The western tourist and emigrant's guide through the states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Wisconsin, and the territories of Minnesota, Missouri, and Nebraska: being an accurate and concise description of each state and territory; and containing the routes and distances on the great lines of travel. Accompanied with a large and minute map, exhibiting the township lines of the United States' surveys, the boundaries of counties, and the position of cities, villages and settlements, etc., etc.
Colton, J. H. (Joseph Hutchins), 1800-1893.

Page  1 '.*rD- -, a,, THE WESTERN TOURIST AND EMIGR,ANT'S GUIDE THROUGH THE STATES OF *; A OHIO, MIOHIGANT, INDIANA, ILLINOIS, MISSOURI, v IOWA, AND WISCONSIN, AN'D THE TERRITORIES OF MINESOTA, MISSOURI, AND NEBRASKA. BEING AN ACCURATE AND CONCISE DESCRIPTION OF EACH STATE AND TERRITORY; AND CONTAINING THE ROUTES AND DISTANCES ON THE GREAT LINES OF TRAVEL. ACCOMPANIED WITH A LARGE AND MINUTE MAP, EXHIBITING THE TOWNSHIP LINES OF THE UNITED STATES SURVEYS. THE BOUNDARlES OF COUN TIES, AND THE POSITION OF CIYIES, VILLAGES AND SETTLEMENTS, ETC., ETC. NEW YORK: PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON AND COMPANY, NO. 172 WILLIAM STREET. 1855. =

Page  2 1 77 - — a I L)/ / F - ~ { Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1850, BY J. H. COLTON, lh the Clerk's Offlice of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.

Page  3 PUBLISHER'S ADVERTISEMENT. THE great region of the North and West, comprehended in the states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Wisconsin, and the territories of Minesota, Missouri, and Nebraska, is daily becoming more and more important and interesting. Its vast resources are in a state'of rapid development. Industry and enterprise, aided by enlightened legislation, are calling forth its energies; and the prophetic declaration, that "w vest eard the star of em2npire takes its way," is advancing to fulfilment. A few years ago this region, then denominated the "far west," was regarded as the outskirts of civilization-it is now (at least the greater portion of it) the residence of an active, vigorous, and intelligent population. The steamboat, railroad car, and telegraph have become its great movers. Cities have sprung up in the wilderness as if by the will of the magician; agriculture, manufactures, and commerce flourish; literature, science, and the arts are extending their healthful and invigorating influence throughout the country. Blessed with a soil unsurpassed in fertility, and a salubrious climate; and possessing, by means of its great rivers and lakes, advantages for trade and commerce, it enjoys all the influences that can render a country prosperous and a people happy. The object of the present publication is to give a succinct account of the states and territories into which it is divided, and exhibit to the reader such information respecting their present condition and prospects as is necessary to a right understanding of the great interest of the region; and also to supply the public with abook of travelon which theymay rely. Great experience, and no little expense have been employed

Page  4 ADVERTISEMENT. in its compilation, and it is confidently anticipated that there will be found in its pages more extensive information, and a more accurate and far fuller list of routes than in any like publication. Both departments of the work have been compiled from entirely new material, and are adapted to the present state of things, and the extended facilities of travel by railroad, river, lake, canal, and stage-road. Under the head of each state and territory will be found its respective boundaries and extent-its physical aspectan account of its rivers, lakes, and internal improvementsits industry, as applied to the development of its resourcesits natural products-its manufactures and commerce-its educational condition-descriptions of its chief cities, towns, and villages, and a sketch of its history and progress. This information is followed by "Tables of the Routes" in each state, which are indexed for convenience of reference. To the tourist, commercial traveller, and emigrant such a work must be especially desirable,-eembodying, as it does, a vast fund of information necessary for his convenience, and without which it is impossible to proceed understandingly on his journey. The map accompanying this work has been carefully drawn from the government surveys. It exhibits the county and township lilies; the location of cities and villages; and the tracks of railroads, canals, and post-roads, &c.; and is the most complete general map of the north-western states yet published. 4

Page  5 5 CONTENTS. Page . 7 INDEX TO ROUTES...................................7 INTRODUCTION.-Situation and Extent of the Western States.-St. Lawrence Valley or Basin.-Mississippi Valley or Basin.-Valley of the Ohio.-Valley of the Upper Mississippi.-Valley of the Missouri.-Valley of the Lower Mississippi.-Inundations of the Mississippi.-Face of the Country.-Climate of the Mississippi Valley.-The Public Lands, &c. &c............................ 9 THr STATE OF OHo.-Situation and Boundaries.-Physical Charac ter.-Antiquities.- Agriculture. - Manufactures. - Commerce. Railroads and Canals.-Education.-Counties.-Chief Cities and Towns.-History, &c....................... 27 THE STATE OF MICHIGAN.-Situation and Boundaries.-Southemn Peninsula.-Northern Peninsula.-Productions.-Industry.-Rail roads.-Commerce.-Education.-Counties.-Principal Towns. History, &c....................................... 30 THIE STATE OF INDIANA.-Situation and Boundaries.-Physical As pect.-Minerals.-Industry.-Railroads and Canals.-Education. Principal Cities and Towns.-Historical Notice, &c.............. 34 THE STATE OF ILLINOIS.-Situation and Boundaries.-Surface. Productive Industry.-Railroads and Canals.-Colleges.-Chief Towns.-History, &c... 37 THE STATE OF MISSOURI.-Situation and Bouldaries.-Physical Features.-Rivers.-Natural Productions.-Productive Industry. -Minerals.-Education.-Principal Places.-History, &c. -.......40 THE STATE OF IOWA.-Area.-Situation.-Boundaries.-General Aspect.-Rivers.-Climate.-Products.-Industry.-Commerce. Cities and Towns.-History, &c......................... 43 1*

Page  6 Page THE STATE OF WIscONSIxm.-Situation and Boundaries.-Physical Characteristics.-Agricultural and Commercial Capacities.-In dustry.-Improvements.-Schools.-Chief Cities and Towns. History, &c........................................ 46 THE TERRITORY OF MINESOTA.-SituatioQl and Boundaries.-Gen eral Aspect.-Rivers.-Climate.-Soil and Prod-acts.-Animals. Settlements.-Prospects.-History, &c.......................... 49 THE WESTERN TERRITORIES-NEBRASKA AND MISSOURI.-Their General Character and Prospects.-Indians, &c................ 54 Routes in Ohio......................................... 56 " Michigan.....................................66 " " Indiana......................................... 69 " " Illinois....................................... 74 H H Missol'i............................................. 79 " "Iowa -......-................................... 83 " " Wisconsin *.....................................-.84 " "Western Territories................................... 85 rable of United States' and Foreign Moneys..................... 89 6 CONTENTS.

Page  7 ............................................... *~~~~~~..............................................

Page  8 to New Orlean.............15...14 St. Pau, Min., to Falls of St. Anthosy 195 to New Orleas.................194 Salem, Ill., to Carmi......................128 -toChester......................129 Sandusky City, O., to Beaver......... 42 to Buffalo.......................44 to Chicao...................... 43 to GCincinnati.................... 41 Shawineetown, Ill., to Cape Girardeau. 130 to St. Louis.......................131 to Mandaia.....................132 Sheboygsat, Wis. to Neeah.........193 Southport, Wis., to Beloit............190 Spring field, 1., t o BurligtoI....... 19 to Chicaio.....................121 - to Cincinnati................... ll3 -ito Covington.................222 to Golcon da....................114 to Keokuck...118 to Lewistown 120 to Naples 1...................76 -Wto Q.ucy 11 7 -to St. Louis....................... 115 Terre Haute, Ia., to Crawfordlsville...10...........9o to Logansport....................... 107 Vincennes, Ia., to Alton..............125 — to Chlicagro.........................126 to St. Louis..!.............14 to Shawneetown...............1. lS23 theelin, Va., to Baltimore........... 47 :o New York....................... 47 ,?2hiladelphia...................... 47 ~~ ousle, O)., to Warren................ 26 Zanzesville, O., to Marietta........................ 94 --- to Maysville........................ 23 -to Wooster.................................. 85 - l Mh noOliac.....................63 La Porte, Ia., to Joliet 1 1 1.............. 11 Lawrencebur ia., to Ma ison.. 97 Loansport, Ia., to Toled............109 LoUisvi-le, Ky, to Orleans...........100 - to V i cenn es....................99 Madison, Wis., to Galena 1 19 t o Green Bay.................... 18 Madison, a., to ndianapolis l2 - t. 67 TraHne n,O ewndela. Mto LoTisvillt e p....................8 Madtison, Wis., to ae........181 t o Rockfoad....................180 Madison, ia., to Terre HSaute 13......... Maramec, Mo., to Sprilfiel........169 Marshall, Mich., to Centreville 8...... 8 to Coldwater........................ to 67 Michigan City, la., to Inldianapolis...119 Milwaukee, Wis., toChicayo.........183 - to Fonl du Lac.................186 to Ja.esv.ille.........................184 P- to SheboyWoan...................187 to Sheboyan... 188 to White 01Vater....185 Monroe, Mich., to Ann Arbor... 58 to Chicano.......................57 Mount Carmel, III., to Fairfield......127 Mouth of Wabash River to La Fayette 105 Museatinle, Iowa, to Davenoport....176 New B,ffalo, Mich., to Chicago...... 78 Niles, Mich., to St. Joseph 73 Ottawa, Ill., to St. Charles.42 Painesvile, O., to Beaver.3 to Canton.32 Peoria, 111., to Albany 142 to Bullington..........141 to Chicago....................143 Peoria, I11., to C;ovington.......,.......;140

Page  9 9 INTRODUCTION. TiiAT portion of the United States to which the designation of" Western States" is applied-the vast countly delineated in this work-is occupied by the new and flourishing states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Wisconsin, and the territories of Mlinesota, Mlissouri, and Nebraska. This immense region is situated between 3C0 30' and 490 N. lat., and between 80~ 35' and 1140 W. long.: and is bounded N. by British America, and Lakes Superior, hIuron, and Erie; F. by Pennsylvania and Virginia; S. by Kentucky, Arkansas, aid the Indiani Territory; and W. by the ridges of the Rocky Mountains. Exclusive of the area of the great lakes, the superficies of these states and territories is estimated to contain an area of 1,150,000 square miles. The country within these limits is comprised in the two great valleys or basins of the St. Lawrence and Mississippi rivers. THiE ST. LAWRENCE VALLEY OR BASIN.-Regarding the St. Lawrence as a general name for the connected line of that great river or water system that unites with the Atlantic ocean in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, its remote source will be found to be the St. Louis river, an affluent of Lake Superior, rising in the table-land of Minesota territory, near the sources of the Mississippi and the Red river of the north. It receives different names in different parts of its course: being, as ahbeady seen, at first the St. Louis; between Lakes Superior and Huron it is the St. Mary; between Lakes Huron and Erie, the St. Clair and Detroit; between Lakes Erie and Ontario, the Niagara; and from Lake Ontario to Montreal it is called the Cataraqui or Iroquois; its course hence to the sea being the St. Lawrence, properly so called. Considered in this point of view, its entire course may be estimated at upwards of 2,000 miles. Lake Michigan, and also some smaller lakes, are includled in the basin of this magnificent river-a basin containing an area of over 500,000 square miles, and enclosing the largest collection of fresh water to be found on the surface of the globe. The source of the St. Louis is about 1,200 feet above the tide-level, but on account of falls and rapids, its elevation on reaching Lake Superior is only 641 feet. Lake Superior, the largest fresh-water lake in the world, has alength of 420 miles, and a mean breadth of 100 miles. Its

Page  10 INTRODUCTION. average depth is 900 feet. Into this reservoir are poured upwards of 50 rivers, none of which, however, are of large size. The area of the basin of this lake is 90,000 square miles one-third of which is covered by water. It forms the upper division of the great basin of the St. Law rence, and is 45 feet more elevated than Lake Huron, and 410 feet more than Lake Ontario. The whole mass of these waters, composing a large river, is forced through the Strait of St. Mary, a distance of 60 miles, into Lake Huron. Sault St. Marie, a fall of 122 feet 10 inches in half a mile, is the largest of the rapids that obstruct navigation in this river. The second or middle division of the basin contains Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, and has an area of 160,000 square miles. The waters of these lakes rest in the lowest depressions of the section, and differ with themselves only 35 feet in elevation. Lake Michigan is 340 miles long, and in mean breadth 58 miles, and has an area of 10,000 square miles. Its elevation is 600 feet, anid its mean depth 900 feet. This lake communicates with Lake Huron through the Strait of Mackinaw. Lake Huron is an expanded triangular body of water, divided into two unequal portions by the Manitoulin islands and a peninsula projecting from its southeast shore. The smaller and eastern portion of the lake thus separated is called Georgian Bay, and is 120 miles long, with an average breadth of 45 miles. The dimensions of Lake Huron are 270 miles long by 70 mean width. Its elevation is 596 feet, and its area 19,000 square miles. Besides the waters of Lakes Superior and Michigan, this lake receives a large number of streams from the N., E., and W. These accumulated waters are discharged from its southern extremity, by St. Clair river, into the small lake of the same name, and thence into Lake Erie by Detroit Strait. Lake Erie forms the most southern part of the middle section of the St. Lawrence basin. It is elevated 565 feet above tide-level, and 31 feet below the level of Lake Huron. Its form is elliptical, but much elongated, being 240 miles in length, and only about 38 in mean breadth. It is the shoalest of the great lakes-averaging only about 120 feet in depth. The lower section of the basin now commences. The waters are precipitated over the Falls of Niagara, and after a course of 14 miles expand and form Lake Ontario, having by falls and rapids in the Niagara river made a descent of 334 feet, of which 164 are contributed by the great cataract. The area of this lake is 5,400 square miles, and its mean depth 492 feet. The length of Lake Ontario is 180 miles, and its average width 40 miles. At its eastern extremity the river proper begins, and after a course of 692 miles connects with the Atlantic. In magnitude it is the second river in America. It is 100 miles wide at its mouth, and navigable for the largest class of ships for 400 miles from the ocean. The water surface of the whole basin of the St. Lawrence is about 73,000 square miles, and the solid contents of its lakes and rivers ar o 10

Page  11 INTRODUCTION. timated at 1,547,011,792,360,000 cubic feet of water, being sufficient to envelope the entire earth with a covering of three inches in depth. The watershed that defines the boundaries of this great basin is no where of great altitude: so low, intleed, is it in some places, that the wa ters falling into the Mississippi frequently interlock with those of the St. Lawrence basin, and the same remark is applicable to those falling into Hudson's Bay antd the Atlantic ocean. In other cases short porta ges intervene, but oppose no substantial barrier to commercial inter course. On comparing the St. Lawrence with the Mississippi we find no cor respondence in their respective aspects. The St. Lawrence is as re markable for its uniformity throughout the year in the diurnal and monthly expenditure of its waters, as the Mississippi is for its continual change. A rise of three feet is a more remarkable phenomenon id the former than a rise of 30 feet in the latter. The two rivers differ widely also in numerous other particulars. The waters of the Mississippi are turbid-those of the St. Lawrence and its lakes are highly transparent. In the course of the Mississippi few lakes or enlargements occur, its banks are low, much of the surface within its basin consists of open grassy plains, and before it disembogiies it divides into numerous chan nels. The It. Lawrence, on the contrary, consists in great palt of a chain of vast lakes; as its bed enlarges, it has shelving or precipitous banks, generally covered with primeval forests; and instead of a delta, it forms at its mouth a large estuary. TIlE MIIsSISSIPPI VALLEY OR BASIN.-WVe have already seen that no considerable rivers run into the lakes of the St. Lawrence; and this may prepare us for the fact, which is obvious on inspecting the map, that many of the streams which empty into the Mississippi rise very near to the lakes. Take for example the Ohio, which rises within five miles of Lake Erie, and there are many similar cases. It is a remarkable fact, that no mounitains or grounds of considerable elevation, divide the tributaries of the lakes from those of the Mississippi Valley, On the contrary, the waters of Lake Michigan are so nearly on a level with the Des Plaines, (a continuation of the Illinois,) which flows into the Mississippi, that in seasons of great flood their waters not only mingle, but boats have been known to pass from the one into the other. The Valley of the Mississippi embraces all that part of the United States lying between the Alleghany or Appalachian Mountains, and the Chippewayan or Rocky Mountains: the waters of which are discharged through the mouths of the Mississippi into the Gulf of Mexico. This great central valley may be divided into four parts. First, the portion between the lakes and the Alleghany Mountains; this is traversed by the Ohio, and its numerous confluents. Second, the portion between the lakes ana the Missouri; this is traversed by the Mississippi 11

Page  12 INTRODUCTION. proper. Third, the portion occupied by the Missouri itself, including the course of the River Platte. Fourth, the Valley of the Lower Mi. Bissippi with the Arkansas and Red livers. THE VALLEY OF THIE OHmo.-The Ohio Valley is subdivided by the river into two unequal sections, leaving on the right or north-west side 80,000, and on the left or southeast side, 116,000 square miles. The Ohio river flows in a deep ravine, which forms a common recipient for the waters drained from both slopes. The length of the ravine, in a direct line from Pittsburg to the Mississippi, is 540 miles, but by followinrg the serpentine course of the Ohio, is a distance of 948 miles. "The hills are generally found near the rivers or larger creeks, and parallel to them on each side, having between them the alluvial valley through which the stream meanders, usually near the middle, but sometimes washing the foot of either hill. Perhaps the best idea of the topography of this region may be obtained, by conceiving it to be one vast elevated plain, near the centre of which the streams rise, and in their course wearing down a bed or valley, whose depth is in proportion to their size or the solidity of the earth over which they flow. So that our hills, with some few exceptions, are nothing more or less than cliffs or banks made by the action of the streams, and although these cliffs or banks on the rivers or large creeks approach the size of mountains, yet their tops are generally level like the remains of an ancient plain."* The tributaries of the Ohio which flow from the Alleghany Mountains, are from their sources nearly to their mouths mountain torrents, and have their comuses generally in deep channels, and often through deep chasms with perpendicular balnks of limestone; those flowing from the northwest rise in the table-land forming the dividing ridge between the waters of the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi, with a slight current, but increase in their velocity until they unite with the Ohio. In its natural state, the valley of the Ohio was.pr the most part covered with a dense forest, but the central plain presents an exception. As far east as the sources of the Muskingum commence open savannahs, covered with grass and devoid of timber. Like the plain itself, those savannahs expand to the westward and open into immense natural meadows, known under the denomination of prairies. The Ohio, from Pittsburg to the Mississippi, a course of nine hundred and forty-eight miles, falls only about 400 feet, or about five inches in a mile. This river and its princi pal branch, the Alleghany, are in a striking manner gentle as respects currents; and from Olean, in the state of New York, to the Mississippi, over a distance of 1,160 miles, following the streams, at a moderately high flood, it meets (excepting the rapids at Louisville) with not a single serious natural impediment. The Monongahela, more impetuous, is let Bourne. 12

Page  13 INTRODUCTION. navigable far into Virginia. On the north-w~st side of the valley the rivers are extremely rapid. Rising on a table-land from 300 to 400 feet above their months, and in no instance having a direct course of 3(0 miles, the streams, though falling gradually, are almost torrents. The Big Beaver, Muskingum, and Hockhocking, have direct falls; but the Sciota, Miami, and Wabash, though rapid, have no falls that seriously impede navigation. THE VALLEY OF THE LUPrER MississiPPi.-The Mississippi rises in lat. 470 10', N., Ion. 950 54', W., surrounded by an immense marshy plain, indented with'small lakes abounding with fish and wild rice, and elevated 1,500 feet above the Gulf of Mexico. It is a circumstance peculiar to this river, that the physiognomy of nature around its head bears so strong resemblance to that of its estuary. A difference of 19 degrees of latitude precludes much similarity in vegetable or stationary animal production. "But," says Mr. Schooleraft, who visited the sources in the month of July, "the migratory water-fowl found there at that time of the year, are very nearly the same which flock in countless millions over the Delta in December, January, February, and March. It is also deserving of remark, that its sources lie in a region of almost continual winter, while it enters the ocean under the latitude of perpetual verdure." On a view of the particular valley of the Mississippi, its gen eral samneness first strikes the eye. No chains or groups of mountains rise to vary the scene. Over so wide a space as 180,000 square miles some solitary elevations exist, which, for want of contrast, are dignifiled by the name of mountains; but few continuous tracts of equal extent afford so little diversity of surface. The upper part of the Mississippi is traversed by numerous falls and rapids of inconsiderable extent, until, after a meandering course of 420 miles. it precipitates its waters down the Falls of St. Anthony, 16-' feet perp)endicular; and nine miles below receives its largest confluent, the St. Peter's, which rises among the sacred red-pipestone quarries of the Indians. The Mississippi, from the St. Peter's to some distance below Fever river, flows in small streams, (with the exception of Lake Pepin, an expansion of 20 miles in length and 5 in width,) curling among a mul titude of islands, which in the summer season are clothed with grass, flowers, and forest trees; and so thickly covered, that it is said there are but three places between Prairie du Chien and St. Peter's river, a distance of 220 miles, where you can see across the river. The bluffs which bound the river are delightful to the eye, running frequently in high and continuous ridges, then divided by valleys and streams en tering the river; and are covered to the summit with the same splendid verdure as the islands. The Mississippi, after a distance of 990 miles from its source, and receiving in its course from the east the Chippewa, Wisconsin, Rock, 2 13

Page  14 INTRODUCTION. and Illinois riv,-:, and many smaller streams; and from the west, the St. Peter's, Up,, r Iowa, Tutrkey, MAakoqueta, Wapsipinecon, Iowa, Des Moime, and SalL - ivers, and many others of less note, unites and mingles its bright waters with the dark Missouri. TIE VALLEY OF THE MISSOURI.-The Missouri rises in the Chlippe wayan or Rocky Mountains. As viewed from the course of this river, the mountains rise abruptly out of the plains, which lie extended at their base, and tower in peaks of great height, which render them visible at an immense distance. They consist of ridges, knobs, anid peaks, variously disposed, among which are interspersed many broad and fertile valleys. The more elevated parts are covered with perpetual snow, which give them at a distance a most brilliant appearance. They are covered with a scattering growth of scrubby pine, oak, cedar, and fuirze. The MAissosri rises far within the bosom of the mountains, and is divided by a single ridge from the waters of the Columbia, which flow into the Pacific Ocean. In its early comuse it flows tlhrough small but beantiful and fertile valleys, deeply embosomed amidst the surrounding heights, and forms a variety of islands in its progress, till at length it assues from these verdant recesses by a rocky pass, which has not unaptly been called the Gates of the Rocky Mountains. * " For five and three quarter miles these rocks rise on both sides of the river, perpendicularly from the water's edge, to the height of nearly 1,200 feet. The river (three hundred and fifty yards in width) seems to have forced its channel through this solid mass; but so reluctantly has it given way, that, during the whole distance, the water is very deep, even at the edges, and for the first three miles there is not a spot, except one of a few yards, in which a man could stand between the waters and the towering perpendicular of the mountains. The convulsion of the passage must have been terrible, since at its outlet there are vast columns of rock torn from the miountabls, which are strewed on both sides of the river, the trophies, as it were, of the victory. This extraordinary range of rocks is called the'Gates of the Rocky Mountaias.' At the junction of the Yellow Stone and the Missouri, the river by either branch has flowed more than a thousand miles. A few miles below the influx of the Yellow Stone, the Missouri has reached its utmost northern bend, in N. lat. 480 20'; and curves, by a regular sweep of 200 miles, -to the Mandan villages. The Platte and Kansas are two great confluents of the Missouri, rising in the same mountains, and( flowing eastwardly, the former 700, and the latter 600 miles. The Platte derives its name from the circumstance of its being broad and shoal; its average width being about 1,200 yards, exclusive of the islands it embosoms, with a rapid current, and is fordable almost every * Lewis and Clark. 14

Page  15 INTRODUCTION. where. The character of the Kansas is nearly similar, being navligable only in high freshets and then not exceeding 200 miles from its mouth. Grand and Chariton on the north, and Osage and Gasconade on the. south, (nav igable streams,) are tributaries of the Missouri. After a direct course of 1,870 miles, and a meandering one of 3,000, the Missouri unites with the Mississippi. The valley of the Missouri occupies an area of 523,000 square miles. Three remarkable features exist in itfirst, the turbid character of its waters; second, the veiy unequal volumnes of the right and left confluents; and third, the immense excess of the open prairies over the river lines of the forest. In the direction of the western rivers, the inclined plane of the Missouri extends 800 miles from the Chippewayan mountains, and rather more than that distance from south to north, from the southern branches of the Kansas to the extreme heads of the northern confluents of the valley. * "As cending from the lower verge of this widely-extended plain, wood be comes more and more scarce, until one naked surface spreads on all sides. Even the ridges and chains of the mountains partake of these traits of desolation. The traveller in those parts, who has read the descriptions of Central Asia by Tooke or Pallas, will feel, on the higher branches of the Missouri, a resemblance at once striking and appalling. Hle will regret how much of the earth's surface is doomed to irreme diable silence, and if near the Chippewayan heights in winter, he will acknowledge that the utmost intensity of frost in Siberia and Mongolia has its fuill counterpart in North America, on similar, if not on lower latitudes." But of all the characteristics which distinguish the Mis souri and its confluents, the few direct falls, or even rapids, is certainly the most remarkable. Between Dearborne's and Maria's rivers, the stream leaves the Chippewayan range by rolling over ledges of rocks for a distance of 18 miles, after which this overwhelming mass of water, though everywhere flowing with great rapidity, nowhere swells into a lake, or rolls over a single cataiact, in a distance of at least 3,500 miles, to the Gulf of Mexico. If, therefore, the Amazon is excepted, the Mis souri and its continuation, the Mississippi, afford the most extended, un interrupted line of river navigation which has ever been discovered." THE VALLEY OF THE LOWER MissIssippi.-After being joined by the Missouri, the Mississippi makes a direct course of 820, or following its meanderings, 1,265 miles, to the Gulf of Mexico. In no circumstance is the physical geography of the United States more remarkat le than in the extreme inequality of the two opposing planes, down which are poured the confluents of the Mississippi, below the influx of the Ohio. The western inclined plane, falling from the Rocky Mountains,sweeps over upwards of 800 miles; while the eastern, sloping from the Appa * Darby. 15

Page  16 INTRODUCTI'ON. lachian, has not a mean width of 100) miler. The rivers which drain the two slopes are, iin respective length proportionate to the extent of their planes of descent. Althouglih RE(l river exceeds a comparative course of 800 miles, the Arkansas of 1,IJOO, and White river of 400, the longest stream from the opposite slope fills short of 200 miles. The alluvian brought down by such volumes ot' water as those of White, Arkansas, and Red rivers, explains satitfactorily the reasoni why the Mississippi infringes so often on the eastern, and nowhere below the Ohio touches the western bluffs. The lower valley of the Mississippi is the most variegated section of the United States. * " Every form ol landscape, every trait of natural phy siognomy, and an exhaustless quan tity, withl an illimitable specific diversity of vegetable and metallic pro ductions, are found upon this extensive region. It is flanked on the east by a dense forest, and on the west by the naked ridges and rpires of the Chippewayan mountains; while the deep entangled woods of the Mississippi stand in striking relief against the expansive prairies of the Arkansas and Red rivers." INUNDATIONS OF THE MIssissirPPI.-The spring floods to which the Mississippi is subject, are remarkable for their long and steady contin uance; a circumstance highly favorable to inland navigatioti. It is ob vious, on a glance at the different regions from whence the waters are drawn, that the rivers must be high at different periods of the year. It is evident, also, that in the breaking up of winter, the water in the sanme valley is drawn fromn its sources gradually; when, as in the case of the Mississippi, the river flows from the poles towards the equator. Similar remarks apply to the Ohio and the Arkansas; so that the duration of the flood season is thus lengthened, while the quantity of water in a given time is moderated. Generally, the Red river flows out in February, or early in March. The great flood from the Arkansas, the Ohio, and the Upper Mississippi, commences early in March, and attains its full height il the middle of June. Abating from the latter period, it has nearly subsided by the first of August, when the retarded flow of the Missouri arrives to complete the annual iniundation. FACE OF THE COtINTRY.-The surface of the Mississippi Valley may be arranged under three natural divisions-the forest, or thicklytimbered, the barrens, and prairie country. The timber most P.bundant in this territory are the oak, of various species, black and white walnut, ash of the several varieties, elm, sugar-maple, honey-locust. birch, buckeye, hack-berry, linden, hickosy, cotton-wood, white and yellow pinie, peccan, mulberry, sycamore, box, sassafras, persimmon, with several others. The undergrowth consists principally of red-bud, paw-paw, sumacl, plum, crab-apple, dog-wood, hazel, spicebush, grape-vines, * Darby. 16

Page  17 INTRODUCTION. breen-brier, &c The trees are very luxuriant in their growth, and alo frequently found of a stupendous size. Barrens are a species of country of a mixed character, uniting forest and prairie. They are covered with scattered oaks, rough and stinted in their appearance, interspersed with patches of hazel, brushwood, and tough grass. The appearance of this description of countly led the early settlers to suppose, that the scantiness of the timber was owing to the sterility of the soil, and hence, the title thus ignorantly given, became of universal application to this extensive tract of country. It is ascertained, however, that these "barrens" have as productive a soil as can be found in the Western States-healthy, more rolling than the prairies, and abounding with that important requisite, good springs. The fire passes over these "barrens" in the fall, but owing to the insufficiency of the fuel, is not able to destroy entirely the timber. The farmer may settle, without hesitation, on any part of this land, where he can find timber enough for his present wants, for the soil is better adapted to all the purposes of farming and changes of the seasons, than the deeper and richer mould of the prairies. The next, and far most extensive surface, is the "openings," the rich level, or rolling prairies, interspersed with belts and points of timber, and the vast sterile prairies of the Far West. And first, the " oak openings," so termed from their distinctive feature of the varieties of oak which are scattered over them, interspersed at times with pine, black-walnut, and other forest trees, which spring from a rich vegetable soil. The surface is ordinarily dry and rolling, with trees of a moderate growth. Among the " oak openings" are found some of the most lovely landscapes of the West; and for miles and miles a varied scenery of natural growth, with all the diversity of gently swelling hill and dale-here, trees grouped or standing single; and there, arranged in long avenues, as though planted with human hands, with slips of open meadow between. Sometimes the "openings" are dotted with numerous clear lakes, and form scenes of enchanting loveliness. They are fed by subterraneous springs, or the rains; and few having any apparent outlet, lose their surplus waters by evaporation. Michigan and Illinois abound with these oak openings. The rich "rolling prairie" forms the second division, which presents other features, anid in a great degree another vegetation. These prairies abound with the thickest and most luxuriant belts of forest, or, as they are termed, "timbers," scattered over the open face of the country, in bands or patches of every possible form and size, generally following the meanders of the watercourses, sometimes at short distances, at other times miles and,miles apart. They present wide and slightly undulating tracts of the rankest herbage and flowers, many ridges and hollows filled with purple thistles, and ponds filled with aquatic plants. In Missouri they occupy the higher 2* 17

Page  18 INTRODUCTION. portions of the country; the descent to the wooded "bottoms" being invariably over steep and stony declivities. The depth and richness of the soil on these lends are almost incredible, and the edges of the tim bered strips are the favorite haunt of the emigrant settler and back woodsman, in quest of game. Over these rolling "prairies" the fire commonly passes in the autumn, and to this cause is attributed their want of trees; as, whenever a few years elapse without the fire touching a district, the thick-sown seeds of the slumbering furest, with which the rich vegetable mould is laden, spring up from the green sod -of the prairies. The surface is first covered with brushwood, composed of sumach, hazel, wild-cherry, and oak; and if the conflagrations be kept out, other forest trees follow. The third division is the vast boundless prairies of the "Far West," unbroken, save by the forest, rising on the alluvian of some water-course below their level, or by the skirts of knotted and harsh oak-wood, of thick and stinted growth. The prairies occupy the highest part of the table-land, towards the sources of the great rivers and their tributaries. They abound with abrupt and pecu liarly shaped flinty hills, swelling up from the general level; great salt plains, and occasionally with isolated rocks rising from the surface, with perpendicular sides, as though cut by the hand of man, standing alone in the midst of these prairies, a wonder to the Indian and the trapper. They are seldom perfectly level. As you advance, one immense sea of grass swells to the horizon after another, unbroken, for miles, by rock or tree. They are the home of the bison, and the hunting-ground of the roving banids of the red men of the VVest. CLIMATE OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY.- * "We may conceive four distinct climates between the sources and the outlet of the Mississippi. The first commencing at its source and terminating at Prairie du Chien, corresponds pretty accurately to the climate - between Montreal and Boston, with this difference, that the amount of snow falling in the former is much less than in the latter region. The growing of gourd seed corn, which demands a higher temperature to bring it to maturity, is not pursued in this region. The Irish potato is raised in this climate in the utmost perfection. Wheat and cultivated grasses succeed well. The apple and pear-tree require fostering and southern exposure to bring fiuit to perfection. The peach-tree has still more the habits and the delicacy of a southern stranger, and requires a sheltered declivity with a southern exposure, to succeed at all. Five months in the year may be said to be under the dominion of winter. For that length of time the cattle require shelter in the severe weather, and the still waters remain frozen. The second climate extends over the opposite states of Missouri and Illinois in their whole extent, or the country between 430 and 370. *Flint. 18

Page  19 INTRODUCTION. Cattle, though mich benefited by sheltering, and often needing it, here seldom receive it. It is not so favorable for cultivated grasses as the preceding region. Gourd-seed corn is the only kind extensively planted. The winter commences with January and ends with the second week ill February; the ice in the still waters after that time thaws. WVheat, the inhabitant of a variety of climates, is at home as a native in this. The persimmon and the paw-paw are found in its whole extent It is the favored region of the apple, the pear, and the peach. Snow neither falls deep nor lies long. The Irish potato succeeds to a certain extent, but not as well as in the former climate; but this disadvantage is supplied by the sweet potato, which, though not at home in this climate, with a little care in the cultivation, flourishes. The grandeur of the vegetation, and the temperature of March and April, indicates an approach towards the southern regions. "The third climate extends from 370 to 310. Below 350, in the rich alluvial soils, the apple-tree begins to fail in bringing its fruit to perfecLion; apples worth eating are seldom raised much below New Madrid. Below 330, commences the proper climate for cotton, and here it is the staple article of cultivation. Festoons of long moss hang from the trees and darken the forest, and the palmetto gives to the low alluvial grounds a grand and striking verdure. The muscadine grape, strongly desig nating the climate, is first fotmd here. Laurel-trees become common in the forest, retaining their foliage and their verdure through the winter. Wheat is no longer seen as an article of cultivation, but the fig-tree brings its fruit to fall maturity. "Below this limit to the gulf, is the fourth climate, the region of the sugar-cane and the orange-tree. It would be, if cultivated, the region of the olive. Snow is no longer seen to fall, except a few flakes in the coldest storms; the streams are never frozen; winter is only marked by ighlits of white frosts and days of northwest winds, which seldom last longer than three days in succession, and are followed by south winds tnd warm days. "In such a variety of climate and exposure, in a country alternately covered in one point with the thickest forests, and in another spreading )ut into grassy plains, and with almost every shade of temperature, there must necessarily be generated all the forms and varieties of disease that spring simply from climate. Emigrants will always find it unsafe to select their residence near stagnant waters, and the rich and heavy timbered alluvions; yet these, from their fertility, and the ease in which they are brought into cultivation, are the points most frequently se lected. The rich plains of the Sciota were the graves of the first settlers, but they have long since been brought into cultivation, and have lost their character for insalubrity. Hundreds of places in the West, which Mere selected as residences by the first emigrants on account of their 19

