8o do 229 do 203 do [45 do 255 do 242 do 283 do 185 do z8 do i88 do x~o do 294 do 295 -do 296 do I97 do 200 do 204 do 205 do 207 do 208 do -209 do 215 do 228 do 229 do 223 do 223 do 224 do 225 do 220 do 227 do 228 do 229 do 230 do 232 do 233 do I I Schr Schr Schr Schr Schr Schr Schr Schr Schr Schr Schr Schr Schr Stmr Sclir Schr Schr Sloop Schr Schr Schr,Schr Schr Schr Schr Stmr Schr Stmr Stmr Schr Schr Stmr Schr Stmr Schr Schr Schr Stuar Schr Schr Schr Stmr Schr Schr Schr Stmr Stmr Schr Schr Schr I I Giovanni Apiani..... Kaluna......... Kulamanu........ Nettle Merrill...... Caterina Apiani 'Long... V[anuokawai....... Kekauluohi....... MVarion......... Ka Moi.......... Pauahi......... Wailele......... Kapiolani........ Prince.......... Likelike......... Leahi.......... Wailele......... jenny.......... Hae Hawaii....... Kauiki......... Mile Morris....... Ujilama......... Haleakala........ Mary E. Foster..... Waioli.......... Waiehu......... Kilauea Hon....... Waimalu........ Waimanalo....... Mokolii......... Liholiho......... Luka.......... Lehua.....i.... Mokuola......... James Makee...... Malolo......... Gen. Seigel:....... Kauikeaoul....... C. R. Bishop....... Mana.......... Sarah.......... Mee Foo......... Iwalani......... Kaala.......... Josephine........ Pohoiki......... J. H. Black....... W. H. Reed....... Emma.......... Ehukai......... Kaholomua....... 85 92.95 86 44.95 96 34.95 r58 77.95 43 859 521 45.95 53 899 [05 49.95 154 2 6.95 122 38.95 215 36.95 20 78.95 85 42.95 596 58.95 203 24.95 75 85.95 63 04.95 9 I22.95 7 64 95 22 32.95 78 rI 6 75-951 ii6 o6.95~ 65 68.95 6o 37.95 271 20.95 95 97.95 49 82.95 96 78.95 222 35.95 222 35.95 217 91.95 27 20.95 244 215.95 2T33 65.95 39 I2.95 139 70.95 281 36.95 2107 210.95 6 22.95 26 32.95 434 40;9! 42 59.95 8 88.95 68 55.95 24 25.95 95 15.9! 94 26.95' 45 35.95 2 2 6 0.95 Jas I Dowsett A F Cooke, W L Wilcox Allen'& Robinson, C M Cooke Henry Turton Allen & Rohinson Thos R Foster Allen & Rohinson Thos R Foster A F Cooke Allen & Robinson Ipuhao (w) J F Colburn, W Bartholomew, W C Akana Thos R Foster!Samuel G Wilder Allen & Robinson Cook, Alexander, Wilcox & Wilcox T R Foster and J Brown, Trustees E Kahelemake Jas I Dowsett J as I Dowsett BM All en C Afong Thos R Foster A F, C Wand CM Cooke, W L Wilcox. W L Wilcox, W McCandless, A F Cooke T H Hobron A F Cooke, W L and S W Wilcox, S T Waimanalo Sugar Company [Alexander S G Wilder Thos R Foster Allen & Robinson and Mrs J G Dickson S G Wilder Tong Aki T R Foster, J Brown, Mrs Godfrey, W Alexander, Cooke & Co (H Spaulding H Martensen Allen & Robinson [E Godfrey, J Brown T R Foster, G N and, A S Wilcox, Mrs C A F Cooke, W L Wilcox N Kauaauao H Grube [op, AS and GNWilcox T R Foster, Mrs C E Godfrey, C R Bish. H Macfarlane and J L Richardson F Wundenburg M P Robinson Wm H Cummings 0 T Shipman G W and H R Macfarlane A F Cooke; W L Wilcox, Ida M Castle ij P Colburn

Page  26 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. POST OFFICE STATISTICS. Inter-Island Letters Passing Through the General Post-Office, Honolulu, from 1864 to 0882. FOREIGNERS. HAWAIIANS. YEAR. Letters Letters Letters Letters Received. Forwarded Received. Forwarded From April I, 1864, to April, I865........ 15,594 I3,652 7,650 9,570 From April I, I865, to April, 866........ 21,642 14,886 14,379 I6,078 From April I, I866, to April I, 867........ 23,282 I6,607 30,082 22,821 From April I, I867, to April I, 868........ 25,873 I9,013 23,733 25,535 From April I, I868, to April 1, I869........ 27,543 I9,547 25,920 25,986 From April I, 1869, to April I, I870........ 27,433 I9,806 25,233 24,499 From April I, 1870, to April, 87I........ 29,147 I9,II8 28,596 28,091 From April I, 187I, to April I,I872....... 24,655 23,333 26,364 35,715 From April I, 1872, to April I, I873........ 27,717 24,199 41,662 41,340 From April I, 1873, to April I, I874........ 38,313 25,007 45,8i6 44,233 From April I, 1874, to April I, I875........ 35,545 23,488 39,232 39,027 From April I, I875, to April I, I876........ 38,6 23,564 35,630 44,233 From April I, I876, to April, 877....... 36,349 29,558 32,250 49,977 From April I, I877, to April I, 1878........ 42,409 37,094 33,472 52,I81 From April I, 1878, to April I; 1879........ 57,907 47,957 43,605 67, 53 From April, 879, to April, 88........ 72,953 63,936 46,496 69,489 From April I, I880, to April, I88........ 85,649 76,255 55, 70 83,757 From April I, 188I, to April 1, 882........ 102,559 106,374 64,487 85,858 The number of letters received from, and sent to foreign ports, from I870, to I882, have been as follows: YEAR. Letters Letters Received. Forwar'd. From April 1, 1870, to April i, i871......................................... From April x, 1871, to April I, 1872........................................ From April x, 1872, to April i, 1873......................................... From April I, 1873, to April I, 1874......................................... From April i, 1874, to April i, 1875......................................... From April I, 1875, to April I, I876........................................ From April i, 1876, to April 1, I877......................................... From April i, 1877, to April I, 1878........................................ From April I I878, to April, I879......................................... From April I, 1879, to April i, i880................................... From April I, x880, to April, 88........................................ From April I, i88, to April, I882.................................... AVRG MOTL MEERLOIA TALE HOOUU FRO 25,8xi 26,772 25,020 26,679 26,112 31,742 33,244 42,465 45,682 50,352 70,682 77,46i 24,994 23,713 25,895 25,481 28,737 31,650 35,780 44,505 43,372 57,209 69,375 83,724 AVERAGE MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, HONOLULU, FROM 1873 to 1877, inclusive. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877.:?:. F:...::.. p January........... 30.08 74Y2 1.98 29.93 73 9.02 29.96 72 4.45 30.0 75 3.73 30.02 71 3.24 February......... 30.07 73Y 5.15 29.887 73 975 29.91 73 2.92 30.09 76 4.73 30.08 72 2.90 March............ 30.0974% 8.89 29.97 75 4.40 30.02 75 3.86 29.86 75% 6.43 30.05721 0.94 'April........... 30.08 76 1.25 30.02 74 3.24 30.02 74 4.22 30.11 75 3.58 30.12 734 3-4I May.............. 30579% 0.27 30.04 77 1.75 30.04 78 4."16 30.20 77 5.87 30.09 74o 4 7.27 June............. 3005 80 1.27 29.96 78 1.6o 29.97 78'2 2.44 30.13 78 1.07 30.13 764 1.14 July.............30.o5 8o2 0.58 129.95 80 1.25 29.96 80 0.95 30I17 79 1.42 30.13 76% 2.27 August........... 30.o6 8 0.07 29.95 8o3 0.30 29.95 8I 1.09 30.08 76 2.58 30.11 76 1.1 9 September........ 30.0081 0.05 3001 79 1.02 29.94 79 3.11 30.03 78% 051 30.10 76 2.64 October........... 30.0378 0.33 30.00 77 2.50 29.97 77 o0.95 30.05 78 0.37 30.09 764 I.63 November........ 30.04 76 6. o29.91 67 5.84 29.95 79 4.45 30.01 77 3.35 30.11 764 2.24 December......... 30.01 75 11.96 30.00 62 5.75 30.00 74 4.46 30.06 75% 2.92 30.08 74 3 43

Page  27 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 27 HAWAIIAN ISLANDS POSTAL SERVICE. General Post Office, Honolulu, Oahu-Jno. M. Kapena, P. M. G.; I. B. Peterson, Asst. P. M. G.; Assistants-D. Manaku, Miss A. L. Fillibrowne, K. Nuha, P. Wainee, G. L. Desha. POSTMASTERS ON OAHU. Waialua................ S. N. Emerson Kaneohe.................... S. Kaulia Waianae............ J. L. Richardson Punaluu.................J. W. Kaapu Waikane..............................................J. W. P. Kamealoha OV-ERLAND MAIL ROUTE, OAHU. Leaves Honolulu at 10 A. M. on Wednesday, each week, for the circuit of the Island, arriving back Friday morning. POSTMASTERS ON MOLOKAI. Kaunakakai............ R. W. Meyer I Pukoo................ Chas. B. Dwight POSTMASTER ON LANAI. Lanai.......................................................Jesse M orehouse POSTMASTERS ON KAUAI. Kapaa.............. Jas. H. K. Kaiwi Hanalei................... C. Koelling Kilauea.............. R. A. Macfie, Jr. Lihue......................O. Scholz Kekaha................... W. Meier Koloa......................E. Strehz W aimea.................................................S. P. Handchette POSTMASTERS ON MAUI. Lahaina................ T. W. Everett Kipahulu........... Thos. K. Clark Wailuku............... E. H. Bailey Kahului................T. H. Hobron Makawao............. Jas. Anderson Paia.................... C. H. Dickey Hana.......................A. Unna Haiku................S. T. Alexander Ulupalakua...............Mrs. Makee Hamakuapoko....... C. H. Alexander OVERLAND MAIL ROUTES, MAUI. From Lahaina to Wailuku, Makawao, Haiku and Ulupalakua-on Tuesdays or Wednesdays. From Lahaina to Kaanapali and Kahakuloa, weekly, on arrival of steamer Likelike. From Ulupalakua to Hana, weekly, on arrival of Likelike mails. From Haiku to Hana, weekly, on arrival of Kilauea Hou mails. From Kahului to Makawao and Haiku, weekly, on arrival of steamer Kilauea Hou mails. POSTMASTERS ON HAWAII. Hilo.....................L. Severance Hilea and Honuapo......C. N. Spencer Kawaihae............John Stupplebeen Laupahoehoe...............W. Lidgate M hukona........ C. E Stackpole Honokaa...............D Sanford Mahukona.ilder & Co. Kailua..................W. H. Davis Kukuihaele............ Keauhou................J. G. Hoapili Waipio................ W. H. Holmes Kealakekua............ N. Greenwell W aimea.............. Rev. L. Lyons Pahala....................T. C. Wills Kohala, Halawa.......... Dr. J. Wight Waiohinu................C. Meinecke Kohala, Puehuehu........ Dr. J. Wight Hookena................D. H. Nahinu Hoopuloa................................................... D. S. Keliikuli OVERLAND MAIL ROUTES, HAWAII. From Hilo to Kawaihae, leaves weekly, on Monday, and to Kau Thursday, on arrival of steamer Likelike. From Kau to Kona, leaves weekly, on Monday. From Kawaihae to Kona and Kau, leaves on arrival of steamer Likelike. This Mail Service around Hawaii is intended to be a weekly service of the circuit of the Island.

Page  28 28 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM-HOUSE TABLES, x88x. Customs Receipts. Import Duties Spirits..............$I77,x26 03 Import Duties Goods............... 36,374 51 Import Duties Bonded Goods....... 34,042 66 W harfage.......................... 9,247 56 Hospital Fund (passengers)......... o1,840 00 Blanks........................... o,900 33 Storage........................... 5,753 44 Interest....................... 3,802 07 Fees.............................. 3,285 97 Coasting License................ 2,971 96 Kerosene Storage................ 2,82 66 Passports.......................... 2,009 Co M. H. Fund (seamen).............. 1,366 86 Lights.............................,073 78 Warehouse Storage................ 904 68 Buoys............................. 398 oo Value of Goods PayingDuty, Imported from United States, Pacific Ports......$ 377,697 72 United States, Atlantic Ports..... 29,399 96 Great Britain.................. 726, 631 23 Germafy......................... 05,268 94 France................x.... I8,o8l 71 China and Japan................ 58,753 79 Australia and New Zealand....... 44,63 32 Micronesia....................... 98 25 Islands in the Pacific........ z,569 38 Norway...................... Io05 93 British Columbia................. 28 37 Fines and Forfeitures............... 347 25 Registry........................... 17{ 25 Honolulu..........................$412,805 oi Kahului.......................... 8,764 94 Hilo.....2...................... 1,284 96 Lahaina........................... 243 75 Kawaihae......................... 77 35 Kealakekua........................ 2 00 Koloa.............................. 4 oo Total I88I...2................ $423,x92 o0 Total i88o..................... 402,I8I 63 Increase I88...................$ 2I,0O0 38 Value of Goods and Spirits Bonded from United States, Pacific Ports.........$ 94,526 96 United States, Atlantic Ports........ 23,650 98 Great Britain....................... 145,223 52 Germany........................ I8,444 29 France............................ 6,179 41 China and Japan................... 8,329 60 Australia and New Zealand......... 6,365 46 Micronesia.................... 522 00 Sea by Whalers.....................,084 6o Total Honolulu................ $314,326 82 Total Honolulu...............$,362,618 60 At Kahului.................. 60,021 91 At Hilo.......................... 7,962 22 At Lahaina.................... I,I94 00 Total atall Ports............$1,431,796 73 Value of Goods from the United States Free by "Treaty." United States, Pacific Ports at Honolulu.............................................$,650,716 95 United States, Atlantic Ports at Honolulu........................................... 277,563 20 United States, Pacific Ports at Kahului.............................................. 621,4 3 84 United States, Pacific Ports at Hilo....................................... 88,645 95 United States, Pacific Ports at Kawaihae............................................ 8,237 I8 ~_________________,$2,646,577 I2 Value -of Goods Imported Free. Animals and Birds.................$ 5,097 I6 Specie......................$236,626 55 Books, printed in Hawaiian......... 1,545 75 Sundries, by permission......... 4,722 39 Bags and Containers, returned.......385 oo Tanning Material................. 50 oo Diplomatic Representatives......... 2,985 9 Postage Stamps.................... 408 30 H is M ajesty....................... 15,368 13 Coal.............................. 52,II5 6i Hawaiian Government.............. 40,508 97 Hawaiian Whalers................ 3,048 xI Total Honolulu................$x5o,207 95 Personal and Household Effects..... x5,055 95 Coal at Kuhului.................. 5,070 oo Iron, plate and pig................. 3,967 48 1 Plants and Seeds................... 276 93 $155,277 97 Returned Cargo.................... 3,673 oo Resume, Import~g Hawaiian Islands. Value of Goods Free by Treaty................................................... $2,646,577 i2 Value of Goods Paying Duty............................,43I,796 73 Value of Goods and Spirits Bonded...............................*...*.....*. 314,326 82 Value of Goods and Spirits Free.............................2.................... 155,277 97 Total............................................~.........4..$,547,978 64

Page  29 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, x88x. Domestic Exports. 29 Sugar, lbs............... 92,393,044 Molasses, galls............. 261,347 Paddy, lbs................ 102,370 Rice, lbs................. 7,682,700 Salt, tons................. 302 Poi, bbls.................. 29 Fungus, bs................ 4,282 Bananas, bnchs............. 20,776 T'rnl.1 7aii tir.r~ Goat Skins, pcs............ Hides, pcs................. Tallow, lbs................ Pulu, bs.................. W ool, lbs.................. Betel Leoves, bxs........... Sheep Skins, pcs........... Coffee, lbs.................... A. T nrvA,5> 21,368 21,972 ii8,031 53,415 528,480 230 6,820 I8,912 VW, scvL *u ~,JVla..... ~ -~ ~ ~ ~ ~. o q, wt~- - - *,vv/ r.v)o Total Value Domestic Produce Exported. Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Honolulu.............. $5,900,820 02 Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Kahului.................. 651,36 28 Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Hilo..................... 110,070 08 Furnished as Supplies to Merchantman (as per estimate).......... 85,50 oo Furnished as Supplies to National Vessels (as per estimate).......... 33,000 oo Total...........................,............ $6,780o76 38 Total of all Exports, Hawaiian Islands. Value of Domestic Goods Exported.............................. $6,671,026 38 Value of Domestic Goods Furnished as supplies(estimated)...... 118,050 oo Value of Foreign Goods Exported................................ 66,360 18 Total.................,........................... $6,855,436 56 PASSENGER STATISTICS. Arrivals and Departures, Port of Honolulu, z88x. FROM AND TO San Francisco........................ Oregon and Washington Territory....... v......................... FROM TO 3 C) 3 C) - C: 1072 I13 8 1 9 II 6 32 I I CHINESE. FROM TO cl g c 0 D 183 4 234.. I1 victoria, B. s.......................... I u..... China and Japan..................... 3636 55 742 3 Australia and New Zealand............. 65 6 42 8.... 3 Islands in the Pacific................... 258 21 86 I. European Ports........................ 282 96 St. Michaels...................... 576 266.. Callao, Peru.......................... 45 _ _ Totals.........................2267 508 1284 129 3865 59 98I 3 Total arrivals for the year.......................... 6699 Total departures for the year........................2397 Excess of arrivals.......................... 4302 Passengers in Transitu. From Australia and New Zealand bound to San Francisco...................I442 From San Francisco bound to Australia and New Zealand.................... 528 From San Francisco bound to China...................................... 452 From Callao, Peru, bound to China...................................... 124 From Oregon bound to China.........,............... 335

Page  30 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES. 188x. Imports Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. Value Goods Value GoodsVe Free Total. Paying Duty. by Treaty. in Bond. -1 ~_. Ale, Porter, Cider..................... $ 31,680 94 $............$ 30,503 75 $ 62,193 66 Animals and Birds.................. 535 00 80,538 42.......... 8I,073 42 Building Materials.................... 44, 64 99 63,276 62............ 07,441 6t Clothing, Hats, Boots.................. 46,966 29 4,418 57 573 3 257,16 7 Crockery, Glassware, Lamps and Lamp Fixtures............................. 36,837 40 442 OI 269 42 37,548 83 Drugs, Surgical Instruments and Dental Materials............................ 34,836 76..............,164 00 36,000 76 Cottons................... 8I,442 I5 125,556 66 5,406 49 212,405 30 Linens.................... 15,045 I7......... 957 80 I6,002 97 Gry Goods Silks..................... 20,806 04........... 24 7 20,830 75 Woolens.................. 59,224 96 9,260 23 5,815 34 74,300 53 Mixtures.................. 32,022 79 2,965 o0 3,083 1o 38,070 90 Fancy Goods, Millinery, etc............ 70,253 31 2,964 32 1,885 21 75,102 84 Fish (dry and salt)..................... 12,0I4 87 5I,I98 28 363 80 63,576 95 Flour..................................,63 29 95,485 47............ 96,548 76 Flour.2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~,~~1~~~~~~~~~~~~ I,o63 29 95,485 47.. 96,548 76 Fruits (fresh).......................... 206 48 4,662 20............ 4,868 68 Furniture............................. 43,797 7 32,136 64 1,004 47 76,38 8 Grain and Feed........................ 2,200 27 17,490 32............ 19,690 59 Groceries and Provisions................ 77,668 55 296,323 59 3.647 50 377,639 64 Guns and Gun Materials................ 0o,776 I2 2,554 66 238 89 i3,569 67 Gun Powder........................ 8,309 57......... 343 94 8653 5 Hardware, Agricultural Implements and Tools........................... 70,894 03 94,449 9 2,87 33 267,53 27 Iron, Steel, etc......................... 89,723 65 20,291 8..........0,015 50 Jewelry, Plate, Clocks.................. 4I,452 76..... 5,03 84 46,556 6o Leather................................ 3,7I6 54 37,791 54......... 40,508 o8 Lumber................................ 06 oo 224,58I 48 24 92 224,712 4 Lumbrio6 00 224,582 48..24 92 224,712 40 Machinery..................... 48,364 8 131,267 47 62 00 79,724 27 Matches.......88 i6 I3,589 76..... 3,677 92 Musical Instruments.............. 14,725 19.............. 458 05 15,183 24 Naval Stores. x1,657 o6 40,862 44 709 70 53,229 20 Oils (cocoanut2 kerosene, whale, etc.).... 7,75 8 54,265 24 5,72730 57,6772 Paints and Paint Oils, and Turpentine. 47,810 25 734 60...49,544 85 Perfumery and Toilet Articles........... 14,2x6 1o I,436 6o 670 29 6,322 99 Saddlery, Carriages and Materials....... 27,646 53 36,874 83 832 35 65,353 71 Shooks and Containers.................. 8,803 39 8,716 ox 32,453 o6 122,972 46 Spirits........................... 3345 34 I42,015 3 1 145,360 47 Stationery and Books................... I3,433 85 39,640 6o 620 34 53,694 79 Tea...................... 33...... 67S 65 20,764 98 Tin and Tinware, and Materials......... 0,468 6.............. 3 37 0,472 02 Tobacco, Cigars, etc.................... 4,971 79 69,213 88 38,112 48 112,298 15 Wines (light)........................ 4,300.......,62 34 I5,92I 55 Sundry Merchandise not included in above 85,008 50 38,928 68 3,253 00 127,180 I8 Sundry Unspecified Merchandise........ 1,470 65...........,470 65 Charges on Invoices.................... 45,587 32,66465 9,929 88,8o 86 25 4 cent added on Unspecified nvoices.,833 55..........................,833 55 $1,378,780 27 $1,935,572 54 $314,898 98 $3,629,251 79 Discounts.................................................. $23 97 6 Damaged and short.................... 929 o6 24,026 22 3,605,225 57 Value of Goods free by Civil Code, Honolulu and Kahului................. 55,277 97 IMPORTS AT OTHER PORTS, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. Value Paying Value Free by Duty. Treaty. 'Kahului............................. $6,43 84 $ 6o,02 9 68,435 75 Hilo............................ 7,962 22 88,645 95 96,609 17 Lahaina................................,94 00............ 1,94 00 Kawaihae........................................ 8,237 i8 8,237 I8 $4.547,9~ 64

Page  31 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC N AND ANNUAL. 31 LIST OF FREE IMPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES BY TREATY, When Properly Certified to before the Hawaiian Consul. Agricultural Implements, Animals. Bacon, Beef, Books, Boots and Shoes, Bullion, Bran, Bricks, Bread and Breadstuffs of all kinds, Butter. Cement, Cheese, Coal, Cordage, Copper and Composition Sheathing, Cotton and Manufactures of Cotton, bleached and unbleached, and whether or not colored, stained, painted or printed. Doors, Sashes and Blinds. Eggs, Engines and parts thereof. Fish and Oysters, and all other creatures living in the water, and the products thereof; Fruits, Nuts and Vegetables, green, dried or undried, preserved or unpreserved; Flour, Furs. Grain. Ham, Hardware, Harness, Hay; Hides, dressed or undressed; Hoop Iron. Ice; Iron and Steel, and manufactures thereof: Nails, Spikes and Bolts, Rivets, Brads or Sprigs, Tacks. Lard; Leather, and all manufactures thereof; Lumber and Timber of all kinds, round, hewed, sawed, and manufactured in whole or in part; Lime. Machinery of all kinds, Meal and Bran, Meats, fresh, smoked or preserved. Nails, Naval Stores, including Tar, Pitch, Resin, Turpentine, raw and rectified. Oats. Paper, and all manufactures of Paper or of Paper and Wood, Petroleum, and all Oils for illuminating or lubricating purposes; Plants, Shrubs, Trees and Seeds, Pork. Rice. Salt, Shooks, Skins and Pelts, dressed or undressed; Staves and Headings, Starch, Stationery, Soap, Sugar, refined or unrefined. Tallow, Textile Manufactures made of a combination of wool, cotton, silk or linen, or of any two or more of them, other than when readymade clothing; Tobacco, whether in leaf or manufactured. Wagons and Carts for the purposes of agriculture or of drayage, Wood and manufactures of Wood, or' Wood and Metal, except Furniture either upholstered or carved, and Carriages; Wool and manufactures of Wool, other than ready-made clothing. E[For full particulars of Reciprocity Treaty, see Annual for I877. ARTICLES ADMITTED INTO THE UNITED STATES FREE OF DUTY, From the Hawaiian Islands, when Properly Certified to before the U. S. Consul. Arrow-root; Bananas; Castor Oil; Hides and Skins, undressed; Pulu; Rice; Seeds; Plants, Shrubs or Trees; Muscovado, Brown, and all other unrefined sugar, commonly known as "Sandwich Island Sugar;" Syrups of Sugar Cane, Melado and Molasses; Tallow, Vegetables, dried aud undried, preserved and unpreserved.

Page  32 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF IMPORT VALUES FROM VARIOUS COUNTRIES SINCE 1873. ~COUTRIS. Class COUNvTRrIES I 1mrt 1873 x2874. 1875. 1876. 1877, 1878. x879. z88o. X88z. of Imports. (Dutiable. $571,611 95 $688,630 77 $ 837,215 42 $ 688,733 xI $ 583,119 02 $ 322,240 17 $ 395,690 o8 $ 506,812 90 $ 476,275 8z United States..... Bonded. 114,902 14 82,821 00 110xxo,o45 02 82,673 91 81,402 93 xI1,498 79 78,206 68 I38,453 23 118,177 94 Free....343,830 95 1,100,642 52 1,619,987 6i 1,820,355 33 2,026,557 90 2,646,577 x2 Great Britain..... Dutiable. 51,765 23 82,776 88 132,538 4I 60,550 47 249,880 87 514,404 34 798,261 17 577,061 I4 726,631 23 1 Bonded. 7,747 70 10,404 30 48,384 09 22,800 13 41,825 28 34,712 30 43,683.98 45,005 73 245,223 52 Germany.....j Dutiable. 179,012 51 233,687 90 152,136 i6 199,184 96 193,324 38 99,442 20 I85,867 69 44-777 I7 105,268 94 [ Bonded. 16,123 86 17,381 8i 27,892 50 I5,389 27 8,824 96 20,304 25 4,876 o6 3,91I 82 28,444 29 Tahiti............J Dutiable. 1,702 39 1.093 82 2,389 88 401 6i 157 50 I,o053 47 869 56........................... Bonded. 35 00 397 65 * 618 73 2,779 24 222 00............. I Bonded. 35 oo 397 65 - 6I8 73 1)779 I4 II2 co....................................................... British Columbia.. Dutiable. 8,295 20 7,066 23.............. 24,926 34 4,872 10 29,83880 So 11,102 20.............. 28 37 (Bonded. 504 2I 2,770 38.............. 86i 64......................................... Australiaand N. Z. Dutiable. 34,826 84 27,623 i6 21,353 19 37,930 56 54,046 66 42,081 27 65,922 73 51,725 46 44,163 32 Bonded. 10,453 8o 17,020 47 17,299 07 5,589 6i 22,591 75 10,595 32,11,428 31 9,868 04 6,365 46 China............. Dutiable. 25,082 73 20,341 8o 35,925 65 48,347 53 30,772 98 57,946 80o 86,443 43 86,690 46 58,753 79 Bonded. 200 00 5,386 24 659 00oo 2,969 25 1,346 55 25,846 31 39,459 97 34,528 80 18,329 6o France * J:' (Dutiable..................................................... 19,078 8I 26,256 94 15,112 8i 18,o8i 71. 1 Bond................................7.............. 7,597 II r,7I2 34 6,179 41 All other countries (Dutiable.,875 68 1,775 27 2,505 83 503 87 897 95 1,566 85 3,502 30 18,341 66 2,593 56 ( Bonded. 200,049 80 78,817 77 96,971 52 31,549 77 54,32x 83 23,102 59 2,897 87 1,093 69 i,6o6 6o INTERNAL TAXES FOR BIENNIAL PERIODS, x862 —1882. Real Est. Per. Prop. Polls. Horses. Mu ules. Dogs. Carriages. Nat. Seamen. Totals. I862 ---$17,063.......$2,990.......$32,995.......$52,742.......$2,69.......$ii,oi8.......$,294....$2,441...... $33,236 1864 --- 18,877....... 12,669....... 32,561....... 52,326....... 3,080....... 10,038...... 1,384...... 1,872...... 131,729 i866 --- 20,173....... 16,336....... 30,870...... 60,290....... 4,265....... 12,oi6....... 1,748...... 4,657..8.. 150,662 868 --- 22,360....... 20,i97....... 30,086....... 61,54....... 4,823....... 2,954....... 2,125...... 10,212...... 165,400 1870 --- 23,532....... 22,8888....... 28,850....... 60,027....... 5,109....... 15,430....... 2,400...... 8,268...... 66,506 1872 --- 52,355....... 45,329...... 27,841....... 53,oo6....... 6,40....... 22,271....... 3,125...... 5,894..... 215,96I 1874 --- 53,892....... 42,707....... 27,620....... 50,088....... 6,073....... 20,236....... 3,490...... 3,296...... 207,400 1876 --- 58,645....... 47,988....... 27,372..... 49,194....... 6,oix2....... 18,676....... 3,987...... 3,056...... 213,935 1878 --- 94,584....... 94,378....... 28,722....... 47,564....... 3,053...... 16,465....... 4,865...... 2,114...... 291,745 i880 --- 143,716....... 55,944....... 35,484....... 43,399 ~............ 15,172....... 5,780...... 815...... 400,310 1882 ---187,929.......208,096....... 45,998....... 42,819.............. 13,965....... 7,25...... 642...... 506,574 (a z z Zs >-6 0. 01 2: VU Z I r:

Page  33 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN WOODS AND FOREST TREES. PREPARED FOR THE ALMANAC AND ANNUAL, BY J. M. LYDGATE., The Hawaiian Islands, though situated barely south of the dividing line between the temperate and tropic zones, support a forest flora, which in all its affinities is thoroughly tropical. Our flora is largely a peculiar one, but it is entirely wanting in all that line of trees especially, which, the world over, belong to the whole range of the Temperate zone. The pine, the oak, the ash are characteristic of more northern climes, but are wholly wanting here, while on the other hand we have the kukui, the koa, the kou, the ohia, etc., which are found, in most cases identically the same, throughout the similarly formed Islands of the tropical Pacific. And this very tact is doubtless partly the reason, at least, that our native woods have been so little used and valued. Conservatism is a great power. Artisans coming from foreign countries looked for the pine and other woods with which they were familiar, and not finding them, nor anything like them, silently condemned the woods they did find,.and imported from abroad. The most common and universal forest trees, as well as one of the hardest and most durable woods, is the ohia (metrosideros of several species), which is found on all the Islands, extending from the seashore up to an elevation of about 8,000 feet, which is about as high as anything will grow. On the smaller and more broken Islands, especially on the open ridges, where it is exposed to the sweeping winds, it hardly attains to the dignity of a tree, but on the upland slopes of Hawaii it is king of the forest, where others are by no means insignificant. Here its growth is tall and symmetrical, rising a slender and practically unbroken shaft-like the monsters of the Pacific Coast-to a very considerable height, and loftily overtopping all other trees. The wood varies in color from light red to a purplish blue, and in the older specimens becomes hard, tough and close grained. Its durability is very great, but just how long it will last is difficult to tell, as the Islands have a history in architectural matters of little over fifty years. But we have specimens probably much older than this. It has never been manufactured into lumber to any great extent, owing to the quality it has of warping and twisting, even after it is thoroughly seasoned. Its peculiar rich color and susceptibility of a high finish, ought to make it a valuable furniture wood, for which purpose it would probably be advisable to use it in the form of veneer rather than in the solid. Its principal use at present is for fuel. The ohia at (Eugenia) can hardly be called a forest tree, being found mostly at low elevations in gulches, valleys and sheltered places. It is a much smaller tree than the ordinary ohia, with light-reddish, closegrained, but not very hard wood. The tree is supposed to have been introduced by the natives when they first came to the Islands, as it is found throughout the Pacific. Probably the most valuable as well as one of the most abundant forest trees is the koa (acacia koa), which is found to a greater or less

Page  34 34 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. extent throughout the Islands, but reaches perfection on the mountain slopes of Hawaii and East Maui. Its manner of growth is much like the elm of America, a single shaft sometimes fifty or sixty feet high, topped by a wide-spreading crown of that peculiar foliage-which indeed does not consist of leaves at all, but leaf stalks-which renders it a unique and beautiful tree. To the old native artisan, as well as his European successor, this has been perhaps the most valuable of Hawiian trees, since out of it were built the canoes from the royal fleet down to the smallest fishing craft. Doubtless one of the principal reasons why koa was chosen was that it was comparatively easy to work, especially before it was seasoned. It is also much less liable to split and warp than ohia, the one other common tree that attained a large size. In early times koa sawing was a regular and flourishing business, largely because of the difficulty of obtaining any other kind of lumber, and many of the older houses and churches-with what seems to us now almost reckless extravagance-were built of the finest furniture koa. It was not extravagance, however, but economy that prompted its use for such ordinary purposes. The upland region of Hamakua, Hawaii, was the center of the lumbering, which was entirely hand sawing, and from there the lumber was mostly hauled to Wainea and thence to Kawaihae, giving to those places a degree of life and activity which they seem never likely to see again. The natives distinguished a second species which they call koaea, which is found only at a considerable elevation in dry and stony districts. Owing to the influence of draught and exposure this is a scrawny, gnarled tree of small size, all knots and twists and kinks, but none the less valuable to the old natives, for they were accustomed, before the advent of civilization, to tie a knot in a young shoot, which grew and hardened in that form until it became fit for the manufacture of large and strong fishhooks. The wood is hard and durable, as might be expected from the place and manner of its growth. Under the same general head comes the mamnane (sophora chrysophylla), which is found in scattering clumps high up on the slopes of the otherwise unforested mountains, reaching up to an elevation of about 9,000 feet. It is a tree of slow growth, and never attains to any great size, nor forms much of a factor of the tropical forest. The wood is of a light saffron color, close grained, very hard and heavy. It has been used to a considerable extent in the manufacture of carts and wagons, for spokes, axles, frames, etc., for which it is well adapted by reason of its strength and durability. It makes the best fence-posts that have yet been found, twenty years exposure to a rainy climate leaving little or no sign of decay on posts barely larger than ones arm. It takes a brilliant polish and might be used to advantage in the manufactnre of furniture, but the great drawback to its usefulness in this and all other directions is the comparative scarcity and the difficulty of transporting it to market. Another prominent tree of the upland region-rather lower than the mamane, however-is the naeo or aaka, also known by the foreign name

Page  35 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 35 of bastard sandalwood. It, too, is a small tree of somewhat irregular growth, wood close grained, hard and durable in the mature tree, and of nearly the same color as the mamane. It gets its English name from the very decided smell it has, not unlike sandalwood, but less delicate and much more evanescent. It has been exported to some extent, but is hardly worthy of a better use than as fuel in an open fire, when it spreads a pleasing incense on the air. The true sandalwood iliahi. of the natives-sanlalum of several species-seems to be a thing of the past, except in so far as there still remain a few specimen trees and a lot of second-growth scrub, most of which is not large enough to give even a trace of the characteristic perfume. The best specimens I have met with were in the neighborhood of Ewa, Oahu. The mountains of Hawaii, where it was formerly obtained in large quantities, seem to be almost entirely denuded of it, so that even the second growth is not at all abundant. Bushes of it may be found, however, in the vicinity of Kilauea and throughout Puna. Another valuable tree that is about extinct, as far as the Islands go, at least, is the kou (cordia), which indeed is hardly to be seen at all. There are a few small, carefully cherished trees remaining, but it can never have been very plentiful nor in any sense a common forest tree. A tree that has much the character of an interloper, and is making its way rapidly in the Islands, is the neneleau, sumach (rhus semialatum), which doubtless most people will consiner as a foreign introduction-one of the evils of civilization. Such, however, does not seem to be the case. What has given it the impetus which bids fair to render it the most ubiquitous and troublesome of our trees, it is hard to say. Whatever the reason may be, however, its turn seems to have come, and it is rapidly spreading in the form of a dense jungle over the finest unoccupied sugar land of Hawaii. Of course it depreciates the value of the land, as it costs $50 or $60 an acre to clear it off, and the wood is of little value. In other localities, however, it will doubtless prove a boon in taking the place of the older forest, which has been killed out. It has for its near neighbors the poison ivy and poison oak, but fortunatety it does not partake of any of their noxious qualities. The wood is a peculiar, open-grained one, prettily marked by the dark age-rings, and -of somewhat the appearance of ash. Ordinarily it does not grow to any size-indeed, in exposed places it is not a decent sized bush-but in sheltered nooks and on rich soil it attains a foot or more in diameter, and at that size is tough, strong and durable, and has been much used for yokes and in the manufacture of carts. Since the cessation of the eruption of i880-8I from Mauna Loa, a column of steam has been continually rising from the crater then formed. Early in August of the present year a new outbreak seemed to threaten, and Captain C. E. Dutton, U. S. A., reported a lava flow three-fourths of a mile in length on the 20th of that month, which appeared to be only a few days old.

Page  36 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. THE MYTH OF HIKU AND KAWELU. PREPARED FOR THE HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL, BY J. S. EMERSON. It was a bracing cold night in February on the summit of Hualalai. After eating our supper of hard-tack and fresh goat steak, roasted on the live coals, we tucked ourselves away as warmly as possible in our ample woolen blankets, and as the time for sleep had not yet come, I turned to my native guide and asked him to tell me of those who had lived in the olden time on that mountain. All other sounds in the tent were hushed as he told at length the following story, which he confessed to be somewhat fragmentary in some of its details. "Not far from where we are now encamped, in the cave of Honuaula on the south side of this ridge, lived Hina and her son, the kupua, or demigod, Hiku. All his life long as a child and a youth, Hiku had lived alone with his mother on this mountain summit, and had neyer once beeri.permitted to descend to the plains below to see the abodes of men and to learn of their ways. From time to time his quick ear had caught the sound of the distant hula drum and the voices of the gay merry-makers. Often had he wished to see the fair forms of those who danced and sang in those far off cocoanut groves. But his mother, more experienced in the ways of the world, had never given her consent. Now at length he felt that he was a man, and as the sounds of mirth arose on his ears, again he asked his mother to let him go and see for himself and mingle with the people on the shore. His mother seeing that his mind was made up to go, reluctantly gave her consent and warned him not to stay too long, but to return in good time. So taking in his hand his faithful arrow, Pua NVe, which he always carried, he started off. "This arrow was a sort of talisman, possessed of marvelous powers, among which were the ability to answer to his call and by its flight to direct his journey. "Thus he descended over the rough aa and through the groves of koa that cover the southwestern flank of the mountain, until nearing its base, he stood on a hill, and consulting his arrow, he shot it far into the air, watching its bird-like flight until it struck on a distant hill above Kailua. To this hill he rapidly directed his steps, and picking up his arrow, in due time he again shot it into the air. The second flight landed the arrow near the coast of Holualoa, some six or eight miles south of Kailua. It struck on a barren waste of pahoehoe, or lava rock, beside the water hole of Waikalai, known also as the 'Wai a Hiku,' where to this day all the people of that vicinity go to get their water for man and beast. "Here he quenched his thirst, and nearing the village of Holualoa, again shot the arrow, which, instinct with life, entered the courtyard of the alii, or chief, of Kona, and from among the women who were there, singled out the fair princess Kawelu, and landed at her feet. Seeing the noble bearing of Hiku as he approached to claim his arrow, she

Page  37 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. stealthily hid it and challenged him to find it. Then Hiku called to the arrow, 'Pta Ne, Pua Ne,' and the arrow replied 'Ne,' thus revealing its hiding-place. "This exploit with the arrow and the remarkable grace and personal beauty of the young man, quite won the heart of the princess, and she was soon possessed by a strong passion for him, and determined to make him her husband. With her wiley arts she detained him for several days in her home, and when at last he was about to start for the mountain, she shut him up in the house and attempted thus to detain him by force. But the words of his mother, warning him not to remain too long, came to his mind, and he determined to break away from his prison. So he climbed up to the roof, and removing a portion of the thatch, made his escape. "When his flight was discovered by Kawelu, the infatuated girl was distracted with grief. Refusing to be comforted, she tasted no food, and ere many days had passed was quite dead. Messengers were dispatched who brought back the unhappy Hiku, author of all this sorrow. Bitterly he wept over the corpse of his beloved, but it was now too late; the spirit had departed to the nether world, ruled over my Milu. And now stung by the reproaches of her friends and kindred for deserting her, and urged on by his real love for the fair one, he resolved to attempt the perilous descent into the nether world and, if possible, bring her spirit back. "With the assistance of her friends, he collected from the mountain slope a great quantity of the kowali, or convolvulus vine. He also prepared a hollow cocoanut shell, splitting it into two closely fitting parts. Then anointing himself with a mixture of rancid cocoanut and kukui oil, which gave him a very strong, corpse like odor, he started with his companions in the well-loaded canoes for a point in the sea where the sky comes down to meet the water. "Arrived at the spot he directed his comrades to lower him down into the abyss called by the Hawaiians the Lua o Milu. Taking with him his cocoanut shell and seating himself astride of the cross stick of the swing, or kowali, he was quickly lowered down by the long rope of kowali vines held by his friends in the canoes above. "Soon he entered the great cavern where the shades of the departed were gathered together. As he came among them, their curiosity was aroused to learn who he was. And he heard many remarks, such as "Whew! what an odor this corpse emits!" " He must have been long dead." He had rather overdone the matter of the rancid oil. Even old Milu himself, as he sat on a bank watching the crowd, was completely deceived by the strategem, for otherwise he never would have permitted this bold descent of a living man into his gloomy abodes." The Hawaiian swing, it should here be remarked, unlike ours, has but one rope supporting the cross stick on which the person is seated. "Hiku and his swing attracted considerable attention from the lookers on. One shade in particular watched him most intently. It was his sweetheart Kawelu. A mutual recognition took place, and with

Page  38 38 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. the permission of Milu, she darted up to him and swang with him on the kowali. But even she had to avert her face on account of his corpse like odor. As they were enjoying together this favorite Hawaiian pastime of lele kowali, by a preconcerted signal the friends above were informed of the success of his ruse and were now rapidly drawing them up. At first she was too much absorbed in the sport to notice this. When at length her attention was aroused by seeing the great distance of those beneath her, like a butterfly, she was about to flit away, when the crafty Hiku who was ever on the alert, clapped the cocoanut shells together, imprisoning her within them, and was then quickly drawn up to the canoes above. "With their precious burden they returned to the shores of Holualoa, where Hiku landed and at once repaired to the house where still lay the body of his beloved. Kneeling by its side he made a hole in the great toe of the left foot, into which with great difficulty he forced the reluctant spirit, and in spite of its desperate struggles he tied up the wound so that it could not escape from the cold clammy flesh in which it was now imprisoned. Then he began to lomilomi, or rub and chafe the foot, working the spirit further and further up the limb. "Gradually as the heart was reached, the blood began once more to flow through the body, the chest began gently to heave with the breath of life, and soon the spirit gazed out through the eyes. Kawelu was now restored to consciousness, and seeing her beloved Hiku tenderly bending over her, she opened her lips and said 'How could you be so cruel as to leave me?' "All remembrance of the Lua o Milu and of her meeting him there had disappeared, and she took up the thread of consciousness just where she had left it a few days before at death. Great joy filled the hearts of the people of Holualoa as they welcomed back to their midst the fair Kawelu and the hero, Hiku, from whom she was no more to be separated." LOCALITY OF THE LUA O MILU. In the myth of Hiku and Kawelu, the entrance to the Lua o Milu is placed out to sea opposite Holualoa and a few miles south of Kailua. But the more usual account of the natives is, that it was situated at the mouth of the great valley of Waipio, in a place called " Keoni," where the sands have long since covered up and concealed from human view this passage from the upper to the nether world. Every year, so we are told, the procession of ghosts called by the natives Oio, marches in solemn state down the sacred Mahiki road, and at this point enters the Lua o Milu. A man, now living in Waimea, of the best reputation for veracity, states, that about twenty or thirty years ago, he actually saw this ghostly ctmpany. He was walking up this road in the evening, when he saw at a distance the Oio appear, and knowing that should they encounter him, his death would be inevitable, he discreetly hid himself behind a tree, and trembling with fear, gazed in silence at the dread spectable. There was Kamehameha, the con

Page  39 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 39 queror, with all his chiefs and warriors in military array, thousands of heroes who had won renown in the olden time. Though all were silent as the grave, they kept perfect step as they marched along, and passing through the woods down to Waipio, disappeared from his view. In connection with the above, Prof. W. D. Alexander very kindly contributes the following:" The valley of Waipio is a place frequently celebrated in the songs and traditions of Hawaii, as having been the abode of Akea and Miru, the first kings of the island." * * * * * * "Some said that the souls of the departed went to the Po, place of night, and were annihilated or eaten by the gods there. Others said that some went to the regions of Akea and Miru. Akea, (Wakea,) they said was the first King of Hawaii. At the expiration of his reign, which terminated with his life at Waipio, where we then were, he descended to a region far below, called Kapapahanaumoku (the island bearing rock or stratum), -and founded a kingdom there. Miru, who was his successor, and reigned in Hamakua, descended, when he died, to Akea, and shared the government of the place with him. Their land is a place of darkness; their food lizards and butterflies. There are several streams of water, of which they drink, and some said that there were large kahiris and wide-spreading kou trees beneath which they reclined."-Ellis' Polynesian Researches, pp. 365-7. "They had some very indistinct notion of a future state of happiness and of misery. They said that after death, the ghost went first to the region of Wakea, the name of their first reputed progenitor, and if it had observed the religious rites and ceremonies, was entertained and allowed to remain there. That was a place of houses, comforts and pleasures. If the soul had failed to be religious, it found no one there to entertain it, and was forced to take a desperate leap into a place of misery below called Milu. "There were several precipices from the verge of which the unhappy ghosts were supposed to take the leap into the region of woe; three in particular, one at the northern extremity of Hawaii, one at the western termination of Maui, and the third at the southern point of Oahu."Dibble's History, p. 99. Near the N. W. point of Oahu is a rock called "Leina Kauhane," where the souls of the dead descended into Hades. In New Zealand the same term "Reinga" (which means the leaping place), is applied to the North Cape. "The spirits were supposed to travel to the North Cape, or land's end, and there passing along a long narrow ledge of rock, they leaped down upon a flat stone, and thence slinging themselves into the water by some long sea-weed, they entered Po, the Reinga being the passage to it." Taylors New Zealand, p. 103. The Marquesans have a similar belief in regard to the northern point of the Island of Hiau, the northernmost island of their group, and I am told that they apply the same term "Reinga" to their Avernus. W. D. A.

Page  40 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. MARINE CASUALTIES FOR THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. CONTINUED FROM THE ANNUAL FOR I882. NOTE.-In this first attempt to compile a list of this nature covering so long a period, we would not make pretensions to perfection for the years given, but trust that any omissions that may be observed will be duly reported, so that in time the list may be complete and reliable. Through the contributions of parties interested, we are favored with a few omissions published in last year's Annual. I838-Ship Oscar went ashore abreast of Honolulu during a heavy gale; was afterwards gotten off, repaired, and sailed for China. I83 — Ship Gloucester burned at the wharf in Honolulu harbor. 1852-Schooner lost off Hanalei,Kauai. Ed. Johnson lost at the time. i860 (or prior)-American whaling ship Maria Theresa touched on the reef at Hilo and had to come to Honolulu for repairs. J86i, June 21-Hawaiian schooner Moi Wahine grounded on entering this port, but was gotten off without much damage. Schooner Fhbberty Gibbet, lost on the Kona coast of Hawaii; is said to have run her bow into a cave while all hands were asleep. 1862, Jan. 4-Hawaiian schooner Hannah went ashore at Honuaula, Maui, in a heavy souther. Feb. 14-Hawaiian schooner Kalihiwai went ashore at Kalihiwai, Kauai, resulting in a total wreck. March 12-Hawaiian schooner Hokulele foundered off Waianae, Oahu. Crew picked up the next day by the Moi Wahine. May 27-Hawaiian schooner Keoni Ana lost at Mahinauli, Kauai, sinking in deep water. 1863, March 20-American whaling bark Floreice, lying off and on, was discovered on fire, but through strenuous efforts after being brought into port, was saved. Nov.-Hawaiian schooner Hannah went ashore at Nawiliwili, Kauai, during a gale, but was gotten off by cutting away the masts. Dec. 7-Hawaiian schooner Emma Rooke, entering the port, grounded on the east side of the channel. She was finally saved, with much damage. Dec. 26-American whale ship Jeria Swift was fired by a colored man, but extinguished without much damage. -Hawaiian schooner Rob Roy lost near Makee's Landing, Maui. i864, Jan I9-Hawaiian schooner Emma Rooke went ashore on Kohala Point, Hawaii, and, with cargo, became a total loss. Crew, passengers and specie saved. Oct. 28-Schooner Ortolan missed stays in beating out of Hana harbor and went ashore in a squall. Dec. 28-Hawaiian sloop Emma, for Waialua, capsized off Barber's Point, Oahu; one life lost. 1865- Hawaiian schooner Hannah missed stays and went ashore again at Moloaa, Kauai. Feb.-Hawaiian steamer Kilauea grounded off Kalepolepo, causing her the loss of her false keel.

Page  41 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 4I Feb.-Hawaiian schooner Emneline sprung her foremast off Kau, Hawaii, in a squall, but reached port in safety. i866, Jan.-Schooner Annie Laurie went ashore at Koloa, Kauai, and became a total wreck; most of cargo saved in a damaged condition. Jan. 12-Steamer Kilauea ran ashore at Kawaihae, Hawaii, but was afterwards saved. -Schooner Alberi ran ashore at Waimea, Kauai, but got off with but little injury. June 15-A boat with the Captain, two passengers, and twelve of the crew of the American ship Hornet, from New York en route to San Francisco, burned at sea May 3d, landed at Laupahoehoe, Hawaii, all but famished. -Schooner Moi Wahine, en route for this port from Wake's Island, this year, was never afterward heard of. June 23-Hawaiian schooner Onward went ashore at Wahiawa, Kauai, while getting under way, and became a total wreck. Oct. 26-Sloop Union went ashore at Lahaina and sunk; cargo with vessel a total loss. -American whaling ship Josephine ran on the reef at Kawaihae, and came to Honolulu for repairs. 1867, April 14-American whaling bark Daniel Wood was lost on French Frigate shoals, part of the crew arriving at this port in a whale boat. April 25-Schooner Bruce went ashore at Kipahulu, Maui, becoming a total loss. Sept. 3-Schooner Warwick ran ashore on the southwest point of Kauai; little of value saved. Sept. 22-Hawaiian schooner Kohala took fire at Kohala Landing, Hawaii, and was wholly destroyed, with her full cargo of lumber and assorted merchandise. Nov. 14-Hawaiian schooner Helen was lost at her anchorage at Maliko, Maui, during a heavy norther. -Hawaiian sloop Kawike was lost at Hana, Maui. 868-Hawaiian sloop Maukiukiu went ashore on Hawaii. -Hawaiian schooner Kealoha condemned and broken up. -Hawaiian schooner Yette lost at Moloaa, Kauai. Oct.-Hawaiian sloop Nakolaelua lost at Niihau. 1869, March-American ship King Phillip was discovered on fire in Honolulu harbor, and saved only after very strenuous efforts; supposed to have been the work of incendiaries. Feb. I7-Hawaiian sloop Pomaikai ran ashore on the Kona coast of Hawaii and became a total wreck. June 24-Hawaiian schooner Maria, Babcock, went ashore at Onomea, and was a total loss. -Hawaiian schooner Onward ran ashore at Wahiawa, Kauai. 1870, Sept. 25-Hawaiian schooner Marilda, Burill master, ran ashore on the eastern end of Kahoolawe and became a total loss. No lives lost.

Page  42 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. I87i, Nov. 2-Hawaiian schooner Mary went ashore in a heavy swell near Moloaa, Kauai, and soon broke up. Nov. 8-Hawaiian sloop Wailele went ashore at Koolau, Oahu, and became a total loss. -Hawaiian schooner Rob Roy ran ashore at Koolau, but sustained no damage beyond the loss of her false keel. -Hawaiian schooner Kate Lee, West master, was wrecked at Onomea, Hawaii, little of the cargo even being saved. I873, Feb. I7-Hawaiian schooner Isabella went ashore in a squall at Moloaa, Kauai, becoming a total loss in fifteen minutes. Jan. 22-Hawaiian schooner Laieikawai went ashore at Kaena Point, Oahu, and became a total loss. I874, Feb.-Hawaiian sloop Katie lost on Molokai. NoTE.-We have the following list of lost vessels, but have not been able yet to obtain definite dates or particulars thereof: Schooner S. S., at Waialua, Oahu. Schooner Henry, formerly the Maui Hikina, went ashore at Pueokahi, Maui. Schooner Mary Ann, lost at Anahola, Kauai. Schooner Paalua capsized off Kapaa, Kauai. Schooner Keola sunk off Kahoolawe. All hands perished except two women. Margarette, lost at Anahola, Kauai. Sloop Ainahou left Waialua, Oahu, and was never heard of afterward. Schooner Keahonui, formerly the Kahalai, lost on Kauai. V ihoa never was heard from. Sloop Luika went ashore at Makena, Maui. Schooner Alexander capsized off Kaupo. Schooner Mary Hilo, lost on Kauai. (Probably the Mary reported Nov. 2, 1871, as going ashore at Moloaa.) REGULATIONS OF CARRIAGES AND RATES OF FARE. Every licensed carriage, dray or vehicle must be numbered, and this number must be placed on a conspicuous part of the carriage, dray or vehicle. Every licensed carriage running at night must exhibit two lights, and the number of such carriage plainly shown on the glass of each lantern. Drivers of licensed vehicles must obey orders of the police. -*- * *- *0t STANDS SET APART FOR LICENSED CARRIAGES. Mauka side of Beretania street, east of Maunakea street. Makai side of Beretania street, east of Nuuanu street. East side of Emma street, mauka of Beretania street. Mauka side of Hotel street, from east corner of Nuuanu street. Mauka side of Hotel street, corner of Union street. Makai side of Hotel street, opposite to the entrance of Hawaiian Hotel.

Page  43 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 43 Makai side of King street, opposite the Chinese Theater, east of road to the Prison. Makai side of King street, east corner of Maunakea street. Makai side of King street, from west corner of Bethel street. Makai side of King street, east from Fort street. Makai side of King street, west from Punchbowl street. Makai side of Merchant street, opposite to Sailors' Home. Makai side of Merchant street, east corner of Fort street. Mauka side of Queen street, opposite to Fish Market. Makai side of Queen street, from east corner of Nuuanu street. Makai side of Queen street, from east corner of Fort street. * * X * * RATES OF FARE. To or from any point between Beretania street and the harbor, and between Alapai street and the river, for each passenger, 1212 cents. To or from any point between second bridge, Nuuanu avenue, and the harbor, and between the "What Cheer House" on the Ewa road and the line of Punahou street, not conflicting with Rule 13, for each person, 25 cents. Outside these limits, not exceeding two miles from the starting point, for each person, 50 cents. Children three years old or under, no charge; over three yearsold and not more than ten years old, half price. WHEN HIRED BY THE HOUR. For one passenger, for each hour........................................ $ oo For two passengers, for one hour....................................... I 50 For three passengers, for one hour....................................... 2 oo For each additional hour 50 cents for each passenger, when more than one. Time to be counted from the time of starting to the time of dismissal. No extra charge shall be made to any passengers for ordinary hand baggage. For any other than ordinary hand baggage, each trunk or box, 25 cents. Every licensed driver shall have a silver or white metal badge, with his number plainly shown on it, as per sample at the Police Station House; said badge to be worn so as to be distinctly seen upon the left breast. Tickets issued by the Minister of the Interior to represent coin, will be held as good to the amount they represent in any and all licensed carriages, and must be accepted when presented as payment for fare. SPECIALLY FOR KAPIOLANI PARK. SPECIALLY FOR THE PALI. One passenger each way.......... $ oo One passenger each way.......... $3 oo Two passengers each way......... I 50 Two passengers each way......... 4 oo Three passengers each way....... 2 oo Three passengers each way....... 5 oo No driver is compelled to take a single fare for the Park or the Pali, except by special bargain. When two or more offer, the regular rate as per the above schedule must be accepted.

Page  44 44 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. If any licensed carriage shall be found standing in any place but on the appointed stand, the driver shall be liable to arrest by any police officer unless said driver shall be under engagement. Any licensed driver who when in charge of a licensed carriage, dray or other vehicle, shall be intoxicated, or who shall use insulting or abusive language, who shall demand more than the authorized fare, who shall neglect upon demand to show a card of rates of fare, or who shall contravene any of the above rules, shall upon complaint to any of the police, be arrested, and, upon conviction, be liable to the penalty set forth in Section 14 of the Act approved the fifth day of August, A. D., I882. These rules shall have full force and effect on and after October 2, I882; and all former rules and regulations for the government of licensed vehicles abolished. THE PEELUA OR ARMY WORM OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. PREPARED FOR THE ALMANAC AND ANNUAL BY THE LATE J. E. CHAMBERLAIN. The present law for the. protection of Kolea (plover) and other useful birds, etc., was enacted April 20, I859. Its preamble reads: "Whereas, great damage is done during the rainy season by the ravages of caterpillars, cutworms and other destructive grubs to the various growing crops, such as wheat, corn and tobacco, and to the pasture," etc. In the Hawaiian version, the translation of the words "caterpillars, cutworms, etc." is: "Na Peelua a me na mea kolo e ai." Hence it appears that a Peelua by Statute is a caterpillar or cutworm, and might mean the "Army Worm," the "Cotton Worm," the "Boll Worm" or the "Cabbage Worm;" all of which have probably been introduced into the Hawaiian Islands and have become so at home, that in the form of larvae or of moths the common observer would not know them apart. Not that they are identical, far from it-but so little is known of the Peelua, or Caterpillar or Cutworm by the mass of natives and foreigners, that if shown different worms taken from the "Army" and outside they would not know one from another. It may be questioned whether the Peelua is the Army Worm. Perhaps the Hawaiian Peelua is not the same as the American Army Worm. Prof. C. V. Riley says thereof: "The travelling habit in large armies is abnormal. Ordinarily they have the essential habits of cutworms and are seldom noticed unless so abundant as to eat the grass entirely down, and their presence may be unsuspected until the place where they abound is bare. For being small they are not recognized, feeding mostly at night and hiding by day. When hunger impels them to seek food, they leave the place where they were born and emigrate to new pastures,"

Page  45 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 45 In the rainy season of 1873-4, any person riding on the Mokuleia plains, District of Waialua, Island of Oahu, could have seen the Hawaiian Peelua as an Army worm, now thick, now thin, extending for miles, the worms working from the sand beach up toward the mountain. Where they had been the land was bare, as if scorched; before all was green. In some places the rich manienie grass was matted eight and ten inches deep. Here the result of the feeding was like the clipping of shears; before them was the greensward-after the army nothing but acres, barren acres criscroped by adult stragglers, some of whom brought up in the sea, which left their carcasses in ripples as the tide went down. The army line was wonderful to the eye, and when examined with a microscope more wonderful in the myriad millions before unseen. Cattle starved to death that year. The plains between Ewa and Waialua, and between Ewa and Honolulu, had their visitation. The Peelua does not work every year in armies, though no year passes in which the Peelua does not inflict great injury, damage and destruction in some district on some island of the group. Prof. J. H. Comstock in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Report I880, gives the scientific name of the Army Worm of America as (Heliophila) (Leucania) (Unipuncta Haworth) Order Lepidoptera; family Noetuidae, and describes the worm as being If inches long, longitudinally striped with black, yellow and green, appearing in immense numbers, and keeping together in a more or less compact body when advancing from one field to another.. The night-flying moth is of a dull brown color with an expanse of wing a little over i X inches. The egg is white and almost spherical. The larvae or worm stage lasts from 15 to 30 days, the skin is cast five times. The body color is pale green. The entire back is occupied by a broad black or dusky band, deepest at the middle and along each margin. On each flank is a series of stripes consisting of a medium black or dusty band on each side of which is a greenish or yellow stripe of equal width, margined on either hand with dingy white that is set off by a mere dark line. They are related to the cutworm and resemble them in habits; prefer to eat at night; will hide in the day if they can; move together and in the same direction when emigrating, which habit has given them the popular name of the Army Worm. The pupa is 3 of an inch in length and dark brown in color. The worm burrows just below the surface of the ground and transforms in a cell there formed. Dr. Fitch gives the natural home of the Arlny Worm as "in the wild grass of wet spots in swamps and on the border of marshes," which is accepted by all succeeding writers. Prof. Riley in the Mass. Reports says of the Army Worm: " Leucania Unipuncta is a light reddish brown or fawn colored moth, with a white discal spot on the primaries, which also have a dusky oblique line running inwardly from their tips. Another lacking the white spot and having a dark border on the hind wings occurs in Australia. Specimens like the American have been collected in Australia and New Zealand. The sexes of Leucania Unizpunca are not easily distinguished."

Page  46 46 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. In the United States: "The late moths hibernate, also the chrysalides. These oviposit as soon as vegetation starts in Spring. The moth hides its eggs if it can, generally laying them in single rows of from 5 to 20 and more, between the sheath and stalk of well grown grass, green, dry or cut. They are glued to the plant by a white, glistening, viscid fluid. The eggs have a uniform development and the ovaries may be emptied in a day. They generally oviposit on warm nights. The moth dies within a day after exhausting its supply of eggs. These are white when first laid, turn yellowish and will hatch on the 8th or ioth day at 75~ Farhenheit. The newly hatched larva is of a dull translucent white with a large brown black head. The two front pairs of prolegs are so attrophied as to produce a looping motion in travelling. When disturbed it drops instantly by means of a web. The larvae requires only three weeks on an average to develop. They moult five times. After the second moult, the looping habit ceases, the worm curls and does not spin in droping. In the fourth stage the color is dull dark green. The chrysalis is assumed in a simple cell in the ground." Rev. Thomas Blackburn, B. A., recently of Honolulu, identifies the Hawaiian Army Worm as Prodenia ingloria, Walker. "The male is much more brightly marked than the female. They are produced from a greenish and striped grub which feeds in vast multitudes at times on grass and other plants and might appropriately be called 'The Army Worm,' though probably that name is applied in other countries to other species." "They are highly injurious to vegetation. They feed openly. The Prodenia ingloria is known in Australia, and probably occurs all over the islands of the Pacific." The observations on which the present article is based, were made on the island of Kauai, in the six months of the wet season following November, I881. If on so short an examination an observer without scientific attainments should make some hasty conclusions, will it be strange? With this apology the corrections of all errors are left to the verifications of some future and better observer. The origin of the Hawaiian Peelua cannot be determined. No person now living can settle the question of the date of its arrival, if it ever came. The oldest native when asked the question: "When did the Peelua come?" will answer: " Oia mau no." It has always been there. As the American Army Worm has been identified in Australia, I see no reason why it was not here in the Hawaiian Islands. The Australian Army Worm is undoubtedly here. It may have come with the manienie grass, as the American Army Worm may have come with the plover. The theory of Dr. Fitch as to the habitation of the Army worm being marshes, lowlands, etc., finds confirmation in these islands, in the fact, that whenever a tract of forest or wild ferns and -coarse grass is burned, a great flight of Peelua moths appears immediately; and an

Page  47 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 47 army of worms shortly follows which entirely eat off the tender grass. Their presence is not suspected nor readily detected by the ordinary observer in the bush. The Peelua moths differ in color and in size. They fade or bleach. When first emerged from the pupa, the fawn color or the dusky hue is greater than afterwards when their work is nearly done. Both males and females may become nearly white, a dusky white. They fly and work at night, but have good eyesight in a noonday sun, to get out of the way after they have been aroused. The female is often attracted by the light and enters and hovers about the candle. Should eggs be laid upon nice books, furniture or white paint, let them alone, as an indellible stain follows when they are broken. In a few days they will hatch, and the worm will depart leaving a cobweb fibre easy to dust away. The life of the Peelua moth is short. But the exact number of days may be not easy to fix; from seven to twenty. In the second unfinished flat of a framed dwelling on Molokai, at one sweeping more than half a bushel of dead moths were gathered. It is hard to explain why they collected and perished there. The Peelua moth lays its eggs en masse, in rows, sometimes two deep, that is, one on top of another, and as many as 300 in a nest. Upwards of 500 of these masses of eggs were counted at one time on the bottom of an eave-trough, the board being four inches by twenty-four feet long. The number of eggs in each would range from Io50 to 300 by comparison and estimate. A favorite oviposit is under fence wire; 13 masses of eggs have been counted under four feet length of wire. Another favorite oviposit is the under edge of a fence board, one 24 -foot fence board would have 45 masses of eggs averaging 150 each. The eggs are also laid on sticks, on leaves, on grass generally, with no attempt at concealment. The eggs are perfectly white, but turn yellowish. When exposed to the elements they are glued together by a dusky covering, which, after the hatching, remains. The Peelua moth does not necessarily exhaust its stock of eggs at a single oviposit. One taken prisoner left 27 eggs in the glass bottle and died. These eggs were not en masse, but were distributed, were perfectly white, and they hatched in five days. Hon. G. N. Wilcox of Grove Farm, Nawiliwili, found a mass of Peelua moth eggs on an envelope received the day previous. He passed the paper over a lighted Argand burner until the paper was scorched without any apparent effect, but the next morning the eggs were discovered to be all hatched. These eggs hatched in 36 hours. The Peelua worm when hatched is very small, has the looping habit and on being disturbed drops, spinning a web. They grow very slowly during the first ten days. Prof. Riley speaks of the Army Worm eating the skin of their first moults. Do not the Peeluas eat one another? How else could a great part of twenty-seven worms disappear from a tightly corked bottle? None were discovered in the act-but where did the missing worms go?

Page  48 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Three differing, yet identical, (?) worms are found feeding together among Peeluas. No. i has the broad black (velvet) back and may be the female. No. 2 is a fancy worm gayly striped with black, yellow, white and green, and may be the male. No. 3 is a greenish worm very ordinary in color, etc. Again, while some of the worms are greenish below, others have a roseate hue on the ventricle. The Peelua worms differ in length when fully grown. Some are i 2 inches long and others are less than an inch. The Peeluas are seldom observed before they are ten or fifteen days old, and then are about X size; such would be full grown in 20 or 30 days from hatching. Being mature, they. seek a place of transformation into a chrysalis, generally a cell shallow in the ground, but not always. The pupa is sometimes found unprotected on the ground in the cane. The Peelua pupa is of dark brown color and is about 3 of an inch long. The length of time occupied in transformation to a moth varies. Out of twenty worms one became a moth in ten days, and the remainder in fifteen days, being instances sufficient for a supposition but not a proof of any law. If heat accelerates the hatching, why may not heat hasten the transformation from a pupa to a moth? Would this heat theory explain the appearance of so many moths right after the trash has been burned in a cane field or immediately after a forest fire? During the hot season of I88I, a careful watch was kept for the Peelua or *Army Worm, but until the last of November, pone appeared; and then sparingly, not in armies. The grass was destroyed in spots, the worms left, the moths came and eggs were deposited, so that by Christmas another brood of Peeluas were at work. The season was cool and wet, and unfavorable to rapid changes in the worms. The next brood or crop did not make itself noticeable until February-and the last days of March and the first weeks of April brought still another. Thus in six months four successive broods of Peeluas followed, not one of which was great enough to draw general attention or to merit the name Army Worm. Mathematically it is possible for one female to become the progenitor of 27,000,000 Peeluas in six months. Theoretically, if one half the oviposit be feminine, the offspring of one parent will reach in four generations only 6,750,000. Practically the enemies of the Peelua are so many, are so various and so efficient, that the years when a general great grass famine is the result of their ravages as Army Worms, are rare. And yet the damage done is so constant and so large even when unobserved that perhaps one per cent. and possibly even ten per cent. of the best pasturage of the best grazing lands is annually consumed by them. In the United States, in the latitude of New York, the development of an Army Worm may be delayed by hibernating, so protracting its existence to six months; but on these islands where they may be deposited in one twenty-four hours and hatched in the next by extreme heat; where they may become fully grown in fifteen days, and in ten days more may be transformed into the mother moth, the life time of a Peelua is twenty-seven days, more or less.

Page  49 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 49 The enemies of the Peelua are many, differing widely in size and capacity. Some destroy the moth, others the eggs, and others the worm. And it may be that the heat of a very dry season or the floods of a very wet season are more destructive still. Hogs, turkeys, fowls, tame and wild, quail, doves, plover, eat the Peelua by wholesale; mynahs, ducks, spiders, eat the moths; ants eat the eggs and the larvae, dead and alive. Cockroaches have been seen eating the pupa. The dragon-fly eats the moth, so does the house lizard. A large fly eats the larvae when still alive. The parasitic red-tailed Tachina fly lays from five to eighteen eggs upon a single worm, which soon hatch and destroy it. Many (Io) kinds of beetles prey upon the worms in the United States. None have been observed this season on Kauai. Many species of parasites of the American Army Worm are described as the Military Microgaster, etc., which may not be found in these islands, but ought to be, even if it requires an appropriation to import and domesticate them. Asa Hayden of Honolulu reports a fungoid as very fatal to the Peelua of that section. Steps should be taken to introduce this powerful destroyer to every part of the island. A white moult (fungus) that destroys the house fly in America has not yet been found efficient upon the Army Worm. No means of diminishing and destroying the Peelua should be neglected or despised, for this pest will never be exterminated in a country so adapted to produce insects as the Hawaiian Islands. The law of I859 referred to at the beginning of this article for the protection of the plover is most wise and just. Whatever interferes with the safety of plover or any insectiverous birds damages the country. Prof. Aughey reported to the U. S. Entomological Commission that he, in 1876, bought two Bastramian plovers and kept them in a cage a week before he set them free. In four days they ate 1616 insects, mostly (4) locusts, being an average for each of 202 per day. At less than this rate, at 150 per day, 20 old plovers would eat 3,000 insects per day, or 9o,ooo each month. Prof. Aughey computes that i,ooo plovers and their young will consume 8,ioo,ooo insects in one month. The Japanese mynahs are as hungry and greedy as the plover, and the credit they receive of protecting the neighborhood of Honolulu from the Peelua is largely their due. Other modes of destruction, such as by digging ditches and by poisoning with Paris green or London purple, are not so sure and successful where they have been tried as to warrant their use, especially where the cattle range to be protected may be a thousand or ten thousand acres. The same is true of the new and harmless insecticide now being cheaply produced in California, Pyrethrum Cineraviae Folium. In conclusion: after noting the easy stripping of seventy-five acres of plant cane, which was knee high, by the Peeluas of i88o, at Hanamaulu, Kauai, (thirty worms were counted on single stalks,) and after stating that the fifth brood of Peelua moths are appearing in May, 1882, the wonder is, not that the damage inflicted is so great, but that it is so small, and that any pasturage at all remains, or that any

Page  50 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL, vegetation escapes. Again, while nature that produces the Peelua produces also the animals and insects and conditions and elements that destroy the Peelua, nature should be supplemented as efficiently as possible by the production of Peelua destroyers; i. e., those already domesticated on the islands and aided also by the introduction of new parasites, beetles, etc., from other lands, the same being harmless and not liable to become a nuisance such as they are brought to destroy. ERUPTIONS OF HAWAIIAN VOLCANOES. Although the entire Hawaiian archipelago is of volcanic origin, the only island in which activity has been exhibited within the knowledge of man is Hawaii, the largest and southernmost of the group, and the eruptions on that island have, with one exception, proceeded from different craters on the summit or sides of Mauna Loa. The earliest outbreak of which we have any definite information occurred in November I790 from the crater, or more properly caldera, of Kilauea on the side of Mauna Loa, 8,ooo feet below the summit. Native tradition says that the eruption was accompanied by violent earthquake shocks, and that great quantities of pumice stone and cinders were ejected. A portion of the army under Keoua, against whom Kamehameha was at that time fighting, was destroyed by the poisonous gasses emitted. Of previous eruptions, or others that may have followed shortly after, we have no account. In I80o there was an eruption from the western side of Mauna Hualalai, now extinct. IE was the last from this mountain and the first witnessed by white men in these islands. The flow of lava, still traceable, reached the sea about six miles distant, destroyed native villages, taro patches and fish ponds, and extended the coast line into the sea for a considerable distance. In I823 there was an outbreak from Kilauea, the lava first being visible some miles below the crater; and the flow, where it poured into the sea, near Kapapala, Kau, was about six miles in width. In I832, about the 2oth of June, an eruption took place from Mokuaweoweo, the summit crater of Mauna Loa, which lasted only eighteen days. Several streams of lava ran down the mountain side but none reached the sea. At the time of the outbreak a small quantity of lava was also visible in the vicinity of Kilauea. No connection, however, exists between the two craters. An outbreak from Kilauea May 3oth, I840, was accompanied by the emission of ashes, sand and cinders. The lava stream, flowing alternately through deep fissures and above the ground for miles at a stretch, reached the sea in five days, thirty-five miles distant. Several small hamlets and some stock were destroyed but there was no loss of human life. January ioth, 1843, an eruption occurred near the summit of Mauna Loa from which two large flows issued, The action continued about

Page  51 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 5i four weeks and the amount of lava discharged was immense. The flows, however, did not reach the sea. On the i7th of February, 1852, there was a terrific eruption on the north side of Mauna Loa, near the summit. A fire fountain was thrown several hundred feet into the air (variously estimated at from.500 to I,ooo feet) from which fragments floated off as scoria and pumice stone, fallihg in showers for miles around. The torrent of liquid lava rushed down the mountain side, at times as rapidly as twenty miles an hour. Three days later another fountain began to play about 4,000 feet below the summit nearly if not quite as large as the one at the source. The eruption lasted three weeks and the river of lava traveled a distance of forty miles, its headlong career being checked only ten miles from Hilo. August IIth, 1855, an eruption occurred near the top of Mauna Loa a few miles north of Mokuaweoweo, which discharged a great quantity of lava. On the I2th of the following February it stopped within seven miles of Hilo. Activity continued at the source nine months longer, sending down a continuous stream of lava which occasionally burst out at the end, laterally or vertically, but proceeded no farther toward the sea. Action finally ceased in November, i856. On the 23d of January, 1859, two streams of lava issued from a new crater-or new craters-on the northern slope of Mauna Loa, ten miles from Mokuaweoweo. On the 3Ist, eight days later, the lava reached the sea at the little village of Wainanalii, distant about fourteen miles from Kawaihae. The village was destroyed and a number of people narrowly escaped with their lives. For three weeks a river of burning lava, without interruption, poured into the sea at that place. On the morning of March 27th, I868, a bright light was observed on Mauna Loa, which proved to be the beginning of the most disastrous of recent outbreaks. Heavy earthquakes followed on the succeeding day and continued to increase in number and severity while the eruption lasted. On the 2d of April occurred a mud eruption at Kapapala, a phenomenon before unknown in Hawaii; the volume of mud (now rich soil) ejected from the mountain extended a distance of three miles, was from one-half to one mile in width and from two feet deep at the outer edge to twenty or thirty in the center. It moved rapidly and destroyed several houses, about a thousand head of stock and thirty-one lives. Immediately after an immense tidal wave swept the coast and destroyed much property and a number of lives. On the 6th of the same month there was a shower of ashes and pumice stone covering the country for a distance of twenty miles from two to ten inches deep. A considerable quantity of ashes was carried by the winds as far as fifty miles away. On the 7th a stream of lava burst out above Kahuku, Kau, and rushed downward with great force, reaching the sea at Kailikii, near the southern point of Hawaii. The flow, which was from 200 to 800 feet wide and about 20 feet deep, continued only five days, dying out on the night of April i Ith. It is stated that two thousand earthquake shocks occurred during the two weeks the

Page  52 52 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. eruption lasted-an average of I40 a day. The total number of lives lost was about Ioo. November 5th, I880, the last eruption to the present time broke out on Mauna Loa about twelve miles south-east of Mokuaweoweo. Jets of lava were thrown hundreds of feet into the air, and three rivers of the liquid fusion poured down the mountain side in different directions. Two of these flowed with great rapidity but were short lived; the third continued moving until the 9th of August, i88I, stopping at last near the edge of the town of Hilo, about fifty miles from the source and only three-quarters of a mile from the sea. A vast amount of lava was discharged during this eruption of nine months, but only one house was destroyed and no lives were lost. SOME HAWAIIAN PROVERBS. PREPARED FOR THE ANNUAL BY H. L. SHELDON. Dean French, in his valuable work on the proverbial sayings of different nations of Europe, very truly remarks (in effect) that more can be learned of the real characteristics of a people or race by a study of their proverbs than by any other means. The ancient Hawaiian tongue was rich in pithy sayings, short and energetic, that were much in use among the chiefs, but which, with the disappearance of the alii class, have mostly become forgotten. The following collection of Hawaiian proverbs, figurative phrases, and rhetorical epithets, comprises a few only among many which may still be remembered by others. Hilinai Puna kael/e ia Kau. Trusting to Puna is leaning on Kau. The application is to one who is credited on account of his backers. Ua lea kaena a ka lai, ua malie. Everything is pleasant and smooth. (Satirical.) Nui kalakalai, manumanu ka loaa. Much hewing, resulting only in a lot of chips. Synonimous with "A great cry and little wool." Na manu kolea kau ahua. " Birds of a feather flock together." Aohe loea i ka wai opae. No skill required in catching shrimps. Ka lele aau o na manu o Kiwaa. The scared flight of the birds of Kiwaa. Applied to a general panic. Make auanei i ka moana a pae kujapau i Lanai. Die in the ocean and his corpse float ashore on Lanai. Referring to a person embarking in a hazardous enterprise. He akuahanai ka rama. Rum is a poison-god. Aia i kula i ka alaalapuloa. The alaalapuloa, sometimes called uhola, is a species of useless shrub, and hence the proverb-Gone on a fool's errand. alaalawa na maka o ka aihue. The eyes of a thief look every way. Aohepihpili aina mai. No where's near land. Meaning one who is very far from obtaining what he desires. Pili nakekeke. Literally, Loosely fastened. Unreliable person, not permanent.

Page  53 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 53 Ua hele i ke alamaaweiki. He has gone along the untrodden path. When one dies. Kuipeia e ka makani apaa. Knocked flat by the wind apaa. Sudden -disaster. Ehuehu ahiahi. The red sky of evening-applied to old age. He eleelepi-ka waha o kanaka. Dashing of the waves in different directions. Spoken of men of totally different minds. Pohaku eleku. A stone easily broken; and hence, a good for nothing, cowardly person. Hawawa ka heenalu, haika papa. The awkward person breaks the board in riding on the surf-applied to those who undertake something with which they are not familiar. Oheke ole kanaka wahi alii. People about the chief are without modesty, presuming. Hapala ia i ka hawena. Daubed with white-applied to a grey headed man who has but little sense. Mai noho a hele kikaha aku. Don't walk hither and yon. Don't act without an object. Mai noho a makamaka ilio, i ka huelo ka ike. Don't be friends with the dog, for the tail will show it. Applied to disreputable acquaintanceships. Ua kaha aku la ka nalu o kuu aina. The surf has pressed upon my land:-meaning that one is in adverse circumstances. Kahihi ka puka e ka upena nanana. The entrance is stopped with a spider's web. Applied to a person who is slandered. Pau ka pali, hala ka luuluu kaumaha. Past the precipice, past the fears. An expression of congratulation on trouble ended. He alamakahinu. A greased forehead. Applied to a person who goes frequently to a chief for favors. Ke hui nei kalo i ka nawao. The eatable of the worthless taro are mixed; hence, good and evil joined. Pai na lima, ae na waha. The hands strike, the mouths assent; a solemn promise. Aohe pilo uku. Nothing wrong in the pay; meaning that any reward is acceptable. NOTE.-I have made quite a collection of Hawaiian sayings, some of which it might be well to add to these which Mr. Sheldon has furnished. These are not all maxims or gnomic sayings. Many are rhetorical allusions, or even perhaps slang phrases. Some are snatches of old meles or poems. These have come to be by-words. Some have gained general currency, and are known all over the group. Others are of local origin, and are familiar only in certain districts. Just as we have various names for these sayings, adage, aphorism, apothegm, axiom, so the Hawaiians call these variously, olelo hoonaauao, poeko, poleka, poweko, mikolelehua, mikololohua, palolohua, loea, hookaau, hoohuakeo, maa, kuluma. There are many used as expresssions of admiration. Uwene ke kolopa, "The crow-bar rings sharply," applied to successful

Page  54 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. effort. Pali ke kua, mahina ke alo, 'A back straight as a precipice, a front round as the moon," is a favorite phrase in praise of a well-formed person Oni kalalea ke ku a ka laau loa, "The top of the tall tree waves proudly," is said in praise of good scholarship. Lila ka maia no e'a: wili ka oka'i, The banana looks withered, but it has an excellent flavor," is much like our allusion to "singed cats," better than they seem. Maemae i ke kai ka pua o ka hala, "The pandanus blossom is fairest by the sea," is like our common saying, "The rose that all are praising, Oh! that's the rose for me." Kiilii pua hau o Kalena, "Well dressed as the flowers of Kalena," (a hill at Makawao, near a beautiful sheet of water, Kiowai). Ke aalii kumakani o Hopoe, "The stately tree of Hopoe," (a famous rock in Puna,) is the laudatory epithet of a well-formed man. Niniu Punapo i e ala, "Puna renowned for its loveliness," is a similar expression. The Hawaiians like to bestow flattering titles on their chiefs, and one of Kalakaua's epithets among his adherents is "Kauliluaikeanu." "The dark blue mountain top," in allusion to one of their admiring epithets of Waialeale, the mountain on Kauai, which is as beautiful to a native of that island as Fusiyama is to the Japanese. These last sayings bring out one peculiarity of the Hawaiians, ---their local attachments and the high esteem in which certain places are held. These are often spoken of only by such fancy names, as in the United States are given to the Old Bay State, the Land of Wooden Nutmegs, the Elm City, the City of Churches, etc. We have in Hawaii, Ke kai wehe poli o ha leiewaha, as the name applied to the sea between Oahu and Kauai. Ke kai malino mai Kekaha a liki i Milolii, is the calm smooth water between Kekaha and Milolii. Ke kai hawanawana o Kawaihae, "The whispering sea of Kawaihae." Malihini au i ke kai o Kuloloia, "I don't know much about the harbor of Honolulu," which is simply a deep basin with precipitous sides in a shallow girdling coral reef. Waialua is called 0 ke Ehukai o Puaena, after its gray seaspray. Hilo is seldom alluded to oratorically, without speaking of the Pulu elo i ka ua Kanilehua, "Getting wet with the rain that patters on the lehua blossoms." Lahaina is spoken of with loving admiration, Huai ka malu ulu o Lele i ka malie, "The grove of breadfruit trees rises in the grateful warmth," while Lahainaluna is "The hillside lying bare in the glare of the sun," Ka puu panoa i ka la. Ka makani kuloio o Hamakua, brings to mind the strong trade wind which blows over Hamakua; while Waimea is equally well-known for its drenching rain, K a ua Iuupuupu o Waimea. Wailuku is "Shaded by the westering sun," Wailuku i aleha nui ia o ka malu hekuwawa. Different nationalities have their appropriate epithets. Na ahi maka kepau o iMaikonisia, alludes to "the glaring eyes" of the Micronesians. Na hiena lehelehe eueu o Fij'i in like manner notes "the projecting lips" characteristic of the people of Fiji. The Chinese are Ka poe Pake o Waapaa, "The soft and weak (!) people of Waapaa," and Pake is their universal appellation. Of course, these personal allusions will run into nicknames, given because of some personal peculiarity.

Page  55 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. There are a great many derisive phrases. The Hawaiians are experts in the use of taunting allusions. Kolekole kou maka, "Your eyes are red," is a common taunt when any one has asked a favor and been denied. E ku no ia ma ka puka o ka hoka, "He will stand at the door of disappointment," is said of any one doomed to defeat. I ke alo iho no ka ulu, a hala, "The maika stone was right in front but it missed," has reference to the national game of bowling. Haumanumanu e ka ipu inoino e, "How full of holes is that dirty calabash," is said of an ill-favored person. Ignorance is shamed by saying, Kamalii ike ole ika helu malama, "The child don't know the number of the months;" or Aia i ka mole kamaiii, "Children always begin at the foundation;" the folly of children is no matter for astonishment. Awkwardness is commonly hit off by an allusion to Ka poe unaunahi hee o Kula, "The backwoods people of Kula who tried to scale the hee " (the squid, or more correctly, the octopus, which has suckers, but not scales). While plumpness is admired, excessive corpulence is ridiculed by such phrases as Ka hee o kai uli, ka pae ka alaala, "The squid of the deep blue sea has a peculiar bunch." A man with a double chin is called Ka puhi o ke Ale, ahu ka olo, "That eel from Ale is all wrinkled up." For some reason bald-heads are a butt for frequent witticisms. Wehea iho maluna o Iihimanu, "Mount Hihimanu is all clear on top." Ka ia nuia kaua i kipukaone, "Our big fish is on that spot of shining sand." Ka ua pookea i ke oho o ke kiwainui, "The hoar-frost is fallen on the top of this big ki plant." A double play on words is that which calls a bald head Kapuahi heu ia e ka pueo, "The owl's oven," in allusion to the fact, that the Hawaiian oven is in the ground which must be cleared of weeds and all vegetable growth, just as an owl scratches bare the place where she is going to make a nest. There are many sly hits at people who are quarrelsome. Lele liilii ka lehu o kapuaht, "He is scattering the ashes of the fireplace." Ku ke ehu o na wahi auwaa liilii, "How the spray dashes up before that fleet of little canoes!" is like our "tempest in a teapot." Pii ka ihu o ka naia i ka makani, "The porpoise always holds his nose up to the windward," is an allusion to the manifestations of rising anger. E o mai ana ka ua lipuupuu lipalawai o Lihue, "The rain of Waimea will wet through," is said of quarrels that hurt both parties. I hooluu hoohualei ia e ka makani, "The wind will stir up all the loose dust," is an allusion to the fact that angry people will tell what they had better keep concealed. Maloo na iwi o Hua ma i ka la, "The bones of Hua and his company are dry in the sun," is an allusion to the legend of a chief and his followers who set out on a war-party, but passing to the leeward of the volcano were suffocated by its sulphurous fumes. The discovery of their bones explained the mystery of their sudden disappearance. It is applied to such discovery, or to disappointment in one's schemes. Ka auwaapanana kau i.Kapua, "The flat bottom fleet has to land at Kapua," that is, cannot beat to windward. Kapua is the landing place for Kapiolani Park, leeward of Leahi. Maipii oe i ka lapa manu ole,

Page  56 56 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. "Don't go to the ridge where there are no birds," is like our "going on a wild-goose chase." Awapuhi lau pala wale, "The ginger root has a leaf that rots quickly." Hele poala i ke anu o Waimea, is ah allusion to the wandering around and around, back on one's track, in going to Waimea in the fog. A similar saying is Hoihoi ka paakai i Waimea, "Oh ho! you are taking your salt back to Waimea;" the Waimea people taking theirpoi to the seaside to exchange for salt, but getting lost in the fog would turn back on their track and take their load back to the place they had only just left. Pride is a frequent subject of ridicule, although the Hawaiians with all their shiftlessness, have a genuine admiration for a well-to-do man. He lani iluna, he honua ilalo, onioni ia kulana a paa, "Heaven above, earth below, and his own position firmly fixed," is their way of applauding a thrifty man. Ke lino a nei ke kehau o Waiopua, "He glistens with the fine dew of Waimea," is applied to a man once poor, but subsequently wealthy; while in allusion to a poverty-striken place on Molokai, the Hawaiians say, Ke kaha pili a ka Iakea, like our "came to grief." A place on Kauai is equally famous for good living, and a thrifty man is Elieli kulana o Ainaike, like our saying "He was born with a silver spoon in his mouth." And a similar phrase is Kalaiakamamu, a place near Kaunakakai, like our "living on Nob Hill." There are many pat phrases of encouragement. Umi ia i nui ke aho, "Press hard and take a long breath." Alu ka pule za Hakalau, "Let's all join in the prayer of Hakalau," an old Hawaiian noted for the ferverncy and efficacy of his prayers. (?) Aohe keiki hele wale o Kohala, ' Your Kohala boys don't travel without making suitable provisions for contingencies." Hahapoele kap paaio Honolulu, "Honolulu people know how to feel for crabs " (in their muddy water). E ku'i ka mama i loaa o Kaohele. "You must hurry up if you would catch Kaohele " (a famous runner in olden time). "Everything is lovely, and the goose hangs high," is reproduced in the Hawaiian, Aohe hana a Kauhikoa, ua kau na waa i ke aki, that is, "Kauhikoa has done his work and put the canoes back on their stools." Haa ka mkioi i ke kai o Lehua, " It takes a skillful sailor to go to Lehua," is a warning not to undertake what you have not the ability to accomplish; while Ka ikaika z ke ki, e kuu pokit, la ola, "Pull hard at the ki root my boys, you'll get it at last," is the Lahainaluna scholars, expression for a student's perseverance till he obtains the mastery, very much like our "grubbing at Greek roots." Perseverance is recommended by such sayings as Ako Nuuanu i ka hale halauloa a ka makani. Ako Manoa i ka hale a ka ohu. "People thatch their houses in Nuuanu if the wind does blow, and in Manoa in spite of the mist." Many proverbs need acquaintance with Hawaiian national habits and life to fully appreciate their raciness. 0 ke aloha ka mea i oi aku ka maikai mamua o ka umeke poi a me ka ipukai ia, "Love is far better than the poi dish or the fish bowl." He kapa maloo ka i/i, The skin is a kapa, (Hawaiian cloth) that does not wet through, like our saying if it rains, "I am neither sugar nor salt." Kau kepoo i ka uluna, o

Page  57 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 57 Welehu ka malama, "Put your head on your arm, (i. e. go to sleep, in Hawaiian fashion), this is the month of November" (the rainy season interfering with out-door work, and giving a show of reason for indolent people to indulge their laziness). Makaala ke kanaka kuhea manu, "He must be quick-motioned who would snare birds," alludes to one of their favorite occupations. E nihi ka hele i ka uka o Puna, "Step carefully when you are travelling inland through Puna;" for that region is full of cavities, pitfalls for the unwary traveller. E pupukahi ka manao, "Be of one mind," literally, "Only one shell for all." Paki ke kepau, oo ka ulu, "When the gum exudes, the breadfruit is ripe;" or as we say, "He has cut his wisdom teeth." A drunkard is euphemistically said to be "Wet with the rain of distilled liquors," Pulu elo i ka ua o ka holio e; while a man who has committed some misdeed and run away is said to have "gone to Texas," Nohlo i ka hale Kamala, just as foreigners now speak of being sent to the Honolulu prison as "going on to the reef." When a wife leaves her husband and "goes off with a handsomer man," the phrase is -huli ka ua kapakea, hul i Mololani. If the husband finds no fault with such a fickle, flirting wife, he receives the commendation, Nani ka oiwi o ka laau i ka luaiele ia e ka makani, "How beautiful that tree is, even when stripped by the wind!" An old saying, Pu a ka wiliili, nanahu ka mano, "While the wiliwili is in blossom, the sharks will bite," is applied now to those who will run the risk of illicit love, and find themselves nabbed by the officers of the law. A curious style of endearment among the Hawaiians, pinching or biting the neck, is the foundation of the saying, 0 ka pohole i ka iniki a ka ipo, he hao kuni ia a ke aloha, calling this "the brand mark of love," in allusion to the custom of branding cattle on the neck with their owners mark. The frequent allusions to mountains and erial phenomena mark the people's careful observation of the beauties of a Hawaiian landscape, and their sympathy with Nature's varying moods. Ua kookoo-u i ke anu na mauna, "The chilling storm is on the mountains," designates a time of sorrow. The mirage at Mana furnishes a simile for the discomfiture of pretentious persons, Kukulu kalaihi a ka la i Mana. Hanohano Paliul i ka ua noe, is like our "Blooming roses quickly fade." Many similes are taken from the fishermen's occupation. Nana kee ka ia i ka maunu ekaeka, "The fish looks sideways at the filthy bait," has been applied to a poor specimen of sermonizing, for the Hawaiians are good judges of good preaching. Ifauhili ka ai a kawelea, (a long fish, highly prized,) "We've lost our chance at the kawelea," when during a squabble in the fishing boat, the fish has made off with the bait. Aohe hemahema iki o Hoohila, "We're all safe on Hoohila," a rock on the shore of Kauai; if strangers walking on the shore beneath the precipitous cliffs, are caught by the rising tide, they can find safety on this rock. An old proverb, He make no ke kalo a ola aku j ka naio, " The kalo root is dead, but there are live maggots enough," formerly applied to battles in which the bravest had perished, has in these modern times been applied by scoffers to the overthrow of paganism and the growth of Christianity in its place.

Page  58 58 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. There is one curious instance of the "mythical theory" in the application of an Old Testament phrase, Haggai I:6, "He that earneth wages, earneth wages to put it in a bag with holes." I have heard some gravely explaining this "eke Hagai," as a kind of purse, which was carried by an old Hawaiian chief Hakai, who was a great cheat. Another amusing instance of the difficulty of getting correct interpretations, or versions of old sayings, has come to my notice in preparing this article. I had been told of the saying, Hokai ka auwaa panana ole, kau i Kapua, a different version from the one given in the first part of this article. The proper meaning of panana, flat bottom, was not known, and it was supposed to mean a compass, and though this was an article utterly unknown to the Hawaiians in olden times, the negative ole was inserted, and I was told the phrase meant "canoes without a compass;" and that Kapua was a waste, desolate place on Maui. Judge Andrews in his Hawaiian Dictionary has given (under the word ilio) a very different rendering of the proverbial saying, Mai makamaka ilo; but Mr. Sheldon's seems to me the true meaning. I have only begun to make a collection of these quaint sayings, and have given but a few samples out of hundreds noted down. The list might be indefinitely extended if it embraced single words, epithets that yet involve a whole realm of fanciful resemblances. C. M. HYDE, North Pacific Missionary Institute, Honolulu. RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR r88z. The Hawaiian Islands have enjoyed a year of prosperity in its various channels of trade and industry, but in the period under review clouds have darkened its political horizon, which has an ominous outlook, so that while her hard working subjects have much to congratulate themselves upon, they have also much cause for solicitude. The weather throughout 1882 has been very similar in its uniformity to the year preceding, both in regard to winds, temperature and rain, not only in the metropolis, but throughout the islands of the group. The general health of the people has been comparatively good and free from epidemics. The latter part of last, and early part of'the present year was occupied by certain parties in obtaining the election of representatives to the Legislature, who would prove pliant tools for the promotion of selfish objects that had no "good of the public" embodied therein in any degree. The events of the previous election were repeated with even greater flagrancy, not only in Honolulu, but in many other districts. It is a matter of common regret that the candidates on the "King's tickets" have been men notoriously wanting in principle to legislate for their country's good, but who have, instead, evinced a readiness to favor lavish expenditures and enact laws that are fraught with mischief and evil for Hawaii, especially sapping the life-chords of her strong young men, and undermining the efforts made for their sanitary

Page  59 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. improvement, as also aiming a blow at the bulwark of national pride and strength heretofore existing in her judiciary department. In no year has so much determined evil been accomplished by any Hawaiian Legislature, as in the present. From the methods employed to secure the coveted positions and the character of the majority of those elected, a troublesome session was naturally looked for, and soon after the opening of the Legfslature the Ministry, seeing the element they had to contend with, resigned their portfolios. Their places were filled by others with W. M. Gibson as Premier, who boasted that they could control and lead the Assembly. Since their acts have become history this vaunt brings no laurels to them, inasmuch as incompetency stamps itself on the few acts yet undertaken, the principal ones of the Premier's boast being Board of Health and Immigration matters, while the removal of liquor restrictions from Hawaiians, the Two Million Loan and Coronation folly evince the character of statesmanship displayed. The spirit of opposition that has been engendered by this policy of the administration has been dignified and persistent, while the mouth-piece of the self-styled " palace party " has openly defended the King's interference in the politics of the country. Various matters pressing upon the prime interests of the islands necessitated the co-operation of planters' for their defense and self-protection, resulting in the formation of the Planters' Labor and Supply Company, which was incorporated under charter dated March 23, 1882. The company have been watchful for their interests, especially in labor, both through the Board of Immigration direct, and with the sanction of its authority have desired to inaugurate an independent movement toward securing both Japanese and South Sea laborers. In the first they were denied the consent of the government to recognize their agent, though no pecuniary aid was sought of them. In the latter, after some delay, one vessel was given permission to depart under the sanction of the Board, while at the same time, the Portuguese immigration which was in successful working operation was summarily checked under the pretense of its being, possibly, more expensive than it should be. This has resulted in hampering a number of plantations, and naturally led the way to a very decided and emphatic protest by the company at the administration of government to the King in a Memorial presented to him by a special appointed committee, October I8, 1882, which had the unanimous approval of the company, but which was evasively answered by the Premier, and its intent for reformation in the administration of the government has, to the present writing, been entirely ignored, as was a similar Memorial adopted at a mass meeting of natives a few weeks later. This condition of affairs has naturally-had a tendency in so small a country as this, to check the disposition for extension in various enterprises, and has had a very damaging effect upon the trade of the islands during the latter half of the year. In the last ANNUAL the estimate of the sugar crop for I882 was placed at 65,000 tons. The amount was considered by some at the time to be far beyond our capacity, but we believe in all cases but one

Page  60 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. the out-turn of the various plantations has been up to their estimates.so that the total is not far from the figures given. The prospect for next year, according to estimiates furnished the Labos and Supply Company, is put down at 68,ooo tons. We learn of no material changes in the working of the various plantations save that continued watchfulness to economize labor, and the adoption of such machinery as will tend to this end. One of the principal factors for this purpose has been the erection on several plantations, where the lay of the land has been favorable therefor, of Hallidie's Wire Tramways for the conveying of cane to the mills, saving not only hands but carts and oxen or mules for hauling the same. Another prospective improvement for planters is promised in Mr. Coleman's Cane Seed Planter, which in the various trials that have been made has proved highly satisfactory, a hopper filled with cuttings dropping regularly after the plow has made its furrow, and an attachment covering the seed entirely as it passes; thus at one operation the furrow is plowed, the seed planted and covered up. This implement is worked by five or six span of horses and four or five men. When in use the plow point can be raised or lowered to suit the depth of planting desired, and when not in use, can be lifted entirely free from the ground. There are a few extensions now under way, one of which, a co-opera-,tive Hawaiian concern, will probably not be in full working order to come into the year's estimates, though its name figures in the list of plantations and agencies. We regret to note the disaster just reported, to the Kaiwilahilahi Mill, Mr. Lidgate's new extension, near Laupahoehoe, whereby much loss to building and machinery has occurred through a heavy rainstorm along the windward coast of Hawaii. This will doubtless be a severe loss, as the prospects for a heavy out-put was close at hand with the newest and most improved machinery, manufactured to order by the Honolulu Iron Works Co. The cultivation of rice continues to absorb the attention of Chinese principally, and with their characteristic persistency they are endeavoring to bring hitherto waste places and marshes into subjection for this purpose, some localities being aided by the water supply of artesian wells. The estimate of the rice crop for the coming year may be placed at 5,000 tons. Paddy, that for quite a period did not figure among our exports has again become familiar to us in this connection, but it can hardly become prominent while our mills have their present facility, and turn out their product so satisfactorily. The table of domestic exports for the the three quarters of I882 foots up $7,ooo,329.86, and as compared with i88I shows a gain in total value amounting to $1,57I,I2I. The articles of increase are sugar, rice, bananas, paddy and hides, while molasses, coffee, salt, fungus, goat skins, wool, tallow and pulu have diminished. Imports have been full and free in all lines of trade, not only with Honolulu itself but at Kahului, Hilo and Mahukona. It is a generally recognized fact that the trade of these islands keeps constantly supplied with heavy stocks, considering the limited demand, By courtesy of Deputy Col

Page  61 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 6 lector General E. R. Hendry, we have the following figures of imports for the nine months ending September 30, 1882. Amount of dutiable goods imported $I,I81,485.98, goods bonded $174,279.45, goods free by treaty $I,921,530.74, goods free by civil code $I88,712.08, and specie $421,975.74, making a total of imports for the period of $4,887,983.99, an increase over the nine months of last year of $1,440,672. The shipping interests of the islands both coastwise and foreign have continued active, and with little interruption from inclement weather to regularity in their trips. The coasting fleet shows a slight increase, with the prospect of a still further addition early next year of another steamer for T. Foster & Co.'s line, which is now in course of construction in San Francisco. In addition to the monthly visits of the P. M. Co.'s line of steamers to and from the Colonies and San Francisco this year has also witnessed the inauguration of the Oceanic S. S. Co.'s direct line with San Francisco, in regularly monthly trips by the Suez, until the two vessels specially designed for the company's service, now building in Chester, Pa., will be ready for next June or July. The Oregon line of packets which was spoken of in our last as promising to be re-opened, is yet prospective. The Boston and New York lines continue regularly with their spring and summer vessels while the English and German packets continue their visits with staple goods. Building activity continues in and around Honolulu, as much so as at any period of her history, and the improvements are, many of them, of a permanent character, that tends to give an air of stability to the place. The plains to the east of Honolulu proper are being rapidly built up with residences so that the blocks and streets are now well defined as far out as Punahou street. Business improvements in contemplation call for the widening of several of our streets, and probably ere long Merchant street will be changed to meet the popular demand, and Alakea will be widened to relieve the pressure of traffic on Fort street. The water supply of the city continues inadequate to its constantly increasing demands upon the reservoirs from the fact that no extension is made in the storage of supply to meet it. Artesian wells are therefore becoming more general around Honolulu, and since our last one has been successfully bored in the Hawaiian Hotel premises. Fortunately little extra demand has been made upon the water supply through fires during the year. There have been quite a number of alarms, but fortunately nearly all were early extinguished with but little or no damage. The re-districting of fire wards, subdividing the five which existed the past years into thirteen, has been found an improvement in locating alarms with more precision, and the continued extension of the telephone system has no doubt contributed its help toward our safety in this respect. This telephone system has grown so rapidly and generally, not only connecting government offices and principal places of business and many residences, but carrying its lines also to the other side of the island. Hilo also has a line extending as far down the coast as Ookala.

Page  62 62 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. In Kohala, Hawaii, and at East Maui, the railroads continue their extensions and prove a vast lever for energy, enterprise, and ambition in their respective districts. Kau, Hawaii, is also aspiring toward owning a road in her district, with the ultimate hope of continuing the same to the Crater of Kilauea, for the benefit of tourist and traveler. A most important improvement or undertaking for the port of Honolulu has been pushed through this year, through the energy and enterprise of Mr. S. G. Wilder, in the construction of his marine railway, which will now soon be ready for the use of all vessels up to 2,000 tons burthen. A matter of general public benefit and improvement has been the extension of the Hawaiian Hotel by the purchase of adjoining properties, the erection and fitting up of cottages, and throwing all the premises into one, as also the thorough renovation and refitting of the same since the purchase of its lease by Dr. J. S. McGrew. Establishments for the afflicted of the land have had attention during the year, the Insane Asylum having now in course of erection a commodious two-story building especially designed by Dr. M. Hagan for the comfort and convenience of the unfortunate inmates. The Lunalilo Home, situate on the slope of Makiki, built in accordance with the will of the late King for an asylum for aged and infirm Hawaiians, is now almost completed, and has been erected with a view of durability and comfort, and of a neat and commodious design. It will accommodate about fifty inmates, besides rooms for the necessary attendants. SOMETHING ABOUT BANANAS. PREPARED FOR THE ANNUAL BY WALTER HILL. This country produces a great variety of bananas-probably more than fifty. Some of these are indigenous, and others have been brought here from various countries. Many of them also do not thrive well, consequently are extremely scarce and but little known, whilst others increase and spread without cultivation. In the immediate neighborhood of Honolulu there is hardly a dozen different kinds, and even most of these are seldom to be had. In fact, it is rare to find more than two or three varieties in our market. The varieties best known and most in demand here are designated as the Native Banana, the Iholena, the Lele, the Scented Banana, the Brazilian, and the China Banana. The Native Banana grows in large bunches and on high plants. It is somewhat flat in flavor, and not thought much of for eating raw, but is considered excellent for cooking purposes. The Iholena grows in small bunches, is dry to the taste, but very agreeable to some palates. The Lele resembles the last named in general appearance and flavor. The Scented Banana is said to have been imported from Maderia by Dr. Hillebrand. The bunches are small, but the fruit is luscious. When thoroughly ripe it is scented and flavored like a nice ripe strawberry. It thrives in almost any kind of soil, without care, and is won

Page  63 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 63 derfully prolific of young shoots. The Brazilian Banana grows on a tall, hardy plant, and is very abundant in this district. It is inferior to few for eating raw and second to none for cooking purposes. But the kind known as the China Banana is the one which is most abundant and receives most attention, because it is the only one cultivated as an article of export. General Miller is said to have brought the first plants to this country from South America, and to have given them to Captain Adams at Kalihikai, whence,they have spread throughout the islands. Although the plant is comparatively dwarfed, the bunches attain a greater size than almost any other variety here. For this reason, and because of its delicious flavor, it is largely grown, both for home consumption and for export. The China Banana requires better soil and more attention than other varieties; but with suitable soil and proper cultivation it is capable of more improvement, both in delicacy of flavor and largeness of yield. An acre of deep, rich, alluvial soil, if thoroughly worked to a depth of two or three feet, and kept constantly moist, will produce I,2oo bunches each bunch averaging 60 pounds weight. The crop takes from ten to eighteen months to mature from the time of first planting, the length of time depending largely upon locality, the warmth of the open plains near the sea being naturally more favorable to rapid growth and development than the coolness of the island gulches. The method of culture in general use among our banana planters is very primitive, and capable of great improvement. Simply depositing the young plant in a hole dug for the purpose does not produce the best result. The additional cost involved in thorough cultivation would be more than met by additional profit. CASUALTIES OF SHIPPING CONNECTED WITH PORTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, x88z. 1881, Nov. 25-Hawaiian schooner Pato sunk at her moorings at Papaikou, Hawaii. Nov. 27-American bark Jenny Pitts went ashore at Mahukona, Hawaii, where she was unloading a cargo of lumber, and became a total wreck. She was fully insured. Dec. 14-American brigantine W. H. Meyer, just after leaving Honolulu for San Francisco, carried away her fore-top-gallant mast in a squall off Waikiki, but clearing the wreck, kept on her voyage. Dec. 2 i-Hawaiian schooner Wailele lost an anchor and forty fathoms chain at Mahukona, Hawaii, and carried away a portion of her fore-rigging. 1882, Jan. 5-American bark Ranier, from Puget Sound for Honolulu, with lumber, capsized about 200 miles west of Cape Blanco, whereby the captain, Wulff, was lost. Jan I7-American schooner Ida Schnauer, at Kahului, Maui, in trying to haul into position parted her hawser and went ashore. Hull was bought by J. D. Spreckels for $450, towed to Honolulu and repaired.

