Questions and answers for inspector, milk and food, city and country : including answers to all the questions asked at past examinations in New York City for inspector of milk, meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables. : The various forms used by inspectors in the Department of Health. : Rules and regulations of the Health Department, report writing for all branches of the examination ...
Frank, Charles Leo, 1887-

Page  [unnumbered] .1....... I I I Q UESTIONS AN1D AkNSWE RS for MILK ot -AND- F Q:. S CITY AND COUNTRY 4.: S * lnclIm1inig Answers to all the (~uestions Asked cat past~ examinations in.New York city for Inspector of MILK, MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, RmUTs AN3D VEGETABLES. I I I0 i The variious. forms used by Inspectors in the Depgi" it of Health. RULES AND REGULATIONS OIF TH HEALTH DEPARTMENT 'REPORT WRITING for all branches of the examination. PRICE, ONE DOLLAR. By CHARLES L. FRANK, B.S., LL.B. 23 Duane Street, New York. I I, -- I

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Page  1 PREFACE. This book has been divided into six parts for convenience in mastering it. The first part deals with food in general-foods kept in grocery stores, such as eggs, cheese, butter, canned goods, coffee, cereals, flour, vinegar, flavoring extracts, etc. The second part is devoted to meatstheir handling and inspection. Poultry is the subject of the third part. Fish is the fourth part and fruits and vegetables the fifth part. The sixth section of the book is devoted to Milk Inspection (city and country). The provisions of the Sanitary Code and the regulations of the Health Department with respect to the different foods are considered under their appropriate headings. The latest Rules and Regulations of the Health Department with regard to Milk are also given. Questions asked at previous examinations have been placed at the end of the book, so that after the student has mastered the contents of this book he can test his accomplishments by trying to answer questions which were actually asked at former examinations. He can then compare his answers with those given in the body of the book. ALL THE QUESTIONS ASKED AT PAST EXAMINATIONS ARE COVERED IN THE ANSWERS PUBLISHED IN THIS BOOK, so that the candidate should have no difficulty in answering the examination questions separately printed. This work has been shorn of all technicalities and presented from the standpoint of the Inspector. The questions present concrete problems such as are presented at the examination and in the field of actual inspection. The student should not go on to any new questions until he has thoroughly mastered the answer to the preceding one. It is also very profitable to test one's self as to the matter thus far covered. THE AUTHOR. 288663

Page  2 CIVIL SERVICE REQUIREMENTS. The examination held in 1914 was divided into two groups, namely, Group 1, Meats and Fish; Group 2, General Groceries, Fruits, Vegetables, Bakers' Supplies and Eggs. The subjects and weights were: Duties, 6; Experience, 4. The salaries range from $1,200 to $1,800 per annum. The age limits were 25 to 50 years. Candidates should have had experience in the inspection or buying, selling, or handling of foods. This book covers the subject in a practical way for the purposes of Civil Service examinations. There are, however, a number of other books that can be studied to advantage by those desirous of making more technical study. Such books may be obtained from the Book Department of the Civil Service Chronicle, 23 Duane Street, New York. FOODS IN GENERAL. Groceries, Spices, Butter, Eggs, Flavoring Extracts, Etc. Ques. 1:-What are the duties of a Food Inspector? ANS.:-To carry out the provisions of the Sanitary Code with respect to the storing, keeping, selling or offering for sale any food in or brought into the City of New Yoik. To inspect all places in his district or wherever directed by his superiors, where food is kept, stored, sold or offered for sale. To collect samples of food which appear to be unwholesome, to be analyzed in the laboratories of the Health Department. To keep a record of all his inspections and make proper reports thereof. When necessary, to testify in court on facts within his knowledge which are the result of his inspections. To follow all instructions of his superiors. Ques. 2:-If you are sent out to collect a sample, give all the details of your execution of such order. ANS.:-(1) Upon entering the store I would show my badge and state that I am an Inspector of Foods. (2) I would look around for the article I was sent for. When I saw it I would ask if it were for sale, and the price. I would buy it. If the article were in bulk, I would note the marks, brands or tags upon the package, carton, container, wrapper or accompanying printed or written matter. I would note the'name of the vendor and the person through whom the sale was actually made, together with the date of the purchase. If the sample were taken from bulk goods, I would divide it into three parts and I would label each with identifying marks. I would seal the samples. If the goods were in package or bottle form, I would buy two or three packages or bottles, as directed. Ques. 3:-What should a Food Inspector know about the distribution of supplies to the different places of sale? ANS.:-He should know where it is likely that the unfit food would be sold, where food is exposed; where the cheaper grades of food find their way for sale. Ques. 4:-To what extent should a Food Inspector acquaint himself with the sources of supply? ANS.:-This would often indicate the fitness of the food. If the Inspector learns that fish have come from a great distance, or meat not properly refrigerated, this would put him on the lookout for putrefaction. If he finds that poultry comes from a district where the water is bad, this would put him on his guard for disease in the poultry. Ques. 5:-What should a Food Inspector know about the seasons at which different kinds of food are offered in the markets? ANS.:-This would be a guide as to what foods to inspect. For example, after April until the end of August he would examine oysters carefully to see that they are wholesome. He should know the seasons when each fruit and vegetable is in season and after the season is over he should look for merchandise which has been kept so long that it is decayed. Ques. 6:-What should a Food Inspector know about the points at which supplies are delivered in the city? ANS.:-He should know where the different foods enter the city, so that he can go there and inspect them before they have been spread over the city. In this way he might stop a whole consignment of diseased meat or decayed fruit. He should know where all the big markets are, es

Page  3 pecially those which make a specialty of any particular food. Ques. 7:-What food may not be brought into the city, held for sale or stored? ANS.:-Meat, fish, eggs, birds, fowl, fruit, vegetables or milk not being then healthy, fresh, sound, wholesome and safe for human food, nor any meat or fish that died by disease or accident. Ques. 8:-What foods must be covered so as to protect them from dust, dirt or other contamination? ANS.:-No breadstuffs, cake, pastry, sliced fresh fruits, dried or preserved fruits, candies, confectionery or other perishable food products, except those that are peeled, pared or cooked before consumption, shall be kept, sold, offered for sale, or displayed outside of any premises, or in any street or public place, unless they be kept covered. Ques. 9:-What are the obectionable features of using coloring matters in food? ANS.:-They introduce materials injurious to health and they deceive the purchaser by concealing inferiority or by making the goods appear of greater value than they really are. Ques. 10:-What are the provisions of the Sanitary Code with regard to adulterated or misbranded food? What is meant by "food" in these provisions? ANS.:-No person shall have, sell or offer for sale in the city any food which is adulterated or misbranded. The term food as herein used shall include every article of food and every beverage used by man, and all confectionery. Oues. 11:-When is food deemed to be adulterated under the above provisions? ANS.:-If any substance or substances has or have been mixed and packed with it so as to reduce or lower or injuriously affect its quality or strength. If any inferior or cheaper substances have been substituted wholly or in part for the article. If any valuable constituent of the article has been wholly or in part abstracted. If it consists wholly or in part of diseased or decomposed or putrid or rotten animal or vegetable substance, or any portion of any animal unfit for food, whether manufactured or not, or if it is a product of a diseased animal or one that has died otherwise than by slaughter. If it is colored or coated or powdered or polished whereby damage is concealed or it is made to appear better than it really is. If it contains any added poisonous ingredient which may render such article injurious to health; or if it contains any antiseptic or preservative not evident and not known to the purchaser or consumer. If, in the case of confectionery, it contains terra alba, barytes, talc, chrome yellow, or other mineral substance of poisonpus color or flavor, or other ingredient 8 deleterious or detrimental to health, or any vinous, malt or spirituous liquor or compound or narcotic drug. If, in the case of spiritous, fermented and malt liquors, they contain any substance or ingredient not normal or healthful to exist in such liquors, or which may be deleterious or detrimental to health when such liquors are used as beverages. Ques. 12:-When, under the above provisions, is food deemed to be misbranded? ANS.:-If it be an imitation or offered for sale under the distinctive name of another article. If it be labeled or branded so as to deceive or mislead the purchaser or purport to be a foreign product when not so, or if the contents of the package as originally put up shall have been removed in whole or in part and other contents shall have been placed in such package; or if it fails to bear a statement on the label of the quantity or proportion of any morphine, opium, cocaine, heroin, chloroform, cannabis, indica, chloral hydrate or acetanilid or any derivative or preparation of any such substances contained therein. If in package form and the contents are stated in terms of weight or measure, they are not plainly and correctly stated on the outside of the package. If the package or its label shall bear any statement, design or device regarding the ingredients or the substances contained therein, which statement, design or device shall be false or misleading in any particular; provided that an article of food which does not contain any added poisonous or deleterious ingredients shall not be deemed to be adulterated or misbranded in the following cases: First-In the case of mixtures or compounds which may be now or from time to time hereafter known as articles of food; under their own distinctive names, and not an imitation of or offered for sale under the distinctive name of another article, if the name be accompanied on the same label or brand with a statement.of the place where said article has been manufactured or produced. Second-In the case of articles labeled, branded or tagged, so as to plainly indicate that they are compounds, imitations or blends, and the word "compound," "imitation" or "blend," as the case may be, is plainly stated on the package in which it is offered for sale; provided that the term "blend" as herein used shall be construed to mean a mixture of like substances, not excluding harmless coloring or flavoring ingredients used for the purpose of coloring and flavoring only; and provided further that nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring or compelling proprietors or manufacturers of proprietary foods which contain no unwholesome added ingredient to disclose their trade formulas, except in so far as the provisions of this section may require to secure freedom from adulteration or misbranding.

Page  4 Ques. 18:-What is tumeric paper? ANS.:-This is an ordinary white filterpaper, cut into strips, dipped into a tincture of tumeric, and dried. It is useful in making certain chemical tests. Ques. 14:-What is a reagent? ANS.:-It is a chemical or an agent of some kind, by means of which definite chemical changes are produced which are more or less easy of observation. Ques. 15:-What alums are used as a reagent? ANS.:-The ordinary iron, potassium or ammonium alum. Ques. 16:-What is hydrochloric acid? How should it be used? ANS.:-This is a chemical which is usually called "muriatic acid" and can be obtained at any drug store. All tests in which hydrochloric acid is used should be conducted in glass or stoneware, as this acid will attack many metals, such as iron, tin, zinc, etc. It does not attack silver or gold. Care must be exercised not to spill any of the acid over the skin or clothing, as it will burn both. Ques. 17:-What is potassium permanganate? ANS.:-This is a bright colored crystal which; when dissolved, will give a purplered solution. This is used as a reagent. Dissolve about one part of the crystals in 99 parts of water. Ques. 18:-What is a mold? ANS.:-It is a fungus (vegetable) growth which is found on vegetables and in cheese. Hot, damp weather usually molds fruit. Ques. 19:-What is terra alba? ANS.:-This is a clay, same as pipe clay, and is used as an adulterant in certain foods. Ques. 20:-What is a vinous substance? ANS.:-One which is made of or of the nature of wine. Ques. 21:-What is meant by a deleterious substance? ANS.:-One which is poisonous or destructive, injurious or unwholesome; dangerous to life or health. Ques. 22:-What is a narcotic? ANS.:-Any substance which has the quality of causing stupor-e. g., opium, belladonna. Ques. 23:-How would you test for coaltar dyes in food? ANS.:-Cheap jellies and jams, "blood orange" tonic, fruit syrups, tomato ketchups, often owe their fine appearance to the use of dyes. Stir up about one-fourth of the contents of the tumbler of jelly with about a pint of water in an agate stewpan. Take a small piece of white woolen cloth and wet it with boiling water. Immerse the cloth in the diluted jelly and boil it on the stove for five or ten minutes, stirring it frequently with a small wooden stick. Then remove it and wash well in boiling water. If a dye has been used in the jelly the cloth will be brightly colored. This test can also be applied to sausages. Ques. 24:-How should articles of food be labeled? ANS.:-No meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, eggs, milk or other food or unwholesome liquid shall be sold, held, offered for sale, labeled, or any representation made in respect thereof, under a false name or quality, or as being what the same is not, as respects wholesomeness, soundness or safety for food or drink. Ques. 25:-In what condition shall food be kept? ANS.:-Every person having charge, or interested or engaged, whether as principal or agent, in the care or in respect to the custody or sale of any meat, fish, fruits, birds, fowl, or vegetables, designed for human food, shall put an preserve the same in a cleanly and wholesome condition, and shall not allow the same, or any part thereof, to be poisoned, infected or rendered unsafe or unwholesome for human food. Ques. 26:-How shall places be kept where food is to be stored or held for human food? ANS.: —Every person, being the owner, lessee or occupant of any room, stall or place where any meat, fish, fruit or vegetables, designed or held for human food, shall be stored or kept, or shall be held or offered for sale, shall put or keep such room or place and its appurtenances in a cleanly and wholesome condition. Ques. 27:-What action may an Inspector take when he finds any unwholesome or unfit food? ANS.:-Upon any cattle, milk, meat, birds, fowl, fish or vegetables being found by any Inspector or other officer of the Department of Health, in a condition which renders them, in his opinion, unwholesome and unfit for use as human food, or in a condition or of a weight or quality condemned in or forbidden by the Sanitary Code, he is empowered, authorized and directed to immediately condemn the same and cause it to be removed to the offal or garbage dock for destruction and report his action to the department without delay. Ques. 28:-What order may an Inspector, a Sanitary Superintendent or his assistant issue to one who has unfit food? ANS.:-The owner or person in charge thereof when so directed by the said Inspector or by an order of the Sanitary Superintendent or an Assistant Sanitary Superintendent, shall remove or cause the same to be removed to the place designated by the said Inspectors or the order of said Sanitary Superintendent or Assistant Sanitary Superintendent, or to the offal dock, 4

Page  5 and shall not sell, or offer to sell, or dispose of the same for human food. Ques. 29:-What are butchers and milk dealers required to do in order to aid an Inspector in his work? ANS.:-Every butcher or milk dealer and their agents shall allow the parties authorized by the Department of Health to freely and fully inspect the cattle, meats, fish, vegetables and milk held or kept by them, or intended for sale, and will be expected to answer all reasonabe and proper questions asked by such persons relative to the condition thereof, and of the places where such articles may be. Ques. 30:-Of what materials shall the receptacles and conduits of lIquors De made? ANS.:-In the sale or keeping for sale of any beverage or drink, no person shall keep or use any tap, faucet, tank, fountain or vessel, or any pipe or conduit in connection therewith, which shall be, either wholly or in part, made of brass, lead, copper or other metal that will be affected by liquids, so that dangerous, unwholesome or deleterious compounds are formed therein or thereby or such that beer, soda water, syrups or other liquids, or any beverage, drink or flavoring material drawn therefrom, shall be unwholesome, dangerous or detrimental to health. Ques. 31:-Name five spices and their most common adulterants. ANS.:-Cloves are adulterated by placing allspice in with it. Cinnamon is adulterated by the addition of foreign bark. Pepper should be free from pepper shells, pepper dust and other pepper by-products. Ginger is adulterated by adding wheat, corn, rice and sawdust. Mustard is adulterated by the addition of wheat. Ques. 32:-Name ten foods (aside from spices) which are frequently adulterated, and name the adulterants used in the particular cases. ANS.:Sausage-Boric acid. Jellies-Starch. Peas (canned)-Sulphate of copper. Baking Powder-Terra Alba. Butter-Foreign fat. Cheese-Foreign fat. Honey-Cane sugar. Jams-Commercial glucose. Lard-Cottonseed oil. Molasses-Commercial glucose. Ques. 33:-How is benzoic acid detected in tomato catsup, mincemeat, fruit juices, etc.? ANS.:-If any considerable quantity of benzoate of soda has been used in tomato catsup, it can be detected by setting aside a small quantity in an ordinary dish in a warm place, as, for instance, near a radiator, covering to keep out the dust, and allowing to stand for a few days, so that the evaporation goes on very slowly. As the 5 concentration takes place, beautiful lamellar crystals of benzoic acid are formed. These sometimes grow up to the height of a half inch or even more. If the contents of benzoic acid is very small, it may be extracted by acidifying and shaking with chloroform and then be set aside in a cool place to evaporate. The chloroform should be subjectd to only a gentle temperature, so that the evaporation may be slow. The characteristic appearance of the lamellar crystals as before indicates the presence of benzoic acid. Ques. 84:-May benzoate of soda be mixed with food? ANS.:-Yes, provided that each container or package of such food is plainly labeled to show the presence and amount of benzoate of soda. The quantity of benzoate of soda used must not exceed one-tenth of one per cent. Ques. 35:-What are the most common adulterations found in allspice? ANS.:-Cocoanut shells and the cereal starches. Ques. 36:-How would you detect the presence of boric acid or borax in butter? ANS.:-Place a teaspoonful in a cup with double the quantity of hot water, which will melt the butter. After melting, the contents of the cup are well stirred with a teaspoon and set aside in a cool place until the butter solidifies. The butter will be attached to the spoon and can be lifted out, the remaining liquid being strained through a white cotton cloth or filter-paper. Place a tablespoonful of the liquid in a dish with five drops of hydrochloric acid. A strip of tumeric paper is dipped into the liquid and afterward removed and held in a warm place until dry. If boric acid or borax is present, the tumeric paper assumes a bright cherry-red color on drying. If a drop of ammonia is now added, the red color changes to dark green or greenishblack. Ques. 37:-What butter or cheese is it unlawful to offer for sale? ANS.:-No person shall have at any place where butter or cheese is kept for sale, nor shall at any place sell, deliver or offer, or have for sale, or keep for use, nor shall any person bring or send to the city any unwholesome cheese or butter, or cheese or butter made from milk known as "swill milk" or made from the milk of cows or other animals that for the most part have been kept in stables or that have been fed in whole or in part on swill; nor shall any such cheese or butter be made from the milk of sick or diseased cows or other animals. Ques. 38:-What practical test should be used to determine whether a firkin exposed in a grocery store contained butter, oleomargarine or renovated butter? ANS.:-Boil a small portion of a sample. Use as the source of heat a low flame, gas

Page  6 or kerosene. Melt the sample to be tested (a piece the size of a small chestnut) in an ordinary tablespoon, hastening the process by stirring with a splinter of wood (for example, a match); then, increasing the heat, bring to as brisk a boil as possible. After the boiling has begun, stir the contents of the spoon thoroughly, not neglecting the outer edges, two or three times at intervals during the boiling, also shortly before the boiling ceases. In the laboratory, a test tube and spoon, or sometimes a small tin dish, are used in making this test. Oleomargarine and renovated butter boil noisily, sputtering and crackling, more or less like a mixture of grease and water when boiled, and produces no foam, or very little. Renovated butter produces usually a very small amount. Genuine butter boils usually with less noise and produces an abundance of foam. The difference in regard to foam is very marked as a rule. The absence of abundance of foam would indicate a suspicious product. Ques. 39:-In inspecting cheese, what conditions would you note? ANS.:-If the odor is obnoxious the cheese is probably unfit for food. I would look for worms or other evidences of vermin in stale and decomposed cheese. Ques. 40:-What would you look for in a superficial examination of cereals? ANS.:-Dirt, worms, mite, dust and moisture. Ques. 41:-What chemicals are not to be used for coating chocolates and other confections? ANS.:-Shellac and other gums; these are usually used to conceal inferiority. The use of wood alcohol is also prohibited. Ques. 42:-What does a concave head on a can indicate? ANS.:-It indicates that the contents of the can are spoiled. Ques. 43:-In a physical examination of preserved chow-chow in glass jars, what would lead you to suspect adulteration? ANS.:-A very dark brown color; dryness of the substance; accumulation of a fermented layer at the top. Ques. 44:-What internal conditions of food lead to its rapid decomposition? ANS.:-The presence of worms or parasites, molds, fungi and overripeness. Ques. 45:-What external conditions lead to decomposition of food? ANS.:-Air, low temperature, high temperature, moisture, chemicals. Ques. 46:-How are baking powders adulterated? ANS.:-By the addition of too much starch or other substances which are merely used to increase the weight. Ques. 47:-How is bread adulterated? ANS.:-By making the bread from flour which contains alum or from adulterated and spoiled flour; by allowing the bread to become too moist. Ques. 48:-What are the common adulterations of candy and confectionery? ANS.:-Clay, starch, gypsum, flour and mineral dyes. Ques. 49:-What are the chief sanitary requirements for bakeries in the City of New York? ANS.:-Permit. Cleanliness. Fireproofing of places where fat is boiled -floors, walls and ceilings; fireproofing of doors and transoms leading to halls and other parts of the house. Sink and other plumbing should be in a good condition. Absence of any water closets. Sanitary conditions of the spongetrough, raising-box, molding-bench, molds, pans and other receptacles. Ques. 50:-What are the sanitary requirements for mineral water and bottling establishments? ANS.:-Permits. They must not be in tenement houses. The floors must be cemented, graded and drained and sewer-connected. The filtering vessels, bottles and other appliances must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. Ques. 51:-What are the sanitary requirements for syrup, pickle and preserve factories? ANS.:-Same as above. Ques. 52:-What is a common standard egg? ANS.: One which when candled will show a small air space at the top between the shell and the white; the egg should be transparent and the yoke is not attached to the shell. Ques. 53:-What are "soaked" canned goods? ANS.:-It has become quite common, especially in the case of peas, beans and corn, to utilize for canning purposes those that have grown old and dried, after soaking them for a long time. Ques. 54:-How would you detect "soaked" goods? ANS.:-Soaked goods are entirely lacking in juiciness, and in the flavors so characteristic of the various vegetables, when gathered and canned before becoming dry. The process of soaking also develops the growth of the rudimentary stem of the embryo in the dried pea and bean. Peas and beans of the soaked variety are almost entirely lacking in the green color of the fresh vegetables, unless the color has been artificially supplied. 6

Page  7 Ques. 5: —Is it lawful to sell "soaked" goods? ANS.:-It is unlawful when the canned goods are misbranded. If the can states that it contains "choice early June peas," then this would be misbranding. The label should indicate that the can contains "soaked" goods. Ques. 56-How would you inspect bean coffee? ANS.:-I would look for split and imperfect beans or the presence of grit, gravel, dirt or foreign bodies of any kind. Ques. 57:-How would you detect adulterations in coarse ground coffee? ANS.:-Ground coffee has a uniform appearance, whereas, if beans, peas, cereals, chicory, etc., have been added, the adulterated character of the mixture is more or less evident. Chicory particles are especially easy to detect, as they are darklooking, gummy, and not granular in character. Chicory particles have a bitter taste. The real coffee particles have a distinct appearance. They usually have a dull surface, whereas some of the coffee substitutes, such as peas and beans, often present a polished surface. Ques. 58:-How would you test for adulterants in fine ground coffee? ANS.:-Place the coffee in water. Shake the mixture well. The vessel is then set aside for a moment and its appeanance observed. Pure coffee contains a large quantity of oil and for this reason the greater number of the particles will float. Nearly all of the coffee substitutes, however, are heavier than water and will sink to the bottom, carrying with them, of course, some of the particles of coffee. If there is a large deposit at the bottom the coffee is adulterated. Ques. 59:-How would you test for chicory in ground coffee? ANS.:-Chicory mixed with ground coffee can be detected by the water test. Drop some particles of the sample, a few at a time, into a glass of water, and,- being slightly heavier than water, they sink, leaving behind them a brownish streak. This test, however, should be made with care, as the person making the test should know the characteristic colorings of chicory. It is advisable to get some pure chicory and pure coffee and experiment with each separately, and then with the mixtures of coffee and chicory. Ques. 60:-How would you test ground coffee for the presence of cereals, peas, beans, etc.? ANS.:-Coffee is distinguished from the cereals, beans and peas which are usually substituted for it by the fact that it contains no starch, while the cereals, peas, etc., contain very large quantities. Even when the adulterated coffee is roasted there may be enough starch left to respond to the test. A half teaspoonful of the coffee is stirred into half a cupful of boiling water and the boiling continued for two or three minutes; this dissolves any starch which may be present in the coffee. After cooling, if the color of the mixture is dark, some water should be added to dilute it; drop a small portion of iodine into the mixture. If a blue color appears it shows that starch has been added. Ques. 61:-Describe fully a practical test to detect spoiled eggs. ANSI:-The best method of examining eggs for freshness is "candling," consisting in placing the egg between a bright light and the eye. If the egg is fresh, it will show a uniform rose-colored tint, without dark spots, the space in the egg for air being small and occupying about one-twentieth the capacity of the egg. If the egg is not fresh, it will appear more or less cloudy, being darker as the egg grows older, becoming in extreme cases opaque. At the same time the air space grows larger as the age increases. So-called "spots" are eggs which show on candling black patches due to fungi. Ques. 62:-When is a permit necessary for a person to break out eggs? ANS.:-No person shall break out eggs for sale or conduct the business of breaking out eggs to be canned, frozen, dried or used in any other manner in the City of New York, and no eggs broken from the shell, whether canned, frozen, dried or treated in any other manner, shall be received, held, kept, sold, offered for sale or delivered in the city without a permit from the Board of Health and subject to the conditions and rules thereof. Ques. 63:-What are the provisions of the Sanitary Code as to adulterated eggs? ANS.:-No person shall receive, hold, keep, sell or offer for sale or deliver, as or for food, any canned, frozen or dried eggs or eggs broken from the shell, which are adulterated or to which has been added any poisonous ingredient or any ingredient which may render such eggs injurious to health, or to which has been added any antiseptic, preservative or foreign substance not evident and not known to the purchaser or consumer, or which shall contain filthy, decomposed or putrid animal matter. Ques. 64:-Under what conditions may "spot" eggs be brought into the city or kept here? ANS.:-No person shall receive, hold, keep, sell or offer for sale or deliver in the city any eggs known as "spots" except in cases which shall be plainly and indelibly labeled at both ends with the printed words, "spot eggs," with black letters at least two inches high and one and one-half inches wide, with no intervening marks or lettering between the words or the letters composing the words, and a record of such eggs and the disposition thereof shall be kept as required by the rules and regulations of the Board of Health.

Page  8 Ques. 66:-What is included in the terms "spots" and "spot eggs"? ANS.:-All unsound eggs, including those affected by molds, partly decomposed, broken yolked, blood ringed or veined, partially hatched, sour, or eggs the shells of which are so broken or cracked that the contents are leaking therefrom. Ques. 66:-When shall a case of eggs be deemed "spot eggs"? ANS.:-When 50 per cent or more of the eggs in the case are "spots" as defined above. Ques. 67:-What are the characteristics of good flour? ANS.:-It must have a fine, white appearance, must not show any lumps which cannot be crushed. If any of it is subjected to pressure, it must remain lumpy; it should not be too moist. The taste and odor should not be musty or moldy. Ques. 68:-How would you determine that flour has been adulterated with rice, corn meal or Indian corn? ANS.: I would throw some of it on a wall and, if unadulterated, some of it should stick to the wall. I would then place a sample in water; flour will float; the adulterations, being heavier, will sink. Ques. 69:-How would you detect the addition of starch to jelly as a thickener? ANS.:-A teaspoonful of the jelly is dissolved in a teacup, adding enough water to half fill it, and the contents are heated to boiling. While boiling, a solution of potassium permanganate is added, drop by drop, stirring constantly with a teaspoon, until the solution is almost colorless. The mixture is allowed to cool, and to hasten the cooling the vessel may be placed in cold water. It is then tested with a drop of tincture of iodine. If the jam or jelly contains any starch a blue color will be produced. Starch may be a natural constituent of some fruits, as apples. Ques. 70:-What are the constituents of lemon extract? ANS.:-Lemon extract is made by dissolving oil of lemon in strong alcohol. The alcoholic strength of the solution must not fall below 80 per cent. or the constituents will be separated. Strong alcohol is therefore one of the principal constituents. Ques. 71:-How would you test for adulteration in lemon extract? ANS.:-Dilute a tablespoonful of the sample with two or three teaspoonfuls of water. If the sample is real lemon extract the lemon oil will be thrown out of the solution by reason of its insolubility in the weakened alcohol. The first result is marked turbidity and later the separation of the oil of lemon on the top of the watery fluid. If the sample remains perfectly clear after the addition of water, no marked turbidity being produced, it is undoubtedly a very low grade product, and contains little, if any, of the real oil of lemon. Ques. 72:-What condensed milk is it unlawful to bring into the city or offer for sale? ANS.:-No condensed milk which is adulterated shall be brought into the city or held, kept, sold or offered for sale at any place. Ques. 73:-What is meant by "adulterated" condensed milk? ANS.:-Condensed milk in which the amount of fat is less than 25 per cent. of the milk solids contained therein or to which any foreign substance whatever has been added, excepting sugars, as in preserved milks. Ques. 74:-What duty is imposed on the manufacturer or importer of mineral, spring or other water for drinking purposes? ANS.:-It shall be the duty of every manufacturer, importer or other person who manufactures or imports, in the city, any artificial or natural mineral, spring or other water for drinking purposes, to file, under oath, with the Department of Health, the name of such water and the exact location from which it is obtained, together with the chemical and bacteriological analysis thereof, and, when manufactured, the exact formula used in its production, giving qualitatively and quantitatively each and every item entering into its composition. No person shall manufacture or bottle mineral, carbonated or table waters in the city without a permit from the Department of Health. Ques. 75:-How is tea adulterated? How may it be ascertained? ANS.:-The most common method of adulteration is by "facing," that is, by treating with certain coloring materials, to give intensity to the color of the leaves. The facings in most general use are indigo, Prussian blue, plumbago and tumeric, often accompanied by such minerals as gypsum and soapstone. The addition of mineral matter may be detected by burning a certain weighed quantity-say, one grain-in a platinum dish and weighing the ash. If the tea is good it will give 5 to 7 per cent. of ash. If not, it will give less. Tea which gives a high color when steeped has probably been doctored. If there is not much extract the leaves have been exhausted. Spent or exhausted leaves-leaves that have been once steeped and afterwards again rolled and dried-have been used as an adulterant. The leaves of willow, elder, rose, elm, etc., are sometimes used as adulterants. Ques. 76:-How would you test the kind of vinegar of a given sample? ANS.:-Place the sample of vinegar in a shallow dish, such as a saucer, on a warm stove or flame and heat until the liquid is 8

Page  9 evaporated. The odor of the residue, which should not be burned, is carefully observed. The residue from cider vinegar has the odor of baked apples and is present in considerable quantity. Ordinary distilled vinegars leave very little residue, with almost no odor. The so-called molasses vinegars, which are now being quite largely sold, have a characteristic molasses-like flavor. Ques. 77:-How can you detect the use of caramel as a coloring matter in vanilla extract? ANS.:-Shake the bottle and observe the color of the resulting foam after a moment's standing. The foam of pure extracts is colorless. If caramel is present a color persists at the points of contact till the last bubble has disappeared. Ques. 78:-What are the constituents of pure vanilla extract? ANS.:-The true product is made by extracting vanilla bean with alcohol, and the flavoring may consist of an alcohol solution of vanillin, which is the chief flavoring ingredient of the vanilla bean, together with other constituents of the bean soluble in alcohol, which are classed principally under the head of resins. Ques. 79:-What are common adulterants of vanilla extract? ANS.:-One of the most common adulterants is an extract made from the tonka bean, which in some respects resembles that of vanilla bean, but is inferior. Another adulterant is artificial vanillin, a chemical product. Extracts made from this substance contain no resin, which is the deciding test as to whether the vanillin is artificial. Caramel is also an adulterant. Ques. 80:-How would you test for adulterations of vanilla extract? ANS.:-If pure vanilla extract, slightly acidified with acetic acid, be evaporated to about one-third its volume, the resins, which were before in solution, are separated and settle to the bottom of the vessel. On the other hand, artificial extracts remain clear under the same treatment. Ques. 81:-How would you test for the presence of the resin of the vanilla bean? ANS.:-A dish containing about an ounce of the extract is placed over a teakettle or other vessel of boiling water until the liquid evaporates to about one-third or less of its volume. The alcohol having been by this time all driven off, the resins become insoluble and separate. Water is added to bring the liquid back to approximately its original volume. This separates the resins, which will be thrown out as a brown flocculent precipitate. A few drops of hydrochloric acid are added, the liquid is stirred, and the insoluble matter allowed to settle. It is then filtered, and the resin on the filter-paper is washed with water and afterward dissolved in a little alcohol. To one portion of this solution is added a small 9 particle of ferric alum, and to another portion a few drops of hydrochloric acid. If the resin is that of the vanilla bean, neither ferric alum nor hydrochloric acid will produce more than a slight change in color. With resins from most other sources, however, one or both of these substances cause a distinct color change. Ques. 82:-What is saccharin? What is it used for? ANS.:-Saccharin is a very sweet substance prepared from coal-tar and has been used largely for sweetening purposes instead of sugar. One part of saccharin is said to have as much sweetening power as 400 to 500 parts of sugar. Saccharin has some preservative power also, but is never used solely for this purpose, the preserving influence being only incidental. Ques. 83:-How would you detect saccharin? ANS.:-The substance containing it, which is usually a liquid, is shaken with chloroform, which settles to the bottom and is removed by means of a medicine dropper. The saccharin enters into solution in the chloroform, while sugar, if present, does not. The chloroform solution is then evaporated by heating gently, and if saccharin has been present the residue has a distinctly sweet taste. This method is not applicable to substances whose chloroform layer contains a flavor that would mask the sweet taste of the saccharin, as, for instance, ginger ale. Ques. 84:-What are the provisions of the Sanitary Code which provide for the protection of food from contamination? ANS.:-Section 46 of the Sanitary Code reads as follows: No food, except fruits and vegetables that are peeled, pared or cooked before consumption, shall be kept, sold or offered for sale or be displayed or transported unless protected from dust, dirt, flies or other contamination. The term "food" as herein used shall include every article of food and every beverage used by man, and all confectionery. The following interpretations of this section have been formulated by the Board of Health and dealers have been so notified: Stands and Pushcarts and Open Containers-The strictest interpretation of the provisions of Section 46 of the Sanitary Code will be applied to stands and pushcarts and open containers at all times, and no covering other than of a fixed and permanent character will be recognized as conforming to the requirements of said section. Candy-Within the meaning of this section, all candy stored, sold or offered for sale or displayed or transported must be covered with a covering such as glass, wood, metal, pasteboard, paper or other suitable material so as to adequately protect it from flies, dust, dirt or other contamination. Bakery Products-All breadstuffs, cakes, pies or confectionery kept, held, offered' or displayed for sale, must at all times be pro

