Born Jane Caroline Mahon in Detroit, Michigan on July 21, 1863. Married Louis Crandall Stanley, who was at one time president of the Detroit Archaeological Society. Died October 31, 1940 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, after a brief illness. She had been living at the home of her son, George Stanley, a member of the Geology Department at the University of Michigan. Her daughter, Alice Stanley Acheson, was also a painter and the illustrator of New Roads in Old Virginia, and her father-in-law, John Mix Stanley, was a painter of Indians and western landscapes.
Stanley studied with Charles Sanderson, Louis K. Harlow, H. H. Hallett, and S. P. R. Triscott, and in London with Leonard Richmond. She was a charter member of the Detroit Society of Women Painters and Sculptors and was active in several other artists’ societies. Most of her paintings depict scenes observed during her world travels. She continued to seek out new inspiration for her work even as she grew older, traveling to Mexico and Central America three years before her death.
In a brief announcement (11-6-27) of her return after a year spent in northern Italy and the exhibition of her paintings at the Bonstelle Playhouse Gallery, the Detroit Free Press wrote, “Her sketches of Venice depart from the too-familiar beauties known to the genus ‘tripper,’ and find the flavor of native life in the city.”
Mrs. Walter Parker bequeathed thirty of Stanley's watercolors to the University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, in 1954. The Detroit Art Institute also owns works by Stanley, as does the Corcoran Gallery of Art and the National Museum for Women in the Arts.
Memberships: Detroit Society of Women Painters; American Water Color Society; Washington Water Color Club; National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors; American Federation of Arts; Ann Arbor Art Association
One-person exhibitions: Bonstelle Playhouse, Detroit, 1926-27; John Hanna Galleries, Detroit, 1928, 1938; Ann Arbor Art Association, 1931, 1938; Argent Gallery, New York City, 1942 (two-person)
Detroit Society of Women Painters Annual, Detroit 1905, 1921, 1923, 1930, 1933-34, 1951
Annual Exhibition of the Scoiety of Western Artists, Detroit Institute of Arts, 1910
Annual Watercolor Exhibition, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 1925, 1928-29, 1931
Detroit Society of Women Painters, Argent Gallery, New York City, 1932
Ann Arbor Art Association, 1937
Sources: Acheson, Alice. Jane Stanley, 1863-1940: Her Life and Work. Washington, D.C.: Whalesback Books, 1990; Artists in Michigan, 1900-1976: A Biographical Dictionary. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989; Detroit Free Press, November 6, 1927; Detroit Free Press, November 2, 1940; McGlauflin, Alice Coe, ed. Dictionary of American Artists, 19th and 20th Century. Poughkeepsie, NY: Glenn Opitz/Apollo Book, 1982; New York Times, November 1, 1940; Opitz, Glenn B., ed. Mantle Fielding’s Dictionary of American Painters Sculptors and Engravers, 2nd ed. Poughkeepsie, NY: Apollo, 1986; Pettys, Chris. Dictionary of Women Artists. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1985.
Born July 10, 1834 in Lowell, Massachusetts, the son of George Washington Whistler, a draftsman and civil engineer. In 1842 the senior Whistler was employed by the Russian government to help build a railroad between St. Petersburg and Moscow. James Whistler thus spent seven years of his youth in Russia (1842-49). In 1851 he entered West Point Academy but was discharged in 1854, for deficiency in chemistry. He worked as a draftsman from 1854 to 1855 in the U. S. Coast Survey, Washington, D.C., where he also learned to etch. In 1855 he left the United States for Paris and, after five years in France, settled in London. He never returned to the United States. He enjoyed great success in his life, as a painter and printmaker, but also struggled for acceptance and endured times of financial hardship.
Whistler studied at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg, Russia and at West Point Academy, but probably received his earliest artistic training from his father. In 1856 he entered the studio of Marc-Gabriel Charles Gleyre in Paris and became acquainted with Henri Martin, Henri Oulevey, George du Maurier, E. G. Poynter and L. M. Lamont. In 1858 Whistler met Fantin-Latour at the Louvre. Fantin-Latour took him to the Cafe Molière, where he met Legros, Carolus-Duran and Astruc and to the Brasserie Andler, the meeting place of Courbet and his followers. Fantin, Whistler, and Legros formed their own society, the Société des Trois in the same year. Later, in 1865, Albert Moore replaced Legros as the third member of the Société.
Whistler submitted the painting, At the Piano, to the Salon in 1859. Rejected by the Salon, the painting was exhibited in Francois Bonvin's studio. This was also the first painting by Whistler exhibited in Britain, at the Royal Academy, in 1860. Among Whistler's principal patrons early in his career include F. R. Leyland and W. C. Alexander and among major works he produced at this time are portraits of family members of these two men.