Page  64 HAWAIIAN ALMA1NAC AND ANNUAL. Jan. -- Hawaiian schooner Warwick lost-probably foundered in the Molokai Channel. Jan. — Hawaiian brigantine Ninito, from Honolulu for Tahiti, stopped at Kawaihae for cattle and touched on the reef. Feb. 8-Hawaiian schooner Kulumanu, in entering the harbor of Honolulu, grounded on the weather side of the passage, but discharging cargo, she floated off without material injury, Feb. Io-American barkentine W. I. Dimond, on the passage from Honolulu to San Francisco, carried away her bowsprit in latitude 24~ north, longitude I58~ 30" west. -- — American missionary brig Morning Star returned to Honolulu for repairs, having had to give up her cruise on account of her leaky condition. March 4-British ship Norval, Captain Halliday, from Hull, England, en route for San Francisco, was abandoned at sea on fire in latitude 13~ 30" north, and longitude 120~ west. The crew were divided into four boats and bore away for these Islands, distant 2,3000 miles. All but one of the boats' crews reached Mahukona in safety, while the fourth was picked up by a vessel bound to Europe. March 15-Hawaiian bark Kalakaua, during a continuous gale with heavy sea, while en route to San Francisco from this port, had her deck load washed away, and jammed two men, one of whom died five days afterward from his injuries. April 3o-American bark Priscilla, from New Castle for Honolulu, with coal, put into Sydney, leaking badly, where she was condemned and her cargo transferred to another vessel. June i-Hawaiian steamer Mokolii grounded near Waikane, Oahu, but was floated off all rignt after discharging her cargo June I2-American bark Edward May struck on the reef off Waikiki; a portion of her cargo, railroad ties, etc., was jettisoned and she floated off. After discharging her cargo she was hove down for repairs. June 29-Hawaiian schooner Haunani condemned and sold at Honolulu. Sept. 15-Hawaiian schooner Rob Roy went ashore at Keawalua, Lanai, loosing her keel and staving a hole near the foremast. Afterwards floated off and towed to Honolulu for repairs; Oct. 4-American schooner Claus Spreckels, from Mendocino for Coquimbo, lumber laden, met with a hurricane, in which she was so strained as to necessitate her bearing away for this port for repairs. Oct. i i-British ship Niagara, from San Francisco for Queenstown with a cargo of wheat, sprung a leak in a cyclone in latitude I9~ north and longitude I90~ west, and bore away for Honolulu. In entering the port in tow of the tug the hawser slipped from the bits and she struck on the "middle ground" in the passage and became a total wreck. American ship Hope, en route from Port Townsend to Valparaiso, with lumber, met with a hurricane, which dismasted her

Page  65 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 65 September g9th. Rigging jurymasts, she made this port in safety, and with ship and cargo were sold. Since the beginning of the present year, in accordance with the recommendation of the Postal Union, the shade of the Hawaiian fivecent stamp has been changed from a dark to a light blue, the color of the two-cent stamp from brown to rose pink, and the new one-cent stamp from blue to green. A STRANGER'S WANDERINGS IN HAWAII. WRITTEN FOR THE ANNUAL BY ROBERT WALKER, Jr. From the land of the sunny South the good steamship Cityof Sydney makes her way to more northern latitudes. The voyage from Auckland is decidedly a tiresome one. There is no cry of "fire" and the consequent "pipingup" of all hands, onlytofind the alarm a false one. Nothing varies the dull monotony of our trip until the morning of November 2oth, when the slumbers of the passengers are rudely broken at the hour of 3 o'clock by the terrible screaming of the whistle. At 5 A. M. we are on deck, and, with the pilot on board, are approaching the port of Honolulu, a town of which we have heard much, but confess, know little. Our expectations, as we approach, are that we shall see an encircling reef, with its narrowing opening, hear the thunderous and mighty sound of ocean as it breaks itself on walls which have borne the fury of a thousand storms, hear at times that which seems to be the murmur of a sullen laugh proceeding from coral lips, as wave after wave dashes in maddened fury on a great reef only to be hurled back and be dispersed in spray and foam. We think of the clear, calm, smooth water inside that reef, suggestive of quiet and rest after buffetings, weariness and ill; the landing in boats manned by natives clad in neat but scanty garments. Musing thus our pilot takes us onward, and now the sun begins to rise. What do we see, a reef? No! Only the apology for a reef, and that apology, methinks, made doubly worse by the sight thereon of a stranded bark of 500 tons or more, broken, battered, riven from stem to stern. As the light increases we observe that our tortuous way is "buoyed," and in the distance see, not as in. isles under the Southern Cross, a crowd of boats and hear the merry ringing laugh of brawny native, as bedecked with floral garlands of inestimable hue and perfume he clambers up the side, but a first-class wharf, capable of berthing vessels of the largest tonnage, and upon it an orderly crowd of-yes, natives, we know from their color, but natives clad as correctly and doubtless as properly tutored as one would find a like crowd in any portion of the five continents. Our glass is turned further landward, and there is a turret-like tower and flag staff, recalling to our mind Algerian wanderings, and we almost expect to hear the cry of the muezzin as he calls to prayer. The town lies almost hidden in a thin, ethereal haze, but behind and o'ershadowing it are seen the mountain peaks, now just ~ %

Page  66 66 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. awakening from a dreamy rest, as gently rolling aside their robe of purple mist, they exchange it for an encrustation of purest golden sheen. Away to the southeast grimly reposes Diamond Head, from our standpoint absurdly resembling the crouching lion of Lamlash, in that fair land of the mountain and the flood. At last we are on the wharf, but before taking our baggage off the vessel intend to further investigate matters. Our attention is attracted to a man wearing a suit of dazzlingly white cotton trousers, blue coat, and cap white, edged with blue. On his breast he wears a silver badge, and, troth, he smoketh a cigar. Cautiously sidling up to him we read on the badge, "Hawaiian Police, No. 17." Knowing the weakness of this fraternity, we expect from his looks that he has been initiated into the mystery of those awesome words, "Move on there, will yer!" If not, he at all events is still uncivilized, so we leave him to his fate. Strolling up the main street, we are astonished to find a broad street in excellent trim, good pavements and stores, some of which, on viewing their contents, savor more of Paris than this land of isles. The private residences are most tastefully and luxuriously fitted up, some having inlaid floors of polished woods, with folding doors, enabling room to be thrown into room, the balmy current of air which passes through the whole enticing one to a seat on yon couch, or a nap in yonder easy chair. A certain section of the town is devoted to the Chinese. Streets and streets may be seen populated by the Celestial. Andhere, strangely enough, they seem to be an integral, not a distinctive, part of the population. Withal, he thrives apace. Diligently cultivating the soil, a goodly share of which is his own, and truly making very barrenness bear plentifully he thus makes gain, or otherwise from his store well filled with nicknacks essentially foreign. Here he lives. Few profit by his savings, for all over and above his surplus wants he regularly transmits to his friends in a land far off, but to memory dear. In the afternoon we observe the bright, gay attire of the fair sex, as they drive about in their little equipages, either for an airing or intent on business said to be so dear to the female heart, "shopping." There is an air of well-to-do-ness and order about the place which at once arrests the attention of a new arrival, and which surely tells of the influence of the American element, an element in whose wake has followed progress and prosperity. Here are numerous papers, both for Hawaiian and American; two are issued daily and six weekly. A band, composed of Hawaiians, at stated times, plays in Emma Square. They play excellently, and it is a treat to listen to their music. On such occasions dark Hawaiian beauties tread the mazes of walks overshadowed by the stately tamarind and other species of trees resembling the acacia. Though unknown, we soon fall among friends, and are met with inquiries, "Have you been to the Pali? Have you seen the Devil's Punchbowl? Are you going to the volcano?" We do not confess to having seen the Pali, and are not partial to punch, whether brewed in the Devil's own bowl or otherwise. We do intend going to the volcano. The vol

Page  67 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. cano of Kilauea, however, is situate on Hawaii, and, as a steamer in twenty-four hours' time is going to the'port whence the ascent is commenced, we elect to proceed by it. Now we are on board the Likelike, bound for Hilo. The weather is tempestuous certainly, but why, unasked, serve out to every passenger a ghastly-looking sea-green tin in the same way as free programmes at a concert, or cake at a Sunday-school treat? The very color excites the gastric juice, and is sufficient to bring on nausea. Arriving at Hilo you land in surf-boats. These boats are shaped like whale-boats, but have not the same breadth of beam. Our boat (the only one which is going to make the attempt of landing through the surf) is manned by five Hawaiians, four to row and one with an immense oar fastened to and projecting over the stern, which is to serve as steering gear. The rowers pull straight for shore, but when near to it Pacific rollers rise with towering crest, whereat you are instantly "pulled broadside on" and accordingly remain in the trough of the sea, whilst on either side is a towering wall of water. Soon you rise right over the waves, and on the top of the last of this series of Lillows the boat is turned, and a rush made for shore. You are driven with great velocity towards land, ere you reach which the foaming waters break, and drenched to the skin, you are landed through shoal water on the back of a sturdy Hawaiian. We engage horses and a guide for our ride to the Volcano House. The roads are stated to be bad, a statement which we are not inclined to dispute, when it is understood that it takes from ten to fourteen hours to traverse a distance of thirty-two miles, during which time we shall reach an elevation of 4,200 feet. Booted, leggined and cloaked, we are on the point of mounting our not unpleasing steed, when the guide checks us, and in spite of protestations, buckles to our off foot an enormous spur, somewhat resembling a perambulator wheel with the rim taken off. Then on we go, our guide giving us the auspicious assurance that there will be "no rain till after noonday," and so it proves. We traverse a grassy, undulating slope, into the thickest part of which our animal subsides bodily, falling on its side. Horse and rider are soon up again, but, from the knowing look of that creature's eyes, we are of a most decided opinion that it is not the first time that animal has made the acquaintance of that grassy slope. Pressing on through a bush consisting of cocoanut, bread fruit, ohia, hau, lauhala and other trees, we emerge on a lava track. Now lava, in a state of fusion, has an unwelcome practice of upheaving just where it is most undesirable for it to do so, and of sinking where just the contrary would please best. Though now cold, this has been the case here. Our guide breaks his saddle girth, but no further difficulty or mishap is encountered, and at the end of two hours from the commencement of our journey, weary and wet, we find ourselves seated before the ruddy glow of a blazing fire. On the morrow we breakfast early and start for the far-famed volcano, the habitation of the heathen goddess "Pele." To-day another guide accompanies us, and he straightway takes us to the edge of a cliff, from which we observe the crater more than half a thousand feet below.

Page  68 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANIY ANNUAL. The circumference of this crater is nine miles. The sight is weird indeed, for we gaze upon a field of black and broken lava covering the whole of this vast extent. Here and there we see crimson streaks laving the edge of its prison house. After walking down a steep path we come to its edge. What a sight of blackness and death! On this field no thing of life exists, although on the steep sloping walls at the bottom of the cliffs grow ferns, and shrubs and trees. As if, however, angry at this, streams of lava are hurled against the side, and slowly creeping up the banks devour midst smoke and flame flower, fern and tree, which seemingly had there found safest refuge from flood and fire. Close to where we stand are folds of blackness rising, we scarce know how. Soon we see for many yards the black crust breaking; 'tis hurled forward, and out pours a sea of lava which with dreadful rush attempts to ascend the bank only to fall back on itself and subside into darkness, like some wild beast balked of its expected prey. We hurl stones at the stream, not fifteen yards away, but these are instantly enveloped and we see them no more for ever. Taking a cross cut we descended right upon the bed itself, of course when cold, or nearly so, and safe. There are to be observed rivers, folds, wreaths, tunnels of lava all in wildest of wild confusion. For a mile we continue our course, now between two streams of lava in a molten state, into the which we thrust our sticks and in an instant the ends are all ablaze. The rain commences to fall, descending with a hiss on the heated surface over which we are walking. Ascending a slope of lava more rugged and steep than usual we see below us the "New Lake." We are disappointed. Our expectation was to see a lake of fire, but we only observe five fountains of fire, and the rocks of lava at the edge somewhat red. Our guide says "wait," and we sit down and watch. The whole surface, which is 650 yards by 500 yards, is apparently solid, and of the color of tarnished silver, with crimson veins and arteries traversing it in every direction. By and by this crust near the edge upheaves and falling inwards into blood-red lips, a billow of fire rushes with fierce fury against the dark stern side, only to be hurled back roaring, and moaning, and shattered into foam and spray of liquid fire. Further away the crust upheaves and again and again the process is repeated until the whole lake rolling in foaming billows, lashes itself into fury, wave meeting wave, leaping, circling, as if maddened at being thus confined. Then the red, surges conspiring together rush at the walls as if to scale them and escape, but failing this hurl in revengeful hate balls and jets of fire far up the cliff. But hark! What noise is that? Surely it is the moans of those who in bygone times were cast into this lake of fire to appease the wrath of Pele, goddess dire, whose hair in bunches and clusters of fibrous particles floats weird-like on the wind. Now all is quiet again save seven fountains of living fire, and the emission from cracks and crevices of thin blue sulphurous smoke. During our four hours stay three separate eruptions or breakings-up took place. After each eruptiori the surface seemed tQ cool or become

Page  69 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 69 semi-solid very rapidly. During the first eruption it took but twelve minutes to cover this vast space-with the exception of two cone-like eminences at the end-with fire; fifteen minutes for the second, and eleven minutes for the third. Our expectations are more than realized as we gaze on this scene of devilry. At night the scene is truly horrible. We can but say: "If this be hell, good God preserve us from it." Viewing this scene for hours we theorize as to the why and wherefore of the periodical breaking up and sinking of this surface crust, entirely agreeing with the remarks of Captain Dutton. It is to be accounted for by the intense heat below being insufficient to keep the whole columns of lava in a state of fusion; as a consequence the surface becomes semi-solid, a crust is formed, the temperature of which from the action of the atmosphere slowly diminishes whilst the molten lava far below rapidly gains in heat. As this upper crust becomes cooler and cooler its specific gravity increases, whilst that of the lava below diminishes. This process continues until the immense weight of the crust can no longer be sustained, the difference between the specific gravity of the crust above and the white heat lava below being too great. A maddening, raging, boiling up ensues, rents in the crust are made, huge masses of which sink down until the whole has disappeared. The descent of this crust naturally checks the ebullition to a certain extent, and the loss of heat by radiation is greater than the gain from below, but this is soon checked by the forming of a new surface crust. This process is constantly going on, and is that which I had the pleasure of witnessing three times during a space of four hours. After a two days' sojourn and investigation the return to Hilo is made, but it will be a long time before we forget the wonderful sights of this weird and awesome region of everlasting fire. SUGAR PLANTATIONS AND MILLS. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are planters only. Those marked with a dagger (t) are mills only. All others are plantations complete, owning their own mills. Plantation. Location. Agents. Pepeekeo Plantation.......Hilo, Hawaii.................C. Afong Wailuku Plantation........Wailuku, Maui..........C Brewer & Co Brewer & -*............. Makawao, Maui.........C Brewer & Co East Maui Plantation...... Makawao, Maui.........C Brewer & Co Onomea Sugar Co.........Hilo, Hawaii...........C Brewer & Co Paukaa Sugar Co..........Hilo, Hawaii...........C Brewer & Co Honomu Sugar Co........Hilo, Hawaii.......... C Brewer & Co Princeville Plantation...... Hanalei, Kaui..........C Brewer & Co Hawaiian Agricultural Co... Kau, Hawaii.......... C Brewer & Co Kaneohe Plantation....... Kaneohe, Oahu.........C Brewer & Co Hitchcock & Co.'s PJant'n.. Hilo, Hawaii.......... Castle & Cooke Kohala Plantation......... Kohala, Hawaii......... Castle & Cooke Waialua Plantation........ Waialua, Oahu........ Castle & Cooke

Page  70 70 70 ~~HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Haiku Plantation No. i Haiku Plantation No. 2 Hiu aiCsl ok Alexander & Baldwin's Pt'n.. Paia, Maui.....Castle & Cooke J. M. Alexander *......Paia, Maui. Castle & Cooke A. H. Smith & Co*.....Koloa, Kauai.......Castle & Cooke Union Mill Cot......... —Kohala, Hawaii. -... Theo H Davies & Co G F Holmes*.......Kohala, Hawaii.... Theo H Davies &'Co Kynnersley Bros.*.....Kohala, Hawaii.... Theo H Davies & Co Niulii Plantation......Kohala, Hawaii.... Theo H Davies & Co Beecroft Plantation*. Hawi Millt.....Kohala, Hawaii.... Theo H Davies & Co Felder & Brodie's Plan'n* Hamakua Plantation*...HmkaHaai.TeHDves&C Hamakua Millt... aauHwi. Te ais&C Aamano Plantatio n*. Hamakua, Hawaii.. Theo H Davies & C o Waiakea Plantation* *..HlHwi.. Te ais&C Waiakea Millt...... io aai Te ais&C W Lidgate & Co.'s Plantat'n.. Laupahoehoe, Hawaii. Theo H Davies &Co Kaiwilahilahi Mill......Laupahoehoe, Hawaii. Theo H Davies &Co Kipahulu Mill t.......Hana, Maui......T H Davies & Co Ookala Plantation......Ookala, Hawaii.....H Hackfeld & Co Soper, Wright & Co* *....Ookala, Hawaii.....H Hackfeld & Co H. M. Whitney*......Kau, Hawaii......H Hackfeld & Co Chas. Wall*........Kau, Hawaii. H Hackfeld & Co R. M. Overend.......Honokaa, Hawaii....H Hackfeld & Co Kaluahonu Co*.......Koloa, Kauai.:....H Hackfeld & Co W. Y. Horner*.......Lahaina, Maui.....H Hackfeld & CoChr. L'Orange*.......Hanamaulu, Kauai...,. H Hackfeld & Co Hanamaulu Millt......Hanamaulu, Kauai.... H Hackfeld & Co A. S. Wilcox*........Hanamaulu, Kauai.... H Hackfeld & Co Koloa Ranch*.......Koloa, Kauai......H Hackfeld & Co Koloa Plantation......Koloa, Kauai.. IH Hackfeld & Co Grove Farm*........Nawiliwili, Kauai....H Hackfeld & Co Kilauea Plantation.....Kilauea, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co Lihue Plantation......Lihue, Kauai'..... H Hackfeld & Co Kekaha Mill Co*......Kekaha, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co Pioneer Mill..Lahaina, Maui........H Hackfeld & Co Kipahulu Plantation*....Kipahulu, Maui.....H Hackfeld & Co Hana Plantation......Hana, Maui......H Hackfeld & Co Grove Ranch Plantation... Makawao, Maui.....H Hackfeld & Co Waimanalo Sugar Co....Waimanalo, Oahu...H Hackfeld'& Co R. W. Meyer........Kalae, Molokai.....H H4ackfeld & Co Kekaha Plantation*.....Waimea, Kauai,. -. E Hoffschlaeger & Co Ahuimanu Plantation....Koolau, Oahu...E Hoffschlaeger & Co Fr Bindt*. I I IIIIIEleele, Kauai.....E Hoffschlaeger & Co Makee Plantation......Ulupalakua, Maui....W G Irwin & Co Waihee Sugar Co......Waihee, Maui... W G Irwin & Co Hawaiian Commercial Co... Maui...........W G Irwin & Co Makee Sugar Co......Kealia, Kauai......W G Irwin & Co

Page  71 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 7 7 1 Kealia Plantation......Kealia, Kauai......W G Irwin & Co Honuapo Plantation.....Kau, Hawaii......W G Irwin & Co Naalehu Plantation.....Kau, Hawaii..... V. G Irwin & Co Hilea Sugar Co.......Kau, Hawaii......W G Irwin & Co Star Milif........ Kohala, Hawaii.....W G Irwin & Co Hakalau Plantation.....Hilo, Hawaii...W G Irwin & Co Wainaku Plantation.. Hilo, Hawaii..' W G Irwin & Co Paauhau Milif.......Hamakua, Hawai...... W G Irwin & Co Paauahu Plantation*.....Hamakua Hawaii......W G Irwin & Co Spencer's Plantation.....Hilo, Hawaii.G W Macfarlane & Co Heeia Sugar Plantation Co. Koolau, Oahu... G W Macfarlane & Co Waikapu Plantation. -...-Waikapu, Maui..G W Macfarlane & Co Reciprocity Sugar Co.... Hana, Maui.. G W Macfarlane & Co Huelo Mill Cot.......Huelo, Maui. — G W Macfarlane & Co Grant & Brigstock*. -.... —Kilauea, Kauai... G W Macfarlane & Co Huelo Plantation*......Hamakua, Maui.. G W Macfarlane & Co Kamaloo Plantation.....Molokai..........J McColgan Honokaa Sugar Co.....Halmakua, Hawaii...F A Schaefer & Co Pacific Sugar Mill......Hamakua, Hawaii.. F A Schaefer & Co Rose & Co*........Waimanalo, Oahu. F A Schaefer & Co Eleele Plantation. Koloa, Kauai......F A Schaefer & Co Thompson & Chapin*. Kohala, Hawaii....F A Schaefer & Co.Halawa Plantation.....Kohala, Hawaii........ ilder & Co Laie Plantation.......Laie, Oahu.......J T Waterhouse Waianae Sugar Co......Waianae, Oahu.........H A Widemann Oiowalu Plantation.....Olowalu, Maui......H A Widemann Moanui Plantation......Molokai.......Wong Leong & Co RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS LOCALITIES, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, FOR x882. ____HONOLULU. 0A1IU KAUAI. MAUI. HAWAII. c ~~~~ MONTHS., December....... 9.14 9. 55 6. I2 9.21 4.44 5.56 27.84 January......... 6.02 9.85 4.66 6.75 5.64 I.84 34.00 February...... 3.11 6.io i.88 2.I1 4.44 3.82 22.52 March......... 8.52 7.34 7.45 11.22 5.65 8.87 15.54 April.......... 2.80 3.75 1.52 1.18 2.26 0.91 5.72 May.......... 1i.84 3.41 1. 26 6.07 4.55 2.41 6.6o June......... 1x.10 3.60 0.54 o.85 2.30 0.10 6.22 J uly.......... 0.73 1.55 0.34 1.45 1.31 1.12 7.27 August........ 1.95 4.36 1.72 2.14 3.55 i.68 8.o6 Septemrber....... 2.51 3.90 I-04 0.45 2.82 0.17 8.35 October......... 3.74 4.63 3.55 2.77 2.65 1.26 7.23 November....... 3.93 7.08 2.89 4.86- 10.01 3.33 i6.87 Totals....... 45.39 65.12 32.97 49.06 49.62 31.07 166.22 * r Sihreport-s ~thehigjhe-st range of thermometer recorded at KooKtadrng the year, to have been 14', and the lowest 56'.

Page  72 HAWAIIAN POSTAL TABLE OF RATES CHARGED TO COUNTRIES IN THE UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION. BOOKS AND PRINTED DESTI NATION. |Letters, Postal Cards Registry Paper MATTER SAMPLES. D A ounce. Each. Fee. D z ounce. Each. Fee. 2 ounce. Limit of Postage, Limit of Postage, Each Rate. Each Rate. Each Rate. Each Rate, United States of America, Dominion of Canada and Mexico*....................................... 5 Cents. 2 Cents. so Cents. 2 Cents. 2 ounce. 2 Cents. 2 ounce. 2 Cents. Japan, Ports in China having U. P. U. offices, Straits Settlements and Manila*.......................... Cents. 2 Cents. o1 Cents. 2 Cents. 2 ounce. 2 Cents. 2 ounce. 2 Cents. Great Britain, France, Germany, and all other U. P. U. countries and Colonies.......................... Cents. 3 Cents. xo Cents. 2 Cents. 2 ounce. 2 Cents. 2 ounce. 2 Cents. Where a Receipt for Registered Matter is given 5 cents extra is charged to the Registration Fee. * With a minimum of 5 cents for Books and Printed Matter, and 2 cents for Samples. tWith a minimum of 6 cents for Books and Printed Matter, and 4 cents for Samples. INTER-ISLAND AND COLONIAL TABLE OF POSTAGE. LETTERS. NEWSPAPERS. DESTINATION. Hawaiian U.S. Hawaiian Other Rate. Rate. Register Limi tof aign U. S. Pnted % ounce. % ounce. Fee Each Ra ch Rate h Matter. Inter-Island..................................................2 Cents..... 5 Cents. 4 ounce. i Cent.......... c per os t Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Samoa via N. Z. Direct mail....................... Z Cents.. 15 Cents. eacl paper 2 Cents.....c....... 4. 4 ozs. Countries other than the above, the United States rates-according to destination-in addition to the Hawaiian here given, viz: 6 cents per % ounce on letters, 2 cents per ounce on papers, and x cent per ounce on other matter. - Hawaiian rates, prepayment compulsory. * Pamphlets, Almanacs, Calendars, Magazines, at Newspaper rates. t Books, Samples and Merchandise, I cent per ounce. Z t: WE 54 fp:> Ct~ Z 0 0 Z Cr tl* ':E C:

Page  73 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 73 COUNTRIES AND COLONIES OF THE UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, including the Principality of Lichtenstein. BAHAMAS, BARBADOES, W. I., BELGIUM, BERMUDAS, BRAZIL. BRITISH COLONIES on West Coast of Africa (Gold Coast, Lagos, Senegambia and Sierra Leone.) BRITISH COLONIES IN WEST INDIES, viz: Antigua, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Christopher and the Virgin Isles, Grenada, St. Lucia, Tobago and Turk's Island. BRITISH GUIANA, BRITISH HONDURAS. BRITISH INDIA: Hindostan and British Burmah (African, Pegua and Tenasserim), and the Indian Postal Establishments of Aden, Muscat, Persian Gulf, Guadur and Mandalay. BULGARIA, Principality of. CANADA, CEYLON, CHILE. COLUMBIA, U. S. of. DANISH COLONIES of St. Thomas, St. Croix and St. John. DENMARK, including Iceland and the Faroc Islands. DOMINICA, Republic of. ECUADOR. EGYPT, including Nubia and Soodan. FALKLAND ISLANDS. FRANCE, including Algeria, the Principality of Monaco, and French Post-Office establishments at Tunis, Tangier (Morocco), and at Shanghai (China), Cambodia and Tinquin. FRENCH COLONIES:I. In Asia: French establishments in India (Changernagore, Karikal, Mahe, Pondicherry and Yanaon), and in Cochin China (Saigon, Mytho, Bien-Hoa, Poulo-Condor, VinghHatien, Tschandok). 2. In Africa: Senegaland dependencies(Goree, St. Louis, Bakel, Dagana), Mayotte and Nossi-be, Gaboon (including Grand Bassam and Assinie), Reunion (Bourbon), St. Marie de Madagascar. 3. In Am erica: French Guiana, Guadaloupe and dependencies (Desirade or Deseade, Les Saintes, Marie Galante, and the north portion of St. Martin), Martinique, St. Pierre and Miquelon. 4. In Oceanica: New Caledonia, Tahiti, Marquesas Islands, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands, the Archipelago of Gambler, Toubouai, Tuamotou (Low Islands). GERMANY, including Heligoland Island. GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, including Gibraltar, Malta, the dependencies of Malta (Gozzo, Comino and Cominotto) and the Island of Cyprus. GREECE, including the Ionian Isles. GREENLAND, GUATEMALA. HAWAII, HAYTI. HONDURAS, Republic of, including Bay Islands. HONGKONG and the Post-Offices maintained by Hongkong at Kiung-Chow, Canton, Swatow, Amoy, Foo-chow, Ning-po, Shanghai and Hankow (China). ITALY, including the Republic of San Marino, and the Italian offices of Tunis and Tripoli in Barbary. JAMAICA. JAPAN and Japanese Post-Offices at Shanghai (China), and at Fusampo (Corea). LABAUN, LIBERIA, LUXEMBURG. MAURITIUS and dependencies (the Amirante Islands, the Seychelles and Rodrigues). MEXICO, MONTENEGRO. NETHERLANDS. NETHERLAND COLONIES.: I. In Asia: Borneo, Sumatra, Java, (Batavia), Billiton, Celebes (Macassar), Madura, the Archipelagoes of Banca and Rhio (Riow), Bali, Rombok, Sumbawa, Flores, the S. W. portion of Timor, and the Moluccas. 2. In Oceanica: The N. W. portion of New Guinea (Papua). 3. In A merica: Netherland Guiana (Surinam), Curacoa, Aruba, Bonaire, part of St. Martin, St. Eustatius, and Sabia. NEWFOUNDLAND, NICARAGUA, NORWAY. PARAGUAY, PERSIA, PERU. PORTUGAL, including the Island of Maderia arid Azores. PORTUGUESE COLONIES:I. In Asia: Goa, Damao, Diu, Macao, and part of Timor. 2. In Africa: Cape Verde, Cacheo, Bissao, Islands of St. Thome and Prince's, Ajuda, Mozambique, and the Province of Angola. ROUMANIA (Moldavia and Wallachia). RUSSIA, including Grand Duchy of Finland. SALVADOR. SERVIA. SPAIN, including the Balearic Isles, the Canary Islands, the Spanish possessions on the north coast of Africa (Cente, Penon de la Gomera, Alhucemas, Melilla, and the Chaffarine Islands), the Republic of Andorra, and the postal establishments of Spain on the west of Morocco (Tangier, Tetaun, Larrache, Rabat, Mazagan, Casablanca, Saffi, and Mogadore). SPANISH COLONIESr. In Africa: Islands of Fernando Po, Annobon, and Corisco. 2. In America: Cuba and Porto Rico. 3. In Oceania: The Archipelagoes of the Mariana (Ladrone), and the Caroline Islands. 4. In Asia: The Philipine Archipelago, (Luzon with Manila, Mindanao, Palowan, Panay, Amar, etc). STRAITS SETTLEMENTS (Singapore, Penang and Malacca). ST. VINCENT, W. I. SWEDEN. SWITZERLAND. TRINIDAD, W. I. TURKEY (European and Asiatic.) UNITED STATES. URUGUAY. VENEZUELA. BEARINGS AND DISTANCES. Honolulu Lighthouse to summit of Diamond Head, S. 50~, 37', 4o", E. (true) 24,559 feet. Puuohia to Diamond Head Station, S. 2~, 15', 30", E. (true) 26,515.4 feet. Haleakala to Mauna Kea, S. 39~, 23', 30", E. (true) 79.2 statute miles. Average Magnetic Declination south part of Oahu, 9~, 12', E.

Page  74 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 74 HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1883. The Court. His MAJESTY, KALAKAUA, b. November x6, 1836; elected February I2, 1874, and inaugurated February 13, 1874. Son of Kapaakea and Keohokalole. Her Majesty the QUEEN, b. December 31, 1835. Her Royal Highness the Princess LILIUOKALANI, Heir Apparent, b. september 2, 1838; tm. September I6, 1862, to His Excellency John Owen Dominis, Governor of Oahu K. G. C. of the Royal Orders of Kamehameha and Kalakaua; Kt. Con. of the Orders of Francis Joseph and Isabella Catolica; Member of the House of Nobles and of the Privy Council of State, etc. Proclaimed Heir Apparent to the Throne, April I1, 1877. Her Royal Highness the Princess LIKELIKE, b. January 13, 185I; 'm. September 22, 1870, to the Honorable Archibald Scott Cleghorn, K. G. C. of the Royal Orders of Kamehameha and Kalakaua; Member of the House of Nobles and of the Privy Council of State; has issue Her Royal Highness the Princess Victoria-Ka. wekiu- Kaiulani Lunalilo-Kalaninuiahilapalapa, b. October x6, I875. Her Majesty the Dowager Queen EMMA, b. January 2, 1836; m. to Kamehameha IV. June I9, 1856. Her Royal Highness RUTH KEELIKOLANI, sister to Their late Majesties Kamehameha IV. and V., b. February 9, I8i8. His Majesty's Chamberlain, Hon. C. H. JUDD. His Majesty's Staff. Colonels W F Allen, Ed Hoffman, C H Judd, C P Iaukea, J H Boyd and G W Macfarlane. Staff of the Governor of Oahu. Majors Chas T Gulick and Antone Rosa. House of Nobles. Hons P Kanoa, C R Bishop, His Ex J O Dom. inis, Hons A S Cleghorn, J I Dowsett, S G Wilder, P Isenberg, J Moanauli, W T Martin, M Kapena, J M Smith, P Parker, H Kuihelani, G Rhodes, Their Exs S K Kaai, J E Bush, Hons C H Judd, P P Kanoa, J W Kaae H A Widemann. [The Cabinet Ministers hold seats in the House of Nobles ex officio.] The Cabinet. His Majesty, THE KING. Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs, His Ex W M Gibson; Minister of the Interior, His ExJ E Bush; Minister of Finance, His Ex S K Kaai; Attorney-General, His Ex E Preston. Privy Council of State. His Majesty, THE KING. Honorables W L Green, H A P Carter, J S Walker, W N Armstrong, J 0 Dominis, A F Judd, C R Bishop, A S Cleghorn, J U Kawainuit E O Hall, P Kanoa, E H Allen, J M Smith, S N Castle, G Rhodes, S G Wilder, H M Whitney, J M Kapena, H A Widemann, J Moanauli R Stirling, J A Cummins, W C Parke, * J Smith, W P Wood, C H Judd, L McCully, W F Allen, M Kuaea, Wm Buckle, D L Kinimaka, Their Exs S K Kaai, W M Gibson, J E Bush; C H Judd, Secretary. Department of Judiciary. Chief Justice....................Hon A F Judd First Associate Justice.......... Hon L McCullv Second Associate Justice........Hon B F Austin Clerk.....J................. J E Barnard Deputy Clerk......................D K Fyfe Copyist and Librarian............T K Nathaniel Hawaiian Interpreter...............W L Wilcox Chinese Interpreter.................. Li Cheung Clerk Police Justice Honolulu........H Johnson TERMS OF SUPREME COURT: Sitting at Honolulu, First Monday in January, April, July'and October. Circuit Judges. First Circuit, Oahu.... One of the Judges of the Supreme Court. Second Circuit, Maui........ Hon A Fornander Third Circuit, Hawaii....... Hon F S ma Hon C F Hart Fourth Circuit, Kauai.............Hon J Hardy TERMS OF CIRCUIT COURT: Second Circuit, Maui-First Tuesday of June and first Tuesday of December. Third Circuit, Hawaii-At Waimea, first Tuesday of November; at Hilo, first Tuesday of May. Fourth Circuit, Kauai-First Tuesday of February and August. CLERKS OF CIRCUIT COURT: W O Atwater, Second Circuit: D H Hitchcock, First Clerk Third Circuit; David Porter, Second Clerk; F. Bind, Fourth Circuit. District Justices. OAHU. R F Bickerton, P J................. Honolulu W G Needham........................... Ewa J P Kama.....................W.....Waianae J Kaluhi................. Koolauloa S K Mahoe.......................... Waialua J L Kaulukou.....................Koolaupoko MAUI. H Kuihelani, P J................ Wailuku W F Mossman................. Makawao S W Kaai............................... Hana D Kamaiopili, J P................... Lahaina M Kealoha..........................Honuaula S K Kupihea..........................Moloka S Kahoohalahala......................... Lana KAUAI. R S Hapuku-..........................Lihu e A W Maiho.........................Koloa J Kakani................ Hanalei and Anahola F Sinclair..............................Niihau H Kapuniai........................Waimea K Kaiwi......................... Kawaihau HAWAII. P Haupu................ North Hilo G W A Kapai, J P.....................Hilo J P Miau.........................Hamakua J M Naeole.................. Puna J HS Martin.........K.............Ka J G Hoapili........................North Kona C W P Kaeo................South Kona I B Kaohi.......................North Kohala S H Mahuka................South Kohala Governors. Governor of Oahu........His Ex J O Dominis. Residence, Washington Place, Honolulu.

Page  75 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1883. 75 Governor of Maui..........His Ex J O Dominis. Governess of Hawaii...........H H Kekaulike. Residence, Hilo; F S Lyman, Clerk. Governor of Kauai............ His Ex P Kanoa. Residence, Koloa, Kauai. Department of Foreign Affairs. Minister of Foreign Affairs, His Ex W M Gibson Secretary of Department........ Curtis P Iaukea HAWAIIAN DIPLOMATIC and CONSULAR AGENTS. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Washington, D C........His Ex Elisha H Allen Secretary of Legation................F H Allen Charge dAffaires and Consuls-General. London, England.................. M Hopkins Valparaiso, Chile................... D Thomas Lima, Peru....:................ R H Beddy Bremen, Germany.................J C Pfluger Paris, France...............F Collin de Paradis Consuls-General. New York, U S A................E H Allen, jr Sydney, N S W...................A S Webster Sweden and Norway................H A Burger Brussels, Belgium.... Ferd de Cannart d'Hamale Copenhagen, Denmark.........Julius Holmbald Yokohama, Japan................... R W Irwin Hongkong, China.................. F B Johnson Ottawa, Canada.................C E Anderson Consuls, Etc. San Francisco, Cal..............H W Severance Portland, Or.....................J McCracken Marseilles, France................... A Couve Havre, France................... L de Mandrot Bordeaux, France................ E de Boissac Genoa, Italy............... R de Luchi Boston, Mass..............Acting, E M Brewer Glasgow, Scotland............... J Dunn Otago, N Z.........................H Driver Grand Duchy of Baden Baden........ H Miiller Callao, Peru.....S.................S Crosby Auckland, N Z.................1) B Cruicshank Falmouth, England..................W S Broad Ramsgate, England................A S Hodges Cork, Ireland....................W D Seymour Vienna, Austria...............V Schonberger Edinburgh and Leith, Scotland...E G Buchanan Rouen, France.................... C Schaessler Antwerp, Belgium.................V Forge, jr Melbourne, Victoria.......... G N Oakley Queensland, Australia...........H A Thompson Hamburg, Germany.................E F Weber Bremen, Germany...... J......... F Mller Singapore........................ M Suhl Fayal, Azores........................T F Serpa Nagasaki, Japan...................C L Fisher Panama............... H....... H E Cooke Tasmania........................... A Coote Hull, England................. W Moran Maderia..........................J Hutchinson Victoria, B C.......................R P Rithet Cardiff and Swansea................H Golberg Newcastle, N S W............ Charles F Stokes Ghent, Belgium.............. Ernest Coppieters Dresden, Saxony............... A P Russ Hiogo, Japan..........V ice-Consul, R B Lewis Kobe and Osaka, Japan....... S Endicott Lysckil, Sweden......Vice-Consul, H Bergstrom Liverpool, England.................R C Janion Shanghae, China........ Johnstone Keswick Naples, Italy.............. Michael Cerulli St. Michaels............. I - -.. Richard Seemann Tahiti......................... John K Sumner Jaluit...... Commercial Agent, Hermann Grosser Bankok, Siam....................... Kurtzhalss, Christiania, Norway.................. L Samson Lisbon, Portugal.............. Leon de A Cohen Dundee, Scotland.................... J G Zoller Forrig-a Reresentalives-Di..AiontaticUnited States Minister Resident-His Ex Rollin M Daggett; residence, Hawaiian Hotel. England-Commissioner and Consul-General, jas Hay Wodehouse; residence, Emma street. FrAnce-Consul and Commissioner, Monsieur Henri Feer; residence, Beretania street. Count de Louviere, Chancellor French Legation. Foreign Consuls, Etc. Italy............................. F A Schaefer German Empire... J C Glade Sweden and Norwai I.............. Denmark-Hana, aui................ A Unna Peru............................ A J Cartwright Netherlands. I...................... J H Paty Belgium.... United States................... D A McKinley Mexico.................R W Laine Spain, Vice-Consul.......... Portugal................. A de Souza Canavarro, Austro-Hungary.................... H F Glade Russia, Vice-Consul................ J W Pfluger 'British Vice-Consul................. T H Davies United States, Vice-Consul........ F P Hastings Denmark (acting).............. H R Macfarlane United States Consular Agent, Hilo.... T Spence Japan, Commercial Agent............ J 0 Carter U S Consular Agent, Kahului........ A Hopke U S, Consular Agent, Mahukona....... C L Wight Interior Department. Minister of Interior........... His Ex J E Bush Chief Clerk of Department.......j A Hassinger ( J S Smithies, Clerks.......................... ) J H Boyd (H Smith Registrar of Conveyances............. T Brown Deputy Registrar............... Malcolm Brown Surveyor-General............... W D Alexander Assistant Surveyor................... C J Lyons Postmaster-General........... Hon J M Kapena Assistant Postmaster-General....... I B Peterson Superintendent Public Works........ R Stirling Superintendent Water Works........ C B Wilson Chief Clerk of Water Works............ W Auld Board of Health. His Ex W M Gibson.. President Members-His Ex J E Bushiion -M Moanauli, HAWidemann, A S Cleg orn H selden, Secretary. 3 hysician.................... Port G Troussean J H Brown.............................. Agent Hawaiian Board of Health. Col C H Judd........................ President E P Edwards I J Moanauli. - -. f............. Commissioners of Boundaries. Hawaii............................F S Lyman St. Michaels.............,. Richard Seemann Tahiti........................John K Sumner Jaluit...... Commercial Agent, Hermann Grosser Bankok, Siam.................. Kurtzhalss Christiania, Norway............ L Samson Lisbon, Portugal............ Leon de A Cohen Dundee, Scotland............ J G Zoller Foreign Representatives-DDizlomatic. United States Minister Resident-His Ex Rollin M Daggett; residence, Hawaiian Hotel. England-Commissioner and Consul-General, Jas Hay Wodehouse; residence, Emma street. France-Consul and Commissioner, Monsieur Henri Feer; residence, Beretania street. Countde Louviere, Chancellor French Legation. Foreign Consuls, Etc. Italy.................... F A Schaefer German Empire..... C Sweden and Norway. J........ade Denmark-Hana, Maui................A Unna Peru...........................A J Cartwright Netherlands. Ha Neterlgiu...................... J H Paty United States..................D A McKinley Mexico........... aine Spain, Vice-Consul).......... -. Portugal.................A de Souza Canavarro Austro-Hungary....................H F Glade Russia, Vice-Consul................J W Pfluger 'British Vice-Consul.................T H Davies United States, Vice-Consu........ F P Hastings Denmark (acting)..............H R Macfarlane United States Consular Agent, Hilo....T Spencer Japan, Commercial Agent............J O Carter U S Consular Agent, Kahului........A F Hopke U S Consular Agent, Mahukona.......C L Wight Interior Department. Minister of Interior........... His Ex J E Bush Chief Clerk of Department.......J A Hassinger ( J S Smithies Clerks.......................... J H Bo d (H Smith Registrar of Conveyances.............T Brown Deputy Registrar...............Malcolm Brown Surveyor-General...............W D Alexander Assistant Surveyor..................C J Lyons Postmaster-General...........Hon J M Kapena Assistant Postmaster-General.......I B Peterson Superintendent Public Works...... R Stirling Superintendent Water Works........C B Wilson Chief Clerk of Water Works............W Auld Board of Health. His Ex W M Gibson................. President Members-His Ex J E Bush, Hons J M Moanauli, H A Widemann, A S Cleghorn; F H Hayselden, Secretary. Port Physician....................G Troussean J H Brown............................. Agent Hawaiian Board of Health. Col C H Judd...................... President E P Edwards -- - J PoaTd li } *- *'*..................... Members J Moanauli.... fJ.Members.. Commissioners of Boundaries. Hawaii................F S Lyman

Page  76 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1883. Maui, Molokai and Lanai........L Aholo Oahu:...............R F Bickerton Kauai.................J Hardy Road Supervisors. Road Supervisors in Chief: Hawaii...............C N Arnold Maui..............D Crowningburg HawaiiHilo.................Lee Loy North Kobala............J Smith South Kohala.........S P Wahinenui North Kona............J W Smith South Kona..........J W Kuaimoku Kau.............W Kaaeamoku Hamakua...........Chas Williams MauiLahaina..............D Taylor Wailuku and Makawao......G Armstrong Hana...............P Kawaiku Molokai...............I Nazareta Lanai...............Henry Gibson OahuKona...............C W Hart (Except District of Kona).....W C Lane KauaiWaimea and Niihau.........I Smith Koloa...............J Hardy Lihue..............S W Wilcox Hanalei..............J W Bush Kawaihau...........G B Palohau Commissioners-of Fences. liAWAII. Hilo....C E Richardson, J Keahi, S L Austin, R A Lyman, K Paulo. Hamakua,.......J R Mills, J K Kaunamano North and South Kona.........M Barrett, H Cooper, J W Smith, G F Carsley. North Kohala........- Kamahu, J Wood South Kohala.......J Parker, S H Mahuka Kau.....W. T Martin, C N Spencer, S Ka. waai, D W Kaaenmoku. Makawao.......C H DiceCCrwig burg, P Nui.ceyCCrwig Hana......C K Kakani, M Pupuhi, D Puhi Molokai.....R W Meyer, S Paulo, R Newton OAHU. Kona........J Moanauli, D Kahanu, J S Smithies. Ewa and Waianae..Kaikanahaole S Previere, S Ganda'Ill...... Waialua........H Warden, J Amara, J F Anderson. Koolaulos........Kaluhi, Kaili, W C Lane Koolaupoko....W E Pui Barenaba, C H Judd KZAUAI. Kawaihau.......J M Kealoha, J P Kaumualii, Kapulehua. Moloaa and Lihue....,......W H Rice, S Kssieo, Pahuwai. Agents to Take Acknowledgusents to Instruments, Hawaii.-D H Hitchcock, F S Lyman, C F Hrt, WC BoreHl Dsrc;J W Smith, C N Secer, ahnFSecr J Nawahi, H L hedn, a iio R A Lyman, J K Kaunamnano, Ili, Kahookano, J R Mills, G Bell, C Meinecke, Kapahiu. Maui-H Dickenson, T W Everett, C K Ka. kani, P N Makee, A Fornander, D Puhi, T H Hobron, J Richardson, D Crowiiingburg, R New. ton, J W Kalua, Halama. Molokai-R W Meyer, S K Kupihea, J W Nakuina. Oahu-W C Lane, S N Emerson, G Barenaha, C Brown, J S Kaanaana, W A Whiting, A Ku, A K Hapai, W I. Holokahiki. Kauai-F Bindt, S, W Wilcox, C Bertleman, W H Deverill, J Hardy, G B Rowell, J M Kea. loha. Niihau-C Kahele. Commissioners of Private Ways and Water Rights. HAWAII. Hilo.........D Keawehano, Kami, W C Jones, J Nawahi. Hamakua.....R A Lyman, J K Kaunamano, J R Mills. North and South Kohala.........J Smith, S C Luhiau, Z Kalai. Kau..........C N Spencer, J Kauhane, J H S Martin. MAUI. Lahaina.....M Makalua, L Aholo, D Taylor Wailuku.........P Kaluna, H Kuihelani, J Richardson. Makawao.........J Keohokana, Kekaha, J M Alexander. Hana......0 LUnna, C K Kakani, S W Kaai Kaanapali...........J A Kaukau, J F Kauila, D H Kaliiailii. Molokai.... J Nakaleka, D Kailua, I W Poohea OAHU. Kona.....E Kahanu, J Moanauli, D K Fyfe Koolaupoko.....Kane, G Barenaba, M Rose Koolauloa.......W C Lane, Naili, J Kaluhi Waialua.......J F Anderson, S N Emerson, J Kaiaikawaha. Ewa and Waianae.........S Kaanaana, A Kaoliko, H U Maki. KAUAI. Puna.......W E H Deverill, D Kealahula, A W Maiho. Waimea......G B Rowell, I H Kupuniai, P R Huhi. Hanalei.......S Uza, E Kaaloa, D Niuloihi Board of Immigration. His Ex J E Bush. President Members-Their E'xs- W M1 Gibson', S K Kaai; Hons A S Cleghorn, J M Kapena, J S, Walker. A S Cleghorn...Inspector-General Immigrants J S Smithies..............Secretary Commissioners of Crown Lands. W M Gibson, E Preston, C H Judd, Agent. Appraisers of Land Subject to Government Commutation. Hawaii.........R A Lyman, 3 H Nawahi Maui, Molokai and Lanai......W Everett, L Aholo, D Rahaulelio. Oabu....J S Smithies, C Brown, K F Bickerton Kauai.......3 Hardy, P Kanoa, 3 H Wana

Page  77 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 77 HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1883. I Notaries Public. Hawaii-Hilo.................D H Hitchcock Maui-Haiku......................C H Dickey Makawao...............W H Halstead Oahu-Honolulu.......J H Paty, T Brown, C T Gulick, C Brown, W R Castle, S B Dole, J M Monsarrat, H A Widemann. Kauai -Waimea...................V -Knudsen Chamber-of Commerce. President................... S N Castle Vice-President.....................C R Bishop Secretary and Treasurer........ A J Cartwright Committee of,Boundaries. Hawaii....................... F S Lyman Maui, etc......................... LAholo Oahu.......................... R F Bickerton Kauai............................ J Hardy Agents to Acknowledge Contracts for Labor. Oahu-Honolulu.... C T Gulick, J U Kawainui, J A Hassinger, W Auld, S M Carter. Waialua.... C H Kalama, S N Emerson, H N Kahulu, W S Wond, J H Barenaba. Koolauloa................ W C Lane Koolaupoko.. A Ku, G Barenaba, E P Edwards Ewa and Waianae.....S Kaanaana, J D Holt Hawaii-Hilo.. L Severance, J H Pahio, S K Mahoe, S W Pa, H H Unea. Kona..............K Kamauoha, J W Smith Hamakua....J K Kaunamano, R P Kuikahi, G W Wilfong, S F Chillingworth, A W Haalilio, T R Keyworth. North Kohala...'..Chas L Hopkins, John Ma, guire, H P Woods, D S Kahookano, H L Sheldon, J R Renton. South Kohala...............G Bell, J Jones Kau........J Kauhane, J N Kapahu, W W Goodale, W Kaaeamoku. Puna................ J N Kamoku Maui —Lahaina.........K Nahaolelua, L Aholo Wailuku.... J W Kalua, G E Boardman, S P Halama, G Kaneholani, W H Mamakoa, J Richardson. Makawao........... G Glendon, Jas Smyth G W Beckwith. Hana...Kahele opio, F Wittrock, H Meheula Molokai and Lanai...J W M Poohea, G Kekipi S K Piiapoo. Kauai-Koloa....J N Gilman, L kaulbaum, W H Deverill, Ku. Lihue...........................J B Hanaike Hanalei......J Kaae, J W Loka, J H Mahoe Waimea..........M Kamalenai, J H Kapukui Kawaihau.........T Kalaeone, J M Kealoha Niihau................................Kaomea Department of Attorney General. Attorney General.............His Ex E Preston Clerk to Attorney General...............A Rosa Marshal of the Hawaiian Islands.....W C Parke Deputy Marshal................ David Dayton Sheriff of Hawaii................. L Severance Sheriff of Maui....................T W Everett Sheriff of Kauai....................S W Wilcox Jailor of Oahu1 Prion.,.....,.....W Buckle Honolulu Fire Department. Organized i85I. Annual Election of Engineers First Monday in June. Officers for i882-83: Chief Cngineer.......................... Nott First Assistant Engineer........... Robt C ers Second Assistant Engineer.......... C B Wilson Secretary and Treasurer............. C T GuJick Fire Marshal..................... J W McGuire Annual Parade Day of Department...... Feb 3d Honolulu Engine Company No i (steam) formed i850, organized July i8, i855. Annual election of officers, first Wednesday in July.. Mechanic Enigne Company No 2, organized December, 185o, admitted February 3, 1850. Annual election of officers, first Wednesday in February. Hawaii Engine Co NO 4, organized February ii 86i. Annual election of officers, first Tuesday in February. China Engine Company NO 5 (steam), organized February, i879 -Pacific Hose Company No -z, organized January, x86i, as Engine Company NO 3, changed to a Hose Company December 14, x863. Annual election of officers, second Tuesday in January. Protection Hook and Ladder Company No it, re-organized September, I857. Annual election of officers, first Monday in September. Department of Finance. Minister of Finance His Ex S K Kaai Registrar of Public Xcco'u'n't's —...Godfrey Brown Auditor General.................... J S Walker CollectorGeneral of Customs......... W F Allen Deputy Collector.................. F R Hendry -ist Statistical Clerk............. W Chamberlain 2nd Statistical Clerk............. Geo Markb.-rn Fntry Clerk...................... C K Stillrran Store Keeper...................... G W Pascoe Harbor Master of Honolulu...... Capt A Fuller ( Capts A McIntyre Pilots in Honolulu......... W Babcock I P P Shepherd Port Surveyor...................... J R Morrill Board of Education. President..................... Hon C R Bishop Members.... Hons M Smith, G Rhodes, E 0 Hall, J U Kawainui. Inspector General of Schools...... D D Baldwin Secretary........................... W J Smith School:Agents in Commission. HAWAII. Hilo and Puna.................... L Severance Kau............................. G W C Jones North and South Kona.......... H N Greenwell South Kohala..................... Rev L Lyons North Kohala....................... E N Dyer 11amaktia,....................... Rev J Bicknell MAUI. Lahaina and Lanai.................. R Newton W ailuku........................... J W Girwin Hana................................ S W Kaai Makawao....................... W F Mossman Molokai........................... R W Meyer OAHU, Honolulu.......................... W Smith Ewa and Waianae................... W Smith W,%jalua................ j F derson Honolulu Fire Department. Organized 185I. Annual Election of Engineers First Monday in June. Officers for 1882-83: Chief Cngineer..........................J Nott First Assistant Engineer........... Robt Lewers Second Assistant Engineer..........C B Wilson Secretary and Treasurer.............C T Gulick Fire Marshal.....................J W McGuire Annual Parade Day of Department......Feb 3d Honolulu Engine Company No I (steam) formed I850, organized July I8, I855. Annual electioh of officers, first Wednesday in July. Mechanic Enigne Company No 2, organized December, 185o, admitted February 3, 1850. Annual election of officers, first Wednesday in February. Hawaii Engine Co No 4, organized February i86I. Annual election of officers, first Tuesday in February. China Engine Company No 5 (steam), organized February, I879. Pacific Hose Company No i, organized January, x86I, as Engine Company No 3, changed to a Hose Company December 14, x863. Annual election of officers, second Tuesday in January. Protection Hook and Ladder Company No r, re-organized September, 1857. Annual election of officers, first Monday in September. Department of Finance. Minister of Finance...........His Ex S K Kaai Registrar of Public Accounts.....Godfrey Brown Auditor General....................J S Walker Collector General of Customs.........W F Allen Deputy Collector..................E R Hendry ist Statistical Clerk.............W Chamberlain 2nd Statistical Clerk............. Geo Markhr m Fntry Clerk......................C K Stillran Store Keeper..................... G W Pascoe Harbor Master of Honolulu......Capt A Fuller ( Capts A McIntyre Pilots in Honolulu......... W Babcock I P P Shepherd Port Surveyor....................J R Morrill Board of Education. President..................... Hon C R Bishop Members....Hons J M Smith, G Rhodes, E 0 Hall, J U Kawainui. Inspector General of Schools......D D Baldwin Secretary...........................W J Smith SchoolSAgents in Commission. HAWAII. Hilo and Puna.................... L Severance Kau............................G W C Jones North and South Kona..........H N Greenwell South Kohala.................... Rev L Lyons North Kohala.......................E N Dyer Hamakua....................... Rev J Bicknell MAUI. Lahaina and Lanai..................R Newton Wailuku...........................J W Girwin Hana................................ SW Kaai Makawao......................W F Mossman Molokai.........................R W Meyer OAHU, Honolulu..........................W J Smith Ewaand Waianae...................W Smith Waialua................J......J F Anderson

Page  78 78 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1883 Koolauloa...........................W C Lane Koolaupoko.....................Rev J Manuel KAUAI. Waimea and Niihau.................V Knudsen Koloa, Koolau, Hanalei, Lihue. Rev J W Smith Life, Fire and Marine Insurance Agencies. Firemens's Fund................... Bishop & Co Liverpool & London & Globe....... Bishop & Co Equitable Life..................A J Cartwright Imperial Fire................... A J Cartwright New England Mutual Life.......Castle & Cooke Union, San Erancisco...........Castle & Cooke British and Foreign Marine.........T H Davies Northern Fire and Life.............T H Davies Rheinish Westphalian Lloyd.......J C Glade Aachen and Leipsic..................J C Glade North German Fire...........H Hackfeld & Co Trans-Atlantic Fire...........H Hackfeld & Co Swiss Lloyd Fire..............H Hackfeld & Co New York Life................. C O Berger Nor Br & Merc'l F & L... E Hoffschlaeger & Co Northwestern Mutual Life......W G Irwin & Co Swiss Lloyd Marine............W G Irwin & Co Union Fire of New Zealand.... W G Irwin & Co Great Western Marine.........W G Irwin & Co Royal, of Liverpool............ W G Irwin & Co Hamburg-Magdeburg Fire............A Jaeger Lion, Fire, of London................A Jaeger Pacific Mutual Life................ R W Lamne State Investment F & M of Cal...... R W Laine London & Prov., Fire..........J T Waterhouse City of London, Fire...............C O Berger Man attan Life.....................J H Paty Hamburg-Bremen Fire.......F A Schaefer & Co German Lloyd Marine.......F A Schaefer & Co Fortuna Marine.............F A Schaefer & Co Mutual Life of New York..........Wilker & Co Lodges. LE PROGRES DE L'OCEANIE, NO 124, A F & A M; meets on King St., on the last Monday in each month. HAWAIIAN, NO 21, F &A M; meets in its hall corner Queen and Fort Streets, on the first Monday in each month. ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER; meets in the hall of Le Progres de l'Oceanie every third Thursday of each month. COMMANDERY NO I KNIGHTS TEMPLAR; meets at the Lodge Room of Le Progres de l'Oceanie second Thursday of each month. KAMEHAMEHA LODGE OF PERFECTION. NO I. A & A S R; meets in the hall of Le Progres de l'Oceanie every fourth Thursday of each month. NUUANU CHAPTER OF ROSE CROIX, NO r, A & A S R; meets at the hall of Le Progres de l'Oceanie, first Thursday in the month. ALEXANDER LIIHOLIHO COUNCIL OF KADOSH; meets on the third Monday of alternate months from February. EXCELSIOR No I, I O of 0 F; meets at the hall in Odd Fellows' Building, on Fort Street, every Tuesday evening. HARMONY LODGE, No 2, I 0 of O F; meets each Thursday in the hall of Excelsior Lodge. POLYNESIAN ENCAMPMENT, No I, I O of O F; meets at Odd Fellows hall, first and third Fridays of each month, OAHU LODGE NO I, K of P; meets every Wednesday at hall on Fort Street. SECTION NO - ENDOWMENT RANK, K of P; meets on the second Monday of each month in the hall of Oahu Lodge. HAWAIIAN COUNCIL NO 689, AMERICAN LEGION OF HONOR; meets on first and third Tuesdays of each month in the hall of Oahu Lodge. HAWAIIAN TRIBE, No i, IMP. 0 R M; meets at the hall of Oahu Lodge, K of P, every Fri. day evening. COURT LUNALILO, No 6600; A O of FORESTERS; meets at hall of Oahu Lodge, K of P, on second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. GEo. W DE LONG POST, No 45, G A R; meets the Monday evening preceding the third Thursday of each month at K of P hall, Fort Street. OCEANIE COUNCIL, No 977, AMERICAN LEGION OF HONOR; meets on the first and third Tuesdays of each month, at the K of P hall. ALGEROBA LODGE, I O G T; meets every Monday evening at the K of P hall, Fort Street. Volunteer Military Companies. Prince's Own-Artillery.... His Majesty, Maj; C P Iaukea, Adj; H Kaaha, Capt. Leleiohoku Guard —Cavalry.... Makanui, Capt Hawaiian Guards, Co A.......C T Gulick, Capt Hawaiian Guards, Co B....... C B Wilson, Capt Mamalahoa........................W P Wood Anniversaries. New Years...........................January I Accession of Kalakaua.............February 13 Birthday of Kamehameha III........March 17 Birth of the Queen of Great Britain....May 24 In Memory of Kamehameha I..........June II American Independence..................July 4 Birth of His Majesty the King.....November 16 Recognition Hawaiian Independence.. Nov 28 Christmas........................December 25 Queen's Hospital. ERECTED IN x86o. President.............His MAJESTY THE KING Vice-President.....................C R Bishop Sec'y...F A Schaefer I Treas.......J H Paty Auditor... -......E P Adams Physicians..........R McKibbin, G Trousseau Executive Committee-C R Bishop, J H Paty, F A Schaefer, A J Cartwright, A S Cleghorn. American Relief Fund. Organized I864. Meets annually February 22 President.......................A J Cartwright Vice-President........... Rev S C Damon Secretary and Treasurer............C R Bishop British Benevolent Society. Organized 186o. Meets annually May 24. President......................J H W6dehouse Vice-President...............Rev A Mackintosh Sec'y..... J S Smithies I Treas....A S Cleghorn Treas Assts.........J A Kennedy, F M Swanzy Con Committee. G Rhodes, G Lucas, A Young, A Mackintosh, A S Cleghorn, E B Thomas, F Hayselden.

Page  79 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1883. British Club. Organized 1752. Premises on Union Street, two doors below Beretania. President...................... A S Cleghorn Sec'y.........G Brown I Treas..........H May Managers-A S Cleghorn, Godfrey Prown, H Macfarlane. Mechanics' Benefit Union. Organized 1856. Pres........T R Lucas | Vice-P..M R Colburn Sec'y........Wm Auld Treas.... J F Colburn Ex Com —T Sorenson, C Lucas, F Johnson. German Benevolent Society. Organized August 22, 1859. President..................... H W Schmidt Secretary.................. Max Eckart Treasurer............J F Hackfeld St. Antonio Benevolent Society. Organized December, 1876. President..............................J Perry Vice-President.................. M B Silvara Sec......John A Faria I Treas........J Robello Mission Children's Society. Organized 1851. Anuual Meeting in June. President.................Dr J M Whitney Vice-President...................J B Atherton Recording Secretary..............Oscar White Cor Secretary.......... Miss M A Chamberlain Home Cor Secretary............ Mrs M Benfield Elective Members........Mrs. C M Hyde. F W Damon. Treasurer...........................W W Hall Library and Reading Room Association. Organized March I, Incorporated June 24, 1879. President....S............. S B Dole Vice-President..................M M Scott Sec'y....G W Stewart I Treas.......A L Smith Directors-A J Cartwright, A Marques, Dr C T Rodgers, H R Hollister, W Hill, H A Parmelee, A S Hartwell, H Waterhouse, Dr C M Hyde. Oahu College. Located at Punahou, two miles east of Honolulu. President............... Rev W L Jones, M A Instructor in Languages................A Pratt Assistants... Miss H R Lewis and Miss A Royce Teacher of Music.............Mrs J E Hanford Teacher of Drawing............ Miss E C Jones Matron...................... Mrs W L Jones Board of Hawaiian Evangelical Association. Originally organized 1823. Constitution revised I863. Annual meeting June. President.............................- - Vice-President................ Hon A F Judd Corresponding Secretary........Rev A O Forbes Recording Secretary..... Rev C M Hyde, D D treasurer... E O Hall | Auditor.....PC Jones Young Men's Christian Association. Organized i869. Annual meeting in April. President..............................A Pratt Vice-President............. Hon A F Judd Sec'y......W A Bowen I Treas.....F N Eckley Ladies' Benevolent Society of Fort Street Church. Organized I853. Meets annually in April. President.......................Mrs W W Hall Vice-President................Mrs J M Whitney Ssc'y.. Miss H S Judd I Treas....Mrs P C Jones Directress........................Mrs E O Hall Hooulu Lahui Benevolent Society. Organized 1878. President....................H M THE QUEEN Treasurer.....................Mrs J G Dickson Woman's Board of Missions. Organized I871. President...................Mrs Lowell Smith Recording Secretary............Mrs S E Bishop Home Cor Sec'y.............. Miss E B Knight Foreign Cor Sec'y.............. Mrs L McCully Treasurer................ Mrs B F Dillingham Auditor.............................W W Hall Stranger's Friend Society. Organized i852. Annual meeting in June. President...................... Mrs S C Damon Vice-Presidents.. Mrs C R Bishop and 'Mrs J S McGrew. Sec'y.... Mrs L Smith I Treas.. Mrs S E Bishop Directess................... Mrs A Mackintosh Missionary Gleaners-Branch of Woman's Board. President....................... Mrs E O Hall Vice-President................. Miss H S Judd Secretary.................Miss H Chamberlain Treasurer...................Miss Bernice Parke Helping Hand Society-Branch of Woman's Board. Organized 1879. President......................Mrs C M Hyde Vice-President.................. Miss S L King Secretary......................Mrs S Mahelona Treasurer....................Mrs A F Cooke Amateur Musical Society. Organized I85r. Re-organized 1878. President.................. Hon A F Judd Vice-President............... F M Swanzy Musical Director......................H Berger Treas......G P Castle | Sec'y.C R Scarborough Sailors' Home Society. Organized 1853. Meets annually in December. President................. S N Castle Sec'y....F A Schaefer Treas.....C R Bishop Ex Com-E O Hall, P C Jones, S C Damon. a1

Page  80 HAWAIIAN ALMAN AC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR z883. Places of Worship. BETHEL CHURCH (Congregational) corner of King and Bethel streets, Rev S C Damon, D D, Pastor. Services every Sunday at 11 A M. Sunday-school meets at 9.45 Ai M. Prayer Meeting Wednesday evenings at 7.30. FORT STREET CHURCH (Congregational) corner of Fort and Beretania streets, Rev J A Cruzan, Pastor. Services every Sunday at I1 A M and 7.30 P M. Sunday-school meets one hour before morning service. Prayer Meeting Wednesday evenings at 7.30, and Sunday evenings at 6.45. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, Fort street, near Beretania; Rt Rev Hermann, Bishop of Olba, Revs Rejis and Clement, assisting. Services every Sunday at 5 and IO A M, and at 4.30 P M. Low Mass every day at 6 and 7 A M. High Mass Sundays and Saints' days at IO A M. EPISCOPAL CHURCH, Emma Square; Rt Rev Bishop of Honolulu officiating, assisted by Rev A Mackintosh and Rev Geo Wallace. Services in English every Sunday at 6.30 and II A M, and 7.30 P M. Services in Hawaiian every Sunday at 9 A M and 3.30 P M. Sunday-school one hour before English morning service. CHRISTIAN CHINESE CHURCH, Fort street, F W Damon, Acting Pastor. Services every Sunday at 10.30 A M and 7.30 P M. Prayer Meeting Wednesdays at 7.30 P M. NATIVE CHURCHES. KAWAIAHAO CHURCH (Congregational), corner of King and Punchbowl streets, Rev H HParker, Pastor. Services in Hawaiian every Sunday at II A M, and at 7.30 on Sunday evenings alternating with Kaumakapili. Sunday-school at o1 A M. Prayer Meeting Wednesday at 7.30 P M. KAUMAKAPILI CHURCH, (Congregational), Beretania street, near Maunakea. --- Pastor. Services in Hawaiian every Sunday at 10.30 A M, and at 7.30 P M on Snnday evenings alternating with Kawaiahao. Sunday-school at 9.30 A M. Prayer Meeting every Wednesday at 7.30 PM. Board of Underwriters-Agencies. Boston........................C Brewer & Co Philadelphia................... C Brewer & Co New York..................... A J Cartwright Liverpool.................... T H Davies Lloyds, London....................T H Davies San Francisco......H.........H Hackfeld & Go Bremen, Dresden, Viennea........F A Schaefer Packet Agencies. Boston Packets.................C Brewer & Co.~~~~~~~~ Brwr.C Planters' Line, San Francisco... C Brewer & Co Regular Dispatch Line.......F A Schaefer & Co O S S Co's Line.............. W G Irwin & Co Spreckels' Line................W G Irwin & Co Merchants' Line, San Francisco..Castle & Cooke New York Line.................Castle & Cooke Liverpoolw l..G W Macfarlane & Co Glasgow.. t...........GWM.-.&Co Pacific Mail S S Co..........H Hackfeld & Co Bremen Packets..............H Hackfeld & Co Hawaiian Packet Line.......H Hackfeld &,Co List of Government Surveying Corps. W D Alexander........... Superintendent C J Lyons...........Assistant in charge of office J S Emerson. S El Bishop.n - *........ in charge ot Parties G E G Jackson, employed in Hydrographic work; G H Barton, J T Perriman, E D Baldwin, W A Wall. Deutscher Verein. (Organized 1879.) President......................H A Widemann Vice-President......................C O Berger Secretary and Treasurer...............J Hoting Publications. The Gazette, issued every Wednesday morning. R. Grieve & Co., Publishers and Proprietors. The SATURDAY PRESS, issued every Saturday morning. Thomas G. Thrum, Publisher and Proprietor. The Daily Pacific Commercial Advertiser, issued every morning (except Sundays); weekly edition issued on Saturdays. W M Gibson, Publisher. The Daily Bulletin, issued every morning (except Sundays). G Carson Kenyon, Editor. The Friend, issued on the first of each month. Rev S C Damon (Seamen's Chaplain), Editor and Publisher. The Anglican Ckurch Chronicle, issued on the first Saturday of every month. Revs A Mackintosh and G Wallace, Editors. The Planters' Monthly. W O Smith, Editor. The Hawaii Pae Aina (native), issued every Saturday morning. J U Kawainui, Publisher and Editor. The Kueokoa (native), issued every Saturday morning. Rev H H Parker, Publisher and Editor. The Elele Poakolu (native), issued every Wednesday. W M Gibson. Publisher. -—, -, -....?....,- -.......... -"x --- --- —--— ^~ ----.-ce H. E. IMcInTTYRE & BROS., PRO VISION MERCHANTS, GcR' OCfEY No.nT D Kin=g STORE, Cor)ner of Fort ancd Kinig Streets............................ Honoludlu, H. I.: *

Page  [unnumbered] 'SE P. 193,.__ ' * / A HHAWAIIAN FA I LM'~c - I^~i g rt '* -;' ' < it |r:-~: --. ' - i i L]n MVatt'rs Relating to the Hawaiian Islands, Original and Selected, of ~Value to Merchants, Planters, Tourists and Uthers, W. TENTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION. * COPYRIGHTEII RCCORDING TO LAW, I PRINTED BY i THOS. G. THRUM, MERCHANT ANDt FOR STS., HtONOI.ULU'. I"'4 E'"E ****!

Page  [unnumbered] HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANN UAL. TABLE OF CONTENTS. PAGE. Holidays, Cycles, Church Days and Eclipses........................ 4 Quarterly Calendars.............................................. 5, 7, 9, I Reciprocity Treaty Schedule...................................... 6 Noted Clipper and Steamer passages.............................. 8 Inter-Island Distances by Sea.......................... I0 Overland Distances, Hawaiian Islands..................21........ 12-13 Latitudes and Longitudes Principal Points......................... 13 Sugar Plantation Values, etc............................. 14 Comparative Table, Import Values from Various Countries, 1875-82.... 15 Nationality of Vessels in Carrying Trade, I875-82............ 15 Comparative View of Commerce from 1845......................... 6 Selections fromn Custom House Tables I882........................ 7-20 Revenues and Expenditures of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1856-1882.... 20 Comparative Table Leading Imports Alternate Years 1874-1882...... 21 P s Office Statistics............................................ 21 Appropriation Bills, Comparatiye 1882 and 1884................... 22-29 M eteorological Table 1873-77.................................... 29 Hawaiian Woods and Forest Trees...................... 30-32 M ountain Clim bing............................................... 32-34 Marine Casualties for the Hawaiian Islands.......................34-38 Sugar Plantations and Mills...................................... 38-40 Selection from Regulations of Carriages and Rates of Fare....... 40-4I Hawaiian Names of Relationships....................... 42-44 Hawaiian Registered Vessels........................45 The H aze from Java............................................. 46-48 Casualties of Shipping for 1883................................... 48-49 Hawaiian Hospitality.......................................... 49-52 Noted Voyages, Travels, &c., Relating to the Pacific..........53-58 Custom House Regulations, Poit Charges, etc.................. 58-64 Retrospect of the Year 1883...................................... 64-69 Census of the Hawaiian Islands.................................. 70 Table of Principal Elevations.............................. 71 Hawaiian Islands Postal Service............................... 72 New Postage Stamps...................................... 73 Rain Record, Hawaiian Islands, I883............................. 74 Receipts and Expenditures, Hawaiian Islands, 1876-I884............. 74 Table of Foreign Coins Current in Honolulu.......................75 Register and Directory, Hawaiian Islands...................... 7680

Page  1 HAWVAIIAN ZALMANAC "i ANNUAL - FOR - 41884. -'I A HAND BOOK OF INFORMATION On Matters Relating to the Hawaiian Islands, Original and Selected, of Value to Merchants, Planters Tourists and Others. TENTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION. COPYRIGHTED ACCORDING TO LAW. PRINTED BY JTHOS. G. THRUM, COMPILER AND PUBLISHER, MERCHANT AND FORT STS., HONOLULU.

Page  2 COUNTING HOUSE F;? A 'A r YwA5% 7 1884. —7 00 00 JAN. I I 2' 3! 4 5 61 7 8 9Io1II I12 13 I415 I56 71I8 19 20o2Ij22123 24525 26 27 28|29 303I|,I.i...!o.... 1I 2 3i 4 5 61 71 89 iIO II 12 I3 I4iI5 I6 117 I8 I9 20i2122223 12425 26 27:28 29'. 2 3 4 51 6; 7 8 9 IO II I2 13 14 15;I6i17 I8 I9 20:21 22 23 24 252627 28 29 30 31i *...... 1.. 21 3 4 5 1 6' 7 8' 9IO!III2!I3 I41I5 I6I71 8 19 i2021 2 2232425 26 '27 2829 30i..: 1.'3..'.... II 2 3' 4 5 67 71 8 910 11112 13 I4|15ii6 7 I81 9 2021 22123,24 25i26 27 2829 30!31 I! 2 3' 4 51 6i 7 81 9 1011i I21'3 14 5 i I6t7i 8I I9 2072I 22 23124125!26 27!28 293o j....l...:. _-^ I I *trl C A I X 30 o?-> Y - 'I g o a jt~ r- f O I I 00JULY JULY AAUG, iSEPT.... >;5W > I 21 3, 4: 5 6 71 8 I 90IoiI 12 13 I41I5 I6I7|I8 I9 20 2 2 222324 25 26 27 28 29130 3'1.... I.1.. 1. I | 2 341 45 6 7 8| 9 l II I21 31I4i I516 17 I8 I9 20 21 22123 24 25 26 27 28|29130 31...I i....i.. I| 2! 3i 41 5 6 7 8 9! 1011;12!13 14 15 i6 17:I8I9 20 21 22 23124 25 26 27 28 2930;..i.... I 21 3 4 5, 6 7 8 9glIolI 12 13 I415 I6 I7 8I 19 2021 22 23 24'25 26 27 28129 30,31 * I 1I 2 3; 41 5 61 71 8 9 Io01III2, 3 14115 I61l7 I8 19 20o2122 23124 25126 27 28!29 3o..I....i..I.. 301 K.1.I 21 3 4, 5| 6 7 8j 910 i I2i3 I4'15, 6 17 I8iI9I20 2I,2223 2432526127 28 |913oi3 1 | OCr,. MAY 'NOV. DEC.

Page  3 k.ADT-/MzE 3 ADVERTISEMENT. J/Ji7TH thisisue closer the first decade of the HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL'S existence. How far it has filled the sphere of usefulness which it aimed to occupy in supplying accurate information and handy reference tables on matters principally pe? taining to these Islands, its steadily increasing circulation, and growing pages gives antple proof This flattering reception at the hands of the public has been the incentive to continued dilligent effort to merit the confidence and support accorded. It has been, also, a work of aloha to compile material in this manner to disseminate abroad the comparatively but little known truths and pecultarities of Hlawaii-nei in zts land, its people, its language, and its products. In this connection the compiler would acknowledge his indebtedness to the valuable and increasing corps of contributors. While new subjects and features are sought to be presented each issue, those of merit are continued from year to year for convenience of reference as far as practicable, all of which have careful evision to as late a date as is possible. THOS. G. THRUM. Honolulu, November, i883.

Page  4 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN ANNUAL CALENDAR FOR I884. Being the Io6th year since the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands by Captain COOK: The latter part of the Io8th and the beginning of the Iogth year of the Independence of the United States of America. Also, The Year 5644-45 of the Jewish Era; The Year I302 of the Mahommedan Era; The Year 2637 since the foundation of Rome, according to Varro. HOLIDAYS OBSERYED AT THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. *New Year....................Jan. I *Kamehameha Day............June II Chinese New Year............Jan. 27 American Anniversary.........July 4 *Accession of Kalakaua........Feb. 13 *His Majesty's Birthday......Nov. 16 *Kamehameha III. Birthday..Mar. 17 *Recognition of Hawaiian Inde*Good Friday............. Apl. 13 pendence..................Nov. 28 Birth of Queen Victoria...... May 24 *Christmas................. Dec. 25 Those prefixed by a * are recognized by the Government. CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. Dominical Letter................ F. E. Solar Cycle..........'.............17 Epact............................ 3 Roman Indiction............ 12 Golden Number.................... 4 Julian Period................. 6597 CHURCH DAYS. Epiphany.....................Jan. 6 Whit-Sunday.................June I Ash Wednesday............... Feb. 27 Trinity Sunday................June 8 First Sunday in Lent........... Mar. 2 Corpus Christi.................June 12 Good Friday................ April II Advent Sunday................Nov. 11 Easter Sunday................April 13 Christmas................... Dec. 25 Ascension Day............... May 22 ECLIPSES IN 1884. Prepared for the Annual by Prof. W. D. ALEXANDER. In 1884 there will be five eclipses-three of the Sun, and two of the Moon. I. A partial eclipse of the Sun March Moon leaves shadow....Io 3 9.5 A.M. 26, 1884, not visible at Honolulu. 3. A partial eclipse of the Sun, not 2. A total eclipse of the Moon April 9- visible in Honolulu, April 25, 1884. 10, 1884, visible at Honolulu, as follows: 4. A total eclipse of the moon October D. H. M. 4, not visible here. Moon enters shadow.... 9 II 20.9 P.M. 5. A partial eclipse of the Sun October Total eclipse begins.... 1o 028.4 A.M. I8, barely visible on Kauai, hardly at Total eclipse ends...... I.2 1.9 A.M. Honolulu, about 2.30 P.M.

Page  5 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 5 FIRST QUARTER, i884. JANUARY. FEBRUARY. M1ARCH. D. H. Mi. D. H. M. D. H. A. 5 First Quarter...1-.03.6 A. A1. 3 First Quarter... 7.25.7 P. M. 4. First Quarter.. 3.01.6 A. M. 12 Full Moon...... 4.55.6 A. N1. io Full Moon...... 6.16.4 P. I. ii Full Moon... 0.o8.4 A. M. ig Last Quarter... 6.51.8 P. M. i8 Last Quarter.... 4.41.1 P. l. 1:9 Jast Quarter... 0.41.5 p. M. 27 New Moon. 6.29.7 P. M. 26 New Moon..... 8.03.6 A. M. 26 New Moon.... 7.16.0 P. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. A1. H. 5.1 1H. M. I Tues....6 41 6 525 6 I Fri. 6 42 4 5450 1Sat. 624 6 600 3 2 Wed....642 05 26 02 Sat. 64215 45 5 2SUN... 623 76Ooo8 3 Thurs... 6 42 5 5 26 5 3 SUN.... 6 41 8 546 1 3 Mon... 6 22 8601 3 4 Fri....642 95 26 9 4 Mon....6 41 5 5 46 7 4 Tues. 16 21 8 6oi 8 5,Sat....6 43 4 5274 5 Tues.... 641 2 54712 5 Wed... 62096 02 2 6~SUN.... 6 43 9 5 27 9 6tWed.... 6 40 7 547 8 6 Thurs. 620 o 6 02 6 C1 F~~~~~~~~~~~~3~ 71Mon....6 44 45 28 4 7IThurs 6. 640 25 48 4 7 Fri. 6 i9 i6 03 0 81 Tues.... 6 44 85288 8 Fri....639 7 5490 8Sat. 6 I8 2 603 3 1Tr..64495294 9 Sat. 63925496 9 SUN..617 36 03 7 64505 30 Ii oSUN.... 6 38 75503 lOMon.... 9 i6 4'6 04 I Fri...... 6 45 1 5 30 8 II Mon. 6 38 1550 9 H Tues. 6. 6 855 6 04 5 12Sat.....6 45 25 31 I4Tues....... 6 37 5 5 51 5 12 Wed.... 64 76 048 I3SUN.... 6 425 35 32 I 13 Wed.... 6 36 9 5 52 I 13Thurs...6 13 9 6 05 0 14 Mon...6 4 545328 4Thurs... 6 36 3 5 526 14 Fri....6 613 I6 05 2 5 iTues....6 4555 335 i5Fri. 6 3575 53 4 15 Sat.... 6 2 6 6054. I6LWed..6 45 5 5 34 1i6 Sat.. 6 35 I 5 53 6 i6 SUN..6 II 5 6 05 6 17Thurs..6.. 45 65 34 7 17SUN.... 6 34 5554 2 I7 Mop.... 6 I0 7 6 05 8 r8 Fri.. 6 45 6 5 35 3 I8 Mon....6 33 8 5 54 7 IS8Tues., 6I io o6 o6 0 191;Sat....6 45 6 5 35 9 i9 Tues...6 33 1 555 I I9 Wed. 6o09 o 6 o6 4 201SUN....6 4575365 20XWed.... 63245 55 5 20 Thurs.. O 6o 6 o6 8 21i'Mon.....6 457 5 5371 2 IThurs... 6 3 175 560 2I Fri..., 60706 0733 22 Tues.... 6 45 7 5 37 7 22 Fri. 6 31 0 5 6 4 22 Sat....6 o6 o6 07 7 23 Wed.... 6 4565385 235Sat......6 30 3 5 569 23 SUN...6o5 o 6 OS81 24 Thurs... 6 45 4 5393 245SUN.... 6 29 6 5573 24 Mon.... 6 03 96 O8 5 25 Fri....6 45 1 5 40 125 Mon....6 28 9 557 8 25 Tues.... 6 02 9 6 O8 9 26 Sat. ~..6 44 6 5 40 9 26 Tues.... 6 28 2 5 58 2 26 Wed.... 6oi 9 6 09 3 275SUN.... 6 44 1 5 41 7 27 Wed.... 6 27 3 5 58 7 27 Thurs... 6 00 9 6 09 7 28 Mon..6 43 7 542 5 28 Thurs... 6 2645 592 28 Fri....559 96 IO 20OTues.... 6 43 3 5 43 3 29 Fri....6 25 5 559 7 295Sat... 9 58 916 IO 6 30OWed.... 6 43 0 5439 3OSUN... 557 9~6 Ii 0 31 Thurs..6 42 7 5 44 4 31 Mon.... 55~6 9 6 II 4 The Hawaiian Grass house is rapidly becoming a thing of the past, even in the out districts. Natives now find it much cheaper to build of wood and emulate the style of modest cottage architecture of their foreign brothers, than to gather the grass from distant hill sides. Through the browsing of cattle and goats over vallies and hills this- article has become almost unknown. Importations of lumber has grown from $5o,155. I8 in 1873 to $248,557.23 in 1882.

Page  6 6 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. LIST OF FREE IMPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES BY TREATY. When Properly Certified to before the Hawaiian Consul. Agricultural Implements, Animals. Bacon, Beef, Books, Boots and Shoes, Bullion, Bran, Bricks, Bread and Breadstuffs of all kinds, Butter. Cement, Cheese, Coal, Cordage, Copper and Composition Sheathing, Cotton and Manufactures of Cotton, bleached and unbleached, and whether or not colored, stained, painted or printed. Doors, Sashes and Blinds. Eggs, Engines and parts thereof. Fish and Oysters, and all other creatures living in the water, and the products thereof; Fruits, Nuts and Vegetables, green, dried or undried, preserved or unpreserved; Flour, Furs. Grain. Ham, Hardware, Harhess, Hay; Hides, dressed or undressed; Hoop Iron. Ice; Iron and Steel, and manufactures thereof: Nails, Spikes and Bolts, Rivets, Brads or Sprigs, Tacks. Lard; Leather, and all manufactures thereof; Lumber and Timber of all kinds, round, hewed, sawed, and manufactured in whole or in part; Lime. Machinery of all kinds, Meal and Bran, Meats, fresh, smoked or preserved. Nails, Naval Stores, including Tar, Pitch, Resin, Turpentine, raw and rectified. Oats. Paper, and all manufactures of Paper or of Paper and Wood, Petroleum, and all Oils for illuminating or lubricating purposes; Plants, Shrubs, Trees and Seeds, Pork. Rice. Salt, Shooks, Skins and Pelts, dressed or undressed; Staves and Headings, Starch, Stationery, Soap, Sugar, refined or unrefined. Tallow, Textile Manufactures made of a combination of wool, cotton, silk or linen, or of any two or more of them, other than when readymade clothing; Tobacco, whether in leaf or manufactured. Wagons and Carts for the purposes of agriculture or of drayage, Wood and manufactures of Wood, or Wood and Metal, except Furniture either upholstered or carved, and Carriages; Wool and manufactures of Wool, other than ready-made clothing. CFor full particulars of Reciprocity Treaty, see Annual for i877. ARTICLES ADMITTED INTO THE UNITED STATES FREE OF DUTY, From the Hawaiian Islands, when Propery Certified to before the U. S. Consul. Arrow-root; Bananas; Castor Oil; Hides and Skins, undressed; Pulu; Rice; Seeds; Plants, Shrubs or Trees; Muscovado, Brown, and all other unrefined sugar, commonly known as "Sandwich Island Sugar;" Syrups of Sugar Cane, Melado and Molasses; Tallow, Vegetables, dried aud undried, preserved and unpreserved:

Page  7 HAWAT1IAN AIMAMAC AND ANNIUAL. SECOND QUARTER, 1884. APRIL. MAY. JUNE. 1). ' H. M. 1'... IMD. H. M. 2 First Quarter...o10.45.4 A. M. i First Quarter... 7.36.0 p. M. 8 Full Moon..... 9.17.7 A. M. io Full Moon...... i. 2.6 A. Mn. 9 Full Moon..... 5.36.. Pi. iM. 6 Last Quarter... 4.02.9 A. M. 18 Last Quarter... 5.23.2 A. M. 17 Last Quarter... 5.22.2 P. M. 22 New Moon.... 7.o01.6 r. M. 25 New Moon..... 4.26.1 A. M. 24 New Moon.....05.0 r. nI. 29 First Quarter.. 7.43.2 p. M. 31 First Quarter... 6.25.0 A. iM.,. H. 1. H. I,1. 35 612 22 Sat......3 6 3 4 Fr. I.5 301. 6. O 6i 21. We. i 20. 6 36 2o rus... 555 86 8 6 Mhurs... 5 31 o6 22 9 SUN... 5 20 o 6 35 4 26Wd.... 5 55 3 6 120 2 Fr6 T..... 5 302 5 6 23 2 2 Mo.... 5 20 o 6 35 7 3 thurs... 5 54 46 12 2 3 Sat... 5 30 o6 23 5 3 Tues.. 5 20 o6 36 o 41r......5 53 7o6 12 4SU. 5 2956238 4Wed....52016362 TuCs....5 5 5106 13 0 8 Thurs... 5 27 66 25 i 8 SUN... 5 20 86 37 9 Wed.... 550 o6 13 4 9 Fri.... 5 2 2 6 25 4 9Mo.... 5 21 o 6 37 loThurs... 5 49 o 6 138 o Sat...... 15 26 86 25 7 io Tues... 521 26372 ii Fri..... 5 48 o6 14 2 ii SUN.... 5 26 46 26 0 i Wed..... 5 21 36 37 7 12 Sat...... 5 47 o 6 14 6 12 Mon..... '5 26 o 6 26 3 I2Thurs... 5 21 46 38 2 3 SUN.... 5 46 o6 15 0 13 Tues.... 2566 z6 6 13 Fri.... 5 21 5 6 38 7 14 Mon.... 5 45 o6 155 14 Wed.... 5 25 2 6 27 I 14 Sat.. 5 21 66 39 2 I5Tuies.... 5 43 9 6 15 9 15 Thurs... 5 247 6 27 7 15 SUN..5 21 7 6 39 7 16 Wed.... 5 43 o 6 i6 3 i6 Fri..... 5 24 3 6 28 2 i6Mon.... 5 21 840 17 Thurs...5 42 i 6 i6 7 17 Sat...... 5 23 8 6 28 7 I7 Tues... 5 21 96 40 7 i<Fri.... 5 41 27 17 i8SUN.... 5 23 3 6 29 2 i8 Wed....521 9 6 41 0 19 Sat...... 5 406 17 56 19 Mon..... 5 22 8 6 29 7 i9 Thurs.. 5 22 o6 41 2 20 SUN.... 5 39 5 6 17 9 2o Tues.... 5 22 3 6 30 3 2o Fri.... 22 o6 41 4 21 Mon..... 5 38 66 i 3 21 Wed.... 5 21 9 6 30 8 21 Sat....5 22 i 6 41 6 22 Tues.... 5 37 8 6 i8 7 22IThurs.. 5 21 6 6 31 3 22SUN.. 5 22 i 6 41 8 23 Wed.... 5 37 o 6 19 2 23 Fri..... 521 2 6 31 8 23 Mon..5 222642 24 Thurs.... 5 20 9 6 32 3 24 Tues.... 5 22 4 6 42 2.25.5 4 3 620 2 25SUN.... 5 2 6 320 25 Wed.... 522 8 6 422 26 Sat..... 5 34 6 6 20 7 26 Mon..... 5 20 2 6 33 3 26 Thurs...5 23 3 6 42 1 27SUN... 5 33 86 21 2 27Tues.... 5 19 96 33 9 27 Fri...5 23 76 42 7 28 Mon..... 5 33 o 6 21 7 28 Wed.... 5 19 96 34 2 28 Sat. 5 24 26 41 9 29 Tues.... 5 32 2 6 22 2 29 Thurs... 5 19 6 34 5 29 SUN... 5 24 6 6 41 8 30 Wed.... 5 31 6 6 22 6 3o Fri..... 5 19 9 6 34 8 Jo Mon.... 5 25 i'6 41 7 31 Sat...... 5 20 o 6 35 1i In 1873 animals and birds were imported into this Kingdom to the value of $1,56o.93. The Customr-House tables for 1882 showed that this class of our imports had increased to the value of $74,722.19, such has been the interest of late years for the improvement of all kinds of stock. In 1879 an extra fine lot of stock was introduced which increased the figures that year to $82,745.71. The bulk of this steadily growing trade is with the United States,

Page  8 8 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND) ANNUAL. CLIPPER PASSAGES TO AND FROM THE COAST. The fol!owing, is a list of the most remarkable passages between the Islands and San Francisco and other ports on the Coast during the last twenty-five years: i 858-'Am. bark Yankee, i i days to San Francisco. 1859-Am. ship Black Hawk, 9 days and 9 hours from San Francisco. i 86 i-Arn. ship Fair Wind, 8 days and I17Y'2 hours from San Francisco. i 86 i-Am. ship Norwester, 9 days and i6 hours from Sau Francisco. i 86 i-Am. bark Comet, 9 days aiid 20 hours from San Francisco. i 86 i-Am. bark Comet, i0 days and 12 hours to San Francisco. 1 862-Am. ship Storm King, 9 days and 10 hours from San Francisco. i 864-Amn. ship Matapan, 101~, days from San Francisco. 1864-Am. bark A. A. Eldridge, ii days to San Francisco. i 866-Amn. bark Ethan Allen, iidays to San Francisco. 1878-Am. barkentine J. A. Falkinburg, i i days to Astoria. 1879-Am. barkentine Catherine Sudden, 9 days and 17 hours to Cape Flattery. 1879-Am. schooner Claus Spreckels, 9Yz days from San Francisco to Kahului. iS8o-Am. schooner Jessie Nickerson, 10 days from Honolulu to Humboldt. iS88o-Am. brigantine J. D. Spreckels, io days and 13 hours from San Francisco. i 88o-Am. brigantine J. D. Spreckels, 12 days to San Francisco. i88i-Am. brigantine Consuelo, i0 days 20 hours from San Francisco to Kahulni. i 88i -Am. brigantine Win. G. Irwin, 8 days and 17 hours from S. F. to Kahului. Quick Passages of Ocean Steamers. Miles. Stearner. Dat!e. d. h. in. Liverpool to N ew York.. 3,350.....Oregon..... Oct. 1883..- 8 33 Liverpool to New York........3,050.....Russia.1...........I869.... 9 7 2 1 Philadelphia to Queen.stowii.....3,010.....Illinois..........Dec., 1876.... 8 i8 3 New York to Havana........1,225......2ity Of Vera Cru.....Aug., i876.... 4 0 43 Havana to New York........1,225.....City of New York.....May, 5875.... 3 1o 7 New York to Aspinwall.......2,300.....Henry Chauncey..... 5...875.... 6 I4. A spinwall to New York.......2,300.....Henry Chauncey........1875.... 6 5 30 San Francisco to Yokohama-.....4,764....ity of Peking.-............5 9 Yokohama to San Francisco.....4,764.....Oceanic.............1876.... 14 13 San Francisco to Honolulu.....2,100.....City Of Sydney......... r~go.... 6 14 -Honolulu to San Francisco.....2,100.....Zealandia.........Aug., Y88i.... 6 23 30 New York to Queenstown......2,950.....Alaska..........Sept., 1882.... 6 15 19' New York to Queen.stown.....2,950.....Servia.J.........an., I882.... 7 4 13 Queenstown to New York......2,950.....Alaska..........June, i882.... 7I 50* 'Queenstown to New York......2,950.....Servia............1882.... 7 7 40 Shanghai to London....... -.....Sterling Castle......May, i882.....29 22 '5t Amoy to New York...... -.....Glenavon.......June, 1882.....44 14. Plymouth, Eng., to Sydney.....-... Austral..........May, 1882.....32 12. 1 Yokohama to Sa n Francisco.....4,764.....Arabic..........Oct., 1882.....13 21 43 San Franc-sco, to Honolulu. 2, 100.....Zealandia.........April, 1882.... 6 13 25 Honolulu to Auckland........3,810.....Ze'alandia/.......April, 1882..11I 23 San Francisco to Honolulu.... 2,100o.....Australia...I......June, 1882.... 6 i6 Honolulu to San Francisco......2,IO.00...Zealandia.........Oct., 1882.... 6 I0 45' San Franci sco to Honolu lu.... 2, x o...'....Mariposa.........July, 1883.... 5 20 Honolulu to San Francisco.....2,100.....Matiposa..........Aug., 11883.... 6 I 8 *Best on record. tTotal time. Actual steaming time, 27d., 23h. and 4531 ~Including all stoppages. lSteaming time; or a little over 36 days, including all stoppages.

Page  9 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 9 THIRD QUARTER, 1884. JULY. AUGUST. SEPTEMBER. D. H. M. D. H. M. D. H. M. 7Full Moon. 11.-38.8 r. M. 6 Full Moon..... 0.35I P. M- 5 Full Moon..... 0.24.3 A. M. 15 Last Quarter..i. 1.o6.3 A. M. 13 Last Quarter.... 4.36.6 P. M. i1 Last Quarter... 9.44.9 P. M. 22 New Moon.....2.22.6 A. M. 20 New Moon..... 1.22.5 A. M. is New Moon.... 11.05.5 p. Ni. 29 First Quarter...11.29.8 A. M1. 28 First Quarter... 4.09.4 A. M11. 26 Last Quarter..11.48.3 p- M. _ _. H M 14 M. R.W A o a~~~~~ ~~c! ~5 35 ~~2; s,t16 I Tues.... 2 Wed.... 3 Thurs... 4 Fri. 5 Sat...... 6 SUN.... 7 Mon. 8 Tues.... 9 Wed.... io Thurs... 8 Fri..... I2 Sat...... 83 SUN.... 84 Mon..... 15 Tues.... i6 Wed.... 17 Thurs 18 Fri..... 89 Sat.... 20 SUN.... 21,Mon... 22iTues 231Wed 24IThurs.. 25iFri...... 26!Sat...... 27ISUN... 28!Mon.... 29 Tues 30,Wed 31IThurs 525 6 5 25 s 5 26 c 5 26 8 5 26 3 5 26 5 5 26 7 5 26 8 5 27 0 5 27 2 5 27 5 5 27 7 5 28 0 5 28 3 5 28 7 5 29 2 5 29 7 5 30 2 5 307 5 38 2 5 38 7 5 32 2 5 32 7 5 33 8 5 33 5 5 33 9 5 344 5 348 5 35 2 5 35 6 5 36 0;6 41 6 6 417 16 48 8 6 48 9 6 42 2 6 42 4 9 42 6 6 42 7 6 42 8I 6 42 8 6 42 8i 6 42 7 6 427j 6 42 7 6 42 7 6 42 4 6 42 0 6 48 7 6 48 4 6 48 0 6 40 6 6 40 2 6 39 8 6 394 6 390 6 38 6 6 38 2 6 37 7 6 37 2 6 36 7 6 36 i I Fri...... 5 33 2 Sat....536 7 3SUN.... 5 37 8 4 Monl.... 537 5 5 Tues....537 9 6 Wed....5 38 3 7 Thurs...5 38 7 8 Fri...... 539 I 9 Sat...... 539 5 io0SUN.... 5 39 9 88 Mon... 5 40 3 12 TueS.... 540 7 13 Wed.... 5 4 0 I4ThurhS... 54 3 85 Fri...... 5 48 6 i6 Sat..,, 5 41 9 I7 SUN.... 5 42 2 i8 Mon. 5. l 42 5 19Tues....5 42 8 20 Wed....5 43 1 28 Thurs...5 43 5 22 Fri.. 543,9 23 Sat.. 544 3 24 SUN....544 7 25 Mon.. 5 45 8 26 Tues... 545 5 27 Wed.... 545 7 28 Thurs...5 45 9 29 Fri......5 46 o 30 Sat.. 5 46 I 3ISUN.... 5 46 2 6 35 6 6 35 0 6 34 4 633 9 6334 6 32 8 6 32 2 6 30 8 6 38 5 6 30 8 6 29 4 6 28 7 16 28 0 6 27 3 6 26 6 6 25 9 6 25 2 6 24 5 6 23 8 6 22 9 6 22 0 6 28 8 6 20 2 6 19 3 6 I8 4 6 87 5 6 i6 7 6 85 9 6 85 2 6 84 5 6 O 8 I I I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 80 II 12 13 14 15 i6 17 i8 19 20 28 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 I Mon.... Tues.... Wed.... Thurs.. Fri.... Sat. SUN... Mon.... Tues.... Wed.... Thurs. Fri..... Sat..... SUN... Mon.... Tues.... Wed.... Thurs... Fri. Sat..... SUN... Mon.... Tues.... Wed.... Thurs... Fri. Sat..:. SUN... Mon.... Tues... 5 46 3 5 46 4 5 46 7 5 47 0 5 47 4 5 47 8 5 48 2 5 48 6 5 49 0 5 49 3 5 49 5 5 49 7 5 49 9 5 50 2 5 50 4 5 50 6 5 50 9 5 51 I 5 58 4 5 51 6 5 58 8 5 52 0 5 52 2 5 52 5 5 52 9 5 53 2 5 53 6 5 54 0 5 54 4 5 54 8 16-I3 I 6 12 4 6 Ii 4 6 80 3 6 09 3 6 o8 2 6 07 2 6 o6 I 6 05 0 6 04 0 6 03 1 6 02 2 6 08 3 6 oo 4 5 59 5 58 6 5 57 7 5 56 6 5 55 6 5 54 5 5 53 4 5 52 8 5 52 2 5 51 8 5 50 8 5 49 0 5 47 9 5 46 9 5 45 8 5 44 8 I Perhaps no class of trade has shown the benefit of the working of the Treaty of Reciprocity with the United States better than the coasting trade of these islands. In 1875 the fleet comprised I steamer, 26 schooners and 8 sloops, showing a total ton. nage of 8,625. The table of coasters last year showed 80 steamers, 38 schooners and 3 sloops with a total of 5,435 tons. Within a few weeks two additional steamers, much larger, and better adapted to passenger travel have been added.

Page  10 I ' HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. INTER-ISLAND DISTANCES BY SEA, IN SEA MILES. AROUND OAHU. FROM HONOLULU, ESPLANADE WHARF, TO: Miles. Miles Bell Buoy.............................. Ix Kahuku................................... 51 Diamond Head.......................... 5 Pearl River Bar............................. 6 Koko H ead.............................. 12 Barber's Point.............................. 14 Makapuu Point........................... 7 Kaena Point, N. W. of Oahu................ 34 Mokapu................................. 29 Kahuku, N pt. of Oahu, via Kaena.......... 54 HONOLULU TO: 2Miles. Miles Lae o ka Lua, S. W. pt. of Molokai.......... 35 Kawaihae.................................. 144 West point of Lanai........................ 50 Kealakekua direct........................... 57 Kalaupapa Leper Settlement................. 50 Kealakekua via Kawaihae................... 86 Lahaina................................... 72 S. W. point Hawaii via Kawaihae........... 233 Kahului.......................... 90 Punaluu.............................. 250 H ana...........................25 H ilo direct................................ 92 Maalaea.................................. 85 Hilo windward route........................207 M akena.................................... 90 H ilo via Kawaihae..........................230 M ahukona.................................. 34 HONOLULU TO: Miles. Miles Koloa, Kauai...............2 aimea................ 1 20 Nawiliwili........................... 98 Hanalei...................................20 N iihau.................................. 144 LAHAINA TO: Miles. Ailes Kaluaaha.................................. I2 K aluaaha.................................. 17 I M aalaea................................... 12 Lanai....................... Makena............................. 8 KAWAIHAE TO: Miles. Miles Mahukona................................. o Hilo................................ 85 Waipio.................................. 40 Lae oka Mano..............20 H onokaa..........................................K................34 Laupaho.hoe...................... 65 Kealakekua............................... 44 HILO TO: Miles. Mliles East point of Hawaii........................ 20 Punaluu........................ 70 Keauhou, Kau............................. 50 Kaalualu............................. 80 North point of Hawaii...................... 70 South point of Hawaii..................... 85 WIDTH OF CHANNELS-EXTREME POINT TO POINT. Miles. Miles Oahu and Molokai.......................... 23 Maui and Kahoolawe...................... 6 Diamond Head to S. W. point Molokai....... 30 Hawaii and Maui........................ 26 M olokai and Lanai.......................... 7 Kauai and Oahu........................... 6 Molokai and Maui.......................... 9 Niihau and Kauai.......................... 15 Maui and Lanai............................ 9 OCEAN DISTANCES-HONOLULU TO: Miles. Miles San Francisco............................. 2,oo Auckland.................................3,810 Portland................................. 2,460 Sydney.................................. 4,484 Panama.................................4,620 Hongkong............................ 4,893 Tahiti....................................2,380 Yokohama................................3,440 AREA, ELEVATION AND POPULATION OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. Areas in stat. sq. miles. Acres. Height infeet. Population. Haqaii.................... 4,210 2,500,000 3,805 17,034 Maui.................. 760 400,000 10,032 12,109 Oahu..................... 600 360,000. 4,060 20,236 Kauai................ 590 350,000ooo 4,800 5,634 Molokai.................. 270 200,000 3,500 2,58I Lanai................. 50 o00,000 3,000 214 Niilau................. 97 70,000 8oo0 77 Kal oolawe............... 63 30,000 1,450

Page  11 HAWAIIAN4 ALMAMAC AND ANNUAL. 11 FOURTH QUARTER, i884. OCTOBER. NOVEMBER. DECEMBER. D. H. M. D. H. M. DH. M. 4 Full Moon 1...... 1.285 A. M 2 Full Moon...... 10-05.2 P. M. 2 Full IVoon..... 7.281 A. M. 1i Last Quarter... 3.57.6 A. M. 9 Last Quarter... 0.40.9 p. M. 9 Last Quarter.. 0.38.9 A. M. i8 New Moon..'... 1.59.9 p. mI. 27 New Moon. 7.40 2 A. MT. 7 New Moon.... 2.53.0 A. M. 26 First Quarter... 5.23.9 P. M. 25 First Quarter.. II 44 4 A. M. 25 First Quarter.. 2.49.6 A. MT. 31 Full Moon.. 6.54.7 P. MT Cn CO$ $ 0x 0 ti 0 0 s '.1t '~I ~; " 0 ~ c, _Lh Cr 25 25a. ~~X K ~x D. H. H. TI. H. M. H. M. 4 MTI HT M. I Wed. S55254.7.Sa. 6 07 8 5 19 8 IMon.... 6 27 2 5 II 7 21Thurs...5 55 65 42 7 2SUN....j6 o8 45 19 I 2 Tues.... 6 27 8 5 iI 8 3 Fri...... 5 56 05 41 7 3 Mon.....60 09 0 5 18 4 3 Wed.... 6 28 4 5 12 0 4 Sat....... 5 56 55 40 7 4 Tues.... 6 09 7 5 17 7 4 Thurs... 6 28 95 12 2 5 SUN....5 56 9 5 39 7 5 Wed.... 6 I0 2 5 17 3 5 Fri. 6 29 55 I2 5 6 Mon.5.. 5 57 3 5 38 71 6Thurs... 6 10 7 5 17 0 6Sat. 6 30 I 5 12 8 7Tues.... 5 57 7 5 37 7j 7 Fri......6 I I 25 i6 6 7 SUN... 6 30 7 5 13 I 8Wed.... 5 58 05 36 9, 8Sat...... 6 1I 75 i6 3 8Mon.... 6 31 3 5 13 4 9 Thurs... 558 35 36 2:1 9 SUN.... 6 12 2 5 159 9Tues.... 631 8 5 13 8 lO Fri...... 58 5 5 35 7JOoMn.6. 162 75 5 Io Wed.... 6 32 3 5 14 2 II Sat....... 5 58 7 5 34 4 II Tues.... 6 13 25 15 2 1 1 Thurs... 6 32 7 5 14 7 12 SUN....5 59 0 5 33 9 12 Wed.... 6 13 9 5 14 9 12 Fri.....6 33 2 5 15 I 13 Mon...5,59 2 532 5 13Thurs... 614 7 5 14 5 13 Sat....6 33 65 1156 I4 Tues.. 559 4 5 32 0 14 Fri....6 15 4 5 14 1 4 SUN... 6 34 I 5 i6 o 15 Wed... 559 85316 i5 Sat....6 i6 2 5 13 7 15 Mon.... 6 35 65 i6 5 i6 Thurs... 6 00 3 5 30 8 i6 SUN.... 6 i6 9 5 13 -3 i6 Tues..6 35 I 5 17 0 I7 Fri....6 oo 7 5 29 9 17 Mon....6 17 7 5 I12 9 17 Wed... 6 35 7 5 17 4 18 Sat... 6oi 2 529 0 i 8Tues..-618 55 I125 i8 Thurs...6 36 45 17 7 I9 SUN... 6 oi 6 5 28 2 19 Wed.... 6 19 2 5 1 2 3 I9 Fri....6 37 0 5 i8 ' 20OMon.:.6 I 242Ohr.. 6 o 9 12 I 20OSat... 6 37 7 5 i8 4 21ITues...602 6 526 6 21Fri.... 6 2065 1 20 21ISUN... 6 38 35 i8 8 22 Wed.... 6 03 0 5 26 0 22 Sat....6 21 3 5 II 9 22 Mon.... 6 38 9 5 19 2 23 Thurs... 6 03 4 5254 23 SUN.... 6 2 1 9 5 II 7 23 Tues.... 6 39 6 5i 96 24 Fri....6 03 8 5 24 8 24 Mon...6 22 6 5 II 5 24 Wed.... 6 40 05 20 2 25 Sat....6 04 2 5 24 2 25 Tues.... 6 23 4 5 I I 4 25 Thurs... 6 40 3 5 20 8 26 SUN.... 6o4 6 523 626Wed.... 624 I 5I 4 26Fri. 6407 521 4 27 Mon.. 6 05 0 5 23 0 27 Thurs... 6 24 8 5 1I 5 27 Sat. 6 41 0 5 22 0 28 Tues....6o5 4 522 4 28 Fri.... 625 45115 2SUN... 641 4 522 7 29X~e~l.... 65 9 5 21 8 29 Sat....6 26 0 5 I I 6 29 Monl.. 6 41 7 5 23 3 30OThurs.. 606 5 521I 2 30OSUN.... 6 26 75 I I 6 3o Tues.... 6 42 1 523 9 3I1!Fri....607 2 5 20 5 31 Wed.... 6 42 5 5 24 5 The Hawaiian Islands in 1873 required writing and printing paper to the amount Of $3,226-about equally divided, for its needs. The importations have grown steadily, though still about equal, annually, as to the kind, till in 1882 it had reached a valuation Of $12,323.70. Of this, printing paper represented $6,421.28, and writing paper $5,902.42.