Page  10 tected from the contamination of flies, dust and unwarranted human handling by being enclosed or covered with some suitable covering. When displayed for sale, glass cases should be used, the back of which may be enclosed in close-mesh wire screening. Groceries-All foodstuffs not protected by a fly and dust-proof wrapper must be protected by covering or cases of glass, metal, wood or close-mesh wire screening, so as to protect the same from flies or other contamination. Butcher Shops and Markets-All meats, poultry, game, fish and similar products when displayed for sale, must be protected so as to preserve them from unwarranted human handling, contamination of flies and dust, by being kept within closed refrigerating display cases, or properly covered by close-mesh wire screening. Smoked meats, sausages, hams and other products of a similar character which are covered by a permanent protected cover, need not be kept as above indicated. Restaurants and Public Eating PlacesAt restaurants and public eating places, all food must be protected from contamination by flies, dust and unwarranted handling by being enclosed in glass or metal cases, or cases covered with close-mesh wire screening. Where pies, sections of pies, sandwiches, cakes or similar products are securely wrapped in individual paper coverings they will be deemed as satisfactorily protected within the provision of Section 46 of the Sanitary Code. An interesting addition to the permanent public health exhibit on the fifth floor of the Department of Health Building, 149 Centre Street, shows just how food can be protected against dirt and flies All dealers in foods and all others who are interested in clean foods should visit this interesting exhibit and learn how to comply with the above regulations. Ques. 85:-Describe how an inspection should be made, and what forms of adulteration should be looked for in a plant manufacturing so-called "soft drinks." ANS.:-The inspection should first be made of the plant itself to determine whether all conditions were sanitary. Special attention should be paid to the construction of the plant to find out whether same was properly lighted and ventilated, whether all benches, work-desks and woodwork was clean; floors should be of cement or wood sloped so as to afford washing with water; to the personal cleanliness of the employees; to the facilities for handling the raw materials, whether they were contaminated or rusty. All vats, receptacles, containers and pipes should not be of copper, lead or brass, or any metal which would or might be affected by the various juices and the acids contained therein or the soda water, so as to make same injurious or deleterious to health. Sinks and wash basins should be provided sufficient in number and maintained in a clean condition. Proper receptacles should be provided for all refuse and should be kept tightly covered. Separate receptacles for liquid refuse, which should not be filled to within more than 4 inches of the top, kept closed and removed daily. Closets should be separated from the work rooms and properly ventilated. I would also make inquiry from the person in charge as to the wholesomeness of the products he is putting out and would use general judgment as well as theoretical knowledge in arriving at an opinion as to the wholesomeness of his products. I would look for artificial coloring matter in the syrups, also preservatives, and for soap bark on the premises. This is used to make soda waters foam and is forbidden by the Sanitary Code. I would look especially for adulteration in the syrups and fruit essences in the premises and would investigate the water supply to see that pure water was being used and that same was not contaminated by passing through unclean or corroded metal hydrants or faucets. If sugar was kept stored in the plant, I would examine it. Ques. 86:-Detail, with your reasons, the proper method of sampling (a) shell; (b) frozen, and (c) desiccated eggs. ANS.:-(a) Shell eggs: (1) Would put in 10 per cent. brine solution. If egg sinks it is fresh. If swims, it is over 3 (Leach says 5) days old. (2) Candling. (3) Test for limed eggs (in which eggs are packed in lime water and layer of lime covered over them) as follows: Can usually detect some of the lime in the shells, but if not, put in hot water, and if limed will give off a crackling sound. Cold storage eggs will also crack, but in cold storage eggs the shells are not full of "meat," i. e., albumen, and in limed eggs they are. Look for paraffine from paraffined eggs in pores of shells. (b) Frozen eggs are liable to have been placed in storage along with fruits. If so, they will absorb a fruity odor. Look for this by smelling; also look for shells, as bits of shells are likely to be left in eggs which have been broken out for freezing. Also look for any sourness and blood-ringed or veined eggs, as the eggs used for freezing are often spot eggs. (c) Look for preservatives in desiccated eggs. The ones mostly used are boric acid and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is the more effective of the two, as it completely deodorizes a foul-smelling dried egg, and it appears wholesome. Ques. 87:-How can the quality in each of the three above mentioned forms be determined? ANS.:-Answered under (a) except desiccated eggs. Boric acid can be determined only positively chemically by shading the product with dilute ethyl alcohol (C2 H5 OH) and applying a flame in a shallow evaporating dish. If boric acid is present, 10

Page  11 a characteristic greenish flame will show on the surface of alcohol. Formaldehyde, if the smell of the dried eggs covers the smell of it, should be quantitatively as well as qualitatively determined in the chemical laboratory. In each of the above kinds of eggs, it is very important that representative sample be used. Ques. 88:-Describe the process of candling eggs and state the distinctive features relied upon to determine the grade. ANS.:-The eggs are placed in dark room and held in front of a candle, electric light, or other suitable light. They are held crosswise and endwise to the light. The egg is held between the eye of the observer and the light. If contents are clear the egg is O.K., Grade I. If contents are slightly cloudy, they are Grade II. The distinctive features relied upon to determine the grade are the air-cell (which should be 1-20 of the whole area) and the presence of a brown spot or fungus growth attached to the inside of the shell. If the air-cell is larger than normal, it indicates an excess of gas, which indicates the decomposition or other abnormal condition. The fungus growth referred to above is what is meant in the trade, or technically, by "a spot egg," but a "spot" as meant in the Sanitary Code of the City of New York is any egg which has a fungus growth, or which is sour, watery, broken-yolked, bloodringed or veined, or any egg the shell of which is broken so that the contents are leaking therefrom. Ques. 89:-What are the common adulterants of extract of vanilla? ANS.:-Extraction of the essential oil and the substitution of vanillin, or artificial vanilla. Extract of tonka bean, and inferior grades of alcohol. Only alcohol made from grain, or "ethyl alcohol," is permitted to be used in any extracts intended for human consumption. Methy, or wood alcohol, is very poisonous, and denatured alcohol is also sometimes used by unscrupulous manufacturers. It is a mixture of ethyl and methyl alcohols, and is forbidden. Ques. 90:-What are the adulterants of ground black pepper? ANS.: —Ground cocoanut shells. ground olive pits, barks, allspice hulls, dirt and various shells. Ques. 91:-What are the common adulterants of strawberry fruit syrup? ANS.: Glucose and saccharine instead of sugar, caramel as a coloring agent, exhausted strawberry stock, pulp, excessive water (i. e., thin watery syrup, not of proper consistency) and strawberry stems. Ques. 92:-What are the common adulterants of grape jelly? ANS.:-Coal-tar dyes, seeds of grape, skins of grape, starch, glucose, foreign syrup, more water than normally present inthe juice, salicylic acid as preservative. Citric acid has also been found aided to grape jelly, not as a preservative but to make it more tart. Ques. 93:-What are the common adulterants of olive oil? ANS.:-Cottonseed oil and inferior grades of olive oil, i. e., those which are not obtained by simple pressure of the olive mass. Ques 94:-What are the common adulterants of honey? ANS.:-Cane sugar and glucose and boric acid. Ques. 95:-What are the common adulterants of molasses? ANS.:-Glucose and beet sugar molasses. Molasses must be made of cane sugar. Beet sugar molasses is not fit for food. Ques. 96:-What are the common adulterants of maple syrup? ANS.:-Cane sugar, syrup and beet sugar syrup. Thinned with addition of water. Ques. 97:-What are the common adulterants of cider vinegar? ANS.:-Wood vinegar, glucose vinegar, and beer vinegar. Lelute alcohol and acetic acid. Salicylic acid as a preservative. Ques. 98:-What are the common adulterants of ground roast coffee? ANS.:-Chicory; ground roasted cereal, particularly peas and beans; ground cocoanut shells; ground olive pits; foreign barks; browned bread crumbs; coffee hulls; allspice hulls; black pepper hulls. Ground coffee is one of the most fraudulently adulterated of any of our foods. It is, however, easily detected as follows: Place the ground coffee in water. The pure coffee will float on the surface, and the adulterated, being heavier, will sink. If chicory is present, it will leave a brownish red streak in the water as it descends to the bottom of the container. It is also easily detected by taste, as it is soft and of a characteristic bitter-sweet taste. Ques. 99:-What are the conditions usually found in wheat flour which make it unfit for food? ANS.:-Ergot, a fungus growth; rusts; moulds; corn flour may be added or a cheaper grade of wheat flour and be misbranded; insects; hulls from wheat caused by flour not being properly bolted; alum and Cu So 4 was formerly added to flour as a bleach, but now the usual bleach is S 0 2, produced by electrolysis. Ques. 100:-What are the conditions usually found in corn meal which render it unfit for food? ANS.:-Potato starch; wheat and corn hulls; rusts; moulds; dampness. Ques. 101:-What are the conditions usually found in mincemeat which render it unfit for food? ANS.:-Unwholesome meat; decayed raisins; adulterated spices; stems of raisins. 11

Page  12 Ques. 102:-What are the conditions usually found in confectionery food which render it unfit for food? ANS.:-Terra-alba and gypsum are added to confectionery to make candy stiff and hard. Sulphurous acid added as a bleach and dryer. By its use it is possible to use saccharine and glucose instead of sugar and get a clean hard product which retains shape. CuSo4 in highly colored green candies. Candies are coated with rosin and shellac dissolved in alcohol, especially chocolate, to keep from turning gray. Ques. 103:-In which of the products, if any, enumerated above, and by what method can the unwholesome condition be determined without laboratory examination? ANS.:-Wheat and corn flour by sight; mince meat and dried apples by sight and smell; tomato paste by sight, but should be examined chemically; canned vegetables, cover above, also tested chemically for Cu So4, etc.; dried prunes, oranges and bananas by sight, smell and feeling; confectionery by sight, taste and chemical analysis for Cu So4-H2 S03-Co S04-Co C03. Ques. 104:-What conditions in a retail grocery store should be condemned as contaminating? ANS.:-If the floor is not at least two feet above the level of the ground; if the store is not properly ventilated; if it is not properly lighted; if the floor is not clean, and if it is not such as can be effectively cleaned by scrubbing with water; if the ceilings, walls, shelves, and ledge where groceries and meats are kept are not free from dust, dirt, paper and refuse. If proper sink facilities are not provided for necessary washing and cleaning; if all counters where food is displayed are not clean and free from contamination; if the articles of food are not properly protected against dust, etc.; if there are any loose, used or refuse papers or rags blowing about the store (which may be unclean). If there are one or more living rooms in connection; if there is a lavatory in connection which is not properly partitioned; if employees' hands and clothing were not neat and clean; if all doors were not properly screened; if there were flies or gnats around any dried fruits, sugar, syrups or molasses; if there was an ice box for keeping butter, cheese, etc., which was not clean and sanitary, and which was not metal-lined and water-tight, and which was not properly connected with a sewer, through a properly trapped sink. If any articles were adulterated or misbranded. Ques. 105:-What are the principal features to be noted in the inspection of a bakery? ANS.:-The location of the building as to whether it was in a sanitary neighborhood and as to whether it was within 300 feet of any garbage dump, or railroad cars, or boat on which garbage and offal was piled, awaiting to be removed. The con struction of the building as regards light and ventilation. The neatness and cleanliness of employees. Whether the ovens were dirty. Whether any coal dust could get up into the baking rooms, kneeding benches and ovens. The cleanliness of the large baskets and trucks on which the baked breads, pies, cakes, etc., are put after baking. Whether all flour barrels are properly covered to protect them from dust. Whether the benches on which the rolling and kneeding were done were clean. What arrangements were in effect for keeping them clean. Whether there were plenty of sinks and running water and proper facilities for washing. Whether there were living rooms where people slept, in connection with the bakery. Whether the toilet rooms were partitioned and ventilated. Whether the personal appearance of the employees was sanitary and whether their hands and clothing were neat and clean. Where the flour comes from and the quality of same. Where the eggs come from, their condition and whether spot eggs or fresh, or whether frozen or desiccated. Whether the lard, butter, spices, sugars and all raw articles used in the bakery were pure and wholesome. If there were ice boxes for keeping lard, butter and eggs, whether they were clean and sanitary and whether ice boxes were metal-lined and water-tight and whether they were properly drained by being connected with a sewer through a properly trapped sink. Also always find out where most of the goods go to, so in case the Department desired to trace them, it could do so. Also, as to whether the bread, cakes and all articles on which the weight was given on a pasted label were properly labeled as to weight. The condition of the sidewalk in front of the bakery. Whether all doors and windows were properly screened to protect contents of the bakery from flies and insects. Sanitary conditions of adjoining buildings and nature of business carried on in some. Whether the location of the bakery was on low ground, and if so, whether there were any pools of water near or any privies or out-houses from which offensive odors could emanate to the bakery, or the ground damp or malarial. I would also endeavor to ascertain whether the-bakery had ever been inspected before, either by the Federal or State Inspectors. Ques. 106:-As an Inspector of Foods, you are required to investigate the quality and condition of general groceries, fruits, vegetables and beverages in the hotels and restaurants of your district and to secure the evidence for prosecution of violations where found. Detail your procedure. ANS.:-Upon entering the hotels and restaurants I would display my badge and state that I had come to make an inspection. I would then proceed to inspect all groceries, fruits and vegetables and beverages 12

Page  13 in the windows of the restaurant or hotel, and then would go to the kitchen and storing rooms and make a thorough inspection there. I would ask reasonable questions of the proprietor or person in charge concerning the wholesomeness of the foods he is offering, which he must answer; or, if the questions are not fair or reasonable, the burden of proof of that fact is on him. He is expected to answer questions and assist the Inspector in any way possible. If I found any goods being used which were unwholesome, I would condemn the same and get from him a statement as to where such goods were purchased, when, from whom, by whom, and whether they were said to be wholesome, first class goods. I would then make an inspection myself of the places where said goods were said to have been bought, to see if the merchant was still selling such goods. If I found that he was, I would request the restaurant or hotel keeper to assist me in collecting evidence to prosecute such person. Ques. 107:-Is the use of saccharin permitted in food products in New York City? ANS.:-Foods or food products containing saccharin should be deemed adulterated under the Sanitary Code. Ques. 108:-In what foods would you look for saccharin? ANS.:-Syrups, flavoring, candies. Ques. 109:-How is yeast adulterated? ANS.:-By the addition of starch. It is unlawful to sell yeast containing starch as "compressed yeast." Similarly with decomposed yeast under any label. Ques. 110:-What responsibility is placed on the manager or keeper of a saloon as to the sale of unfit food or drink? ANS.:-No person, being the manager or keeper of any saloon, boarding house or lodging house, or being employed as a clerk, servant, or agent thereat, shall therein or thereat offer or have, for food or drink, or to be eaten or drunk, any poisonous, deleterious or unwholesome substance, nor allow anything therein to be done or to occur, dangerous to life or prejudicial to health. Ques. Ill:-How should an ice box be connected with the sewer? ANS.:-No drain pipe from a refrigerator shall be connected with the soil or waste pipe, but it shall discharge into a properly trapped, sewer-connected, water-supplied, open sink. All ice boxes must be lined with a proper metallic substance, so as to make them air-tight. Ques. 112:-What is the penalty for violating a section of the Sanitary Code? ANS.:-A violation of any section of the Sanitary Code is a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment not exceeding one year or a fine not exceeding $500, or both, and in addition the offender is liable to a penalty of $50 to be recovered by the Health Department in a civil action. INSPECTION OF MEATS. Ques. 113:-What is the peritoneum of an animal? ANS.:-The serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity; it usually lines or covers all the viscera (internal organs). Oues. 114:-What is the pleura of an animal? ANS.:-The serous membrane that enfolds the lungs and is reflected upon the walls of the thorax and upon the diavhragm. This often becomes inflamed as in the case of pleuro-pneumonia. Oues. 115:-What is meant by an exudate? ANS:-Any substance which is discharged gradually through pores or small openings: the presence of a yellow exudate in the joint of a carcass would be an indication of disease. Ques. 116:-What is the trachea of an animal? ANS.:-This is the pipe (duct) by which air passes from the throat (larynx) to the bronchi (large tubes leading into each lung) and the lungs; it is usually called the windpipe. Ques. 117:-What are the general characteristics of good meat? ANS.:-The flesh should be firm, elastic, of a bright, uniform color; in fresh meat the outside is lighter than the inside; lean meat is paler than blood, so that a dark purple color shows that the blood has not been properly drained away, and fresh meat placed on a plate should always part with a slight amount of reddish juice. The muscles should be fine grained, have a slight pleasant odor, becoming savory when heated; the flesh should present a marbled appearance, owing to the mixture of fat with the muscular fibres. On cutting, the interior should show no softening of the connective tissue, as this indicates the commencement of decay. The fat should be healthy-looking, free from bleeding and firm, not jelly-like in texture; its color varies from straw-white to pale-yellow. The fat should not be too yellow, The state of 13

Page  14 the marrow is often a good test of the condition of meat. It should be light rosyred in color, and in the hind legs solid and firm, while in the fore legs it is rather softer, like honey. Ques. 118:-What are the traces of putrefaction in flesh? ANS.:-The flesh becomes softer than normal and is moist looking. A disagreeable odor is given off and the color is usually dark-green or black. Putrefaction often begins deep down in the flesh, near the bone; this is especially true of refrigerated meat which has been put in the cold room before the animal heat has entirely left the carcass. It also occurs with ham, bacon, tongues, corned, salted and pickled meats. By use of the "trier" this putrefaction can best be discovered. Ques. 119:-What is a trier? ANS.:-A trier is a sharp-pointed instrument varying from 6 to 12 inches in length and is employed to detect the presence of putrefaction. The trier is inserted into a fleshy part of the meat and is then withdrawn and smelled. Ques. 120:-How would you estimate the age of an ox from its teeth? ANS.:-The adult ox has eight incisors (cutting teeth-like the front teeth in a grown person's mouth), situated irK front of the lower jaw. The front part of the upper jaw is devoid of teeth, but is provided with a dense fibrous pad. In the back part of both jaws molar teeth (grinding teeth-like those in the back of the 4uman mouth) are found; twelve on the upper and twelve on the lower jaw. Animals under one year still possess their milk teeth, which are comparatively small, of a porcelain white color and narrower near to the gum than they are beyond. They are eight in number, four on each side, on the lower jaw. At two years the two central milk teeth are dropped and are replaced by two larger ones-the rest of the milk teeth remaining comparatively small. At three years the four central teeth are large and the others small; it four years of age the six central teeth are large, and at the fifth year all the permanent teeth come into wear. The teeth so fat are all close together; almost as wide at the top as at the base. From six years of age onward the teeth change into a neck at the base and wide, as before, at the top. This neck becomes more noticeable as the age advances. In animals of ten years or more the teeth appear much worn, project far out from the gums, and are separated from one another. Ques. 121:-How may the age of cows be approximately determined from their horns? ANS.:-By counting the rings around their horns. These show the number of calves that the animal has had. Add two to their number to get the age. Ques. 122:-Where the head of an animal is not available, making it impossible to examine the teeth, how in such a case would you determine the age of the animal? ANS.:-In young animals the bones are soft and smaller than in older animals. The inner surface of the ribs is pink. There is much cartilage at the joints. The flesh of young animals should be bright red, firm and juicy, but not too moist, and well marbled with layers of fat, especially in the loins. In old animals the bones are dense, hard and large. The inner surface of the ribs is white and shiny. The flesh is stringy, tough and less marbled with fat. Ques. 123:-How would you determine the age of a sheep? ANS.:-A sheep has four pairs of incisor teeth on the lower jaws; they appear and are replaced by larger ones as follows: 1 year, the central pair; 1X2 years, the four central ones are replaced by large teeth; 2 years 3 months, the six central teeth are large; 3 years, all are large. The permanent teeth are larger and broader than the milk teeth, and can thus be distinguished from them. After six the incisors become notched. Ques. 124:-How would you judge the age of a pig? ANS.:-A pig has three pairs of incisor and a pair of canine teeth (like the sharp teeth of dogs, used for tearing meat), called "tusks," on its lower jaw. They appear and are replaced as follows: The central pair of incisors by a large pair, at 12 months: the next pair of incisors, one tooth on each side of the central pair and the tusks, at 9 months; the corner or end incisors at 18 months. Ques. 125:-What are the provisions of the Sanitary Code as to the age and weight of veal? ANS.:-No calf or the meat thereof shall be brought into the city, or held, sold or offered for sale for human food, which when killed was less than four weeks old, or when killed and dressed weighs less than fortyfive pounds. Ques. 126:-Below what age is the meat of a pig unwholesome? ANS.:-If the pig when killed was less than five weeks old, then it shall not be brought into, held, sold or offered for sale for human food in the City of New York. Ques. 127:-What are the provisions of the Sanitary Code as to the age at which a lamb may be killed. ANS.:-No lamb, or the meat thereof, shall be brought into the city or held, sold or offered for sale for human food, which when killed was less than eight weeks old. Ques. 128:-Tell what you know about "stearin." ANS.:-Stearin is the solid residue of meat or fat after the oil has been taken out, 14

Page  15 Ques. 129:-What appearances or conditions in meat would lead you to suspect that a forbidden preservative or coloring matter had been used? ANS.:-The meats gradually lose the natural red tint of the fresh meat, and to that extent the color is an index of the preservatives. A "too red" color would also indicate the addition of sulphite of soda to heighten the color. Ques. 130:-What preservatives and coloring matters are used in meats? ANS.:-Sulphurous acid, boric acid, salicylic acid, salt, cochineal, vegetable and coal-tar colors. Ques. 131:-What is the general appearance of flesh of an animal that has not been bled? ANS.:-The flesh contains a great amount of blood; the veins are filled with blood, as well as the left ventricle. Ques. 132:-What conditions are necessary in order that putrefaction should not take place? ANS.:-Putrefaction will not take place without moisture; for meat or vegetable matters, if thoroughly dried, will keep unchanged for an indefinite period. Neither will it go on at a low temperature; and dead substances kept at the freezing point will not putrefy. The most complete preservation takes place when the two conditions of cold and dryness are combined. Oues. 133:-What are the evidences of anthrax before and after killing? ANS.:-This is sometimes called splenic fever, or "staggers." It occurs most frequently in young oxen. The animal stands, if possible, by itself, with drooping head, and refuses to move or feed. Its temperature is raised, pulse rapid and feeble and breathing accelerated. If made to move the gait is staggering, as though the animal were giddy, and the muscles twitch and quiver. There may be a discharge of saliva from the mouth. The dung as a rule contains blood and the urine, too, is often red from a similar cause. Bleeding from the nose and anus has also been observed. If an Inspector suspects that an animal is suffering from this disease the animal should be taken to a place by itself and a blood test taken. A little blood taken from the ear and examined under the microscope will show large rod-shaped organisms. In the dead carcass anthrax is usually evidenced by an enlarged spleen. Further skinning and dressing should be prohibited until a blood test has been taken. If the animal has anthrax, all knives and instruments used on it should be boiled and the part of the slaughter-house affected should be closed until thoroughly disinfected. Oues. 134:-What diseases would you look for in the inspection of slaughtered cattle and hogs? ANS.:-Tuberculosis, anthrax or "staggers," foot-and-mouth disease, pleuro-pneumonia, affections of the tongue, "wooden tongue," jaundice or yellows, red water, black water or muir ill, dysentery or bloody flux, swine plague, hog cholera or pig typhoid. Ques. 135:-Tell what you know about septicemia. ANS.:-This is a disease chiefly found in calves and adult cattle. Small patches of hemorrhage can usually be found in the mucous and serous membranes. A cloudy swelling of the liver, kidneys and heart is typical of the disease. These organs are enlarged and have a bulky appearance. Ques. 136:-How would you recognize the presence of anaemia in meat which is to be sold for food? ANS.:-When the disease is pronounced the animals are emaciated, their flesh is pale, soft and watery, and petechiae may be found in certain organs and in the serous membranes. When such conditions are present the carcass should be condemned. Anaemia is generally the result of chronic disease, but may be due to the presence of parasites. Ques. 137:-What is the effect of giving turpentine or aloes to an animal? ANS.:-It usually gives rise to a characteristic smell and flavor in the meat which may necessitate condemnation. Ques. 138:-What is the "kosher" method of slaughtering? ANS.:-In this method of slaughtering the animal's throat is cut. The animal is thrown on its side and fixed there. This is done by a rope which is attached to the hind legs of the animal; the upper end of this rope is attached to a windlass fastened to the ceiling or wall. The head is then placed so that it rests on the horns and nose, the throat is cut by a very keen-edged knife, all the organs being cut right down to the vertebrae. The meat from such carcasses keeps better than that of animals which have been stunned to death. Ques. 139:-Tell all you can about "measly" meat. ANS.:-Measly meat is meat which contains parasites that may be transmitted to man by eating the meat. Cysticercus bovis, or the beef bladder-worm, is recognized as small whitish spots in the substance of meats. This parasite is chiefly found in the masticatory muscles and heart. Cysticercus cellulosae is found in the muscles of the pig. Similar to cysticercus bovus. Trichina spiralis is found in the muscles of the pig. These three parasites are the cause of measly meat. Ques. 140:-How would you determine whether or not a forequarter of beef was fit for human food? ANS.:-I would inspect the muscular tissue; it should be bright red in color; it should be elastic to the touch and more or less dry after being exposed to the atmosphere. It ought to possess a pleasant odor, 15

Page  16 be marbled with fat, the graining of the muscles on transverse section should be fine. The connective tissue should glisten and be moist, but fluid should not come from it. The fat should be examined-it should not be emaciated. Look on the external surface for hemorrhage, tumors, parasites or fluid in the tissues. Cut into hemorrhagic patches and determine if they are merely superficial or extend deeply into the meat. Look on the inside of the quarter for evidences of tuberculosis or inflammation. Ques. 141:-In a freshly slaughtered steer where would you look for evidence of tuberculosis? ANS.:-Look for evidences of tuberculosis in the lymphatic glands, the peritoneum, in the bones, the vertebral column, the ribs, the udder in cows, the kidneys, spleen, liver, lungs and other organs, with their lymphatic glands. Ques. 142:-What diseases are usually found in pork? Give a full description of each. ANS.:-Swine Fever. Sometimes called hog cholera, pig typhoid, enteric "red soldier" or "purples." It is usually evidenced by an eruption of the skin and is frequently accompanied by consolidation of the lungs. There is a bluish-red discoloration of the skin on the ham, ears and under surface of the abdomen. Swine Erysipelas. A dark-red colored rash appears first on the ears, snout and hocks, after which it spreads all over the body. After slaughter the muscles are found paler than normal, with hemorrhages in their substance. Urticaria, Nettlerash of Pigs, Diamonds. Diamond-shaped patches of a red or dusky color appear on the skin and are caused by hemorrhages under the skin. There is an inflammation of the lungs and patches of inflammation on the mucous membrane of the intestines. Ques. 143:-Tell all you can about wooden tongues. ANS.:-This condition is produced by a parasite (actinomyces). The tongue becomes enlarged and very firm and unyielding in consistence. Tumors may also be found on the tissues of the tongue. Such tongues should be condemned. Ques. 144:-Explain how ordinary pork sausages are made, naming the various ingredients, showing the proportion of each. ANS.:-The pork is first chopped in a chopping machine. The chopped meat is then mixed with meal, rice, flour, chopped biscuit, bread or sausage-meal, and the whole seasoned with salt, pepper and other condiments. It is then put into the barrel of a sausage filler or stuffer and forced by the plunger through the nozzle into the skin placed ready to receive it, Ques. 145:-What are the common diseases of mutton? Define each. ANS.: —Braxy. This is a disease which attacks the peritoneal cavity and blood. The carcass becomes rapidly blown up with gas, mostly in the peritoneal cavity. The flesh is greatly blood-stained. Sheep Pox. It is an epidemic among sheep. It is indicated by a very putrid odor. Sheep Scab. This is a disease which attacks the skin of the sheep. Flesh is emaciated and watery. Husk or Hoose. This is a form of bronchitis due to worms in the air passages. Foot-Rot. An inflamed condition of the parts contained within the hoof. Louping-Ill or Trembles. A disease of sheep caused by a rod-shaped germ in the intestine and peritoneal liquid. The carcass has gas in the stomach; there are hemorrhages along the intestine. Ques. 146:-How can the existence of fever in an animal, at the time of slaughtering, be detected in the dressed meat? ANS.:-The flesh is darker in color than normal, with small hemorrhages scattered throughout its substance. The flesh may be "soapy" to the touch. Ques. 147:-How is the temperature of a living animal ascertained? ANS.:-If the hand be run over a healthy animal it will be found that the trunk feels warmer than the hoofs, the points of the horns and the ears, which are comparatively cold. In fevered animals these feel warm. To get the accurate temperature, put a thermometer into the bowel and tie it to the tail. In cattle the normal temperature is 101.5~ F. Ques. 148:-What is meant by cattle plague or rinderpest? ANS.:-This is an infectious disease found in oxen. The mucous membrane of the stomach is swollen and congested. "Zebra markings" may appear in the rectum. The kidneys may be congested; the liver is swollen and its surface dull. The flesh of the diseased meat may be very dark in color. The carcass should be destroyed. Ques. 149:-How would you detect black leg in cattle? ANS.:-The disease also goes by the name of murrain, quarter ill and black quarter. This disease is mainly found in young cattle, but is sometimes present in goats and sheep. Crackling tumors appear in the fore and hind quarters under the skin, due to gas formed by the bacteria. On cutting into such swelling the gas escapes. The tissues are full of a bloody serum and the muscles of the diseased parts are dark-red in color. A rancid odor is given off, which is increased on warming the diseased portions. The whole carcass should be condemned. Ques. 150:-State the common terms applied to diseased or unfit veal and define each term. ANS.:-"Slink Veal." The flesh of newly born or unborn calves. It has a gelatinous 16

Page  17 appearance, of pale bluish-red color, and is watery. This meat is very dangerous to health and should not be sold. Navel Ill (umbilical pyaemia). This is a condition where the navel or the surrounding flesh of the calf is infected with pus. It is accompanied by a swelling of the joints; when these joints are opened a yellowish fluid is found. Ques. 151:-How would you detect internal decay in meat? ANS.:-Push a clean knife blade, or any metallic instrument, into the bone, and any internal softening will be detected by lessened resistance, and the smell of the blade will reveal decay. Ques. 152:-What is pleuro-pneumonia and what animals are subject to that disease? ANS.:-This is a disease of the pleurae; they are affected by fibrinous pleuritis; they are thickened, have lost their lustre and their surface is covered by a yellowish exudate. The disease is generally restricted to one lung and it is the left which is most frequently affected. The disease occurs principally in cattle. Ques. 153:-What are the indications of pleuro-pneumonia in animals before and after slaughtering? ANS.:-Before slaughtering: Difficult breathing, coughing, discharge froin the nose, fever. In chronic cases there are very often no indications and it can only be d!scovered after slaughtering. After slaughtering: The lungs (usually only the left one) are enlarged and solid and do not make a crackling noise when an incision is made through them, and will not float on water. In the acute stages the flesh is fevered and soapy. It does not set well. Ques. 154:-How would you determine that a freshly slaughtered steer was infected with tuberculosis and.not pneumonia? ANS.:-Tuberculosis: Tubercules, small "grapelike" growths, appear on the pleura and peritoneum. The bones, too, have these tubercular growths. The ribs should be carefully inspected for the presence of thickening. The udder in cows contains these growths. Pneumonia. Pleurae are covered with a yellowish exudate. Ques. 155:-In the inspection of swine immediately after slaughter what are the most important points to be noticed? ANS.:-The lobes of the lungs are always to be cut into (lung worms); likewise, the lymphatic glands of the lower jaw (tuberculosis). The muscles of the heart, larynx, pharynx, tongue and abdomen (after the removal of the entrails), neck and loins are always to be examined for taenia, or calcareous deposits. The skin must be examined for dark red spots (swine plague, swine pneumonia, hog cholera), round, circumscribed, dark red or pale spots (erysipelas), small, circumscribed spots, very often covered with crusts, which upon incision frequently contain a purulent discharge (injuries and bite wounds). Grayish red thickened masses in the lungs, adhesions of the lungs and diaphraghm, inflammation, swelling and ulcers on the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines (swine plague, pneumonia, l'og cholera). Oily. fishy or buck-like odor of the meat (boar meat, or caused by bad feed). Ques. 156:-In the inspection of a sheep immediately after slaughter, what important points are to be noted? ANS.:-Emaciation, watery infiltration or yellowish coloration of the meat and fat (worm disease, jaundice). Purulent, usually capsuled, masses in the lungs. Ques. 157:-In the examination of animals during life, what are the points to be noticed? ANS.:-General nourished condition (emaciation). The Inspector is to inform himself as to whether the animal is free from fever. If indications of fever are present (drowsiness, chills, insensibility, staring look, weakness), then the temperature of the body must be taken with a thermometer, which shall indicate the condition of the body temperature. The skin is to be examined for the presence of wounds, and it is noted whether they lead into body cavities, articulations or bones, and whether they contain any purulent discharges, or bone splinters. The visible mucous membrane of the eye should be noted as to whether it is very red and yellowish in color (feverish condition), hemorrhagic (anthrax blood poisoning), or of a light color (pneumonia). The anus and tail are to be examined as to whether there has been any diarrhoea, or whether the feces indicate any hemorrhage, or strong offensive odors. The very offensive and purulent discharge of the vagina (soiling of the tail and hindquarters) are indications of parturition. Labored or accelerated breathing indicates affection of the lungs. Impaired digestion and a very bloated, or a very emaciated abdomen indicate stomachic and intestinal trouble. In abnormal locomotor symptoms (lameness, paralysis), careful examination is made of the hoofs (foot-and-mouth disease), then the bones (fractures), and the articulations (indicated by swellings and injuries of the affected parts). Ques. 158:-In inspecting calves immediately after slaughter, what important points are to be noticed in connection therewith? ANS.:-The navel and front and hind metacarpal joints are to be examined for the presence of gelatinous discharges, pus formations and discolored secretions (joint disease).