Page  20 INTRODUCTION. fertility, and which were at first regarded as haunts of disease and mor tality, have since become healthy. Wherever the' bottoms' are wide, the forest deep, the surface level and sloping back from the liver, and the vegetation rank-wherever the rivers overflow, and leave stagnant waters that are only carried off by evaporation-wherever there are in the' bottoms,' ponds and lagoons to catch and retain the rains, and the overflow, it may be assumed as a general maxim that such places are unhealthy. Emigrants have scarcely ever paused long enough, or taken sufficient care in selecting their residences as a place of salubrity. A deep'bottom,' a fertile soil, the margin of some navigable stream, are apt to be the determining elements of their choice. The forest is levelled, hundreds of trees moulder and putrefy about the cabin, the stagnate waters which, while shielded from the action of the sun by the forest, had remained comparatively innoxious, exposed now to the burning rays of the sun, and rendered more deleterious by being filled with trunks and branches of decaying trees, and all kinds of putrid vegetation, become laboratories of miasma, and generate on every side the seeds of disease. lWhen it is known that such have been precisely the circumstances in which a great portion of the emigrants to the western country have fixed themselves, in open cabins that drink in the humid atmosphere of the night through a hundred crevices, in a new and un tried climate, under a higher temperature, a new diet and regimen, and perhaps, under the depressing influence of severe labor and exposure, need we wonder that the country has acquired a character of unhealthi ness. Yet, where the forest is cleared away, and the land has been for a sufficient time under cultivation, and is sufficiently remote from stagnant water, it generally may be considered as healthy as any other country. It is a very trite, but a true and important remark, that in proportion as the country becomes opened, cultivated, and peopled-in proportion as the redundance and rankness of natural vegetation is replaced by that of cultivation, the country becomes more healthy." Dr. Drake remarks-" The diseases of this portion of the great valley are few, and prevail chiefly in summer and autumn. They are the offspring of the combined action of intense heat and marsh exhalation. Those who migrate from a colder climate to the southern Mississippi states, should observe the following directions: 1st. To arrive there in autumn, instead of spring or summer. 2d. If practicable, to spend the hottest part of the first two or three years in a higher latitude. 3d. To select the healthiest situation. 4th. To live temperately. 5th. To preserve a regular habit. Lastly. To avoid the heat of the sun, from ten in the morniong till four in the afternoon; and above all, the ni,ght air. By a strict attention to these rules, many would escape the diseases of the climate, who annually sink under its baneful influence." Mr. Peck observes-" The same causes for disease exist in Ohio as in 20

Page  21 INTRODUCTION. Missouri; in Michigan as in Illinois; in Kentucky and Tennessee as in Indiana. All those states are more infested with maladies which depend on variations of temperature, than the states farther south. All have localities where intermittents and agues are found, and all possess extensive districts of country where health is enjoyed, by a large proportion of emigrants. There is some difference between a heavily-timbered and a prairie country, in favor of the latter, other circumstances being equal. Changes, favorable to continued health, are produced by the settlements and cultivation of the country. In fine, I am prepared to give my opinion, decidedly, in favor of this country and climate. I would not certainly be answerable for all the bad locations, the imprudence and whims of all classes of emigrants, which may operate unfavorably to health." THE PUBLIC LANDS.-Nothing can interest the American citizen or in tending settler more than the history and origin of the title of the Uni ted States to the public domain, of which the general government has the sole disposal. It is a matter of deep importance to all; and as fre quent inquiries are made in relation thereto, and as there is but little if any information on the subject generally disseminated, a brief sum mary of its more prominent points will not be out of place in this con nection. The public lands belonging to the General Government are situated: 1st. Within the United States as defined by the treaty of 1783, which terminated the Revolutionary War; and are embraced by the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and that part of Minesota east of the Mississippi river, all of which have been formed out of the Northl-western Territory, as conveyed with certain reservations to the United States —by New York in 1781, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785, and Connecticut in 1786. Also the lands within the boundaries of the states of Mississippi and Alabama, north of the thirty-first degree of north latitude, as conveyed to the United States by Georgia in 1802. 2d. Within the territories of Orleans and Louisiana, as acquired from ,he French Republic by the treaty of 1803, including that portion of the states of Mississippi and Alabama south of the thirty-first degree of north latitude; the whole of the states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, and that portion of Minesota west of the Mississippi river, the Indian Territory, the district of country called Nebraska, the territory of Oregon, and the region of country north of the forty-second and south of the forty-ninth degree of north latitude, which lies between Oregon and Minesota. 3d. Within the state of Florida, as obtained from Spain by the treaty of 1819; and 4th. In New Mexico and California, as acquired from the Republic of Mexico by the treaty of 1848. 21

Page  22 INTRODUCTION. Within the limits recognized by these treaties and cessions oir publ)lic lands embrace an estimated area, in round numbers, of 1, 584,000,000 of acres; of which, up to 20th Sept.. 1849, 146,000,000 had been disposed of; and consequently we have remaining, unsold, an area of 1.438,000,000 acres. These lands, in large bodies or detached tracts, are found in the states and territories mentioned within our wide-spread Republic, now stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, and from the British Possessions on the N., to the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Republic on the S. After the eventful struggle which ended in our national independence, the establishment of a system for the disposal of the public lands at tracted early attention. A committee for that purpose was appointed by the Continental Congress, consisting of Messrs. Jefferson, Williamson, Howell, Gerry, and Reas, who on the 7th May, 1784, reported an "o dinance for ascertaining the mode of locating and disposing of lands in the Western Territory, and for other purposes therein mentioned." The chairman of the committee was Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, then a delegate in Congress. This ordinance required the public lands to be divided into "hun dreds" of ten geographical miles square, and those again to be subdivided into "lots" of one mile square each, to be numbered firom 1 to 100, commencing in the north-west corner and counting from W. to E., and from E. to W. continuously-and also that the land thus subdivided should be first offered at public sale. This ordinance was considered, debated, and amended; and upon the 3d May, 1785, on motion of MAr. Grayson, of Virginia, seconded by Mr. Monroe, the size of the township was reduced to six miles square. It was farther discussed until the 20th of May, 1785, when it was finally passed., Our land system thus founded has gradually grown up to its present perfection, having been modified from time to time, as the condition of the country and the wants of the people required. This system, tho work of our republican fathers-so simple in its theory and practice, so certain and admirable in its results-is now operating upon the organized land districts of the United States, as found in the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan,Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and in the newly-formed territory of Minesota. The principles of surveying are uniform and very easy of comprehensiol..Ieridian lines are established and surveyed in a line due north from some important point, generally firom the junction of some important water-courses. These are intersected at right angles with a base line. On the meridians the "townships" ale numbered north or south from the base lines, and on the base line "ranges" are numbered east 22

Page  23 INTRODUCTION. or west of the meridian. There are sixprincipal meridians used in the isirveys of the western states and territories. Tile "first" principal nmecridian is a line due north from the mouth of the Great Miami liver to the old northern boundary of Ohio, with a base line extending due E. on the 41st degree of north latitude. The "- second" principal meridian is a line due north from a point on the Ohio river to the northern boundary of Indiana. The "third" principal meridian is a line due north from the junction of the Ohlio and Mississippi rivers to the northern boundary of Illinois. The base line for the second and third principal meridians commences on the Ohio at 3580 30' N. lat., and extends due W. to the Mississippi. The "fourth" principal meridian commences on the Illinois river, at a point 72 miles due north from its mouth; (here also commences its base line, and runs due west to the Mississippi river.) The meridian continues north (crossing and recrossing the Mississippi river) to the Wis consin river, with an additional base line on the north boundary of Illi nois for the surveys in Wisconsin. The "fifth" principal meridian is a line beginning at the mouth of the Arkansas river, thence through the states of Arkansas and Missouri to township 54 north, where it crosses the Mississippi, recrosses into Iowa, and continues to the Mississippi river near Cassville. Its base line ex tends due west fromn the mouth of White river to the western boundary of Arkansas. The "sixth" principal meri - dian is use(i for the state of 6 5 4 3 2 1 Michigan, and begins on the - - south boundary of the state in 7 8 9 10 11 12 a due north direction from the junction of the Manmee and Aui-Glaize rivers to the Straits 18 17 16* 15 14 13 of Mackinaw, having a base - - lisle crossing the peninsula in a 19 20 21 22 23 24 d,,e west line from about the center of Lake St. Clair to Lake 30 29 28 27 26 25 Michigan. When a meridian and base lin,e have been laid out, town- 131 32 33 34 35 3o ship lines are run (at a distance of six miles) parallel to the meridian and base line. These form townships of six miles square, con taising an area of 36 square miles. Each square mile is afection," and contains 640 acres. The sections are numbered from 1 to 36, be ' The 16th setion of each.ownship is appropriated for school purposes in all tlhe new staes. 23

Page  24 INTRODUCTION. ginning at the north-east corner of the townshi), as seen in the annexed diagram. Sections are subdivided into half sections of 320 acres, (see diagram No. 1;) into quarter sections of 160 acres, (see No. 2;) and half quarter sections of 80 acres, (see No. 3.) Prior to the year 1820 no person could purchase less than a quarter, but in that year legal authority was given for the division and sale of the sections into eighths. And in 1832, a further accommodation to settlers, they were divided into sixteenths, or 40-acre lots, (see No. 4.) The following diagrams will illustrate the plan of dividing adopted in the smurveys: No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. — I —... I The privilege of having them thus minutely subdivided was, by act of Congress, 1846, extended to all purchasers at private sale. The corners of townships, sections, and quarter sections, are designated by monuments established by the surveyors on the field. After the lands have been thus surveyed, they are' proclaimed by the President for sale, and offered at public auction at not less than $1.25 per acre; and such as thereafter remain unsold are subject to be purchased at private sale at that rate. As only a small portion of the lands thus offered are disposed of at public sales, our own citizens, as well as emigrants from all parts of the world, have at all times an opportunity of select.ng and purchasing at private sale rich and fertile tracts possessing every requisite for desirable farms. The security of titles emanating miuder this system has greatly contributed to the rapid settlement of the public lands. The positions o all tracts are shown by the surveys on the ground, in strict conformity with legislative direction; so that even when the monuments, by which they aric indicated, perish under the consuming influence of time, they can still be identified, and their boundaries determined with unerring accuracy. In conveying these lands to purchasers, the brief designation of the number of the lot, or its position in the section, with the number of the section, township, and range, will as fally and certainly convey the title as could be done by the. most critical detail of boundaries and labored description of courses and distances. This is fully shown by the fact, that although this system has been extended over hundreds of millions of acres, including every variety of soil and climate, occupied by people 24

Page  25 INTRODUCTION. from almost every civilized portion of the world, litigation, as to boundaries, has been so inconsiderable as to place the superiority of this national system in striking contrast with those of the older states of the confederacy. Indeed, where there has been litigation, it has been mainly caused by frauds, and not by any defect in the plan of operation. In reviewing this subject in all its details, the mind is forcibly impressed with the sagacity and foresight of the great public men who organized our institutions, and who, in this, as in all their public acts, have left imperishable monuments of profound wisdom, pure patriotism, and enlarged philanthropy. Under this system the wilderness of the West, in less than half a century, has been transformed into fruitful farms, and filled with flourishing cities; and settlers from the original states, and from all parts of Europe, have there secured homes for their families, and rich reward for their industry. That the benefit of education might be extended to them and their posterity, the sixteenth section in each township, or one thirty-sixth part of the public lands, has been set apart for the support of schools, besides munificent donations being froin time to time made by Congress for colleges, seminaries, seats of government, county seats, and internal improvements. Indeed, our government has always exercised a prudent and patient care over the interests of settlers, and secured to them thi advantages of an enlightened system of political and social existence. Iii many cases persons have settled on the public lands without purchase, as "squatters," and have made improvements on their clandestine occupations. To secure such settlers from injury, Congress has passed a pre-emption law, which gives them the privilege of.purchasing at a minimum price to the exclusion of all others, who previous to the passage of that act, were entitled to purchase and drive away the original improver without recompense for his labor. The management of the public lands is vested in a Commissioner, who is subordinary to the Secretary of the Interior. The General Land-office, of which he is the head, is located in Washington City. For the convenience of purchasers, and the easier transaction of business, however, local offices are established in different places, to each of which a surveyor and receiver is attached. The following are the localities of the offices of all the land districts in the Western States: In Ohio.-Chilicothe and Defiance. Iii lidiana.-Jeffersonville, Vincennes, Indianapolis, Crawfordville, Fort Wayne, and Winamac. In Michigan.-Detroit, Kalamazoo, Genesee, Ionia, and Sault St. Marie. In Illinois.-Shawneetown, Kaskaskia, Edwardsville, Vandalia, Palestine, Springfield, Danville, Quincy, Dixon, and Chicago. In WVisconsin.-Mineral Point, Menasha, Milwaukee, Stevens' Point, La Crosse, and Willow River. 8 25

Page  26 INTRODUCTION. In Jfissotur.-St. Louis, Fayette, Palmrnyra, Jackson, Clititon, Springfield, Plattsburg, and Milan. In Ioiwa.-nDtbuque, Fairfield. Iowa City, Fort Desmoines, Kanesville, Chariton, Northern and Missouri River. In Jlfi72esota.-Stillwater andi Sauk Rapids. It is at these offices that all sales of the lands are made, and all business between the government and the settler transacted. Tle following table will exhibit the area of each of the Western States in acres; the number of acres disposed of by sale, donation, grant, &c.; :cud the ntumber of acres of public lands remaining at the disposal of the General Governiment on the 1st January, 1849.* Date of Area. Sold. Donations to Donations to Schools and Universities. Acres. 713,~308 1,115,348 696,397 1,024,835 l,"45,219 951,224 1,004, 28 6,751,359 Area. Acres. I 25,576,960 35,995,520 21, 637,760 35,459,200 43,123~,200 32,584,960 34,511,360 228,888,960 Date of ;first sales. States. Ohio............ 1787 Michigan........ 1818 Indiana.......... 1807 Illinois.......... 1814 Missouri......... 1818 Iowa............ 1838 Wisconsin........ 1844 Total....... So ld. Acres. 12,490,215 9,071,223 15,477,629 15,040,145 9,726,361 2,361,0)22 4,567,095 68,7,33,690 Total 228,888,960 68,733,690 6,751,350 (Table continued.) Grants forInteralRemaining with Gra nts for Internat Other disposals General Government tImprovementst.oe States. __ Acres. Acres. Acres. Ohio............. 1,181,135 10,384,436 807,566 Michigan........5.... 00,000 251,245 25,057,704 Indiana.......... 1,609,862 582,141 3,271,731 Illinois.......... 500,000 3.895,282 14,998,938 Missouri............500,000 2,214,678 29,436,942 Iowa............. 825,078 79,199 28,368,437 Wisconsin....... 858,400 650,107 27,431,030 Total --—........ 5,971,475 18,057,088 129,372,348 the quantity of swamp land, as reported by the Surveyor-Geeteral, in each state is as follows: Ohio, 303,329 acres; Michigan, 4,544,189 acres - Indiana, 981,682 acres; Illinois, 1,833,413 acres; Missouri, 1,517,287 acres; Iowa, 33,813 acres; Wisconsin, 1,259,269 acres. - The aggregate disposals of land for the nioe months ending 1st Oct., 18.9, was 3,706,296 acres. Including "grants to individuals and companies "'+rants for seats of govern. ment aed putlic huildings " "mi litarybounies " "reservations-Indian, and military aa naval;" private claims cofirmed," &c. I I I I 26

Page  27 27 DESCRIPTION OF THE WESTERN STATES AND TERRITORIES. THE STATE OF 010. area 39,964 square miles.-Population 1,980,829. Tiis flourishing and populous state is situated between 380 34' an(i 420 N. lat., and between 800 35' and 840 57' W. long.- and is bounded N. by Michigan and Lake Erie; E. by Pennsylvania and Virginia; S. by Kentucky, and W. by Indiana. The Ohio river runs along its southern and the greater part of its east6rn boundary for 462 miles, separating the state firom Virginia and Kentucky. Thie northlern part of Ohio, bordering on Lake Erie, and the interior, are generally level, and in some places marshy. In the E. and S. E. the country is much broken, often rising into rugged and abrupt elevations, but nowhere becoming mountainous. The whole state may be said to be susceptible of cultivation, and certainly it is one of the most product. ive and fertile in the Union. In the valleys of the Sciota and the Great and Little Miami, are found the finest portions of the country. In a state of nature, Ohio, with the exception of the central prairies, was covered with dense forests, to which the fertility of the soil gave stupendous development. The most extensive prairies are those of the central table-land. The principal rivers, besides the great and beautiful river which gives its name to the state, are the Mahoning, Beaver, Muskingum, Hockhocking, Sciota, and the Little and Great Miami, which flow south into the Ohio river; and the Maumee, Sandusky, Huron, Grand, and Ashtabula, which fall into Lake Eriec, which forms the northern boundary of the state for 160 miles. The climate is one of the most healthy. Free from the extremes of heat and cold, it is peculiarly adapted to agricultural and other outdoor employments, and to this fact is no doubt owing the general prosperity of the inhabitants. Numerous remains of former and extinct races are found in various parts. These consist of tumuli or mounds, and ancient forti.ications of

Page  28 WESTERW STATES. earth, articles of earthenware, &c. To what people or time these are to be referred, is questionable; but it is evident that the race of Indians found in these territories by the first explorers, have had no connection with them: indeed, they were entirely ignorant of their origin, nor were they acquainted with their use or economy. Ohio is extensively engaged in all the great branches of industry; btit agriculture is the chief employment of the inhabitants. All the cereals, fruits, and other products of moderate climates, are cultivated; and in the rearing of live-stock, the state is pre-eminent, and for this no state has better facilities. Of hogs alone, about 600,000 are annually slaugh tered, and the yearly production of wool amounts to near 11,000,000 lbs. The mineral wealth of Ohio, consisting of iron, coal, salt, &c., is im mense, but as yet only partially developed, and building material is abundant. Gold is said to have been found near Lisbon. Manufactures are carried on with success, and are daily increasing in importance. The exports consist of wheat, pork, wool, and other agricultural staples. These find outlets at the lake ports and the portt on the Ohio. Internal communication is provided for by a splendid system of raihroads and canals. Every element of prosperity indeed is here in active operation. The length of raihroad now completed is 2,100 miles, and the length of canal nearly 900 miles. Education is munificently provided for. There are in the state 12,279 common schools, with an average attendance of 437,000 children. The school fund owned by the state amounts to $1,5f,6,931. There are also about 130 academies, twelve colleges, six theological seminaries, one law school, and two medical schools. The number of private schools is also very large. The state also supports an Asylum for the Insane, and a Deaf and Dumb Asylum. The state is divided into 87 counties. The principal cities and towns are-Columbus, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Sandusky, Springfield, Portsmouth, Marietta, &c. COLUMBUS, the capital, is situated about the middle of the state, on the E. bank of the Sciota, immediately below the junction of the Whetstono river. The streets are laid out rectangularly; and in the center of the city is a fine public square. The great national road iRtersects here, and is carried over the river by a bridge, which also unites the city with Franklinton. Population 17,883. CHILICOTHE, on the W. bank of the river, 60 miles south, and PORTSMOUTH, at its mouth, are places of considerable importance and population. In the neighborhood of Portsmouth is a large number of furnaces. COINCINNATI, the "Queen city of the West," is situated on the north bmnk of the Ohio, near the western border of the state. It is the largest city in Ohio, and in point of population the fifth in the United States. Its public buildings are numerous, and equal to those of any city of like 28

Page  29 THE STiATE OF O01110. population. In manufactures, trade, and commerce, it is pie-eminent. Population in 1810, 2,540; in 1850,115,I3t. It is connected both by canal and railroad with Lake Erie, and with the whole east and west by the noble Ohio. SPRINGFIELD, on the E. fork of Mad river, 84 miles north by railroad, is a rapidly increasing town, engaged in manufactures, and has considerable commercial connection. The other towns on the Ohio deserving of notice are GALLIPOLlS, an improving place, and capital of Gallia county-population X1,6S6- COALPORT, the chief depot of mining operations; POMEROY, a place of extensive traffic-population 1,631; MARIETTA, on the E. bank of the Mu. kingum, at its mouth, noted for its minlls-population 3,133 STEUBENVILLE, the center of a rich and populous country-population 6,140 &c., &c. ZANESVILLE, on the E. bank of the Muskingum, 80 miles N. of Marietta, is a manufacturing town of about 7,791 inhabitants. Anthracite coal and a clay suitable for earthenware are found in the neighborhood. The national road passing through the town, makes it a great thoroughfare, and, by the improvements in the river, navigation is opened to the Ohio, while the Ohio Canal unites it with Lake Erie and the Sciota river. COSHOCTON, NEW PHILADELPHIA, BOLIVAR, MASSILLON, and FULTON, are also on the Muskingum, N. of Zanesville. AEKRON, 34 miles S. of Cleveland, and about 10 miles N. of Fulton, is an important canal center. CLEVELAND, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, and the northern ter, minus of the Ohio Canal, is the most important of the lake ports. It is excellently situated for commerce, and has now a population of 19,000. SANDUSKY CITY, situated on the S. sidle of Sandusky Bay, about three miles from Lake Erie, is a point of importance. It is united with Cin cinnati by railroad, and also with Mansfield and Newarkl. The port is continually thronged with vessels during the open season. Population 5,085. TOLEDO, near the mouth of the Maumee, and on the Wabash and Erie Canal, is the eastern terminus of the railroad to Adrian in Mi chigan, and possesses superior advantages as a commercial depot. It is constantly progressing, and must eventually, with the natural and artifi cial means at its disposal, at no distant period become one of the most important places on the lake coast. The present population is only about 4,000. PORT CLINTON, PAINESVILLE, ASHTABULA. &C., are also places of great commercial importance, and are rapidly increasing in population. Previous to 1788 the whole of Ohio was a wilderness. In that year a settlement was made at Marietta, and in 1789 the country was placed under a territorial government, and called the "~Western Territory." This designation was applied not only to Ohio, but to all the district north-west of the Ohio to the Mississippi river, and included the states of Inq,iaaa, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and pait of the territory of 3* 29

Page  30 WESTERN STATES. Minesota. At a subsequent period it was known as the "Territory iorth-west of the Ohio." The ordinance by which this territory was established forbade slav'sry in any future state that might be formed within the district. The Indian wars in Ohio were terminated by Wayne's expedition in 1794. In 1802 this state was received into the Union. ince then no state has increased so rapidly, and it now ranks as third :n population and wealth. THE STATE OF MICHIGAN. ,Irea 56,243 square miles.-Population 397,654. NMIcHtn.N lies between 410 48' and 470 30' N. lat., and between 820 90' and 900 10' W. long.: and isbounded N. by Lake Superior; E. by St. Mary's river, Lake Huron, St. Clair river, Lake St. Clair, Detroit river, and Lake Erie; S. by the states of Ohio and Indiana, and W. by Lake Michigan and the Menomonee and Montreal rivers. The state consists of two distinct peninsulas. The " Southern Peninsula," or Michigan proper, contains an area of 39,856 square miles. The surface is generally level, but has a gradual ascent from the shores to the center of the country, where it attains an elevation of 600 or 700 feet. The coasts of Lakes Michigan and Huron have high and steep banks, and along the former are bluffs and sand hills from 100 to 300 feet elevation. The interior is mostly covered with fine forests, interspersed with prairie and openings. The country is drained by several large rivers and numerous smaller streams, which rise near the center, and pass off in an E. and W. direction. The Cheboygan and some small streams, however, flow N. into Mackinaw Strait. The larger rivers are navigable almost to their sources. Raisin and Huron rivers flow E. into Lake Erie; Rouge into Detroit river; Clinton and Black into the St. Clair; and Saginaw, formed by the union of several streams, into Saginaw Bay. But the largest rivers flow into Lake Michigan. St. Joseph's, Kalamazoo, Grand, and Maskegon rivers are all navigable by steam. Several lakes are found in the northern part of the peninsula. The quality of soil is very various: in the north there are considerable sandy tracts and marshes; but on the whole the coun. try is not unfertile, and not much inferior to the fine lands of the South for agricultural purposes. No part of the Union is better supplied with fish, game, and wild fowl, and the climate is remarkably mild, being tempered by the large bodies of water by which it is almost sure rounded. 30

Page  31 THE STATE OF MICHIGAN. The "Northern Peninsula," between lakes Michigan and Superior, occupies 16,387 square miles. Portions of it are the mere development of sublime scenery. Mountains and plains, lakes, rivers, and forests spread over it with a boldness of outline which may be said to constitute almost a peculiar type in North American geography. This division embraces the "mineral district" of Michigan. Much of it falls under the influence of causes which render it of little value in an agricultural point of view. The northern shores of lakes Michigan and Huron are exclusively limestone, and abound in gypsum and saline springs. The interior abounds in small lakes, and enjoys a singular advantage of intercommunication by its streams and portages. The length of coast navigation is about 750 miles, and in this distance are embraced several large bays and excellent harbors. About 40 large, and some 60 small streams, discharge their waters into the lakes constituting portions of its boundary. The whole peninsula is eminently distinguished for the value and diversity of its minerals. Copper exists in vast beds in the neighborhood of Lake Superior, and is frequently found in its native state. In some of the river beds large boulders of this mineral are frequently met with. Iron of a very superior quality is also found; and recent surveys have developed the fact that it exists in an almost pure state, and in larger bodies than even in the state of Missouri. The copper mines are now being worked by a number of Eastern capital ists, and large amounts of ore and reduced metal are finding their way into the markets. The favorable situation of Michigan, having immediate access to four of the great American lakes; its fine soil and climate; its mineral re, sources and other advantages, must eventually make it one of the most prosperous of the Western states. Its industry is as yet only in its in fancy, and its capabilities only partially known. The farmers raise almost every staple of temperate climates, and are lich in live-stock. The chief cereal crops consist of wheat, oats, and Indian corn. Barley, rye, and buckwheat, are raised in small quantities. Maple sugar is a never-failing crop. The products of both wild and domestic animals are large. Manufactures are progressing, but as yet are confined chiefly to articles of immediate necessity. Michigan is perhaps better situated for commerce than any other inland state. It is now accessible from New York and New Orleans wholly by water, and with those places main tains considerable traffic. Canada overlooks its eastern shores, and in several places is only separated by narrow straits. With regard to its inland trade, every facility is enjoyed that navigable rivers and excellent roads can afford. Already the exports amount to an important sum. Flour, wheat, corn, pork, beef, fish, wool, leather, &c., constitute its chief exports. Taxable property in the state, real and personal, amounts to $2-9,908,769. The railroads in Michigan have a total length of 474 31

Page  32 WESTERN STATES. miles, the main lines running across the southern part of the lower peninsula. The University, founded in 1837, is located at Ann Arbor, and has three departments: viz., for literature and the sciences, law, and medi cine. It is supported by a fund arising from lands appropriated to its use by Congress, and is governed by a Board of Regents. No charge is nmalde for tuition. Provision is made by law for 26 professorships, and al]o for the establishment of departments for female education, for the education of teachers, and for agricultural science; but the institution as now organized consists only of seven professors, and the three de partmelts as above named. Primary schools are established through out the state, and governed by local boards, supported by taxes and a general school-fund. There are 435 townships in the state, in 270 of which school libraries are supported, and provision is also made for dis trict libraries. The number of school districts in the state is 2,869, and the number of scholars 97,658. The amount expended annually is about $140,000. Instruction is under the general supervision of a superintendent. The Catholic college of St. Philip's, near Detroit, was foundcd in 1839, and in 1849 had four professors and about 37 students. A state normal school was established at Ypsilanti in 1849. ilichigan is divided into 64 counties. The principal cities and towns * are Lansing, Detroit, Pontiac, Monroe, Ann Arbor, Ypsilanti, Tecumseh, Adrian, Marshall, Kalamazoo, Niles, New Buffalo, all in the southern portion of the state; Grand Rapids and Maskegon, on the rivers of the same name; Saginaw, on Saginaw river; Port Huron, at the N. entrance of St. Clair river, &c. LAN-SING, the capital, is situated in Ingham county, on Grand river, 117 miles from Detroit, and has been the seat of government since Dec. 1847. It is centrally situated in reference to the settlements. Though but a few years have elapsed since the place was a wilderness, it now contains upwards of 400 houses and several large hotels. The State House is a spacious and handsome building, in the'center of an enclosure overlooking the town, and on an elevation of about 50 feet above the river. Several saw and flouring mills, propelled both by steam and water power, have been erected, and there seems to be every prospect of its becoming a flourishing place. Pop. 1,229. A stage communication is maintained to Jackson, on the Central Railroad. DETROIT, the formner capital, and the largest and most flourishing town in Michigan, is well situated for trade on the W. side of Detroit river, seven miles S. of Lake St. Clair, and 18 N. of Lake Erie. It stands on an elevated site. about 30 feet above the water. It is regularly laid out, and has many excellent public buildings and private residences. It enjoys great facilities for an extensive commerce, and few cities have better prospects for future eminence. Pop. 34,436. The Central Rain 32

Page  33 THE STATE OF MICHIGAN. road extends hence to New Buffalo, 221 miles, and another to Pontiac, 25 miles. Detroit was formerly a military post of the French, and a great dep6t of the fur-traders. PONTIAC, 25 miles N. W. from Detroit, on the N. bank of Clinton river, contains the county buildings of Oakland, and is a flourishing inland town, containing several manufactures. Population 2,819. It is connected with Detroit by railroad. SHELBY and MT. CLEMENS, on the same river, to the E. of Pontiac, are considerable villages. ST. CLAIR and PORT HURON, on St. Clair river, occupy excellent commercial sites, and with the progress of settlement must become important. MONROE, 39 miles S. of Detroit, is well situated, both for manufactures and comrlerce, at the lower falls of Raisin river, and is accessible for the largest vessels from Lake Erie. Population 8,646. Here commences the Southemrn Railroad. ADRIAN and TECUMSEH, also on the Raisin, are populous villages, the former of which is a station on the Southern Railroad. HILLSDALE, on same road, has 1,067 inhabitants YPSILANTI, the seat of the State Normal School, and ANN ARBOR, the seat of Michigan Uni versity, are towns on the S. bank of Huron river, and on the line of the Central Railroad. The population of each is about 4,870. DEXTER, JACKSON, and MARSHALL are towns on the same railroad. Marshall, which is situated on the N. bantik of Kalamazoo river, is an important place, with a population of about 2,823. KALAMAZOO, on the S. bank, has great commercial advantages, the river being navigable to the lake. It has long been an important point of travel, and has especially in creased in prosperity since the completion of the Central Railroad. A large trade centers here from the neighboring country. Population 2,507. NILES, on the E. side of St. Joseph's river, at the head of steam navigation, is an important place on the Central Railroad. Population 2170.! NEw BUFFALO, opposite Chicago, on Lake Michigan, is the WV. terminus of the Central Railroad, and distant from Detroit 221 miles. It has much of the busy aspect of its great prototype of the east. ST. JOSEPH's, at the mouth of the river of the same name, has a good loca tion for commerce, but hitherto has not realized the expectations of its founders. GRAND RAPIDS is situated on the S. E. side of Grand river, at the rap ids, which have a fall of 15 feet in a mile, and afford immense water power. A large number of splendid saw and flouring mills have been erected here. The village contains the public offices of Kent county, and has a population of about 3,200. A canal round the rapids would se cure navigation to steamboats many miles further up the river. It was founded in 1833, and promises to become one of the most important places in the state. MASKEGON, on the S. bank of the river of the same name, is also a large village, and well located for commerce. It is the natural outlet of an extensive back-country. Pop 404. 33

Page  34 WES i'ERN STATES. SAGINAW, on the WV. bank of Saginaw river, 23 miles from its mouth, sands on an elevated site, and contains several substantial public build ipgs. It has long been an important village, and has considerable com merce. It is the chief outlet for the extensive country watered by the numerous tributaries of the Saginaw. Pop 917. AIACKINAW, on Mackinaw Island, which forms a part of the N. E. bank of the strait of Mackinaw, is a village of some 800 inhabitants. It is an important military station, occupied by the U. S. forces. The fortifica tions are built on an eminence, 160 feet above the surface of the lake. The Indians resort to this station to receive from government their anlnitities, and are here met by the traders. Steamboats call here on their passages through the strait. Few villages exist in the northern peninsula. Those occupied by the miners are only of a temporary nature. SALILT ST. MARIE, however, is an exception. This village, 90 miles N. WV. from Mackinaw, is situated near the rapids of St. Mary's river, between lakes Superior and Huron, and at the head of steam navigation. It is proposed to connect the two lakes by a canal round the falls, and thus secure a continuous navigation between the lakes, and form an outlet for the vast resources of the upper lake country. The first permanent settlement within the bounds of Michigan was made by the French at Detroit in 1670; but at the peace of Paris in 1763, the country was transferred to England, and at the close of the Revolutionary war reverted to the United States. In 1805 it was erected by Congress into a separate territorial government. During the last was with England it fell into the hands of the enemy through the cowardice of Gen. Hull, but was retaken by Gen. Harrison in the following year On 13th of June, 1836, it was admitted as a state of the Union. Arkansas was admitted on the same day as a slave state. THE STATE 0O INDIANA. .drea 83,809 square miles.-Population 983,416. INDIANA lies between 370 45' and 410 52' N. lat., and between 840 42' and 880 12' W. long.: and is bounded N. by Lake Michigan and the state of the same name; E. by Ohio; S. E. and S. by the Ohio river, and W. by the Wabash river and Illinois. The physical aspect of this state is generally similar to that of Ohio. In no part is it mountainous; but that portion bordering on the Ohio ;34

Page  35 THE STATE OF INDIANA. river contains much broken and hilly land. The interior is unlulatiD.g, and in many parts clothed with timber. The river bottoms are alwa<s rich and fertile. On the shores of Lake Michigan are extensive sandhills, and along thle course of the Kankakee river swamps and marshes. The Ohio meanders along the entire soithern boundary. The E. and W. forks of the White river and the Wabash drain the whole western and central portion of the state. The Wabash is navigable for steal — boats to Loganspoit, and the head waters of this river interlace wilh those of the St. Joseph's and Maumee. It falls into the Ohio in the S. Wv. corner of the state, and forms the western border for 160 miles. The climate is comparatively mild, and highly favorable for agriculture; ai with few local exceptions, the whole country is remarkably healthy. Iron ore and bituminous coal are abundant, and salt is manufactured tn several counties. Few persons, however, are employed in mining. Agriculture engrosses almost universal attention. Wheat, oats, and In. dian corn are the great cereal staples, and are largely exported, as are also wool and pork. Tobacco is also produced. Indiana is progressing in manufactures, and in this branch a large capital is already employed. The commerce of the state is chiefly carried on through the Ohio; a]-d to the ports on that river most of the exports are brought by the Wa. bash, and the several internal improvements. Michigan City is the only port of consequence on Lake Erie. The length of completed railroad in the state is 1,208 m., and of canal 420 miles. The school fund amounts to $4,988,988, but in this are included as a total, the esthimated value of school lands unsold. The number of academies is about 80, and of common schools 2,000. There are also six colleges in the state, one theological seminary, one law school, and one medical school. About 90,000 students and scholars attend these institutions. Indiana is divided into 90 counties. The chief cities and towns are - Indianapolis, Evansville, Jeffersonville, Madison, Lawrenceburg, Covingtoin, Logansport, MNlichligan City, &c. INDID.NAPOLIS, the capital, is situated on the E. bank of the West Fork of White river, and at the head of steam navigation. An elegant bridge is thrown over the river, over which passes the great national road. rhe State House is one of the most splendid buildings in the West, and ts modelled after the Parthenon at Athens. The city contains also several handsome churches and school-houses. It was laid out in 1821, and sow has a population of 9,000. A railroad extends hence to Madison, on the Ohio. I,AWRENCEBUtRG, on the Ohio, is a place of importance, at the south terminus of the Whitewater Canal, but is liable to inundation. It is a great depot for the rich produce of the Miami and Whitewater valleys, and will ultimately become a large city. Population 4.500. VEvAY Wad 35