Page  12 12 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. OVERLAND DISTANCES. ISLAND OF HAWAII. PREPARED BY J. M. LYDGATE. THROUGH PUNA, FROM THE HILO COURT HOUSE. HILO TO: HILO TO: Miles. Miles. Keaau...9 Opihika........................ o.......... 29g M akuu............................... 15... Kaimu...................3........... 7 Sand Hills Nanawale.................I.....S' Kalapana............................ 38 Puula..................... 21 Panau................... 45 Kapoho..................................23 Volcano House....................6 Kapohoiki-Rycroft's................. 260 TO VOLCANO. HIILO To: HILO TO: Miles. Miles. Edge of Woods.......................... 4 Kanekoa upper Half-way Houses........ 6 Cocoanut Grove......................... 7 Upper Woods.............................24 Through Ki Swamp..................... 9 Volcano House............................30 Hawelu's Half-way House...............14 THROUGH HILO DISTRICT. I LO To: IILO TO: es Miles. M es. Honolii Bridge........................ 2.5 Honohina Church........................17.8 Paukaa Mill.............................. 2.9 Waikaumalo Bridge......................18.8 Papaikou-Office....................... 4.7 Pohakupuka Bridge......................2.0 Onomea Church....................... G.g Maulua Gulch........................ 22.0 Kaupakuea Cross Road..................10.7 Kaiwilahilahi Bridge.....................24.6 Kolekole Bridge..........................14.3 Lidgate's House...................... 26.1 Hakalau, east edge gulch L.................5. Laupahoehoe Church....................26.7 Umauma Bridge..........................16. THROUGH HAMAKUA. LAUPAIIOEIIOE CHIURCHI TO: LAUPAIIOEHOE CIIURCH TO: Mis. les. Miles. Hind's.................................... 7 M ill's Store, Honokaa.................... S.o Bottom Kawalii Gulch................... 2.0 Honokaia Church........................20.5 Ookala, Manager's House................ 4.0 Kuaikalua Gulch..........................22.0 Soper's................................ 4.9 Kapulena Church........................23.o Kealakaha Gulch........................ 6.0 Waipanihua..............................24.3 Kaala Church......................... 6.8 Bicknell's.................................25.8 Kukaiau Gulch...o................... 8.o Stream at Kukuihaele....................26.0 Ho er's.................................. 8. Edge W aipio.............................26.5 Catholic Church, Kainehe................ 9. Bottom Waipio...........................27.0 Notley's, Paauilo........................5 Wairnanu (approximate).................32.5 Kaumoali Bridge......................... 12.5 Kukuihaele to Waimea (approximate).....10.5 Bottom Kalopa Gulch.................... 4.0 Gov't Road to Hamakua Mill.............o R. A. Lyman's, Paauhaut................15.2 " " Paauhau Mill...............o Paauhau Church.................... 6.3 t" " PacificSugar Mill, Kukuihaele.7 THROUGH KOHALA. Kawaihae to Waimea......................o Kawaihae to Hind's, Kohala, (approx)....14. o " Puako...................... 5.0 Waimea to Kohala Plantation, (approx.).25.0 FOREIGN CHURCH, KOHALA, TO: FOREIGN CHURCH, KOHALA, TO: Edge of Pololu Gulch.................... Star Mill........................... 1.25 Niulii Mill............................. 280 Star Mill R. R. Station......... 2.50 Dr. Wight's Store, Halawa.............. 15 Union Mill...........2........ 2.25 Halawa Mill Union.....Mill R. R. Station................ 3.25 Hapuu Landing.........................15 Honomakau........................... 2.50 Dr. Thompson's....................... 1.75 Hind's, Hawaii........................ 3.25 Dramatic Hall, Kaiopihi................. Hawi R. R. Station..................... 4.25 Kohala Mill.........................50 Honoipu............................ 7.25 Kohala Mill Landing................... 1.50 Mahukona..............................50 Native Church........................... oo Puuhue Ranch....................... 7.25

Page  13 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 13 OVERLAND DISTANCES. ISLAND OF OAHU. HONOLULU POST-OFFICE, TO: HONOLULU FOST-OFFICE, TO: Miles. Miles W aikiki Grove....................... 3 W aimanalo.............................. 12 Diamond Head......................... 4 Kaneohe Plantation...................... 9 Coco H ead............................. ii K aalaea Plantation....................... 15 Ewa Church.......................... Ii Kualoa Ranch........................... 19 Waialua Church......................... I8 Punaluu Rice Plantation................. 26 W aianae Church, Pokai.................. 30 Laie Settlement.......................... 3 Nuuanu Pali.................Kahoko. 3u N uuanu Pali............................ 6 K ahuku................................. 3&P ISLAND OF KAUAI. LIHUE TO: KOLOA TO: Miles. Miles. W aialua Falls............................ 5 H anapepe................................. 7 Koloa..................................... Waimea................................. 1 K ealia..................................... 4 Kilauea.................................... 22 LIHUE TO: H analei............................... 30 M ana Point............................... o ISLAND OF MAUI. LAHAINA TO: KALEPOLEPO TO: Miles. Miles. Kaanapa li................................ 4 Makee's................................. 10 Wailuku.........2....... 0 Makawao............3.................. 13 KAHULUI TO HAIKU LANDING TO: W ailuku P. O.............................. 3 M akaw ao............................... 7 Makawao................................. I MAKAWAO, SAYRE'S STORE, TO: Hana, through Hamakua.................. 45 Summit of Haleakala..................... 13 WAILUKU TO: MAKENA TO: Kalepolepo................................ o M akee's Plantation...................... 3 Makee's Plantation....................... 20 ULUPALAKUA To: M akawao................................. 14 H ana, via Kaupo.................... 45 LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES, AS ADOPTED BY THE HAWAIIAN GOVERNMENT SURVEY. (CORRECTED FOR THE ANNUAL BY PROF. W. D. ALEXANDER.) STATIONS. LATITUDES. LONGITtDES. _ _ — _ --- —--- _ -- -- Deg. Min. Sec. Deg. Min. Sec. Honolulu Transit of Venus Observatory, as determined by Captain Tuprhan................................................ 21 17 57 157 51 48 -Honolulu Light House........................................ 2 17 5499 57 52 2.99 Diamond Head Summit........................................ 21 15 20.59 157 48 52.12 Tantalus, Puu Ohia.......................................... 2 19 43.20 I57 49 03.274 MIakapuu Station (east point of Oahu).......................... 21 8 15.75 157 39 20.12 Mokapu Station, Kaneohe............................... 21 27 01.07 157 44 04.66 Kahuku Point (northeast point of Oahu).........................21 42 19.207 57 58 5978 Barber's Point, Laeloa.......................................... 21 17 32.23 158 6 32.39 Puuloa (windmill)......................................... 2I 19 11.76 157 58 25.66 I,aie Point............ I...................................... 21 38 40.65 157 55 I654 Kaena Point (northwest point of Oahu)....................... 21 34 13.10 158 6 55.576 Haleakala, Station on Summit........................... 20 42 35.4 I56 I5 o8.i Lahaina Court House.......................................... 20 52 3.4 156 40 50.5 Kauiki Point (east point of Maui)............................ 20 45 1.7 155 59 34 Puu Olai, or "Miller's Hill" (south of Makena).................. 20 37 567 56 27 44 Halawa (east end of Molokai)...................... 21 9 o.8 i56 43 4413 Kahoolawae Summit........................................... 20 33 39 56 35 2 Kawaihae Light House (approximate)........................... 20 02 12.5 55 50 5 Mauna Kea, Station on Summit (approximate)........:.........19 49 6 55 28 i6 Halai Station, back of Hilo.................................... 19 42 447 155 5 55 Kailua, Hawaii, Transit of Venus Observatory, as determined by Captain Tupman...................................................... 56 40 Waimea, Kauai, Transit of Venus Observatory, as determined by Captain Tupman 2.......................................... 21 57 I2 159 40

Page  14 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Statement of Sugar Plantations on the Hawaiian Islands, October, 1883. NAME OF PLANTATION -VALUE. AMERICAN BRITISH. GERMAN. HAWAIIAN CHNR Hawaiian Agricultural Company........ Planting Interests.... Halawa Sugar Company............... Planting Interests.... Onomea Sugar Company............... Paukaa Sugar Company............... Honomu Sugar Company.............. Kaneohe Plantation.................... Wailuku Sugar Company.............. East Maui Plantation.................. Makee Sugar Company................. Kilauea Sugar Company................ Kealia Plantation.................... Lihue Plantation....................... Planting Interests.... Koloa Sugar Company................. Planting Interests.... Princeville Plantation................... Eleele Plantation....................... Planting Interests.... Kekaha Plantations.................. Planting Interests.... Waialua Plantation................... Waimanalo Sugar Company............. Olowalu Sugar Company.............. Hitchcock Brothers & Co.............. Haiku Sugar Company................. Pepeekeo Plantation................... Alexander & Baldwin.................. Planting Interests.... Kipahulu Plantation.................... Planting Interests.... Ookala Sugar Company................. Kohala Sugar Company................ Pioneer Mill Co. and Planting Interests. Hana Plantation...................... Grove Ranch........................ Waihee Sugar Company................ Makee Plantation................... Hawaiian Commercial Company........ Waikapu Plantation.................... Hakalau Plantation................. Star M ill........................... Hilea Sugar Company................ Naalchu Plantation................. Honokaa Sugar Company............... Planting Interests.... Hawi Mill and Planting Interests........ Union Mill and Planting Interests....... Spencer's Plantation............. Paauhau Mill Company............... Planting Inrerests.. Wainaku Plantation.................... Pacific Sugar Company................. W. Lidgate & Co..................... Waiakea Plantation....... Hamakua Plantation................ Niulii Mill and Planting Interests....... Moanui Plantation..................... Kamaloo Plantation................... Meyer's Plantation.................... Waianae Sugar Company.............. Laie Plantation........................ Heeia Sugar Company................. Reciprocity Sugar Cotnpany............ Huelo Plantation, Mill and Planting Interists........................ $ 6oo,ooo.. $ 565,000 150,000.. 50,000 100,000.. 98,000 50,000.. 30,000 240,000.. 240,000 170,000.. 170,000 200,000.. I 0, 00 I75,ooo. I7500ooo 360,ooo.. 324,750 I00,8oo.. 62,300 500,000..i 500,000 300,000. 151,000 25,..250, 0 2500 600,000.. 428,514 120,000.. 120, 000 300,oo0.. 67,500 40,000.'. 40,000 3oo,ooo.. 279,000 150,000.... 20,000.. * 50,000.. 56,250 50,000.... 150,000oo.. 26,ooo00.. 74,500 I160000...... 200,000.. 200,000 500,000... 500,000 400,000...... 250,000.. 250,000 I001000.. 100,000 125,000...... 100 000..J 67,000 250,000. 50,00o 500,000.. 449,000 500,00.. 500,00o 250,000...... 200,000.. 183,250 250,000.. 250,000 I00,000.. 100,000 2,000,000.. 2,000,000 250,000.. 125,000 300,000.. 300,000 200,000.. 150,000 300,000.. 240,oo0 500,000.. 375,000 200,000.. 26,000 50,000.. 50,000 300,000.... 200000. 0... 200,000.. 200,000.. I00,000 100,000...... 75,000.. 37,5oo 100,000.. 39,000 400,oo00.. 6o0,ooo0..... 250,000...... I30,000.. 20,000 600,ooo.... 50,000..... 10,000... 170,000.. 96,800 75,000.. 75,ooo 200,000.. 100, 000 8o,ooo.. I0,000 150,000...... i5,886,800.. o10,85,464 I $ 35,0oo 2,000 20,000 4,500 4,200 149,000 75,000 150,000 6,ooo 49,000 125,000 33,000 I75,6oo00 51,000 4,250 50,000 2I5,000 94,000 300,000 200,000 200,000 100,000 37,50 25,0 400,000 l6o,ooo 250,000 80,000 8o,ooo 50,000 5,000 10,000 100,000 IOO. i 8g,9go 3,750 27,30C i71,486 232,560 75,00oo 20,000 93,750 50,000 6o, ooo 250,000 12,000 80,000 28,000 10,000 3,5o0 970,046... * )... 3St 27,o00 7,ooc 21,000 123,140 51,000 24,400 125,000 100,000 8,000 30,000 64,700 6o,ooo.* ~~.-~ *.*.o...............00..*. $ I00,000 400,000 6o,o00 5o,000 I Estimated value Sugar Interests in the Kingdom...................... It.r — -- --: 3,230,050 641,240 560,0O,.l _ _

Page  15 Comparative Table of Import Values at the Hawaiian Islands, from various Countries since x875. - - COUNTRIES. Class Imports. 1875. z876. 2. z z 1:: Z 1.4.! Z Z United States..... Great Britain..... Germany......... Tahiti............. British Columbia.. Australia and N. Z. China............. France........... All other countries Dutiable. Bonded. ( Free. Dutiable. k Bonded. Dutiable. Bonded. Dutiable.; Bonded. Dutiable. t Bonded. j Dutiable. Bonded. Dutiable. Bonded. Dutiable. Bonded. Dutiable. Bonded. $ 837,215 42 110,045 02 132,538 41 48,384 09 152,136 i6 27,892 50 2,389 88 618 73.............. 2I,353 I9 17,299 07 35,9I5 65 659 00 $ 688,733 11 82,673 91 343,830 95 60,550 47 22,800 13 199,184 96 15,389 27 40I 6I 1,779 14 14,926 34 86i 64 37,930 56 5,589 6i 48,347 53 2,969 25 1877, I878. $ 583,119 02 $ 322,240 17 81,402 93 111,498 79 I,I00,642 52 1,619,987 6I 249,880 87 514,404 34 41,825 28 34,7II 30 193,324 38 99,442 20 8,824 96 20,304 25 157 50 2,053 47 12 00.............. 4,872 I0 29,838 8o..........;..;..........;.' 54,046 66 42,081 27 22,591 75 I0,595 32 30,772 98 57,946 80 1,346 55 25,846 31.............. 19,078 8i..........9.9;.............. 897 95 I,566 85 54,321 83 23, I02 59 1879. $ 395,690 o8 78,206 68 1,820,355 33 798,261 17 43,683 98 I85,867 69 4,876 o6 869 56 11,102 20 65,922 73 11,428 31 86,443 43 39,459 97 26,256 94 7,597 II 3,502 30 1,897 87 I88o. $ 506,812 90 138,453 I3 2,026,557 90 577.061 I4 45,005 73 44.777 I7 3,911 82............................ 51,725 46 9,868 04 86,690 46 34,528 8o 15,112 8I 1,712 34 i8,34i 66 1,093 69 $ 476,275 81 118,177 94 2,646,577 12 726,631 23 145,223 52 I05,268 94 28,444 29............ 28 37 44,63 32 6,365 46 58,753 79 18,329 00 i8,o8i 71 6,179 41 2,593 56 i,6o6 60 TRRT. ------- --- 188. $ 629,604 77 140,352 82 2,788,974 63 730,389 i6 68,374 30 166,357 52 18,832 05.............. 30,004 99 3,204 05 112,527 95 26,309 52 15,789 o6 2,423 24 1,727 26 51o 56 I I I 2,505 83 503 87 96,971 52 31,549 77 Nationality of Vessels Employed in the Foreign Carrying Trade of the Hawaiian Islands, 1875-1882. Nation. 1875. x876. 1877. 878. 1879. 1880. I 1881. 1882. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. Nc. I Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. American........................ 74 4,350 90 75,639 II7 81,417 156 102,621 177 99,102 79 99,614 18i 102,308 I79 103,591 Hawaiian........................ 6 4,90I I8 5,981 3 9,496 27 8,102 22 5,950 i8 5,373 20 5,765 19 5,6I3 British.......................... 35 44,425 22 22,748 22 26,292 30 34,836 28 37,363 26 31,201 32 35302 44 56,025 German......................... 3 1,286 3 1,499 2 797 3 2,408 8 6,136 3 2,138 1o 7,709 111 5,716 French........................... 3 1,586 3 986 4 2,558 3 98... 55 I 244 All others...................... 48 5,253 6 1,99 12 I3II5 3 2,044 I3 3,590 4 773 4 30 Totals..... 132 93, 08,706 20,907 232 3,64 25,576 239 14,916 258 59,341 258 172,69430 Totals............... 32 93IIO 141 i08,706 I8I 20,907 232 163,640 251 151,576 29 4I,9I6 25 5934 258 72,i

Page  16 Comparative View of the Commerce of the Hawaiian Islands from 1845, Giving the Totals for Each Year. Donestic | Foreign Total Cus.- Transhipment of Oil and Bone. Domestc i Foreign Total Cus- - Year. Imports. Exports. Prod. Prod.to House Galls. Galls. Lbs. tNa.. Exporte. Exported. Receipts. Spm. Oil. Wh. Oil. Wh. Bone. essl ~~ ---.. Shipping.. Haw. Regis-pirits. tered Vessels. Mer. Vessels. I Whl'rs. Gallons i 1845 -r846 1847 1848 I849 1850 I851 1852 I853 1854 I855 1856 1857 1858 1859 I86o i861 I862 1863 1864 I865 I866 1867 1868 1869 1870 i871 I872 1873 1874 1875 I876 1877 1878 1879,880,88I,882 $546,981 598,382 710,I38 6o5,618 729,739 1,035,058 1,823,821 759,868 1,401,975 1,590,837 1,383,I69 1,151,422 1,130, 65 I,o89,660 1,555,558 1,223,749 761,109 998,239 1,175,493 1,712,241 1,946,265 1,993,821 1,957,410 1,935,790 2,040,068 1,930,227 1,625,884 1,746,178 1,437,611 1,310,827 1,505,670 1,811,770 2,554,356 3,046,370 3,742,978 3,673,268 4,547,979 4,974,510 fi $269,710 682,850 264,226 300,370 383,185 783,052 691,231 638,393 472,996 585, 22 572,601 670,826 645,524 787,082 931,329 807,459 659,774 838,424 I,025,852 1,662, I81 I,808,257 1,934,576 I,679,661 1,898,215 2,336,358 2, 44,942 1,892,069 1,607,521 2,128,054 1,839,619 2,089,736 2,241,041 3,676,202 3,548,472 3,781,718 4,968,445 6,855,436 8,299,017 $202,700 620,525 209,018 266,819 185,083 536,522 309,828 257,251 281,599 274,029 274,741 466,278 423,308 529,966 628,575 480,526 476,872 586,541 744,413 I,II3,328 1,521,211 1,205,821 1,324,122 1,450,269 1,743,291 I,514,425 1,733,094 1,402,685 1,725,507 I,622,455 1,774,083 2,055,133 2,462,417 3,333,979 3,665,504 4,889,194 6,789,076 8,I65,931 $67,010 62,325 55,208 33,551 198,202 246,529 381,401 381,142 191,397 311,092 297,859 204,545 222,222 257,115 302,754 326,932 182,901 251,882 281,439 548,852 287,045 428,755 355,539 447,946 623,067 630,5I7 158,974 204,836 402,547 217,164 254,353 185,908 213,786 214,492 116,214 79,25r 66,360 133,085 -1 $25.189 36,506 48,801 55,568 83,231 I2I,506 160,602 113,001 155,650 152,125 158,4I1 123,17I 140,777 166,138 132,129 117,302 100,115 107,490 122,752 159,116 192,566 215,047 220,599 210,076 215,798 223,815 221,332 228,375 198,655 183,857 213,447 I99,036 230,499 284,426 359,671 402,182 423,192 505,391 104,362 173,490 175,396 156,484 109,308 121,294 176,306 222,464 156,36o 47,859 20,435 12,522 56,687 33,86o 42,841 118,961 103,215 o06,778 157,690 105,234 63,310 50,887 56,687 23,187 37,812 909,379 1,182.738 3,787,348 1,683,922 1,436,810 1,641,579 2,018,027 2,551,382 1,668, 175 782,o86, 795,988 460,407 675,344 6o8,502 578,593 1,250,965 821,929 774,913 2,698,189 1,443,809 283,055 32,974 573,697 403,876 312,305.................... I4 14.......... 17.......... 4 7....... I 2.......... 12 901,604 7 3,159,951 3 2,020,264 7 1,479,678 16 872,954 I3 1,074,942 9 1,295,525 10 I,614,710i 1 1.147,120 5 57,966 o10 527,910 7 193,9201 6 337,043. 6 339,331j 8 337,394 7 611,I78 3 405,1401 I 596,043 7 627,770; 6 632,905 1i6 29,3621 9 81,9981 7 T22,5541 12 174,111" I3 104,7151 22........ 14 I7.......... 17II -......... 11 6........... 15.......... 13..........l 6 No. Tons. No. onsumed, No. 41.......... 163........... 53.......... 167.......... 28 67.......... 167 3>27T 67 67..l 167 t 3,271 67 90....... 254 3,443 78 I8o.......... 274 5,718 *.. 469 90,304 237 8,251 8 446 87,920 220 11,270 75 235 6I,o65 519 14, 48 69 211 59,45I 535 18,203 56 125 47,288 525 17,537 54 154 51,304 468 18,528 45 123 42,213 366 14,779 48 82 26,817 387 16,144 54 r5 45,875 526 14,637 53 139 59,241 549 I4,158 65 1I7 41,226 325 14,295 68 93 45,952 190 1 9,676 53 113 48,687 73 8,940 58 88 42,930 102 7,862 44 157 75,893 130 I0,237 56 151 67,068 i80 1,745 65 150 60,628 229 12,833 74 134 60,268 243 15,1x9 77 113 54,833 I53 6,030 63 I27 75,656 102 17,016 6i 159 91,248 II8 19,948 64 171 105,993 47 I8,8I7 57 146 98,647 47 18,843 54 09g 62,767 63 21,212 58 120 71,266 43 8,466 54 120 93,110 41 21,131 51 14I 108,706 37 I9,707 45 i68 116,621 33 24,223 54 232 I63,640 27 36,360 55 251 I51,576 25 43,I66 63 239 14I,916 i6 44,289 63 258 r59,341 19 46,085 6o 258 172,619 32 50,064 60 Tons. 1,578 2, I6o 2,873 3,539 4,460 4,432 3,827 6,271 4,831 4.718 5,795 5,249 6,366 6,935 5,848 6,645 5,497 7,895 10,170 11,664' II,456 9,793 10,528 10,855 8,o68 6,407 8,56I 8,101 7,376 6,753 8,994 7,949 10,023 10,149 9,338 9,351 I. z 5. 3. 3. NoTE.-Where blanks occur in the earlier years, there was either no record or the figures, when given, were unreliable. The first transhipment of Oil and Bone was in r85I,so far as any record can be found for statistical purposes.

Page  17 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 17 SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, z883. Imports Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, x882. V Value Goods Value Goods Value Goos Free Total. Paying Duty. Frea in Bond. _.n on Ale, Porter, Cider...................... Animals and Birds..................... Building Materials................. Clothing, Hats, Boots.................. Crockery, Glassware, Lamps and Lamp Fixtures............................ Drugs, Surgical Instruments and Dental Materials............................ Cottons................... Linens.................... Dry Goods Silks..................... Woolens................ Mixtures.................. Fancy Goods, Millinery, etc............ Fish (dry and salt)...................... Flour.................................. Fruits (fresh)........................... Furniture............................ Grain and Feed........................ Groceries and Provisions............... Guns and Gun Materials............... Gun Powder........................... Hardware, Agricultural Implements and Tools................................ Iron, Steel, etc......................... Jewelry, Plate, Clocks................. Leather................................ Lumber................................ Machinery............................. Matches............................... Musical Instruments................... Naval Stores........................... Oils (cocoanut, kerosene, whale, etc.).... Paints and Paint Oils, and Turpentine... Perfumery and Toilet Articles........... Saddlery, Carriages and Materials....... Shooks and Containers.................. Spirits................................. Stationery and Books................... Tea.................................. Tin and Tinware, and Materials........ Tobacco Cigars, etc.................... Wines (light)....................... Sundry Merchandise not included In the above............................... Charges on Invoices.................... 25 V cent added on Unspecified Invoices. 19,301 7E 155 oc 26,406 i8 207,490 95 36,388 6c 44,956 4I 104,130 66 20,I60 51 35,336 25 97,379 2C 24,607 6s 110,902 04 12,096 61 1,334 98 278 6c 65,862 14 849 8c 110,063 75 8,331 58 6,320 14 77,045 77 47,230 I 80,695 8c 3,934 7( 99 oc 39,739 75 9 5c I9,706 I2 8,495 67 16,714 51 25,012 58 15,412 31 44,336 Qi 32,272 3( 3,123 2( 19,318 3( 23,856 42 12,367 II 5,436 IE 3,958 61 I70,I86 2: 52,025 II 2,391 7C 74,467 69 53,679 78 133,944 94 309 53.............. 151,550 I1.............. 17,351 38 956 ii 4,320 89 53,316 o6 120,118 35 6,069 o8 55,991 o6 163,625 83 341,344 50 4,596 50.............. 195,960 40 15,567 26 40,735 71 245,858 23 142,73I 94 12,829 47 55,693 32 81,874 72 2,358 oo 1,272 42 36,924 52 9,655 22 49,643 I8.............. 84,525 87 *............. 51,247 04 35,228 o8.............. 17,113 18............ 5,309 86 2,642 98 75 50 I,044 00 5,334 87 715 7I 139 05 789 71 2,546 50 1,281 05 288 60............ 2,180 00 7,049 80 1,753 14 662 00 718 40 2,322 70............ 10,240 42 2,600 00 65 78 *..~.....;' 9,692 87 7,072 10 3,453 7I 406 i6 20,981 62 78,317 26 317 39 2,608 oo 169 io 48,848 72 8,966 46 1,475 27 4,958 92......~~... 36,414 96 74,622 69 85,395 82 344,078 87 36,773 63 46,000 41 261,015 66 20,876 22 35,475 30 115,520 29 28,110 30 116,503 98 65,701 27 121,453 33 6,347 68 124,033 20 171,525 52 453,16I 39 13,590 o8 7,038 54 275,328 87 62,797 39 90,936 22 44,670 47 248,557 23 182,537 47 12,838 97 19,706 12 73,882 i6 105,661 33 30,824 29 17,090 89 81,261 43 62,909 20 81,440 52 69,278 93 26,464 42 I2,536 21 138,810 7'7 12,925 07 222,908 54 92,212 II 2,39I 70 $ 4,131,609 45 33,189 35 $ 4,098,420 Io 637,330 oo $ 4,735,750 I238,759 91 $ 4,974,51o oI $ 1,635,721 141$ 2,243,747 211$ 252,140 83 Discounts.................................... $32,921 88 Damaged and short.......................................... 267 47 IMPORTS AT OTHER PORTS, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. VALUE PAYING VALUE FREE BY ALUE N BOND DUTY. TREATY. Kahului....... $ 64,549 25 $ 421,668 98 711 50 Hilo........ 5,998 42 81,228 83 7,496 oo Kawaihae.......... 5,610 75 32,756 95 Mahukona.... 958 68 16,277 73 Lahaina............ 72 91 Value of goods free, Hawaiian Islands........................

Page  18 i8 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, 1882. Customs' Receipts. Import Duties Spirits.............. $206,065 82 Fines and Forfeitures............... 5,947 44 Import Duties Goods................ I70,319 38 Registry........................... 86 75 Import Duties Bonded Goods........ 42,917 85 Wharfage.......................... 22,042 67 Honolulu.................... $499,575 63 Hospital Fund (passengers)...... 6,418 oo Kahului,........................0. 10,04 43 Blanks.......................... 12,115 oo H ilo.............................. 1,825 07 Storage............................ 9,092 17 Lahaina........................... Io 00 Interest...4....................... 4,139 73 Kawaihae........................ 720 99 Fees............................. 3,603 80 K ealakekua........................ 18 00 Coasting License................... 2,868 33 Koloa............................. 36 86 Kerosene Storage................... 1,8i6 26 Passports........................ 1,855 00 Total I882................. $505,390 98 M. H. Fund (seamen)............... 1,095 55 Total I88...................... 423,I92 oi Lights............................. 1,052 78 - Warehouse Storage................ 741 o Increase 1882...............$ 2,98 97 Buoys............................ 398 oo Value of Goods Paying Duty, Imported Value of Goods and Spirits Bonded from from United States, Pacific Ports........ $522,642 84 United States, Pacific Ports.........$26,863 67 United States, Atlantic Ports....... 29,844 83 United States, Atlantic Ports........ 5,281 65 Great Britain....................... 730,389 i6 Great Britain....................... 68,374 30 Germany........................... 166,357 52 Germany........................... 18,832 05 Australia and New Zealand....... 30,004 99. Australia and New Zealand......... 3,204 05 China.............................. 112,527 95 China.......................... 26,309 52 France........................... 15,789 06 France............................. 2,423 24 Islands in the Pacific............... 1,727 76 Islands in the Pacific............... 78 31 _ — - Micronesia................. 432 25 Total Honolulu.............. 1,609,284 i - - At Kahului....................... 64,549 25 Total Honolulu.................$251,799 04 A t H ilo.......................... 5,998 42 At Kawaihae.................... 5,6I0 75 At Kahului........... 711 50 At Mahukona................ 958 68 At Hilo...... 7,496 oo Total at all Ports.............$1,686,401 21 Total at all Ports........... 260,006 54 Value of Goods from the United States Free by "Treaty." United States, Pacific Ports at Honolulu...........................................$ 1,991,293 77 United States, Atlantic Ports at Honolulu...................................... 245,675 46 Total...............................................$ 2,236,969 23 United States, Pacific Ports at Kahului............................................. 421,668 98 United States, Pacific Ports at Hilo............................................. 81,228 83 United States, Pacific Ports at Lahaina............................................. 72 9I United States, Pacific Ports at Kawaihae........................................... 32,756 95 United States, Pacific Ports at Mahukona.......................................... 6,277 73 Total at all Ports.................................................$ 2,788,974 63 Value of Goods Imported Free. Animals and Birds.................$ 99 50 Sundries, by permission.......$I3,023 58 Books, printed in Hawaiian.......... 0oo oo Bone Meal........................ 9,119 95 Bags and Containers returned....... 4,031 59 Tanning Material................... 212 24 Diplomatic Representatives......... 672 85 Postage Stamps.................... 4,007 88 His Majesty........................ 50,599 20 Marine Railway................... 25,136 02 Foreign Navies..................... 4,531 80 Coal.............................. 59,059 I6 Hawaiian Whalers and Traders..... 250 oo Hawaiian Government.............. 25,575 38 Total Honolulu.................$221,399 88 Personal & Household Effects, (in use) I1,792 34 Coal at Kahului.............. 12,278 50 Iron, plate and pig............... 8,310 I8 Returned Cargoes, Rice........... 36 oo Plants and Seeds................... 306 53 Coal at Hilo........................ 975 oo Sheathing Metal.................... 3,72i 68 Coal at Lahaina...................$ 1,500 oo Returned Cargo.................... 850 oo Coal at Kawaihae.................. 2,040 oo Specie.$ i.-... ~~~ E ~~~$ 545,702 66 Soecie..............................$ 545~702 66 Household & Personal Effects, (in use) 515 5I Total....$.......2......... 38,759 91 Animals and Birds.................. 15 38 Resume, Imports Hawaiian Islands. Value of Goods Free by Treaty..................................................... $2,788,974 63 Value of Goods Paying Duty........................................................ i,686,768 93 Value of Goods and Spirits Bonded................................................ 260,o06 54 Value of Goods and Spirits Free.................................................... 238,759 9I Total............................................................... $4,974,510 0o

Page  19 HAWAIIAN ALMAMAC AN)D ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, x882. 19 Table of Principal Domestic Exports, Showing the Country to which Exported. Pacific Atlantic British Australia & Islands in Chia.To Ports, U.S. Ports, U.S. Columbia. New Zea'd Pacific. Chlna Total Sugar, lbs....... 1... 07.275,724 6,898,478.................... 3,502 234 114,177,938 Molasses, galls........ 212,93I..... 8,292. 70.. 221,293 Paddy, bs......... 45,633.... 459,633 Rice, lbs............... 2,I35,074.............. 23,400 I,o.... 12, 69,475 Coffee, bs............. 7,98I................150...... 8, I3 Poi, bbls................................................ 2....... I2 Fungus, lbs................ 2. I I 2, I I Bananas, bnchs........ 28,848.......................................... 28,848 Goat Skins, pcs....... 23,402.................. 23,402 Hides, pcs............. 26,007.....................26,00o Tallow, lbs............ 77,898..7..................... 77,898 Wool, lbs.............. 528,913.............................. 528,913 Betel Leaves, bxs 3... 03.............303 Calf Skins, pcs........ 70............. 70 Sheep Skins, pcs....... 4,385........................... 4,385 Domestic Exports. Sugar, lbs................14,77,938 Goat Skins, pcs............ Molasses, galls......... 221,293 Hides, pcs................ Paddy, lbs............... 449,633 Tallow, lbs................ Rice, lbs.................. I2,I69,475 Wool, lbs................. Coffee, lbs................ 8,131 Betel Leaves, bxs........... Poi, bbls................. 12 Calf Skins, pcs............ Fungus, lbs............... 2,II Sheep Skins, pcs........... Bananas, bnchs......... 28,848 Total valuation................... $8.o85,931.34 23,402 26,007 77,898 528,913 303 70 4,385 Total Value Domestic Produce Exported. Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Honolulu.................$6,615,702 07 Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Kahului..................,352,973 57 Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Hilo..................... 117,255 70 Furnished as Supplies to Merchantman (as per estimate)............. 62,000 oo Furnished as Supplies to National Vessels (as per estimate)........... I8, ooo Total................................................. $8,65,93 34 Total of all Exports, Hawaiian Islands. Value of Domestic Goods Exported............................ $8,085,93 34 Value of Domestic Goods Furnished as supplies(estimated)........... 80,000 oo Value of Foreign Goods Exported................................ 33,085 36 Total..................................................$8,299,o 16 70

Page  20 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. PASSENGER STATISTICS. Arrivals and Departures, Port of Honolulu. - FROM AND TO San Francisco.................... Oregon and Washington Territory... Victoria, B. C..................... China and Japan................... Australia and New Zealand......... Islands in the Pacific............... Atlantic and European Ports......... St. Michaels and Western Islands.... Sea in distress..................... Totals...................... FROM TO ~fl ~ rn cn I30I 86 1113 162 8 25 25 7.....14 87 15 66 iI 52 6 92 24 132 56 I I239 1129 282 1292 1318 204 CHINESE. FROM TO ~t Cf j r C)!!CD! i: P 940 I 83 2 402 6 960 8 25 1I.. 043..8 25 1345 I 71043 8 25 Total arrivals for the year........................... 5475 Total departures for the year.........................2598 Excess of arrivals.............................2877 Passengers in Transitu. From Australia and New Zealand bound to San Francisco................... 455 From San Francisco bound to Australia and New Zealand.................... 876 From San Francisco bound to China...................................... 1057 From China bound to San Francisco..................................... 790 From Victoria, B. C., bound to China................................. 604 From China bound to Victoria, B. C............................ 150 Table of the Revenues and Expenditures of the Hawaiian Kingdom for each Biennial Period, from 1856-7 to 1882-4. PERIOD. RECEIPTS. EXPENDITURES DEFICIT. SURPLUS. 1856-7.......... $639,041 37 $666,788 83 $27,747 46....... 1858-9....... 655,866 68 643,098 40... $12,768 28 I86o-i..... 668, 86 56 681,821 48 13,634 92........ I862-3.......... 688,687 21 666,061 io........ 22,626 II 1864-5......... 728,817 07 582,341 02........ 46,47605 I866-7......... 831,148 98 834,157 55 3,oo857........ 1868-9.......... 834, I112 65 934,100 29 99,987 64........ 1870-1.......... 964,956 35 969,784 14 5,827 79...... I872-3.......... I,I36,523 95. 1,192,511 79 55,987 84........ 874-6.......... 1,008,191 85 919,356 93........ 88,834 92 1876-8 i...... i, I51,713 45 1,110,472 90........ 41,240 55 1878-80......... 1,703,736 oo 1,495,697 oo........ 208,039 00 88-82......... 2,070,256 94 2,282,599 00 212,3196........ i882-84*....... 1,915,251 05 3,563, 16 86 1,648,865 81....... * Estimated.

Page  21 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF LEADING IMPORTS OF HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. I874. I876. 1878. I88o. 1882..,I. Ale, Porter, Brandy, Cider..................$25,491 72 $19,792 34 $20,548 31 $36,159 40 $36,414 96 Animals and Birds.......................... 2 60 261 40 18,690 85 8I,583 85 74,622 69 Building Materials.......................... I6,86 14 21,596 39 107,042 33 82,287 85 85,395 82 Clothing, Hats, Boots..............1........ 51,612 OI 176,I88 4I 208,596 63 226,169 96 344,078 *87 Crockery and Glassware.................... 6,387 58 14,127 6I 17,991 70 25,841 31 36,773 63 Drugs and Medicines....................... 2,944 i6 17,029 59 17,945 27 27,818 08 46,000 41 Cotttons..............................1 20,458 25 167,45I 47 165,159 13 15I,I34 6o 261,OI5 66 8 Linens................................ 8,054 82 9,163 62 8,918 96 13,318 40 20,876 22 0 Silks......................... 9,502 13 12,712 i8 23,270 96 25,638 25 35,475 30 Woolens............................ 26,776 21 40,867 99 70,402 77 50,375 73 15,520 29 Q Mixtures............................. 25,894 96 25,321 31 37,737 81 32,889 44 28,110 30 Fancy Goods, Millinery, &c............ 34,676 55 53,II8 8I 53,752 oi 66,637 71 16,503 98 Fish, (dry and salt)......... 23,524 30 17,89 8I 47,206 95 35,276 72 65,701 27 Flour.................................... 61,722 78 54,907 89 102,728 97 100,888 17 121,453 33 Fruits, (fresh)..............................2,333 33 2,030 97 3,443 28 4,151 50 6,347 68 Furniture...................... I4,956 77 27,662 93 49,482 22 73,345 83 I24,033 20 Furs and Ivory........................... 3,50662 2,69673 1,936 30......... Grain and Feed............................ 12,799 55 14,53 39 34,695 61 73,95I I5 1I7,525 52 Groceries and Provisions................... 93,685 87 90,466 I2 269,573 50 379,794 40 453,16I 39 Guns and Gun Material............... 6,902 46 5,529 6i 10,475 91 12,910 78 13,590 08 Gun Powder.................. 1,446 90 2,714 35 3,5I4 39 5,317 3I 7,038 54 Hardware, Agricultural Implements, Tools... 63,I6I 83 105,828 I8 210,299 58 25,088 33 275,328 87 Iron, Steel, &c.......................... 23,260 8i 20,878 35 56,654 20 34,841 78 62,797 39 Jewelry, Plate, Clocks................... 95 59 24,032 4 34925 99 74,447 42 90,936 22 Leather.................................... 5,383 19 8,686 6i 20,965 39 27,586 29 44,670 47 Lumber............................ 48,098 45 98,322 24 212,852 71 221,212 i8 248,557 23 Machinery....... 19,135 q6 37,33I 54 417,297 32 250,124 70 182,537 47 Matches................................. 9,370 52 5,513 83 4,459 II 8,94 28 12,838 97 Musical Instruments........................2,14I 68 8,492 94 10,389 39 11,924 67 19,706 12 Naval Stares..............................35,43028 35,587 28 58,414 47 67,498 39 73,882 i6 Oils, (cocoanut, kerosene, whale, &c)........44,396 13 78,681 i8 97,686 51 75,882 031I05,66I 33 Opium.......................................4,3 6 95........................................ Paint and Paint Oils........................ 2,156 97 13,548 03 23,803 i6 40,709 56 30,824 29 Perfumery and Toilet Articles..6,035 25 13,024 56 11,057 36 13,651 6I 17,090 89 Saddlery, Carriages, &c.....................17,062 48 34,536 95 76,441 86 74,486 69 81,261 43 Shooks and Containers............... 36,948 02 53,948 90 50,198 70 72,257 95 62,909 20 Spirits.................................. 32,975 63 31,944 91 50o,66 6i 81,132 34 81,440 52 Stationery and Books............... 24,320 24 31,429 8i 29,982 07 45,829 24 69,278 93 T 'a................................... 4..... 1..3707 7,228 22 20,419 5 14,237 84 26464 42 Tin and Tinware........................... 1,430 35 5,914 87 5,474 86 6.296 80 12,536 2I Tobacco, Cigars, &c........................ 26,125 92 57,475 03 68,oi8 71 io6,iiI 90 138,810 77 W halebone................................. 34,782 84 38,134 50 15,760 o6................ Wines (light)............................... 7,428 05 9,475 87 6,294 i8 1072768 12,92507 POST OFFICE STATISTICS. Letters Passing Through the General Post-Office, Honolulu, from 1864 to 1883. YEAR. From April I to March 31. I864 to 1865....... 1865 to 1866....... 1866 to I867.... 867 to I868....... 868 to 1869....... 1869 to 1870........ 1870 to 1871...... 1871 to I872... 1872 to I873...... 1873 to 1874.. I874 to 1875...... I875 to 1876...... 1876 to 1877........ 1877 to 1878........ 1878 to I879........ 1879 to I88....... 1880 to 1881.... 1881 to 1882........ 1882 to I883........ INTER-ISLAND LETTERS. FOREIGNERS. HAWAIIANS. FOREIGN LETTERS. Letters I Letters Letters Lters s Letters I Letters Received. Forwarded Received. Forwarded Received. Forwarded __ _ __ ____ I5,594 I3,652 7,650 9,570............ 21,642 14,886 14,379 16,078........ 23,282 I6,607 30,082 22,821.......... 25,873 I9,OI3 23,733 25,535...... 27,543 19,547 25,920 25,986......... 27,433 19,806 25,233 24,499.......... 29,147 19,118 28,596 28,091 25,811 24,994 24,655 23,333 26,364 35,715 26,772 23,713 27,717 24,199 41,662 41,340 25,020 25,895 38,3I3 25,007 45,8I6 44,233 26,679 25,48I 35,545 23,488 39,232 39,027 26, I12 28,737 38, 66 23,564 35,630 44,233 31,742 31,650 36,349 29,558 32,250 49,977 33,244 35,780 42,409 37,094 33,472 52, 8I 42,465 44,505 57,907 47,957 43,605 67,153 45,682 43,372 72,953 63,936 46,496 69,489 50,352 57,209 85,649 76,255 55, 70 83,757 70,682 69,375 102,559 I06,374 64,487 85,858 77,461 83,724 II4,056 130,992 75,183 I00,936 95,765 Io0,644

Page  22 22 IHAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANO) ANNUtIA. COMPARATIVE APPROPRIATION BILLS FOR BIENNIAL PERIODS ENDING MARCH 331, z882 AND 1884. Civil List. x882. 1884. His Majesty's Privy Purse and Royal State......$ 45,000 $ 50,000 He Majesty -the Queen...........o.ooo.6,oo H. R. H. the Heir Presumptive.......... 10,000 i6,ooo H. R. H. Princess Likelike............ 8,ooo 12,000 H. R. H. Princess Kaiulani.............5,000 His Majesty's Chamberlain and Secretary...5,000 7,000 Household Expenses... xi6, ooo 20,000 His Majesty's expenses around the world. 22,500 Expenses of His Majesty's Coronation........... 10,000 Permanent Settlements. Her Majesty Queen Dowager Emma,........$ i 6,ooo $ i 6. ooo His Excellency P. Kanoa.............. 2,400 2,400 Henry S. Swinton................. 6oo 6oo H. Kuihelani.................. 1,200 J. P. E. Kahaleaahu................400 Nihoa Kipi................... 6oo Mrs. P. Nahaolehua................ 6oo M. Mahuka....6oo Legislature a~n4 Privy Council. Expenses of Legislature..... $ 20,000 $25,000 -Secretary of Privy Council............. 200 200 Incidentals of Privy Council............ 100 100 Judietary Department. Salary Chief justice and Chancellor.........$ 12,000 $ 12,000 Salary First Associate justice............10,000 10,000 Salary Second Associate justice.... 10,000 10,000 Salary Clerk Supreme Court............ 5,00 6,ooo Salary Librarian and Copyist......... 1,500 Salary Interpreter Supreme and Police Courts..... 3,600 4,000 Salary Circuit judge, Maui... 4,000 4,000 His Traveling Expenses.............. 200 200 'Salary Circuit judge, Hilo and Kau....1.... 2,000 Salary Circuit judge, Kohala, Kona, etc..,00 2,000 Salary Circuit judge, Kauai............ 3,000 4,000.Silary Police justice, Honolulu........... 4,800 60,ooo Salary Police Justice Hilo............. 2,000 2,400 Salary Police Justice,, Lahaina........... 1, 600 2,000 Salary Police justice, Wailuku............ 2,000 2,0 Salary Distrirt judge, North Hilo......... 8oo 8oo Salary District judge, Puna............ 8oo Soo Salary District Judge, Kau............. 1,000 I1200 Salary District Judge, North Kona.......... 6oo Boo SaayDistrict judge, South Kona......... 6oo Boo

Page  23 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 23 x882. 1884. Salary Police Justice North Kohala................$,ooo $ 1,600 Salary District Judge South Kohala............... 800 8oo Salary District Judge Hamakua................. 8oo 1,200 Salary District Judge Honuaula................... 600 oo Salary District Judge Makawao....................,000 1,200 Salary District Judge Hana.................. 800,000 Salary District Judge Lanai...................... 6 600 oo Salary District Judge Molokai.................... 8oo0,000 Traveling Expenses District Judge Molokai.......... 50 50 Salary District Justice Ewa..................... 8oo Salary District Justice Waianae.............. 8oo Salary District Justice Waialua. 6oo 8oo Salary District Justice Koolauloa................. 6oo 8co Salary District Justice Koolaupoko...............,00 1,200 Salary District Justice Hanalei..................... 8oo I,000 Salary District Justice Kawaihau.................. 80 8oo Salary District Justice Lihue...................... 800,obo000 Salary District Justice Koloa..................... 800 80o Salary District Judge Waimea.................... 80o 8oo Salary Clerk Second Judicial Circuit............... 400 6oo Salary Clerk Third Judicial Circuit (ist & 2ndClerks' 82) 6oo Iooo Salary Clerk Fourth Judicial Circuit............... 300 400 Expenses of Supreme Court...................... 2,300 4,ooo Expenses of witnesses in criminal cases to be allowed by presiding Judge at his discretion............ 300 1,500 Expense Second Judicial Circuit...................,8oo 2,800 Expense Third Judicial Circuit................... 1,800 3,600 Expense Fourth Judicial Circuit................... 80oo 1,200 Purchase of Law Books.......................... 500 500 Stationery and incidentals of all Courts............. 1,200 1,500 Translating and Printing Reports.. 3,000 5,00o Pay of Clerk Police Justice Honolulu.............. 2,400 Pay of Chinese Interpreter and Translator..........2,400 Pay of Messengers of Judiciary Department........ 2,000 Department of Foresgn Affairs. Salary of Minister.............................. $12.000 12,000oo Salary of Secretary.............................. 5,ooo 6,ooo Office Expense of Foreign Agents.......3,100 3,000 Coronation of His Majesty the King...............10,000 Reception of foreign official guests and incidentals.... 20,000 Expenses Foreign Missions....................... 6,ooo 25,000 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Washington............................. ooo 2,oo000 Expenses incidental to the Legation at Washington... 5,ooo Relief and return of indigent Hawaiians from abroad.., 500,500 Salary of Messenger........................... 6oo 0 Ix 00 h,;. -.~~~~~~~~ * ] By +,...~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Page  24 24 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. I882. 1884. Purchase of Decorations........................ 1,500 4,000 Education of Hawaiian youths in foreign countries... 15,000 30,000 Safe for Department........................... 500 King's Guards............................... 31,847 38,9l0 Aid to volunteer military companies............... 12,000 I0,000 D rill shed..................................... 5,000 Bands, flags and salutes..................31,426 33,365 Arms and accoutrements........................ 2000 Purchase of Ordnance......................... 15,000 National Museum...3,ooo Purchase of Books for Government Library........ 500 3,ooo Government Librarian and Curator to the Museum...2,000 Department of the Interior. Salary Minister................................. 12,000 Salary Chief Clerk......................... Clerk of Land Office....................... 13,400 Third Clerk of Interior Department........... Fourth Clerk of Interior Department............. Salary Governor of Oahu......................... 3,600 Salary Governor of Maui.............3,600 Salary Governess of Hawaii....................... 3,600 Salary Governor of Kauai...................... 3,600 Salary Clerk Governor of Oahu.......... 800 Salary Clerk Governor of Muai....................,600 Salary Clerk Governor of Kauai...................,000 Salary Clerk Governess of Hawaii.................,600 Salary Jailer of Oahu Prison...................... 3,600 Guard of Oahu Prison......................... Salary Supdt. Water Works and Clerk of Market..... 3,000 Salary Clerk Superintendent of Water Works........ 2,000 Market for Wailuku, Maui........... 2,000 Market for Hilo, Hawaii......................... 2,000 Civil Engineer.......................... Road Supervisor of Kona, Oahu........... 2,400 Salary Superintendent Public. Works............... 6,oo Incidental and Traveling Expenses of Engineer and Superintendent of Public Works............. Salary of Postmaster-General..................... 5,000 Pay Clerks of Post Office......................... 0,0ooo Pay of Postmasters.....000............... 5,00 Pay of Mail Carriers........... 15,00 Incidentals of Post Office.............. 5,0o Postal Money Orders..... Marine Telephone Station....................... 1,300 Pay Keeper Royal Mausoleum.............. 600 Expenses of Royal Mausoleum.................... 250 Pay Keeper Lunalilo Mausoleum............. 400 w I2,000 6,000 3,600 3,600 2,400 3,600 3,600 3,600 3,600 1,200 1,6oo 1,000 1,6oo 3,600 3,6oo 3,000, 2,000 2,000 2,000 8,000 6,000 1,500 8,ooo 17,000 I0,000 I8,ooo 8,000 10,000,1,500 6oo 250 *500

Page  25 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. a5 I882. i884 Pay Janitor Aliiolani Hale.................... 85 960 Pay Messengers Interior Department....... 2,000 Fire-proof safe Interior Department.............. 600 Incidentals Interior Department................. 2,000 2,000 Incidentals, Governors' Offices................ 500 Books and Stationery for Registration of Conveyances.. 300 Copying Records of Land Commission.............. 3,900 2,400 Road Damages................................ 8,ooo 15,000 Pay of Road Supervisors....................... I4,400 Roads and Bridges throughout the Kingdom........ I75,000 276,400 Road Tax unexpended to be used in Districts where Collected.................... 37,759 Leper Settlement................................ 85,000 9o,ooo Water supply for Kalawao..................... 10,000 Resident Physicians.................. 26,000 Government Physicians and Medical Treatment...... 50,000 General Expenses, Board of Health................ 20,000 35,000 Building and maintenance of Hospitals........... 40,000 50,000 Repairs and care of Quarantine................. 2,500 2,500 Custom House and Stores, Kahului (store-house)..... 2,000 5,ooo Custom House and Stores at Mahukona............ 5,000 Custom House and Stores at Hilo............. 15,000 Maintenance of Insane Asylum (and repairs)..... 5,0ooo 5,000 Repairs and Extension of Insane Asylum......... 6,ooo General Aid to Queen's Hospital.................. 2,000 15,000 Aid to the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society.... 5,000 Encouragement of Agriculture, as per Bill...........5,000 Government Survey....................... 40,000 40,000 Kapiolani Park................................. 5,000 5,000 Government Printing........................... 3,00 4,000 Compiling, Printing, and Binding Laws............. 6,ooo 5,000 Translating and Printing Master and Servants Law in Hawaiian................................125 Support of Prisoners............................ 45,000 6o,ooo Honolulu Fire Department..................... I5,092 28,000 Interpreting and Translating..................... 300 Expenses Bureau of Water Works.................4,00 5,ooo000 Repairs and Additions to Water Works........... 64,000 82,000 Running Expense of Steam Tugs....1......... 5,0ooo 15,0 Anchors and Buoys (and Landings)............... I8,0oo o,ooo0 Landing at Kawela, Hamakua................... 3,000 Landing at Honokaia............................8,00ooo Wharf at Pelekunu.....................500 Landing at Honomalino............0....... 10,000 Landing at Honokaa..........................0,000 Landing at Koholalele.......................7,000 Landing at Honuapo............................5,000 4*

Page  26 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 1882. 1884. Landing at Holualoa............................. 500 Landing at Hoopuloa and Napoopoo. 1,000 Landing at Kailua and Keauhou..................., oo000 Wharf at Pukoo, Molokai......................... 3,000 Wharf at Kaunakakai..............5,000 Wharf at Kalaupapa.............................,000 Landing at Makena.......................... 1,000 Landing at Heeia, Oahu........................,000 Wharf at Waimanalo.............................,000 Landing at Kahului............................. 5,000 Extension of Hilo Wharf.........................5,000 Repairs of Kaaluala Wharf..................... I,000 Finance Departnment. Salary of Minister............................. I2, i2,ooo Salary of Auditor-General................... I0,000 Salary Registrar of Public Acconnts................ 6,ooo 6,ooo Salary Collector General........... 7,000 8,ooo Salary Deputy Collector..........................4,000 5,oo00 Salary Statistical Clerk.........3,600 3,6oo00 Salary 2nd Statistical Clerk......................2,400 3,000 Salary Surveyor and Guard........................ 3,000 3,000 Salary Entry Clerk.. '.......................2,400 Salary Storekeeper..3,000 3,600 Salary Collector Kahului......................... 2,000 3,000 Salary Collector Mahukona....................... 2,000 -Salary Collector Hilo............................2,000 Salary Collector Kawaihae.......................... 300 300 Salary Collector Kealakekua...................... 00o 100 Salary Collector Koloa........................... 200 200 Salary Keeper Steamer Warehouse.................,200 oo 1,200 Salary Keeper KeroseneWarehouse................ 480 480 Salary Surveyor and Guard, Kahului............... 1,6oo 2,000 Salary Collector, Mahukona.......................1,200 Salary Surveyor and Guard, Hilo..................1,200 Assistant Guards............................... 8,ooo 2,o00 Incidentals of Custom House.................... 2,500 3,ooo000 Custom House Boat........................... 1,000 1,200 Pay of Tax Assessors................... 20,000 28,000 Pay of Tax Appeal Boards......................1,000 1,000 National Debt falling due........................ 89700 69,300 Interest on National Debt...................... 78,00o 65,ooo Hospital Fund, estimated receipts. 12,000 17,000 Incidentals Finance Department..................2,000 3,ooo Printing Certificates of Deposit.................... I,00 i,0oo Stamps and Dies... 1,000 5,00 Safe for Department... 2,250 I

Page  27 HAWAIIAN ALMAMAC AND ANNUAL. i882. 1884. Dog Tags..6... 600 6oo M essenger.................................... 000 Subsidy to Ocean Steamship Lines............... 48,000 5o,ooo Subsidy for steamer to make a semi-monthly trip round the Island of Hawaii subject to public tender and contract with the Minister of Finance.............. 2,000 Return of Double Taxes................. 23,25,500 For J. C. Merrill.......,500 D. Keaweamahi, bal. salary..... 226 Extension of Wharf at Lahaina................... 4,000 Breakwater at Pohoiki........................... 5,ooo Landing at Waianae............................. 2,000 Repairs of Landings............................ I0,000 Wharf at Hookena.............................. 2,000 Wharf at Waimea, Kauai......................... 2,000 Purchase of New Dredge......................... 8,ooo Wharf at Muolea, Hana...................... 3,000 Dredging Honolulu Harborand Entrance........... 5,000 5.ooo Landing at Punahoa, Keanae, and Nuu, Hana, Maui.. 2,I00 Repairs of Wharves, Honolulu..................... 15,000 20,000 Repairs of Wharves at Punaluu, Kau............... 1,500 Filling in Waikahalulu........................... 15,000 Completion of Lighthouse, Barber's Point........... 2,500 3,000 Light House west of Molokai..................... 2,500 Repairs and Running Expenses of Light Houses..... 7,500 Light House, south point of Hawaii................,000 Repairs of Government buildings (and new)......... 34,000 17,000 Repairs and Furniture for Aliiolani Haie............ 3,00ooo Police Court, Public Works, Water Works, Tax Assessor, &c., buildings for..................... 35,600 Kerosene Warehouse............................ 7,000 Fire-proof building for Supreme Court and other records.................................... 15,000 Buildings and repairs of Court House and Lock-ups.. 30,000 Completion and furnishing new Palace.............. 8,ooo 47,500 Palace Stables....................... 15,000 Pedestal for Kamehameha statue................... 2,000 Encouragement of Immigration for re-population as per Loan Bill............................ 00,000 500,000 Nuuanu Pali Road................................ 30,000 45,00o Marine Railway for Honolulu...................... oo00,000 50,000 Artesian Well Boring..................0..., I,000 35,00ooo Pipe for Makiki well............................. 3,000 Purchase of Lot Aliiolani Hale.............,500 Rent of Lot Aliiolani Hale........................ 200 200

Page  28 28,H2AWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 1882. 1884 Rent Kaholaloa Pound........................... 1.050 Rent of Aienui.............................. 720 2,400 Expenss filing certificates of boundaries..... 200 260 Expenses of Election.......................... 500 500 Additional Wash-houses (erection of laundries)...... 7,500 7,500 Care of Forests, Nurseries, improvements of lands and public places AS FOLLOWS Nurseries.................................... 8.00o Emma Square.......................... 1,000 Thomas Square............................... 2,500 3,00ooo Road Tax to be expended in the districts where collected, estimated............................ 70,000 86,ooo For purchase of ancient feather cloak............... 1,200 For purchase of Lunalilo and Kekauluohi........... 200 For Chinese Translations........................ 4,000 Department of Attorney General. Salary of Attorney General....................... 2,000 2,00oo Salary of Clerk............................. 4,000 5,000 Salary of Marshal.............................. 7,000 8,ooo Salary Clerk of Marshal........................ 2,400 Salary 2nd Clerk of Marshal (native)......10........ I,00 Salary Sheriff of Maui.......................... 5,000 2,000 Salary Sheriff of Hawaii........................ 5,000 5,000 Salary Sheriff of Kauai......................... 3,000 4,000 Salary Clerk Sheriff of Maui....................,200 i,6oo Salary Clerk Sheriff of Hawaii................... 1,200 I,6oo Salary Police of Hawaii.............. 28,000 49,580 Pay of Deputy Sheriff and Police, Island of Maui.. i8,000 32,360 Pay of Deputy Marshal, Deputy Sheriffs, Police of Oahu and lamps of Honolulu.............. 70,000 85,760 Pay of Deputy Sheriffs and Police of Kauai...... 7,200 17,600 Apprehension of Criminals....................... 2,ooo 5,000 Incidentals...................2 0..0.............. 2,000 Coroners' Inquests.............................. 600 1,200 Criminal Expenses................. 20,000 Armed Force, Contingent Fund, to be expended by advice of the King and Cabinet Council, for the Islands of Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii...... 60,ooo Bureau of Public Instruction. Salary of Inspector General....:............... 5,000 6,ooo Travelling Expenses of Inspector General.......... I,ooo i.ooo Salary Clerk Board of Education-......... 5,000 6,ooo Support of Hawaiian and English Schools....... 45,000 75,000 Support of Common Schools.............. 2,000 o,ooo Industrial and Reformatory School................,5oo 9,000

Page  29 I4AWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 2 29 Building and Repairs of School Houses —..... Aid to Hilo -Boarding School. ---- Building Girls School at Waialua. --- —---- Aid to Makawao School. --—.....I.:.. Scholarships at Oahu College. Stationery and Incidentals. Pay of Messenger... Sanitary Instructions for Hawaiians. Recapitulation. '1882. 11884. 5,000' 10,000 5,000 10,000 2,000 720 720 700 8oo 6oo 1,000 3,000 Civil List..104,000 148,5 00 Permanent Settlements.19. i, 6oo 21, 8oo Legislature and Privy Council. 20. 300 25,300 Department of Judiciary..96,587 1 22,1 25 Department of Foreign Affairs.133,100 259,766 Department of Interior.............. 3 33,279 353,880 Department of Finance. 1,233,920 2,174,925 Department of Attorney General.1i66,200 319,200 Bureau of Public Instruction.89,020 137,520 $2,196,006 $3,563,116 AVERAGE MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, HONOLULU,9 FRObA 1873 to 1877, inclusive. January...... February..... March....... April....... May........ June........ July........ August....... September. October...... Nova-mber. December. 1873. 10.08 76 2.2c 30.05 79% 0. 22 10.0o5 8o 1. 22 10.05 8o%2 o. 5E 30.06 Si 0.0; 10.00 8z o.oc 10.03 78 0.3 -10.04 76 6.o, 30.01.75 11.9i x874. 29.93 73 9.02 29.88 73 9.75 29.97 75 4. 4c 30.02 74 3.24 30.04 7 7 2.-75 29.96 78 x.6c 29.95 8o 1.25 -29.95 8oY2 0.3c 30.01 79 1.0~2 30.00 77 2.5c 29.92 67 5.84 30.00 62 5i.7! 1875. a9.96 72 4.45 a9.9I 73 2.92 30.02 75 3:86 30.02 74 4.22 30.04 78 4.2i6 29.97 7 8 Y 2.44 29.96 8o 0.95 29.95 81 1-09 29.94 79 3.11 29.97 77 0. 9! 29.95 79 4.45 30.00 74 4.41 I I I.)I x876. 30.00 75 3.73 30.09 76 4.73 29.86 75%/ 6.43 30.11I 75 3.58 30.20 77 5.871 3.21378 1.07 30.27 79 2.42 30.08 76%? 2.58 30.03 78%2 0.52 30.05 78 0.37 30.02 77 3.35 30.067 75% 2.921 1877. 30.02 72% 3.24 30.08 72Y4 2.90 30.05 72Y4 0.94 30.22 73Y4 3.41 30.09 74Y4 7.27 30.2'3 76Y4 2.14 30.13 76%2 2.27 3.12 76Y4 1.19 30.0 76 2.64 3009 76V. 2.63 30.2 76Y4 2.24 130.08 74 3.43 The Almanac'and Annual is made up to November to be issued in time for, the Dec ember mails'. All articles, advertisements, and corrections intended therefor, should be reported to the publisher by the end of October or first of November. - Address, THOS. G. THRUM, Publisher, Honolulu.

Page  30 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. IHAWAIIAN WOODS AND FOREST TREES (Concluded). BY J. M. LYDGATE. One of the most beautiful and most abundant trees of the group, as well as indeed throughout the Pacific, is the kukui-aleurites-which is found on all the islands extending from the sea level up to an elevation of about 2000 feet. It seldom becomes a staple forest tree, but is to be found in clumps in sequestered and sheltered nooks, and in the ravines which seam the windward sides of the islands, where the silvery white foliage against the dark background can be traced from shore to mountain in sinuous lines far at sea. Beautiful in appearance as it is, and grateful for its deep cool shade, it is worthy of a more important place in public pleasure grounds and private gardens than it has hitherto erijoyed. The wood is white and soft, but useless for either architectural or fuel purposes. Another tree found everywhere throughout the tropical Pacific is the puhala, Screw pine, or pandanus, a tree that, by its peculiar irregularity of growth, serrate, jagged leaves and long fibrous aerial rootlets must be familiar to every one who has visited any of the outlying districts where it grows. A cross section of the tree shows a hollow ring, enclosing a lax stringy pith, and consisting of those peculiar hard fascicles of woody matter, which are characteristic of all indigenous growths. The wood, in old trees, is very hard and capable of taking a high polish, forming a very pretty, and quite unique ground. No commercial use has yet been made of this tree notwithstanding its latent possibilities. Very durable hats are made occasionally, as the fit takes some indolent Hawaiian lady, from the leaf which is pliable and very durable, and any well furnished native house will show a tier of hala mats which speak volumes for the skill and industry of the former matrons and maidens of the nation, before the advent of loom and spindle. The chief charm of the tree to the simple and joyous native lies in the bright orange red fruit from which he will doubtless continue to string his leis until the last summons comes to sterner realities. The base of the fruit contains, within a thick and hard exterior, a small rich and quite edible nut kernel, about the only real nut that we have worth eating I trust the time may come when the vast forests of puhala may be turned to account for cordage purposes, the fibreof the aerial roots being strong and pliable. Unlike most tropical countries the islands are poor in palms, being limited to but two small species other than the cocoanut, and these so rare that they can hardly be considered as forest trees. They are fan palms, 15 to 25 feet high, smooth trunk and leaves, looking not unlike most other fan palms from many of which the casual observerwould hardly distinguish them. They are found generally at an elevation of about 2000 or 3000 feet, and exist in quantities only back of Hilo on the slopes of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa. and in the neighborhood of Kalawab, Molokai. They are locally known as loulu, scientifically as Pritchardia.

Page  31 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 31 A tree of great value to the old natives, though never heard of now was the Kaula-Colubrina, from which they made all their kapa pounders. The wood is a dark purple, almost black, close-grained, hard, and tough. The kapa pounders made therefrom are about the size and shape of a bar of soap, tapered at one end, and variously figured on the different faces, to imprint a more or less ornamental figure on the papery texture with each blow. A small tree of singular beauty, found high up on the fog-mantled ridges, is the Hedera platyphylla, a near relative of the ivies. Like the aspen, its shining leaves are delicately hung and tremble and gleam with every breath of wind, seeming to shudder in the cold drifts of fog and start with every tremor in the air. One of the stateliest, as well as most useful trees of the Pacific without doubt is the breadfruit; and though not as abundant or as much prized with us as in some of the groups, is still common enough in some districts to form an item in the landscape and sufficiently valued to furnish in its fruit a delicious table luxury. The wood is of a saffron colour and peculiar grainless texture, rather soft, but durable, tough, and free from all tendency to split which renders it specially valuable for wheel hubs, for which purpose it has been considerably used. The breadfruit, ohia ia, kukui, together with several other valuable plants widely extended throughout the Pacific, are supposed to have been introduced by the early progenitors of the Hawaiian race from distant islands to the south, on that voyage of adventure or disaster which landed them on these shores, the argument being based on their very useful nature, making them almost a necessity to the Polynesian races and their practical identity throughout so wide an extent of the islands of the Pacific. This, no doubt, might be a probable, or at least a possible origin of a number of these plants, supposed to be naturalized foreigners rather than indigenous natives, such for instance as the ohia, cocoanut, kukui, or even the sweet potatoe and taro, but it is certainly a very improbable origin of the breadfruit which can be propagated only from rooted cuttings and with the utmost care. Such rooted plants, even if there had been, to start with, the due amount of care and design, would never have survived the dangers and exposure of a long and uncertain sea voyage in an open canoe. That the same trees and plants are found throughout the Pacific is a very inconclusive argument. The same ferns, the same grasses, the same mosses are found to a greater or less extent on other islands of the ocean, and for that matter throughout the world-surely they have not been introduced by the early forefather of the Hawaiian race, who was certainly no scientist or gardener. The more valuable plants no doubt came at the same time and in the same manner as the remainder of the flora, questions that extend too far beyond our time and knowledge to be very intelligently discussed. While appreciating as much as any one the value of our forests, and advocating to the utmost their protection I may be allowed to draw attention to a single fact. Lying exposed to the trade winds as the

Page  32 32 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Islands do, the needs of the different districts and for that matter the different Islands are various. On the windward slopes of the large Islands the forests are so dense and rank that it is comparatively safe from the ravages of either man or beast, e. g, the districts of Hilo and Puna on Hawaii are almost completely mantled in a dense and almost impenetrable forest, *hich rapidly spreading year by year, in spite of the all-devouring sugar mills, lava flows and wild cattle. Such districts are safe and rich in their own protection, they need no legislative enactments nor forest laws. Adjoining such districts on either side lie others, which receive less rain and where unfortuately the forest is much less dense and less able to withstand the inroads of man and beast. Still farther round lie those sheltered slopes where the rain degenerates into mist, and the soil into a fine palpable dust, where the forest line creeps back farther and farther, until it is lost in the fog, the naked red soil shakes off its green mantle, and blows in dense clouds far out to sea. Such districts are a perpetual shame to the tropics, a shame to the ranches and plantations that have sapped the vitality and beauty of the land for short sighted and mercenary purposes, a shame to the shiftless councils of the nation that have dallied with or bartered away the welfare of the country. Such districts demand speedy and effectual attention, based on the total removal of stock, a strick tabu of wood cutting, and the renewal of the forest as far as possible, perhaps by spreading broad cast the algeroba or some similar, hardy and valuable, tree. MOUNTAIN CLIMBING ON WEST MAUI. A SUMMER VACATION RAMBLE OF REV. JAS. M. ALEXANDER. The eastern portion of the mountains of West Maui is as interesting for its traces of ancient volcanic activity, as the remainder of the mountain is for the grandeur of its scenery. Along the shores, hills of volcanic sand, like those formed where lava streams flow into the ocean, and above on the mountain side extinct craters, yawning fissures and bottomless pits, tell of a former period, when Pele had her back under the ridges and was making her fiercest displays. Those desiring to ascend this part of the mountain should take the road from Waiehu towards Kahakuloa. The first part of this route is a long wearisome climb up barren ridges, till the trail suddenly leads into a deep romantic ravine called Makamakaole. The natives say that once a party of Hawaiians travelling this way were attacked by robbers, and overwhelmed by a stream turned upon them from an aqueduct on the eastern side, and all destroyed; whence the name Makamakaole (friendless). A fine stream flows here, and wastes itself over two waterfalls into the sea. The route beyond this valley lies away from the public road through an ancient watercourse embowered with ferns and convolvuli, into a ravine, which is a branch of the same valley, and which pours into it a

Page  33 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAIL. 33 brawling fern-fringed stream. This is to be crossed towards the southwest, and a steep ridge is then to be ascended through a tangle of uluhi ferns, which move one to forget their beauty with exclamations of "luhi!" (tired). A trail now leads a long way on the back of this ridge with the Makamakaole Valley on the left, here attractive with clusters of wild banana trees, till at length the ridge breaks down and lets one into another stream, which is to be crossed on to a ridge leading towards a high bluff on the right, resembling Punchbowl Hill. After following this about a mile, it is best to work a little to the right through the almost impenetrable maze of ferns, vines and trees into the bed of a stream, and upward into the path of an ancient avalanche, till one struggles for a foothold and grasps for a support on the almost perpendicular side of the bluff. On gaining the summit an extensive crater is to be seen, into which there is an immediate deep descent through a wilderness of ferns, moss clad trees and rare wild palms, to a pit of about fifty feet in diameter and of great depth. This is the crater of Keahikano, and the pit is doubtless its ancient volcanic throat. From this place to the summit of the mountain the country is generally as devoid of trees, on account of excessive moisture,' as the steep ridges at the shore were on account of drouth. Everywhere is swamp covered with a sedge of strange, stunted plants, rare ferns and exquisite mosses. The ohia tree dwindles from a monarch of the forest to a shrub a few inches in height, still bearing its scarlet plumes. On all sides are pools of standing water, and in every hollow rushing streams. The route now lies upward towards the left over a broad plateau, called from its superabundance of water, Kalanikawai, to the brink of Waihee Valley, and along the dizzy edge of fearful precipices through jungles densely clothed with moss. This is the paradise of mosses. As though nature abhorred absence of life as much as a vacuum, they carpet the whole earth and every rock and decaying log with their feathery beauty; they form heavy mantles of bright red or emerald green over the trunks of the trees; they wind their weird locks like Absalom's hair about the branches: and trail long fantastic and exquisite wreaths from tree to tree. Rare plants abound here, a species of violet, called Viola Mauiensis, daisies, dwarf silver-sword plants, schizaeae, and lobelias rising with long red and yellow blossoms like candelabra of a cathedral. The Waihee ridge a little further trends away towards the north to the crater of Eke, which lies at the head of Kahakuloa Valley, and extends half a mile in breadth to the Honokohau Valley. It rises abruptly from the mountain side several hundred feet in height with its sides spangled with silver swords and shining grasses. It is so situated with all its sides higher than the surrounding land that it has received no debris from the wash of the mountain, and therefore has its thirty pits still open and apparently bottomless. I ascended it the first time early one mornng after a still and cloudless night, and found columns of steam like smoke rising from seven of these pits. It was the warm breath of these volcanic throats turning into vapor in the cold upper air. T'he cavernous depths of this crater evidently form vast reservoirs, not now for mol5*

Page  34 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. ten rock, but for water to supply the neighbouring valleys. The chief parts of the streams of Honokohau, Kahakuloa, and Waihee gush forth from its sides and base. The almost incessant fogs of this region rarely lift to give more than glimpses of the magnificent surrounding panorama, of the water-fall at the head of Honokohau gleaming white against dark mountain walls far away, of the vast depths of Waihee clothed even over the most rocky precipices with enchanting vegetation, and of the highest peaks of the mountain looming up near by with strange glimmering vegetation; but sometimes at evening these fogs will blow up in such a way from the east over the brink of the crater as to cause the rare phenomenon of the Spectre of the Brocken, three or four concentric rainbows around one's shadow forming a gorgeous picture frame around one's image, a sight worth the toilsome journey thither. It is an extremely difficult task to ascend to this crater. Starting from Waihee early in the morning one will barely be able to reach it by nightfall; but the numerous objects of rare interest and the grand scenery well repay for all the toil. Those who only travel the dusty highways near the shores of these islands know little of the enchanting scenery to be enjoyed by such a climb as this into the mountains of West Maui. MARINE CASUALTIES FOR THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. CONTINUED FROM THE ANNUAL FOR 1883. NOTE.-In this first attempt to compile a list of this nature covering so long a period, we would not make pretensions to perfection for the years given, but trust that any omissions that may be observed will be duly reported, so that in time the list may be complete and reliable. Through the contributions of parties interested, we are favored with a few omissions published in last year's Annual. I836, Dec. 13-Hawaiian schooner W[ailele struck a rock at Waialua, Oahu, and became a total loss. I871, Jan. i2-Hawaiian schooner Kitty Cartwrigrht dragged her anchors in a heavy swell and went ashore at Moloaa, Kauai. Mar. 7-Hawaiian schooner Nettie Merrill returned to port having carried away her main-topmast and parted the spring-stay. Mar. 1 3-British bark Henry Alderly returned to port in distress, 31 days since leaving Honolulu. Apl.' 8-Hawaiian schooner Kamaile returned to port having sprung a leak. Apl. I-Hawaiian steamer Kilauea ran ashore near Kaunakakai, Molokai; she was afterward gotten off with the loss of her rudder and false keel. Apl. I5-Hawaiian schooner Kate Lee missed stays on entering port and ran ashore on the lee side of the entrance. After lightening her cargo she was gotten off with the assistance of the tug. She was afterwards lost at Onomea, Hawaii. Dec. I4.-American bark Atalanta in entering the port coal-laden, grounded on the west side of the passage, but was gotten off without damage.

Page  35 HAWAIIAN ALMAMAC AND ANNUAL. 35 1873, June 13-Hawaiian schooners Prince and Mary and Ellen collided off Coco Head, damaging the latter so as to necessitate her return to port for repairs. Dec. 20-Hawaiian schooner Victoria returned to port with the loss of her fore top-mast. Dec. 23-Hawaiian schooner Ka Moi went ashore at Kaunakakai, Molokai, and became a total loss. 1874, Jan. 9-Hawaiian schooner Hattie ran ashore at Nawiliwili, Kauai and was totally wrecked. Mch. 2 I-Hawaiian schooner Moi Keiki went ashore at Puhikani, Molokai, while engaged in wrecking the Ka Moi, and shared the same fate. The foregoing completes our research list of marine casualties from earliest time, for the Hawaiian Islands, that commenced in the Annual for 1882 and connects with the yearly record that began in 1876. It is as accurate as it has been possible to make it, but should any omissions be noted by any readers, it is hoped they will be duly reported. It had been our aim to confine the list to such mishaps as occurred around these islands, but misfortunes befalling vessels in other seas, or on other shores that have been of special interest to parties here have, in a few instances, crept in. To render the record therefore as complete as possible, the following list is given pertaining to marine disasters elsewhere, first reported at this port, or Hawaiian vessels misfortunes in other parts of the world. 1859, Sept. 27-British ship Achilles arrived off Honolulu with the officers, passengers and crew of the American ship Mastiff from San Francisco, to touch at this port, en route for China, which was destroyed by fire Sept. 15, midway on the voyage. Her mails and treasure, amounting to $80,000 was saved, but everything else was lost. I86o, Sept.-U. S. S. Levant left Honolulu for San Francisco, and was never afterward heard of. i86i, Dec. 8-Peruvian ship Petronila from Macao, China, bound to Callao, put into this port leaking badly. 1862, May 7 —American brig Mary Capen, 22 days from San Francisco en route for Shanghae put into this port for repairs, leaking. May io-Chilean ship Jesus Ramos, io8 days from Puget Sound, for Valparaiso put into this port in distress. Sept. i9-American ship Leonidas, 40 days from Puget Sound, for Montevidio put in here for repairs. 1864, Jan 3 —American barkentine enny Fo;d, formerly engaged in the lumber trade between Honolulu and the Sound, was lost while beating out of San Francisco harbor. Two lives lost. r June 14-American ship Arno from Howland's Island put in at this port leaking; she afterwards sailed again thither where she went on the reef and became a total loss. July 24-Peruvian bark Mandarian from China en route for Callao

Page  36 36 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. put into this port leaking badly having encountered a typhoon: she was afterwards sold at auction. Dec. 2I-American ship Buena Vista, 33 days from Alberni bound to Adelaide, put in for repairs. 1865, Jan. Io-American ship Monsoon was lost at Howland's Island, and the crew brought to this port. One life lost. July 12-British bark Harwood arrived in distress, 25 days from San Francisco. Oct. 8-British bark Royal Charlie from Puget Sound, en route for Sydney, put into this port in distress. I866, Mch. 3I —Schooner Forward from New London for this port was lost at sea. All hands were saved by a passing Spanish vessel. Oct. 7-British ship Kathay was lost on Howland's Island, and the crew brought to Honolulu. Dec. i —British bark Golden Sunset was lost on Enderbury's Island. Crew and passengers brought to this port. One life lost. I867, Apl. 22 —British bark Sunshine, 60 days from Sydney put into Hilo for repairs. Sept. 26-American ship Othello arrived from San Francisco, leaking badly. Nov. I4-American whale bark Andrewzs was lost on Harrison's point, Cumberland Inlet, and the crew brought to this port. 1868, Sept. 22-Hawaiian whale bark Hae Hawlaii was lost at Point Franklin, Arctic Otan. Crew all saved. I869, May 26-British ship Mattie Banks ran ashore at Baker's Island. The crew were brought to this port. June i-American bark./. Seaver put in at this port in distress, from sea. Aug. 6-Hawaiian schooner Pfiel was cast away on Cape Franklin, Arctic Ocean. Aug. 24-American ship Lorenzo from Baker's Island came into port for repairs. Aug. 30-American ship Robin Hood, destroyed by fire at Baker's Island, with a partial cargo of guano on board. Sept. 30-American whale bark Eagle was lost on Sea Horse Islands and the crew brought to this port. Oct. I4-American ship F N. Thayer arrived in distress, having encountered a cyclone, in which she sprung a leak and damaged her cargo considerably. Oct. i8-The Morning Star, which ran between this port and the South Sea Islands was lost on Howlands Island. I)ec. I2-American bark Almena with cargo of coal from Baltimore for San Francisco put into this port in distress. Dec. 20-Austrian Frigate Donau from Japan, put into this port in distress, having encountered two cyclones. She underwent extensive repairs. 1870, Aug. 7-German bark Fidelitas from the Mexican coast bound to Germany arrived in distress, dismasted in a hurricane. She was sold, refitted at this port, renamed the Queen Emma, and ran in the San Francisco packet trade for several years.

Page  37 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 37 Oct.-American bark Sterling put in at this port, 154 days from New York, in distress, having encountered a severe gale in which she sprung her fore and main-topmast, jib boom and main-top-gallant mast. Oct. 29-U. S. S. Sagainaw was lost on Ocean Island. A boats crew arrived at Kauai in an exhausted condition. All but one of the crew were drowned in effecting a landing. Jan. 14, 1871, the Kilauea which had been sent to rescue the crew at Ocean Island returned. Dec.-German ship Leibig ran ashore at Baker's Island, and became a total wreck. The crew arrived in the C. M. Ward. I87I, Apl. 14-Brig Curlew for San Francisco returned to port in distress, having encountered heavy weather. Apl. 28-Hawaiian schooner Kamaile for Jarvis Island returned to port having sprung a leak. Apl. 24-British ship Napier was lost on Baker's Island, and the crew brought to this port by the C. M. Ward. July I7-American brig Francisco, 68 days from San Francisco arrived at this port in distress. Sept. 24-British Ship Royal Saxon, 71 days from Baker's Island put into this port in distress. Oct. 28-Schooner Sea' Breeze which left this port Sept. 30, for Starbuck Island ran ashore there and became a total loss. Oct. 15-American steamer Nevada, running between this port and the colonies, on the down trip collided with the bark A. H. Baader. Oct. 22-Steamer Moses laylor arrived witp Captain L. Hopken, the only survivor of twelve persons, of the American brig Shelehoff that had been dismasted in a cyclone July 3, in lat. I6~ n., long. I 17~ w. Oct. 23 —First news received of the loss of 33 of the Arctic fleet of whalers, abandoned in the ice, viz: Concordia, Comet, Gay Head, George, John Wells, Massachusetts, J. D. Thompson, Contest, Emily Morgan, Champion, Henry Taber, E. Sitft, Florida, Oliver Crocker, Nazy, Reindeer, Seneca, Fanny, Geo. Iowland, Monticello, Carlotta, Paiea, Kohola, Eugenia, Julian, Awashonks, Thos. Dickason, Minerva, WImn. Rotch, Mary and Roman and two others. Seven ships, only, of the seasons fleet were saved. Oct.-Whaling brig Byzantium which left this port April 15, was lost by striking on a reef in Weynton passage. I872, Jan. 9 —British ship Devonshire arrived in port 33 days from Puget Sound, leaking badly. She was afterward condemned and sold. Jan. 25-Hawaiian bark Mauna Loa which left here in Oct., to cruise, ran ashore in Speck straits and became a total loss. 1873, Jan. io —British bark Lithztfoot arrived at this port 52 days from Shanghae in distress, having experienced a heavy gale on the passage. Apl. I6 —British bark Sparrozeahawk from the Sound with lumber for the colonies, put into this port for repairs through stress of weather. Aug. 2i-American ship Coringa 74 days from Enderbury Island put into port-for repairs, leaking badly. Sept.-American steamer Costa Rica, running between San Francisco and this port ran ashore on point Diablo, near San Francisco and became a total loss. No lives lost.

Page  36 36 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. put into this port leaking badly having encountered a typhoon: she was afterwards sold at auction. Dec. 2 i-American ship Buena Vista, 33 days from Alberni bound to Adelaide, put in for repairs. 1865, Jan. io-American ship Afonsoon was lost at Howland's Island, and the crew brought to this port. One life lost. July I2-British bark Harwood arrived in distress, 25 days from San Francisco. Oct. 8-British bark Royal Charlie from Puget Sound, en route for Sydney, put into this port in distress. I866, Mch. 3 —Schooner Foruward from New London for this port was lost at sea. All hands were saved by a passing Spanish vessel. Oct. 7-British ship Kathay was lost on Howland's Island, and the crew brought to Honolulu. Dec. I i-British bark Golden Sunset was lost on Enderbury's Island. Crew and passengers brought to this port. One life lost. I867, Apl. 22 —British bark Sunshine, 60 days from Sydney put into Hilo for repairs. Sept. 26-American ship Othello arrived from San Francisco, leaking badly. Nov. 14-American whale bark Andrews was lost on Harrison's point, Cumberland Inlet, and the crew brought to this port. i868, Sept. 22-Hawaiian whale bark Hae Hauwaii was lost at Point Franklin, Arctic Otan. Crew all saved. 1869, May 26 —British ship Aattie Banks ran ashore at Baker's Island. The crew were brought to this port. June i-American bark. W. Seaver put in at this port in distress, from sea. Aug. 6-Hawaiian schooner Pfiel was cast away on Cape Franklin, Arctic Ocean. Aug. 24-American ship Lorenzo from Baker's Island came into port for repairs. Aug. 30-American ship Robin flood, destroyed by fire at Baker's Island, with a partial cargo of guano on board. Sept. 30-American whale bark Eagle was lost on Sea Horse Islands and the crew brought to this port. Oct. 14-American ship F. N. ltayer arrived in distress, having encountered a cyclone, in which she sprung a leak and damaged her cargo considerably. Oct. I8-The Morning Star, which ran between this port and the South Sea Islands was lost on Howlands Island. l)ec. I2-American bark A4mena with cargo of coal from Baltimore for San Francisco put into this port in distress. Dec. 20-Austrian Frigate Donau from Japan, put into this port in distress, having encountered two cyclones. She underwent extensive repairs. 1870, Aug. 7-German bark Fidtlitas from the Mexican coast bound to Germany arrived in distress, dismasted in a hurricane. She was sold, refitted at this port, renamed the Queen Emma, and ran in the San Francisco packet trade for several years.

Page  37 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 37 Oct.-American bark Sterling put in at this port, I54 days from New York, in distress, having encountered a severe gale in which she sprung her fore and main-topmast, jib boom and main-top-gallant mast. Oct. 29-U. S. S. Sagainaw was lost on Ocean Island. A boats crew arrived at Kauai in an exhausted condition. All but one of the crew were drowned in effecting a landing. Jan. 14, 1871, the Kilauea which had been sent to rescue the crew at Ocean Island returned. Dec.-German ship Leibig ran ashore at Baker's Island, and became a total wreck. The crew arrived in the C. M. Ward. 1871, Apl. 14-Brig Curlew for San Francisco returned to port in distress, having encountered heavy weather. Apl. 28-Hawaiian schooner Kamaile for Jarvis Island returned to port having sprung a leak. Apl. 24-British ship Napier was lost on BaKer's Island, and the crew brought to this port by the C. M. Ward. July I7-American brig Francisco, 68 days from San Francisco arrived at this port in distress. Sept. 24-British Ship Royal Saxon, 71 days from Baker's Island put into this port in distress. Oct. 28-Schooner Sea Breeze which left this port Sept. 30, for Starbuck Island ran ashore there and became a total loss. Oct. I5-American steamer Nevada, running between this port and the colonies, on the down trip collided with the bark A. H. Badger. Oct. 22-Steamer Moses laylor arrived wit4 Captain L. Hopken, the only survivor of twelve persons, of the American brig Shelehoff that had been dismasted in a cyclone July 3, in lat. i6~ n., long. I 7~ w. Oct. 23 —First news received of the loss of 33 of the Arctic fleet of whalers, abandoned in the ice, viz: Concordia, Comet, Gay Head, George, John Wells, Massachusetts, J D. 7Thompson, Contest, Emily Morgan, Champion, Henry Taber, E. Swift, Florida, Oliver Crocker, NVavy, Reindeer, Seneca, Fanny, Geo. Howland, Monticello, Carlotta, Paiea, Kohola, Eiugenia, Julian, Awashonks, Thos. Dickason, Minerva, Win. Rotch, Mary and Roman and two others. Seven ships, only, of the seasons fleet were saved. Oct.-Whaling brig Byzantium which left this port April 15, was lost by striking on a reef in Weynton passage. i872, Jan. 9 —British ship Devonshire arrived in port 33 days from Puget Sound, leaking badly. She was afterward condemned and sold. Jan. 25-Hawailan bark Mauna Loa which left here in Oct., to cruise, ran ashore in Speck straits and became a total loss. I873, Jan. io —British bark Lightfoot arrived at this port 52 days from Shanghae in distress, having experienced a heavy gale on the passage. Apl. i6 —British bark Sparrowhawk from the Sound with lumber for the colonies, put into this port for repairs through stress of weather. Aug. 2i-American ship Coringa 74 days from Enderbury Island put into port for repairs, leaking badly. Sept.-American steamer Costa Rica, running between San Francisco and this port ran ashore on point Diablo, near San Francisco and became a total loss. No lives lost.

Page  38 38 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Oct. i9-British ship Annie Fleming from San Francisco, for Cork, wheat laden, put into this port in distress, having experienced a heavy gale in Lat. I6~ 30' n., 122~ 32' w. and carried away all her topmasts. 1875, Sept. 25-American ship Marriane Nottebohm, guano laden, from Enderbury Island for Queenstown, came into port for repairs, leaking badly. Oct. 28 —American ship Gatherer reported the abandonment and foundering of the British bark Jessie Scott, dismasted off Patagonia, Sept. 6. Oct. 3I-American ship Syren reports the loss of the British ship Albert Gallatin upon the islands of Ill Defonzo. The crew took to the boats, a portion of whom were picked up 8 days after off Staten Island by the Syren. SUGAR PLANTATIONS AND MILLS. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are planters only. Those marked with a dagger (t) are mills only. All others are plantations complete, owning their own mills. Plantation. Location. Agents. Pepeekeo Plantation......Hilo, Hawaii.................C. Afong Wailuku Sugar Co........Wailuku, Maui.......... C Brewer & Co East Maui Stock Co*..... Makawao, Maui......... C Brewer & Co East Maui Plantation Co.... Makawao, Maui.........C Brewer & Co Onomea Sugar Co......... Hilo, Hawaii...........C Brewer & Co Paukaa Sugar Co..........Hilo, Hawaii........... C Brewer & Co Honomu Sugar Co........Hilo, Hawaii...........C Brewer & Co Princeville Plantation Co... Hanalei, Kaui..........C Brewer & Co Hawaiian Agricultural Co... Kau, Hawaii........... C Brewer & Co Kaneohe Plantation....... Kaneohe, Oahu.........C Brewer & Co Halawa Sugar Co......... Kohala, Hawaii.........C Brewer & Co Hitchcock & Co.'s Plant'n. Hilo, Hawaii.......... Castle & Cooke Kohala Plantation......... Kohala, Hawaii......... Castle & Cooke Waialua Plantation........ Waialua, Oahu.......... Castle & Cooke Haiku Plantation No. i2 Haiku Plantation No. 2 Halku, Maul.......... Castle & Cooke Paia Plantation Co........ Paia, Maui............. Castle & Cooke J. M. Alexander *......... Paia, Maui............ Castle & Cooke A. H. Smith & Co*........Koloa, Kauai.......... Castle & Cooke Union Mill Cot.......... Kohala, Hawaii....Theo H Davies & Co Kynnersley Bros.*........ Kohala, Hawaii.... Theo H Davies & Co Niulii Plantation........Kohala, Hawaii.... Theo H Davies & Co Beecroft Plantation*..... Hawi Millt......... I Kohala, Hawaii....Theo H Davies & Co Filder & Brodie's Plan'n* J

Page  39 i HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 39 Waipunalei Plantation*.... Hilo, Hawaii....Theo H Davies & Co Aarnano Plantation*.....Hamakua, Hawaii..Theo H Davies & Co Hamakua Plantation* t Hamakua, Hawaii...Theo H Davies & Co Harnakua Mill Cot.. f Waiakea Plantation * HiloHwi...Te ais&C Waiakea Milltf...... oHaai TeHDves&C Laupahoehoe Sugar Co....Laupahoehoe, Hawaii. Theo H Davies &Co Kaiwilahilahi Mill...... Laupahoehoe, Hawaii. Theo H Davies &Co Kipahulu Mill t.......Hana, Maui.....Theo H Davies & Co Barnes & Palmer*......Wailuku, Maui..M S Grinbaum &Co Bailey Brothers*..... Wailuku, Maui.. M S Grinbaum & Co Hana Plantation......Hana, Maui......M S Grinbaum & Co Thompson & Bro.*.....Kohala, Hawaii.. M S Grinbaurn & Co Heeia Sugar Plantation Co.. Koolau, Oahu. —. M S Grinbaum & Co Soper, Wright & Co *......Ookala, Hawaii.....H Hackfeld'& Co H. M. Whitney*......Kau, Hawaii......H Hackfeld & Co R. M. Overend.......Honokaa, Hawaii.. H Hackfeld & Co Kaluahonu Co*.......Koloa, Kauai...... H Hackfeld & Co W. Y. Horner*.......Lahaina, Maui.. H Hackfeld & Co Chr. L'Orange*.......Hanamaulu, Kauai.. H Hackfeld & Co Hanamaulu Millt......Hanamaulu, Kauai....H Hackfeld & Co A. S. Wilcox*........Hanamaulu, Kauai...II1 Hackfeld & Co Koloa Ranch*.......Koloa, Kauai......H Hackfeld & Co Koloa Plantation......Koloa, Kauai..... $.-H Hackfeld & Co Grove Farm*........Nawiliwili, Kauai. H Hackfeld & Co Kilauea Plantation.....Kilauea, Kauai. H Hackfeld & Co Lihue Plantation......Lihue, Kauai......H Hackfeld & Co Kekaha Mill Co*......Kekaha, Kauai.. H Hackfeld & Co Pioneer Mill........ Lahaina, Maui.. H Hackfeld & Co Kipahulu Plantation*....Kipahulu, Maui.....H Hackfeld & Co Waimanalo Sugar Co....Wairnanalo, Oahu....H Hackfeld & Co R. WV. Meyer........Kalae, Molokai.....H Hackfeld & Co Kukuiau Plantation*.....Hamakua, Hawaii.. H Hackfeld & Co Kekaha Plantation*.....Waimea, Kauai.. E Hoffschlaeger & Co Waimea Sugar Millt........ Waimea, Kauai.... E Hoffschlaeger & Co Fr Bindt*.........Eleele, Kauai......E Hoffschlaeger & Co Makee Plantation.........Ulupalakua, Maui..,. ---W G Irwin & Co WVaihee Sugar Co......Waihee, Maui.....-W G Irwin & Co Hawaiian Com'rl & Sugar CoMaui......... W G Irwin & Co Makee Sugar Co......Kealia, Kauai.... --- —.W G Irwin & Co Kealia Plantation......Kealia, Kauai......W G Irwin & Co Hlonuapo Plantation.....Kau, Hawaii......W G Irwin & Co Naalehu Plantation.....Kau, Hawaii..... V. G Irwin & Co Hilea Sugar Co.......Kau, Hawaii......W G Irwin & Co Star Mill Co........Kohala, Hawaii....W G Irwin & Co Hakalau. Plantation Co..... Hilo, Hawaii.. W G Irwin & Co Wlainaku. Plantation..... Hilo, Hawaii......W G Irwin & Co Paauhau Millt...... Hamakua, Hawai. -... W G Irwin & Co

Page  40 * 40 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL.. Paauhau Plantation*....... Hamakua Hawaii......W G Irwin & Co Moanui Plantation......... Molokai.............Wong Leong & Co Olowalu Plantation....... Olowalu, Maui..... G W Macfarlane & Co Ookala Plantation......... Ookala, Hawaii.....G W Macfarlane & Co Spencer's Plantation....... Hilo, Hawaii.....G W Macfarlane & Co Makaha Plantation*....... Waianae..........G W Macfarlane & Co Waikapu Plantation........ Waikapu, Maui... G W Macfarlane & Co Reciprocity Sugar Co......Hana, Maui......G W Macfarlane & Co Huelo Mill Cot........... Huelo, Maui..... G W Macfarlane & Co Grant & Brigstock*........ Kilauea, Kauai.... G W Macfarlane & Co Huelo Plantation*......... Hamakua, Maui... G W Macfarlane & Co Kamaloo Plantation.......Molokai...................J McColgan Honokaa Sugar Co........Hamakua, Hawaii....F A Schaefer & Co Pacific Sugar Mill......... Hamakua, Hawaii....F A Schaefer & Co Eleele Plantation......... Koloa, Kauai........ F A Schaefer & Co Laie Plantation...........Laie, Oahu............J T Waterhouse Waianae Sugar Co.........Waianae, Oahu.........H A Widemann SELECTION FROM REGULATIONS OF CARRIAGES AND RATES OF FARE. Every licensed carriage, dray or vehicle must be numbered, and this number must be placed on a conspicuous part of the carriage, dray or vehicle. Every licensed carriage running at night must exhibit two lights, and the number of such carriage plainly shown on the glass of each lantern. Drivers of licensed vehicles must obey orders of the police. No licensed horse and carriage must be left without a proper attendant, or properly secured, nor will any licensed carriage be allowed to be left.on the street over night. *- * -* -*Stands for Licensed Carriage. On Beretania street-east of Maunakea street, mauka side, and east corner of Nuuanu street, makai side. On Hotel street-east corner of Nuuanu street, mauka side; corner of Union street, mauka side; and opposite Hawaiian Hotel entrance. On King street-opposite the Chinese Theatre; east corner of Maunakea street, makai side; west corner of Bethel street, makai side; east from Fort street, makai side; east corner of Richard street, makai side, and from Punchbowl street, makai side. On Merchant street-opposite the Sailors' Home, and east corner of Fort street, makai side.

Page  41 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 41 On Queen street-opposite to Fish Market; from east corner of Nuuanu street, makai side, and from east corner of Fort street, makai side. On Emma street-east side, mauka of Beretania street. * * * * * RATES OF FARE. To or from any point between Beretania street and the harbor, and between Maunakea street and Punchbowl street, for each passenger, IO cents. To or from any point between second bridge, Nuuanu avenue, and the harbor, and between the Reformatory School on the Ewa road and the line of Piikoi street, not conflicting with the pending rule, for each person, 25 cents. Outside these limits, not exceeding two miles from the starting point, for each person, 50 cents. Children three years old or under, no charge; over three years old and not more than ten years old, half price. WHEN HIRED BY THE HOUR. For one passenger, for each hour................................... $....$ oo For two passengers, for one hour....................................... I 50 For three passengers, for one hour................................. 2 oo For each additional hour 50 cents for each passenger, when more than one. Time to be counted from the time of starting to the time of dismissal. No extra charge shall be made to any passengers for ordinary hand baggage. For any other than ordinary hand baggage, each trunk or box, 25 cents. Every licensed driver shall have a silver or white metal badge, with his number plainly shown on it, said badge to be worn so as to be distinctly seen upon the left breast. SPECIALLY FOR KAPIOLANI PARK. SPECIALLY FOR THE PALI. One passenger each way...........$ oo 0One passenger each way........$3 oo 1Two passengers each way......... I50 Two passengers each way......... 4 oo Three passengers each way........ 2 ooThree passengers each way....... 5 oo No driver is compelled to take a single fare for the Park or the Pali, except by special bargain. When two or more offer, the regular rate as Ier the above schedule must be accepted. Between the hours of o1 o'clock P. M. and 5 o'clock A. M., the rates of fare shall be doubled. If any licensed carriage shall be found standing in any place but on the appointed stand, the driver shall be liable to arrest by any police officer, unless said driver shall be under engagement. Any licensed driver who, when in charge of a licensed carriage, dray or other vehicle, shall be intoxicated, or who shall use insulting or abusive language, who shall demand more than the authorized fare, who shall neglect upon demand to show a card of rates of fare, or who shall contravene any of the above rules, shall, upon complaint to any of the police, be arrested, and upon conviction, be liable to the penalty set forth in Section 14 of the Act approved the fifth day of August, A. D. 1882. 6*

Page  40 40 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAI,. Paauhau Plantation*....... Hamakua Hawaii......W G Irwin & Co Moanui Plantation......... Molokai.............Wong Leong & Co Olowalu Plantation........ Olowalu, Maui....G W Macfarlane & Co Ookala Plantation......... Ookala, Hawaii......G W Macfarlane & Co Spencer's Plantation....... Hilo, Hawaii.....G W Macfarlane & Co Makaha Plantation*....... Waianae.......... G W Macfarlane & Co Waikapu Plantation........Waikapu, Maui... G W Macfarlane & Co Reciprocity Sugar Co......Hana, Maui......G W Macfarlane & Co Huelo Mill Cot........... Huelo, Maui.....G W Macfarlane & Co Grant & Brigstock*........ Kilauea, Kauai.... G W Macfarlane & Co Huelo Plantation*......... Hamakua, Maui... G W Macfarlane & Co Kamaloo Plantation....... Molokai...................J McColgan Honokaa Sugar Co........Hamakua, Hawaii.... F A Schaefer & Co Pacific Sugar Mill......... Hamakua, Hawaii....F A Schaefer & Co Eleele Plantation.......... Koloa, Kauai........F A Schaefer & Co Laie Plantation........... Laie, Oahu............J T Waterhouse Waianae Sugar Co......... Waianae, Oahu....... H A Widemann SELECTION FROM REGULATIONS OF CARRIAGES AND RATES OF FARE. Every licensed carriage, dray or vehicle must be numbered, and this number must be placed on a conspicuous part of the carriage, dray or vehicle. Every licensed carriage running at night must exhibit two lights, and the number of such carriage plainly shown on the glass of each lantern. Drivers of licensed vehicles must obey orders of the police. No licensed horse and carriage must be left without a proper attendant, or properly secured, nor will any licensed carriage be allowed to be left.on the street over night. *~ * -* * Stands for Licensed Carriage. On Beretania street-east of Maunakea street, mauka side, and east corner of Nuuanu street, makai side. On Hotel street-east corner of Nuuanu street, mauka side; corner of Union street, mauka side; and opposite Hawaiian Hotel entrance. On King street-opposite the Chinese Theatre; east corner of Maunakea street, makai side; west corner of Bethel street, makai side; east from Fort street, makai side; east corner of Richard street, makai side, and from Punchbowl street, makai side. On Merchant street-opposite the Sailors' Home, and east corner of Fort street, makai side.

Page  41 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 4I On Queen street —opposite to Fish Market; from east corner of Nuuanu street, makai side, and from east corner of Fort street, makai side. On Emma street-east side, mauka of Beretania street. % *%* * * * RATES OF FARE. To or from any point between Beretania street and the harbor, and between Maunakea street and Punchbowl street, for each passenger, IO cents. To or from any point between second bridge, Nuuanu avenue, and the harbor, and between the Reformatory School on the Ewa road and the line of Piikoi street, not conflicting with the pending rule, for each person, 25 cents. Outside these limits, not exceeding two miles from the starting point, for each person, 50 cents. Children three years old or under, no charge; over three years old and not more than ten years old, half price. WHEN HIRED BY THE HOUR. For one passenger, for each hour........................................ oo For two passengers, for one hour........................................ I 50 For three passengers, for one hour....................................... 2 oo For each additional hour 50 cents for. each passenger, when more than one. Time to be counted from the time of starting to the time of dismissal. No extra charge shall be made to any passengers for ordinary hand baggage. For any other than ordinary hand baggage, each trunk or box, 25 cents. Every licensed driver shall have a silver or white metal badge, with his number plainly shown on it, said badge to be worn so as to be distinctly seen upon the left breast. SPECIALLY FOR KAPIOLANI PARK. SPECIALLY FOR TIfE PALI. One passenger each way........... $ oo One passenger each way.......... $3 oo 1Two passengers each way......... I 5 Two passengers each way......... 4 oo Three passengers each way........ 2 ooThree passengers each way....... 5 oo No driver is compelled to take a single fare for the Park or the Pali, except by special bargain. When two or more offer, the regular rate as per the above schedule must be accepted. Between the hours of io o'clock P. M. and 5 o'clock A. M., the rates of fare shall be doubled. If any licensed carriage shall be found standing in any place but on the appointed stand, the driver shall be liable to arrest by any police officer, unless said driver shall be under engagement. Any licensed driver who, when in charge of a licensed carriage, dray or other vehicle, shall be intoxicated, or who shall use insulting or abusive language, who shall demand more than the authorized fare, who shall neglect upon demand to show a card of rates of fare, or who shall contravene any of the above rules, shall, upon complaint to any of the police, be arrested, and upon conviction, be liable to the penalty set forth in Section 14 of the Act approved the fifth day of August, A. ). 1882. 6*

Page  42 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN NAMES OF RELATIONSHIPS OF CONSANGUINITY AND AFFINITY. (Rev. C. M1. Hyde, 9.D).) The book written by Hon. Louis HL Morgan, and published in 1871, as No. 218 of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, opened a new field of inquiry into the social condition of primeval man. But there are some errors in orthography, and some misstatements of the facts in regard to Hawaiian names of relationships, as well as some incorrect inferences. These mistakes ought to be corrected, so as to prevent some further misapprehensions which are having a wide circulatin in more recent treatises. Keiki, "the little one," is the word for offspring, or child. An offshoot of a banana is called its "Keiki." Hawaiians love children; but in olden times almost universally gave away their own to some one else to bring up. Keiki kane is boy. Keiki zwahaine is girl. Kama is the general term for "child." Kamalii is "little children." iookamzakama is "to prostitute." Kamaaina, "child of the land," is "native" or "citizen." Kamakahi signifies an only child. Poolua, "two heads," is a child who has a putative father as well as a real father. Ohana is all the young of one animal, and is also used as the equivalent of the English word, "family." Ohua is "the household," not including the master and mistress, nor their children. Makua is parent; makuakane, father; makuahine, mother But these terms are applied to foster-parents also; or,'even more generally, to persons of the preceding generation. Hanai, "to make eat," joined to the word for child or parent,expresses the foster-relationship, keiki hanai, makua hanai. aookama is the specific word for adoption, though this seems to be a modern use of that term. Luaui is used to denote a parent by birth; or, quite generally, as a term of respect in old age. Kolea was originally the real parent. It is now used like our stepfather, step-mother. tiapo, or makahiapo is the first-born child. Muil is any younger child. Mulihope, or panina, "closing," is the last. Pokii is the youngest,or the pet of the household;a term of endearment. Hanau, "to be born," is literally to work with groaning, hana-u. Hanauna is a generation. Keiki ma ka hanauna is the expression for nephew or cousin. iHananuna is a cotemporary. Hoahanau, "birth-fellow," is the general term for relations in the same generation, not for brothers only. Kaikuahine is used by a brother of a sister, not signifying whether she is older or younger. Kaikunane is used by a sister of her brother, not signifying whether he is older or younger.

Page  43 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL,. 43 Kaikuaana is the term for older child of the same sex, used by a brother in speaking of his older brother, or by a sister in speaking of her older sister. Kaikaina is the name for a younger child of the same sex, used by a brother of his younger brother, or by a sister of her younger sister. These are shortened into kuiaana, kaina when used as terms of endearment. When used by others, they denote the relationship of the parties spoken of, in the same way as used by the parties themselves, There is no specific term answering to the English "cousin." A parent's older brother's son is to the first named parent's child, even if forty years old, his kaikuaana, even if this kaikuaana be only six months old Honoweai, or hiunoai, is a parent-in-law. Irunona is a child-in-law. Kupuna, (ku, puna, "starting point'-') "source," is grandparent or ancestor. Kuauhlau is equivalent to genealogy. AMoopuna (moo, line, "lineage," "line of descent,") or moopuna kuakahii, grandchild. Moopuna.kalua, kuakoun, &c. is great-grandchild, greatgreat-grandchild, &c. Iaala is "widower," or "widow."' Kane lahkine ole is "widower," (or bachelor); 7wahine kane make is "widow." Kaikoeke is a brother of a husband, or a husband of a sister. Puluna is the relationship of the. parents of a married couple. Punalua are husbands of two sisters, or husbands of the same wife. The wife's sister is the husband's wzahine, as much as the wife, by aboriginal Hawaiian usage. Hoao, "to try," is the aboriginal Hawaiian word for marriage. Mare, the modern term, is an Anglicism, introduced with the Christian ideas of the marriage relation. Hoopalau, "to betroth," is a word of modern usage. It thus appears that the Hawaiian language has no 'specific terms answering to our English'father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, boy, girl, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece, cousin. But there are specific words for relations we express in English by compounding terms or phrases, grandparent, parent, child, oldest child, youngest child, elder brother, elder sister, a sister's brother, a brother's sister, parents by birth, parents-in-law, brother-in-law, child-in-law, parents of a married couple, brothers of husbands or wives, sisters of a wife. Among the Hawaiians there was no tribal organization, no tribal ownership of land, no subordination of the individual to the tribe. The social organism recognized the highest chief as the highest ruler. By Hawaiian usage there could be no higher blood than the child of a brother and sister; for these, if of high rank, would also be of equally high rank. In the utter absence of what we mean by the husband and the family, in the loose promiscuous intercourse in which men and women indulged with little or no restraint, we should expect to find utter social disorganization and disintegration: but there must have been somewhere, somehow, checks and balances that kept the social life in working order with some wholesome restraints, that do not seem to be secured by the

Page  44 44 1HA\VAIIAN AI MANAC AND ANNtUAl,. marriage laws of our statute books, and the divorce decisions of our judicial courts. There is an interesting field of inquiry, as yet unexplored, for facts that have their bearing on the modern theory of Evolution, and may help decide the question whether Hawaiian social usages indicate a step in upward progress from a previous lower condition, or a decline and fall from a higher civilization. This chapter, brief and meagre as it is, on Hawaiian names for relationships, would indicate that the mere physical fact of conception and birth, the physical order of successive generations, is the foundation of the Hawaiian system of consanguinity and affinity. These Hawaiian names of relationship express no relationship at all to the tribe or family; but only to one or more generations. It is evident that lineal descent and individual relationship to particular persons, with special ties of affection such as we express by father, mother, brother, sister, within one family, are' lost out of sight in the Hawaiian particularization of the relative date of intermediate birth, and succession of different generations. Ours is what we may call the unigenitous system, and theirs the multiplicatory system. The basis of the one is the family regarded as a larger unit: while the other makes each individual the fractional part of an indeterminate quantity. It is the family, in the Christian sense of that word, which is the root principle of Christian civilization. The great mass of the Hawaiians have not yet attained any true conception and pure enjoyment of family life. Sixty years of Christian teaching, with but imperfect opportunity for Christian training, have not sufficed to root out old ideas and habits, and ingraft new principles into Hawaiian life, but only to initiate some new methods. We see different plants yield with different readiness to the florist's plans and wishes. We find it easy to give the Hawaiian wild vine a double-blooming blossom. It never can be made a hardy stock, till old Hawaiian looseness in thought and act has become Christian steadfastness ii purpose and principle: and that cannot be without Christian family life and training, the work of more than one generation. NORTH PACIFIC MISSION INSTITUTE, HONOLULU. UTILIZING WASTE WATERS. An important boon for the agricultural regions of Hamakua, Hawaii is contemplated by the Waipio and Hamakua D)itch Company of Hawaii, whereby the waste waters for the most part commencing on the land of Puukapu will be conveyed across the district as far as Notley's, a distance of some 25 miles. From different surveys made it is estimated that the minimum of supply will give double the amount needed for fuming and irrigating purposes. Besides greatly benefiting existing plantations along its course it will open up a tract wherein are several excellent plantation sites, which, on account of difficulty and expense of securing water, has heretofore lain idle. Hamakua, long recognized as having the best lands in the group, lacks only harbor facilities to enable it to take front rank.

