Travelers cross a bridge over a river. A figure is seen in the gateway of the establishment, and another figure walks towards the bridge carrying an umbrella or staff. The entire scene is set with a view of mountains in the background.
A traveler on horseback, likely a scholar, departs a mountain hostel. The traveler is accopanied by three servants, one of which is a shutong, or boy servant who would have been in charge of the scholar's books, writing implements, garments, and other things. The snow is very deep as the feet of the servants are not visible.
This painting shows a scene set in a room with high white walls that is open to the sky, like a courtyard. Beyond the wall there is flowering vegetation, tall trees and a tower with a balustrade with keyhole shaped openings. There are two clay pots resting on top of the wall and an oriental style carpet hanging over one side. Within this courtyard, there are three women who are looking at two small leopards that wear metal chains and stand in a keyhole shaped opening of the far right wall. The women, grouped together on the far left side, are wearing 19th century Moroccan dress, including richly embroidered, garments, headscarves and shoes. There is bright sunlight streaming into the room which creates shadows on the walls and floor.
This painting shows a scene set in a courtyard with high white walls that is open to the sky. Beyond the wall there is flowering vegetation, tall trees and a tower with a balustrade with keyhole shaped openings. There are two clay pots resting on top of the wall and an oriental style carpet hanging over one side. Within this courtyard, there are three women who are looking at two small leopards that wear metal chains and stand in a keyhole shaped opening of the far right wall. The women, grouped together on the far left side, are wearing 19th century Moroccan dress, including richly embroidered, garments, headscarves and shoes. There is bright sunlight streaming into the room which creates shadows on the walls and floor.
Constant began to do paintings with Orientalist subjects following his travels in Spain and Morocco during the 1870s. Prior to that he was well known at the Paris Salon for exhibiting history scenes. The exact meaning of this subject is unknown, however, Constant had done other paintings of street scenes and harem women, including, Harem Women in Morocco, which received a third-class medal at the Salon in 1875. This painting shows his romantic treatment of these subjects and the inclusion of local artifacts, rugs and costumes from his studio collection.
Inscription, in pen, along top and bottom edged: Copy of a Print by Gilray the original of which I gave to/ Wm. Hone to produce on his trial & of which afterwards I made/ an etching of this size George Cruikshank
Nude (Jina, center) and a devotees (nude on left, and other clothed figures) depicted in a folio of a Jain manuscript.
The image contains trees, lotus flowers and dark clouds. The the colors are composed of vivid reds, browns, yellows, greens and blues. The image is surrounded by a red and green pattereed border which resembles a chain.
In the Jain religion, the practices surrounding book production reflects the integral relationship among the laity, monastic community, and the Jina, or enlightened Jain teacher. It was customary for a lay donor to commission a copy of a text for presentation to his spiritual teacher and ultimately to the temple library; this fulfilled/thus fulfilling the lay obligation of charity. Over the centuries, monastic libraries received great quantities of texts, which were employed in the instruction of monks and nuns, who were themselves discouraged from practicing the art of painting: one text expressly warns of the power of painting to arouse sensual feelings. Beholding a book, however, was believed to help the individual achieve the proper mental state for spiritual guidance.
These manuscript illustrations are from a famous Jain hymn. In the one on the left we see the Jina [or enlightened Jain teacher] standing on a lotus. The monk Manatunga stands to his side, his hands folded in worship, while two gods offer more lotuses. The hymn verse associated with this illustration explains that wherever the Jina steps, the gods offer lotuses for him to tread on. In the illustration on the right, flowers surround the central Jina; they are dropped by/come from two gods seated in celestial vimanas or floating palaces at the top of the painting. The related verse tells us that these flowers are from/are those of the heavenly wishing trees and are showered onto the Jina in worship.
Inscription on plate: Cum privil fa. Cae. Mtis. / HGoltzius Inuentor / Adrianus Matham sculptor Iac. Matham excud. 1620 / Felis illa aetas, omnique beatior aevo / Saturno regnante fuit, cum Saecula iuberent / Aurea Securam mortalus ducere vitam: / Sponte sua tellus, sine rastro et vomeris vsu, / Omnigenas fundebat fundebat opes, nec flumina lactus, / Nec latices decrant nunqua maerentis Facchi: / Mellag(?) de viridi stillabant roscida quereu / Aureus hanc vitam in terris, Saturnus agebat. / Th. Schrevelius Collector's stamp, l.l.: Lugt 150a, A. Maroni Watermark (unclear): shield over three balls
An ink drawing of bare trees during a winter scene. Snow-covered mountains dominate the background. In the foreground among the trees is a person walking along a path towards what looks like a house with a thatched roof.
An idealized view of nature created by an amateur scholar-artist depicting a dramatic winter landscape. High snow covered mountains and tall bare trees surround the loan traveler walking through the forest
Inscription and signature of the artist: (After Lan Tianshu [a.k.a. Lan Ying, 1585–after 1664), copying [Dwelling in the] Fuchun Mountains by Dachi [a.k.a. Huang Gongwang, 1269–1354]. Ryûzan, man of leisure.)