High-gloss abstract expressionist painting of a large Africa-shaped form in red against black ground. Clough’s unique way of applying paint to the canvas results in a highly articulated and densely textured surface. “In place of the brush and other typical painter's tools, Clough uses an instrument he calls the ‘Big Finger,’ a large balloon-like contraption that he invented to spread poured house enamel on masonite into broad gestural constellations.” (Max Henry, “charles clough,” http://www.artnet.com/magazine_pre2000/reviews/henry/henry2-5-99.asp)
A painting of a rural, rather secluded homestead. The property is surrounded by woods. There is a woman who is pulling water from a well and child awaiting the arrival of her grandparents. The elder couple has just arrived onto the property of their family, still standing at the threshold of the forest path and the grounds of the home, and are greeted by a small dog. To the right is a simple barn with a thatched roof where a horse and presumably other animals are kept. The yard is full of activity - a group of chicken and a rooster pick at food from the ground while nearby a chicken looks after a group of chicks. To the right of the scene, between the edge of the house and the well are a few duks looking around.
A wide gladd vase rests upon a table partly covered by a cloth in a blue pattern. The vase contains a tall floral arrangement. Some flowed include pink, white, red and yellow roses, hydrageas, and lillies, among other flowers and greens. Floating around the flowers are three blue and white butterflies. The background behind the flower arrangement transitions from an almost black background from the left to a distant landscape scene, either through a window view or a painting.
This horizontal format painting is done in shades of light and dark gray, cream and yellow. With abstracted forms it depicts jagged mountains sihouetted against a cloudy sky. In front of these mountains there are rolling hills and geometric forms that suggest a cityscape. In the foreground there are more mountain peaks.
Overall blue and white palette. Group of people seated on chairs with tables. Most of the people are nude women. The main focus is a nude woman in the center wearing a top hat and holding a cane. In the foreground is a woman wearing clothes and sunglasses, her arms are crosed in front of her body.
An image of a woman in the center, painted in red and pink with her mouth wide open and bright red short hair. The same woman is repeated throughout in the same colors, but mouths are shut. The background is very busy with brown and black swirls all over.
An Egyptian physician of the Eighteenth Century (1500-1400 B.C.), clothed in clean white linen and a wig, as became the dignity of his status, is confronted with a patient having symptoms of lockjaw (described in an ancient scroll now known as the Edwin Smith papyrus). With sure, sympathetic hands, the physician treats the patient, who is supported by a "brick chair." Directions for treatment appear on the scroll held by his assistant. Specially trained priests observe prescribed magico-religious rites. Egyptian medicine occupied a dominant position in the world of the ancients for 2500 years.
The clay tablets of ancient Mesopotamia document the practice of medicine as early as 3000 B.C. Of significance to medicine, too, is one of the oldest regulatory laws, the Code of Hammurabi, promulgated by that Babylonian ruler about 2000 B.C. In a Babylonian throne room, a physician is defending with diginity his professional practices against the complaints of a dissatisfied patient who seeks invocation of the drastic penalties of the Code. The King, the scribe, court attachés, guards, priests, friends of the plaintiff and of defendant, comprise the cast of the critical drama of law and of medicine 4000 years ago.
On the dry, sun-swept Pacific coastline of the Paracas peninsula, a first-century Peruvian surgeon is beginning a trephining operation with the aid of knives of glass-hard obsidian, a crude plant narcotic, cotton, and bandages. Assistants immobilize the patient, and a priest seeks supernatural intervention throuh incanations and prayers as the slow and highly hazardous operation proceeds. Peru was the center of intensive practice of trephining in the New World, where the operation (opening of the skulls of living patients) can be traced from well before dawn of the Christian era to the twentieth century.
Primitive medicine is timeless. It is as old as the cave dweller, yet in many remote parts of world its practice is as new as today. The sandpainting ceremonies of American Navaho Indians are unusually beautiful examples of primitive medicine, embodying all its elements --physio--and psychotherapy, religion, magic, singing, and drug lore. In a medicine "hogan" family and friends join in the Mountain Chants' nine-day ceremonies, in which this sandpainting has an important part. The "singer" (medicine man) sings, prays, and manipulates magico-religious artifacts. Herb preparations given the patient are shared by the "singer" and by the spectactors too in this primitive health-seeking rite.