Page  45 FHAWAIIAN AL,MANAC AND ANNUA,. HAWAIIAN REGISTERED VESSELS. MERCIIAN'TMEN ANI) TRAl)ERS. 45 REGISTER. CLASS. NAME. TO N S. REGISTERED OWNERS. 150 new Bark Kale................... 867 73.95 H ackfeld 175 do Bark Iolani.................. 924 76.95 H Hackfeld 193 do Bark Kalakaua............... 404 89.95 William Greig 216 do Schr Jennie Walker.......... I37 85.95 J S Walker 226 do Brig Ninito.................. 245 7.95 H R Macfarlane 221 do Schr Julia................... I87 89.95 Pacific Nav Co 237 do Brig azard................. 459 6. Paciic Nav Co 235 do Bark Lilly (race............. 750 30.95 Robt Gray [ter, A C Co(:ke 239 do Bark ''hos. R. Foster........... 127 79.95 J Campbell, C Brewer & Co, Trl R I',COASTERS. KRLt;GISTE'I. 21 new 170 do 166 do 174 do 171 old 176 new 127 do 58do 131 do 69 do 16 (1do 177 do 179 do 80 do 129 do 203 do 145. do 155 do 12 do 183 do 185 do 186 do 188 do 190 do 194 do 195 do 196 do 197 do 2UO do 204 do 205 do 207 do 208 do 209 do 215 do 218 do 219 do 213 (do 223 (do 224 do 220 do 227 do 228 do 229 do 230 do 231 do 232 do 233 do 234 do 236 do 238 do 240 do 241 do 24? do 242 do 24r 3 tl( CLASS. NA ME. Schr Kaluna............. Schr Kulam nu.............. Schr Nettie Merrill.......... Schr Caterina Apianli long... Schr Manuokawai........... Schr Kekauluohi............. Schr M arion................. Schr Ka Moi................. iSchr Pauahi................ Schr Wailele............ Schr Kapiolani.............. St r Likelike................ Schr eahi................... Schr Wailele................ Schr Jenny.................. Sloop Hae awaii............ Schr Kauiki................. Schr Mile Morris............ Schr Uilama................ Schr Haleakala.............. Schr Mary E. Foster........ Schr W aioli................. Schr W aiehu................. Stmr Kilauea Hou............ Schr Waimalu.............. Stmr Waimanalo............ Stmr M okolii................ Schr Liholiho................ Schr Luka................... Stmr Lehua.................. Schr M okuola................ Stmr James Makee........... Schr M alolo................. Schr (Gel. Seigel............. Schr Kauikeaouli............ Stmr C. R. Bishop............ Schr M ana.................. Schr Sarah................ Schr Mee Foo................ Stm r I walani................. Schr Josephine.............. Schr Pohoiki................. Stmr J. H. Black............. Stmr W. H. Reed............ Schr Emma. Schr eEmma.................. Schr Moi Keiki.............. gchr Ehukai. r E hukai................. Schr Kaholomua............. Sloop Kahihilani.............. Sloop Healani................ Schr vMary Alice........... Schr Rainbow............... Schr Mamo.................. Stmr Planter.................. St r Kinau...................I___ I T'IO NS. R IE LS T] I' L O R)\N S. 86 44.95 Pacific Nav. Co. 96 34.95 Allen & Robinson 158 77-95 Henry Turton 43 85.95 Allen & Robinson 51 45.95 Inter Island S N Co 53 89.95 Allen & Robinson 105 49-95 I S N Co 154 I6.95 Pacific Nav Co il 38.95 Allen & Robinson 15 36.95 Ipuhao (w) 10 78.95 J F Colburn, W Barthololew, (7 CAkIana 596 58.95 Wilder Steamship (iC. 103 24.95 Alleln Robinson 75 85-95 Pacific Nav Co 63 o4.95 1 1 S N Co 9 12.95 E Kahelemake 7 64.95 Jas.1 I)owsett 22 32.95 Jas I I)owsett 78 I B M Allen 1I6 75-95 C Afong 116 o6.95 1 I S N Co 65 68.95 Pacific Nav Co 60 37.95 Pacific Nav Co 271 Io.95'1' H Hobron 95 97.95 Pacific Nav Co 49 81.95 Waimanalo Sugar Company 96 78.95 Wilder Steamship Co I22 35.95 I I S N Co 122 35.95 Allen & Robinson and Mrs J G Dickson 217 91.95 Wilder SteamshipCo) 17 10.95' ong Aki 244 i5.95'I I S N Co 133 65.95 Pacific Nav Co 39 12.95 J F Colburn 139 70.95 Allen & Robinson 281 36.95 1 I S N Co 107 10.95 Pacific Nav Co 6 21.95 N Kauaauao 26 32.95 H (;rube 434 40.95, I S N Co 8 88.95 FWundenburg 68 55.95 M P Robinson 24 25.95 Wm H Cummings 95 15.95 0 1 Shipman 22 80.95 G W and H R Macfarlane 94 26.95 Pacific Nay Co 45 35.95jPacific Nav Co 21 6o.95 J F Colburn and Aiau 11 45.95 W F Williams 9 67.95 C H Judd 38 15.95 F Wundenberg 23 73.95 J Paiko 7 25.95 Kaiahua [wJ 500 20.9511 I S N Co 868 77-95 Wilder Steamship Co

Page  46 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANIM AN NUAL. THE HAZE FROM JAVA. BY S. E. B1ISHOP'. During the months of September and October of this year, and at intervals in the month of November, up to the time of present writing, a series of brilliant atmospheric phenomena have been conspicuous, such as have not before been observed in these islands. These appearances consist of a thin transparent haziness visible nearly every day within the limits of a circle of 30 degrees radius around the sun; also before sunrise and after sunset the same haziness, presenting a brightly colored surface of great extent in the region of the sun's approach or disappearance, with less bright, but often highly colored reflections upon sometimes nearly the whole sky. The haze as seen during the day in the sun's vicinity is whitish with a slight but distinct red tint. Towards the outer edge of the circle there is a purplish tone, evidently the result of the blue sky seen through the rosy haze. Often a wavy ripple is noticeable in the hazy surface. Beyond these limits of a radius of 30 or 40 degrees from the sun the haze becomes quite invisible, and the sky is clear and blue. As the sun disappears below the horizon, however, there is a grand change, and masses of colored light glow and wane over the whole sky, east and west. All parts of the haze become successively and sometimes simultaneously illuminated, from horizon to zenith in broad surfaces of olive, orange, or brownish light. On the first evening a green hue was observed. One marvellous effect is often a sudden appearance of thick luminons haze where a minute before all was pellucid, unsullied blue. Meantime the glow especially gathers and deepens above the western horizon along a line of 60 degrees until the whole occident is a uniform sheet of flaming crimson, shading up into lilac and orange. Down upon that creeps the dark earth-shadow, sharply cutting off the edge of the blazing sheet, often serrated with the shadows of remote cumuli. As the shadow descends, the glow deepens, until night has closed down upon it. At once on the darkened sky arises a secondary or "after"-glow, repeating the same phenomena as the stars come out with almost equal brilliancy of effect. In this after-glow, the defined shadow-line is lacking, and the deep fiery red above the horizon bears a singular resemblance to the peculiar reflection on the sky of some immense but remote conflagration. These appearances occur before sunrise with equal brilliancy but in reversed order. The haze often seems of unequal density in different parts of the horizon, the glow sometimes extending farther to the south of the sun, and sometimes more to the north. The brilliancy has been very unequal on successive nights, although the presence of more or less haze has been quite steadily manifest. During November, the evening glow has not been conspicuous much oftener than once in a week. These phenomena have been observed in equal intensity in all parts of this group, and have excited great interest and wonder. Definite record has been obtained of their being observed from ships midway between

Page  47 IAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 47 this and the Pacific Coast. The first appearance noticed here was on the evening of the 5th of September, when they. were more brilliant than on any subsequent night and visible to a later hour, nearly fortyfive minutes beyond any ordinary twilight afterglow. What seems certain is, that since the 5th of September the upper regions of the atmosphere of this section of the Pacific Ocean have been invaded by some abnormal element of an exceedingly tenuous nature whether gaseous or composed of minute solid particles, which latter is more probable, from their peculiar reflections in sunlight. Their elevation is apparently very great, since they reflect sunlight for a greater distance than highest cirri ordinarily do. A vast wave of this element appears to have invaded this region at the above date, and to have continued here ever since, but in less density than during its first onward rush. Its prevailing tint is red. It is so tenuous as to be visible only in special directions of the sunlight. We fail to detect any evidence of its presence in the lower strata of the atmosphere. Has this phenomenon been observed elsewhere? As said above, it has been seen 1200 miles north-east from us. Like phenomena attracted great notice at Santa Barbara, California on the eve of October i4th, and the following morning. We have no advices as yet from the tropical regions to the westward, until we reach India. A letter in Nature, from Ongole, India, describes similar phenomena but of greater intensity, seen there early in September, which excited much alarm among the people. There the sun was at times much obscured, and of a green color. A large sun spot was discernable with the naked eye. The Ongole observer ventured a cautious conjecture that the source of these appearances might be matter projected from the eruption in Java on August 27th. The present writer hazarded a like conjecture in September in a communication to the Saturday Press, of Honolulu, being moved thereto by the receipt of news of that tremenduous eruption in the Straits of Sunda which occurred eight days previous to the first appearance here of the glowing haze. It now seems probable that the enormous projections of gaseous and other matter from Krakatoa have been borne by the upper currents and diffused throughout a belt of half the earth's circumference, and not improbably as careful observation may yet establish, even entirely around the globe. This implies an amount of matter discharged that seems incredible. We learn, however, that the ocean was thickly and closely covered with floating pumice for hundreds of miles from the crater. A steamer 150 miles distant reports her barometer falling and rising half an inch every two or three minutes! This almost incredible statement implies a terrific undulation of the atmosphere, such as could only be produced by a vast and continuous jet of gas projected upwards beyond the limits of the atmosphere, and driving the air in vast waves in every direction. So abnormal and gigantic a force may well have propagated not only its tidal waves as it did across the Pacific, but

Page  48 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. it may also have transmitted its portentous and lurid vapors to belt the globe with flaming skies. For certainty in this hypothesis we await further information, especially from Micronesia, where these phenomena should be more conspicuous than here, being nearer their supposed source. CASUALTIES OF SHIPPING CONNECTED WITH PORTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 1883. Jan. io —Hawaiiar schooner Prince went ashore at Huelo, Maui. Part of the cargo was saved, but the vessel became a total loss. Jan. 17-Hawaiian schooner Emma went ashore at Waianae, Oahu, but was saved through strenuous efforts and towed to Honolulu for repairs. Jan. I8 ---Honduras bark Hermann reported off Waimanalo, Oahu, in distress. Steamer James Makee went out to tow her to port. Came to anchor.outside, discharged deck-load, and came into port, leaking badly. ~ as afterwards sold and repaired, sailing hence as the Hawaiian bark Thos R Foster. Jan. 23 -The Pacific Mail Steamer arrived reporting the steamer Suez having left San Francisco on time, the 9th instant, for this port; but saw nothing of her en route. Steamers Kilauea Hou and C. R. Bishop were sent out in search, the former returning after an unsuccessful week's cruise, the latter cruising en route to San Francisco. Bark Revere arrived Feb. 2nd, reported having signalled the Suez Jan. 19th, with disabled machinery, bound back to San Francisco. Feb. 8 —The Suez arrived to-day having returned to San Francisco for a new propeller, sailing again January 31st. March 7 —British bark Jubilee carried away her fore royal-mast on entering port, by. colliding with the Gettysburgr. March 17 — -Schooners Kekauluohi and (Ulama collided off Hanalei, Kauai, both sustaining damages necessitating their return for repairs. April 22 ----British bark Moravian, from Newcastle, with coals, experienced heavy weather on the passage, carrying away sails, staving in bulwarks, etc. One seama.n was washed overboard and drowned. April 29 — Hawaiian schooner Ka Moi on entering port struck her rudder on a rock, jamming it so as to necessitate anchoring to await the tug's assistance. May Io —Hawaiian schooner Jennie Wlalker collided with the Kaala off Coco Head about X I P M., causing the latter to sink in a few minutes. June 28th -— Hawaiian schooner Uilama was lost at Hana, Maui, by the parting of her chain cable. August — Steamer W. II Reed, during a storm on the coast of Hawaii, lost two anchors and came to Honolulu to replace same.

Page  49 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAN. 49 Sept. 2o —American bark C. S. Hulbert, from Astoria for New York, arrived in distress, dismasted, having encountered a cyclone Aug. I8, in Lat. 11.45 N. and Long. 117.30 W. Sept. I9-American barkentine Forest Queen from Tacoma for this port, went ashore about ten miles below Tacoma while in tow of the tug. She was lightened of her deckload and then floated off. Nov. 9-American bark Coloma from Portland for Hongkong put in for men, having lost her second mate overboard on the 6th and also the first mate and two seamen by the swamping of the boat sent to the rescue. Nov. 20-American bark Spartan arrived 253 days from New York via Cape of Good Hope, China and Japan. HAWAIIAN HOSPITALITY. The Spanish-Americans-the Mexicans, at least-have a phrase of welcome admirably calculated to impress the hearer, after hearing it a few scores of times, with a sense of the hospitality of the people. The phrase says, " My house is your house"; it means, " You are very welcome." But in Mexico-more than anywhere else, so far as a limited experience goes-the best fruits-nay, the only fruits-of hospitality are reserved for those fortunate folk who come well introduced, or who carry with them those universal-passports to good society everywhere-wealth and good breeding. In the backwoods of Southern Oregon one encounters another sort of hospitality. It is less ceremonial, less exaggeratedly polite, less suave and finished than'your Mexican welcome. But it is not the less genuine when 'tis given; and is vastly less suspicious. I remember one notable example of true Oregonian hospitality. My comrade and I had left our horses on the northern shore of Rogue River, had crossed the ferry and were tramping up the steep Galice Creek trail en route for the "Ankeney mine." It was our first real tramp since we had left Portland and our path was through soft snow more than ankle deep all the way. By five o'clock it began snowing and ten minutes later we had lost our way. We stopped under a huge spruce and looked ruefully each into the other's face. We were clearly off the trail. Had not we best start back down the mountain and, following the creek, try and reach one of the many mountain cabins a few miles back? Before we had time to make up our minds we heard the tinkle of a mule bell, and around the elbow of a little spur of the big mountain up whose side we were toiling, came three mules laden with great packs, and behind them walked a tall, broad-shouldered man, his red shirt showing under his oil-skin coat. He sawus almost as soon as we saw him. When he came within easy speaking distance he checked his mules with a word and asked with laconic directness, " Lost?" 7*

Page  50 50 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. " That's it, exactly," replied my companion, with a laugh. " Well, guess I'm just the man you're looking for. Plenty of room in the cabin and to-morrow I can show you anybody or anywhere along the line of Galice Creek." Ten minutes later we were drying our wet clothing before a blazing fire of pitch pine and spruce knots; dressed in some of our host's warm flannels. Still later we were seated at his hospitable board, around which sat his wife and four rosy-cheeked children, and eating as only tired and hungry men can eat. Up to that time our host had asked us neither our names nor our business; and we were too nearly fagged out to volunteer the information. And when we did tell him who we were and what we needed it chanced that he was "the very man we wanted." But he had " taken us in unquestioning, although he might have directed us a little further on to a family whom we would not have inconvenienced half as much as we did his. I think Hawaiian hospitality-from my own experience and what I have read of it-combines the best features of both the Mexican and the Oregonian types. Nothing more genial, nothing more genuinely polite than the Hawaiian welcome ever greeted the stranger to these shores. Your perfect hostess is born, not made. There must exist in her nature just enough of the ice of reserve to make the sunbeams of graciousness sparkle. It is precisely that quality which makes the compelling charm of the Hawaiian hostess-and one finds her in every condition of wealth and education. I remember vividly my first taste of Honolulu. The Suez made her moorings about 2 P.M. and in an hour or more thereafter I was lolling in a big chair on a cool veranda, over which clambored vines and beyond which were trees and shrubs and the cool greenness of velvet turf. It was all beautiful, novel, fascinating. But into the midst of it came the intrusive realization that over two thousand miles of watery waste was between Honolulu and "home"; and that there was "no place like home," after all. And a few minutes later appeared my hostess of the evening, a merry lady with eyes that danced and a mouth about which smiles continually chased each other. I saw at a glance that she was American and Californian, and at least half the waste of ocean narrowed and was forgotten, for that sudden home-like presence brought home so much nearer that, for the moment, I quite forgot its absence. And one most tangible charm of Hawaiian life is the certainty the stranger of all the great nationalities always has-at least in Honoluluof finding not only his familiar language but some of the familiar manners of his far away home-merged though they be in that happy cosmopolitanism which distinguishes most seaport towns. The testimony of naval officers is always pertinent to matters hospitable. I have talked with at least a dozen of them on this favorite topic and with all the twelve Honolulu is a favorite stopping place. I think I may take the liberty to introduce the following excerpt, from a letter 0

Page  51 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 5it written a few months since from an American man-of-war then off the Peruvian coast: "The pleasant days spent in Honolulu are often talked about. In the fourteen months of our commission, it is almost our only pleasant contemplation in the matter of ports visited. It stands out boldly and brightly against the dark and anxious experiences elsewhere." It is not that naval officers are so lavishly entertained. The pomp and glitter, the real fuss and feathers of court or society life are not here. But here naval officers find genuine welcome by scores of quiet centre tables-I was about to perpetrate the solecism of writing "hearths" — and it brings home nearer by making isolation less lonely and separation less unbearable. More than one American officer has won himself a charming wife in Honolulu. For those sailors who are not officers, and for those strangers who have neither introductions nor the social assurance of wealth or culture, Honolulu is more genuine!y helpful and systematically kind than any other city I have ever visited. If any Honolulan reader is unacquainted with the work undertaken by Miss Anna Breese, he ought to visit her Friday evening socials, or go with her on her Monday evening errands of mercy to " the stranger within our gates." Apart from its religious labors the Y. M. C. A. is doing good work in its new quarters in a social way. The monthly free entertainments are an earnest of what awaits every young man in Honolulu who really desires to find a welcome in Honolulan homes. Right conduct, right language and a respectful and a self-respectful bearing are the only passports needed to make a score of happy homes accessible to any respectable stranger —whatever his occupation. But, of course, young men must prove themselves in a measure worthy what they seek; and they must meet advances half way. One does not leave one's pleasant home many times in pursuit of him who shows no appreciation of the courtesy. There are on Maui a score of homes of which for the most part I have only heard, whose hospitality is famous far beyond our borders. It was my good fortune, however, to enjoy the hospitality of four Maui homes last spring, and most gracious hospitality it was. One of them has a fame that is international-a scene for painters and a theme for ploets. High on the southern slopes of Haleakala, amid the trees its founder planted, nestles a long, low, rambling house, with broad verandas and odd angles and a pervading sense of restful welcome. The liquid labials of its Hawaiian name cling caressingly to the memories of all who visit it. The thrill of its compelling beauty is an inspiration. The spell of its brooding peacefulness is a benediction. Do I need to name its name? All the world has heard-or dreamed-of Ulupalukua! About a mile from the commercial heart of Honolulu, a cottage-villa stands in the centre of an emerald lawn-a useful lawn, on whose soft grass sober mare-mothers feed and reckless long-limbed colts race and suckle their dams and realize the equine paradise. From the southern porch, vine-curtained against the importunate sun, one catches glimpse 4

Page  52 52 5IAWAIIAN ALMANAC AN I ANNUAL. views of white surge and blue sea, seen between the trunks of the loftiest algarobas in all the vicinage. Inside there is enough luxury to give comfort and convenience and essential homeliness their perfect crown. But the setting of the picture is the least of its charm. That lies in its genre fidelity to the one idea of home. There lives a wife and mother whose dove-like eyes are her husband's best moral-barometer, and her children's favorite mirror. There lives a husband and father whose most ambitious horizon is bounded by the happiness of his dear ones. And there lives a happy school girl-with the inherited grace of a mature woman; a merry school boy romps and shouts therein, and yet is always a gentleman; a tot is waiting there impatiently, I fear, for his first trousers; and there to help the general welcome when some day you shall be a guest-is the loveliest baby (but one) in Polynesia. There is one home in Honolulu on a street that shall be nameless, from whose open doors the mellow lamplight streams invitingly late every night. It seems to say to all its friends: "Never mind if it is a little late. Come in for a few minutes chat, just long enough to hear and say 'Aloha' " There dwell in perennial amity three generations of hostesses. There no one enters without realizing how pure, how stimulating for good, the atmosphere There no one goes away without the mental nota bene: "I'm coming again, so soon as with propriety I may." There are many other Honolulu homes it has been my good fortune to visit of which I might write truthfully, in terms that would sound extravagant to many who do not know them-of that most ideal of batchelor halls "where the sea tumbles, where the reef rumbles," under the morning shadows of Diamond Head; of the old missionary mansion whose thick walls have echoed with many of the most interesting historical conversations the islands have ever known, and whose nooks and corners are still eloquent of the best memories of the past; that most hospitable of vicarages whose outlines peed only English stone and English ivy to make them seem an English photograph; but the limitations of space forbid; one might go on writing this sort of thing forever. Unfortunately, there remains something to add more creditable to the hearts than to the heads of many Honoluluans who have been the victims of the confidence operations of unscrupulous visitors. The recent departure of two young men, who left owing sums which aggregate a great deal more than has been shown, or will ever be known, is a fitting test for a much needed preachment. So generous, so unsuspecting, so extravangtly trustful has society been that sharpers have been in the habit of boasting of their success on their return to San Francisco and other places. The churches have been imposed on over and over aga*; and probably the necessity of charity towards applicants will make imposition possible always. But both churches and society generally have a right to demand that he who expects to be welcomed into the fellowship of Honolulus charming homes shall bring his credentials-or be satisfied with fellowship at arms length. R. S. SMITH. 4

Page  53 INAWAT:IAN ALMANAC ANI) ANNUAL. 53 A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF NOTED VOYAGES, TRAVELS, AND DISCOVERIES IN THE EASTERN, NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN PACIFIC. COMPIILEI FOR THE HAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANT) ANNUAL IBY REV. C. M. HYIE, 1.).. T5 3 —Sept. 26, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, from a mountain top in the Isthmus of Panama, was the first to see the Pacific Ocean from its eastern side. 1519-Aug. Io, Fernao Magalhaens sailed from Sevill,e; 1520, Oct. 21, discovered Magellan's Straits; 152I, March, sailed into the Pacific, which he was the first to traverse; 152I, April 7, discovered the Ladrone Islands; April 26, was killed at the Philippine Islands; Nov. 6, Barbosa, his successor in command, arrived at the Moluccas. First voyage around the world. 1526 —Alvarado Saavadra (Sarvedra) sailed from Mexico for the Moluccas; discovered New Guinea. r568 —Jan. ii, Alvaro Miendana de Neyra sailed from Callao; discovered Solomon Islands. T577-Dec. 13, Francis Drake, sailed from England around the globe in a voyage of two years and ten months. 1586-July 21, Thomas Cavendish sailed on a similar voyage, accomplished in two years and two months. T593-Sir Richard Hawkins voyaged to the South Sea. T595-April, Mendana sailed on his second voyage with Pedro Fernandez de Quiros as his pilot; I596, discovered the Marquesas Islands. i605-Dec. 20, Quiros sailed from Callao, in search of a supposed Southern Continent; discovered Encarnacion, and other small islands; i606, Feb. 20, Sagetaria (Tahiti); April 26, Tierra Austral del Espiritu Santo (Grandes Cyclades, of Bougainville; New Hebrides, of Capt. Cook); returned to Acapulco after a nine months' voyage. I6o6-Luiz Vais de Torres sailed along the southern shore of New Guinea to Torres' Strait. 1615-June 14, William Cornelison Schouten and James Lemaire sailed from Holland to discover another passage into the Pacific besides the Strait of Magellan, rounded Cape Horn, and sailed through Lemaire Strait. 1642 —Abel Janssen Tasman, sent from Batavia by Van Diemen, Governor-General of the Dutch East India Company, to explore New Holland (Australia), discovered Nov. 24 Van Iiemen's Land, kTasmania); and in his voyage of ten months, New Zealand, Friendly Islands, Feejee, Tongatabu, New Britain, &c. 1683-William Dampier, an English buccaneer, discovered Dampier Archipelago. 172 — Aug. 21, Jacob Roggewein under the patronage of the Dutch West India Company, sailed from Holland; 1722, April 14, disccvered Easter Island, &c.

Page  54 54 5HHWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNVAL. 74o ---Sept., George Anson sailed from England with seven vessels to prey on Spanish commerce in the South Seas; returned 1744, June I5, after an absence of three years and nine months. 1764 —July 3, Commodore John Byron sailed from England; discovered Falkland Islands. I766 —Aug 22, Samuel Wallis, in H. B. M. S. Dolphin, and Philip Carteret, in H. B. M. S. Swallow, sailed from England. 1767, June I9; Wallis re-discovered Tahiti, also Whitsun Island and Queen Charlotte's; Carteret discovered New Ireland. 1766 —Dec. 15, Louis Antoine de Bougainville sailed from France in the frigate La Bondeuse, accompanied by the storeship L'Etoile, making the first French circumnavigation of the globe, accomplished in two years and three months. His narrative was rendered into English by J. R. Foster, and published in London, I792. 1768 —Aug. 25, James Cook sailed from England in H. B. M. S. 'Endeavor to observe the transit of Venus, I769, June 3, in Tahiti; discovered Botany Bay, New South Wales, Society Islands, &c. 1771 ---Ives Joseph de Kerguelen Tremarec, a French navigator, discovered Kerguelen's Land. 1772-July, I3, Capt. Cook started on his second voyage, in search of a Southern Continent; I774, discovered New Hebrides, New Caledonia, &c. 1776-July 12, Capt. Cook sailed on his third voyage in the ships Resolution and Discovery; this time, in search of a N. E. passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic Oceans; I778, Jan. i8, discovered the Hawaiian Islands, landing at Waimea, Kauai; 1779, Feb. 14, was killed at Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii. I783-Travels and adventures of John Ledyard, comprising his voyage with Capt. Cook's third and last expedition. 1785-August, Jean Francoise de Galoup, Count de la Perouse, with the Boussole and L'Astrelabe, sailed from France; was shipwrecked off Mallicollo, one of the New Hebrides; his fate was not known for forty years, though a reward of o0,000 francs was offered by the French Government. 179I, Capt. Dillon first found traces of the shipwreck. 1786, May 28, La Perouse anchored his two frigates between Maui and Molokai, remaining two days. r786 —Captains Portlock and Dixon in the King George and Queen Charlotle visit Hawaii and Oahu. 1777-Captain John Mears published in 1790 his voyage from Bengal to the N. W. coast of America in the Elphigenia and Felice. He stopped twice at these islands, in January and October, 1787. 1787-Dec. 23, Lieut. William Bligh was sent out in H. B. M. S. Bounty to collect bread fruit trees and take them to the West Indies. The sailors mutinied and set adrift in an open boat Bligh and eighteen men, who sailed 3600 miles to Timor. The mutineers settled on Pitcairn's Island.

Page  55 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 55 1790o-792 —H. B. M. S. Pandora's voyage round the world under Capt. Edwards: narrative by Surgeon George Hamilton. 791 —Rear Admiral d'Entrecasteaux, with the Recherche and L'Esperance sailed from France in search of La Perouse; gave his own name to an archipelago, a cape and a channel. The narrative was written by J. J. H. de Labillardiere. 179 ---Captain Joseph Ingraham's voyage in the brig Hope from 1790 -93, a manuscript journal in the library of the Department of State, Washington. Touched at these islands in the spring of 1791. 179 -Marchand (Etienne), a voyage round the world 1790-93-various editions in French, English and German. Passed the south point of Hawaii Oct. 5th, and touched off Kauai Oct. 7th, 179I. 792 —George Vancouver in the Discovery and Chatham was sent to demand from the Spaniards the surrender of Nootka; then surveyed the N. W. coast of North America; 1792, March 3, 1793, March I2, visited the Hawaiian Islands. The narrative of the expedition was published in 1798. 1794 —December, first discovery and survey of Honolulu harbor, by Captain Brown, in H. B. M. S. Butterwiorth. 1796-Captain Wilson, in the Duff carried to Tahiti the first band of missionaries sent by the London Missionary Society into the Pacific Ocean. I803-Aug. 7, Adam John von Krusenstern sailed from Kronstadt. He was the first to conduct a Russian expedition round the world; account published, 1812. -Von G. H. Langsdorff also published an account of the voyage with Krusenstern; touched here for but three days, June, 1804. An edition published at Carlisle, Pa., i817. 1803-Richard J. Cleveland published an account of his voyages in the eastern Pacific. Touched at these islands July, 1799, and June, 1803, and introduced the first horses. (2d edition, Cambridge 1843) 18o4 —Wrey Lisiansky, narrative of a voyage round the world in the Russian ship Neva, I803-I806. An English translation was published in London, I814. 189o-Archibald Campbell, voyage around the world from I806-i812, in which he visited and resided for a time at these islands. His account was published in Edinburgh, I8.6. 1812 to 8 I 4-Voyage of the U. S. S. Essex, under Capt. David Porter. 18Is to I8I8-Voyage of Otto Von Kotzebue in the South Seas and North Pacific; narrative translated by H. G. Lloyd. I817-William J. Mariner published his account of the natives of the Tonga Islands, written for him by Dr. John Martin. 81 7 —Amas. Delano-voyages and travels of survey and discovery in three voyages around the world; published in Boston, 8I 7.

Page  56 56 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 81 7-La Corvette d' Uranie's voyage in command of Louis Claude Desaulses Freycinet, was made; though the narrative was not published till I829, under title of "Voyage autour du Monde." 1820-March 30, the first American missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands, in the Thaddeus, arrived at Kailua, Hawaii. I822-G. F. Mathison-account of a visit to various points in South America and at these islands; published in London, 1825. — Tyermann (Rev. Dan'l) and Bennett (Geo.) Journal of voyages and travels among the various missionary stations of the South Seas, I812-1829; visited these islands in 1822. 1824 to I826-Capt. the Right Hon. Lord G. A. Byron in H. B. M. S. Blonde brought to the Sandwich Islands the remains of Liholiho and Kamamalu, arriving I825, May 4. His narrative was published in 1826. 1825 to 1828-Capt. F. W. Beechey in H. B. M. S. Blossom voyaged to co-operate with the polar expedition. Touched twice at these islands. 1825 —Capt. Jules Sebastian Caesar D'Urville was sent by the French Government on an exploring expedition; and again in i837-I840. 1826 —"Tour through Hawaii," by Rev. William Ellis. I83I-1834-Cruise of the U. S. Frigate Potomac round the world; narrative by Francis Warriner. I83I —Capt. Fitz Roy, in H. B. M. S. Beagle; Philip King wrote the narrative, published I839; and Charles Darwin, "A Naturalist's Voyage round the World," last edition published I883. -Capt. Edm. Fanning-Voyages to the South Seas, etc. between I830-32. I833 —"Visit to the South Seas" by Rev. C. S. Stewart. I834 —Narrative of a journey across the Rocky Mountains and a visit to the Sandwich Islands by J. K. Townsend. I835-Narrative of a whaling voyage around the globe —833-36 by Frederick D. Bennett; made three visits to these islands; published in two volumes in London, I840. I836-Capt. Sir Edward Belcher, "Narrative of a voyage round the world from 1836 to I842, in H. B. M. S. Sulphur; during which Honolulu was visited twice. 1838 to 1842-Capt. Charles Wilkes in U. S. exploring expedition, consisting of the Vincennes, Peacock, Porpoise, Sea Gull, Flying Fish, and Relief. Horatio Hale was the Ethnologist, and J. D. Dana the Naturalist. I836-Adolphe Barrot-Visit of the French sloop of war Bonite to the Sandwich Islands. 1837-Abel Du Petit Thouar's voyage of the French frigate La Venus I836-39; visited Honolulu, July, 1837. I839-Cyr. P. Theod. Laplace, voyage of the French man-of war L'Artemise, 1837-40; visited Honolulu July, I839.' 1840 —H. J. Belcher's voyage around the world ih the East India squadron under Commodore Geo. C. Read.

Page  57 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 57 1842 —Sir George Simpson-narrative of a journey around the world in 1841 and 42; was at these islands six weeks in the spring of I842. 1843-Lord George Paulet in H. B. M. S. Carysfort arrived in Honolulu Feb. 25. He pulled down the Hawaiian and hoisted the English flag. -Rear Admiral Thomas in H. B. M. S. Dublin arrived July 26th, and restored the sovereignity of the islands on the 3ist. -Travels in New Zealand by Dieffenbach. 1846-Admiral Hamelin in H. I. M. S. Uranie brought back, March 29th, the $20,000 exacted by Laplace in I839. -F. Walpole's Four. years in H. M. S. Collingwood, I844 to '48; visiting Honolulu for a month in 1846. Vol. 2, pp. 220-270. I849-Capt. John Elptlinstone Erskine's voyage in H. B. M. S. Havannah. I849-Berthold Seemann-Voyage of H. M. S. Herald from 1845-51; visited these islands twice. -S. H. Hill's travels in the Sandwich and Society Islands; was a little over three months at these islands in the spring of'49. 185o-Edward T. Perkins, "Reef rovings in the South Seas," a narrative of adventures in the Hawaiian, Georgian and Society Islands, embracing a residence of nearly two years on these Islands. 185I-"Island world in the Pacific; a personal narrative of travel through the Sandwich Islands, by Rev. H. T. Cheever Two other works relating to these islands were published by the same writer about the same time. 1852-C. A. Virgin's voyage around the world in the Swedish frigate l'Eugenie I851-53, touching twice at Honolulu. 1854-C. Ax. Egerstroem's travels in South America, California, Hawaiian Islands and Australia, 852'-57; was three months at these islands. i859-Arthur H. Tilley, "Japan, the Amoor and the Pacific;" comprised in a voyage of circumnavigation in the Russian corvette Rynda, in 1859-60. Haw. Is., pp. 292-335. 1862-"Twenty years around the world," by John Guy Vassar. Hawaiian Islands, pp. 236-242. '865 —"Cruise of H. B. M. S. Curacoa" by Julius Brenchley. '866-I869 —Report on the Sandwich Islands by Mann; Boston Soc. Nat. His. Vol. I. 1870-"Across America and Asia" by Raphel Pumpelly; Hawaiian Islands, pp. 68-75. 1872 —South Sea Bubbles by the Earl and the Doctor. — Pearls of the Pacific by W. Bodham-Welham. 1873-"Our Journal in the Pacific," a narrative by the officers of H. B. M. S. Zealous; visited these islands in May, I871. pp. 148-I70. 1878-Lady Anna Brassey's "Around the world in the yacht Sunbeam." I879-H. B. M. S. Challenger, narrative of the cruise by W. J. J. Spry; notes by a naturalist, W. N. Mosely. 8*

Page  58 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 1873-5-Contributions to the Natural History of the Hawaiian and Fanning Islands, U. S. N. Pacific Expedition; U. S. steamer Tuscarora, by Thomas H. Street, pub. Washington, I877. i88o-Coral Lands in the Pacific; a narrative of travel through the Hawaiian and Fiji Islands by H. Stonehewer Cooper. 2 vols. I882-"Fire Fountains" by Miss C. F. Gordon Cumming; a description of the volcano of Kilauea, Hawaii, etc. 2 vols. 1882-"Wanderings, South and East;" by Walter Coote. Hawaiian Islands, pp. 89-Ii8. CUSTOM HOUSE REGULATIONS, PORT CHARGES, ETC. The following extracts from the Hawaiian Tariff and Digest of the Laws and regulations of the Customs, Pilot and Harbor regulations, &c., is published by request for the benefit of the Mercantile Marine. The full text of the Tariff and Digest can be had in the Annual for i 880. PORT REGULATIONS-PILOTAGE. Upon the arrival of any vessel making the usual signal for a pilot, it shall be the duty of the pilot at the port to immediately put off to such vessel, taking with him a white and a yellow flag; to enquire into the sanitary condition of the ship and the health of those on board; and upon being assured to his satisfaction that there is no danger to be apprehended from any contagious disease, he shall board such vessel, but not otherwise Upon boarding the vessel, the pilot shall present the commanding officer with a Health Certificate to be signed by him, and in case the same shall be signed, the white flag shall be immediately hoisted at the main, and the pilot shall be at liberty to bring the vessel into port; but in case the commanding officer shall decline to sign the certificate of health, the pilot shall deliver him a yellow flag, which the master shall hoist at the main, and the vessel shall be placed in quarantine, outside of the harbor, and anchored where the pilot may direct. Any pilot who shall conduct a vessel into any port in this Kingdom, in violation of the provisions of this law, or any,of the Regulations of the Board of Health, or knowing that there is just ground to suspect the existence of contagion on board, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Five Hundred Dollars, Every vessel, the master of which shall have declined to sign a certificate of health as above prescribed, shall, upon entering port, be liable to seizure, confiscation and sale. If the pilot, after boarding any vessel, shall discover the existence of a contagious disease, he shall not return on shore; neither shall it be lawful for any of the ship's company or passengers to land or communicate with the shore, or board any other vessel, without permission of the

Page  59 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 59 Board of health, or the Collector, under penalty of a fine not exceeding Five Hundred Dollars. The Pilots of Honolulu shall bring the vessel which they may take charge of, fully within the harbor, and anchor her in a suitable and convenient place, under penalty of forfeiting their commission. * * * * * If any foreign, or Hawaiian vessel engaged in foreign trade, shall enter or depart from any of the ports for which pilots may be appointed, without a pilot, such vessels shall be liable to one half pilotage. All vessels anchoring outside the reef at Honolulu shall, when so requested by the Harbor Master or any pilot, change their anchorage and anchor in such place as he may direct, under penalty of a fine not exceeding One Hundred Dollars. At ports where there are no pilots, the regularly appointed boarding officers shall do and perform all the duties prescribed for pilots. The pilot's fees, boarding officer's fees and health fees shall form a part of the port charges, which shall be paid by every vessel to the Collector of the port before a clearance is granted. PILOT'S FEES. On all War Vessels, Mail Steamers, and vessels under 200 tons, per foot.....$ I 50 On all other vessels over 200 tons, per ton.............................. 05 No vessel to be charged more than $50 in or out. For anchoring a vessel outside.......................................... 15 oo In case such vessel comes into the harbor................................. oo If detaining pilot over 24 hours, additional pay per day.................... 5 oo Boarding Officer, at ports where and when no pilotage is charged........... 5 oo TOWAGE RATES-PORT OF HONOLULU. Vessels under 500 tons.......... $40 oo Whalemen...............$40 oo Vessels over 500 tons........... 45 oo Vessels under 200 tons........... 30 oo Vessels over i,ooo tons......... 50 oo Vessels over 200 tons............ 35 oo ARRIVAL AND ENTRY OF VESSELS. MERCHANTMEN.-The commanding officer of any merchant vessel, immediately after her arrival at either of the legalized ports of entry, shall make known to the Collector of Customs the business upon which said vessel has come to the port, and deliver him, under 6ath, a full, true and perfect manifest of the cargo with which said vessel is laden before allowing any parcels to be landed, except the Mail Bags delivered to the order of the Postmaster; which manifest shall contain an account of the packages, with their marks, numbers, contents and quantities, also the names of the importers, or consignees, and shippers; and furnish him with a list of her passengers before allowing any baggage to be landed; and deliver him under oath a list of all stores on board his vessel, under a penalty of forfeiting all stores not mentioned in such list and a fine of one hundred dollars. Any such officer failing to perform any or all of the acts above mentioned within forty-eight hours after his arrival, he shall be subject to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars. * i * * *- *~

Page  60 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HARBOR REGULATIONS. The Harbor Masters of Honolulu and Hilo shall have authority over the anchoring, mooring and making fast of all hulks, coasters, boats and other craft in their respective harbors, and are charged in general with the enforcement of all harbor regulations. They shall also be wharfingers at the ports for which they are appointed. They shall be entitled to receive, in addition to their usual fees, all amounts disbursed by them for the use of boats, warps and labor in mooring and making fast any vessel, and if necessarily detained on board more than two hours at any one time, they shall be paid at the rate of one dollar per hour for such extra detention. All vessels that may enter any port shall be anchored in the place designated by the Harbor Master, and moved from one anchorage to another as he may direct; and no vessel, excepting coasting vessels uhder fifty tons burthen and vessels about to leave the harbor, shall quit her anchorage or moorings until the commanding officer shall have received the written permission of the Harbor Master, under penalty of a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars. HARBOR MASTER'S CHARGES. WHARFAGE.-Per registered ton (Sundays and Government holidays not counted), 2 cents per day. STORAGE.-Bricks, Coal, Coolers, Kettles, Stone Ballast, Sand, (space of;2 square feet measurement), I cent per day; Oil, on wharves, for every io bbls, i cent per day; Lumber, Firewood, (space of 32 square feet measurement), i cent per day; Anchors, Chains, Pig Ballast and Old Iron, per ton of 2,000 lbs, 2 cent per day. HARBOR MASTER'S FEES. Boarding vessel on arrival........$3 oo I Boarding vessel on departure......$3 oo Moving vessel, each time................................................ 3 oo SHIPPING AND DISCHARGING NATIVE SEAMEN. Shipping, each man............. $o 50 Shipping Articles, Stamp.........$i oo Discharging,teach man........... 50 Master's Bond, Stamp........... I oo Government Tax, each man....... 6 oo Application to Governor.......... oo [All the above charges must be paid by the ship.] DISCHARGING FOREIGN SEAMEN. Seaman's Permit................$o 50 Seaman's Bond................. $I 00 Permit for deserter to ship.............................................. 50 HONOLULU.-A Lighthouse has bees erected on the inner edge of the western reef, bounding the entrance of the channel into Honolulu harbor. The light is a Fresnal of the fourth order, at an elevation of twenty-six feet above the sea level, and can be seen from the deck of an ordinary sized vessel at the distance of nine nautical miles, in a radius from S. E. by E. to W. from the lighthouse. From the lighthouse the Spar or Fairway Buoy bears (magnetic) S. II~ W. 64 cables; the eastern end of the new wharf, N. 35~ E. I

Page  61 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 6t cables; Diamond Point, S. 56~ E.; Barber's Point, S. 88~ W., and the eastern corner of the Custom House, N. I5~ E., near to which corner another Light Tower has been erected, at an elevation of twenty-eight feet above the sea level, and can be seen about five miles out at sea. The light in this tower is green. To enter the harbor by night, bring these two lights in one, bearing N. 15~ E. (magnetic), and keep them in one till within a cable's length of,the lighthouse on the reef, when by hauling a point to the eastward you will avoid the end of the spit on which the lighthouse is built, extending off from it about twenty-five feet to the eastward. Steer for the east end of the new wharf, and when half way between the light on the reef and the new wharf, keep away N. W. and along the Esplanade to an anchorage inside. All bearings magnetic. HILO, HAWAII.-A lighthouse has been erected at Paukaa Point, entrance to Hilo harbor, Hawaii. The light is at an elevation of fifty feet above the sea level, a plain fixed light, and can be seen easily ten miles out at sea. From the lighthouse the outer point of the reef bears S. 58~ E; inner point of the reef, S. 39~ E.; Governess' flagstaff (about the centre of the harbor), S. 22~ E.; Leleiwi Point, S. 79~ E., and Makahanaloa Point, N. 2~ W. Bearings magnetic. KAWAIHAE, HAWAII.-For the anchorage at Kawaihae a white light, about fifty feet above the sea level, has been erected, at a point bearing from the N. E. corner of the reef N. E. by N. 2 N. The light can be seen at a distance of ten miles out at sea. With this light bearing E. N. E. there is a good anchorage in eight fathoms of water, about a quarter of a mile from the shore. All bearings magnetic. LAHAINA, MAUI. —A lighthouse has been erected at the landing, port of Lahaina. The window on the sea side of the light-room is of 20X24 inch glass, with red glass at the N. W. and S. E. ends. The colored glass stands at equal angles, side and front, and a vessel in ten fathoms of water will have two bright lights for about half a mile each way from directly in front of the lighthouse. At a greater distance, it will show a colored light until the lights almost appear like one, or the red light like a reflection from the other light. The light towards Molokai is the brightest, so that the lights now have the appearance of a large and small light close together. The lights stand about twenty-six feet above the water, and can be seen across the Lanai channel. MOLOKAI POINT.-On the extreme southwest point of the island of Molokai (known as Lae o ka Laau) is a fixed white Fresnel light of the fourth order, showing from all points of the compass. The light is fifty feet above the sea level, and is visible from a distance of eleven miles. The tower is painted white, the lantern red, and is located in Latitude 21~ 6' N. and Longitude 157~ i8' W. From seaward the following are the magnetic bearings (varying 9~ E.) extreme points of land being taken. South point of Oahu N. 8I~ W.; East point of Oahu N. 66~ W.; Mokapu, N. E. Oahu N. 56~ W. N. W point of Molokai N. 8~ E.;

Page  62 62 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Lahaina light S. 780 E.; N. E. point Lanai S. 72~ E.; S. W. point Lanai S. 49~ E. Mariners are especially cautioned against confusing this with the N. W. point of Molokai, bearing as above, distant nine miles. LIGHT DUES.-There shall be levied upon all vessels arriving from abroad at any port of this Kingdom where a lighthouse may be established, the sum of three dollars, which shall be paid before departure, to the Collector General of Customs. All vessels engaged in the coasting trade shall pay ten cents perton as light dues, in consideration of which they shall be entitled to visit all ports where lighthouses may be established, for the term of one year, without further charge. CUSTOM HOUSE GUARDS.-The Collector shall provide an officer to be present on board any vessel during her discharge, or at any other time when he may deem it necessary, to superintend the landing of her cargo, and see that no other or greater amount of goods are landed than is set forth upon the permit to discharge. It shall be the duty of the commanding officer of any vessel when boarded by an officer of the Customs to furnish him promptly with any and all information which he may require in regard to the vessel, her cargo, stores, passengers, &c., and exhibit for his inspection her manifest, register, or other papers relating to the same. PASSENGERS.-If the master of any vessel arriving at any port of entry of this Kingdom from a foreign port shall suffer the baggage of any passenger on board his vessel to be removed on shore from such vessel, unless a permit therefor has been obtained from the Collector of the port, such master shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars in the discretion of the Collector of Customs. If any passenger so arriving shall remove his baggage on shore from such vessel without first obtaining a permit therefor from the collector of the port such passenger shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars. Any passenger arriving from a foreign port at any of the ports of this kingdom shall be subject to a tax of two dollars, for the support of hospitals for the benefit of sick and disabled Hawaiian seamen, which shall be paid to the collector of customs before any permit is issued to such passenger to land his baggage. MARINE HOSPITAL TAX.-The master or owner of every ship or vessel under the Hawaiian flag, arriving from any foreign port, or from sea, at any port of the Hawaiian Kingdom, shall before such ship or vessel is admitted to entry, render to the Collector of such port a true account of the number of seamen who have been employed on board since the last entry at any Hawaiian port, and pay to said Collector at the rate of twenty-five cents per month for each and every seamen so employed, for the benefit of the Marine Hospital Fund, which amount such master or owner is authorized to retain out of the wages of said seaman.

Page  63 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 63 The master of every vessel employed in the coasting trade of the Hawaiian Kingdom, shall render quarterly to the Collector General of Customs, or to any Collector under his directions, a true list of all seamen employed by him during the preceding three months, and pay to said Collector General, or Collector, at the rate of twenty-five cents per month for each seaman so employed, which said master is authorized to retain out of the wages of such seaman. The returns required as above shall be made under oath, in such manner and form as the Collector General may prescribe. If any owner or master shall make a false return, he shall be deemed guilty of perjury and punished accordingly. * * * * PASsPoRTS.-Every adult who may have resided on these Islands for more than thirty days, wishing to leave the Kingdom, shall make application to the Collector of the port from which he intends to sail, for a passport. PORTS OF ENTRY.-No goods of foreign growth or production shall be unladen from a foreign vessel, or Hawaiian vessel from a foreign port, at any other port of the Hawaiian Islands than a port of entry for foreign vessels as created by law, under a penalty of seizure and forfeiture of.the vessel and of the goods imported therein, and so landed or unladen. The following are the legal ports of entry: Honolulu, Island of Oahu; Lahaina and Kahului, Island of Maui; Hilo, Kawaihae, Mahukona and Kealakekua, Island of Hawaii; Koloa, Island of Kauai. CUSTOM HOUSE CHARGES. For visit of Health Officer when required.................................$ 5 oo When necessarily detained on board, per day......................... IO 00 Health fee, vessels not anchored by the pilot............................. 5 oo For Bill of Health on departure........................................ I oo Pilot's and Boarding Officer's Fees (see Pilotage) Buoys... 2 oo Buoys.................................................................... 2 Lights-Vessels from abroad........................................... 3 oo Coasters, each year- per ton.................................... 10 Inward or Outward M anifests........................................... 2 oo M ail Oath.......................................................... I 00 Inward Entry, Goods paying Duties................................ 2 50 "( Goods free under Reciprocity Treaty.................... 2 50 c" Goods Bonded.......................................... 50 Outward Entry, Goods Bonded................................. I 50 Transit Entry........................................................ 2 50 Bond to secure payment of Duties....................................... 2 oo Passports.......................................................... I 00 Passport Protest................3 oo Every Stamped Certificate or Blank furnished by the Collector.............. I 00 lecording Bill of Sale, Mortgage or Hypothecation of a vessel, or copying the same, or copying Certificate of Registry, per one hundred words........ 50 Acknowledgements, each............................ I o The custom House charges for all other acts and duties not expressly provided for by law, as also the rates of storage, shall be such as may from time to time be prescribed by the Minister of Finance,

Page  64 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. DEPARTURE OF VESSELS. Any vessel having, through her master or agent, fully complied with the laws and regulations affecting foreign trade, and with all the laws regulating the shipment and discharge of Hawaiian seamen, shall be entitled to depart after receiving from the Collector of the port a clearance in the form provided by law. In case any vessel does not sail within forty-eight hours after receiving a clearance, it shall be the duty of the master to report the same to the Collector of the port, under a penalty of not exceeding twenty-five dollars, to be imposed by said Collector. No vessel shall be entitled to a clearance unless all proper charges at the Harbor Master's office shall have been settled, and the Collector may require the master or agent of the vessel to produce the Harbor Master's certificate to that effect. X * * * * * * CONSULAR. Every Minister, Commissioner, Consul or Vice-Consnl of the Hawaiian Islands, in any foreign country, may take and certify under his official seal, all acknowledgments of any deed, mortgage, lease, re-lease, or any other instrument affecting the conveyance of real or personal estate in this Kingdom, and such acknowledgment shall entitle such instrument to be recorded. * * * RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR 1883. The year I883 now drawing to a close has been uniform in temperature, through the little interruption of the trade winds. The early part of the year was somewhat stormy, with much rain, but the rain-fall through the summer months has been light, less than the average, not only in Honolulu, but throughout the islands. Early in November heavy rains fell in various localities, but they did not prove general through the group till a month later. The small amount of rain this last summer told seriously in the water supply of Honolulu and which necessarily curtailed the hours of irrigation. Fortunately fires have been few, yet during this critical condition three occurred, viz: a cottage near Emma Square, Mr. L. Way's buildings on King street and Mr. F. Horn's bakery on Hotel street; all of which occurred at night. The King street fire extended to several adjoining houses, all of which might have been saved if water had been available at the time the alarm was given. Health matters have claimed the attention of the thoughtful minded, and no little agitation has been given the subject in the public press at the inaction of the Board of Health in all that pertains to sanitary reform, or in carrying out the laws of segregation and isolation of lepers. Fortunately the regularity of trade winds through the year has not al

Page  65 IHAWAIIAN AI.MANAC' AND ANNUAL. 65 lowed malarial epidemics to obtain strong foothold. Fever has prevailed, and in some cases with severity, but as a rule it has been of a milder type than prevailed a few years since. Leprosy, that plague spot of Hawaii's fair name and fame, has been and is yet being trifled with for political ends in spite of public opinion and the condemnation of the press. 'Tis true that several loads of unfortunate lepers have been removed to Molokai, but the menancing lazaretto at Kakaako is still full, numbers are yet at large, and the ideas of segregation is a farce. By the ylfadras, small-pox was brought again to our doors, from China, but fortunately it was stamped out at the quarantine station and obtained no foothold on the main-land. The long detention of this vessel off our port, by the health authorities, will cause the "Madras muddle" to be long remembered. The health of the native race is being sadly undermined through the removal last year of the restriction, to them, on liquor. Their constitutions are no more proof against the inroads of disease hastened by alcoholic drinks than their white brethren of older civilized lands. The debauching habit is growing fast on them, while poverty, crime and sickness is growing at a ratio that portends an alarming increase in the death-rate of Hawaiians, which makes a mockery of the royal solicitude for the welfare and increase of the people in the "Hooulu Lahui" professions at the commencement of Kalakaua's reign. A recently published table for the past nine months showed that over 32,000 gallons of liquors had been taken out of bond for consumption over the same period the preceeding year. The condition of affairs political have in no wise improved. The utter disregard of the will of the people in the administration of government, as shown in last year's retrospect, still exists, and has been shown on several occasions during the year in a very defiant manner. Monies have been spent recklessly on appropriations pertaining directly and indirectly to royalty, while other and needed improvements for the developement of the country and the care of the sick have been deferred for want of funds. The coronation of the King and Queen took place February I2th, the anniversary of Kalakaua's election. This was followed by a period of nightly hula festivities that was a retrograde step of heathenism and a disgrace to the age. The feasts, regatta and races that were given proved a sad travesty on the spirit of enthusiastic loyalty which it was aimed to bring forth. The whole affair was forced upon the people in spite of public opinion, but notwithstanding the effort at grandeur and the attempt to arouse a semblance of public appreciation, it fell flat on the large majority of citizens and residents, native and foreign; nor did visitors from abroad or the other islands flock to the metropolis to witness the grand spectacle as had been hoped. At the close of last year a ministerial tour around Oahu was indulged in, with many promises of benefit to the several districts, though nothing of importance has yet been begun. Indignation meetings by natives have been held in this city and in Wailuku, but the voice of the people, though heard, is not heeded. Ministerial changes have been frequent. 9*

Page  66 HAWAIIAN 5I,MANAC ~ND ANNUAL. First was the resignation of S. K. Kaai in favor of J. M. Kapena as Minister of Finance, then W. M. Gibson accepts the Attorney-Generalship, ad interim, vice E. Preston, resigned. Then J. E. Bush resigns the office of Minister of the Interior, which Gibson kept warm till C. T. Gulick accepted it. During all this couise the independent press of the country has maintained an outspoken attitude, which brought on an intimidating spirit. The Board of Education was ordered to remove Messrs. Atkinson and Hill, teachers conducting the Gazette and Bulle tin, but refusing to comply a new board was appointed with W. M. Gibson as president. Shortly after the principal offending official's head was taken off. The arbitrary removal of Godfrey Brown, registrar of public accounts, without cause, early in the year, caused no little indignation at the government's treatment of reliable servants. The balance in the Treasury February 2oth, with the taxes all in, was $35,917.05 as against a balance February i8th of the previous year $270,130.88. And while these and kindred affairs have revealed the evidences of internal mismanagement of the government, it is to be regretted that a foreign policy should be adopted that but brings Hawaii into ridicule before the world. Under the pretense of enquiring into the feasibility of obtaining immigrants from Japan a commissioner and secretary was sent thither who wasted time and money, and brought back, not a report, but a Japanese commission to attend the coronation. Shortly after this event transpired another commissioner and secretary was delegated to represent Hawaii at the coronation of the Czar of Russia, after which a roving commission is indulged in to various countries, for what purpose the dear public, who are expected to foot the bills, are not advised. Another roving commission is abroad in the Pacific tendering Hawaiian Protectorates to savage tribes on various islands, while at the same time protests are sent to various governments against any interference or annexation of any of the independent savage tribes of Polynesia without the consent of Hawaii. In the outspoken attitude of the press-referred to' above-the plainness of speech brought for the first time in the annals of our courts no less than three libel suits at one time. Suits were entered at the July term against the Pae Aina and Gazette by a prominent official of Maui for their expose of some of his acts, but which resulted in so complete victory for the Pae Aina that a withdrawal of the suit against the Gazette immediately followed. The suit against the Saturday Press for its expressed opinion of the absurd theories of the person having medical charge and responsibility of the lepers, brought it forth fully vindicated in its defense of the public's welfare. During the year immigration has commanded considerable attention. Efforts have been renewed towards obtaining South-Sea laborers, but they have not proved successful, and from the completeness of the outfitting and the necessarily long voyages, it renders this class of labor the most expensive. Portuguese immigration from the Azores has been conducted satisfactorly this year. Large well provided steamers,

Page  67 HAWAIIAN AMANAc AND ANNUAl,. 67 arranged with especial care for the comfort of the voyagers have been employed. Three vessels have arrived this year, bringing in 943, 1462 and I415 immigrants, respectively. Owing to financial difficulties of the government it suspended operations last summer, since which, Mr. A. Hoffnung-through whom this business has been conducted-came out from London and has sought to re-open the same, with some promise of success, but dependant upon the success of placing the government loan. Chinese labor has also been supplied freely this year, several of the Occidental and Oriental and Pacific Mail lines touching here to land them, en route from Hongkong to San Francisco, besides two or three outside steamers. The sudden influx of over 2,000 chinese within a few weeks, with others reported en route, naturally created some alarm in the public mind, and the government instructed its consuls in San Francisco and Hongkong that such immigration to these islands, unless with a fair proportion of women could not be allowed. Toward the latter part of the year it transpired that notwithstanding this order, a contract for an indefinite period had been made whereby the government allowed the Pacific Mail S. S. Co. to bring in not over 600 chinese per quarter, but for reasons not yet made public, and without apparent cause, the agreement has been cancelled and the contract given to others. This treatment of the Pacific Mail Company has been brought by them to the notice of the United States government who have recently sent a bearer of dispatches, Mr. D. G. Adee, to present through the Minister Resident a claim for the protection of American interests; the particulars had not yet been made public December i5th (the time at which this retrospect closed). With the opening of the new year Mr. S. G. Wilder inaugurated his marine railway at this port by taking up thereon the steamer Likelhke, and to the credit of all concerned, everything worked most satisfactorily from the start. The railway has had considerable employment throughout the year, and besides serving our coasting shipping, has proved a saving convenience to a number of foreign vessels. Shipping matters for the islands have continued in an active state. The list of casualties for the year shows a smaller list than usual of mishaps to the fleet of this port, while the list of registered vessels shows the growth of our marine service. The two additional steamers to the coasting fleet have both been constructed with especial care for the comforts of the traveling public. Like all the others (save one built here) these have been constructed in the United States specially for this purpose. In the foreign trade the same established lines have continued their regular service, and for the most part with full freights to and fro. T he steamer Suez, of the Oceanic Steamship Company's line with San Francisco, gave place in August to the fine steamers Mariposa and A/arteda, each of 3000 tons, built expressly for this trade in Philadelphia, which, since September, have been running a semi monthly service. These, with the regular Pacific Mail steamers touching here every four weeks to and fro in their trips between the Colonies and San Francisco,

Page  68 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND) ANNUiAL. give us frequent mail and traveling facilities and intercourse with the inside world. The imports and exports this year differ somewhat from last year in valuation, the exports for the nine months ending with September being $6,872,583.65, showing a decrease of $127,756.02. The gain in exports for the same period, I882, over the preceding year was $I,57I,I2I. It is to be regretted that our items of domestic produce are lessening continually; the only articles of increase to report this year are sugar, molasses, wool, tallow and fungus; while coffee, rice, paddy, bananas, hides, goat, calf and sheep skins have declined, while pulu, salt and oil have disappeared entirely. The imports from various countries show a gain of $98,236.42 over the same nine months' period of last year to September 30. Last year's gain over a similar period was $440,672. Through the courtesy of W. F. Allen, Esq., Collector General, we have the following particulars of the figures of imports. Value of goods free by treaty, $1,995,431.20, goods dutiable, $I,I67,N 796.44, goods and spirits bonded, $239,642.59, goods free by civil code, $232,376.45, and specie $350,963.73, making a total of imports for the period of $3,986,210.41 against $3,887,7 2.99 for a like period last year. Business throughout the islands may very properly be stated to be overdone in all the various branches of trade. Exports for a number of months to come will be light, nor will any serious effects follow, as Honolulu was probably never so fully stocked with goods of all classes as at present, while the principal townships on the other islands are reported in the same condition. The activity of building, throughout Honolulu and its suburbs, continues. That in the business portion of the city gives it the most substantial aspect of any year's undertaking, the most prominent of which is the Campbell Block, extending from the Bank premises on Merchant street around onto Fort street to join the Beaver Block, the warehouses of the Oceanic S. S. Co. on Fort street and Hackfeld & Co.'s on Halekauwila street, Lucas' new building on Fort street, adjoining his steam planing mills, the Spencer building on Nuuanu street, Oahu College, the Y. M. C. A. building corner of Hotel and Alakea streets and others of less note. In the buildings that have been constructed a more lavish style is observed, and ornamentation externally and internally is now the rule rather than the exception, both in business houses and private dwellings. Real estate commands full figures and has for sometime past There has been a number of suburban lots adjoining Kapiolani Park placed upon the market this year which realized good figures. This has enabled a new undertaking to be started, an out of town place of refreshment for pic-nic parties, or rest during a long drive. From the popularity of the projector, Mr. H. J. Nolte and the fascination of a drive to and beyond Waikiki, it is fair to presume that Kapiolani Park will have more attractions for our citizens in the future than it has had in the past. Water threatens to become a serious question in Honolulu, for not only are the reservoirs inadequate to the supply required, but the boring of artesian wells seem to have over-reached the limit of our

Page  69 ItAWAtTAN ALMANAC ANi) ANNUAL. 69 water-bed, for the supply is diminishing steadily in many of the wells first sunk. Irast year's estimate of our sugar and rice crop came up close to the figures given and those for the coming year will not differ materially. From careful estimates by the Planter's Labor and Supply Co., the coming sugar crop is placed at 57,000 tons. From the best information obtained the rice crop is estimated the coming year at about 6,000 tons, all though an effort is being made to bring more lands under cultivation by the sinking of artesian wells at Waialua and Laie. Agricultural matters it is hoped has received a new impetus in the formation of the Hawaiian Agricultural Society, whose first Annual fair was held in June. The exhibit was deemed very encouraging. Forestry is receiving care and attention by the government, under the supervision of Mr. A. Jaeger, who, in two nurseries, is endeavoring to propagate and acclimate plants for the various altitudes and temperatures of the islands. There has been no little feeling of interest in the communnity as to the tenure of the treaty of reciprocity with the United States. Various allegations of fraud have been made against us which in spite of our exhibits of manufacture, import and export tables, nationality of parties interested, etc., to show the utter falsity of such charges, culminated in congress sending hither a Sugar Commission to investigate and report upon the same, which they have done to our complete vindication. It remains to be seen whether the enemies of the treaty will not find some further excuse to terminate the relationship existing. It is a matter fully recognized by all visitors how predominantly American is Honolulu, and so steady and gradual has this spirit grown in our midst that American holidays-Decoration day, Independance day and Thanksgiving are served with more spirit than our own Hawaiian holidays. I)uring the year a larger number of early residents than usual have been called across the dark river. Of our representatives abroad E. H. Allen, minister resident at Washington and J. C. Pfluger, charge'de affairs at Bremen have died, both in harness at their posts of duty. Of island residents we note Princess Keelekolani, D. N. Flinter, J. E. Barnard, H. S. Swinton, A. P. Brickwood, H. L. Sheldon, E. O. Hall, Rev. Titus Coan, and Mrs. Dr. Wetmore. The post-office inaugurated May ist, I883, the inter-island postal money-order system which is now working satisfactorily through all the principal offices throughout the group, and on January Ist, I884, postal money-orders with the United States will commence with the Honolulu office. Street letter boxes have been put up at principal localities at remote distances from the office, from which letters are gathered twice daily. After many promises and long delays the first instalment of the new Hawaiian coin in silver, amounting to $130,000 was received December i6th, by the Afariposa for the government, but by a mandamus of the court the minister of finance is withheld from issuing the new six per cent. bonds therefor, the principal and interest of which is payable in United States gold coin or its equivalent.

Page  70 HIIwVAIIAN AIMANAC AND.ANNVAL. Census of the Hawaiian Islands, taken December 27, 1878. BY DISTRICTS AND ISLANDS. HAWAII. Hilo.............................. 4,231 Puna................................043 Kau.................................2,210 Kona, North..........................,967 Kona, South..........................,76 Kohala, North......................3,299 Kohala, South...................... 718 Halmakua............................,805 — I7,o34| ahaina.............................2,448 Wailuku..............................4,186 Hana........................ 2,067 Makawao....................408 -— 12,109 MOLOKAI................................2,581 LANAI.................................... 214 NIII-AU................................. 177 OAHUJ. Honolulu...................... 4,114 Ewa and Waianae.................. 1,699 Waialua........................... 639 Koolauloa..................... i,082 Koolaupoko....................... 2,402 -— 20,236 KAIA I. Waimea............................,97 Koloa...............................,oo8 Puna..............................,832 Koolau and Hanalei.................. 1,597 - -,634 BY NATIONALITY. Natives.........................4.. 4,088 Britons................................. 883 Half-castes.....................3........3,420 Portuguese............................... 436 Chinese...................................5,916 G ermans............................... 272 Americans................................,276 French.................................... 8T Hawaiian-born of foreign parents........... 947 Other foreigners............ 666 Total population, 1878............ 57,985 Population of the Principal Townships of the Hawaiian Islands, Compiled from the latest Census, 1878. HONOLULU, WAILUKU, LAHAINA, 'HILO, WAIMEA, NATIONALITIES. OA U.I MAUI, MAUI. HAWAII. KAUAI. Natives......................... 9,272 3,307,967 2,951 1,090 Half-castes...................... 13I11 411 158 223 20 Foreigners other than Chinese.... 2,232 239 113 244 24 Chinese......................... 1,299 329 2 83 63 Totals.................... 14,114 4,186 2,448 4,231 1II97 Estimated Population, Hawaiian Islands, 1883. Natives Chinese Port'g'se FOther Totals Census of 1878........................................ 4?,508 5,916 436 4,125 57.985 Passenger arrivals, excess over dopartures, I879....... 531 3,475 420 1,819 6,245.... c. I880........ 802 1,877 328 650 3,657.'.. I 881........ 98 2,940 842 322 4,302...... 2 1882-......8..... 286 2,368 223 2,877..... 1883 to July.I 3596 2,736.... 6,332 49o,39 8,090 7I,30 7,I39 81,398 Excess of deaths over births since January I, 1879.............................. 1,905 Estimated population, June o3, 1883..............................79,493 Births and Deaths in the Hawaiian Kingdom from January I, z879, to June 30, 1883. Bir in 879 Deaths in 879............................ 3,292 " 1880 and I88i.....................4709 1880 and 88...............5,262 " 1882 and half of 1883..............2470 t 1882 and half of 1883........... 2,861 Total number of births.............0,510 Total number of deaths...........11,415 Included in the above figures are 583 deaths reported fiom the Leper Settlement at Kalawao, and Kalaupapa, on Molokai, and 33 births from the same place. 272 deaths from small-pox in 1881, at Kahakaaulana, are also incllded.

Page  71 HikWATIAN AjLM.ANAC AND ANNUAL. 7 71 TABLE OF ELEVATIONS OF PRINCIPAL LOCALITIES, THROUGHOUT THE ISLANDS. From the Records of the Government Survey. Measurements are from Mean Sea Level. OAHU. FEET Kaala...... 4060 Makapuu, East -pt of Island Palikea, WVaian'a'e M'4nts....3110 Station on do......... Puu Kaoa, Waianae M'nts.. 3105 Ularnao, hill in Kailua.... Konahuanui Peak, Pali.... 3-106.5 Maelieli, do., in Ileeia,.... Lanihuli Peak, Pali'. 2775 Round Top (Ualakaa)..... Tantalus, or Puu Ohia.....2015.5 IDiamond Head, or Leahi... Olomana Peak, in Kailua... 1643 Telegraph St'n (Kaimuku).... Koko Head, upper crater. 1 205 Punchbowl Hill....... Koko Head, lower crater... 644 Salt Lake Station....... Nuuanu Pali station......1207 Second Bridge, Nuuanu road.. Mokapu, crater off Kaneohe.. 696 Light House, top of vane..... Station on do......... 68o *Salt Lake, mean level.... Puu Ohulehuli, in Hakipuu.. 2262-I Average of High Peaks on Konahuanui Range (about......... Little Bridge front of Queen Kalama's, Nuuanu Road......... Punahou. (verandah floors old building................ Nuuanu Distributing Reservoir, level of water............. FEET 665 642 991 7I3 1052 765 292 498.5 485 77 37 0.0 2800, 847 79.6 99 FEET 2150 6850 1150 629 2568 Goo 392 930 Haleakala.......... West Maui, albout....... IPiiholo, Makawao....... Pull Jo, near Capt. Makee's.... Capt. Makee's, about..... Puul Olai (Miller's Hill)..... Mlakawao Female Seminary.... Grove Ranch, Makawao..... Mauna Kea......... lAlauna Loa, about...... IHualalai.......... Kohala. Mountain...... Kilauea, Volcano I-louse..... Kulani Hill, near Kilauea.... Falls of Hiilawe, Waipio... \Vaimea Court House.... Sea Coast Bluffs bet. Waipio and Waimanu, N. Coast... Kalaieha, about....... Waipio Pali, E. side at sea... Aahuwela, near Laumaia..... MAUI. FEET 10032 Haleakala School........ 520 Puu, Nianiau. Makawao. '2 256 Piou Kapuai, I-amnakua. 2841 Puu o Umi, Ilaiku....... 1900 Puu Pane, Kula........ 355 Lahainaluna Seminary..... 1900 Kauiki, Hamnakua....... 981 Paia, Makawao........ HAWAII. FEET FEET I13805 Waipio LPali. W. side at sea....1200 13 600 Waipio among the Mountains. 30 8275 Waimnanu. among the Mountains 4000 5505 Wairnanu at sea...........m6oo 4440 Average road thro' Ilamakua. m ooo 565o Honokaa Store........ 1100o 1700 Maulua Road......... 406 2669.6 Lower edge forest Hamnakua.. 1700 Lower edge forest Hilo......1200 1600 Hilo Bluffs on Coast.....100 to 400 6450 Halui Hill, Hilo......... 345 900 Austin's Onomea........ 411 7750 ILaupahoehoe Pali....... 385 KAUAI, Waialeale.......- MOLOKAI, estimated...... MOOI. FE.ET' FEET 5000 LANAI.3400.... 3500 I Kahoolawe, Trig Station of Moi61aula.............. I428 Inthe salt-making season it is from I to 2 feet below sea level; ini the rainy season ~t sometimes,,

Page  72 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN ISLANDS POSTAL SERVICE. General Post Office, Honolulu, Oahu-H. M. Whitney, P. M. G.; I. B. Peterson, Asst. P. Ml. G.; Assistants-D. Manaku, Miss A. L. Fillebrowne, K. Nuha, G. L. Desha. POSTMASTERS ON OAHIU. Waialua.........S. N. Emerson Kaneohe............S. Kaulia Waianac........J. L. Richardson Punaluu..........J. W. Kaapu Waikane.........................J. W. P. Kamealoha OVERLAND MAIL ROUTE, OAHU. Leaves IHonolulu at 10 A. M. on Wednesday, each week,-.for the circuit of the Island, arriving back Friday morning. POSTMASTERS ON MOLOKAI. Kaunakaka.........R. WV. Meyer I Pukoo..........R. W. Meyer POSTMASTER ON LANAI. Lanai.............................Jesse Morehouse POSTMASTERS ON KAUAI. Kapaa...........J. B. Grant Hanalei..........J. M. Gibson Kilauea......... W. J. Lowrie Lihue.............0. Scholz Kekaha............W. Meier Koloa............E. Strelhz XWaimea............................Rev. G. B. Rowell POSTMASTERS ON MAUI. Lahaina.........T. W. Everett Kipahulo........Thos. K. Clark Wailuku..........E. H. Bailey Kahului.........T. H-. H1obron Makawao. Jas. Anderson Paia...........C. H. Dickey Hana.............A. Unna Haiku.......... T. Alexander Ulupalakua.........Mrs. Makee IHamnakuapoko.....C. H. Alexander Spreckelsville...........................G. C. Williams OVERLAND) MAIL ROUTES, MAUI. From Lahaina to Wailuku, Makawao, Haiku and Ulupalakua-on Tuesdays or Wednesdays.I From Lahaina to Kaanapali and Kahakuloa, weekly, on arrival of steamer from Honolulu. From U~lupalakua to Haaa, weekly, on arrival of mails from Honolulu. From Haiku to Hana, weekly, on arrival of Kilauea Hou mails. From Kahului to Makawao and Haiku, weekly, on arrival of steamer Kilaucaa Hou mails. POSTMASTERS ON HAWAII. Hlilo............L. Severance Ookala..........Jno. H1. Sup~er Kawaihlae.........John Stupplebeen Pau'uhau._.....R. A. Lyman Mahukona.J. F. McKenzie Kailua..........J. Kaelemakule K,'ukuihaele........W. Hookuanui Keauhou.-J. G. Hoapili Waipio.........W. H. Holmes Kealakekua.......H. N. Greenwell Waimea.........Rev. L. Lyons Napoopoo.S...... W. Kino Kohala, Halawa.. Dr. J. Wight Pahala...........T. C. Wills Kohala, Pieuehueh.....Dr. J. Wight Hilea and Honuapo -—..C. N. Spencer Paauilo...........Chas. Notley Waiohinu..........C. Meinecke Hoopuloa........D. S. Keliikuli Hookena.........D. H. Nahinu Laupahoehoe.........W. Lidgate Hakalau.........J. F. Morrison Honokaa.........D. F. Sanfordj

Page  73 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 73 OVERLAND MAIL ROUTES, HAWAII. From Hilo to Kawaihae, leaves weekly, on Monday, and to Kau Thursday, on arrival of steamer from Honolulu. From Kau to Kona, leaves weekly, on Monday. From Kawaihae to Kona and Kau, leaves on arrival of steamer from Honolulu. This Mail Service around Hawaii is intended to be a weekly service of the circuit of the Island. NEW POSTAGE STAMPS. The post office has recently issued three new stamps of the denominations of 25 cents, 50 cents, and one dollar. The two larger issues are uniform with the different series emitted since I864, of the portrait class; while the 25 cent one is a new departure; being a representation of the Kamehameha statue in a pillared archway. The latter is of a blackish purple hue, with 25 in the upper corners, 25c on the lower corners, Kamehameha I on the left hand pillar and postal union on the right. On the base of the pedestal is 1883, Hawaii. The fifty cent stamp is vermilion with a portrait of Lunalilo; the figures 50 in the upper corners, Hawaii on the top and Kanalima Keneta in the lower part of the oval starred border, and 50 cents in a curved line beneath. The dollar stamp, of a carmine shade, gives a youthful picture of Queen Emma in an oval border, not unlike the two cent stamp of Kamehameha IV. with the exception that the figures- Ioo are in angles at each upper corner, with Hawaii arched between. At the foot is the valuation in Hawaiian, Akahi dala, in a curved line. The ten cent brown and twelve cent black of theissue of i880 have been changed, the former to a bright red and the latter to a pale purple shade. There have been received recently two new postal reply-cards of two cents for inter-island and four cents tor the postal union service. Stamped envelopes are expected shortly of i, 2, 4, 5 and io cents, each in three different sizes. All of the above are from the American Bank Note Company of New York City. The naming of the streets of Honolulu originated with the Sandwich Island Gazette in the fall of I836. Of the various streets for which names were suggested at that time the following seems to be the only ones that were accepted, or that have been retained through all the changes, viz: King street, Beretania street and Garden Lane. Sea street was suggested for Queen street, Exchange street for Merchant street, Queen street for Fort street, and Beef lane for Kaahumanu street. ------------- - -.,-* <_,... - --- Value of property, Hawaiian Islands. I882, as per assessor's returns: Real Estate..................................................... $ 4,980,000 Personal Property............................................... 17,500,000 Total...........................................$32,480,000 10O

Page  74 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS LOCALITIES, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 1883. HONOLULU. MAUI. KAUAI. MONTHS. FRoM DEC. i882 TO Nov. 1883, g r ' 2,, V December................... 2.46 2.53 2. I4 3.09 2.56 January.................. 4.23 6.04 3.65 3.68 3.76 1.40 February................... 6.20 7.30 6.14 7.17 3. 1 3.39 March...................45 1.76 1.21 1.47 2.39 2.o6 April...................... 23 3.73.75.62.43 3.19 May........................68 3.46.64 '.59.00 1.51 June....................... 37 1.59.77.15 -34 2-55 July........................ 70 5.11 1.14.49.49 4-33 August..................... 1.74 6.71 2.12.8i 1.87 2.14 September..................67 2.23.26.02.09 1.14 October................... 2.03 5.51 I.91.40 1.25 2.43 November.................. 280 4.48 3.0I.22 1.38 5.8I Totals.................... 25. 6 50.45 23.74 I 8.71 7.67 29.94 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURIS, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 1876-78, 1878-80, I880-82, AND x882-84. REVENUE. I876-78. 1870-80. 880-82. I882-84. Custom House..................$ 361,371 $ 582,846 $ *719,245 $ 7i8,ooo Internal Commerce................ 85,807 122,946 141,744 I 110,260 Internal Taxes.................... 33I,I63 465,252 596,615 564,500 Fines, Fees, Perquisites, etc........ 132,600 I90,265 99,986 I32,950 Government Realizations.......... I53,572 318,527 393,586 263,000 Government Stocks............... 87,200 23,900.................... Cash in the Treasury April I, 1882.............................. I26,541 Totals...................... $,151,713 $1,703,736 $2,050,276 $i,9I5,25I EXPENDITURES. 1876-78. 1878-80. 1880-82. Estimated 1882-84. Civil List........................ $ 76,ooo $ 65,500 $ IOo,ooo $ 148,500 Permanent Settlement............. 14,025 15,075 19,512 21,800 Legislature and Privy Council...... 22,080 I6,523 19,338 25,300 Judiciary Department.............. 71,743 79,667 92,870 122,125 Department of W ar............... 54,642 67,993 *................... Department of Foreign Affairs..... 32,036 36,830 I29,353 259,766 Department of Interior............ 370,220 656,8io 1,204,703 2,1 74,925 Department of Finance........... 244,387 260,057.299,436 353,880 Department of Attorney-General.... 95,86 123,664 I63,527 319,300 Bureau of Public Instruction....... 71,72I 79,605 84,249 I37,520 Miscellaneous................:.. 46,757 93,973 I69,608.......... Totals...................... $I, 110,472 $1,495,697 $2,282,596 $3,563, II9 *Merged into Department of Foreign Affairs.

Page  75 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAl.. 75 TABLE OF FOREIGN COINS ADOPTED AS THE CURRENT RATES IN HONOLULU, H. I. By resolution of His Majesty the King in Privy Council, and published by the Finance Department, June I7, I872, the values of the following coins have been fixed and determined at the rates set opposite to them, respectively, viz: GOLD. U. S. HLF. DOIS. GOLD. U. S. HLE. DOLS. U S Double Eagle, at...............40 Italian 20 Lire, at.................. 8 U S Eagle, at.................. 20 Italian IO Lire, at.................. 4 U S Half Eagle, at............ o.. Russian 5 Roubles, at............... 8 U S Quarter Eagle.................. 5 SIVE. Eng. & Austr Sovereigns, at......... IO Eng. & Austr. Hlf. Sovs., at......... 5 French 5 Francs, at................. 2 French 50 Francs, at................ 20 Mexican Dollar, old die............. 2 French 20 Francs, at............... 8 Belgian 5 Francs, at................ 2 French IO Francs, at............ 4 Italian 5 Lire, at................... 2 Eng. Shilling, Spanish, Mexican and Peruvian Qr. Dollars at 25 cents each. By vote of the Privy Council, December i8, 1883, the new Hawaiian silver coin was made legal tender with coins of similar value of the United States. Other coins than the above are not current, or legal tender, in the Hawaiian Islands. The following are the values at which the several respective named coins pass, viz: Mexican Dollar, new die......... 70 cts. Half Dollar, new die............35 cts. Chilian Dollar, un Peso.......... 70 cts. Half Dollar................... 35 cts. Peruvian Dollar, Sol............ 70 cts. Half Dollar............ 35 cts. Half Crown, English............50 cts. Florin, English.................35 cts Rupee, India............... 35 cts. I This additional list we give for the benefit of strangers here and enquirers abroad, though it must be understood by the Privy Council Table preceding that they are uncurrent, and persons are not obliged to take them. The Currency Act of 1876 makes U. S. gold coin the standard, and payable with silver in the following proportions. l)ebts not exceeding fifty dollars payable in silver. Debts from fifty to one hundred dollars, all over fifty payable in gold. From one hundred to one thousand dollars, seventy-five per cent. payable in gold. Amounts exceeding one thousand dollars, above the first thousand, eighty-five per cent. payable in gold. All import duties and interest on Government Bonds shall be paid in U. S gold coin or its equivalent.

Page  76 76 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR I884. I The Court. His MAJESTY, KALAKAUA, b. November i6, 1836; elected February 12, 1874, and inaugurated February 13, 1874. Son of Kapaakea and Keohokalole. Her Majesty the QUEEN, b. December 31, I835. Her Royal Highness the Princess LILIUOKALANI, Heir Apparent, b. september 2, 1838; *rt. September I6, I862, to His Excellency John Owen Dominis, Governor of Oahu, K. G. C. of the Royal Orders of Kamehameha and Kalakaua; Kt. Corn. of the Orders of Francis Joseph and Isabella Catolica; Member of the House of Nobles and of the Privy Council of State, etc. Proclaimed Heir Apparent to the Throne, April ii, I877. Her Royal Highness the Princess LIKELIKE, b. January I3, 1851; m. September 22, 1870 t6 the Honorable Archibald Scott Cleghorn, K. G. C. of the Royal Orders of Kamehameha and Kalakaua; Member of the House of Nobles and of the Privy Council of State; has issue Her Royal lHighness the Princess Victoria-Kawekiu- Kaiulani- Lunalilo- Kalaninuiahilapalapa, b. October i6, I875. Her Majesty the Dowager Queen EMMA, b. January 2, 1836; m. to Kamehameha IV. June I9, 1856. His Majesty's Chamberlain, Hon. C. H. JUDD. His Majesty's Staff. Colonels W F Allen, Ed Hoffman, C H Judd, C P laukea, J H Boyd and G W Macfarlane. Staff of the Governor of Oahu. Majors Chas T Gulick and Antone Rosa. House of Nobles. Hons P Kanoa, C R Bishop, His Ex J 0 Dominis, Hons A S Cleghorn, J I Dowsett, S G Wilder, P Isenberg, W T Martin, J M Kapena, J M Smith, J P Parker, H Kuihelani, G Rhodes, S K Kaai, J E Bush, C H Judd, P P Kanoa, J W Kaae, H A Widemann. [The Cabinet Ministers hold seats in the House of Nobles ex officio.] The Cabinet. His Majesty, THE KING. Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs, His Ex W M Gibson; Minister of the Interior, His Ex C T Gulick; Minister of Finance, His Ex J M Kapena; Attorney-General, His Ex P Neumann. Privy Council of State, His Majesty, THE KING. Honorables W L Green, H A P Carter, J S Walker, W N Armstrong, J O Dominis, A F Judd, C R Bishop, A S Cleghorn, P Kanoa, J M Smith, S N Castle, G Rhodes, S G Wilder, H M Whitney, J M Kapena, H A Widemann, R Stirling, J A Cummins, W C Parke, W J Smith, W P Wood, C H Judd, L McCully, W F Allen, M Kuaea, Wm Buckle, D L Kinimaka, S K Kaai, W M Gibson, J E Bush, W D Alexander, P Neumann, J Kaae, S Parker, E K Lilikalani; C H Judd, Secretary. Department of Judiciary. Chief Justice.................... Hon A F udd First Associate Justice.......... Hon L McCully Second Associate Justice........ Hon B H Austin Clerk............................... W m Foster Deputy Clerk.......................... H Smith Copyist and Librarian............ T K Nathaniel Hawaiian Interpreter............... W L Wilcox Chinese Ipterpreter.................. Li Cheung Clerk Police justice Honolulu.. Chas W Baldwin Circuit judges. First Circuit, Oahu.... One of the judges of the Supreme Court. Second Circuit, Maui......... Hon A Fornander Third Circuit, Hawaii....... Hon F S Lyman I Hon C F Hart Fourth Circuit, Kauai.............. Hon J Hardy CLERKS OF CIRCUIT COURT: W 0 Atwater, Second Circuit: David Porter, Third Circuit; F Bindt, Fourth Circuit. District Justices. OAHU. R F Bickerton, P J................... Honolulu H N Kahulu.............................. Ewa J P Kama............................. W aianae J Kaluhi............................ Koolauloa S K M ahoe............................ W aialua J L Kaulukou..................... Koolaupoko MAUI. L Aholo, P J.......................... W ailuku W F Mossman........................ Makawao S W Kaai................................ H ana D Kahaulelio, P J..................... Lahaina M Kealoha.......................... Honuaula S K Kupihea.......................... M olokai S Kahoohalahala......................... Lanai KAUAI. * S Hapuku............................. Lihue * W Maioho................ Koloa * Puuki.................... iian`a'l'ei'&... A'nahola ':....I......................... W aim ea F Sinclir:.......... Niihau J K Kaiwi.......................... Kawaihau. HAWAII. P Haupu........................... North Hilo G W A Kapai, J P........................ Hilo J P M iau............................ Hamakua J M N aeole............................... Puna J H S M artin.............................. Kau J G Hoapili........................ North Kona C W P Kaeo....................... South Kona J B Kaohi....................... North.. Kohala S H Mahuka..................... South Kohala Governors. Governor of Oahu........ His Ex JO Dominis Residence, Washington Place, Honolulu. Clerk, John D. Holt. Governor of Maui.......... His Ex J 0 Dominis. Governess of Hawaii....:...... H 11 Kekaulike. Residence, Hilo; F S Lyman, Clerk. Governor of Kauai.......... His Ex P P Kanoa. Residence, Koloa, Kauai. Department of Foreign Affairs. Minister of Foreign Affairs, His Ex W M Gibson Secretary of Department........ Curtis P laukea Department of Judiciary. Chief Justice....................Hon A F Judd First Associate Justice..........Hon L McCully Second Associate Justice........Hon B H Austin Clerk...............................Wm Foster Deputy Clerk.........................H Smith Copyist and Librarian............T K Nathaniel Hawaiian Interpreter...............W L Wilcox Chinese Interpreter.................. Li Cheung Clerk Police Justice Honolulu.. Chas W Baldwin Circuit Judges. First Circuit, Oahu.... One of the Judges of the Supreme Court. Second Circuit, Maui.........Hon A Fornander Third Circuit, Hawaii....... Hon F SLyman Hon C F Hart Fourth Circuit, Kauai.............Hon J Hardy CLERKS OF CIRCUIT COURT: W O Atwater, Second Circuit: David Porter, Third Circuit; F Bindt, Fourth Circuit. District Justices. OAHU. R F Bickerton, P J................... Honolulu H N Kahulu.......................... Ewa J P Kama.............................W aianae J Kaluhi......................... Koolauloa S K Mahoe..........................Waialua J L Kaulukou.................... Koolaupoko MAUI. L Aholo, P J..........................W ailuku W F Mossman...................... Makawao S W Kaai................................H ana D Kahaulelio, P J..................... Lahaina M Kealoha....................... Honuaula S K Kupihea..........................M olokai S Kahoohalahala....................... Lanai KAUAI. R S Hapuku-.....................Lihue A W Maioho........................ Koloa R Puuki.................... Hanalei & Anahola - -.............................. Waimea F Sinclair...................Niihau J K Kaiwi................... Kawaihau HAWAII. P Haupu...........................North Hilo G W A Kapai, J P....................... Hilo J P M iau............................Hamakua J M N aeole...............................Puna J H S Martin............................... Ka J G Hoapili........................North Kona C W P Kaeo....................... South Kona J B Kaohi.......................North Kohala S H Mahuka..........S.........South Kohala Governors. Governor of Oahu........His Ex J O Dominis. Residence, Washington Place, Honolulu. Clerk, John D. Holt. Governor of Maui..........His Ex J O Dominis. Governess of Hawaii....:...... H H Kekaulike. Residence, Hilo; F S Lyman, Clerk. Governor of Kauai.......... His Ex P P Kanoa. Residence, Koloa, Kauai. Department of Foreign Affairs. Minister of Foreign Affairs, His Ex W M Gibson Secretary of Department........ Curtis P Iaukea

Page  77 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND) ANNUAL. 77 HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1884. HAWAIIAN DIPLOMATIC and CONSULAR AGENTS. Envoy Extraordinary and MJinister Plenipotentiary. -ile Washington, D C..........His Ex H A P frti; Secretary of Legation......... (..... (vacat) Charge d'Affaires and Consuls-GeneraL. London, England..................M Hopkins Valparaiso, Chile.................... D Thomas Lima, Peru........................R H Beddy Breemen, Germany......................(vacant) Paris, France............... F Collin de Paradis Consuls-General. New York, U S A................E H Allen, jr Sydney, N S W...................A S Webster Sweden and Norway................H A Burger tBrussels, Belgium....Ferd de Cannart d'Hamale Copenhagen, Denmark.........Julius Holmbald Yokohama, Japan................ R W Irwin Hongkong, China.................. F B Johnson Ottawa, Canada................C E Anderson Consuls, Etc. San Francisco, Cal..............H W Severance Portland, Or..................... J McCracken Marseilles, France.....................A Couve Havre, France................... L de Mandrot Bordeaux, France.................. E de Boissac Genoa, Italy........................R de Luchi Boston, Mass...................Lawrence Bond Glasgow, Scotland......................J Dunn Otago, N Z................... H Driver (.rand Iuchy of Baden Baden........ H Miiller Callao, Peru.......................... S Crosby Auckland, N Z.................D B Cruicshank Falmouth, England.................. W S Broad Ransgate, England................A S Hodges Cork, Ireland....................W D Seymour Vienna, Austria..................V Schonberger Edinburgh and Leith, Scotland...E G Buchanan Rouen, France...................C Schaessler Antwerp Belgium..................V Forge, jr Mlelbourne, Victoria...............G N Oakley Queensland, Australia.................. (vacant) Iamnburg, Germany............. E F Weber I3remene Germany..................J F Miiller Singapore...................... M Suhl Fayal, Azores...................... T F Serpa Nagasaki, Japan...................C L Fisher Colon..............................H E Cooke I asmania.............................. A Coote HIull, England...................W Moran Ma dera..........................J Hutchinson Victoria, B C......................R P Rithet Cardiff and Swansea................H Golberg Newcastle, N S W............Alexander Brown CGhent, Belgium..............Ernest Coppieters I)resden Saxony.......... A....... A P Russ Hiogo and Osaka, Japan.............S Endicott Lysckil, Sweden......Vice-Consul, H Bergstrom iverpool Egland.................R W Janion Shanghae, China.........J Johnstone Keswick Naples, Italy...................Michael Cerulli St. Michaels.................Richard Seemann lahiti.......................John K Sumner Jaluit.... Commercial Agent, Hermann Grosser I'ankok Siam.............. A Kurtzhalss Christiania Norway.................. L Samson l.isbon, Portugal............. Leon de A Cohen l)undee Scotland............ J G Zoller (;ibralter.... [. ~.... Horacio Schott Newcastle on Ty;i,...........E Biesterfeld Frankfort on Maine..................Josh Kopp Amsterdam.......................D I Schnlull Oporto.............. N M T Ferro Montreal................ Dickson Anderson Halifax, NS..............George Fraser Guatemala................... Henry Tolke Mexico............ William J De Gress Bristol, England................... JM Bessone Dublin..............Vice-Consul R Jas Murphy Foreign Representatives-Dipzlomatic. United States Minister Resident-His Ex Rollin M Daggett; residence, Alakea street England —Commissioner and Consul-General, Jas Hay Wodehouse; residence, Emma street. France-Consul and Commissioner, Monsieur Henri Feer; residence, Beretania street. Georges Bouliech, Chancellor French Legation. Portugal-Consul and Commissioner, Senor A de SouzaCanavarro; residence, Alakea street. Foreign Consuls, Etc. Italy.............................F A Schaefer German Empire........ Ga Sweden and Norway.......... lade Denmark-Hana, Maui................A Unna Peru............................A J Cartwright Netherlands. H Pa Belgium.... Belgium........................J H Paty United States................... D A McKinley Mexico...........,. W Laine Spain, Vice-Consul j...... W La Austro-Hungary................ H F Glade Russia, Vice-Consul................J W Pflugei British Vice-Consul.................T H Davies United States, Vice-Consul....... F P Hastings Denmark (acting)............. H R Macfarlane United States Consular Agent, Hilo....T Spencer Japan, Commercial Agent............J O Cartel U S Consular Agent, Kahului........A F Hopke U S Consular Agent, Mahukona.......C L Wight Interior Department. Minister of Interior......... His Ex C T Gulick Chief Clerk of Department.......J A Hassinger Clerks J S Smithies Clerks.......................... J H Boyd ( G E Smithies Registrar of Conveyances............. T Brown Deputy Registrar............... Malcolm Brown Surveyor-General...............W D Alexander Assistant Surveyor...................C J Lyons Postmaster-General..........Hon H M Whitney Assistant Postmaster-General.......I B Peterson Superintendent Public Works........R Stirling Superintendent Water Works........ C B Wilson Chief Clerk of Water Works............W Auld List of Government Surveying Corps. W D Alexander................. Superintendent C J Lyons..........s Assistant in charge of office J S Emerson ) S E Bishop............in charge ot Parties E D Baldwin J F Brown, employed in city work. G E G Jackson, employed in Hydrographic work; W A Wall. Board of Health. His Ex W M Gibson............... President Members-His Ex C T Gulick, Hon A S Cleghorn; Dr G W Parker, Secretary. Port Physician.................Dr G W Parker J H Brown......................... Agent

Page  78 78 H1AWAIIAN ALMANAC AND) ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR z884. I Commissioners of Boundaries. Hawaii.......... F S Lyman Maui, Molokai and Lanai........L Aholo Oahu...............R F Bickerton Kauai.................J Hardy Road Supervisors. Road Supervisors in Chief: Hawaii................C N Arnold Maui..........If...... G E Richardson HawaiiHilo.................. -- North Kohala..........I...J Smith South Kohala..........S P Wahinenui North Kona............J G Hoapili South Kona............ H Nahinu Kau..............W Kaaeamoku Hamakua............ Chas Williams Maui — Lahaina............... D Taylor Wailuku and Makawaon......G Armstrong Hana............... P Kawaiku Molokai................I Nazareta Lanai................ Henry Gihson OahuKona................ C W Hart (Except 1)istrict of Kona).....T A Lloyd KauaiWaimea and Niihau.........J Kauai Koloa................J Hardy Lihue.............. S W Wilcox Hanalei....................JW Btish Kawaihau........... GB -Palohau 'Commissioners of Fences. HAWAII. Hilo....C E Richardson, J Keahi, S L Austin, R A Lyman, K Paulo. Hamakua.......J R Mills, J K Kaunamano North and South Kona.........M Barrett, HCooper, J W Smith, G F Carsley. North Kohala........- Kamahu, J Wood South Kohala.......J Parker, S H Mahuka Kau.....W. T Martin, C N Spencer, S Kawaai, D W Kaaemnoku. MAUI. Makawao..........C H Dickey, P Nui Hana......CK Kakani, M Pupuhi, D Puhi Molokai.....R W Meyer, S Paulo, R Newton OAHU. Kona..........D Kahanu, S Smithies Ewa and Waianae.Ka....... ikanahaole S Previere, S Gandall. I Waialua........H Warden, J Amara, J F Anderson. Koolauloa........Kaluhi, Kaili, W C Lane Koolaupoko....W E Pui Barenaha, C, H Judd,KAUAI. Kawaihau.......M Kealoha, J P Kaumu. a~ii, Kapulehua. Moloaa and Lihue..........W H Rice, S Kaieo, Pahuwai. Agents to Take Acknowledgments to Instruments. Hawaii-D H Hitchcock, F S Lyman, C F Hart, W C Borden, Hilo District; W J Smith, C N Spencer, J Kauhane, F Spencer, J Nawahi, S W Pa, G W Pilipo, R A Lyman, J K Kauna V-1 Inano, Ili, Kahookano, J R Mills, G Bell, C Meinecke, Kapahu. Maui-H Dickenson, T W Everett, C K Ka. kani, P N Mlakee, A Fornander, D Puhi, T H Hohron, J Richardson, LI Crowninghurg, R New. ton, J W Kalua, Halama, J Grunwald, F S Chillingworth, C H Dickey, W H Halstead, W Daniels. Molokai-R. W Meyer, S K Kupihea, A Hutchinson. Oahu-W C Lane, S N Emerson, G Barenaha, C Brown, J S Kaanaana, W A Whiting, A Ktu, A K Hapai, W I. Holokahiki. Kauai-F Bindt, S W Wilcox, C Bertlemani, W H Deverill, J Hardy, ( B Rowell, J M Kealoha, JM Gihson. Niiha'u-C Kahele. Commissioners of Private Ways and Water Rights. HAkWAII. Hilo............Kami., W C Jones, J Nawahi. Hainakua.....R A Lyman, J K Kaunamano, J R Mills. North and South Kohala.........J Smith, S C Luhiau, Z Kalai. Kau..........C N Spencer, J Kauhane, J H S Martin. MAUI. Lahaina.....M Makaluia, L Aholo, D Taylor Wailuku.....P Kaluna, E Bal, J Richardson Makawao.........J Keohokana; Kekaha Hana......0 Unna, C K Kakani, S W Kaai Kaanapali.......J A Kaukau, J F Kauila, D H Kaliiailii. Molokai.... J Nakaleka, D Kailua, I W Poohea OAHU. Kona.......D Kahanu, J S Smithies, M LI Monsarrat. Koolaupok<o.....Kane, G Barenaha, M Rose Koolauloa.......W C Lane, Naili, J Kalnhi Waialua.......J F Anderson, S N Emerson, N Kaiaikawaha. Ewa and Waianae..S Kaanaana, A Kaoliko, G M Keone. K.AUAI. Puna.......W E H Deverill, D Kealahula, A W Maiho. Waimea......G B Rowell, I H Kupuniai, P R Huhi. Hanalei.......S Uza, E Kaaloa, D Niuloihi Board of Immigration. His Ex C 1, Gulick...........President Memhers-Their Exs W M Gibson, J M Kapena, Hon J S Walker. A S Cleghorn....Inspector-General Immigrants J S Smithies..............Secretary Commissioners of Crown Lands. W M Gibson, E Preston, C H Judd, Agent. Appraisers of Land Subject to Government Commutation. Hawaii.........R P Lyman, J H Nawahi Maui, Molokai and Lanai......T W Everett, L Aholo, D Kahiaulelio. Oahu.. J S Smlithies, C Brown, R F Bickertonl Kauai.......J Hardy, P Kanoa, J H Wana

Page  79 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR x884. 79 Notaries Public. Ilawaii-Hilo..........D H Hitchcock Maui-Haiku............C H Dickey.Makawao..........W H Halstead 0.ain-Honolulu.....J H Paty, T Brown, C T Gulick, C Brown, W R Castle, S B Dole, J M Monsarrat, H A Widemann. Kauai-Waimeq...........V Knudsen Commissioners of Boundaries. Hawaii...............F S Lymnan Maui, etc................L Aholo Oahu...............R F Bickerton Kauai.................J Hardy Agents to Acknowledge Contracts for Labor. Oahu-Honolulu.... C 1T Gulick, J U Kawainui, J A Hassinger, W Auld, S M Carter. Waialua.... C H Kalama, S N Emerson, H N Kahulu, W S Wond, J H Barenaba. Koolauloa.............W C Lane Koolaupoko.. A Ku, G Barenaba, E P Edwards Ewa and Waianae....S Kaanaana, J D Dolt Hawaii-Hilo.... L Severance, J H Pahio, S 1 Mahoe, S W Pa, H H Unea. Kona........K Kamauoha, J W Smith Hamakua.... J K Kaunamano, R P Kuikahi, G W Wilfonig, S F Chillingworth, A W Haalili, T R Keyworth. North Kohala.....H Rickard, john Maguire, H P Woods, D S Kahookano, H L Sheldon, J Moanauli. South Kohala.........G Bell, J Jones Kau.....J Kauhane, J N Kapahu, W W Goodale, W Kaaeamoku. Puna...............J N Kamnoku AIdaui-Lahaina......K Nahaolelua, L Aholo Wailuku.....J W Kalua, G E Boardman, S P Halamna, D Kamaiopili, W H Mamakoa, J Richardson. Makawan........G Glendon, Jas Smyth G W Beckwith. Dana... Kahele opio, F Wittrock, H Meheula Mslokai and Lanai... J W M Poohea, G Kekipi S K Piiapoo. Kauai-Koloa.....J N Gilman, J W Alapai, W *H Deverill, Ku. Lihue...............J B Hanaike Hanalei....J Kukuia, J Kaae, J W Loka, J H Mahoe Waimea......M Kamaleoai, J H Kapukui Kawaihau......Kalaeone, J M Kealoha Niihau.................Kaomea Department of Attorney General. Attorney General.......His Ex P Neumann Clerk to Attorney General.........A Rosa {Vlarshal of the Hawaiian Islands...W C Parke D~eputy Marshal..David Dayton Sheriff of Hawaii...........L Severance,Sheriff of Maui..... '... T W Everett.Sheriff of Kauail...........S W Wilcox Jailor of Oahu Prison..........W Buckle Department of Finance. Minister of Finance.........J M Kapena Registrar of Public Accounts......FS Pratt Auditor General............J S Walker Collector General of Customs......W F Allen Deputy Collector..........E R Hendry ist Statistical Clerk........W Chamberlain 2nd Statistical Clerk.......IGeo Markham Fntry Clerk............C K Stillman Store Keeper...........I Q Tewskburg Harbor Master of Honolulu....apt A Fuller (Capts A McIntyre Pilots in Honolulu..... W Babcock P P She pherd Port Surveyor............J R M orrill Board of Education. President..............W M Gibson Members.... Dons J M Smith, J M Kapena, S Walker, D L Kinimaka. Inspector General of Schools....D D Baldwin Secretary...............W J Smith School Agents in Commission. HAWAII. Hilo and Puna...........L Severance Kau............... GW C Jones North and South Kona......H N Greenwell South Kohala............Rev L Lyons North Kohala.............E N Dyer Hamakua.............Rev J Bicknell MAUI. Lahaina and Lanai..........R Newton Wailuk................A Barnes Diana.................S W Kaai Makawao.............W F Mossman Molokai.H............. W Meyer OAHU. Honolulu...............W J Smith Ewa and Waianae...........W J Smith Waialua..............J F Anderson Koolaula...............W C Lane Koolaupoko............Rev J Manuel KAUAI. Waimea and Niihau..........V Knudsen Koloa, Koolau, Hanalei, Lihue.. Rev J W Smith Life, Fire and Marine Insurance Agencies. Firemens's Fund....Bishop & Co Liverpool & London & Gl`ob~e`.B.....ishiop & Co New York Life............C 0 Berger City of London, Fire.........C 0 Berger Equitable Life..........A J Cartwright Imperial Fire...........A J Cartwright New England Mutual Life.....Ca'stle & Cooke Union, San Francisco.......Castle & Cooke British and Foreign Marine......H Davies Northern Fire aiid Life........H Davies Rheinish Westphalian Lloyd......J C Glade Aachen and Leipsic..J....... C Glade North Germaii Fire.......H Hackfeld & Co Trans-Atlantic Fire.......H Hackfeld & Co Nor Br & MercIl Fire....E Hoffschlaeger & Co Northwestern Mutual Life....W G Irwin & Co Swiss Lloyd Marine.......W G Irwin & Co Union Fire of New Zealand.... W G Irwin & Co Great Western Marine......W G Irwin & Co Royal, of Liverpool.......W G Irwin & Co Hamburg-Magdeburg Fire.......A Jaeger Lion, Fire, of London..........A Jaeger Pacific Mutual Life..........R W Lamne State Investment F & M of Cal.'...R W Lamne Manhattan Life............J H Paty Hamburg.Bremen Fire.....F A Schaefer & Co German Lloyd Marine.....F A Schaefer & Co Fortuna Marine........F A Schaefer & Co

Page  80 So rtAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1884. Dresden General Insurance.. F A Schaefer & Co Mutual Life of New York......... Wilder & Co London & Prov., Fire..........J T Waterhouse Chamber of Commerce. President................... C R Bishop Vice-President................. A J Cartwright Secretary and Treasurer.........J B Atherton Lodges. LE PROGRES DE L'OCEANIE, NO 124, A F & A M; meets on King St., on the last Monday in each month. HAWAIIAN, NO 2I, F &A M; meets in its hall corner Queen and Fort Streets, on the first Monday in each month. ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER; meets in the hall of Le Progres de l'Oceanie on the third Thursday of each month. COMMANDERY NO I KNIGHTS TEMPLAR; meets at the Lodge Room of Le Progres de l'Oceanie second Thursday of each month. KAMEHAMEHA LODGE OF PERFECTION. NO I. A & A S R; meets in the hall of Le Progres de l'Oceanie on the fourth Thursday of each month NUUANU CHAPTER OF ROSE CROIX, No r, A & A S R; meets at the hall of Le Progres de l'Oceanie, first Thursday in the month. ALEXANDER LIHOLIHO COUNCIL OF KADOSH; meets on the third Monday of alternate months from February. EXCELSIOR No I, I O of O F; meets at the hall in Odd Fellows' Building, on Fort Street, every Tuesday evening. HARMONY LODGE, No 2, I 0 of 0 F; meets each Thursday in Harmony Hall, King street. POLYNESIAN ENCAMPMENT, No i, I 0 of O F; meets at Harmony Hall, King street first and third Fridays of each month. OAHU LODGE No i, K of P; meets every Wednesday at hall on Fort Street. MYSTIC LODGE, No 2, K of P; meets every Thursday evening, at Harmony Hall. SECTION NO 225-ENDOWMENT RANK, K of P; meets on the second Saturday of each month in the hall of Oahu Lodge. HAWAIIAN COUNCIL No 689, AMERICAN LEGION OF HONOR; meets on second and fourth Thursdays of each month in the hall of Oahu Lodge. OCEANIE COUNCIL, No 777, AMERICAN LEGION OF HONOR; meets on the first and third Thursdays of each month, at the K of P hall. HAWAIIAN TRIBE, No I, IMP. O R M; meets at the hall of Oahu Lodge, K of P, every Friday evening. COURT LUNALILO, NO 6600; A O of FORESTERS meets at hall of Oahu Lodge, K of P, on second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. GEO. W DE LONG POST, No 45, G A R; meets the second Thursday of each month at K of P hall, Fort Street. ALGEROBA LODGE, I O G T; meets every Monday evening at the K of P hall, Fort Street. Honolulu Fire Department. Organized 1851. Annual Election of Engineers First Monday in June. Officers for 1882-83: Chief Cngineer.......................J Nott First Assistant Engineer..........Chas B Wilson Second Assistant Engineer......M D Monsarrat Secretary and Treasurer...........Henry Smith Fire Marshal....................J W McGuire Annual Parade Day of Department...... Feb 3d Honolulu Engine Company No i (steam) formed 1850, organized July 18, 1855. Annual election of officers, first Wednesday in July. Mechanic Engine Company No 2, organized December, I85o, admitted February 3, I850. Annual election of officers, first Wednesday in February. Hawaii Engine Co No 4, organized February 1861. Annual election of officers, first Tuesday in February. China Engine Company No 5 (steam), organized February, 1879. Pacific Hose Company No I, organized January, 1861, as Engine Company No 3, changed to a Hose Company December 14, 1863. Annual election of officers, second Tuesday in January. Protection Hook and Ladder Company No i, Jre-organized September, I857. Annual election of officers, first Monday in September. Volunteer Military Companies. Prince's Own.................. H Kaaha, Capt. Leleiohoku Guard ---Cavalry.....Makanui, Capt Mamalahoa....................S P Wood, Capt King's Own....................S Nowlien, Capt Anniversaries. New Years...........................January i Accession of Kalakaua............. February 13 Birthday of Kamehameha III........ March 17 Birth of the Queen of Great Britain.....May 24 In Memory of Kamehameha I..........June Ti American Independence.................July 4 Birth of His Majesty the King..... November 16 Recognition Hawaiian Independence....Nov 28 Christmas......................... December 25 Queen's Hospital. ERECTED IN i860. President.............His MAJESTY TIE KING Vice-President................... C R Bishop Sec'y... F A Schaefer I Treas........J H Paty Auditor...... E P Adams Physicians.......... R McKibbin, G Trousseau Executive Committee-C R Bishop, J H Paty, F A Schaefer, A J Cartwright, A S Cleghorn. American Relief Fund. Organized 1864. Meets annually February 22 President..........-...... A J Cartwright Vice-President................. Rev S C Damon,Secretary and Treasurer............C R Bishop British Benevolent Society. Organized 186o. Meets annually May 24. President........... J....... J H Wodehouse Vice-President............ Rev A Mackintosh Sec'y....J A Kennedy I Treas...A S Cleghorn Relief Committee....... G Rhodes, G Lucas, A Young, R Stirling, T H Davies,

Page  81 4AW.A hAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 8 Si HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1884. British Club. Organize'd 1752. Premises on Union Street, two doors below Beretania. President..............A S (le-horn Sec'y......G Drown I Treas.....A Jaeger Managers-A S (leghorn, Godfrey Brown, H 1lacfarlane. Mechanics' Benefit Union. Organized i856. Pres..... R Lucas IVice-P...M R, Colburn Sec'y.....Wm Auld ITreas.J F Colburn Ex Coin —I Sorenson, F Johnson. German Benevolent Society. Organized August 22, 1859. President.............H W Schmidt Secretary..............Max Eckart Treasurer.............J F Hlackfeld St. Antonio Benevolent Society. Organized December, i876. President...............J RobelIn Vice-President..M......... S Pereira Sec..... M J de Edos ITreas..... J Lopes Mission Children's Society. Organized i85i. Annual Meeting hi' June. President..I......... r N 13 Em-erson Vice-President...........F W IDamon Recording Secretary..........C Baldwin Cor Secretary.......Miss M A Chamberlain Home Cor Secretary.......Mrs M Benfield Elective Members.... H Cook, Miss Norton Treasurer...............W W Hall Library and Reading Room Association. Organized March i, Incorporated june 24, I879. President................S B1 Dole Vice-President.............M M Scott..y..... H A Parinelee I Treas.....A L, Smith IDirectors-A J Cartwright, A Ma.rques, Dr C T Rodgers, H R Hollister, W Hill, H A Parmelee, A S Hartwell, H Waterhottse, 'Dr C M Hyde. Oahu College. Inc.ated at Punahou, two miles east of Honolulu. P'resident.......;.....Rev W C Merritt Itstructor in L~anguages.......F F Sandford Itlstrtuctor in lv'ng. Literatuire..Mrs W C Merritt Teacher of Music........Mrs J E Hanflord Teacher of French...........A Marqttes 'Teacher of IDrawing..........C Furneamix Mlatron......... Mrs NI L Merritt Puin'ahon Preparatory. Principal.............Miss L I. Moore Assistants.....Miss C Carter, Miss ff R Lewis Sailors' Home Society. Organized 1853. ~'deets annually in December. President...............S N Castle Sec'y..F A Schaefer ITreas....C R Bishop Ex Com.__p C Jones, S C IDamoti. Board of Hawaiian Evangelical Association. Originally organized 1823. Constitution revised i863 Annual meeting June Presidetnt.............on A F Jurld Vice-President...........H Waterhouse Corresponding Secretary. Rev A 0 F~orbes Recorditng Secretary. -.-.Rev C NI Hyde, 1) D T'reasurer...W W Htall I Auditor....P C Jotnes Ladies' Benevolent Society of Fort Street Church. Org~anized 1853. Meets annually in April. President.............Mrs W W Hall Vice-President..........Mrs W F Allen Sec'y. - Mrs E P Adams ITreas....Mrs P C Jones Woman's Board of Missions. Organized i871. Presirlent............ rs Lowell Smith Recording Secretary... M....Ars S E B~ishop Home Cur Sec'y.........Miss E 13 Knight lForeigrt Cor Sec'y.........Miss F Johntsotn 'Ireasitrer...........Mrs B F Diliingham Auditor................W W Hall Stranger's Friend Society. Orizatized 1852. Annual meeting in June. President............Mrs S C TDatnon Vice-Presidents.. Mrs C R Bishop and Mlrs J S Mc~irew. Sec'y....Mrs L S mith 'FTreas.. M rs S E B ishop Directess............Mrs A Macklittosh Missionary Gleaners-Branch of Woman's Board. President.............Mrs E 0 Hall Vice-President..........Miss S I.. Kitig Rec. Secretary..........Miss C Gilmant Cor. Secretary.........Mrs E C iDamott 'TreaSUrer.............Miss C Carter Helping Hand Society-Branch of Woman's Board. Organized 1879. President.............irs C NI Hyde Secretary............Mrs S Mahelona Treasurer —............irs A F Cooke Vice-President........ Mliss J Kawehewehe Young Men's Christian Association. Org~anized 1869. Annual meeting in April. President......... H.....con A F Judd Vice-President..............C M Cooke Sec'y.....F J Lowrey I7'Ireas....T G Thrum Deutscher Verein. (Organized 1879.) President...............W Maertens Vice-President.............C 0 Berger Secretary and T'reasurer.., - '''W Wolters

Page  82 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANI) ANNUPAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR x884. Amateur Musical Society. Organized I85x. Re-organized 1878. President...............T H Davies Vice-President...........F M Swanzy Musical Director.............H Berger Tres.....G P Castle I Sec'y.... J F Hackfeld Hooulu Lahui Benevolent Society. Organized i878. President...........H M THE QUEaEN Treasurer............rs J G Dickson Places of Worship. BETHIEL CHURcH (Congregational) corner o King and Bethel streets, Rev S C Damon, D D Pastor. Services every Sunday at 11 A. Sunday-school meets at.- 9.45 A Si. Prayer Meeting Wednesday evenings at 7.30. FORT STiREET CHURCH (Coilgregational) corner of Fort and IBeretania streets, Rev J A Cruzan, Pastor. Services every Sunday at II A Si and 7.3-0 P Ni. Sunday-school meets one hour before morning service. Prayer Meeting Wednesday evenings at 7.30, and Sunday evenings at 6.45. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, Fort street, near Beretania; Rt Rev Hermann, Bishop of Olba, Revs Rejis and Clement, assisting. Services ever Sunday at 5and 10 A Sm, and at 4.30 P Si. Low Mass every day at 6 and 7 A mi. High,Mass Sundays and Saints' days at 10 A Ai. EPISCOPAC CHURCu, Emma Square; Rt Rev Bishop of Honolulu officiating, assisted by Rev A Mackintosh and Rev Geo Wallace. Services in English every Sunday at 6.30, and IT A mi, and 7.30 P Si.Services in Hawaiian every Sunday at 9A Mand 3i.30oi Si. Sunday-school one hour beore English morning service. CHRISTIAN CHINESE CHURCH, Fort street, F W Damon, Acting Pastor. Services every Sunday at I0.30 A N1 and 7.30 P Ai. Prayer Meeting Wednesdays at 7.30 P M. NATIVE CHURCHES. KAWAIAHAO CHURCH (Congregational), corner of King and Punchbowl streets, Rev H HParker, Pastor. Services in Hawaiian every Sundlay at II A Ni, aild at 7.0on Sunday evemings alternating with Kauma -apili. Sunday-school at to A Si. Prayer Meeting Wednesday at 7.30 P M-. KA'UMAKAPILI CHtJRCH, (Congregational), Berelania street, near Maunakea. ~- Pastor. Services in Hawaiian every Sunday at 10.30 A Si, and at 7.30 P Si on Sunday evenings alternating with Kawaiahao. Sunday-school at 9.30 A Mi. Prayer Meeting every Wednesday at 7.30 P Si. Board of Underwriters-Agencies. Boston..............C Brewer & Co Philadelphia-..........C B~rewer & Co New York-............A J Cartwright Liverpool-............~.TH Davies Lloyds, LodnH Davies San Fr.ancisco..........H Hackfeld & Co Bremen, Dresde-I, Viennea-....F A Schaefer Packet Agencies. Bostoil Packets....C. Brewer & Co Planters' Line, San F~r'an'cisco.'.'.'.C Brewer & Co Pioneer, Liverpool...........H Davies Merchants,' Line, San Francisco.. Castle & Cooke New York Line.........Castle & Cooke Oceanic S S Co's Line......W G Irwin & Co Liverpool. )....G W Macfarlane & Co Glasgow.. f...... Pacific Mail S S Co.......H Hackfeld & Co Bremen Packcts.........H Hackfeld & Co Hawaiian Packet Line.....H Hackfeld & Co Regular Dispatch Line-....F A Schaefer & Co Publications. 'She Ga=,elte issned every Wednesday morningR. Grieve & Co. Publishers and Proprietors. The SATI RDHA Pr ass, issued every Saturday mnorning. Ihomas G. Thrum, Publisher and Proprietor. 'the Daily IPacific Comnmercial A dr'ertiser, issued every morning (except Sundays); weekly edition issued on Saturdays. J S Webb, Managing Editor. The Daily B~ulletinz issued every morning (except Sundays). C R Buckland, Editor. The Frientd, issued on thc first of each month Rev S C Damon (Seamen's Chaplain), Editor aiid Publisher. 'The A izglican C/karc/ Chronicle, issued on the first Saturday of every nionth. Revs A Mackintosh and G3 Wallace, Editors. The Planters' Monthly. W 0 Smith, Editor. The ifasoaiiani MIonthly. Dr C T Rogers Editor. The IHawaii Pete A ina (native), issued every Saturday morning. J U Kawainui, Publisher and Editor. The Knokoa (native), issued every Saturday morning. Rev H H Parker, Publisher and Editor'7 'rhe Elele Poakoin (native), issued every Wednes nesday. " T 1lE1 SA T URnD A.Y iPRESS 8-," A NE-WSPAPER PUBLISHED WREEKLY DIEVOTEDI TB THIE iNITERESTS BF TH4E HAIWAIIAN ISLANIDS, T14f)AIA-40 f.1 TMQ11M - 4 Subscription Price, $5,oo Per Annum in Advance-Postage to Foreign Countries Extra.