Page  36 WESTERN STATES. settled by a Swiss colony in 1804, and is the seat of Switzerland county. It has a fine location, and is prettily laid out, being surrounded by vine yards. The lands in the neighborhood, indeed, were granted by Con gress, with the stipulation to make vine culture a prominent part of the agriculture of the colonists. Population 2,000. MADIsON derives im portance from being the southern terminus of the railroad, 86 miles long, to the capital. It has great facilities for both manufactures and commerce. Population 12,200. JEFFERSONVILLE, opposite Louisville, is the site of the State Prison. Population 3,800. NEW ALBANY is a large and flourishing place, and carries on some manufactures. Ship building is one of its chief businesses. A railroad extends hence to Chicago via Salem, Lafayette, and Michigan City, at the latter place connecting with the Michigan Central E. R. Populationt 8,181. RoME and ROCKPORT are lower down the Ohio. EVANSVILLE has an exten Five trade with the interior. It is connected by a canal with Lake Erie, 458 miles N. N.E. Several manufactures are earriedl on ill the town. Population 8,000. MT. VERNON, 22 miles W., is the capital of Posey county, and a flourishing village. VAINCENNES, on the WVabash, 150 miles from its mouth, is the oldest city in the state, having been settled by the French in 1702. The inhabitants m e chiefly descendants of the old colonists, and still retain much of their n.tional vivacity and politeness. It was formerly the state capital. Population 2,800. NEw H.RMO:,No, 50 miles S. of Vincennes, was settled in 1816 by a colony of German enthusiasts, styled " Harmonists," under the spiritual charge of George Rapp. These religionists ultimately settled on Beaver Creek, Pa., and their lands were purchased by Robert Owen, the Scottish Socialist, who here attempted to test the operation of his " new-light" principles on a large scale. About 1,000 persons congregated here under his system, but the experiment was soon abandnied, and the place is now a mere village. TERRE HAUTE, on the Ohio and Erie Canal, about 100 miles N. of Vincennes, and LOGANSPORT, at the head of steam navigation on the Wabash, are important places. LAFAYETTE, WVILLIAMSPORT, COVINGTON, and NEWPORT, are also flourishing towns on the Wabash. Opposite Lafayette was fought the famous battle of Tippecanoe. hIIcHIG-AN CITY is the only port in Indiana on the lake. There are some considerable towns and villages in the eastern portion of the state, but none of large population, or of much consequence to the traveller. The early history of Indiana is obscure. The first settlement was made at Vincennes by French soldiers from Canada in 1702. In 1763 the territory was ceded to the Blitish, and afterwards formed a part of the Western Territory. Indian wars desolated the country until 1797, and in 1811-12, the Indians, incited by the British, again commenced hostilitie, The battle of Tippecanoe compelled them to sue for peace. In 36

Page  37 TIlE STARE OF ILLINOIS., 1816, Indiana was admitted into the Union; and since that period has been rapidly filling up with a hardy and vigorous immigration, and now ranks fifth in point of population. THE STATE OF ILLINOIS. Jirea 55,405 square rniles.-Population 851,470. ILLINOIS, so noted for the extent of its prairies, is situated between 370 and 42o 30' N. lat., and between 870 49' and 91o 30' W. long.: and is bou(nded N. by Wisconsin; E. by Lake Michigan and Indianla; S. E. and S. by the Ohio river, which separates it from Kentucky, and W. by the Mississippi, which flows from the N. southward, between it and Iowa and Missouri. The surface is generally level: the southern and northern parts of the state are somewhat hilly and broken, but nowhere mountainous. That portion S. of a line froni the mouth of the Wabash to the mouth of the Kasklaskia river, is mostly covered with timber: thence N. prairie predominates. A range of bluffs commences on the margin of the Mississippi, (a short distance above the mouth of the Ohio,) and extend N. of the Des Moines rapids, sometimes rising abruptly from the water's edge, but most generally at a few miles distant, having between the bluffs and river a strip of alluvial formation of the most exhaustless fertility. Probably two-thirds of the state is prairie land. The soil throughout is excelleut,-rich, deep, and productive, being watered by an abundance of pure springs, and well adapted for all kinds of grain, and other agri cutltural staples of temperate climes. The great lead region in this state is iii the N. W. portion, and the mines in the neighborhood of Galena m'e perhaps the richest in the world. Copper and iron ores also exist, and coal is found in almost every county, while salt-springs abound in the southern counties. The Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash rivers form more than two-thhids of the boundary of the state. The Big-Muddy, Kaskaslcia, Illinois, and Rock rivers, and many smaller streams, empty themselves into the Mississippi. Chicago river empties into Lake Mi chigan; the Vertmillion, Embarras, and Little Wabash into the Wabash river, which, and some few others, empty into the Ohio. The state is everywhere well watered. The climate is excellent, and ii the south is sufficiently mild for the cultivation of cotton, while peaches come to ma turity everywhere. Except on the river bottoms, and in the neighbor hood of swamps, the country is healthy, and free from endemic diseases. The productive industry of Illinois is chiefly employed in agriculture. The cereal staples are wheat, oats, and Indian coln. Tobacco, hemp, and flax are also raised The manufactures are comparatively of small 4 37

Page  38 WESTERN STATES. importance. Miting, however, is briskly carried on, and large quantities of lead, com, er, iron, and bituminous coal are annually produced. The lead region,xtends from Galena beyond the limits of the state north and west, and is supposed to occupy a district 200 miles long and 60 broad. Mining operations have been carried on for 30 years. Illinois has but little direct foreign commerce, but supplies no inconsiderable amount of that carried on with other states; and since the completion of the Illinois Canal a large export business has been done via the lakes. The Mississippi river, however, will ever be the great outlet for the productions of the interior. Many of the rivers are navigable, and with the already completed internal improvements, afford great facilities for the transportation of goods and merchandise. Illinois has projected a splendid system of railroads, but onlyll,312 miles are completed. The canal from the lake to the Illinois river, however, is fnished, and answers perfectly every anticipation of its projectors. Illinois has four colleges, a theological seminary, and a medical school. There are also about 60 academies and grammar schools in the state, which educate about 3,500 students; and 3,955 common schools, at which 51,447 children are taught for various terms during the year. The whole number of persons under 20 years of age was in 1852, 361,954. The school fund amounts to $1,373,096 There is a Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Springfield, which, in Jan. 1853, had 109 pupils. The state is divided into 99 counties. The following are among the principal cities and towns-Springfield, Chicago, C(alenta, ROCK ISLAND, Nawlvoo, Quinvcy, Kaskaskia, Alton, Cairo, Shawneetown, &c SPRINGFIELD, the capital, is situated on the border of a beautiful plain, 4 miles S. of the Sangamon river, and very near the center of the state. In 1823 it contained about 30 families, living in small log cabins. It now has several fine public buildings, including the capitol, an elegant edifice of hewn stone, and a population of 5,000. The surrounding country is one of the richest prairie districts in the state. CHICACO is situated on the S. W. shore of Lake Michigan, and is the most commercial city of Illinois. It is built on a level prairie, elevated somewhat above the lake surface, and lies on both sides of Chicago river, about a mile above its entrance in the lake. By the construction of piers, an artificial harbor has been made at the mouth of the river. The city has sprung up rapidly. In 1830 it was a mere trading post; it now contains about 29,963 inhabitants, and is one of the largest grain depots in the Union. Its commerce is immense, and in the aggregate employs about 60,000 tons of shipping, one half steamers and propellers. The lumber trade is also becoming very profitable.'nlis trade is chiefly carried on with Buffalo. Chicago is connected with the western rivers by a sloop canal, one of the most magnificent works ever undertaken. It is connected with the Mississippi at several points by railroad. 38

Page  39 THE STATE OF ILLINOIS. GALENA, in the heart of the lead regions, is situated on Fever river, 7 miles from the Mississippi,,and derives all its importance from the mining cantied on in the vicinity. Population 7,000. A railroad connects it with Chicago, and also with Cairo. ROCK ISLAND, near tilhe mouth of Rock river, is an island about 4 miles long and 2 broad. It is the site of Fort Armstrong, the foundation of which is laid upon rocks rising some 20 feet out of the river. RocKISLAND, N. of the junction of the Rock river with the Mississippi, is a flourishing village of 2,300 inhabitants. NAuVOO, the site of the Mormon city, which contained in its palmy days about 24,000 inhabitants, is located on a bluff, with an easy ascent. The Mormons have been driven ouit, and their magnificent temple was destroyed by fire in 1848. The city, or rather its loins have been purchased by M. Cabet, the chief of the "Icarians," large bodies of which sect are now emigrating from France. WARsAW, opposite the mouth of the Des Moines river, is a small, but thriving village. QUINCY is situated on a bluff, and coinmands a fine view of the river and surrounlding country. It has a large river trade, being the dep6t of a fertile back-country. Pop. 7,000. AL TON. situated a little north of and opposite to the mouth of the Missouri, is a very thriving town, in a region rich in timber and bituminous coal. Population 4,500. KASKASKIA, on the river of the same name, ll miles from its mouth, stands on an extensive plain. It was originally set tied by the French from Canada, and was a place of the greatest impor tance. Population 1,800. CAIRo, at the mouth of the Ohio, occupies a site most appropriate for a large commercial city, but in conisequence of the lowness of the ground, and unhealthiness of the situation, it can never rise to that im portance its projectors anticipated. A levee has been built to keep back the waters, at a cost of a million of dollarsn. Population from 200 to 300. SHAWNETOWN, on the Ohio, 9 miles S. of the Wabash, was origin ally a village occupied by Indians of the Shawnee tribe. It has consid erable trade, and a population of 1,764 Among the interior towns the most notable are-OTTAWA, on Fox river, an important canal station; PERU, the western terminus of the Illinois and Michigan Canal; PEORIA, on the Illinois river, S. of Peoria Lake; PONTIAC. on Vermillion river; BLOOMINOTON, the county seat of McLean: BEARDSTOWN, on the Illinois; MERZDOSIA, on the same river; JACKSONVILLE, the seat of Illinois College; VANDALIA, on the National Road, &c. &c. Early in the 17th century, Illinois'was explored by La Salle, the en terprisir,ng traveller; and French settlements were formed at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and other places soon afterwards. In 1763 the whole country was ceded to England. Until 1809, Illinois was a part of the territory N. W. of the Ohio. In that year it was placed under a separate terri 39

Page  40 WESTERN STATES. torial government, and in 1818 was admitted into the Union as a state. The present population has resulted fro;n immigration during the cur rent centmu-. THE STATE 01F M_ISSOURI. area 67,8S0 square miles.- Population 682,044. MISSOURI, the largest of the western states, is situated between 36~ 30' and 400 30' N. lat., and between 89~ and 96~ 45' W. long.: and is bounded N. by Iowa; E. by Illinois and Kentucky, from which it is separated by the Mississippi rivel; S. by Arkansas, and W. by Nebras ka Territory and the Missoui river. Missouri has, generally, a rolling or hilly surface, and is about equally divided between prairie and timber land. The S. E. corner is almnost entirely alluvial. No part of the state can be called mountainous. A range of low hills, however. commences in St. Francois county, and ex tends in a S. W. direction to the southern boundary; and another range, of a larger class, extends from the Missouri river, between the Gascon ade and Osage, increasing in magnitude until far within the state of Arkansas. These are sometimes called the Ozark Mountains. The celebrated Iron mountain is situated in St. Francois county. Five' mniles S. of this is "Pilot Knob," also composed almost wholly of oxide of i-ron. These, with the exception of the recently discovered iron beds in northern Michigan, are the richest known deposits of iron in the world. Copper is found in several districts, ann lead mines of great extent are known to exist. Washington county is a perfect bed of metallic wealth-lead, copper, copperas, black-lead, and brimstone; carnelian and other precious stones; free-stone, grind-stone, and burr-stone, and challik, are the prevailing formations. St. Genevieve county has quarries of fine marble, and vast caverns full of beautiful white sand resembling snow, much prized for the manufacture of flint-glass. Throughout the mineral district beds of rich red manls are found, which prove to be the very best kind of manure, and such deposits being found in this comparatively sterile region are doubly valuable. The best portion of the state south of the Missouri river, is between the Osage and that river. It is agreeably diversified and fertile beyond conception, and abounds in coal, salt, &c. The country north of the Missouri is scarcely inferior. There is no part of the globe where greater extent of country can be traversed more easily when in its natural state. It has, for the most part, a surface delightfully rolling and variegated, sometimes rising into picturesque hills, and then stretchling far away into the sea of prairie, occasionally iltorspersed with shady groves and sparkling streamnlets 40

Page  41 THE STATE OF MISSOURI. The Mississippi meanders along the eastern border cf the state for 400 miles, receiving in its course the turbid waters of the Mtisscuri, which river traverses the state illn a south-westernl direction. The La Mine, Osage, and Gasconade, from the S., and the Little Platte, Grand, and Chariton, from the N., are the navigable tributaries of the Missouri. Salt river, a navigable stream, falls into the Mississippi 86 miles above the mouth of the Missouri; and Maramee river, also navigable, disembogues 18 miles below St. Louis. The White Water and St. Francois drain the S. E. portion, and the tributaries of the Neosho the S. W. part of the state. The Missouri river, during a part of the year, is navigable for 1,800 miles, Almost every acre of this fine country is susceptible of agricultural improvement. The climate is remarkably serene and temperate, being well suited to out-door employment and the raising of live-stock. The chief products consist of tobacco, hemp, wheat, oats, and Indian corn. Wool-growing is becoming a favorite employment; and of late years the improvement of breed has been attended to. The trade in hogs is very extensive, and large numbers of cattle are reared for the market. About five-sixths of the people are farmers. Mining occupies at least 4,000 persons, and perhaps two-thirds of these are employed at the lead mines: the remainder are employed at the iron, copper, and bitumin ous coal mines. As a manufacturing state Missouri is not of much im portance. The exports from this state consist chiefly of agricultural produce and its minerals. Cattle and horses are also largely exported to the East and South. St. Louis is the chief commercial city, and the great receiving and distributilng depot. Internal trade is carried on mainly by steamboats on the Mlissosuri and its tributaries. The University of St. Louis, Kemper College, at the same place, and Missouri University, at Columbia, to each of which is attached a medi cal school, are the principal scholastic institutions. There are also col leges at Cape Girardeau, in Marion county, at St. Charles, and Fayette, and a medical college at Willoughby. Academies and common schools are supported on a liberal footing. Missouri is divided into 106 counties The principal cities and towns are Jefferson City, St. Louis, St. Charles, &c. JEFFERSON CITY, the capital, is situated on the S. bank of the Mis souri, 136 miles from its mouth, and near the center of the state. The State House and the Penitentiary are the principal public buildings. Population 4,000. The most important places on the river, W. of the capital, are Mlarion, Nashville, Rocheport, Booneville, Chariton, Lexing ton, Blayton, Liberty, Independence, Weston, St. Joseph's, &c. INDE PENDENCE, on the S. bank of the river, 352 miles from its junction widith the Mississippi, is the starting-point or rendezvous for traders to northern Mexico, and for emigrants to Oregon and California. The distance from 4* 41

Page  42 WESTERN STATES. St. Louis by land is 266 miles. Portland, Pinkney, Newport, and St. Charles, lie eastward of Jefferson City. ST. CHARLES, formerly the state capital, 22 miles fiom the mouth of the river on its N. bank, is a thriving place, and contains about 5,000 inhabitants, many of whom are of French origin. Warsaw and Osceola are the principal towns on Osage river. ST. Louis, the commercial capital of the state, and one of the most important places in the West, is situated on the Mississippi, 18 miles below the mouth of the Missouri, 863 miles from Fort Snelling, and 1,212 from New Orleans. No city could be better located for an extensive commerce. The whole Union is its tributary, and ahleady its trade amounts to nearly one half the whole foreign commerce of the U. S. in value. About 1,000 flat-boats arrive here annually, and steamboats with an aggregate of 500,000 tons. The Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi are navigated by its fleets, and even the northern lakes contribute to its commerce. Year by year its importance is increasing. The city consists of two parts, built at different elevations. The lower part, or that on the margin of the river, is laid out in narrow streets, and is chiefly occupied by those engaged in business. The more elevated portion is different in appearance, and is laid out regularly ill broad handsome streets, lined with the splendid mansions of the rich. A variety of public buildings beautify this locality. The population, about 7T,S60, is composed of meii of all nations, but the most numerous are Anmericans, French, and Germans. The city is supplied with water from the river, which is raised into a reservoir by steam-power, and thence distributed through iron pipes. The streets are lighted with gas. St. Louis is the principal dep6t of the American Fur Company. Jefferseon Barracks, the most extensive military station in the West, is situated on a range of bluffs, about 9 miles below the city. The principal places N. of St. Louis are Westport, Clarkesville, Louisiana, Hannibal, Marion City, La Grange and Tully, on the Mississippi, and St. Francisville, on the Des MAloines river. To the S. of St. Louis are Herculaneum and St. Genevieve, the chief ports of the mineral district; Cape Girardeau, which has a fine harbor for keel-boats; Ohio City, opposite Cairo, and New Madrid, formerly a noted place, but containing now less than 800 inhabitants. Missouri was originally a portion of Louisiana, as purchased by the United States in 1803. Settlements were made at St. Louis, St. Genev-ieve, and elsewhere, about the middle of the last century. In 1821, Missotiri became a state. Previous to its admission, however, great debate was had on the subject of slavery, nor was it until a distinctive line had been drawn between slave soil and free soil that the state was recognised by Congress. This line (36~ 30' N. lat.) is usually called thb' Missouri Compromise line," N. of which to the Rocky Mountains, except so far as rega-ds this state, slavery is nevei to be tolerated. 42

Page  43 THE STATE OF IOWA. THE STATE OF IOWA. trea 50,914 square miles.-Population 192,214. Iowa is situated between 400 30' and 430 30' N. lat., and between 900 20' anid 970 40' W. long.: and is bounded N. by Minesota Territory; E. by the Mississippi river, which separates it from WVisconsin and Illinois; S. by Missouri, and W. by the territory of Nebraska. Prairie predominates in this state. Scarcely a hill interrupts the sealike expanse of its wavy surface. An elevated table-land or plateau, however, extends through a considerable portion of the country, and forms the watershed between the streams flowing into the Mlissou-i and Mississippi rivers respectively. The margins of the streams are thickly timbered. The prairie lands are variously covered: some are clothed in thick grass, suitable for grazing farms, while hazel thickets and sassafras shrubs invest others with perennial verdure. In spring and sum iner the surface is enamelled by wild flowers in endless variety. The soil is universally good, being a rich black mould, mixed sometimes with sandy loam, and sometimes with red clay and gravel. Lead, zinc, iron, &c., are very plentiful. The "mineral region" is principally confined to the neighborhood of Dubuque. The lead mines of this region are perhaps the most productive and valuable in the world. Ten thousand miners could here find profitable employment. Zinc occurs in fissures along with the lead, chiefly in the form of electric calamine. In some "diggings" this mineral is found in a state of carbonate, and in others as a sulphuret. Iron ore is abundant in several districts; but as yet the mines have not been worked to any great extent. The state is well watered by numerous navigable rivers and streamlets flowing into the Mississippi and Missoumi rivers, which bound the state-the first on the E. and the latter on the WV. The principal of these are the Red Cedar and Iowa, and the Des Moines, which empty into the Mississippi. The rivers falling into the Missouri are comparatively unimportant. The climate is excellent, especially on the prairies, and the country is as free from endemic dis eases as the most favored portion of the UITnion. Periodic breezes blow over the prairies as regularly and as refreshing as on the ocean between the tropics. The only unhealthy portions of Iowa are the low margins of the rivers, which are frequently inundated. Though the buffalo, once the denizen of this beautiful country, is now almost extinct, and though the elk is only found in the wild recesses not yet occupied by civilization, a great variety of wild animals remain, and afford pleasure to the sportsman and profit to the hunter. The wolf, panther, and wild cat are still numerous, and in the wooded districts the black bear is found. Foxes, racoons, opossums, gophars, porcupines, squirrels, and 43

Page  44 WESTERN ST ATES. the otter, inhabit almost the whole unsettled country. Deer are also quite numerous, and the musk-rat and common rabbit are incredibly prolific. Among the bird tribes are wild-turkeys, prairie-hens, grouse, partridges, woodcocks, &c. Geese, ducks, loons, pelicans, plovers, snipes, &c., are among the aquatic birds that visit the rivers, lakes, and sluices. Bees swarm in the forests; the rivers and creeks abound with excellent fish, and the insect tribes, varied and beautiful, add gaudiness to the scene. Iowa mainly owes its prosperity to its agricultural resources. Its fine prairies are easily converted to cultivation, and its natmual pastures afford peculiar facilities for the rearing of cattle, and sheep farming. Wool growing, indeed, has become one of the staple employments of the farmers; and the raising of hogs for market, is no less profitable in its results. Tne sheep and hog are here raised with little or no trouble, the natural productions of the forest and prairie affrding a plentiful sub sistence. The cereal and root crops grow luxuriantly, and all the fruits of temperate climates find here a congenial soil. Tobacco is grown ex tensively on the alluvial margins of the Des Moines, and the castor-oil plant, which has been lately introduced, succeeds well. No country in the world, in every point of view, is more promising to the agriculturist. Fertile and productive, yielding minerals of the greatest value, pene trated by numerous navigable rivers, and bordered by the noble Mississippi, easily accessible, and free from many of the dangers incident to newly-settled countries, it offers the greatest inducements to immigrants and others to make it their homes. Its commercial advantages are perhaps second to those of none other of the Western States, while every portion of the country is open to easy navigation and land travel. It already contributes largely to the valuable cargoes that annually arrive at New Orleanis. The settled portion of the state is well provided with good roads; but as yet no canals or railroads, though several are proe jected, have been built. The manufactures of Iowa consist principally of such heavy articles as are of immediate necessity to the settler, or of such goods as are usually made in families, as coarse woollen and cotton articles, &c. The aggregate value of property assessed for taxes in this state in 1852 was $SS,42O7,376. Education, is well provided for. A respectable university has been established, and the constitution makes it imperative that a school shall be established in each district. Instruction is placed under the direction of a sul)erintendent, chosen by the people for three years. The permanent school fund amounted, Nov. 1st, 1852, to $500,000, and all lands granted by Congress, all escheated estates, and all rents accruing from unsold lands of the state, are applied to this fund, the interest of which is devoted exclusively to the support of schools. Military exemption fines, and all fines imposed by courts, are appropriated to the same 44

Page  45 THE STATE OF IOWA. purpose. The University is supported by the interest of moneys arising from the lease or sale of public lands granted by Congress for the support of the institution. The settled portion of Iowa is divided into 102 counties. Among the principal cities and towns are Iowa City, Dubuque, Muscatine, Burlington, Keokuck, &c. IOWA CITY, the capital, is situated on the E. bank of the Iowa river, about 60 miles N. of its junction with Red Cedar river. The river is navigable to this point for keel-boats. The location is beautiful, rising in a succession of plateaux or elevated terraces, overlooking a splendid country. Previous to 1839 the site was in the wilderness. The state capitol is a handsome building in the Doric style of architecture. It is 120 feet long and 60 feet wide, and is two stories high above the base ment, and surmounted by a dome supported by 16 Corinthian columns. The churches and many of the private residences are substantially built, and in some cases elegantly. Population in 1850, 1,5S2. DUBUQUE, on the Mississippi river, 1712 miles from its mouth, and 468 from the Falls of St. Anthony, is situated in the very center of the lead region, and is the chief outlet for the commerce of the district. It was originally settled by a French half-breed of the name of Dubuque. It is regularly laid out, and has a city charter. It contains six or seven churches, one of which is an elegant Roman Catholic cathedral of stone. Considerable commerce is attracted to this place, and the trade of the city has long been in a flourishing condition. The Land Office for the District, and the Surveyor-General's Office fo(r the states of Iowa and Wisconsin, are located here. The interior of the state contributes large ly of its agricultural wealth to swell its otherwise commercial prosperity. Population 4,071. DAVENPORT, 74 miles S. of Dubuque, is finely located on an elevated plT)ain, and surrounded by a rich agricultural country. It is becoming an importanit place of trade. Pop. 3,400. MUSCATINE, foimerly Bloomington, 22 miles further south, is one of the most thriving towns in the state, and contains a court house, jail, several churches, and a number of mercantile houses and stores. Population 2,534. In 1840, the popu lation was less than 600. BURLINGTON, 248 miles above St. Louis, for merly the territorial capital, is finely situated for an extended trade. It was originally laid out in 1833. The ground rises gradually from the river to the hills which form its background. It contains many fine public buildings. A steam-ferry here crosses the Mississippi. The site was formerly known as the Flint Hills, an old Indian trading-post, and was once the residence of Black Hawk, whose remains are buried here. Population 5,129. FORT MADISON, 10 miles below Burlington, has a population of about 2,000. KEOKUCK, a few miles N. of the mouth of the Missouri, is becoming rapidly an important place, and has, of late years, increased in population and wealth, perhaps more than any other town 4.5

Page  46 WESTERN STATES. in the state. It has a large commerce, and many advantages in situation and topography, which must ultimately make it a most flourishing mart. The present population is 2,773. The interior towns are in general small, consisting chiefly of agticultural settlements. SALEM, in Henry comunty, is a thriving settlement, and chiefly inhabited by members of the Society of Friends. A considerable colony of Mormons is settled in Pottawatainie coumty. Iowa was a portion of Louisiana as purchased in 1803. It was erected into a separate territorial government in 1838, and admitted into the Union as a state in 1846. THE STATE OF WISCONSIN. .Irea 53,924 square miles.-Population 305,391. WISCONSIN lies between 420 30' and 470 N. lat., and between 870 and 920 30' W. long.: and is bounded N. by Lake Superior and the northern peninsula of Michigan; E. by Lake Michigan; S. by Illinois, and W. by Iowa and Minesota Territory. Wisconsin is one vast plain, varied only by river hills and the gentle swells and undulations of the country. This plain is elevated from 600 to 1,500 feet above the level of the ocean. The highest lands are the watershed between the waters flowing respectively to the Mississippi and Lake Michigan. The slope towards Lake Superior is very abrupt, and the rivers short, rapid, and broken by falls. The Wisconsin and Mississippi bluffs rise from 100 to 300 feet above the rivers. The soil is excellent, black marl predominating in the lowest timber and prairie lands, and is often six feet deep. The dark loam is the most common in the openings and on the rolling prairie, and is cultivated with the best success. The country is naturally divided into timbered, opening, and prairie. South-east of the Fox and Wisconsin it is in general heavily wooded. In the mineral region S. of the Wisconsin, the rolling prairie, interspersed with openings, prevails. North of these rivers the country is pretty equally divided between openings and prairie. The climate is mild and salubrious, and perhaps more congenial to the European constitution than that of any other of the United States. Geologically, Wisconsin presents interesting phenomena. The northern portion is entirely primitive, and exhibits granite and old red sandstone as its bases. The Wisconsin flows through the sandstone district, and the hills on this river are soft and crumbling, and when carried into the stream by a rise of water, frequently change its current. The 46

Page  47 THIE STATE OF WISCONSIN. mineral district occupies the S. W. corner of the state. Wisconsin has great advantages in the availability and easy transport of its mineral wealth. The production of galena has become very considerable, and the copper mines of the north and west are prospectively of immense value. Many other metals are found, and good marble and building stone are abundant in almost every part. Besides the great lakes on the N. and W., a number of smaller lakes, varying from one to twenty miles in extent, are scattered over the state. These are often surrounded by the most beautiful scenery, and abound in fish of various kinds, while on their shores are found fine specimens of agate, carnelian, and other precious stones. In the shoal waters of the bays the zigania aquatica, a species of wild rice, is abundant, and attracts immense flocks of water-fowl to these localities. Green Bay, in the N. E., is a large arm of Lake Michigan, and receives the Fox and other rivers. The Mississippi forms a large part of the W. bound ary. It is augmented from this state by the Chippewa and Wisconsin rivers, the latter of which, with the Fox river, divides the state into two nearly equal portions. Innumerable smaller streams and branches run through the whole extent of the state, so that no portion of it is without a plentiful supply of good, and generally, pure water. The Wisconsin and Chippewa are navigable for steamboats. All kinds of crops that are raised in temperate climates may be cultivated with success in Wisconsin; and owing to the great range of pasturage on the prairies, it is an uncommonly fine grazing country. Already it exports largely of grain. Manufactures are still in their infancy. But few countries have the same natural facilities for extensive operations, and there can be no doubt, that as the wants of the people enlarge, these will be made subservient to their interests. The ports on Lake Michigan are already distinguished for their busy commerce, and their rapid increase in prosperity and wealth. The river trade is great, and the busy strife of commercial activity has penetrated to the very centre of the state. Steamboats ply on its waters, and a system of good roads greatly facilitates the development of its natural capacities. The union of the waters of Lake Michigan with those of the Mississippi, by canaling the portage between the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, is now almost realized, and will, when completed, create a navigable channel of the greatest importance. Wisconsin has also several railroads, which together will extend over a line of 800 miles, about 60 of which are now in operation. Wisconsin has made provision for an extensive system of education. The Wisconsin University, at Madison, was established in 1849. The number of school districts is 3,200, and the number of children in the state between 4 and 20 years of age about 124,000. The school fund consists of the proceeds of the 16th sections of land, 500,u00 acres ceded to the state by Congress; all forfeitures and escheats to the state; all mili 47

Page  48 WESE X REN ST ATES. tary exemption fines; all the net proceeds of penal fines; 5 per cent. of Zhlie procee.ds of all sales of U. S. lands in the state, and all moneys arising firom any grant to the state, where the purposes of such grant are nol specified. The value of these various items is not ascertained, but must be great and ever increasing. The state is divided into 46 counties, 18 of which are S. of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. N. of these the settlements are very sparse. The most important cities and towns are Madison, Milwaukee, Sheboygan, Manjitouwoc, Green Bay, Mineral Point, &c. MAIDISON, the capital, 90 miles W. of Milwaukee, is pleasantly situated between the 3d and 4th of the chain called "Four Lakes," on a gently rising ground, from which there is a regular descent each way to the water. It is regularly laid out, with a central square, in the middle of which stands -the State House. This is a spacious stone edifice, two stories high above the basement, and surmounted with a handsome dome, and can be seen for a distance of 10 miles from every direction. The city also contains the county prison and several churches, with a number of stores. Two newspapers are issued weekly. Population 2,000. It was laid out in 1836. AIILWAUK.EE, the largest and most important town of the state, is situated on both sides of Milwaukee river, near its entrance into Lake Michigan, 90 miles N. of Chicago, Ill. It is the natural outlet of one of the finest grain regions in the Union. The progress of the city has been most remarkable. In 1834 it was surrounded by a wilderness, and contained only two log-houses.. It has now 26,000 inhabitants, and for the last few years has increased at the rate of 2,000 or 3,000 annually. Regular lines of steamboats ply between Milwaukee and Buffalo, the trade between which is immense, and constantly increasing. SuEBOYOAN, at the entrance of Sheboygan river into Lake Michigan, 56 miles N. of Milwaukee, has a deep and capacious harbor, and is a place of rising importance. MANITOUWOC, 30 miles further N., is also a rapidly progressing village. Population 766. In 1849 it imported goods to the amount of $127,000, and exported agricultural produce to the value of $72,000. RACINE and VVASSIINGTON are also towns well situated, and have a prospect of attaining commercial prosperity. GREEN BAY, at the head of the bay of the same name, and on the E. bank of the Fox river, at its mouth, is a most important haven; and when the improvements in the Fox and Wisconsin rivers are completed, so as to admit of navigation through the state to the Mississippi, it must rapidly increase in population and wealth. Fort Howard, on the opposite bank of the river, is one of the most important militalry stations in the north-west. PRAIRIE DU CGI.N, on the Mississippi, is the most prominent point on that river. It is situated a few miles N. of the Wisconsin river, and has its name from the beautiful prairie on which it is located. It is one 48

Page  49 THIE TERRITORY OF MINESOTA. of the oldest settlements in the west, and has been the scene of many battles, both of Indian anild civilized warfare. The Indian trade that once centered here, has almost ceased since the removal of the Winnebagoes. Population about 2,000. MINERAL POINT, 50 miles W. of Madison; FOND Du LAc, at the head of Winnebago Lake; ELKIIORN, 22 miles W. of Racine; and MONROE, 30 miles S. E. of Mineral Point, are important interior towns. FORT WINNEBAGO is situated at the portage between the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, and on the great route between the lakes and the Mississippi. This portage will be overcome by a canal now in process of completion. There are also, in the interior counties, a large number of villages, with populations varying from 300 to 700; and so rapidly are new villages being settled, that it is next to an impossibility to take account of them. In many instances large colonies of Germans, Norvegians, and other European emigrants, have purchased tracts of land, and built up their villages as if by magic; and the immediate neighbors are even ignorant of their presence, until they behold with astonishment the smoke curling over the new settlement. Wisconsin originally belonged to the French, and formed part of that vast territory known as "New France," which was ceded to Great Britain il 1,763. Few settlements were made previous to 1836, when it was erected into a separate territorial government. In 1848 it was ad mitted as a state into the Union. Never since the formation of the American Conlederacy has a state advanced so rapidly in population: the tide of immigration is continuous not only from Europe but from the eastern United States, and certainly few states have ever before pre sented such a combination of inducemenets to those seeking a home. Its situation and facilities of intercourse, its agricultural capacities, its mineral wealth, and other natural advantages are pre-eminently invitin, and offer golden prospects to every grade and condition of man. THE TERRITORY OF MINESOTA. .rea 141,839 square miles.-Population 6,077. MINESOTA is situated between 430 30' and 490 N. lat., and between 89o 30' and 1020 10' W. long.: and is bounded N. by British America; E. by Lake Superior and the state of Wisconsin; S. by the state of Iowa, and W. by Missouri Territory. Of the immense territory included within these limiits, 22,336 square miles belonged to the late territory of Wisconsin, and the remainder to the late territory of Iowa. Throughout the whole of this territory scarcely an elevation that could be dignified with the name of mountain occurs. The surface is in gen. 5 49

Page  50 WESTERN TERRITORIES. eral level or undulating, but varies considerably in elevation, and in the ascents and descents of its plateaux. In some parts, Especially in the neighborhood of the Mississippi and St. Peter's, the ground is much broken, and their margins lined with high bluffs of various formations; while in others the rivers flow through deep channels, seemingly worn into the earth by the force of their waters. Every portion of Minesota may be reached by inland navigation. The traveller will meet constantly with springs and small lakes, the somuces of mighty livers, whose waters are discharged thousands of miles to the N. into Hudson's Bay; as many to the E. into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or to the S. into the Gulf of Mexico. Springs are often seen within a few feet of each other, the sources of rivers, whose outlets in the ocean are some six thousand miles apart. In almost every direction canoe navigation, with short portages, is practicable by means of the numerous rivers, whose sources are nearly interlocked or connected by chains of lakes. The Mississippi has its source here, some 3,000 miles from its mouth. Nine hundred miles of the length of this majestic river are embraced in this territory, and its numerous tributaries course through its fertile plains. The N. E. portion is washed by the crystal waters of Lake Superior, which is of itself anr inland sea for the prosecution of trade and commerce, and opens an avenue to the Atlantic. The Missouri, after having flowed nearly 1,000 miles from the base of the Rocky Mountains, sweeps along its whole W. boundary, ensuring navigation almost to Oregon. Its large tributaries, James and Big Sioux rivers, water valleys of great beauty and fertility. Extensive prairies, blooming with flowers and covered with luxuriant grasses, affording sustenance to immense herds of buffalo, saying nothing of elk, deer, antelopes, and other small game. Red River, which discharges itself into Lake Winnipeg, has its sources near those of the Mississippi. Beautiful lakes of transparent water, well stocked with fish, and varying in size from ponds to inland seas, are profusely scattered over the territory. Forests of pine and other evergreens, orchards of sugar-maple, groves of hard and soft woods of various species, wild rice and cranberries, and various species of wild fruit, copious springs of pure water, a fertile soil, and water-power, easily improved and abundantly distributed, render this region peculiarly adapted to the wants of man. Add to these a salubrious climate, and Minesota appears to enjoy eminent capacities for becoming a thriving and populous state. Its mineral resources are unknown, but indications and discoveries have been made that certify its wealth in copper and lead. Building stone of every description, limestone, &c., are found everywhere underlying the soil, while many valuable and precious stones are found on the shores of the lakes. For a country so overspread with lakes, and traversed by such a number of livers, it is astonishingly free from marsh and morass. The land has a great elevation above the Gulf of Mexico, and the waters 50

Page  51 THE TERRITORY OF MINESOTA1 of the N. and E., and as a consequence is easily and perfectly drained; and moreover, the margins of the lakes and rivers themselves are generally surrounded by hills and bluffs, which protect their neighborhoods from inundation. The whole country is thus eligible for agriculture. The settlements as yet made in the territory are chiefly confined to the peninsula between the Mississippi and St. Croix on the S., and on the Red river on the N. Otherwise the country is inhabited only by the aboriginal hunters, the Chippewas, and Sioux Indians. Their numbers are not ascertained, but may approximate to about 12,000. With some of the tribes treaties have been made for the purchlase of their lands, and for their removal, which, when effected, will open to the white settler immense tracts of rich and fertile soils, productive of every species of grain and fruits usually grown in northern climates. The Indians have long been in connection with thp whites, and have for more than two centuries carried on with them a profitable trade in furs and peltries. Their hunting-grounds are now chiefly confined to the vast prairies west of the Mississippi. The white inhabitants are from almost every portion of the world: the Canadian, the sons of New England and the lot dle States, with English, French, and Germans, are all intermingled; and not a few of the citizens consist of half-breeds, who chiefly reside on the Red River, and have settlements for some distance on both sides of our N. boundary. These are descendants of the original settlers at Lord Selkirk's colony and Indian women of the Chippewa family Their village is called Pembina. Hardy and hard working, prudent as the New England farmer, religious and intelligent, they form no mean class in the general community. They trade with the southern settlers, exchaniging furs and pemmican for the superfluities of the South. They rear cattle and sheep, weave their own clothing, and live in a middle state of civilization. They have churches and schools, and many of the better class are educated at a collegiate establishment which has long been maintained among them. As a consequence, however, of their ostracized situation, they still retain many of the peculiarities of their original nations, modified indeed by the circumstances that surround them, and their connection with savage life. In the new settlements, the industry of the whites is almost entirely agricultural. They have mills on a number of the streams, and steamboats ply regularly on their waters. They are building roads, and from the energy they exhibit in overcoming natural obstacles, the real prosperity of the territory seems to be ensured. A large business has been already done by the steamboats that sail regularly between Galena and St. Paul and Stillwater. The products of the chase, and the fruits of the field are exported in considerable quantities. With regard to immigration, the prospects are favorable. Farmers, laborers, and professional men, are daily ascending the rivers in search of a new home. The day indeed is not distant, when the forests will be laid low, 51.