Every night for nearly a thousand years (500 B.C. - 500 A.D.), sick and afflicted pilgrims flocked to the Grecian Temples of Asclepius to take part of a ritual called incubation. The ancient kindly god of medicine was expected to visit them during a dream state and either heal or prescribe drugs, diet, and modes of treatment. Only requisites were that they should be clean and "think pure thoughts." To show their appreciation, recipients of Asclepius' favor caused votives (stone or terra cotta images of the afflicted parts which supposedly had been healed) to be made, suitably inscribed, and presented to be hung as testimony on the temple walls. More than 200 such temples existed.
Su?ruta, famed Hindu surgeon, is depicted in the home of a noble of ancient India, about to begin an otoplastic operation. The patient drugged with wine, is steaded by friends and relatives as the great surgeon sets about fashioning an artificial ear lobe. He will use a section of flesh to be cut from the patient's cheek; it will be attached to the stump of the mutilated organ, treated with hemostatic powders and bandaged. Details of this procedure, and of Su?ruta's surgical instruments, are to be found in the "Su?ruta-samhit?," ancient Indian text. Plastic surgery was practiced in India more than 2000 years ago.
The art of medicine in the ancient world developed to its highest point in Greece, durng the millennium between 500 B.C. and 500 A.D. This creative period is symbolized by Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine," whose name has come to represent the beauty, value, and dignity of medicine for all times. Hippocrates' kindness and concern are embodied in his aphorism, "Where there is love for mankind, there is love for the art of healing." These qualities are reflected in the face of this great practioner, scientist, and teacher, as he palpates a young patient and attempts to sooth a worried mother sometime late in the fifth century B.C. His name is still revered in medical circles.
Galen was a pillar of medicine; the last important pillar in the millennium of Greek domination of the medical world. Physician to emperors as well as commoners in the Roman Empire, Galen (130-220 A.D.) traveled extensively, lectured widely, wrote prolifically. The great Greek was a shrewd observer who gained much experience through experimentation. Cupping was among the forms of treatment which he advocated. Pharmacy as well as medicine benefited from his formulas, called "galenicals;" he was a leader in the health sciences of his day. Galen's teachings were accepted as dogma by both teachers and practioners of medicine for fifteen hundred years.
The West is deeply indebted to medieval Arabs for preservation of ancient Greco-Roman knowledge during the Middle Ages. and for improving on it. Our numeral system and many words, such as alcohol, came from the East, as did many medical advances. Leaders in the Arabic medicine were the Persians, Rhazes, and Avicenna. Rhazes (865-925 A.D.), noted for keen observation and inventiveness, was first to describe measles and smallpox; to observe pupillary reaction to light; to use mercurial purgatives; and to publish a text on children's diseases. His teachings were highly regarded for many centuries.
The Great Room of the Poor (La Grand' Chambre des Povres) is believed to be the world's oldest edifice to have been in continuous use as a hospital. Representative of medieval hospitals, it is a part of the Hôtel-Dieu of Beaune, France, founded in 1443. Combined with modern professional hospital service it carefully preserves the atmosphere of the fifteenth century. A small chapel is located at the end of the room. Sisters of the Congregation of Sainte Marthe, garbed in habits traditional to their ancient order, have cared for the sick, the aged, and the indigent in this hospital for more than five hundred years, uninterrupted by wars, by economic upheavals, or by political changes.
In the Renaissance "chemical kitchens" of Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541), who boastfully called himself Paracelsus, many things were brewed: chemicals, polypharmacal mixtures, serious medical writings - and vitriolic, abusive attacks upon medical colleagues, religionists, and political officials. Swiss-born Paracelsus' controveries forced him to travel widely, move frequently. Labeled genius by some, quack by others, his medical effors got results, and patients liked him. He attacked medieval "sacred cows," Galen and Avicenna, helped turn medicine from them to rational research. He attempted to manufacture new remedies, and he advocated use of chemicals in medicine.