Page  [unnumbered] ' HAWAIIAN F so JRLLMANAC X ANNUAL! r ( *A I,...-... Vn F- F O R-. F PI RVI D I V, ^^ o —A1885. — }EVENT YEARFPU BLICA-.TIO..N |/1 /1IVD BOOK OF i1VKTiOMA X I'ATNjV I ln'lMatters Relating to the H/awaniain Islanlds,,rigina: * jnjd SHi8cted, of Value to lVerchants., Plnthrs, S |.i &.. 4 * ELEVENTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION. $.. I:l'np'YRI.PYIH T'E'IT1 AC N Y C ]DT IG J Ti.J LA, k Fl) W;^ '*J~i~ -.~- ~ '-Tb~HrS. G. THRUMl'M,. il MKCIi.N'I' AN*) 4'"l.1 S-TS., 11X0.1 1.'. *' o e ^!^^^ ^^^* +.*'*^*^^^^

Page  [unnumbered] HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. TABLEC OF CONTENTS. PAGE., Holidays, Cycles, Church Days and Eclipses..................... 4 Q uarterlv ('alendars......................................... 5, 7, 9, 11 List of Free Imports from the United States by Treaty............ 6 Census, etc., of Hawaiian Islands, 1878....................... 8 Inter-Island Distances by Sea.................................. 10 Overland Dist:inces, Hawaiian Islands......................... 12 Overland Distances,' Island of Oahu............................ 13 Post O ffice Statistics.......................................... 13 Comparative Table of Import Valeus at the Hawaiian Islands....... 14 Nationality of Vessels Employed in Foreign Carrying Trade of H awaiian Islands........................................ 14 Comparative View of the Commerce of the Hawaiia'l Islands, 1845-83............................................ 15 Selections from Custom House Tables, 1883...................... i6, 17, 8, 19 Articles Admitted into the United States Free of Duty under the Reciprocity Treaty...S......... 8 Average Monthly Meteorotogical Table...................... 19 Comparative Table of Leading Imports of the Hawaiian Islands, I875-83.......................2................... 20 Comparative Table of Population of the Hawaiian Islands......... 20 Comparative Appropriation Bills for the Biennial Periods ending March 31, I866 and 1884...................1............ 21-28 Comparative Table of Receipts and Expendituies, Hawaiian Islands. 29 Table of Revenues and Expenditures of the Hawaiian Kingdo..... 9 The Story of Kalelealuaka, by Dr. N. B. Emerson............. 30-46 Hawaiian Names of Relationship, etc., by Judge A. Fornander.... 46-53 Retrospect for the Year 1884............................. 53-57 Custom House Port Regulations, Charges, etc...................... 57-6 Regulations for Carriages and Rates of Fare..................... 64-66 Sugar Plantations and Mills................................... 66-68 Marine Casualties for the Hawaiian Islands, 1884................. 68-69 Bearings and Distances....................................... 69 Table of Elevations of Principal Localities Throughout the Islands....7 Hawaiian Island Postal Service.......................... 71 Music in Honolulu, by Bandmaster Berger...................... 7274 IFur the Information of Tourists................................. 74-76 The New Library Building, by Dr. C. T. Rodgers................ 76-78 Meterological Summary for lonolulu............................ 79 Internal Taxes for Biennial Period, 1882-84...................79 Clipper Passages to and from the Coast; Quick Passages of Ocean Steamers................................ So Hawaiian Registered Vessels.......................... Si Rulers of Principal Nations of the World......................... 82 Rainfall for Various Localities, Hawaiian Islands................. 83 Register and Directory, Hawaiian Islands........................ 84-1

Page  [unnumbered] Census of the Hawaiian Islands. HAWAIIAN GO/ERNMCEdNT 5UMAY DE IERNMENT SUJEYIcPraf.WD.Alexatiaer, J3Y THl P (<A U.;fiMP, Sm(,O-n H aMiy ----- i --- Z ---- - '~~~~~~~~~~~~ P una..............................,043 Kau.au............................ 2,210 J Sti 4 Kona, North........................... 1,o67 Kona, South...........................,76 Kohala, North....................... 3,299 - Kohala, South....................... 718 ~ Hamakua........................,805 ---- 7,034 - (Lahaina..............................2,448 *dMT~MAllP I Wailuku............................... 4,186 I!TlAr' <! 4) Hana...........;............... 2,067 ' \ Makawao.................... 3,48 -— 2,109 MOLOKAI..................................... 2,581 LA NA I....................................... 2r4 NIIH AU............................'........ 177 irr ~b. / Honolulu.............................. 1 4, 4 \: Ewa an~d Wai,......... 1.699 F >_r X:4Waiaa.._ltE..................... 639 i Koolauloa........................... i,C2 ILL;'' 0 Koolaupoko........................ 2,402 - 20,236 _ (W aimea........................... 1,r97 - - Koloa................................ X,co8 ) Puna.................................. 1,832 d A Koolau an Handalei...................,597 i and Age. - 5,634 TOTAL.......................................... 57,985 Length o/ Area and Elevati n of the Hawaiian Islands. Retfttg.,4Aeats in sta t. icriht t sq. miles. Acres. intfeet. Hawaii.............. 4.20 2,50,000 13,80 37 years. Maui................ 760 400,000 0o,032 5 3 mos. Oahu................ 6oo 360,000 4,o60 21 9" Kauai............... 590 350,000 4,800 8 "xI." Molokai......... 270 200,000 3,500 9 "'I days, Lanai................ Ip oo, 3,000 x "25 " Niihau............ 97 70,000 8oo Kahoolawe........ 63 3,000oo,450 The Kings of of Reign Name. Kalmehameha I.... Kamnehameha II... Karnehameha III.. Kanehameha IV.. Kamehameha V... Lunalilo........ KALAKAUA........ Born. g,e. X753 1797 Mar. 17, x Feb. 9, Ix Dec. xi, t! 66 years. 27 I 40 "9 mos. 29 9 mos. 43 " 39 *

Page  [unnumbered] *

Page  1 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANNUAL. — F OR — A HANB4188. *- I A HANDBI)OOK OF INFORMATION On Matters Relating to the Hawaiian Islands, Original and Selected, of Value to Merchants, Planters, Tourists and Others. ELEVENTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION. COPYRIGHTED ACCORDING TO LAW. I'HOS. G. THRUM, COMPILER AND PUBLISHER, HONOLU.LU,, H. 1.

Page  2 COUNTING HOUSE - 1885. - ~.. t JAi, I 1 31 2 4 5 6 7 81 91 1 12!i3 14 I5!I611l7' I8 1920o21 22232411 FEB. 5 26272829 30 3II FEB,.......;..!.., I 2 3 41 51 6, 7, 8 90 IO 1213 I 34 15 1617 8 1920o22I x 221232425 26 2728 0. 2i..! i z 2| 27 MAR. I': 2 3 45 671 7 8 q 10,oI1 123 14 ' 15. 16|17118 1920,12i C: 2223124125 2627 28 - U:29'3o031... APRIL. 1 2: 3 4 12 I3,I45 Ii67 1 0 19202i2223!24 25j,26 27.28 29 30,.., I 3 41 5 6 71 8 9 10 I 2 131411 I5 17 I8 I9120 2122 23 3 2425 27 28 2829,30;37........ I.. ~ JUNE i[ I 2 3 4 5 61 i 7 8j 9 lIOiil2|i31 II4jI516 17 i8|19'20j, I6zI1 9 20 2I 22 23124i252627 2829 30.;. IAY i ~ I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~: 3' ii 5! i i H~~~~~~~ I z ro rI'Iz' I~~~~ ILC 15 c~ ix7 r8 I9 zo~~zr 22:2 3 Ij I I I I I I I i -0 ', A_ C — 2 - __ r C_ ) t 3;3: ~s- C ~-.Z W r m -3 PI c==; =d, I 0 — CZ3 -110.*Xn 1__ C=S:7J C A t~l,d < > t o 1 (_ JULY I 2 3 4 5 6 71 8 91lo II r2I3I4I5I6 7IS 12 13 14 15!16l17j18 I9 20 2I 22 23 24125 o A 1UG 26 27 28 29'3031. AUG. |,. V I I; 21,i 31 4 51 6 7 8 *f\ I 9| 1O II I2!I3 1415 i6j 7 I8 I9202 22I 2 123:24 25 26127128 29 SEPT.|.1..1 2 3 4 5 1 617 8 910 IOI I2 I3j 41314 15, 6 17 i8 I9 20121 2212324 25126 27 28 29 30.. il OCT........ t 2 3 -l I 4' 5 6j 7 8 91o10 1!2 13 4 I5 i6117! I 8iI9 202 I 22 2324 NV 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 ' I2" z2 31 4 5 i j f 8 9 10111 12113 14 15 I6 I7|I8 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2627128 29 30..l... DEC. 8 1 I 2 3 4 5 fi| 1 6 7 8 9 10 11i12 | 13 14 15 i6 17 I8 I9 20121 22123 24 25 26 | 27 28 29'30,3I.-.

Page  3 ,ADV R - /E M 3 ADVERTISEMENT. AC ACH stcceeding issue of the HAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANI) ANNUAL has proven its value and usefulness by the use which directory-makers, Aturists, and correspondents for foreign journals make of its comprehensive tables and carefully prepared articles. This is a complinmnt to the reliability of a work that was established to disseminate information pertaining to these islands that strangers naturally seek, and proves the correctness ef the belief convezyed to the compiler on a visit abroad in 18?4, by the frequency and zariety of questions affecting the political, commercial, social and ecclesiastical status of the Hawaiian Islands, that the labor of tabulating and gathering together all that mziht be found available for handy reference, would meet wzith due appreciation at home as well as abroad. To the various departments of the government, and to an increasing corps of contributors that have aided in the work, the compiler desires to acknoz,iedge the valuable assistance and co operation rendered, and trusts by con/inued watchful care and revision to merit the confidence and support of a patronage that is extending each year. To those journals, local and foreign, that have recognized persist ant efforts to difuse abroad reliable information pertaining to these interesting islands is due no small share of a publisher's gratitude, and the compiler trusts that the same kindly spirit may be continued the ANNUAL as tt enters upon its second decade, with fresh hopes and claims for popular udpport. THOS. G. THR UJf. '.*' Honolnlu07, Nzovember, r884.

Page  4 4 - 4 ~~~HAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANI) ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN ANNUAL CALENDAR FOR 1885. Bein~g the 107th year since the discovery of the H-awaiian Islands by (iaptain (COK: The latter part of the 109th and the beginning of the ioth year of the, inde, pcrndence of the United States of America. Also, The year 5645 —46 of the Jewish Era; The year I3013 o4 the Mohammedan Era; The year 2638 since the foundation of Rome, accordling to \Varro. 1-0L11)AYS OBSERVEt) AT TIHE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. *New Year............Jan. I*K~amelhameha, Iay...... Jufle r i Chinese New Year........Feb. 14 American Anniversary......July 4 'Accession of K'alakaua.....Feb'. 13 Il hiS, Majesty's Birthday.....Nov. i6 *Kameharn-cha Ill. Birthday.... Mar. 1 7 * Recognition f.O;Hawaiian IndeGood Friday..........April 3 pend ence.. Nov. 28 Birth of Queen Victoria.......May 24 * Christmas..........)DeC. 2,S IDccoration Day......May 30 Those prefixed by a * are recognized by the Government. CHIRONOL.OGICAL. CYCLES. D~ominical Letter..)........ D Solar Cycle.............18 Epact............... 14 Roman Indiction.13.........I Golden Numrber...........5 Julian Period...........6598 CHURtCH DAYS. E~piphany............J an. 6 1 Whit Sunday...May 24 Ash Wednesday.........Feb. i8 ITrinity Sunday.........May 31 First Sunday in Lent.......Feb: 22 Corpus Christi...........June 4 (;ood Friday.......April 3 Ad~9ent Sunday.........NOV. 29 Easter Sunday.........April Christmas...........Dec:25 Ascension IDay.........May 13 bLCLIPSES IN 1885. Prepared for the Annual by Prof. W. D. ALEXANDER, as are also the Moon s Pha~ses, and Sun rise and Sun set calculations for this issue. In i885 there will be four eclipses-two of the Sun, and two of the Moon. 1. An annular eclipse of the Sun March Magnitude of the eclipse =o.886 i6th, partially visible here, ending about At Honolulu the Moon will set at 5 h 6b. 48 M. A. M., Honolulu time. 58 M. A. M., about one-third eclipsed. 2. A partial eclipse of the Moon March 3. A total eclipse of the Sun, Septem29-30, of which only the beginning will he her 8', not visible in the Hawaiian Islands, visible at Honolulu as follows: hut visible in the South Pacific; total at HI. M. Wellington, N. Z. Moon enters shadow Mar. 30, 4 27.0 A. M. 4. A partial eclipse of the Moon, SepMiddle of eclipse, Mar. 30, 6 2.8 A. M. temnber 23; not visible at Honolulu. Moon leaves shadlow,Mar. 30, 7 38.5 A. M.

Page  5 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL 5 5C FIRST QUARTER, 1885. JANUARY. I. H. M. Last Quarter..... 5.5.2 P. Mt 15 New Moon. o-:1o.0.o P. M. 23 First Quarter....2.54 9 P. M. 30 Full Moon.......5.47.8 A. M. H.M. H.M Thurs... 6 38 35 30 I 2fFri..... 6 38 515 30 8 3 Sat..... 6 38 8 5 31 5 4SUN... 6 39 1 5 32 2 5 Mon... 6 39 35 32 9 6 Tues.... 6 39 5 5 33 6 7 Wed... 6i39 7 5 343 8 Thurs... 6 39 9 5 35 0 9Fri..... 6 40 0o535 7 1o Sat. 6 40 I 5 36 2 IISUN.6 40 2 5 36 9 12 Mon.... 6 40 315 37 6 i3 Tues...6 40 45 38 3 l4 Wed...66 40 4 5 39 0 l5 Thurs... 6 40 545 39 7 16 Fri.'... 6 40 5 5 40 4 l7 Sat.... 6 40 4 5 4t I 18 SUN... 6 40 3 2 41 8 t9 Mon.... 6 40 2 5 42 5 21oTues... 6 40 2 5 43 r 21 Wed..6 40 0o 5 43 8 22 Thurs... 6 39 9 5 44 5 23 Fri.....6 39 85 45 2 24 Sat.... 6 39 6 5 45 7 25 SUN... 6 39 4 5 46 4 26 Mon.... 6 39 I 5 47 1 27Tues.6 38 8 5 47 7 28 Wed.6 38 6 5 48 3 29 Thurs... 6 38 3 5 48 9 30lFri 6 38 0 5 49 5 31 Sat. 6 37 7 5 50 2 i i I I I k 1 I I FEBRUARI 0. HI 6 Last Quarter....o. 24 New Moon......3. 21 First Quarter... 52. 28 Full Moon....... 5. I tzZ i SUN 2 Mon... 3 Tues... 4 Wed.... 5 Thurs.. 6 Fri. 7 Sat 8 SUN 9 Mon. 10 Tues ix Wed 12 Thurs. I3 Fri.-.1 I14Sat.. 15SUN... i6 Mon... i7 Tues i8 Wed i9 Thurs... 20 Fri. 21 Saf.... 22 SUN. 23 Mon.... 24 Tues 25 Wed 26 Thurs... 27 Fri.... 28 Sat H.IM. 6 37 4 6 36 9 6 36 5 6 36 i 6 357 6 35 3 6 34 8 16 34 3 6 33 8 6 33 31 6 32 8 6 32 2 6 3P 6 6 31 0 6 30 4 6 29 8 6 29 2 6 28 5 6 27 8 6 27 1 6 26 6 6 25 4, 6 24 7 6 24 0 6 23 4 6 22 7 6 21 9 6 28 I MAR M D.6.2 P. rVt. 8 Last Quarters 50.4 P.M.t 1i New Moon... Oo. P. M. 123 First Quarter. 28.9 P.M, 130 Full Moon.. ~i e H.M. 8 /5 50 8 iSUN....6 5 58 5 2 Mon. 6 i5 52 2 31 Tues.... 6 5 52 9 4 Wed. 6 5 53 7 5Thurs.... 6 5 54 2 6 Fri. 6 547Sat....6 15 54 6 7 15 55 1 8 SUN 6 ~5 55 5 9 Mon. 6.. ~5 55 9 'O Tues.... 6 5 56 4 ii Wed..... 6 5 56 9 I2 Thurs..., 6 5 574 I3Fri. 6 5 58 i4at.. 6 5 58 5 5SUN. 6 5 59 0 16Mon....16 5 59 5 17 TUes 6 5 59 9118 Wed....6 6 00 4 x9 Thurs..*. 6 6 oo92oFri. 6 6 01 3 121 Sat...... 6 6 08 81 22 SUN... 6 6 02 2 23 Mon... 6 6 02 7 124 Tues.... 6 6 03 I 25Wed. 5 6 03 5 26 ThUIS.. 6 03 9 27 Fri. 5 6 04 3 28 Sat. 5 29SUN.... 5 30 Mon.. 5 __ __ 3 Tues...15 CH. H. M..8.22.7 A. 1..7.5.-5 A. 21..6.51.7 A. II..6.9.0 A. M. 20 3 6 04 7 19 5 6 05 1 I8 7 6 05 5 17 9 6 05 9 17 o 6 o6 3 i6 216 o6 7 85 3 6 07 0 84 56 07 4 I3 66 07 7 I2 7.6 o8 0 i 8i 6 08 2 0o 96 o8 4 io o6 O8 5 09 i6 o8 6 o8 3 6 o8 7 07 4 6 09 2 o6 56 09 7.05 66 6o 2 04 7 6 io 7 03 8 6 ii 3 02 9 6 ii 7 02 o 6 82 0 01 i 6 82 3 00 2 6 82 6 59 2 6 12 9 58 3 6 13 2 57 46 13 5 56 4 6 13 8 55 5 6 i1 I 54 46 14 4 53 316 84 9 There are a variety of grasses and other material available in these islands for the manufacture of hats, from the common but pliable grass for children's every day use to the fancy braid for ladies' wear made from the pumpkin vine. All of these find a ready sale and at high figures, and yet nothing has been done tovard organizing home industry, notwithstanding the fact that the growth of imports of this one item of headwear has been so steady as to have reached last year the sum of $47,294.

Page  6 6 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. LIST OF FREE IMPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES BY TRSEATY When Properly Certified to before the Hawaiian Consul, at the nearest Port of Shipment Agricultural Implements; Animals. Bacon; Bags, (cotton or textile manufactures); Beef; Bells; Books; Boots and Shoes; Bran; Bricks; Bread and Breadstuffs of all kinds; Brushes; Bullion; Butter. Cement; Cheese; Coal; Cordage; Cop)per and Composition Sheathing; Cotton and Manufactures of Cotton, bleached and unbleached, and whether or not colored, stained, painted or printed; Clocks, if without glass and of wood; Cutlery. Doors, Sashes and Blinds. Edging, Embroidery, (if of cotton); Eggs; Engines and parts thereof. Fish and Oysters, and all creatures living in the water, and the products thereof; Fruits, Nuts, and Vegetables, green, dried or undried, lreserved or unpreserved; Flour, Furs. Grain; Gloves, Gimps, Girdles (if of cotton ); Guns and Pistols ( unless mounted in ivory, rubber or nickel). Ham; Hardware; Harness; Hay; Hides; dressed or undressed; Hoop Iron. Ice; Iron and Steel, and manufactures thereof; Nails; Spikes and Bolts; Rivets, Brads or Sprigs; Tacks. Lanterns (without glass); Lard; Leather, and all manufactures thereof; Lumber and Timber of all kinds, round, hewed, sawed, and manufactured in whole or in part; Lime. Machinery of 11 kinds; Meal and Bran; Meats, fresh, smoked or preserved; Mitts (if cotton ); Mattresses (all except hair). Nails, Naval Stores; including Tar; Pitch; Resin; Turpentine, raw and rectified. Oats. Pictures,(on paper ); Purses (if of leather); Picture frames; Parasols and Umbrellas ( if of cotton ); Paper and all manufactures of Paper or of Paper and Wood; Petroleum, and all oils for illuminating or lubricating purposes; Plants, Shrubs, Trees and Seeds; Pork. Rice. Salt; Shooks; Shoe Horns (if of iron or steel); Skins and Pelts, dressed or undressed; Staves and Headings; Starch; Stationery; Soap; Sugar, refined or unrefined, Tallow; Textile Manufactures made of a combination of wool, cotton, silk or linen, or of any two or more of theni, other than when readymade clothing Toys (when made of wood, or of wood and metal, or iron or steel); Tobacco, whether in leaf or manufactured. Wagons and carts for the purposes of agriculture or of drayagt; Wood and manufactures of Wood, or Wood and Metal, except Furniture either upholstered or carved, and Carriages; Wool and manufac tures of Wool, other than ready-made clothing. For list of articles of Hawaiian produce admitted free under the treaty into the United States see page i8. 10For full text of the Reciprocity Treaty with the United States, see Annual for 1877.

Page  7 * HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 7 SECOND QUARTER, 1885. APRIL. MAY. JUNE. 1>,. M. M. H M. H.. H.M. 7 Last Qu ater. 4. 1.o A. M. 6 Iast Quarter.......2.0 P.M. 5 Last Quarter......33.4 P. M, 14 New Moon...... 7.2o.4 P. M. 4 New Moon....... 4.46.0 A.M. I 2 New Moon...... 0 P. M. 21 First Quarter.... 048.7 P. M. 120 First Quarter..... 7.14.0 P.M. i9 First Quarter.. 3. 17.0 A. M. 28 ll Moon......7.48 Full Moon F 742 P....... Io. 59.5 A.M 1 27 Full Moon......0.46.4 A. M. eJ A l I s &; l.. I i i4 I ilWed..... 5.52.2 6.15.4. I ri...... 15.28.7 6.25. 31 IMoll..... 15. 7.26.38.2 21Thurs...5.51.56.15.81 26Sat....... 15.28. Il6.25. 7. 2Tues..... 5.7.6.38.6 3 Fri...... 5.5o.076.i6.21| 3KSUN..... 15.27.516.26. I 3 Wed..... 5.I7.06.39.o 4 Sat...... 5.49.916. I6.6 41Mon.... 5.26.916.26.5 4 Thurs.... 5.16.9 6.39.4 5:SUN.... 5.49.1 6.16.9 5Tues...... 5.26.316.26.9 5|Fri....I...6.9!6.39.8 6Mon.. 5.48.36.17. I 6VWed...... 5.25.8|6.27.3 6 Sat...... 5.i6.8i6.40.2 7Tues.. 5.47.416.17.3! 7 Thurs,.... 5.25.316.27.7l 7SUN.... 5. 6.6 40o.6 8Wed.... 5.46.56. 7.5 8Fri........ 5.24.816.28. I Mon..... 5.6.96. 4o.9 9 Thur... 5.45.66.7.7 9Sat........ 5.24.316.28.5 9Tues... 5.6.96.4.2 Fri...... 5.44.7!6.I7.9 IOSUN...... 5.23.76.28.9 ed.....5.7.6.4.6 IISat.....5.43.916. 8.3 IMon...... 15.23.36.29.4i IITurs.... 5. I7. I6.4I.9 I2iSUN.... 5.43.I 6.I8.7 i2iTucs....... 15.22.86.29.9 12 Fri......t5.17.216.42.2 13 Mon..... 5.42.3 6.19.1 I13 Wed... 5.22.46.3o.3||i3Sa.t.... 5.I7.3'6.42.5 4lTues..... 5.4I.56. I9.5 I4Thurs...... 5.2I.9 6.3o.7114 SUN.... 5. I7.5-6.42.8 5IWTed.... 5.40.756. 9. cSll5Fri....... * j5.21.5 6.31.i I5Mon..... 5.17.7 6.43.I biThurs.... 5.40.o 06.20.2!1I6 Sat........ 6 31 51i6:Tues..l. 5.I7.96.43.4 (7 Fri.. 5.39.2 6.2o.516I7iSUN.... 15.2o.86.31.9 l171Wed.... ]5. 8.o6.43.7 1iSat...... 6 53 8 6.20.....5.20.46.32.3 i8Thurs... 5.I8.1 6.43.9 SUN.... 5.37.4 6.2I.xI9 s....... 5.20.6.32.8 19TiFri......5.18.26.4.2 2o0Mon..... 5.36.5 6.21.2 {20 Wed....... 5.I9.7 6.33.2 2o!Sat..... 15.8.46.44.4 21ITues..... 5.35.8:6.21.5 2IThurs....5.194 633.- 2iSUN..... I5. 8.6!6.44.7 22'Wedri........ 5.35.I9 6.i34.. 22Fri.n....I9.. 5.178.8;6.44.38 23 Thurs....5.34.2 6.22.2 23lSat....... I8.8 6.34.5 I 23Tues..... 5. 19.016.44.9 24Fri...... 533.26.22.6124SUN. 5.8.56 349,124(SUN....5.. 58. 36. 645. 25.Sat...... 5.32.8 6.23.0,25iMon....... 5. I8.3 6.35.4! 25lThurs.... 5.19.6(6.45.2 26 UN....5.32.1 6.23.4 26Tues...... 5.I8.I6.35.8 26ri..... 5. I9.9'6.45.3 27,Mon... 15.31.4 6.23.8 27Wed......5.7.9 6362 27 Sat...... 5.2.22 6.45.4 28|Tues... 5.30.716.24.21 28 Thurs...... 5.7.7. 6... 5.20.56.45.5 29 Wed...... 55.20. 6.245.6129...... 51.37.0 294Mon..5.2. 86.45.6 3oThurs.... 5.29.416.24.9! 30 S.... 5.7.46.37.5 13oTues....5.2.6.45. 3ISUN. * 6......- 7-3.6.37.9 I _ _IIn the latter part of the ' fifties" various arts of the islands raised considerable wheat-principally at Makawao, East Maui —and Honolulu and Wailuku both rejoiced in mills of their own, supplying an excellent quality of flour for local consumption, and having a small surplus for export. Our imports of this commodity for 1883 was. 29,883 barrels, valued at $I62,049. 14, while bran, middlings and wheat amounted to over $4~,ooo more. The value of hay imported the same year was $60,888.94.

Page  8 8 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Census of the Hawaiian Islands, taken December 27, 1878. BY DISTRICTS AND ISLANDS. HAWAII, MOLOKAI...................................2,58I H ilo................................. 4,231 LANAI.................................... 214 I 0.......4, LI..2.. Puna...............................1,043 NIIHA.............................. 77 Kau................................2,210 OAHU. Kona, North....................... 967 Honolulu........................... 4,114 Kona, South....................... 1,761 Ewa and Waianae..................,699 Kohala, North............... 3,299 Waialua.......................... 639 Kohala, South...................... 718 Koolauloa.......................... 1,082 Hamakua......................,805 I(oolaupoko....................... 2,402 - I7,o34j - -20,236 MAUI. KAUAI. Lahaina.................. 2,448 Waimea............................, 197 Wailuku.............................4,86 Koloa...............................,o8 Hana......................... 2,067 Puna...............................,832 Makawao............................3,408 Koo au and Hanalei.................. 1,597 -— 12,I09 5,634 BY NATIONALITY. Natives................................. 44,088 Brltons.................................... 883 H alf-castes................................3,420 Poruguese.......................... 436 Chinese...................................5,916 Germans.........................:........ 272 Americans.................................1,276 French.................................... 81 Hiawaiian-born of foreign parents........... 947 Other foreigners............ 666 Total Population, I878...........57,985 Population ot the Principal Townships of the Hawaiian Islands, Compiled from the latest Census, 1878. NATION AIIES. HONOLULU, WAILUKU, LAHAINA, HILO, WAIMEA, NATIONALITIFOAII. MO _ AUI. MAUI. HAWAII. KADUAI. Natives........................ 9,272 3,307 1,967 2,951 I,o0o Half-castes...................... 1,311 41 158 223 20 Foreigners other than Chinese... 2,232 239 113 244 24 Chinese......................... 1,299 329 210 813 63 Totals.................... 14,I14 4,I86 2,448 4,231 1,197 Estimated Population, Hawaiian Islands, 1884. Natives. Chinese. I Portug Other Natives. Chinese. Portug'se For'ners. 'l'otals..~~~~~~,. __ __ - _- ~ __ Census of I878...................... 47,508, 5,916 436 4,125 57,985 Passenger arrivals, excess over departures, I879.. 531 3,475 420 1,819 6,245 I 1880.. 802 1,877 328 650 3,657 " " ' I1881... 198 2,940 842 322 4,302... x1882........ 286 2,368 229 2,877.r l...1883..3..... 87 3,80 464 7,452 49,039 7,681 8,195 7,603 82,518 Excess of deaths over births since January I, 1879.............................. 1,974 Estimated population, January I, 1884.......................................80,544 Births and Deaths in the Hawaiian Kingdom from January x, I879, to December 31, 1883. Births in I879....................2,331 Deaths in I879.............................3,292 " x88oand 8.88 and 1881.....................780and 88........5,262 1882 and 1883,...................3,188 I882 and 1883...................3,648 Total number of births..............10,228 Total number of deaths............. 2,202 A new official census of the islands, will be taken December 26, 1884.

Page  9 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 9 THIRD QUARTER, I885. JULY. AUGUST. SEPTEMBER. 11. H. M,. H.M. D H. M. 5 Last Quarter.... 11.55.0 A. M. 3 Last Quarter... 11.24.3 A. M. Last Quarter.. 6.43.4 P. i., il New loon...... 6.44.4. M. New Moon..... 1.42.5 A. M. 8 New Moon...10.12.0 A. M. i8 First Quarter.... 1.48.4 p. sM. 17 First Quarter... 3.15.4 A. M. 15 First Quarter. 7.43.4 A. M. 26 Full Moon...... 3.51.4 P. M 25 Full Moon..... 6.4. A. M. 23 Full Moon.. 9.23.3 P. M. 1? I?y, t {R? i? % c? 1. _ I, I__ I liWed...8 I.Sat... 333 I 3 Tue....43. 6.15.5 48..5 6383 ITues 5.43.51 — 2!Thurs.... 5.217645.8 2SUN,.... 533.716.37.8 2 Wed.... 54386.4.6 3;Fri....j5.22.116.45.8 3Mpn...... 5.34, 16.37.2 3Thurs.. 544.0o6. 3.7 4;Sat..... 522.46.45.8 4Tues.. 534.56.36.7 4!Fri.... 544.26.12.8 5 SUN... 15.22.86.45.8 5 Wed..... 5.34.86.36.2 5lSat...... 1544.4 6.1 I.9 6Mon..... 15.23.1 6.457 6 Thurs.. 5.35.2 6.35.6 6 SUN.... 5.44.616.11.o 7Tues..... 2356.45.71 7 Fri.... 5.35.616.35.0 7 Mon... 5.44.816. Io. 8iWed....... 5.23.8 6.45.61 8 Sat.......4 8 Tes.. 545.1 6.09.2 9lThurs..... 524.2 6.45.6 9 SUN. 5.36.46.33-7 9 Wed... 5.45-416.08.2 olFri -...... 5.24.616.45.51 10 Mon... 5.36.7 6-33. I0IThurs.. 5.45.816.07.2 rIlSat.....5.25.0-6.45.41 II Tues...5.. 37.16. 32.4 I IFri... 5.46.,i6.o6.3 12 SUN...... 5.25.46.45.2I 12 Wed.. 5.37.56.31.7 12 Sat...... 5.4646.05.4 31Mon...... 5.25.86.45.01 13 Thurs.. 5.37.8 6.31.0 13 SUN.... 5.46.6 6.04.4 I4Tues...... 5.26.26.44.8 14 Fri.. -5.38. 16.30.3 114 Mon.... 5.46.86.034 15Wed...... 5.26.616.44.7 t5Sat....... 5.38.46.29.65 Tues.... 5.47.06.02.4 i6,Thurs..... 5.27.0o6.44.4 6 SUN.....538.716.28.9 i6 Wed.. 5.47.2 6.0I.5 7'Fri....... 15.27.46.44.2 7Mon...... 5 390 6.28. I17 Thurs... 5.47.46.005 I8 Sat.. -5 27.8 6.43.9 i81Tues.....5.839.316.27.4 i8 Fri... 547.7|5 59.6 19 SUN 528.26437 Wed...... 5.39.76.26.6 19Sat... 5.48. 558.6 2 Mon.......5.28.646.43 5 2Thurs 5.4 6.25.8 2...... 5.48.35.57.7 2ITues...... 15.29.0o6.43. I 2l Fri....... 5.40.3!6.25.0 21 Mon 5.48.5 5.56.7 22Wed...... 5.296.46.42.6 22 Sat... 540. 6624.2 22 Tues.... 5.48.8 5.55.8 23iThurs..... 5 29.86.42.2 23SUN..... 540.916.23.4 23Wed.. 5.49.0 5.54.8 24 Fri........5.30.2 6.419 24 Mon.. 54.216.22.6 24 Thurs... 5.49.3 5539 25 Sat..... 530.6|6.4.7 25 Tues..... 5.41.516.21.7 I25 Fri 5.49.65.52.9 26 SUN 5.31.0 6.41.2 261 Wed. 5.4I.8 6.20.8126 Sat... 5.49.9 5.52.0 27 Mon...... 5.31 4 6.40.7 27IThurs..... 5.42.16.199 27SUN... 5.50.2 5.-511 28 Tues.. 5.31.8 6.40.2 28 Fri....... 5.42.416.19.o 28Mo.n. 550.5 550.2 29 Wed...... 5.32.2 6.39.9 29 Sat....... 542.76. I8. I29Tues.. 5.50.815.49.2 30 Thurs. 5.32.56.38.5 1 30SN... 5.42.96.1 7.3 30Wed.. 5.51.05.48.2 -51 38-5 5.42.9 6.1723.43/Wed. 3Fri........ 5.32.38.9 31 Mon...... 5.43.26. 6.41 I In just ten years the taste for the interior decoration of dwellings at these Islands have advanced from $I,063.80 to $5,513.78 in the value of imports of paper hangings alone, while carpets, rugs, curtains and shades, and paintings and engravings, for I873, showed an import value of $886.76; the valuation of the same class ot commodities imported in 1883 was $17,659.54. The outward adornment of cottages and residences during the same period is quite as marked, the variety in the style of architecture being also quite noticeable.

Page  10 IO HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. INTER-ISLAND DISTANCES BY SEA, IN SEA MILES. AROUND OAHU. FROMI HONOLULU, ESPLANADE WHARF, TO: Mliles. Miles. Bell Buoy................................ K ahuk.................................... Diamond H ead........................... 5 Pearl Rivet Bar............................ 6 Koko Head.............................. 2 Barber's Point.............................. 14 Makapuu Point..........................7 Kaena Point, N. W. of Oahu.............. 34 Mokapu.................................. 29 Kahuku, N. pt. of Oahu, via Kaena......... 54 HONOLUI Miles. 1 Lae o ka Lua, S. W. pt. of Molokai.......... 35 West point of Lanai...................... 50 Kalaupapa Leper Settlement................ 50 Lahaina............................. 72 Lahului.... 90 Hana.................................I.25 M aalaea.......................... 85 M akena.................................... go M ahdkona................................. 34 Miles. Kawaihae.......................... 44 Kealakekua direct......................... 157 Kealakekua via Kawaihae.................. i86 S. W. point Hawaii via Kawaihae...........233 Punaluu......................:... 250 H ilo direct.........1............92 H ilo windward.............................207 H ilo........................................2 HONOLULU TO: Miles. Miles. Koloa, Kauai.................. Waimea................................120 Nawiliwili..................................98 Makena.........2........................12 Niihau................... 144 4 LAHAINA TO: Miles. Miles. Kaluaaha.................................. 7 Maalaea.................. I2 Lanai.............g...... 9 Makena.........8 KAWAIHAE TO: '* Miles. Miles M ahukona....................... H ilo.......................................85 W aipio.................................... 40 Lae o ka M ano............................ 20 Honokaa..................... 50 Kailua..................................... 34 Laupahoehoe................... 65 Kealakekua............................... 44 HILO TO: Miles. M' iles. East point of Hawaii........................ 20 Punaluu.................................... 70 Keauhou, Kau............................. 50 Kaalualu.............................. 80 North point of Hawaii...................... 70 South point of Hawaii.................... 85 WIDTH OF CHANNELS-EXTREME POINT TO POINT. Miles. Miles. Oahu and Molokai.......................... 23 Maui and Kahoolawe...................... 6 Diamond Head to S. W. point Molokai......*30 Hawaii and Maui........................... 26 Molokai and Lanai.......................... 7 Kauai and Oahu........................... 6i Molokai and Maui.......................... 9 Niihau and Kauai.............. i Maui and Lanai............................ 9 OCEAN DISTANCES-HONOLULU TO: Miles Miles. San Francisco.......................... 2,xoo Auckland.................................3,810 Portland......................... 4,620 Sydney...................................4,484 Panam a..................................2,46 H ongkong...............................4,803 Tahiti..................................2,380 Yokohama................................3,440 AREA, ELEVATION, AND POPULATION QF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 'Areas in stat. sq. miles. Acres. Height in feet. Poiulation, I878. Hawaii................ 4,210 2,500,000 I3,805 17,034 Maui.............. 760 400,000 10,032 12,I09 Oahu.............. 600 360,000 4,060 20,236 Kauai................. 590 350,000 4,800 5,634 Molokai................ 270 200,000 3,500 2,581 Lanai...... 150 too,ooo 3,000 214 Niihau................. 97 70,000 800 177 Kahoolawe............. 63 30,00oo,450

Page  11 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL.T T r FOURTH QUARTER, 1885. OCTOBER. NOVEMBER. DECEMBER. D. HM. b... M D. H. M. i Last Quarter.... 0.58.0 A.M. 6 New Moon..... O.31.3 A.M. 6 New Moon....... 2.45.2 A.M. 7 New Moon..... 9.00.0 P.M. I4 First Quarter...1.28.2 A.M. I4 First Quarter..... 7.50.4 A.IM. 15 First Quarter... 2.49.2 P.M. 2I Full Moon.....ii. 8. 8...M. 22 Full Moon.......I0.27.2 A.M. 23 Full Moon...... 10.51.2 A.M. 28 Last Quarter... 3.25.7. P.M. 28 Last Quarter..... 1.50.3 A.M. 30 Last Quarter.... 7.26.4 A.M. ~! X I: i!~ i * a:~ I~:~:::: 1: 1::: 1.. I. _j _I __ I_ I 8. I I- - IL M. HH. M. H.M. I H.M. H.M. iiThurs..5 5i 3 5 47 3 1 SUN... 6 03 45 23 9 i Tues.... 6 21 55 17 3 21Fri.. 5 51 6 5 46 4 2 Mon.... 6 03 95 23 4 2~Wed... 6 22 2J5 17 4 3Sat. 5 5 5 9 5 455 3 Tues... 6 04 415 22 9 3 Thurs...9 22 8|5 17 6 4OSUN... 552 25 44.... 16 04 915 22 4 4Fri.. 6 23 55 8 5lMon.......5 52 55 43 7 5Thurs.. 6 05 55 21 9 5 Sat......6 24 25 8 o 6|Tues.. 5 52 85 42 8 6 Fri... 6 06 ol5 21 4 6 SUN... 6 24 8 5 i8 2 7lWed.. t6 o6 6.5 21 0 7Mon....6 25 415 i8 5 8,Thurs... 5 58 5 35 41 o 8 SUN. 6 07 115 20 6 8 Tues.... 6 26 I5 8 8 9Fri. 5... 85 40 2 9 Mon....6 07 795 20 2 9Wed..... 6 26 715 19 O io:Sat..... 15 54 5 39 3 ioTues... 6 08 3 5 I9 81 iu3Thurs.. '6 27 415 19 3 4IISUN. 5 54 45 38 5 1I Wed... 6 09 o5 9 51 iiiFri..... 6 28 055 19 6 12 Mon... 54 855 37 7 12Thurs.:. 6 09 715 19 21 I2 Sat...... 6 28 615 19 9 i3|Tues... 5 5215 36 9 13 Fri..... |6 10 4 5 I8 9 13SUN....6 29 25 20 3 I4 Wed.. 555 I 3 6 I i4 Sat..... 6 6 M..... 6 29 85 20 7 i5iThurs... 5 55 9 5 35 2 15 SUN... 6 II 8 5 i8 3 85Tues.... 6 30 415 21 16Fi.. 5 56 215 34 40 61Mon.....6 12 4l5 8 o1 I6lWed..... 6 30 915 21 4 i7'Sat.....5 56 65 33 7 I7 Tues... 6 12 95 I77 7 I7Thurs..6 31 4 5 21 8 I8SUN.6 57 1 5 32 9 I8|Wed.1..6 13 4 5 I7 5 i8|Fri..... 6 31 915 22 2 19 Mon....5 57 4 5 32 1 i9 Thurs.. 16 3 9 5 I7 3i9at...... 6 32 45 22 7 20oTues... 5 20.. 6 14 5 5 87 o 32OSUN.... 7 32 915 23 3 21 Wed.... 5 58 25 30 7 21 Sat.....6 15 5 5 7 21Mon..... 6 33 415 23 8 22Thurs...5 58 75 30 0122 SUN.. 6 15 75 7 7 0 22Tues.... 6 33 915 24 3 23 Fri..... 5 59 I 5 29 3 23 Mon.... 6 i6 4 5 17 0 23 Wed.... 6 34 415 24 8 247Sat..... 5 65 615 28 624 Tues.. 16 17 05 17 o 24IThurs...6 34 9 5 25 3 251SUN... 6 00o 05 27 9 I25Wed... 6 17 75 17 o1 25|Fri...... 6 35 95 25 9 26Mon...6 00 45 27 326 Thurs.6 i8 3 5 17 i 26Sat...... 6 35 9]5 26 5 27Tues.. |6 00 9 5 26 71 27 Fri..... 6 i8 95 17 127 SUN.... 16 39 395 27 I 28Wed... 6 01 45 26 I 128Sat..... 16 I9 65 17 I 28 Mon...... 6 36 715 27 7 29Thurs. 16 o 95 25 25 51291SUN...16 20 2 5 I7 2 29 Tues.... 6 37 o05 28 3 30 Fri. 6 02 45 24 9 30Mon.... 6 20 95 7 2 30Wed.....637 45289 3I2Sat..... 6 I02 5 I24 Thurs... 6 37 8 5 29 5 Last year's Annual showed that the consumption of writing and printing paper at these islands had reached over. $12,000 per annutn. We now find that our imports of wrapping paper alone, last year; amounted to $6,73I.44. Surely with this annual consumption of paper there might be some steps taken toward establishing a paper inill here. There is, comparatively speaking, no limit to several articles available for paper stock that might be had for the gathering in various parts of the islands.

Page  12 12 F HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNtTAL OVERLAND DISTANCES. ISLAND OF HAWAII. PREPARED BY J. M. LYDGATE. THROUGH PUNA, FROM THE HIIO COURT HOUSE. HILO TO: HILO TO: lile s. IAIiles, Keaau.................................... 9/ Opihikao.................................29J Makuu.................................. 5 Kaimu................................ 37 Sand Hills Nanawale........Kalapana...... Ka................. 38 Puula.....................................2 Panau............................. 45 Kapoho f.............................. 23 Volcano House...................6i Pohoiki-Rycroft's.................. 20o TO VOLCANO, HILO TO: HILO TO: Miles. Miles. Edge of Woods............................ 4 Kanekoa upper Half-way Houses...........6 Cocoanut Grove.......................... 7 Upper W oods......................... 24 Through Ki Swamp........................ 9 Volcano House..................... 3 Hawelu's Half-way House................. 14 THROUGH HILO DISTRICT. HILO TO: HILO TO: Miles. 1iles. Honolii Bridge............ 2.5 Honohina Church.............8.......... 78 Paukaa Mill................ 2.9 Waikaumalo Bridge........................ 8 Papaikou-Office........................... 4.7 Pohakupuka Bridge........................2. Onomea Church.......................... 6.9 Maulua Gulch......................... 22.0 Kaupakuea Cross Road.................... 7 Kaiwilahilahi Bridge......................24.6 Kolekole Bridge..................... 3 idgate's House.................. 26. Kolekole Bridge..14.3 Lidgate's House..26.1 Hakalau, east edge gulch............... Laupahoehoe Church.......................26.7 Umauma Bridge...........................6.0 I THROUGH HAMAKUA. LAUPAHOEHOE CHURCH TO: Miles. Hind's.......7 Bottom Kawalii Gulch.................... 2.0 Ookala, Manager's House.................. 4.o Soper's.................... 4.9 Kealakaha Gulch................... 6.o Kaala Church........................... 6.8 Kukaiau Gulch..................... 8.o H om er's.............................. 8.5 Catholic Church, Kainehe.................. 9.0 Notley's, Paauilo.......................... 5 Kaumoali Bridge...... 12.5 Bottom Kalopa Gulch...................... 14.0 R. A. Lyman's, Paauhau...................5.2 Paauhau Church.................... I6.3 LAUPAHOEHOR CHURCH TO: Milev. Mill's Store, Honokaa................. 8.o Hocokaia Church..........................20.5 Kuaikalua Gulch.........................22 0 Kapulena Church........... 23.0 Waipanihua..............................24.3 Bicknell's................. 25.8 Stream at Kukuihaele.................. 26.0 Edge Waipio................ 26.5 Bottom Waipio...................27.0 Walmanu (approximate)...3.........2. 5 Kukuihaele to Waimea (approximate).......o.5 Gov't Road to Hamakua Mill............... 1.0 " " "' Paauhau Mill................ I 0 " Pacific Sugar Mill, Kukuihaele. 7 THROUGH KOHALA. Kawaihae to Waimea......................o Kawaihae to Hind's, Kohala (approx).....14.0 i' "Puako...................s..... 5. Waimea to Kohala Plantation (approx)..... 25.0 FOREIGN CHURCH, KOHALA, TO: FOREIGN CHURCH, KOHALA, TO: Edge of Pololu Gulch.....................4.00 Star Mill.................5 Niulii Mill................................80 Star Mill R. R. Station......... 2.50 Dr. Wight's Store, Halawa.................I I.5 Union Mill..................... 2.25 Halawa Mill........................... 65 Union Mill R. R. Station................. 3.25 Hapuu Landing........2.15 Honomakau............................ 2.50 Dr. Thompson's.......................175 Hind's, Hawaii........................... 3.25 Dramatic Hall, Kaiopihi................ 40 Hawi R. R. Station.................... 4.25 Kohala Mill......................... 50 Honoipu....................... 7.25 Kohala Mill Landing............... 1.50 Mahukona..............................50 Native Church...........oo Puuhue Ranch........................ 7.25

Page  13 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. * 13 OVERLAND DISTANCES. ISLAND OF OAHU. HON()0.l[.lU P~);T-~lFFT(-9. TO ' HONOISOLU.It FOST-OFFICE. TO: Miles. Mile, W aikiki Grove........................... 3 W aim analo............................. 12 I)iamond Head..................... 4 Kaneohe Plantation...................... 92 Coco Head.............................. xi Kaalaea Plantation...................... 15 Ewa Church............................. 1 K ualoa Ranch........................... 19 Waialua Church......................... I8 Punaluu Rice Plantation................. 26 Waianae Church, Pokai. 3.......L.... 30 Laie Settlement......................... 32 Nuuanu Pal........................... 6 Kahuku................................. 38 ISLAND OF KAUAI. W aialua Falls........................... Koloa............................. Kealia................................. Kilauea................................. Hanalei.............................. les. AIiles. 5 H anapepe................................. 7 10 W aimea................................ 5 14 22 Waimea to Mana Point.................... 10 30 Nawiliwili to Mana Point.............. 35 ISLAND OF MAUl. LAHAINA TO: Mli Kaanapali................................ Wailuku.................................. KAHULUI TO Wailuku P. 0O................. Makawao........................ Hana, through Hamakua.................. WAILUKU TO: Kalepolepo.......................... Makee's Plantation................... Makawao........................ KALEPOLEPO TO: iles. Miles. 4 M akee's............O.............. 10 20 M akawao.............................. 13% HAIKU LANDING TO: 3 M akawao............................. 7 II MAKAWAO, SAVRE S STORE, TO: 45 Summit of Haleakala.................... 13 MAKENA TO: 10 M akee's Plantation...................... 3 20 UTLUPALAKUA TO: 14 Hana, via Kaupo........................ 45 POST OFFICE STATISTICS. Letters Passing Through the General Post Office, Honolulu, from 1864 to 1884. YEAR. FORE Letters From April i to March 37. Received. I864 to 1865........ 15,594 1865 to I866....... 21,642 i866 to 1867... 23,282 I867 to I868....... 25,873 I868 to I869........ 27,543 1869 to 1870.......- 27,433 1870 to I871 **... 29,147 1871 to 1872......... 24,655 I872 to 1873........ 27,717 1873 to I874....... 38,313 1874 to I875....... 35,545 1875 to I876.....3 38, 66 I876 to 1877....... 36,349 I877 to 1878........ 42,409 1878 to 1879....... 57,907 1879 to 1880....... 72,953 188o to 1881....... 85,649 188I to 1882....... 102,559 1882 to I883....... 114,056 1883 to I884....... 121,391 INTER-ISLAND LETTERS. I IGNERS. HAWAIIANS. Letters Letters Letters Forwarded Received. Forwarded ____ - F orwarde__ d_ 13,652 I4,886 16,607 19,013 19,547; I9,806 19,118 23,333 24,199 25,007 23,488 23,564 29,558 37,094 47,957 63,936 76,255 106,374 I30,992 238,080 7,650 14,379 30,082 23,733 25,920 25,233 28,596 26,364 45,816 39,232 35,630 32,250 33,472 43,605 46,496 55,170 64,487 75,113 72,971 9,570 16,078 22,821 25,535 25,986 24,499 28,091 35,715 41,340 44,233 39,027 44,233 49,977 52, 18 67,153 69,489 83,757 85,858 100,936 108,736 FOREIGN LETTERS. Letters Letters Received. Forwarded 25,811 24,994 26,772 23,713 25,020 25,895 26,679 25,481 26,112 28,737 31,742 31,650 33,244 35,780 42,465 44,505 45,682 43,372 50,352 57,209 70,682 69,375 77,461 83,724 95,765 101,644 117,901 130,292

Page  14 Comparative Table of Import Values at the Hawaiian Islands, from various Countries since I87.,CoUnCTRtS. S I OR 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878. 1879. x880. 881. 1882. 1883. IMPORTS. - -.,. _,._.,.. United States..... Great Britain.... Germany..... Tahiti............ British Columbia.. Australia and N.Z. China.... France.......... All other coutries. (Dutiable. Bonded. Free. Dutiable. Bonded. J Dutiable. Bonded. j Dutiable. 1 Bonded. j Dutiable. ' Bonded. j Dutiable. ( Bonded. { Dutiable. t Bonded. Dutiable. Bonded. JDutiable ' Bonded. $837,215 42 110,045 02............. 132,538 41 48,34 09 15,136 16 27,892 50 2,389 88 6I8 73...................... ' 21,353 19 17,299 07 35,915 65 659 oo.............. 2,505 83 96,071 52 $688,733 II 82,673 9I 343,830 95 60,55o 47 22,800 13 I99,X84 96 15,389 27 401 6i I,779 14 14,926 34 86i 64 37,930 56 5,589 6z 48,347 53 2,969 25 $583,119 o2 81,402 93 1,100,642 52 249,880 87 41,825 28 193,324 38 8,824 96 157 50 112 00 4,872 0o 54,046 66 22,591 75 30,772 98 1,346 55 $322,240 17 111,498 79 1,619,987 61 514,404 34 34,711 30 99,442 20 20,304 25,o053 47.............. 29,838 80.............. 42,081 27 10,595 32 57,946 80 25,846 3I 19,078 8x 1,566 85 23,102 59 $395,690 o8 78,206 68 1,820.355 33 798,261 I7 43,683 98 185,867 69 4,876 06 869 56 11,102 20 65,922 73 11,428 31 86,443 43 39,459 97 26,256 94 7,597 11 3,502 30 1,897 87 $506,812 90 138,453 13 2,626,557 90 577,06 124 45,005 73 44,777 17 3,911 82.......................................... 51,725 46 9,868 04 86,690 46 34,528 80 15,112 8I 1,712 34 18,341 66 1,093 69 $476,275 8i 118,177 94 2,646,577 12 726,63X 23 145,223 52 0o5'268 94 28,444 29.............. 28 37 44,163 32 6,365 46 58,753 79 18,329 00 i8,0o8 71 6,I79 4x 2,593 56 I,6o6 6o $629,604 77 140,352 82 2,788,974 63 730,389 z6 68,374 30 166,357 52 x8,832 05........................... 300.04 99 3,204 05 112,527 95 26,309 52 15,789 o6 2,423 24 1,727 26 510 56 $722,828 81 X56,24a 28 3,169,415 70 822,00oo o I 7,293 73 191,793 03 24,538 85 12,567 76 32,266 93 5,945 50 50,396 77 19,696 64 23,603 34 7,331 oI 8o8 05 230 oo t, X ' >. rZ t.I.' 0"......................ooo............ 503 87 897 95 31,540 77 54,321 83 Nationality of Vessels Employed in the Foreign Carrying Trade of the Hawaiian Islands, 2875 —883.Nation. 87 ^876. 11877. 1878. 1879. 188o. 1881. 88. 1883. No. Tons. I No. Tons. No. No. Tons.No. Tons. Nc. I Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. American.............,.... 74 4,350 90 75,639 I17 8x,47 56 xo02,62 177 99,102 179 99,6I4 18i 102,308 I79 103,591 I951 27,952 Hawaiian............ x6 4,9 x8 5,981 31 - 9,496 27 8,02 22 5,950 8 5,373 20 5,765 19 5,623 23 7,867 British...... 35 44,425 22 22,748 22 26,292 s 40 34,836 28 37,363 26 3I,20I 32 35,302 44 56,25 42 53,310 FC h 3.1.................... I 3 3,499 2 797 3 2,408 8 6,x36 3 2,138. 7,709 II 5,726 6 4,882 Feach..............-.3 I,586 3 986 4 2,558 3 98 55 244....... x 5 24 All others.........4........ 14 48 S,253 6 x,9X 12 33,5' 13 2,0441 33 3,590 14 7,731 4 1,430 I 1,305 Totals.................... 32 93,110 41 I 8,706 9801 0,907232! 63,640! 251 576 239 1 496 258 159,341 258 72,69 267185,316 Z SZ c: r

Page  15 Com-aratiwve VIew o f the Commerce of the Hawaiian Islands from 84& giving the Totals for Eath Year. - Year. 1845 846 I847!848 * 1849 t85o r85 2852 1853 z 1854 x; 1855 1857 Q 858 Z 1859 1x860 U. I86z < 1862 Z 1863 ~ 1864 z 1865 866 < 867 < 1869 - 1870 i871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 DomesticImports. Exports. Prod. Exported. $546,981 $269,710 $202,700 598,382 682,850 620,525 710,138 264,226 209,018 605,6I8 300,370 266,819 729,739 383,185 185,083 1,035,058 783,052 536,522 1,823,821 691,231 309,828 759,868 638,393 257,251 1,401,975 472,996 281,599 1,590,837 585,122 274,029 1,383,I69 572,601 274,741 1,151,422 670,826 466,278 I, 13, 65 645,524 423,308 I,089,660 787,082 529,966 1,555,558 931,329 628,575 1,223,749 807,459 480,526 761,1og 659,774 476,872 998,239 838,424 586,541 I,175,493 1,025,852 744,413 1,712,241 x,662,181 i1,13,328 2,946,265 x,808,257 1,52I,211x 1,993,821 1,934,576 1,205,82I 1,957,410 x,679,661 1,324,122 1,935,790 1,898,215 1,450,269 2,o40,068 2,336,358 2,743,29I x,930,227 2,144,942 1,514,425 1,625,884 I,892,o69 1,733,094 x,746,178 1,607,521 1,402,685 x,437,6II 2,128,054 1,725,507 1,310,827 1,839,619 x,622,455 x,505,670 2,089,736,774,083 1,8Ix,770 2,24I,04 2,055,133 2,554,356 3,676,202 2,462,4x7 3,046,370 3,548,472 3,333,979 3,742,978 3,781,718 3,665,504 3,673,268 4,968,445 4,889, I94 4,547,979 6,855,436 6,789,o76 4,974,5o0 8,299,o07 8, 165,931T 5,624,240 8,133,344 8,036,227 Foreign Total Cus-TransipI Prod. tom House Galls. Exported. Receipts. Spm. Oil. $67,010 $25. 89.......... 62,325 36,506... 55,208 48,801 33,551 55,568.. X98,202 83,23.......... 246,529 121,5o6 38,4o 160o,602 104,362 381,142 113,001 73,490 I9I,397 155,650 75,396 311,092 52,125 56,484 297,859 I58,4rI 109,308 204,545 123,17X 121,294 222,222 140,777 176,306 257,115 x66,138 222,464 302,754 132,129 156,360 326,932 117,302 47,859 182,901 zooz,5 20,435 251,882 107,490 12,522 281,439 122,752 56,687 548,852 59,x6 1 33,860 287,045 r92,566 42,841 428,755 215,047 118,96x 355,539 220,599 103,215 447,946 210,076 -106,778 623,067 215,798 157,690 630,517 223,825 105,234 x58,974 221,332 63,310 204,836 228,375 50,887 402,547 198,655 56,687 217,164 183,857 23,187 254,353 2x3,447 37,812 x85,908 199,036.. 2x3,786 230,499.... 214,492 284,426....... 1x6,2I4 359,67...... 79,251 402,182.... 66,360 423,192..... 133,085 505,391.. 97,r I7 577,333.......... nent of Oil and Bone. Gall. lbs. e NatL Wh. Oil. Wh. Bone. o. 4-......... j.......... 909,379 1,182.738 3,787,348 1,683,922 1,436,80o I,641,579 2,018,027 2,551,382 1,668,175 782,086 795,988 460,407 675,344 608,502 578,593 1,250,9651 821,929 774,913 1,698,x89 1,443,809 283,055 32,974 573,697 403,876 312,305 I......... - - j.......... 901,604 3,159,951 2,020,264 1,479,678 872,954 1,074,942 1,295,525 x,614,710 x1. 47,120 571,966 527,910 193,920 337,043 339,33 337,3941 611,178 405,140 596,043 627,770 632,905 29,362 8x,998 122,554 174,111 104,715 Shipping. 14 17 4 7 I2 12 7 3 7 i6 13 9 10 20 5 xo 7 6 6 8 7 3 II 7 6 16 9 7 I2 13 22 Mer. Vessels. No. Tons. 41.......... 53.......... 67......... I80 469 90,304 446 87,920 235 6x,o65 21I 59,451 125 47,288 154 51,304 223 42,213 82 26,817 115 45,875 139 59,241 x1-7 41,226 93 45,952 113 48,687 88 42,930 157 75,893 15I 67,o68 150 60,628 134 60,268 113 54,833 127 75,656 159 91,248 171 105,993 I46 98,647 o9g 62,767 120 7I,266 I20 93,110 141 108,706 i68 I x6,621 232 163,640 251 151,576 239 141,9%16 258 1 159,34I 258 I72,6t9 267 1 85,316 Whl'rs. No. Hliaw. Regis' Spirits. tered VesselsGallons Consumedf No. Tons. I f - 2 x63 x67 1 67 254 274 237 220 519 535 525 468 366 387 526 549 325 I90 73 102 130 I80 229 243 '53 202 Ir8 47 47 63 43 41 37 33 27 25 x6 19 32 8 3,271 3,443 5,718 8,251 1x,270 314,148 18,203 z7,537 18,528 4,779 x6,144 I4,637 14,158 14,295 9,676 8,940 7,862 10,237 x1,745 12,833 15,119 x6,030 17,0o6 19,948 18,817 18,843 21,212 18,466 21,131 19,707 24,223 36,360 43, 66 44,289 46,085 50,064 61,272 28 1,578 67 2,x6o 78 2,873........ 80 3,539 75 4,460 69 4,432 56 3,827 54 627X 45 4,831 48 44.718 54 5,795 53 5249 65 6,366 68 6,935 53 5,848 58 6,645 44 5,497 56 7,895 65 1o, 70 74 11,664 77 11,456 63 9,793 6x 10,528 64 Io,855 57 8,068 54 6,407 58 8,56I 54 8,iox 51 7,376 45 6,753 54 8,994 55 7,949 63 010z23 63 0,I419 o 9,338 60 9,35 64 2x,589 x4 { I......... I.......... 7 I.......... l...... I 17.............. 6 """"": I3 NOTE.-Where blanks occur in the earlier years, there was either no record or the figures, when given were unreliable. The first transhipment of Oil and Bone was in z851, -so far as any record can be found for statistical purposes.

Page  16 i6 E HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, 1883. Imports Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. VALUE GOODS PAYING DUTY. Ale, Porter, Beer, Cider.............. $ 27,367 3 Animals and Birds.................... 1,I33 80 Building Materials.................... 57,017 o6 Clothing, Hats, Boots................ 272,516 87 Crockery, Glassware, Lamps and Lamp Fixtures.......................... 46,322 85 Drugs, Surgical Instruments and Dental Materials........................ 46,988 8i Cottons.................. 111591 95 Linens................... 9,894 00 D)ry Goods Silks.................... 51,400 89 Woolens................ 92,235 30 Mixtures............. 33,345 28 Fancy Goods, Millinery, etc........... 22,789 73 Fish (dried and salt).................. I7,408 44 Flour................................ 1,603 95 Fruits (fresh)......................... 363 02 Furniture............................. 53,490 65 Grain and Feed......................523 73 Groceries and Provisions.............. 06,485 66 Guns and Gun Materials.............. 7,927 03 Gun Powder.................:::::7,020 04 Hardware, Agricultural Implements and Tools.................. I 03,125 401 Iron and Steel, etc................... 40,028 71 Jewelry, Plate, Clocks................ 80,838 oI Leather............................. 398 77 Lumber............................. 782 20o Machinery........................... 88,00 8o M atches............................. 97 94 Musical Instruments................ 17,15 80 Naval Stores...................82.... 8,259 15 Oils, (cocoanut, kerosene, whale, etc)... I4,008 45 Paints and Paint Oils, and Turpentine.. 27,987 25 Perfumery and Toilet Articles......... 19,358 8i Railroad Materials, Rails, Cars, etc)...! 76,102 58 Saddlery, Carriages and Matelials..... 37,192 40 Shooks and Containers................ 80,191 70 Spirits............................. 3,767 45 Stationery and Books................. 5,469 82 Tea............................... 20,520 74 Tin and Tinware and Materials........ 10355 99 Tobaccos, Cigars, etc...... 9..... 92 73 W ines (light)......................... 624 44 Sundry, erchandise not included in the' above..................... 48,542 11 Charges on Invoices................. 56,964 65 5S% added on Uncertified Invoices. 3,o27 48 '$ 1,846,836 79 VALUE GOODS | FREE VALUE GOODS TOTAL. BY TREATY. IN BOND. $ 107,036 09 96,086 65 142,992 28 311 i6 153, 75 85 12,076 05?, 8o 57 7,295 52 79,221 68 166,046 71 8,952 I 56,388 86 190,295 96 416,605 66 4,796 26 243,642 TO 21,206 17 48,566 62 331,419 05 208,I00 60 7,296 79 71,965 64 107,799 29 3,905 45 2,649 55 1,862 3( 45,554 00 20,810 39 53,409 36 94,845 34 $ 40,816 02 11,746 35 '399 44 $ 68,183 37 1o8,569 89 I53,103 71 427,255 50 47,032 45 1,773 53 48,762 34 I7,647 30 282,415 10 498 51 20,392 51 94 77 51,495 66 5,I6o 70 109,472 05 2,603 29 38,129 14 1,626 41 I3I,7II 66 96,630 12 167,650 66 9,315 I3 929 30 iio,8o8 8i ' 90o,819 69 7,725 24 530,8i6 56 i,oi6 13 13,739 42 80 20 7,100 24 648 66 347,426 16 62,034 88 79 r4 80,917 I5 51,765 39 11,967 761 344,I69 oi 296,102 49 7,494 73 17,152 80 56 16, 80,280 95 2,730 ~00 124,537 74 31,892 70 196 431 22,204 79 77,964 88 6,981 421 89,727 82 21,781 241 122,783 33 123,727 16j 127,494 61 T,o86 8o 69,965 98 67 vO 20,587 94 Io,355 99 56,424 54 59,82 61 18,082 301 23,706 74 2,260 28' 103,871 63 6,468 66. 107,423 26 3,027 48 $ 344,674 94 $ 4,995,465 07 53,o6o 24 43,989 95 $ 2,803,953 34 Discounts.......................................................$ 69,940 23 Discounts."" ".........$....... ~~~ ~~~~~$ 69,940 23 Damaged and short.............................................. 9,69 75 IMPORTS AT OTHER PORTS, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. VALUE PAYING VALUE FRIEE BY i XJTY. TREAlTY'., VALUE2 IN BOND. DUTY. TREATY....... Kahului............ $ 57,359 25 $ 273,376 56 $ 297 oo Hilo................. 6,847 59 58,155 08 Mahukona............,899 42,673 79 Value of goods free, Hawaiian Island.s.................... 79,109 98 $ 4,916,355 09 440,604 32 $ 5,356,959 4r 267,280 68 $ 5,624,240 09

Page  17 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. I7 SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, 1883. Customs Receipts. Import Duties Spirits............. $255,293 4I Hospital Fund...................... t2 002 oj Import Duties Goods............... I78,089 95 Buoys...............................41 oo Import Duties Bonded Goods........ 49.7x6 4I Passports............................ 2,60o o Blanks.......................... 4,195 oo Fipes and Forfeitures................ 2,778 19 Fees............................ 4,316 27 - Wharfage.......................... 26,695 37 Honolulu......................... $568,870 42 Registry.......................... 957 50 K ahului............................ 0,o04 43 Warehouse Storage................. 246 83 Hilo........................ 882 oi Kerosene Storage...................,970 6i Mahukona........................ 223 93 Coasting License.............. 3,879 08 M. H. Fund.....................,o10 05 Total 1883.........-..... $577,332 87 Storage........................... 8,984 59 Total 1882....................... 505,390 98 Lights............................ 1,308 75 Interest........................ 4,756 41 Increase 1883..................$ 71,941 80 Value of Goods Paying Duty, Imported Value of Goods and Spirits Bonded from from United States, Pacific Ports.........$619,892 sr United States, Pacific Ports........ $129,653 o8 United States, Atlantic Ports........ 36,830 41 United States, Atlantic Ports........ 26,292 20 Great Britain....................... 823,00 or Great Britain....................... 117,293 73 Germany........................... 191,793 03 Germany.......................... 2,538 85 Australia and New Zealand........ 32,266 93 Australia and New Zealand......... 5,945 50 China............................. 50,3 6 77 China........................... 19,696 64 France........................... 23 603 34 France............................ 7,331 oT Islands in the Pacific............... 545 97 Islands in the Pacific........... 230 oo Micronesia Islands................. 262 o8 British Columbia................... 12,567 76 Total Honolulu.............. $1,777,592 05 Total at Honolulu............. $343,548 77 At Kahului...................... 57,359 15 At Hilo.......................... 6,847 59 At Kahului........................ 297 00 At Mahukona.....................,899 Total at all Ports...............$343,845 77 Total at all Ports............ $1,843,697 94 Value of Goods from the United States Free by "Treaty," United States, Pacific Ports at Hon- United States, Pacific Ports at Kaolulu...................... $2,352,959 5 hului............ 273,376 56 United States, Atlantic Ports at United States, Pacific Ports at Hilo 58,151 o8 Honolulu...................... 442,254 76 United States, Pacific Ports at Mahukona........................ 42 673 79 Total.....................$2,795,214 27 ' Tot l at all Ports......... $3, 69,415 70 Value of Goods Imported Free. Animals and Birds..................$ 3,92 51 Tanning Material.................. 722 44 Bags and Containers...............,oc, 65 Bone Meal and Fertilizer........ 45,767 67 Coal........................... 58,943 98 Hawaiian Government............ 78.910 42 Diplomatic Representatives......... 964 25 Foreign Navies................... 3,255 26 Total Honolulu............... $258,556 I8 His Majesty................. 21,609 82 Specie...................$ 651,738 73 Hawaiian Whalers and Traders.... 24 oo0 Coal at Kahului...................... 4,235 Personal & Household Effects, (in use) 17,851 27 Household & Personal Effects, etc., Iron, plate and pig................. 8,69 87 (old and in use)...................,689 50 Planits and Seeds................... 232 65 Coal at Hilo......................... 2,800 oo Returned Cargoes................. 1,570 88 Sheathing Metal................... 8,998 45 Total at all ports............... $267,280 68 Sundries, by permission............ 4,907 09 Resume, Imports Hawaiian Islands. Value of Goods free by Treaty.................................................... $3,169,4 5 70 Value of Goods Paying Duty...................................843,697 94 Value of Goods and Spirits Bonded.................................................. 343,845 75 Value of Goods and Spirits free.......2.................................. 267,28. 68 Total.................................................... $ 5,624,240 09

Page  18 *IHAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, z883. Domestic Exports. Sugar, tbs..........114,107,155 Goat Skins, pcs.........24,798 Molasses, galls....... 193,99~7 Hides, pcs.. 38,955 Paddy, Lbs........ 1,368.705 Tallow, tbs...........32,252 Rice, lbs...........1,619,000 Wool, lbs.............3i8,271 Coflee, tbs.........i6,o57 Betel Leaves, bxs........ 1,026 Fungus, lbs........ 3,783 Calf Skins;, pcs.......90. g Bananas, bnchs...... 4 4,902 Sheep Skins, pcs........6,583 Total valuation....... $7,924,727 I I. Total Value Domestic Produce Exported. Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Honolulu..........$6,938,923 74 Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Kahului...........853,843 34 Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Hilo............131,960 03 Furnished as Supplies to Merchantmen (as per estimate)........ 75,500 00 Furnished as Supplies to National Vessels (as per estimate)....... 36,000 00 Total...........................$8,036,227 1I Total of all Exports, Hawaiian Islands. Value of Domestic Goods Exported.................$7,924,727 II1 Value of Domestic Goods Furnished as supplies(estimated).......111,500 00 'Value of Foreign Goods Exported................. 97,1 i6 77 Total..........................$8,133,343 88 Table of Principal Domestic Exports, showing the country to which exported: Pacific IAustralia Islands in Ttl ports, U.S. and New China. IPacific. Ttl Zealand Sugar, lb. 14,103,650~ 1501 150~_ 3,105 x14,107,155 Molasses, gals193,827~..... 150 2193,977 Paddy, lb.I368l,705....................2,368,705 Rice, lb..1,569,8oo 10,000 500 38,7001 11,6i9,o00 Coffee, ls.15,857........ 200 x6,057 Fungus, lbs................... 1,250......2,533 3,783 Bananas, 44bnchs............ 44,902 Groat Skinis, pcs.................. 24,798............ 24,798 Hides, pc.38,955..... 38,955 Tallow, lbs.. ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~32,252.. 32,252 Wool, lb.36,21:6 2,055......... 318,271 Calf Skins, PCI.............. 190 Shee Skins, pcs................. 6,583......... 6,583 BeeLeaves, bx,06........ r:o61026 ARTICLES ADMITTED INTO THE UNI'I ED STATES FREE OF DUTY, UNDER THE REqIPROCITY TREATY, From the Hawaiian Islands, when Properly Certified to before the U. S. Consul, or Consular Agent at the Port of Shipment. Arrow-root; Bananas;, Castor Oil; Hides and Skins, undressed; Pulu; Rice;- Seeds, Plants Shrubs or Trees; Muscovad'o, Brown, and all other unrefined sugar, commonly known as "Sandwich Island Sugar;" Syrups of Sugar Cane, Melado and Molasses; Tallow, Vegetables, dried and undried, preserved and unpreserved. 1 For Full text of the Treaty of Reciprocity wvith the United States, see Annual for 1877. For li'st of articles admitted free under the Treaty from the Un~itedl States, see page 6.

Page  19 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. % 19 SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, 1883. Passenger Statistics. Arrivals and Departures, Port of Honolulu. CHINESE. t FROM TO FROM TO FROM AND TO > i~ t - I-I-I- - a s ~ I 5 I o I g i I ' ~ ' s *: r; r ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. San Francisco..................... 628 17I11462 204 1 3221 20 22 Oregon and Washington Territory... IO 381 4 1 Victoria, B. C..................... 2.. 6. China and Japan................... China and Japan.............. 3.. 5.. 2855 401 951 57 25 Australia and New Zealand......... 99 4 82 5... Islands in the Pacific............... 194 10 5701 99 2 Atlantic Ports..................... IO 2.... European Ports.................... 539 262.1. St. Michaels and Western Islands.... 2030 1771.. Asiatic Ports................ 81 Totals................... 4513 2231 2167 3124183 6 974 57 25 Total arrivals for the year..........................,987 Total departures for the year....................... 3,535 Excess of arrivals......................... 7,452 From Australia and New Zealand bound to San Francisco.......0...........13 From San Francisco bound to Australia and New Zealand.................... 822 From Victoria, B. C., bound to China..................................... 427 From China bound to Victoria, B. C.................................... 616 From San Francisco bound to China................................... 966 From Newcastle, N. S. W., bound to Eureka, Cal.......................... 3 AVERAGE MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, HONOLULU, FROM 1873 to x877, inclusive. 1873. 1874. 1875 1876. 17877. W H c3 W H 3 H wN H. O N H '- _..... g January...............30.o8 74Y 1.98 29.93 73 9.02 29.96 72 4.45 3o.o0 75 3.7330.02 7r 324 February............. 3007 732 5.15 29.88 73 9.751299173 2.92130.09176 4.7330.0872 2.90 March............... 9 8.89 29.97 75 4.40 30.02 75 3.86 29.86 75% 6.43 30.05 721 0.94 April................3008 76 r.25 30.02 74 3.24 30.02 74 4.22 30.1 175 3.58130.12 733/ 3.41 May............. 3005 79 0.27 30.04 77 175 3004 78 4.16 30.20 77 5.87 30.0 744 7.27 June............... 0. 305.o 80 1.27 29.96 78 i.6o 29.97 78% 2.44 30.13 78 1.07 30.13 76 r.14 July..3...... 30.05 8o 0.58 29.9580 1.25 29.9680 o 0.9530.17 79 1.42 3o.-3 76% 2.27 August........3.... 306 8I 0.07 29.95 80o 0.30 29.95 8 I 1.09 30.08 76% 2.58 30.11 76/I. 9 September............. 30.0o I 0.05 30. 0I 79 1.02 29.94 79 3.11 30.03 78 0. 51 30.10 76 2.64 October...............130.03 78 0.33 30.00 77 2.50 29.97 77 0.95 30.05 78 0.37 30.09 764 1.63 November.... 30.04 76 6.05 29.9 67 5.84 29.95 79 4..45 30.01 77 3.35 30.11 764 2.24 December............. 3 75 1.96 30.00 6 2 575 3000 74 4.46 30.06 75 2.92130.08 74 343 Tle Almanac and Annual is made up to November to be issued in time for the December mails. All articles, advertisements, and corrections intended therefor, should be reported to the publisher by the end of October. Address, THOS. G. THRUM, Publisher, Honolulu.

Page  20 20 H HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. COMPARATIVE TABLE OF LEADING IMPORTS OF HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, For Alternate Years from z875 to I883. 1875. 1877. 1879. i88i. 1883. p Ale, Porter, Beer, Cider......... Animals and Birds.............. Building Materials.............. Clothing, Hats, Boots........... Crockery, Glassware and Lamps.. Drugs and Medicines........... Dry Goods-Cottons............ Linens............. Silks............... Woolens........... Mixtures........... Fancy Goods, Millinery, etc..... Fish (dry and salt).............. Flour.......................... Fruits (fresh)................ Furniture..................... Furs and Ivory................. (rain and Feed................. Groceries and Provisions......... Guns and Gun Materials......... (;un Powder.................... Hardware,Agr. Implements, Tools Iron, Steel, etc.................. Jewelry, Plate, Clocks.......... Leather......................... Lumber........................ Machinery...................... Matches........................ Musical Instruments............ Naval Stores................... Oils (co'nut, kerosene, whale, etc.) Opium......................... Paint and Paint Oils............. Perfumery and Toilet Articles... Saddlery, Carriages, etc......... Shooks and Containers.......... Spirits...................... Stationery and Books.......... Tea Tea............................ Tin and Tinware............... Tobacco, Cigars, etc............ Whalebone...................... Wines (light).................... $ 32,826 59 434 00 31,016 91 I68,377 61 13,278 42 20,996 56 163,464 54 12,322 25 13,831 39 39,142 26 40,952 17 44,776 31 I4,781 74 55,930 57 2,232 00 19,082 52 15,540 95 12,732 23 103,328 02 5,625 II 1,180 41 77,519 38 18,075 88 15,856 16 8,549 33 78,652 19 23,605 12 1,089 40 4,764 53 30,625 88 47,I77 7I 22,516 26 I5,396 6i 8,020 34 21,515 96 40,544 97 49,446 3C 25,472 07 10,292 92 3,637 56 42,072 6 -41,095 o8 14,688 8c $ 27,317 17 11,796 19 59,535 02 294,097 I4 28,216 20 23,560 68 193,776 20 25,208 46 14,255 51 69,182 68 46,316 73 65,580 47 26,594 82 77,326 21 2,359 23 46,058 0o I,902 40 22,266 95 160,028 78 10,456 66 4,717 84 159,059 27 45,694 46 58,014 56 17,597 87 136,940 o6 146,522 47 16,626 70 I2,152 58 50,483 32 49,201 86 20,830 74 20,354 97 62,315 55 37,504 00 49,094 62 37,929 49 9,169 02 4,481 77 61,496 02 54,533 12 11,741 93 $ 43,255 64 78,571 7I 89,5I2 I2 251,584 86 31,107 42 29,750 69 I79,927 43 13,048 62 33,764 26 82,213 46 37,642 97 68.444 11 66,978 33 81,820 38 4,982 oc 65,0o6 95 3,222 8c 55,402 1I 334,409 99 I2,425 76 4,650 4I 204,492 8c 61,709 9E 86,147 IC 23,542 6c 189,887 79 543,045 I2 4,049 47 10,033 17 47,4Io 25 64,815 05 23,360 47 io,8oi 78 78,706 53 45,585 39 72,519 78 44,098 6i 20,799 52 6,566 9C 82,618 91 19,363 45 9,178 Ii $ 62,I93 69 $ 68,183 37 81,073 42 108,569 89 107,44I 6r I53,103 71 257,116 17 427,255 50 37,548 83 47,033 45 36,000 76 48,762 34 212,405 30 282,415 IO i6,002 97 20,392 51 20,830 75 51,495 66 74,300 531 09,472 05 38,070 90 38,I29 I4 75,102 841 131,711 66 63,576 951 96,630 12 96,548 76 I67,650 66 4,868 68 9,315 13 76,968 8I 10,808 81.. I....................... 119,690 59 190,819 69 377,639 641 530,816 56 13,569 671 I3-739 42 8,653 51 7,200 24 267,531 27 347,4I6 J6 110,05 50 62,034 88 46,556 6o 80,917 15 40,508 o81 51,765 39 224,712 40 344,I69 o0 179,724 27 296,102 49 I3,677 92 7,494 73 I5,183 24 7,151 80 53,229 20 80,280 95 67,167 72 124,537 74 49,544 85 31,892 70 i6,322 99 22,204 79 65,353 71 89,727 82 122,972 46 I22,783 33 145,360 47 127,494 6i 53,694 79 69,965 98 20,764 98 20,587 94 10,472 02 I0,355 99 112,298 15 159,I82 6i 15,921 55 23,706 74 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF POPULATION OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. IcSLANDS. Est. Census Census Census ensus Census Census I823. 1832. 1836. I853- 2860. I866. I872. Hawaii......................... 85000 45792 39,364 24,450 21,481 19,808 I6,oo Maui.......................... 20,000 35,062 24,199 17,574 16,400 14,035 I2,334 Oahu........................... 20,00 29,755 27,809 19,26 21,275 19,799 20,671 Kauai........................... 0,000 0,977 8,934 6,99 6487 6,299 496 Molokai......................... 3,500 6,ooo 6,oo 3,607 2,864 2,299 2,349 Lanai........................... 2,500 i,6oo 1,200 6oo 646 394 348 Niihau.......................... 1,ooo 1,047 993 790 647 325 233 K ahoolawe....................... 50 80 8............................... Totals........................ 142,050 130,313 108,579 73,138 69,800 62,959, 56,897 Parties having clean copies of the Annual for I882, for disposal, will confer favor upon the publisher by reporting the same. They will be purchased, or new issues supplied in exchange.

Page  21 HAWAIIAN ALMIANAC AND ANNUAL.. ) 2 2 1 COMPARATIVE APPROPRIATION BILLS FOR THE BIENNIAL PERIODS ENDING MARCH 3!, x886 AND t884. (iitil List. x886. 1884. His Majesty's Privy Purse and Royal State.. $ 5000 $ 50,000 Her Majesty the Queen............. i6, ooo i 6,ooo H. R. H. the Heir Presumptive.........i6,ooo i 6,ooo H. R. H. Princess Likelike. i2,000 12,1000 H. R. H. Princess Kaiulani. 5,000 5,000 His Majesty's Chamberlain an~d Secretary...... 7,000 7,000 Household Expenses...20,000 20,000 His Majesty's Expenses around the world....22,500 Funeral Expenses, Kekaulike.......... 1,)93 Pevmianqent Settleineits. Her Majesty Queen Dowager Emmia... i6,ooo 16, coo His Excellency P. Kanoa............ 2,400 2,400 Henry S. Swinton... 6oo H. Kuihelani (and balance of salary, $150).2.. 550 1,200 J. P. E. Kahaleaahu..............400 Nihoa Kipi.................. 6oo 6oo Mrs. P. Nahaolelua................. 6oo 6oo Legislatur'e ouid P'rivyj Counril. Expenses of Legislature........-...-40,000 25,000 Secretary of Privy Council............ 200 200 Incidentals of Privv Council........... 100 800 Judiciary.? Depru~tmeit. Salary Chief justice and Chancellor....... 812,000 I12,000 -Salary First Associate justice.......... 80o,000 10,000 Salary Second Associate justice............... 10,000 80,000 Salary Clerk Supreme Court.......... 6,ooo 6,ooo Salary Deputy Clerk Supreme Court.,.4,000 Salary Second Deputy Clerk Supre~ne Court.. 2,400 Salary Libraritn and Copyist.......... 50 Salary Interpreter Supreme and Police Courts. 4,800 4,000 Salarv Circuit judge, Maui........... 4,000 4,000 His Travelling Expenses............. 200 200 Salary Circuit judge, Hilo and Kau........ 2,400 2,000 Salary Circuit judge, Kohala, Kona, etc 2)400. 2,000 Salary Circuit Judgye, Kauai.. 4,000 *4,000 Salary Police justice, Honolulu............... 6,ooo 6,ooo Salary Police justice, Hi'lo.......... 3,000 2,400,Salary Police justice, Lahaina, (and bal. salary $84) 2,484 2,000 Salary Police Justice, Wailuku................. 3,600 2,400 Salary District judge, North Hilo........ 1,ooo 8oo Salary District judge, Puna........... 8oo goo Salary District judge, Kau......8..... 1200 8,200 Salary District judge, North Kona.. 8,000 8oo Salary IDistrict judge, South Kona...8oo 8oo'

Page  22 22 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 4; i886. 1884. Salary Police Justice, North Kohala........... $ 2,400 $ i,6oc Salary District Judge, South Kohala............ I,oo 800 Salary District Judge, Hamakua................,800 1,200 Salary District Judge, Honuaula............... 800 800 Salary District Judge, Makawao............... 2,000 I,200 Salary District Judge, Hana.................. 1,200o i,oo Salary District Judge, Lanai.....6.......... 6006oo Salary District Judge, Molokai................/,200 I,000 Traveling Expenses District Judge, Molokai..... 50 50 Salary District Justice Ewa..................... 8oo 80 Salary District Justice, Waianae............... 8oo 80oo Salary District Justice, Waialua................ 800 80oo Salary District Justice, Koolauloa.............. 800 800 Salary District Justice, Koolaupoko.......... 2,000 1,200 Salary District Justice, Hanalei................ I,0OO t,000 Salary District Justice, Kawaihau...............,O 8oo0 Salary District Justice, Lihue................. oo,200ooo Salary District Justice, Koloa................. 1,000 8oo Salary District Judge, Waimea................ 1,000 800 Salary Clerk Second Judicial Circuit............. 6oo 6oo Salary Clerk Third Judicial Circuit (bal. of sal. '84) 1,125 i,ooo Salary Clerk Fourth Judicial Circuit............ 6oo0 400 Expenses Supreme Court..................... 5,000 4,00 Expenses of witnesses in criminal cases to be allowed presiding Judge at his discretion..... 1,500oo 1,500 Expense Second Judicial Circuit.............. 2,800 2,800 Expense Third Judicial Circuit.............. 3,200 3,000 Expense Fourth Judicial Circuit............... 1,6oo 1,200 Purchase of Law Books...................... 500 500 Stationery and incidentals of all Courts......... 2,000 1,500 Printing Vol. IV., Hawaiian Reports........... 5,000 Translating and Printing..................... 5*000 Translating, Printing and Binding Civil Code in Hawaiian....................... 3,000 Pay of Clerk Police Justice, Honolulu.......... 2,400 2,400 Pay of Chinese Interpreter and Trnslator...... 3,000 2,400 Pay of Messengers of Judiciary Department.... 2,400 2,000 * Departm.ent of Foreignf Affairs. Salary of Minister.......................... 2,000 12,000ooo Salary of Secretary...................... 6,ooo 6,ooo Salary of Copyist........................... 2,400 Office Expense of Foreign Agents.............. 4,000 3,000 Incidentals Foreign Office......3,000 Coronation of his Majesty the King............ 0,000 Reception of foreign official guests and incidentals 20,000 Expenses Foreign Missions................ 20,000 25,000

Page  23 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 23 8S86. 1884. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Washington....................... $12,000 $I2,000 Expenses incidental to the Legation at Washington 5,000 5,00o Relief and return of indigent Hawaiians from abroad 1,500 1,500 Salary of Mlessenger........................ 1,000,ooo Purchase of Decorations...................... 4,000 Education of Hawaiian youths in foreign countries 25,000 30,000 King's (and all government) Guards........... 88,000 38,901 Aid to Volunteer military companies.......... 12,000 o, 000 Drill shed...................5,000 Bands, flags and salutes.................. 38,000 33,365 Arms and accoutrements...................... 20,000 Purchase of Ordnance...........5........... i5,000 National Museum........................... 2,000 3,000. Purchase of Books for Government Library...... 3,000 Government Librarian and Curator to the Museum 2,400 2,000 Relief of Monument Committee.............. 470 Relief of. Col. C. P. Iaukea................... 2,000 Coronation Expenses (additional).............. 9,164 Intrerior Depa rtn en t. Salary of Minister..........................$ I2,000 $ I2,000 Salary of Chief Clerk........................ 6,000 6,ooo Salary of Second Clerk....................... 3,600 3,60o Salary of Third Clerk........................ 3,60. 3,600 Salary of Fourth Clerk...................... 2,400,40 Salary of Fifth Clerk.........................,800 Salary of Governor of Oahu................... 3,600 3,600 Salary of Governor of Maui................... 3,600 3,600 Salary of Governess of Hawaii................. 3,600 3,600 Salary of Governor of Kauai.................. 3,600 3,600 Salary of Clerk of Governor of Oahu......... 2,400 1,200 Salary of Clerk of Governor of Maui........,8oo 1,600 Salary of Clerk of Governess of Hawaii.......,800 1,600 Salary of Clerk of (overnor of Kauai.......... 1,200 I,ooo Salary of Surveyor-General................... 8,000 Government Surveying................ 3,000 40,000 Salary Post Master-General................... 8,000 8,ooo Salary Assistant Postmaster-General........... 6,ooo00 Clerks Post Office..........................22,700 7000 Postmasters............................... 15,00000 Mail Carriers............................... 26,500 8,ooo Incidentals Post Office....................... I3500 8,ooo Postal Money Orders....................... 00 10,000 Marine Telephone Station................... 1,5,500 Salary Superintendent Public Works.........j 6,ooo and Civil Engineer...................... 7 8,ooo

Page  24 24 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. I886. 1884. Superintendent Public Works to August 15, I884 $ 1,125 $ Incidentals and Traveling Expenses of Engineer and Superintendent of Public Works........ 1,ooo x,500 Salary of Superintendent of Water Works and Clerk of Market...................... 4,800 3,0oo Salary Clerk of Superintendent Water Works..... 2,400 2,00o Salary Second Clerk Superintendent Water Works 1,800 Salary Jailor of Oahu Prison.................. 3,600 3,600 Support of Prisoners........................ 7,000 6oooo Road Supervisors.......................... 19,800 4,400 Roads and Bridges throughout the Kingdom..... 257,500 321,400 Unexpended Road Tax, to be expended in district where collected.................. 38,132 86,ooo Road Tax, to be expended in district where collected............................,000 37,759 Road Damages............30,000 15,000 Encouragement of Japanese Immigration, unless such found impracticable, amounts received from employers to be turned into the Treasury 300,000 * 500,000 Portuguese Immigration, amounts received from employers to be returned to Treasury....... 90o,00oo Return of South Sea Islanders............... 0,000 Cancelling Lease Claus Spreckels......... 500 Purchase Honolulu Hale and Leahi........... 30,900 Dredging the harbor......................... 40,000 I5,000 Steam Tug, with Fire-Engine Apparatus........ 40,000 Steam Launch............................. 5,000 Improvements, Oahu Prison................. 25,000 Enlargement of Post Office................... 5,000 Repairs at Custom House................. 3,000 Repairs Government Buildings, Queen Street... 2,000 17,000 Police Court Building, Honolulu.........9,000 Kerosene Warehouse...................... 8,00ooo 7,000 Contingent................................. 5,000 Compiling, Printing and Binding Laws.......... 5,125 Encouragement of Agriculture, as per bill.......5,000 Building and repairing Court Houses and Lock-ups 15,oo6 30,000 Office and Safe for Governor of Kauai.......... 900 Completion of Lighthouse at Barber's Point.... 3,000 3,000 Market at Wailuku..................... 3,000 2,000 Market at Hilo............................. 3,000 2,000 Running Expenses Honolulu Water Works...... 6,000 5000 Improving and extension of Water Works....... 175,000 82,ooo Quarantine places for diseased animals......... 5,000 Reservoir at Waiohinu...................... I,ooo House at Telegraph Station.........1........,200 * Encouragement of Immigration for repopulation, as per loan bill.