Page  52 WESTERN TERRITORIES. and the flowery prairies be converted into fields and gardens, producing every necessary to the use and enjoyment of mall. Earth, air, and water abound in the prerequisites of man's happiness and enjoyment, and are only awaiting his advent to yield up their now unused abundance. The organization of the government of the territory having been so recent, it is impossible to exhibit by statistics the resources of this new and almost untouched country. The first legislature, which adjourned after a session of sixty days, on the 1st November, 1849, was chiefly employed in organizing the government, and dividing the telrTitory into suitable civil districts, and appointing officers to enforce the laws. Among its most important acts were those establishing the judiciary, a school system, and relative to the improvement of roads. All these will have a paramount influence over the future destiny of the country. Perhaps one of the most humane and politic acts of the legislature was the admission to citizenship of "all persons of a mixture of white and Indian blood, who slhall have adopted the habits and customs of civilized men;" and not less politic is Ihat law which requires the establishment of schools throughout the telrritory. The act of the General Government organizing the territory appropriates two sections of land in every township for the support of common schools. No other state in the Union has received more than one section in each township for such purpose. On the 11th June, 1849, the whole citizen p,,pulation numbered 4,7S0, of which 3,06T were males anid 1,713 females. In 1850 it amounted to 6,077, and at the present time (March, 1854) can not be less than 12,000. Minesota was liv idel y lthe Legislature into 20 counties in lieu of the counties of St. C roix and La Pointe, which constituted the remainiug portions of the territories of Iowa and Wisconsin, of which Minesota was formed. The principal settlements are St. Paul, Stillwater, Mendota, Fort Snelling, Pembina, &c. ST. PAUL, the capital, is situated on the left bank of the Mississippi, 15 miles by water, and 8 miles by land, below the Falls of St. Anthony. The town is situated on a plateau terminating on the river in a precipitous bluff 80 feet elevation above the river. The bluff recedes from the river at the upper and lower ends of the town, forming two landings, from both of which the ascent is gradual. The first store or tradilg-house was built in 1842. In June, 1849, the town contained 142 houses, all of which, with the exception of perhaps a dozen, had been built within the year previous. This number included the Government House, three hotels, four warehouses, ten stores, several groceries, two printing-offices, (from which two newspapers are issued weekly,) several mechanics' shops, a school-house, &c. There was not a brick or stone house in the town. Since the period above mentioned, however, several churches and mtny durable houses, built of stone and brick, 52

Page  53 THE TERRITORY OF MINESOTA. from materials in the vicinity, have been erected. The population in June, 1850, was 1,112 St. Paul is well located for commerce; and from its being at the head of navigation below the Falls, must necessarily become not only the political, but the commercial capital of the territory. In the neighborhood of St. Paul there is an extensive settlement of Canadians, chiefly persons formerly employed by the Hudson Bay Company, called LITTLE CANADA. Population 600. STILLWATER is situated on the W. side of Lake St. Croix, near its head, on ground having a gentle ascent from the shore to a high bluff in the rear, which extends in the form of a crescent, and nearly encloses the town. The fist settlement was made in 1843. It contains a Court House, several hotels and stores, and many neat dwellings. Steamboats seldom ascend higher than this place. The environs consist of a beautiful prairie country, and are being rapidly brought under cultivation. Population in June, 1849, 609. MARINE MILLS is a flour ishing settlement on St. Croix river. a few miles above its entrance into the lake. The precinct contains about 200 inhabitants. Its water-power and the fine country which surrounds it must enforce its speedy increase and prosperity. Several villages on the Wisconsin side of the St. Croix river have been established, and are rapidly increasing in importance. Indeed, the resources of the vicinity on both sides are such as to ensure to the villages considerable commerce. FORT SNELLING is situated on the high rocky promontory, 106 feet above the water, at the confluence of St. Peter's river with the Missis sippi. The military works were commenced in 1819. The fort is in the form of a hexagon and surrounded by a stone wall. From the river its appearance is imposing and seemingly impregnable. It is, however, within the reach of cannon from higher ground: but the object for which the site was selected-the protection of the frontier from savage incursion-is well attained by its situation. The garrison usually con sists of three companies of dragoons. The view from these fortifica tions is extensive. The military reservation of the establishment em braces an area of 10 miles square, of which the fort is near the center The settlement in the neighborhood contains only about 40 inhabitants. In the fort there were 267 males and 50 feminales in June, 1849. MEN DOTA, or St. Peter's, on the W,. bank of the Mississippi, S. of the contfluence of St. Peter's river, has been occupied for several years by the American Fur Company as a depot for their trading establishments with the Indians of the north-west. Two stores and two or three houses constitute the village. It is, however, a fine town site; and b ing situated at the junction of two great rivers, and near the head of steam navigation, its importance in a commercial point of view has not been overlooked. Whites are not allowed to reside here without special permission from the U.S. government, the village being in the 5* 53

Page  54 WESTERN TERRITORIES. military reselwation. It will ultimately command the trade of the St Peter's river. Population in June, 1849, 122. So'ne other small villages exist in this neighborhcdd, but of their impottance or present state little is known. KAPOSIA, from its situation near the point of land opposite St. Paul, though yet little more than an Indian town, may ultimately become of consequence. ST. ANTHONY, at the Falls, and SATX RAPIDS, opposite the mouth of Osakis river, are both on the E. bank of the Mississippi; and higher up, on both sides of Nokay river, is FORT GAINEIS, the most northerly military establishment in the country. The supplying of these remote stations with provisions, &c., creates considerable traffic and travelling both by land and water. The return traffic consists of fums and peltry, with other Indian contributions. The territory of Minesota derives its name from Jlini-sotah, the Indian name for St. Peter's river; mini in their language meaning water," and sotak " muddy or slightly turbid." The country originally belonged to the French by priority of discovery. At an early period their traders, missionaries, and soldiers had penetrated into the western wildersess. The United States had little authority over this region until 1812. In 1816 a law of Congress excluded foreigners from the Indian trade; and for the encouragement of our citizens the military post at Fort Snelling was established in 1819. Among the explorers of this country the names of Carver, Pike, Cass, Long, Beltrami, Schooleraft, Nicollet, Owen, &c., will ever be intimately connected with its history. The honor of verifying the sources of the Mississippi belongs to Schoolcraft. The present territory was established by act of Congress, 3d March, 1849, and shortly after Alexander Ramsey was appointed Governor, and made St. Paul his capital, where the government was organized. "Congress may hereafter divide said territory, or annex any portion of it to another state or territory." THE WESTERN TERRITORY This territory comprises the remaining unorganized portion of Louislana, as purchased by the United States in 1803. It extends from the Nebraska or Platte river northward to the 49th parallel, and from White Earth and Missouri rivers westward to the Rocky Mountains. The territory has an area of 724,264 square miles. The greater part of this immense territory is watered by the Missouri river and its numerous tributaries. The Yellow Stone, the largest trib 54

Page  55 THE WESTER'N TERRITORY. utarv, extends its branches to the very base of the Rocky lountains, and to near the sources of the Nebraska. A mountain ridge, which branches from the great R,,cky MAountains, in about 4-20 N. lat., traverses the country in a N. E. direction towards Lake Winnmipeg. In the E. portion of the territory the country is partly covered with forests, but beyond this commences a vast ocean of prairie, almost level, and clothed in grass and flowers. Approaching the momuntains, however, the country gradually assumes a barren aspect. Countless droves of buffalo, elk and deer, range upon the vast plains, but even these are fast diminishing before the attacks of the hunter. In a country of such extent, generally level, naked, and open, the climate must in a great measure correspond to the latitude. Immediately on the borders of the settled states it is mild and temperate; beyond, it gradually becomes more extreme, and towards the mountains cold, bleak, and polar. Travellers speak of encountering storms of hail and sleet in the summer. When the winds blow from the W. over the mountain summits, the cold they occasion is intense. As yet the whole territory is inhabited by Indians, but the time is not far distant when the pioneer will penetrate its forests and prairies, and bring under cultivation the soil that from its creation has not been turned by the labor of man. The wild herds will be replaced by the ox, the horse, and the sheep, and golden crops will succeed the flowers and grasses that now only bloom in useless luxuriance, and wither with the first frosts of autumn, without contributing to the necessity or comfort of civilized man. 15 5

Page  56 56 ROUTES IN THE WESTERN STATES. Elizabethtown, Va....... 37 38, WHEELING, VA. 13 39 B'idgeport, 0. 1 39 — 7 VWarrenton, 0.......... 9 406 Wellsburg, Va............. 8 414 Steubenville, O............ 7 4'21 Wellsville, 0...........20 441 Liverpool, 0.......... 4 44. Geor-getown, Pa.......... 4 449 Beaver,Pa.................14 463 F. eedom, Pa........... 5 468 Economy, Pa.......... 6 474 Middletown, Pa............12 486 PITTSBURG, PA.......... 11 497 OHIO. (1) CINCIN.NATI tO PITTSBURG. Steamboat. Columbia, O............... 5 Little Miamni River, 0...... 2 7 New Richmond, O.........12 19 Point Pleasant, O........ 5 24 Moscow, O............... 4 28 MAlechanicsblrg, Ky........ 7 35 AUGUSTA, Ky.............7 42 Higginsport, O............. 4 46 Riplevy, 0.............. 6 52 Charleston, Ky......... 2 54 MAvISVILLE, Ky. 8 62~ Aberdeen. 0.8. Mallchester, 0..........12 74 Concord, Ky.............. 7 81 Rome, O......... —......-5 86 Vanceburg, Ky............ 7 93 Rockville, O............... 4 97 PORTSMOUTH, 0., (mouth of Scioto River)........16 113 Greenupsburg, Ky.........2 - 2' 135 Hanging Rock, 0......-. 6 141 Catlettsburg, Va...........14 155 Burlington, O0........... 4 159 Proctorsville, 0. 8 167 Guyandotte, Va..* —— 9 Millersport, O.............13 180 Gallipolis, O.............. 24 204 Point Pleasant, Va., (mouth of Gr-eat Kanawha River) 4 208 Coalport, 0. 12 20 Sheffield, O. hipgs-*.......2 Pomeroy, O0............... 1 221 Letartsville, 0............15 236 Ravensvood, Va.........22 258 Hockingsport, 0.........21 279 Blennerhassett's Island..... 11 290 Belpre,.... 2 292. Parkersburg,Va. I * —MARIETTA O., (mouth of Muskingum River)......13 305 Newport, 0... -...... -.. 17 322 Sisterville, Va.............25 347 (2) CINCINNATL to ST. LorJis. To North Bend, 0.......... 16 Great Kliami River, O.. — 4 20 Lawrenceburg, Ia.......... 2 22 Aurora, Ia............ 5 27 Belleview, Ky............. 6 33 Rising Su, Ia............. 3 36 Hamilton, Ky............11 47 Patiot, Ia v..... F............ 2 49 Warsaw, Ky...............10 59 Vevay, Ia.................10 69 Mouth of Kentuicky Riv.,Ky.10 79 MADISO, IA. -- - * - - -- -.....12 91 New London, Ia........... 9 100 Westport, Ky..-.. —-15 115 Utica, Ia............ 16 131 Jeffersonville, Ky.......... 8 139 LOUISVILLE, KY............ 1 140 Shippi~ngspot, Ky......... 2 142 New Albany~la. 1 143 Portland, Ky. 5 *West Point, Ky............20 163 Brandenburg, Ky.........17 180 Mauckport, Ia............. 1 181 Northampton, Ia........... 7 188 Amsterdam, ia............ 3 19i Leavensworth, Ia.......... 8 199 Fredonia, Ia............. 4 203 Alton, fa............. 13 216 Concordia, Ky.....-.10 226

Page  57 ROUTES IN OHIO. Brookville........ 8 40 Metamora........ 7 47 0 Laurel.................. 5 52 Andersoniville........... 6 58 New Salem............... 4 62 L6 Rushville........7......7 69 Beech Grove............ 7 76 Morristown............... 7 83 Kinder................ 6 89 Sugar Creek............5 94 INDIANAPOLIS...........15 109 (5) CINCINNATI to ST. Louis. Stag, e. To Indianapolis, (see 8)... 109 ST. Louis, (see 86).......239 348 Stevensport, Ky. 11 237 Rome, Ia. EvANSILLE,Ia.......... 2 Cloversport, Ky...........10 247 Carmelton, Ia............ 13 260 Troy, Iav............34. (e6 2 66 Lewisport, Ky.............6 272 Rockport, Ia..............12 284 Owensburg, Ky............ 9 293 Enterprise, Ia........1.- --- 6 299 N e wburg, Ia.............. 15 314 Green River, Ky........... 6 320 EVANSVILLEt Ia............ 8 3.28 Hendersonville, Ky............. 10 338 Mount Vernon, I a............26 364 Uniontown, Ky............. 15 379 Wabash River............ 5 384 Raleigh, Ky............... 390 Shawneetown, Ill.......... 5 395 Caseyville, Ky............. 9 404 Cave in Rock, Ill P*........... 13 417 Elizabethtown, Ill - 4........... 424 Golconda, Ill..............12 436 SmithlaMnd, Ky., (m ou th of Cumberlan d River)........ 8 454 Paducah, Ky., (mouth of Tennessee River)........ 15 469 Belgi lade, Ill.............. 6 475 Fort Massac, Il............ 3 478 Caeledoinia, Ill............. 24 502 Trinity, Ill...... —-- 9 511 CAIRO, ILL., (mouth of Ohio River)................ 5 516 Commerce, Mo.............28 544 Cape Girardeau, MAo.... 12 556 BaiSTb idge, Mo............ 12 568 Chester, Ill.................45 613 St. Genievieve, Mo. -.........16 629 Selma, Mlo............25 654 ITerculaneum, Mo.......... 4 658 Harrisonville, Ill........... 2 660 Jefferson Barracks, Mo..... 19 679 ST. LoUis, Mo............. 9 688 (6) CINCINNATI to PITTSBITRG. Sta2'e via Steubenville. To Columbus, (see 14)....127 Zanesville, (see 15)........5.F6 183 Camnbridge, (see 15).......24 207 Winchester.............. 9 216 Antrim.................. 5 22l Londonderry.............. 3 224 Smyrna................ 4 228 Moorefield................ 4 232 Cadiz.........-..........13 245 Greene.................. -8 253 Bloomingdale......... 3 256 Wintersville..............10 266 STEUBENVILLE,............ 5 271 Holliday's Cove......... -.. 3 274 4 278 Florence............ 5 283 Bavington................ 4 287 North Star 3 290 Fayette....... ——. 6 296 PITTSBUIRG.... —.........13 309 (7) CINCINNATI to WHEELING, VA. Stage. To C o lNumbus, (see 14).... 1!27 WHEELING, VA., (see 15).130 257 (3) CINCINNATI to N. ORLEANS. To Cairo, (mouth of Ohio River,) [see 2]........ 516 NEw' ORLEANS......... 1040 1556 (4) CINCINNATI to INDIANAPOL IS. To Cheviot................ 7 AMiami........ 6 13 Clark's Store........ 4 17 Harrison........ 4 21 New Trenton, Ia.......... 6 27 C~edar Grove.............. 5 32 (8) CINCINNATI to SANDUSKY CITY. Little Miami R. R. To Colulmnbia................... 5 Plainville................. 4 9 Milford................. 5 14 Gernany................. 2 16 Polktown................ 2 18 Loveland's................ 2 20 57

Page  58 ROUTES IN OItIO. Foster's........ 6 26 Deerfield.............. 4 30 Morrow........ —-... - 5 35 Fort Ancient............ 4 39 Freeport............... 3 42 Waynesville.............5 47 Claysville............... 4 51 Spring Valley........... 7 58 Xenia............. 7 65 Yellow Springs...........10 75 SPRINGFIELD..............10 85 Mad River and Lake Erie R. R. Urbana 9................14 99 WVestLiberty.............l0 109 Bellefontaine.............. 8 117 Huntsville................ 7 124 Richland.................. 3 127 Bell Centre.............. 2 129 Kenton................ 12 141 Paterson...............11152 Cary..................13 165 Oregon.................5 170 Tiffin..................11 1 l81 Republic...............9 190 Lodi..................5 195 Bellevue................ 9 204 SANDUSKY CITY..........15 219 (9) CINCINNATI to DAYTON. Via Lebanon. To Reading...............10 Sharonville............... 3 13 Pisgah................. 5 18 Mason................. 6 24 Lebanon................ 8 32 Ridgeville.............. 7 39 Centreville.............. 6 45 DAYTON.......... - -...... 9 54 (10) CINCINNATI to DAYTON. Via Franklin. To Reading............10 Sharon ville.............3 13 West Chester...........5 18 Bethany...............4 22 Monroe.................4 26 Franklin...............10 36 Miamisburg..............6 42 Alexandersville.......... 4 46 DTON............... 8 54 (11) CINCINNATI to CHILLICOTHE. To Fulton................. 4 Plainville..............4 8 Milford.................5 13 Perrin's Mills........... 5 18 Marathon................. 9 27 Fayetteville............... 8 35 Allensburg...............8 43 Hillsboro'................10 53 Rainsboro'............10 63 Bainbridge................ 8 71 Bolurneville...............11 82 CHILLICOTHE........... 13 95 (12) CINCINNATI to ZANESVILLE. To Walnut Hillss........... 3 Pleasant Ridge.......... 5 8 Montgomery..........5 13 Twenty Mile Stand....... 7 20 Hopkinsville............ 4 24 Morrow............. 3 27 Rochester................ 4 31 Clarksville................ 7 38 Wilmington..............1048 Sabino..............*.-.*10 58 Washington Court House..12 70 New Holland.............-10 80 Williamsport.............8 88 Circleville.............9 97 Amanda............ 12 109 LANCASTER............... 9 118 Rushville............-... 9 127 Somerset...... 8 135 Fultonham......10 145 Putnam........10 155 ZANSSVILLE....... —-—. 1 156 (13) CINCINNATI to EATON. To Carthage............. 6 Springdale................ 7 13 Hamilton..10 23 Rossville. 1 24 Collinsville. 8 32 Somerville. 4 36 Camden.................. 5 41 EATON. 8 49 (14) CINCINNATI to SIDNEY. To Carthage. 6 Sprindale............... 7 13 Hamilton..........l......10 23 Trenton..................10 33 Middletown.............;.4 37 Franklin..................6 43 Miamisburg. 6 49 Alexandersvill e 4 53 DAYTON 8 61 West Charleston 10 71 Troy 11 82 Piqua.................... 7 89 SIDNEY.........:........1 3 102 58

Page  59 ROLUT'ES IN OtIIO.5 Lewisville............. 8 134 Knightstown.............10 144 Charlotteville............. 5 149 Kinnard................ 4 153 Greenfield............. 4 157 Philadelphia.............. 5 162 Cumberland............-5 167 INDIANAPOLIS.............10 177 (15) CINCINNATI to COLUMBVS. To Nenia, (see 8)...... 65 Columbus and Xenia R. R. Cedarville................ 8 73 South Charleston......... 11 84 London............... 11'95 West Jefferson........... 10 105 ,OLUMBUSS................14 119 (16) COLUMBUS to WHEELING, VA. Central Ohio R. R. Black Lick......... 11....... Pataslkala...... —-. —-- 6 17 Summit...... -. —-.. 5 22 Union.... —-—. —-- 4 26 NEWAP..........*.*.. 7 33 Clay Lick..*.-.-.-.-.-...-.6 89 Rlockdale.........-..... 2 41 Blaelc Iland.............. -5 46 Claypool Mill............. 4 50 Pleasant Valley...2 52 Dillons Falls ----- ------ 4 56 ZA.NESVILLE........ 3 59 (18) COLUMBUS to LOWER SA.N DUSKY. To Clintonville............ 4 Worthington............ 5 9 Williamsville............ 6 15 Delaware..............9 24 N8Norton................10 34 Waldo.................6 40 Marion................ 3 43 Little Sandusky.........12 55 Upper Sandusky.........7 62 Tymochtee............ 8 70 McCutchinville..........3 73 TIFFIN................11 84 Fort Seneca............. - 8 92 LOWER SANDUSKY.......10 102 (19) COLUMBUS to S.ANDUSKY CITY. Cin., Cleveland and Col. R. R. To Worthington.......... 9 Delaware.............. 14 23 Cardington.............17 40 Iberia...................12 52 Galion................. 7 59 Crestline............... 3 62 (17) COLUMBUS to INDIANAPOLIS, SHELBY..I.............11 73 IA..Mansfield and Sandusky R. R. To Alton....; -.....-. —..-.9 Plymouth..............9 82 West Jefferson —....... 5 14 New Haven............. 2 84 La Fayette..........-..... 8 22 Centreville................ 6 90 Siiilnerford............ 5 27 Havana............... 4 94 Vielnna................ 5 32 Pontiac................ 4 98 Springfield.............10 42 Monroeville............4 102 Eno...... —............7 49 Ladd's................ 8 110 Fairfield.................. 7 56 SANDUSKY................118 7'56 ~~~8 118 DATON................11 67 ~Libe ty..'''7 74 (20) COLUMBUS to PORTSMOUTH. edill...............7 81 West Alexandria.......... 6 87 To South Bloomfield..... 17 Eaton.................6 93 Circleville.............. 9 26 New Westerville.......... 10 103 CHILLICOTHE.............. 21 47 Richmond, Ia. 6 109 Waverly..............15 62 Centreville..............6 115 Piketon................ 4 66 Cambridge...........-....9 124 Lucasville.............14 80 Dublin................2 126 PORTSMOUTH...........1 92 59

Page  60 ROUTES IN OHIO. (21) CLEVELAND to COLUMBUTS. Waterford................ 2 47 Via Cin., Clevesland and Col. R. R. Lowell...... 6.......... MARIETTA...............12 68 To Rockport............ 7 Berea.................. 5 12 (25) ZANESVILLE to WOOSTER. Olmstead.............. 3 15 ToDresden............15 Eaton.................. 7 22 Adam's Mills............3 18 Grafton................ 3 2.25 Roscoe................12 30 La Grange —.............. 4 29 Coshocton..............1 31 Pittsfield................ 4 33 Keene's.............. 7 38 WVellington - - -.............. 3 36 Clark's................. 8 46 llochester.......... 5 41 Millersburg............. 8 54 New London...........- 6 47 Holmnesville...............6 60 Greenwich.............. 7 54 Fredericksburg.......... 5 65 SHELBY............... 13 67 WOOSTER.............10 75 Crestline.............. 11 78 Galion *................. 3 81 (26) WOOSTER to WARREN. Iberia................. 7 88 To Smithville............. 8 Cardington.............12 100 Marshallville.......... —6 14 Delawvare.......17 117 Chippewa........ -.. — -. 6 20 Worthington........... 14 131 New Portage.............. 6 26 COLUVBUS.......... 9 140 ARON................ 9 35 (22) COLUMBsUS TO LANCASTER. iddlebry2 37 Tallmadge............... 3 40 To Grove Port............12 Brimfield.............. 5 45 Lithopolis.............. 5 17 Franklin Mlills........... 5 50 Green Castle............5 22 RAVE NNA.............. 6 56 LANCASTER............... 7 229 Charlestown * —-* 5 61 Chaietow..........5 66 (23) ZANESVILLE to MAYSVILLE, 1 Parivle 5 6 Kvy' Newton Falls........... 5 71 1 WARREN,............... 8 79 To Pultnam........... 1 Ftiltonham.............10 11 (27) LANCASTER to MT. VERNON, Somerset.................10 21 To Pleasantville 9 Rushville...... —-* —-— 8 29 New Salem.............4 13 Lancaster............... 9 38 Thornville................ 5 18 Clear Creek.............8 46 Jacksontown.............. 4 22 Tarleton-............... 8 54 Newark.................. 30 Kingston...............96Neak.......... 30 CHiLLICTHE.....9 7-3 St. Louisville............8 38 CHILLICOTHE............. 44 Utica.4 42 Bourneville *..............13 86 omer 5 47 Bainbridge............. —-11 97 M 47 Rainsboro'....... 8 105......... 8 81iMOUNT VERNON.-..........1 58 Hillsboro'..............10115 (28) CHILLICOTHE to PT. PLEASNew Market....... 6121 ANT, KY. Sugar-tree Ridge......... 7 ]28 To Richmond Dale....- 16 Scott.................. 7135 Jackson......15 31 Bentonville.. —..........10 145 Rocky Hill................ 8 39 Aberdeen..............10 155 Thurman............... 6 45 MAYSVILLE, KY............ 1 156 Rio Grande............ 6 51 (24) ZANESVILLE to MARIETTA. Gallipolis.............. - 11 62 ( POINT PLEASANT.........6 68 To Blue Rock........... 11 Rokeby................ 8 19 (29) CHILLICOTHE to MARIETTA. McConnellsville..........8 27 ToGillespieville..........15 Beverly................ 18 45 Allensville 2.............12 2 60

Page  61 l)un)arLoi!................ Duinkinsville............ 5 56 WVEST UNION...........5 61 Aberdeen.............17 78 MIAYSVILLE............. 1 79 (3]) VELLSVILLE to ASHTABUL A. To West Poir4t - - - - 5. 7 New Lisbon.............. 7 14 Franklin Squae........... 5 19 Salem.............. 5 24 Greenford................ 5 259 Canfield................5 34 Orallge...................7 41 Ohls Town............. 4 45 oVariret.............6 51 Bristolville................62 North Bloomfiell.......... 5 67 Orwell................... 6 73 Rome..................5 78 Morgan.................. 4 82 Eagleville...... 5 87 Jefferson.......-...4 91 ASIIT.BULA....... -.-... 9 100 (32) PAI',ESVILLE to CANTON. To Concord............... 4 Chardon............. 7 11 Munson....... 4 15 Newbury................. 7 22 Auburn.......3 25 antua.............. 6 31 Shalersville............... 5 36 RAV,.NNA...... 6 42 Rootstown...... 5 47 landolph...... 5 52 Hartville...- 6 58 CLNTON... -....... 11 69 VA. Via Wooster. To Ohio City.............. 1 Brooklyn................ 3 4 Parma................ 3 7 StroSongville............. 8 15 Brunswick................ 6 21 AlMedina................ 8 29 Guilford.............. 9 38 Old Hickoiy.............. 4 42 WOOSTER................I 10 52 Apple Creek..............7 6 58 Mount Eaton.............. 9 67 Deardoff's MAills........... 9 76 Strasbuig................ 3 79 Canal Dover.............. 5 84 New Philadelphia. 3 87 Uhricksv ille 9 96 Deersville 11107 Cadiz...........12 21i9 Short Creek,.............. 6 125 Harrisville.............. 128 Mount Pleasa t........... 5133 ( PColeraine. -.......... C. 5 138 Mlartin's Ferry.......... 5 143 WHEELING, VA............ 1 144 6 (35) CLFVELA.ND to WELLSVILLE. Cleveland and Pittsbur, R. R. To Newburgh. -.. - -.. - -.. - 8 Gravel Bank -.. - - - -.. - -.. - Bedford... - -.. - -.. - -.. - -.. 6 14 Macedonia -.. - -.. - -.. - -.. - 6 20 Hudson.... -... - -.. - - - -.. - 6 26 Earlville -.. - -.. -.. -.. - -.. - 6 32

Page  62 ROUTES IN OHIO. (37) CLEVELAND to BUFFALO, N.Y. Steamboat. To Fairport...............30 Ashtabula................33 63 Conneaut................14 77 Erie, Pa................30 107 Dunkirk, N. Y.............48 155 BUFFALO............43 198 (38) CLEVELAND to TOLEDO. To Ohio City........ 1 Rockport............ 7 8 Dover................5 13 North Ridgeville........7 20 ELYRIA...............4 24 Amherst............ 8.. 32 Henrietta.............. 3 35 Birmingham............ 3 38 Florence...............3 41 Berlinville............. 4 45 Milan.................8 53 Norwalk............... 4 57 Monroesville.............. 4 6t Four Corners.............. 3 64 Lyme....................3 67 Bellevue............... 3 70 Green Creek..............10 80 LOWER SANDUSKY.......8 88 Black Swamp............. 8 96 Woodville................ 7 103 Stony Ridge............7 110 Perrysburg...-.......... 9 119 Maumnee City..............1 120 TOLEDO.................10 130 (39) CLEVELAND to WARREN.. TO Warrelisville. 8 Barry................... 5 13 Chagrin Falls...........7 20 Bridge Creek...........7 27 Auburn -......... 3 30 Welshfield................ 3 33 Parkman..............4 37 Nelson................... 414 Garrettsville........ 3 44 Windham................ 3 47 Braceille................5 52 WARREN.........7 59 Ravenna............ 6 Rootstown.............5 5 Atwater.......... 6........ 6 Lima............ 4 Alliance................. 5 Winchester.............. 5 Moultrie............ 3 Bayard............ 3 Rochester............ 1 Hanover...........;..; 5 Brush Run............. 6 Salineville............. 5 Steubenville Road......... 5 Hammonds............ 3 Yellow Cr............. 3 WELLSVILLE-......... 2 36) CLEVELAND to BUFFALO, N.Y. Clev eland and Erie B. R. To,uclid.. v....... 9 WVickliffe................. 5 14 Willouglhby............ 4 18 Ateintor e................ 5 23 Painesville................ 6 29 'erry..................... 6 35 Aadlison.............. 5 40 Uionville. 2............... 2 42 G eneva............... 3 45 Savbrook............ 5 5 0 Ashltabtila...... 4 54 Kingsville........... 6 60 Coniieaut...... 8 68 Springfield...... T 75 Girard........... 5 80 Fairview............... 5 85 SwN,anv-ille...... 3 88 E1.IE...... * —.-* —-*-..- 7 95 E,~ie and Xort? East R. R. Harbor Creek.........7 102 North East.......... 108 State Line......... - --- 4 114 BMbffalo cand State Line B. R. Quincy...... - 4118 Westfield................. 8 126 Centerville................ 6 132 DUN'KIRK........,.........[0 142 Silver Creek.............10 152 Lagrange -.........-.... 2 154 Evans Center............ 7 161 18 Mile Creek............. 7 168 Rodgers Road............. 5 1T3 BUFFALO.................. 10 183 (40) BUCYRUS to MANS~I]LD. To Galion....... -.... II11 Riblett's............ 5 16 Ontario...............4 20 MaNs'D............. 7 27 62 38 43 49 53 58 63 66 69 70 75 81 86 91 94 97 99