Andreas Vesalius of Brussels, first great teacher of anatomy from natural observations, conducted many anatomical demonstrations on human bodies while Professor of Surgery and of Anatomy at the University of Padua, 1537-1543. Highly successful, these were attended by medical students, physicians, interested civic officials, sculptors and artists. First to break with Galen's 1400-year-old anatomical texts, Vesalius published "Tabulae Anatomicae Sex" in 1538, and the monumental "De Humani Corporis Fabrica" in 1543. Though reviled and ridiculed by Galenists, the validity of Vesalius' works soon overcame detractors and they became classic in medical literature.
Ambroise Paré, a young French army surgeon with troops of King François at Turin, in 1536, had his first experience treated men for arquebus wounds. Running ouf of boiling oil (traditional treatment for gunshot injuries), he improvised, discovered that unburned patients healed much better, and resolved never to use hot oil again. Countless soliders and citizens benefited from this rule. It was some years later, in 1552, that Paré put aside cautery irons used to stop bleeding in amputations and reintroduced ligatures for tying blood vessels. During his life (1510-1590), inventive, observant, compassionate Paré served as surgeon to four French kings; earned the title: "Father of Surgery."
William Harvey, slight, energetic, scientific English physician of the seventeenth century, with his famed pointed in hand, used demonstrations to prove his revolutionary theory of the circulation of blood, during his anatomical lectures before the College of Physicians of London. His book, "De Motu Cordis," published in 1628, upset traditional followers of Galen, rought entirely new concepts of circulations and of anatomy to medicine. Harvey, a graduate in medicine from Padua and Cambridge, physician to Kings James I and Charles I, was unperturbed by criticism, dedicated to research and to hard work. He died in 1657, after having seen his theory generally accepted by physicians.
Antony van Leewenhoek, draper of seventeenth-century Delft, Holland, in his spare time retired to his "closet" to observe the wonders of the microscopic world through tiny lenses he laboriously ground and mounted. He was the first to report having seen "animalcules" - protozoa and bacteria - and to confirm by direct observation circulation of the blood. Though 200 years elapsed before practical application of his discoveries contributed to medicine, his work laid foundations for modern medicine's tremendous century-long onslaught against diseases caused by bacteria and other microbiologic entities - a world-wide campaign which has resulted in saving of millions of lives.
Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689), seventeenth-century London physician, at the bedside of a patient - the only place, he believed, where doctors could learn about disease. Sydenham's plain Puritan costume contrasts markedly with high-fashion raiment worn by his lifelong friend, John Locke, physician-philosopher, who frequently accompanied him on his rounds of patients. Sydenham's honest and straighforward observations, accepted and published in many countries, earned him such posthumous titles as that of the "English Hippocrates," and also the "Father of Clinical Medicine in Britain."
Surgeon of Britian's Royal Navy aboard H.M.S. Salisbury, in the English Channel in 1747, James Lind conducted a series of clinical experiments that definitely proved citrus fruits or their juices could cure scurvy, dread dietary-deficiency disease that killed a million seamen between 1600 and 1800. Dr. Lind's work, at sea, in Edinburgh, and at Haslar Naval Hospital, plus his three books, on scurvy on care of sailors' health, and on tropical diseases, had much to do with reforming naval health practices, saving lives both on sea and land, and shaping destinies of nations, as world commerce increased.
In the famous anatomic amphitheatre built in 1590, Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) demonstrated before medical students from many countries during the 56 years he served as Professor of Anatomy at the famed University of Padua. Although his first book was published in 1704, Morgagni's greatest contribution to medicine, "On the Seats and Causes of Disease," came out 57 years later, in 1761. This five-book work, embodying a lifetime's experience in dissection and in observation, convinced medical men that diseases were not dispersed generally throughout the body, but got their start locally in specific organs or tissues. It ranks high among 18th-century scientific works.