Page  18 Inflammation, hemorrhage or accumulations on the peritoneum and the serous membrane of the intestines (peritonitis) generally caused by ulcers eating through the stomach. Inflammation of the intestines, very offensive discharge, and soiled tail (gastro enteritis). Air spaces between the muscles, especially on the elbow and flank (blown-up meat). Ques. 159:-What points should an Inspector examine very carefully in a live sheep? ANS.:-Pale mucous membrane, cold and doughy swelling of the skin at the neck as far as the lower jaw (worm disease). Uneven fleece, a strong itching sensation with eruption on the part of the head which is covered with wool, pustules and scab with inflammation of the non-fleeced parts of the body (pox). Lameness is always an indication that a closer examination of the hoof and mucous membrane of the mouth should be made (foot-and-mouth disease). Ques. 160:-What are the special symptoms to be noted in the inspection of swine before slaughter? ANS.:-Animals unconscious of surroundings, hiding in the straw, dropping of the tail (general symptoms of disease). A dark red color of the skin, neck, ears, abdomen and inner surface of the thigh (swine plague, pleura pneumonia, hog cholera); dark or light red, sharply outlined spots on the skin (erysipelas). Very loud squeals when aroused and hemorrhage of the hoofs indicate that an accurate inspection should be made of the hoofs. Froth at the mouth indicates the necessity of careful examination of the mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue (foot-and-mouth disease). Very offensive grayish red or yellow feces (gastro enteritis); coughing and accelerated breathing (inflammation of the lungs, hog cholera). Swellings of the joints (tuberculosis or effects of swine plague or hog cholera); swellings of the head, neck and ears (quinzy or bite wounds). Ques. 161:-What special symptoms are to be noted in the inspection of calves before slaughter? ANS.:-Soft, offensive smelling navel, containing pus, and swollen joints of both front and hind limbs with lameness (joint disease). Flanks drawn up, a very offensive feces, which soils the tail and hindquarters (peritonitis or gastro enteritis). Ques. 162:-In the inspection of live cattle what symptoms are to be given special examination? ANS.:-Very warm swellings in different parts of the body (anthrax and blackleg): cold swellings on the abdomen in connection with accelerated breathing (protruding of foreign bodies from the stomach into the breast cavity); prominent protrusion of the flanks (bloat); punctures of the left flanks (puncture for bloat). An excess of salival fluid, or soiling of the tongue, ulcers on the mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue (foot-and-mouth disease); swellings on the tongue and jaw (actinomycosis); discharge from the nose with ulcers, watering of the eye (malignant catarrhal fever). Swelling and inflammation of the vagina or vulva ("oestrum"); a purulent or mixedcolored, very offensive discharge of the vagina, soiling of the tail and hindquarters, sinking of the muscles of the pelvis (parturition trouble). On the udder: Vesicles (foot-and-mouth disease); non-sensitive nodules with enlargements of the glands (tuberculosis); general swelling, often combined with lameness (acute inflammation of the udder); non-sensitive, thickening and enlargement (chronic ulcers); a full udder with distinctly marked blood vessels (a fresh milker). Lameness is always an indication that a thorough examination should be made of the hoofs (foot-and-mouth disease). Ques. 163:-In examining cattle immediately after slaughter, what inspection is necessary in order to thoroughly examine the fitness of the carcass for food? ANS.:-The pleura is examined for tubercular adhesions and growths. The lung is palpated to ascertain whether there are nodules (tubercular, pus cavities, inflammation of the lungs, bladder worms). The bronchial and mediastinal glands are to be cut into (tuberculosis). There is to be noticed further the dark coloration, and the uniform red coloration of the blood (the gravitation of the blood after death to the deep-seated parts); the red coloration of certain lobes (entrance of the blood due to the puncture); a gelatin-like or grayish red color (presence of water); abnormally large lungs, especially the posterior lobes, and air vesicles under the pleura and between the lobes (blown-up lung). Finally the lung is to be cut into lengthwise (lung worms, food stuffs in the bronchial tubes). The pericardium is to be cut into and examined to ascertain whether it is adhered to the lungs or heart, and whether it contains a gelatinous or pus-like substance (foreign growths). The heart chambers are to be cut into. The left chamber filled (poor bleeding); hemorrhage on the outer and inner surface of the heart (blood poisoning); enlargement or a streaked gray coloring (foreign growths). Finally the muscles of the heart are to be examined for taenia. The diaphragm and the parts that are cut out with the viscera are to be examined for growths or pus-cavities (foreign bodies from the stomach); also for tubercular nodules. The liver must be examined for swellings (rounding of the borders); grayish yellow, or dark red coloration, adherence to other organs, pus cavities (foreign bodies from 18

Page  19 the stomach); tubercular nodules on the serous membranes. The liver is to be palpated (pus, tubercular nodules, bladder worms and thickness of the gall ducts). Incisions are to be made at the posterior surface of the liver into the left half and the spigelian lobe. By pressure upon the gall ducts examination is made for the presence of the liver fluke. The lymphatic glands of the liver are to be cut into (to distinguish between decalcified bladder worms and tuberculosis). The spleen must be examined for swellings (rounding of the borders); dark red coloring, softening (anthrax and blood poisoning); the spleen must be thoroughly palpated (tubercular nodules, pus cavities. or bladder worms). If the presence of tubercular nodules is detected it must be determined whether they are present within the spleen or upon the serous coat of the same. In the head the tongue is to be cut at the base and an examination made for vesicular eruptions, ulcers and marked redness of the mucous membrane of the mouth, gums and tongue (foot and mouth disease, rinderpest). The bones of the jaw and also the tongue are to be felt (actinomycosis). The muscles of the jaw are to be cut into (taenia); likewise the lymphatic glands of the pharynx and lower jaw (tuberculosis, antinomycosis). The external and internal surfaces of the gastro-enteric canal are especially examined. (a) On the outer surface, grapelike or membranous nodules are to be looked for, clusters of which may be very numerous (tuberculosis and peritonitis); general and small circumscribed hemorrhages (anthrax, blood poisoning and gastro enteritis); and perforations leading to the exterior (foreign bodies, ulcers). (b) On the inner surface: Inflammation, hemorrhage, marked folds, ulcers, membranous adhesions, gelatinous discharge (gastro enteritis, anthrax and blood poisoning); thickening of the abomasum and the rectum (foreign growths); growths, perforations, formation of pus, putrefaction on and between the stomach and the stomach divisions, especially of the riticulum (perforations by foreign bodies). The mesentery and omentum are to be examined for hemorrhages and purulent discharges on the outer surface of the intestines. The mesenteric glands are to be cut into (tuberculosis and flukes). The uterus is to be examined and its fuIness and distension noted (pregnancy, or the accumulation of purulent matter). The uterus and the vagina are to be cut Into for the examination of purulent discharges, ulcers, or the accumulations of pus, and perforations (purulent inflammation of the uterus, tuberculosis, undeveloped or decayed embryos). The meat (both sides) is now examined as to its condition (leanness or emaciation); and then for the yellow color (jaundice, or yellow fat caused by grass); watery infiltration, gelatin-like discharges, hemorrhages, colorations, and besides the smallest hemorrhages are to be cut into (fractures, bruises, wounds, purulent discharges). The gloss, the color and the consistency of the fat and of the meat are to be closely examined, also the visible bones (vertebrae, breast bone); and the tendons and joints (tuberculosis and purulent discharges); the muscles of the neck are to be examined for taenia. Upon the detection of tuberculosis on either of the foregoing organs, the lymphatic glands of the body (elbow and flank glands) are to be cut into. The kidneys are to be palpated (nodules, parasites), and the lymphatic glands of the kidney are to be cut into (tuberculosis, hemorrhage, enlargements). If the lymphatic glands of the kidneys are not altered, then it is not necessary, as a rule, to cut into the kidneys. The suprarenal capsules are to be cut into. The inner surface of both sides must be examined for inflammation, hemorrhage, especially on the inner side of the pelvis, swelling and hemorrhage on the inner side of the sacral bones (fractures of the pelvis, parturition trouble); membranous adhesions, foul smelling or suppurating condition of the pleura and peritoneum. Perforations through the digestive canal (foreign bodies, puncture wounds of the breast and abdomen caused by operation for tympanitis). In the examination of the pleura it is necessary to lift up the diaphragm. Ques. 164:-Give in detail the process of curing a ham from the time it is trimmed until. it is ready for shipment? ANS.:-All meat intended for pickling must be absolutely cold; the animal heat must have entirely left it. Salt, sugar and saltpeter are now placed into the pickle solution which is to be used for curing. For determining the exact solid content of the brine a "salometer," constructed on the principle of a hydrometer, is employed. All pickles lose strength when fresh meat is immersed in them; thus a pickle of say, 85 degrees may, in ten days after being put into the cask along with fresh meat, register as low as 73 degrees when tested with the salometer. Pickle thus reduced in strength must never be left in contact with meat for any length of time after it is fully cured, otherwise the meat becomes "picklesoaked" and the pickle turns sour. When meat is pickled in barrels it is customary to roll them frequently, in order to facilitate the cure. Ques. 165:-How shall offal or butcher's refuse be conveyed through the streets or over the ferries? ANS.:-A permit must be obtained from the Board of Health and when so conveyed must be in tight boxes, barrels or receptacles, and tightly covered so that no odor shall escape therefrom. No offal or butcher's refuse shall be brought into the city. Ques. 166:-May horse flesh be kept or offered for sale? ANS.:-It shall neither be kept nor sold for food, and the slaughtering of horses 19

Page  20 for food is prohibited. Horses may, however, be slaughtered for other purposes, if a permit is first obtained from the Board of Health. Ques. 167:-What disposition shall be made of the blood of slaughtered animals? ANS.:-It must not be allowed to flow into the sewer or river, but while still fresh must be treated so as not to become offensive. Ques. 168:-What disposition shall be made of all offensive odors arising from the handling of meat? ANS.:-It shall be cared for by destruction or condensation and not allowed to escape into the outside air. Ques. 169:-How shall the floors of a slaughter-house be kept? ANS.:-All floors where any meat, refuse, offal, fertilizer or any other materials, derived directly or indirectly from slaughtering of animals, are treated or handled, must be made water-tight, properly drained and sewer-connected, and the walls of the killing, meat dressing and cooling rooms must be covered to the height of six feet above the floor with some non-absorbent material. Ques. 170:-How shall the yards be constructed? ANS.:-The yards, other than where cattle are kept, must be cemented or paved so as not to absorb liquid filth, and be so graded as to permit the same to flow into the sewer opening. Ques. 171:-How must the woodwork be kept? ANS.:-All woodwork except floors and counters must be painted or whitewashed. Ques. 172:-How shall slaughter-houses be kept? ANS.:-No building occupied as a slaughter house or any part thereof, or any building on the same lot, shall be occupied at any time as a dwelling or lodging place; and every such building shall at all times be kept adequately and thoroughly ventilated. Ques. 173:-Before a building shall be erected or converted into or used as a slaughter house, what is it necessary to do? ANS.:-Submit the plans to the Board of Health and have same approved in writing. Ques. 174:-Where shall the business of slaughtering cattle, sheep, swine, pigs or calves be conducted in the Borough of Manhattan? ANS.:-On the west side, between the north of the middle line of the block between West Twenty-eighth and West Thirty-ninth streets and the south side of West Forty-first Street, Eleventh Avenue and North River, inclusive, and the slaughtering of cattle, sheep or calves on the east side shall be between the north of the middle line of the block between East Forty-second and East Forty-third streets and the south side of East Forty-seventh Street, First Avenue and East River, inclusive. Ques. 175:-Under what conditions may animals be killed or dressed in the City of New York? ANS.:-The business of slaughtering cattle, sheep, swine, pigs or calves shall not be conducted in the city without a permit from the Board of Health. Nor shall such business be conducted unless the same shall be in buildings located on or near the waterfront, and all buildings shall be constructed so as to receive all stock deliverable thereat from boats, cars or transports, and to secure the proper care and disposition of all parts of the slaughtered animals upon the premises, or the immediate removal thereof by means of boats. Ques. 176:-In what manner shall animal food be prepared and kept? ANS.:-No person shall kill or dress any animal or meat in any market, and the keeping and slaughtering of all cattle, and the preparation and keeping of all meat and fish, birds and fowl, shall be in that manner which is, or is generally reputed or known to be, best adapted to secure and continue their safety and wholesomeness as food. Ques. 177:-May cattle, swine, or sheep, geese or goats be kept or yarded within or adjacent to the built-up portions of the city? ANS:-Yes, but only with a permit from the Board of Health. Ques. 178:-When may cows be kept in the City of New York? ANS.:-When a permit is obtained from the Board of Health. Ques. 179:-How must stables be kept where cows or other animals may be? ANS.:-In a cleanly and wholesome condition, and properly ventilated, and no person shall allow any animal to be therein which is infected with any contagious or pestilential disease. Ques. 180:-What care must be taken of cattle? ANS.:-No cattle shall be kept in any place where the ventilation is not adequate and the water and food are not of such quality and in such condition as to preserve their health, safe condition, and wholesomeness for food. Ques. 181:-What does the law require of one who wishes to drive cattle, swine or sheep through a public street in the Borough of Brooklyn? ANS.:-He must have a permit from the Board of Health in writing and he must drive subject to the conditions thereof. Ques. 182:-How should a butcher or dealer keep his icebox or refrigerator? ANS.:-It shall be lined with some proper metallic substance, so as to be watertight, 20

Page  21 Ques. 188:-How should meat be prepared before it is offered for sale? ANS.:-No meat or dead animal above the size of a rabbit shall be taken to any public or private market to be sold for human food until the same shall have been fully cooled after killing, nor until the entrais and feet (except of poultry and game, and except the feet of swine), shall have been removed. Ques. 184:-How is meat to be carried or carted through the streets? ANS.:-All meat which is to be used as human food, shall not be carted or carried through the streets unless it be so covered as to protect it from dust and dirt. Ques. 185:-Where is it unlawful to expose food for sale and what food may not be exposed? ANS.:-No meat, poultry, game or fish shall be hung or exposed for sale in any street or outside of any shop or store or in the open windows or doorways thereof. Ques. 186:-What cattle may not be killed? ANS.:-No cattle shall be killed for human food while in an overheated, feverish or diseased condition; and all such diseased cattle in the city, and the place where found, and their disease, shall be at once reported to the Department of Health by the owner or custodian thereof, that the proper order may be made relative thereto, or for the removal thereof from the city. Ques. 187:-What is the best time for meat inspection? ANS.:-Meat inspection should be done in daylight. In cases of emergency the examination of the living animal may be done in the evening with plenty of light, but the final inspection should never be made by artificial light. Ques. 188:-How would you recognize meat inflation? Why is it done and what are the objections thereto? ANS.:-Inflation of meat is practiced mostly on calves, sheep, seldom cattle, and also on the lungs for the purpose of imparting a better appearance to the meat or organs than they naturally possessed. It is done either with the mouth or bellows in the following way: The air is blown down the trachea into the lungs. In calves the skinning process is sometimes performed by blowing air under the skin through a small puncture. The hole is closed and the inflated part is struck with the hand in order to drive the gas along under the skin. The shreds of the muscles are filled with air; so also with the space between the tissues and the muscles. Where the meat is blown by use of the mouth there is danger of germs entering the meat from the mouth of the person inflating the meat. Ques. 189:-Describe a modern method of making lard on a large scale. ANS.:-Lard is made by applying steam 21 to the fat of swine. The steam may be applied in a closed kettle in the form of a jacketed arrangement or introduced directly into the kettle. The residues which remain after the steaming is completed and after the lard has been drawn off are withdrawn from the conical lower portion of the kettle which can be opened for the removal of these residues. The fragments of meat to be rendered are dropped into the top of the kettle, which is long and cylindrical in form; the top of the kettle is closed when it is full. Steam is admitted to the kettle at the bottom by means of a pipe which runs into the tank. This pipe has a valve on it so that the steam can be adjusted. The condensation which is produced at first by the cold contents of the tank is drawn off through a water pipe, also situated at the bottom of the tank, opposite the steam pipe. After the tank is thoroughly heated and the fat begins to separate, the lard will rise above the water and the solid fragments and at the end of the process will fill the upper part of the tank. By means of cocks, situated about one-third the distance up from the bottom of the tank, it can be determined to what depth the tank is filled with lard and the lard can be drawn off through these cocks until water begins to flow. The bottom of the tank can then be opened and the residues withdrawn, dried and ground for tankage. Ques. 190:-How would you differentiate between meat that is aging and meat that is decomposing? ANS.:-Meat that is aging would be more or less dry and elastic to the touch; meat which is decomposing will be soft and emit a disagreeable odor. Decomposing meat will be discolored; aging meat will still retain the light-red color. Ques. 191:-How shall fat, tallow or lard be smeltered or rendered? ANS.:-Only when fresh from the slaughtered animal; and taken directly from the place of slaughter and in a condition free from sourness or taint and free from all other causes of offense at the time of rendering; and all melting and rendering are to be in steam-tight vessels; the gases and odors therefrom to be destroyed by combustion or other means equally effective. Ques. 192:-How would you detect boric acid in sausages? ANS.:-A small sample should be rubbed thoroughly with a little water, which dissolves a large part of the preservative and the liquid should then be filtered to remove the solid matter. Take a tablespoon of this liquid and add five drops of hydrochloric acid. A strip of tumeric paper is dipped into the liquid and afterward removed and held in a warm place until dry. If boric acid or borax be present the tumeric paper assumes a bright cherry-red color on drying. If a drop of ammonia be now added, the red color

Page  22 changes to dark green-or greenishblack. Ques. 193:-How would you detect the presence of starch in sausages? ANS.:-Place a drop of iodine solution on the top of the suspected sausage. If starch is present, the sausage will turn decidedly blue. Ques. 194:-In establishments for manufacturing sausages or for smoking or preserving meat or fish, how should the floors be constructed? ANS.:-They should be constructed of cement, properly graded to sewer-connected drain. Ques. 195:-How should the side walls of such places be constructed? ANS.:-The side walls must be constructed of smooth cement upon which must be applied three coats of white paint and one coat of white enamel to a height of eight feet from the floor. Ques. 196:-How should such side walls and floors be kept at all times? ANS.:-They must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition at all times and under all conditions. Ques. 197:-How should tables in such establishments be constructed and kept? ANS.:-The tables, with the exception of the cutting tables, must have iron frames and marble or stone tops, and shall be so placed as to be accessible at all times for the purposes of cleaning. Ques. 198:-How should such places be illuminated? ANS.:-No room in which artificial illumination is required should be used for the preparation of meat and fish. All such rooms must be directly lighted from the outside and directly ventilated by means of windows to the external air. Ques. 199:-Where is it unlawful to locate such establishments? ANS.:-Below the level of the street. Ques. 200:-What care should be taken of all machinery, tables, containers and utensils in such establishments? ANS.:-They must be cleaned at least once each day with hot water and soap. Ques. 201:-How would you detect bad meat in sausages? ANS.:-I would look for a discoloration of the sausages; if the sausage has a disagreeable odor it should be condemned. I would examine carefully a highly colored sausage. Ques. 202:-Write a letter to the Chief Inspector showing how meats are handled and kept under modern methods of cold storage. Sign this report "John Doe." New York, Nov. 18, 1912. Mr. William Jones, Chief Inspector, Bureau of Food Inspection, Department of Health. Walker and Centre Streets, City. Dear Sir: On November 14th, I inspected the coldstorage plant of Roberts Bros., at 416 East 44th Street, and I herewith submit my report: This plant connects with a slaughterhouse. Along the ceilings of the hallways there is a sliding pulley, by means of which the beef animal hanging from a gambrel furnished with a long hook may be drawn up and transported wherever desired. As soon as the cattle have been slaughtered at the different killing places they are immediately transported to the opposite side of the slaughtering hall by means of the sliding pulley in order to remove them from malodorous material. They are then let down on tracks which run longitudinally along the hall, and are transported to the cooling room. The meat is then transported on cars to the cold storage room, where it is hung up on a hook. These cold storage rooms are cooled by a system of pipes. Fluid ammonia is forced under high pressure into these wrought-iron coiled tubes, the so-called vaporizer. It is here vaporized under low pressure and thereby absorbs the latent heat necessary for vaporization from the surrounding material, air or a fluid (salt water or chloride of lime water). The latter is thereby greatly cooled. From the system of tubes in the vaporizer the gaseous ammonia is then drawn into a peculiarly shaped suction and force pump, the so-called compressor. Here it is changed under pressure into a fluid condition and is then forced into a second system of coiled tubes, the condenser, in which the heat which has been developed, is carried away by flowing water. The fluid ammonia is again conducted through a connecting tube to the vaporizer and the cycle of changes begins over. The cold -storage room is divided in compartments-the cattle slaughtered each week being kept in a separate compartment. The walls of the compartments are made of smooth zinc and the floor of concrete. The carcasses are kept here about a month. Respectfully submitted, JOHN DOE. Ques. 203:-Name and give symptoms of the principal diseases which would render the flesh of cattle unfit for food. Give your reasons. ANS.:-Answer in the answers to questions Nos. 133, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 141, 148, 149, 152, 153, 155. 22

Page  23 Ques. 204:-Name and give symptoms of the principal diseases which would render the flesh of hogs unfit for food. Give your reasons. ANS.:-Answer in the answers to questions Nos. 134, 142, 160. Ques. 205:-Describe in detail the conditions which would indicate immature veal. ANS.:-Lack of firmness in flesh. No covering of fat on kidneys. Condition of embilical cord. Bluish color of flesh. Ques. 206:-Give in detail the process of corning beef. ANS.:-Beef cut into suitable size, punctured with knife to allow brine to penetrate, and brine is usually made by using four parts water to one part salt, and saltpeter to suit. Time of corning depends on size of pieces; usually four days to a pound. Ques. 207:-Describe in detail the process of manufacturing sausages. ANS.:-Sausages are prepared according to the fancy of the manufacturer, with a percentage of beef and pork as desired; spices to suit; water to retain moisture; chopped fine and put into sheen casings. Ques. 208:-Describe in detail the proper selection and preparation of casing. ANS.:-Various casings are intestines of beef and sheep. They are cleared of all fat, and examined for the presence of any false growth or disease. They are thoroughly washed and turned and then washed and packed in salt. When they are to be used they are washed in warm water and again examined. Ques. 209:-What are the first signs of decomposition in fresh beef? ANS.:-Discoloration and a sticky and slimy appearance. Ques. 210:-What substance, if any, are used to conceal evidence of decomposition in fresh beef? ANS.:-Formaldehyde, benzoic acid, sulphurous acid. Ques. 211:-What conditions in a retail market would you condemn as contaminating? ANS.:-I would condemn as contaminating beef or fish that showed signs of discoloration or sticky and slimy appearance. Also regards to fish, loss of color, shrunken eye, lack of firmness in flesh and discoloration of gills. Also the use of formaldehyde, benzoic and sulphurus acid. Ques. 212:-Describe in detail how a slaughter house should be constructed, including provision for the care of animals before, and the protection of carcasses after slaughter. ANS.:-See Sec. 82, 83, 84* 85, 103, Sanitary Code, and Sec. 43, 44, 45. INSPECTION OF POULTRY. Ques. 213:-What is the comb of a fowl? ANS.:-The fleshy crest or projection on top of a hen's head; it is usually upright and notched or serrated. Ques. 214:-What is the wattle of a fowl? ANS.:-The red fold of skin on the throat or neck. It is very pronounced on the turkey. Ques. 215:-What fish, birds or fowl is it unlawful to sell, or offer for sale? ANS.:-No meager, sickly or unwholesome fish, birds or fowl shall be brought into the city, or held, sold or offered for sale for human food. Ques. 216:-Under what conditions may fowls and small animals be kept in the City of New York? ANS.:-No live chickens, geese, ducks or other fowls, shall be brought into or kept or held, or offered for sale, or killed, in any yard, area, cellar, coop, building premises or part thereof or in any public market or on any sidewalk, except upon premises used for farming in unimproved sections of the city, without a permit from the Board of Health and subject to the conditions thereof and obtained in accord ance with the rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Health. Ques. 217:-What are the characteristics of a healthy fowl? ANS.:-Eyes bright, movements active, feathers glossy, nostrils free from discharge, combs and wattles firm and bright in color. Ques. 218:-What facts would you note in the inspection of poultry? ANS.:-The flesh should be of a yellow or pink color; no odor should be emitted from it; it should be firm and elastic and plump and the breastbone should be unbroken. If there is any discoloration it generally appears on the back before it does on the breast. The feet should be limp and pliable. Stiff, dry feet belong to a stale bird. Where the bird has been plucked, the skin should not be discolored. Ques. 219:-What are the common diseases of poultry, and how are they detected? ANS.:-Tuberculosis, chicken cholera, fowl enteritis, gape, "roup" or diphtheria of fowls. Tuberculosis-the liver 'and spleen are generally attacked. The bird is generally found in an emaciated condition. i i 23

Page  24 Chicken Cholera-the birds suffer from diarrhoea, the excretions being fluid and of a greenish color. They, as a rule, pass into a sort of stupor and set with their feathers ruffled. Convulsions follow, which finally bring death. After death the flesh is found redder than normal; the intestines contain a greyish-yellow fluid, sometimes slightly blood-stained. Fowl Enteritis-There is diarrhoea, but no stupor. After death the liver and spleen are found enlarged and congested; the intestines are also congested. Gapes-The lungs are affected; it is generally found in young birds, and gives rise to much distress. The cause is the presence of a round-worm in the trachea. "Roup"-The lungs are inflamed, also the eyes and alimentary tract. The affected parts become much reddened and covered with a whitish deposit. Small growths may appear on the featherless parts of the body. Ques. 220:-What diseases of poultry make them unfit for food? ANS.:-Tuberculosis-As long as the disease is confined to the spleen the birds remain plump and in good condition. When the liver becomes affected it is unfit for food. Chicken cholera makes the birds unfit for food. * Fowl enteritis makes the fowl unfit for food. Roup makes the chickens or pigeons unfit. Ques. 221:-What are the indications that poultry has begun to spoil? ANS.:-Stiff, dry feet; discoloration of the skin; odor. Flesh turning blue and soft and limp. Skin breaks readily. Ques. 222:-What are the indications of gapes in poultry? ANS.:-Small worms are attached to the lining of the trachea or windpipe. Gapes is usually found in young chickens. Ques. 223:-How would you detect roup in a fowl? ANS.:-Inflammation of the breathing organs, the eyes and the swallowing organs. Very red and covered with a whitish deposit. Fowl is emaciated and internal organs swell out. Small growths on the featherless parts of the body. Ques. 224:-What is the appearance of a fowl affected with pip? ANS.:-Emaciated, has a bluish color. The tongue is dry, hard and scaly, especially about the tip. Ques. 225:-You are sent to a poultry store where you find for sale fowls which are unfit for food. Make out a report to the chief inspector, assuming the conditions above. ANS.:-Address 423 3rd Ave., Borough of Manh. Department of Health, The City of New York. Division of Food Inspection. November 15, 1912. Owner, William Cole. Owner's address, 423 Third Avenue. Character of store, butcher shop. Store is two feet above street level. Store is free from overcrowding of goods. Adequate means of ventilation is provided. Atmosphere of store is not free from offensive odors. Merchandise is kept in clean, orderly condition. Floors are clean. Walls, ceilings, shelves, ledges are free from dust, dirt and rubbish. Store is adequately lighted. Proper washing facilities are provided for all necessary purposes. Store does not connect with a stable or living room. Store does connect with water-closet apartment, which is vestibuled and which vestibule is properly ventilated. I found as follows: On the rack in the front window, among other fowls which were for sale, twelve fowls which emitted a disagreeable odor, putrid, decaying and unfit for human food. I seized and condemned these unwholesome fowls, sprinkled them with carbolic disinfectant and caused them to be removed to the public offal dock for destruction. I would respectfully recommend that William Cole be warned in writing not to sell or keep such ill-smelling poultry. Respectfully submitted, Inspector of Foods. Ques. 225/2:-You are sent to inspect a poultry store where you found poor arrangements. Assume such facts as you please and make out a report to the chief inspector? ANS.:-Address, 469 Amsterdam Avenue, Borough of Manhattan. Department of Health, The City of New York. Division of Food Inspection. Date, November 15, 1912. Owner, J. Benjamin. Owner's address, 469 Amsterdam Avenue. Character of store, poultry. Store is three feet above street level. Store is free from over-crowding of goods. Adequate means of ventilation is not provided. Atmosphere of store is not free from offensive odors. Merchandise is not kept in clean, orderly condition. Floors are not clean. Walls, ceilings, shelves, ledges are not free from dust, dirt and rubbish. Store is not adequately lighted. Proper washing facilities are provided for all necessary purposes. Store does not connect with a stable or living room. Store does connect 24

Page  25 with water-closet apartment, which is vestibuled and which vestibule is properly ventilated. I found as follows: Chickens thrown on the floor among feathers and sawdust; walls unclean and in need of painting; odor of poultry; poor ventilation. I ordered the poultry hung up; the floor cleaned; windows opened and the walls painted. I would respectfully recommend that Benjamin be sent a written order to have a transom put above door for ventilating purposes, and that his walls be painted. Respectfully submitted,............................. Inspector of Foods. Ques. 226: —What are the essential features in the inspection of dressed poultry? ANS.:-Color, condition of skin, general appearance around the vent and on side between leg and ribs. INSPECTION OF FISH. Ques. 227:-What objections are there to exposing fish for sale in the open air? ANS.: Dust and dirt are liable to accumulate on the fish and these may contain the germs of disease, thus making the fish unfit for food. By exposure the process of decomposition is hastened. Ques. 228:-May oysters be kept or sold without a permit? ANS.:-No. Oysters shall not be held, kept, or offered for sale without a written permit from the Board of Health and subject to its rules. Ques. 229:-Name five varieties of oysters usually on sale in New York, specify the manner in which the different types may be distinguished and name the waters in which each variety is raised? ANS.:-Blue Points, a small variety distinguished by a blue color on the inside of the shell, very white flesh, small eye. Real blue points come exclusively from the Great South Bay. Rockaways:-This is a larger type of oyster than the Blue Points. They grow along Rockaway Inlet near Canarsie. Peconic Bays:-Very salt, medium in size. Slight greenish tint in the flesh of the oyster. Come from Peconic Bay, near Greenport. Cape Cods:-A "count" (large size); fine flavor; resembles a blue point in the matter of meat. Come from the bays of Massachusetts. Lynnhavens:-A large oyster. Come from Lynnhaven Bay. Ques. 230:-What are the characteristics of a healthy oyster? ANS.:-It should be either tightly closed, or, if apart, the shells should, when the oyster is held flat between the finger and thumb, be felt to be gripped together by means of the powerful adductor muscle with which the oyster is provided. If the shells gape, and do not at once and vigorously close on handling, the oyster should be rejected. Ques. 231:-Explain the danger that may result from the process of fattening oysters? ANS.:-The danger is that the shellfish may become polluted by growing or being fattened in impure water, handling under unsanitary conditions, or packing in unclean receptacles. This process of fattening is considered an adulteration unless labelled, "fattened" or "floated." Ques. 232:-Describe the method of fattening oysters? ANS.:-The oysters either in their shells or after shucking are placed in fresh or brackish water or else shipped in direct contact with lumps of ice. This causes the shellfish to greatly increase in size, owing to the absorption of an undue amount of water. Ques. 233:-What course would you follow if you discovered many dead clams in a boatload? ANS.:-If the majority of the clams were dead, I would order the whole boatload dumped into the river. If only a portion were dead, I would order the dead clams culled out and thrown into the river. Ques. 234:-In inspecting a boatload, tell how you would distinguish dead clams from live ones? ANS.:-The dead clams are open and usually emit an odor. If open and touched on the muscles which hold the shell, they will close if alive and remain open, if dead. Ques. 235:-Describe the methods of using chemicals, employed for the purpose of giving fish a natural appearance? ANS.:-Carmine and cochineal are placed on the fish gills to give them a very red color, which would indicate freshness. Ques. 236:-Why is it important to know the seasons of the different fish? ANS.:-Because they are best when they are in season. Just before spawning they are in the very best condition; after that they become poor, watery, thin and are usually unfit for food. Some fish, for instance shad, are at their best during the spawning season, while others should not be eaten during this period. 25

Page  26 Ques. 237:-In inspecting fish, state precisely to what points you would direct your attention and what indications would, in your opinion, show that the fish were unfit for sale. ANS.:-I would see if the flesh adheres to the bones; if it doesn't the fish is stale; I would observe the flesh to which the bone has been attached, if a brown discoloration is left, like rust, after separating the bone, the fish is not fresh. I would feel the flesh; if fresh it should be hard, if not fresh the flesh is soft and flabby. I would then observe the eyes; if they are sunken, it is an indication of staleness. Examine the gills; if they are discolored, the fish is decaying. Smell the fish; if not fresh it will emit a bad odor. Any one of these tests is not su..cient, but they should all be taken together in judging the quality of fish. Bruised and knocked-about fish should be examined very carefully as they are most likely to go bad very quickly. Ques. 238:-How would you determine that a frozen fish was good for food? ANS.:-By the odor; smell the gills, and if they emit an unpleasant odor the fish is not good; the gills should not be discolored. See that there are no bruises on the fish. The flesh must be hard and plump. If it is hard (from freezing) and emaciated, it would indicate decay. Ques. 239:-What are the characteristics of a fresh fish? ANS.:-The eyes are full, not sunken in their sockets; there is no unpleasant smell; if the fish be held in the horizontal position by the head, there is no drooping of the tail. The fish should be firm to the touch, solid, and opaque, not soft or jellylike or watery. The flesh should hold firmly to the bones; the scales should be intact. The gills should be bright and not discolored. If the fish be pressed firmly between the thumb and forefinger the flesh should not separate from the skin. In flat fish like flounders, fluke, etc., the skin should be smooth, moist, and hold firmly to the flesh; the skin should not be blistered. A good fish ought to be broad across the back; it should be broad rather than long. Ques. 240:-How would you test canned fish and oysters without opening the cans? ANS.:-As a rule, when a can is spoiled, it is usually in the condition termed "blown," i. e., with its end convex, instead of normal or concave. Sound the cans by striking them. If the contents are sweet, a peculiar note is produced when the can is struck, readily distinguishable from the dull tone of the unsound can by any one familiar with the work. Ques. 241:-How may you test the fitness of a salmon as an article of food by placing it in the water? ANS.:-Stale salmon will float, while fresh salmon will sink in the water. Ques. 242:-Describe a method of preserving salmon in addition to the canning process? ANS.:-Smoking: The fish is first thoroughly cleaned and scaled; then it is salted; then it is smoked; this smoke possesses certain antiseptic qualities due to the presence of certain acids, creosote, etc. Ques. 243:-How may you test the fitness of a salmon as an article of food by simple inspection? ANS.:-I would smell it and if there is a disagreeable odor it is stale. I would hold the fish up (if not too large) by the head, the tail should not droop. The eyes should not be sunken. The flesh should be solid and not watery. If still unconvinced, I would tear away the flesh from the bone; if this can be done easily and if the bone leaves a rusty color on the flesh-the salmon is unfit for food. Ques. 244:-In putting up salmon in cans, what precautions must be taken so that the fish may continue sound and wholesome for as long a period as possible? ANS.:-The can should be absolutely airtight. All the air should be exhausted before the can is sealed. No solder should be allowed to drop into the can, as the juices of the salmon would act on it and cause decomposition to set in. In order to obviate the difficulty of solder dropping into the salmon in the process of closing the "vent" hole, there should be a small cup-shaped piece of tin attached to the under surface of the lid in such a manner as to allow the can to exhaust all air but to catch any solder that might drop through. The salmon should be first partially cooked in an open boiler before being placed in the can. The cans should be sterilized before they are soldered. Ques. 245:-How may you test the fitness of a salmon as an article of food by handling it? ANS.:-Hold it up by the head in a horizontal position. If the tail droops, it is unfit for food. Ques. 246:-In what way would you find out whether or not a boiled lobster was fit for food? ANS.:-There should be no signs of decomposition. This is usually determined by the odor. The lobster should have been placed in boiling water while alive. This is determined by the tail test described elsewhere. Oues. 247:-In inspecting cooked shell fish, state what points you would notice and what indications would show that the fish are unfit for sale. ANS.:-Lobsters: There should be a stiffness in the tail which, if gently raised, will return with a spring. There should be no disagreeable odor. Soft-shell crabs should be a good weight for their size, 26

Page  27 should emit no disagreeable odor. Oysters and clams: Should not be watery and should not emit a decaying odor. The best test is to taste them. Ques. 248:-How would you determine whether, in a lobster it was placed in the hot water alive or dead? ANS.:-A lobster which has been cooked alive, will have a stiffness in its tail, which if gently raised will return with a spring. Ques. 249:-How would you inspect uncooked shell-fish? How would you detect the sign of unfitness in them? ANS.:-Clams and oysters should be closed, or if open should close on being handled. They should not have an unpleasant odor. If the closed shell is struck with a knife, it should not give a hollow sound. Lobsters and Crabs: They should be heavy for their size; very small lobsters should not be sold; they should be alive. There should be no odor of decomposition from them. Crabs should not have spawn attached to the tails. Crabs and lobsters should be dark brown or brown-black in color. A red color indicates death and unfitness. Ques. 250:-You are sent as an inspector to visit a fish store where fish is offered for sale which is not fit for food. Write a report to the chief inspector giving the results of your inspection. ANS.:-Address....... Borough....... Department of Health, The City of New York. Division of Food Inspection. Date............191.. Owner................... Owner's address.............. Character of Store, fish. Store is 3 feet above street level. Store is........free from overcrowding of goods. Adequate means of ventilation is........provided. Atmosphere of store is not free from offensive odors. Merchandise is......kept in clean, orderly condition. Floors are........clean. Walls, ceilings, shelves, ledges are......free from dust, dirt and rubbish. Store is......adequately lighted. Proper washing facilities are........provided for all necessary purposes. Store does not connect with a stable or living room. Store does connect with 'water-closet apartment, which is vestibuled and which vestibule is......properly ventilated. Found-18 mackerel exposed on a fish counter with a vile odor-not on ice-gills discolored-and flesh soft and watery. Ordered-Condemned, sprinkled same with lime and had putrid fish removed to public offal for destruction. I would respectfully recommend that owner be warned to keep all fish thoroughly packed with ice and to immediately dis pose of all offensive smelling fish in order to render the store free from odor. Respectfully submitted, Inspector of Foods. Ques. 2l1:-Describe in detail the process of smoking sturgeon. ANS.:-Sturgeon is cut into sizes to suit and salted a little, if to be smoked at once when it is smoked on a hot smoke house which cooks as well as smokes. If it is to be held for later use, it is salted in a stronger brine and soaked out when wanted for smoking. Ques. 252:-As an Inspector of Foods, you are required to investigate the conditions of the oysters sold in your district: (a) Detail your procedure, mentioning the essential points to be noted in their production and distribution. (b) State how a sample of shucked oysters should be taken, and what precautions should be observed in its delivery to the laboratory for examination. ANS.:-(a) Ascertain if the oysters are kept under sanitary conditions and that no dead oysters are allowed to be mixed with live ones. Find out if the oysters are gathered from waters which are contaminated by sewerage, etc. No permit for the sale of oysters from contaminated water will be issued by the Department of Health and their sale is prohibited. (b) The oysters should be thoroughly cleaned on the outside. The person who opens them should be sure that his hands and knife are sterile. Oysters should then be put into a sterile container, and sealed at once and delivered at laboratory immediately. Ques. 253:-What are the first signs of decomposition in fresh fish? ANS.:-Loss of color, shrunken eye, lack. of firmness in flesh, and discoloration of gills. Ques 253I/:-What substances, if any, are used to conceal evidence of decomposition in fish? ANS.:-Formaldehyde, benzoic acid, sulphurous acid. Ques 254:-On a Thursday the Supervising Inspector receives a complaint that John Doe, proprietor of a retail fish market, has just purchased a quantity of unsound weak fish. You are detailed to make an investigation. Friday morning when you inspect Doe's icebox you find a quantity of decomposed weak fish which he insists are not for sale but are being held pending transfer to the incinerating plant. Write a concise report of your investigation, outlining the evidence which you secured for maintaining a prosecution. N. B. 1.-This question will be rated on the character of evidence presented, and on composition, writing and spelling.