Page  25 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. } 25 1884. $20,000 1886. New Wharves and Repairs, Honolulu.......... $20,000 Amount accrued upon Wharves already built.... I9,5 8 Extending Wharf a; Lahaina and Light on Breakwater................................. 4,000 Other Wharves and Landings and Repairs...... 37,600 Road to Iwilei......................,500 Keeper, Royal Mausoleum................... 600 Keeper, Lunalilo Mausoleum................ 500 Expenses Royal Mausoleum................... 250 Custom House and Stores at Hilo............. 3,000 Repairs and Furniture for Aliiolani Hale........ 7,000 Leading Water Pipes to Iwilei................. 8oo Repairs and running expenses, Lighthouses...... 0,000 Illuminating of Clock at Lucas'................ 80 Repairs and extension of Insane Asylum........ 2,000 Maintenance of Insane Asylum............... 20,000 Janitor, Aliiolani Hale (to live on premises)...... 960 Messengers Interior Department............... 2,400 Purchase of Lands at Kalawao, Molokai......... 5,000 Artesian Well, Molokai...................... 5,000 Aid to Queen's Hospital..................... I6,ooo Running Expenses of Steam Tugs................ 5,o Anchors and Buoys.......................... Io,ooo Honolulu Fire Department.............. 25,000 Aid to Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society.....,ooo General Improvement of Public Grounds, Squares and Nurseries.12,000 Rent Lot Aliiolani Hale.................... 283 Thomas Square............................ 3,000 Emma Square............ 700 Kapiolani Park........................... 5,000 Rent of Aienui............................. I,200 Rent of Kohololoa Pound............. 700 Government Printing....................... 5,000 Copying Records Land Commissions........... 2,400 Books and Stationery for Register of Conveyances 300 Expense of filing Certificates of Boundaries..... 200 Expenses of Election.......................,005 Weekly Steam Service between Honolulu, Pukoo, Lahaina and Lanai..................... 5,200 Incidentals, Interior Department.............. 3,000 Incidentals, Governor's Offices.................. 500 Palace Stables............................... 18,0ooo For relief of Board of Genealogy.0...0...... I0,000 Fire-proof Safe, Interior Department........... 600 Guard of Oahu Prison....................... 7,000 4o, oo~ 4,000 93,600 600 500 15,000' 3,000 1,000 6,ooo 15,000 960 2,000 15,000 15,000 10,000 28,000 5,000 200 3,000 1,000 5,000 2,400 4,000 2,400 300 200 500 2,000 500 15,000

Page  26 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Finance Department. x886 884. Salary of Minister..............$ 12,000 $ I2,000 Salary of Auditor-General.Io, 000 10,000o Salary of Registrar Public Accounts............ 6,000oo 6,ooo Salary of Clerk of Finance Office........... 3,000 Salary of Collector-General............... 8,000 8,ooo Salary of Deputy Collector 6,000 5,000 Salary of Harbor Master.........6,ooo Salary of Statistical Clerk...................,6 3,6 3,00 Salary of Second Statistical Clerk....3,000 3,ooo Salary of Surveyor and Guard.... 3,000 3,00ooo Salary of Entry Clerk.....2,400 2,400 Salary of Second Entry Clerk................ 2,400 Salary of Storekeeper 3,600 3,600 i Salary of Collector at Kahului.......... 3,ooo 3000 Salary of Collector at Mahukona............... 2, 2,000 Salary of Collector at Hilo.................... 2,000 2,000 Salary of Collector at Kawaihae.300 300 Salary of Collector at Kealakekua.............. 100 100 Salary of Collector at Koloa.................. 200 200 Salary of Keeper Steamer Warehouse........... I,200 I,200 Salary of Keeper of Kerosene Warehouse....... 1,200 480 Salary of Surveyor and Guard, Kahului......... 2,000 2,000 Salary of Surveyor and Guard, Mahukona.......,200,200 Salary of Surveyor and Guard, Hilo............ 1,8oo 1,200 Assistant Guards at all ports................... 5,000 2,000 Incidentals, Custom House................... 5,000 3,oo Custom House Boat...........................,200,200 Pay of Tax Assessors....................... 28,ooo 28,000 Pay of Tax Collectors..........26,000 Pay of Tax Collector at Kau for 1883...... 6o8 Pay of Tax Appeal Boards................... 1,200 i,ooo National Debt falling due.................... 76,200 69,300 Interest on National Debt.................... i50,000 65,000 For purchase and substitution of Gold Coin for Foreign Coin............................ 150,000 N Subsidy to Oceanic Steamship Company........ 63,000 *50,000 Hospital Fund (estimated receipts to be paid Q. H.) 15,000 17,000 Incidentals Finance Department............... 5,o00 3,0oo Printing Certificates of Deposit.................,500 1,oo000 Stamps and Dies.................... 3oo00 500 Dog Tags..........6oo 6oo Messenger...................................,200 i,ooo Taxes Illegally Collected.................78 1,500 Custom House and Stores at Kalhului..... 50ooo Custom House and Stores at Mahukona I5,ooo

Page  27 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. - 27 Subsidy for Steam Semi-Monthly Circuit of Hawaii $ For J. C. M errll............................ Purchase of new Dredge..................... Filling in W aikahalulu....................... Police Court, Public Works, Water Works, Tax Assessors, etc., buildings for............ Fire-proof Building for Supreme Court and other R ecords............................... Completion and Furnishing new Palace...... Marine Railway, Honolulu.................. Artesian Well-boring and Pipe for Makiki Well.. Purchase of Lot, Alilolani Hale............... Additional Wash Houses.................... Purchase of Feather Cloak and Paintings....... For Chinese Translations.................... * Subsidy to Ocean Steamship Liies. Departtnent of A tto tey- General. Salary of Attorney-General....................$ Salary of Clerk Attorney-General.............. Salary of Marshal........................... Salary of Clerk of Marshal.................... Salary of Second Clerk of Marshal............ Salary of Sheriff of Maui..................... Salary of Sheriff of Hawaii.................... Salary of Sheriff of Kauai................... Salary of Clerk of Sheriff of Maui............. Salary of Clerk of Sheriff of Hawaii..... Police of Oahu............................ Police of Maui............................ Police of Molokai and Lanai................ Police of Hawaii....................... Police of Kauai........... Apprehension of Criminals.................. Street Lamps throughout the Kingdom.......... Coroners' Inquests......................... Incidentals, Criminal and Civil Expenses..... I Armed Force Contingent Fund............... M essengers................................ * And lamps of Honolulu. Departrent of Education. Salary of Inspector-General of Schools.......... $ Traveling Expenses of same................... Salary Clerk of Board of Education............ Support of Hawaiian and English Schools..r..... ic Support of Common Schools.................. 1 Industrial and Reformatory School............. 1; 1886. 1884. $ 2,000 1,500 8,000 15,000 35,600 15,000 47,500 50,000 38,000 1,500 7,500 I,400 *4,000 12,000 6,oo6 8,000 3.600 I,800 5,000 5,000 4,000 I,8oo 1,8oo 86,440 3I,200 ( 6,240 o 53,760 [9,080 i6,ooo 2,000 I2,000 5,000 1,200 6,ooo 1,000 6,ooo )0,000 [0,000 2,500 $ 12,000 5,000 8,ooo 2,400 1,000 5,000 5,000 4,09ooo 1,600 1,600 *85,760 32,360 49,580 7,600 5,000 1,200 22,000 60,000 $ 6,000 1,000 6,000 75,000 10,000 I9,000 I

Page  28 28 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. x886. '884i. Aid to Kawaiahao Seminary..........$ 2,500 $ Aid to Makawao Seminary........... 2,000 2,000 Aid to St. Louis College (Honolulu).... 10,000 *101ot0 For Industrial Education in High Schools... 2,500 Professor of Chemistry and Natural Science, Oahu College............... 2,400 Aid to Hilo Boarding School.5,000 5,000 Buildings and Repairs of School Houses... 15,000 I10, 000 Stationery and Incidentals.8 6o 8oo ~Pay of Messenger and Office Assistance. i,8oo I 0 Taking. Census, 1884............. 70,000 Aid to Iclani College............... 5,000 Hawaiian and English Dictionary and School'History of Hawaiian Islands. i,5oo Sc~holarship Oahu College.720...720 *Waialua, Building Girls' School. Board of HMealth. Salary of Secretary Board of Health.$.4,000 $.Leper Settlement.100,000 90,000 Water Pipes, Kalawao and Kalaupapa....0,. o000 10,000 'Government Physicians and Medical Treatment. 55,ooo 5 0,000 General Expenses of the Board of Health. 35,000 35,000 Building and Maintaining Hospitals.......40,000 50,000 Repairs and c are of Quarantine.5,000 2,500 Kapiolani Home................ 15,000 Bridge at Waikalu......... Recapitulation. Civil, List..$............... 127,931 $148,50vo Permanent Settlements.. 22,150 21i,8oo Legislature and Privy Council........ 40,300 25,300 judicirry Department.. -.. -I.. 139,059 12,2,125 Department of Foreign Affairs.. 245,934 259,766 Interior Department.............. 1i,818,554 353,880 Finance Department.............. 723,887 2,174,925 Department of the Attorney-General.......282,720 319,200 Department of Education.............191,720 137,520 -Board of Health.. 264,500 $3,856,7S5 $3,5637,116

Page  29 H~AWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 2 I 29 4 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES, ISLANDS. 18-78-8o TO MA8-86. HAWAIIAN REVENUE. 1 87o-80. i88o-82. 1882-84. Es884-86. Customn House...........$ 582,846 $ 719,245 $ 944,638 $ 954,200 internal Commerce.......... 122,946 14I,744 1 78,149 172,250 Internal Taxes............ 465,252 596,615 680,397 703,500 Fines, Fees, Perquisites, etc... 1.. 9 o, 26 5 99,986 233,710 198,200~ Government Realizations.... 31.. 8,527 393,586 374,291 306,500 Government Stocks.......... 23,900....... 668,900...... Crown Commissioners.............12)Ooo...... Cash in the Treasury April I, 1884.................. 2,220 Totals............ $1i,703,736 $2,050,276 $ 3,092,085 $ 2,336,870 EXPENDITURES. 1878-8o. 1 88o-82. 1 882-84. ae Civil List.............. $ 65,500 $ 100,ooo $ 148,500 $ 127,931 Permanent Settlement.....1... I5,07 5 19,512 20,347 22,150 Legislature and Privy Council.... 16,523 19,338 24,942 40,300 judiciary Department......... 79,667 92,870 115,892 139,059 Department of War......... 67,993 *................ Department of Foreign Affairs. 36,830 129,353 252,641 245,934 Department of Interior....... 656,8io 1,204,703 1,824,795 1,818,'554 Department of Finance....... 260,057 299,436 31I9,o62 723,887 Department of Attorney-General.. 123,664 1 63,527 266,730 282,720 Bureau of Public 'Instruction..... 79,605 84,249 91,755 I91,720 Miscellaneous............ 93,973 i69,6o8 151,742 t 264,500 Totals............ $1,495,697 $2,282,596 $ 3,216,406 $ 3,856,755 *Merged into Departm,~nt of Foreign Affairs. fBoard of Health. Table of the Revenues and Expenditures of the Hawaiian Kingdom for each Biennial Period, from 1856-7 to 188446 PERIOD. RECEIPTS. EXPENDITURES DEFICIT. SURPLUS. 1856-7....... $639,041 37 -$666,788 83 $27,747 46 1858-9....... 655,866 68 643,098 4o.... $12,782 i86o-i....... 668, 186 56 681, 82 I'48 13,634 92.... 1862-3.. ~~~688,687 21 666,06i 10.22,626 i I 18645"-5.' 728,817 07 582,341 02..... 146,476 05 1866-7...... 831,148 98 834,157 55 3,008 57.... 1868-9..834, 11i2 65 934,100 29 99,987 64.... I870-i...... 964,956 35 969,784 14 5,827 79... i872-3-.... 1,136,523 95 I, 192,51 1 79 55,,987 84 i874-6...... 1i,008,191 85 919,356 93 88,...834 92 i876-8...... 1,151,713 45 1,1I10,472 90 41,240 55 1878-8o. ~~1,703,736 00 1,495,697 00 28090 1880-82. ---'-~ 2,070,256 94 2,282,599 00 212,3 19 o6 i882-84.-.....~ 3,092,085 42 3,216,406 05 124,320 63 2,336,870 42 3,856,755 00 1,519,884 58.... *Estimated. II z

Page  30 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. THE STORY OF KALELEALUAKA. A Hawaiian Legend. PART I. Kaopele was born in Waipio, Hawaii. When born he did not breathe and his parents were greatly troubled, but they washed his body clean and having arrayed it in good clothes, they watched anxiously over the body for several days and then concluding it to be dead placed it in a small cave in the face of a cliff. There the body remained from the summer month of Ikiki, (July or August) to the winter month of Ikua, (December or January) a period of six months. At this time they were startled by a violent storm of thunder and lightning and the rumbling of an earthquake. At the same time appeared the marvelous phenomenon of eight rainbows arching over the mouth of the cave. Above the din of the storm the parents heard the voice of the awakened child calling to them: "Let your love rest upon me Oh my parents! who have thrust me forth, Who have left me in the cavernous cliff, Who have heartlessly placed me in the Cliff frequented by the tropic bird. Oh, Waiaalaia, my mother, Oh, Waimanu, my father, Come and take me." The yearning love of the mother earnestly besought the father to go in quest of the infant; but he protested that search was useless, as the child was long since dead. Out unable longer to endure a woman's teasing, which is the same in all ages, he finally set forth in high dudgeon, vowing that in case of failure he would " give it to her" on his return. On reaching the place where the babe had been deposited, its body was not to be found. But lifting up his eyes and looking about he espied the child perched on a tree braiding a wreath from the scarlet flowers of the lehua. " I have come to take you home with me" said the father. But the infant made no answer. The mother received the child to her arms with demonstrations of the liveliest affection. At her suggestion they named the boy Kaopele, from the name of their god, Pele. Six months after this, on the first day (/ilo) of the new moon, in the month of Ikiki, (July or August) they returned home from working in the fields and found the child lying without breath apparently dead. After venting their grief for their darling in loud lamentations they erected a frame to receive its dead body. Time healed the wounds of their affection, and after the lapse of six moons they had ceased to mourn, when suddenly they were affrighted by a storm of thunder and lightning with a quaking of the earth, in the midst of which they distinguished the cry of their child. "Oh! come come and take me." They were overjoyed at this second restoration of their child to them, and deeming it to be a miracle

Page  31 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 3 3I worked by their God, made up their minds that if it again fell into a trance they would not be anxious since their God would awake their child and bring it to life again. But afterwards the child informed them of their mistake, saying, "This marvel that you see in me is a trance; when I pass into my deep sleep my spirit at once floats away in the upper air with the goddess,Poliahu. We are a numerous band of spirits, but I excel them in the distance of my flights. In one day I can compass this island of Hawaii, as well as Maui, Oahu and Kauai, and return again. In my flights I have seen that Kauai is the richest of all the islands, for it is well supplied with food and fish and it is abundantly watered. I intend to remain with you until I am grown; then I shall journey to Kauai and there spend the rest of my life." Thus Kaopele lived with his parents until he was grown and his habit of trance still clung to him. Then one day he filled them with grief by saying: "I am going, Aloha." They sealed their love for each other with tears and kisses, and he slept and was gone. He alighted at Kula on Maui. There he engaged in cultivating food. When his crops were nearly ripe and ready to be eaten he again fell into his customary deep sleep and when he awoke he found that the people of the land (kamaaina) had eaten up all his crops. Then he flew away to a place called Kapapakolea, in Moanalua, on Oahu,.where he set out a new plantation. Here the same fortune befell him and his time for sleep came upon him before his crops were fit for eating. When he awoke his plantation had gone to waste. Again he moves on and this time settles in Lihue, Oahu, where for the third time he sets out a plantation of food, but is prevented from eating it by another interval of sleep. Awakening he finds his crops overripe and wasted by neglect and decay; his restless ambition now carries him to Lahuimalo, still on the island of Oahu, where his industry plants another crop of food. Six months pass and he is about to eat of the fruits of his labor, when one day on plunging into the river to bathe he falls into his customary trance and his lifeless body is floated by the stream out into the ocean and finally cast up by the waters on the sands of Maeaea, a placein Waialua, Oahu. At the same time there arrived a man from Kauai in search of a human body to offer as a sacrifice at the temple (heiau) of Kahikihaunaka at Wailua on Kauai, and having seen the corpse of Kaopele on the beach, he asks and obtains permission of the feudal lord (konohiki) of Waialua to take it. Thus it happens that Kaopele is taken by canoe to the island of Kauai and placed, along with the corpse of another man, on the altar of the temple at Wailua. There he lay until the bones of his fellow corpse hadbegun to fall apart. When six moons had been accomplished, at midnight there came a burst of thunder and an earthquake. Kaopele came to life, descended from his altar and directed his steps towards a light which he saw shining through the cracks of a neighboring house. Kaopele was $

Page  32 ~ HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. received by the occupants ofthe house with that instant and hearty hospitality which marks the Hawaiian race and bidden to enter ("mai, komo mai" ). Food was set before him with which he refreshed himself. The old man who seemed to be the head of the household was so much pleased and impressed with the bearing and appearance of our hero that he forthwith sought to secure him to be the husband of his grand-daughter, a beautiful girl named Makalani. Without further ado, he persuaded him to be a suitor for the hand of the girl and while it was yet night started off to obtain the girl's consent and to bring her back with him. The young woman was awakened from her slumbers in the night to hear the proposition of her grandfather who painted to her in glowing colors the manly attractions of her suitor. The suit found favor in the eyes of the young lady's parents and she herself was nothing loath, but with commendable maidenly propriety she insisted that her suitor should be brought and presented to her and that she should not first seek him. The sun had hardly begun to lift the dew from the grass when our young hero, accompanied by the two match-makers, was brought into the presence of his future wife. They mutually found favor in each others eyes and an ardent attachment sprang up on the instant. Matters sped apace. A separate house was assigned as the residence of the.young couple and their married life began felicitously. But the instincts of the farmer were even stronger in the breast of Kaople than the bonds of matrimony. In the middle of the night Kaopele arose and leaving the sleeping form of his bride, passed out into the darkness. He went mauka until he came upon an extensive upland plain where he set to work clearing it and making it ready for planting. This done he collected from various quarters shoots and roots of potato, kalo, banana, waoke, awa and other plants and before day the whole plain was a plantation. After his departure his wife awoke with a start and found her husband was gone. She went into the next house where her parents were sleeping and waking them made known her loss, but they knew nothing of his whereabouts. Much perplexed, they were still debating the cause of his departure, when he suddenly returned, and to his wife's questioning, answered that he had been at work. She gently reproved him for interrupting their bridal night with agriculture, and told him there would be time enough for that when they had lived together awhile and had completed their honey moon, and "besides," said she, " if you wish to turn your hand to agriculture, here is the plat of ground at hand in which my father works, and you need not go up to that plain where only wild hogs roam." To this he replied, "my hand constrains me to plant; I crave work; does idleness bring in anything? There is profit only when a man turns the palm of his hand to the soil: that brings in food for family and friends. If one were indeed the son of a king he could sleep until the sun was high in the heavens and then rise and find the bundles of cooked food (laulau)

Page  33 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 33 ready for him. But for a plain man the only thing to do is to cultivate the soil and plant, and when he returns from his work let him light his oven and when the food is cooked let the husband and the wife crouch about the hearth and eat together." Again, very early on the following morning, while his wife slept, Kaopele rose, and going to the house of a neighbor, borrowed a fishhook with its tackle. Then supplying himself with bait he went a-fishing in the ocean and took an enormous quantity of fish. On his way home he stopped at the house where he had borrowed the tackle and returned it giving the man also half of the fish. Arrived at home he threw the load of fish onto the ground with a thud which waked his wife and parents. " So you have been a-tishing," said his wife, "thinking you had again gone to work in the field, I went up there but you were not there. But what an immense plantation you have set out. Why, the whole plain is covered." His father-in-law said, "A fine lot of fish my boy." Thus went life with them until the crops were ripe, when one day Kaopele said to his wife who was now evidently with child. " If the child to be born is a boy name it Kalelealuaka, but if it be a girl name it as you will from your side of the family." From his manner she felt uneasy and suspicious of him and said, "alas, do you intend to desert me? " Then Kaopele explained to his wife that he was not really going to leave her as men are wont to forsake their wives, but he foresaw that that was soon to happen to him, which was habitual to him, and he felt that on the night of the morrow a deep sleep would fall upon him (punika hiamoe) which would last for six months, therefore she was not to fear. "I)o not cast me out nor bury me in the ground," said he. Then he explained to her how he happened to be taken from Oahu to Kauai and how he came to be her husband, and he commanded her to listen attentively to him and to obey him implicitly. Then they pledged their love to each other and slept not all that night. And on the following day all the friends and neighbors assembled, and as they sat about, remarks were made among them in an undertone, like this, " So this is the man who was placed on the altar of the heiau at Wailua." And as evening fell he bade them all "aloha," and said, that he should be separated from them for six months, bat that his body would remain with them if they obeyed his commands, and having kissed his wife he fell into the dreamful, sacred sleep of Niolokapu. On the sixth day the father-in-law said; "Let us bury your husband lest he stink. I thought it was to be only natural sleep, but it is ordinary death. Look, his body is rigid, his flesh is cold and he does not breathe; these are the signs of death." But Makalani protested. 'I will not let him be buried; let him lie here and I will watch over him as he com manded; you also heard his words." But in spite of the wife's earnest protests, the hard hearted father-in-law gathered strong vines of the koali (convolvulus) tied them about Kaopele's feet and attaching to them heavy stones caused his body to be conveyed in a canoe and sunk in the dark waters of the ocean mid-way between Kauai and Oahu.

Page  34 HHAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL, Makalani lived in sorrow for her husband until the time of her confinement. She was in labor for nine days and on the tenth the child was born, and as it was a boy she called his name Kalelealuaka, PART II. When the child was about two months old the sky became overcast and there came up a mighty storm, lightening and an earthquake. Kaopelele awoke in his dark, watery couch, unbound the cords that held his feet and by three powerful strokes raised himself to the surface of the water. He looked towards Kauai and Oahu but love (aloea) for his wife and child prevailed and drew him to Kauai. In the darkness of night he stood by his wife's bed and feeling for her touched her forehead with his clammy hand. She awoke with a start and on his making himself known she screamed with fright, "Ghost of Kaopele!" and ran to her parents. Not until a candle was lighted would she believe it to be her husband. The step-parents in fear and shame at their heartless conduct fled away and never returned. From this time forth Kaopele was never again visited by a trance; his virtue had gone out from him to the boy, Kalelealuaka. When Kalelealuaka was ten years old Kaopele began to train the lad in athletic sports and to teach him all the arts of war and combat practiced thoughout the islands until he had attained great proficiency in them. He also taught him the arts of running and jumping so that he could jump either up or down a high pali, or run, like a waterfowl, on the surface of the water. After this, one day Kalelealuaka went over to Wailua where he witnessed the games of the chiefs. The youth spoke contemptuously of their performances as mere child's play, and when his remark was reported to the king he challenged the young man to meet him in a boxing encounter. When Kalelealuaka came into the presence of the king his royal adversary asked him what wager he brought. (Betting was an essential accompaniment of every Hawaiian contest, even the most trivial.) As the youth had nothing with him he seriously proposed that each one should wager his own body against that of the other one. The proposal was readily accepted. The herald sounded the signal of attack and both contestants rushed at each other. Kalelealuaka warily avoided the attack by the king and hasted to deliver a blow which left his opponent at his mercy, and thereupon, using his privilege, robbed him of his life and to the astonishment of all carried away the body to lay as a sacrifice (kanaka hai) on the altar of the temple, hitherto unconsecrated by human sacrifice, which he and his father, Kaopele, had recently built in honor of their deity. After a time there reached the ear of our hero a report of the great strength of a certain chief who lived in Hanalei. Accordingly without saying anything about his intention he went over to the valley of Hanalei.

Page  35 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 35 He found them engaged in the game of throwing heavy spears at the trunk of a cocoanut tree. As on the previous occasion he invited a challenge by belittling their exploits and when challenged by the chief, fearlessly proposed as a wager, the life of one against the other. This was accepted and the chief had' the first trial. His spear hit the stem of the huge tree and made its lofty crest nod in response to the blow. It was now the turn of Kalelealuaka to hurl the spear. In anticipation of the failurt of the youth and his own success, the chief took the precaution to station his guards about Kalelealuaka to be ready to seize him on the instant. In a tone of command our hero bade the guards fall back, and brandishing his spear stroked and polished it with his hands from end to end, then he poised and hurled it, and to the astonishment of all lo,! the tree was shivered to pieces. On this the people raised a shout of admiration at the prowess of the youth, and declared he must be the same hero who had slainthe chief at Wailua. In this way Kaleleltiaka obtained a second royal sacrifice with which to grace the altar of his temple. One clear, calm evening, as Kalelealuaka looked out to sea, he descried the island of Oahu, which is often clearly visible from Kauai, and asked his father what land that was that stood out against them. Kaopele told the youth it was Oahu, that the cape that swam out into the ocean like a water-fowl, was Kaena, that the retreating contour of the coast beyond was Waianae. Thus he described the land to his son. The result was that the adventurous spirit of Kalelealuaka was fired to explore this new island for himself, and he expressed this wish to his father. Everything that Kalelealnaka said or did was good in the eyes of his father, Kaopele. Accordingly he immediately set to work and soon had a canoe completely fitted out in which Kalelealuaka might start on his travels. Kalelealuaka took with him, as travelling companion, a mere lad named Kaluhe, and embarking in his canoe with two strokes of the paddle his prow grated on the sands of Waianae. Before leaving Kauai his father had imparted to Kalelealuaka something of the topography of Oahu and had described to him the site of his former plantation at Keahumoe. At Waianae the two travellers were treated affably by the people of the district. In reply to the questions put them they said they were going a sight seeing. As they went along they met a party of boys amusing themselves with darting arrows (kea Pua) one of them asked permission to join their party. This was given and the three turned inland and journeyed till they reached a plain of soft, whitish rock where they all refreshed themselves with food. Then they kept on ascending, until Keahumoe lay before them, dripping with hoary moisture from the mist of the mountain, yet as if smiling through its tears. Here were standing bananas with ripened, yellow fruit, upland kalo, and sugar cane, rusty and crocked with age, while the sweet potatoes had crawled out of the earth and were cracked and dry. It was the very place where Kaopele, the father of Kalelealuaka, had years before set out the plants from

Page  36 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL, which these were descended. " This is our food and a good place, perhaps, for us to settle down," said Kalelealuaka, "but before we make up our minds to stay here, let me dart an arrow, and if it drops soon we shall stay, but if it flies afar, we shall not tarry here." Kalelealuaka darted his arrow while his companions looked on intently. The arrow flew along, passing over many a hill and valley and finally rested beyond Kekuapoai, while they followed the direction of its wonderful flight. Kalelealnaka sent his companions on to find the arrow, telling them at the same time to go to the villages and get some awa roots for drinking, while he would remain there and put up a shelter for them. On their way the two companions of Kalelealuaka encountered a number of women washing kalo in a stream and on asking them if they had seen their arrow flying that way they received an impertinent answer, whereupon they called out the name of the arrow, " Puane, Puane," and itcame'to their hand at once. At this the women ran away frightened at the marvel. The two boys then set to gathering awa roots as they had been bidden. Seeing them picking up worthless fragments, a kind-hearted old man who turned out to be the konohiki of the land sent by his servants an abundance of good food to Kalelealuaka. On their return the boys found to their astonishment that during their absence Kalelealuaka had put up a fine large house, which was all complete but the mats to cover the floors. The kind-hearted konohiki remarked this and immediately sent his servants to fetch mats for the floors and sets of kapa for bedding, adding the command "and with them bring along some malos" (Hawaiian girdles used by the males). Soon all their wants were supplied and the three youths were set up in house-keeping. To these services the konohiki, through his attendants, still added others; some chewed and strained the awa, while others cooked and spread for them a bountiful repast. The three youths ate and drank and under the drowsy influence of the awa, slept until the little birds that peopled the wilderness about them waked them with their morning songs, and they roused and found the sun already climbing the heavens. Then Kalplealuaka called to his comrades, and said, "rouse up and let us go to cultivating." To this they agreed and each one set to work in his own way cultivating his own piece of ground. The ground cultivated by Kalelealuaka was a strip of great length reaching from the mountain down towards the ocean. This he cleared and planted the same day. His two companions, however, spent several days in clearing their gound and then several days more in planting it. While theseyouths occupied their mountain home, the people of that region were well supplied with food. The only lack of Kalelealuaka and his comrades was animal food (literally fish) but they supplied its place as well as they could with such herbs as the tender leaves of the popolo, which they cooked like spinach, and with inamona made from the roasted nuts of the kukui tree. One day as they were ekeing out their frugal meal with a mess of popolo cooked by the lad from Waianae, Kalelealuaka was greatly dis

Page  37 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 37 gusted at seeing a worm in that portion that the youth was eating, and thereopon nicknamed him Keinohoomanawanui ( sloven, or more literally the persistently unclean.) The name ever after stuck to him. This same fellow had the misfortune one evening to injure one of his eyes by the explosion of a kukui nut which he was roasting on the fire. As a result that member was afflicted with soreness and finally became blind. But their life agreed with them, and the youths throve and increased in stature and grew to to be stout and lusty young men. Now it happened that ever since their stay at their mountain house, Lelepua (arrow flight), they had kept a torch burning all night which was seen by Kakuhihewa, the king of Oahu, and had caused him uneasiness. One fine evening when they had eaten their fill and had gone to bed, Kalelealuaka called to Keinohoomanawanui and said " Halloa there, are you asleep?" and he replied " No, have I drunk awa? I am restless. My eyes will not close." " Well, " said Kalelealuaka, when you are restless at night, what does your mind find to do?" " Nothing," said the Sloven (Keinohoomanawanui). " I find something to think about," said Kalelealuaka. "What is that?" said the Sloven. " Let us wish' (Kuko, literally to lust), said Kalelealuaka. " What shall we wish?" said the Sloven. " Whatever our hearts most earnestly desire," said Kalelealuaka. Thereupon they both wished. The Sloven, in accordance with his nature wished for things to eat, the eels from the fish pond of Hanaloa, (now situated in the district ofEwa) to be cooked in an oven together with sweet potatoes and a bowl of awa. "Psha I what a beggarly wish!" said Kalelealuaka. "I thought you had a real wish. I have a genuine wish. Listen. The beautiful daughters of Kakuhihewa to be my wives: his fatted pigs and dogs to be baked for us; his choice kalo, sugar cane, bananas to be served up for us; that Kakuhihewa himself send and get timber and build a house for us; that he pull the famous awa of Kahauone; that the king send and fetch us to him; that he chew the awa for us in his own mouth, strain and pour it for us and give us to drink until we are happy and then take us to our house." Trembling with fear at the audacious ambition of his concupiscent companion, the Sloven replied, " If your wish should come to the ears of the king we should die; indeed we should die " In truth as they were talking together and uttering their wishes, Kakuhihewa had arrived and was all the time listening to their conversation from the outside of their house. When the king had heard all their conversation he thrust his spear into the ground outside the enclosure about Kalelealuaka's house and by the spear placed his stone hatchet (pahoa) and immediately returned to his residence at Puuloa. Upon his arrival at home that night King Kakuhihewa commanded his stewards to prepare a feast and then summoned his chiefs and table companions and said "let us sup." When all was ready and they had seated themselves the king said "shall we eat or shall we talk?" One of them replied, 'If it please the king, perhaps it were better for him to speak

Page  38 38 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. first; it may be what he has to say touches a matter of life and death; therefore let him speak and we will listen." Then Kakuhihewa told them the whole story of the light seen in the mountains, of the wishes of Kalelealuaka and the Sloven. Then up spoke the soldiers and said, "Death; this man isworthy to be put to death, but as for the other one let him live." "Hold," said the king, "not so fast, before condemning him to death, I will call together the wise men, priests, wizards and soothsayers; perchance they will find that this is the man to overcome Kualii in battle. " Thereupon all the wise men, priests, wizards and soothsayers were immediately summoned and after the king had explained the whole story to them they agreed with the opinion of the soldiers. Again the king interposed delay and said "wait until my wise kahuna." Napuaikamao comes, and if his opinion agrees with yours, then, indeed, let him be put to death, but if he is wiser than you, the man shall live, but you will have eaten this food in vain." So the king sent one of his fleetest runners to go and fetch Napuaikamao. To him the king said, " I have sent for you to decide what is just and right in the case of these two men who live up in the region of Waipio "; then he went on to state the whole case to this wise man. " In regard to Keinohoomanawanui's wish," said the wise-man, "that is an innocent wish, but it is profitless and will bring no blessing." At the narration of Kalelealuaka's wish he inclined his head, as if in thought, then lifting his head, he looked at the king and said: " Oh! king, as for this man's wish it is an ambition which will bring victory to the government. Now then, send all your people and fetch house-timber and awa." As soon as the wise-man had given this opinion, the king commanded his chief marshal, Maliuhaaino, to set every body at work to carry out the directions of this counselor. This was done, and before break of day every man, woman and child in the district of Ewa, a great multitude, was on the move. Now when the sloven awoke in the morning and went out of doors he found the stone hatchet (pahoa) of the king with his spear standing outside of the house. On seeing this he rushed back into the house and exclaimed to his comrades. "Alas! our wishes have been overheard by the king; here are his hatchet and his spear. I said that if the king heard us we should die, and he has indeed heard us. But yours was the fatal ambition, mine was only an innocent wish." Even while they were talking the babble of the multitude drew near and the sloven exclaimed "Our death approaches." Kalelealuaka replied "That is not for our death, it is the people coming to get timber for our houses." But the fear of the sloven would not be quieted. The multitude pressed on, and by the time the last of them had reached the mountain the foremost had returned to the sea-coast and had begun to prepare the foundations for the houses, to dig the holes for the posts, to bind on the rafters and the small poles on which they tied the thatch until the houses were

Page  39 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 3 39 done. Meantime some are busy baking the pigs and the poi-fed dogs in ovens; some are bringing the eels of Kanaloa and cooking them with potatoes in an oven by themselves. The houses are completed, everything is ready, the grand marshal, Maliuhaaino, has just arrived in front of the house of the ambitious youth, Kalelealuaka, and calls out " Keinohoomanawanui, come out," and he comes out trembling. "Kalelealuka, come out," and' he first sends out the boy Kaluhe and then comes forth himself and stands outside, a splendid youth. The marshal stands gazing at him in bewilderment and admiration. When he has regained his equanimity he says to him " Mount on my back and let us go down." " No," said Kalelealuaka, "I will go by myself, and do you walk ahead; I will follow after; but do not look behind you lest you die." As soon as they had started down, Kalelealuaka was transported to Kuaikua in Helemano. There he plunged into the water and bathed all over; this done he called on his ancestral shades (Aumakua) who came and performed on him the rite of circumcision while lightning flashed, thunder sounded and the earth quaked. Kaopele on Kauai heard the commotion and exclaimed "Ah! my son has received the purifying rite-the offspring of the Gods goes to meet the sovereign of.the land" (Aliiaimoku). Meantime, the party led by Maliuhaaino are moving slowly down towards the coast because the marshal himself is lame. Returning from his observances Kalelealuka alights just to the rear of the party who had not noticed his absence, and becoming impatient at the tedious slowness of the journey-for the day was waning and the declining sun was already standing over a peak of the Waianae mountains called Puukuua-this marvelous fellow caught up the lame marshal in one hand and his two comrades in the other and flying with thqm set them down at Puuloa. But the great marvel is that they knew nothing about being transported, yet they were carried and set down as from a sheet. On their arrival at the coast all is ready and the people are waiting for them. A voice calls out, " Here is your house, Keinohoomanawanui," and the Sloven entered with alacrity and found bundles of his wished-for eels, and potatoes already cooked awaiting his disposal. But Kalelealuaka magnanimously declined to enter the house prepared for himself when the invitation came to him "come in, this is your house," all because his little friend, Kaluhe, whose eyes had often been filled with smoke while cooking luau and roasting kukui nuts for him, had not been included in the invitation and he saw that no provision had been made for him. When this was satisfactorily arranged Kalelealuaka and his little friend entered and sat down to eat. The king with his own hand poured out awa for Kalelealuaka, brought him a gourd of water to rinse his mouth, offered him food and waited upon him till he had supplied all his wants. Now when Kalelealuaka had well drunken, and was beginning to

Page  40 f HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. feel drowsy from the awa, the lame marshal came in and led him to the two daughters of Kakuhihewa'and put him to bed with them, and from that time these two lovely girls were his wives. PART III. Thus they lived for perhaps thirty days (he mau anahulu), when a messenger arrived announcing that Kualii was making war at Mounalua. The soldiers of Kakuhihewa quickly made themselves ready, and among them Keinohoomanawanui went out to battle. The lame marshal started for the scene of battle the night before. On the morning of the day of battle, Kalelealuaka said to his wives that he had a great hankering for some shrimps and moss which must be gathered in a particular way, and that nothing else would please his appetite. Thereupon they dutifully set out to obtain these things for him. As soon as they had gone from the house Kalelealuaka iew to Waianae and arrayed himself with wreaths of the fine leaved maile (made laulii) which is peculiar to that region. Thence he flew to Napeha where the lame marshal, Maliuhaaino was painfully climbing the hill on his way to the battle. Kalelealuaka cheerily greeted him, and the following dialogue occurred: K. "Whither are you trudging Maliuhaaino?" M. "What! don't you know about the war?" K. " Let me carry you?" M. "How fast you travel! Where are you from?" K. "From Waianae." M. "So I see from your wreaths. Yes carry me and Waianae shall be yours." At the word Kalelealuaka picked up the cripple and set him down on an eminence mauka of the battle-field, saying, ' remain you here and watch me. If I am killed in the fight do you return by the same way we came and report to the king." Kalelealuaka then addressed himself to the battle, but before attacking the enemy he revenged himself on those who had mocked and jeered at him for not joining the forces of Kakuhihewa. This done he turned his hand against the enemy who at the time were advancing and inflicting severe loss in the king's army. To what shall we compare the prowess of our hero? A man was plucked and torn in his hand as if he were but a leaf. The commotion in the ranks of the enemy was as when a powerful water-fowl lashes the water with his wings ( " 0 Haehaeka manu, ke ale nei ka wai"). Kalelealuaka moved forward in his work of destruction until he had slain the captain who stood beside the rebel chief, Kualii. From the fallen captain he took his feather cloak and helmet and cut off his right ear and the little finger of his right hand. Thus ended the slaughter that day. The enthusiasm of the cripple was roused to the highest pitch on witnessing the achievements of Kalelealuaka, and he determined to return and report that he had never seen his equal on the battle-field.

Page  41 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 4 4I Kalelealuaka returned to Puuloa and hid the feather cloak and helmet under the mats of bis bed, and having fastened the dead captain's ear and little finger to the side of the house laid down and slept. After a while when the two women, his wives, returned with the moss and shrimps he complained that the moss was not gathered as he had directed and that they had been gone such a long time that his appetitite had entirely left him, and he would not eat of what they had brought. At this the elder sister said nothing but the younger one muttered a few words to herself; and as they were all very tired they soon went to sleep. They had slept a good while when the tramp of the soldiers of Kakuhihewa was heard returning from the battle. The king immediately asked how the battle had gone. The soldiers answered that the battle had gone well but that Keinohoomanawanui alone had greatly distinguished himself. To this the king replied he did not tbelieve that the Sloven was a great warrior, but when the cripple returned he would learn the truth About midnight the footsteps of the lame marshal were heard out side of the king's house. Kakuhihewa called to him "C-o-m-e, how went the battle?" "Can't you-have-patience-and-let-me-take-breath?" said the marshal. Then, when he had rested himself he answered " They fought, but there was one man who excelled all the warriors in the land. He was from Waianae. I gave Waianae to him as a reward for carrying me." "It shall be his," said the king.,' "He tore a man to pieces," said the cripple," as he would tear a banana tree. The champion of Kualii's army he killed and plundered him of his feather cloak and helmet." "The soldiers say that Keinohoomanawanui was the hero of the day," said the king. " What!" said the cripple, " he did nothing. He merely strutted about. But this man-I never saw his equal; he had no spear, his only a weapons were his hands; if a spear was hurled at him. he warded it off with his hair; his hair and features by the way, greatly resemble those of your son-in-law." Thus they conversed till day break. After a few days again came a messenger announcing that the rebel, Kualii, was making war on the plains of Kulaokahua. On hearing this Kakuhihewa immediately collected his soldiers. As usual, the lame marshal set out in advance the evening before the battle. In the morning afterthe army had gone Kalelealuaka said to his wives, "I am thirsting for some water taken withthe snout of the calabash held downwards. I shall not relish it if it is taken with the snout turned up. Now Kalelealuaka knew that they could not fill the calabash if held in this way, but he resorted to this artifice to prevent the two young women from knowing of his miraculous flight to the battle.

Page  42 42 r HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. As soon as the young women had got out ot sight he hastened to Waialua and arrayed himself in the rough and shaggy wreaths of uki from the lagoons of Ukoa and of hinahina from Kealia. Thus arrayed he alighted behind the lame marshal as he climbed the hill at Napeha, slapped him on the back, exchanged greetings with him and received a compliment on his speed, and when asked whence he came answered from Waialua. The shrewd, observant cripple recognized the wreaths as being those of Waialua but he did not recognize the man, for the wreaths with which Kalelealuaka had decorated himself were of such a color-brownish grey-as to give him the appearance of a man of middle age. Again he lifted the cripple, as before and set him down on the brow of Puowaina (Punch Bowl hill) and received from the grateful cripple, as a reward for his service, all the land of Waialua for his own. This done, Kalelealuaka repeated the performances of the previous battle. The enemy melted away before him whichever way he turned. He stayed his hand only when he had slain the captain of the host and stripped him of his feather cloak and helmet, taking also his right ear and litttle finger. The speed with which Kalelealuaka returned to his house at Puuloa was like the flight of a bird. The spoils and trophies of this battle he disposed of as before. The two young women, Kalelealuaka's wives, turned the nozzle of the water-gourd downwards, as they were bidden, and continued to press it into the water, in the vain hope that it might rise and fill their container, until the noon day sun began to pour his rays directly upon their heads; but no water entered their calabash. Then the younger sister proposed to the elder to fill the calabash in the usual way, saying that Kalelealuaka would not know the difference. This they did and returned home. Kalelealuaka would not drink of the water, declaring that it had been dipped up. At this the younger wife laughed furtively; the elder broke forth and said, "It was due to the slowness of the way you told us to employ in getting the water; we are not accustomed to the menial office of fetching water; our father treated us delicately; and a man always fetched water for us, and we always used to see him, pour the water into the gourd with the nozzle turned up, but you trickily ordered us to turn the nozzle down; your exactions are heartless." Thus the women kept complaining until by and by the returning tramp of the soldiers was heard who were boasting of the great deeds of Keinohoomanawanui. The king, however, said "I do not believe a word of your talk,when my cripple comes he will tell me the truth. I do not believe that Keinohoomanawanui is an athlete, such is the opinion I have formed (kilohi) of him.But there is a powerful man, Kalelealuaka, if he were to go into battle I am confident lie would perform wonders. Such is the opinion I have formed of him after careful study." So the king waited for the return of the cripple Until night and all night until nearly dawn. When finally the lame marshal arrived the king

Page  43 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. prudently abstained from questioning him until he had rested awhile and taken breath, then he obtained from him the whole story of this new hero from Waialua, whose name he did not know but who, he declared, resembled the king's son in law, Kalelealuaka. Again on a certain day came the report of an attack by Kualii at Kulaokahua, and the battle was to be on the morrow. The cripple as usual started off the evening before. In the morning Kalelealuaka called to his wives and said "Where are you? wake up, I wish you to bake a fowl for me. Do it thus, pluck it, do not cut it open; but remove the inwards through the opening behind, then stuff it with luau from the same end and bake it; by no means cut it open lest you spoil the taste of it." As soon as they had left the house he flew to Kahuku and adorned his neck with wreaths of the pandanus fruit and his head with the flowers of the sugar-cane, thus entirely changing his appearance and making him look like a grey-haired old man. As on previous days he lighted behind the cripple and greeted him with a friendly slap on the back. Then he kindly lifted the lame man and set him down on Puowaina hill (Punch Bowl). In return for this act of kindness the cripple gave him the district of Koolau. In this battle Kalelealuaka first slew those soldiers in Kakuhihewa's army who had spoken ill of him. Then he turned his hand against the warriors of Kualii, smiting them as with the stroke of lightening, and displaying miraculous powers. When he had reached the captain of Kualii's force he killed him and despoiled his body of his feather cloak and helmet, taking also a little finger and toe. With these he flew to the cripple whom he lifted and bore in his flight as far as Waipio and there dropped him at a point just below where the water bursts forth at Waipahu. Arrived at his house Kalelealuaka after disposing of his spoils lay down and slept. After he had slept several hours his wives came along in none too pleased a mood and awoke him saying his meat was cooked. Kalelealuaka merely answered that it was so late his apetite had gone and he did not care to eat. At this slight his wives said "Well now, do you think we are accustomed to work? We ought to live without work like king's daughters, and when the men have prepared the food then go and eat it." The women were still muttering over their grievance when along came the soldiers boasting the powers of Keinohoomanawanui, and as they passed Kalelealuaka's door they said it were well if the two wives of this fellow who lounges at home in time of war were given to such a brave and noble warrior as Keinohoomanawanui. The sun was just sinking below the ocean when the footsteps of the cripple were heard at the king's door which he entered and sat down. After a short time the king asked him about the battle. "The valor and prowess of this third man were even greater than those of the previous ones; yet all three resemble each other. This day, however, he first avenged himself by slaying those who had spoken ill of him. He killed

Page  44 44 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. the captain of Kualii's army and took his feather cloak and helmet. On my return he lifted me as far as Waipahu." In a few days again came a report that,Kualii had an army at a place called Kahapaakai in Nuuanu. Maliuhaaino immediately marshaled his forces and started for the scene of battle the same evening. Early the next morning Kalelealuka awakened his wives and said to them "Let us breakfast, but do you two eat quietly in your own house and I in my house with the dogs, and do not come until I call you." So they did, and the two women went and breakfasted by themselves. At his own house Kalelealuaka ordered Kaluhe to stir up the dogs and keep them barking until his return. Then he sprang away and lighted at Kapakakolea, where he overtook the cripple, whom after the usual interchange of greetings he lifted and set him down at a place called Waolani (heavenly wilderness). On this day his first action Was to smite and slay those who had reviled him at his own door. That done he made a great slaughter among the soldiers of Kaulii: then turning he seized Keinohoomanawanui, threw him down and asked him how he became blinded in one eye. "It was lost," said the Sloven, "from the thrust of a spear, in a combat with Olopana." " Yes, to be sure," said Kalelealuaka, "while you and I were living together at Wailuku, you being on one side of the stream and I on the other, a kukui nut burst in the fire and that was the spear that put out your eye." When the Sloven heard this he hung his head. Then Kalelealuaka seized him to put him to death when the spear of the Sloven pierced the fleshy part of Kalelealuaka's left arm, and in plucking it out the spearhead remained in the wound. Kalelealuaka killed Keinohoomanawanui and beheaded him, and running to the cripple laid the trophy at his feet with the words " I present you, Maliuhaaino, with the head of Keinohoomanawanui." This done he returned to the battle and went on slaying until he had advanced to the captain of Kualii's forces whom he killed and spoiled of his feather cloak and helmet. When Kualii saw that his chief captain, the bulwark of his power, was slain, he retreated and fled up Nuuanu Valley, pursued by Kalelealuaka, who overtook him at the head of the valley. Here Kualii surrendered himself, saying: " Spare my life. The land shall all go to Kakuhihewa, and I will dwell on it as a loyal subject under him and create no disturbance as long as I live." To this the hero replied: "Well said' I spare your life on these terms. But, if you, at any time, foment a rebellion, I will take your life I So then, return, and live quietly at home and do not stir up any war in Koolau." Thus warned Kualii set out to return to the " deep blue palis of Koolau "(na pali hauliuli o Koolau ")While the lame marshal was trudging homeward, bearing the head of the Sloven, Kalelealuaka alighted from his flight at his house and

Page  45 HAWAIIAN AIMANAC AND ANNUAL. 45 having disposed in his usual manner of his spoils immediately called to his wives to rejoin him at his own house. The next morning after the sun was warm, the cripple arrived at the house of the king in a state of great excitement and was immediately questioned by him as to the issue of the battle. "The battle was altogether successful,"said the marshal;" but Keinohoomanawanui was killed. I brought his head along with me and placed it on the altar, mauka of Kalawao. But I would advise you to send at once your fleetest runners through Kona and Koolau, commanding everybody to assemble in one place, that I may review them and pick out and vaunt as the bravest that one whom I shall recognize by certain marks —for I have noted him well —and he is wounded in the left arm." Now Kakuhihewa's two swiftest runners (kukini) were Keakealani and Kuhelemoana. They were so fleet that they could compass Oahu six times in a forenoon, or twelve times in a whole day. These two were sent to call together all the men of the king's domain. The men of Waianae came that same day and stood in review on the sandy plains of Puuloa. But among them all was not one who bore the marks sought for. Then came the men of Kona, of Waialua, and of lioolau, but the man was not found. Then the lame marshall came and stood before the king and said, Your bones shall rest in peace Kalani. (" Ol/a na iwi, e Kalani.") You had better send now and summon your son-in-law to come and stand before me; for he is the man." Then Kakuhihewa arose and went himself to the house of his son-in-law and called to his daughters that he had come to get their husband to go and stand before Maliuhaaino. Then Kalelealuaka lifted up the mats of his bed- and took out the feather cloaks and the helmets and arrayed his two wives, and Kaluhe and himself. Putting them in line he stationed the elder of his wives first, next to her the younger, and third Kaluhe, and placing himself at the rear of the file he gave the order to march and thus accompanied he went forth to obey the king's command. The lame marshal saw them coming and in ecstacy he prostrated himself and rolled over in the dust. "The feather cloak and the helmet on your elder daughter is the one taken from the captain of Kualii's army in the first day's fight, those on your second daughter from the captain of the second, day's fight, while those on Kalelealuaka himself are from the captain killed in the battle on the fourth day. You will live but perhaps I shall die, since he is weary of carrying me." The lame marshal went on praising and eulogizing Kalelealuaka as he drew near. Then addressing the hero he said, " I recognize you, having met you before. Now show your left arm to the king and to this whole assembly that they may see where you were wounded by the spear." Then Kalelealuakabared his left arm and displayed his wound to the astonished multitude. Thereupon Kakuhihewa said, "Kalelealuaka and

Page  46 46 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. my daughters, do you take charge of the kingdom and I will pass int(: the ranks of the common people under you." After this a new arrangement of the lands was made and the country had peace until the death of Kakuhihewa; Kalelealuaka also lived peace fully until death took him. N. B. EMERSON. Honolulu, November io, 1884. " HAWAIIAN NAMES OF RELATIONSHIP ETC." (In reply to Ren. C. M. Hyde.) In the " Hawaiian Almanac and Annual" for 1884, Honolulu, appears on page 42 an article by Rev. C. M. Hyde, D. D., under the title of Hawaiian Names of Relationships, of Consanguinity and Affinity, which has attracted my attention. It is pleasant and encouraging to others, like myself, to see men of cultured minds and literary tastes, like Doctor Hyde, interest themselves in the history, lives and usages of the ancient Hawaiians, and not sit down content with condemning them unheard as a lot of savages who had no past and will have no hereafter. Every contribution like Doctor Hyde's, by its own merits, and b) eliciting discussion on mooted points, helps lo advance our knowledge and correct our conceptions of the actual status mental, moral and social, of the old Hawaiian —of the Hawaiian as he was before he entered the transition desert which lies between a semi-barbarous people and a, to them, span new civilization and creed. That desert has not yet been passed; and, until it is, the candid historian will suspend his judgment of the capabilities of a people who are still purblind, as it were, from being forced out of comparative darkness into the intense glare of a nineteenth-century, high-pressure civilization. I would therefore offer my remarks upon some of the "Names of Relationships, etc," where I think a fuller explanation may be accept able. i. Dr. Hyde says, under the caption "Keiki," that I"Keiki-wahinel is girl." If that is not a misprint, [which it was, Ed.] the doctor has been led into error by following the nomenclature of Lewis H. Morgan too closely.. Kai-kama-hine is the Hawaiian for "a daughter" and for "a girl." 2. Dr. Hyde says: ' Kama is the general term for 'child.' * * * 'Hookamakama is to prostitute,' etc." It seems to me that the doctor confounds the two words referred to. Kama, " the general name for child," connects itself with the verb kama, "to bind, tie, make fast, to lead, direct.' Hence the word conveys the sense of connection, relation. Its derivatives bring out this original sense more fully, as in the Samoan and Fijian tama, "father, the Tonga tamai, "father," the Tahitian tama-here, "a nurse." Hence

Page  47 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 47 ldso Haw. hookarna, "to adopt a child," /. e., to cause it to he connected with oneself. Hoo-kama-kama, the causative of hamna-kama, "to practice prostitution" refers itself to the Haw. kamai "to play the whoremonger," as judge Andrews defines it, and this refers itself to kama, "the first husband of a wife," "a love-match," to use a modern phrase. The different pronunciations of the a indicate the different origins ot the two words referred to. I am not aware that the latter occurs in other Polynesian dialects with a similar sense, but probably the primary, material, underlying sense may be found, where so much other Polynesian lore was deposited, in the Fijian tama, "to clap the hands together as an:xpression of respect or reverence to a god or chief," "to ejaculate a prayer when approaching a sacred place or thing." In Sanskrit tama, "'wish, desire, love, the God of love," with its derivatives kamatman, kamarasika and kamin, verging strongly to the sense of the Hawaiian kama-kama, is but one of a thousand links that bind the Aryan and Polynesian tongues together. 3. Dr. Hyde says "Afakua is parent." In analysing this word we arrive at the same root as that of Akua, '(God," viz.: Ku, "to rise up, to stand, be erect, powerful." Ma-ku-a, with prefix ma intensive; see my "An Account of the Polynesian Race," vol. ii., p. 365, etc. This combination gives also the Hawaiian 1ma-ku, adj., "full-grown, firm, hard." 'that ma is a prefix I conclude from the variableness of the vowel, the word being me-tua and mo-tua in some of the Polynesian dialects. 4. Dr. Hyde says: "EHanai, 'to make eat,' joined to the word ftr child or parent, expresses the foster relationship." The doctor apparently follows Judge Andrews (Haw. Dict.) in analysing this word into hana-ai which I do not think correct, and which would convey a rather different meaning. I think it should be written hana-i, and that i is merely an emphatic and intensitive suffix like iin u-i, like i in holo-i, and numerous other instances. My reason for so thinking is that in the Samoan and Tonga dialects the word hana still exists with the sense of "to feed, to nourish," in the duplicate form fa-fanga. The New Zeal., like the Haw., had added the i inten — sive and have whanga-i, "to feed." 5. "Luaui," Dr. Hyde says, "is used to denote a parent by birth, nr, quite generally, as a term of respect in old age." This word has two other forms in Hawaiian, lua-u and lua-hine. In Tahitian rua-u means "old, stricken in years, an old man or woman." In Mangaia rue-ne means "an old woman." In Marquesan ua-hine, id. It doubtless refers itself to the Haw. lua-lua, " be flexible, pliant, soft, old, as worn garments," to the Fiji rusa, " decayed," and to the Tahitian rufa, "worn out garments." 6. Dr. Hyde says " Kolea was originally the real parent. It is now used like our stepfather, stepmother." As this word does not occur in any other Polynesian dialect, to my

Page  48 48 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. knowledge, in the sense of either "the real parent" or of a step-parent, male or female, so far from considering it as an "original" name for r real parent, I would look upon it as a comparatively modern Hawaiian nick-name for a step father or step-mother. The proper meaning of kolea, torea, loloa, within the Polynesian area is that of "a water fowl, a duck." I believe, at present, it is a slang word with Hawaiians, and not very complimentary. 7. The terms kaikuahine, kaikunane, kaikuaana, kaikaina ant their explanations, as given by Dr. Hyde, are mainly correct. For a better understanding, however, of their analysis, they should have been written kai-kna-hine, kai-ku-nane, kai-kua ana, kai-kai-na, and the doctor might have added a-kaiama-hine, "a daughter." The kai is one of those ancient expressions for a family relation which has dropped out of use in most of the Polynesian dialects. In Tongaa kai means "people, populace," kakai, "inhabitants of a village"; in Haw. kaka. means "a company, a family, including servants and dependents"; in Fiji kai means "inhabitants," kai Tonga, kai Viti; in Tahitian, tai. as a family designation, occurs in taz-moo-lua, "having grandchildren," tai-o, "a friend"; in Samoan, anai, " a town or village." The Hawaiian has retained the kai as a prefix of relationship in the foregoing examples; the other dialects have mostly dropped it with the exception of the term used to denote a younger brother or sister, which is tei, feina, kainga, kai-na. 'Ihe analysis of kna I have referred to under No. 3 of this article. The third compound-hine in kai-kua hine-refers itself to the ancient Polynesian female designation hina, which meets us under the varying dialectical forms of hine, ine, fine. bine. Thus Tonga and Samoan fa-fine, "a woman"; Rarotonga va-ine, id., N. Z.: Tama-hine, "a daughter, a girl"; Sallbabo, ba-bineh, "woman"; Sula Islands, fina, id; Amboyna, ma-hina, id; Madura, ba-hine, id. The third compound in the Haw., kai-ku-nane does not now occur singly in any Polynesian dialect that I am aware of. In the Fiji, however, it occurs singly as ngane, and there means either "a male s sister, or a female's brother." In Eastern Polynesia the sense is limited to ';a female's brother"; Sam., tua-ngane; Tahit., tu-ane; Marqu., tu-nane, Haw., kai-ku-nane. 8. Dr. Hyde says: "Kupuna (ku, puna, 'starting point') source,' is grandparent or ancestor." I cannot concur in the etymology advanced by Dr. Hyde. It is true that the Haw., kupuna, the N. Z., Tahit., and Marqu., tupuna seem almost to invite such an analysis; but the Samoan and Tonga forms of this word are tupu-anga, evidently showing that it is a verbal participle used as a substantive, and that it derives from the verb kuput tupu, "to sprout, spring up, increase." Hence the Samoan substantive, tupu, "a high chief, a king." 9. Dr. Hyde says: " Kaala is 'widower or widow.'" This word stands alone in the Hawaiian dialect. The other Polynesian dialects make use of other words to express the same meaning

Page  49 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. ',49 l'he etymology of kaala is unknown to me. [According to Mrs. E. M. Beckley, kaala means low and degraded, poverty stricken. It is used in moo-kaala, a low. vulgar, useless lizard, as distinct from moo-kaula, the sacred lizard]. Io. Dr. Hyde says: " Puluna is the relationship of the parents of a married couple." This word is connected with the Tahitian purua, "a father or mother-in-law," puru-taa, "to help together, to assist," with the Samoan pupulu, "to interpose, to mediate," pulu-pulu, "to cover up, as with a cloth," and with pulu, "the husk of a cocoanut." 11. Doctor Hyde says: "Hoao, 'to try,' is the aboriginal Hawaiian word for marriage." The Doctor is certainly wrong when he explains hoao in its relation to ancient Hawaiian marriage by "to try." The word hoo, as applied to marriage derives from "to cause" and ao, "to become light, clear, manifest "; and Judge Andrews in his Hawaiian Dictionary, S. V. has correctly translated it by "to make public a marriage contract after the ancient manner; to cohabit after marriage." The wahine hoao of olden times, especially before the advent of the foreigner, was not the light and wanton thing which modern writers sometimes imaginie. She had her rights as well as her duties under the old customs and social laws. She was not the paramour or the mistress to be turned adrift, after trial, at the whim of her master. She was generally hoo-palau, or "betrothed," before marriage, and no convent pensionaire was closer watched by argus-eyed duennas, than was this girl by her parents and kindred until her future husband took her home and publicly proclaimed her-'hoao-as his wife. She then was the lawful wife of her husband; her children were his legitimate heirs, and she could not be turned away or killed except for cause of infidelity. True, polygamy was practiced by the chiefs and those who could afford it, but society and the laws drew a marked distinction between the w7ahine hoao of a chief-be it one or several —and his concubines, haia-uwahine. 12. "Hoo-palau, to 'betroth," says Dr. Hyde, "is a word of modern usage." Dr. Hyde must have been misinformed. I have found the word, and the custom referred to, in several of the ancient kaaos (legends) in my collection. Laielohelohe, the Oahu chiefess, was betrothed-hoopalau-ia-to Piilani, the Maui king, and was such for some considerable time until he went to Oahu and espoused her-hoao. Piikea, the daughter of Piilani and Laielohelohe, was betrothed-hoopalau-ia-to UmiaLiloa, the Hawaii king, by proper diplomatic negotiations, and never saw her future husband until Umi sent a fleet of war-canoes to Maui to bring her over to Waipio, where the nuptials were celebrated; and numerous other instances. Those referred to took place 13 and I4 generations ago, or some 400 years. and are certainly not very "modern." 13. "It thus appears," says Dr. Hyde, "-that the Hawaiian lan guage has no specific terms answering to our English father, mother

Page  50 50 * HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL,. son, daughter, brother, sister, boy, girl, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece, cousin. But there are specific words for relations we express in English by compounding terms of phrases, etc." That is perfectly correct, not only of the Hawaiian, but of the entire Polynesian branch of languages; and in so far they come within the category of " concrete languages " according to the classification of Prof. Gustave Oppert. A valid argument perhaps in favor of their antiquity, but far from valid when used as an argument against the capacity of those who use them. Prof. Oppert, in his work " On the Classifications of Languages," London, 1879, makes a radical distinction between " concrete" and "abstract" languages; and his test-lines appear to be the manner in which different pe(oples express the family relations of father, mother, child, boy, girl, son, daughter, brother, sister, etc. The Semitic and Aryan, or Indo-European, are alone classed* as " abstract" languages, while the rest of mankind belongs to the " concrete " languages. "Abstraction," says Prof. Oppert, is "the result of deduction from the concrete, it is in consequence posterior in time to it. It presupposes a deductive, analytic faculty which is not common to all. The capability of passing from concreteness to abstractness is the touch-stone of language. * * * * Abstractive power presupposes therefore a certain degree of superior mental activity"; p. 36. Again, on p. 44, Prof. Oppert says, "We do not contend that concrete expressions of relationship were never used in abstract languages, but we say that if they were used they were dropped at a very early stage, so that hardly any traces of them now can be found in any abstract language." There is some comfort to a "concrete" speaking man in the last quotation. When Prof. Oppert informs us under what conditions and circumstances the now abstract speaking denizens of the earth laid aside their older concrete expressions for family relations, we may be able to form an approximate judgment how far the retention of those concrete expressions by the rest of mankind be owing to a want of that "superior mental activity," or to the want of similar modifying conditions and circumstances. Suppose the comparison between concrete and abstract languages had been made when the ancient Chaldean-who, if Fred Lenormant and that school of Orientalists be correct, was of Turanian race and spoke a concrete language-ruled over the S. W. portions of Asia, and when the Aryan yet lay hidden in the valleys of the Hindu Kush, and the Semite skulked in the forests and foot-hills of the Armenian Mountains, suppose the comparison then made, who would have proclaimed the inferior mental activity of the concrete speaking Turanian Chaldean? Are the Magyar and the Fin, concrete speaking peoples, inferior in mental activity or mental capacity to the Arab or the Celt, who are abstract speaking peoples? Are the former inferior because they have retained the concrete expressions which the latter laid aside some four, five or six thousand years ago? And so with the Polynesian. Is he to be adjudged of inferior mental activity and capacity, because he has retained the concrete expressions in language which his ancestors, under. 4~~~~~~~~~~~~

Page  51 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 5 circumstances unknown to us, discarded long before history deigned to notice their existence? Which change or disuse, however, did not prevent some of those Aryan cousins and Semitic neighbors from being at one time the most religiously immoral people on the face of the earth, if judged by the Christian standard of morality. I have dwelt perhaps a little longer on this point, than I ought to have done in an article so ephemeral as this; but Dr. Hyde's remarks seemed to me to imply, perhaps unconsciously to himself, a similarity of reasoning and a similarity of conclusion to that of Prof. Oppert. 14. Dr. Hyde says: "Among the Hawaiians there was no tribal organization, no tribal ownership of land, no subordination of the individual to the tribe. The social organism recognized the highest chief as the highest ruler. That is mainly correct so far as the Hawaiian is concerned for the last eight hundred years, or perhaps a little less. But in regard to the Polynesians generally the tribal system seems to have been the paramount organization from before the time that they first entered the Pacific, and was brought with them to the various groups where they fi nally settled. It existed in full force in New Zealand, in Samoa, in Marquesas, as late as the discovery of those groups in the last century. 15. In his closing remarks Dr. Hyde says: "In the utter absence of what we mean by the husband and the family, in the loose promiscuous intercourse in which men and women indulged with little or no restraint, we should expect to find utter social disorganization and disintegration, but there must have been somewhere, somehow, checks and balances that kept the social life in working order with some wholesome restraints." The first portion of the doctors remarks contains some strong assertions which are not justified by the social usages and actual every-day life of the old Hawaiian before the foreigner came and enlightened him how to defy his ancient Gods with impunity, how to evade the tabus, how to draw profit from sensuality, and how to kill himself with rum. The social and family affections were as strong in the old Hawaiians, as in any modern people, Christian or Pagan, although they used "concrete "terms to designate father or mother. The ancient legends are full of the most touching instances of marital love and of filial affection. The husband who puts away his wife —his wahine hoao ---except for cause, had to reckon with her relatives; and the wife who clandestinely dishonored her husband's bed generally paid the forfeit with her life. The degrees of relationship were most intimate and more endearing among the old Hawaiians than among many modern nations. Their fourth and fifth degrees of consanguinity were not only called, but considered and cherished as brothers and sisters. The intercourse between the sexes was regulated by rules and tabus, long ago discarded and now hardly remembered. And the old legends, in depicting ancient social life, give no warrant for accusing the Hawaiians, as a people, of "indulging in promiscuous intercourse." That was one of the many dead sea apples which the foreigner,.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Page  52 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. planted on the ruins of the old tabus. Any comparison that may be made between the Hawaiians of fifty years before Cook's arrival and fifty years afterwards can only result to the credit of the former period; and any comparison of the Hawaiians of either period with an ideal Christian community is as unfair as it is uncritical. In the latter part of the remarks above quoted, Dr. Hyde says: "But there must have been somewhere, somehow, checks and balances that kept the social life in working order, etc." As the doctor's diagnosis of the social life of the old Hawaiians, before Cook's arrival, is incorrect, I need not dwell upon the "checks and balances" which then " kept the social life in working order." They were patent, of immemorial usage, and of sufficient force to ensure comparative peace, an abundant food-supply and an increasing population. During the period that followed Cook's arrival, and up to the advent of the Christian missionaries, those ' checks and balances" were strained to the utmost and finally broke down completely. No wonder that, when the missionaries arrived, they found a moral darkness without compare, a social looseness that baffles description, a land without a God or a religion-for the tabus had been abolished, the heiaus closed, and the ancient priesthood-virtually self-effaced before the missionaries arrived. And the 'facilis descensus Averni" kept on for many years after their arrival. All honor to their zeal, all credit for what they accomplished, although their methods may not always have been the most judicious. They had to create, as well as to direct; and the "checks and balances," which now are slowly but surely gaining the acceptance of the people, are their crown of glory, their title to grateful remembrance. I have had opportunities of knowing this people for fifty years. I saw them probably at their lowest ebb, immediately after the disturbance of Kaomi in i833; I saw them again during the occupation of Lord George Paulet in I843, and have lived here ever since, noting the upward progress of the people; and I feel justified in saying that the moral malaria —which was the inevitable result of the sudden transition from one condition of life to another-has spent its force, and that the moral sentiment of the people now is sufficiently strong to frown down and to prevent a repetition of the scenes which disgraced the earlier years of this transition period. Dr. Hyde, therefore, errs if he attributes the moral darkness, the social looseness, in which the missionaries found this people, to the old Hawaiians of fifty years and upwards before Cook's time. They and their institutions, their "checks and balances " had passed away. They have a history of their own which I have endeavored to redeem from oblivion. Kamehameha I, was the last of the old Hawaiians. He should have died with the century that saw him born, for even his strong will and generally sound judgment could not arrest the downward course of his nation, when once it had fairly plunged into the transition desert. x6. Dr. Hyde says "Sixty years of Christian teaching, with but impertect opportunity for Christian training, have not sufficed to root

Page  53 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL,. 53 out old ideas and habits, and ingraft new principles into Hawaiian life, but only to initiate some new methods." Let the Doctor thank God for what has been done, and soften his impatience by the reflection that the transition period of his and my ancestors extended over several centuries; and that even now some of the lower strata of Europe probably do not stand any higher in civilization than corresponding strata in Hawaii. As Dr. Hyde refers in his. article to Lewis H. Morgan's book, published in 187, as No. 2 8, of the "Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge," I may be permitted to refer him to the same author's work, called "Ancient Society," New York, i878, pp. 414-15. Mr. Morgan apparently only knew the old Hawaiians from information obtained from Rev. Messrs. Bingham and Bishop, yet he has a good word to say for them, which other writers would do well to note. ABRAHAM FORNANDER. Lahaina, January 19, I884. RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR 1884. Events of the year now drawing to a close have given the friends of Hawaii no little solicitude, from the fact that the little nation had so far fallen into bad hands that many steps of importance taken by the government seemed unworthy the enlightment of this age. A persistence to defeat the will of the people, and particularly to oppose many reasonable desires of the moneyed interests of the country, have been predominant throughout, and tried and trusty servants who had served through the reigns of successive Hawaiian kings, have been ruthlessly removed from office with the excuse of not being "in accord" with the government. Little evidence has been shown by the administrations of any desire for the good of the country in such changes, since personal favoritism rather than the public good has been sought, and the successive acts of this administration have but widened the breach between the ruled and the rulers. Election matters claimed the attention of the populace with the opening of the year and to theashame of the government it has to be again recorded that it strenuously fought against the election of honorable and independent men for representatives, that would have served the country and their constituents alike with credit. At no time perhaps in the history of this nation have party lines been so marked and the issues for good or ill so clearly shown as during the period under review. The legislative session was a long and bitter one and resulted in an extravagant appropriation. A number of pernicious acts were introduced, some of which were fraught with great danger to the country, principally the bank charter, which soon became notorious from the outrageous character of its provisions; as also the lottery bills. Loud protests against these threatening evils came from all parts of the islands, through which and the exertions of the independent members, the death

Page  54 54 * HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. blow to Hawaii's autonomy was averted. Some modification of the evils of the liquor law was also obtained, after much labor before the assembly and in committee. An important act to regulate the currency was also passed, seeking to oust all except Hawaiian and United States coin and give the kingdom a gold basis for all sums over ten dollars. rhe measure was further intended to relieve us of all debased coins and bring us in a position to check high rates of exchange. The session of 1884 will also be memorable for the disgraceful showing of the reckless expenditures of the government, without warrant or authority of law, and confused or want of system of accounts in some departments. 'as was shown by the Finance committee's report. The noble stand of the independent members against official appointments and other governmental influences met with recognition in a public reception at the close of the session at the hands of the principal tax-payers of this city. As affairs political have had no bright outlook for the interested observer, neither have commercial or agricultural enterprises afforded the usual returns upon the capital and labor expended. Trade has fallen off materially during the year, and high rates of exchange have prevailed since the large influx of Hawaiian silver. This has been a heavy tax to importers, few of whom have sought to place its burden on the consumer, hoping it to be but temporary. To their relief it dropped for the November mail to three and a half per cent, a reduction of nearly five per cent. The exceeding low prices realized for our articles of export have, naturally, been the main cause of this depression of trade. The production of sugar for the year has exceeded that of I883, though from the decline of prices therefor, which has been universal throughout the year, reduced the income of Hawaiian plantations so materially that little but actually necessary extensions have been undertaken. Retrenchment and economy are closely studied throughout, and demands have been made for cheaper labor as a necessity. Immigration from the Azores and Madeira has been continued again the past year, but this labor is found too expensive for general plantation work. The long mooted Japanese immigration scheme promises inauguration within a few months, but even this is feared by many planters as being at figures beyond which the present rates of sugar will warrant them in paying. An application to the government tc? withdraw its restrictions on Chinese immigration was made by the Planters' Labor and Supply Company at their recent annual gathering, to admit two thousand laborers as early as possible, for a relief of the threatening difficulties; but without effect ---the government's objections being in the main, sound ones. Some further addition to the labor needs of the plantations have again been added from the South Sea islands, but that class also becomes expensive from the length of time required for a trip and their return home on termination of their contracts, so that it is hardly probable that any further effort will be made in that direction. Passenger movements for I884 have continued with about the same proportion in our favor as has ruled for some time past. The

Page  55 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 55 custom house records show the arrivals up to September 3oth to be 6,038 and the departures 4,188, leaving us a gain of 1,850 souls. At the close of the year a new official census will be taken which. according to law, occurs every six years. The weather throughout this year has been uniformly pleasant, with a rainfall more evenly distributed than usual. This has been a great relief to the water supply of Honolulu and a boon to the planting and grazing interests in the various districts of the different islands. The fall rains too set in earlier than usual, October furnishing us with copious rains. Building in Honolulu and suburbs has not been as active this year as last, the most important public buildings being the Spreckels' block, adjoining Wilder & Co.'s, on Fort Street; the Library and Reading Room Association's building, corner of Hotel and Alakea Streets; the Mutual Telephone Co.'s new building, corner of Merchant and Alakea; the new Hall of Records and Survey Department, etc., offices, near the government building, and the Police Station, now in course of erection on Merchant Street, opposite the Sailors' Home. Of private residences the most notable are, that of James Campbell at the base of Diamond Head, just beyond Kapiolani Park, and P. C. Jones' and Thomas Foster's, on Nuuanu Avenue, besides several extensions and improvements to homes less pretentious. Allusion has been made above to the falling off of trade this year, and the principal causes assigned given. Imports naturally fell off under the existing circumstances, so that the custom's revenue, recently reported for the six months ending September 3oth, was $260,584.67 as against $292,474.15 for the same period of I883, a deficit of $32,110.52. By the courtesy of Col. C. P. Iaukea, collector general, we have the following particulars of import values for the nine months ending September 30th: Value of goods free by treaty, $1,917,967.71; goods dutiable, $1,020,615.28; goods and spirits bonded, $201,541.76; goods free by civil code, $206,252.57; and specie, $766,794.15, making a total of imports for the period of $3,346,377.32 against $3,986,2I0.5 for the same period of I883, a deficit of $990,871 92 on commodities. Yet notwithstanding this reduction of importations the market seems well stocked with all needed supplies. Exports for the same period shows a gain in valuation over the preceding year's similar term of $I54,528.61, the total value for the nine months being $7,027,112.26. Had our main articles of produce, sugar and rice, realized anything like former figures, the gainswould have been a handsome increase, for the increase in sugar exports alone was 24,278,070 pounds over the nine months of I883, having exported a total of 124,271,382 pounds for i884 up to September 3oth. If to this is added the export of sugar for the last quarter of 1883, of 13,835,773, then we have 138,385,225 pounds, or a little over 69,192 tons as the export crop of Hawaiian sugar for 1884. This is over the amount that had been estimated, while on the other hand rice, which had been

Page  56 56 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. estimated to turn out 6,ooo tuns this year, has only exported 5,ooo tons. Both cleaned rice and paddy have declined materially this year, and strengthens the view expressed in former Annuals that we had reached the limit of rice production. Besides sugar, the only articles of increase in this year's exports, up to September 3oth, were wool, bananas, sheep skins and fungus. Molasses, paddy, rice, coffee, hides, tallow, goat and calf skins having fallen off. The new Hawaiian coins came into circulation January 14, 1884, simultaneously with the announcement of the opening of the new bank of Spreckels & Co. In sanitary matters few changes have as yet been undertaken by the Board of Health, although liberal appropriations were placed at its disposal by the last legislature. The care of the afflicted of the nation is a subject of much solicitude, and at times has given rise to alarm and uneasiness in the public mind, which led to the medical inspection of all schools in the early part of the year. The Board has at last done the humane act of sending a resident physician to the unfortunates at Kalawao. Foreign shipping has declined considerable this year, owing to the regular semi-monthly trips of the steamers Mariposa and Alameda between this port and San Francisco, which have afforded ample passenger and freight accommodation, and with the monthly call of the Pacific Mail steamers to and from San Francisco and the colonies the mail facilities have been frequent. The coasting fleet, for the most part, have been employed through the year, but have met with a larger average of mishaps than for some time past, nine having been lost and two withdrawn and broken up. Two new schooners and one new steamer, the W. G. Hall, for the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company's lines, have been added. During the summer Mr. S. G. Wilder made an extensive purchase of Capt. T. H. Hobron's Maui interests, including the Wailuku, Kahului and Paia Railroad and the steamer Kilauea Hou, since which the Likelike has been put on as the regular weekly packet for windward ports of Maui. Honolulu has been free so long from disastrous fires that the few afflictions of that class this year have been the more noticeable, that of Love's bakery, on Nuuanu Street, being the most severe, resulting in the destruction of eight buildings, which, with goods destroyed, resulted in a total loss of about $30,000. The night following, the Madeira Bazar, on King Street, was burned out, loss about $io,ooo. In November, Fire-Marshal MeGuire's residence and all its contents were burned to the ground. The Fire Department is now fully equipped with four steam engines, one hook and ladder and one hose company, but the water supply of the city remains the same. The ruthless hand of death has removed a number of honored and prominent residents again this year, viz: Mrs. C. Makee, Mrs. B. P. Bishop, Princess Kekaulike, Revs. J. Sessions, G. B. Rowell, W. P.

Page  57 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 57 Alexander and D. B. Lyman, G. J. Emmes, Capt. T. Spencer, B. F. Bolles, O. G. Clifford, H. May and D. McCartney. The Mutual Telephone Company have been putting up their wires throughout the city and plan to commence operations January 1st. The Hawaiian Agricultural Society has done considerable good in encouraging interest in live stock, in fruits, flowers and other Hawaiian productions. Its show this year was held in Kapiolani Park, and was an extremely creditable one. The feasibility of combining the Agricultural Society ard the Planters' Labor and Supply Company has been discussed. Such a combination ought to result in great good. Steps have been taken during the year to protect Hawaiian live stock from infection by imported stock. A veterinary surgeon, said to have had extensive experience, has been appointed, and the outlook for a better condition of animal health seems more hopeful than it has been during the year. Although the retrospect forthe year I884, as above condensed, is not in all features encouraging, and although the outlook for i885 is not particularly encouraging, yet their is reason to believe that such economy in domestic and in political affairs may be brought about by the union and organization of the right-minded men of all class as may result in the permanent advancement of the commonwealth. CUSTOM HOUSE REGULATIONS, PORT CHARGES, ETC. The following extracts from the Hawaiian Tariff and Digest of the Laws and regulations of the Customs, Pilot and Harbor regulations, &c., revised, is published by request for the benefit of the Mercantile Marine. The full text of the Tariff and Digest can be had in the Annual for I88o. PORT REGULATIONS-PILOTAGE. Upon the arrival of any vessel making the usual signal for a pilot, it shall be the duty of the pilot at the port to immediately put off to such vessel, taking with him a white and a yellow flag; to enquire into the sanitary condition of the ship and the health of those on board; and upon being assured to his satisfaction that there is no danger to be apprehended from any contagious disease, he shall board such vessel, but not otherwise. Upon boarding the vessel, the pilot shall present the commanding officer with a Health Certificate to be signed by him, and in case the same shall be signed, the white flag shall be immediately hoisted at the main, and the pilot shall be at liberty to bring the vessel into port; but in case the commanding officer shall decline to sign the certificate of health, the pilot shall deliver him a yellow flag, which the master shall hoist at the main, and the vessel shall be placed in quarantine, outside of the harbor, and anchored where the pilot may direct. Any pilot who shall conduct a vessel into any port in this Kingdom,

Page  58 58E HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. * in violation of the provisions of this law, or any of the Regulations of the Board of Health, or knowing that there is just ground to suspect the existence of contagion on board, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Five Hundred Dollars. Every vessel, the master of which shall have declined to sign a certificate of health as above prescribed, shall, upon entering port, be liable to seizure, confiscation and sale. If the pilot, after boarding any vessel, shall discover the existence of a contagious disease, he shall not return on shore; neither shall it be lawful for any of the ship's company or passengers to land or communicate with the shore, or board any other vessel, without permission of the Board of Health, or the Collector, under penalty of a fine not exceeding Five Hundred Dollars. The Pilots of Honolulu shall bring the vessel which they may takt: charge of, fully within the harbor, and anchor her in a suitable and convenient place, under penalty of forfeiting their commission. * * * * * If any foreign or Hawaiian vessel engaged in foreign trade shall enter or depart from any of the ports for which pilots may be appointed. without a pilot, such vessels shall be liable to one half pilotage. All vessels anchoring outside the reef at Honolulu shall, when so requested by the Harbor Master or any pilot, change their anchorage and anchor in such place as he may direct, under penalty of a fine not exceeding One Hundred Dollars. At ports where there are no pilots, the regularly appointed boarding officers shall do and perform all the duties prescribed for pilots. The pilot's fees, boarding officer's fees and health fees shall form a part of the port charges, which shall be paid by every vessel to the Collectof of the port before a clearance is granted. PILOT'S FEES. For all mail steamers of Iooo tons or upwards, in or out..............$ 50 oo For all transient steamers of 1ooo tons or upwards, in or out............ 75 oo For all war vessels, in or out, per foot draught................... 2 oo For all sailing vessels under 200, in or out, per foot..................... I 50 All other vessels and steamers, in or out, per ton......................... 05 For anchoring a vessel outside................................ 20 oo In case such vessel comes into the harbor, (an extra).................... 10 oo If detaining pilot over 24 hours, additional pay per day.................... 7 oo Boarding Officer, at ports where and when no pilotage is done............. 5 00 TOWAGE RATES-PORT OF HONOLULU. Vessels under 500 tons..........$ 40 oo Whalemen..................$ 40 o Vessels over 500 ton............ 45 oo Vessels under 200 tons......... 30 oo Vessels over 1,000 tons......... 50 o Vessels over 200 tons.......... 35 oo ARRIVAL AND ENTRY OF VESSELS. MERCHANTMEN.-The commanding officer of any merchant vessel, immediately after her arrival at either of the legalized ports of entry. shall make known to the Collector of Customs the business upon which

Page  59 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 5 59 said vessel has come to the port, and deliver him, under oath, a full, true and perfect manifest of the cargo with which said vessel is laden before allowing any parcels to be landed, except the Mail Bags delivered to the order of the Postmaster; which manifest shall contain an account of the packages, with their marks, numbers, contents and quantities. also the names of the importers, or consignees, and shippers; and furnish him with a list of her passengers before allowing any baggage to be landed; and deliver him under oath a list of all stores on board his vessel, under a penalty of forfeiting all stores not mentioned in such list and a fine of one hundred dollars. Any such officer failing to perform any or all of the acts above mentioned within forty-eight hours after his arrival, shall be subject to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars. * * * * * HARBOR REGULATIONS. The Harbor Masters of Honolulu and Hilo shall have authority over the anchoring, mooring and making fast of all hulks, coasters, boats and other craft in their respective harbors, and are charged in general with the enforcement of all harbor regulations. They shall also be wharfingers at the ports for which they are appointed. They shall be entitled to receive, in addition to their usual fees, all amounts disbursed by them for the use of boats, warps and labor in mooring and making fast any vessel, and if necessarily detained on board more than two hours at any one time, they shall be paid at the rate of one dollar per hour for such extra detention. All vessels that may enter any port shall be anchored in the place designated by the Harbor Master, and moved from one anchorage to another as he may direct; and no vessel, excepting coasting vessels under fifty tons burthen and vessels about to leave the harbor, shall quit her anchorage or moorings until the commanding officer shall have received the written permission of the Harbor Master, under penalty of a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars. * * * * HARBOR MASTER'S CHARGES. WHARFAGE.-Per registered ton (Sundays and Government holi days not counted), 2 cents per day. STORAGE.-Bricks, Coal, Coolers, Kettles, Stone Ballast, Sand, (space of 32 square feet measurement), i cent per day; Oil, on wharves, for every o bbls., i cent per day; Lumber, Firewood, (space of 32 square feet measurement), i cent per day; Anchors, Chains, Pig Ballast, and Old Iron, per ton of 2,000 lbs., X cent-per day.

Page  60 6o HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HARBOR MASTER'S FEES. Boarding vessel on arrival.........$3 oo I Boarding vessel on departure....$3 oo Moving vessel, each time................................ 3 o SHIPPING AND DISCHARGING NATIVE SEAMEN. Shipping, each man.............$o 50 Shipping, Articles, Stamp...$.... oo Discharging, each man........... 50 Master's Bond, Stamp.......... I oo Government Tax, each man...... 6 oo Application to Governor.......... I o0 [All the above charges must be paid by the ship.] DISCHARGING FOREIGN SEAMEN. Seaman's Permit...........$o 50 1 Seaman's Bond........ oo, Permit for deserter to ship........................................... 50 HONOLULU.-A Lighthouse has been erected on the inner edge of the western reef, bounding the entrance of the channel into Honolulu harbor. The light is a Fresnal of the fourth order, at ah elevation of twenty-six feet above the sea level, and can be seen from the deck of an ordinary sized vessel at the distance of nine nautical miles, in a radius from S. E. by E. to W. from the lighthouse. From the lighthouse the Spar or Fairway Buoy bears (magnetic) S. I~ W. 6'4 cables; the eastern end of the new wharf, N. 35~ E. I2 cables; Diamond Point, S. 56' E.; Barber's Point, S. 88~ W., and the eastern corner of the Custom House, N. 15~ E., near to which corner another Light Tower has been erected, at an elevation of twenty-eight feet above the sea level, and can be seen about five miles out at sea. The light in this tower is green. To enter the harbor by night, bring these two lights in one, bearing N. '5~ E. (magnetic), and keep them in one till within a cable's length of the lighthouse on the reef, when by hauling a point to the eastward you will avoid the end of the spit on which the lighthouse is built, extending off from it about twenty-five feet to the eastward. Steer for the east end of the new wharf, and when half way between the light on the reef and the new wharf, keep away N. W. and along the Esplanade to an anchorage inside. All bearings magnetic. HILO, HAWAII.-A lighthouse has been erected at Paukaa Point, entrance to Hilo harbor, Hawaii. The light is at an elevation of fifty feet above the sea level, a plain fixed light, and can be seen easily ten miles out at sea. From the lighthouse the outer point of the reef bears S. 58' E.; inner point of the reef, S. 39~ E. Governess' flagstaff (about the center of the harbor), S. 22~ E.; Leleiwi Point, S. 79~ E., and Makahanaloa Point, N. 2~ W. Bearings magnetic. KAWAIHAE, HAWAII.-For the anchorage at Kawaihae a white light, about fifty feet above the sea level, has been erected, at a point bearing from the N. E. corner of the reef N. E. by N. /2 N. The light can be seen at a distance of ten miles out at sea. With this light bearing E N. E. there is a good anchorage in eight fathoms of water, about a quarter of a mile from the shore. All bearings magnetic.

Page  61 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL 61 LAHAINA, MAUI. —A lighthouse has been erected at the landing, port of Lahaina. The window on the sea side of the light-room is oi 20X24 inch glass, with red glass at the N. W. and S. E. ends. The colored glass stands at equal angles, side and front, and a vessel in ten fathoms of water will have two bright lights for about half a mile each way from directly in front of the lighthouse. At a greater distance, it. will show a colored light until the lights almost appear like one, or the red light like a reflection from the other light. The light towards Molokai is the brightest, so that the lights now have the appearance of a large and small light close together. T'he lights stand about twenty-six feet above the water, and can be seen across the Lanai channel. MOLOKAI POINT. ---On the extreme southwest point of the island of Molokai (known as Lae o ka Laau) is a fixed white Fresnel light of the fourth order, showing from- all points of the compass. The light is fifty feet above the sea level, and is visible from a distance of eleven miles. The tower is painted white, the lantern red, and is located in Latitude 21~ 6' N. and Longitude 157~ i8' W. From seaward the following are the magnetic bearing (varying 9~ E.) extreme points of land being taken. South point of Oahu N. 81~ W..; East point of Oahu N. 66~ W.; Mokapu, N. E. Oahu N. 56~ W. N. W. point of Molokai N. 8~ E. Lahaina light S. 78~ E.; N. E. point Lanai S. 72~ E.; S. W. point I,a nai S. 49~ E. Mariners are especially cautioned against confusing this with the N. W. point of Molokai, bearing as above, distant nine miles. LIGHT DUES. —There shall be levied apon all vessels arriving from abroad at any port of this Kingdom where a lighthouse may be established, the sum of three dollars, which shall be paid before departure, to the Collector General of (Customs. All vessels engaged in the coasting trade shall pay ten cents per ton as light dues, in consideration of which they shall be entitled to visit all ports where lighthouses may be established. for the term of one year. without further charge. CUSTOM HOUSE GUARDS. —The Collector shall provide an officer te be present on board any vessel during her discharge, or at any other time when he may deem it necessary, to superintend the landing of her cargo, and see that no other or greater amount of goods are landed than is set forth upon the permit to discharge. It shall be the duty of the commanding officer of any vessel when boarded by an officer of the Customs to furnish him promptly with any and all information which he may require in regard to the vessel, her cargo, stores, passengers, &c., and exhibit for his inspection her manifest. register, or other papers relating to the same. PASSENGERS.-If the master of any vessel arriving at any port:of entry of this Kingdom from a foreign port shall suffer the baggage of any passengers on board his vessel to be removed on shore from such vessel, unless a permit therefor has been obtained from the Colector

Page  62 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. of the port, such master shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars in the discretion of the Collector of Customs. If any passenger so arriving shall remove his baggage on shore from such vessel without first obtaining a permit therefor from the Collector of the port such passenger shall be liable to' a fine not exceeding fifty dollars. Any passenger arriving from a foreign port at any of the ports of this Kingdom shall be subject to a tax of two dollars, for the support of hospitals for the benefit of sick and disabled Hawaiian seamen, which shall be paid to the Collector of Customs before any permit is issued to such passenger to land his baggage. MARINE HOSPITAL TAX. —The master or owner of every ship 'or vessel under the Hawaiian flag, arriving from any foreign port, or' from sea, at any port of the Hawaiian Kingdom, shall before such ship" or vessel is admitted to entry, render to the Collector of such *port a true account of the number of seamen who have been employed on board since the last entry at any Hawaii;,n port, and pay to said Collector at the rate of twenty-five cents per month for each and every seamen so employed, for the benefit of the Marine Hospital Fund, which amount such master or owner is authorized to retain out of the wages of said seaman. The master of every vessel employed in the coasting trade of the Hawaiian Kingdom, shall render quarterly to the Collector General of Customs, or to any Collector under his directions, a true list of all seamen employed by him during the preceding three months, and pay to said Collector General. or Collector, at the rate of twenty-five cents per month for each seaman so employed, which said master is authorized to retain out of the wages of such seaman. The returns required as above shall be made under oath, in such manner and form as the Collector General may prescribe. If any owner or master shall make a false return, he shall be deemed guilty of perjury and punished accordingly. * * * PASSPORTS.-Every adult who may have resided on these Islands for more than thirty days, wishing to leave the Kingdom, shall make application to the Collector of the port from which he intends to sail, for a passport. PORTS OF ENTRY. —N goods of foreign growth or production shall be unladen from a foreign vessel, or Hawaiian vessel from a foreign port, at any other port of the Hawaiian Islands than a port of entry for foreign vessels as created by law, under a penalty of seizure and forfeiture of the vessel and of the goods imported therein, and so landed or unladen. The following are the legal ports of entry: Honolulu, Island of Oahu; Lahaina and Kahului, Island of Maui; Hilo, Kawaihae, Mahukona and Kealakekua, Island of Hawaii; Koloa, Island of Kauai. *- * * * * * *

Page  63 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 63 CUSTOM HOUSE CHARGES. For visit of Health Officer when required.............................$ 5 oo When necessarily detained on board, per (lay............................. oo Health fee, vessel not anchored by the pilot............................... 5 00 For Bill of H ealth on departure......................................... I Pilot's and Boarding Officer's Fees (see Pilotage) Buoys.............................................................. 2 oo Lights- Ve ssels from abroad............................................ 3 oo Coasters, each year --- per ton.................................... 10 Inward or Outward Manifests......................................... 2 oo M ail O ath........................................................... oo Inward Entry, Goods paying duties..................................... 2 50 (" Goods free under Reciprocity Treaty....................... a 50 " Goods Bonded........................................... 4 50 Outward Entry, Goods Bonded......................................... I 50 Transit Entry....................................................... 2 50 Bond to secure payment of Duties.......................................... 2 oo Passports.......................................................... I 00 Passport Protest.................................................. 3 oo Every Stamped Certificate or Blank fiirnished by the Collector.............. I oo Recording Bill of Sale, Mortgage or Hypothecation of a vessel, or copying the same, or copying Certificate of Registry, per one hundred words......... 50 Acknowledgements, each................... I oo The Custom Hlouse charges for all other acts and duties not expressly provided for by law, as also the rates of storage, shal be such as may from time to time be prescribed by the Minister of Finance. DEPARTURE OF VESSELS. Any vessel having, through her master or agent, fully complied with the laws and regulations affecting foreign trade, and with all the laws regulating the shipment and discharge of Hawaiian seamen, shall be en titled to depart after receiving from the Collector of the port a clearance in the form provided by law. In case any vessel does not sail within forty eight hours after re ceiving a clearance, it shall be the duty of the master to report the same to the Collector of the port, under a penalty of not exceeding twenty-five dollars, to be imposed by said Collector. No vessel shall be entitled to a clearance unless all proper charges at the Harbor Master's office shall have been settled, and the Collector may require the master or agent of the vessel to produce the Harbor Master's certificate to that effect. * * 4 * * * * CONSULAR. Every Minister, Commissioner, Consul or Vice-Consul of the Hawaiian Islands, in any foreign country, may take and certify under his official seal, all acknowledgements of any deed, mortgage, lease, re-lease, or any other instrument affecting the conveyance of real or personal estate in this Kingdom, and such acknowledgement shall entitle such instrument to be recorded.

Page  64 * HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. REGULATIONS FOR CARRIAGES AND RATES OF FARE. Under and by virtue of the provisions of an Act entitled " An Act to Regulate the carrying of Passengers and Freight, and the letting to hire of Carriages, Wagons, Carts, Drays and other Vehicles in the District of Honolulu," amended and approved on the 5th day of August, A. D. 1882, I, Chas. T. Gulick, Minister of the Interior of the Hawaiian Kingdom, do hereby make the following Rules and Regulations to be observed by licensed carriers of passengers and freight in the district of Honolulu. st. Every licensed carriage, dray or vehicle must be numbered, arid this number must be placed on a conspicuous part of the carriage, dray or vehicle. 2d. Every licensed carriage running at night must exhibit two lights, and the number of such carriage plainly shown on the glass of each lantern. 3rd. Drivers of licensed vehicles must obey the orders of the police. 4th. No licensed carriage will be allowed to stand on the makai side of Queen Street, near the Fish Market, and no two or more carriages will be allowed to stand abreast on any street. 5th. On all stands set apart for licensed carriages the horses must be headed parallel to the street and close to the sidewalk. 6th. No licensed horse and carriage must be left without a proper attendant, or properly secured. 7th. No licensed carriage will be allowed to be left on the street over night. 8th. STANDS SET APART FOR LICENSED CARRIAGES. No. i.-Mauka side of Beretania Street, east side ot Maunakea Street. No. 2. —Makai side of Beretania.Street, from east corner of Nuuanu Street. No. 3. —East side of Emma Street, mauka of Beretania Street. No. 4.-Mauka side of Hotel' Street, from east corner of Nuuanu Street. No. 5. —Mauka side of Hotel Street, corner of Union Street. ~No. 6.-Makai side of Hotel Street, opposite to the entrance of Hawaiian 'Hotel. No. 7.-Makai side of King Street, opposite the Chinese Theatre, east of road to the Prison. No. 8. —Makai side of King Street, east corner of Maunakea Street. No. 9. ---Makai side of King Street, from west corner of Bethel - Street. No. io. —Makai side of King Street, east from E. O. Hall & Son's store. No. I I.-Makai side of King Street, east corner of Richards Street. No. i 2.-Makai side of King Street, west from Punchbowl Street. No. 13. —Makai side of Merchant Street, opposite to Sailors' Home

Page  65 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL,. No. 14. —Makai side of Merchant Street, east corner of Fort Street No. I5.-Mauka side of Queen Street, opposite to Fish Market. No. 6. -Makai side of Queen Street, from east corner of Nuuanu Street. No. I7. ---Makai side of Queen Street, from east corner of Fort Street. 9th. No more than ten carriages will be allowed on any one stand at any one time. Ioth. Licensed carriages standing in front of the Music Hall shall align on the mauka side of' King Street. ith. Licensed carriages standing upon the Esplanade, near the Mail Steamer Dock, shall align upon the mauka side of the street to the corner of Kilauea Street, and mauka along the east side of Kilauea Street. 12th. Licensed carriages at the Government Building shall enter on the eastern side of the drive, and align on the outer side of the circle awaiting their fares. Rates of Fare, I3th. To or from any point in Beretania Street and the harbor, and between Maunakea Street and Punchbowl Street, for each passenger to cents. 14th. To or from any point between the second bridge, Nuuanu Avenue and the harbor, and the Reformatory School, on the Ewa Road and the line of Piikoi Street, not conflicting with Rule 13, for each passenger, 25 cents. 15th. Outside these limits, not exceeding two miles from the starting point, for each person, 50 cents. I6th. Children three years old or under, no charge; over three years old and not more than ten years old, half price. 17th. WHEN HIRED BY THE HOUR. For one passenger, for each hour................................$..... oo For two passengers, for one hour........................................ I 50 For three passengers, for one hour....................................... 2 oo For each additional hour 50 cents for each passenger, when more than one. r8th. Time to be counted from the time of starting to the time of dismissal. g9th. No extra charge shall be made to any passenger for ordinary hand baggage. 4oth. For any other than ordinary, hand baggage, each trunk or box, 25 cents. 21st. Every licensed driver shall have a silver or white metal badge, with his number plainly shown on it, as per sample at the Police Station,House; said badge to be worn so as to be distinctly seen upon the left,breast. (To insure uniformity, these badges will be furnished at the Station House at cost price.)

Page  66 66, HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 22d. WHEN ORDERED SPECIALLY FOR KAPIOLANI PARK. One passenger each way.......................................$ oo Two passengers each way................................... 50 Three passengers each way.............................................. 2 oo WHEN ORDERED SPECIALLY FOR THE PALI. One passenger each way............................................... $3 o Two passengers each way.................................. 4 oo Three passengers each way............................................ 5 oo No driver is compelled to take a single fare for the Park or the Pali, except by special bargain. When two or more offer, the regular rate as per the above schedule must be accepted. 23rd. Between the hours of ro o'clock P.M. and 5 o'clock A.M. the above rates of fare shall be doubled. 24th. If any licensed carriage shall be found standing in any place but on the appointed stand, the driver shall be liable to arrest by any police officer, unless said driver shall be under engagement. 25th. Any licensed driver who, when in charge of a licensed carri — age, dray or other vehicle, shall be intoxicated, or who shall use insulting or abusive language, who shall demand more than the authorized fare, who shall neglect upon demand to show a card of rates of fare, or who shall contravene any of the above rules, shall, upon complaint to any of the police be arrested, and upon conviction be liable to the penalty set forth in Section 14 of the Act approved the fifth day of August, A. D I882. These rules shall have full force and effect on and after Novembet I, 1883, and all former rules and regulations for the government of licensed vehicles are abolished. CHAS. T. GULICK, Minister of the Interior. SUGAR PLANTATIONS AND MILLS. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are planters only. Those marked with a dagger (t) are mills only. All others are plantations complete. owning their own mills. Plantation. Location. Agents. Pepeekeo Plantation......Hilo, Hawaii............... C Afong Wailuku Sugar Co........Wailuku, Maui........... C Brewer & Co East Maui Stock Co *..... Makawao, Maui..........C Brewer & Co East Maui Plantation Co... M akawao, Maui..........C Brewer & Co Onomea Sugar Co........ Hilo, Hawaii........... C Brewer & Co Paukaa Sugar Co.........Hilo, Hawaii........... C Brewer & Co Honomu Sugar Co........Hilo, Hawaii............C Brewer & Co Princeville Plantation Co.. Hanalei, Kauai..........C Brewer & Co Hawaiian Agricultural Co. Kau, Hawaii.......... C Brewer & Co Kaneohe Plantation.......Kaneohe, Oahu.........C Brewer & Co Halawa Sugar Co.........Kohala, Hawaii......... C Brewer & Co

Page  67 TIAWAITAN AT MAN JAP &NT~r ANYWTTAY 1.Y Hitchcock & Co.'s Plant'n.- Hilo, Hawaii.......Castle & Cooke Kiohala Plantation.....Kohala, Hawaii......Castle & Cooke Waialua Plantation.....Waialuia, Oahu.......Castle & Cooke Haiku Sugar Co......Haiku, Maui.......Castle & Cooke Paia Plantation...... Paia, Maui........Castle & Cooke A H Smith & Co*.....Koloa, Kauai.......Castle & Cooke Union Mill Cot......Kohala, Hawaii.....T H Davies & Co Kynnersley Bros.*.....Kohala, Hawaii.... T H Davies & Co Ni;ulii Plantation....Kohala. HaaiT H IDavies & Co B~eecroft Plantation*... Hawi Milit.......KohalIa, Hawaii......1H D~avies & Co F~ilder & Brodie's Plant 'n*f Waipunalei Plantation*,.... H4ilo, Hawaii. T' H Davies & Co Aam-ano Plantation*....Hamakua, Hawaii......TI H l)avies & Co Uarniakua Plantation*. - anakua, Hawaii.....T H Davies & Co Hamakua Mill Cot. ---..,a Kulkaiau Mill.......Hamakua, Hawaii....T H Davies & Co Waiakea Plantation* Waiakea Millt.. Hilo, Hawaii......T H Davies & Co Laupahoehoe Sugar Co.... Laupahoehoe, Hawaii,. T H Davies & Co Kaiwilahilahi Mill.....Laupahoehoe, Hawaii... T H Davies & Co Kipahulu Milltf.......Hana, Maui......I H Davies & Co Barnes & Palmer*......Wailuku, Maui....M S Grinbaum & Co Hana Plantation.......Hana, Maui.....M S Grinba-um & Co T'homipson & Bro.*.....Kobala, Hawaii. M. S G~rinbaum & Co Heeia Sugar Plantation Co..- Koolau, Oahu.....M S Grinbaum & Co Soper, Wright & Co*.....Ookala, Hawaii.....H Ha kfeld & Co R.- M. Overend......~Honokaa, Hawaii....H Hackfeld & Co Kaluahon-u Co*.......Koloa, Kauai......H Hackfeld & Co W. Y. Horner*......I Lahaina, Maui... H Hackfeld & Co Chr. L' Orange*.......Hanamaulu, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co H-anamaulu Millt......Hanamaulu, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co A. S. Wilcox*.......Hanamaulu, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co C. Borchgrevink*.. Waimena, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co Koloa Ranch*...Koloa, Kauai......H Hackfeld & Co Koloa Plantation......Koloa, Kauai......H Hackfeld & Co Grove Farm*........Nawiliwili, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co Lihue Plantation......Lihue, Kauai......H Hackfeld & Co Kekaha Mill Cot......Kekaha, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co Pioneer Mill........Lahaina, Maui......H Hackfeld & Co Kipahulu Plantation*..Kipahulu, Maui.....H Hackfeld & Co Waimanalo Sugar Co..... Wainmanalo, Oahu....H Hackfeld & Co PC W. Meyer........Kalae, Molokai......H Hackfeld & Co Kukuiau Plantation*.....Hamakua, Hawaii.,. H Hackfeld & Co Kekaha Plantation*.....Waimea, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co Waimea Sugar Millt.....Waimea, Kauai. E Hoffschlaeger & Co Waimea Plantation*.....Waimea, Kauai. E Hoffschlaeger & Co

Page  68 68 * HAWUAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAI, Makee Plantation.........Ulupalakua, Maui....... W G Irwin & C( Wailiee Sugar Co.........Waihee, Maui.......... W G Irwin & Co Haw'n Com'l & Sugar Co. Maui............ W G Irwin & Co Makee Sugar Co.......... Kealia, Kauai..........W G Irwin & Co Kealia Plantation......... Kealia, Kauai.......... W G Irwin & Co Hutchinson Plantation Co. Kau, Hawaii........... W G Irwin & Co Hilea Sugar Co.......... Kau, Hawaii...........W G Irwin & Co Star Mill Co............ Kohala, Hawaii....... W G Irwin & Co Hakalau Plantation Co.... Hilo, Hawaii...........W G Irwin & Co Hilo Sugar Co...........Hilo, Hawaii...........W G Irwin & Co Paauhau Millt...........Hamakua, Hawaii..... W ( Irwin & Co Kilauea Sugar Co.........Kilauea, Kauai.........W G Irwin & Co Honohina Sugar Co.......Hilo, Hawaii............ G Irwin & Co Waipunalei Plantation.....Hilo, Hawaii........... W G Irwin & Co Paauhau Plantation*...... Hamakua, Hawaii...... W G Irwin & Co Olowalu Sugar Co........ Olowalu, Maui..........W G Irwin & Co Ookala Sugar Co.........Ookala, Hawaii.........W G Irwin & Co Makaha Plantation*.......Waianae.............. W ( Irwin & C( Waikapu Sugar Co.......Waikapu, Maui.........W G Irwin & Co Reciprocity Sugar Co......Hana, Maui...........W 'G Irwin & Co Huelo Mill Cot..........Huelo, Maui...........W G Irwin & Co Huelo Plantation*........ Hamakua, Maui........W G Irwin & Co Kamaloo Plantation....... Molokai.................. J McColgan Honokaa Sugar Co....... Hamakua, Hawaii.....F A Schaefer & Co Pacific Sugar Mill........ Hamakua, Hawaii..... A Schaefer & Co Eleele Plantation.........Koloa, Kauai......... F A Schaefer & Co Laie Plantation........... Laie, Oahu.............J T Waterhouse Gay & Kobinson*........Makaweli, Kauai.........J T Waterhouse Waianae Co.............Waianae, Oahu..........H A Widemann Moanui Plantation........Molokai............Wong Leong & Co MARINE CASUALTIES FOR THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS IOR z884. Jan. Io-Hawaiian schoonerJfuha went ashore at Nukanan, Gilbert Islands, and became a total loss; crew and passengers all saved. Jan. 13-American brigantine Consuelo arrived from San Francisco with loss of her fore-top-gallant mast which occurred during a squall. Jan. I6-Hawaiian schooner Kulamanu was lost between the south end of Kona and Kau, Hawaii, with a load of sugar, 1,464 bags from the Ookala Plantation. Partially insured. March 26-American whale bark Dawn from San Francisco and cruise, arrived in a leaky condition necessitating two weeks delay for repairs. Left this port for the Arctic but was obliged to give up the voyage and return to San Francisco. March 3o-American schooher Caleb Eaton, from San Francisce for the Arctic, touched in for repairs, having sprung a leak.

Page  69 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. April 5-American brigantine Consuelo leaving for San Francisco sprung a leak after being out four or five hours, and returned to port for repairs, sailing again on the 8th. July I2-News received of the loss of the missionary brig Morning Star at Kusaie, crew all saved. Aug. 9- -Hawaiian schooner 'a Moi grounded on the east side of the channel on coming into port, but got off without damage at high tide on lightening part of her cargo. Aug. -Hawaiian schooner Mary Alice went ashore at Awaloa, Lanai, and became a total loss. The captain had one leg broken and sustained other injuries, and was brought to this port for surgical aid. Aug. 28-Hawaiian steamer James Makee, grounded on making her anchorage at Waianae, Oahu, necessitating going on the marine railway for repairs. Sept. 6-American ship El Dorado, coal laden from Newcastle, got aground off Waikiki at io P. M. in making this port, but got off with the aid of the tug after midnight, with but slight injury. Sept. 6 —Steamer James Makee touched on a sand spit at Waialua, Oahu, but got off without injury. Sept. 8 —Hawaiian schooner Ehukai was carried over the reef and stranded at Kaena Point, Oahu. She was afterward gotten off with loss of mainmast, badly battered, and towed to Honolulu for repairs. Sept. i3-American schooner Dora Harkness was rescued from a precarious position in the surf at Anahola, Kauai, by the steamer James Makee. Oct 6-French brig 7Twaera, from Tahiti for San Francisco put back to this port leaking badly. Failing to raise sufficient funds for repairs, she was sold at auction. Oct. 22 —Hawaiian steamer Lehua lost her mainmast during a gale encountered in the channel between Maui and Hawaii. Oct. 23-Hawaiian steamer Kilauea Hou went ashore at the mouth of the Wailuku River, Hilo. Was towed off by the Kinau, unharmed. Oct. -Hawaiian brigantine Dora, Capt. Lund, foundered at sea near La Paz, Mexico, and all hands lost. Nov. 5-Hawaiian schooner Pauahi went ashore at Kohawaike, Kona, Hawaii, and became a total loss. BEARINGS AND DISTANCES.., Honolulu Lighthouse to summit of Diamond Head, S. 50~ 37' 40", E. (true) 24,559 feet. Puuohia to Diamond Head Station, S. 2" 15' 30" E. (true) 26,515 feet. Haleakala to Mauna Kea, S. 39~ 23' 30" E. (true) 79.2 statute miles. Average Magnetic Declination south part of Oahu, 9 55' R., A. D. 885.

Page  70 7? HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. TABLE OF ELEVATIONS OF PRINCIPAL LOCALITIES THROUGHOUT THE ISLANDS. From the Records of the Government Survey. Measurements are from Mean Sea Level. Kaala...................... Palikea, W\aianae M'nts........ Konahuanui Peak, S. of Pali... Launihuli Peak, N. of Pali...... Tantalus or Puu Ohia.......... Olympus, above Manoa....... Iound Top or Ualakaa........ Punchbowl Hill or Puowaina... Diamond Head or Laeahi...... OAHU P PEET. 4030 31" 3xo6 3106 2780 2013 2447 1049 498.5 76I EAKS. Telegraph Hill or Kaimuki..... Koko Head, higher crater..... Koko Head, lower crater...... Makapuu, east point of island.. Mokapu, crater off Kaneohe.... Olamana, sharp peak in Kailua. Maelieli, sharp peak in Heeia... Ohulehule, sharp peak in Hakipuu F RET. 292 1206 644 665 696 1643 713 2263 LOCALITIES NEAR HONOUIU. Nuutanu Road, corner School Street.................................... Nuuanu Road, second bridge...................................... Nuuanu Road, corner Judd Street..................................... Nuuanu Road, cemetery gate......................................... Nuuanu Road, mausoleum gate..................................... Nuuanu Road, Schaefer's gate........................................ Nuuanu Road, Queen Emma's....................................... Nuuanu Road, Woodlawn Dairy corner............................... N'uuanu Road, large bridge...................................... Nuluanu Road, Luakaha gate......................................... Nuuanu Road, Pali.................................................. MAUI. 40 77 137 162 2o6 238 358 429 735 847 1207 Ilaleakala.................... West Maui, about............. Piilolo, Makawao............ Puu Io, near Capt. Makee's..... Capt. Makee's, about.......... 'uut Olai (Miller's Hill)....... Makawao Female Seminary..... Grove Ranch, Makawao........ F EET. I0032 Haleakala School.............. 5820 Puu Nianiau, Makawao........ 2256 Puu Kapuai, Hamakua......... 2841 Puu o Umi, Haiku............ I900 Puu Pane, Kula............... 355 Lahainaluna Seminary......... 1900 Kauiki, Hana................ 981 Paia, Makawao................ HAWAII. FEET. 2150 6850 1150 II5o 629 2568 6oo 392 930 Mauna Kea..:............ Mauna Loa................. HIualalai.................. Kohala Mountain........... Kilauea Volcano House...... Kulani, near Kilauea........ Kalaieha.................. Aahuwela, near Laumaia..... Hitchcock's Puakala........ Ahumo'a................... WNaimea Court House........ Waipio Pali, on N. side...... 'Waipio Pali, on S. (Road).... Waipio Pali, in mountain.... \aimanu, at sea........... FEET. 13,805 13,61I 8,275 5,505 4,040 5,650 6,450 7,750 6,325 7,035 2,669.6 1,200 900 3,000 i6oo Waimanu, in mountain........ Hiilawe Falls................ Parker's, Mana.............. Honokaa Store.............. Lower edge forest, Hamakua.. Lower edge forest, Hilo....... Laupahoehoe Pali........... Maulua Pali................. Kauku Hill................. Puu Alala................... H alai Hill.................. Puu o Nale, Kohala......... E. Bond's, Kohala.......... Anglican Church, Kainaliu.... FBET. 4000 1700 3505 1100 1700 1200 385 406 1964 762 345 1747 5s8 ~$78

Page  71 HAWAtIIAN ALEANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN ISLANDS POSTAL SERVICE. General Post Office, Honolulu, Oahu —H. M. Whitney, P. M. G.; 1. B. Petlrson, Asst. P. M. G.; Assistants-D. Manaku, N. C. Willfong, Miss A, I..Fillebrowne, W. Johnson, G. L. Desha, Hapainui, Kalaeloa. POSTMASTERS ON OAHU. Waialua................ Emerson Kaneohe.................. Kaulia Waianae..............J. L. Richardson Punaluu................ J. w. Kaapuul OVERLANI MAIL ROUTE, OAHU. Leaves Honolulu at 10 A. M. on Wednesday, each week, for the circuit of the Island, arriving back Friday morning. For Waianae, mail carrier leaves every Tuesday, at XO A.M. Steamer James Makee takes a mail for Waianae and Waialua every Friday. POSTMASTERS ON MOLOKAI. Kaunakakai.......... W. Meyer I Pukoo.................R. W. Meyer POSTMASTER ON LANAI. Lanai....................................................Jesse Moreh tad POSTMASTERS ON KAUAI. Kapaa................ Geo. C. Potter I Hanalei.................J. M. Gib;.o Kilauea................. W. Cuthbert Lihue...0.............. Schol Kekaha..................... W. Meier Koloa.....................E. Strehz W aimea..........................rs.................... Mrs. G. B. Rowell POSTMASTERS ON MAUI. Lahaina...............T. W. Everett Kipahulu.............. Thos. K. Clarl Wailuku............... E. H. Bailey Kahului................. W. Lowrie Makawao...............Jas. Anderson Paia................... C. H. Dickey Hana.................... A. Unna Haiku.................. -. P. Baldwin Ulupalakua.......J. J. Halstead (acting) Hamakuapoko.......... C. H. Wallace Spreckelsville.......... G. C. Williams Honokowai..............J. A. Kaukau Honokohau................................................L. K. Kalanla OVERIANI) MAIl. ROUTES, MAUI. From Lahaina to Wailuku, Makawao, Haiku and Ulupalakua — on Tuesday. or Wednesdays. Fr.om Lahaina to Kaanapali and Kahakuloa, weekly, on arrival of steamer hl om Honolulu. From Ulupalakua to Hana, weekly, on arrival of mails from Honolulu. From Haiku to Ilana, weekly, on arrival of steamer mails. From Kahului to Makawao an(d Haiku, weekly, on arrival of steamer m.iils. Steamer Likelike leaves Honolulu every Monday for Kahului. Huelo. Hana, Kipahulu and Kaupo. POSTMNASTERS ON IIAWAI. Hilo.....................L. Severance Hakalau................. F. Morli.soi Kawaihae............John Stupplebeen Honokaa................D. F. Sanford Mahukona.............J. F. McKenzie Ookala..................J. N. Wriaah Kukuihae le................. Horner Paauhau.................R. A. Lymlna Waipio....... W. H. Holmes Kailua................J. Kaelemakule Waimea...R.............ev. L. Lyons Keauhou................. G. Hoapili Kohala, Halawa......... H. P. Wood Kealakekua............ N.. reenwell Kohala, Puehuehu.........H. P. Wood Napoopbo.................. W. Kini Paauilo................ Chas. Notley Hoopuloa............. D. S. Keliikulii Hookena.............. D. H. Nahinu Pahala....................T. C. Wills laupahoehoe Plantation...... Lidgate Hilea and Honuapo...... C N. Spencer Laupahoehoe Beach..........D. K..Pa Waiohinu.................C. Meineck

Page  72 72 HAWAIIAN AMANAC AND ANNUAL. OVERI.AND MAIL ROUTES, HAWAII. From Hilo to Kawaihae, leaves weekly, on Monday, and to Kau, Thursday, on arrival of steamer from Honolulu.. From Kau to Kona, leaves weekly, on Monday morning. From Kawaihae to Kona and Kau, leaves on arrival of steamer from Honolulu, Wednesday or Thursday. This mail service around Hawaii is intended to be a weekly service of the circuit of the island. MUSIC IN HONOLULU. 'It is rather a hard task to write about music —hard to begin at the right place and hard to know where or when to stop. Music is music in Honolulu in so many different ways it is difficult to take a whole view. Let us begin with the churches. Foremost is Fort-Street Church. Good music is always heard there. The choir is not large; but is welldrilled, harmonious and enthusiastic. The organist is perfect; the soloist occasionally divine. It is good judgment to keep such a choir in nearly constant training, because of the added attractiveness of the church service; only, I think, there ought to be more congregational singing at Fort-Street Church f or, as Mrs. Ieavitt says, singing shakes up the nerve centres and makes the congregation in better condition to hear and appreciate the sermon. The Bethel is more a " familyv" church than any in Honolulu. The organ and choir are less attractive than those at Fort-Street Church but the congregational singing is better. St. Andrew's pro-Cathedral is fortunate in having a good organ, a good organist, a well-filled choir and some choir boys who sing, at times, like little angels. In the Roman Catholic Church there is a good organ, badly played, a choir who sing with force, but with little evenness, and no congregational singing at all. At Kaumakapili and Kawaiahao Churches much enjoyable congregational singing is heard-every one present chiming in, young and old. Taken altogether, I may say that, although the choir singing is better in the foreign churches, that the congregational singing is far better in the native ones. Personally, I am a great believer in congregational singing. I think the remedy of the lack of it here lies in the schools. It would be a very simple matter-in both foreign and native schools-to teach the children the tunes sung in the churches which they attend. Of course the training and exercise ought not to stop there; the patriotic songs, Hawaiian, American, English, that are sung at the various celebrations of the year, might all be taught in school and learned so well that we need have no poor singing on Fourth of July or Decoration Day. Occasionally I visit the examinations and hear fairly good singing -particularly in the native schools; but no unity, each school either

Page  73 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 73 singing very different songs than those sung by other schools, or else singing in, different time from that kept by other children. I consider that all wrong. The Board of Education, by an advisory board, should plan and direct a course of singing in the public schools, no matter what religious creed may otherwise control the schools. I do not mean, of course, that only certain well-known songs should be sung; but that at least those should be learned-for the benefit of the public generally. 'Ihe native may just as well learn Marching Through Georgia as the white may learn Aloha Oe. Music has no politics. Of the secular musical organizations the Amateur Musical Society have been most prominent, although, lately, they have not been very active. Of the music its members have delighted us with in the past may be mentioned Hayden's "Creation," Cqwan's" Rose Maiden," and Sullivan's " Pinafore " —of which A. M. S. formed the nucleus. The Honolulu Symphony Club, an orchestral organization, has performed in public only a few times as yet, but with admirable effect. If I may be allowed the criticism, I will say that I think their performances have lacked somewhat in " back bone"which will doubtless come with future practice. Several vocal musical societies exist, chiefly native, who give occasional concerts in the native churches here or at Waikiki. Members of the royal family have interested themselves in these societies and, occasionally, take part in their concerts. In all modesty, I think I may fairly assume that the Royal Hawaiian Band is the most prominent musical organization of the Kingdom. It was organized in I870 and has been kept almost continuously at work ever since, all its members working under salary. It is useless for me to dwell on either the merits or the defects of the band-I think the public very well understands both. The people of the Sandwich Islands honor themselves and honor music by so cheerfully supporting and upholding that branch of the government. The Reform School Band is doing good work. So is that of St. Louis College. And there are several Portuguese string bands which promise to give us enjoyable music, when longer drilled. To take a general view, I may say that we have societies enough and enough good vocalists and instrumentalists to make music in Honolulu something generally improving as well as occasionally delightful. But the musical societies do not reach the masses. Good music is a valuable factor in the problem of dealing with in temperance and wickedness. Moody and Sankey and other great revivalists know that and act upon it. Free public concerts-or, better yet, cheap but good public concerts —keep the working classes out of much mischief in other countries. Why not in Honolulu? I do not know any other city so large as Honolulu without one real public resort. Emma Square is a mere concert garden, and not half large enough for that. We have a theatre; but how seldom it is open and how seldom at popular prices! We ought to have picnic grounds; but have not. We ought to:have

Page  74 HAWAIIAN -ALMANAC AND ANNUAL, frequent steamship excursions to Pearl River; but have not We ought to have social gatherings, without prejudice of race, color or religion. And-from a musical point of view —we ought to have places and opportunities to make popular other music than that of the band merely. The native original music and amusements are things of the past -almost. What do we give the native race to take their place? I believe that healthful popular amusement is the best means to keep the general people in good humor and make them work. The old Latin phrase "Pane et circer," " food and amusement," was well applied in olden times. It is applied to-day in other countries. Why not here, to-day? I am a German and do not think that a portion of Sunday spent in harmless popular amusement would hurt anybody, or anything. I do not think it would interfere with religion, or with morality. On the contrary, I believe it would make life sweeter and more wholesome to those who spent a part of each Sunday in the woods with wife and children and perhaps a few friends; or in a popular concert room, listening to good music. But I know that a majority of the best citizens of the community do not believe as I do; and 1 cheerfully bow to the judgment of the majority. But if we cannot —if we ought not- to use a part of Sunday as the Romans used and the Germans use it, why cannot we have Saturday afternoons? If all the stores and all the manufactories closed at noon, working people generally- -and that means the " bosses," too —could go home and enjoy a well-earned holiday. T'hose stores and shops where provisions are sold might open again in the evening, closing an hour before the others; or there might be, by agreement, a regular rotation of closing so that some stores might be kept open while others were closed. By writing this I have acted in good faith, not intending to hurt any one. I have been a citizen of these islands twelve years. I am no agitator. In the above suggestions I aim to secure the greatest good to the greatest number. Believing as I do that recreation is, one of the most important factors in human life, arid believing that music is one ot the most healthful and enjoyable of human recreations, I cannot help raising my voice to ask Honolulu to try and secure the best music for the greatest number of its people. H. BRGECR. FOR THE INFORMATION OF TOURISTS. The Hawaiian Islands possess the flattering distinction of being the most extensively written about of all the islands of Polynesia. Yet only within very recent years have there been facilities of travel that place them within easy access of the chief Pacific-Coast port of the United States, and on the regular route of travel from San Francisco to New Zealand and Australia. And even now the magnificently-appointed and admirably-conducted steamship service of the Oceanic Company has failed to attract to our shores the tourists which the attractions of the islands justify their citizens in expecting.