Greatest contribution of science to Medicine during the eighteenth century came from experiments relating to the processes of respiration, conducted between 1789 and 1792 by the Parisian chemist, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, in his laboratory at the Royal Arsenal. Mme. Lavoisier was his closest collaborator. Together with a young assistant, Sequin, Lavoisier recorded oxygen intake and carbon dioxide exhalation by a man while resting, while working, and while eating, and compared the results with statistics on combustion of carbon. Lavoisier made many scientific, social, economic, financial, and political contributions before French revolutionary radials executed him in 1794.
From an untutored Scottish country boy, John Hunter (1728-1793) rose to become eighteenth-century London's foremost surgeon and medical scientist. Combining natural talent, insatiable curiosity, and keen observation, he was one of the greatest comparative anatomists of all time. The skeletons of the now-extinct Great Auk and of the Irish Giant are two of 13,682 specimens which comprised his famous collections, war-spared remnants of which still are on exhibit in London's Royal College of Surgeons. Posthumously, Dr. Hunter was honored as "The Founder of Scientific Surgery."
Professional, moral, and physical courage of Dr. Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) was taxed to exhaustion during the 1793 yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, capital of the the new United States of America. Those residents who could, fled; those who could not were decimated by disease. Horror and hysteria reigned. Hundreds died daily. Dr. Rush stayed, cared for patients, personally survived two attacks of fever. Though his heroic treatments were severly criticized, Rush was unswerving. Patriot, signer of the Declaration of Independence, leader in the country's first medical school, Dr. Rush came to be called the first great physician in the United States of America.
The Father of Psychiatry, French physician Philippe Pinel, in 1795 ordered chains and fetters removed from insame women in the Salpêtrière, large Parisian hospital. Two years earlier, he had similarily unchained insane men in the Bicêtre. Despite political and medical opposition and uncertainties of life during the hectic period of the French Revolution, Pinel persisted in replacing cruelty and inhumanity with understanding, kindness, and rational therapy. His success in curing and relieving patients suffering from mental diseases opened new perspectives for psychiatric research and practice.
The first vaccination against smallpox was performed by Edward Jenner, English rural physician, in his apartment in the Chantry House, Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Exudate from a cowpox pusule on the hand of dairymaid, Sarah Nelmes, was inserted in scratches on the arm of eight-year-old James Phipps, May 14, 1796. The vaccination was effective, for two later attempts to induce infection with smallpox pus were unsuccessful. After proving his discovery, Jenner published his vaccination findings in 1798. Despite opposition, vaccination became accepted practice during Jenner's lifetime.
Theophile Laennec (1781-1826), young French physician, while at Necker Hospital, Paris, in 1816, devised foot-long, hollow, wooden cylinders for listening to sounds in patients' chests. These he called "stethoscopes." Comparing opinions formed during stethoscopic examinations with later findings in autopsy, Laennec learned to accurately diagnose pathologic heart and lung conditions, and to better understand many chest diseases. his instrument and his published reports on its use were among the greater contributions to nineteenth-century medicine, helping physicians to understand pulmonary diseases - especially tuberculosis, the malady that ended Laennec's own short life.
Before a skeptical group of surgeons in the operating amphitheater of Massachusetts General Hospital, October 16, 1846, William T.G. Morton, Boston dentist, prepared to anesthetize Dr. John C. Warren's surgical patient, Gilbert Abbott, by causing him to enhale ether. Though Crawford W. Long, Georgia physician, had used ether for anesthesia in 1842, and Horace Wells, Connecticut dentist, tried unsuccessfully to demonstrate anesthesia with nitrous oxide in 1845, reports of painless operations resulting from Morton's methods gave practical anesthesia to mankind. Within a year ether was being used world-widely to conquer the pain incident to surgical operations.
Identity of persons in the picture, "Conquerors of Pain"
1. Dr. John C. Warren, operating surgeon
2. Dr. William T.G. Morton, demonstrated ether anesthesia