Page  28 N. B. 2.-Do not sign any name, number, initials or title, or you will be disqualified. ANS.:New York, April 13, 1914. Dr. Russell Raynor, Sanitary Inspector. Sir:In accordance with your instructions I have investigated the complaint against the fish store of John Doe, and respectfully report as follows: I inspected his store yesterday, Friday, and found in the ice box about 200 pounds of weakfish which was decomposed, unwholesome and unfit for human consumption. A man who appeared to be the proprietor and who acknowledged that he was John Doe, stated that he had purchased the fish that morning from John Brown, 4000 Washington street, and that he had ordered them by telephone. He said that he did not know the condition of the fish until received, that he had not sold any and did not intend to sell any, but intended to take them to the incinerating plant. Hle had not been able to get into communication with Mr. Brown, from whom he purchased them. I then requested Mr. Doe to call up Mr. Brown on the telephone and arrange to purchase more of them at a price very much below the market price for good fish. This he succeeded in doing in my presence. I then informed him that the fish were condemned and seized and that I would shortly return and remove them, and cautioned him not to disturb them. I immediately went to Mr. Brown's place, where I found that all the weakfish he had were similarly unwholesome. Mr. Brown admitted that he was the proprietor of the place and that he had sold the fish to Mr. Doe on the date mentioned. I then condemned and seized the entire lot and had them removed to the offal dock, and the same with the lot in Mr. Doe's place. I have sent the fact of the arrest of Mr. Brown on the regular form. Mr. Doe has agreed to act as a witness against Mr. Brown. Respectfully submitted. NOTE:-For the purposes of the examination this report could be addressed to the Municipal Civil Service Commission, no doubt, or to the Department of Health in the abstract, as candidates would not be expected to know the particular official to whom a Food Inspector would report. Usually it would be a Chief Inspector, but the head of the Division of Food Inspection is Dr. Raynor, whose title is a Sanitary Inspector. INSPECTION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Ques. 255:-How may diseased or decayed fruit be recognized? ANS.:-By softening, change of color and external mould. Ques. 256:-How would you recognize unripe fruits? ANS.:-The pulpy substance of unripe fruits is often hard and tough and the juice strong and sour. When fruits in this condition are eaten, they cannot be digested, and both pulp and juice cause irritation and often inflammation of the digestive organs. Fruits are made wholesome by ripening and by cooking. Ques. 257:-May vegetables greened with copper salts be sold? What vegetable is usually so colored? ANS.:-Vegetables greened with copper salts, but which do not contain an excessive amount of copper and which are otherwise suitable for food, may be sold, if the label bears the statement that sulphate of copper or other copper salts have been used to color the vegetables. Imported French green peas are usually colored green with copper salts. Ques. 258:-Is there any special care to be taken in inspecting fruit offered for sale on the street? If so, what? ANS.:-If the fruit is exposed in such a way that flies and other insects can attack it, the fruit should be ordered cleaned off and covered. The inspector should not merely take fruit from the top, he should go right into the center of the pile, even to the bottom, and examine the fruit there. The place where the fruit is kept should be clean and not in a place where it is likely to suffer from unsanitary surroundings. Sliced fruit should be kept covered. Ques. 259:-State fully the proper arrangements and appliances of shops where fruit and vegetables are on sale. ANS.:,-The store should be on the street level or above. It should not be in a cellar where it is likely to be damp. The fruits and vegetables should not be overcrowded. This would prevent the spoiling of good fruit and vegetables by contact with the decomposed and it also insures sufficiency of air space. The place should be airy; there should be adequate means of ventilation so that no germs can be harbored in dark corners. For a like reason, the place should be absolutely clean. This is very important. The atmosphere of the store should be free from offensive odors, as these often 28

Page  29 become imbedded in the fruits and vegetables. The fruits and vegetables should be kept in a clean, orderly condition. The floors should be kept clean. The walls, ceilings, shelves, ledges are to be kept free from dust, dirt and rubbish. The store should be adequately lighted. There should be proper facilities for washing fruits and vegetables in clean water and ample receptacles (covered) for disposing of unfit fruit and vegetables. The place should not connect with a stable or living room or water-closet apartment which is not vestibuled, and which vestibule is not properly ventilated. There should be covered cases for cut pineapples, watermellons, berries, etc. Ques. 260:-You are sent to a fruit store where you find food not fit for use. Write a report to the Chief Inspector giving the results of your inspection. ANS.:-Address....... Borough....... Department of Health. The City of New York. Division of Food Inspection. D ate.................191.. Owner.............. Owner's address................ Character of store, fruit. Store is two feet above street level. Store is not free from overcrowding of goods. Adequate means of ventilation is......provided. Atmosphere of store is not free from offensive odors. Merchandise is not kept in clean, orderly condition. Floors are not clean. Walls, ceilings, shelves, ledges are not free from dust, dirt and rubbish. Store is...... adequately lighted. Proper washing facilities are..... provided for all necessary purposes. Store connects with living room. Store does connect with watercloset apartment, which is vestibuled and which vestibule is...... properly ventilated. Found-Baked bananas-opened some and found them decomposing. Ordered-Thrown in garbage can and covered with chlorate of lime-saw that order was complied with. Found-"Specked" pine-soft and decomposing-unfit. Ordered-Condemned and thrown in garbage can as above. I would respectfully recommend that owner be warned in writing to keep fruit in an orderly fashion with different kinds separated-that door leading to living room be kept closed to exclude offensive cooking odors-that floor be kept dry and free from refuse. Walls, ceilings, shelves, etc., be whitewashed. Respectfully submitted, Ques. 260/:-You are sent to a fruit and vegetable store where you find bad arrangements-make out a report to the Chief Inspector, giving the results of your inspection. ANS.:-Address....... Borough....... Department of Health, The City of New York. Division of Food Inspection. D ate................191.. Owner............. Owner's address.................. Character of store, fruit and vegetable. Store is two feet above street level. Store is not free from overcrowding of goods. Adequate means of ventilation is.......provided. Atmosphere of store is......free from offensive odors. Merchandise is not kept in clean, orderly condition. Floors are not clean. Walls, ceilings, shelves, ledges are not free from dust, dirt and rubbish. Store is...... adequately lighted. Proper washing facilities are........provided for all necessary purposes. Store does not connect with a stable or living room. Store does connect with water-closet apartment, which is vestibuled and which vestibule is......properly ventilated. I would respectfully recommend that different kinds of vegetables be kept separated-that fruit be dusted daily-that all refuse be removed from floors and kept in a covered receptacle. Respectfully submitted, Inspector of Foods. Ques. 261:-You are ordered to take a sample of dried apples for laboratory analysis. Tell fully what you would do. ANS.:-I would show the owner of the store my badge and tell him that I am an Inspector of Foods. I would inquire if the dried apples are for sale and I would find out who is the owner of the place. I would then take some of the dried apples from different parts of the box and place them in the glass receptacles furnished by the department; fill two or three, labeling each bottle, stating the number of the inspection, date, owner and part of box the apples came from. Make a complete written report. Ques. 262:-What conditions would tend to cause deterioration in dried apples? ANS.:-Heat, moisture and exposure to the dust or flies. Ques. 263:-What appearances and conditions in dried or evaporated apples and apricots would cause you to reject them for food purposes? ANS.:-Swelled appearance due to moisture; this brings on fermentation and decomposition. Presence of filth, dust, fly or other insect excretions, worms or mites. Inspector of Foods. 29

Page  30 Ques. 264:-What is apple scab? ANS.:-This is a disease which attacks the skin of apples. There are characteristic spots or scab on the surface of the apple. Ques. 265:-Tell exactly what you as Inspector would do upon seeing offered for sale black bananas. ANS.:-I would order the black bananas taken off the stand and cast into the garbage can. These bananas would probably be found full of germs and unfit for food. I would make complete report to my superiors. Ques. 266:-Describe "baked" bananas. State the cause and means of determination. ANS.:-These are overripe bananas and are usually black or dark brown in colorthey are soft. This is usually caused by carrying the bananas in the holds of ships, where they become ripe before they reach the market. Their condition can be determined by color and condition. If opened they will be found to be decomposed. This usually causes the germs to be very active. Ques. 267:-How would you detect the coloring of green beans, peas, etc., by the addition of copper? ANS.:-It is employed for the purpose of giving an intense green color. Add a drop or two of hydrochloric acid, mix thoroughly, and place a bright steel knife blade in the solution. If copper salts are present, copper, easily recognized by its reddish color, will be deposited upon the knife blade. Ques. 268:-Tell exactly what you as Inspector would do upon seeing offered for sale "nested" string beans. ANS.:-I would order the beans cast into a garbage pail and covered with a disinfectant. I would warn the dealer not to sell such beans and make a complete report to my superiors. Ques. 269:-In a physical examination of preserved cherries in glass jars, what would lead you to suspect adulteration? ANS.:-The chief adulterant of preserved cherries is the addition of artificial color to the cherry, so that the red color may be preserved. Coal-tar dies and cochineal are used for this purpose. The only physical means of detecting this artificial coloring is by the deep red hue of the cherries. Ques. 270:-Tell exactly what you as Inspector would do upon seeing offered for sale cocoanuts with one eye plugged? ANS.:-I would condemn the cocoanuts and take one with me. I would get a summons from a Magistrate and have the dealer arrested, as this is a violation of the Sanitary Code. Ques. 271:-Tell exactly what you as Inspector would do upon seeing offered for sale yellow "cukes." ANS.: I would order them cast into a garbage can and covered with chlorate of lime. Ques. 272:-Tell exactly what you as Inspector would do upon seeing offered for sale figs exposed to the air and covered with flies? ANS.:-I would order the dealer to cover the figs and if I found that the upper layer was contaminated by the excretions of the flies, I would order the figs in that layer thrown away. Ques. 273:-What are the differences in color and other appearances between discolored and "speck" pineapples? ANS.:-Discolored pineapple is lighter in color at the discolored parts than on the rest of the apple. It is hard and has no decaying odor. "Speck" is usually darker in color and is soft and gives off a decaying odor. Ques. 274:-Described "baked" orange. What is its cause and how would you detect it? ANS.:-"Baked" orange is an overripe orange. Oranges are picked in a green state and shipped unripe. They are ripened after they reach market. If shipped in a warm or moist place this causes them to ripen too soon. They are very soft and offer little resistance to the touch. Ques. 275:-How are pickles, olives and capers adulterated? How would you detect these adulterants? ANS.:-They are colored artificially with copper salts. This gives the pickles, olives and capers a very green color and this should lead the Inspector to suspect the addition of adulterants. A sample should be taken to the laboratory and there a chemical test should be made. Ques. 276:-Tell exactly what you as Inspector would do upon seeing offered for sale slices of pineapples on a tray. ANS.:-If the pineapples were just cut I would order the tray covered. If the slices are covered with dust or fly or insect dirt, I would condemn them and have them thrown away. I would warn the owner that all cut fruit must be covered and not left exposed. I would then report to my superiors what I had done. Ques. 277:-What is "speck" pine? What is its cause and how would you detect it? ANS.:-"Speck" pine is pineapple which has started to decompose. It is usually due to an injury to the pineapple or the presence of a worm therein. It is detected by its softness in the "specked" part and by a characteristic decomposing odor. Ques. 278:-What are "pricked" potatoes? ANS.:-These are potatoes which have been injured or pierced by the potato hook in the process of gathering. Ques. 279:-What are the symptoms of "blight" in potatoes? ANS.:-The most frequent symptoms of potato blight are a scabby appearance, showing patches, apparently of dirt, adher 30

Page  31 ing closely to the potato. If the potato be peeled or cut, brown spots can be seen. Ques. 280:-If you have a cargo of barrels of potatoes to inspect of a morning, how would you proceed to do so with quickness and accuracy? ANS.:-I would open a few bags or barrels from different parts of the cargo and examine carefully specimens from different parts of the bags or barrels. I would take a chip of wood out of the sides of some of the unopened barrels and note the condition of the potatoes exposed. Ques. 281:-How should raisins and currants be kept? ANS.:-They should always be kept dry; if they become damp they are liable to ferment. Ques. 282:-In a physical examination of preserved tomatoes in glass jars, what would lead you to suspect adulteration? ANS.:-If the tomatoes have a highly red color it would lead me to suspect that cochineal or a coal tar dye had been added to give unripe and unwholesome tomatoes the appearance of good ones. Ques. 283:-In a physical examination of preserved strawberries or raspberries in glass jars, what would lead you to suspect adulteration? ANS.:-If the color is very red it would lead me to suspect that some coloring matter had been used. This could only be positively determined by a chemical analysis. If there is any fermentation at the top, it would also lead me to suspect adulteration. Ques. 284:-In a physical examination of preserved rhubarb in glass jars, what would lead you to suspect adulteration? ANS.:-A heightened yellow color would indicate the addition of coloring matter. A chemical test would be necessary to settle the matter positively. Ques. 285:-What examination would you make of the following vegetables and what conditions would cause you to condemn the same for food: Onions, lettuce, turnips, peas-in-the-pod, cucumbers, spinach, rhubarb, cabbage and green corn? ANS.:-Onions:-I would see if they are soft or rotten. If they are I would condemn them. Lettuce:-Look for worms or dust. Turnips:-Look for soft spots and a decaying odor; also shriveled up, which indicates that they have been kept a long time. Peas-in-the-pod:-Smell them for a decaying odor; open the pod and see if the pea is developing a stem (an indication that they have been kept in a damp place); look for molds. Cucumbers:-Look for yellow cucumbers and soft ones. Spinach:-Worms, dust and foreign matter, manure. Rhubarb:-Soft stems; dried and withered leaves. Rotting blotches on the stems. Cabbage:-Worms and decay from being kept too long. Green Corn:-Decaying odor; worms and soft, decaying spots. Ques. 286:-How do you test melons without cutting? What do you consider the practical value of the test? ANS.:-Watermelons are usually tested by their weight. A heavy melon for its size would indicate an abundance of juice. This does not, however, show that the interior is ripe. Take the melon up with one end in each hand and squeeze it. If it gives a crackling sound it is ripe. The color is often an aid. If the melon is white, it would indicate that it hasn't ripened. This test used in conjunction with the above is usually a good indication of the condition of the melon. Muskmelons or Cantaloupes:-Usually the color is a guide. A very green color shows that the melon is not ripe. Feel the long ends; if they are soft this would indicate overripeness and decay. These tests are not absolutely final, as they often fail. The odor is often a guide. Ques. 287:-What are the differences in color and other appearances between blistered and speck tomatoes? ANS.:-Blistered tomatoes are light pink in color. The blisters are due to their ripening in a damp place. Aside from the blistered skin, they are fit for food. Speck tomatoes are usually very red and have soft spots which penetrate below the skin. They usually have a decaying odor and are soft. They are unfit for food. Ques. 288:-Describe fully your method of judging cocoanuts. ANS.:-Shake the cocoanut near the ear and listen for an abundance of cocoanut milk on the interior. This usually indicates a good nut. See if the eye has been opened (so that fluid can be poured in) and plugged. Ques. 289:-How would you detect celery which has been freshened? ANS.:-Where the upper decomposed leaves have been torn off, the distance of the stem-head from the leaves will be found greater than in the fresh celery. Ques. 290: —Describe brown rot in potatoes. ANS.:- The potato has a brown or black discoloration and ultimately there is a complete rotting of the interior. Ques. 291:-Describe potato scab. ANS.:-This is a disease which is caused by a fungus. The potato is covered with a great number of scabs which appear like so many clouds on the surface of the affected potato. Ques. 292:-What conditions, in your opinion, would make potatoes, cabbages and tomatoes unfit for sale and how would you determine these conditions? ANS.:-Potatoes:-Brown rot, blight or scab or freezing. See that the potato is not 31

Page  32 soft or shriveled. The potato if cut open must show no brown or black discolorations. The skin should not be covered with scabs. (Conditions of each discussed in another question.) Cabbages:-Look for worms and rotting of the core and interior leaves. Tomatoes:-Soft tomatoes, which are overripe and decaying, should not be sold. In either case they will be very red and soft and emit a decaying odor. Worms can sometimes be seen. Damaged tomatoes should be carefully inspected, as they decay rapidly. Ques. 293:-In what condition should a place be where fruit is offered for sale? ANS.:-It should be a dry place, as moisture causes mold and decay. The premises should be properly aired, as odors often attach themselves to different fruits. The place should be kept clean. This is important, as it often prevents germs from multiplying in the place. No dust should be allowed to accumulate on the fruit, as this dust is often germ-laden. Natural light is to be preferred to artificial light. The sanitary arrangements, plumbing, toilets, etc., should be in proper condition. Ques. 294:-What substances added to canned tomatoes are considered adulterations? ANS.:-The addition of water, sugar, syrup, pulp, tomato juice in excess of the amount present in the tomatoes used. Ques. 295:-What conditions in dry apples render them unfit for food? ANS.:-Decayed apples; apple mites. Sulphurous acid is often used to bleach dried apples and give them a uniform color. The apples are placed in large kilns and sulphur is burned, forming S O 2 gas, which rises up and envelopes the apples. Ques. 296:-What conditions in tomato paste render it unfit for food? ANS.:-Cores of unsound or unripe or discarded tomatoes; trimmings of the same; glucose; benzoic acid in larger amount than 1-10 per cent.; if there are seeds and the seeds are red instead of yellow, it indicates that coal tar dyes have been used to color the paste; unwholesome spices; dirt, stems; excess of water. Ques. 297:-What conditions in canned vegetables render them unfit for food? ANS.:-If can is bulged out, convex, and will not stay pushed in, it indicates that contents are unwholesome for food, as gas has been generated, which presses against the can. If canned in glass jars, look for mould, fermentation around top of jar, artificial colors; in peas and beans, look especially for copper sulphate. Boric, salicylic and benzoic acid can best be detected by the chemist. Ques. 298:-What conditions in dried prunes render them unfit for food? ANS.:-Hulls, S O 2, worms and bugs. Benzoic acid has also been found. Ques. 299:-What are the conditions usually found in oranges rendering them unfit for food? ANS.:-Greenish mould covering surface, odor of which is absorbed. Rot, particularly about butt of orange. Shriveled and dried, and oil gone. Ques. 300:-What are the conditions usually found in bananas rendering them unfit for food? ANS.:-If steam baked, meat is dark brown or black. Soft and unfit for food, caused by lack of ventilation and overheat. There is a black banana which is even preferred for food. It is the one which has been ripened by artificial heat and placed in refrigerator. This turns it black and drives the oils of the skin into the meat, making it very rich. Green banana is unripe and unfit for food. Ques. 301:-What class of food products, if any, may be exposed upon the street for sale, and what precautions should be observed in the display? ANS.:-Those fruits and vegetables which are in the raw state but which are to be peeled, pared or skinned before eaten, such as apples, potatoes, bananas, melons, etc. Precaution should be taken that they are not overcrowded, so as to become heated by lack of air ventilation, and that they are not in contact with any decayed or partially decayed fruits or vegetables, or underneath them, or in any place where the juice from such overripe or decayed article could drop on them and contaminate them, as fruits and vegetables, particularly berries, grapes, citrons and cauliflower are very easily and readily contaminated and decay is started by their being brought into contact with overripe or decayed fruits or vegetables. Furthermore, all shelving or temporary ledges upon which, or baskets in which, such articles shall be displayed shall be clean and sanitary and free from dust or juices or contamination. No article of food which is to be eaten entirely (i. e., without peeling, paring or removing the skins) shall be displayed or exposed on any fruitstand or pushcart or in front of any store or market, unless such article is properly protected from flies, dust, etc. The most common violation of this section of the Sanitary Code is the exposing of sliced watermelon and sliced pineapples on pushcarts by the peddlers, especially in the lower East Side. 32

Page  33 PREVIOUS EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. Municipal Civil Service Commission. MEAT INSPECTOR. TECHNICAL. Date: June 25, 1908. (To be finished by 1.30 p. m.) 1. (a) Give in detail the process of curing a ham from the time it is trimmed until it is ready for shipment. (b) Describe a modern method of making lard on a large scale. 2. (a) Explain how ordinary pork sausages are made, naming the various ingredients, showing the proportion of each. (b) Do the same for frankfurters. (c) How would you detect bad meat in sausages? 3. (a) How would you determine whether or not a forequarter of beef was fit for human food? (b) How would you differentiate between meat that was aging and meat that was decomposing? (c) In a freshly slaughtered steer, where would you look for evidence of tuberculosis and how would you determine that it was infected with tuberculosis and not pneumonia? 4. Tell what you know about each of the following: (a) Stearin; (b) Measly meat: (c) Wooden tongues: (d) Septicemia. 5. What preservatives and coloring matters are used in meats? Which of these preservatives and coloring matters are forhidden for use in New York City by the Board of Health? What appearances or conditions would lead you to suspect that a forbidden preservative or coloring matter had been used? 6. What are the indications that poultry has begun to spoil? What is the appearance of a fowl affected with pip, with roup, with gapes? What artificial methods are used for keeping poultry? 7. How would you recognize meat inflation? Why is it done and what are the objections thereto? How would you be able to distinguish between a lamb and a sheep, if both were caul dressed and of the same size? 8. Write a letter to the Chief Inspector showing how meats are handled and kept under modern methods of cold storage. Sign this report "John Doe." 9-10. Give the name and describe the condition of each specimen shown you. (The candidate should make notes at times of inspection and afterward write description in full. arranging his answers to correspond with the number of each specimen.) ARITHMETIC. (To be finished by 4 P. M.) Give all the figuring on the ruled sheets. 1. A butcher having 275 lbs. of beef, held it until 3/16 had become mouldy. He then sold the rest at an average of 15 cents a pound. How much did he receive? 2. Add: 7654327654 9876543234 1234567890 6549872345 3243235432 8762187654 4545454545 3876987435 8765432345 5678987657 3. At 16 and 4 cents per pound, how many pounds of pork can be bought for $4.19. 4. Multiply 68745 by 907. Municipal Civil Service Commission. New York. FISH INSPECTOR. Technical. Dated June 24, 1908. (To be finished by 1:30 P. M.) 1. (a) In putting up salmon in cans, what precautions must be taken so that the fish may continue sound and wholesome for as long a period as possible? (b) Describe a method of preserving salmon in addition to the canning method. 2. (a) In a general way, name the local waters from which oysters may not be taken for sale in New York, giving reasons for the prohibition. (b) Describe the method of fattenifg oysters, and explain the danger that may result from the fattening process. (c) Name five varieties of oysters usually on sale in New York, specify the manner in which the different types may be distinguished and name the waters in which each variety is raised. 3. How may you test the fitness of a salmon as an article of food (a) by simple inspection; (b) by handling; (c) by placing it in the water? 4. (a) How would you determine whether, in a lobster, it was placed in the hot water alive or dead? (b) In what way would you find out whether or not a boiled lobster was fit for food? 5. Mention any chemicals you know to be employed for the purpose of giving fish a natural appearance, describe the method of using such chemicals, and explain the injurious effects produced by their use. 6. (a) In inspecting a boat load, tell how you would distinguish dead clams from live ones. (b) What course would you follow if you discovered many dead clams in a boat load? 7. (a) How would you determine that 33

Page  34 a frozen fish was good for food? (b) How long can fish be left in cold storage without losing their nutritive qualities? 8. Write a report describing the results of an inspection of a quantity of fish which you found on sale in Fulton Market and were obliged to condemn as unfit for food. Sign this report "John Doe." 9-10. Give the name and describe the condition of each specimen shown you. (The candidate should make notes at the time of inspection and afterward write description in full, arranging his answers to correspond with the number of each specimen.) ARITHMETIC. (To be finished by 4 P. M.) Give all the figuring on the ruled sheets. 1. Add: 8765432323 2498789876 9496954323 1876543456 7865434565 3845676789 6574345676 4534876987 5843456765 6543454345 2. If 3/5 of a piece of land cost $12,000, how much would two such pieces cost? 3. How much would 27'2 rolls of cloth come to at $12.75 a roll? 4. Divide 11173080 by 27385. Municipal Civil Service Commission. INSPECTOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. TECHNICAL. Date: June 26, 1908. (To be finished by 2 p. m.) 1. What fruits picked before ripening will decompose and not ripen? Name the fruits which after being frozen become unfit for food. Tell what you know about the transportation and marketing of pineapples and mangoes. 2. What are "pricked" potatoes? Define potato scab, blight and brown rot. If you have a cargo of barrels of potatoes to inspect of a morning, how would you proceed to do so with quickness and accuracy? 3. Tell exactly what you as Inspector would do upon seeing offered for sale: (a) Figs exposed to the air and covered with flies; (b) yellow "cukes"; (c) "nested" string beans; (d) cocoanuts with one eye plugged; (e) black bananas; (f) rice cauliflower; (g) slices of pineapples on a tray. 4. What are the differences in color and other appearances between (a) unripe and rotten red bananas; (b) discolored and "speck" pineapples; (c) blistered and speck tomatoes. 5. What examination would you make of the following vegetables and what conditions would cause you to condemn the same for food: Onions, letteuce, turnips, peas-in-the-pod, cucumbers, spinach, rhubarb, cabbage and green corn? 6. What appearances and conditions in dried or evaporated apples and apricots would cause you to reject then for food purposes? What conditions would tend to cause deterioration in dried apples? You are ordered to take a sample of dried apples for laboratory analysis; tell fully what you would do. 7. In a physical examination of the following preserved substances in glass jars, what would lead you to suspect adulteration? (a) Tomatoes; (b) pickles; (c) cherries; (d) strawberries; (e) raspberries; (f) chow-chow; (g) rhubarb. What does a concave head on a can indicate.? 8. A carload of potatoes, crated tomatoes and yellow turnips arrives at the terminal in New York in a frozen condition. Tell what disposition you would order for these vegetables and give your reasons therefor in the form of a report to the Chief Inspector. (Sign this report "John Doe.") 9-10. Give the name and describe the condition of each specimen shown you. (The candidate should make notes at time of inspection and afterward write description in full, arranging his answers to correspond with the number of each specimen.) ARITHMETIC. (To be finished by 4 p. m.) Give all the figuring on the ruled sheets. 1. If a dealer buys 76 boxes of cherries at auction, paying at rate of $1.1734, and sells them in two lots, 36 boxes at $1.22/2 and the remainder at $1.18/s, what does he gain? 2. Add: 5432345432 8765434567 8765678987 7654567654 9876789876 8765456765 6765456543 4323432343 2131567650 3935373676 3. If 60 lemons in a box were rotten and the box still had 5/7 of the whole in good condition, how many lemons did the box contain at first? 4. Divide 5445636 by 6748. INSPECTOR OF FOODS. September 2, 1903. Note:-All candidates had to answer questions 1 to 4. After answering all those questions, candidates were allowed to select one of the four divisions offered. No credit was given to a candidate in any division 34

Page  35 who undertakes to answer questions in more than one division. SPECIAL. 1. What are the duties of a Food Inspector? 2. To what extent should a Food Inspector acquaint himself with (a) the sources of supply; (b) the seasons at which different kinds of food are offered in the markets; (c) the points at which these supplies are delivered in the city; (d) the distribution of such supplies to the different places of sale? 3. How should an ice box be connected with the sewer? Draw a plan showing pipes and connections. 4. You are sent as an Inspector to visit five different places where food is offered for sale. In some of these places you find the food not fit for use. In some you find bad arrangements. Assuming such facts as you please, write a report to the Chief Inspector, giving the results of your inspection. I. MEAT AND POULTRY. 5. State the common terms applied to diseased or unfit veal, mutton, pork and poultry and define precisely each term. 6. (a) What is pleuro-pneumonia and what animals are subject to that disease? (b) What are the indications of this disease in animals before and after slaughtering? 7. What is the "Kosher" method of slaughtering? 8. What are the common diseases (a) of hogs; (b) of poultry? How are they to be detected? Which of them makes the animal unfit for food? 9. How can the existence of fever in an animal at the time of slaughtering be detected in the dressed meat? How is the temperature of a living animal ascertained? 10, 11, 12. Give the name and describe the condition of each specimen shown you. (The candidate was advised to make notes at the time of the inspection and afterward write descriptions in full, arranging his answers to correspond with the number of each specimen.) II. FISH. 5. What kinds of fish are found in our markets and at what time of year is each kind offered fore sale? 6. Name the principal sources of supply of each kind you have mentioned in your answer to question 5. 7. In inspecting fish, state precisely to what points you would direct your attention and what indications would, in your opinion, show that the fish were unfit for sale. Answer this question fully. 8. Answer the question put in No. 7 with reference both to cooked and uncooked shellfish. 9. How would you test canned fish and oysters without opening the cans? 10, 11, 12. Give the name and describe the condition of each specimen shown you. (See No. 10, Division 1.) III. MILK. 5. Give the terms in common use applied to milk in its different forms and stages and describe precisely the meaning of each term. State which of these, in your opinion, makes the milk unfit for sale, and state what test you would make of a specimen submitted to you to determine its character. 6. What is a lactometer? Describe it and state how it is used. 7. How would you test canned condensed milk without opening the can? 8. State what, in your opinion, are the necessary arrangements, conditions and appliances of places where milk is kept on sale. What is the proper temperature at which to keep milk in places of sale? 9. Name the most common adulterants of milk; state for what purpose each is used; how you would try to detect it, and in what way, if at all, each is harmful. 10, 11, 12. Examine each specimen shown you and give your opinion of it. (See No. 10, Division 1.) IV. FRUIT AND VEGETABLES. 5. Describe "baked" bananas, "speck" pine, "baked" orange; what causes these imperfections and how are they detected? 6. What conditions, in your opinion, would make potatoes, cabbages and tomatoes unfit for sale, and how would you determine these conditions? 7. State fully the proper arrangements and appliances of shops where fruit and vegetables are on sale. Describe fully your method of judging cocoanuts. 9. How do you test canned goods without opening? State fully. 10, 11. State the principal sources of supply and all the seasons of sale of the staple fruits and vegetables in New York City. 12. Is there any special care to be taken in inspecting fruit offered for sale on the street? If so, what? 13. How do you test melons without cutting? What do you consider the practical value of the test? 14. What are "soaked" canned goods? ARITHMETIC. 1. Add 789658 937878 659763 976842 768247 2. Subtract 542075 238976 3. Multiply 43087 by 6098 4. Divide?911767 by 4789