Page  63 ROUTES IN OHIO. (41) SANDUSKY to CINCINNATI. Ankeneytown................. 5 81 Fredericton............... 5 86 Mad River and Lake Erie R. Rn.MONT RNON.........6 92 MOUNT VERNON......6 92 TO Bellevue.......15 Hunt's................. 6 98 Lodi. 9 24 Gambier............... 3 101 Republic -............... 5 29 Utica................. 4 105 Tiffln................. 9 38 St. Louisville............. 4 109 Oregon --—...-1............11 49 Newton................3 112 Ca *****5..................... 54 NRWAR............... 5 117 Paterson...............13 67 *Connects with the Cin. Clevo K(enton - - -- - -- - -.................. 78 landand Col. R. R. Bell Centre........12 90 RBell Centre -*... *-.. 12 90!To Columbus, (seel19,) 73 miles. Richland.........29. ihuntvlleand. —.-. —.-. —2 3952 Cleveland, (see 21,) 67 miles. Bellefontaine -.-............ 7 1U'21 Bellefontaine...........7 102 t Ohio and Penn. to cross here. WVest Liberty...........8 110 (43) SANDUSKY to CHICAGO, ILL. Urbana.................10 120 T SUrbana OFI -...... 10 120 4 To Amherstburg, C. W....52 SPRINGFIELD.. -TOIT, MICH.... —-.......20 72 Little Miami R. R. Fort Gratiot............70 142 Yellow Springs......... 10 144 Point au Barques........85 227 Xenia................10 154 Thundler Bay............. -...70 297 Spring Valley............. 7 161 Presque Island.........80 377 Claysville................. 7 168 Mackinaw.. -............65 442 Wavynesville..............4 1720 Beaver Islands............50 492 Freeport.................. 5 177 Manitou Islands.........45 537 Fort Ancient.............. 3 180 MILWAUKEE, WIS-......150 687 Morrow............... 4184 Racine..........25 712 Deerfield................. 5 189 Southport - - -—...13 725 Foster's -............... 4 193 CHICAGO * -—. —-57 782 Loveland's........ - -... 6 199 S Polktown................. 2' 01 BUFFAL, N.Y. Germany...............2 203 To Huron.............14 Milford................2 205 CLEVELAND...............45 59 Plainville............ 5 210 Fairport...-...... —- -.30 89 Columbia................. 4 214 Ashtabula.............33 122 C,NCINNATI............. 5 219 Conneaut *. ***.-**14 136 Erie, Pa............ 30 166 (42) SANDUSKY to NEWARK. Dunkirk, N. Y...........48 214 Mansfield and Sandusky R. R. BUFFALO *. - *.43 257 To Ladd's................8 (45) BUFFALO, N.Y. to N. YORK. Monroeville........... 8 16 Pontiac................ 4 20 dttica and Buffalo R. R. Havana.................. - 4 24 To Lancaster.............10 Centreville *....... — 4 28 Alden -..............- 10 20 New Haven............ 6 34 Darien.............-.. -5 25 Plymouth.............. 2 36 ATTICA................ 6 31 Shelby*............... Tnawanda. B. Spring Mil l.............. 51 MANSFIELDt............. 5 56 Alexander................ 3 34 Batavia................. 8 42 Coliumbus and Lake Erie B. R. Byron................. 7 49 Lexington.............. 9 65 Bergen................7 56 Belville................ 5 70 Churchville............4 60 Independence............. 6 76 ROCHESTER............. 14 74 63

Page  64 ~ 162 Andov-er...........- 9 110 Baker's Bridge........... 8 118 Alniond................ 4 122 HORNELLSVILLE.........5 127 Canister................ 5 132 Cameron..............13 145 Rathboneville........... - 7 1.52 C6 Addison................5 157 Painted Post..10 167 O32CORNING. —---.*...*. * 2 169 Blossburg, Pa........B - 40 Big Flats -.....-....-... 8 177 Juintion...............7 o.6 183 ELMIRA................ 5 188 Mlillport.............12 Jefferson............... 9 We]lsbturg..... 7 195 Cheinmug............... 6 201 Factoryville............. 4 205 Barton................. 7 212 Smithboro'............. 2 214 Tioga Centre............. 4 218 OWEGO-............. - -......6 224 Campville -..............7 231 Union —-.............. 6 237 BINGHAMTON... —- 9 246 rindsor -....... -..2 - 5 251 Great Bend 9 260 Lanesboro.............. 9 269 Gulf Summit * —-... - 8 277 Deposit-...-.-.. 8 285 Chehocton..............13 298 Stockport................ 4 302 Equinunk................ 6 308 Hankins....- —.........11 319 Calicoon..................7 326 Verona Cenire - 4208Blossbur6.........]2 CamWiluso.... —.........4 8 170 Gtd(Ies *. —.-.......-.... -6 176 SYRICS.........*.......3 2 178 Syracuse e,i UJtica R. R. AM~ntitis......... -.-......I1O 188 Chittenango....... 4 192 Canastota...... 6 198 VaEnpsville 3.............. 3 201 Oneida Dap............. 3 204 Verona Centre...... 4 208 RoNIE.................... 9 217 Oriskany...... 7 224 Whlitesborol...... 4 228 UTICA..............-. —. 3 231 Utica and Schenzectady R. R. Schuvler................. 8 239 Alerkimer.... ——.7 246 .Little Falls -... 6 252 Zt. Johnsville -............10 262 -Palatine Church... 3 265 Fort Plain... 3 268 Palatine Bridge...... 3 271 ~praker's.......... —-..... 33 274 3274 nda............-.....-. — 8 282 Tribes Hill.........: -..... 6 288 A~msterdam.... 5 293 fanesville................ 4 297 Hoffman's................. 3 300 SCHENECTADY............ 9 309 .Mohawkc and Hudson R. R. ALBANY...... -...-...-.16 325 Steamboat. N'cw YoqK....* -....145 470

Page  65 ROUTES IN OHIO. Cohecton............. 5 831 Tunnelton............. 6 119 Narrowsburg............ 8 839 Rolesbury.............. 7 126 Mast Hope............ 6 345 Cr. Summit............. 9 187 Lackawaxen............ 6 851 Oakland...............10 147 Barryville.............. 4 355 Altamount................ 9 156 Pond Eddy............. 7 362 Frankville.............. 7 163 Stairway Brook........... 2 34 Bloomington......... 8 171 PORT JERVS............ 9 878 Piedmont............. 2 178 Shin Hollow............. 6 879 New C reek.............5 1t8 Otisville.......-.........7 886 Rawlin's Sta............10 188 Howell's............... 5 391 Brady's Mill.............. 6 194 Middlletown............... 3 394 CUMRL BERLAND............7 201 New IHampton...........- 8 897 Patterson's Creek...... 8 209 GOSEx......... --....... 4 401 Green Spring Run......... 6 215 Chester................... 5406 Little Cacapon........... - 7 222 Oxford............. -..... 3 409 No. 12 Water Station...... 7 229 Monroe................... 2411 Rockwells Run...........11 240 Turner's............. —..... 414.............................4 7 247 WVilkes'....3............. 417 Sir John's Run.........4251 Mollroe Works..........3.. 420 Hancock........... 5 256 S!oatsbur................ 6 426 Cherry Run..............10 26 Ramnapo Works --- -. I 427 N. MOUtain..... 6 272 Sufferils........ -..... 2 429 Martinsburgc.............. 6 278 Monsey........... 5 434 Kearneysville..... 9 287 Spring Valley 2........2 436 Du..... D5 292 Clarkstown.......-....... 2 438 HARPER'S FERRY.......... 6 298 Blauveltville.............. 4 442 Sandy Hook............ 1 299 Piermont, (town).......... 4 446 Belin.................... 5 804 PliR,MON-T, (pier).........1 447 Point of Rocks........ 6 81t0 Steam,boat. Buckeystone............ 7 317 NEW YORK............24 471 Monocacy................4 321 Ijamsville................5 326 (47) WIIEeLInG, A., to BALTI- Monrvi............ 4 330 MORE, PIIILADELPIItA, & N. YORK. Plane No. 4............. 4 334 BBaltimore anc Othio R. R. Mount Airy............... 2 836 To Moundsville..........11 Plane No. 1............. 3 339 Roseby'sRk............. I Gaithers................8 347 Camueron..............10 28 Sykesville................ 1 348 Welling Tunnel..........2 30 MIrriottsville............. 4 352 Bellton............ 6 36 Woodstock.............3 355 Br'd Tree.............. 339 Elysville.................. 4 359 Littleton............... 42 Ellicott's Mill............ 6 365 Burton................ 7 49 Relay House.............. 6 371 Glover's Gap............4 53 Mount Clare............7 37S Mlanningfton..........7 T60 BALTIMORE.............2 380 Farmington.............7. 67 Barrackville.............. 72 Philadell)hia, Wilmingto, anod Barrackvin't~lole 5 72 PtladeBaltimorae R. R. FAIRMOUNT.-............5 77 Benton's Ferry............ 4 81 Canton................... 3 3883 Nazum's Mills............. 89 Stemmer's Run............ 7 390 Valley Falls............... 2 91 Chase's................. 6 396 Fetterman.............. 6 97 Gunpowder............. 4 400 Thornton.............. 105 Perryman's....... 8 408 Independence............. 6 111 Hall's Cross Roads....... - - -4 412 Simpson's................ 2 113 Havre de Grace............. 5 417 6* 65

Page  66 66 ROUTES IN OHIO-MICHIGAN. Cecil.................... 1 418 Spruce Creek............18 146 Charlestown 423.............5 423 Petersburg.............. 6 152 North East..............3 426 ITHUNTINGTON................ 7 159 Elktown.... 6 432 Mil.........Milre.... *... 5 164 Newarik Del.......6 438 /.ount Union.. —6 170 Stanton...................6 444 Hamilton 3................. 173 Newnport..... —..... -2 446 McVeytown............10 183 WILIINGTO.............. 4 450 Andersons............... 5 188 Naaman's Creek........... 8 458 L ewiston........ 7 195 Marcus' Hook, Pa.......... - 2 460 Mifflintown...............12 20T Chester.............. 3 463 Perryville................, 210 Lazaretto........... 4 467 Tuscarora.. 6 216 Gray's Ferry........... 7 474 Millerstown.. 7 223 PIIILADELPHIA............. 3 477 Newport..............6.... 229 PPhiladelphia andl Trenton R. R. Baileys................... 4 233 Philadelphia Depot....... 247 9 Aqueduct................. 5 238 Tac ony................... 7 4 86 Duncannon..............3 241 Cornwell's................ 5 491 Rockville.........-......9 250 Andalusia.............. 2 493 HARRISBURG.............6 256 Bristol...................4 497 Harrisbu,-g and Laiacaster R. R. Morrisvill e................9 506 High Spire.......... --....- 6 262 New Bratnzswick & Trenton R. R. Middletown........*.. 4 266 TRENTON............. I 507 Elizabethlitown............. 9 275 Princeton.............. 10 517 Mount Joy................ 6 2S1 Kingston................ 4 521 Dillerville..............11 292 Dean's Pond.............4 525 LANCASTER............... 1 293 NEW BRUN.-SWICK......... 9 534 Colimbia d& Philadelphia R. R. Xew Jersey R. R. Enterprise.............. 7 300 Metuchin............... 5 539 Paradise 3.. 8 0.03 Rahway...7............. 7546 Kinzies.. 4 307 Elizabethtown........... 6 552 Penningtonville.......... 7 314 NEWARK......... 5 57 Parkesbur........... 3 317 Jersey City.............. 8 565 Coatesville............. 5 322 Steamboat. D ow ning ton 7 329 NEW YORK......... 1 566 Whiteland................ 4 333 Paoli.... 6 339 (48) PITTSBURr to PIILAIELPIIA. Westchester Turnout...... 3 342 Penn. Central R.. Morgan's Corner......... 7 349 To Liberty.......-.......... White Hall..... 3 352 Irwin's.... - -............... Head of Inclined Plane... 7 359 Radebaugh s............... PI IILADELPIA...........4 363 Latrobe................... 40 Derry............. 9 49 Blairsville Junction....... 9 58 Lockport............... 7 65 MICHIGAN. New Florence. -............ 5 70 (49) DETROIT to NEw BUFFALO. Ninevah...... -.......... 5 75 Johnstown.......-...... 10 85 Central Railroad. Conemaugh............... 2 87 To Dearbornville..........10 Half Way House.........8 95 Wayne..-...............7 17 Jefferson................ 4 99 Ypsilanti..-..-...........12 29 Sumrit.... --- -....10 109 Geddes' Mills............. 4 3388 HOLLIDAYSBURG.............10 119 AN ARBOR............. 4 37 Altoona....... 612 Delhi........ 6-...6 43 Fastoria............ 8133 Sio...................2 45

Page  67 ROUTES IN MICHIGAN. Dexter................2 47 1 (53) DETROIT to PORT HURON. Davison's....- -.......... 9 56 To Roseville.............. 9 Franciscoville............ 662 Mount Clemen s...........3 1 3 22 Grass Lake..............- 3 65 New Haven.............7 29 Leoni............-..... 3 68 Columbus.................11 40 JACKSON.................. 7 75 St. Clair................1 1 51 Barry.................. 5 80 PORT HURON - - -............ 12 63 Gidley's Station.......... 5 85 Gidley S 585 ~~~(54) DETROIT tO PONTIAC. Albion... - - - - - - - - - 11 96 (54) DETROIT to PONTIAC. Marengo............... 7 103 Detroit and Pontiac R. R. Marshall....6............ 109 To Royal Oak.............12 Ceresco................ 5114.Birmingham............6 18 Battle Creek............- 8122 PONTIAC................. 7 25 Charleston.............10 132 (55) DETROIT to SAGINAW. Galesburg............. 4136 (55) DETROIT to SAGINAW. Comstock.-........... 4 140 To Pontiac, (see 54)......25 KALAMAZOO 4............4144 Waterford.............. 5 30 Paw Paw Station........16 160 Austin............... 333 Decatur............... 8 168 Clarkson............... 336 Dowagiac.................10 178 Springfield................ 339 Pokagon.................6 184 Groveland..............7 46 Niles..................... 7 191 Stony Run................ 5 51 Buchanan.............. 5 196 Grand Blanc.............. 4 55 Terre Coupee............ 6 202 FLINT... -.............. 863 New Buffalo..............16 218 Genesee.................. 4 67 MICIIIGAN CITY...........10 228 Thetford.............. 7 74 Porter....................12 240 Bridgeport.............13 87 Lake.....................8 248 SAGINAW ----—............. —---.11 98 Gibson's...............210 258 Junction..................10 268 (56) PONTIAC to OWASSO. 3 Mile Side Track......... To Waterford Centre.....5 CIIICAGO..................10 278 East White Lake.........5 10 White Lake............ 4 14 Rose.................. 6 20 Fentonville....... 8 28 Argentine..............9 37 (51) DETROIT to LANSING. Byron................. 5 42 Vernon................6 48 To Redford............15 Shiawasse................ 5 53 Livonia.................. 3 18 Corunna.................. 558 Farmington ---—.4 22 OWASSO............... 4 62 Novi..................5 27 Kensington............-10 37 (57) MONRoE to CHICAGO, ILL. Brighton.................7 44 Va~a~r aisd Brighton.... 7 44 Via Southern Railroad. Genoa*-*-. —-- 49 To Id................12 Howell-...-. 5.. 654 Petersburg.............. 820 Cedar................ 7 Deerfield............ 4 24 ~~~~424 Conway 6............... *** 7ADRIAN*................4 38 Phelpstown 9 76 4o............... Williamstlown............7 83 Hudson6 55 LANSING...........7 90........ 67 ADRISAN*...............7. (2DTRItoLANSING onsie................. 779 (52) DETROIT to LANSING. To Jackson, (see 49)......77 LANSING, (see 64).......40 117 67,

Page  68 ROUTES IN MICHIIIGAN. GRAND RAPIDS...........l 75 Grandville............. 7 82 Tallmadge................10 92 Crockery Creek............ 8 100 GRAND HAVEN............ 9 109 .(62) LANSING to DEXTER. To Delhi Centre........... 7 Alaiedon..............4 11 A E. 1 Mason................. 4 15 Ingham i....... 9............9 24 Stockbridge............... 9 33 Unadilla............... 6 39 DEXTER..............1352 (63) LANSING to PONTIAC. To Williamstown......... 7 Phelpstown........... 7 14 Conway............... 9 23 Cedar.................6 29 an3 HOWELL............... 7 36 Osceola Centre............ 5 41 Hartl and............... 5 46 Highland.................7 53 ..3 Milford................ 4 57 Commerce............... 6 63 Waterford Centre......... 5 68 PONTIAC.....5 73 (64) LANSING to JACKSON. To Delhi Centre........... 7 Alaiedon.............. 5 12 Mason........... 4 16 wden L........... e.......... 5 21 552 Aurelius...............5 26 West Rives............... 5 31 JACKSON.............. 9 40 (65) JACKSON to TOLEDO, O. To Michigan Centre....... 5 Napoleon..............6 11 Norvell................ 4 15 tElba.............3..5El...3 18 Manchester.............. 4 22 Clinton................7 29 Tecumseh.............. 5 34 Raisin................. 6 40 ADRIAN................. 4 44 Erie and Kalamazoo R. R. TOLEDO, (see 59)..........33 77 (66) JACKSON to JONESVILLE. To Spring Arbor.......10 Concord.............. 4 14 ScipioCentre..............9 23 JONESVILLE-.............. 4 27 Brpnson's Prairie.......... 13 108 Fawn River...............1 114 Stairgis%.................. 4 118 White Pigeon........... —12 130 Bristol, la........... 7 137 Elkhart........... 11 148 Mishawaka............... 9 157 SOUTH BEND.......... 4 161 Terre Coupee.......... 9 170 ILA PORTE..........1 218 188 ifolmesville............... 9 197 S'alumet.................. 9 206 I,aily Town............... 3 209 Millers................... S 217 Ainsworth.........17 234 CHICAGO.................. 12 246 (58) MONROE to ANN ARBOR. To East Raisinville............. 9 orth Raisinville -.............. 3 12 Cinton............... 3 15 ilan.................4 19 'lork................4 23 :'aline...-6...............3 ) 29 di.. - 3............... 32 &NN ARBOR........ 6 38 (59) ADRIAN4 to TOLEDO, O. Erie and Kalamazoo R. R. To Palmyra.. 6 ]Uissfield.................4 10 Ottawa Lake...8 18 fdylvania.................3 21 133 TOLErO.....12..... 33 (60) ADRIAN to YPSILANTI. To Raisin.. 4 Tecumseh 6 10 Clinton.. 5 15 Benton...7 22 aliue-........-..........5 27 ittsfield.................. 5 32 YPSILANTI..5 37 (61) ISNSING to GRANt HAVEN. To Delta.......... 6 Eagle. 7 13 Portland..................10 23 Maple.................... 5 28 Lyons.................... 5 33 ;f. ONIA..................... 7 40 Aon....-..... —.....-......1050 Flat River................ 7 57 Adra -... 8 65 I 68

Page  69 ROUTES IN MICHIGAN-INDIANA. Ashtabula............33 194 Conneaut.................14 208 Erie, Pa...................30 238 Dunkirk, N. Y.............48 286 BUFFALO....- - - - - -..........43 329 (75) DETROIT to CHI CAGO, ILL. Steamboat. Fort Gratiot 7............... 70 Point au Barques.......... 85 155 Thunder Bay..............70 225 Presque Isle..............80 305 Mackinaw..............65 370 Beaver Islands............50 420 Manitou Islands.Re......... 4 5 465 MILWAUKEE, WIS.........150 615 Racine...................25 640 Southport..........- 13 653 CHICAGO........ -.. - 57 710 (76) DETROIT to FORT WILKINS. (On Lake Superior.) Steamboat. To Fort Gratiot.-.. -......70 Point au Barques-...* —-...85 155 Thunder Bay...........70 225 Presque Isle ****...*.80 305 Sault St. Marie -—.- *-...100 405 White Fish Point * —---—.40 445 Hurricane River. ——......40 485 Pictured Rocks- * * *- *- 0 FORT WILKINS and Copper Harbor..... -. — 120 640 (77) GRAND HAVEN to MILWAU KEE. Steamboat. To MILWAUKE E.......... 90 (78) NEW BUFFALO to CHICAGO. Steamboat. Michigan City, Ia. --- --..10 City West................13 23 CHICAGO ILL.....*********33 56 (67) MIARSHALL to COLDWATER. To Tekonsha...............13 Girard............... 5 18 I COLDWATER.. -.....-.... 6 24 (68) MARSHALL to CENTREVILLE. To Tekonsha............13 Burlington............. 5 18 Union City................ 4 22 Sherwood..............7 29 Fort Pleasant....... —..7 36 Nottoway.............6 42 CENTREVILLE............. 5 47 (69) BATTLE CREEK to GRAND RAPIDS. To Bedford 6 cn...............56 6 Johnstown.............. 6 12 Hastings.................12 24 GRAND RAPIDS..........32 56 (70) KALAMAZOO to MOTTVILLE. To Schoolcraft...........4... 14 Flowerfield............... 5 19 Three Rivers. —............... 8 27 Constantine.............. 9 36 OTTVILLE- - - -...........45.... 6 42 (71) KALAMAZOO to SAUGATUCK. To Cooper................ 6 Plainwell.......... 5 l 1 Otsego..............4 15 A llegan *........-.......11 3 (26 Manlius *. —.**.*......10 36 SAUGATUCK * —-** —-—..14 50 (72) KALAMAZOO to ST. JOSEPH. To Paw Paw Station....... 18 Paw Paw................. - 4 22 Hamilton -......11 33 Keelersville............ 4 37 Bainbridge............. 7 44 ST. JOSEPH.......*.12 56 (73) NILES to ST. JOSEPH. To Berrien Springs......10 ST. JOSEPH............ 15 25 (74) DETROIT to BUFFALO, N.Y. Steamboat. To Amherstburg, C. W....2t) Sandusky, O..............52 72 Hluron..................14 86 CLEVELAN -..........45 131 Fairport....... 30 161 INDIANA. (79) INDIANAPOLIS to CINCINNATI, OHIO. Via Rushville To Sugar Creek...........15 Kinder................ 5 20 Morristown............... 6 26 Beech Grove.............. 7 33 Rushville..............7 40 6.9

Page  70 JEFFERSONVILLE.......... 9 107 LOUISVILLE.......... 1 108 SHELBYV1LLE....... 6 26 Coon's Creek............ 8 34 t. Omer................ 3 37 Greensburg...............10 47 Napoleon...............- 12 59 Delaware...............6 65 North Hosgai.............5 70 Mbianchester............. 7 77 tLAWRENCEBURG.........10 87 izabethtown,O......... 6 93 Cieves................. 3 96 Dry Ridge * — -...............5 101 Cheviot................4 105 CINCINNATI....-........ 7 112 (83)' INDIANAPOLIS to TEARE HAUTE Terre Haute and Richmond B. R. To Bridgeport............ 9 Plainfield.-............... 14 Cantersburg............... 8 17 North Belleville........... 2 193 C laysville...........-. 2 521 Morristown............. 4 25 Crittenslen................ 9 27 Coatsville........... 2 29 Fillmore............. 4 33 Greencastle............... 6 89 Hendricks........... 5 44 Reel's Mill................ 4 48 Croy's Crqek...... 4 52 Brazil.............. 5 57 Highland................. 4 61 Cloverland.......... 2 68 Woods Mills.............. 2 65 TF_RE HAUTI5.......... 8 78 (84) NEw ALIA-NY to JULIET. .2Vew Albany and Salem R. R. To Bennetsville.......... 10 New Providence........... 9 19 Pekin..................... 24 Harristown.......... 6 30 Salem.......... 5 85 Buena Vista.......... 10 45 Orleains...........12 57 JULIET................... 8 65 (81) INDIAN-APOLIS to 3IADISON. .Madison and Indianapolis R. R. To Southport.......... 6 Greenwood..............4 10 Frankli n............10 20 Smity................. 5 25 Fxlinbttrg................. 5 30 Taylorsville.......... 5 35 CQOLUMBUS............. 6 41 Elizabethtown............ 7 48 3cipio.................... 7 55 Queensville........-.....3 58 Vernon................6 64 Butler's Switch.........-.- 2 66 Champion's Alill........ 4 70 Dupont............... 2 72 Big Creek........ 2 74 Middlefork.......-. —. —.2 76 Wert. 4 80 MADISON................. 6 86

Page  71 ROUTES IN INDIANA. (86) INDIANAPOIS to ST. LOUIS, I CRAWFORDSVILLE......... 10 45 Mo. Waynetown..............10 55 rO Telre Haute, (see 85).75 Hillsboro'............... 6 6t ro Telre Haute, (see 85)...756 Liviogston, Ill............. 13 88 Coles' Creek............. 5 66 Nlarshall................. 4 92 COVINGTON.............. 8 74 Martinsville...............12 104 Case.................. 6 110 (90) INDIA NAPOLIS to WLLILS GrIeenup................10 120 PORT. Woodbury............... 7 12'7 To Crawfordsville, (see 89).45 Teiltopolis -...... -- 10 137...Pleasant Hill............13 59 EwingtllOn..............9 146 Newtown................ 5 63 Freemanlton............... 5 1516 69 Howard's Point 9..........9 160 Attica... -...............4 73 Cumberland.............7 167.WILLA.IA-SPO RT..........2 75 VANDALIA.............. 6 173 Mulberry Grove. 9182 ) INDINPOLIS t L FY Grevle................ (~~2 91) INDmtNAPOLUS to LA, F~~Hickory Grove......... --... 19 ETTE. Ilichand. Grov.........14 213 To Crawfordsville, (see 89).45 Troy...................6 219 Romey...............15 60 Collinsville..............6 225 LA FAYETTE..............11 71 ST. Louis, Mo...........15 240 (92) INDIANAPOLIS to LA FAY (87) INDIANAPOLIS to SPRING- ETTE. FIELD, ILL. TO Piketon..............9 To TERRE HAUTE, (see 85). 75 Royalton........ 5....... 14 Elbridge, Ill....... - -.. 10 85 Thornleyville......... 5 19 Paris..................10 95 Lebanm................. 6 2 Grandview 1.............12 107 Thornton............ 0 35 Hitesville............... 6 113 Frankfort............ 12 47 Charleston...............12 125 Jefferson................4 51 Bethsaida................. 8 133 Prairieville..............6 57 Pamadise..-.............. 7 140 Monroe.................5 62 Cochran's Grove..........8 148 Wyandotte............... 5 67 SIIELBYVILL............12 160 Dayton.................. 5 72 Traylorsville.............35 195 LA FAYETTE... 7.......... 79 Rochester.............. 16 211 SPRINGFIELD. -.....9 220 (93) INDIANAPOLIS to NILES, MIC. (88) INDIANAPOLIS to MIONTEZUmA. To Augusta................9 To HaBnpton............12 Eagle Village............6 15 To~ ~ ~~~ H0 aportfil..............5]2 Danville 8 20 --- Northfield.......... 5 20 eDanvi chlles........... 7 27 Kirk's Cross Roads.......12 32 New Winchester.*. —.*- 37 Michigantown.......... — - -- 10 42 New Maysville.........5 3 Middlefork............ 6 48 Bainbridge.... 14 62 l............ 5 Portland MiUs......Carroll.1 3 Rockville..............13 65 63 MONTEZUMA...... -0 75 LOGaNSPORT............8 71 Metea....................12283 Rochester................11 94 (89) INDIANAPOLIS to COVINGTON. Sidney................13 107 To Clermont.............. 8 Plymouth................10 117 Brownsburg.............. 6 14 South Bend............24 141 Jamestown............. 14 28 Bertrand, Mich......... 8 149 New RoS.............. 7 35 NILES..4 3...............413 1

Page  72 ROUTES IN INDIANA. (94) INDIANAPOLIS to GREEN VILLE, O. To Allisonville............ 11 Noblesville................11 1l22 Strawtown................ 7 29 Anderson.................17 46 Chesterfield.............5 51 Yorktown................ 6 57 Muncietown.............. 8 65 Smithfield.............. 7 72 Windsor............... 6 78 Macksville..............4 82 Winchester............... 6 88 Randolph................. 7 95 Dark, O.................5 100 GREENVILLE............ 10 110 L (95) INDIANAPOLIS to COLUMIBUS, O. TO Cumber-land.......... 10 Philadelphia.............. 5 15 Greenfield................ 5 20 Kinnard.................. 4 24 Charlotteville............. -.. 4 28 Knightstown............. 5 33 Lewisville..............10 43 Dublin................. 8 51 Cambridge............. 2 53 Centreville.............. 9 62 Richmond................ 6 68 New Westerville, O........ 6 74 Eaton....................10 84 West Alexandria.......... 6 90 Medill................. 6 96 Liberty....-............7 103 DAYTON................7 110 Fairfield................11121 Enon...........-.. ——.. 7 128 Springfield.......... —-. 7 135 Vienna................10 145 Summerford.............. 5 150 La Fayette................ 5 155 West Jefferson........... 8 163 Alton..................... 5 168 COLUMBUS................ 9 177 Grant's Creek..-.......... 4 Patriot.......... 6 Florenlce.............. 7 Vevay............... 9 Morefield................. 6 Home............... 5 MADISO-................ 19 (99) LOUISVILLE, KY., to VIN CE NNES. To Portland.................. 3 New A]bany, Ia.......... 1 4 Gr eenville.............. 16 mPalmyra eo0.................39 25 Freder ickLsburg............ 5 30 Har-dinisbLrg........... 5 35 Chamnbersburg.......... 6 41 Paoli..................... 6 47 Natchez..................16 63 Mount Pleasant............- 12 75 Washington.......*......15 90 Berryville................. 7 97 VINCE NNES..............14 111 (100) LOUISVILLE, KY., to OR LEANS. To Jeffersonville, Ia ~:...... 1 Hambutrig................. 8 9 Bennettsville............. 8 17 New Providence........... 5 22 Pekin.............. 3 25 Salem...... ——.-.......-11 36 Claysville.................12 48 ORLEANS.-**.** *......10 58 (101) EDINBURG to RUSHVILLE. To Shelbyville..........17 Little Blue River.......... 7 24 Manilla......... 6 30 RUSIIVILLE....... -.-.-.. 8 39 (102) MADISON to INDIANAPOLIS. (96) BROOKVILLE to CAMBRIDGE. To Blooming Grove........ 7 Everton................ 4 11 Coinersville............ 6 17 Milton...............10 27 CAMBRIDGE *.......... 2 29 (97) LAWRENCEBURG to MADISON. To Aurora................ 4 Rising Sun.............. 8 12 Jradison and Indianapolis R. R. To Wert............ 6 Middlefork............... 4 10 Big Creek............. 2 12 72 16 22 29 38 44 49 59 (98) MADISON to LoUISVILLiz, Ky. To South Hanover.. - -.. - - 5 Saluda - - "' "' ".' 6 11 New Washington.. - -.. - -. 7 18 Charlesto'''''' " - -.'. - - - - - I 129 Uti,,a - "'."' ""' 8 37 Jeffersonville.. - -.. - -.. - - - 946 LoulsvILLE. 1 47

Page  73 To COIUlinoDos, -- 53 EE Lcfevre.................. 8 53 Nashville.................12 65 Unionville...............10 75 BLOO,IINOTON............. 8 83 Whitehatll...............@. 7 90 Spencer..............8 98 VANDALIA. 9 7 re..............1 9107 Bowling Green............ 8 115 Chrl istie's Prairie..........10 15 TERRE HI-IAUTE............ 14 139 (104) BLOO1IN-GTON to LA FAY ETTE. To Ellittsville........ 7...... 7 Slotont Tabor.............. 6 13 Cosport......... 3 16 MAlill Grove.............. 9 25 Clover Dile.............5 30 Putnamnvillc.............. 7 37 Greencastle.............. 5 42 Fincastle..................1 54 Parkersburg............ 7 61 CRAWFORDSVILLE........-.13 74 Romney.............15 89 LA FAYETTE.............11100 (105) MIOUTT OF WABASII RIvER to LA FAYETTE. Steamboat. To New Hlarmony........52 Mlount Cainel...........45 97 VINs NEs.............35 132 Russellville.............13 145 Palestine.................18 163 Merom................. 5 168 Hutsonvile...............8 176 York................... 8 184 VINCENNES. P t................. West Union............... 15 69 Carlisle.............. 8 77 Merom * - -. - -.. - -.. -. -....12 89 Greysville................ 5 94 FurmaIi's Creek -..........5. 99 Prair ie Creek.........107 8107 Pr-airieton............. 7 114 TERRE HAUTE.......... - 9 123 (107) TERRE HAUTE to LOGANS PORT. TO Numa................. 8 Clinton......... 7 15 Highland..... 10 5 tNewpor t ET.............9. 31 Eugen tL Ae...........12.. 7 38 Perryville............... 7 45 COVINGTON......... 7 52 Portland......... 8 60 Rob R o y.................. 5 65 Attica..............~....4 69 Shawnee Prairie -.-.- *-.. 5 74 West Point.............. 8 82 LA FAYETTE.............. 11 93 Americus............1104 Delphi..i..... *.*.*.... 7 Ill l~ock?ort................ 9 12( LOGANSPORT -..............1 132 (108) TERRE I1-UTE to CRAW FORDS-,7ILI,E. To Rtoseville * —-.....-15 Roclkville...... 9 24 Bruin's Cross Roads.. 8 32 Waveland. ——........... 6 38 CRAWFORDSVILLE.. - -.....14 51

Page  74 0 - .0 * C ___'- 0 0 CC - C -. C'. - - —. C' C * -; C ..' C *. C CC'C C *.. *.... C - C C C C' - - C *.. C C C.'. - - - C -

Page  75 ROUTES IN ILLINC(IS. Ma(Olinn......... 6 5........ 6 4,5 Sl~pm~............ $5'3 M,,i(l(.tit'.ello.....1 4 67 i ao,. - —................. 52 A ( ST. I,'tTm. MO.2..4... -24 96 (116) -PRINGFIELD to NAIPLES. Salnkamez.n and jI'organ R. R. ToelNin1. (e.............1j Island rove.............. 4 21 (1tm wn' I Es................. 5 10 JeKSONiVttLLa........... 7 33 Jlnl'........5...1...... 3 W38 Betel................... 9 47 Vu ndy.......... 6...... 5 52 NAPILES 5................. 5 57 (117) SPRINGFIELD to QUINCY. To Naiples, (see 116).......57 ligusviile...............10 67 Besllv....... 9 e...........1 77 LSbt M:rv...................14 l Barthag...............7 9 tS7 Quincy................... 9106 (118) SPRINGFIELD to KEoKtUcK, low,&. To Richland..............10 Pleatsanist Plains............ 6 16 Lancaster............... 7 2; Virginia...........-......1) 33 Be. rdstown........14 47 Fredelrickiville........ 4 5 l RVS tl VILLE.......... ---- 8 59 Camiiiden-...... -.........13 72 H un tsville.......6 78 Putla;ski...... -. 5 83 Augusta............ 3 86 Plymnouth *......... 5 91 St. AMary's........... 4 95 Elm Tre*... —-. —-- 7 102 C.artlhage.. —.-.... —. 7 109 Warsaw I S..........- - lf1827 KEOKt'CK * —-. —-.-..-.* 4131 (119) SPRINGFIELD to BURLINGTON, IowA. To Riishville, (see 118)....59 Littk ton..........-.. 6 65 Doddsville....... 6 71 Maceotnb..............13 84 BlhLndiiisville..........- -.14 98 B TRLNGTo —s- -..............24 122 (120) SPRLNOFirLD to LEWISTOWN. To Athens...............14 Petersburg...... 8 22 Saiig,,amon River..........12 34 Bath............... 8 42 Harttuanla.........-... 8 5l) Witerord............... 5 55 LEW, I M - -STOWN.............. 5 60 (121) SPRINGFIELD to Cml~: Ao 0. To Twehl,e Mills............. 8 M. idiletown.............1 20 D)laval...... 9 29 I)illo.....................3 52 'l'emont.7................... 5. 57 (,roveland......6 (13 P(RiA.............6 69 CIIICxGO, (see 143)....... 165 234 (122) SPRINGFIELD to CovINiG ON, 1I. To M' ech anicsburg......... 15 l)fc.t1r................4 39 . 7 rro Gordo............15 54 Niolnticello...... - 10 64 Northl Bend......13 77 wUrD llna...............2(.9 86 Homer...................14100 Danville...............2i) 120 COWGVITON..............- 15 135 (123) VINCENNES, Is., to SHAWNEE TOWN. To St. Francisville......... 10 e4 Armstrong...........'.... 9 19 L59 lotit Carmel -........... 9 28 (;rAtysville...............18 46 PRillipstown.............. 9 55 CAMI..............6...... 9 34 Ea i.............. 8 72 New T1 aven.............. 6 78 SeIAWNEETOWN..........17 95 (124) VINCENNES to ST. Lo us, A4o. To Lawrenceville........... 9 Prairieton........... l......10 19 Oliney........... 13 32 Maysville..........Ili.-.-.. 48 Xenia.... - - -6..... —.. I 4 Frederickstown.......... 9 73 SALEM.......... —-.... 9 82 Ca-rlyle..................4 1, Slhoail Creek *. —.. - -- -* 9 115 Aviston.... - - -6 121 lIebanon..141.... —-.-.... 132 Rock Spring.......... -. 4 136 B~elleville................. 9 145 French Village.........- - 8 153 75