In England, Whistler became acquainted with the pre-Raphaelite circle of artists. He began collecting Japanese art and curios in the early 1860s and also is known to have visited the Salon des Refusés in Paris when many of the Impressionist painters were exhibiting there. Whistler's many connections with contemporary artists and wide interests make him an artist difficult to pigeonhole.
Two events in Whistler's life perhaps shed some light on his character: he sued John Ruskin for libel in 1877 (the fees incurred during the case forced him to declare bankruptcy in 1879) and in 1890 he published a book "The Gentle Art of Making Enemies."
Whistler married Beatrix Godwin, widow of E. W. Godwin, in 1888. She preceded him in death in 1896. Whistler died in London on July 17, 1903.
One-man exhibitions: 1874 London, Flemish Gallery; 1904 Memorial exhibition, Boston; 1905 Memorial exhibition, London and Paris
Elected a member of the Royal Society of British Artists, 1884; president, 1886-1888
First president of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters, and Gravers, 1898-1903
Officer of Legion of Honor, France
Member of Société Nationale des Artistes Françaises
Commander of the Order of the Crown of Italy
Chevalier of the Order of St. Michael of Bavaria
Honorary member of Royal Academies of Bavaria, Dresden, and of St. Luke in Rome
Sources: Groce, G. C. and D. H. Wallace, eds. "The New York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564-1860." New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957; MacDonald, M. F. "James McNeill Whistler: Drawings, Pastels and Watercolours." New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995; McNamara, C. and J. Siewert, "Whistler: Prosaic Views, Poetic Vision." London: Thames and Hudson, 1994; Opitz, Glenn B., ed. "Mantle Fielding's Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors and Engravers," 2nd ed. Poughkeepsie: Apollo, 1986; Spencer, R. "Whistler: The Masterworks." London: Studio Editions, 1990.
Seen slightly from below, a woman is seated in a landscape on a hillock. She is holding a dark, fringed parasol and has a shawl wrapped around her shoulders. Her face is partly shaded by the parasol; beside her to the left is a pot or container of some kind. Behind her to the right is a lone poplar tree and behind her to the left are some low buildings and indication of a stand of trees. The foreground is uneven, with tufts of grass standing up between the figure and the viewer.
Drawn directly outside, this work shows Whistler's shared interest in "plein air" sketching and painting. Although Whistler abandoned such a straightforward interpretation of nature, which he believed did not involve creativity, he never lost the ability to quickly seize the essentials of form and light of objects he observed. Later, his work sought to distill everyday scenes around him and transform them into a poetic beauty that he found in such subjects.
On the plate, l.l.: Whistler On the plate, l.r.: Imp. Delatre. Rue St. Jacques. 171. Collection (no mark): This set is from the collection of the late Sir F. Seymour Haden's brother.
Van Goyen was known for his monochromatic landscape paintings. Our drawing dates from a period in his life when he appears to have made more drawings than paintings. In this work the draftsman leads our eye back into space by the diagonal array of boats manned by fishermen. The figures occur at intervals calculated to harmonize with the vertical rhythms of buildings and trees. This careful attention to structure is coupled with a spontaneity of touch. The artist created natural atmospheric effects through his deft handling of wash.
Signed: right screen: Kasho Seals: Zen Shin So Ba Ho Kyu Ko Ike Mumei In Kasho Inscription on the first panel of the right screen: The thousand-foot white cliff is split The red walls of four mountains open The dragon pond shoots and spits in the middle Day and night it produces wind and thunder One can also see the cascading water fall Resembling the gathering of the Milky Way. Composed by Li Po (Chinese, 701-762), "Requesting Ts'ui Shan-jen's Painting of the Waterfall at the Thousand-foot Cliff.
Signed: right screen: Kasho; left screen: Kyuka Sansho sha; Seals: Zen Shin So Ba Ho Kyu Ko Ike Mumei In Kasho Inscription: Roaming the hills and scattered streams with a book of poems. Viewing the moon and searching for flowers while grasping a wine cup. The Six Concerns exhaust my thoughts; I wish you were my companion. When will you return to Lo-yang? Composed by Po Chü-i (772-843) entitled "Remembering Hui-shu."