Page  36 Civil Service Commission. City of Chicago. FOOD INSPECTOR. Division H, Grade II, $1,080. SPECIAL SUBJECT. 1. (a) What diseases would you look for in the inspection of slaughtered cattle and hogs? (b) Describe the lesions that would lead you to condemn the whole or part of a carcass. 2. (a) How would you determine that carcass of beef sent in to the city by express was tubercular? (b) How would it appear if the animal had died of tuberculosis? 3. (a) How would you determine that a calf slaughtered for veal was less than two weeks old? (b) Why and when should veal be condemned? 4. What would be your rule as to the condemnation or otherwise of a carcass of an animal that had been accidentally injured so as to render slaughter necssary? 5. What conditions in and around a milk depot may render the milk dangerous and detrimental to health? 6. (a) What diseases of the cow render the milk unfit for food? (b) How is tuberculosis recognized in dairy cattle and what precautions should he taken to prevent the spread of tuberculosis by the milk supply? 7. (a) The milk from what sources is required to be pasteurized by the Chicago ordinance? (b) State in detail what observations should be made in the pasteurization plant to determine its efficiency? 8. (a) Why should ice be inspected? (b) What things or conditions should not be permitted in connection with the making of ice on lakes or artificially? 9. (a) What canned goods are apt to spoil and become dangerous to health? (b) How would you recognize spoiled canned goods and how should they be disposed of? 10. Describe the effect of cold storage on poultry and game. ARITHMETIC. 1. Compute and give total of the following bill: 15 bbls. flour at $5.50 per bbl., 868 lbs. of sugar at.05/2 per lb., 48 gals. syrup at.06% per gal., 11 lbs. butter at.28 per lb., 1122 lbs. lard at.08 per lb. 2. A helper receives $15 per week; he works 49 weeks a year; his expenses are $396 a year. How many years will it take him to save $2,712? 3. A wholesale dealer bought 8,270 barrels of sweet potatoes at $1.75 a barrel; he sold 3/5 of them at $2.25 a barrel and the remainder at $1.90 a barrel. How much did he gain? 4. A can inspect a district in 12 days and B can inspect the same district in 10 days. How long will it take both working together to inspect it? 5. If milk contains 4% per cent. butter, how many pounds of butter are there in 265 gallons of milk? (1 gal.=8 lbs.) EXPERIENCE AND PENMANISHIP. 1. How old are you? 2. What has been the extent of your education? State what schools you have attended, how long and certificates you hold, if any. 3. What experience have you had in handling or dealing with the following food products: (a) meat, (b) milk, and other dairy products, (c) fruits and vegetables, (d) groceries and canned goods? Explain fully in each instance, stating when, where, how long, and the nature of your work. 4. Have you ever had any experience as a food or meat inspector? If so, state when, where, how long. 5. State any other experience or training that you may have had that would tend to fit you for the position of food inspector. REPORT. Write a report describing the result of an inspection of a quantity of fish which you found on sale in a market and were obliged to condemn as unfit for food. Civil Service Commission. City of Chicago. MEAT INSPECTOR. DUTIES. 1. State in detail all the duties that you assume a meat inspector may be called upon to perform. 2. Name the affections on account of which you would condemn as unfit for food, flesh from animals that were slaughtered while suffering from them. 3. On inspecting a freshly slaughtered carcass, why should special attention be paid to the condition of the lymphatic glands? 4. Would you advise butchers to let the interior lining of the chest on the carcass remain? If so, why? 5. Generally speaking, how can the inspector best determine the age of the carcass? 6. What is the general appearance of flesh of an animal that has not been bled? 7. What would be your rule as to the condemnation or otherwise of the carcass of an animal that had been accidentally injured so as to render slaughter necessary? 8. What disposition would you advise of the carcass of an animal that had become cast in a stall and slowly died of suffocation? 9. Would you pass the flesh of animals that were killed by lightning or electricity? 10. How would you test the truth of a statement that an animal had been "struck by lightning"? 11. What is the effect of death by asphyxia upon the flesh of animals? 12. Would you condemn the carcass of a young pig that you knew had suffered from epilepsy? 13. Discuss the causes and post-mortem conditions of peritonitis. 36

Page  37 14. How far may the inspector be guided by the condition of the liver in determining the fitness of a carcass? 15. What are some morbid post-mortem conditions that should lead to the condemnation of the kidneys? 16. In general, give three rules to follow in each of which case the entire carcass ought to be condemned. Civil Service Commission. City of Chicago. BUR. CHIEF FOOD INSPECTOR. SPECIAL SUBJECT. 1. (a) What is the standard analysis of (1) milk, (2) cream, (3) butter, (4) cheese? (b) What practical test should be used to determine whether a firkin exposed in a grocery store contained butter, oleomargarine or renovated butter? 2. (a) Name the domestic food preservatives the use of which is permissible under the Illinois State food law. (b) Name the chemical preservatives the use of which is not permissible under the same. 3. Describe in detail the appearance and condition of poultry, game and fish which would warrant the Chief Food Inspector in condemning same. 4. Describe the appearance and condition of fruits and vegetables which would warrant him in condemning same. 5. Describe the appearance and condition of cut meats which would warrant him in condemning same. 6. (a) Name ten foods (aside from spices) which are frequently adulterated, and name the adulterants used in the particular cases. (b) Name five spices and their most common adulterants. 7. State fully how to inspect and detect spoiled fruit or vegetables in cans. 8. (a) What is a common standard egg? (b) Describe fully a practical test to detect spoiled eggs. 9. What is the proper duty and method of procedure of a milk or dairy inspector under each of the following cases: (a) When a diseased cow is found in a dairy? (b) When a case of smallpox is discovered in a house in which there is a milk depot? (c) When a milk dealer refuses admission to his wagon to a city milk inspector? (d) When brewery refuse is found in the possession of a dairyman? 10. Describe fully and in detail the sanitary surroundings of an ice house and lake from which domestic ice may properly be obtained. 11. Assuming that the Chief Food Inspector has charge of restaurant inspectors and is about to instruct his men concerning their duties, state fully what instructions he should give them concerning their work and the matters they, as such inspectors, should especially inquire into. 12. Write a paper of not less than 200 words, discussing the question of cold stor age of food, with special reference to the preservation of wholesomeness and nutritive value of same. touching especially on the preparation and proper condition of food which is to be placed in cold storage, the proper care of same while in, and also after removal therefrom, and the length of time foods may properly be kept in same. 13. Assuming that the Chief Food Inspector has under his supervision 16 meat inspectors, 8 dairy inspectors, 5 ice inspectors, 15 milk inspectors, 10 restaurant inspectors, state fully what field organization of such forces he should make so as to get most effective inspections; what reports he would require and what check or supervision he would exercise over his men to get efficient service and a full day's work from each. 14. State fully how the Chief of Bureau of Food Inspection would classify and record the reports and information gathered by his inspectors, giving fully the system of records which should be kept of the work and the information thus obtained. Municipal Civil Service Commission. FOODS, INSPECTOR OF-GROUP IMEATS & FISH. Date: April 13, 1914. 1. Name and give symptoms of the principal diseases which would render the flesh of cattle unfit for food. Give your reasons. 2. Name and give symptoms of the principal diseases which would render the flesh of hogs unfit for food. Give your reasons. 3. Describe in detail the conditions which would indicate immature veal. 4. Give in detail the process of (a) corning beef; (b) smoking sturgeon; (c) manufacturing sausages; (d) the proper selection and preparation of casings. 5. What are the essential features in the inspection of dressed poultry? 6. (A) What are the first signs of decomposition in (a) fresh beef; (b) fresh fish? (B) What substances, if any, are used to conceal evidence of decomposition in either of above products? 7. What conditions in a retail market would you condemn as contaminating? 8. As an Inspector of Foods, you are required to investigate the condition of the oysters sold in your district: (a) Detail your procedure, mentioning the essential points to be noted in their production and distribution. (b) State how a sample of shucked oysters should be taken, and what precautions should be observed in its delivery to the laboratory for examination. 9. Describe in detail how a slaughter house should be constructed, including provision for the care of animals before, and the protection of carcasses after slaughter. 10. On a Thursday the Supervising Inspector receives a complaint that John Doe, proprietor of a retail fish market, has just purchased a quantity of unsound weakfish. 37

Page  38 You are detailed to make an investigation. Friday morning when you inspect Doe's ice box you find a quantity of decomposed weakfish which he insists are not for sale, but are being held pending transfer to the incinerating plant. Write a concise report of your investigation, outlining the evidence which you secured for maintaining a prosecution. N. B. 1.-This question will be rated on the character of evidence presented, and on composition, writing and spelling. N. B. 2.-Do not sign any name, number, initials or title or you will be disqualified. Municipal Civil Service Commission. FOODS, INSPECTOR OF-GROUP II -GENERAL GROCERIES. Date: April 14, 1914. 1. Describe how an inspection should be made, and what forms of adulteration should be looked for in a plant manufacturing so-called "soft drinks." 2. (A) Detail, with your reasons, the proper method of sampling (a) shell; (b) frozen and (c) desiccated eggs. (B) How can the quality in each of the three above mentioned forms be determined? (C) Describe the process of candling eggs and state the distinctive features relied upon. to determine the grade. 3. What are the common adulterants of the following products? Extract of Vanilla. Ground black pepper. Strawberry fruit syrup. Grape Jelly Olive Oil. Honey. Molasses. Maple Syrup. Cider Vinegar. Ground roast coffee. 4. What are the conditions usually found in the following products, rendering them unfit for food? Wheat Flour. Corn Meal. Mince Meat. Dried Apples. Tomato Paste. Canned Vegetable. Dried Prunes. Oranges. Bananas. Confectionery. 5. In which of the products, if any, enumerated in question 4, and by what method, can the unwholesome condition be determined without laboratory examination? (To be finished by 4 p. m.) 6. What conditions in a retail grocery store should be condemned as contaminating? 7. What are the principal features to be noted in the inspection of a bakery? 8. What class of food products, if any, may be exposed upon the street for sale and what precautions should be observed in the display? 9. As an Inspector of Foods, you are required to investigate the quality and condition of general groceries, fruits, vegetables and beverages in the hotels and restaurants of your district and to secure the evidence for prosecution of violations where found. Detail your procedure. 10. Write a report of not more than 200 words to the Supervising Inspector, outlining the evidence you have secured for the purpose of maintaining a prosecution against John Doe for selling storage eggs in cartons labeled "Fresh Country Eggs." Note 1.-This question will be rated on the character of evidence presented, and on composition, writing and spelling. Note 2.-Do not sign any name, number, initials or title or you will be disqualified. 38

Page  39 RULES RELATING TO EGG BUSINESS, POULTRY, SLAUGHTER HOUSES AND CANNED GOODS. Dept. of Health, City of New York. RULES AND REGULATIONS To Be Observed in Conducting the WHOLESALE EGG BUSINESS. Section 42, Sanitary Code. No meat, fish, eggs, birds, fowl, fruit, vegetables or milk not being then healthy, fresh, sound, wholesome, and safe for human food, nor any meat or fish that died by disease or accident, shall be brought into the City of New York, or offered or held for sale as such food anywhere in said city, nor shall any such articles be kept nor stored therein. For the purposes of this section, any meat, fish, eggs, birds, fowl, fruit, vegetables or milk offered for sale anywhere in the city by dealers in food, shall be deemed to be offered or held for sale as food. Section 48, Sanitary Code. No meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, eggs, milk or other food or unwholesome liquid shall be sold, held, offered for sale, labeled or any representation made in respect thereof under a false name or quality, or as being what the same is not, as respects wholesomeness, soundness or safety for food or drink. Section 48A. No perons shall break out eggs for sale, or conduct the business of breaking out eggs, to be canned, frozen, dried or used in any other manner in the City of New York, and no eggs broken from the shell, whether canned, frozen, dried or treated in any other manner, shall be received, held, kept, sold, offered for sale, or delivered in the City of New York, without a permit from the Board of Health, and subject to the conditions thereof, and subject also to the rules and regulations adopted by the said Board of Health. A. No person shall receive, hold, keep, sell or offer for sale, or deliver, as or for food, or to be used in food, in the City of New York, any canned, frozen or dried eggs, or eggs broken from the shell which are adulterated or to which has been added any poisonous ingredients, or any ingredient which may render such eggs injurious to health, or to which has been added any antiseptic, preservative or foreign substance not evident and not known to the purchaser or consumer, or which shall contain filthy, decomposed or putrid animal matter. B. No person shall receive, hold, keep, sell or offer for sale, or deliver in the City of New York, any eggs known as "spots," except in cases which shall be plainly and indelibly labeled, at both ends, with the printed words "Spot Eggs," with block letters at least two inches high and one and one-half inches wide, with no intervening mark or lettering between the words or the letters composing the words, and a record of such eggs and the disposition thereof shall be kept as required by the Rules and Regulations of the said Board of Health. The terms "spots" and "spot eggs," when used herein, mean all unsound eggs, including those affected by moulds, partly decomposed, broken yolked, blood ringed or veined, partially hatched, sour, or eggs the shells of which are so broken or cracked that the contents are leaking therefrom. For the purposes of this Section, a case of eggs shall be deemed to be a case of "spot eggs" if 60 per cent. or more of the eggs in the case are "spots," as defined herein. Abstract from Rules and Regulations. No person shall wilfully or intentionally crack or check eggs intended for sale in the shell, the shells of which are whole and sound, with intent to make any false representation in respect to the quality thereof or as being what the same are not, as respects wholesomeness, soundness or safety for food. Wilful cracking or checking of egg to be sold from the shell shall be prima facie evidence of intent to deceive. Eggs broken from the shell, intended for food purposes, shall be promptly cooled to a temperature not to exceed 50 degrees Fahrenheit, and shall be deemed adulterated for the purposes of this section if the temperature at the time of delivery to the consumer be above said temperature. No person shall receive, have, hold, sell or offer for sale or deliver in the City of New York any eggs broken from the shell, designed for use in manufacturing processes or for tanning, unless the same shall have been denaturized by some denaturant approved by the Board of Health. The cans or receptacles containing eggs broken from the shell, designed for use in manufacturing processes, or for tanning, shall be plainly and indelibly labeled "For manufacturing purposes-denatured with," to which shall be added the name of the denaturant. The term denaturize where used herein as applied to eggs, means eggs that are broken into receptacles into which has previously been placed a denaturant, or denaturants approved by the Board of Health, in proportions as may be prescribed, and the mixture thus made thoroughly stirred, or transferred to receptacles promptly after breaking and on the premises where broken 39

Page  40 to receptacles into which has previously been placed a denaturant or denaturants, approved by said Board in proportions as may be prescribed, and the mixture thus made thoroughly stirred. By order of the Board of Health. EUGENE W. SCHEFFER, Secretary. RULES AND REGULATIONS to be observed in conducting POULTRY SLAUGHTER-HOUSES in the City of New York. 1. The floors of these premises must be swept, flushed and deodorized at the close of each day's business. 2. All parts of the walls and ceilings, which are not sheathed with metal, must be cleaned, painted or whitewashed as often as required by the Department of Health. 3. All parts of cages (other than the floor) and gutters must be cleaned or painted as frequently as may be required. The floors of all cages must be scraped and cleaned immediately after emptying. 4. No cage shall be used for the storage of fowl for a longer period than three days, without emptying and cleaning. 5. The sheathed sides of the killingroom, the absorption-box and the gutter beneath the same must be thoroughly cleaned with a strong solution of soda and flushed at the close of each day's work. 6. Poultry is to be killed in that part of the premises set apart for that purpose, except that, when desired, a galvanized iron water-tight can may be used, provided the blood is properly absorbed by sawdust. 7. Sawdust which has been used, and all other refuse, of any kind whatsoever, must be deodorized and removed from the premises daily. 8. No empty crates may be stored on the premises except in such places as may be approved by the Department of Health. 9. The accumulation of disused barrels, boxes, or other offensive material will not be allowed upon the premises. 10. No poultry are allowed at liberty on the premises. 11. A permit to conduct a poultry slaughter house does not include the privilege of selling live poultry, and no live poultry may be sold from a poultry slaughter house. Any violation of these regulations will be deemed sufficient cause for the revocation of the permit to slaughter poultry. By Order of the Board of Health. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, City of New York. Regulations for the Collection of CANNED GOODS. All wholesalers of foodstuffs in the City of New York will be allowed to indicate one point of collection within the said City of New York for the purpose of the collection of "swelled" and otherwise defective canned goods which have been condemned or held for disposition by the Department of Health of the City of New York. It is hereby indicated that permission will be given to every wholesaler to retain the goods condemned by this Department for a period of twenty days after said goods have arrived at the distinct establishments indicated above, there to be held this time pending communication of the wholesaler with the manufacturer in order to inform himself regarding said condemnations. Upon condemnation of goods by an Inspector of the Health Department, the said Inspector will make out a form in duplicate which will contain the following data: The name of the individual or firm owning, at the timi of condemnation, the goods condemned. The number of cans condemned. The weight of cans condemned and articles condemned, as well as for what said cans have been condemned. This is to be signed by the Inspector condemning each lot of goods. Section 58, Sanitary Code: "Upon any cattle, milk, meat, birds, fowl, fish or vegetables being found by an Inspector or other officer of this Department in a condition which renders them, in his opinion, unwholesome and unfit for use as human food, or in a condition or of a weight or quality in this code condemned or forbidden, he is empowered, authorized and directed to immediately condemn the same and cause it to be removed to the offal or garbage dock for destruction, and report his action to the Department without delay. "And the owner or person in charge thereof, when so directed by the said Inspector or by an order of the Sanitary Superintendent, or an Assistant Sanitary Superintendent, shall remove, or cause the same to be removed, to the place designated by the said Inspectors or the order of said Sanitary Superintendent or Assistant Sanitary Superintendent, or to the offal dock, and shall not sell, or offer to sell, or dispose of the same for human food. And when, in the opinion of the Sanitary Superintendent, or an Assistant Sanitary Superintendent, any such meat, fish, fruits or vegetables shall be unfit for human food, or any such animal, cattle, sheep, swine or fowls, by reason of disease or exposure to contagious disease, shall be unfit for human food, and improper or unfit to remain near other animals or to be kept alive, the Board of Health may direct the same to be destroyed as dangerous to life and health, and may order any such animals, cattle, sheep, swine or fowls to be removed by any Inspector, police officer, officer or agent of this Department to be killed and taken to the offal dock." Those goods or lots of goods over which a question may arise as to the actual decomposition having taken place in the same, 40

Page  41 will be analyzed by this Department in order to determine whether the said goods are unfit for human consumption. Those lots of goods containing cans commonly known as "springers" or "flippers" will, upon request, have samples taken and analyses made. Respectfully, REPORT FORMS OF THE HEALTH DEPARTMENT. RECORD OF SPOT EGGS. Gentlemen: In accordance with the requirements of Section 48a of the Sanitary Code of the Department of Health, City of New York, I herewith beg to submit the following weekly report of Spot Eggs candled out by me during the week ending.............................. 1911........... Cases of 30 dozen each.............Tubs of.......dozen (Spots)......... Tubs of.......dozen (Rots). These eggs were disposed of: Spots to.................................. Rots to................................... Rots to. Signature.............................. A ddress................................ NOE:-This report of egg dealers to be submitted to the Department of Health every Saturday. RECORD OF SAMPLES TAKEN FOR ANALYSIS. DIVISION OF LABORATORIESCHEMICAL LABORATORY. Analysis No............. Date Received........................... Date Reported........................... Received from............................ M arked.................................. Reason for Analysis...................... Result of Analysis........................ Analysis approved, Chemist. Prosecute-Do not Prosecute. Assistant Sanitary Superintendent in charge of Division of Food Inspection. Name.................................... Address................................. Date....................... Time......... Sample of.... Sample No........ Amount Purchased....................... Am ount Paid............................. Citizens' Complaint...................... Business................................ Years in Business........................ Who in charge........................... Evidence of Sale......................... Held on Bail....................Result of trial...................................... Sample taken and information obtained by Inspector of Foods. REPORT OF VIOLATION OF SANITARY CODE. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, CITY OF NEW YORK. Name.................................. A ddress................................ To the Assistant Sanitary Superintendent in Charge of Division of Food Inspection. Sir: I have the honor to report that: On........................ 191.., I made an inspection of above premises; said premises consisting of a.................. of which.................................. of.................... Ave., Str. is owner. ~~. ~~~~~~ ~in charge. That..................................................... in charge.......... That.......................................... Reference............... Action.. C. C................ File under.......... If on a citizen's complaint fill in the number after "C. C." State specifically who was in charge of store at time of inspection. DATA. Summons obtained..................191 Summons returnable................191 Issued by Magistrate..................... District Court No........................ Boro of................................... Hearing before Magistrate............... District Court No........................ Boro of.................................. on.................................191 41

Page  42 Disposition: Held for Special Sessions in $........bail Discharged............................... Fined.................................. (Cross out unused lines) Hearing before Special Sessions: Court............... Division........... Magistrate.................191 DISPOSITION:........... Food Inspector... Food Inspector. RECORD OF SHIPMENTS STOPPED. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, THE CITY OF NEW YORK. Shipments Stopped. Name.................................... File No... Address.................... Patron of.................. at........... Date of Inspection....................... Inspector................................ Reason for stopping shipment............ Dealer notified........................... Result.................................... RECORD OF DISPOSITION OF SPOT EGGS. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, CITY OF NEW YORK. Report of Dealers to be submitted to the Department of Health every Saturday. New York.....................191 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, City of New York. Gentlemen: In accordance with the provisions of Section 48A of the Sanitary Code, I herewith beg to submit the following statement of Spot Eggs purchased by me during week ending................... 191 Cases. Bbls. Cans. Tubs. Lbs. On hand week ending.......................... Bought from following dealers or candled on premises: Name Address....................................................... Total Manufactured into Tanners' Yolk Tanners' Yolk sold to Name Address Cases. Bbls. Cans. Tubs. Lbs..eeeeeeeeeee.....eeee e....l....-.......... * —eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee e-eee.eee.e**.............-..........-....-.....-..ee-ele.................l@.ee.ee~eelle e eee.e. *.e eeeeeeeeeeee e ee.e.ee e e e - e -.-e*e.eeee Balance on hand.......................... *..... *.-.@ *....... *.... *.. * - - *....................................... e*....... *..... Total Respectfully, Signed.................................. Address............................ 42

Page  43 OFFICIAL REPORT OF CONDEMNATION OF UNFIT FOOD. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, CITY OF NEW YORK. Division of Food Inspection. Consignee............................... Place of condemnation.................. To the Asst. Sanitary Supt. in Charge of Division of Food Inspection. Sir: I have the honor to report that on this day I condemned the following mentioned foodstuffs. Same were denatured on.............................. with. and disposed of as follows:............. Articles condemned. Quantity. Remarks...........................~...1.................~~.............................................................................. ~...............................................................' ' ' '........~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~191....................................... Inspector of Foods. RECORD OF ANALYSIS. DIVISION OF FOOD INSPECTION. Folder No........... Premises................................ Name.................................... Date Forwarded.......................... Date Returned............................ Article Analyzed......................... To Determine............................ RESULT: Positive..............Negative........... Inspector................................ STUB........................... 191 Location................................. Character.............................. Quantity............................... Marks and numbers..................... i~td'O~"~~u;~................................ Date of seizure.......................... Date of destruction....................... Consignee................................ Steamship...................... Condemning Inspector.................... Duplicate issued.......................... Triplicate issued.......................... REPORT OF ARREST FOR VIOLATION OF SANITARY CODE. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, of the City of New York. DIVISION OF FOOD INSPECTION. New York.................191 To the Chief of the Division. Sir: I respectfully report the following arrest and facts in connection therewith: Name of Defendant....................... Address................................ Place of Arrest.......................... Arresting Officer......................... Violation................................. Magistrate............................... Magistrate's Court........................ Magistrate's Disposition................... Date of Pleading......................... Date of Trial........................... Final Disposition........................ Remarks..................................................................... Inspector of Foods. REPORT OF PROCUREMENT OF SAMPLE FOR ANALYSIS. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, The City of New York. DIVISION OF FOOD INSPECTION. New York..................191 To the Chief of the Division of Food Inspection. Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a sample of...................for Chemical Analysis to determine............... from............ (Address)............... (Borough)........Premises occupied and owned by....................... a dealer in...................when sample was procured. L3 CERTIFICATE OF CONDEMNATION. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, The City of New York...........................191 This is to certify that.................. Location............... ha.. been condemned................191, by order of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, as unfit for human consumption and destroyed ~......................191 Consignee................................ Steam ship............................... Marks and numbers...................................... lbs. each...........lbs. Weights approximated. Condemning Inspector.................... Chief of the Division of Food Inspection.

Page  44 Date sample was obtained................ Time of Purchase........................ Amount purchased........................ Amount paid for purchase................ From whom purchased................... Time delivered at Chemical Laboratory.................... To whom delivered at Chemical Laboratory..................... C. C..... Sample No..... Respectfully submitted, Food Inspector. ORDER DIRECTING DEALER TO APPEAR IN COURT. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, of the City of New York. New York..................91 Sir: You are hereby directed to meet Inspector................................. at the District Court.........................on............... at.. By Order of the Board of Health. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON INSPECTION OF MILK City and Country. The official advertisement containing the subjects, weights, duties and requirements is as follows: Duties, 5 (70%/o required); Experience, 5 (70% required). Age limits, 21 to 45 years. Salary, $1,200. Duties: To inspect milk and all conditions and methods surrounding its production, distribution, and sale, including dairies, creameries, and Pasteurization plants. To instruct farmers and dealers in the improvement and correction of conditions found to be contrary to the regulations of the Department of Health. Requirements: Candidates must have practical experience in dairying or other equivalent experience. Additional credit will be given for courses taken at a recognized school of dairying or agricultural college. OTHER BOOKS TO STUDY. For duties, study Handbook on Sanitation, $1.50; by mail, $1.65. "Testing Milk and Its Products," $1.25, by mail $1.35. "Modern Methods of Testing Milk and Milk Products" (278 pages), $1; by mail, $1.05. For laws, study "Building and Health Laws," (containing the Sanitary Code), 25 cents; by mail, 30 cents. Ques. 302:-What is the approximate chemical composition of pure milk? ANS.:-Total solids, 11X2%. Water, 88/2o%. Solids: Fat, 3%; Casein, 4%; Milk Sugar, 4%; Ash, '2%. Ques. 303:-What are the physical appearances and characteristics of pure milk? ANS.:-The approximate chemical composition of pure milk is as follows, on the average: Water, 87.4 per cent. Butterfat, 3.7 per cent. Casein and albumen, 3.2 per cent. Milk sugar, 5.0 per cent. Ash,.7 per cent. (b) The white color of milk which is evidently the striking feature in its appearance, is due to the fact that the butterfat of the milk it not dissolved in it but present in the form of minute globules. The fat globules act on light in such a way as to produce the white color. Besides the white color, the specific gravity of milk is one of its important physical properties. While 100.0 cubic centimeters of pure water weigh exactly 100.0 grams, 100.0 cubic centimeters of pure cow's milk weigh never less than 102.8 grams and never more than 103.5 grams. The specific gravity is determined by means of the lactometer. Added water reduces the specific gravity. Added cream also reduces the specific gravity. Therefore, if the specific gravity, as shown by the lactometer, is low, it does not necessarily follow that water has been added. It may be that cream has been added, for all the lactometer shows. Therefore, don't condemn milk, or a mixture of milk and cream, on the lactometer test alone. Of the utmost importance to the Milk Inspector is that property of milk whereby the cream rises to the top. If milk is allowed to stand without agitation, the cream rises in less than one hour's time to such an extent that a sample taken from the surface contains much more fat than a sample taken from the bottom. Manifestly, if an Inspector takes a sample from the bottom, without stirring the milk, it will be much poorer in fat than an average sample taken after thorough stirring. Thus, if the Inspector fails to stir the milk, he will cause an innocent milk dealer, whose milk is all right, to be fined for selling milk below grade in fat. Naturally, the Milk Inspector who makes such a mistake, is apt to be discharged, for the injustice he does to the milk dealer in that case is revolting. Therefore, in order to keep out of trouble, it is absolutely necessary for a Milk Inspector to get into the habit of 44

Page  45 strring the milk or cream of which he is about to take a sample. Candidates should bear in mind that not only milk has to be stirred before sampling, but cream as well, for the fat globules rise to the surface in cream also, not merely in milk alone. There are some stirrers in the market which are inefficient. A perforated metal bell with a handle attached, the whole thoroughly tinned, makes a good stirrer. A combination stirrer and dipper is also useful. One of the striking characteristics of milk is its peculiarity of curdling in the presence of acid. Another one is that of turning sour on standing for several hours in a warm place at a temperature equal to summer heat. Ques. 304:-What is "Adulterated" milk of the Sanitary Code? ANS.:-Adulterated milk, according to the New York City laws, is any of the following kinds of milk: 1. Milk containing more than 88 per cent. of water. 2. Milk containing less than 12 per cent. of milk solids. 3. Milk containing less than 3 per cent. of butter fat. 4. Milk drawn from animals within fifteen days before and five days after parturition. 5. Milk drawn from animals fed on distillery waste or any substance in a state of fermentation or putrefaction or on any unhealthy food. 6. Milk drawn from cows kept in a crowded or unhealthy condition. 7. Milk from which any part of the cream has been removed. 8. Milk which has been diluted with water or any other fluid, or to which has been added or into which has been introduced any foreign substance whatever. 9. Milk, the temperature of which is higher than 50 degrees Fahrenheit, or which contains an excessive number of bacteria. Ques. 305:-What are the Standards of richness insisted upon for Saleable Milk? ANS.:-The standards of richness insisted upon by the various state and city boards are: 3.0, 3.25 and 3.5 per cent. for butterfat; 12.0, 12.5 and 13.0 per cent. for total solids, and 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5 per cent. for solids not fat. While New York City requires only 3.0 per cent. of fat, as a minimum, certain other cities located in those parts of the country where cows' milk is rich in fat, owing partly to the climate and the nature of the cow's food and partly to the breeds of the cows kept there, require more fat. Likewise, while New York City requires only 12.0 per cent. of total solids, certain other cities require a little more for similar reasons. Ques. 306:-State what you understand by casein. ANS.:-Casein is one of the substances contained in milk. It is contained in the curd which forms when milk sours. Together with the butter-fat it forms the curd. Ques. 307:-What is condensed milk? ANS.:-Condensed milk is milk from which considerable portions of the water, naturally present, have been removed by evaporation. Generally three gallons of milk are boiled down sufficiently until they make one gallon of condensed milk. The boiling is generally accomplished in a vacuum pan, because it can be done more easily under reduced pressure. Condensed milk may be sweetened with sugar or unsweetened. The unsweetened kind is generally called "evaporated milk." Ques. 308:-State what you understand by sterilized milk. ANS.: Sterilized milk is milk which has been heated to so high a temperature that all bacteria and similar micro-organisms, such as molds and yeasts, are killed in it. The temperature required to sterilize milk completely varies with the quality and origin of the milk, but is generally in the neighborhood of 233 degrees Fahr. As all the enzymes in the milk are destroyed by that temperature, the milk sugar caramelized, and the albumen coagulated, sterilized milk should not be fed to infants unless sterilized by some other method than heat alone. Many housewives make a big mistake by feeding canned condensed milk with or without water to very small infants. Adults can eat it, but not infants, or at least not every day. Canned condensed milk is sterilized milk. If it were not sterilized, it would not keep indefinitely. Ques. 309:-What is skimmed milk? ANS.: Skimmed milk is milk from which the cream, which contains most of the butter-fat, has been removed. The removal of the cream may be accomplished by simply allowing it to rise to the surface and then skimming it off. As this process takes too long, however, the removal of the cream is generally accomplished by centrifugal machines known as "separators." Skimmed milk, being deprived partly or wholly of the butter-fat, one of the most valuable constituents of milk, is not fit to be fed to babies who depend on it exclusively. 'For this and other reasons the City of New York prohibits the sale of skimmed milk. In other cities skimmed milk is frequently substituted for whole milk because it is much cheaper. Ques. 310:-What conditions would lead you to suspect that milk had been skimmed? ANS.:-A lactometer reading above 110, a cream gauge reading less than 16, and a thin, poor appearance of the milk. Ques. 311:-What conditions would lead you to suspect that milk had been watered? ANS.:-A lactometer reading less than 100, (2) a cream gauge reading less than 16, and a poor look of the milk. 45