Page  75 HAWTIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 75 Apparently the chief cause of the past failure to make Honolulu and other places on the group adequately appreciated, as wintering resorts for invalids or those who dread the rigors of winter in the eastern and northern portions of the United States, has been because of the failure on the part of those most directly interested properly to advertise the manifold attractions of the group, or even to set forth, specifically, the cost of a trip to these islands and of a sufficiently long sojourn here to make acquaintance with the scenery, the climate and the agricultural development of the group. As this article is especially intended to be of use to foreign readers, and as most of the Kingdom's foreign visitors come here by way of San Francisco, we may as well assume that the intending visitor to whom this is addressed is either in San Francisco or en route thither. The vessels of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company do not bring passengers to Honolulu- -except through passengers to and from Australia, who can obtain stop-over tickets by making special arrangements. To those in San Francisco who purpose visiting the islands and then returning, the Oceanic Steamship Line sells excursion tickets good for the round trip, to be in effect three months, for $125. The company claims that its two steamers, the Alameda and the Mariposa, are the finest and fastest ocean steamers carrying the American flag. They are certainly splendid examples of American ship building. Each is 3,000 tons burden and each can comfortably carry one hundred cabin passengers. I'he trip is made in 7 days ---covering 2,100 miles. 'n Honolulu, the Hawaiian Hotel is managed by Joseph Tilden and George Fassett, the former a gourmet of celebrity and the latter a well-known hotel man of Chicago and San Francisco. It is a cool,.comfortable, convenient and spacious structure, surrounded by ample grounds, and commanding from its tower and upper balconies one of the most beautiful of prospects. There are good roads running east and west from Honolulu. The bathing beach of Waikiki, the beautiful valleys of Manoa and Kalihi, the famous Pali, the picturesque land-locked bay known as Pearl River — -all these and a score of other places are within easy access of town, and trips may be made to and from them in a day, with plenty of leisure for luncheon and for lolling on the turf or the sea sands. Of the trip to Hawaii, including a visit to the great volcano of Kilauea, the Wilder Steamship Co. make the following estimate ---the round trip occupying ten days: Steam er fare.............................................. $25 oo "Arnold H ouse," I z days.................................... 4 50 Horse to Volcano........................... 12 50. Guide, $15.oo, divided among five.............................. 3 oo Pack Mule, $I5.oo, divided among five..................... 3 oo Half-way House............................................. I oo Volcano House, say i Y days.................................. 6 oo Feed for Horse, say..................... 2 oo Care of G uide, say each.................................... i 50 into Volcano....................................... 2 of

Page  76 76 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. f Returning Half-way House.................................... I o Arnold House, 3 days......................................... 9 oo Extras................................................. 4 50 $75 oo Another trip to the volcano may be made, going by the steamer of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Co., touching at Kau. Both Hawaii trips have the advantage of finer steamboat service and better accomodations than are afforded visitors to the other islands. A trip to Kauai, including a visit to the "Sounding Sands" of Waimea, the world-famous sugar estate of Lihue, and the lovely water falls and fern glens of the "Garden Island's " many valleys, may be made in less than a week at a cost of not more than $50. A trip of like duration and expense, may be made to the Island of Maui. Haleakala, the largest extinct crater in the world, the grandly gloomy valley of Wailuku, the extensive plantation and sugar mills of Spreckelsville, make a trip to Maui one of the pleasantest obtainable anywhere. But the visitor may cut his time cloth to suit himself. He may have from 6 to 8 days of Honolulu life and return to San Francisco by the steamer that brought him over. He may make any one of the other-island trips above mentioned and be only three weeks in the kingdom. Or he may see all that we have mentioned and much more within an absence from San Francisco of less than two months. The following summary may be relied upon. Except where figures could be given with absolute certainty, outside estimates have been made: San Francisco to Honolulu and return, by steamer within 3 months.$I25 oo San Francisco to Honolulu and return, by sailing vessel..........$ 80 oo Hotel fare in Honolulu, per day...............................$ 3 oo A trip around part of Oahu, occupying four days, by carriage or on horseback, from........................... $30 oo to $ 60 oo Suburban excursions, each, from.....................$3 oo to $ oo Honolulu to Kauai and return, one week.......................$ 50 oo Honolulu to Maui and return, one week........................ 50 oo Honolulu to Hawaii and return, including volcano trip, one week..$ 75 oo THE NEW LIBRARY BUILDING. During the year just passed, the Honolulu Library and Reading Room Association has completed its new building and taken possession of what is intended for a permanent home. This Association, which is now in the sixth year of its existence, has, through the energy of a few enthusiastic individuals and the liberal co-operation of the public, pursued a steady course of usefulness and growth until, by entering into possession of the new edifice, it may be considered to have passed from the stage of hopeful experiment to that of assured success.

Page  77 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. A large amount of care and thought have been expended upon the plans for this building, all future wants have been provided for, so far as the same could be torseen, and it is expected that there will be gradually accumulated in years to come, such a collection of books as shall be an honor to our island metropolis and a monument to those whose liberality and foresight have planned and builded for the future wants of our community. The building site which was the gift of the Hawaiian Government in accordance with a resolution of the Legislative Assembly of i880 is on the corner of Hotel and Alakea streets, directly opposite the Young Men's Christian Association Hall, near the Hawaiian Hotel, and con venient of access fiom all parts of the town. The following full description of this building — whose completion marks a distinct stage in island progress and culture- - is taken from the Hawaiian Monthly of last year: The architectural style, while not conforming strictly to any established model: is in its general spirit and design, Grecian, and presents the plain, solid and substantial appearnice which is appropriate for a structure designed for the uses which this is. The approach is by a flight of six steps and a porch with fluted columns with Corinthian capitals. The steps and platform are in concrete, and the columns and roof of the porch are wood, painted and sanded in imitation of stone of the same color as the concrete steps. From the porch an entrance six feet wide, with handsome folding doors, gives access to a hall ten feet wide and twenty feet long. On the left of this hall is a parlor. 20 feet square, fronting on Hotel street and lighted by two windows, each four feet wide by ten feet high. This room is intended for conversation and such harmless social recreation as members may wish to indulge in, without maintaining that strict quietude which is indispensable in a reading room. From the end of the hall directly opposite the front entrance, a doorway, five feet six inches wide, opens into the reading room, an apartment thirty-two feet wide by thirty-eight feet long, and extending the entire width of the building. This room is lighted by three large mullioned windows, each seven feet wide and ten feet high, on the Alakea street front, and three smaller windows (each four feet by six) on the opposite side of the room. These latter openings pierce the outer wall on the Ewa site of the building, and are placed high up, the bottoms of the windows being seven feet from the floor. This arrangement facilitates ventilation and affords a good light from above, and at the same time leave ample space for book cases along the whole length of this side of the room under the windows. These cases are used for the books be longing to the reference department of the library, bound files of newspapers, etc. Additional ventilation is provided for by a series of ventilators, near the floor and just b1elow the ceiling, on both sides of the room. Directly back of the reading room and communicating with it by large sliding doors, twelve feet wide by thirteen feet high, is the library proper. This room, which will be entirely devoted to the storage of books, also extends the whole width of the building, being thirty feet wide by twenty-two feet deep, and it is estimated will fur nish accomodation for twenty thousand volumes. The ceiling of this room and those ">f the reading room, parlor and hall, are all sixteen feet high in the clear. In ordet

Page  78 78 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. to economize space and provide for placing as large a number of books as possible, the two opposite sides of the room are without windows or openings of any kinds The symmetry of the exterior is preserved by a " blind " or imitation window on the Alakea street front of the building. At a height of eight feet, or half way between the floor and ceiling, a gallery eight feet wide runs along the two blank sides of the room, and is connected by a narrow gallery four feet wide, along the rear end, opposite the large sliding doors already mentioned. Book cases arranged on the alcove plan are placed both on the main floor and the gallery above, thus practically doubling the shelving capacity of the room. Access to the gallery is had by a narrow flight of steps in one corner. Between the galleries is a clear space of fourteen feet, extending from the floor to the ceiling. The lighting and ventilation of this room are provided for —first, by the large sliding doors connecting with the reading room; second, by a door in the rear of the room directly opposite, and a corresponding window on the end gallery overhead: and, third, by a large ventilating skylight, twelve feet square, in the ceiling. It is be lieved that these will be ample for the purpose intended. The rear door of the library opens upon a verandah which is reached by steps from Alakea street and which communicates also with a small extension or wing of the main building, twelve feet wide and fifteen feet deep, This contains a janitor' room with wash bowl and sink and other conveniences and has no communication with the main building except by the verandah aforesaid. It will be thus seen that all requirements of a public library and reading room have been carefully studied and fully provided for. The size of the main building is thirty-four feet wide by eighty-four feet deep, which, with the rear extension, makes a total depth of ninety-nine feet. The founda tions are of a very substantial character and the walls of brick, faced with uressed brick on the three sides which are exposed to view. The' roof is of slate and the side walls are carried up above the eaves, forming a parapet or fire wall which has a concrete capping. The front of the building on Hotel street is surmounted by a gable as is also the central section on Alakea street, containing the reading room. This arrangement varies the outline, which would otherwise be rather monotonous in view oi the great length of the building, in proportion to its height. As it is, it is believed that the general exterior effect will be very satisfactory. The pediments, corbels and sills for the various window openings are all corn posed of concrete blocks, moulded separately, and built into the walls precisely as though they were blocks of stone. The window pediments and corbels are of Grecian design and will add materially to the character of the building. The height from the ground to the top of the coping on the straight part of the walls, is twenty five feet, and to the peak of the gables, thirty-five feet. St. Matthews' Hall, San Mateo, is one of the best schools for boys in California, and acknowledged to be the best military-discipline school in the state. Foreign readers of the Apnual are respectfully requested to extend its usefulness, by sending to the compiler requests for special information required concerning the Islands.

Page  79 0 ' METEOROLOGtCAL SUMMARY FOR HONOLULU, JULY x, 1883-JULY x, i884.-(By C. J. Lyons of the Government Survey.) BARO.METER... THERMOMETER.: WIND.____ _ DAYS DAYS DAYS DAYS RAINMONT1H. \10 P. M. 4 P. M. j9 P. M. AVE. 6 2 9 AVE. N. to E. E. to S. S. to W. IW. to N. F A L L. July 3....0.......I... 30.08: 3o0.058; 30.098 30.0803 72.6 82.7} 75.07676 27 4 1.70 August.................. 30.1I6 30.057: 30.120 30.087 75.3 84.0 76.478.58 30 1.74 September................ 30.103 30.039! 30.099 30.070 72.0 83.5 75.477.00 25 5 67 October...................30.092 30.017 30.0861 30.053 73-3 81.3 754 76.86 28 3 1.9 November............ 30.0oi8 29.959 3o-o17 29 988" 69.1 78.81 72.2i73.36 8 3 I 9 2.90 December................29.964 26.89 29.982' 29.931 68.3 75.7 69.5 71.21 15 4 10 2 4.97 January.................... 79 3.0o3 30.63 30.037: 65.5 75.7 68.769.94 19 6 2 1.45 Z February................ 29.979 29.935 29.985 29.958 65.3 7 67.6 7o.26 4 i 5 14 6.6 March................... i 30.112' 30.017! 30.104; 30.077 67.4 78. i 70.2;71.89 20 2 3 6 5.8l April.................... 30.067 29.998 30.063 30.0o31 68.0o 76.7 68.6i71.126' 13 II 4 3.76 May..................... 3o. 30.104 6 30.102 30.073: 68.7 79.6 70.873.03 18 4 6 3 87 < June................... j 3J0.130 30.067 30.126 30. 097; 74.0o 82.41 75.2 76.I9!! 30 2.19 _~~~_ ____ r_ ____,~:I~ — i — i -- -— i -— ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~! u Z,;I u je -_ >1 "I Averages............... 30.073 30.009! 30.070o 30.040o 70.0 79.71 72.173.93! | i Totals...... 237 32 65 32 29.20 INTERNAL TAXES FOR BIENNIAL PERIOD, x882 —1884. N~Real st Per rop. t~r olrops. Horses.ules. Dogs. Carriages. Nat. Seamen. Totals. 1862 —$ 17,063.....$ 12,090...... $32,965..... $52,842...... $2,691....$11,o018.......$1,294........ $ 2,441.*..$133,236 i864 — 8,877...... 12,669...... 32,561..... 52,326... 3,080..... 10,038....... 1,384....... 1,872. 131,729 i866 — 20,173.1..... i6 -16,336..... 30,870..... 6o,290...... 4,265..... 12,o16....... 1,748........ 4,657...... 150,66 1868 --- 22,360...... 20.197...... 30,086...... 61,541. 4,823... 12,654.-..... 2,125........ 10,212...... 165,400 187o --- 23,532..... 22,888...... 28,830...... 60,027..... 5109.... 15,430~'..... 2,400........ 8,268...... 166,506 I872 — 52355...... 45,329...... 27,841...... 53006.... 6,140..... 22,271....... 3,125........ 5,894..... 215,961 1874 --- 53,892...... 42,707...... 27,620...... 50o88...... 6,073..... 20,236....... 3,490........ 3,296...... 207,400 1g76 — 58,645...... 47,988...... 27,372..... 49.I94..... 6,012..... 18,676....... 3;987........ 3,056...... 213,935 1878 — 94,584.. 9,378..... 28,722...... 47,564...... 3,053.... 16,465....... 4,865........ 2,114...... 291,745 880o — 143.7 6...... 155,944...... 35,484...... 43399........... 15,172....... 5,780........ 815...... 400,210 1882 — 187,923...... 208,096...... 45,998..... 42,819........... 13,8650...... 7,125....... 642...... 506,574 I884 —*Could not be obtained —as the data had nrt been returned to the Finance office by the tax-collectors.

Page  80 ~ HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. CLIPPER PASSAGES TO AND FROM THE COAST. The fo'lowing is a list of the most remarkable passages between these Islands and San Francisco and other ports on the Coast during the last twenty-five years: I858 —Am. bark Yankee, II days to San Francisco. 1859 —Am. ship Black Hawk, 9 days and 9 hours from San Francisco. I86 ---Am. ship Fair Wind, 8 days and 17Y hours from San Francisco. t86i —Am. ship Norwester, 9 days and I6 hours from San Francisco. I86I —Am. bark Comet, 9 days and 20 hours from San Francisco. I86I-Am. bark Cornet, 10 days and 12 hours to San Francisco. I862 —Am. ship Storm King, 9 days and IO hours from San Francisco. I864 ---Am. ship Matapan, 0o2 days from San Francisco. I864 —Am. bark A. A. Eldridge, II days to Sari Francisco. I866 —Am. bark Ethan Allen, I days to San Francisco. 1878 —Am. barkentine J. A. Falkinhurg, II (lays to Astoria. 1879-Am. barkentine Catherine Sudden, 9 days and 17 hours to Cape Flattery. 1879 —Am. schooner Claus Spreckels, 9I/2 days from San Francisco to Kahului. I880-Am. schooner Jessie Nickerson, o1 days from Honolulu to Humboldt. 1880 —.Am. brigantine J. I). Spreckels, To days and 13 hours from San Francisco. 88o ---Am. brigantine J. D. Spreckels, 12 days to San Francisco. '!88i-Am. brigantine Consuelo, 10 days 20 hours from San Francisco to Kahului. 188 —Am. brigantine Win. G. Irwin, 8 days and 17 hours from S. F. to Kahului. Quick Passages of Ocean Steamers. Miles. Steamer. Date. d. h. m. Liverpool to New York............3350....... Oregon.................Oct. 1883...... 7 8 33 Liverpool to N.w York............ 3,350.......Russia...................... 869...... 9 7 21 Philadelphia to Queens own........3,oIo......Illinois................ Dec., i876...... 8 i8 3 New York to Havana..............,225.......City of Vera Cruz......Aug., 1876...... 4 o 43 Havana to New York..............,225.......ity of New York......May, 1875...... 3 10 7 New York to Aspinwall............2,300....Henry Chauncey.............1875...... 6 14 Aspinwall to New York............2,300......Henry Chauncey...... 875...... 6 5 3 San Francisco to Yokohama........4,764.......City of Peking...................... 5 9 Yokohama to San Francisco........ 4,764....... Oceanic.............:876...... 4 13 San Francisco to Honolulu..2,0.............City of Sydney...............880...... 6 14 Honolulu to San Francisco.........2,100oo.......Zealandia.............Aug., I88i...... 6 23 30 New York to Queenstown.........2,950......Alaska............... 1883...... 6 18 57 New York to Queenstown..........2,950....... Alaska............. Sept., 1882...... 6 15 I9* New York to Queenstown..........2,950.......Servia.................Jan., 1882...... 7 4 13 Queenstown to New York..........2,50o.......Oregon............... April, 1884.... 6 10 Queenstown to New York..........2,95.......Alaska............... 1883...... 6 21 40 Queenstown to New York..........2,950.....Alaska.................June, 1882...... 7 50 Queenstown to New York.......... 2,950...... Servia................ 1882...... 7 7 40 Shanghai to London............... —.......Sterling Castle.......... May, 1882..... 29 22 15t Amoy to New York............. -........ Glenavon..............June, 1882......44 I4.. Plymouth, En'., to Sydney..........Austral.................May, 1882......32 12..i Yokohama to San Francisco........4,764.......Arabic.................Oct., 1882.....13 2I 43 San Francisco to Honolulu.........2,10o.......Zealandia.............April, 1882...... 6 I3 25 Honolulu to Auckland.............3,8o1.......Zealandia.............April, I882......I 23 San Francisco to Honolulu.........2,100...... Australia..............June, 1882...... 6 16 Honolulu to San Francisco.........2,100.......Zealandia...............Oct, 1882...... 6 xo 45 San Francisco to Honolulu 2.........2,:oo......Mariposa...............uly, 1883..... 5 20 Honolulu to San Francisco..Mariposa............Mar.......... ug., 1883..... 6 8 *Best on record. tTotal time. Actual steaming time, 27d., 23h., and 45m. ~Including all stoppages. ISteaming time; or a little over 36 days, including all stoppages.

Page  81 T1AWAIIAN ALMANAC AN ND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTERED VESSELS. MERCIAN NT'ME N AN 1) TRADERS. REGISTER. CLASS. NAMAE. TONS. i REGISTE1IED OWNERS. 8K..... 150 new 175 do 193 do 2I6 do 226 do 237 do 235 do '39 do |Bark Bark Bark Schr Brig:Brig Bark Bark |Kale................. 867 73.95 Hackf.ld 1olani................. 924 76.95 H ackfeld Kalakaua............... 404 89.95J S Walker Jennie Walker......... 137 85.s95 William Greig Ninito................. 245 7.95 H R Macfarlane lHazard......... 459 6.95' Pacific Nav Co Lily Grace.............. 750 30.950Robt Gray [A C Cooke 'Thos. R. Foster...... 11I27 79.95 J Campbell, C Brewer (Co, 1' R Foster, COASTERS. I I. I i I I REGISTER. CLASS. II new Schr r66 do Schr 174 do Schr 171 old Schr 176 new Schr 127 do Schr 158 do10 chr (61 do Schr 177 do Stmr 179 do jSchr 180 do iSchr 155 do Schr 183 do Schr 185 do iSchr r86 do Schr r88 do Schr 190 do Sttmr 194 do }chr 195 do Stmr 196 do Stmr 197 do Schr zoo do Schr 204 do Stmr 205 do Schr 207 do Stmr 208 do Schr 209 do Schr 215 do Schr 218 do 'Stmr 219 do Schr."3 do Schr 224 do Stmr 220 do0 Schr 227 do Schr 229 do Stmr 23o do Schr 232 do Schr 234 do Sloop 236 do Sloop 240 do Schr 24i do Schr [42 do Stmr 243 do Stmr 245 do Stmr %47 do Stmr '48 do Schr 244 do Schr 41 do Schr NAME. TONIS. I REGISTERED OWNERS. Kaluna.....86 44 95. Pacific Nav Co Nettie Merrill........... I58 77.95 Paul Isenberg 'aterina Apiani Long... 43 85.95 Allen & Robertson Manlokawai............ 51 45.95 Inter Island S N Co Kekauluohi............. 53 89.95 Allen & Robinson Marion................. 105 49.95Inter Island S N Co Ka Moi................. 154 I6.g95 Pacific Nav Co Kapiolani............... 10 78.951Pacific Nav Co Likelike................ 596 58.95 Wilder Steamship C(' Leahi................. 103 24.95 Allen & Robinson Wailele................. 75 85.95 Pacific Nav Co Mile Morris............ 22 32.95,F Wundenberg 4aleakala............. 16 75.95 C Afong Marv E Foster.......... Ii6 o6.95lInter Island S N C( WMaioli............... 65 68.95gPacific Nav Co |Waiehu6....6.......... 60 37.o5!Pacific Nav Co Kilanea Hou......... 271 10.95 Wilder Steamship Co Waimalu.............. 95 97.-95Pacific Nav Co Waimanalo.............. 49 8.9, Waimanalo Sugar Compaii Mokolii............ 96 78.95 Wilder Steamship Co Liholiho.............. 122 35.95 Inter Island S N Co Luka.................. 122 35.95 Allen & Robinson and Mrs J (; l)icksc, Lehua................ 217 91.95 Wilder Steamship Co. Mokuola................ 17 io.95 'ong Aki Tames Makee.......... 244 15.95 Inter Island S N Co Malolo............. 133 65.95 Pacific Nav Co Gen. Seigel............ 39 12.95,J F Colburn lKauikeaouli......... 39 70.95 Allen & Robinson C R Bishop.......... 281 36.95 Inter Island S N C( Mana................... 107 0o.95 Pacific Nav Co Sarah................. 6 21.95 N Kanaauao Iwalani............... |434 40.95,Inter Island S N C(' Josephine......... 8 88.95F Wundenberg Pohoiki............... 68 55.9s5 M P Robinson W H Reed.:..... 95 I5.9510 T Shipman Emma.............. 22 80.95 G W and H R Mactlarlat Ehukai.............. 45 35-95 Pacific Nav Co Kahihilani............ II 45.95 W F Williams Healani.............. 9 67.95 H Judd Rainbow................ 23 73-95J Paiko Mamo................ 7 2595 J Stubblebeen Planter................. 500 20.95 Inter Island S N Co Kinau............ 868 77.95 Wilder Steamship Co Kapiolani.......... 24 24.95 Paul Isenberg W G Hall.......... 590 09.95 Inter Island S N (', Sarah & Eliza......... 22 78.95 W F Williams Kawailani......... 41 87.95 O Kalua Rob Roy........ 2. 5 38.95 J I Dowsett, Sr

Page  82 X2 t* HAWAIIAN ALMANAC ANDI ANNUAL. RULERS OF THE PRINCIPAL NATIONS OF THE WORLD IN 1884. GOVERNIIMENTS. RULERS. TITLE. BORN. ATE OI ACCESS! ON. Argentine Republic...... Julio A Roca......... President........ 1838 Oct 12..........1o Austria-Hungary.......Franz Josef............. peror........ 1830 June............ 848 1Be3gum................ Leopold II.............King............ I1835 1Dec io........ i865 Bolivia........ N Campero............. Presid. tnt......... June i......... 880 Brazii.................. Pedro II Alcatara....... Emneror.......... x825 April 7.........1831 Bulgaria................ Alexander I............. Prince............ 1857 April 29......... 87 Burmah................Theebaw............. Kin............ 1858 Oct............1878 Chili................... Domingo Santa Maria.. |President......... Sept 18........ 881 China................. Kwong Shu............. Enimperor......... 1871 Jan 12.......... Colombia............... Jose E Atalra......... President........ April......... 882 Costa Rica............ jP Fernandez............ President......... Au iu.........1882 Denmnark............... hristi.t- IX. King.......... 818 Nov 15.........863 Ecuador................!iS Caamayto.......... President.o........ N ov it.... 88..... Egypt................ Tewfik Pasha........... Khedive.......... june 27.........879 France................ Franco s P Jules Grevy.. I[ resident......... 1813 Jan 30........187 Germany............ W iltelm I.............Emperor......... 797 Jan 8..........871 Alsace-Lorraine...... Edwin H C von Manteufel Siatthalter........i...9 l.ov............ 879 Anhalt............... Friederich I k............ ke............. 831 May 22.........871 Baden................ Friedericl I............ Grand Duke....... 126 April 24........ 1852 Bavaria............. Ludwig II.............. King............ 2 845 M arch o....... 1864 Brem en..................................... 1urgom asters.. Brunswick............ Wilhelm I......k........ Duke... 8o6 April 2o........31 Hamburg................................... burgomasters..... i Hesse................ Ldwi IV............. Grand Duke...... 8 7 June 13.........1877 Lippe................ Walcemar.............. Prince............ 1824 I)ec 8..........1875 Lubeck......................... urgor asters..... Mecklenburg-Schwerin Friederich Franz III.... Grand Duke...... 1851 April 15....... 188 Mecklenburg-Strelitz...Friederich Wilhelm I....I Grand I)uke...... 1819 Sept 6.........g186 Oldenburg............ Peter I............... Grand Duke....... 1827 Feb 27.......1853 Prussia.............. W ilhelm I.............. K ing1............. 797 Jan 2...........i86' Prussif.Wbb-.~~~j~ ilielm I..............King. 797 Jan.2......6. Reuss-Greiz........... Heinrich XXII......... Prince............1146 Nov 8.......... 859 Reuss-Schleiz......... Htinich XIV.......... Prince........... 1832 July io.........1867 Saxe-Altenburg........ Ernst.................... Duke............. 1853 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha... irnst II............... Duke.. 18z6 Jn29........... 844 Saxe-Meiningen..... Georg II.............. Duke............. 826 ept 20.........i856 Saxe-Weimar......... Karl Alexander.......... Grand Duke...... 18x8 July 8..........1853 Saxony............... 'Albert I................ King.............. 28 Oct 29.........1873 Schaumburg-Lippe... Adolf................... Prince............ 1817 Nov 21.........86o Schwarzb'g-Rudolstadt Georg................... Pince........... 838 IN) 2.........1868 Schwarzburg-Sonders.. Karl I1................ Prince........... 1830 Aug 19.......... i88 Waldeck........ George Victor........... Prince............ I31 May 14....... 1845 Wurternburg.......... Karl I.................. King........... 1823 Ijnne 25.........1864 Great Britain and Ireland Victoria................ Queen & Ei. Ind.l 18oI9 June 20.....1i837 Greece................. Georgios I............. King.............. 45i une 6....... 86 Guatemala..............IJ Rulinio Barrios...... President........ May 5.........188 Hayti..................I 'resident......... Hawaiian Islands...... Kalakaua.............. King......1... 136 Feb 12..........1874 Honduras.............................President......... Italy.................... Humbert I............. King...... 844 Jan...........1879 Japan...,............. Mutsu Hito............. Mikado...........1852 Feb 13..........i867 Mexico.............Porfirio Diaz............ President.......1830 MIay 5........ I 884 Morocco............... Muley-Hassan....... Sultan............ 183I Sept 25......... *1873 Montenegro.............Nicholas I.......... Prince........ i841 Aug 14......... i186 Montenegro................86 7 Madagascar............. Ranavalona I......... Queen.......... July 13......... 188: Netherlands. Wilhelm III........... King.............. March 17.......184 Netherlands - ~~~~~~~~~~~~ I~ieq i............ I.. 17 Nicaragua............. Adam Cardenas.. Ps..... President...ch i....... 883 Paraguay............... B Caballero............ President................ 1881 Persia...... I asred een.........Shah...8 2 p.. 1 rl291p)n........ 1I8 Peru................... Miguel Iglesias......... M Presidento....... tg 2.........1884 Portugal............... Luis I...Kn..........King.......... I838 Nov IT..........1861 Roumania............. Carol I................ King......3...... 839 March 26...... 18 1 Russia...............Alexander III Emperor.... j 2845 March........ 1881 San I)omingo........... Ulysses -enreana....... President......... Sept...........88 San Salvador............ Rafael Zaldivar......... iesident.........April 3.........1884 Servia.................. Milan I.............. King............ 54 June o......... 7 Spain................... Alfonso XII............. King.15........ 857 Dec 30.........874 Sweden and Norway.... Oscar 11............. in............. 1829 Sept......... Switzerland.............EmilC Wet........I President......... (for 1884*) * Annual election.

Page  83 HlAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 83 RULERS OF THE PRINCIPAL NATIONS OF THE WORLD IN 1884. (Continued.) GOVERNMEN TS. RULERS. lTITLE. BORN. DATE OF -| ~~,. R A CCESSION. Siam..........C........ Chulalounkorn........ King............ I853 Oct............ 86< Turkey................. Abdul-Hamid II....... iSultan............ 842 IAug 3.........187 'I'u is.................. Sidy Ahsin,..............Bey............ 7 Oct 28..........1882 United States.......... (rover Cleveland....... President..... 884 M arch 5........I882 Uruguay. Maximo Santos........resident......... arch...... 88 Venzuela................ Guzman Blanco, prov'l... President................... X88g RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS LOCALITIES, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 18s4. MONTHS. I FROM I)EC. (883 TO Nov. 1884. December.............................. January................................. February............................. M arch................................ A pril...................................May.................................... Tune.................................... July............................... August.................................. September................................ O ctober................................ Novem ber........................... T otals......................... HONOL ULU. MAU I. KAUA1. ~:1.... I. ( r ', u j 1u u} - r _., P.1 <T~ 5.40 3.07 3.94 I4.68 5.35 2.80 5.21 5.64 5.90 8.40 I. 10 61.55.-. i....................., 4.37 8.65 1.o8 4.93 1.14 2.94 4.65 1.94 2.38 6.43.35 1-34.8o i.30 1.38.88 1.09.23.84 i.46 4.32 2.80.59.88 22.99 3I.78 2.09 7. I5 1.10 6.68 I.10 1.07.83 2.00 2.38 2. SI 5.30 1.98 34.19 A SUGGESTIVE TABLE. Death rate in American cities per i,ooo inhabitants: New Orleans.................................................... 37 N ew York..............................................................29 B altim ore...............................................................27 Pniladelphia............................................................ 25 Boston.................................................................. 24 Chicago................2.......................................... 24 St. L ouis.............................................................2 1 San Francisco.......................................................... 2 1 Los Angeles.............. 13 San D iego...............................................................13 Santa B irbara.................................................... 13 M onterey..........................................................o... Doubtless there are many places in the United States that can show as low a death rate as San Iiego, Santa Barbara and Los Angeles; but Monterey is a very pearl of places, from a health standpoint. Besides it is one of the most attractive pleasure resorts in the United States; and it is within easy access of San Francisco, so that Hawaiian visitors can enjoy its maniiold advantages without loss of valuable time in distant travel.

Page  84 ~4 HAUWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL.. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR i885. The Court, His MAJESTY, KALAKAUA, b. November I6, 1836; elected February 12, 1874, and inaugurated February 13, 1874. Son of Kapaakea and Keohokalole. Her Majesty the QUEEN, b. December 31, I835. lHer Royal Highness the Princess LILIUOKALANI, Heir Apparent, b. -epttnmber 2, I838; m. September i6, I862, to His Excellency John Owen Dominis, Governor of Oahu, K. G. C. of the Royal Orders of Karnehamneha and Kalakaua; Kt. Corn. of the Orders of Francis Joseph and Isabella Catolica; Member of the House of Nobles and of the Privy Council of State, etc. Proclaimed Heir Apparent to the Throne, April i1, 1877 -Her Royal Highness the Princess LIKtELIJK, b. January 13, x85Ir;. September 22, I870, to the Honorable Archibald Scott Cleghorn, K. G. C. of the Royal Orders of Kamehameha and Kalakaua; Member of the House of Nobles and of the Privy Council of State; has issue Her Royal Highness the Princess Victoria-Kawekiu- Kaiulani -,unalilo-Kalanin niahilapalapa, b. October I6, I875. I-Her Majesty the Dowager Queen EMMA, b. January 2, 1836; m. to Kamehameha IV. June 19, I856. His Majesty's Chamberlain, Hon. C. H. JUDD, His Majesty's Staff. C olonels C H Judd, C P Iaukea, J H Boyd and G W Macfarlane. Staff of the Governor of Oahu. NMajors Chas T Gulick and Antone Rosa, The Cabinet. His Majesty, 'THE KING. I'remier and Minister of Foreign Affairs, H-is Ex W M Gibson; 'Miister of the Interior, His Ex C T Gulick; Minister of Finance, His Ex J H Kapena; Attorney-(General, His Ex P Neumanl. Privy Council of State His Majesty, Ti'l KING. Honorables H A P Carter, J S Walker, J 0 Dominis, A F Judd, C R Bishop, A S Cleghorn, P Kanoa, J M Smith, S N Castle, G Rhodes, SG Wilder, H M Whitney, J M Kapena, H A Widemann, R Stirling, J A Cummins, W C Parke, W J Smith, W P Wood, C H Judd, L McCully, W F Allen, M Kuaea, W M Gibson, J E Bush, W D Alexander, P Neumann, J Kaae, S Parker, E K Lilikalani, Luther Aholo, John K Kaunamlano, John T Baker, Robert H Baker, Samuel M Damou, Alfred N Tripp; C H Judd, Secretary. House of Nobles. HIons C R Bishop, His Ex J O Dominis, lions A S Cleghorn, J I Dowsett, S G Wilder, P Isenberg, W ' Martin, J M Kapena, J M Smith, J P Parker, H Kuihelani, G Rhodes, JE Bush, C H Judd, P P Kanoa, J W Kaae, A Widemann, J H S Martin, George W Macfarlane, J S Walker. [The Cabinet Ministers hold sea.ts in the House of Nobles ex,iffcio. 1 Department of Judiciary. SIUPREIriE COURT. Chief Justice................... Hon A F Judo First Associate Justice.......... Hon I, McCullx Second Associate Justice........Hon B H Austin Clerk................W... i.....n. Foster Deputy Clerk.................. H Smith 2'1 Deputy Clerk...... B........Henry F Poor Hawaiian Interpreter..........W 1, Wilcox Chinese Interpreter............... Li Cheung Clerk Police Justice Honolulu.. Chas W Baldwin Circuit Judges. Second Circuit, Maui........ Hon A Fornander ( Hon F S Lyman Third Circuit, Hawaii....... on F ( Hon C F Hart Fourth Circuit, Kauai............Hon J Hardy CLERKS OF CIRCUIT COURrT: J W Girvin, Second Circuit: Daniel Porter, Third Circuit; F Bindt, Fourth Circuit. District Justices. OAHI '. R F Bickerton, P J.................. Honolulu H N Kahulu..............................Ewa J P Kama........................ Waianae J Kaluhi........................... Koolauloa S K Mahoe.................... Waialua Asa Kaulia.......................Koolaupoko MAUI. 1, Aholo, P J........................ Wailuku D Kahaulelio, P J..................... Lahaina John Kalana.........................Makawao S W Kaai............................. H ana M Kealoha.......................... l onuaula S K Kupihea................ Molokai S Kahoohalaalaal.....................Lanai KAUAI. S R Hapuku, P J..................... Lihut A W Maioho......................K... Koloa R Puuki............................ H analei E Kahale................... Waimea G S Gay.............................. Niihau; G B Meheula.........................Kawaihau HAWAII. G W A Hapai, P J........... H......... Hilo Z Kalai, P J................ North Kohala D K Pa...........................North H-ilo J P M iau............................ Ham akua J M Naeole..........P..........Puna HS Martin Kau J H S M artin............................. Kau Geo ''imoteo.......................East Kau J G Hoapil...............N.orth Kona C W P Kaeo..................... South Kona S H Mahuka....................South Kohala Governors. Governor of Oahu........His Ex J 0 Dominis, Residence, Washington Place, Honolulu. Governor of Maui..........His Ex J O Dominis. Governess of Hawaii.........H I Pomaikelani. Residence, Hilo; F S Lyman, Clerk. Governor of Kauai.......... His Ex P P Kanoa. Residence, Koloa, Kauai. Department of Foreign Affairs. Minister of Foreign Affairs, His Ex W M Gibson Secretary of Department............ J S Wei b

Page  85 HlAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1885.....,,_.............,.... _ _.,. _................,.................. Foreigit R eb.resentati7es --- - JDiplomntic.!Jn ted States Minister Resident —tis Ex Rollin 1M Daggeit; residence, AlaKea street. lngland —Comlnissioner and Consul-General, Jas Hay Wodehouse; residence, Enmma street. France —Consul and Commissioner, Monsieur Henri Feer; residence, Bei etania street. Georges Bouliech, Chancellor French Legation. Portugal-Consul and Commnissioner, Senor A de Souza Canavarro; residence, Beretania street. Foreign C, nsuls, Etc. Italy............................ F A Schaefer G;eriman lEmpire............H F' Glade, (a.cting) Sweden and Norway...... H W Schmidt, (acting) Ienmark- l.ana, Maui...........A Unna I Peru............................A Cartwright Netherlands. Belgium.... J Paty United States...................I) A McKinley M exico........... Spain, Vice-Consul............... lv Lne Austro-Hungary.................... H F Glade Russia. Vice-Consul..... H W Schmidt, (acting) British Vice-Consul.............. H D)avies United States, Vice-Consul........ F P Hastings l)enmark............ tH R Macfarlane, (acting) United States Cons'l'r Ag't, tilo..J A Beckwith Japan, Commercial Agent............J Carter U S Consular Agent, I(ahulni.....A F Hopke i IU, Consular Agent, Mahukona.....C I Wight iJ S Consular Agent, Hilo.....John X Beckwith ftAWTAIIAN DI)PLOMNATIC and C(NSULAR AGENTS. iEnvoy Extraordinary and.Minister Plenipotentia-y. Washington, D C......... His Ex H A P Carter secretary of Legation................ (vacant) Charge d /Afaireas andt Consuls-General. l,ondon, England................... M Hopkins Valparaiso, Chile....................) lhomas lima, Peru —......................R H Beddly liremen, Germany................... (vacant) Paris, France............ Collin de Paradis Consuls-General. New York, U S A............... E H1 Allen, Jr Sydney, N S W....................A S Webster Sweden and Norway..............H A Burger BIrussels, Belgium....Ferd 1) Cannart d'Hamale Copenhagen, Denmark......... Julius Holmbald Vokohama, Japan................... R W Irwin Ottawa Canada::............. C E Anderson Hong Kong, (hina............... Wm Keswick Naples, Italy..................... Cerulli iarcelona, Spain...............R Nonner Sans Cotsuls, Etc. ian Francisco, Cal.............H W Severance Portland, Or.....................J McCracken 'larseilles, France.....................A Couve Hiavre, Frnce.................. L de Mandrot 1;ordeaux, FIrance................ E de Boissac,;enoa, Italy....................R de Luchi Boston, Mass................Lawrence Bond Glasgow, Scotland.....................J Dunn 0)tago, N Z.................. H Driver ';rand Duchy of Baden Bade........M Muller C'allao, Peru.................. S Crosby \uckland, N Z..............D B Cruicshank Iialmouth, England................W S Broad aomsgate, England......... A S Hodges Cork. Ireland................... W 1.) Sevinotir Vienna, Austria....., - V Schonberger Cork. Ireland................... W.) Senour Vienna, Austria................. Schonberger Edinburgh and ILeith, Scotland. E G Buclhanat Rouen France................... C Schaessler Antwerp, Belgium..................V Forge, Jr Melbourne, Victoria...............G N Oakle) Queensland, Australia.............A B Webster Hamburg, Germany.................E F Weber Bremen, Germany................ F Muller Singapore........................ R Brenner Fayal, Azores................... ' F Serpa Nagasaki, Japan................... C L Fisher Colon..............................H E Cooke Tasm ania.............................A Coote tHull, England.....................W oran Maderia.....................J. Hutchinson Victoria, C..................... P Rithet Cardiff antd Swansea................. H Golberg Newcastle, N S W..........Alexander Brown (;hent, Belgiumn............. Erest Coppieters Dresden, S;: xony...................A P Russ Hio.go and Osaka, Japan.............S Endicott Liverpool, England................ W Janion Shallghai, Chilna.........J Johnstone Keswick St Michaels.................. Richard Seemnani 'Tahiti................... J K Sumner BIankok, Siaml.............A Kurtzhalss Christiaiia, Norway................... Samson Lisbon, Portugal............. leon de A Cohetn Dundee, Scotlanl.................. J G Zoller Gibraltar...................... Horacio Schott Newcastle on l'yne............... E Biesterfeld Frankfort on lMaine..............Josh Kopp Amsterdam.......................I) H Schmul Consuls. St John, N 3..............llan 0 Crookshaank Bruge, Belgium..............oseph F Steylaer.s Port Townsend, W T............James G Swal Lie e............................ M ax Goeble' Brisbane, Queensland.......... Alex B Webste. las Palmas, Canary Islands.....Luis F Suevedo Oporto......................... N M Ferro Montreal....................)ickson Anderson Halifax, N S.................... eorge Fraser Guatemala *...............H.enrv Tolke Mexico.....................William J de GresBristol, Engla, d................ ark W liitwell Vice-Consuls. Dublin.................. R Jas Mnrph) Toronto, Ontario.................Geo H Shtaw Hamilton, Ontario...........Adam Brown Kingston, Ontario.............(;eo Richardson Belleville, Ontario.............. Alex Robertson Rochville, Ontario............. J D Buell Yarmouth, Nova Scotia....Edwaid F Clements St Vincent, Cape de Verde Islands......Clarimundo Martins. Barcelona...................'lhomas Bohigas Lysckil, Sweden................. H Bergstron Jaluit... Commercial Agent, Hermann Grosser Interior Department. Minister of Interior......... His Ex C T Gulick Chief Clerk of Department.......J A Hassinger f W O Atwater Clerks....................1 J H Boyd G E Smithies Registrar of ConveyancesB...........T Brown Deputy Registrar............... Ialcolm Brown Surveyor-General.............. W D Alexander Assistant Surveyor...................C J Lyons Postmaster-Gener.l....... Fi.. on M Whitlnev 0

Page  86 4 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUJAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR s88,5. Assistant Postmaster-General....I B Peterson Supt Public W'k's and Civil Eng'r Julius H1 Smith Superintendent Water Works.....C B Wilson Chief Clerk of Water Works.......W Auld Commissioner of Patents.....Jonathan Austin List of Government Surveying Corps. W D Alexander.........Superintendent C J Lyons.......Assistant in charge of office JS Emerson ) S E Bishop......in charge of Parties l, D)Baldwin) J F Brown, employed in city work. G E G,.Jackson, employed in Hydrographic work; WV A Wall. Board of Immigration. His Ex C T Gulick...........President Mlembers-TFheir Exs XV M Gibson, J M Kapena, Hon J S Walker. A S Cleghorn...Inspector-General Immigrants W 0 Atwater..............Secretary Board of Health. I-is Ex W M Gibson..........President,Memibers-Hiis Ex C 1TGulick, Hon A S Cleghorn. Secretary. H Hayselden Port Physican...........Henri McGrew Agent................J H Brown Kau,.C.... N Spencer, J Kauhane. J H S Martin. MAUI. Lahaina.M..N Makalua, D' laylor, A Makekau W~ailuku... P Kaluna, E Bal, J Richardson Makawao.........J Keohokana, Kekaha flana......0 Unna, C K Kakani, S W Kaai Kaanapali.......J A Kaukau, J F Kauila. D H1 Kaliiailii. Molokai... J Nakaleka, D Kailtua, J W M Poohesi OAHU. Kon~a.....1) Kahanu, J S Smithies, H N Castle Koolaupoko.....Kane, G' Barenaba, M Rost Koolaula.......W C Lane, Naili, J Kaluhi Waialua.......J F Anderson, S N Emerson. N Kaia ikawaha. Ewa and Waianae.........Haupu Optoni. A Kauhi. KAUAI. Puna.......W K LI1 Deverill, D Kealahula. A W Maiho. Waimea................P R Holi Hanali.......S Uza, E Kaaloa, D Niuloihii Commissioners of Crown Lands. WV M G.ibson, J M Kapena, C H1 Judd, Agent Commissioners of Boundaries. Hlawaii...............F S Lymarn Maui, Molokai and Lanai.L....... Aholo Board of Education. Kaluai.J.............. HardyK101 President................ W M Gibson Kaa................- ad MNembers. i.. ons J M Smith, J M Kapena J' Commissioners of Fences. S Walker, J L Koulukou. Inspector G'eneral of Schools....D D Baldwin HAWAII. Secretary...............W J Smith Hilo....K Richardson, J Kealii, S L Austin. R A Lyman, K Paulo. School Agents in Commission. Hamakua.......J R Mills, J K Kattnamano North and Sottth Kona.........M Barrett. HAWAII. H Cooper, J W Smith, G F Carsley. 1-ilo and Puna..........L L, Severance North Kohala........- Kamahu, J W~ood K(an................C W C Jones South Kohala.......J Parker, S H Mahuka) North and South Kona.......H N Gre.nwell Kau......W T Martin, C N Spencer, S Ka South Kohala...........Rev L Lyons waai, D W Kaaemoku. North Kohala............. N DyerMAI Hamakia.............Rev J Bicknell A. MAUI.. Makawao... C H Dickey, P Nui L~ahatna and Lanai..........R Newton Haa. KkanMPuui Puhi Wailuku................. A Barnes Molokai.....R W Meyer, S, Paulo, R Newton, Hiana................ SW Kaai OAHU. Makawao.............W F Mossman Kona..........D Kahanu, J S Smithier' Mlobokai...............R W Meyer Ewa and Waianae.........Kaikanahaole OAHU. S Previere, S Gandall. Honolulu.WT Smith Waialua........H Warden, J Amara, J Ewa and WineWJSmith Anderson. Waialua..............J F Anderson IKoolauloa........Kaluhi, Kaili, W C Lane Koolauloa..............W C Lane IKoolaupoko....W E Pui, Barenaha, C H Judd Koolaupoko............Rev J Manuel KAUAI. KAUAI. Kawaiha.......J M Kealoha, J P KaumuWaimea and Niihau.........V Knudsen alii, Kapulehua. Koloa, Lihue, Koolau, Hanalei.. Rev J W Smith Moloaa and Lihue....,......W H Rice, S Commissioners of Private Ways and Water Kaico, Pahuwai. Rights. Appraisers of Land Subject to Government HAWAII. Commutation. Hilo........ Kami, } Nawahi Hawaii.........R A Lyman, J H Nawahi Hamakua.....R A Lym~a'n, J K Kaunamano, Maui, Molokai and Lanai......T W Everett. J R Mills. L Aholo, D Kahaulelio. INorth and South Koliala... -Joseph Smith, Oahu...J S Smnithies, C Brown, R F Bickertont S C Luhiau, Z Kalai. Kauai......J Hardy, P P Kanoa, J H Wan*

Page  87 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 87 HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR r885. Road Supervisors. Road Supervisors in Chief: Hawaii...........................C N Arnold laui, Ianai and Molokai......G E Richardson Oahu, Kona, C W Hart; all except Kona, T A lloyd. Agents to Grant Marriage Licences. Hawaii — Hilo............................ L Kaapa, I) H Hitchcock, L Severance, S W Pa, I) Kamai. Hamakua..................... Kukuhikahi, W A Nlio, f K Kaunamano. South Kohaa................... 1) Manuia. S H Mahuka. North Kohala............ D S Kahookano North Kona....................... Kapukui, S IH P Kalawaiaopuna. South Kona..................S SW Papaula, J W Kaapn, J Kaeo, Puna............................. Haleluhi, W S Kaikuihine, 1. Kapahee. \lanli- I \Iailuki. Wailukui......................... Kahele, J Haole, J Smyth. L ahaina........................ L Aholo, R Newton. Makawao...................... P Baldwin, W IF Mossman, J Mahoe. Hana........................... Kamaka, P Momoa, S W Kaai, D W Napahao. Kaanapali....................... Nahakn, S M Sylva. VIolokaiKaumoana......................S Kupelea, S Paulo, D Kalua, R W Meyer, A Hutchin-' son..inai.......... Kealakai )ahu --- Kona............J W Smith, C ' Gulick. J S Smithies, J H Boyd. Koolanpoko............W H Pii E P Aikue. Koolauloa.......................J L Naili Ewa and Waianae................. Malo, Kahauolono, Keaniole. I Waialua..........W C Lane,J F Anderson Kauaai — Waimea.........J Kauai, E K Kauai, S E Kaula, E I, Kanai. Koolau.......................... Nuuhiwa I analei...................... A Wilcox I) Makaliu. iihue.......................... P Puhiula, J Kala, Koloa, A W Maiho. Kawaiau................ G B Palohau Nilhau......................... George S Gay Agents to Take Acknowledgments to Instruments. tHawaii ---D H Hitchcock, F S Lyman, C F Hart, W C Borden, Hilo District; W J Smith, C N Spencer, J Kauhane, F Spencer, J Nawahi, S W la, G W Pilipo, R A Lyman, J K Kaunamano, Kahookano, J R Mills, G Bell, C Nleinecke, Kapahu, J Kauwila, J L Kaulukou. Maui —H Dickelnson, T W Everett, C K Kakani, P N Makee, A Fornander, D Puhi, J Richardson, R Newton, J W Kalua, Halama, J Grunwald, F S Chillingworth, C H I)ckey, \V H Halstead, D M Kalama, V F Mossman. Molokai —R W Meyer, S K Kupihea, A Hutchinson. Oahu —W C Lane,S N Emerson, G Barenaba. C Brown, A Ku, A K Hapai, W L Holokahiki. Malcolm Brown, W R Austin, A Kauhi A ( Smith, Col J Austin. Kauai-F Bindt, S W Wilcox, C Bertleman. W H I)everill, J Hardy, J M1 Kealoha, J M Gib son, G B Paloliau, L I Stolz. Niihau- -C Kahele. Inspector of Annimals, Island of Oahu lDr J Brodie, Capt A B Hayley and J H Brownt Notaries Public. Hawaii- Hilo.................. D K Hitchcock Maui -Haiku......................C H Dickey Makawao................. H Halstead Oahtu-Honolulu......J H Paty, T Brown, C T Gulick, C Brown. W R Castle, S D)ole, J Ml Monsarrat, H A Widemnann, A Rosa. Kauai —Waimea.................... V Knudseii Agents to Acknowledge Contracts for Labor. Oahui —Honolulu....C 1T Gulick, J U Kawainui. J A Hassinger. W Auld, S M Carter, Wil liam Wonnd, WV H Tell, F H Hayselden. Waialua.... C H Kalama, S N Emerson, H N Kahulu, J H Barenaba. Koollupoko.. A Ku, G Barenaba, E P Edwards Ewa and Waianae....J K Kaanaana, J D Holt Hawaii-Hilo.....L Severance, J H Pahio, S K Mahoe, S W Pa, H K Unea, John I, Kaulukou, J N Kamoku. Puna. Kona............. K Kamauoha, J W Smith H.amakua...... K Kaunamano, R P Kuikahi, C W Wilfong, S F Chillingworth, A W Haa lilio, Walter Joy. North Kohala.......... H Rickard, John Maquire, HI P Woods, D S Kahookano, J Moanatuli, ' J Hayselden, W J Brodie. South Kohala...............G Bell, J Jones Ka............J Kauhane, J N Kapahu, W W Goodale, W Kaaeamoku. Puna.........................J N Kamokii MIaui ---,.haita..1) Kamaiopili S K Kalaikini, K Nahaolelua. Wailuku...... J W Kalua, S P Halama, W H Makakoa, J Richardson. Makawao............. G lendon, Jas Smyth. GC W Beckwith, W W Goodale. Hana...Kahele opio, F Wittrock, H Meheula, J H Ianiels, Steen Bille. Molokai and Lanai...J W M Poohea, (G Kekipi, S K Piiapoo. Kauai, Koloa........J N Gilman, J W Alaumi W H I)everill, Ku. Lihue.......................... B H anaikt Hanalei.....J Kukuia, J W Loka, J H MaLhoe Waimea..........M Kamalenai, J H Kapukui Kawaihau..........T Kalaeone, J M Kealoha Niihau............................... Kaomea Department of Finance. Minister of Finance...............J M Kapena Registrar of Public Accounts..........F S Pratt Auditor General................... J S Walker Collector General of Customs....... C P Iaukea Clerk of Registrar..........John Ritson

Page  88 HAWAIIAN ALMANA A AC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1885. Collector Port of Hilo..........1 Severance Union, San Franci1 CJollector Port of Kahulti........W E Mossinan British and F'oreigi Collector Port of Lahaina..........T W Everett Northern i'ire ad ('ollectos Port of Mahukonta.........J 1 Sisson Rheinish Westphal: Collector'Port of Kealakekua...H N Greelwell Aachen and Ieip:si Collector Port of Kawaihae..... J Stupplebeen North German Fire Collector Port of Koloa..............E Strehz Trans-Atlantic Fire Nor Br & \lerc'l i Customs Department. Northwesterni Mut Collector........................ C P l aulkea ISwiss loydcl Marin, Deputy Collector..............G E Boardman I nioni Fire of New ist Statistical Clerk.........W Chamberlain (rert Westernt Ma 2nd Statistical Cler............... C K Stillman Koyal, of Liverpoo ist Entry Clerk.............R.K N Mosslnan Haimbirg-Magdebi 2nd Entry Clerk.....................H W Auld Tion, Fire, of Ioneo Store Keeper................... I Q Tewskburv Washington Fire, c lHarbor Master of Honolulu....... Capt A Fuller Orient Fire, of Har Capts A Mclntyre 'acific Muttul Iife Pilots in Honolulu........ W Bacock State Investment F l P P Shepherd Manhattan,ife. Port Slulveyor...........(. Markham Hlambnrg-Il-rermen olhn Markham (;ernman Lloyd Maif JrdsK Robert Austin Fortuna lMaIrine... J Crowder Dresden General li (; Parmillter tSun Fire Office, L( Mutual l ife of NeDepartment of Attorney-General london & P'rov.,..v........ (~ p........1 i J;.. T. D P.r..~........ -co............Castle & Cooke larine.........T H1 I)avies Life.............T H avies ian Lloyd..........J C Glade c..................J C C;ladt e...........l Hackfeld & ((C..........H Hackfeld &.Co ire.....E1 Hoffschlaeger &.Co ual Life......WGC Ir-\ln & Co e............C NV Irwin & CC eala;nd....W C Irwin & Co rine........ W G Irwin & Co 1............W G Irwin & Co irg Fire............A Jaeger onl............... A Jaeger )f Boston..........A. Jege tford...............A Jaeger e...............R W Laine ' & 1 of Cal...... R W.aine.................... J H P.ity Fire...... A Schaefer & C(5 ine....... F A Schaefer & Co'......... F A Schaefer & ('c isurance.. F A Schaefer & Co,ntlon..(1 W Macfarlane & Co' w York.........Wilder & Co )'ire..........J T Waterhous< CleUr to Attorleii.ener...........A.IIII1 S Board of Underwr.ters —Agencies. Clerk to Attorne CGeneral...........A Rosa Mlarshal of the I-Hawaiian Islands.....J II Soper Boston...................... C Brewer & C,( D)eputy Marshal................ )avid Daytonj Philadelphia.....................C Brewer & Ci Sheriff of Hawaii.............. L Koulukou New York-.................A J Crtwright Sheriff of Maui.................. T W Everett Liverpool.........................T H I)avies Sheriff c.f Kauai...................S W Wilcox Lloyds, London.................. Daves lailor of Oahu Prison................ A N iipp San Francisco................ I Hackfeld & C(. Bremen, Dresden, Vienna.......... F A Schaefer Oahu —I)eputy Sheriffs, Ewa and Waianae, A Kauhi; Waianae, Moses Mahelona; Waialua, Packet Agencies. J Anara; Koolauloa, H Kauaililo; Koolaupoko, Boston Packets.......C...... Brewer & C( Robert Makahalupa. Planters' Line, San Francisco....C Brewer & C, Kauai — Sheriff, S W Wilcox ~ Deputv Sheriff Pioneer, l,iverpool.............. T H I)avie. tot the island. W E H Deverill Deputy Sheriff s, Merchants' Line, San Francisco. Castle & Cooki Lihue, S Kai; Koloa, J W Alapai; Waimea, New York ine e............... Castle & Cooklt S Aukai; Hanalei, J Kakina: Kawaihau,;G I; Oceanic S S Co's Iine......... W C( Irwin & C( Palohau. Iiverpool * G..;..,_.. W Macfarlane & C(., Molokai —Deputy Sheriffs, Pnukoo, E Lililehulai lasgow Maui-Sheriff, T W Everett; Deputy Sheriffs, Pacific Mil S S Company.. Hackfeld & C Wailtku, H C(L Treadway; Makawao, S F Chil- Bremen Packets........... Ha eld C lingwortlt;,Honuastla,.1 Kupoh~akitnohewa * Hawaiian Pac et Iine [........ H Hackf ld & Co f-Hala, J Gardener. ' GC jlasgow and H-onoiulti......F A Schaefer & Cc Hawaii-Sheriff, Johln L Kaulukou; Deputy Honolulu Fire Department. Sheriffs, Hilo, (town) F Pahia; North Hilo, D K NMakuakale; Hamakua, I) F Sanford ' SouthI r0ganedl 1851 Annual Election of Engrineer Kohalla, Z Paakiki, North Kohala W White; First ongeday in June. Officers for I882-8J North Kona, D Makainai; South Kona, L) H ef e............... No Nahi;u Kau, Edward Smith; Puna J M First Assistant E ngineer........ Chas Wilson Kalvwila. Second Assistant Engineer...... M I) Monsarrat Kati _w_ -Secretary and Treasurer...........Henry Smith Chamber of Commerce, Fire Marshal......................J W Mc(Guir Annual Parade Day of Department...... Feb 3( President.......................... C R Bishop onolulu Engine Company No: (steam) formed Vice-President................. AJ Cartwright, 850, organized July I8, I855. Annual electiogn Secretary ant Treasurer...........J B Atherton of officers, first Wednesday in July. _~ —"~. Mechanic Engine Company No 2, (steam) organLife, Fire and Marine Insurance Agencies. ized December, 1850, admitted February 3. Firemen's Fund.................. Bishop & Co 185o. Annual election of officers, first Wednes Liverpool & London & C.;lobe....... ishop & Co day in February. New York Life.....................C 0 Berger Hawaii Engine Co No 4, (steam) organized City of London, Fire...............( O0 Berger February, I86I. Annual election of officers, first Equitable Life................ A J (arcwright Tuesday in February. Imperial Fire................ A J Cartwright China Engine Company No 5 (steam), organized New Enogland Mutual lif....astle & Cooke February, T879.

Page  89 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 89 HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR 1885. Pacific Hose Company No I, organized January, 1861, as Engine Company No 3' changed to a Hose Company December 14, 1863. Annual election of officers, second' uesday in January. Protection Hook and Ladder Company No I, re-organized September, 1857. Annual election of officers, first Monday in September. Volunteer Military Companies. Prince's Own.................. H Kaaha, Captt Leleiohoku Guard-Cavalry........Kahio, Capt Mlamalahoa..................... Kealaki, Capt King's Own.................... S Nowlien, Capt EHonolulu Rifles.............W A Aldrich, Capt Anniversaries. New Years Day...................... January r Accession of Kalakaua............. February I3 Birthday of Kamehameha III........March 17 Birthday of the Queen of Great Britain.. May 24 Decoration Day........................May 30 In Memory of Kamehameha I..........June i American Independence..................July 4 Birth of His Majesty the King..... November i6 Recognition of Hawaiian Independence..Nov 28 Christmas......................... December 25 Queen's Hospital. FRECrED IN I86o. President............His IAJESTY THE KING Vice-President..................... C R ishop Sec'y.....F A Schaefer I Treas........J H Paty Auditor............................ P Adams Physicians......... R McKibbin, Henri McGrew Executive Committee-C R Bishop, J 1I Paty, F A Schaefer, A J Cartwright, A S Cleghorn. American Relief Fund. Organized 1864. Meets annually February 22 President.......................A J Cartwright Vice-President.................Rev S C Damon Secretary and Treasurer............C R Bishop British Benevolent Society. Organized 186o. Meets annually April 23. President......................J H Wodehouse Vice-President.............. Rev A Mackintosh Sec'y...J A Kennedy I Treas....A S Cleghorn Relief Committee.............R F Bickerton, H Waterhouse, W Roe, G Lucas, A Young. British ClIb. Organized 18.2. Premises on Union Street, two doors below Beretania. President............. A S Gleghorn Sec'y....... G Brown I Treas........A Jaeger Managers-A S Cleghorn, Godfrey Brown, H Macfarlane. Mechanics' Benefit Union. Organized r856. Pres........T R Lucas Vice-P....T Sorrenson Sec'y........Wm Auld l'reas....J F Colburn Fx Corn.................F Johnson, Chairman German Benevolent Society. Organized Algust 22, 1856. President........................ H W Schmidt Secretary........................ John F Eckart eretasur.........................John F Eckart 'reasurer..............................C' Brito San An'onio Benevolent Society. Organized December, I876. President...................... Joao Gaspat Sec'y.......M S Silva I Treas....Cesar L Brito Mission Children's Society. Organized I85r. Annual Meeting in June. President................... Rev C M Hyde Vice-President..................... A F Judd Recording Secretary.................C Baldwin Cor Secretary........... Miss MI A Chamberlain Home Cor Secretary....... Miss Lizzie Binghan Elective Members...... Miss Payson, W W Hall Treasurer....................... E 0 White Sailors' Home Society. Organized I853. Meets annually in December. President...........................S N Castle Sec'y.....F A Schaefer | Treas..... C R Bishop Ex Com..Rev S C )amon, J '' Waterhouse, Jr. Capt William Babcock. Ladies' Benevolent Society of Fort Street Church. Organized 1853. Meets Annually in April. President..................... Mrs L McCull\ Vice-President.................. Mrs W F Allen Sec'y.. Mrs HWaterhouse I Treas.. Mrs P CJone, Stranger's Friend Society. Organized 1852. Annual Meeting in June. President................ Mrs S C Damon Vice-President............. Mrs J S Mc(ress Sec'y.....Mrs L Smith I Treas.. Mrs S E Bishop Directress................... Mrs A Mackintosh Ka Lima Kokua. Orgt nized 1879. President......................Mrs C M Hyde Vice-President................. Mrs S Mahelona Secretary....................Miss Alice West Treasurer................... Mrs A F Cooke Woman's Board of Missions. Organized I871. President............... Mrs Lowell Smith Recording Secretary............ Mrs S E Bishop Home Cor Sec'y.............. Miss 1 B1 Knight Foreign Cor Sec'y............. Mrs L McCully Treasurer................. Mrs B F D)illingharn Auditor............................W W HIall Missionary Gleaners-Branch ot Woman's Board. President.................... Mrs M L Menitt Vice-President....................iss J Parke Rec Secretary..............Miss N I.owrie Cor Secretary................. Mrs E C ) amor Treasurer........................ M iss C Carter Board of Hawaiian Evangelical Associatior. Originally organized 1823. Constitution revised 1863. Annual meeting June President................... Hon A F Judd Vice-President................... H Waterhouse Corresponding Secretary....... Rev A O Forbes Recording Secretary......Rev C M Hyde, D D Treasurer...W W Hall i Auditor... P C Jones

Page  90 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AMD ANNUAL HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR x88s. Oahu College. KAMEHAMEIHA LODGE OF PERFECTION. No 1. Lctdat Punahou, two miles east of Honolulu. A & A S R; meets in the hail of Le Progres de President............ - Rev XV C Merritt l'Oceanie on the fourth Thursday of each month. Instructor in Languages.......E F SanfordI NUCANU CHAPTER tOF ROSE CROIX, No) r, A; Instructor in En(,. Literature. Mrs W C Merr~tt & A S R; meets at the hail of Le Progres de 'reacher of Music........Mrs J E Hanford l'Oceanie' first Thursday in tile month. reacher of Frewnch.A....... Marqeues ALEXANDERt LIHoLIHD COUNCIL No t, OF KATeacher of rasing. C Furneasix OoSH;meets on the third Monday of.Iltemnate Puoahou Preparatory.months from February. Purincipal. rtor. MisEVial EXCELSIOR LODGE. No i, I 0 of 0 F; meets \risistant. Miss...C..Carter,.. Miss H V Lewis at the hall in Odd Fellows' Building, on Fort Assitans..... Mss CarerMis H Leis, Street, every Tuesday evening. Miss May W~iltier. HARMONY LODGE, NO 2, I 0 of 0 F; meets H-onolulu Yacht and Boat Club. each Monday evening in Harmnony BHall. Commodore.........His Ex J 0 IDomiiiis POLYNESIA ENCAMPMENT, No It, I 0 of 0 F; Vice-Commodore..........Hoii F Brown meets at Harmony Hall, King street, first aiid Captain i............Chas B Wilson third Fridays of each month. Sec'y and T rea...........W M Giffard OAHU LODGE No i, K of P; meets everN Measurer...........Thos C Sorrenson Wednesday at hall on Fort Street. Executive Committee....W (6 Irwin, B F Dii- MYSTIC Li)(.ooo, No 2, K of P; meets every T'hurs lilnghali, H1 Macfarlane, R F Blickerton, a vnna amn al MyrtrW leox RoigCu.SECTION NO 225 -ENDOWMENT RANK, K of P); Myrtle Rowing Club. ~ meets on the second Saturday of January, July Semi-Annual Electioiis Second Fridays in Jaou- and fDeceniber in the hall of Oahu Lodge. ary and July. HAXWAIIAN COUNCIL No 689, AMERICAN LEPresident.............W D McBride Vice-President.............C H- Brw GION OF HONOR; meets onD secoisd aiid fourthi r own Friday evenings of each month in Harmony,Treasurer. Alex Robertson hal Captain.................J L Torbert OCEANIE COUNCIL, NC) 777, AMERICAN LEI~Oio Trustees —C A Brown, E A Joiies and C H OF HONOR; meets on the first and third ThursPurdy. days of each month, at the K of P hall. Deutscher Verein. HAWAIIAN TRIE~n, No i, Isle. 0 R M; rneet. Organized 1879. ~at the hall of Oahu Lodge, K of P, ev-cry FriPresident.............Paul Neumann dyeeig Vice-President-.............C Bolte COURT LUNALIL~o, No 66oo; A 0 of FORESTERS Secretary and Treasu-er........W W~olters meets at hall of Oahti Iodge, K of P, oin secondt and fourth Tuiesdays of each mouth. Library and Reading Room Association. GEO-. XV DR LONG POST, NO) 45 G A K; mneets Organized March, Incorporated Jon_. 24, 1879. the secondl'Fuesday of each month at Harmony President................S B Dole hal Vice-President............M Mt Scott Pae fWrhp Sec'v....H A Parmnelee 'ITreas....A L, Smith Pae fWrhp Directors —A J Cartwriglin, A Marques, Dr C T B3ETHEL UNION Ciiiurci- (Congregational) corner Rodgers, H K Hollister, WV Hill, HA A Parnlelee, of King and Bethel streets, Rev E C Oggle, A S Hartwell, A Waterhouse. lDr C M Hyde. Pa.stor. Services every Siliday at II A M. Sunday School meets at 9:45 A Ml. Prayei Amateur Musical Society. Meet ng W~eduesday evensngs at 7:30. Organized t85t.1- Re-organ~ized 1878. FORT- STREET CFHURzCH (Congregational) -corner Pi esident..............I'H Davies Vice-President.M..........F Swanzy Nfusical lDirector........ t... - Berger lw-cas....C P Castle ISec'y....'M Starkey Lodges. I.ODORF LE PROGRES D)E I.OCEANIE, No 1,24, A F & A M; meets oh King St., ofl the last Mon-i day in each nionth. HAWAIIAN, NO 2r, F & A M; meets in its hall corner Queen and Fort Streets, on the first Monday in each month. HONOLULU CILOPTER, No i, R A M; meets in the hall of Le Progres de l'Ocez nie on the third Thursday of each month. hOOUUCOMMANDERY No i KNIGHTS TEM PLAR meets at thle Lodge R- oom. of Le Progres de l'Oceanie second Thursday of each montll. of' Fort -and lieretaiiia streets, Rev J A tiruzan. Pastor. Services every Sunday at 11 A M aild 7:30 P st. Suatlay Sctiool meets one hour before morning-service. Prayer Meeting Wednesday evenings at 7:30, and Suiinay evenings at 6:45. ROMAN CAkTHOLIC CHURCH-, Fort Street, near Beretania; Rt R~ev 1-Jermann, Bishop of Olba. Revs Rejis atid Clement, assisting. Servicez every Sunday at 5and To A. M, and at 4:30 F rv. Low Mass every day at 6 an-d 7 A M. High Mlass Sundays and Saints' days at to AN M. EPISCOPAL CHURCH, Erama Square; Rt Rev. Bishop of Honolulu officiating, assisted by Res A Macsintosh and Rev Geo Wallace. Services in English every Sunday at 6:3o and It A SI, and 7:30 P M. Services in Hziwaiian every Sunlday at 9 A M and 3:30 P 51. Sunday School one hour before English morning service.

Page  91 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. a HAWAIIAN REGISTER AND DIRECTORY FOR x885. 91 CHRISTIAN CHINESE CHURCH, Fort Street, F W Damon, Acting Pastor. Services every Sunday at 10:30 A M and 7:30 P M. Prayer Meeting Wednesdays at 7:30 P M. NATIVE CHURCHES. KAWAIAHAO CHURCH (Congregational), corner of King and Punchbowl Streets, Rev H H Parker, Pastor. Services in Hawaiian every Sunday at II A M, and at 7:30 on Sunday evenings alternating with Kaumakapili. Sunday School at o1 A M. Prayer Meeting Wednesday at 7:30 P M. KAUMAKAPILI CHURCH (Congregational), Beretania Street, near Mauna- ea. Rev Waiamau, Pastor. Services in Hawaiian every Sunday at 10:30 A M, and at 7:30 P M on Sunday evenings alternating with Kawaiahao. Sunday Scnool at 9:30 A M. Prayer Meeting every Wednesday at 7:30 P M. Publications. 'he Daily Pacific Commercial Advertiser, issued every morning (except Sundays); weekly edition issued on Saturdays. J. S. Webb, Managing Editor. Ihe Daily Hawaiian, issued daily except Sundays. Daniel Iyons, Manager. The Daily Bulletin, issued every morning (ex cept Sundays). Dan Logan, Editor. The Morning Guide, issued daily except Sundays. T. G. Thrum, Proprietor. The Saturday Press, issued every Saturday morning. Thomas G. Thrum, Publisher and Proprietor. The Gazette, issued every Wednesday morning. R. Grieve & Co., Publishers and Proprietors. The Elele Poakolu (native), issued every Wed nesday. The Hawaii Pae Aina (native), issued every Saturday norning. J. U. Kawainui, Publisher and Editor. The Kuokoa (native), issued every Saturday morning. Rev. H. H. Parker, Publisher and Editor. The Friend, issued on the first of each month. Rev. S. C. Damon (Seamen's Chaplain), Editor and Publisher. The Anglican Church Chronicle, issued on the first Saturday of every month. Revs. A. Mackintosh and G. Wallace, Editors. The Planters' Monthly. W. 0. Smith, Editor. The Hoku o ke Kai, (native), issued every month. His Majesty the King, Proprietor.

Page  [unnumbered] THE MORNING GUIDE. +. ---r~c —f- ~p +- - - - The Morning Guide is published in HIonolulu six days a week. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday it circulates gratuitously among the business houses of Honolulu. On Saturday it becomes the supplement to the Press, It aims to afford a reliable reference sheet for shippers and merchants generally. Its features are arrivals and departures of vessels; arrivals and departures of passengers'; imports; exports; local and foreign shipping intelligence; the day's engagements, court calendars, lodge meetings, religious and social meetings, etc. The Guide is read by nearly every business house in town; and is taken into many families. It is one of the best advertising mediums in the Hawaiian Islands. THRUM S BINDERY. The bindery of T. G. Thrum above Thrum's book store on Fort-street, Honolulu, is a complete establishmnent, prepared to turn out first class work in every particular. Paper ruling, of every description, done in the highest degree of perfection. Bindings, of any qualit, finished according to the latest and best styles. The manufacture of record and account books, for bank, counting house, plantation, legal, medical or statistical use has become the special feature of this deservedly popular bindery's work. L)o not forget the location —above Thrum's book. stationery and toy store, Fort-street, Honolulu.

Page  [unnumbered] r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~o~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~l:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ X~ 00: i::000:0W WTELS offersthr~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i ugff th en to O:F:; CAT 0 n: VALEN::: L OWN.~~~W ~ ~ MAR rT rA, feet t ~:"l~:: ii:~: n I at ValeciaSr. ta n a4 d ~,,:~ l~~~i'IY 6s k i t:: Streeti~~i:,: i~~~~~~~~~~~ri ~~~~ ~ ~ SnF ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A. Cj:::~;:~:~: BASSETT R. JUDAH::, ~~ W O~~~~in~~~r p A~~~~ E s E~~~~~j'Ifi~:~Z ~~~~~ P ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'e N r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I an. T:-::ickct eni::;::

Page  [unnumbered] 1 *w::: a l~,a::: i r ai:::::i::::a: 'i' L I -ec ~ s:::v::: Re: r: I:;~:::: i:,::::::::eO -: tiR:~:i::: pa ~::t:::::,a.;~ :-~ 9: f --- —::::: n-r:':::':,:::i:: as a, u,::: ;ud 17-::::i:::;:: j-::: ,i -:.:::::r a a BA I::' b:4 i I:n -llllglllilrraareu = I 5: ::::::: r an;:i sB ai_uDuB-"::i:i:::i:::::i: __:: ::::iy:: :: r:i~ ui::i::~:::::: —QI=i "" Ui aB-, s::-rt~~~~~1~8~~~1~~~~~lsl::::6;::: Oa 6 I I::::: ib -,i es S:u:9a usaais :::: Dz=: ~r~: t=D:: Cd IIeu =: j.-an ":i::i: B1:::: -:::i: ell,::::::r-:-,, i-::: s::::::::::i::~::i::: -,,ua aa:: 1::ii: :: Bi,:W: Lb2:::'4a:b:Ta F ~i f:::i B:::IZI: a~:r~::::::::i:r::~:8:: c,::::: l:l::a:d I -a :::::-` ris -------

Page  [unnumbered] Y g i; F c fi u aI,i ci r;~ I =-II z if '1 E c z: a 'B;Z. 6 d E B b 7 P a - F i d cnI-?9 ^ 182 t';,l!. 'li~ll1L. lii!,rt..t.lllltr lG..l.t.lli.tll![r..ll i.l!l [. I[t. l t. llG l ll.tll)1![,[.:l,, llk....;llll!!.111i!lg litillL. li!lll.t.. 1 1. - _ HAWAIIAN. FOR f. I, II till aii m~i|| 11 [A1M~Tourists ad Others. 1886. T.H,.. -O R — 4 l 0 ddX: 1P)Hr ) A TO. tk On Matters Relating to the Hawaiian Islands, Original and Selected, of Value to Merchants, Planters, Tourists and Others. I _..,.__._. __. N I L THOS. G. THRUM,.COMPILER AND PUBLISHER, iS| TWELFTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION. | COPYIIIGH I'El) AC()CORING TO I.AW. H(NOLN'(): i _ P1RESS I'IlUBIS-IIING CO., PRINTERS. 1886. |, -:;r~-;=~==~;= = —,....- II unr~acnlr ~~rlt n -'b111 n ' t~411~~~' UtT'l~'RIUU 'IINK ')I1 eltr r:rlj~iL J4.U; t

Page  [unnumbered] HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. TABI,E OF CONTENTS. PAGE. Holidays, Cycles, Church Days and Eclipses........................ 4 Quarterly Calendars........................................ 5, 7, 9, 11 Census of I884 and Comparative Table of Population................ 6-71 List of Free Imports from the United States........................8 Inter-Island Distances by Sea.....................................10 Overland Distances, Hawaii......................................12 Overland Distances, Oahu, and Table of Latitudes and Longitudes.... 13 Comparative Table of Receipts and Expenditures, Hawaiian Islands.... 14 Selections from Custom House Tables, 1884........................ 15-18 Comparative Table of Leading Imports, alternate years, '76- 84........9 Average Monthly Meteorological Table, 1873-77................... 9 Comparative View of Commerce, Hawaiian Islands.....................20 Comparative Table of Principal Articles of Export................. 21 Comparative Table of Import Values from various countries...........22 Nationality of Vessels in the Foreign Carrying Trade................22 Hawaiian Registered Vessels..................................... 23 Table of Elevations..............................................24 H awaiian Islands Postal Service................................... 25 Post Office Statistics..................................26 Clipper Passages and Quick Steamer Passages.....................27 Custom House Regulations, Port Charges, etc...................... 28 —35 Sugar Plantations and Mills, and their Agents...................... 35 37 The Hawaiian Flaz and Coat of Arms............................... 37 Helps to the Study of Hawaiian Botany-Botanical Publications, Names of Some Hawaiian Plants, Hawaiian Odoriferous Plants............ 3942 H awaiian R ailroads...............................................43 Honolulu Packet Lines with the New and Old World................ 45 49 Fruits and their Seasons in the Hawaiian Islands..................... 49 M usic in H awaii-nei............5 6................................ Retrospect of the Year 1885....................................... 6 -67 Marine Casualties, Hawaiian Islands, i885..........................67 Some Hawaiian Conundrums.....................................68 69 Time Table of Australian and San Francisco Mail Service............7~ Lessons from the Census of 1884......................... 71 Internal T axes....................................................72 Domestic Exports for Third Quarter of I885, and Comparative Nine Months of i885 with 1884........................73 Great Land Colonization Scheme.................................. 7 Hawaiian Register and Directory, i886.....................

Page  [unnumbered] I __ 1&J&,J& rJ&A;&1&a m 1 111 4 t t 4 1 1 4 1 1 4 4 4 I A I j I I I 0 II-...^, ----I -111 I1 I 0 4 t R I 4 t 4 WAREHIOUSES: Cor. Queen and Edinburgh Streets, HONOLULU, H. I. I M PORTERS AN 1) I)EAIERS IN HAY AND GRAIN FRESH FEED BY EVERY STEAMER FROM THE COAST, PR ICES LO W. 0 i I I I I i I I Ii ALWAYS A LARGE STOCK ON HAND. TILEI, I,11E No. 1/7.. 0. HOA 17. ISLAND OBDERS SOLICITE'D AND GOODS PR(IMPTLY DELIYERED. E B --, Ifi i... ii X2iUr u m wIw Wmm-mmr-REtl m lair-,-a Wu se-e:-:mw- rYll wPT rl t. S.,ra F"w'."4.., - I w *,m q -r -.m'F - -W -- 1 v- — r - -' lW- - — W — W-'i JLr"l~1*W

Page  [unnumbered] I II II iII IIII II-II I IIIII II.I II II.I II I.i. II II IIIIiII III I — A z ----- ------ 4141 --- '' I ''W '' I I I I JLJLXJL-".Z:xx AJL-"ALXXXX-XXX-]Lx / /~ KING BRO'S, DEALERS IN I m- l I N, ) - A Tt \ /ri - T rf m T T - T- fn,1 ^!,A * ' < h 1. /i /v ^r < /. AI.... "AI 1 UULI, F1i-' U LhS /ARTISTS' MATERIALS, ETC.,./ ^^ 1 " 'i o, drnlt l2S an<Id OictulI j1r I tames io prdIc / ( L..:I.:..; A LARGE ASSORTMENT OF >',:y'?,. WIINDSOR & NEWTON'S COLORS, /~..,; W / /, g / z LETC., ETC. ALWAYS ON HAND. / / mIi-@I: ' —:N. NO. 87 t0OTEL ST,, Corner Unlion, Honoll, H. 1,.-_-.. X

Page  1 HAWAIIAN Jlln 4 a,,dt tAFOn al FOR - 4-0- --. —.. — A HAND BOOK OF INFORMATION On Matters Relating to the Hawaiian Islands, Original and Selected, of Value to Merchants, Planters, Tourists and Others. THOS. G. THRUM, COMPILER AND PUBLISHER, TWELFTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION. COPYRIGHTED A CO)RDING TO LAW. HONOLUL 7U: PRESS PUBLISHING CO., PRINTERS. 1886.

Page  2 'i ^sLWt 1.^s'!?~ ^ 1 t* 19 I I iI ~~I~$JX~~~ABi I - --— - ----— `-I --- — - --- 1886. l1 JAN. FEB. MAR. APRIL MAY JUNE s M 3 4 10 II I7 i8 24 25 31 ' 7 8 14 15 21 22.~fI I I... _. I 7 8,il 14 15 21 22 28 29 4 5 II 12 I8 19 25 26 2 3 9 10 i6 17 23 24 30 31 6 7 13 14 20 21 27 28 TWT F S I 2 56789 5 6 7 8 9 I2 I3 14 15 i - 19 20 21 22 23 26 27 28 29 30 23456 9 10 l 12 13 i6 I7 -I8 19 20 23 24125 26 27 23456 2312 1 25 26127 30 31..10.. 123 6 7 8 9 Io I3 14 i5 I6 I7 20 21 22 23 24 27 28 29 30 II 12 13 I4 15 I I19120 21l22 25 26127 2829 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 I1 II 12 i5 i6 17 i8 19 22 23 24 25 26 29 301. ~I4~16 ~,lll " -. i,,,,,,, o" o I.,1:li' bH - i:;;it 0 I iii, H - 4Iglj. iliw I il II I I I JULY RUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. S M TWIT FI I 2 4I 56 7 8 9 I 12 13 14 15 I 61: I8 19 20 21 22 23 3 25 26 27 28 29 30: 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 IOII I2 13:] 15 i6 17 i8 I9 201: 22 23 24 25 26 27]: 29 30 31. *.. 5.... I 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 IO| 12 13 14 I5 i6 17 ] 19 2021 22123 24: 26 27128129 301. 31 4 5 6 7 8 IO II 12 13 141I5 1 17 i8 19120121 221: 24 25 26 27 28 29 -|31- 21 31 41 5 12345 7 8 9g 10o 1 12 14 15 I6 17 i8 191: 21 22 23 24 25126/: 28 29130.. I.... I...... 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 91Il 1 12 13 14 I5 16 17 1 19 20 21 22 23 241| 26 27 28 29 30 31. 1886. 3 to 17 24 3I 7 14 'I 28 4 1I [8 25 2 9 [6 23 30 6 13!0 27 4 [I I8 25. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~._ =.. - I I I 1I

Page  3 *'" i,.?.*A ce > 2. *'>'' e f - If 1. ADVERTISEMENT. N presenting this twelfth issue of the HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL the editor and c, mpier would gratefully acknowledge the valuable aid of contributors and the courteous assistance from the various departments of the government to his laborsfor the dcifusion of reliable in formation and statistical tables of reference relating to Hawaii, and trusts by watchful care and revision to continue to merit the confidence and support of the public. The new articles of this issue, prepared wzith special reference to answer m ny enquiries that are made abroad relative to Hawaii, it is hoped will prve of value and meet the expressed desires. To those journals, local and foreign, that have recognized the claim of the Annual as a reliable hand book of information on matters pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands, of value to Merchants, Planters, Tourists and others, is due no small share of the publisher's gratitude. The constantly increasing circulation and enquiries from abroad, as also the liberal extracts fiom and reference to its tables, etc., is complimentary to its value as an advertising medium second to none on these Islands. THOS. G. THRUM UM Honolulu, November 1885.

Page  4 4 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN ANNUAL CALENDAR FQR 1885. Being the io8th year since the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands by Captain COOK: The latter part of the t oth and the beginning of the i ith year of the Independence of the United States of America. Also, The year 5646-47 of the Jewish Era; The year 1304 of the Mohammedan Era; The year 2639 since the foundation of Rome, according to Varro. HOLIDAYS OBSERVED AT THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. * New Year.....................Jan. I * Kamehameha Day........... June I Chinese New Year.............. Feb. 3 American Anniversary......... July 4 *Accession of Kalakaua......... Feb. 13 * His Majesty's Birthday........ Nov. 16 *Kamehameha III. Birthday.... Mar. 17 *Recognition of Hawaiian IndeGood Friday.................April 23 pendence................ Nov. 28 Birth of Queen Victoria..........May 24 * Christmas................. Dec. 25 Decoration Day..............May 30 Those prefixed by a * are recognized by the Government. CHRONOLOGICAI CYCLES. Dominical Letter....................C Solar Cycle...................... I9 Epact............................ 15 Roman Indiction.................. 14 Golden Number................... 6 Julian Period.................. 6599 CHURCH DAYS. Epiphany.....................Jan. 6 Ascension Day.................June 3 Ash Wednesday.............March IO Whit Sunday..................June I3 First Sunday in Lent.......... March 14 Trinity Sunday................June 20 Good Friday.................. April 23 Corpus Christi................une 24 Easter Sunday...............April 25 Advent Sunday..............Nov. 28 Rogation Sunday............... May 30 Christmas....................Dec. 25 ECLIPSES IN I886. Prepared for the Annual by Prof. W. D. ALEXANDER, as are also the Moon's Phases, and Sun rise and Sun set calculations for this issue. In the year I886 there will be two eclipses-both of the Sun. I. An annular eclipse of the Sun March Magnitude of the eclipse=o.35 5th, visible here as a partial eclipse. 2. A total eclipse of the Sun, August Beginning of the eclipse at Io h. 20 m. 28-29, visible in South Africa, the AtlanA. M. Honolulu time. tic Ocean, the West Indies, and parts of Greatest obscuration at I t h. 5o m. A. North and South America. M. Honolulu time. End of the eclipse at I h. '20 m. i. M. Honolulu time.

Page  5 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 5 FIRST QUARTER, I885. JANUARY. FEBRUARY. MARCH. D. D H. M. D H.HM. 4 NewMoon...9...g.I2.3 P. M. 3 New Moon...... 4.43.2 P. M. 5 New Moon...4. I.32.9 A. M. 13 First Quarter.....53.o A. M. II First Quarter....4.14.8 P. M. 13 First Quarter....22.45.8 A. M. 19 Full Moon.......9. I34 P. M I8 Full Moon......7.43.6 A. M. 19 Full Moon........6.o P. M. 26 Last Quarter....3.00. P. M. 25 Last Quarter....6.40.0 A. M. 27 Last Quarter.....0.12.8 A. M. lll i a a..... >:!:.i.. i;.|::. _ _ + 1 —l -! 1-1 -6 2 H.M. HM H.M. IH.M. i H.M. iH.M I Fr 6 i 3 6 3 5 3 Mon... 6 37 4:5 50 6i l Mon..... 6 20 516 04 6 2 Sat. 6 38 4 5 30 81 2 Tues... 6 37 05 51 22 2 Tues.... 6 19 7 6 05 o 3SUN... 6 38 6 5 31 511 3Wed.... 6 36 65 51 8 3Wed.... 6 I8 96 05 4 4 Mon... 6 8 8 5 32 4Thurs... 6 36 25 52 4Thurs.. 6 8 I 6 05 8 5 Tues.....6 39 o 5 32 7?, 5:Fri..... 6 35 85 53 o 5Fri..... 6 26 o6 i 6 Wed... 6 39 35 33 4! 61Sat. 16 34 415 53 6j 61Sat. 6 i6 4 6 o6 5 7 Thurs... 6 39 515 34 I 7iSUN 6 34 915 54 2\ 7|SUN.... 6 I5 5 6 o6 9 8 Fri... 6 39 75 34 8 8 Mon... 6 34 4i5 54 8 8Mon..... 6 I4 7 6 07 3 9 Sat..... 6 4'0 05 35 S 9 Tues. 6 15 55 3 3 86 07 6 10 SUN... 6 40 1 5 36 i1 IoWed....6 33 45 55 8 ioWe.... 6 12 96 o8 o II Mon.... 6 40 215 36 I8 lThurs...6 32 9 [5 56 3 ilThurs.... 6 12 o06 o8 3 12 Tues. 6 40 2 5 37 5 2 Fri..... 6 3 35 6 8 Fri...... 6 II 26 o8 6 13 Wed...6 40 3 5 38 213 Sat....6 31 7 5 56 8 i31Sat......6 10 3 6 o8 9 14 Thurs... 6 40 3 5 38 95 57 314SUN... 6 09 46 09 3 5 Fri,.... 6 40 4 5 39 5 15 Mon.... 6 30 4 5 58 31 5|Mon.... 6 o8 5 6 09 6 6 Sat.... 6 40 4 5 40 2 ITues 96 29 9 58 8 i6Tues.... 6 07 6 6 09og 9 I7 SUN...6 40 5 40 17 We... 6 29 3 5 549 317 Wed.... 6 o629 35 59 37Wed 6 10 2 I8 Mon.... 6 40 32 4I 6i8Thurs... 6 28 65 59 8 1& Thurs.... 6 086 8 6 19 Tues..6 40 2 5 42 2I9 Fri.....6 27 9 6 8i Fri.....6. 046 o4 9 6 8 20 Wed...6 40 25 42 8 20 Sat.... 6 27 216 00 81 201Sat...... 6 03 9 6 11 2 21 Thurs... 6 4o 5 5 21 SUN.. 26 5 6 01 3? 21ISUN.... 603 o6 II 5 225Fri...6 39 95 44 2122 Mon....6 25 8 6 1o52Mon..6..6 02 i6 II 8 231Sat 1.... 6 39 8 5 44 923 Tues.... 6 01 26 12 I 24SUN 6 39 6 4 624Wed.....16 24 46 02 524Wed.... 6 00 36 12 4 25 Mon... 6 39 45 46 225 Thurs....6 23 66 02 9 |25Thur....5 59 316 12 8 26 Tues..16 39 5 46 82|26 Fri.... 16 22 96 03 3x926 Fri...... 5 58 46 13 27iWed...6 38 85 47 427Sat....6 22 I 6 03 727Sat..... 5 57 6 13 4 28 Thsrs... |6 38 5 48 o28 6 6 2SUN....16 36 04 28UN 5 56 16 3 7 299Fri 6 38 315 48 6! 2 Mon...... 5 65 70 6 I4 O 30;Sat....16.38 1 5 49 31 | 13 Tues..... 5 54 76 i4 3 3iiSUN... 6 37 8 15 50 | Wed...... 15 53 8:6 14 6 In the year I884 there was imported into the Islands $86,41 1,72 worth of bags and bagging material for the needs of our sugar and rice plantations, while reeds or rushes suitable for bag making are obtainable in any quantity in almost all parts of the Islands for the cost of gathering. ' No systematic effort has been made to establish a local industry of this nature, though it would seem as if there was a home market for all that might be produced.

Page  6 6 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. CENSUS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, TAKEN DECEMBER 27, 1884 BY DISTRICTS AND ISLANDS. HAWAII. MOLOKAI AND LANAI.....................2,614 Hilo........................... 7,988 Puna............... 944 OAHU. Kau.............................. 3,483 Honolulu... 20,487 Kona, North.................... ~...1,773 Ewa and Waianae................... 2,374 Kona, South.........................825 Waialua........................... 1,265 Kohala, North.......................4,481 Koolauloa.......................... 1,321 Kohala, South.................... 589 Koolaupoko....................... 2,621 Hamakua...........................3,908 -— 28,068 ---- 24,991 KAUAI. MAUII. Waimea and Niihau..................1,762 Lahaina.............................2,269 Koloa...............................500 W ailuku............................. 5,814 Kawaihau...........................882 H ana................................2,814 H analei............................. 807 Makawao............................5,073 Lihue............................. 1,984 -15r,970 ---- 8,935 BY NATIONALITY. N atives..................................40,014 Britons.................................. 1,282 Half-castes............................... 4,218 Po; tuguese............................... 9,377 Chinese..................................17,937 Germans................................ 1,600o Americans................................ 2,066 French................................... 192 Hawaiian-born of foreign parents.......... 2,o040 Other foreigners......................... 46 Japanee................................. 1o Poiynesian........................ 956 Norwegian........................... 362 Total Population, 1878............. So,578 Population of the Principal Township Districts of the Hawaiian Islands, Compiled from the latest Census, x884. HONO.LULU, WAIIUKU, LAHAINA, i HILO,. LIHUE, OAHU. MAUl. MAU. HAWAII. KAUAI. Natives........................ | 9,3303 2,721 1,512 2,422 680 Half-castes...................... 1,850 } 331 178 246 62 Foreigners other than C.hinese... r 4,109 830 224 3,492 895 Chinese......................... 5,225 i 1,932 354 1,>823 347 Totals.................... 1 20,487 j 5,814 2,268 7,988 1,984 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF POPULATION OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. SLA Est. Census Census Census Census Census Census Census ISLANDS. 1823. 1832. 1836. 1853. i86o. 866. 1872. 1884 Hawaii........... i...... 85,000 45,7921 39,364 24,450 21,481 19,808 16,001 24,991 Maui................... 20,000ooo 35,o62 24,199 7,574 16,400j 14,035 12,334 15.970 Oahu................ 20o,ooo 000 29,755 27,809 19,126 21,275 19,799 20,671 28,068 Kauai............ 0...... 10,000 10,977 8,934 6,991 6,4,87 6,299 4,961 * 8,935 Molokai.............. 3,500 6,ooo 6,ooo 3,607 2,864 2,299 2,349 )2614 Lanai................. 2,500 x,6oo 1,200 6o 646 394 348 Niihau.................. 1,000 1,047 993 790 647 3251 33. Kahoolawe....0........ 5088 o................ Totals 1............ 142,050 130.313 1 o08,579| 73,138J 69,800 62,.059;-6.o8J o0, _78 *Kauai aud Niihau.

Page  7 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SECOND QUARTER, 1885. 7 APRIL. D. H. M. 4 New Moon...3.59.2 A. M. 1i First iQuarter. 10. I2.6 A. M. 18 Full Moon......4.27.7 A. M. 25 Last Quarter....6.44.0 P. M.! e I - s.a1, I - iY^ __.__ I Thurs....5.52.9 6.I4.c 21Fri...... 5.52.o 66.15.2 3 Sat...... 5 I I16. 15 5 4 SUN.... 5.50.26.15.c 51Mon...... 549.3 6.16. I 6T ues..... 5.48.4 6. I6.5 7 Wed..... 15.47.5 6. 6.8 8!Thur.... 5 46.616.I7.I 9.Fri...... 5.45.716. 7.1, o1 Sat.... 5.44.916. 7.7 IIISUN.... 5.44. oi6. I8. 12 Mon..... 5.43.216.18.3 13 Tues.... 5.4.4246. I8.6 14 Wed..... 5-41.6 6. I90 15 Thurs.... 5.40.8 6.19.3 I6 Fri...... 5.40.0 6. 9.7 17 Sat..... 5.39.I 6.20.0 i8 SUN.... 5.38.36.20.4 19 Mon..... 5.37.5 6.20.7 20 Tues..... 5.36.7 6.21.I 2I Wed..-.. 5.35.9 6.2I.4 22 Thurs.... 5.35.26.2I.8 23 Fri... 5.34.416.22.1 24 Sat...... 5.33.716.22.5 25 SUN.... 5.33.016.22.9 26 Mon.. 5.32.316.23.3 27 Tues..... 5.31.66.23.6 28 Wed.... 5.30.9 6.24.0 29 Thurs.... 5.30.2 6.24.4 30 Fri...... 5.29.6 6.24.8 I I;1 MAY. JUNE. D. H. M. ). H. M. 3 New Moon........5.II.I P. M. 2 New Moon...... 3.23. A. M. so First Quarter...... 2.. M. 8 First Quarter....8.55.3 p. M.i I7 Fall Moon.......3.15.7 P. M. 16 Full Moon.....307.4 A. M. 25 Last Quarter........o04.7 p. M 124 Last Quarter....6.03.4 A. M.. -Sa t....... - x A a s > A A - > 3 IMon...... 5.27.7 6.26.0to 3 Thurs... 5 I17 I6.39.0 4 Tes...... 5.27.1 6.26.4L1 4 Fri...... 5 7.I 6.39:3 51Wed..5... 6.5 6.26.81 5 Sat.... 5 I7.16.-39.7 6 Thurs.. 5.26.06.27.2 6SUN.... 76.40 7 Fri.... 5.25.416.27.6 7 Mon....... 6.404 8 Sat........ 5.24.9 6.28. 8Tues.... 5.7.016.40.8 9SUN...... 5.243 6.28.4! 9i Wed..... i5.I7.016.4I.1 IOlMon....... 5.23.8 6.28.9 IO Thurs... I5.I7.016.41.5 lI Tues....... 5.23.316.29. 3 1II Fri.... 57..I5. 6.41 12 Wed.... 5.22.8 6.29.8!I2 Sat...... 5.17.2 6.42.1 3i Thurs.... 5.22.4 6.30.2 I32 N.... 5.17.3 6.42.4 4 ri........ 5.22.0 6.30.6 Ii4 Mon (..... 5 7.4 6.42.7 15 Sat....... 152.6 6.3I.0 15 Tues.. 5. 17.5 6.43.0 i6 SUN.....5.21.1 6.31.4 i6 Wed..... 5.7.7 6.43.3 7I Mon....... i5.20.7 6.3.9 17 Thurs... 157.9 6.43 5 i8 Tues...... 15.20.4 6.32.3 |I8 Fri......5 8. 6.43.8 19 Wed...... 5.20. I6.32.7 I9 Sat...5 I.2 6.44.0 320Thurs...15. I9.8|6.33.0 2o0SUN *...|5. 8.3 6.44.3 211Fri.......5. 9.5 6.33.6 21 Mon.....5.I8.66.44.5 221Sat........ 2 59 16.34.0 22 Tues..... 5 I8.8 6.44.6 23 SUN....... 18.916.34.5 23 Wed5...1 5ig.oI66.44.8 24 Mon..... 15. I8.6 6.34.9 241Thurs.... 5. 19.2 6.45. 25iTues...... 5 4 6.35.3 25i Fri...... 5.19.5 6.45.2 26 Wed......5. 18.26.35.7 26 Sat. 5. 9.86.45.3 27 Thurs......15. 8. o6.36.2 271SUN....5.2 0. 16.45.4 28 Fri........15.17.8 6-36.6 28 Mon.... 5.20.416.45.5 29 Sat........ 5. 7.6 6.37.0 29 Tues....15.20.7 6.45.6 30 SUN..... 15 I7.46.37.4 13|Wed..... 5.21.06.45.8 31 Mon...... 5.17.316.37.8i For a recognition of Christmas and other holiday and birthday claims of the juvenile portion of the Island community on their elders, the custom house tables for 1884 showed the valuation of imports of toys alone to be $7,243,12. In I875 the imports of this line of goods reached but $3,194,90. It is well to bear in mind, too, that this class of trade is confined almost exclusively to the foreign population; the Hawaiian and Chinese being but occasional imitators of their European brethren in this respect.

Page  8 8 ~'HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL LIST OF FREE IMPORTS FROM THE UNI'rTEDSTATES BY TREATY. When Properly Certified to before the Hawaiian Consul, at the nearest Port of Shipment. Agricultural Implements; Animals. Bacon; Bags, (cotton or textile manufactures); Beef; Bells; Books; Boots and Shoes; Bran; Bricks; Bread and Breadstuffs of all kinds; Brushes; Bullion; Butter. Cement; Cheese; Coal; Cordage; Copper and Composition Sheathing; Cotton and Manufactures of Cotton, bleached and unbleached, and whether or not colored, stained, painted or printed; Clocks, if without glass and of wood; Cutlery. Doors, Sashes and Blinds. Edging, Embroidery, (if of cotton); Eggs; Engines and parts thereof. Fish and Oysters, and all creatures living in the water, and the products thereof; Fruits, Nuts, and Vegetables, green, dried or undried, preserved or unpreserved; Fl,)ur, Furs. (rain; Gloves, Gimps, Girdles (if of cotton); Guns and Pistols (unless mounted in ivory, rubber or nickel). Ham; Hardware; Harness; Hay; Hides; dressed or undressed; Hoop Iron. Ice; Iron and Steel, and manufactures thereof; Nails; Spikes and Bolts; Rivets, Brads or Sprigs; Tacks. Lanterns (without glass); Lard; Leather, and all manufactures thereof; Lumber and Timber of all kinds, round, hewed, sawed, and manufactured in whole or in part; Lime. Machinery of 11 kinds; Meal and Bran; Meats, fresh, smoked or preserved; Mitts (if cotton ); Mattresses (all except hair). Nails, Naval Stores; including Tar; Pitch; Resin; lurpentine, raw and rectified. Oats. Pictures (on paper); Purses (if of t ather); Picture frames; Parasols and Umbrellas (if of cotton ); Paper and all manufactures of Paper or of Paper and Wood; Petroleum, and all oils for illuminating or lubricating purposes; Plants, Shrubs, Trees and Seeds; Pork. Rice. Salt; Shooks; Shoe Horns (if of iron or steel); Skins and Pelts, dressed or undressed; Staves and Headings; Starch; Stationery; Soap; Sugar, refined.or unrefined. Tallow; Textile Manufactures made of a combination of wool, cot ton, silk or linen, or of any two or more of then, other than when readymade clothing: Toys (when made of wood, or of wood and metal, or iron or steel ); Tobacco, whether in leaf or manufactured. Wagons and carts for the purposes of agriculture or of drayage; Wood and manufactures of Wood, or Wood and Metal, except Furniture either ulholstered or carved, and Carriages; Wool and manufactures of Wool, other than ready-made clothing. For list of articles of Hawaiian produce admitted free under the treaty into the United States see page r8. 'm For full text of the Reciprocity Treaty with the United States see Annual for 1877.

Page  9 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 9 THIRD QUARTER, 1885. JULY. AUGUST. SEPTEMBER. D. H. IM. i New Moon......11.35.2 A. M. Dl. H. M H M. 8 First Quarter.....2.46.7 A. M. 6 First Quarter. T10. 34.8 A. N., 4 First Quarter..9.24.1. M. 15 Full Moon.......4.375 P Ful oo..... 752. 8 A M. I3 Full Moon....o. 18.9.. M. 23 Last Quarter......8.50. PM 22ast Quarter..... 4 A 2 Last Quarter..... 24.4 P. M. 30 New Moon.......6.54.5 P. M. 29 New Moon.......222.9 A. M. 27 New Moo..o10.47.2 A. M..2I.3 6 ISUN...... Ig F..... m.....%... 5.4..' '2 4 1,1 '. 7 '.h I Thurs.... 5.2i.36.45.8| ISUN..... 5.33.36.38.61 I Wed.... 15.43.316.15.8 2!Fri........ 5.2i.616.45.8 2Mon...... 5.33.7 6.38.o0 2[Thurs... 5.43.616.i4;8 3 Sat...... 5.22.o16.45.8|| 3Tues...... 5,34,1 6.37.5l 3 Fri.....5-43-8,6.13.9 4[SUN...... 5.22.36.45.911 4Wed...... 5.34.5 6.36.9 41Sat...... 1544. I6.13.0 5 Mon...... 5.22.7 6.45.9 5!Thurs..... 5.34.816.36.4 5ISUN.... 5.44.4 6.12.1 6Tues....5.23.1 6.45.8, 6oFri........ 5.35.216.35.8 6 jMon....2 7 Wed....... 5.23.4 645.7 7T at. 5.35. 535.2i 7 T... 5.45.06.0.2 8 Thurs........23.86.4.7 8|SUN.....5.35.916.34.6I 8,Wed.. 5.45.216.09.3 9 Fri........ 5.24.1 6.45.6 91Mon...... 5.36.2 6.34. 0o 9 'Turs... 5.45.-56.o8.3 o Sat........ 5.245 6.45. 6oTues 5.3 6.633.3oFri.....5.45.716.074 4I SUN...... 5.24.9 6.45.4!IIr|Wed....../5.36.9 6.32.6 Sat...... |5.46.o'6.06.5 12 Mon...... 5.25.3 6.45.2| I2 Thurs.....5.37.3 36.31.91 i2SUN.... 5.46.216.05.5 I3 Tues...... 5.25.716.45.1i13 Fri........ 5.37.616.31.2:13 Mon..... 5.46.5 6.04.6 4IWed...... 5.26. i 6.44.9114 Sat....... 5.37.9 6.305 4Tues... 15.46.716.03.6 15 Thurs.... 5.26.516.44.81 15 SUN..... 5.38-316.29.8 I5 Wed... 5.4 7o6.o2.6 i6 Fri........5.26.9 6.44.6I6 Mion..... 5.38.6 6.29.1 I16 Thurs.. 15.47.216.o.7 I7|Sat......,-5.27.3 6.44.3 1I7iTues... 5 38.9 6.28.4 I7 Fri..... 5.47.5!6.oo.7 8 SUN...... 5 27.7 6.44.o 1I8 Wed..... 15.39.36.27.61 i 8 Sat...... 15.47.7 5.59.8 19 Mon...... 5.28.1 6.43.71 19 Thurs..... 5.39.66.26.81 19iSUN... 15.48.o 5.58.8 201Tues...... 5.28.516.43 5 20Fri........ 5.39.96.26.o02l Mon. 15.48.215.57.9 21 Wed...... [5.28.96. 43.2 2I Sat...... 5.40.2 6.25.2 2i Tues.... 5.48.5'5.57.0 22 Thurs.....529.316.42.81 22 SUN..15.40.56.24.4 22 Wed....5.48.8 5.56.0 23 Fri....... 5.29.7 6.42.5 23|Mon.......15.40.8 6.23.61 23 Thurs. 5.49.0 5.55.0 24 Sat......... 5.30 i6.42.1 24Tues.... 5.4.1 i6.22.8 24 Fri.....1549.35-54 -25 SUN...... 5.30.5 6. 4.8125 Wed...... 5-4i.4 6.21.91 25 Sat..... 5.49.55-.53.26 Mon....... 5.30.9 6.1.4I4 26 Thurs.....54I.716.21.1 I26,SUN... 549.8 S.52. I 27 Tues.......31 6.4.ol0 27Fri....... 542.o 6.20.2 27 Mon.. 5.. 5-I5.5.2 28 Wed....... 5 8 65.42.36 t...... 4 1 28 Tues.... 5.50.45.50o. 29 Thurs....532.2 oo29 SUN......4. 2.616. i8.5 29 Wed.... 5-5~-715.49.4 3o Fri....... 5.32.5 6.39.6 130 Mon...... 5.42.8 6. i7.6 3o Thurs... 5.5I.05.48.4 31 Sat.. 5.32.9. ~9. I I 3 I Tues...... 5.43-.6.I6.71 3 r..l l Ten years ago the valuation of imports for the Islands of books and stationery amounted to $25,472,07. Five years later this had increased to $53,694,79, and in 1884 the figures for this line of imports showed a valuation of $69,167,23. Of this amount, $17,921,86 is found to be for miscellaneous printed books and $11,021,02 for periodicals and papers, other than receipts through the regular mails.