Page  76 .......... *,.,.,~ ~ *.,;.,... - ~' —~~:...' ~..~ ~ 00s'0~:.,. :Z~~ ~ w ~.'~-~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -:- o ..... 0 ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 0 o0op0 - 6~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ E-'''W Pi I I- to 11!.. 0 1 .a 0 0. u 0

Page  77 ROUTES IN ILLINOIS. I (139) Q INCY to GAl ENA. To Macomb, (see 137).....69 Swan 8Creek..............16 85 0 Monmouth............... 18 103 Spring Grove............. 7110 J1 Noith HBnder-son.......... 116 Pope Creek............... 6 122 F1arlow's Grove.......... 8 130 Preemption.............. 5 135 Camden's Mills...........10 145 ROCK ISLAND............. 3 148 M toline................. 5 153 Hampton................ 7 160 Poit Byron................7 167 Cordova................5 172 Albany................11 183 Fulton................. 7 190 Savanna................16 206 Hanover............... 14 220 GALENA...............15 235 (140) PEORLA to COVINGTON, IA. To Groveland............ 8 Tremont................6 14 Mackinaw............... 7 21 Stout's Grove............. 5 26 Wilksboro'............... 5 31 Bloomington............10 41 e8 Le Roy...........-......16 57 Santa Anna............1( 67 Maihomet.............14 81 URBANA..................13 94 Tti712 Iomer.................14 108 Danville...............2 O 128 COVINGTON.............15 143 (141) PEORIA to BURLINGTON, Iowa. To Kickapoo.........11 Robin's Nest.............. 3 14 Brimfield.............. 5 19 French Creek........ 6 25 Knoxville.........18 43 Galesburg.......-.-.-.-.5 48 Co,ld Brook....... —---— lO 58 Monmouth.......-. 6 64 Oquawka..............18 82 BURLINGTON —-............16 98 (135) QUINCY to JACKSONVILLE. To Columbus..........15 Cl,np Point............. 6 21 Clayto................6 27 Mlouiit Sterling............12 39 Vesa'lles............. 9 48 eredsia................ 7 55 Bethel.......... 8.......... 63 JACKSONVILLE.............12 75 (136) QUINCY to PEORIA. Via Rushville. To Colmbus.............15 CaLnmp Point.............. 21 Celayton............. 6 27 151oult Sterling............]2 39 Ri y......... 9 48........... RUSIVILLE.........9 57...... 9571 Astoria *...............14 7 1 Vermont......... 5 76 Otto..........7 83 Lewistown................ 8 91 Jack-son Grove............ 7 98 Caniton.... -......... 7 105 Farmington...lo..... 10115 Trivoli................... -7 1.22 PEORIA...... - 18 140 (137) QUINCY to KNOXVILLE. To Mlendon.............. 14 Wooodville...24...... O4 Ch ili..........- 3 27 Carlbage.....-.*. —.14 41 Fouintatin Green.... 11 52 11A(, -oN lB.....17 69 Drowniing Fork... 5 74 Woo(dstock..........14 88 St. Auigutstine 3 91 Httord -..-.......-..-.-.. -7 98 KNOXVILLE -.......... —... 9 107 (138) QuINcy to KEOKUCE, IOWA. To Ursa......10 LinmL......... —.-...... 8 18 Green Plains........... 8 26 arsaw.............. 6 32 KroUCr......... —..-..... 4 36 7 I B 77 Jereyville................ 8 Kane......... 5 Carrollton.............. 8 Wh itehall.........tlO Manichester........ 8 JACKSONVILLE..........17 45 50 58. 68 76 93 (142) PEOR,IA to AI,BANY. To Motmt Hawley......... 10 vWyoming............ 19 Touloni.... -.......... 6 Wethersfield......... - I]l Burns *...-............. -. *..**17 29 35 46 63

Page  78 Des Plains.... 9 112 C11ICAGO...........-.23 165 (144) PERU to ST. LouIs, Alo. Steamzboat. To Hennepin.......17 Lacoi................18 35 Chilicothe..............11 46 Rome.................. 2 48 PEORIA................1 6 64 Peki n..................9 73 Liverpool.............. 25 98 Havanina...... 9 107 Beardstown............32139 La Grange 8 147 Meredosia..............8 155 Naples................. 7 162 Florence...............10172 MIontezuma.............. 5 177 Bridgeport.............. 6 183 Newport............... 9 192 Gilford................]8 210 Mollth of Illinois River....16 226 Gratton................2 228 Alton*. -...........-.....18 246 Missouri River...........3 249 ST. Louis..............18 267 (145) PERU to GALENA. To La Aloille............18 Dixon..-........2 5 43 3utffli]o Grove...........12 55 'Elkhorn Grove.........-.. 8 63 Rock Creek............... 5 68 Mount Carrol'..........12 80 Elizabeth......... 22102 GALZNA.......-........15117 Paw Paw Station.......... 8 108 KA( IA AZOO..............16 114 Comstock.............. 4 128 Galesburg............... 4 132 Charleston ( 4....... -4 1 36 BattleCreek..............1( 146 Ceresco....... 8 154 Mlarshall....... 5 159 M -ngo —. —-................. 6 16~5 Albion...............-. 7 17o2 Gidley's Station I.......11 183 Barry................... 5 188 JACKSON.....- 5 193 Leoni —--- ---—.......... 7 2(10 Gr-ass Lake...-........... 3 )03 Franiciscoville........ 3 206 Davison's...... —. -—.6 212 Dexter................... -9 221 Scio * -— 3...... —. 2 23 Delhi - -............ 2 2'25 ANN ARBOR -.......... 6 231 Goddes' Mills............. 4 2:35 Yp~silanlti.......... —-. —-4 239 Wayne........ —.-.....12 251 Deairbornville -..... 7 "358 DETROIT 268..........-. —-10 68 (148) CHICAGO to BUFFALO, N. Y. Steamboat. To Southport, Wis....... 57 Racinie...7................1 0 AIILW.IUKEE............25 95 Maniitou Islands, Mich....151) 245 Beaver Islands............ 45 290 Mackinaw............... 50 340 Presque Isle.............. 65 405

Page  79 ROUTES IN ILLINOIS-MISSOURI. Thunder Bay.............80 485 Point au Barques............70 555 Fort Glatiot..............85 640 DE'ROIT............. 0 710 Amheliistburg, C. W......P c20 730 Saldusky, Ohio..........52 782 Iluron.............14 796 CLE;VELAND............. 45 841 Fairp3ort.............. 30 8 71 Aslitabla...............33 904 CoticLeaLt 1 91................ 18 Erie, Pa.............30 948 Dunkiril, N. Y...........) 48 996 BvfFrALO..............431039 Oak Creek...............14 85 MILWAUKeE --—.............. 9 94 (151) CHICAGO to OTTAWA. V-ia Plainfield. To Lyons................ 13 Flag Creek............... 5 18 Cass...................... 5 23 Plainfield.............18 41 Ausal)le................ 13 54 Lisbon................. 10 64 Holderman's Grove........ 4 68 OTTAWAe D -...............18 86 (152) CHICAGO to DIxON. To St. Charles Br., (see 149) 35 t. Chales................ 4 39 Sugalr Grove..............13 52 Acasto............. 7 59 Little Rock............. 3 62 SoiRFoiDauk................ 6 68 Shab boney's Gr ove......... 9 77 Paw PawGr ove........... 7 84 Mallugin Grove........... 9 93 Leee Cet e............... 101 DixON..........1.........15 116 (153) DIxoN to BELOIT, WIS. To Grand de Tour......... 6 26 Oregon...............9. 15 Byron.................11 26 Kishwaukee..............10 36 RO(CKFORD......6.-.-.6 42 Harlem. 7 49 Roscoe 4 53 Rockton..................4 57 BELOIT.......3 60 (149) CHICAGO to GALENTA. Chicao and Galena R. R. To Noyesville.............10 Cottage Hill..............7 Babcock's Grove *- 4 Wlieattlaiid............... 4 Junction...............5 St. Charles Br anch........ ELGIN................... 7 Gilberts................. 8 l]Iintley...................5 Unlioen.................. 7 ]M[arengo................ 4 Gard(en Prairie............ 6 :Belvidlere................ 6 Clherry Valley............. 6 RocjiFOrnD................ 8 Stage. Vaneeburg..........19 111 Ridott's.............. 5 116 Silver Creek.............. 6 122 Freeport..............7 129 F1orestville.............. —-.813 28 137 W.iddam's Grove.........2 139 Alid(la.............. 2 141 White Oak Springs........32 173 Greenvale............. 5 178 GALENA................-. 5 183 (150) CIIICAGO to MILWAUKEE. To Dutchman's Point.. 13 Wheeling.................10 23 Halt Day.................. 5 28 Libeltvville... 6 34 A ling(,(n... 4 38 Waukeg,an..... 6 44 Otsego.................... 5 49 South port, is............12 61 Racine...........O.10'~1 MISSOURI. (154) ST. Louis to NEW ORLEANS. Steamboat. Jefferson Barracks, Mo..... 9 ial lrrisonville, Ill...........19 28 Herculaneum, Mo.......... 2 30 Selmna, Mo................ 4 34 St. Genevieve, Mo.........25 59 (,iChester, Ill................ 16 75 Bainbridge, Mo............45 120 Cape Girardeau, Mo......-12 1:32 Commnerce, MAlo........... 12 - - - 144 CAIRO. ILL, (mouth of Ohio River)................28 172 Columbuls, Ky.............18 190 Hickman, Ky.............. 15 205 New Madrid, Mo...........42 247 * e~ I 79 17 21 25 30 35 4 50 62 66 72 78 84 92

Page  80 ROUTES IN MISSOURIT. Littls Prairie, AMo..........30 277 Obiot, River, Tein.........29 306 Asl.lpor-t,Termn............ 8 314 (.)se,tola, Ark. -...........12 326 Puiltoti, Tein........... 10 336 Ranidoiph, Tenn., (mouth of Hiatclhie River).......... 1 347 Greecmock-, Ark............33 380 Mmiplhlis,t Tenn.........34 414 (:mnm,olllrce, Ark...........27 441 Pe:;moii, Mliss...33 474 lStc lili,, Ark., (mouth of St. IFranicis River)..........12 486 Hl:i,EA, ARK............ 10 496 Delta, Aliss..........10 506 Victoria,,Nliss............65 571 AlMontgomnery's Poiint, Ark.. 1 572 Naipoleon, Ai-k., (mouth of Arkansas River).......20 592 Bolivtar Court House, Miss. 12 604 Colutmbia, Ark......... - 53 657 Princetot), Miss.......... 45 702 Providence, La.........1 29 731 YazDo Riuel, Miss........ 61 792 Vliit:KSBURG, MAiss... *. *.12 804 RItletoy, Miss.. -.- 10 814 Cati1 h.:,ige, La....... 19 833 GRAND GULF,?,IiSs.......27 860 Br, iiisbtirg, Miss.*.......10 870 Ro,dney, AMiss.............l0 880 NATCH E Z, Miss.....31 911 Ellis Cliffs, MAliss..18 929 Ilotniochitta River, Miss..26 955 Fort Adams, M iss........ 10 C ile I 965 Red Rivet Islatid, La.....ti I11 976 Puint Coutpee, La. 60 1036 St. Fraticisville, La. 2 1 Porlt Il (son -............ 11 1047 BATON R(uo:, LA...~.35 1072 PI'laqteminie, La..........23 1095 Dot-tldsonville, La......34 1129 Jefersoii College, La.....19 1148 Red (,Chutrch, La..........38 1186 Carrollton, La............2 20 1206 I.a Fayette, La.......... 4 121 0 Nicw ORLEANS, LA....... 2 1212 HambtGrg, IM.............0 (tlarksville, Mo............7 1% Louisiana,l Mo................1 0 Hankibal, Mo.............25 t3i QUINCY, ILL...........1 18 5t La Grange, Mo...........1 0'24 Tully, Mo..............., 7 167 Warsaw, Ill. 1 Des MoinesRiver I..... Keokuck, Iowa............ 4 )88 Alontrose,lIowa t'........ Nauvoo, III. ) ----- 1 Madison, Iowa............ 10 3i0 BURLINGTON, IOWA........ 20 ~10 Oquawka, 11.............,17 247 New BLston, I 1 11........... 19 6 Iowa River, Iowa I......... J 7 Muscatine, Iowa........... 25 220 Fairport, Iowa............ 7 299 Andlalsia, Ill............. 10 309 Rock lsland, 111. 9 318 Davenport, Iowa Hampton, III............ 11 329 Parkhufrst, Iowa........... 8 337 Albany, Ilil.............19 356 Lyorns, lowa.............. 9 365 Chairlesion, Iowa..........15 380 Savaninah, Ill............'2 382 13elleview, Iowa..........19 401 Fever River, Ill., (to Galelua 6 miles).............. 7 408 DUBUQUE. IOWA..........20 428 Peru, Iowa --............. —.. 8 436 Cassville, Wis.............23 459 G,otteniburg, Iowa......... 6 465 Wisconisin River..........20 485 For-t Crawfor(t............ 2 487 Prairie du Ch ien............ 2 489 Upper Iowa River........38 527 Batd Axe River............ -1 539 Root li iver.............23 562 Black River............ 12 574 Clhippewa River..........68 642 Maiden's Rock ~............,.2 6 m s Rock ~~25 667 Lake Pepin St. Cr-oix River.......... - 35 702 ST. PAUL.......... ——...26 728 Mlendota - 5 733 For-t Snielling I i * -3ST. ANTHONY............. 7 740 (155) ST. LouIs to FALLS OF ST. ANTHONY. Steamnboat. To Missouri River......18 Altion, Ill................ 3 21 GC-raftott, Ill.......... -... 18 39 Iltitois River, Ill.......... 2 41 Gilead. Ill..............32 73 I 80 (156) ST. LoUIs to COUNCIL BLUFFs Steamboat. To mouth of Missouri Riv(r 18 ST. CHARLrS.......... 24 42 I I - ~ *...~

Page  81 IOUTES IN MISSOURI. Missouriton...............21 63 Newpoit...............26 89 Griswold City............8 97 Hermann..............16 113 Portland.............. 17 1301 Cote Sans Dessein.........20 150 JEFFERSON CITY..........10 160 MIarion.............. 17 177 Nashville................10 187 Rocheport.............13 200 Boonville.............. 11 211 Ari ow Rock..............15 226 Glastow R............7 12 238 Charitoh.................. 3 241 G ra nd River.............20 261 Reedsburg............. 23 284 Lexingtou................27 311 Camden.............17 328 Sibley...................16 344 I,iiingston.............17 361 Kanisas River.........-..- 20 381 Parksville -.......... —-.- 8 389 Plat,te River............... 2 391 FORT LEA.VFENWORTH...... 20 411 Weston................... 7 418 St. Joseph....-. -... -... -.60 478 Noddaway River..14 492 WVolf River... -...-.-.16 508 Great Nemahaw River....18 526 Nishnebotna River.. - -...25 551 Little Nemahaw River... 12 563 Platte River-........70 633 Bellevue Trading House... 12 645 COUNeCIL BLUFFs.......... 40 685 (158) ST. LoUIs to LITTLE: ROCK, ARK. Carondelet.............. 5..1 Jefferson Barracks.......... 4 9 Oakville................ 5 14 Sulphur Spr ings........... 8 22 Herculaneum 31............. 9 31 illsboro'.................11 42 Glenfinllay....-. -.. —.......10 52 Old Miles................10 62 Potosi.................... 7 69 Caledonia............12 81 Iron Mountain............10 91 Farmington..............14105 Mine LaMotte............ 5 110 FLedericktown............ 12122 Go eenville.............35 157 Cane Creek...............18 175 Hicks' Ferrv, Ark..........32 207 Fourche Dur:a s G2...........15 22 Pocahontas.... 2........... 8 230 Jackson.............15 "45 Smithville.............14 259 Reed's Creek......... 12271 Batesville................24295 Rock Point............ 11306 Searcy Cout House.......3...... 338 Oakland Grove...........25 363 LITTLE ROCK Ln......... 30 393 (159) ST. LouIs to NEW MADRIIR. To Carondelet............. 5 Jefferson Barracks............. 4 9 Oakville.............5 14.... 5 Sulphur Springs........... 8 22 Clifton.............. 5 27 Herclilaneum............. 4 31 Selma....................8 39 Rush Tower............. 8 47 St. Genevieve.............14 61 St. Mary's Landing........12 73 Perryville................12 85 Apple Creek..............12 97 JACKSON.....-.-. 16113 Cape Girardeau...........11l 124 Beton... 1................6140 PleasantPlains............ 10 150 Ogden. —................ 8 158 NEW MADRID............23 181 (160) ST. LoUIs io FORT LEAVEN WVORTH. To Waltonham............ 9 Feefee.................... 6 15 ST. CHARLES............. 5 20 (157) ST. Louis to KEOEUCE, IOWA. To Waltonham...........9 Feefee........... 6 15 ST. CIIARLES.............5 20 Wellsburg................16 36 Flint flill.......... 7 43 Troy...........10 53 Auburn...........].2 65 Prairieville..............10 75 Bowling Green............10 85 Frankfolrt...........14 99 New London.......... 8 107 Hannibal.......... 8 115 PALMIYRA...............13 128 L( Grange.........20 148 Tully..................... 7 155 Alexandria............... —0 175 KR oSucK, IowA * -.... 4...41 9 81

Page  82 Boliv........... 18 1l18 Richlad...............18 146 PRINGFIELD..............2 1 1)8 CranOe Creek "327 185 Mc( Doinaild... 16 2i)l ~V,ish botir-ii's Prair-ie....... I 7 18 Bentitonville, Ark........... 40 FaLvetteville...........2,8 268 Botisboo.............I 1 8 86 Ev sville I......... 2....... 97 Natural Dam.............. 12 309 Va Bure -.-.-..........14 323 FORT SMI'r......... 7 330 ((166) JEFFERSON CITY to CAPE GIRAPDEAUIL. To Westphalia............ 9 Movais...................17 16 Kid-cr e ihook.......10 3( Spiish Prair ie...........12 48 L1 ar5F mecd w...........1..158 63 Steelville................... 75 Osagwe o1.......2...........2 87 Harinony................15 102 CALE:DONI A........15117 hl-oni Mouinitain........10 127 Fa rmington....... l 141 Mine I,a Aotte -............ 5 1 46 Freclericktowi............ 2 58 Paiton...................4 18' Jackson...............4 196 CAPr GIRARDEAU.....*.....11 "307 (167) GLASGOW to FORT LEA''N* WVORTH. To Keytesville...l Brunjswick..........g..*11 q9 Fia St. Charles. To Fultoj, (see 694)......1.10 l New Bio)mfiel ed...........11 121 Hlibeinia..........-0 131 JICFF:RSON CITY.......... 1 132 (16") ST. LOIJis to JEFFERSON CITY. Via.It. Ster lin,g. To Rock Hlill.......... 8 altuichester.............I11 19 Fox Creek..........14 33 UnLion........... 6 J 55 Adamsbulrg..........2.3 78 Mount Sterling..........14 92 Lyml........... 16108 Lisle............-.-.8 116 JEFFERSON CITY..........10 126 (163) JEFFrRSO,sN CITY to INDE PENDENCE. To arion.......... 15 Moniteaiiu.............. 5 20 FMitdw ay.............. 9 9 Clzi-k'sFork..........F 6 35 BOI)N,:VILLE..............I0 45 Lai M-Iine -.................. 10 55 Arr-ow Rock..............267 M alrshall...........15 82 Mo,l.it [lope.......2........5 107 Dover..-... 7 114 Lexilsgton * —-..... ——......11 12 Welliagton....... —-.12137 For-t Os:g,e.......-.16 153 INDEPE.NDENCE *. —. —....12 165

Page  83 ROUTES IN MNISSOUIII-IOWA. Pleasalt Park............10 39 1 l) witl -....-.... —-....-6 45 | C.1rr.llton................ 7 52 1ltouI(1 -.rove.............13 65 Richln,on................]14 7!9 Cr a ()rchrd............. 9 88 1.iberty.................. ( 108 Iarry..............l0 10 TOS Piatm Citv l,,.113:3 \Vc('st(o1.. -...... —-..-.... 9 414 F ORT L,;.IAVENWORTI...... 7 149 (172) KEoKucK to BtlRLIN.,rON. To Mionlrose.............1IFort a idison.............1 24 Agst-..........l.....19..; l 35 BU RLINGTON -.............1 ) 45 (173) FORT MIADISON tO- FA',.IING TON. To West Point............10 Ttuscaror a........ - -... 8 18 FARM1NG'tON...............11 X 9 (174) BURLINGTON to FORTT DES MIOINES. To liaritford(l...............18 oNloiiit Pleasan t............ 9'27 Rome.......... 3.....5 1 Fa1,irfield.................l6 51 Ottumwa.D.. MO7N. Eddyville l (; 92 Oskaloosa.................13 105 Re( Rock'. )..34 FORT DEs MOINES.**.*.* 31 165 (I168) GLASGOW tO 1lANNIBAL. TOj IR;'moke............... 1 31ltlt Ai;ry............... 6 18 HIIlntEsvilie@............ I; 24 M..il............12 36 M v. di-m..................BZ 7 4:7 li;S....-............1 55 omerset....*-*.............1 J 67 Xlip l,l~l s rg..........,7 74 11 L..At.'.rg —-......* —-..14 8 I1Ntn';la. *-................A 9 97 (175) BURLINGTON to IUS(ATINI. To Yellow Springs............ 15 ,inton.................... 9 24 0 l)ello................ 7 31 GranIdview................ 9 40 l[MUSCATINE............ 14 54 (160!) AMRAMEC to SPRINGFIELD. To i t i l e P r a i r ie........... 10 I,it le Piney...........2J0 30 Pin Blufft................. 8 38 Wayfcs-vee~ille.....-.-. —-— 12 50 B~s lefimlte..... ——...-...-1 ll ti ()akhn{.................1 3 74 C Spr\ ing................124 86 x I v *.. *...1..........]6 10(2 l'l,;,as~lt Prl airie......I -' 1 14 \Vhmt liFil f*orest.13.....13 17 S}'U'. 1LL*... - - - -...-....... 8 137) (176) MUSCA.TINE to DAVENPOR To Fair'por't.. ].. -...... 7 West Buffillo.......... I I Rockihiigam........... 8 DAVENPORT.......... 4 (177) DAVENPORT to DUBUQUE. To Dewitt................19 Atquotiketa..............22 41 AIdrew............ 7 48 La AlMotte................14 12 DITBUQUE. - - - -........ 12 74 (170) IOw.,A CITY to KEOKUCK. TO, sV:hl in'igton...........30 Fai el.................26 56 lNciis:mqta...............24 80 Iitol)Ospl't..............10 90 FlrnliaionIl............... 8'J8 KEOrcI-CK-.......*-.32 130 (178) DAVENPORT to DUBUQLIE. To Ber-lin........16 Priniceton................. 6 22 Camanche................8 30 Lyons...................10 40 )Elk River................11) 50 Bellevue..............24 74 Tete des Motte...........10 84 Dunuquz................ 12 96 83 18 26 30 IOWA. (171) IOwa, CITY to AIUSCATINE. To West Liber-ty.......... 14 Overnl's Ferry *..........1 ll)24 BMUSC.TINE...........3..11 35

Page  84 ROUTES IN WISCONSIN. Rosendale...............1 4 90 FOND DU LAC............13 103 Tatycheda.............. 3 106 Calumet Village........... 10 116 Pequot............. —.... 3 119) Stockbr-idge............... 8 1"7 Bridgep)oit.... *......18 145 GPREEN BAY.... - - -....17 162 WISCONSIN. (179) 1ATDISON to GALENA, ILL. To Middlleton.......... 8 Blute MAlound.......... * 14 2l Ridgeway........... 31 Do(gevile -............... 9 40 Mineral Point.......... 8 48 Belmont........... 13 61 Platteville...............7 i8t 3Bentoin............1- 1)T.C1 8. Ilazel Green........ 5 815 GALENA, ILL............ 11 9i) (183) AILVAUTKEE to CHFICA GO, II,L. To Oak Creek..............9 Ra,ciile...............14 23 Souith)port..... 10 33 Otsego, III.......... 2......1 45 aegn....... 5 50 Abingdon............... 56 ,ibel tyville 4 O........0 Illt' D.................. 66 Wheeling 7................ 5 71 Dtchman's Poin t......... - - -.10 81 CIIICAGO..........13 9 (184) MILWAUTNEE to JALNESVILLE. To Greenfield.............- 9 New Berlin............... 5 14 VerIol 20............. M~ukwonleo G26 .Itkoil.............. 062 East Troy 6 32 Troy......... - -- -..... 3 35 Sug-ar Creek........-...... 8 43 Richmond..... 9 52 Johnstown....3 55 JINESVILLE........11 66 (180) 1IADISON to ROCKFORD, ILL. To IF'itchbuig.......... 1 1 Rlutland 6........... 17 Union.............. 5'2 Osborn.-........... 5 27 aren.............. 3 30 Janesville............... 11 4 1 Rock Valley......... 7 48 BE LOIT................ 54 PRockto........... 3 57 Roscoe *.-............... -4 61 I~larlet.................. 4 6,5 ROCKFOn,D 7......... 72 (181) MADISON to AMILWAUKEE. Cottage Grove............ 8 Deerfield......... 8 16 Lake AMills......... 9 2 5 Aztalan......... 3 8 VWatertown.........10 38 Ixonia.... 8 46 Summnit..... 8 54 Delafield. — ---............... 4 58 Howa rd........... 7 65o WVauklesha......... 3 68 BrookfieIld..............5 3 Wawatosa -......... 9....... MIILWAUIEE......... 5 84 (185) MILWATUKEE to WV1IT04 WVATER. TO W'awatosa........... 5 Brookfield................6 Waukesha................ 5 Genesee................. 8 Ottawa.... —--—.-.. —... 6 Palmnyra........ 8 VtIIITE WATER........... 10 (182) MsADISoN to GREEN BAY. To T%indsor...............11 Lowville................ 14 2 o5 oc84oela................. 29 34 FORT T,VINNEBAGO......... 8 41 Rock llill *.................7 59 Kingston 2 6............... 61-. 2 Grand Prairie4 6 —.-............6 58 Ticliora............... 5 70 Green Lake............... 6 76 I 84 11 16 24 30 38 48 (186) MIILWAUKIEE to FOND DU LAc. To Granville............ 10( Menominee Falls............ 7 17 Polk..............20 37 tamr................. 7 44 Theresa.................. 8 52 Springfield................ 6 58 Byron...........,.......5 63 FOND DU LAc............. 8 71

Page  85 ROUTES IN WISCONSIN-MINESOTA. (187) MILWAUKEE to SHEBOYGAN. To Good Hope..........8C. 8 Mequoni River............ 6 14 Cedarburg............... 6 20 Grafton............... 3 23 Sackville............... 4 27 Ozaukie...............4 31 Cedar Grove..............12 43 Gibbville............... 6 49 Sheboygan Falls.......... 6 55 SHEBOYGAN..............6 61 (188) MILWAUKEE to SHEBOYDAN. Steamboat. To Ozaukie...............28 SHEBOYGAN...........30 58 (189) RACINE to JANESVILLE. Fort Atkinson............ 5'21 Jefferson................. 6 27 Johnsoni's Creek........... 5 32 WATERTOWN..........10 42 Emmet.......-........ 5 47 Clyman................3 50 Oak Grove................ 6 56 Beaver Dam............7 63 Waushara.............10 73 Waupun........10 83 Lamartine............. 9 92 FOND DU LAC........... 9 101 (192) JANESVILLE to GALENA. To Bachelor's Grove....... 8 Spring Valley............. 5 Decatur................ 7 Monroe...................12 Wiota............. 12 Shullsburg..............20 White Oak Springs....... 6 GALENA...............10 (193) SHEBOYGAN to NEENAH. To Sheboygan Falls....... 5 Plymnouth................. 9 Green Bush............... 6 Owascus..................10 FOND DU LAC.............11 Friiendship................ 5 Oshkosh..................13 Vinland................. 6 Groveland.............. 5 NEENAH............. 5 T o Fountain.............. 7 Ives' Gr ove......... 8 Yorkville...........5 Rochester......... 4 Burlington.......... 5 Spring Prairie............ 7 Elkhorn.............. 8 Delevan.......... 6 Darien.......... 4 Fairfield.......... 3 Emerald Grove......... 7 JANESVILLE —-..... —-...- 8 (190) SOUTHPORT to BELOIT. To Pleasant Prairie.......... 4 Bristol................. 6 10 Salem........-.-......-.. 9 19 Geneva...............15 34 Geneva B ay............. 6 40 Walworth 4 44 Sharon......- - -.......... 6 50 Allen's Grove........... 3 53 Clin toi N............ 6 59 BELOIT.................. 9 68 (191) JANESVILLE to FOND DU LAc. To Milton................. 8 Koskoniong.... —-....... 8 16 MINESOTA. (194) ST. PAUL to NEW ORLEANS. Steamboat. To St. Louis, (see 155).. 728 NEW ORLEANS, (see 154) 1212 1940 (195) ST. PAUL to FALLS OF ST. CROIX. To Stillwater.............. 17 Marine Mills..............12 29 FALLS OF ST. CROIX.......20 49 EE AND Miss. R. R. North Prairie............. Eagle Prairie............. 8 10 Palmyra.................. 6 14 Whitewater............... 8 17 Child's Station............ 5 20 Miltoni.................... 7 28,3 Janesville................. 8 85 13 20 32 44 64 70 80 14 20 30 41 46 59 65 70 75 MILW7AUKrI To Wauwatosa............ 5 Elm Grove............... 5 Powers' Mill.............. 4 Plank Road............... 3 WAUKEF,SHA............... 3 Genessee................. 8 36 42 50 55 62 70

Page  86 ......... ~.....7............,.. G- I - - C: ~- - ~~~~~-::::-Z0$::~:-~:::::::::::::::: ~, %o. ~..: % C;~.': ~- ~C: C:' ~ - cC~...:::. *~::.:... -~ ~:...... ,,,o_..,-... ~:......0 ,-,._ 40 -0-~ - ~ -4

Page  87 PRINCIPAL CANALS. St. Mlary's............... 2 133 Deep Cut...............1 3 146( JUr(:TION*.............35 18t * See Wabash and Erie Canal, Ia. Walhoniding Dam......... 4 Warsaw................. 2 Bedford Bridge........... 2 Darlinig's Bri(dge I.......... Gamble's Lock............ 1 Btlter's Lower Crossing... 1 Butler's Upper Crossing... 2 lralhonidiiig, (town)....... 3 Gamble's Saw Alill........ 1 Cumminigs' Bridge......... 2 lohican Dam...........2 2 ROCIIESTER.............. - -. 2 VARREN COUNTY CANAL Extends fro)m Lebaiion to tile Miami Canal at Middletown. Length........ -.- 19 miles. SIDNEY FEEDER Extends fiom Port Jefferson to the Miami Extensions Canal tIt Lock port. Lengtlh........ 13 miles. ItOCKING CANAL Extends from the Ohio Canal along the left bank of the Hocking River to Athens. C.ARROLL to Lancaster..... 9 Reams' Mill............... 5 14 Rush Creek............... 2 1( Green's MAill.............. 2' Hocking Falls............... 5 7 Logan..................1 8 Wi,righlt's................. *' 5 33 Pattonsville............... 1 34 Seven Mile Run........... 2 36 Nelsoltville............. 5 41 Monday Creek........... 3 44 Chauncey.......... 5..... 49 Wolt's.... 2 p....... 51 ATHENS................. 5 56 MUSKINGU3{ IMPrOVEMENT Extends fiom the Olio Canal at Dr-esden alonig the vflley of the Oiuskingmn to its mouth. DRESDEN to Simm's Creek. 6 Z ANESVILLEr................. 0 16 Taylorsville and Duncan9's Fralls.............. 4 Een..... 10 26 Rolkeby and Eag,leport....I 36 AleCoriinellsville alid Malta. 7 43 Wiidso................ - 10 53 Luke's Chute.......... 5 5 8 Beverly and Watertord....10 68 Lowell......l11 79 Devoll's....-.... 7 86 iIARIETTA. and EIAMAR -.- 5 91 SANDY AND BEAVEFR CANAL (.Iah,oning) Extends fi'om the Ohio Canal at Bolivar, along the valleys of tl-he Sandy and Beaver Creelrs to the Ohio River. Lenlgth..86 miles. MIAhIl CANAL AND EXTEN'SION Extends from Cincinnati oni the Ohio, to Junctioni with the Wa bash and Erie Canal. CINCINNATI to ILockland...12 Hamilton Side Cut.........16 28 Middletown 1............1:3 41 Franklin.................. 6 47 MAliamisburg............... 6 53., a Car-rollton.............. 3 56 Alexandersville.............. 1 57 DAYTON.................. 8 65 Tippecanoe..............15 80 Troy...................7 87 Piqua..................9 96 Loramie's Feeder.........3 99 Lockport................3 11)2 Newport...............12 114 Berlin.................. 5 119 Minister................. 3 122 Bremen.................3 125 St. Mary's Feeder.........6 131 87 6 8 10 11 12 13 15 ]8 19 21 23 25 ST. 3MAIY'S FEEDER Extends fiom Celin,a to the Mliami Externsion Cainal at St. ary's. Length.............. 11 mites. INDIANA. WABASH AND ERIE CANAL. Ohtio Division. AManhattan to TOLEDO......... 4 Por-t Aliami............... 8 Niatimee City............. 1 Waterville............... 5 Otsego............... 7 1" 13 18 25

Page  88 PRINCIPAL CANALS. Providence................ 5 30 Damascus................. 6 36 Napoleon................ 8 44 Florida................... 8 52 Independence............. 5 57 DEFIANCE................. 4 61 Junction of Miami Exten sion Canal.............. 9 70 Reservoir..............11 81 Antwerp.................. 3 84 State Line............ 4 88 Indiana Division. Indiana City............3 91 Fairport............... 2 93 Lewiston................. 3 96 FORT WAYNE..........12 108 Aboit6..............11119 Huntington.............16 135 Utica.................. 9 144 Lagro..................5 149 WVABASH...............6 155 Peru.................15 170 Lewisburg............ 8 178 LOGANSPORT...........- 8 186 Amsterdam............ 9 195 Lockport........ 6 201.........601 Carrollton................. 6 207 Delphi................5 212 Americus8 220................ 80 LA FAYETTE -—..........10O 230 Lodi or Coal Creek......51 281 TERRE HAUTE..........36 317 Point Commerce*.......42 359 Newburg............ -.17 376 Pigeon Dam...........72 448 EVANSVILLE..... — 19 467 * This canal is now open to Point Commerce. WHITEWATER CANAL. This canal extends from Cambridge on the National Road to the Ohio River. LAWRENCEBURG to Hard ingsbur g....... Elizabethtown............ 6 farrison................. 8 14 New Trenton.............. 6 20 Brookville................-1 31 Laurel City...............14 45 Connersville..............11 56 CAMBRIDGE...............12 68 ILLINOIS AND MICH.IGAN CANAL Extends from Lake Michigan to Peru on the Illinois River, there by opening a water commuinica tion between the Lake and Mis sissippi River. CHICAGO to Canalport...... 4 Summit.................. 8 12 Des Plaines...............10 2 Athens............... 4 26 Lockport.................6 32 JOLIET................6 38 Dupage................... - 148 Dresden...... 4 52 Morrisiana...... 9 61 Clarkson.................. 4 65 Marseilles.......12 77 Ottawa.. —................ 8 85 Utica.................... 9 94 La Salle.................. 4 98 PERU..................... 2 100 88 MLINOIS..