Page  46 Ques. 812:-What conditions would lead you to suspect that milk had been skimmed and watered? ANS.:-(1) A normal reading 'of lactometer between 100 and 110, (2) a poor, thin appearance of the milk, (3) a cream gauge reading less than 16. Ques. 813:-What is colostrum? ANS.:-Colostrum is the milk yielded by a cow the first few days after calving. It is slimy and of a reddish color, and contains much more albumen than ordinary milk. Colostrum milk is not regarded as a safe food for human consumption and therefore prohibited by most boards of health having milk inspection. Ques. 314:-What do you understand by the term "strippings"? ANS.:-Strippings are that milk which is drawn from a cow after she has become pregnant and before she has gone entirely "dry." Such milk is generally rich in butter-fat. Ques. 315:-What is fore-milk? ANS.:-Fore-milk is the first milk drawn on beginning to milk a cow or goat, etc. It generally turns sour more rapidly than other milk drawn later, for the reason that it contains those bacteria which settle down in the inside of the teat in the intervals between the milkings. Ques. 316:-Why is proper refrigeration necessary in the handling of milk? ANS.:-Because: (1) Milk not refrigerated spoils speedily; (2) milk not refrigerated sours quickly; (3) unrefrigerated milk does not keep; (4) bacteria, etc., develop rapidly; (5) and because refrigeration improves its keeping quality and preserves the milk for the period until it reaches the consumer. Ques. 317:-Give the chief factors which determine the keeping quality of milk. ANS.:-The chief factors which determine the keeping qualities of milk are the following: (1) A small number of bacterial contents; (2) milk taken from healthy, properly fed and kept cows; (3) milk taken from cows kept in sanitary stables; (4) a clean and sanitary handling of the milk during milking; (5) proper and clean straining of milk in the milk house; (6) immediate cooling of the milk to 50 degrees Fahrenheit within two hours after the milking; (7) bottling of the milk under proper precautions at the dairy, and (8) keeping the bottles during transit iced, so as not to exceed a temperature of 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Ques. 318:-Describe the chief sources from which milk becomes contaminated and give the most practical methods for preventing contamination. ANS.:-The chief sources from which milk becomes contaminated are the following: (1) The cow, (2) the hands of the milkers, (3) the air of the stable, (4) the water in which the pails or the hands of the milkers have been washed, (5) the pails or other utensils into which the milk is drawn, (6) the strainers, cans, bottles, etc., in which the milk is kept. (b) The most practical methods of preventing contamination consist in the production of milk under perfect sanitary precautions, the essential points of which consist in the following: (1) Healthy cows, (2) clean milkers and milking, (3) clean stables, (4) pure water, (5) absolutely clean and sterilized pails, bottles, cans, etc., and (6) low temperature of keeping the milk. Ques. 319:-Explain the dangers of bacterial infection and the means of avoiding them as you would to a milk dealer. ANS.:-Explanation of the dangers of bacterial infection and the means of avoiding them, to a milk dealer: (1) Dangers to the milk, that milk which is allowed to be contaminated with germs spoils sooner and does not keep; (2) danger to the consumers, in that milk contaminated with disease germs may transmit the diseases to those who consume the milk, as it is well known that there were several epidemics of scarlet fever spread through contaminated milk by milk dealers. The means of avoiding these dangers consist in the following: (1) Keep milk at a low temperature, not above 50 degrees Fahrenheit; (2) keep the milk at a distance from foodstuffs, especially ill-smelling; (3) keep the milk cans covered, and exposed to dust, etc., very little; (4) have the milk dipper clean and sterilized daily. Ques. 320:-Explain the dangers of bacterial infection and the means of avoiding them, as you would to a housewife. ANS.:-Explanation of same to a housewife: (1) Milk is easily contaminated by germs; (2) the germs come from the dust in the air, from the flies in the house, from the handling of the milk, and from crumbs, etc., being thrown into the milk; (3) milk which contains many germs does not keep and gets sour; (4) sour milk is apt to spoil the stomach; (5) flies may contaminate the milk with disease germs; (6) milk with disease germs may cause disease in human beings. The means of avoiding these dangers consist in the following: (1) Keep the milk in the original bottle; (2) keep the milk bottle always closed and sealed; (3) keep the milk bottle on the ice, and always cold; (4) do not pour any milk which you did not use up from the glass back into the original bottle; (5) keep the milk separately from ill-smelling vegetables, etc. Ques. 321:-Describe a process for washing and for thoroughly sterilizing milk bottles, cans and utensils on a small scale. ANS.:-The washing and sterilizing of bottles, cans anil utensils on small scale: (1) The bottles should be rinsed in warm water and washed with washing soda and hot water, with bottle brush specially made for the purpose; then they are rinsed in clean hot water and inverted over trays or 46

Page  47 shelves, which are placed in special sterilizer, or they are subjected to hot steam. Ques. 322:-Describe a process for washing and for thoroughly sterilizing milk bottles, cans and utensils on a large scale. ANS.:-The washing and sterilizing of bottles, etc., on a large scale is done upon the same principles as on a small scale, except that the rinsing and washing is done by machinery and the sterilizing is done in a large, specially fitted sterilizer which is fitted with trays to fit the bottles, several tanks for the successive washing and rinsing, and then sterilizing them by hot saturated steam. Ques. 323:-What is pasteurization? ANS.:-Pasteurization is the heating of milk for the purpose of killing bacteria, but insufficient to kill all the various species of bacteria which ordinarily live in milk. If the degree of temperature applied is merely sufficient to kill those bacteria which sour the milk, so as to improve merely the heating qualities of the milk, the heating is called "commercial pasteurization." If, on the other hand, the degree and duration of the heating is sufficient not only to kill those bacteria which sour the milk, but also the disease germs which may happen to be present in the millk, more especially the tubercle bacilli, which produce consumption, the heating is called "perfect pasteurization." Pasteurization, in order to be perfect and at the same time without evil effect on the quality of the milk, should be carried on at a temperature of 140 degrees Fahr. and continued for 20 minutes, according to U. S. Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin No. 56. If the temperature is materially higher, the milk not only takes the "cooked" taste but it becomes less digestible for infants. This is due to the fact that a class of substances contained in the milk and known as "enzymes" are destroyed. The enzymes aid in the digestion of the milk constituents. The enzyme which digests the butter-fat and which is called "lipase" is destroyed at a temperature of 145 degrees Fahr. or over. Milk so heated produces fat starvation when fed to infants, since the fat can no longer be easily digested. Adults, however, can digest "cooked" milk without trouble. Infant milk should therefore be pasteurized at a temperature below 145 degrees Fahr. At the same time, the heating should be continued sufficiently to effect the destruction of the germs of consumption. Thus, while pasteurization affords big benefits, it is also apt to lead to a partial deterioration of the milk, unless the proper temperature and the proper duration of the heating are strictly observed. Accordingly, some Boards of Health require pasteurization to be carried on at a certain temperature and for a certain length of time. Ques. 324:-State the reasons for and against pasteurization. ANS.:-The reasons for pasteurization are the following: (1) It kills all most active germs; (2) it does not destroy the valuable enzymes; (3) it furnishes a "safe" milk; (4) it increases the keeping qualities of the milk; (5) it is safer for children than raw and better than cooked milk. The reasons against pasteurization are the following: (1) That spores of certain bacteria are not destroyed; (2) that the digestibility of the milk is lessened; (3) that pasteurized milk, if not kept cold, spoils worse than raw; (4) that universal pasteurization will discourage sanitation; (5) that old and unfit milk may be pasteurized. Ques. 325:-Describe the pasteurization of milk on a large scale. ANS.:-Pasteurization of milk on a large scale is done by means of large, specially constructed pasteurizing machine with selfrecording thermometers, etc. The milk is heated in one chamber of the machine to a degree of 140 degrees Fahrenheit, and then passed into an automatic holding machine, where it stays for 20 or more minutes, then comes back into the original holder, and then passes into a cooler, where it is cooled to 40 degrees Fahrenheit and below. Ques. 326:-Describe the pasteurization of milk on a small scale for family use. ANS.:-Pasteurization of milk on a small scale is done by means of the small portable "Arnold" or "Freeman" pasteurizers, also the new "Strauss" machine, which is very simple and readily used. A very simple method of domestic pasteurization is keeping the milk bottle in a can of boiling water for about 30 minutes. Ques. 327:-What preservatives, coloring matters and adulterants are used for milk? State briefly how they may be detected. ANS.:-The preservatives used in milk are borax, boracic acid, formalin, formaldehyde. They are detected by special chemical tests. (b) The coloring matter used in milk is annato. It is detected by chemical test. (c) The adulterants used in milk are the following: (1) Chemicals; (2) coloring matters; (3) water. Chemicals and coloring matter are detected by chemical tests. Water is detected by a thin appearance of the milk and a lactometer reading of less than 100. Ques. 328:-Describe in detail the proper inspection of a city grocery which sells milk. ANS.:-The proper inspection of a city grocery store which sells milk consists in the examination of the store for the following points: (1) Location at or below street level; (2) proximity from stables, etc.; (3) if fish, meat and ill-smelling goods are sold therein; (4) if walls and ceiling of store are clean; (5) if ventilation is good; (6) if lighting is good; (7) if floor is clean and well scrubbed; (8) if attendants are clean and wear clean white clothes; (9) if store does not connect with water-closet apartment; (10) if store does not connect 47

Page  48 with rooms used for sleeping, cooking or laundry purposes; (11) if the persons in store are free from contagious diseases; (12) if milk is sold in cans, bottles, etc.; (13) if milk is kept in a tight special booth; (14) if milk is kept in an ice box, or iced tub; (15) if milk can is properly covered; (16) if milk is kept below the temperature of 50 degrees Fahrenheit; (17) if the (ipper is clean and has been sterilized. Ques. 329:-How can the score card be made useful to the store owner? ANS.:-The score card can be made useful to the store owner by showing him wherein his place is below the perfect mark, what the defects are, and what he must do to attain a 100 per cent. score mark. Ques. 330:-What is an infectious disease? Mention some which may be certainly or probably transmitted by milk. State any other dangers which may arise from the sale of improper milk. ANS.:-An infectious disease is a disease which is communicable from one person or animal to the other by contact or otherwise. In many cases transmission of the disease occurs by reason of the fact that it is produced by micro-organisms such as bacteria, the bacteria are transferred and the disease is transferred with them, as they produce it wherever they go, under favorable conditions. Diphtheria, scarlet fever and typhoid fever are readily transmitted by milk. Milk polluted with the germs of any of these diseases may cause an epidemic easily. Tuberculosis can be transmitted from the cow to a human being and vice versa only with difficulty. However, such cases are possible, and tuberculosis cows are a menace to the people using their milk. Milk polluted with cow's manure is apt to produce infantile diarrhea. Milk which contains an excessive number of pus cells and at the same time those micro-organisms which are technically called "Streptococci," indicates an inflammation in the udder. The "streptococci" transmit the disease from the cow to the people who drink her milk. These are the pus-forming streptococci, to be distinguished from other streptococci which do not form pus and which are harmless. Milk which contains a preservative, such as formaline, is apt to take up and spread disease germs quicker than unpreserved milk, by reason of the fact that the disease germs get a chance to grow better in the milk after the lactic acid germs, which sour the milk and which are hostile to the disease germ and check their growth, have been killed off by the preservative. Skimmed milk is objectionable as a constant food for infants because they need the fat of the whole milk for their nutrition. Watered milk is objectionable as a food for human beings not so much because it contains less food value, but more especially because it frequently contains the germs of typhoid fever, which may be in troduced along with the water whenever the water added is polluted with sewage or similar animal refuse, as it often is on the farm where the watering would generally take place. Ques. 331:-What are bacteria? State any facts you can about their rapidity and possibilities of growth, and the conditions which favor or retard their growth. ANS.:-Bacteria are organisms of extreme smallness, consisting of only 'ne cell each, and propagating themselves by simply splitting in two. An idea of the smallness of bacteria may be gained by reflecting on the fact that it takes 30,000 of them, placed side by side, to make an inch. Under favorable conditions, the multiplication of bacteria is very rapid. Their number may be doubled every half hour. each organism producing a new one when it is only half an hour old. As soon, however, as either the temperature at which they are kept is either too high or too low, or the food insufficient in quantity or in quality, or too dry, they multiply much more slowly and they die off altogether if these unfavorable conditions are carried to the extreme. Ordinary pure milk is sure to turn sour if kept at a temperature of 90 deg. Fahr. for 12 hours. The souring, which finally leads to the curdling or clabbering of the milk, is the consequence of the formation of lactic acid by certain kinds of bacteria known as lactic acid bacteria. If, on the other hand, the milk is kept in cold storage at a temprature of 40 deg. Fahr., it may take a whole week before it sours. The big difference in the time it takes the milk to sour is due simply to the accelerated or retarded multiplication of the lactic acid bacteria. A single drop of buttermilk or of sour whole milk, added to a large quantity of sterilized milk, say one thousand gallons, contained in a sterilized vat, hermetically sealed, will turn the entire quantity of milk sour. If that drop of sour milk were not added, the milk in the vat would keep indefinitely for years. This shows the magnitude of the chemical changes produced by the multiplication of bacteria. If the vat with the milk is kept at summer heat, the souring of the entire one thousand gallons of milk in consequence of the multiplication of the lactic acid bacteria which were contained in the drop of sour milk added, will take place in less than two days. Ques. 332:-Describe a cream-gauge and show its uses. ANS.:-A cream-gauge is a cylinder so graduated that, if a measured amount of milk is placed into it and the cream is allowed to rise, the amount of cream so collected at the surface can be measured by the graduations on the cylinder. Generally the cylinder is made of glass and large enough to hold a pint of milk. The percentage of cream can be read off directly. The Health Department gives the follow 48

Page  49 ing directions for testing milk or cream by the cream-gauge: "Fill the cream-gauge one-half full with water, at a temperature of 120 degrees Fahrenheit, to which has been added a few drops of a strong solution of washing soda. Then, after stirring up the contents of the can thoroughly, fill the gauge to the top mark with the milk. Shake well and place in very cold water (say 40 degrees Fahrenheit). In about thirty minutes the cream will have risen and the percentage can be read off, remembering that the result observed must be multiplied by two, as onehalf water and one-half milk was used. Example: 8 per cent. of cream was observed by this test; multiplying this by two would be 16 per cent., which would be the true amount of cream contained in the milk by this test. Good milk should show by this test 14 to 18 per cent. of cream." If a milk inspector finds that the lactometer reading of a lot of milk under inspection is materially below the lowest reading of normal milk, and therefore suspects the milk of being watered, he has no right to conclude that the milk is necessarily watered, as I have pointed out before in discussing the specific gravity of milk, until he makes sure that the low lactometer reading is not due to any addition of cream to the milk. In this case he will find the cream-gauge of value. The cream-gauge gives only approximate results. The determination of the amount of butter fat for the purpose of deciding whether a sample of milk or cream is below the standard in butter fat is never made by the cream-gauge method, but by more accurate methods, such as the Babcock centrifuge method or the Gottlief gravimetric method. The cream-gauge method is merely a substitute for the other methods and is, as a rule, used only where the other methods are not available, for instance, at the dairy farms in the country where there are no ~laboratory facilities. It is nevertheless useful in certain cases. The cream-gauge test will tell him whether the milk under suspicion is just plain milk or a mixture of milk and cream. If it is just plain milk, and the lactometer reading is excessively low, the Inspector is safe in concluding that the milk is watered. If the Inspector condemns or dumps a lot of milk merely because its lactometer reading is low, and without taking into coitsideration the fat content, he is apt to mistake a mixture of milk and cream for watered milk. But an Inspector who dumps a mixture of milk and cream, or even straight cream, because he mistakes it for watered milk, is certainly apt to be discharged, just as much as the one who fails to stir a can of milk before sampling it. Therefore, don't condemn milk on the lactometer test alone until you make sure of the amount of fat, or, what amounts to the same thing, the amount of cream in it. As a general rule, the question whether a lot of milk is to be condemned is not passed upon by the Milk Inspector, but by the City Chemist, after accurate laboratory tests. The Inspector merely takes the sample and turns it over to the chemist. lle must understand, however, what danger there is in forming conclusions from the lactometer test alone, and without considering the fat content of a sample. The cream-gauge, as I have shown, is one of the instruments which may be used for an approximate determination of the cream, and therefore indirectly of the butter fat, whereby the danger of mistaking a mixture of milk and cream for watered milk is avoided. Ques. 333:-Describe a lactometer and show its uses. ANS.:-A lactometer is a float resembling more or less a cylinder closed on both ends and provided with a scale which shows the specific gravity of milk when the instrument is placed into it. Some metallic mercury or some shot is placed inside the instrument at its bottom so as to give it the proper weight. Two kinds of lactometers are in common use. They are the New York Board of HTealth lactometer and the Onevenne lactometer. The former is used chiefly in the eastern, and the latter chiefly in the western states of the country. The Board of Health lactometer sinks to the zero mark if placed in pure water. If placed into milk of the specific gravity 1.029, which is about the lightest milk produced by a healthy cow, it sinks to the 100 mark. The space on the scale from the zero mark to the 100 mark is graduated and the graduation continued beyond the 100 mark to the 120 mark. Ques. 334:-How would you detect the presence of formaldehyde in milk? ANS.:-Three or four tablespoonfuls of the sample are placed in a teacup, with at least an equal amount of strong hydrochloric acid and a piece of ferric alum about as large as a pinhead, the liquids being mixed by a gentle rotary motion. The cup is then placed in a vessel of boiling water, no further heat being applied, and left for five minutes. At the end of this time, if formaldehyde be present, the mixture will be distinctly purple. If too much heat is applied, a muddy appearance is imparted to the contents of the cup. Ques. 335:-What care should be exercised in working with hydrochloric acid? ANS.:-Great care must be exercised in working with hydrochloric acid, as it is strongly corrosive. It must not come in contact with flesh or clothes of the operator nor with any metallic vessels, and must be greatly diluted with water before it is poured into the sink. Ques. 336:-What should be the equipment of a Milk Inspector? ANS.:-A ruler, thermometer, small specimen bottle, a lactometer, a creamgauge, a dirt tester. (A country Inspector also needs a hypodermic and tuberculosis serum for the tubercular test.) '49

Page  50 Ques. 337:-State briefly the duties of a Milk Inspector assigned to duties within city limits. ANS.':-To inspect milk, cream and products made from them and all conditions pertaining to its distribution and sale, including dairies, creameries and pasteurization plants. To instruct dealers in the provisions of the Sanitary Code and the regulations of the Department of Health with regard to the custody and sale of milk and similar products. To suggest improvements and corrections of conditions found to be contrary to the Sanitary Code. To obey all reasonable instructions of the Sanitary Superintendent. To collect specimens according to the provisions of the department. To condemn or retain suspicious milk, cream, etc. To collect evidence to aid in prosecuting those who violate the regulations of the Department of Health with respect to the sale of milk. Ques. 338:-State briefly the duties of a Milk Inspector assigned to duty outside the city limits. ANS.:-To inspect milk, cream, and byproducts and all conditions attending their origin: the cows, stable, milk house, milk, water supply and other conditions in connection with the dairying of milk intended for consumption within the City of New York. The other duties are similar to those of the Milk Inspector assigned to.city service. Ques. 339:-What powers has the city as represented by the Department of Health to regulate the management of dairies outside city limits? ANS.:-It has jurisdiction over such dairies in that the department can bar admission to the city of any milk which comes from dairies which do not comply with the regulations. Ques. 340:-If assigned to inspect milk exposed for sale, indicate how you would go about it and the points on which you would lay special stress in declaring it salable or otherwise. If in doubt of the purity of the milk, what would you do? ANS.:-I would go where instructed and purchase some of the milk. The points on which I would lay special stress are indicated on the score card. Contamination of any kind is of the utmost importance. If in doubt as to the purity of the milk, I would "retain" the milk and forbid its sale until I had a thorough test made in the laboratory. Ques. 341:-Write a report to the Chief Inspector, stating fully what in your opinion is the best method for the Health Department to secure sanitary milk for this city. ANS.:-A report to the Chief Inspector: New York, March 9, 1911. To the Cheif Inspector: Sir-The following methods seem to me the best for securing a sanitary milk for this city: (1) A strict classification of all milk brought to the city and division into three groups: (1) milk intended for infant food; (2) milk intended for cooking purposes; (3) milk intended for general use. (2) All milk intended for infant use should be of the quality known as "guaranteed," or "certified," that is, it should come in sealed bottles, bottled at the farm and sealed with proper labels thereat; should be taken from cows tuberculin tested before admission to herd and thereafter tested annually, and should be under the strict supervision of the country Milk Inspectors, so that all possible sanitary precaution be observed. (3) All milk intended for cooking purposes to be perfectly pasteurized under the supervision of Health Department Inspectors, and brought in sealed cans to the city and sold within thirty-six hours after pasteurization. (4) All milk intended for general use to be brought in sealed individual bottles and all such milk properly pasteurized and sold within thirtysix hours from time of pasteurization. (5) The appointment of at least 100 additional Inspectors to supervise all the work of milk production, sale and delivery. Ques. 342:-Name four principal dairy breeds and give the characteristics of each. ANS.:-The four principal dairy breeds are the following: The Jerseys, Guernseys, Holstein and Ayrshires. The milk of the Jerseys and Guernseys is rich in fat and moderate in amount, the fat in the milk of some Jerseys reaching at times 6 per cent. The Holstein and Ayrshires give a milk with a smaller percentage of fat, but give a larger amount of milk. Ayrshire cows weigh from 900 to 1,100 pounds, are shortlegged, fine-boned and very active. The prevailing color is red and white; sometimes color is dull brown. Holstein cows are larger sized, some cows weighing as much as 1,500 pounds, and the color is mostly black and white. Horns are small and fine. Guernsey cows are somewhat larger than the Jerseys, stronger and a little coarser in appearance. They are light in color, yellow and orange predominating, with considerable white, usually in large patches, on the body and the legs. Horns small, fine, curved. Jersey cows are the smallest of the four dairy breeds, the cows ranging in weight between 700 and 1,000 pounds. The color is variable, from dark brown to deep black, also white, brindle, etc. The muzzle is black or dark lead color. Horns small, thin, waxy. Ques. 343:-Describe a good water supply for a dairy farm. ANS.:-A good water supply for a dairy farm may be had from deep wells, artesian wells and springs. A good deep well or spring situated at a distance from the farm and free from contamination are the best sources. The water from the well or spring may be led into the farm buildings by means of iron pipes, laid deep under ground, to protect them from feezing, the water coming to farm by gravity or by mechanical means. 50

Page  51 Ques. 844:-In what ways may the water supply of a dairy farm become contaminated? ANS.: —The water supply may be contaminated by the following: (1) Drainage from privies; (2) drainage from manure and stables; (3) drinking and bathing of domestic animals, such as hogs, etc.; (4) washing of clothes or bathing of persons sick with typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery, etc. Ques. 345:-Why is it essential that the water supply of a dairy or creamery should be free from all possible contamination? ANS.:-Because the water is used to wash the containers, dippers,. etc. The germs adhere to these and thus get into the milk and multiply, thus contaminating the milk. The water in a stable which the cows drink must be especially free from contamination, because any impurity manifests itself in the milk. Ques. 346:-If the water supply be from a' well or running stream, what points would you investigate as bearing on the possibility of pollution? ANS.:-Well:-Depth of the well; it should be deep; free from surface contaminations. It should not be near a privy or in proximity to drainage or manure from the stables; should be remote from the bottling place either of the domestics or of animals; must not be near place where clothes are washed. Running Stream:-All of the above and in addition the water should be led to the stable in iron pipes and should not be exposed. Ques. 347:-Describe what you consider the best kinds of pails for milking and give your reasons. ANS.:-The best kind of pails for milking are those with narrow mouths, not more than 8 inches in diameter. The reason for preferring these pails is the lesser chance of contamination by dust, etc. Ques. 348:-What are considered desirable features in the construction and arrangement of a dairy? ANS.:-No stagnant water, hog-pen, privy, etc., within 100 feet of the dairy. Adequate means of ventilation and natural light. Stable flows should be water-tight, properly graded and be of a non-absorbent material. Cement or brick are the best. Feeding troughs and platforms well lighted. Ceiling and walls smooth so that dust cannot accumulate there. Whitewashed. Should be an ample supply of pure water. Suitable means to expose the milk pails, cans and utensils to the sun or to live steam. Facilities for wash basins, soap, towels, etc., for attendants. Screens to keep out insects. Ques. 349:-What should herd records consist of? Explain the value of such records to the farmer. ANS.:-Herd records should consist of (1) the name and characteristics of the cow, (2) age and period of lactation, (3) amount of daily food, (4) kind of food, (6) cost of food, (6) amount of milk of each milking, (7) daily average of milk, (8) average percentage of fat in the milk, (9) the price for which the milk is sold, or the price of the products of the milk. Such a record would be of much value to the farmer, as he could easily determine the economic value of the cow, his average profits and whether the cow is worth her keep and trouble or not. Ques. 350:-Discuss the temperature at which the milk should be kept leaving the dairy until it reaches the consumer. ANS.:-All milk must be cooled to a temperature below 50 degrees F. within two hours after being drawn and kept thereafter below that until delivered. Ques. 351:-Explain the tuberculin test and its value as you would to a dairyman who does not understand it and is prejudiced against it. ANS.:-The tuberculin test is a test to determine whether the cow is free from tuberculosis or not. The test is necessary because a great many cows have been found suffering from consumption without the farmer, or even veterinarian, being able to discover the disease. A consumptive cow not only gives milk which may be full of the germs of consumption, and thus transmit the disease to human beings, and especially to children, but the diseased cow may infect the whole herd, as well as other animals at the farm, especially hogs, thus bringing direct financial loss to the farmer. The tuberculin test is entirely harmless to the healthy as well as to the diseased cow, and therefore may be done without any damage to the farmer. Milk from cows which have been tuberculin tested is more valuable and can be sold at a higher price than milk from untested cows. It is to the interest of the public, the farmer, the milk dealers and to the consumer to eradicate the dread disease of tuberculosis from the cow herds, and this may be done only when all farmers make it a practice to test the cows in their herd and to eliminate all. diseased animals therefrom. The tuberculin test consists in the injection hypodermically into the suspected cow of a dose of "tuberculin," which is a serum made from dead tubercle germs, and then watching for a "reaction," which means a rise in the temperature of the cow. The rise of temperature is from two to four degrees Fahrenheit within ten to fifteen hours after the injection. Ques. 352:-State what dependence you would place on the physical examination of cows for tuberculosis and give your reasons. ANS.:-Not much dependence can be placed on the physical examination of the 51

Page  52 cow for tuberculosis, for cows may be affected with the disease without showing physical signs, such as enlargement of glands, emaciation, etc., and it is only, as a rule, in the last stages of the disease that animals are apt to show it by physical signs. Ques. 383:-Explain how the score card can be made useful to the farmer. ANS.:-The "score card" can be made useful to the farmer by showing him wherein his dairy farm is defective, the points of defect and the best to which he should strive to attain, and thus put his farm up to the perfect or "100 per cent." mark. Ques. 354:-State fully what type of stable construction you would recommend to a farmer who could afford the best. ANS.:-The type of stable construction which I would recommend to a farmer who could afford the best would be as follows: (1) One-story concrete or brick structure; (2) inside walls and ceilings smooth and oil painted; (3) floors of concrete with cement tops; (4) light from above by skylights well placed; (5) ventilation by muslin covering of windows, or by "King's system"; (6) at least 1,000 cubic feet of space for each cow; (7) a proper pitch and draining of stable floor into properly trapped sewer-connected drain, leading far from stable and barnyard; (8) a plentiful supply of pure water under pressure; (9) white painted iron partitions of stalls and stancions; (10) properly constructed cement gutters. Ques. 355:-Discuss the methods to be observed in milking and the care of the milk immediately afterwards. ANS.:-Any persons having any communicable or infectious disease, or one caring for persons having such disease, must not be allowed to milk or handle the milk or utensils. Hands of the milkers must be thoroughly washed with soap and water and carefully dried on a clean towel before milking. Clean overalls. Hands and teats should be kept dry during milking. Clean milking stools. The first streams from each teat should be rejected. All milk drawn from the cows 15 days before or 5 days after parturition should be rejected. Pails should have small opening at top, not to exceed 8 inches in diameter. All milk utensils must be kept clean. Milk as soon as drawn should be removed to the milk house and immediately strained and cooled- to the proper temperature. Ques. 356:-In order to get sanitary milk from a poor farm, what stable conveniences for light, ventilation and cleanliness are absolutely necessary? ANS.:-The stable conveniences for light, ventilation and cleanliness which are absolutely necessary in order to get sanitary milk from a poor farm are as follows: (1) At least two square feet of window surface for each 600 cubic feet of space; (2) an air space of at least 600 cubic feet of stable for each cow, and a proper admission of air through windows, or muslin covered openings; (3) a hard, non-absorbent floor with a proper non-absorbent valley drain. Ques. 357:-In order to improve a herd which was not giving proper results, state what investigations you would make and how you would advse the farmer. ANS.:-The investigations which I would make of a cow herd which was not giving proper results would be essentially the following: (1) I would first inquire into the breed of the cows; (2) examine clinically the health of the cows, and make tuberculin tests on the herd to discover and eliminate the tubercular cows; (3) inquire into the feeding and kinds of foods furnished the cows; (4) examine the water supply of the farm and its drainage; (5) inspect the barnyard and stables to see if they are properly built; (6) inquire into the methods of milking; (7) see if the milk is properly handled after milking. The advice I would give to the farmer would be to improve the breed of his cows, eliminate all diseased ones from the herd, furnish his cows with plenty of good and proper food rations, install a proper farm drainage and secure an uncontaminated nure water supply, improve the construction of his stable, install better methods of milking and handling milk, and keep proper record of his output. 52

Page  53 RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING MILK. REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PRODUCTION, TRANSPORTATION, PASTEURIZATION, AND SALE OF MILK, CREAM, CONDENSED OR CONCENTRATED MILK, CONDENSED SKIMMED MILK, AND MODIFIED MILK. Regulations of the Department of Health of the City of New York, adopted March 30, 1915, effective April 1, 1915, relating to Sections 155 and 156 of the Sanitary Code, which provide as follows: Sec. 155. Milk, cream, condensed, or concentrated milk, condensed skimmed milk, and modified milk; sale regulated; term "modified milk" defined; exception.No milk or cream, condensed or concentrated milk, condensed skimmed milk, or modified milk, shall be held, kept, offered for sale, sold, or delivered in the City of New York without a permit therefor issued by the Board of Health, or otherwise than in accordance with the terms of said permit and with the Regulations of said Board. By the term "modified milk" is meant milk of any subdivision of the classification known as "Grade A; for Infants and Children," which has been changed by the addition of water, sugar of milk, or other substance intended to render the milk suitable for infant feeding. The provisions of this section shall not apply to milk or cream, sold in hotels and restaurants, nor to condensed milk or condensed skimmed milk, when contained in hermetically sealed cans. Sec. 156. Milk and cream; grades and designations.-All milk or cream held, kept, offered for sale, sold, or delivered in the City of New York shall be so held, kept, offered for sale, sold, or delivered in accordance with the Regulations of the Board of Health and under any of the following grades or designations and not otherwise: of producing or used in preparation of sour milk, buttermilk, homogenized milk, milk curds, sour cream, Smeteny, Kumyss, Matzoon, Zoolak, and other similar products or preparations, provided that any such product or preparation be held, kept, offered for sale, sold, or delivered in the City of New York. Regulation 1. Milk, cream, and condensed milk not to be stored in stables or other insanitary places.-Milk, cream, or condensed milk shall not be handled, stored, offered for sale, or sold in any stable; room used for sleeping purposes; or in any room or place which is dark, damp, poorly ventilated, or insanitary. Regulation 2. Water-closet compartments.-Every water-closet compartment, except when provided with mechanical means of ventilation, shall have a window at least one foot by three feet between stop-beads opening to the external air and the entire window shall be made so as to readily open, or an opening connected with the external air measuring at least 144 square inches for each water-closet or urinal, with an increase of 72 square inches for each additional water-closet or urinal. The door or doors of the water-closet compartment shall be self-closing. Where the water-closet is in direct communication with the room in which food is prepared or stored, if required by the Department of Health, a suitable and properly lighted vestibule shall be provided. The door of the vestibule shall be self closing. All watercloset fixtures, water-closet compartments, and vestibules shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition and in good repair. Regulation 3. Rooms, insanitary condition.-Milk, condensed milk, or cream shall not be sold or stored in any room which is dark, poorly ventilated, or dirty, or in which rubbish or useless material is allowed to accumulate, or in which there are offensive odors. Regulation 4. Milk vessels to be protected.-All vessels which contain milk, condensed milk, or cream, must be protected by suitable covers. Vessels must be so placed that milk, condensed milk, or cream will not become contaminated by dust, dirt, or flies. Regulation 5. Milk not to be kept on sidewalk.-Milk, condensed milk, or cream shall not be allowed to stand on the sidewalk or outside of the store, longer than is absolutey necessary for transportation. Regulation 6. Milk not to be transferred on street.-Milk, condensed milk, or cream must not be transferred from one container to another on the streets, at ferries, or at railroad depots. "Grade A: 1. 2. For infants and children." Milk or cream (raw). Milk or cream (pasteurized). "Grade B: For Adults." 1. Milk or cream (pasteurized). "Grade C: For Cooking and Manufacturing Purposes Only." 1. Milk or cream not conforming to the requirements of any of the subdivisions of Grade A or Grade B, and which has been pasteurized according to the Regulations of the Board of Health or boiled for at least two (2) minutes. 2. Condensed skimmed milk. The provisions of this section shall apply to milk or cream used for the purpose 53

Page  54 Regulation 7. Ice tub or ice box to be provided. Vessels in which milk, condensed milk, or cream is kept for sale shall be kept either in a milk tub, properly iced, or in a clean ice box or refrigerator in which these or similar articles of food are stored. Regulation 8. Containers to be cleaned and sterilized.-All containers in which milk, condensed milk, or cream is stored, handled, transported, or sold, must be thoroughly cleaned and sterilized before filling. Such cleaning and sterilizing shall not be done, nor shall any containers be filled in any stable, in any room used for sleeping purposes, or in any room having a direct connection with such stables or rooms, or with water-closet compartments, unless such water-closet compartments conform to Regulation 2 of these regulations. Regulation 9. Ice-box or ice-tub to be kept clean.-The ice-box or ice-tub in which milk, condensed milk, or cream is kept must be maintained in a thoroughly clean condition. Regulation 10. Drainage of ice-box.The overflow pipe from the ice-box in which milk, condensed milk, or cream is kept must not be directly connected with the drain pipe or sewer, but must discharge into a properly trapped, sewer-connected, water-supplied open sink. Regulation 11. Health of employees.No person having an infectious disease, or caring for or coming in contact with any person having an infectious disease, shall handle milk. Regulation 12. Worn or badly rusted receptacles.-All cans or receptacles used in the sale or delivery of milk, cream, or condensed milk when found to be in an unfit condition to be so used by reason of being worn out, badly rusted, or with rusted inside surface, or in such condition that they cannot be rendered clean and sanitary by washing shall be condemned by inspectors of this Department. Every such can or receptacle when so condemned shall be marked by a stamp, impression, or device showing that it had been so condemned and when so condemned shall not thereafter be used by any person, for the purpose of selling, delivering or shipping milk, cream, or condensed milk. ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PRODUCTION AND SALE OF MILK WITHIN THE CITY OF NEW YORK. Regulation 16. Milk produced in violation of the regulations.-Milk produced in violation of these regulations shall be deemed adulterated as defined in Section 156 of the Sanitary Code. Regulation 17. Water used for washing and cleaning containers.-All water used for washing and cleaning containers, utensils, or apparatus used in preparing milk for sale in the City of New York shall be clean and wholesome. The water shall be, whenever possible, from a public supply of known purity. No water other than from a public supply shall be used within the City of New York without a permit therefor issued by the Board of Health. Regulation 18. Milk house.-A properly constructed, conveniently located milk house shall be provided. The milk house shall have no direct communication with stable. Regulation 19. Floors of milk house.The floors of milk house shall be constructed of cement and so graded as to discharge all surface drainage from one or more points into properly trapped sewerconnected drains. Where no sewer is provided the drains must discharge into properly constructed cesspools. The floor opening of each drain shall be covered by a suitable iron strainer. Regulation 20. Walls and ceilings.Walls and ceilings of the milk house must be sheathed and finished smooth to prevent the accumulation of dust and dirt. Regulation 21. Maintenance of milk house.-The interior of the milk house, unless constructed of cement or similar material, must be painted with some light colored waterproof paint. The milk house must be maintained at all times in a cleanly condition, free from dust, dirt, rubbish, and cobwebs. No material foreign to the proper care and handling of milk shall be kept or allowed to remain in the milk house. Regulation 22. Separate rooms shall be provided for the handling and storage of milk.-Separate rooms must be provided for the handling and storage of-milk and the washing of utensils. Bottle caps and tags must not be stored in the milk handling room. A sufficient number for immeddiate use should be taken to the bottling room immediately preceding the process of bottling. Regulation 23. Supply of hot and cold water to be provided.-A convenient and adequate supply of hot and cold water must be provided for washing utensils and cooling milk. Regulation 24. Cleaning of pails, strainers, bottles, cans, etc.-All pails, strainers, bottles, cans, and apparatus used in handling or bottling milk must be washed, immediately after using, in hot water and some proper alkaline washing solution, rinsed with clean boiling water, and stored in such a manner as to remain clean-until used. Regulation 25. Tubs for washing purposes to be provided.-The wash room must have tubs for washing purposes which shall be constructed of some non-absorbent 54