The artist after whose work this handscroll is modeled played a pivotal role in the history of Chinese art. Shen Zhou (1427–1509) was not a professional artist but a wealthy landowner and scholar in the southern Chinese city of Suchou. Exposed from youth to a superb collection of older Chinese paintings, he took up painting as a avocation, and often did works in the manner of literati artists of the earlier Yuan dynasty. For Shen and his followers in the Wu school of literati painting, and their audience of like-minded intellectuals, much of the pleasure in painting came from recognizing the many layers of quotation and allusion in “art historical” paintings.
Japanese artists knew of Shen Zhou’s fame as early as the mid-eighteenth century from imported books on Chinese painting theory, but paintings by Shen did not reach Japan until much later. One famous landscape handscroll attributed to Shen in the collection of a Confucian scholar in Nara was sought out and copied by several Japanese painters. This rather free rendering by Hine Taizan retains the overall composition of the original, as well as the flavor of Shen’s relaxed brushwork.
Maribeth Graybill, Senior Curator of Asian Art
"Japanese Visions of China"
9/21/02 - 1/26/03
Inscription and signature of the artist: copy of Shen Zhou’s original inscription and signature, followed by 1849/4th month, Taizan
This painting shows a man seated on a bench, facing the viewer. He leans forward slightly and his right hand reaches across his body to point toward a group of coins on the ground. He is dressed in tattered clothing and his feet are bare. The bench where he is seated is inscribed with the letters: P. Q. P. C. /T. T. This is an outdoor scene with open sky in the background and some vegetation on a ledge above him, but there are no details to indicate the exact location. Another man is shown in the background at the right, walking hunched over and using a staff. There is a strong contrast between dark and light in this painting. The figure of the walking man and the dark shapes of buildings are outlined against the light backdrop of the sky. A strong warm light, from the left side of the painting, highlights the knees, hand and upper body of the seated man.
This painting is a portrait of the Greek philosopher, Crates of Thebes. The writings of biographer, Diogenes Laertius, relate that Crates gave up his wealth to devote himself to the Cynic philosophy. The Cynics embraced poverty and hardship and spoke against social conventions which they believed were an impediment to living in accord with nature. Crates was nicknamed, "Door Opener" from his habit of entering houses to offer advice. A saying attributed to him was, " That a man ought to study philosophy, up to the point of looking on generals and donkey drivers in the same light."
Here, Fetti has painted the philosopher, dressed in ragged clothing, as if he is speaking directly to the viewer. Crates is pointing to some coins on the ground beside him, perhaps a reference to his disgarded wealth or his life of poverty. The meaning of the initials carved on his bench is not known.
The avid taste among collectors for works by important artists led to the creation of new media that could provide facsimiles of original drawings and watercolors to an eager public. By covering the plate with a fine pattern of marks that approximate the opacity and translucency of the Robert gouache without resorting to harsh outline, Janinet devised a manner by which he could evoke the delicate washes of the original. Although the tonal gradations appear to be aquatint, Janinet employed a variety of stipple tools and roulettes in a process that is a further refinement of crayon-manner engraving. The rich color prints shown here, a combination of etching and crayon-manner engraving, illustrate why color printing during this period in France was so highly regarded.
Jean-François Janinet was largely known as a reproductive engraver. These two works depicting Roman monuments are based on gouaches by the artist Hubert Robert; the original drawings were part of the renowned collection of P.J. Mariette. Janinet is sometimes credited with introducing color printing in France, although color printing first became popular in Paris through the works of Janinet’s teacher, Louis-Marin Bonnet. Janinet’s most talented pupil, Charles-Melchior Descourtis, also made his name creating colored prints after watercolor and gouache originals, such as the Noce de Village and Foire de Village, on view elsewhere in the gallery.
Although closely resembling aquatint, the work of Jean-François Janinet and his pupil Charles-Melchior Descourtis is actually an extension of crayon-manner engraving. Rather than using a resin to create the fine tonal qualities desired, as is the case in aquatint, both Janinet and Descourtis used a series of fine rockers and stippling tools (sometimes through a ground) to create the delicate tonalities found in their color prints. See 1973/1.736 and 737 and also 1974/2. 48 and 49. [Source: Grove Dictionary of Art and Regency to Empire: French Printmaking 1715-1814, Baltimore Museum of Art, 1985]
Exhibition label copy from "Eighteenth Century French Prints and Drawings," February 1 - May 4, 2003 by Curator Carole McNamara
Signed on plate at l.l.: H. Robert pinr. Printed in lower plate margin, l.: H. Robert del, jn re presentip; c.: Sachettorum Vittae rudera imitabatur. A Paris chez Janinet. Place Maubert, ancienne Hotel de la Limace, au Premier. et chez Basan. Rue et Hotel Serpente.; r.: F. Janinet. Sculp. 1778