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Page  90

Page  A001 I C T A L OGU E MAPS, CHARTS, BOOKS, ETC., PUBLISHED BY J. 11. COLTON & CO)., NO. 172 WILLIAMI-STREET, CORNER OF BEEKMAN f11lustratedcl and Embellish ed 8teel-Plate MAP OF THE WORLD, 4)On IMIercator's Projectioln, exhibiting thle recent Arctile nnd Antarctic Discoveries an(d Explorations, &c. &c. 6 sheets. Size, SO by 60 inches. Price, nsounte(d, $10 00. Tis splendid an(ti highly-finished nmap is the largest and most accurate work of the kind ever publishe d. It exhibits a full resume of all geograthic;l knowledge, anii shows at one view, not only the worl(i as it now is, il i its n aturl an(l olit ici ela tions, but also the progress of 4iscovery triom the earliest ages. In its c o(npil'tion, every fatcility has been rendered( by)v the liberality of our own government in fitrnishing pib)liIested ainl( private ma)s a d td also by the governinmelts of EtLrope, especially those ot France anit Etngland, whose rich str'-s of geograiphical works have elicited mc, that uitil the present public;ition l,as been as a seal(e letter. As vt work of art, it excels all its tpredlecessors, and is as ornan tal' s useful. It is beamtifully colored, and mounted in the haudseomest style. MAP OF THE WORLD, On 3[ereatorns Projection, exhibiting the recent Arctic and Antarctic Discoveries and Explorations, &c. &e. '2 sheets. Size, 44 by 36 inches. Price, minotinted, $3 00. This work is redutice(i from the largie t, andtr( contains all the m)re Imp,,rtaiit features of thalt piiblicatioi. It hais )een conistructed with especi;l releretice to coimmnercial utility; the tiorts, liies of tbvel, intorior trailiig towrs sil posts, &c., teiig aiccurately lail lown. An importanlt featiuri' ill this inip is the transpsi.)sitioiin of the conietileiits s0 as to give America a central liositi n, aidl exhib)it the Atltintic ait(i Pacific ocens it' their entirety. The nap is engravedl ti steel, highly emhbhli-h,d, aiild m,ititedl iii the betst syle. As.it meiiuitm sized map, it omt'ins much more thai the usuaIl lmnoliit of intirmation. or

Page  A002 2 MAPS, CtIARTS BOOKS, ETC., MAP OF THIE WORLD, On IlereatornS proje(.tizin, &c. 1 sheet. Size, 2S by 22 inches. Pricc, lronnted, $1 50. This is a b('aitiftilly g jt tp miap, and, fiomn the closeness of its, i rrai o, c ains as mitlch as the gentraslitv ot maps tw ice it s size. It is aedl apI)ted for tie ise of those who do not reqir e the detail of iti;py, which is the peculiar /eatt'e ii thle la rger ap)s. As a colnliolnlo to toe stuldent of general listory it is, perhatps, preelrahle to any other, as it is compact aid e,asy of relte nce. T hie pro res of dliscovery, fihon the times of Colcmb)Is to the i)eellt ('dy, is fitlly exlibited(l; iand especiIl care has btet i taken t o show distinctly tile receit exploiati (,is i1 tlie A-ctic and Antarctic regions. MISSIONARY MAP OF THE WORLD, On a Ihemiisplierical projection, eacht heliisphliere bein, six feet in diamneter, an(l bothl printed on one pIiece ot clothl at one impression. Size, 160 by SO inches. Price, $10 00. This map presents to the eye, at one view, the moral iand religious condlition of thle worl-d, anil the efforts that are now making for its evaigeliztionl. It is so colored(l, that all thie principtil religiolis of thle wrv( l, withl the countries ini which they prevail, tiid their relation, )poSition, and extetit are tlistitiguished at once, together withl the prilncipal stations of the various missionary societies in nur own aind other coutr ties. It is so finished, being on cloth, that it may be easily foldled in cotiveved fiom place to place, and stispend(led i any liirge room. It is esl-t,eci:dllI recominended for the lecttire-ioom, Sundav-scb(ool. &c., and shou ld be possessed by every congregation. MAP OF NORTH AND SOUTH AMERIOA, With an enlarged plan of thie Istlihmis of Panan, shlow. ing the line of the railroad fron' Clagres to Panamna; also tables of distances fromn the principal ports of the United States to all parts of the wvorld. &c. 1 shleet. Size, 32 by 25 inches. Price, inolitited, $1 50. MAP OF NORTH AMERICA, (lompiled fiomn the latesit authorities. 1 sheet. Size, 29 by 26 inchles. Price, mounted, $1 25; in cases, $0 75.

Page  A003 PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF THE WEST INDIES, With the adjacent coasts: compiled from the latest au. thorities. 1 sheet. Size, 32 by 25 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50; in cases, $0 75. MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA, Carefully compiled from the latest maps and charts and other geographical publications. 2 sheets. Size, 44 by 31 Inches. Price, mounted, $4 00. This is the largest and best map of South America ever issued in this Country, and the only one available for commercial purposes. It is also an excellent school map. MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA, Compiled from the latest authorities, and accompanied with statistical tables of the area, population, &c., of the several states. 1 sheet. Size, 32 by 25 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50. MAP OF EUROPE, Carefully compiled from the latest maps and charts, and other geographical publications. 4 sheets. Size, 5S by 44 inches. Price, mounted, $5 00. The best map of Europe extant, exhibiting the topography and political condition of that continent with great accuracy. it is an excellent map for schools as well as for the merchant's office. MAP OF EUROPE, Compiled from the latest authorities, &c., with statis tical tables exhibiting the area, population, form of government, religion, &c., of each state. 1 sheet. Size, 32 by 25 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50. MAP OF ASIA, Carefully compiled from the latest maps and charts, and other geographical publications. 4 sheets. Size, 58 by 44 inches. Price, mounted, $5 00. This map is the largest and most accurate ever issued in America, ud conlahis all the most recent determinations in Brilish hilia, &c. 3

Page  A004 MAPS, CHARTS, BOOKS, ETC., It is indispensably necessary to merchaits tlrading, with Chiin.L, India, &c., and must be especially valuable at the piesent time, when our connection with thiose coutitries is daily becoming mi nore intimate. Nor is it less valuable for seminaries of leaininig. MAP OF ASIA, Compiled from the most recent authorities, together with statistical tables of the area, poputlation, &c., of each state. 1 sheet. Size, 32 by 25 jiches. Price, mounted, $1 50. MAP OF AFRICA) Carefully compiled from the latest maps and charts, and other geographical publications. 4 sheets. Size, 5S by 44 inches. Price, mounted, $5 00. The largest and most acculate map of Africa ever published in the United States. It exhibits the most recent discoveries of trav.ellersthe new political divisions on the ilorth and west coasts and in South era Africa, &c., &c. As an office or school map it hlias no superior. MAP OF AFRICA, Compiled from the lttest authorities, tand accompanied with statistical tables of the area, population, &c., of each state. 1 sheet. Size, 32 by 25 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50 MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, THE BRITISIT PROVINCES, M3EXICO, AND THE WAVEST INDIES. Showing the country from the Atlantic to the Pacifc ocean. 4 sheets. Size, 62 by 55 inches. Price, $ 00. Extraordinary exertions have been employed to make this map perfectly reliable and authentic in all respects. It is the only l1arge niap ti it exhilbits tlhe United States in its full extent. Being engrav on ste el, d hndsomely mounted, it forms not oily a useful, but hil ornantal adldition to the office, library. or hall. All the railroad s, canals, and postals, ith, distances from;ilace to place, are accurately laid d. T abke tie map m.re generally useful, tie publisher has appein,e,d to it a map of Central America and the Isthmus of Pan. ia, and Iso a plan cx lbibting the iliter-eceanic raitr tad, &c I eserves ttake pres,edence o aU niaps heretofore published in this country.

Page  A005 VI c~~~~~~~i~~~e (1 ~ ~ ~ ) tlvelit U,It~ S tte V ii' ~ ~ ~ l~ tiIItII d att pii,)p,,r f I "I~~~ -,,II ~ ii tiiiV Siit.d ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~itll i,t J~ L~~ltif ii ill iii Viii ii l i i~tV cii i, i tVIt it -,,II Iiith 3tii~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~) i itS i t f' i.; t,f cit (i 11)1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~O-I., lCt) rci,fll B,,Ilt

Page  A006 6 PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON. MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, THE BRITISH PROVINCES. MEXICO. THE WEST INDIES, AND CENTRAL AMERICA, WITH PARTS OF NEW GRENADA AND VENEZTELA, Exhibiting the country from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and fromn 500 N. lat. to the Isthmus of Panamra and the Oronoco river. 2 sheets. Size, 45 by 36 inches. Price, mounted, $2 50; in cases, $1 50. The vast extent of cotintry emibraced in this map, atid the importaiice of the territories portrayed, renider it one of the most tisoful to the inerchant atid all others coinnected with or interested ill the onward progress of the United Stlites. It is peculiarly adaptedi to the plresenit times, showing, as it does, the whole sphere of Anmerican steam navigation on both sid(les of the continient, ani( giving the best delineations extanit of our new territories on the Pacific. All the railroads and canals iare ltid down with accutracy. There is also appenrded to the miap a diagram of the Atlantic ocean, in reference to steam comntmunication between Europe and Amnerica; and a detailed plan of the Isthmus of Paiamna, showing the several lines of iuter-oceanic intercot-rse. The map is engraved Dn steel anid highly embellished. IHE STATE OF ARKANSAS. COLTON'S ~NEW TOW'NSHIP [A.P OF ARKANSAS. Compiled from the United States Surveys, and other au. thentic sources. By D. F. Shall. Size, 30 by 35 inchlies. Price,,nounted, Q2 00; pocket, $1 00. This is the best map of this state published-its correctness being certified by various gorerrneilt alla state ocers. MAP OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, WITH PARTS OF THE ADJACENT COUNTRY, Embracing plans of the principal cities and some of the larger villages. By David H. Burr. 6 sheets. Size, 60 by 50 inches. Price, miounted, $5 00. This is the largest and best map of the state in the market, and exhibits accu,rately all the cotttnty and township lines; all initernal improvemelits, anid the pos.tion of cities, villages, &c. A new edition, etibracing all the alterations made by the state legislature, is issued as eorly as 1possible after the close of each session ainnually, so that the public may rely on its completeness at the date of issue. 1*

Page  A007 MAPS, CHARTS, BOOKS, ET,. MAP OF THE STATES OF NEW ENGLAND AND N. YORK, With parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, tile Canadas, &c., showing the railroads, canals, and stage-roads, with distances fromn place to place. 1 sheet. Size, 30 by 23 inches. Price, nmounted, $1 25. This is an exceedingly minute and correct mnap, having been compiled with great care and a strict adherence to actual s'urvey. MAP OF TE Compiled fromt Survey andc 26 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50; in cases, $0 75. MAP OF LONG ISLAND, With the environs of the city of New York and the southern part of Connecticut. By J. Calvin Smith. 4 sheets. Size, 60 by 42 inches. Price, mounted, $4 00. TRAVELER'S MAP OF LONG ISLAND, Price, in cases, $0 38. A neat pocket map for duck-shooters and other sportsrme. MAP OF THE CITY AND COUNTY OF NEW YORK, Brookllyn, Williamsburg, Jersey City, and the adjaceLnt waters. 3 sheets. Size, 56 by 32 inches. Price, mounted, $3 00. The Commissioners' Strvey is the basis of this map. The improvements have been accurately laid down: and to make the woik more valu.ble, taps of the vicitity of New York, of the Ittldson river, and of the cities of lBostotn and Philadelphia, have been appendlei. No exertioi htas been s)ared to keep the work tip with the plrogress of the city and neighborhood. The exceedingly low price at which it is issuod ought tk sectu' to it a large circulation. 7

Page  A008 8 PUBLISHED BY J. H. COL TON. MAP OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK) Together with Brooklyn, Willianmsbuirg, Greenpoint, Jersey City, Hioboken, &c., exhibiting a plan of the port of Newv York, with its islands, sandbanks, rocks, and the soundings in fiet. I sheet. Size, 32 by 26 inches. Price, inointed, $1 50; in cases, $0 50. MAP OF THE CITY OF BROOKLYN, An consolidalated by nn acnet of lthe Legis,ilaltre of tle .stale ofNe v Yor,incindiling Brooklyn,$Villints bhtrTh, Green Point, and Bashswick, constrincled fron Ithe official iiaps of the Conmtiniioners and otiher anlhentic sources, exhibiting the fan-m lines iad names of the origin.l. owners.,ize, 54 by 40 inchies. Price, niounted, $5 00. SECTIONAL MAP OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS, Comnpiled fromi the United States' sitirveys. Also exhibit. ilig the internal iinproveinents; distances hIetiveen towhs, villagcs, and post-offces; outlines of prairies, woodlands, imarsihes, and lanids donated by the G(ene. rnal (overniien! for the purposes of internal iliprove. nients. By J. Dl. Peck, lIohni lessenger, anud A. J. Mathewson. 2 sheets. Size, 43 by 32 inches. Price, niiounted, $ 50; in cases, $1 50. The largest, most accurate, auid otily reliable malp of Illinois extant. MAP OF THE STATE OF INDIANA, Comnpiled from the United States' Snrveys by S. D. King. Exhibiting the sectionls and fractional seitions, situation and boonndaries of counties, the location of cities, villages, andl post-offices-canals, railroads, and othler internal iniproveiments, &-c., &c. 6 sheets. Size, 66 liy 4S inches. Price, inointed, $6 00. lThe only large aid acelcrate map of I'idiaina ever issiuol, and one tlat every latil-wiier,I5 spectlatoi will find indispenisably nicessary .0o aI ill intilerstaundiig of thie to)ogri)phy of the colititry, aLd tho improveinelits whicrl have beeni coipl)leled, anid those which are now in progress. It is hatdsomely engrzaved ait( etobellislied.

Page  A009 MAPS, CHARTS, BOOKS, ETO., 9 MAP OF THE STATE OF INDIANA, Compiled from the United States' surveys. Exhibiting the sections and fractional sections, situation and boundaries of counties, the location of cities, villages, and post-offices-canials, railroads, and other iuternali improvements, &c., &c. 2 sheets. Size, 43 by 32 inches. Price, mountesd, $3 00. This mall is a reduction from the large work, and contains equally with that important publication all the essential features of the state ail( the improvements that have been effected. It is suitable for an office or hlouse map. A NEW MAP OF INDIANA) Reduced from the large map. Exhibiting the boundaries of counties; township siurveys; location of cities, towns, villages, and post-offices-canals, railroads, and other internal improvements, &ec. 1 sheet. Size, 17 by 14 inches. Price, in cases, $0 38. MAP OF MICHIGAN) 3lap of the surveyed part of the State of Michigan. By John Farmer. 1 siheet. Size, 35 by 25 inches. Price, mounted, $2 00; in cases, $1 50. MAP OF THE WESTERN STATES, Viz.: Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Wrisconsin, and the Territory of Minesota, show. ing the township lines of the United States' Surveys, location of cities, towns, villages, post-hamlets-canals, railroads, and stage-roads. By J. Calvin Smith. I sheet. Size, 28 by 24 inches. Price, mouinted, $1 25; iii ctases, $0 63. MAP OF KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE; Ehblbiting the railroads, post roads, &c. 1 sheet. Size 25 by 17 inches. Price. mounted 1.25; and in cases, $0.50.

Page  A010 10 PUBLISHED BY J. H. ZOLTON. STREAM OF TIME, Or Chart of Universal History. Fromin the original Ger. man of Strauss. Revised and continued by R. S. Fisher, Al. D. Size, 43 by 32 inches. Price, mounted, $3 00. An invaluable companion to every student of History. MAP OF THE CITY AND COUNTY OF NEW YORK. Wdith parts of Brooklyn, Williamsburg-h and Green Point, and of Jersey City, Hoboken, &c. -Compiled fromn tile latest Surveys, &c. 1 Sheet. Size 32 by O20 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50;'in cases, $0 50. This map exhibits that portion of the city below 87th street on a large and uniformn scale; the portion northl of that street is exhibited on a snmaller scale, but is distinct tnd complete, being engraved on steel. Thle ward lines, fire limits, &c., are laid d(lown with accuracy sand in every respect the map is well suited either for the office or pocket PORTRAITS OF THE PRESIDENTS, And Declaration of Independence. 1 sheet. Size, 42 by 31 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50. NEW MAP OF CENTRAL AMERICA, From the most recent and authentic sources; showlng the lines of communication between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. One sheet. Price, in cases, $0 50. MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS. A combined view of the principal mountains and rivers in the world, with tables showing their relative heights and lengths. 1 sheet. Size, 32 by 25 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50. A CHART OF NATIONAL FLAGS, Each represented in its appropriate colors. 1 sheet. Size, 2S by 22 incbes. Price, mounted, $1 50.

Page  A011 MAPS, CIIARTS, BOOKS, ET C., 11 AN ILLUSTRATED MAP OF HUMAN LIFE, Deduced from passages of Sacred Writ. 1 sheet. Size, 25 by 20 Inches. Price, mounted, $0 75. MAP OF PALESTINE, Fromi the latest authorities: chiefly from the mnaps and drawings of Robinson & Smith, with corrections and add(itions furnished by the Rev. Dr. E. Robinson, and with plans of Jerusalemn and of the journeyings of the Israelites. 4 sheets. Size, 80SO by 62 inches. Price, mounted, $6 00. This large and elegant map of the Holy Laned is intended for the Sun. day-school and Lecture-room. It is boldly executed, and lettered in large type, which may be read at a great distance. Both the ancient suad modern aimes of places are given. MAP OF PALESTINE, From the latest authorities: chiefly from the maps and drawings of Robinson & Smith, with corrections and additions furnished by the Rev. Dr. E. Robinson. 2 sheets. Size, 43 by 32 inches. Price, mounted, $2 o0. This map is elegantly engraved on steel, and is peculiarly adapted to family use anii the use of theological studlents. It contains every place noted on the larger map, the only differenice being iii the scale on which it is drawnt. WVhile the lirge map is well suited for a school or lecttreroom, this is more convenient for family use aid private studly. Plans of Jerustlem and the vicinity of Jernsatlem are attached. Thie religious and secitular press throtugh,u-t tile country has exzressed a decided preference for this map of Profbssor Robhison over all others that have ever been issued. MAP OF EGYPT, The Peninsula of Mount Sinai, Arabia Petreua, with the southern part of Palestine. Com, piled fromnt the latest autborities. Showing the jolirneyings of the childiren of Israel from Egypt to the Hloly Land. 1 sheet. Size, 32 by 25 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50. Au excellent aid to the Bilble student.

Page  A012 12 PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON. NEW TESTAMENT MAP. A map of the countries mentioned in the New Testament and of the travels of the Apostles-with ancient and mod ern names, firon the most authentic sources. 1 shleet. Size, 32 by 25 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50. "Its size, finish, distinctness, fullness, and accuracy, make it very clegant and tisefitt. Sabbl)ath-school teachers and private Christian)s, aIs well as theological st(udents, may esteem and use it with great advanltage. * * I owi and value." Samael H. Cox, D. D. "On a scale neither too large to be llunwieldy, nor yet too small to be acciurate, it presents at a single view, with great distinctness, the scenes of the strikitng events of the New Testament, ttid cannot flail to give to [hose events a greater clearness, an(l by presenttigt so plainly their localities to throw over them new interest. * * * * * It seemns to have been drawn in accordance with the best authorities. Erskin,e lason,t D. D. "Valuable for accuracy, beauty, and cheapness. Having both the ancient and modern names of places, and being of portable size, it would appear happily adlapted for the use of Satbbath-school teachers." tVilliat R. [Villiams, D. D. "I have been much pleased with the appatetit accuracy, F. the beautiful execution of a map of the countries mentioned in the New Testament, published by Mr. Colton, and think it adapted to be useful." Stephen H. Tyan, D. D. GUIDE-BOOK THROUGH THE UNITED STATES) &c. Travelers- and Tourists' Guiude-Book through the United States of America and the Canadas. Containing the routes and distances on all the great lines of travel by railroads, canals, stage-roads, and steamboats, togeth er with descriptions of the several states, and the principal cities, towns, and villages, in each-accom. panied with a large and accurate ltap. Price, $1.00. ROUTE-BOOK THROUGH THE UNITED STATES, &c. 'rtrvelers9 and Tourists- Route.-Book through the United States of America and thze Canadas. Containing the routes and distances on all the great lines of travel by railroads, stage-roads, canals, rivers, and lakes, &c. accompanied with a large and accurate map. Price, $0.75.

Page  A013 MAPS, CHARTS, BOOKS, ETC. MAP OF NEW ENGLAND, With portions of the State of New York and the British Provinces. 4 sheets. Size, 64 by 56. Price, mountedeolored in counties, $5.00. 4" " colored in towns, $6.00. This is a magnificent map, engraved on steel, and exhibits the state county, and tovn lines; all the railroads, and other internal im,provements, and the general geography of the country-the whole on a larget scale than has ever been published before. It has also appended to it a separate mnap of New Brunswick arid Nova Scotia. EDDY'S MAP OF CALIFORNIA. Approved and declared to be the Official Map of the State by an Act of the Legislature, passed IMarch 25, 1S53. Compiled by WVilliam M. Edd y, State Surveyor General. 2 Sheets. Size 53 by 46 inches. Price, mounted, $5 00; in cases, $3 00. AUTIIOP.sITISS.-The coast line from San Diego to Oregon and the Harbors; Bays and Islands, are from data furnished from tihe U. S Coast Survey Office at Washington, and includes the work of 1852. Tihe Salinas and Tulare Valleys, the northern portion of the State embraced in part of Siskiyou and Shasta counties, the Colorado River, and that portion of Oregon shown on the map, are from Surveys and Rieconnoissances of the U. S. Topographical Engineers. The counties of Mendocino, Trinity, and Klamath, are from the map of George Gibbs, Esq. Tire country from the Pacific to the Gila, is from the map of the Boundary Commissioners. The remaining portion of the State is from maps and sketches made by the Surveyor General, County and other surveyors, and from astronomical observations under the superintendence of the Surveyor General, and verifications from the U. S. Land Surveys. The Mono country is from a sketch made by the discoverers, Lients T. Moorland N. 11. McLean, U.S. Army. WM. AI. EDDY, State S2irveyor Teneral. SAN FuANcisco, March 31st. 1853. NEBRASKA AND KANSAS. New mnap of Nebsaska and Ha sas, exhibiting the routes, settlements, etc. 1 sheet. Price, $0 3S; in cases, $0 50. 13

Page  A014 14 PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON. THE WESTERN TOURIST, And Emigrant's Guide through the states of Ohio, Mieh. igan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Wiscon. sin, and the territories of M1inesota, ilissouri, and Nebraska, being an accurate and concise description of each state and territory; and containing the routes and distances on the great lilnes of travel-accompanied with a large and minute map, exhibiting the township lines of the United States surveys, the boundaries of counties, and the position of cities, villages, and set tlements, &c. Price, $0 75. THE BOOK OF THE WORLD; i5eing an account of all Republics, Empires, Kingdoms, and Nations, in reference to their geography, statistics, commerce, &c., together with a brief historical outline of their rise, progress, and present condition, &c., &c. By Richard S. Fisher, M. D. In two volumes, pp. 632 727. (Illustrated with maps and charts.) Price, $5 00. Exhibiting the leading events of Universal History; the origin and progress of the arts and sciences, &c.; collected chiefly frosn the article "Chronology" in the new Edinburgh Encyclopedia, edited by Sir David Brewster, LL. D., F. R. S., dcc.; with an enlarged view of important events, particularly In regard to American History, and a continuation to the present time, by Daniel Haskell, A. M., American Editor of MAP OF THE TERRITORY OF MINESOTA, Exhibiting the Official Surveys. Compiled by T. Knauer. Civil Engineer, &c. Scale, 6 miles to the inch. Size, 32 by 30 inches. Price, mounted, $2 t00; in cases, $1 00. This map contains all the recent surveys made in the Territory by the United States' Surveyors, and exhibits with accuracy the base and' meridian line, the county, township. and section lines, and the general topography of the country, until now so little known. It is the only authentic map of the Territory ever published, and will be invaluable alike to the emigrant the speculator. and tlhe traveler.

Page  A015 MAPS, CITARTS, BOOKS, ETC. PLAN OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK IN NORTH AMERICA. SURIVEYED IN THIF YEARS 1766 AND 1767. To His Excellency Sir Henry Moore, Bart., Captain General and Governor-in-Chlief in and over His Man jestyes Province of New York and the Territories de pending thereon in America, Chancellor and Vice. Admiral of the Same, this Plan of the City of New York and its Environs, Surveyed and Laid Down, is Mrost Ilinubly Dedicated by His Excellency's Most Obed. Huinble Servant, B. IRATZER, Lieut. in His Miajestyps 60th or Royal American Regt. 2 sheets. Size, 44 by 40 inches. Price, mounted, $5 00. The value of the above map in legal cases is sufficiently attested by the the fact that the sublscription list corimprises the naimes of all the most eminent surveyors and lawyers il the cities of New York and Brooklyn. THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. MiAP OF THE STATE OF SOUTHI CAROLINA, Compiled from Railroad, Coast, and State Surveys. By G. E. WValker and J. Johnson, Civil Engineers. 4 sheets. Size, 73 by 57 inches. Price, mounted, $10 00. This map has been compiled under the authority of the Legislature of the State of South Carolina, and is the only map of the State which, for accuray of elieatio and minutite of detail, can claim to be reliable. It eIbres all the surveys nade be or under authority of the local govern ent, the surveys of the most eminent civil engineers in the service of the several railroad companies. and the results of the United States' Coast Survey and for the thehenticity of its material, and the general correctness of its topographical illustrations, the repiutatioii of two of the most widelv known and esteemed engineers of the State is responsible. Such gularintees for the perfection of a state map were never before afforiled to the public. The an, in point of ninuteness, stands unequalled: it exiits the lines of all existin r-ilrads.all railroads in proress, a those also which are roije(tted, the whole system of post and district roads. and all ther internal improvenents; the situation of cities lowt s villaes. post-offices. ad the great multiplicity of other objects usuallyt found on the best and st elaoate maps; and in point of execu tion. its artis'ieal merits are sch as to challeng!e tle admiration )f all whose coinio n is worth re.ordin~. The large sctle adopted l)the authors, the istintness ith hici i ts eat natural features are ilepicted, and the truthf,ediness of its gec(,raphical context, adatit it peculiarly to the wants of all interested comerce, internal trade, ad general bus.i ness within the State; and to sveyrs ani engineers it mst supply much that is nev, important, and valuable to facilitate their labors in the field as " ell as in the ce. No resident, indeed. at,l interested il the prigress of the State, can well lo without this map. which so faithfully reflects the actual condition of the country witi which hlie is identified. 15

Page  A016 16 PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTOIq. COLTON'S OUTLINE MAPS, ADAPTED TO THE USE OF PRIMARY, GRAMMAR, AND RIGII SCROOLS. This new and valuable Series of Outline Maps comprises A Map of the World, in two hemispheres, each 80 inches in diameter, and separately mounted. A Map of the United States, 80 by 62 inches. A Map of Europe, 80 by 62 inches, on the same plan with that of the United States, will complete the series THE MAPS OF THE WORLD Are nearly quadruple the size of any others now in use, and exhibit the different portions of the Earth's surtface ill bold and vivid out line, which makes them sufficiently distinct to be d)lainly seen and studied from the most distant parts of the largest sclool-room. They exhibit the physical featuires of the World, and also give an aceurate view of its political divisions, showing the relative size of each, with their natural and conventional boundaries. In the corners of each map there are diagrams which exhibit the elements of physical geography, as the parallels, meridians, zones, an(t climates-the latter by isothermal lines. There are also al)l)ei.:de(l two separate hemispheres, exhibiting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceanms complete, kc., firminig in all eiht different diagrams, illtstrative of the primar elements of the science. These appenldices will greatly assist the teacher in his ellcidations, and make tangible to the scholar the basis of geographical mechanism. THE MAP OF THE UNITED STATES ]xhibits the entire territory of the Union from the Atlantic to the Pacillc O)ceans, and also the greater portiln of the Biritish Possessions in the North, and the whole of Mexico and Cenitril America, with part o0 the West tidies, in the $outh. It has also aplpein(led to it a NIAP OF THE NEW-ENG(I,ANI) STATES, on a larger scale. The lphysical and political geograpl)hy of this interesting region is minutely detailed. The localities of the cities. anlid important towns, parts, and harbors are denoted by points, andi the map generally has been constructed on the most approved( principles, unler the supervision and adrioe d meveral competent and experienced teachers. Price of these Maps is $5 each

Page  A017 MAPS, ChARTS, BOOKS, ETC. 117 UNIFORM SERIES OF TOWNSHIP MAPS. COLTON'S NEW MAP OF MISSOURI, compiled from the United States' Surveys and( other authentic sources. Scale, 15 miles to the inch. Size, 32 by 29 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50; in cases, $0 T5, COLTON'S RAILROAD AND TOWNSHIP MAP OF THE STATE OF OHIO, compiled from the UITnited States Surveys, &e. Scale, 12 miles.to the inch. Size, 32 isy 29 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50; in cases, $0 75. COLTON'S TOWNSHIP MAP OF THE STATE OF WTIS CONSIN, compiled from the UTnited( States' Surveys and other authentic sources. Scale, 15 miles to the inch. Size, 32 by 29 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50; in cases, $0 75. COLTON"S TOWNSHIP MAP OF THE STATE OF IOWA, compiled from the United States' Surveys and other autlhentie sources. Scale, 14 miles to the inch. Size, 32 by 29 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50; in cases, $0 75. COLTON'S RAILROAD AND TOWNSHIP MAP OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, with parts of the adjoining States and Canadas. Scale, 15 miles to the inch. Size. 32 by 29 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50; in cases, $0 75. COLTON7S NEW RAILROAD AND TOWNSHIP MAP OF THE STATES OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND VERMONT, cornpiled from the most recent and authentic sources. Scale, 9 miles to thie inch. Size, 32 by 29 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50; in cases, $0 75. COLTON'S NEW RAILROAD AND TOWNSHIIP MAP OF THE STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHIODE ISLAND, AND CONNECTICUT, compiled from the United States' Coagt Survey and other accurate and authentic sources. Scale, 9 milesto the inch. Size, 32 by 29 inches. Price, mounted, $1 50; in cases, $0 7 The above series is the most accurate and 4etailed of any published, snd in all that relates to railroads and other internal improvement, is cminplete to the date of publicatien.

Page  A018 is PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON. MAP OF THE STATE OF KENTUCKY, Caref ally conmpiled froni thie iloat auitlielitic origi nal ianp.,* docnesitsicil, and niisctellntcous infor nlanlioi. By Ed.nunld F. Lee, Civil Enlgineer. 6 sheets. Size, 76 by 4S incihes. Price, niounted, $6 00. TI-is is the largest and most detailed map of the prosperous State of K,,.ttucky vvc.r published, and the produection of one of the most acconmplishe(d civil engineers of the Union. It contains the minute topograll)y of the Slatb; the location of all cities, towns, villages, and posto~ff.es; the r:,ilr,)ads and other lines of travel, with the distances between places; the boundaries of counties; geological diagrams, ehkvitii,)s, etch, andi statistical tables of agriculture, po(pnlationi, etc. It is peculiarly adapted to the pu,rposes of all interested in the actual co,lliiti(,i of tile State, its ilnternal improvements and gel,tral condition; and as an accurate and reliable map has no competitor. MAP OF THE STATE OF GEORGIA, Compiled friom official and aiuthentic sonrces. By WVim. G. Bolaier, Civil Engiineer. I sheet. Size, 26 by 19 inches. Price, in cames, $0 75. This map is a reduction of the large map of Georgia by the same authior, an,l contains tall tltc peculiar features —dettil, accuracy, and beautly-of lthe origiial. Poalts of all descriptions, the pIroper lo(cation of torwns, the coti,ty lines, irncltding those ()f the thirteen new counties eret(ei in 185o4. are l;hid downti; and thie State throughoat is repreeunt,.dl faithfully as it exists at the present time. The traveler will flind(l this map to be a true guide to thie localities he may wish to visit. THE EUROPEAN BATTLE FIELDS. linsp of Europe; together wvith a large plan of the Bitrcis Sea aud tannbian Provijices. I sheet. Size, 30 by 24 inches. Price, niounittod, $1 25; in casesy $0 50; in sheets, $0 37 This map has been provided with the view of exhibiting the progre,s of the Russo-Ttrkiish war. It conttins a large antottnt or itiforniation, andi will be foundI better adapted to its special object than any other that has been published.