Page  55 material. All draining shelves and racks shall also be of non-absorbent material. Regulation 26. Lighting of milk house and screen doors to be provided.-Each room of the milk house shall be provided with sufficient window light, and all doors and windows shall be screened to prevent the access of flies, between the 1st day of May and the 1st day of November of each year. The premises shall be kept free from vermin at all times. All doors shall be self-closing. Regulation 27. Cooling and storage facilities to be provided.-The milk room shall contain cooling and storage facilities of sufficient capacity to cool and store all milk produced on the premises during twenty-four hours to a temperature of 50 F. or below. If a pool is used for such purpose it shall be properly drained and trapped. All pools used in the cooling or storage of milk shall be emptied and cleaned at least once in twenty-four hours. Regulation 28. Connection between milk room and other rooms.-Wherever there is direct connection between the milk room and any other room, a self-closing door must be provided. Regulation 29. Milk pails. —No pail should be used during the process of milking which has a top opening of a diameter greater than 8 inches. The inner surface of all milk pails and utensils shall be smooth and heavily tinned; all seams must be soldered flush. Regulation 30. Size of milk house.-The milk house and each room thereof must be of sufficient size to allow plenty of room, and no part of the milk house shall be maintained in an overcrowded condition. Regulation 31. Milk to be protected.The milk shall at no time be exposed to dust and dirt. Regulation 32. Milk to be conducted in a cleanly manner.-All milk and milk handling must be conducted in a cleanly manner. Regulation 33. Health of employees.No person having or coming in contact directly or indirectly with any infectious or venereal disease shall be allowed to milk, or handle milk or milk utensils. Regulation 34. Clothing of milkers.-The outer clothing of milkers and milk handlers must consist of clean overalls and jackets of some light colored material. Regulation 35. Cows to be groomed daily.-Cows must be groomed daily and be kept at all times clean and free from accumulation of manure, mud, or other filth. Regulation 36. Cows to be clipped.-The long hairs upon the flanks, udders, and tails must be clipped and kept short. Regulation 87. Cleaning of cows prior to milking.-The udders and teats must be washed clean immediately prior to milking and dried with a clean cloth. Regulation 88. Throat latch to be used.To prevent the cows from lying down between cleaning and milking, a throat latch shall be provided and used. Regulation 39. Cleanliness of milkers — The hands of milkers and milk handlers must be washed clean with soap and water immediately prior to, and kept clean during the milking and handling of milk. Convenient facilities, consisting of water, soap, basin, and clean towels, shall be provided for such purpose. Regulation 40. Dry milking.-The hands and teats must be kept dry during milking. The first stream from each teat shall be rejected. Regulation 41. Health of Cows.-The cows must be healthy and free from disease as determined by a physical examination. Such examination must be made at least once each year by a qualified veterinarian and a certificate certifying thereto filed with the Department of Health, and no cows shall be admitted to the herd until after such physical examination. Regulation 42. Feeding of Cows.-Only feed which is of good quality, and only grain and coarse fodder which are free from dirt and mould shall be used. Distillery waste or any substance in an advanced or injurious state of putrefaction must not be fed to cows. Regulation 43. Hay not to be fed durin milking.-No hay or other dry fodder shall be fed to cows during milking or immediately prior thereto. Regulation 44. Bedding of cows.-The cows shall be bedded with some clean material, preferably straw, sawdust, or shavings, and the bedding shall be renewed each day. Regulation 45. Milk from diseased cows. -Milk from diseased cows, and milk which has been polluted with fecal matter must be immediately destroyed. Regulation 46. Milking stools to be used. -Milking stools shall be constructed of metal having a smooth surface and must be kept clean at all times. Regulation 47. Milk to be immediately cooled.-All milk as soon as drawn must be immediately removed to the milk house and strained. All milk must be cooled to at least 50 degrees F. within two hours of its production and maintained at or below such temperature until delivered to the consumer. 55

Page  56 ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PRODUCTION OF MILK OUTSIDE THE CITY OF NEW YORK, AND SHIPPED FOR SALE TO THE CITY OF NEW YORK. Regulation 50. Cows to be kept clean.The cows shall be kept clean, and manure must not be permitted to collect upon the tail, sides, udder and belly. Regulation 51. Cows to be groomed daily.-The cows shall be groomed daily, and all collections of manure, mud or other filth must not be allowed to remain upon their flanks, udders or bellies during milking. Regulation 52. Clipping of long hairs from udder and flanks required.-The clipping of long hairs from the udder and flanks of the cows is of assistance in preventing the collection of filth which may drop into the milk. The hair on the tails shall be cut, so that the brush will be well above the ground. Regulation 53. Udder and teats to be cleaned before milking.-The udders and teats of the cow shall be thoroughly cleaned before milking; this to be done by thorough brushing and the use of a cloth and warm water. Regulation 54. Throat latch to be provided.-To prevent the cows from lying down and getting dirty between cleaning and milking, a throat latch of rope or chain shall be fastened across the stanchions under the cow's neck. Regulation 55. Only feed of good quality to be used.-Only feed which is of good quality, and only grain and coarse fodders which are free from dirt and mould shall be used. Distillery waste or any substance in the state of fermentation or putrefaction must not be fed to cows. Regulation 56. Cows not in good flesh and condition to be removed from herd.Cows which are not in good flesh and condition shall be immediately removed aid their milk kept separate until their health has been passed upon by a veterinarian. Regulation 57. Examination by veterinarian to be made annually.-An examination by a licensed veterinary surgeon shall be made at least once a year. Regulation 58. No stagnant water, hogpen, privy, etc., to be located within 100 feet of cow stable.-No stagnant water, hogpen, privy, or uncovered cesspool or manure pit shall be maintained within 100 feet of the cow stable. Regulation 59. Adequate ventilation to be provided.-The cow stable shall be provided with some adequate means of ventilation, either by the construction of sufficient air chutes extending from the room in which the cows are kept to the outside air, or by the installation of muslin stretched over the window openings. Regulation 60. Window light.-Windows shall be installed in the cow barn to provide sufficient light (2 sq. ft. of window light to each 600 cu. ft. of air space the minimum) and the panes be washed and kept clean. Regulation 61. Air space for each cow.There shall be at least 600 cubic feet of air space for each cow. Regulation 62. Milch cows to be kept in place used for no other purpose.-Milch cows shall be kept in a place which is used for no other purpose. Regulation 63. Construction of floors.Stable floors shall be made water-tight, be properly graded and well-drained, and be of some non-absorbent material. Regulation 64. Feeding troughs and platforms to be lighted and kept clean.-The feeding troughs and platforms shall be well lighted and kept clean at all times. Regulation 65. Ceiling to be kept free from dirt, cobwebs and straw.-The ceiling shall be thoroughly swept down and kept free from hanging straw, dirt and cobwebs Regulation 66. Construction of ceilings. -The ceiling must be so constructed that dust and dirt therefrom shall not readily fall to the floor or into the milk. If the space over the cows is used for storage of hay, the ceiling shall be made tight to prevent chaff and dust from falling through. Regulation 67. Walls and ledge to be kept free from dirt, manure and cobwebs. -The walls and ledges shall be thoroughly swept down and kept free from dust, dirt, manure, or cobwebs, and the floors and premises be kept free from dirt, rubbish and decayed animal or vegetable matter at all times. Regulation 68. Cow beds to be kept clean.-The cow beds shall be so graded and kept that they will be clean and sanitary at all times. Regulation 69. Stable to be whitewashed twice a year.-Stables shall be whitewashed at least twice a year unless the walls are painted or are of smooth cement. Regulation 70. Manure to be removed twice daily.-Manure must be removed from the stalls and gutters at least twice daily. This must not be done during milking, nor within one hour prior thereto. Regulation 71. Manure not to be stored within 200 feet of stable.-Manure shall be taken from the barn, preferably drawn to the field. When the weather is such that this cannot be done, it should be stored no nearer than 200 feet from the stable and the manure pile should be so located that,the cows cannot get at it. 56

Page  57 Regulation 72. Disposal of liquid matter. -The liquid matter shall be absorbed and removed daily and at no time be allowed to overflow or saturate the ground under or around the cow barn. Regulation 73. Construction of manure gutters.-Manure gutters shall be from six to eight inches deep, and constructed of concrete, stone or some non-absorbent material. Regulation 74. Use of land plaster or lime recommended.-The use of land plaster or lime is recommended upon the floors and gutters. Regulation 75. Character of bedding to be used.-Only bedding which is clean, dry and absorbent shall be used, preferably sawdust, shavings, dried leaves or straw. No horse manure should be used as bedding. Regulation 76. Construction of flooring. -The flooring where the cows stand shall be so constructed that all manure may drop into the gutter and not upon the floor itself. Regulation 77. Floor not to be swept prior to milking cows.-The floor shall be swept daily. This must be done one hour prior to milking time. Regulation 78. Drinking basin for cows to be kept clean.-If individual drinking basins are used for the cows they should be frequently drained and cleaned. Regulation 79. Live stock other than cows to be excluded from stable where milch cows are kept.-All live stock other than cows shall be excluded from the room in which milch cows are kept. (Calf or bull pens may be allowed in the same room if kept in the same clean and sanitary manner as the cow beds.) Regulation 80. Barnyard to be cleaned. -The barnyard shall be well drained and dry, and should be as much sheltered as possible from the wind and cold. Manure should not be allowed to collect therein. Regulation 81. Separate quarters to be provided for sick cows.-A suitable place in some separate building shall be provided for the use of the cows when sick, and separate quarters must be provided for cows when calving. Regulation 82. Silo or grain pit not to open directly into stable.-There shall be no direct opening from any silo or grain pit into the room in which the milch cows are kept. Regulation 83. Milk house to be provided.-A milk house must be provided which is separated from the stable and dwelling. It shall be located on elevated ground, with no hog-pen, privy, or manure pile within 100 feet. Regulation 84. Milk house to be kept clean.-Milk house must be kept clean and not used for any purpose except the handling of milk. Regulation 85. Floor of milk house to be properly graded and water-tight.-Milk house shall be provided with sufficient light and ventilation, with floors properly graded and made water-tight. Regulation 86. Milk house to be lighted and ventilated.-Milk house shall be provided with adjustable sashes to furnish sufficient light and some proper method of ventilation shall be installed. Regulation 87. Size of milk house.-The milk house shall be provided with an ample supply of clean water for cooling the milk, and if it is not a running supply, the water should be changed twice daily. Also a supply of clean ice should be provided to be used for cooling the milk to 60 degrees within two hours after milking. Regulation 88. Storing of empty cans.Suitable means shall be provided within the milk house, to expose the milk pails, cans and utensils to the sun or to live steam. Regulation 89. Washing facilities for milkers to be provided.-Facilities consisting of wash basins, soap and towel shall be provided for the use of milkers before and during milking. During the summer months the milk house should be properly screened to exclude flies. Regulation 90. Health of employees.Any person having any communicable or infectious disease, or one caring for persons having such diseases, must not be allowed to handle the milk or milk utensils. Regulation 91. Milkers to clean hands before milking.-The hands of the milkers must be thoroughly washed with soap and water, and carefully dried on a clean towel before milking. Regulation 92. Clothing to be worn during milking.-Clean overalls and jumpers shall be worn during the milking of cjws. They should be used for no other purposes, and when not in use should be kept in a clean place, protected from dust. Regulation 93. Milking with wet hands condemned.-The hands and teats shall be kept dry during milking. The practice of moistening the hands with milk is to be condemned. Regulation 94. Milking stools to be kept clean.-The milking stools shall be at all times kept clean, and iron stools are recommended. Regulation 95. Fore milk to be rejected. -The first streams from each teat shall be rejected, as this fore milk contains more bacteria than the rest of the milk. Regulation 96. Milk drawn from cows 16 days before or 5 days after parturition to 57

Page  58 be rejected.-All milk drawn from the cows 15 days before, or 5 days after parturition shall be rejected. Regulation 97. Small-mouth milking pail to be used.-The pails in which the milk is drawn should have as small an opening at the top as can be used in milking; top opening preferably not to exceed 8 inches in diameter. This lessens the contamination by dust and dirt during milking. Regulation 98. Milking to be done ripidly.-The milking should be done rapidly and quietly, and the cows should be treated kindly. Regulation 99. Feeding just prior to milking prohibited.-Dry fodder should not be fed to the cows during or just before milking, as dust therefrom may fall into the milk. Regulation 100. Milk utensils to be kept clean and in good repair.-All milk utensils, including pails, cans, strainers, and dippers, must be kept thoroughly clean and must be washed and scalded after each using, and all seams in these utensils should be cleaned, scraped and soldered flush. Regulation 101. Shipment of milk from diseased cows prohibited.-Milk from diseased cows must not be shipped. Regulation 102. Adulteration prohibited. -The milk must not be in any way adulterated. Regulation 103. Milk to be immediately strained and cooled.-The milk as soon as drawn, shall be removed to the milk house and immediately strained and cooled to the proper temperature. Regulation 104. Milk to be cooled below 50 degrees F. within two hours after milking.-All milk must be cooled to a temperature below 50 degrees F. within two hours after being drawn, and kept thereafter below that until delivered to the creamery. Regulation 105. Straining of milk.-The milk shall be strained into cans which are standing in ice water which reaches the neck of the can. The more rapidly the milk is cooled, the safer it is, and longer it will keep sweet. Ice should be used in cooling milk, as very few springs are cold enough for the purpose. Regulation 106. Use of aerators.-If aerators are used, they shall stand where the air is free from dust or odors, and on no account should they be used in the stable, or out of doors. Regulation 107. Cleaning of milk strainers.-Milk strainers shall be kept clean, scalded a second time just before using, and if cloth strainers are used several of them should be provided in order that they may be frequently changed during the straining of the milk. Regulation 108. Use of preservatives or coloring matter prohibited.-The use of any preservative or coloring matter is adulteration, and its use by a producer or shipper will be sufficient cause for the exclusion of his product from the City of New York. Regulation 109. Water.-The water supply used in the dairy and for washing utensils should be absolutely free from any contamination, sufficiently abundant for all purposes, and easy of access. Regulation 110. Protection of water supply.-The water supply shall be protected against flood or surface drainage. Regulation 111. Location of privy.-The privy shall be located not nearer than 100 feet of the source of the water supply, or else be provided with a watertight box that can be readily removed and cleaned, and so constructed that at no time will the contents overflow or saturate the surrounding ground. Regulation 112. Source of water supply. -The source of the water supply shall be rendered safe against contamination by having no stable, barnyard, pile of manure or other source of contamination located within 200 feet of it. REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE SALE OF GRADE "A" MILK OR CREAM (raw). Definition.-Grade "A" milk or cream (raw) is milk or cream produced and handled in accordance with the Regulations as herin set forth. Regulation 113. Tuberculin test and physical condition.-Only such animals shall be admitted to the herd as are in good physical condition, as shown by a thorough physical examination accompanied by a test with the diagnostic injection of tuberculin, within a period of one month previous to such admission. The test is to be carried out as prescribed in the Regulations of the Department of Health governing the tuberculin testing of cattle. A chart recording the result of the official test must be in the possession of the Department of Health before the admission of any animal to the herd. Regulation 114. Bacterial contents.Grade "A" milk (raw) shall not contain more than 60,000 bacteria per c. c. and cream more than 300,000 bacteria c. c. when delivered to the consumer or at any time prior to such delivery. Regulation 115. Scoring of dairies.-All dairies producing milk of this designation shall score at least 25 points on equipment and 50 points on methods, or a total score of 75 points on an official dairy score card approved by the Department of Health. Regulation 116. Time of delivery.-Milk of this designation shall be delivered to the consumer within 36 hours after production. 58

Page  59 Regulation 117. Bottling.-Milk or cream of this designation shall be delivered to the consumer only in bottles, unless otherwise specified in the permit. Regulation 118. Labelling.-The caps of all bottles containing Grade "A" milk or cream (raw) shall be white, with the grade and designation "Grade A (raw)" the name and address of the dealer, and the word "Certified," when authorized by the state law, clearly, legibly, and conspicuously displayed on the outer side thereof. No other word, statement, design, mark, or device shall appear on that part of the outer cap containing the grade and the designation unless authorized and permitted by the Department of Health. A proof print or sketch of such cap, showing the size and arrangement of the lettering thereon, shall be submitted to and approved by the said Department before being attached to any bottle containing milk or cream of the said grade and designation. ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE SALE OF GRADE "A" MILK OR CREAM (Pasteurized). Definition.-Grade "A" milk or cream (Pasteurized) is milk or cream handled and sold by dealers holding permits therefor from the Board of Health, and produced and handled in accordance with the Regulations as herein set forth. Regulation 119. Physical examination of cows.-All cows producing milk or cream of this designation must be healthy, as determined by a physical examination made annually by a duly licensed veterinarian. Regulation 120. Bacterial content.-Milk of this designation shall not contain more than 30,000 bacteria per c. c. and cream more than 150,000 bacteria per c. c. when delivered to the consumer or at any time after pasteurization and prior to such delivery. No milk supply averaging more than 200,000 bacteria per c. c. shall be pasteurized to be sold under this designation. Regulation 121. Scoring of dairies.-All dairies producing milk or cream of this designation shall score at least 25 points on equipment and 43 points on methods, or a total score of 68 points on an official score card approved by the Department of Health. Regulation 122. Times of delivery.Milk or cream of this designation shall be delivered within 36 hours after pasteurization. Regulation 123. Bottling.-Milk or cream of this designation shall be delivered to the consumer only in bottles unless otherwise specified. Regulation 124.. Bottles only.-The caps of all bottles containing Grade "A" milk or cream (pasteurized) shall be white with the grade and designation "Grade A (pasteurized)" the name and address of the dealer, the date and hours between which pasteurization was completed, and the place where pasteurization was performed clearly, legibly, and conspicuously displayed on the outer side thereof. No other word, statement, design, mark or device shall appear on that part of the outer cap containing the grade and designation, unless authorized and permitted by the Department of Health. A proof print or sketch of such cap, showing the size and arrangement of the lettering thereon, shall be submitted to and approved by the said Department before being attached to the bottles containing milk of the said grade and designation. No other words, statement, design, or device shall appear upon the outer cap unless approved by the Department of Health. The size and arrangement of lettering on such cap must be approved by the Department of Health. Regulation 125. Pasteurization.-Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been subjected to a temperature of from 142 to 145 degrees F. for not less than thirty minutes. ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE SALE OF GRADE "B" MILK OR CREAM (Pasteurized). Definition.-Grade "B" milk or cream (pasteurized) is milk or cream produced and handled in accordance with the minimum requirements of the Regulations herein set forth and which has been pasteurized in accordance with the Regulations of the Department of Health for pasteurization. Regulation 128. Physical examination of cows.-All cows producing milk or cream of this designation must be healthy as determined by a physical examination made and approved by a duly licensed veterinarian. Regulation 129. Bacterial contents.-No milk under this designation shall contain more than 100,000 bacteria per c. c. and no cream shall contain more than 500,000 bacteria per c. c. when delivered to the consumer, or at any time after pasteurization and prior to such delivery. No milk supply averaging more than 1,500,000 bacteria per c. c. shall be pasteurized in this city under this designation. No milk supply averaging more than 300,000 bacteria per c. c. shall be pasteurized outside the City of New York to be sold in said city under this designation. Regulation 130. Scoring of dairies.Dairies producing milk or cream of this designation shall score at least 20 points on equipment and 35 points on methods, or a total score of 55 points on an official score card approved by the Department of Health. 59

Page  60 Regulation 181. Time of delivery.-Milk of this designation shall be delivered within 36 hours. Cream shall be delivered within seventy-two (72) hours after pasteurization. Cream intended for manufacturing purposes may be stored in cold storage and held thereat in bulk at a temperature not higher than 32 degrees F. for a period conforming with the laws of the state of New York. Such cream shall be delivered in containers, other than bottles, within twenty-four hours after removal from cold storage and shall be used only in the manufacture of products in which cooking is required. Regulation 132. Bottling.-Milk of this designation may be delivered in cans or bottles. Regulation 133. Labelling.-The caps of all bottles containing Grade "B" milk (pasteurized) and the tags attached to all cans containing Grade "B" milk or cream (pasteurized) shall be white with the grade and designation "Grade B (pasteurized)," the name and address of the dealer, and the date when and place where pasteurization was performed, clearly, legibly, and conspicuously displayed on the outer side thereof. The caps of all bottles containing Grade "B" cream (pasteurized) shall be white with the grade and designation "Grade B Cream (pasteurized)," the name and address of the dealer, and the date when and the place where bottled, clearly, legibly, and conspicuously displayed on the outer side thereof. No other word, statement, design, mark, or device shall appear on that part of the outer cap or tag containing the grade and designation unless authorized and permitted by the Department of Health. A proof print or sketch of such cap or tag, showing the size and arrangement of the lettering thereon shall be submitted to and approved by the said Department before being attached to any receptacle containing milk or cream of the said grade and designation. Regulation 134. Pasteurization.-Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been subjected to a temperature of from 142 to 145 degrees F. for not less than thirty minutes. ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE SALE OF GRADE "C" MILK OR CREAM (PASTEURIZED) (FOR COOKING and MANUFACTURING PURPOSES ONLY). Definition.-Grade "C" milk or cream is milk or cream not conforming to the requirements of any of the subdivisions of Grade "A" or Grade "B" and which has been pasteurized according to the Regulations of the Board of Health or boiled for at least two minutes. Regulation 136. Physical examination of cows.-All cows producing milk or cream of this designation must be healthy, as de termined by a physical examination made by a duly licensed veterinarian. Regulation 137. Bacterial content.-No milk of this designation shall contain more than 300,000 bacteria per c. c. and no cream of this grade shall contain more than 1,500,000 bacteria per c. c. after pasteurization. Regulation 138. Scoring of dairies.Dairies producing milk or cream of this designation must score at least 40 points on an official score card approved by the Department of Health. Regulation 139. Time of delivery.-Milk or cream of this designation shall be delivered within 48 hours after pasteurization. Regulation 140. Bottling.-Milk or cream of this designation shall be delivered in cans only. Regulation 141. Labelling.-The tags attached to all cans containing Grade "C" milk (for cooking) shall be white with the grade and designation "Grade C Milk (for cooking)," the name and address of the dealer, and the date when and place where pasteurization was performed, clearly, legibly, and conspicuously displayed thereon. No other word, statement, design, mark, or device shall appear on that part of the tag containing the grade and designation, unless authorized and permitted by the Department of Health. A proof print or sketch of such tag, showing the size and arrangement of the lettering thereon shall be submitted to and approved by the said Department before being attached to the cans containing milk of the said grade and designation. The cans shall have properly sealed metal covers painted red. Regulation 142. Pasteurization.-Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been subjected to a temperature of 145 degrees, for not less than thirty minutes. ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE SALE OF CONDENSED SKIMMED MILK. Definition.-Condensed skimmed milk is condensed milk in which the butter fat is less than twenty-five (25) per cent. of the total milk solids. Regulation 145. Cans to be painted blue. -The cans containing condensed skimmed milk shall be colored a bright blue and shall bear the words "Condensed Skimmed Milk" in block letters at least two inches high and two inches wide, with a space of at least one-half inch between any two letters. The milk shall be delivered to the person to whom sold, in can or cans, as required in this regulation, excepting when sold in hermetically sealed cans. 60

Page  61 ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE LABELLING OF MILK OR CREAM BROUGHT INTO, DELIVERED, OFFERED FOR SALE AND SOLD IN NEW YORK CITY. Regulation 146. Labelling of milk or cream.-Each container or receptacle used for bringing milk or cream into or delivering it in the City of New York shall bear a tag or label stating, if shipped from a creamery or dairy, the location of the said creamery or dairy, the date of shipment, the name of the dealer, and the grade of the product contained therein, except as elsewhere provided for delivery of cream in bottles. Regulation 147. Labelling of milk or cream to be pasteurized.-All milk or cream brought into the City of New York to be pasteurized shall have a tag affixed to each and every can or other receptacle indicating the place of shipment, date of shipment, and the words "to be pasteurized at (stating location of pasteurizing plants)." Regulation 148. Mislabeling of milk or cream.-MNilk or cream of one grade or designation shall not be held, kept, offered for sale, sold, or labeled as milk or cream of a higher grade or designation. Regulation 149. Word, statement, design, mark or device on label.-No word, statement, design, mark or device regarding the milk or cream shall appear on any cap or tag attached to any bottle, can, or other receptacles containing milk or cream which words, statement, design, mark, or device is false or misleading in any particular. Regulation 150. Tags to be saved.-As soon as the contents of such container or receptacle are sold, or before the said container is returned or otherwise disposed of, or leaves the possession of the dealer, the tag thereon shall be removed and kept on file in the store, where such milk or cream has been sold, for a period of two months thereafter, for inspection by the Department of Health. Regulation 151. Record of milk or cream delivered.-Every wholesale dealer in the city of New York shall keep a record in his main office in the said city, which shall show from which place or places milk or cream, delivered by him daily to retail stores in the city of New York, has been received and to whom delivered, and the said record shall be kept for a period of two months, for inspection by the Department of Health, and shall be readily accessible to the inspectors of the said Department at all times. REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION OF CREAMERIES, RECEIVING STATIONS AND PASTEURIZING PLANTS. CONSTRUCTION. 1. Sufficient light and ventilation to be provided.-All rooms in which milk or cream is pasteurized or otherwise handled, and in which utensils, apparatus and containers are washed, must be properly lighted and provided with suitable ventilation. Vent pipes extending above the roof should be installed for carrying away excess steam. 2. Construction of floor.-Floors of all rooms must be constructed of concrete or some equally non-absorbent material. They must be watertight and so graded that all drainage will flow toward one or more points of discharge. 3. Drainage.-All drains must be suitably trapped, and drainage when not discharged into city sewers, must be disposed of into cesspools, septic tanks, running brooks or creeks, or conveyed by drains to a point at least 500 feet from the buildin g. 4. Construction of walls and ceilings.Walls and ceilings, unless constructed of concrete, smooth brick or tile, must be sheathed, dust tight, and painted with a light-colored paint. 5. Doors and windows to be screened.All outside doors and windows must be screened against flies from May 1 to October 31. 6. Doors to be provided with self-closing device.-All doors must be provided with self-closing devices. 7. Toilet facilities to be provided. Location of privies.-Suitable toilet facilities must be provided for the use of employees, but no watercloset shall communicate directly with any room used for handling milk or cream, or with any room in which utensils are washed. Privies or earth closets must be situated at least 100 feet from the building and must have fly-proof vaults. Seat covers must be self-closing. 8. Rooms to be used in receiving and dumping milk.-Milk must be received and dumped in rooms used for no other milk handling. 9. Rooms to be used for washing containers.-The washing of containers should not be conducted in rooms in which milk or cream is handled. If such washing is done in the same rooms, it must not be carried on during the period of milk handling. 10. Milk or cream not to be handled in room used for living purposes.-No stable and no room used for living or domestic purposes shall communicate directly with any room in which milk or cream is handled or in which utensils are washed. 11. Water supply.-An adequate supply of pure running water must be provided. EQUIPMENT. 12. Construction of apparatus.-All weigh cans, storage vats, mixing vats, and 61

Page  62 other apparatus must be constructed of suitable metal, preferably of tinned copper, all angles and joints being smoothly soldered. They must be provided with closely fitting metal covers of similar material. 13. Construction of pipes and pumps.All milk pipes and pumps must be of sanitary construction and so arranged that they may be easily taken apart for cleaning. The use of tightly soldered elbow joints is prohibited. 14. Arrangement of piping when continuous holder is used.-If a continuous type of milk or cream pasteurizing holder is provided, which consists of a series of tanks, the piping must be so arranged that the lower tank is filled first. 15. Automatic temperature recording devices to be provided.-At every milk or cream pasteurizing plant, automatic temperature recording devices must be installed which will indicate the temperature to which the milk or cream has been heated, the time at which such heating has been performed, and, if possible, the length of time for which the milk or cream is held at the required temperature. 16. Location of temperature recorder.The temperature recorder must be attached at the highest point of the outlet from a continuous holder. If an absolute holder is used, the recorder must be so attached as to show the temperature and the time of holding. 17. Washing facilities for cans and bottles to be provided.-Suitable facilities must be provided for washing, rinsing in cold water, and sterilizing cans and bottles used for pasteurized milk or cream. 18. Racks or can dryers must be provided.-Racks, constructed preferably of metal, must be provided for the storage of washed cans in an inverted position until filled, unless dryers are employed during the sterilizing of cans and can covers. 19. Washed bottles to be inverted.All washed bottles must be stored in an inverted position until filled, or must be so protected as to prevent contamination. 20. Surface coolers to be protected.Surface coolers must be provided with suitable metal covers unless located in a room used for no other purpose. 21. Bottling of milk.-No milk shall be bottled unless the process be so conducted as to preclude its contamination. METHODS. 22. Rooms to be kept clean. Smoking and spitting prohibited.-All rooms and surrounding premises must be maintained in a cleanly and sanitary condition. Smoking and spitting within the building must be prohibited. 23. Water and steam pipes to be painted. -All water and steam pipes must be kept free from rust and dirt and must be painted. 24. Oil cup or pan to be provided under bearings for shafting.-All bearings for shafting must be provided with suitable oil cups or pans. 25. Bottle caps before use to be protected.-Bottle caps must be protected from contamination until used. 26. Garments worn by employees.-Clean washable outer garments must be worn by employees while handling milk or cream. 27. Milk or cream to be cooled within 30 minutes after pasteurization.-All milk or cream must be cooled after pasteurization to a temperature of 50 degrees or less within 30 minutes. 28. Apparatus to be cleaned and sterilized immediately after use.-All apparatus used for handling milk or cream must be thoroughly cleaned and sterilized immediately after use. All apparatus used in the pasteurizing of milk and cream must be sterilized immediately before the process is commenced. 29. Temperature records to be made daily and kept on file.-Temperature records must be made daily and be kept on file as long as required by the Department of Health. 30. Milk or cream to be regarded as pasteurized to be subjected to temperature of 142-145 degrees for not less than 30 minutes.-Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been subjected to a temperature of 142-145 degrees for not less than 30 minutes. GENERAL. 31. Containers to be tagged or labeled.All containers in which pasteurized milk or cream is delivered shall be plainly tagged or labeled "Pasteurized" and the said tags or labels shall be marked in accordance with rules set forth for each grade. 32. Only pasteurized milk or cream conforming to regulations to be sold.-Milk or cream which has been heated in any degree will not be permitted to be sold in the city of New York unless the heating conforms with the regulations of the Department of Health for the pasteurization of milk or cream. 33. Apparatus to be approved.-Permits will not be granted to pasteurize milk or cream unless all apparatus connected with said pasteurizing has been approved by the Department of Health. 34. Permits to pasteurize required.-No milk or cream shall be sold, held, kept and offered for sale in the city of New York 62

Page  63 as "Pasteurized" unless said milk or cream has been pasteurized under permit from the Board of Health in conformity with the rules and regulations thereof. 35. Milk or cream not to be pasteurized a second time.-No milk or cream shall be pasteurized a second time. 36. Pasteurized milk to be bottled at place of pasteurization.-Pasteurized milk shall not be held, kept, offered for sale, or sold in bottles unless such milk has been bottled at the place of pasteurization. 37. Room and apparatus used for the pasteurization of Grade A milk.-M ilk or cream shall not be received in any room or apparatus where Grade A pasteurized milk or cream is handled and treated, unless the said milk or cream complies with the Regulations for Grade A pasteurized milk. REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TUBERCULIN TESTING OF CATTLE. Regulation 1. Manner of testing.-In the case of any herd which is found, when tested in accordance with these regulations, to be free from tuberculosis, the next general test of the herd shall be made within twelve (12) months. Any herd in which one or more reactors shall have been found, shall be retested with tuberculin within six (6) months, and every reacting animal shall be excluded from the herd. Tuberculin tests shall be made as follows: During the ten (10) hours before injection, four (4) pre-injection temperatures shall be taken at intervals of three (3) hours. The first post-injection temperature shall be taken not later than six (6) hours after injection; thereafter temperature shall be taken at intervals of two (2) hours, continuing for not less than twenty-four (24) hours after injection. Regulation 2. Herds to be retested.-If more than ten per cent. (10%) of the herd react to the tuberculin test, the entire herd shall be retested with tuberculin upon the expiration of ninety (90) days and each animal so retested shall receive a double dose of tuberculin at this test. Regulation 3. Reactions and suspicious reactions.-A rise of 2 degrees over the highest pre-injection temperature shall be considered a reaction, provided such rise of temperature cannot be shown co be due to some other cause. A rise of 1Y2 degrees F. in which there are consecutive temperatures above the normal extending over three (3) or more intervals, shall be considered a suspicious reaction, and an animal having so reacted shall be removed from the herd. The interpretation of the "temperature curve" shall be left to the discretion of the veterinarian making the test subject to the approval of the Department of Health, provided, however, that such veterinarian shall be a legally licensed veterinarian whose tests are acceptable to the Department of Agriculture of the state of New York. A full report of the test shall he made on a chart approved by the Department of Health, which chart shall state the kind and quality of tuberculin used in each test, the dates and hours at which temperatures were taken, a description of the animals tested, and the numbers of the tags attached to the same, and said report shall be duly signed by the veterinarian making the test and submitted to the Department of Health, and by the Department of Health placed on file for inspection and record. REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE USE OF A DIRT TESTER. Regulation 1. Dirt tester.-A dirt tester approved by the Department of Health of the city of New York, must be used in all creameries shipping milk to the city of New York. Regulation 2. Milk to be tested.-All milk received at any creamery shipping milk as aforesaid must be tested thereat by the person having the management and control of such creamery, at least once a week, the results of such test to be posted in a conspicuous place in the creamery and duplicates of such test forwarded to the Department of Health at the end of each month. Regulation 3. Standard for test.-A photograph or gauge established by the Board of Health of the city of New York must be used as a standard in the creameries herein referred to in determining whether milk contains excessive dirt. Regulation 4. Milk below standard.Where the maximum of dirt, according to the standard is shown to habitually exist in milk officially tested by the Department of Health, at any creamery, it will constitute sufficient cause to either rate the milk as Grade C, or to exclude such milk from sale within the city of New York. 63