Page  10 I 0 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. INTER-ISLAND DISTANCES BY SEA, IN SEA MILES. AROUND OAHU. FROM HONOLULI, ESPLANADE WHARF, TO:.Miles.'j Miles. Bell Buoy.......................... Kahuku............................ Diamond Head.......................... 5 Pearl Rivet Bar........................... 6 Koko H ead.............................. 12 Barber's Point............................ 14 Makapuu Point.......................... 17 Kaena Point, N. W. of Oahu..... 34 Mokapu............................ 29 Kahuku, N. pt. of Oahu, via Kaena......... 54 HONOLULU TO: Miles. Miles. Lae o ka Lua, S. W. pt. of Molokai.......... 35 Kawaihae..................................144 West point of Lanai......................... 5 Kealakekua direct..........................57 Kalaupapa Leper Settlement................ 50 Kealakekua via Kawaihae..................86 Lahaina................................... 72 S. W. point Hawaii via Kawaihae...........233 Lahului..........90 Punaluu.............................. 250 H ana............................... 125 H ilo direct................................. 92 Maalaea................................... 85 Hilo windward......... o................ 207 M akena.................................... o H ilo........................................ M ahukona................................. 134 HONOLULU TO: Miles. Miles. Koloa, K auai............................... o2 W aim ea.................................... 20 N aw iliwili................................. 98 M akena.................................... 20 Niihau................................... 144 L.AHAINA TO): Miles. files. Kaluaaha.......................... 7 aalaea......................... 12 Lanai.................................... 9 M akena................................. 8 KAWAIIHA TO: Miles. Miles. M ahukona................................. Io H ilo...................................... 85 Waipio...................... 40 I Lae o ka Mano............................. 20 Honokaa.................................. 50 Kailu i......................... 34 Laupahoehoe............................... 65 K calakekua................................. 44 HILO TO: Miles. Miles. East point of Hawaii........................ 20 Punaluu................... 70 Keauhou, Kau............................. 50 Kaalualu................................ 80 North point of Hawaii...................... 70 South point of Hawaii...................... 85 WIDTH OF CHANNELS-EXTREME POINT TO POINT. Ailes. Ifiles. Oahu and Molokai.......................... 23 Maui and Kahoolawe....................... 6 Diamond Head to S. W. point Molokai..... 30 Hawaii and Maui...........................26 Molokai and Lanai................... 7 Kauai and Oahu.................. 61 Molokai and Maui................. 9 Niihau and Kauai................ iS Maui and Lanai....................... 9 OCEAN DISTANCES-HONOLULU TO: Miles Miles. San Francisco............................ 2,1 Auckland.................................3,810 Portland.............................4,620 Sydney......................... 4,484 Panama.............................246 Hnkon......2,46 Hongkong................................. 4,83 Panama.2,46o r Hongkong......... 4,8 03 Tahiti...................................2,38 Yokohama..................3,440 AREA, ELEVATION, AND POPULATION OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. Areas in stat. sq. miles. Acres. Height in fect. Population, I884. Hawaii................ 4,210 2,500,000 13,805 24,991 Maui.................. 760 400,000 10,032 I5,970 Oahu............ 600 360,000 4,060 28,068 Kauai................ 590 350,000 4,800 *8,935 Molokai............... 270 200,000 3,500) 2,614 Lanai.... I.50 oo,0ooo 3,ooo00 Niihau................ 97 70,000 8oo Kahoolawe........... 63 30,0o0 1,45o *Kahai and Niihau.

Page  11 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. II FOURTH QUARTER, 1885. 0 CTOBER. NOVEMBER. DECEMBER. D. H. M. D. H. -M 1). H. M. 4. First Quarter.....0.02.0 P. M. 3 First Quarter...6.33.8 A. M. 3 First Quarter..5.. 35536 A. M1. I2 Full Moon....4.52.5 P. M. ii Full Moon.... ~883351 A. M. io Full Moon...1..0.58.8 P. M. 20 Last Quarter...4.409.4 A. M. i8 Last Quarter... o.og..o P. M. 17 Last Quarter....8.07.7 P. M. a6 New Moon......8.44.0 P. M. 25 New Moon..... 847.1 A. M. 24 New Moon....... ~1233 P. M. o o o — _ ___.- __ ____ -~- ' I- - ______ II. M. II. M. H.M. IlI M. H.M. tH.M. iFri... 5 5. 35 I W llMon.. 6 03 3 5 23 9 I Wed... 6 21 5 5 17 3 2 Sat.....'5 51 5 5 46 6 2 Tues... 6 03 8 5 23 4 2 Thurs... 6 22 8,5 17 4 3SUN... 5 51 8 5 45 7 3 Wed.6 04 3 5 229 3 Fri...... 9 22 815 17 5 4M1Ion....5 52 115 44 8 4 Thurs..6 04 8 5 22 5 4 Sat...... 6 23 4 5 17 7 5Tues..5 52 4 5 43 9 5 Fri 6 05 35 219 5SUN.... 6 24 115 87 8 6Wed...1552 7 5 43 o 6jSat.....6 05 915 21 5 6 Mon..... 6 24 7 5 i8 i 7Thurs... 5 53 542 7'SUN...6 6 4 5 21 I 7ues....6 25 3 5 i8 3 8Fri. 5 53 315 i 8 Mon.... 6 07 0 5 20 78 Wed.... 6 25 9 5 i8 6 9Sat.....[5 53 715 40 49Tues...16 07 6 5 20 3 9 Thurs. $3 26 5 5 I8 9 io SUN '..15 54 015 39 5 miWed...16 o8 215 89 9 ixu Fri.....j 27 215 19 2 II Mon.... 5 54 4)5 38 6 tIfThurs.. 6 o8 8 5 19 4 1I Sat...... 0 27 815 19 5 12 Tues *.. 5 54 7 5 37 8 12!Fri. 6 09 4 5 19 I 2 SUN....16 28 415 19 9 83 Wed.... 55505 37 I31Sat...... 6 10 5 i8 8 13 Mon.....16 29 0 5 20 3 14 Thurs... 5 55 4, 36 2 141SUN...!6 io 615 i8 5 I4 Tues.... 16 29 6i5 20 6 85 Fri. 55585 35...iMon...J6 I 2 5 i8 3 15 Weti..... 1630 2 5 21 0 16 Sat..... 5 56 8 5 346 i6Tues...16 ii 8 5 i8 I 16 Th'urs.16 30 85 21 4 17SUN... 5 56 5 5 338 17 Wed... 6 82 4 5 17 I7 Fri.....16 31.3,5 21 9 18 Mon... 6 56 9 5 330 i8Thurs.. 6 13 0 5 87 7 i8 Sat......'6 31 9 5 22 3 i9 Tues.. 5 57 3 5 32 2 i89Fii.. 6 13 6 5 17 5 i9SUN.... 6 32 5.5 22 7 20 Wed...:5 57 7 5 38 5 20Sat.... 64 '35 17 3 2OMonl..... 7 33 0 5 23 2 22 Thursi..5 58 '15 308:28 SUN.. 6 14 9 5 87 221 Tues.....6 1633 22 Fri..... 5 58 5 5 30 22 Mon.... 6 15 555 17 I 22 Wed.... 6 33 9 5 24 2 23 Sat..... 559 0 5 29423 Tues.6 86 2 5 I723 Thurs.6 34 5524 7 24SUN... 559 4 5 28 7 24 Wed.... 6 i6 8 5 70 24 Fri6......635 0 25 3 25 Mon.... 5 59 9 5 2881 25 Thurs..16 8755 170 25Sat...6 35 4 5 5 8 26 Tues 6 00 3 5- 27 4,26 Fri....6 i8 2 5 17 0 26SUN.... 16 35 8 5 26 4 27 Wed.... 6 00 9 5 268 27iSat....16 i8 8 5 170 27 Monl..... 6 36 2 5 27 0 28 Thurs... 6 oi 4 5 26 2 281SUN... 6 89 4 5 17 0 28 Tues.... 6 36 6 5 27 5 29 Fri..... 6 o0 9 5 25 129IMon....6 20 8 5 17 I 29 Wed.... 6 37 0 5 28 i 30OSat.. 6 02 315 25 0 30ITues....6 62 8 5 17 I 3oThurs....16 37 3 5 287 31 SUN.1602 815 24 i 3Fri...... 16 37 7 5 29 3 In 1875, the year before the reciprocity treaty with the United States went into operation, the value of imports of machinery into the Islands was $23,605,12. The value imported in 1884,-as shown by the Import Table on page I5-was $211,172,50, of which $144,8O3,98 came under the "free by treaty" list. This growth of importation is on a par with the steadily increased facilities of the Honolulu Iron Works to supply the growing demand of plantations, mill men and others.

Page  12 12 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. OVERLAND DISTANCES. ISLAND OF HAWAII. PREPARED BY J. M. LYDGATE. THROUGH PUNA, FROM THE HI-10 COURT HOUSE. HILO TO: HILO TO: Milev. Miles. K eaau.................................... 93 j O pihikao............................... 29,4 M akuu................................... 15 Kaiinu....................................37 Sand Hills Nanawale......................8x Kalapana.................................38 Puula......................................21 Panau....................................45 Kapoho...............................23 Volcano House...........................6 Pohoiki —Rycroft's........................ 20o TO VOLCANO. HIL.O TO: I HILO TO: Miles. t Miles. Edge of Woods............................ 4,i Kanekoa upper Half-way Houses........... 16 Cocoanut Grove......................... 7Y4 Upper Woods.............................24 Through Ki Swamp....................... 9 Volcano House.........30 Hawelu's Half-way House................. 14 THROUGH HILO DISTRICT. HILO TO: TI) HILO: Mhi/les. ' Miles. Honolii Bridge............ 2.5 Hoohina.......... urch7.8 Paukaa Mill.............................. 2.9 Waikaumalo Bridge.........................18.8 Papaikou-Office........................... 4.7 i Pohakupuka Bridge........................2i.p Onomea Church........................... 6.9 jM aulua Gulch............................. 22.0 Kaupakuea Cross Road....................10.7 Kaiwilahila hiBridge....................24.6 Kolekole Bridge...........................14.3 Lidgate's House...........................26. i Hakalau, east edge gulch.................15.0 'Laupahoehoe Church........................26.7 Umauma Bridge...........................16.o THROUGH HA'MAKUA. LAUPAHOEHOE CHURCH TO: Miles. Hind's................:.................... 7 Bottom Kawalii Gulch..................... 2.0 Ookala, Manager's House.................. 4.0 Soper's.................................. 4 Kealakaha Gulch............. 6.0 Kaala Church........................... 6.8 Kukaiau Gulch..............I............. 8.0 Homer's................................... 8.5 Catholic Church, Kainehe.................. 9. o Notley's, Paauilo.......................... To 5 Kaumoali Bridge..........................12.5 Bottom Kalopa Gulch..................... 14. R. A. Lyman's, Paauhau................... 15.2 Paauhau Church...........................6.3 LA UPAHOEHOE CIUKRCH TO: Miles. Mills' Store, Honokaa..................... 8.0 Horokaia Church.........................520.5 Kuaikalua Gulch................ 22.0 Kapulena Church....................23.0 Waipanihua...............................24.3 Bicknell's............................... 25.8 Stream at Kukuihaele......................a6.o Edge Waipio...................26.5 Bottom Waipio........................27.0 Waimanu (approximate)....................32.5 Kukuihaele to Waimea (approximate).......x0.5 Gov't Road to Hamakua Mill.............. 1.0 It.. " Paauhau Mill.......... t o.. << Pacific Sugar Mill, Kukuihaele..7 THROUGH KOHALA. K awaihae to Waimea..................o Kawaihae to Hind's, Kohala (approx).....14.0.. Puako........................ 5.0 j Waimea to Kohala Platration (approx)......25.0 FOREIGN CHURCH, KOHALA, TO: I FOREIGN CHURCH, KOHALA, TO: Edge of Pololu Gulch....................4.00 Star Mill................................. 5 Niulii Mill................................2.80 Star Mill R. R. Station.................. 2.50 Dr. Wight's Store, Halawa.................tr. 15 Union Mill.....2.25 Halawa Mill......................1.65 Union Mill R. R. Station.................. 3.25 hapuu Landing............................. 5 Honomakau........................... 2.50 Dr. 'hompson's............................75 Hind's, Hawaii.......................... 3.25 Dramatic Hall, Kaiopihi.................... Hawi R. R. Station.................. 4.25 Kohala Mill......................50 Honoipu................................. 7.25 Kohala Mill Landing..................... 1.50 Mahukona.............................xo. 5~ Native Church............................ 1.0oo Puuhue Ranch............................ 7.25

Page  13 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. I3 OVERLAND DISTANCES. ISLAND OF OAHU. HONOI.ULU POST-OFFICE, TO: HONOLULU FOST-OFFICE, TO: Miles. Miles Waikiki Grove........................... 3 Waimanalo.......................... 12 Diamond Head.......................... 4 Kaneohe Plantation...................... 9% Coco Head....................... xi- Kaalaea Plantation...................... 15 Ewa Church......................... Kualoa Ranch........................... 19% Waialua Church......................... x8 Punaluu Rice Plantation................. 26 Waianae Church, Pokai................. 30 Laie Settlement.......................... 32 Nuuanu Pali...................... 6 Kahuku............................ 38 ISLAND OF KAUAI. Li H E TO: Miles. W aialua Falls............................ 5 K oloa...................................... l K ealia................................ '. 14 K ilauea.................................... 22 Hanalei.................3.......... 30 KOLOA TO: Miles. H anapepe................................. 7 W aimea.................. -...-........ 15 Waimea to Mana Point.............. 10 Nawiliwili to Mana Point................... 35 ISLAND OF MAUI. LAHAINA TO Miles. K aanapali................................. 4 W ailuku................................... 20 KAFIHUIUI TO W ailuku P............................... 3 Makawao................................. I Hana, through Hamakua.................. 45 WAILUKU TO: Kalepolepo............................. Makee's Plantation 20 Makawao.............................. 14 KALE'OLEPO TO: A Makee's................................ Makawao............................... HAIKU LANDING TO: M akawao............................... MAKAWAO, SAYRE'S STORE, TO: Summit of Haleakala................... MAKENA TO: Makee's Plantation..................... ULUPALAKUA TO: Hana, via Kaupo......................... IO tfi/es I3% 7 13 3 45 LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES AS ADOPTED BY THE HAWAIIAN GOVERNMENT SURVEY. (CORRECTED FOR THE ANNUAL BY PROF. W. D. ALEXANDER.) STATIONS. LATITUIES. Deg. Min. Sec. Honolulu Transit of Venus Observatory, as determined by Cap-. tain Tupman........................ 21 17 57. Honolulu Light House.................................... 2 7 54.99 Diamond Head Summit........................... 2 15 20.59 'antalis, Puu Ohia............................................2 19 43.20 Makapuu Station (east point of Oahu).......... 1............... 2 8 5.57 Mokapu Station, Kaneohe.................................... 2 27 01.07 Kahuku Point (northeast point of Oahu)......................... 2 42 19.207 Barber's Point, Laeloa..................................... 17 32.23 Puuloa (windmill)..................................... 2I 9 I.-76 ILaie Point.................................................. 2 38 40.65 Kaena Point (northwest point of Oahu)........................ 21 34 I3.-I Haleakala, Station on Summit................................. 20 42 35.4 Lahaina Court House.................................... 20 52 3.4 Kauiki Point (east point of Maui)................................ 20 45 i.7 Puu Olai, or "Miller's Hill" (south of Makena)................ 20 37 56.7 Halawa (east end of Molokai).................21 9 o.8 Kahoolawe Summit............................................ 20 33 39 Kawaihae Light House (approximate)........................20 12.5 Mauna Kea, Station on Summit (approximate)................ 9 49 x6 HalaiStatien, back of Hilo......................... ** 19 42 44.7 Kailua, Hawaii, Transit of Venus Observatory, as determined by Captain 'Tupman.................................... Waimea, Kauai, Transit of Venus Observatory, as deternined by (aptain Tupman........................... 21 57 12 LONGITIIDES. Deg. Min. Sec. 157 I57 157 157 157 I57 157 158 157 I57 158 156 156 155 156 156 I56 I55 I55 x55 51 48. 52 12.99 48 52.I2 49 03.274 39 20.12 44 04 66 58 59.78 6 32.39 58 25.66 55 I6.54 i6 55.576 15 o8.i 40 50.5 59 3.4 27 4.4 43 44.13 35 21 50 5 28 z6 5 55 156 oo 40 159 40 xo

Page  14 14 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. COMPARATIVE TABLE OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES, HAWAIIAN. ISLANDS, z878-80 TO 1884-86. I I Estimated REVENUE. 1878-80. 880-82. 1882-84. E884-86. Custom House.................. $ 582,846 $ 719,245 $ 944,638 $ 954,200 Internal Commerce.............. 122,946 141,744 178,149 172,250 Internal Taxes................ 465,252 596,615 680,397 703,500 Fines, Fees, Perquisites, etc....... 190,265 99,986 233,710 198,200 Government Realizations.......... 318,527 393,586 374,291 306,500 Government Stocks............... 23,900.......... 668,oo.......... Crown Commissioners............................... I2,000.......... Cash in the Treasury April I, 1884.............................. 2,220 Totals..................... $ 1,703,736 $ 2,050,276 $ 3,092,085 $ 2,336,870 EXPNDI*RE. 8880 l88. 1882-84. stimated EXPENDITURES. 1878-80. 1 i880o82. 1882-84. 1884-86. _884-86. Civil List....................... Permanent Settlement........... Legislature and Privy Council...... Judiciary Department............. Department of War............. Department of Foreign Affairs...... Department of Interior............ Department of Finance............ Department of Attorney-General... Bureau of Public Instruction....... M iscellaneous.................... $ 65,500 15,075 16,523 79,667 67,993 36,830 656,810 260,057 123,664 79,605 93,973 $ 10,000 I9,512 19,338 92,870 129,353 1,204,703 299,436 163,527 84,249 169,608 $ 148,500 20,347 24,942 115,892.......... 252,641 1,824,795 319,062 266,730 91,755 151,742 $ 127,931 22,150 40,300 139,059.......... 245,934 1,818,554 723,887 282,720 I91,720 t 264,500 Totals..................... $ 1,495,6971$ 2,282,5961$ 3,216,4061$ 3,856,755 "Merged into Department of Foreign Affairs. t Board of Health. Table of the Revenues and Expenditures of the Hawaiian Kingdom for each Biennial Period, from z856-7 to x884-6. PERIOD. RECEIPTS. EXPENDITURES DEFICIT. SURPLUS. 1856-7..........$ 639,041 37 $ 666,788 83 $ 27,747 46........ 1858-9.......... 655,866 68 643,98 40............$ 2,768 28 1860-......... 668,186 56 681,821 48 13,634 92.. 1862-3....... 688,687 21 666,o6 10............. 22,626 II 1864-5........ 728,817 07 82,341 02.... 46,476 05 866-7.......... 831,148 98 834,I57 55 30057...... 1868-9.......... 834,112 65 934,100 29 99,987 64.. 1870-.......... 964,956 35 969,784 14 5,827 79 - I872-3........... 1,I36,523 95 1,192,51I 79 55,987 84........ 1874-6..........1,008,19 85 919,356 93.............. 88,834 92 1876-8.......... 1,151,713 45 I1,1I0,472 90.............. 41,240 55 878-8........ 1,703,736 00 1,495,697.............. 208,039 00 188082........ 2,070,256 94 2,282,599 00 212,319 06 1882-84....... 3,092,085 42 3,216,406 05 124,320 63..... 1884-86*..... I 2.336,870 42 3,856,755 00 1,519,884 58....... * Estimated.

Page  15 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, 884. Imports Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. I5 I VALUE GOODS PAYING DUTY. _, —. ~~~ Ale, Porter, Beer, Cider.............. $ 27,496 46 Animals and Birds................... 85 oo Building Materials.................... 60,916 93 Clothing, Hats, Boots.................. 68,299 84 Crockery, Glassware, Lamps and Lamp' Fixtures........................... 46,457 14 Drugs, Surgical Instruments and Dental Materials.......................... 45,86 32 Linens................... 3,87 81 Dry Goods~ Silks.29,716 62, Dry Goods Silks..................... 29,76 62 Woolens................ 52,654 59 Mixtures................ I8,848 22 Fancy Goods, Millinery, etc........... 89,172 50 Fish (dried and salt).................. 1I,I35 67 Flour................................ 2,220 24i Fruits (fresh)......................... 7L2 82 Furniture............................. 53,543 61 Grain and Feed...............982 44 982 44 Groceries and Provisions.............. 08,282 45 Guns and Gun Materials............. 6,984 24 Gun Powder......................... 4,382 92 Hardware, Agricultural Implements and Tools........................ 104,311 57 Iron and Steel, etc.................. 26,58 97 Jewelry, Plate, Clocks................ 38,832 75 Leather.790 28 Leather............................. 790 28 Lumber............................. 50 60 Machinery........................... 62,667 48 M atches............................. 301 36 Musical Instruments.................. 6.734 o Naval Stores......................... 6,982 40 Oils, (cocoanut, kerosene, whale, etc)... 26,802 00 Paints and Paint Oils, and Turpentine.. 30,727 I -Perfumery and Toilet Articles......... 57 33 Railroad Materials, Rails, Cars, etc)... 20,092 II Saddlery, Carriages and Materials.... 34,17 7 Shooks and Containers............... 77,338 97 Spirits............................... 4,594 78 Stationery and Books................. I4,732 25 lTea.............................. 22,321 35 Tea.. 22,321 35 Tin and Tinware and Materials........i o,563 68 Tobaccos, Cigars, etc.............. 8,6oo 03 W ines (light)....................... 6,24 8 Sundry Merchandise not included in the above.............................. 52,320 40 Charges on Invoices................. 48,271 30 25% added on Uncertified Invoices..... 3,080 14 $ 1,437,634 94 I VALUE GOODS FREE VALUE GOODS TOTAL. BY TREATY. IN BOND. $ 45,093 85 $ 72,59031 $ 86,946 38........... 87,031 38 64,175 84 I,800381 26,893 I5 133,467 56 7,452 23, 309,219 63.............. 3,134 40 49,591 54............. 2,312 18 48,181 50 io8,908 43 2,977 62 191,102 21.............. 502 63 14,374 44.............. 359 i6 30,075 78 13,585 04 2,554 57 68,794 20 3,479 53 4,78i 6: 27,102 38 5,366 73 6,674 T( 101,23 39 63,609 i8 7 oc 74,75i 85 I68,o6o 67.............. 70,280 91 10,743 46........... 456 28 40,937 45 2, I8 47 96,599 53 183,6i6 oc.............. 184,598 53 360,906 2c 1,740 77 470,929 42 2,902 42 I,171 97 II,os8 63............................... 4,382 92 176,716 64 4,963 I2 285.991 33 J4,502 68 94 96 41,456 6i.............. 2,817 05 41,649 8o 41,342 66.............. 42,132 94 283,851 4............ 283,902 oI 144,803 98 3,70o 04 211,172 50 4,135 o0 314 99 4,75r 36 5,572 24 704 2I I3,0Io 55 35,377 52 179 36 42,539 28 61,718 54 452 oo 88,972 54 2,050 60 782 94 3.,560 67 2,905 90 507 I3 12,983 36 78 oo........ 20,170 Ir 33,452 47 2,827 75 -70,397 39 18,783 63 2o,586 51 105,709 II....... 136,88z 6i 141,476 39 53,246 6o x,I88 38 69,167 23.............. 100 00 22,421 35 2oo oo 22,422 35.............. 1 36 I6 10,699 84 93,657 39 38,198 68 140,456 IO............ 6,401 77 22,526 58 35,842 02 2,900 33 91,062 75 34,649 32 4,2I6 61 87,137 23..*.|... - -............... - —....3,o8o 24 $ 2,38 5 $ 3,080 I5 $ 2,289,384 59 $ 3io,635 62 $ 4,037,655 I5 I Discounts, Damaged and short........................................... $ 58,404 47 3 979,250 68 IMPORTS AT OTHER PORTS, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. VALUE PAYING; VALUE FREE BY DUTY. TREATY. V I Kahului.............. $ 49,560 32 $ 203,087 40 $ 414 0o $ 253,06 72 Hilo. I..... 7,361 45 89,175 4.............. 96,536 59 Mahukona............ 2,778 42 4,2 96................... 43,63 38 Kawaihae......... 6 oo 7,58 95.................. 7274 95 257,758 90 Value of goods free by Civil Code, at all pors...................... - Total Hawaiian Islands..........................$ 4637,54 22 SPECIF.................($1,180,36 54)

Page  16 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES z184. Imports Hawaiian Islands. Country from which Imported. Value of Goods Paying Duty, Imported from United States, Pacific Ports.........$392,968 68 United States, Atlantic Ports........ 29,676 02 Great Britain....................... 610, 50 72 Germany........................... 184,017 07 Australia and New Zealand......... 8,806 9I China.............................. 141,333 03 France.......................... 2,097 86 Islands in the Pacific.............. 717 29 Micronesia Islands................ 269 96 Total Honolulu.............. $1,390,034 54 At Kahului...................... 49,560 32 A t H ilo.......................... 7,36 45 At Mahukona................... 2,778 42 At Kawaihae..................... 6 oo Total at all Ports............ $1,449,750 73 Value of Goods Free by Civil Code from United States.....................$5,818 30 Great Britain..................... 53,472 o6 Germany.......................... 28,197 54 Australia and New Zealand......... 42,651 49 Other Countries..................... 1,483 85 Specie from the United States,............ $, 180,361 54 Total, Honolulu............. $241,623 24 Kahului, from United States.. 9,881 76 Hilo, from United States.... 4,992 60 Mahukona, from United States 1,261 30 Total at all Ports.......$ 257,758 90 Value of Goods and Spirits Bonded from United States, Pacific Ports.........$108,094 65 United States, Atlantic Ports........ 25,253 52 Great Britain...................... 105,381 84 Germany........................... 13,328 98 Australia and New Zealand........ 10,568 41 China.......................... 37,828 72 France............................. 9,622 73 Total at Honolulu.............$310,078 85 At Kahului........................ 414 oo Total at all Ports............... $310,492 85 Value of Goods Free by "Treaty" from United States, Pacific Ports...... $1,976,765 33 United States, Atlantic Ports...... 302,371 96 Total, Honolulu...... $2,279,I37 29 Kahului................... 203,087 40 Hilo..................... 89,175 14 Mahukona................ 40,852 96 Kawaihae................. 7,258 95 Total at all Ports.......$2,619,5 74 Value of Goods Imported Free. Animals and Birds.................$ 7,101 82 Bags and Containers................ 2,87 96 Coal and Coke..................... 71,112 78 Diplomatic Represent'vs (Sundries).. 970 27 Fertilizer and Bone Meal............ 20,22 69 His Majesty (Sundries)........... 12,445 89 Hawaiian Government.............. 51,817 68 Iron, Steel &c...................... 19,768 26 Plants and Seeds................... 822 35 Returned Cargoes............... 1,467 75 Customs Import Duties Spirits.............. $270,574 77 Import Duties Goods............... I74,407 91 Import Duties Bonded Goods........ 38,671 50 Blanks............................ 3,637 50 Fees............................. 4,I23 33 Wharfage.............2........... 21,513 85 Registry........................... 213 25 Warehouse Storage.................,087 8o Kerosene Storage................... 3,679 I5 Coasting License................... 3,678 18 M. H. Fund.......................,44 35 Storage..................... o,g950 49 Lights........................... 1,171 67 Interest........................ 5, 66 31 Hospital Fund...................... 9,064 oo Sundries, by Permission............. 30,534 14 Sheathing Metal................... 7,739 44 Sundry Personal & Household Effects 14,763 2I Total at Honolulu...............$ 241,623 24 Kahului................ 9,88i 76 Hilo.................... 4,992 60 Mahukona.............. 1,26x 30 Total...............$ 257,758 90 Receipts. Buoys.............................$ 338 oo Passports........................... 2,927 oo Fines and Forfeitures................ 964 85 Esplanade Storage.................. 2,517 47 Towage............................. 4, 65 62 Honolulu...........................$543,294 oo Kahului............................ 7,336 72 H ilo............................. 803 I1 Mahukona..................... 302 76 Total 1884......................$55,736 59 Total 1883...................... 577,332 87 Decrease 1884....................$ 25,596 28 I

Page  17 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, 1884.. Table of Principal Domestic Exports, Showing the Country to which Exported. 17 Pacific A ala Islandsi.in n South Am. Tol. ancd New China Tota Ports, U.S.{....... Pacific. Ports. Sugar, lbs........................ M olasses, galls................... Paddy, bs. Rice, lbs......................... Coffee, lbs........ Pulu ls........................ Fungus, lbs................. Bananas, bnchs............ Goat Skins, pcs................ Hides, pcs............ Tallow lbs..................... Wool, lbs............... Betel Leaves, bxs............... Calf Skins, pcs................. Sheep Skins, pcs................ Dried Bananas, bxs................ |CtCflalllU. 142,637,457.......... 7,466 97,482....... 46,224................ 9,487,900Q I1o,o00 4,100 4,18I 50......... 465 *-* -— 1- -* ~ 4. 5.................. 58,040................... 20,125................... 21,026.................. 2,864.................. 300,369 107,254........ 416............... I7................... 8,038................... Io6............ I I I.................. 142,654,923... 3,048 r10o,530......46,224 9...........,493,000............... 4,23I................. 465 2,2471......... 2,247........ 1........ 1] s 58,040.................. 1 20,125 21,026 ~...... ~......~ 2,864.......... 407,623................ 416................ r 7...... I......... 8,038................o6 Domestic Exports. Sugar, Ibs............. 42,654.923 Goat Skins, pcs............... 20,125 Molasses, galls............ 110,530 Hides, pcs............... 21,026 Paddy, lbs................ 46,224 Tallow, lbs................... 2,864 Rice, lbs................. 9,493,oco Wool, lbs...................407,623 Coffee, bs................ 4,231 Betel Leaves, bxs.............. 416 Pulu, bs.................. 465 Calf Skins, pcs............... I17 Fungus, lbs........ 2,247 Sheep Skins, pcs........... 8,038 Bananas, bnchs............ 58,040 Dried Bananas, bxs6....... Total valuation.......... $,977,908 82. Total Value Domestic Produce Exported. Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Honolulu................ $6,524,364 46 Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Kahului................. 1,286,807 97 Total Value Domestic Produce Exported, Hilo................. 66,736 39 Furnished as Supplies to Merchantmen (as per estimate)............. 62,240 oo Furnished as Supplies to National Vessels (as per estimate)........... 27,500 oo Total.................................................. $8,067,648 82 Total of all Exports, Hawaiian Islands. Value of Domestic Goods Exported......$...................... $7,977,908 82 Value of Domestic Goods Furnished as supplies(estimated)........... 89,740 oo Value of Foreign Goods Exported................................ 117,273 8 Specie...........($671,687.67)................................ Total.................................................$8, 84,922 63 Resume, Imports Hawaiian Islands. U nited States....................................................................$ 3,367,585 76 Great Britain.................................................................... 769,o 04 62 G erm any................................................................. 225 43 59 Australia and New Zealand..................................................... 72,026 8I China............................................................................ 179,6 75 France............................................................... 2I,720 59 France.. 2,720 59 Other Countries...... 2,475 10 Other Countries.................................................................. 47 T otal.................................................................$ 4,637,5I 4 22

Page  18 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. SELECTIONS FROM CUSTOM HOUSE TABLES, x884 Passengers Statistics, Arrivals and Departures, Port of Honolulu. - ______ ________-_ - -_ CHINESE. FROM TO FROM TO FROM AND TO t > '> L n: jL: i-: -. a 3 _t_ —L[_ _1! i: _. i 1M. -Z - L San Francisco......................... 862 174 832 23: Oregon and Washington Territory....... 8.... 69 Victoria, B. C.......................... 17 China and Japan......................... 3 Australia and New Zealand......... 79 8 71 I2 Islands in the Pacific............... 38 13 I85 4 Atlantic Ports............................ European Ports........................ 24 9 10 St. Michaels and Western Islands....... II 60.... I Totals....................... 2226 805 87 32 Total arrivals for the year.......................... 5,739 Total departures for the year.................... 2,930 Excess of arrivals........................ 2,809 1 I I I ), 940 201 54 I.................... 267I1 37 I373 6.38 38...44 44 IN TRANSIT-From Australia and New Zealand bound to San Francisco.... 1175 From San Francisco bound to Australia and New Zealand..... 9o6 From Victoria, B. C., bound to China...................... 650 From China bound to San Francisco........................ Io1 o — ARTICLES ADMITTED INTO THE UNITED STATES FREE OF DUTY, UNDER THE RECIPROCITY TREATY, From the Hawaiian Islands, when Properly Certified to before the U. S. Consul, or Consular Agent at the Port of Shipment. Arrow-root; Bananas; Castor Oil; Hides and Skins, undressed; Pulu; Rice; Seeds, Plants, Shrubs or Trees; Muscovado, Brown, and all other unrefined sugar, commonly known as "Sandwich Island Sugar;" Syrups of Sugar Cane, Melado and Molasses; Tallow; Vege tables, dried and undried, preserved and unpreserved. U For Full text of the Treaty of Reciprocity with the United States, see Annual for I877. For list of articles admitted free under the Treaty from the United States, see page 8. BEARINGS AND DISTANCES. Honolulu Lighthouse to summit of Diamond Head, S. 50~ 37' 40", E. (true) 24,559 feetPuuohia to Diamond Head Station, S. 2~ 15' 30" E. (true) 26, 515 feet. Haleakala to Mauna Kea, S. 39~ 23' 30' E. (trut) 79.2 statute miles. Average Magnetic Declination south p:.rl of Oahu, 9' 55' E., A. D. I885.

Page  19 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. I9 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF LEADING IMPORTS OF HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. For Alternate Years I876-X884. 2876. 1878. I880. I88a. 1884. Ale, Porter, Beer, Cider.................. $19,792 34 $20,548 31 $36,159 40 $36,44 96 $72,590 31 Animals and Birds.............. 26 40 8,690 85 8,583 85 74,622 69 9433 20 Building Materials....................... 2I,596 39 107,042 33 82,287 85 85,395 82 126,893 I5 Clothing, Hats, Boots.....................I76,I88 41 208,596 63 226,I69 96 344,078 87 309,219 63 Crockery, and Glassware........ 4,27 6i I7,99I 70 25,841 31 36,773 63 49,591 54 Drugs and Medicines..................... 7,029 59 17,945 27 27,8I8 08 46,000 4I 48. I8 50 Dry Goods —Cottons......................67,45I 47 165,159 13 151,134 6o 26I,015 66 191,102 2I Linens....................... 9,x63 62 8,9I8 96 13,318 40, 20,876 22 14,374 44 Silks................ 12,7J2 18 23,270 96 25,638 25 35,475 3c 30,075 78 Woolens............... 40,867 99 70,402 77 50,375 73 115,520 29 68,794 20 Mixtures..................... 25,321 3I 37,737 81 32,889 44 28,I0O 3C 27,102 38 Fancy Goods, Millinery, etc........ 53,II8 81 53,752 oi 66,637 71 1I6,503 98 101,213 39 Fish (dry and salt)........................ I7,89I 8i 47,206 95 35,276 72 65,701 27 74,752 85 Flour..................................... 54,907 89 102,728 97 100oo,888 17 121,453 331170,280 91 Fruits (fresh)........................... 2,030 97 3,443 28 4,151 5o 6,347 68| 11,456 28 Furniture................................. 27,662 93 49,482 22 73,345 831 124,033 201 96,599 53 Furs and Ivory............................ 2,696 73 I,936 30............................. Grain and Feed...................... 14,523 39 34,695 61 73,95I 115 171,525 521 84,598 53 Groceries and Provisions................... 90,466 2 269,573 50 379,794 40 453,I61 39 470,929 42 Guns and Gun Materials.................. 5,529 6i 10,475 9I 12,910 78 I3,590 08 11,058 63 Gun Powder.. 2,714 35 3,514 39 5Y317 3I 7,038 54 4,382 92 Hardware,Agr. Implements & Tools &c..... 105,828 I8 2IO,299 58 25,088 33 275,328 871285,991 33 Iron, Steel, etc.................... 20,878 35 56,654 20 34,84I 78 62,797 391 6,224 87 Jewelry, Plate, Clocks.............. 24,032 411 34,925 99 74,447 42 90,936 22I 41,649 80o Leather.................................. 8,606 6i 20,965 39 27,586 291 44,670 47 42,132 94 Lumber................... 98,322 24212,52 7 22,22 8 248,557 23 283,902 oI Machinery......... 37,331 54 417,297 32 250,124 70 182,537 47 211,172 50 Matches......... 5,53 83 4459 II 8,194 28 12,838 97 4,75 36 Musical Instruments....................... 8,492 941 I0,389 39 11,924 671 19,706 12 I3o010 55 Naval Stores.................... 35,587 28 58,41 471 67,498 391 73,882 i6 42,539 8 Oils (co'nut, kerosene, whale, etc.)...... 78,68 i8 97,686 51 75,882 03 105,661 33 88,972 54 Paint, Paint Oils & Turpentine............. 13,548 03 23,803 i6' 40,709 56 30,824 29 33,56o 6y Perfumery and Toilet Articles........... 13,024 56 11,057 36 13,65i 6iI 17,090 89 I2,983 36 Saddlery, Carriages, etc.............. 34,536 95 76,441 86 74,486 69 81,261 43 70,397 39 Shooks and Containers.................... 53,948 90 50,198 70% 72,257 95 62,909 20 106,70q9 I Spirits................................. 31,944 91 50, 66 6, 8i,132 34 81,440 52 141,476 39 Stationery and Books..................... 31,429 8i 29,982 07 45,829 24 69,278 93 69,67 23 Tea.............................. 7228 22 20,49 5 14,237 84 26,464 42 22,421 35 Tin and Tinware...................... 5,94 87 5,474 86 6.296 80 12,536 2 10,699 84 Tobacco, Cigars, etc...................... 57,475 03 68,ox8 71 io6, i1 90 38,8Io 77 140,456 -o Whalebone................................ 38,134 50 15,760 o6.......... Wines (light)............................. 9475 871 6,294 18 10,727 681 12,925 071 22,526 58 AVERAGE MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, HONOLULU, FROM z873 to z877, inclusive. 1873. _874. 1875. 1876. 1877.. g- | x | -! S- | f |::: January............... 30o8 74.98 29.9373 9.02 29.96 72 4.45 30-00 75 3-73 3002 7 3.24 February............. 30.07 73 5.I5 29.88 73 9.75 29.91 73 2.92130.09o76 4.73 30.08 724 2.90 March..... 30.......0..30.9 74~ 8.89 29.97 75 4.40 30.02 75 3.86 29.86 75% 6-43 30.05 724 0.94 April................. 30.08 76 1.25 30.02 74 3.24 30.02 74 4.22 30.11 75 3.58 3o.02 73, 3.41 May.................. 3005 79 0.27 30.0477. 75 30.04 78 4.16 30.20 77 5-87 30.09 74 J7.27 June.................. 30.05 8o.27 29.96 78 J.60 29.97 78% 2.44 30o.3 78 1.07 30.13 76J 1.14 July.................05 8o o.58 29.95 8o 2.25 29.96 8o 0.95 30.17 79 1.42 30.13 76% 2.27 August............... 06. 6 8i 0.07 29.95 8o% 0.30 29.95 8I I.09 30.08 76% 2.58 30.11 76% 1.19 September........ 30.00 8i 0.05 30.0 79.02 29.94 79 3.11 30.03 78 0.5300 76 2.64 October............... 30.03 78 0.33 30.00 77 2.50 29.9777 29977 0.95 30.05 78 0.37 3009 76.63 November............ 30.04 76 6.05 29.9i67 5.84 29.95 79 4.4530.0 77 3.35 30.11 76 2.24 December............. 03o. 75 x. 96 30.00 62 5.75 30.00 74 14.46 30.06 75% 2.92130o8 74 3.43

Page  20 Comparative View of the Commerce of the Hawaiian Islands from z846, giving the Totals for Each Year. O 0 *~ ---— --- 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 186o 1861 1862 I863 1864 1865 I866 1867 1868 I869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 i880. I88I 1882 7883 1884 was in Imports. $598,382 710,138 605,618 729,739 r,o35,o58 2,823,821 759,868,402i,975 I,590,837 2,383,I69 r,151,422 2,130,165 1,089,660 1,555,558 2,223,749 76z1,zx 998,239 1, 75,493 1,712,241 I,946,265 1,993,82I I,957,41o,93',790 2,040 o68 '1,930,227 i,625, 84,746,178 z,437,611 2,310,827 I,505,670 1,811,770 2,554,356 3,046,370 3,742,978 3,673,268 4,547,979 4,974,510 5,624,240 4,637,514 Exports. $682,850 264,256 300,370 383,185 783,052 69x,23I 638,393 472,996 585,122 572,601 670,826 645,524 787,082 931,329 807,459 659,774 838,424 2,025,852 I,662, 81 1,808,257 X,934,576 x,679,66I 1,898,215 2,336,358 2,144,942 I,892,o69 1,607,521 2,228,054 I,839,619 2,089,736 2,24I,04I 3,676,202 3,548,472 3,781,718 4,968,445 6,855,436 8,299,017 8,133,344 8,184,923 Domestic Prod. Exported. $620,525 209,018 266,819 185,o83 536,522 309,828 257,25i 281,599 274,029 274,741 466,278 423,308 529,966 628,575 480,526 476,872 586,541 744,413 1,113,328 1,521,211 1,205,821 1,324,122 2,450,269 1,743,291 I,514,425 1,733,094 1,402,685 1,725,507 I,622,455 1,774,083 2,o55,I33 2,462,417 3,333,979 3,665,504 4,889,194 6,789,076 8, 65,932 8,036,227 8,o67,649. Foreign Total CusProd. t om House Exported. Receipts. Transhipment of Oil and Bone. Galls. Galls. 1 Lbs. Spm. Oil. Wh. Oil. iWh. Bone. I aT. I Mer. Vessels. Vess.'l. Tons. No. I No. I Tons. Shipping. $62,325 55,208 33,551 I98,202 246,529 381,4o0 381,142 I91,397 311,092 297,859 204,545 222,222 257,115 302,754 326,932 I82,9o0 251,882 281,439 548,852 287,045 428,755 355,539 447,946 623,067 630,517 158,974 204,836 402,547 217, x64 254,353 I85,908 213,786 2I4,492 Ix6,2X4 79,251 66,360 I33,085 97,117 117,274 $36,506 48,801 55,568 83,231 I21,506 I60,602 II3,001 1I55,650 I52,125 158,412 123,171 140,777 I66,I38 I32,129 117,302 100,115 107,490 22,752 I59,I16 192,566 215,047 220,599 210,076 215,798 223,815 221,332 228,375 198,655 183,857 213,447 i99,036 230,499 284,426 359,671 402,182 423,192 505,39I 577,333 55z,737........... |........... 17.................... 7.......... 4.I. 4.............................. 7............................. 12 I04,362 909,379 1 9go,604 7 173,490 1,182.738 3,I59,95I 3 I75,396 3,787,348 2,020,2641 7 156,484 1,683,922! 1,479,6781 16 I09,308 x,436,8i0o 872,954 I3 I21,294 I,64I,5791 x,074,942 9 76,306 2,018,0271 1,295,525 IO 222,464 2,55I,382 xI,6I4,7IOi x I56,360 1,668,175j 1. 47,I20 5 47,859 782,o86i 571,966 xo 20,435 795,988 527,9I01 7 2,522 460,4071 193,920! 6 56,687 675,344j 337,0431 6 33,860 608,502 339,331 8 42,841 578,593! 337,394 7 x18,96I 1,250,9651 611,178 3 103,215 821,9291 405,140 1I 106,778 774,9I3 596,043 7 157,690 I,698,189 627,770 6 105,234 I,443,809 632,905 i6 63,310 283,055 29,362 9 50,887 32,974 81,998 7 56,687 573,697 122,554 12 23,1871 403,876 174,11I 13 37,81I2 3I2,305 104,7I51 22..,......................... X14.................... -... 17.............................. II............................... I 6.. 1.........6..................... 6.............i.......... 13.................... 6..........i 16............................. I3. *.................. I I 53 67 90 x8o I80 469 446 235 211 125 154 123 82 15 239 II7 93 II3 88 157 I51 150 134 1"3 127 I59 17I I46 o09 120 120 14I i68 232 251 239 258 258 267 24I 90,304 87,920 61,o65 59,451 47,288 51,304 42,213 26,817 45,875 59,24I 41,226 45,952 48,687 42,930 75,893 67,068 60,628 60,268 54,833 75,656 91,248 I05,993 98,647 62,767 71,266 93, Io Io8,706 1 6,621 i63,640 I5i,576 x41,916 I59,34I 172,619 185,316 I87,826 Whl'rs. No. 167 167 254 274 237 220 519 535 525 468 366 387 526 549 325 I90 73 i02 130 18o 229 243 153 202 I18 47 47 63 43 41 37 33 27 25 16 19 32 18 23 3,271 3,443 5,718 8,25x 11,270 14,148 I8,203 17,537 I8,528 I4,779 I6,144 I4,637 14,158 14,295 9,676 8,940 7,862 10,237 11,745 12,833 15,119 I6,030 17,o06 I9,948 18,817 I8,843 21,212 I8,466 21,I3I I9,707 24,223 36,360 43,166 44,289 46,085 50,064 61,272 7o0,60 28 67! 78.... 80 75 69 56 54 45 48 54 53 65 68 53 58 44 56 65 74 77 63 61 64 57 54 58 54 51 45 54 55 63 63 60 60 64 51 Haw. RegisSpirits. tered Vessels. Gallons - Consumed. Tons. 1,578 2,x60 2,873 3,539 4,460 o 4,432 3,827 > 6,271 4,831 > 4,718 Z 5,795 5,249 3> 6,366 6,935 5,848: 6,645 > 5,497 0 7,895 0, 70 > II,664 Z 12,456 9,793 > i0,528 Z zo,855 Z 8,068 " 6,407 > 8,56I r 8, ox 7,376 6,753 8,994 7,949 10,023 Ix0,49 9,338 9,351 1,589 0.826 NOTE.-Where blanks occur in the earlier years, there was either no record or the figures, when given were unreliable. The first transhipment of Oil and Bone n 185x, so far as any record can be found for statistical purposes.

Page  21 ;ID '4 z z Irt Q z zU COMPARATIVE TABLE OF PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF EXPORT, 1860-184.,I4, os,63............... 4896688. YR LBS. GALLS LBS. LBS. LBS. PCS. LBS. GOAT LBS. LBS. LBS. TONS BUNCH'S SUGAR. MOLSS S RICE. PADDY. COFFEE HIDES TAL'OW SKINS. WOOL. PULU.FUNGUS SALT. BANAN'S 1860 I,144,271 108,613.............. 48,9661I9,964 84,957 37,298 70,524'649,204 178,794 884 1861 2,562,498 128,259........... 45,3661 7,4631233,100 21,945 I19,927 530,835 278,3301 762...... 1862 3,005,603 130,445 II,O008 812, 76 I46,463115,461 242,942 53,076 40,368 738,064 301,417 598 12 1863 5,292, 121 I1I4,4I13 123,451 598,291 133,171116,366 282,640 43,646 233,163 425,081 279,158 656 60 1864 10,414,441 340,436 319,835 105,320 50,083I12,049 189,700 32,333 196,667 643,437 368,835 729 1,940 865 15,3I8,097 542,819 154,257........ 0,7 3,7,849 86,490 54,988 144,085 221,206223,979 20 1,211 1866 17,729,161 851,795 435,367......... 93,682 8,33 I 59,731 76,II5 73,131 212,026 120,342 739 1,771 1867 I7,127,187 544,994 441,750 572,0991127,546 11,207 60,936 51,8891409,471 203,958 I67,666 107 2,913 868 8,312,926 492,839 40,450 862,9541 78,373 11,144 109,50457,6701258,9141342,882 76,781 540 3,966 1869 I8,302,110i338,311 48,830 1,586,959 340,841 I2,803 85,937 62,736 2I8,752 622,998 85,215 1,152 6,936 1870 18,783,63912t6,662 152,068 535,453 4I5,III 13,095 90,388 67,463 234,696 233,803 4I,96b 2,513 4,007 I87I 21,760,773271,291 417,011 867,452 46,92619,384185,240 58,900 471,76 292,720 37,475 71- 3,876 18721 16,995,402 192,1051 455,121 894,582 39,276 27,066 493,978353,598 288,526 421,227 32,161I 522 4,520 1873 23,120, 101 146,459 941.438 507,945 262,025 20,677 609,855166.702 329,507 412,823 57,538 445 6,492 1874 24,566,6I1 90,060 1,187,9861 439, 57 75,496 22,620 I25,59671,9551399,926148,320 50,955 730I4 6,494 1875 25,080.182 93,722 1,573,739 556,495 I65,977 22,777851,920 60,598 565,469 379,003 45,098 96 Io,518 1876 26,072,429 130,073 2,259 3241,542,603 I53,667I11,105 327,291 45,265 405,542 314,432 35,893 5 4,982 1877 25,575,965 151,462 2,691,370 2,571,987 101,345 22,164 369,8295I,551i385,703 I50,586 11,629 322 15,905 1878 38,431,458 93.I361 2,767,768 2,784,865 127,963 25,309 239,94I 64,525 522,757 212,740 22,364 i80o 1'3,43I 1 8,43X,5879 49,02 32,972687,475 76813,4,84012 1879 49,020,972 87,475 4,792,813 38,8151 74,275 24,885... 249401464,3081137,001 2,571 50 12,369 i880o 63,584,871198,355 6,469,840......... 99,5o8 22,9451 19,16931,0338I,361 44,846 14,801 14 19,164 i881 93,789,483263,587 7,682,700 102,370 18,912821,972|II8,031 2I,308 528,489 53,415 4,282 302 20,7761 1882 114,177,938 221,29312. 69,475 459,633 8,I3126,oo7 77,898 23,402 528,9131................. 28,848 I6,O571319 5 322,798318,27I 'i~Si 1883 114, 7,1551 93,997 I,619,000o,368,705 I6,057!38,955 32,252 24,798 318,271.......... 44,902 1884 142,654,923 1o0,530; 9,493,o000 46,224 4,231121,026 2,864020,I25'407,6231 4651 2,247....... 58,040 1885 I2i,873,37 53751015 27,26 3,84,853........i, 71,6391............... 29,847! *Six nionths to July 1st. TOTAL VAL. ALL DOM. EXPORTS $ 349,926,54 404,172,74 532,949,87 678,213,54 970,228,81 1,430,2I1,82 1,396,621,61 1,205,622,02 1.340,469,26 1,639,091,59 I,403,025,06 1,656,644,46 1,345,585,38 1,661,407,78 1,555,355,37 1,774,082,91 1,994-833,55 2,363,866,66 3,333,979,49 3,665,503,76 4,889,194,40 6,789,076,38 8, I65,931,34 8,036,227, 8,067,648,82 6,124,625,35

Page  22 Comparative Table of Import Values at the Hawaiian Islands, from Various Countries since tz876 CLASS OF CoW Wm i. CM RTS. i876. 1877. 878. 1879. i 880.- 88I. 1882. I 883. X884. D- (Dutiable. $688,733 I $583,119 02 $322,240 r $395,690 o8 506,812 90 $476,275 8xI $629,604 77 $722,828 8 $422,641 70... < Bonded. 82,673 91 81,402 93 111,498 79 78,206 68 138,453 13 118,177 94 140,352 82 156,242 28 133,348 I7 Free. 343,830 95 I,Ioo,642 52 x,619,987 6i 1,820.355 33 2,026,557 90 2,646,577 12 2,788,974 63 3,169,415 70 2,279,137 29 Gr'at gftin. f Dutiable. 60,550 47 249,880 87 514,404 34 798,261 17 577,061 14 726,631 23 730,389 i6 822,001 0I 610,150 72 nded. 22,800 3 4,825 28 34,7 30 43683 98 i 45,005 73 145,223 52 68,374 30 17,29 3 73 5,38 84 Geran Dutilable. 199,184 96 193,324 38 99,442 20 185,867 69 44,777 17 i 5'268 94 166,357 52 191,793 03 | 184,017 07 'Bo~nded. 15,389 27 8,824 96 1 20,304 25 4,876 o6 3,921 82 28,444 29 i 18,832 05 24,538 85 1 23,328 98 DTaM A i utiable. 401 6x 157 50,053 47 869 56......................................................... Dutiable. 2,779 14 1120.. 8 95. British Co bla. Dutiable. I4,926 34 4,872 10 29,838 80...:........... 28 37............................. I....... ~ Bonded. 86I 64.~...........;.....................................2..............! 12,567 76.............. Australia and N.Z.I Dutiable 37,930 56 54,046 66 42,0o8 27 65,922 73 51,725 46 44, 63 31 30,004 99 32,266 93 18,806 China........ Dutiable. 48,347 53 30,772 98 57,946 80 86,443 43 86,690 46 8 58 3 79 2,527 95 50,396 77 I 4,333 03 j Bonded. 2,969 25 1,346 55 25,846 31 39,459 97-. 34,528 80 i8,329 oo 26,309 52 19,696 64 37,828 72 France Dutiable............................ 9,o8 81 26,256 94 5,2 8 8,81 71 5,789 o6 23,603 34 2,097 86 Bnded..........B......................I........ 7,597 11 i 1,712 34 6,179 41 2,423 24 7,33I OI 9,622 73 All other couutries. Dutiable. 503 87 | 897 95 1,566 85 3,502 30 j 18,34 66,593 56 1,727 26 808 05 j 987 25 =_ _________ Bratnded. 31,540 77 54,321 83 23,202 59 1,897 87 o.093 69 i,6o6 6o0 510 56 [ 230 0oo............. Nationality of Vessels Employed in the Foreign Carrying Trade of the Hawaiian Islands, 1875 — 884. Nation. 2875. 1-876. 182877. 2878. 1879. i88o. 1881. i882. 1883. - 1884 No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. Nc. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. T'ons, American.......... 74 4I,350 90 75,639 z27 81,417 156 o02,622 177 99,102 279 99,614 181..02,3083 1791 103,591 195r117,9521 191 135,6i8 Hawaiian........ 16 4,9 8 5,981 31 9,496 27 8,102 22 5,950 i8 5,373 2o 5,765 9; 3,623 31 7,867 29 41,398 British............ 35 44,425 22 22,748 22 26,292! 30 34,836 28 37,363 26 32,201 321 35,302; 44 56,025; 42} 53,310o II 3,672 German........... 3 1,286 3 1,499 2 797 3 2,408 8 6,136 3 2,138 2o0 7,7091 11 5,7161 6 4,8821 4i 2,959 French................. 3........ 3,586 3 986 4 2,558 3 98............ 244. 4 3,225 All others......... 4 ii48 5 i,253 6 x,919 I2 I3,II5 13 2,044 13 3,590 14 7,7321 4 1,430 1 I I,3051 2 954 Totals.... 132 93,110 241 108,706 i8i 120,907 232 1640 a5,576 29 96 258 159,3411 258 172,691 267 185,316 241 87,826 263,640 252, 252,576 23 ~ ~ ~ ~19, 3 4 24,26 587 'z t;> 04 t>

Page  23 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN REGISTERED VESSELS. 23 MERCHANTMEN AND TRADERS. REGISTER. CLASS. NAME. TONS. REGISTERED OWNERS. 161 do Schr Kapiolani............... o1 78.95 Pacific Nay Co 175 do Bark lolani.................. 924 76.95:11 Hackfeld 193 do Bark Kaiakaua............... 404 89.95!J S Walker 208 do Schr Malolo................ 33 65.95Pacific Nav Co 209 do Schr Gen. Seigel............. 39 I2.95J F Colburn 216 do Schr Jennie Walker........ 137 85.95JWilliam Greig 226 do Brig Ninito................. 245 7.95 R Macfarlane 237 do Brig Hazard............... 459 6.s95Pacific Nav Co 235 do Bark Lily Grace.............. 750 30.95Robt Gray [A C Cooke 239 do Bark Thos. R. Foster......... 79.95 J Campbell, C Brewer & Co, T R Foster, 249 do Brig Allie Rowe............. 337 47 E C Rowe 252 do KSchr Ke Au Hou............. L5 I P Pacific Nav Co COASTERS. REGISTER. CLASS. NAME. TONS. REGISTERED OWNERS. 21I new Schr Kaluna................. 86 44 95 Pacific Nav Co I66 do Schr Nettie Merrill........... 158 77.95Paul Isenberg 174 do Schr Caterina Apiani Long. 43 85.,5!Allen & Robertson 158 do Schr Ka Moi.........i 54 16.95Patcific Nav Co 177 do Stmnr Likelike.......... 596 58.95!Pacific Nav Co 179 do Schr Leahi............... 103 24.95iWilder Steamship Co i80 do Schr Wailele.......... 75 85.95Allen & Robinson 155 do Schr Mile Morris.......... 22 32.95 Pacific Nav Co 183 do Schr Haleakala............. I6 75.95 F Wundenberg 185 do Schr Mary E Foster.......... 16 06.95 C Afong i86 do Schr Waioli.................. 6 68.51 Inter Island S N Co i88 do Schr Waiehu................ 60 37.051 Pacific Nav Co 19o do Stmr Kilauea Hou.......... 271 o0.95 Wilder Steamship Co 194 do!Schr Waimalu......... 9 7.95 Pacific Nav Co I95 do lStmr Waimanalo............. i 49.8.9. Waimanalo Sugar Company 196 do iStmr Mokolii................ 96 78.95 Wi!der Steamship Co 197 do Schr ILiholiho................ 22 35.951Ilter Island S N Co 2oo do Schr!Luka............. I22 35.95IAllen & Robinson and Mrs J G Dickson 204 do Stmr Lehua................. 27 91.95iWilder Steamship Co 205 do Schr Mokuola............... 17 Io.95jTong Aki 207 do Stmr James Makee........... 244 I5.95 Inter Island S N Co 215 do Schr Kauikeaouli............ 139 70.95 Allen & Robinson 218 do Stmr C R Bishop............. 28i 36.95 Inter Island S N Co 219 do Schr Mana................. 07 Io.95 Pacif:i Nav Co 213 do Schr Sarah................... 6 2. N Kanaauao 224 do Stmr Iwalani......... 434 4095 nter Island S N Co 220 do Schr Josephine............... 88.95 F Wundenberg 230 do Schr Emma................. 22 80.95 G W and H R Macfarlane 232 do Schr Ehukai................ 45 3595 Pacific Nav Co 236 do Sloop Kahihilani............. 11 45.95 W F Williams 230do Sloop Healani.... 67.95 H Judd 244 do Schr Rainbow............... 23 7395 J Paiko 241 do Schr Mamo................. 7 25.95 1 Stubblebeen 242 do Stmr Planter................. 500 20.9 Inter Island S N Co 243 do Stmr Kinau.................. 868 77.95 Wilder Steamship Co 245 do Stmr Kapiolani.............. 24 24.95 Paul Isenberg 247 do Stmr W G Hall............590 0995 Inter Island N Co 248 do Schr Sarah & Eliza.......... 22 78 95 W F Williams 244 do Schr Ka ailani.............. 41 87.9 0 Kalu 41 do Schr iRob Roy............... 25 3895J I Dowsett, S 2So do Schr Kalamanu.......... 27 35. C. Allen 252 do Stmr. I. Dowsett........... 13 35 F. W. Wundenberg 253 do ISchr Domitila...... 73 25 Toseph Paiko

Page  24 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. TABLE OF ELEVATIONS OF PRINCIPAL LOCALITIES THROUGHOUT THE ISLANDS. From the Records of the Government Survey. Measurements are from Mean Sea Level. Kaala........................ Palikea, Waianae M'nts........ Konahuanui Peak, S. of Pali..... Lanihuli Peak, N. of Pali...... Tantalus or Puu Ohia.......... Olympus, above Manoa......... Round Top or Ualakaa......... Punchbowl tHill or Puowaina.... Diamond Head or Leahi........ OAHU ] FEE'. 4030 3111 3106 2780 2013 2447 I04Q 498.5 762 PEAKS. Telegraph HIill or Kaimuki........ Koko Iead, higher crater......... Koko Head, lower crater......... Makapuu, east point of island...... Mokapu, crater off Kaneohe...... Olamana, sharp peak in Kailua.... Maelieli, sharp peak in Heeia..... Ohulehule, sharp peak in Hakipuu. 1 4k IOCAI.ITIES NEAR HONOIUlU. Nuuanu Road, corner School Street.................................... Nuuanu Road, second bridge................................... Nuuanu Road, corner Judd Street....................................... Nuuanu Road, cemetery gate......................................... Nuuanu Road, mausoleum gate................................. Nuuanu Road, Schaefer's gate.......................... Nuuanu Road, Queen Emma's....................................... Nuuanu Road, Woodlawn Dairy corner.................................. N uuanu Road, large bridge........................................... Nuuanu Road, Luakaha gate.......................................... Nuuanu Road, Pali................................................ MAUI. 'EE'. 292 1206 644 665 696 1643 713 2263 40 77 '37 I62 206 238 358 429 735 847 1207 Haleakala..................... West Maui, about.............. Piiholo, Makawao............ Puu lo, near Capt. Makee's...... Capt. Makee's, about........... Puu Olai, (Miller's Hill)........ Makawao Female Seminary...... Grove Ranch, Makawao......... Mauna Kea.................. I Mauna Loa................ I Hualalaai..................... Kohala Mountain............. Kilauea Volcano House........ Kulani, near Kilauea.......... Kalaieha.................... Aahuwela, near Laumaia...... Hitchcock's Puakala.......... Ahumo'a........... Waimea Court House......... Waipio Pali, on N. side....... Waipio Pali, on S. (Road)..... Waipio Pali, in mountain...... Waimanu, at sea............. FEET. FEET. 10032 Haleakala School............... 2150 5820 Puu Nianiau, Makawao.........6850 2256 Puu Kapuai, Hamakua.......... 1150 284I Puu o Umi, Haiku.............. 629 1800 Puu Pane, Kula................ 2568 355. Lahainaluna Seminary........... 600 1900o Kauiki, Hana................... 392 981 Paia, Makawao................. 930 HAWAII. FEET. 3805 36o1 8275 5505 4040 5650 6450 7750 6325 7035 2669.6 1200 900 3000 i6oo FEET. Waimanu in mountain............ 4000 Hiilawe Falls.................. 1700 Parker's, Mana................ 3505 Honokaa Store......... 1100 Lower edge forest, Hamakua.....700 Lower edge torest, Hilo.......... 1200 Laupahoehoe Pali............ 385 Maulua Pali................. 406 Kauku Hill..................... 1964 Puu Alala................... 762 Halai Hill.................... 345 Puu o Nale, Kohala............. 1797 E. Bond's, Kohala...............585 Anglican Church, Kainaliu........ 578

Page  25 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. HAWAIIAN ISLANDS POSTAL SERVICE. General Post Office, Honolulu, Oahu —H. M. Whitney, P. M. G.; I. B. Peter son, Asst. P. M. G.; Assistants —D. Manaku, N. C. Willfong, Miss A. L. Fillebrowne, W. Johnson, 0. C. Swain, G. L. Desha, Kalaeloa. POSTMASTERS ON OAHU. Waialua.............. N. Emerson Kaneohe...................... A. Ku Waianae............H. A. Widemann Punaluu................J. W. Kaapuu OVERLAND MAIL ROUTE, OAHU. Leaves Honolulu at IO.A. M. on Wednesday, each week, for the circuit of the Island, arriving back Friday morning. For Waianae, mail carrier leaves every Tuesday, at Io A. M. Steamer James Makee takes a mail for Waianae and Waialua every Friday or Saturday. POSTMASTER ON MOLOKAI. Kaunakakai.............. R. W. Meyer Pukoo................... R. W. Meyer POSTMASTER ON LANAI. Lanai.................................................... esse Moorehead POSTMASTERS ON KAUAI. Kapaa................... H Dole Hanalei................... J C. Long Kilauea..................R A. McFie Lihue....................O Scholz Kekaha.............. W. Meier I Koloa....................... E. Strehz Waimea.................................................. Mrs. G. B. Rowell POSTMASTERS ON MAUI. Lahaina.................. II. Turton Kipahulu............. Thos. K. Clark Wailuku............ E. H. Bailey Kahului................W. J. Lowrie Makawao...............Jas. Anders'n Paia............. C. C H, Dickey Hana..................John Grunwald Haiku..................H. P. Baldwin Hamoa................L. J. Lionarons }Hamakuapoko..........C. H. Wallace Uiupalakua........ J...J. J. Halstead Honokowai..............J. A. Kaukau Spreckelsville............ C. Williams Honokohau.............L. K. Kalama POSTMASTERS ON HAWAII. Hilo....................L. Severance Kawaihae............John Stupplebeen Mahukona........... Thos. E Wright Kukuihaele................W. Horner Waipio................. W. H. Holmes Waimea............ Rev. L. Lyons Kohala, Halawa...........H. P. Wood Kohala, Puehuehu.........H. P. Wood Paauilo................. Chas. Notley Hookena..............D. H. Nahinu Laupahoehoe Plantation...J. M. Lydgate Laupahoehoe Beach......... 0. Masche Hakalau...............J. F. Morrison Honokaa............ G. W. Willfong Ookala...............J. N. Wright Paauhau................ R. A. Lyman Kailua................ J. Kaelemakule Keauhohu.............. G. Iloapili Kealakekua..........H. N. Greenwell Napoopoo................ S. W. Kino Hoopuloa............. ). S. Keliikulii Pahala.................. T. C. W ills Hilea and Honuapo...... C. N. Spencer Waiohinu..............C. Meinecke

Page  26 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. OVERLAND) MAII. ROUTES, MAULT From Lahaina to W~illuku, Makawao, Hlaiku and Ulupdlakua-on Tuesdays or Weduadaysi. Fromn *pha to1aiap~aih and Kahakuloa, weekly, on arrival of steamer from Honolulu. From Ulupaiakua to Hanta, weekly, on arrival of mails from Honmolulu. From Haiku to Ilana, weekly. on arrival of steamer mails. Fromi Kahului to Makawao and Haiku, weekly, on arrival of steamer mails. Steamer Li'kelike leaves Honolulu every Monday or Tuesday for Kahului, [Hueo, Hania, Kipahulu and Kaupo. OVERLAND1 MA!IL ROUTES, HAWAII. From Hilo to Kawaihae, leaves weekly, on Monday, and to Kau, Wednesday or Thursday, on arrival of steamer from Honolulu. From Kau to Kona, leaves weekly, on Monday morning. Fromn Kawaihae to Kona and Kau, leaves on arrival of steamer from Honolulu, Wednesday (Jr Thursday. This mail service around Hawaii is intended to be a wveekly service of the circuit of the Island. POST OFFICE STATISTICS. Letters Passing Through the General Post-Office, Honolulu, from z854 to '1885 INTFEI-ISLANI) LE'r-rERS. YEAR. FOREIGNERS. HAWAII ANS. FOREIGN LET-TE Aprl itoMarh 3r.Letters Letters Letters Letes Letter s. Lett Apri to arch~i.Received. Forwarded Received. Forwarded Received. Forwa to 1865..... 15,594 13,652 7,650 9,570.... to i 866..... 21,642 14,886 14,379 16,078.... to 186,7..... 2-2282 1 6-6o'7 '20.082 22.821.... From. 1 864 1865 T5.6tA ES. ers rdedl 1867 to 1 868..... i868 to 1869..... 1 869 to 1870... — 1870 to 1871.-., 1871 to 1872...1872 to 1873..... 1873 to 1874..... 1874 to 1875..... 1875 to 1876...... 1876 to 1877..... 1877 to 1878..... 1878 to 1879 ---.. 1879 to i88o..... x88oto 188..... i88i to 1-882..... 1882 to 1883..... 1 883 to 1884..... 1884 to 1885..... 27,543 27,433 29,147 24,655 27,717 38,313 35,545 38,1i66 36,349 42,409 57,907 72,953 85,649 102,559 I114,056 121,391 123,06i 19,013 '9,547 19, i 18 23,333 24,1I99 25,007 23,488 23,564 29,558 37,094 47,957 63,936 76,255 106,374 130,992 138,080 152,145 23,733 25,920 25,233 28,596. 26,364 41,662 45,816 39,232 35,630 32,250 33,472 43,605 46,496 55,1I70 64,487 75,11I3 72,971 66,442 25,535 25,986 24,499 28,091. 35,715 41,340 44,233 39,027 44,233 49,977 52, i8i 67,1I53 69,489 83,757 85,858 100,936 i08,736.98,810 25,811I 26,772 215, 020 26,679 26,112 31,742 33,244 42,465 45,682 50,352 70,682 77,461 95,765 I 17,901 136,642 24,994 I 23,713 2 5,89 5 i 025,481 28,737 31,650 35,780 144,505 43,372 57,209 169,375 83,724 101i,644 130, 292 132,153 ~188...........J110,734 130,199 74,272 99,806 80,5o9T 96,482 1883......... xi 19,896 133,215 75,912 108,327 108,985 120,o63 1884........ 128,970 152,466 70,511 100,670 136,953 146,666 *Since 1882, the official record' of the Postoffice has been kept from January I to December 31, to conform with the Postal Union requirements.

Page  27 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. z27 CLIPPER PASSAGES TO AND FROM THE COAST. The fo lowing is a list of the most remarkable passages between these Islands and San Francisco and other ports on the Coast during the last twenty-eight years: I858-Am. bark Yankee, I days to San Francisco. 1859-Am. ship Black Hawk, 9 (lays and 9 hours from San Francisco. 186I-Am. ship Fair Wind, 8 days and 17~ hours from San Francisco. I86I-Am. ship Norwester, 9 days and I6 hours from San Francisco. I86I-Am. bark Comet, 9 days and 20 hours from San Francisco. 886I-Am. bark Comet, Io days and I2 hours to San Francisco. I862-Am. ship Storm King, 9 days and IO hours from San Francisco. 1864 —Am. ship Matapan, 102 dlays from San Francisco. I864 —Amn. bark A. A. Eldrilge, 11 days to San Francisco. I866 ---Aml. bark. Ethan Allen, II days to San Francisco. 1878 —Am. barkentlne J. A. Falkinburg, t I days to Astoria. 1879 —Am. barkentine Catherine Sudden, 9 days and 17 hours to Cape Flattery. 1879 ---Am. schooner Claus Spreckels, 92 days from San Francisco to Kahului. i88o ---Am. schooner Jessie Nickerson, IO days from Honolulu to Humboldt. 88So —Am. brigantine J. D. Sprecke's, to (lays and 13 hours from San Francisco. i88i-Am. brigantine Consuelo, Io dlays 20 hours from San Francisco to Kahului. 88i —Am. brigantine Win. G. Irwin, 8 days and 17 hours from S. F. to Kahului 1884 —Am. schooner Emma Claudina, 9 days and 2o! hours from Hilo to S. F. 1884 —Anl. schooner Rosario, 1o (lays from Kahului;,i San Francisco. I884 —Am. brigantine Consuelo, 10 days from Honolulu to San Francisco. Quick Passages of Ocean Steamers. tiltes. Stean er. Date. d. IA.. Liverpool to New York............ 3,350.......Oregon................Oct. 883..... 7 8 33 Philadelphia to Queens own........3,...........Illinois................ Dec., 1876....... 8 8 3 New York to Havana.............. I,225.......City of Vcra Cruz......Aug., 1876...... 4 o 43 Havana to New York.............1,225.......City of New York.......May, I875...... 3 7 New York to Aspiiwatl............2,3c0......Henr y Chauncey.............875...... 6 14.. Aspinwall to New York............2,300...... Henry Chauncey............ 875..... 6 30 San Francisco to Yokohama........ 4764.......City of Ileking............... ---..... 15. Yokohama to San Francisco........ 4,764.......Oceanic......................1876...... 14 3.. New York to Queenstown......... 2,95.......E.truria............... Aug., 1885...... 6 9 xo* New York to Queenstown..........2,950.......Alaska................Sept., 1882...... 6 15 19 New York to Queenstown..........2,950.......Servia..................Jan., 1882...... 4 13 Queenstown to New York........... 2,950o.......Oregon................Aril, 884...... 6 ro o Queenstown to New York..........2,950....... Alaska..........i........ 88.....6 21 40 Queenstown to New York.......... 2,950..... Etruria................. Aug, I8s.... 6 Queenstown to New York..........2,950...... Servia....................... 182...... 7 7 40 Shanghai to London................-....Sterling Castle..........May, 1882..... 29 22 1 Amoy to New York.......................Glenavon...............June, 1882......44 14 Plymouth, Ens1., to Sydney....-.....A.ustral.................May, 1882......32 12.. Yokohansa to San Francisco........4,764....... Arabic.................Oct., 1882..... 13 21 43 Honolulu to Auckland............3,80o.......Zealandia.............April, 1882...... 1 23 San Francisco to Honolulu.........2,100...... City of Sydney................i8o...... 6 14 San Francisco to Honolulu........2,100......Zealandia............April, 1882..... 6 3 25 San Francisco to Honolulu........ 2,:00...... Mariposa...............July, 1883...... 5 20* San Francisco to Honolulu.........2,100.......Australia...............June, 1882...... 66 6 Honolulu to San Francisco.........2,o0........ealandia.............Aug., I88x...... 6 23 3 Honolulu to San Francisco.........2,100.......Zealandia...............Oct, 1882...... 6 o0 45 Honolulu to San Francisco.........2,100...... Mariposa...............Aug., 883...... 6 i8 '*Best on record. tTotal time. Actual steaming time, 27d., 23h., and 45m. ~Including all stoppages. HSteaming time; or a little over 36 days, including all stoppage,

Page  28 28 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. CUSTOM HOUSE REGULATIONS, PORT CHARGES, ETC. The following extracts from the Hawaiian Tariff and Digest of the Laws and regulations of the Customs, Pilot and Harbor regulations. &c., revised, is re-published by request for the benefit of the Mercantile Marine. The' full text of the Tariff and Digest can be had in the Annual for i88o. PORT REGU IATIONS —PILOTAGF.. Upon the arrival of any vessel making the usual signal for a pilot, it shall be the duty of the pilot at the port to imniediately put off to such vessel, taking with him a white and yellow flag; to enquire into the sanitary condition of the ship and the health of those on board; and upon being assured to his satisfaction that there is n') danger to be apprehended from any contagious disease, he shall board such vessel, but not otherwise. Upon boarding the vessel, the pilot shall present the commanding officer with a Health Certificate to be signed by him, and in case the same shall be signed, the white flag shall be immediately hoisted at the main, and the pilot shall be at liberty to bring the vessel into port but in case the' commanding officer shall decline to sign the certificate of health, the pilot shall deliver him a yellow flag; which the master shall hoist at the main, and the vessl shall be placed in quarantine, outside of the harbor, and anchored where the pilot may direct. Any pilot who shall conduct a vessel into any port in this Kingdom, in violation of the provisions of this law, or any of the Regulations of the Board of Health, knowing that there is just ground to suspect the existence of ccntagion on board, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Five Hundred Dollars. Every vessel, the master of which shall have declined to sign a certificate of health as above prescribed, shall, upon entering port, be liable to seizure, confiscation and sale. If the pilot, after boarding any vessel, shall discover the existence of a contagious disease, he shall not return on shore; neither shall it be lawful for any of the ship's company or passengers to land or communicate with the shore, or board any other vessel, without permission of the Board of Health, or the Collector, under penalty of a fine not exceeding Five Hundred Dollars. The Pilots of Honolulu shall bring the vessel which they may take charge of, fully within the harbor, and anchor her in a suitable and convenient place, under penalty of forfeiting their commission. * * * *

Page  29 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 29 If any foreign or Hawaiian vessel engaged in foreign trade shall enter or depart from any of the ports for which pilots may be appointed, without a pilot, such vessels shall be liable to one half pilotage. All vessels anchoring outside the reef at Honolulu shall, when so requested by the Harbor Master or any pilot, change their anchorage and anchor in such place as he may direct, under penalty of a fine not exceeding One Hundred Dollars. At ports where there are no pilots, the regularly appointed boarding officers shall do and perform all the duties prescribed for pilots. The pilot's fees, boarding officer's fees and health fees shall form a part of the port charges, which shall be paid by every vessel to the Collector of the port before a clearance is granted. PILOT S FEES. For all mail steamers of Io00 tons or upwards, in or out.................$ 50,oo For all transient steamers of IOOO tons or upwards. in or out................ 75,oo For all war vessels, in or out, per foot draught............................. 2,00 For all sailing vessels under 200, in or out, per foot........................ 1,50 All other vessels and steamers, in or out, per ton.......................... oS For anchoring a vessel outside.......................................... 20,00 In case such vessel comes into the harbor. (an extra)....................... Io,oo If detaining pilot over 24 hours, additional pay per day..................... 7,00 Boarding Officer, at port where and when no pilotage is done............. 5,00 TOWAGE RATES-PORT OF HONOLULU. Vessels under 500 tons.........$ 40,00 Whalemen..................$ 40,00 Vessels over 500 tons........... 45,00 Vessels under 200 tons......... 30,00 Vessels over I,OOO tons........... 50,00 Vessels over 200 tons........... 35,00 ARRIVAL ANI ENTRY OF VESSELS. MERCHANTMEN. ---The commanding officer of any merchant vessel, immediately after her arrival at either of the legalized ports of entry, shall make known to the Collector of Customs the business upon which said vessel has come to the port, and deliver him, under oath, a full, true and perfect manifest of the cargo with which said vessel is laden before allowing any parcels to be landed, except the Mail Bags delivered to the order of the Postmaster; which manifest shall contain an account for the packages, with their marks, numbers, contents and quantities, also the names of the importers, or consignees, and shippers; and furnish him with a list of her passengers before allowing any baggage to be landed; and deliver him under oath a list of all stores on board his vessel, under a penalty of forfeiting all stores not mentioned in such list and a fine of one hundred dollars.

Page  30 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. Any such officer failing to perform any or all of the acts above men_ tioned within forty-eight hours after his arrival, shall be subject to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars. * * * * *,HARBOR REGULATIONS. The Harbor Masters of Honolulu and Hilo shall have authority over the anchoring, mooring and making fast of all hulks, coasters, boats and other craft in their respective harbors, and are charged in general with the enforement of all harbor regulations. They shall also be wharfingers at the ports for which they are appointed. They shall be entitled to receive, in condition to their usual fees, all amounts disbursed by them for the use of boats, warps and labor in mooring and making fast any vessel, and if necessarily detained on board more then two hours at any one time, they shall be paid at the rate of one dollar per hour for such extra detention. All vessels that may enter any port shall be anchored in the place designated by the Harbor Master, and moved from one anchorage to another as he may direct; and no vessel, except coasting vessels, under fifty tons burthen and vessels about to leave the harbor, shall quit her anchorage or moorings until the commanding officer shall have received the written permission of the Harbor Master under penalty of a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars. * * * * * HARBOR MASTER'S CHARGES. WHARFAGE.-Per registered ton (Sundays and Government holidays not counted), 2 cents per day. STORAGE.-Bricks. Coal, Coolers, Kettles, Stone Ballast, Sand, (space of 32 square feet measurement), I cent per day; Oil, on whaves, for every io bbls., i cent per day; Lumber, Firewood, (space of 32 square feet measurement), i cent per day; Anchors, Chain, Pig Ballasts and Old Iron, per ton of 2,000 lbs., 2 cent per day. HARBOR MASTER'S FEES. Boarding vessel on arrival.........$3.00 | Boarding vessel on departure...... $3.c0 Moving vessel, each time........................................... 3.00 SHIPPING AND DISCHARGING NATIVE SEAMEN. Shipping, each man.........$o. 50 Shipping Articles, Stamp........$.oo Discharging, each man........... 50 Master's Bond, Stamp........... i.oo Government Tax, each man....... 6.oo Application to Governor........oo [All the above charges must be paid by the ship.]

Page  31 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. DISCHARGING FOREIGN SEAMEN. Seaman's Permit................$o,50 Seaman's Bond.........o........ $. Permit for deserter to ship........................................ 50 HONOLULU.-A Lighthouse has been erected on the inner edge of the western reef, bounding the entrance of the channel into Honolulu harbor. T1he light is a Fresnal of the fourth order, at an elevation of twenty-six feet above the sea level, and can be seen from the deck of an ordinary sized vessel at the distance of nine nautical miles in a radius from S. E. by E. to W. from the lighthouse. LAHAINA, MAUI. —A lighthouse has been erected at the landing, port of Lahaina. The window on the sea side of the light-room is of 20x24 inch glass, with red glass at the N. W. and S. E. ends. The colored glass stands at equal angles, side and front, and a vessel in ten fathoms of water will have two bright lights for about half a mile each way from directly in front of the lighthouse. At a greater distance, it will show a colored light until the lights almost appear like one, or the red light like a reflection from the other light. The light towards Molokai is the brightest, so that the lights now have the appearance of a large and small light close together. The lights stand about twenty-six feet above the water, and can be seen across the Lanai channel. MOLOKAI POINT.-On the extreme southwest point of the island of Molokai (known as Lae o ka Laau) is a fixed white Fresnel light of the fourth order, showing from all points of the compass. The light is fifty feet above the sea level, and is visible from a distance of eleven miles. The tower is painted white, the lantern red, and is located in Latitude 2I~ 6' N. and Longitude 157~ I8' W. From seaward the following are the magnetic bearings (varying 9~ E.) extreme points of land being taken. South point of Oahu N. 81~ W.; East point of Oahu N. 66~ W.; Mokapu, N. E. Oahu N. 560 W. N. W. point of Molokai N. 8~ E.; Lahaina light S. 78~ E.; N. E. point Lanai S. 72~ E.; S. W. point Lanai S. 49~ E. Mariners are especially cautioned against confusing this with the N. W. point of Molokai, bearing as above, distant nine miles. LIGHT DuES.-There shall be levied upon all vessels arriving from abroad at any port of this Kingdom where a lighthouse may be established, the sum of three dollars, which shall be paid before departure, to the Collector General of Customs. All vessels engaged in the coasting trade shall pay ten cents per ton as light dues, in consideration of which they shall be entitled to visit all ports where lighthouses may be established, for the term of one year, without further charge.

Page  32 32 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. CUSTOM HOUSE GUARDS.-The Collector shall provide an officer to be present on board any vessel during her discharge, or at any other time when he may deem it necessary, to superintend the landing of her cargo, and see that no other or greater amount of goods are landed than is set forth upon the permit to discharge. It shall be the duty of the commanding officer of any vessel when boarded by an officer of the Customs to furnish him promptly with any and all information which he may require in regard to the vessel, her cargo, stores, passengers, &c., and exhibit for his inspection her manifest register, or other papers relating to the same. PASSENGERS.-If the master of any vessel arriving at any port of entry of this Kingdom from a foreign port shall suffer the baggage of any passengers on board his vessel to be removed on shore from such vessel, unless a permit therefor has been obtained from the Collector of the port, such master shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars in the discretion of the Collector of Customs. If any passenger so arriving shall remove his baggage on shore from such vessel without first obtaining a permit therefor from the Collector of the port such passenger shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars. Any passenger arriving from a foreign port at any of the ports of this Kingdom shall be subject to a tax of two dollars, for the support of hospitals for the benefit of sick and disabled Hawaiian seamen, which shall be paid to the Collector of Customs before any permit is issued to such passenger to land his baggage. MARINE HOSPIrAL TAX. —The master or owner of every ship or vessel under the Hawaiian flag, arriving from any foreign )ort, or from sea, at any port of the Hawaiian Kingdom, shall before such ship or vessel is admitted to entry, render to the Collector of such port a true account of the number of seamen who have been employed on board since the last entry at any Hawaiian port, and pay to said Collector at the rate of twenty-five cents per month for each and every seamen so employed, for the benefit of the Marine Hospital Fund, which amount such master or owner is authorized to retain out of the wages of said seamen. The master of every vessel employed in the coasting trade of the Hawaiian Kingdom, shall render quarterly to the Collector General of Customs, or to any Collector under his directions, a true list of all sea

Page  33 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL.. 33 men employed by him during the preceding three months, and pay to said Collector General, or Collector, at the rate of twenty-five cents per month for each seaman so employed, which said master is authorized to retain out of the wages of such seaman. The returns required as above shall be made under oath, in such manner and form as the Collector General may prescribe. If any owner or master shall make a false return, he shall be deemed guilty of perjury and punished accordingly. * * * PASSPORTS.-Every adult who may have resided on these Islands for more than thirty days, wishing to leave the Kingdom, shall make application to the Collector of the port from which he intends to sail, for a passport. PORTS OF ENTRY.-No goods of foreign growth or production shall be unladen from a foreign vessel, or Hawaiian vessel from a foreign port, at any other port of the Hawaiian Islands than a port of entry for foreign vessels as created by law, under a penalty of seizure and forfeiture of the vessel and of the goods imported therein, and so landed or unladen. The following are the legal ports of entry: Honolulu, Island of Oahu; Lahaina and Kahului, Island of Maui; Hilo, Kawaihae, Mahukona and Kealakekua, Island of Hawaii; Koloa, Island of Kauai. * * * * * * * CUSTOM HOUSE CIARGES. For visit of Health Officer when required.............................$,0oo When necessarily detained on board, per day.............................. Io,oo Health fee, vessel not anchored bv the pilot.............................. 5,00 For Bill of Health on departure......................................... I,O Pilot's and Boarding Officer's Fees (see Pilotage) Buoys...................***........ --- - *..-....-.........-.. 2,00 Lights-Vessels from abroad............................................ 3,00 Coasters, each year-per ton................... 10 Inward or Outward Manifests........................................... 2,00 M ail Oath........................................................... I,00 Inward Entry, Goods paying duties........................ 2,50 Goods free under Reciprocity Treaty........................ 2,50 " Goods Bonded........................................ 4,50 Outward Entry, Goods Bonded.... *................................ 1,50 Transit Entry........................................ 2,50 Bond to secure payment of Iuties...................................... 2,00 Passports.......................................,00 Passport Protest...................... 3,00 Every Stamped Certificate or Blank furnished by the Collector.............. 1,00 Recording Bill of Sale, Mortgage or Hypothecation of a vessel, or copying the same, or copying Certificate of Registry, per one hundred words......... 50 Acknowledgements, each.............................................. 1,oo

Page  34 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. The Custom House charges for all other acts and duties not expressly provided for by law, as also the rates of storage, shall be such as may from time to time be prescribed by the Minister of Finance. DEPARTURE OF VESSELS. Any vessel having, through her master or agent, fully complied with the laws and regulations affecting foreign trade, and with all the laws regulating the shipment and discharge of Hawaiian seamen, shall be entitled to depart after receiving from the Collector of the port a clearance in the form provided by law. In case any vessel does not sail within forty-eight hours after receiving a clearance, it shall be the duty of the master to report the same to the Collector of the port, under a penalty of not exceeding twenty-five dollars, to be imposed by said Collector. No vessel shall be entitled to a clearance unless all proper charges at the Harbor Master's office shall have been settled, and the Collector may require the master or agent of the vessel to produce the Harbor Master's certificate to that effect. * * * * * * * CONSULAR. Every Minister, Commissioner, Consul or Vice-Consul of the Hawaiian Islands, in any foreign country, may take and certify under his official seal, all acknowledgements of any deed, mortgage, lease, re-lease, or any other instrument affecting the conveyance of real or personal estate in this Kingdom, and such acknowledgement shall entitle such instrument to be recorded. HONOLULU LIGHTS-OMISSION FROM PAGE 31. From the lighthouse the Spar or Fairway Buoy bears (magnetic) S. II~ W. 614 cables; the eastern end of the new wharf, N. 35~ E. if cables; Diamond Point, S. 56~ E.; Barber's Point, S. 88~ W. and the eastern corner of the Custom House, N. I5~ E. near to which corner another Light Tower has been erected, at any elevation of twenty-eigh. feet above the sea level, and can be seen about five miles out at sea. The light in this tower is green. To enter the harbor by night, bring these two lights in one, bearing N. 15~ E. (magnetic), and keep then in one till within a cable's length of the lighthouse on the reef, when by hauling a point to the eastward you will avoid the end of the spit on which the lighthouse is built,

Page  35 HAWAIIAN" ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 35 extending off from it about twenty-five feet to the eastward. Steer for the east end of the new wharf, and when half way between the light on the reef and the new wharf, keep away N. W. and along the Esplanade to an anchorage inside. All bearings magnetic. HILO, HAWAII.-A lighthouse has been erected at Paukaa Point, entrance to Hilo harbor, Hawaii. The light is at an elevation of fifty feet above the sea level, a plain fixed light, and can be seen easily ten miles out at sea. From the lighthouse the outer point of the reef bears S. 58~ E.; inner point of the reef, S. 39~ E.; Governess' flagstaff (about the center of the harbor), S. 22~ E.; Leleiwi Point, S. 79~ E., and Makahanaloa Point, N. 2~ W. Bearings magnetic. KAWAIHAE, HAWAII.-For the anchorage at Kawaihae a white light about fifty feet above the sea level, has been erected, at a point bearing from the N. E. corner of the reef N. E. by N. 2 N. The light can be seen at a distance of ten miles out at sea. With this light bearing E. N. E. there is a good anchorage in eight fathoms of water, about a quarter of a mile from the shore. All bearings magnetic. SUGAR PLANTATIONS AND MILLS. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are planters only. Those marked with a dagger(t) are mills only. All others are plantations complete, owning their own mills. Plantation. Location. i Ag'ents. Pepeekec Plantation......Hilo, Hawaii................. C Afong Wailuku Sugar Co....... Wailuku, Maui...........C Brewer & Co East Maui Stock Co.....Makawao, Maui..........C Brewer & Co East Maui Plantation Co.. Makawao, Maui.......... C Brewer & Co Onrnea Sugar Co....... Hilo, Hawaii............. C Brewer & Co Paukaa Sugar Co......... Hilo, Hawaii........... C Brewer & Co Hononmu Sugar Co.......Hilo, Hawaii.............C Brewer & Co Prineeville Plantation Co..Hanalei, Kauai......... C Brewer & Co Hawaiian Agricultural Co. Kau, Hawaii... C Brewer & Co Kaneohe Plantation......Kaneohe, Oahu..........C Brewer & Co Halawa Sugar Co........ Kohla, Hawaii..........C Brewer & Co Papaikou Sugar Co....... Hilo, Hawaii............ Castle & Cooke Kohala Plantation.... Kohala, Hawaii..........Castle & Cooke Waialua Plantation...... Waialua, Oau.......Castle & Cooke Haiku Sugar Co....... Haiku, Maui............Castle & Cooke Paia Plantation.........Paia, Maui............ Castle & Cooke Grove Ranch Pin. Co.....Pata, Maui..............Castle & Cooke

Page  36 . 36.36 ~~HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. AHSmith & Co*....Koloa, Kauai........Castle & Cooke Union Mill Cot......Kohala, Hawaii.....T H Davies & Co Kynnersley Bros. *.....Kohala, Hawaii.....T H Davies&' Co Niulii Plantation......Kohala, Hawaii..... T H Davies & Co' Beecroft Plantation*.... Kohala, Hawaii.T....1 H Davies'& Co Hawi Mill & Plantation. Waipunalei Plantation*... - Hilo, Hawaii. H Davies & Co Aaao ilntation*. Ha. nkuaHawaii.....H IDavies & Co Hamnakua Plantation* Hmka.1Jwj. ais&C Hamakua Mill Cot...ka, aai.... Kukaiau Mill..Hamakua, Hawaii....I'H Davies & Co Waiakea Plantation....Hilo, Hawaii...TH Davies & Co Laupahoehoe Sugar Co... Laupahoehoe, Hawaii....T H Davies & Co Kaiwilahiiahi Mill.. Laupahoehoe, Hawaii.....T H Davies'& Co Kipahulu Milit...Hana, Maui.......I'H Davies & Co Barnes & Palmer*. Wailuku, Maui.. M S Grin ba um & Co Hana Plantation......Hana-, Maui......M S Grinbaum. & Co Thompson & Bro.*.....Kohal~a, Hawaii....-MS Grinbaum & Co' Heeia Agricultural Co.L'd..Koolau, Oahu.....M. S (Grinbaut-y & Co jJ. N. Wright*.......Ookala, Hawaii....... H Hackfeld & Co R. M. Overend......Honokaa, Hawaii.....H Hackfeld & Co Kaluahonu Co*..... Koloa, Kauai... H Hackfeld & Co W. V. Horner*.......Lahaina, Maui......H Hackfeld & Co Hanamaulu Millt......Hanamaulu, Kauai....H Hackfeld & Co A. S. Wilcox*.......Hanam-ulu, Kauai....H Hackfeld & Co C. Borchgrevink*....... Waimeaa, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co1 Koloa Ranch*........Koloa, Kauai......H Hackfeld & Co, Koloa Plantation....Koloa, Kui..HHackfeld & Co Grove Farm*...-Nawviliwili, Kauai.....H Hackfeld & Co Lihue Plantation......Lihue, Kauai......H H ackfeld & Co'' Kekaha. Mill Cot......Kekaha, Kauai.H.... Hackf'eld & Co Pioneer Mill... L.....fahaina, Maui......H Hackfeld'& Co Kipahulu Plantation*... Kipahulu, ~Maui.....H Hackfcld &-Co Wainwanalo Sugar C.o.... Wairrianalo, Oahu..... H Hackfeld & Co R. W. Meyer...Kalae, Molokai.... H Hackfeld & Co Kukaiau Plantation*.....Hamnakua, Hawaii....H.Hackfeld & Co Faye & Meier*.......Waimea, Kauai...i 'H Hackfeld & Co Honohina, Plantation.....Hilo, Hawani......H Hackfeld & Co Wairnea $ugar Milit..Waitnea, Kauiai..B.. Hoffichlaeger & Co Wairinea, Plantation*.....Waimea, Kauai. B... Hoffschlaeger & Co Waihee Sugar Co..Waihee, Maui......W (3 Irwin & Co Hawv'n Corn"I & Sugar Co.. Mauli...........W GIrwi~n & Co Makee Sugar Cu....... Kealia, Kauai....... (N Irwin & Co6 Hutchinson Plantation Co..Kau, Hawaii......... AG IrwNin & Co, Hilea Sugar Co... Kau, Hawaii. W G Irwi~n & Co Star Mill Co....... Kohala, Hawaii...... C Irwin & Co Hakalau Plantation Co. H.ilo, Hawaii....W G Irwin &.Co Hilo Sugar C.ioHawaii.......W G Irwin &,.Co,

Page  37 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAIL. 3 37 Pa~auhau Milit... H~am-akua, Hawaiii.....WA G Irwin & Co1 Kilauea Sugar Co.....Kilauea, Kauai.. W.. XV Irwin & ( IPaaUhau. Planta-tion*. HAamrak ta, Haw~aii.....V CIrwin & Co Olowalu Sugar Co.. -Olowalu d NIi aul...... AW G Irwin & Co Ookala Sugar Co(,.....Ookala, Hawxaii. W G Irwin & Co( Makaha P~lantation*....XVaianaec Oahu. XV G Irwin & Co Waikapu Sugar Co. WaikapoL-, Maui......W G Irwin & Co 'Reciprocity Sup-ar Co... Hana, Maui........ XV G Irwin & Co H-luelo Mill Cot.Hu.. 4telo Mau' W X Irwin& Co Huelo IPl4 Mu.....A antation*. Haru H ua, Mai.7 Irwin & Co Kamialoo Plantation....Molokai.J......... M 'cColgan H-onokaa Sugar Co..... Hamakua, Hawaii.FA Schaefer & Co Pacific Sugair Mill.....Ham~akua, Hawaii. F A Schaefer & Co1 E4'leele Plantation...... Koloa, Kauai...F A Sch-aefer & Co Laie Plantation....... Laie, Oahu..... W. T aterhouse Gav & Robinson*. Makaweli, Kauai.... jTWaterhouse XWaianae SUgar Co.....Waianae, oahu...... 11 A Widernann Moanui I'lantation.... Molokai.X.. Vong Leong & C'o THE HAWAIIAN FLAG AND COAT OF ARMS. T'he Annual for i88o contained an article on the Hawaiian. Flag; which, though acknowledged unsatisfactory fromn its incompleteness, was as full and reliable as the time and means at our disposal allowed. The article closed with the trust that it would meet the eye of somne one whose knowledge and memory would be refreshed thereby to account the true history, origin, and parties interested in its formation. By the courtesy of G. I). Gilman Esq., of Boston, and the kind researches of Hon. jJ. Mott Smith, Hawaiian Commissioner at Washington D. C., former residents of these islands, the following extract from the Polynlesian of May 31, 1845 is received, and is valuable as affixing the time and authorization of the latest change which, in the Annual's article referred to, defined the period, 1845, and accredited its alteration to Captain Hunt of H. B. M. S. Baselisk " At the opening of the Legislative Council, May 25, 1845, the, new national banner was unfurled, differing little however from the former. "it is octo. parted per. fess., first, fourth and seventh, argent: second, fifth and eighth, gules: third and sixth, azure, for the eig~ht -is1ands% under one sovereign, indicated by crosses saltire, of St. Andrew and St. Patrick quarterly, per saltire counter charged, argent and gules."

Page  38 38 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. The following relating to the adoption of the Hawaiian coat of arms, from the same source, will prove of interest to many readers of the Annual, even at these islands. "A coat of arms has also been adopted which is quarterly, first and fourth stripes w ic p s of the National banner, second and third, a ball argent on a staff sable-in escutcheon oct, triangular banner argent, leaning onA cross saltire. "The white ball with which the second PkwaW! nand third quarters are charged, was an ancient emblem of the country called Puloulou and they were placed at the right and left of the gateway, or door, of the King's house, to indicate proection, or a place of refuge, to which persons might flee from danger and be safe. "The triangular flag at the fess point, was an ancient flag of the Hawaiian chiefs which was raised at sea, above the sail (,f their canoes, and the sail at that time being of a peculiar construction, it presented a very beautiful appearance. It was also placed in a leaning position, across two spears in front of the King's house, to indicate both tabu and protection. The name of the flag was Puela and the name of the cross on which it lies Alia. "Both the balls and the flag had on some occasions a religious signification, but their appropriateness to a coat of arms results from the above characteristics. "The external ornaments of the escutcheon consists of a crest, which is a crown and two supporters, men clad in the ancient feather cloak and helmet of the Islands, the one bearing a kahili and the other a spear as in the processions of former times. The crown is ornamented with the taro leaf. The drawings of all these emblems and ornaments, was taken from the original articles presented to Captain Cook by Kaleiopuu in 1778. The design was original by the lamented Haalilio. "The motto is, ' Ua mazu ka ea o k ia aina i ka poo.' The life of the land is perpetuated by righteousness. It refers to the speech of the King at the time of the cession, Feb. 25, 1843. 'I have given away the life of the land. I have hope that the life of the land will be restored when my conduct is justified.' It very naturally alludes to the righteousness of the British government, in returning the Islands to their legal sovereign, to the righteousness of the Hawaiian which secured the restoration, and to the general principle, that it is only by righteousness that national existance is preserved."

Page  39 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 39 HELPS TO THE STUDY OF HAWAIIAN BOTANY. BY REV. C. M. HYDE, D. D., North Pacific Missionary Institute, Honolulu, H. I. BOTANICAL PUBLICATIONS. Those interested in Hawaiian Botany have been waiting with great impatience for Dr. W. Hillebrand's long promised book, "The Flora of the Hawaiian Islands." It is intended to be an exhaustively complete classification and description of the whole of our Hawaiian vegetation. There are but few books, or treatises, accessible to any one wishing to give special attention to this department of scientific investigation. An enumeration of some of those which may be available may prove of interest or service to some of the readers of the Annual. In the "Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 57Ist meeting, Philadelphia, September Iith, i866, there is printed in full Horace Mann's most valuable "Enumeration of Hawaiian Plants."* Mr. Mann, in connection with Mr. W. T. Brigham investigated the botany of these Islands, travelling over all of them from May 4, 1864, to May r8, i865. Mr. Brigham remained five months longer, teaching at Punahou School. Major General Munro has been preparing a list of Hawaiian Grasses, but it is not yet printed. On Mosses, one may consult Sullivant, "Proceedings Am. Ac. Arts and Sciences, i854." There are two catalogues of Hawaiian Ferns, published in Honolulu, one by J. M. Lydgate, I873; the other, by E. Bailey, 1883. Reference should be made also to Baker, Syn. Fil.; Hooker, "Synopsis Filicurp."; Kaulfuss Enum. Fil.; Walls Cat.: and monographs by Brakenridge, (U. S. Expl. Exp.; almost the whole edition of the volume on ferns was destroyed by fire in the printing office;) Eaton, Greaves, Strickland. Full, (I30) or partial collections of Hawaiian Ferns from the herbariums of D. D. Baldwin or F. L. Clarke, may be had of T. G. Thrum, Honolulu, at prices ranging from $2.50 to $I2.00. In the absence of a distinctive work on the Hawaiian Flora, great help may be had from the "Flora Vitiensis." by Berthold Seemann, London, L. Reeves and Co., I865-73, (in the Government Library; only 150 volumes were printed.) The Botany of the U. S. Exploring Expedition, (which visited the Islands in I840,) was prepared by Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, Mass. The collections were made by W. D. Brakenridge and Charles Pickering. Other collections of Hawaiian plants have been made *Mann enumerates 620 species of flowering plants. His list include the ferns, but not the algae, grasses, lichens, or mosses. He arranges the plants enumerated in 87 natural orders, 253 genera. He names 377 peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands. Seemann gives the names of 56 mole in the "Flora Vitiensis.

Page  40 4~ HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. by David Nelson, in Capt. Cook's third voyage, 1778-9: Archibald Menzie with Vancouver, in 1792-4: Albert Chamisso, with Kotzebue in the "Romanzoff," I816-17: Charles Gaudichaud, I8I9, (see "Freycinet, Voy. Bot.;" see also "Botanique du voyage de 1' Uranie," I826 30, and "Bot. Voy Bonite," Paris, 1836:) James Macrae, I825, for the London Horticultural Society: Lay and Collie, for Capt. Beechey, in the "Blossom," I826-7, their collection forming the basis of "Hooker et Arnott. Bot. Beech.": F. Meyer, with Capt. Wendt in Prussian vessel "Princess Louise," I83I: Nuttall, i835: Barclay, under Sir Edmund Belcher in the "Sulphur' 1837-39, (see "Barclay's Sandwich Islands Collection:") B. Seemann, naturalist on the voyage of H. B. M. S. ' Herald," 1845 to I85, (see "Bot. Voy. Herald:") Jules Remy, for the Paris Museum I851-55. One must visit Philadelphia, Cambridge, London or Paris, to examine any good herbarium of our Hawaiian plants. Rev. J. Diell, when he was Seaman's Chaplain at Honolulu, sent a few specimens to Prof. Gray. Assistance may also be had by consulting Forster's Prodromus, De Candolle's Prodromus, Parkinson's "Drawings of Tahitian Plants," Willdenov's Sp. Plant., Solander's "Primitiae Florae Insularum Oceani Pacifici." BOTANICAL NAMES OF SOME HAWAIIAN PLANTS. (Hawaiian names in Italic. J Alligator (properly avocado, i.e. Holy Ghost) pear, Persea gratissima. Algaroba, keawe, Ceratonia siliqua. Ape, Alocasia indica. Arrowroot,pia, Tacca oceanica. Auhuhu, Tephrosia piscatoria. Bird's nest fern, Asplenium nicus. Bird's eye pepper, Capsicum frutescens. Calabash, (gourd) ipuawaawa, Cucurbita maxima. Castor oil plant, kolii, Ricinus communis. Cape gooseberry, poha, Physalis peruviana. Chirimoya, Anona trpetala. Custard apple, soursop, Anona squamosa. Cocoanut, niu, Cocos nucifera. Guava, Psidium guayava. Hala, screw pine, Pandanus odoratissimus. Halapepe, Dracena aurea. Hao, Hibiscus, Thesperia populnea. (?) le, Freycinetia scandens. Meie, Freycinetia arborea. Ilima, Sida fallax. Indian shot, Canna indica. Ironwood (weeping), Casuarina Equisetifolia. Jessamine (Cape) pikake, Gardenia florida. Kalo, Colocasia antiquorum, var. esculentum. Ki, Dracena terminalis (Cordyline.) Kikania, Solanum xanthocarpum. (?) Koa, (Hawaiian mahogany,) Acacia koa. Kou, Cordia sprengelii. Kukui, Aleurites moluccana. Lantana, Verbena bonariensis. Lemon, Citrus medica. Lime, Lemi, Citrus Limonum. Litchi, Nephelium Loquat, Eriobotrya japonica. Mango, maneko, Mangifera in

Page  41 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. 41 dica. Maniania, Bermuda grass. MAaile, Alyxia olivaeformis. Mamaki, Pipturus albidus. Mamane, Sophora chrysophylla. Mokihana, Pelea anisata. Naia, Myoporum sandwicense. Naohu, Tribulus cistoides. Noni, Morinda citrifolia. Ohelo, Vaccinium reticulatum. Ohia, Malay apple, Jambosa (Eugenia) malaccensis. Ohia lehua, Metrosiderns tomentosa. Olona, Hawaiian flax, Urtica argentea. Papaia, Hei, IAilikana, Papaia vulgaris. (The papaw tree of the U. S. is Uvarai triloba.) Mammee apple (in Brazil mamoya) Mammea Americana. Pomegranate, Pumia granatum. Sandalwood, iliahi, Santalum freycinetianum. Silver sword, Argyroxiphium macrocephalum. Sugar cane, ko, Saccharum officinarum. Sweet potato, uala, Batatas edulis. Tamanu, Calyophyllum inophyllum. Tamarind, wi, Tamarindus indica. Turmeric, olena, curcuma longa. Wauke, paper mulberry, Broussonatia papyrifera. Wi apple, Spondias dulcis. Wiliwili, Erythrina corallodendrum. HAWAIIAN ODORIFEROUS PLANTS. The Hawaiians have always been fond of bright flowers and sweet odcrs. There are many plants on the Islands of indigenous growth, whose flowers, fruits, leaves, sap, bark, wood, or roots furnish perfumes. Hoope is the Hawaiian word for perfuming the person, and poni their word for the ceremony of anointing. The most highly scented of all odoriferous plants used in making the lei, or necklace, their favorite adornment, is the mokihana. Its best specimens, as is true of these odoriferous plants generally, come from Kauai. The seed-pods of the mokihana, retain their perfume permanently, when dry and hard. For temporary adornment and fragrance, the blossoms and leaves of the awapuhi, (bastard ginger,) are often used. The drupe of the hala (pandanus or screw pine,) is a favorite material for a lei. The ilima, nohu, akulikuli, maiapilo, kakolau, kaunea, halapepe, are also used. For garlands, the favorite plant is the maile vine, of which there are four varieties, laulii, haiwale, kaluhea, pakaha. The delicate fragrance of this species of the smilax heightens the charm of the graceful forms of its leaves, as the long trails of this vine are loosely wound together and thrown on the neck and shoulders. Various species of ferns are also used for wreaths and garlands. Palaoalae, the fern mostly used for this purpose, the only scented fern, is the name recently adopted by foreigners,

Page  42 42 HAWAIIAN ALMANAC AND ANNUAL. when s