Page  A019 MAPS, CHARTS, BOORS, ETC. MAP OF THE WESTERN STATES; V1z., Ohio, Indiana, Mlichigan, Illinois, Kentucky, i souri, Iowa, and the Territories, exhibiting the base, meridian, and township lines of the United States sur veys; the lines of the counties; the general geography of the country; the railroads, canals, and other roads; the location of cities, villages, and post-ofices, etc., etc.: compiled from the most recent and accurate sources. Engraved on steel. Sizes 4S by 36 inches. Price, mounted, $3.00; and in portable form, $1.50. This Map of the Western States is the largest, most accurate, and, at the sanie time, the moist convenienit that has hitherto been published. It em braces the great features of tlhe country, and exhibits, at one view, the nedriug and importance of its relative parts. Noone interested in the de velh,piient of the West can well dispense with so elaborate a portraiture of its surface; and it will be equally interesting and useful for countingQouse reference as it mnust be for the trade r ar,traveler, immigrant, or resident, for which classes of our citizens it has been especialy designed. In compiliug this great work, it has been a chief object to have all the lines of travel, bv railroad, canal, or otherwise, laid down accurately, and iil furthierance of this object, the assistance of the engineers of the several works has been obtained, and the lines have been traced from the original surveys by the surveyors of each respectively. In this respect, no formel map of the West has auny pretence to accuracy, and hence this publication claims preference with those who desire to acquaint themselves thoroughly with the country delineated, and its means o. intercommunication. NEW SERIES OF MAPS FOR TRAVELERS, This series embraces maps of each of the United States, of the several British Provinces, and of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies, exhibiting with accuracy the railroads, canals, stage routes, &c., also the principal cities, and other objects of interest, iii appended diagrams. cts. Lake Superior, 88 Louisiana, 88 Maine, 88 Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 38 Mexico, 50 Michigan, North, 88 Michigan, South, 8S Minesota, 88 Mississippi, 883 Missouri, 88 New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, &c. 88 New eampshire, 88 New Tersey, 88 cts. Alabama, 38 Arkansas, 88 California, 50 Canada East, 38 Canada West, 38 Central America, 50 Connecticut, 38 Delaware and Maryland, $8 Florida, 38 Georgia, 88 Illinois, 88 Indiana, 38 lowa, % Kentucky and Tennessee, 88 I 19 cts. New Mexico and Utah, 50 New York, 88 North Carolina, 88 Ohio, 88 Oregon and Wash ington Ter., 50 Pennsylvania, 88 Rhode Island, 38 South Carolina, 88 Texas, 38 Vermont, 88 Virginia, 88 West Indies, 50 Wisconsin, 39

Page  A020 20 PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON. NEBRASKA AND KANSAS, Exhibiting the new Territorial boundaries, Indian clainls, lines of travel, towns, etc.. together with a map of the new Territory south of the Gita River. Size, 30 by 24 inches. Prices, mounted, $1 25; in cases, $0 50; itt sheets, $0 37. MAP OF THE COUNTRY 12 MILES AROUND THE CITY OF NEW YORK, %Vith the names of property-holders, &c., from an en tirely new and accurate survey. By J. C. Sidney. 2 sheets. Size, 40 by 40 inches. Price, mounted or in cases, $3 00. WESTERN PORTRAITURE; And Emigrants' Guide: a Description of Wisconsin, Illinois, and Iowa, with Remarks on Minnesota and other Territories. By Daniel S. Curtiss. In 1 vol 12mo. pp. 360, (illustrated with a township map.) Price, $1 00. Actual observation and great experience are the bases of this work; and in I,nmguage and incident it has much to interest. It treats of the " Great West," its scenery, its wild sports, its institutions and its chu acteristics, material and economic. In that portion devoted to statistical illtstration, the to(pographly of sections and the ad(laptatio(n of localitiee to particutlar branches of indutstly occupy a large space: the geology, soit, climate, powers and prodtctiotis of each are considered, and their allied interests, their respective values and destinies, and their present conditions, are accurately described. N. B.-A German edition of the "Western Portraiture-, has also been issuted and will be found ofessential advantage to immigrannts fromin the i fatherland," as it contains all the information necessary for their gaining a knowledge of the states to which Gernian immigration is chiefly directed. It contains an excellent township nmap. Price, bound, $0.75; in covers, $0.50. MAP OF THE PROVINCES OF NEW BRUNSWICK, NOVA SCOTIA, AND NEWFOUNDLAND, -C4l parts of the country adjacent thereto. I sheet. .iize, IS by 15 inches. Price, in cases, $0 38.

Page  A021 PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON. 21 A STATISTICAL ACCOUNT OF AMERICA; Being a description of the geography, resources, indus try, institutions, and other interests pertaining to the several governments and nations thereof. By Richard S. Fisher, M.D., author of the Book of the World,' and other statistical works. (Not yet complete.) 1 vol. Svo. pp. 400. Price, bound, $2.00. This elaborate work represents, in the tangible form of figures and descriptions, all the great interests which make and distinguish nations. It comprises among its subjects the geography, geology, and natural resources of all the countries of North and South America, and full statistical details of the population, industry, and general condition of each. It is a work which every American needs-sufficiently detailed in all its departments for the utilitarian,and in its style and general character not too elaborate for the college or school library. By the student it maybe used as a sequel to his geographical studies, and it is perhaps surpassed by no other work in its adaptation for the family circle, as it combines with its subjects much striking and instructive information respecting the original inhabitants, the antiquities, and curiosities of the continents to which its descriptions specially refer. No one, indeed, who is possessed of the maps of America, ought to be without this work, which so lucidly fills up the outlines they depict. THE NATIONS OF THE WORLD; Being a general description of all nations and countries their geography resources, industry, and institutions; together with a brief history of their rise, progress, and present condition. By Richard S. Fisher, M.D., author of the " Book of the World,)- and other statistical works. (Not yet complete.) 2 vols. Svo. pp. 400, 416. Price, bound, 83.50. This is a work of universal utility and, from its accuracy of detail, must become a STANDARD in geographical literature. It contains a full resume of all the great interests of nations and describes, in concise language, the distinguishing features of the families of mankind, their origin, languages, customs, religioust pursuits, and characters. The vast amount of statis tical information it contains has been derived from the most recent and authentic sources-principally from official documents referring to the year 1850 and hence, from the uniformity of the statistical series used in its compilation, comparison is more easy, and the results more lucidly por trayed. As a text-book for colleges and high schools, or as a work of refer ence in public and private libraries, it is invaluable and in many respects its superiority as a "book for the people" generally is too apparent to be mistaken. It is in fact a companion to the Map of the World. It describes where the map demarks, and makes apparent to the mind what the latter only typifies to the eye. INDIANA; [ts geography, statistics, institutions, county topography, &c. s compiled from offlcial and other authentic sources. By Richard S. Fisher, M. D., author of the " Book of the World,ly and other statistical works. With a sectional map of the State. 1 vol. l2mo. pp. 12S. Price, $2.00.

Page  A022 22 PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON. MAP OF THE SOUTHERN STATES; VIZ., lIaryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Tex. as, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, and Kentucky: con strHcted from authentic materials. 4 sheets. Size, 61 by 43 inches. Price, mounted and colored, $6.00. This map is engraved on steel. It is undoubtedly the best and most elaborate map of the southern section of the United States, and exhibits with accuracy all the civil and political divisions; the lines of railroads, and other works of internal improvement; the United States surveys in the land states, and a great mass of other information. Such awork the South has long wanted. TOWNSHIP MAP OF THE STATE OF MAINE, Exhibiting the railroads, and other internal improvements. 2 sheets. Size, 43 by 37 inches. Price, colored in towns, $3; in counties, $2 50 in cases, $1 50. This splendid map is engraved on steel, colored handsomely, and hndilts(o in the best style. Itand most complete ma of the state it represents that has hitherto been published, and exhibits distinctlv all the civil divisions, internal improvements, &c., with great accuracy and conciseness. In its compilation the assistance of officers of the United States Coast Survey has contributed much to the value of its representation of the seaboard districts. GUIDE-BOOK THROUGH THE NEW ENGLAND AND M[D)DLE STATES. Traveler's and Tourist~s Guide-Book through the New England and lliddle States, and the Canadas. Con taining the routes and distances on all the great lines of travel, by railroads, canals, stage-roads, and steam boats, together with descriptions of the several sates, and the principal cities, towns, and villages in eachaccompanied with a large and accurate map. Price, $0.75. MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, The Canadas, &dc., showing the railroads, canals, and stage-roads, with the distances from place to place. Size, 28 by 32 inches. Price, in cases, 80.63.

Page  A023 MAPS, CHARTS, BOOKS, ETC. 3 STATISTICAL MAP OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, Comprising all the principal statistics of each county agricultural, manufacturing, commercial, &c. By R. S. Fisher, MI. D., author of the "' Book of the WVorld," &c. 1 sheet. Size, 32 by 26 inches. Price, $0 25. Useful to all classes of our citizens, and indispensable for the inforlmation of parties engaged in the construction of railroads and other iiternutl lmprovements speculators in land, and persons designing to settle in ally part of the State. All the-material interests of the country are plainly mdicated in figures on the face of the map, or in the tables which a tompany it. HORN'S OVERLAND GUIDE FROM COUNCIL BLUFFS TO CALIFORNIA. Containing a Table of Distances, and showing all the rivers, lakes, springs, mountains, camping places, and other prominent objects; with remarks on the country, roads, timbers,, grasses, &c., &c. Accompanied by a MIap. Price, $0 50. CORDOVAIS MAP OF TEXAS, Compiled from new and original surveys. 4 sheets. Size, 36 by 34 inches. Price, in cases, $3 00. This is the only reliable map of Texas, and being on a large scale, exhibits minutely and with distinctness the natural features of the State and its several political divisions. The following government officers certify to its accuracy and completeness. "We have no hesitation in saying that no map could surpass this in accuracy and fidelity." DAVID S. KAUFrMAN, Taos. J. RUSK, S. PILSBURY, SAX. HOUSTON. II certify to the corrctness of this map, it being the only one extan that is truly correCt." JOHN C. HAYS. Besides his own publication, J. I. C. has constantly on hand a large assortment of Atlases and Foreign Maps. Mounting in all its foigs carefully executed for the trad, public isntitution, &d.

Page  A024 24 A NEW AND COMPLETE STATISTICAL AND GENERAL GAZETTEER OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, FOUNDED ON AND COMPILED FlOMn Official Federal and State Returns, and the Census of 1850 BY RICHARD SWAINSON FISHER, M.D., Author of the "Book of the World;" "Progress of the U. States,' a "Statistical Account of America," etc., etc.; also, literary editor of " Colton's American Atlas," and editor of the "American Railway Guide." TuHE "STATISTICAL GAZETTEER" describes and sums up all the prominent and material interests that make and distinguish the sev eral political and civil divisions of the country; the physical peculi arities, the mineral and other resources, the capacities for agriculture, manufactures, commerce, and other industrial pursuits, and the pres ent condition of each section, in accordance with the ascertainmente of the Seventh Census, taken in 1850, and other federal and state re turns. Great attention has also been paid to works of internal im provement. In compiling this work, two extremes, noticeable in Gazetteers hitherto published, have been carefully avoided: the one of which has been to give a mere catalogue of names; and the other, to select for description only such places as, by their historical greatness, their extensive manufactures, or other special interests, have gained a notorious position. This Gazetteer notices each state, county, city, village, and natural object, at such proportional length as its importance demands, and in that terse and judiciously compressed style so desirable in books of this description, excluding all irrelevant detail, and dwelling only on the most prominent and interesting features. It thus commends itself to all classes, occupying, as it does, a position between the abstruse and popular, retaining the precision of tho one, without its detail, and the interest of the other, without its vagaries. It is an eminently practical work, and to the commercial man, the traveler, and statist, must be an indispensable companion. The work is published in one volume, royaZ octavo, containing about 960 pages. and is strongly bound in leather. Price Three Dollars and a alf.

Page  A025 25 AMFRICAN STATISTICAL ANNUAL FOR THE YEAR 1854-5. COMPILED FROM THB MOST AUTHENTIO BOUROES BY RICHARD S. FISHER, M. D., AND CHARLES COLBY, A. M The "American Statistical Annual" is a work in which are embodied the detailed statistics of all American States, and a summary of those of Europe, Asia, Africa and Australasia. The Statistics represent the condition of all the interests of nations and countries according to the latest official returns, chiefly those made since 1850. The work is divided into four parts. Part First-contains the Census Statistics of the United States and of the States severally, and the reports of the departments of thle governments f each, with bstracts of state constitutions and of executive messages; and among a multiplicity of other matters of interest will be found a correct list of colonial and constitutional governors, the statistics of asylums for the deaf and dumb, blind, and insane; school statistics; the financial conditin of states *statistics of navigation and commerce, domestic and foreign; accurate lists of railways, caials, telegraphs, etc.; statistics of colleges, universities, theological schools, medical schools, law schools, and scientific schools; and statistical information relative to every interest of the states described. This division indeed contains a faithful review of the present condition of the Usion and its component States. Part Secod-is devoted to the States of Central and South America, and contains the latest statistics relative to their condition. In its compilation the assistance of the ministers of the several states resident at Washington has been sought, and thus entire accuracy has been attained. No part of America has hitherto been so little known in this country as these states, and hence the information collected from such sources will be pe-uliarly valuable. Part Third-describes Colonial America, and contains a vast fund of authentic information relative to the Russian, Danish, British, Dutch, French, Spanish and Swedish possessions, never before published. The late census of the British Colonies are chief features in this part of the work. and for these and many other valuable docunments the authors are greatly indebted to the governors of the several dependencies. The Dutch and Danish censuses are also given. Part Fourth-ontains extensive statistics of trans-Atlantic States in tabular, form chiefly respecting the extent, population, finances, armed force, militar h and naval, merchat arine, railways, etc., of each. The conciseness of these statistics, which are all of the latest dates, makes them of great value for ready reference. So extensive a work on statistics has never before been attempted; noi has such a variety of interests everbeei brought together. The merchant, the scholar, the minister of the gospel, the physician, and indeed every class ofsociety will find in it something of importance relative to his individual profession. The economist will appreciate it as a book of facts, and refer to it in his arguments against the sophist; and to no class of persons can it be of more value than to editors of newspapers, whose attention is frequently too closely confined to matters which preclude the possibility of research for a wanted fact, but which the index of this volume will readily discover. The work is handsomely printed, in fine type, and contains as much mattes as three ordinary volumes of the same size. Price, $1.50 bound half cloth, leather back.

Page  A026 26 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY COMBINED lu 1 vol., 4to, with 80 Maps and 200 Engravings, ENTITLED CO1MPREHENSIVE GEOGRAPHY AND HIIISTORY, Ancfent ant b BY S. G. GOODRICH, Author of "Parley's Tales," and "Pictorial Histories." This work contains 272 quarto pages, equal to 1,000 common 12mo pales It is the most complete and comprehensive work f,or the daily use of Faomilies, Merchants, Editors ot papers, Lawvers, Postmasters, Emigrants, &c. that has ever appeared. It contains the Geography and History of every country. including the new census of the United States; it gives the sit uation and population of over 5,000 cities, towns, and villages; the mate. rials are all arranged in the most convenient order, and a copious index serves as a guide to the hlistory and geography of the most remarkable places in the world. This work has received the highest commenieidation at the hands of scientific men in America and Europe. (Price, hall bound $2 00, cloth gilt $3 00, morocco $3 50.) Fromn the Washington Republic, Mat 5, 1853. "This work belongs to the utilitarian class, and will doubtless take a permanent place in the higher schools, and in readinig families generally. Itis much more extensive than ordinary school treatises, as it includes some 270 quarto pages crowded with matter, and containing as much as two common 8vo. volumes. It is also illustrated with numerous engravings on wood, and, what is more important, with 80 maps, plans of cities, &c. "It may be a question whether it is best to study history with geography, at the outset; but in a more advanced stage of study, there can be no doubt that it is desirable at least to review geography in immediate connection with history. This work is prepared with this view, and its introduction into the higher seminaries will prove a great advantage to education. " But after all, the work strikes us as likely to be most useful in families, and to geineral readers, inasmuch as it furnishes a very full outline of geography and history, with descriptions of country, so clear and distinct as to divest both of these subjects of the mists which usually attend them in the mind. They are rarely studied from the beginning in a proper manner, and hence there are certain labyrinths into which almost every one habitually strays in approaching them. In the present work, by a systematic arrangement, and especially by the use of numerous niaps, anci ent and modern, placed in immediate contiguity with the text the various topics are presented in a manner so lucid as not only to pre vent new errors and correct old ones, but at the same time to render sub jects interesting which might otherwise be unattractive. "Beside all this, for general reference the work in question is exceedingly convenient, and will often save the trouble of consulting various sources of ilformration. Take, as an example, the subject of Germany, with its divisions and subdivisions. In order to find the history and geography of these countries, as given in the book before us, it would be necessary to consult at least half a dozen volumes "In regard to countries whose history go back to antiquity, the advan ta=e is even greater. The view given of the Roman empire in connection with the Greek emnpire, furnishes an example of the remarkably clear manner inwhich the author has contrived to treat geographical and historical topics. "We consider the work, as a whole, to be an excellent one, marking a great advance in the art of preparing books for popular use, ad desering therefore, universal encouragement "

Page  A027 27 NEW PHIIYSICAL MATD POLITICAL ATLASES. AMERICAN ATLAS, Illustrating the Physical and Political Geography of the United States of America, the British Provinces, Mexico, Central America, the WVest Indies, and South America: constructed from official surveys and other authentic materials. The "American Atlas" contains separate maps of every state and coUn try of North and South America, and the West Indies, engraved in the most elaborate style, and colored so as to distinguish readily the civil and political divisions of each. The work embraces about 55 maps in imperial folio. and each map is accompanied with a letter-press description of the country it may represent; exhibiting, in a condensed form, all its great interests, industries, and institutions. Price, $15.00; or without letter-press $12.50. ATLAS OF THE WORLD, Illustrating Physical and Political Geography: constructed from official surveys and other authentic materials. The "Atlas of the World" contains all the maps and letter-press comprised in the American Atlas, with the addition of between 50 and 60 maps and descriptions of the several countries of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceanica, and, in every respect, is got up in the same sDlendid style, and with the same regard to authenticity and correctness. Price, $24.00; or without letter-press, $20.00. The maps contained in the above elaborate works have been drawn under the superintendence of an accurate and accomplished geographer, and contain besides the usual geographical outlines, true representations of all works of internal improvement, the lines of public surveys, and a great mass of other valuable information. The descriptive portions of the work are written by DR. R. S. FISHER. author of the "Book of the World," and other statistical works. These descriptions embrace all the geographical, geological, and statistical information incident to the countries to which they refer; and also an outline of their institutions, political, religious, and intellectual. In the compilation of this, as in all other departments of the works, the most recent and authentic materials have been used, and the whole forms a convenient and reliable source of information touching the subjects treated of. Works such as the above have long been demanded by the enlightened portion f the American public. For many years extraordinary advances have been made in geographical science; discoveries of the highest importanc e have been efdected; regions before comparatively unknowi have been explored, and their physical characteristics ascertained with greater or less minuteness; and on every side man has been actively engaged in acquiring information, whereby to extend the sphere of civilization and commerce. None of the important facts developed by these movements are to be found in the old atlases, and hence the necessity for entirely new works, embracing all the results that have been obtained from the sources indicated. The atlases above named supply this necessity, and in their maps ani descriptions the world, as known at the present time, is represented with faithfulness and accuracy; and the vast amount of information collected by explorers, travelers, and others, existing until now in forms accessible only to the few, are incorporated into these pages. Every effort has been used by the publisher to furnish to the warld works that shall be creditable alike to the genius, learning, and mechanical skill of America, and superior in everv respect to any like productions of the press, either of this country or Europe. Their utility is not limited to any lass, but is co-extensive with the sphere of civilized hwnumanity. 1s

Page  A028 28 LIST OF MAPS CONTAINED IN COLTON'S ATLAS OF THE WORLD. 1. Vignette Title. 5. Oity of Chicago. 2. Heights of Mountains. City f St. Loois. 3. Lengths of Rivers. 56. Missomi. I Comparative size of Lakes. 57. Iowa. 4., 1 Islands. 58. Wisconsin. 5. Physical Maps of the World. (2 Uaps.) 59. Minnesota. 6. 60. Nebraska Territory, etc. 7. 61.Utah and New Mexico. 8, 9. World on Mercator's Projection. 62. California. (D,o,ble) 63. Oregon and Washington. 10. World, Eastern Hemisphere. 64. Mexico. 11. Western 65. Central America. 12. Northern Regions. 66. West Indies. 13. Southern Regions. 67. South America. 14. Noth America. 68 New Granada, Venezuela, and 15. British Poss essions in N. America. Ecuador. 16. New Buswick, Nova Scotia, and 69. Peru and Bolvia. Newfoundland. 70. Brazil and Guayana. 1l. Lower Canada and New Brunswick. 71. Chili and Argeltine Republic, Ur18. Upper Canada. guay andParaguay. 19, 20. United States. (Double.) 72. Patagonia. 21. Maine. 73. Europe. 22. New Hampshire. 74, 75. England. (Double.) 23. Vermont. 76. Vicinity of London. 24. Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 77. Scotland 25. City of Boston. 78. Ireland. 26 Connecticut. 79. France. 27. New York. 80. Vicinity of Paris. 28, 29. N. York & adjacent cities. (Double.) 81. Spain and Portugal. 30. New Jersey. 82. Holland and Belgium. 31. Pennsylvania. 83. Denmark. 32. City of Philadelphia. 84. Germany, No.1. 33. Delaware and Maryland. 85. Germany, No. 2. 34. City of Baltimore. 86. Germany, No. 3. 35. Cities of Washington and George- 87. Italy (North). townS. 88. Italy (South). 36. Virginia. 89. Switzerland. 37. North Carolina. 90. Norway and Sweden. 38. South Carolina. 91. Russia. 9 City of Charleston. 92. Prussia. City o 39 * City of Savannah. 9.Asra 40. Georgia. 94. Turkey in Europe. 41. Florida. 95. Geece and theIonia Islands. 42. Alabama. 96 Asia. 43. Mississippi. 97. Turkey in Asia. 44. Louisiana. 98. Palestine. 45. City of New Orleans. 9. Afianistan Beloclistan, Tartiy, 46. Texas. Arabia, etc. 47. Arkaisas. 100. China. 48 Kentucky and Tennessee. 101. Japan. 49.Ohio. 102. India. Cityof Louisville. 103. East Indies, Birmab, Siam, eta. 50 City of Cincinnati. J.. Austr.li. 51. Indiana. 105. Islands of the Pacific Ooean. 62. Michigan. 106. Africa, N. E. sheet. 63. N. Michigan and Lake Superior. 107. Africa, N. W. sheet. 54. IllInois. 108. Africa, Southern. 109. Cuba. Whole number of faps,. 180, on 109 sheets.

Page  A029 29 T0 TEACHERS AND SCHOOL COMMITTEES. COLTON AND FITCHI'S AMERICAN SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY. Now in Press. J. H. Colton & Co. announce to the piblic that they have in press a new system of Geography for Common Schools and Academies, which they design to issue during the present year, (1854). The wide spread demand for a new school geography, and the conviction in their minds that a great improvement on those in general use is needed and attainable, have induced the publishers to undertake the enterprise, and they are resolved that no pains or expense shall be spared in making a first-rate work. Previously to undertaking the task of preparing a new school geography, the author (Mr. George W. Fitch) communicated with a great number of experienced teachers respecting the defects of our present books, and the manner in which the subject should be treated in order to meet their approbation. Profiting by the suggestions thus obtained, as well as by his own experience in teaching, he has sought to make the work eminently practical, and to adapt it especially for use in the schoolroom. It has been a leading idea with the author, to give particular prominence to the facts of Physical Geography, and to arrange them in such a way that the learner may see the relations they bear to each other, and to the industrial affairs of manikind. Great advancement has been made in this department of geograpnical science during the past few years, and the author is not aware that the facts relating thereto, with appropriate illustrations, have ever been systematically embodied in an American school-book, adapted to the comprehension of the great mass of scholars in our Common Schools and Academies. The a, thor trusts that his mode of treating this branch of the subject will meet the approbation of all intelligent teachers. The work is to be entirely new, with new maps and pictorial illustra tions throughout. The maps will be nearly two inches longer and wider than those of any existing school-atlas, thus affording space for an en larged scale, so essential for the proper delineation of small and populous states. They will represent the most recent surveys and explorations, and will exhibit the physical and political divisions of the globe according to the most recent information. e The Publishers express the hope that Teachers and School Committees who contemplate adopting a new school geography, will await the appearance of this work before making their selection.

Page  A030 30 OUTLINES OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. BY GEORGE W. FITCH, ESQ. Illustrated by Six Maps and Numerous Engravings. The Publishers take pleasure in announcing that they have now ready the above Treatise, designed particularly-for study in common schools and academies, but adapted also for home instruction and general read ing. The particular attention of teachers, school committees, and others is called to this work. It is believed to be the first attempt ever made in this country to embody, in a separate treatise, the more prominent facts of Physical Geography in a manner intelligible to the great body of pupils attending our schools. The scope of the book, and its general plan, may be seen from the following list of subjects, which are treated of with as much simplicity as possible: THE LAN-Its Extent and Distribution; Continents; Islands; Vol canic Islands; Coral Islands; Mountains; Mountain Systems of the Eastern and Western Continents; Upland Plains or Table-Lands; Lowland Plains; Glaciers; Snow Mountains and Avalanches; Vol canoes; Volcanic Regions; Vesuvius, Etna; Earthquakes. THE WATER-Chemical Composition of Water; Mineral Springs; Cataracts; Deltas; Oceanic and Continental Rivers; Inundations of Rivers;sRiver Systems of the Western Continent-of the Eastern Con tinent; Lakes; distribution of fresh-water Lakes-of salt-water Lakes; physical differences of Lakes; the Ocean; its temperature, color, and depth; deep-sea soundings; Waves; Tides; Currents; Gulf Stream. THE ATMOSPHERE-Composition of the Air-its properties; Winds; Variable Winds; Permanent Winds; Trade-Winds; Periodical Winds; Monsoons; Hurricanes; Moisture; Clouds; Rain; Snow and Hail; Climate; causes which determine Climate, Isothermal Lines. OROANIC EXISTENCE-Plants-divisions of the Vegetable Kingdomdistribution of Plants-Food Plants; Animals-their Classification; distrilbution of Animals, Zoological Regions; Man-Races of Men. The Appendix contains several articles relating to the Chief Productions of Countries; the Exports of Countries; Trade Routes; Metallic Productions, etc. Also list of the Mountains, Rivers, etc. The Maps which illustrate the book have been constructed with the greatest care, and, though small in scale, they will, it is conceived, be tound sufficient to give the learner an accurate idea of the principal features and leading physical phenomena of the globe. The lessons are broken into short sections or paragraphs, so that the work can be used as a Reading Book, and questions are appended at the bottom of the pages for the purpose of rendering it convenient as a nftual of instruction. 1 Vol., Duodecimno, pp. 235. Price $1 00.

Page  A031 31 COLTON AND FITCH'S INTERMEDIATE GEOGRAPHY. This book, which is now being prepared, will be a small quarto, and is designed for that very large class of scholars in our schools who wish to learn the more important facts of'Geography, but who have not time to consult thoroughly a large treatise. The aim of the author has been to present in this work such facts, and such only, as every scholar should understand before hlie completes his term of instruction. Accordingly, all tedious detail and extended description are omitted; and the learner's attention is confined principally to the maps, from which only correct and definite impressions of locality can be obtained. The Publishers would call the particular attention of Teachers and others to the Maps which illustrate this book. Every Teacher must have noticed that the Maps generally put into the Geographies for junior classes (commonly designated Primary Geographies), are extremely meagre and imperfect; many countries are not represented at all, and those which are exhibited, are delineated on so small a scale, and are so carelessly drawn, that the impressions they convey are of scarcely of any value. The greatest possible pains are being taken with the drawing and engraving of these Maps. They will be very full of reliable information; the larger cities and towns will be in heavier lettering than the rest, so as to arrest the attention of the learner; and they will possess the additional merit, not found in any other similar book published in this country, of showing contiguous states and countries on the same scale. This is an important desideratum, and has been hitherto entirely disregarded in the preparation of/ School Geographies, the consequence being that no correct ideas of relative size and dimension are obtained, Other improvements are being introduced, and the Publishers feel confident that the Map illustrations will far excel those of any similar book.

Page  A032 PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL, AND HISTORICAL, BY RICHIIARD S. FISHER, M.D., Author of the "Book of the World," the "'Statistical Gazetteer of the United States of America." Literary Editor of Colton's Atlas of the World," and Editor of the "Amer ican Railway Guide," etac., etc. A few years posterior to the foundation of the constitutional government of the United States, a'census of the population thereof was taken under the authority of Congress in accordance with a provision of the fundamental law; and subsequently at the end of each period of ten years, similar and successively more and more minute censuses have been instituted. These enumerations have also embraced inquiries into the social and industrial statitu of the country, and its resources and wealth for the time being, with such collaterate inquiries as were deemed important to the determination of the economic and political relations of the States constituting the Union. The first national census was taken in 1790, and the seventh and latest census in the year 1850. Intermediate to these decennial enumerations, the States individually have likewise made numerous statistical inquiries, which are still being continued at periods varying from two to ten years. These show the progress of the United States from the first years of their aggregate existence, and, in connection with the annual returns published by the State and General governments, are the ground-work of the statistical portion of the present work. The "Progress of the United States," however, is not confined alone to a statistical analysis of the development of the country. In its pages will be found a complete description of its geography, both in relationa to the States severally, and also to the Union. The gener:d history of the rise of the colonies, their struggles in the cause of liberty, their transformation into independent governments, and their (onward progress, are also summed lp. and their present relative co d(lition and position in the Union fully illustrated. The subjects more particularly noticed are the mining, agriculture, commerce, and general industry of the States, their institutions of learning and education, their religious andi moral institutions, and, in fact, al the great interests which make and distinguish their social, industrial, and political existence. Such are the various subjects treated upon: andl certainly none can be more interesting-none more useful to the inquiring citizen. Without enter iig into minute and controverted details which would extend his work to many volumes, the author has endeavored to exhibit clearly and truthfully the history of events, their results and the high destiny that awaits the future of a country already distinguished among nations for its enlightened civilization, and the successful achievement of a posi lion second to that of no other nation of ancient or modern times. In Oaf Vol., Royal 8vo, pp. 482, oith Illusstration. Price $2 50. 32

Page  A033 COLTON'S GEOGRAPHIC COMBINATION MAPS, 'DESIGNED TO INSTRUCT AND AUSE THE FAMILY CIRCLE AND PRIMARY SCHOOL. " Use cumn lce." The series of Maps under the above title, and which are now in course of publication, will ultimately embrace Maps of all countries, as The United States...... $2 50 The World.............. $2 50 The Separate States.... 2 00 I Foreign Countries...... 2 00 The design of the Publishers is to furnish an agreeable and attractive method of imparting to the young, at home and at school, a knowledge of Geography, and of blending amusement and instruction. The several Maps composing this series are dissected and cut up into variform pieces; but in such a manner that each piece, whatever may be its shape, has a correspondence with the other parts of the Map to which it belongs. Thus from a score or more separate and differently shaped pieces a complete Map may be constructed. The act of combining these parts exercises and amuses the mental faculties; and the study of Geography is thus made attractive, and more knowledge of the subject is acquired in one hour spent in this intellectual amusement than a month of hard book-study could insure. Every family and district school should have at least one copy of the series; and simply for the reason that Geogra phy can not be so effectually taught by any other means; and many an hour which a child would otherwise wear away in idleness may be saved to its advantage by placing these amusing instructors within its reach. Each Map is packed in a handsome book-form case, and will form a valuable addition to the family or school library. 33

Page  A034 34 INDEX TO CATALOGUE. Alabama............... Page 19 Africa (2 sizes)............... 4 America, Central.......... 6,10 America, North............. 2 America, North and South.... 2 American Atlas.............N. 27 American School Geography.. 29 America, South (2 sizes)....... N as 7 31 American Statistical Annual.. 25 American States (Stat. Acc. of) 21 Arkansas................. 6. 19 Asia (2 sizes)................ 3. 4 Atlas, American.............. 27 Atlas of the World............ 27 Book of the World...........14 British Provinces............ 4, 6 Brooklyn................... 7. 8 California................ 1, 19 Canada, East................19 Canada, West................ 19 Central America......1.. 6,10,19 Chronology (Haskell's).......14 Coninecticut.......... 7,13,17, 19 Delaware................... 19 Egypt, etc.................... 11 Europe (2 sizes).............. 3 European Battle Fields......1 h sn. 18 Florida...................... 19 Geography,Interiiiediate(book) 81 Geographic Combination Maps 33S Geography Physical (book)... 3(0 Geography&History (Goodrich) 26 Georgia................. 18, 19 Human Life................. 11 Illinoi s..................... 8,19 Indiana (3 sizes)..............., 9 Indiana (book)............... 21 Indiana.....................19 Iow.a..................... 1T. 19 Kentucky............... 9, 1,, 19 Lake Superior............... 19 Long Tsland (2 sizes).......... 7 Louisiana.................... 1 9 Maine................... 19, 22 Maryland.................... 19 Massachusetts........ 7,13,17, 19 Mexico.................. 4, 6,19 Michigan................... 9 Michigan, North.............. 19 Michigan, South.............. 19 Minnesota................. 14,19 Mississippi...................19 Missouri.................. 17, 19 Mountains and Rivers........ 10 National Flags............... Page 10 Nebraska and Kansas.......... 13 New Brunswick.......... 19, 20 New England.............1 7, 13 New England Guide-Book.... 229 New England and New York. 7 Newfou dlnd............ 19, 20 New Hampshire..... 7.........,13, 17, 19 New Jersey............................19 New Mexico an, Utah................ 19 New Testament Map.............. 12 New Yorlk (State).... 6,13',2, 19 New York (statistical)........ 23.... New York (city)........7, 8,10,15 New York- (33 miles around).. 7 New York (12 miles airound).. 20 Nor th Am erica............... 2 North Carolina...............19 Nova Scotia............... 19, 20 Ohio..................... 17,19 Oregon and Washington...... 19 Overland Guide (Horn)....... 23 Palestine (2 sizes)............ 11 Pennsylvania............... 19 Presidents. Portraits of....... 10 Progress of the United States. 31 PRhode Island........ 7, 13, 17, 19 South America (2 sizes)....... 3 South Carolina............ 15,19 Southern States............... 22 Stream of Time (Strauss)...... 10 Tennessee................. 9, 19 Texas.................... 19. 23 United States, etc. (2 sizes)... 4, C, United States and Canada'5 UnIiited States (case)........... 22 United States (outline)........ 16 U~nite(d States (Gazetteer)..... 24 United States' Guidie-Book.... 12 United States (Progress of)... 31 U~nited States' PRoute-Book.... 12 Utah......................... 19 Vermont,............. 7,13, 1T, 19 Virginia..................... 19 West In.dies............. 3, 4,19 Western Portraiture.......... 20 Western States............. 9,19 Western Tourist.............. 14 Wisconsin................ 17, 19 World (3 sizes)............. 1, 2 World (missionary)........... 2 World (outline)............... 16 World, Book of the. 14 World, Chronology of'....... 14

Page  A035 TO J. H. COLTON & Co. would suggest to Authors and Publishers that they are prepared to furnish MAPS, CHARTS, and DIAGRAMs, appropriate for Books of Travel, Railroad Reports, Special Descriptions, etc. Their material and other facilities for the proper execution of such Illustrations are abundant, and their arrangements so thorough, that works of this kind can be completed by them at a very short notice. NEw Yoss, No. 172 WiUZiam Stree llutllors, Vithlisterso tit.

Page  A036 , S,et;.!