Page  64 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIO Permits. 1. A permit for the sale of milk or cream, of any grade or designation, may be granted only after an application has been made in writing on the special blank provided for that purpose. 2. A permit for the sale of milk or cream, of any grade or designation, may be granted only after the premises where it is proposed to care for and handle such milk shall have been rendered clean and sanitary. 3. Every permit for the sale of milk or cream shall expire on the last day of December of the year in which it is granted. 4. No vehicle shall be used for the transportation of milk, condensed milk, or cream, without a permit from the Board of Health. A vehicle permit for 'the sale or transportation of milk, condensed milk, or cream, shall be conspicuously displayed on the outside of the vehicle so that it may be readily seen from the street. The said vehicle shall bear the name and address of the corporation, firm or person using said vehicle for the transportation of milk, condensed milk or cream in letters at least 3 inches in height and conspicuously placed. 5. Every permit for the sale of milk or cream, of any grade or designation, in a store or other premises shall be so conspicuously placed that it may be readily seen at all times. 6. All stores selling or keeping for sale milk, condensed milk, or cream will be frequenty inspected and scored by a system adopted by the Department of Heath, and the revocation of the permit of any store may ensue if the score is found repeatedly below the required standard. 7. The revocation of a permit may ensue for violation of any of the rules and regulations of the Department of Health governing the production, handling and sale of milk or cream, or condensed milk. 8. The permanent revocation of a permit may follow upon repeated conviction of the holder thereof for violations of those sections of the Sanitary Code relating to milk or cream or condensed milk. 9. No milk or cream shall be held, sold or offered for sale in the City of New York, which is produced on dairies which do not score 40% or over on the official dairy score cards, approved by the Board of Health. Sanitary Requirements. 1. Milk, condensed milk, or cream shall not be kept for sale or stored in any stable, in any room used for sleeping purposes, in any room which is insanitary or in any room in direct communication with such stable or room, or with watercloset apartments, except when such watercloset apartments are enclosed by a vestibule. The doors of watercloset apartments and of vestibules thereof, must be provided with a self-closing device, the door of watercloset opening toward toilet and the door of vestibule opening outward. Milk or cream shall not be stored, handled, or sold in any room used for domestic purposes (other than sleeping), or in any room which communicates therewith, unless all communicating doors are provided with some selfclosing device. 2. Milk, condensed milk, or cream shall not be sold or stored in any room which is dark, poorly ventilated, or dirty, or in which rubbish or useless material is allowed to accumulate, or in which there are offensive odors. 3. All vessels which contain milk, condensed milk or cream, while on sale, must be protected by suitable covers. Vessels must be so placed that the milk, condensed milk or cream will not become contaminated by dust, dirt or flies. 4. Milk, condensed milk, or cream shall not be allowed to stand on the sidewalk or outside of the store door longer than absolutely necessary for transportation. 5. Milk, condensed milk, or cream must not be transferred from one container to another on the streets, at ferries, or at railroad depots. 6. Vessels in which milk, condensed milk or cream is kept for sale shall be kept either in a milk tub, properly iced, or in a clean ice-box or refrigerator in which these or similar articles of food are stored. 7. All containers in which milk, condensed milk, or cream is stored, handled, transported, or sold, must be thoroughly cleaned and sterilized before filling. Such cleaning and sterilizing shall not be done, nor shall any containers be filled in any stable, in any room used for sleeping purposes, or in any room having connection with such stable or rooms, or with watercloset apartments, except when such watercloset apartments are encl aed by a vestibule; the doors of the same being provided with a self-closing device; the door of watercloset opening toward toilet, and the door of vestibule opening outward. 8. The ice-box or ice-tub in which milk, condensed milk, or cream is kept must be maintained in a thoroughly clean condition, and must be scrubbed at such times as may be directed. 9. The overflow pipe from the ice-box in which milk, condensed milk, or cream is kept must not be directly connected with the drain pipe or sewer, but must discharge into a properly trapped, sewer-connected, water-supplied open sink. 10. No person having an infectious disease or caring for or coming in contact with any person having an infectious disease, shall handle milk. 64

Page  65 11. All cans or receptacles used in the sale or delivery of milk, cream or condensed milk when found to be in an unfit condition to be so used by reason of being worn out, badly rusted or with rusted inside surface or in such condition that they can not be rendered clean and sanitary by washing shall be condemned by inspectors of this department; Every such can or receptacle when so condemned shall be marked by a stamp, impression or device showing that it had been so condemned and when so condemned shall not thereafter be used by any person for the purpose of selling, delivering or shipping milk or cream or condensed milk. Pasteurization. 1. All containers' in which 'pasteurized milk or cream is delivered shall be plainly tagged or labeled "Pasteurized" and the said tags or labels shall be marked in accordance with rules set forth for each grade. 2. 'Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees F. for not less than 30 minutes. 3. The milk or cream after pasteurization must be cooled at once and placed in clean sterilized containers, and the containers immediately sealed. 4. Milk or cream which has been heated in any degree will not be permitted to be sold in the City of New York unless the heating conforms with the requirements of the Department of Health for the pasteurization of milk or cream. 5. Permits will not be granted to pasteurize milk or cream unless all apparatus connected with said pasteurizing has been approved by the Department of Health. 6. No milk or cream shall be sold. held, kept and offered for sale in the City of New York as "Pasteurized" unless said milk or cream has been pasteurized under permit from the Board of Health in conformity with the rules and regulations thereof. 7. No milk or cream shall be pasteurized a second time. 8. Pasteurized milk shall not be held, kept, offered for sale or sold in bottles unless such milk has been bottled at the place of pasteurization. 9. All heaters or pasteurizers used in the pasteurization of milk or cream shall be equipped with suitable automatic time and temperature recording devices, indicating to what temperature the milk or cream has been heated, and the length of time it was subjected to such heat, as well as the time when such record was made. 10. Milk or cream shall not be received in any room or apparatus where Grade A pasteurized milk or cream is handled and treated, unless the said milk or cream complies with the minimum requirements for Grade A pasteurized milk. RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE SALE OF DIPPED MILK AND CREAM IN STORES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 1. Milk or cream shall not be handled or sold in any room which is unduly crowded with goods, wares or merchandise. 2. Milk or cream shall not be dipped from cans stored in a room in which butter or cheese is manufactured. 3. Milk or cream must be stored in a cooling or refrigerating room, or ice chest, the construction of which has been approved by the Department of Health. 4. Milk or cream shall not be dipped from cans stored in a milk booth. 5. Milk shall be kept at a temperature of 50 degrees Fahrenheit, or below, at all times.

Page  66 SCORE CARD USED BY A CITY INSPECTOR OF MILK. Department of Health, the City of New York. Z > MILK STORE SCORE CARD Score............ 3. Store does..........connect with water closet apartment which is...........ventilated and is..........vestibuled. Vestibule is....... ventilated to outer air. 4. Store does..........connect with rooms used for domestic pur- Z poses. (Sleeping-Laundry-Cooking for:-Family-Store). Number of rooms.......... Rooms occupied by..........persons. 0 6. The last case of infectious disease within three mronths in the,,, household of those handling milk was.......................... * Z on......................... 6. Milk purchased from.............................................. 7. Quarts loose milk sold daily..............Bottled mnilk............ 8. Milk is..........kept in a tight booth which is.................. large enough to allow dipping of milk with door closed. Is......... clean. Is..........used only for milk. Ventilation consists of............................. which is..........sufficient. 9. Milk is..........kept inside store. Perfect Allow 10. Store is at or above street level, 2. Below, 0. 2 11. There is no stable or other offensive business within 50 feet of store, 2. 2 12. Goods are not crowded in store, 2. Fair condition, 1. 2 13. No fresh meat or fish is sold in store, 2. 2 14. Offensive odors are absent from store, 2. 2 15. No rubbish or waste material in store, 2. 2 16. Ventilation is good, 3. Fair, 1. Bad, 0. 3 17. Lighting is good, 2. Fair, 1. Bad, 0. 2 18. Walls and ceilings are clean, 2. Fair, 1. Dirty, 0. 2 19. Floor is clean, 3. Fairly clean, 2. Dirty, 0. 3 20. Attendants wear clean clothing, 4. Fairly clean, 2. 4 21. Attendants wear clean white suits, 2. 2 22. Store sells milk exclusively, 15. Sells milk and goods in sealed packages only, 10. Sells milk and bakery products, 8. Sells milk and cooked foods or general groceries, 6. Restaurant, 6. 15 23. Milk is left by wholesale dealer inside the store, 2. 2 24. Milk is left in a covered tub or ice box, 2. 2 25. Milk is kept at temperature of 50~ or below before sale, 4. 4 26. Milk is kept during sale in ice tub or properly drained ice box, 3. 3 27. Tub or box is clean, 4. Fairly clean, 1. Dirty, 0. 4 28. Tub or box used only for milk, 3. Other foods, 1. 3 29. Cans so covered that milk cannot readily become contaminated by dirt, 4. 4 30. No other foods or contaminating material in close proximity to milk, 3. 3 31. Milk is kep't at temperature of 45~ or below, 15. 45~ to 50~, 10. 50~ to 55~, if well iced, 3. Above 55~, 0. 15 32. Dipper has bowl of one piece with seamless smooth handle well tinned, 4. Other construction, 1. 4 33. Dipper clean, 6. Otherwise, 0. 6 34. Dipper thoroughly washed daily with hot water, 3. 3 35. Dipper sterilized daily, 1. 1 36. A thermometer is used to test the milk, 2. 2 37. A lactometer is used to test the milk, 1. 1 100

Page  67 __ DAILY REPORT OF CITY INSPECTOR OF MILK. t t Recapitulation. Stores Wagons Total Number of Inspections................................... Number of Specimens Examined.................................... Number of Samples of Milk Taken for Chemical Analysis.......... Number of Samples of Milk Taken for Bacterial Examination........ Total Number of Samples of Milk Taken........................... Number of Samples of Water Taken for Bacterial Examination........ Lots of Milk Destroyed for Being Over 50~........................... Quarts so Destroyed................................................ r Lots of Milk Destroyed for Being Sour...................... Quarts so Destroyed................................................ Lots of Milk Destroyed for Being Otherwise Adulterated............ Q uarts so Destroyed........................................... Total Number of Quarts Destroyed....................: > Conditions Found. Rooms Connecting Contrary to Sanitary Code..... A..........W Ice Box Badly Drained............................ B............ Ice Box U nclean................................. C........ Store U nclean.................................... D........ Utensils Unclean.................................. Milk Not properly Cooled............................. Infectious D isease................................ G............. Persons Selling Milk Without Permit............ H........ 0 o O Disposition of Cases at Magistrates' Court: S o Sec. 53 Sec. 55 Sec. 56 Sec. 57 Sec. 183 S W S W S W S W S W Arrests...................................................... H eld on Bail................................. Warrants Issued............................................................ Z D ischarged....................................................... ~ ~ W O Disposition of Cases at Court of Special Sessions Z Sec. 53 Sec. 55 Sec. 56 Sec. 57 Sec. 183 S W S W S W S W S W N o. of Trials....................................................... No. Fined...................0....................................... 0 Amount of C Fines.............................................................. 0 Suspended Sentence............................................................. No. Dis-: charged.............................................................: ~. Respectfully submitted, - Inspector of Foods (Milk). 67

Page  68 SCORE CARD USED BY A COUNTRY INSPECTOR OF MILK. File.............. DAIRYMAN'S DUPLICATE SCORE. Equipment 40% Score........% Methods 60% Score........ Perfect Dairy 100% Score........ DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. The City of New York. Division of Milk Inspection Dairy Report Inspection No.......... Time..........A. P. M. Date...................191.. 1 Dairyman........ Owner.................................. 2 P. 0. Address...................... P.0. Address............ State.......... 3 County............ State Party Interviewed........................ 4 Milk delivered to Creamery at...................Formerly at................... 6 Operated by.............................. Address. 6 Distance of farm from Creamery................Occupied farm since............ 7 No. Cows......... No. Milking...............No. Qts. Produced........... 8 All persons in the households of those engaged in producing or handling milk are......... free from all infectious disease. Weekly reports are.........being filed................. 9 Date and nature of last case on farm............................................ 10 WATER SUPPLY for utensils is from a............ located............feet deep and apparently is........ pure and wholesome.... State any possible contamination located within 200 feet of source of water supply or if water supply is not protected against surface drainage............ 11 Water supply on this farm analyzed... 191... Result................. 12 Style of Cow Barn........Length.... ft. Width.....ft. Height of ceiling.....ft. 13 Dairy Rules of the Department of Health are............ posted.................. 14 Dairy Herd examined by..............on............191... Report.............. EQUIPMENT Perfect Allow 15 COW STABLE is...... located on elevated ground with no stagnant water, hog-pen, privy, uncovered cesspool or manure pit within 100 feet.......................................................... 1...... 16 FLOORS, other than cow beds, are......of concrete or some nonabsorbent material...................................... 2...... 17 Floors are...... properly graded and water-tight.................... 2...... 18 cow beds are........... of concrete of planks laid on concrete......... 2...... 19 DROPS are...........constructed of concrete, stone or some nonabsorbent material................................................ 2 20 Drops are.......water-tight and space beneath is cle an and dry...... 2...... 21 CEILING is constructed of......and is.......tight and dust proof 2...... 22 WINDOWS No...... total square feet..... there is......2 square feet of window light for each 600 cu. ft. air space (1 sq. ft. per each 600 cu. ft- 1)....................... 2...... 23 VENTILATION consists of..........sq. ft. muslin covered openings or.........sq. ft. open chutes in ceiling or...................which is sufficient 3, fair 2, poor 1, insufficient 0. 3...... 24 AIR SPACE is........cu. ft. per cow (600 and over-3) (500 to600-2) (400 to 500-1) (under 400-0).......................... 3...... 25 LIVE STOCK, other than cows, are.........excluded from rooms in which milch cows are kept................................ 2...... 26; There is.......direct opening from stable into silo or grain pit............ 27 Separate quarters are........provided for cows when calving or sick. 1...... 28 COW YARD is.......properly graded and drained................. 2...... 29 WATER SUPPLY for cows is.......unpolluted and plentiful...... 1...... 30 MILK HOUSE has.....direct opening into cow barn or other building 1...... 31 Milk house has........ sufficient light and ventilation................ I...... 68

Page  69 32 Floor is..........properly graded and water-tight......................... 33 Milk house is....... properly screened to exclude flies................ 1 34 Milk pails are......of smoothly tinned metal in good repair.......... 1 35 MILK PAILS have......all seams soldered flush................... 2.... 36 Milk pails are......of the small mouthed design, top opening not exceeding 8 inches in diameter. Diameter........................... 2 37 Racks are.......provided to hold milk pails and cans when not in use. 2 38 Special milking suits are......provided....................... 1 40 METHODS 39 STABLE INTERIOR painted or whitewashed on.......which is satisfactory 3, fair 2, unsatisfactory 1, never 0....................... 3..... 40 FEEDING TROUGHS, platforms or cribs are......well lighted and clean...................................................... 1 41 Ceiling is........free from hanging straw, dirt or cobwebs........... 3 42 Windows panes are.......washed andkept clean........................... 43 WALLS AND LEDGES are......free from dirt, dust, manure or cobwebs................................................................ 44 FLOORS AND PREMISES are.......free from dirt, rubbish or decayed animal or vegetable matter................................. 2..... 45 COW BEDS are.......clean, dry and no horse manure used thereon. 2. 46 Manure is......removed to field daily 4, to at least 100 feet from barn 2, stored less than 100 feet or where cows can get at it 0......... 4. 47 Liquid matter is........allowed to saturate ground under or around cow barn................................... 48 Milking stools are........clean........................ 49 Cow Yard is.......clean and free from manure...................... 2...... 50 COWS have.......been tuberculin tested and all tuberculous cows removed.......................................................... 51 Cows are.......all in good flesh and condition at time of inspection.. 2 52 Cows are.......all free from clinging manure and dirt. (No. dirty H I....................................................... 4..... 53 LONG HAIRS are.......kept short on belly, flanks, udder and tail... 1 54 UDDER AND TEATS of cows are.........thoroughly brushed and wiped with a clean damp cloth before milking...................... 3 55 ALL FEED is.......of good quality and distillery waste or any substance in a state of putrefaction is........fed.................... 2 56 MILKING is.......done with dry hands........................... 2.. 57 FORE MILK or first few streams from each teat is.......discarded.. 2 58 Clothing of milkers is.......clean...!...................!........ 59 Facilities for washing hands of milkers are......provided in cow barn or milk house............................................ 2 60 Milk is strained at.......and......in clean atmosphere............. 1 61 Milk is.......cooled within two hours after milking to 50 degrees F. 3, to 55 degrees F. 2, to 60 degrees F. 1........................... 3 62 Ice is.......used for cooling milk................................. 63 MILK HOUSE is.......free from dirt, rubbish and all material not used in the handling and storage of milk....................... 64 Milk utensils are.........rinsed with cold water immediately after using and washed clean with hot water and washing solution..... 2 65 Utensils are.....sterilized by steam or boiling water after each using. 2...... 66 Privy is........in sanitary condition, with vault and seats......covered and protected...................................................... 60 Remarks........................................................................... Duplicate Score Received Dairyman...................Inspector ' of Foods.' Inspector of Foods. 69

Page  70 ___ I 1-4 DAILY REPORT OF COUNTY INSPECTOR OF MILK. Recapitulation Dairy Creamery Total Number of Inspections Number of Samples of Milk taken for " " " Water " " ' " Scoring between 1% and 25% o " 26 o % " 50% v X^ i i " ~76o% " 100%o Chemical Analysis Bacterial Examination Chemical Analysis Bacterial Examination 0 Cad is It it ' State::~ ~ Out of Business Under Construction Inspections Refused Special Reinspections Infectious Diseases Investigated of Veterinarian Examinations " Cows Tested with Tuberculin "( (" Condemned Character of Special Work Respectfully submitted, r a cH Inspector of Foods. 70

Page  71 QUESTIONS ASKED AT PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS. Municipal Civil Service Commission. INSPECTOR, MILK-CITY. Date: March 9, 1911. DUTIES-WEIGHT 6. (To be finished by 1:30 P. M.) 1. Explain the dangers of bacterial infection and the means of avoiding them as you would to (a) a milk dealer; (b) a housewife. 2. Describe a process for washing and for thoroughly sterilizing milk bottles, cans and utensils (a) on a small scale; (b) on a large scale. 3. Why is proper refrigeration necessary in the handling of milk? 4. What conditions would lead you to suspect that milk had been (a) skimmed; (b) watered; (c) skimmed and watered? 5. Describe the pasteurization of milk (a) on a large scale, and (b) on a small scale for family use. State the reasons for and against pasteurization. 6. What preservatives, coloring matters and adulterants are used for milk? State briefly how they may be detected. 7. Describe in detail the proper inspection of a city grocery which sells milk. 8. How can the score card be made useful to the store owner? 9-10. Write a report to the Chief Inspector, stating fully what in your opinion is the best method for the Health Departmen't to secure sanitary milk for this city. (Do not attach any signature or Number to this Report.) EXPERIENCE-WEIGHT 4. (To Be Sworn To.) (To be finished by 4 P. M.) Note.-All statements made by candidates on this paper will be carefully investigated. Any false or exaggerated statement will result in the disqualification of the candidate in this and future examinations. The examiners will assume that a failure to give the full details called for by the subdivisions of the following questions is due to a lack of experience and they will rate the papers accordingly. 1. (a) Give the place of your birth. (b) Give the date of your birth. 2. Give the following information concerning each school and college you have attended: (a) Name of school; (b) Date of entrance; (c) Date of leaving; (d) Certificate, diploma, or degree received on leaving; (e) Courses of study pursued; (f) If you did not graduate, state how much of the course of study was completed by you. 3. Give the following information concerning each position held by you since leaving school: (a) Name and present address of employer; (b) Title of position held by you; (c) A full, exact and complete statement of the duties performed by you and hours of work: (d) Date of beginning work; (e) Date of leaving; (f) Cause of leaving. 4. Have you ever been employed as a sanitary inspector, dairy inspector, creamery inspector or in similar work? If so, state (a) the number of hours per week devoted to the work; (b) the extent of your supervision. 5. Give the names of some of the best books and bulletins you have read on the general subject of sanitation and of milk production and handling. State why you consider these books and bulletins valuable. Municipal Civil Service Commission. INSPECTOR, MILK-COUNTRY. Date: March 7, 1911. DUTIES-WEIGHT 5. (To be finished by 1:30 P. M.) 1. Name four principal dairy breeds and give the characteristics of each. 2. (a) Describe a good water supply for a dairy farm. (b) In what ways may the water supply become contaminated? 3. (a) Give the chief factors which determine the keeping quality of milk. (b) Describe what you consider the best kinds of pails for milking and give your reasons. 4. What should herd records consist of? Explain the value of such records to the farmer. 5. (a) Explain the tuberculin test and its value as you would to a dairyman who does not understand it and is prejudiced against it. (b) State what dependence you would place on the physical examination of cows for tuberculosis and give your reasons. 6. Explain how the score card can be made useful to the farmer. 7. Describe the chief sources from which milk becomes contaminated and give the most practical methods for preventing contamination. 8. (a) State fully what type of stable construction you would recommend to a farmer who could afford the best. (b) In order to get sanitary milk from a poor farm what stable conveniences for light, ventilation and cleanliness are absolutely necessary? 9-10. In order to improve a herd which was not giving proper results, state what investigations you would make and how you would advise the farmer. 71

Page  72 EXPERIENCE-WEIGHT 5. (To Be Sworn To.) (To be finished by 4 P. M.) Note.-All statements made by candidates on this paper will be carefully investigated. Any false or exaggerated statement will result in the disqualification of the candidate in this and future examinations. The examiners will assume that a failure to give the full details called for by the subdivisions of the following questions is due to a lack of experience and they will rate the papers accordingly. 1. (a) Give the place of your birth. (b) Give the date of your birth. 2. Give the following information concerning each school and college you have attended: (a) Name of school; (b) Date of entrance; (c) Date of leaving; (d) Certificate, diploma, or degree received on leavirg; (e) Courses of study pursued; (f) If you did not graduate, state how much of the course of study was completed by you. 3. Give the following information concerning each position held by you since leaving school; (a) Name and present address of employer; (b) Title of position held by you; (c) A full, exact and complete statement of the duties performed by you and hours of work; (d) Date of beginning work; (e) Date of leaving; (f) Cause of leaving. 4. Have you ever been employed as a sanitary inspector, dairy inspector, creamery inspector or in similar work? If so, state (a) the number of hours per week devoted to the work; (b) the extent of your supervision. 5. Give the names of some of the best books and bulletins you have read on the general subject of sanitation and of milk production and handling. State why you consider these books and bulletins valuable. MILK INSPECTOR QUESTIONS. Special. (Date Dec. 27, 1906.) 1. State what you understand by the following terms: (1) Colostrum; (2) Strippings; (3) Foremilk; (4) Pasteurization; (5) Skimmed milk; (6) Sterilized milk; (7) Condensed milk; (8) Casein. 2. (a) What is the approximate chemical composition of pure milk? (b) What are its physical appearances and characteristics? (c) What is "Adulterated" milk of the Sanitary Code? (d) What are the standards of richness insisted upon in Salable Milk? 3. What is an infectious disease? Mention some which may be certainly or probably transmitted by Milk? State any other dangers which may arise from the sale of improper milk. 4. What are bacteria? State any facts you can about their rapidity and possibilities of growth, and the conditions which favor or retard their growth. 5. Describe a cream gauge and show its uses. Describe a lactometer and show its uses. 6. (a) State briefly the duties of a milk inspector assigned to duty within city limits? (b) State briefly the duties of a milk inspector assigned to duty outside the city limits. (c) What should be the equipment of each? 7. (a) What powers has the city as represented by the Department of Health to regulate the management of dairies outside city limits? (b)- If you,-as an inspector, were refused admission to such a dairy, what would be your rights in the matter, and how would you proceed? 8. If assigned to inspect milk exposed for sale, indicate how you would go about it and the points on which you would lay special stress in declaring it salable or otherwise. If in doubt of the purity of the milk, what would you do? 9. Why is it essential that the water supply of a dairy or creamery should be free from all possible contamination? If this supply be from a well or running stream, what points woud you investigate as bearing on the possibility of pollution? 10. (a) What are considered desirable features in the construction and arrangement of a dairy? (b) Discuss the methods to be observed in milking and the care of the milk immediately afterwards. (c) Discuss the temperature at which the milk should be kept leaving the dairy until it reaches the consumer. (In each answer give your reasons therefor.) li-14. You will be given four specimens of milk. Indicate under the number of each specimen your findings and deductions from same as to the character ot the milk. ARITHMETIC. 1. Add: 654323, 876567, 876789, 987654, 876543, 987898. 2. Bought wine at $1.50 a gallon, 20 per cent. having leaked out, at what price per gallon must I sell the remainder to gain 20 per cent. on the whole? 72

Page  73 3. A vintner sold 99 barrels of wine, each containing 31 gallons, 3 quarts, 1 pint, 3 gills. What was the entire quantity sold? 4. A manufacturing company has a capital stock of $175,000. Mr. B, who owns 76 shares, receives a dividend of $937.50. What is the entire amount of dividend? REPORT. A stable containing 34 cows is found upon inspection to be as follows: Building of wood, size 60 feet by 20 feet by 9 feet; two windows on a side; 2 by 2 door in one end; wooden floors and cow-beds with saturated earth beneath; hay stored on loose boarding overhead; cesspool 4 feet deep and 3 feet in diameter 10 feet from barn; 35 feet from this a dug well, 26 feet deep, from which water is pumped into tank above stable. Milk immediately strained into cans standing in front door and taken to back porch of house and bottled. Write a report of at least two pages with recommendations. Sign this report with your examination number and not with your name. CONTENTS. Preface.................................................... Foods in General........................................... Inspection of Meats....................................... Inspection of Poultry....................................... Inspection of Fish.......................................... Fruits and Vegetables....................................... Previous Examination Questions........................... Rules Relating to Egg Business, etc.......................... Report Forms of Health Dept................................ Questions and Answers on Milk.............................. Rules and Regulations on Milk............................. General Rules and Regulations.............................. Milk Inspectors' Score Cards............................... Previous Questions on Milk.................................. PAGE 1 2 13 23 25 28 33 39 41 44 53 64 66 71 73

Page  74 FREE INSTRUCTION DEPARTMENT In every issue of the CIVIL SERVICE CHRONICLE is published, weekly, instruction for about twenty I)opular examilnations. These studies are mostly in the form of Questions and Answers. Free Information Bureau. The CIVIL SERVICE CHRONICIE has on file in its Free Information Bureau specimen examination questions for nearly all civil service positions; the Civil Service Laws, Rules, etc.; a list of all employees in the City, State and Federal Services with their salaries and home addresses, and other matter of reference. All are welcome to ask questions in person or by mail, and examination questions may be copied, but none will be sent by mail. Subscription Rates. The CIVIL SERVICE CHRONICLE is published weekly. Subscription rates: $2 a year; $1.15 for 6 months; 60 cents for 3 months; 5 cents a copy. Sample copy sent free upon request. CIVIL SERVICE CHRONICLE, 23 DUANE STREET - - NEW YORK,74

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Page  77 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 3 9015 04553 4891 BOOK CARD 3 AUTHOR i O................ TrlmTUX* 5... 7.HrSd i. ^t-^-^^^^^B~1I G S SIGNATURE. a RDJ RET0D Xj & l........... l..~........................................................................................ *iiiiiiiiiii *.. He. S 0 A ---; 01111111 '11 '" Form 176(8-22-Z1)30M /._i f

Page  78 ,-,, I -.4?,, " " 1 - " I.. r I' i.. CIVIL SERVICE MANUAL NO. 2-ENGLISH AND ALLIED SUBJECTS. Punctuation, Dietation, 'Penmanship, Synonyms, Homonyms, Cortret Use of Words Letter Writing and Composition, Plain Copy, Rough Draft, Reading Addreses, Abbreviations, Stenography, Typewriting, Report Writing, Copying and Correcting Manuscript. Cloth, $1. CIVIL SERVtCE MANUAL NO. 3-GEOGRAPHY, CIVIL GOVERNMENT, SPELLING. Geography and Trial Examination Papers, Spelling, Civil Government. Cloth, $1. COMPLEE COCOURSE IN THE U. 8. CIVIL SERVICE. For 1st, 2nd and 3rd Grade Federal Examinations., It contains a large number of problems and other matter appropriate to each branch of these examinations, and includes 1st, 2nd and'3rd Grade Arithmetic; 1st, 2nd and 3rd Grade Spelling; Copying from Plain Copy; Reading Addresses: Composition and Letter Writing; Rough Draft; Conversion of Currency; Geography, Cloth, $1.26. MINOR CLERUCAL EXAMINATIONS. For Federal 3rd Grade Sub-Clerical, Office Boy and Minor Clerical Examinations generally. Covers Arithmetic, Letter Writing, Spelling, Copying from Plain Copy, Penmanship, Punctuation, City, State and Federal Government, 110 Ques. ttbns and Answers on Grammar, and an elaborate collection of examination papers for Office Boy, Messenger, Page and Federal Sub-ClerioalE, incldding N. Y. City, N. Y. State, New Jere;y -id Chicago, wlth Answers to many past Examination Question: 50,000 words of instruction. Papet, 76 Cobn..QUESTIONS ANb ANSE ar: IN GEOGRAPHY. ' Specally prepared foi '..^-al First Grade and Clerioal and Railway Mail Examitations. Paper, 25 cents. SIMPLE LESSONS IN PUNCTUATION. Gives.punctuation in a nutshell. Paper, 25 cents. INSPECTOR OF * BUILDINGS, MASONRY -AND FOUNDATIONS. Contains 200 Answers to Civil Service Examination Questions and 350 otther Examination Questions. Paper, $1. INSPECTOR OF PUaLIC WORKS. Contains 200 Answe '; to Civil Service Examination Questions and 400 other Examination Questions. Paper, $1. tINSPECTOR OF WATER SUPPLY. Contains 100 Answers to Civil Service Examination Questions and 200 other Examination Questions..Paper, 75 cents. PUBLIC WORKS INSPECTION. Specially pre^1.rd for Civil. Service Examinations. Covers Dutf s, Methods of Inspection, Reports, Mathematics, Specifications, Formulas. Paper, $1.50. RODMAN INSTRUCTION FOR CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS. Contains Answers to 100 N. Y. State Civil Service Examination QuestionS, 350 Specimen Questions for N. Y. City, N. Y. State, New Jersey and Chicago, etc. Paper, $1.25. -RULES AN$ EXAMINATION PAPERS FOR PRISON KEEPER. Contains specimen Exam-.linaion Questions for N. Y. City, N. Y. State, New Jersey and Chicago, and covers Keeper, Guard, Officer, Watchman, Deputy Warden and 'Police Doorman. Contains rules in N. Y. City and N. Y. State Prisons. Paper, 50 cents. ATTENDANCE OFFICER EXAMINATION INSTRUCTION (TRUANT OFFICER). Contains 460 Ques. and Ans., Reports, Forms, Specimen Examination Questions, etc. PIper, $2. 350 QUES. AND ANS. FOR PROBATION OFFICER. Covering Duties, Laws, Reports, Answers to Examination Questions, and 100 previous Examination Questions in the N. Y. City and N. Y. State and New Jersey Services for Probation Officer, Chief Probation Officer, Parole Agent and Parole Officer. Paper; $2. COURT ATTENDANT EXAMINATION INSTRUCTION. Ans. to 9 sets of Examination Questions In the Civil Service of the City and State of New York. Together with 150 Practice Questions and Answers, 400 Specimen Questions in the N. Y. City, N. Y. State and New Jersey Services for Asst. Court Clerk, Deputy Clerk, Special Asst. Deputy Clerk, District Court Clerk, Court Crier and Sergeant-at-Arms. Paper, $1! 150 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS FOR LAW CLERK. Answers to Examination Questions in N. Y. City and N. Y. State; Practice Questions and Answers; Specimen Examination Questions; Definitions; Arithmetic; Letter Writing; Spelling. Paper, 75 cents. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR PROCESS SERVER. Answers to Questions Asked at 5 N. Y. Civil Service Examinations; Practice Questions and Answers; Extracts from the N. Y. Civil Code, etc. Paper, 50 cents. LICENSE INSPECTOR EXAMINATION INSTRUCTION. Contains 100 Ques. and Ans. covering previous examinations, Duties, Laws, Reports, Forms, etc., and all N. Y. City Laws and Ordinances relating to Licenses. 50,000 words of instruction. Paper, 50 cents. TAXICAB INSPECTOR EXAMINATION INSTRUCTION. Contains Ques. and Ans. on Duties of Taxicab Inspectors, Descriptions and Illustrations of the various types of Meters in use in N. Y. City, Rates of Fare, Forms of Application for Licenses, Ordinances, Rules, etc. Paper, $1. INSTRUCTION FOR JANITOR- NGINEERS. Answers to 100 Civil Service Examination Questions, including Janitor-Engineer, Janitor, Janltor Steam Heating, Stationary Engineer and Stationary Engineman, Board of Education Instructions to Janitors, etc. Paper, 75 cents. 150 QUES. AND ANS. FOR MALE ATTENDANT, WATCHMAN, MESSENGER AND BRIDGE TENDER in N. Y. CIty. Paper, 50 cents. INSTRUCTION FOR CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS FOR DOCKMASTER. Answers to the previous Examination Questions, Officitl Rules of N. Y. Dock S)ept., Instructions to Dockmasters, Reports, 100 Practice Questions, etc. Paper, $1. CIVIL SERVICE CHRONICLE. The National Journal of the Civil Service. Published weekly at New York. Every issue contains Free Instruction for many popular Civil Service Examinations, in n ovition to generally covering the field of news of interest to Civil Service employees. $2 a year; $1.15 for 6 months' 60 cents for 3 months; 5 cents a copy. ~ '"R ~A " 95 t ~';;= ~ :' P:ft,,;; 1 c. -.2' 1 ~i::: i ri i: ~t; -t;Lrr I J 1 -~:: F~ r;;~ ~e.7. ~~~.~ ~!I: i~~ ~~~~:::;: c~.;. ~ '-'...4~ ~ -~ ~~~~ ~:, ~S: II;'i ~ ' ' ~ ':":"`: .::.:_-.:...... ""':I;t ~~~:.:::F "" "' ""1...: '~:'~~ "' '" "" ''''.....:I ~.:.. ~.~:~.-.~;:~... ~~~ ~....~...;.)t -~~~ ~~~-: i ~~~~ 28 DUANE STREET, NEW YORK.. a __