Historical collections of Ohio: containing a collection of the most interesting facts, traditions, biographical sketches, anecdotes, etc., relating to its general and local history; with descriptions of its counties, principal towns and villages. Illustrated by 180 engravings ...
Howe, Henry, 1816-1893.

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Page  2 1' . iteed according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847, BY J. W. BARBER & H. HOWE, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the District of Conn. CINCINNArl: Morgan & Overend, Prifters. 1,

Page  3 PRE F ACE. INTRODUcTORY to this work, we state some facts of private history. In the year 1831, Mr. John W. Barber of New Haven, Ct., prepared a work upon that our native city, which combined history, biography and de. scription, and was illustrated by engrfavings connected with its rise, progress and present condition. Its success suggested to him the preparation of one, on a similar plan, relative to the State. For this object he travelled through it, from town to town, collecting the materials and taking sketches. After two years of industrious application in this, and in writing the volume, the Historical Collections of Connecticut was issued, a workli which, like its successors, was derived from a thousand different sources, oral and published. As in the ordinary mode, the circulation of books through "the trade," is so slow in progress and limited in sale, that no merely local work, however meritorious, involving such an unusually heavy outlay of time and expense as that, will pay even the mechanical labor, it, as well as its successors, was circulated by travelling agents solely, who thoroughly canvassed the state, until it found its way into thousands of families in all ranks and conditions,-in the retired farm-house equally with the more accessible city mansion. rhat book, so novel in its character, was received with great favor, and highly commended by the public press and the leading minds of the state. It is true, it did not aspire to high literary merit:-the dignified style,-the generalization of facts,-the philosophical deductions of regular history were not there. On the contrary, not the least of its merits was its simplicity of style, its fullness of detail, introducing minor, but interesting incidents, the other, in "its stately march," could not step aside to notice, and in avoid. ing that philosophy which only the scholastic can comprehend. It seemed, in its variety, to have something adapted to all ages, classes and tastes, and the unlearned reader, if he did not stop to peruse the volume, at least, in many instances could derive gratification from the pictorial representation of his native village,-of perhaps the very dwelling in which he first drew breath, and around which entwined early and cherished associations. The book, therefore, reached MORE MINDS, and has been more extensively read, than any regular state history ever issued; thus adding another to the many examples often seen, of the productions of industry and tact, proving of a more extended utility than those emanating fiom profound scholastic ace. quirements. This publication became the pioneer of others: a complete list of all, with the dates of their issue, follows: 1 p36. THE HIST. COLL. OF CONNECTICUT; by John W. Barber. 1 39. " " MASSACHUSETTS; " John W. Barber. 1q41. " " NEW YORK; " J. W. Barber and H. Howe. 1843. " " PENNSYLVANIA; "Sherman Day. 1844. 6" " NEW JERSEY; "J. W. Barber and H. Howe. 1845. " "~ VIRGINIA; "Henry Howe. 1847, " " OHIO; "Henry Howe.

Page  4 PREFACE. From this list it will be perceived that OHIO makes the SEVENTH state work published on the original plan of Mr. Barber, all of which thus far circulated, were alike favorably received in the states to which each respect. ively related. Early in January, 1846, we, with some previous time spent in preparation, commenced our tour over Ohio, being the FOURTHI state through which we have travelled for such an object. We thus passed more than a year, in the course of which we were in seventy-nine of its eighty-three counties, took sketches of objects of interest, and every where obtained information by con. versation with early settlers and men of intelligence. Beside this, we have availed ourselves of all published sources of information, and have received about four hundred manuscript pa,ges in communications from gentlemen in all parts of the state. In this way, we are enabled to present a larger and more varied amount of materials respecting Ohio, than was ever before embodied; the whole giving a view of its present condition and prospects, with a history of its settlement, and incidents illustrating the customs, the fortitude, the bravery, and the privations of its early settlers. That such a work, depicting the rise and unexampled progress of a powerful state, destined to a controlling influence over the well-being of the whole nation, will be looked upon with interest, we believe: and furthermore expect, that it will be received in the generous spirit which is gratified with honest endeavors to please, rather than in the captious one, that is dissatisfied short of an unattainable perfection. Whoever expects to find the volume entirely fiee from defects, has but little acquaintance with the difficulties ever attendant upon procuring such materials. In all of the many historical and descriptive works whose fidelity we have had occasion to test, some misstatements were found. Although we have taken the best available means to insure accuracy, yet from a variety of causes unnecessary here to specify, some errors may have occurred. If any thing materially wrong is discovered, any one will confer a favor by ad. dressing a letter to the publishers, and it shall be corrected. Our task has been a pleasant one. As we successively entered the various counties, we were greeted with the frank welcome, characteristic of the west. And an evidence of interest in the enterprize has been variously shown, not the least of which, has been by the reception of a mass of valuable communications, unprecedented by us in the course of the seven years we have been engaged in these pursuits. To all who have aided us,-to our correspondents especially, some of whom have spent much time and research, we feel under lasting obligations, and are enabled by their assistance to present to the public a far better work, than could otherwise have been produced. H. H. 4

Page  5 OHIO. OUTLINE HISTORY * THE territory now comprised within the limits of Ohio was formerlv a part of that vast region claimed by France, between the Alleghany and the Rocky Mountains, first known by the general name of Louisiana. In 1673, Marquette, a zealous French Missionary, accompanied with Monsieur Joliet, from Quebec, with five boatmen, set out on a mission from Mackinac to the unexplored regions lying south of that station. They passed down the lake to Green Bay, thence from Fox River crossed over to the Wisconsin, which they followed down to its junction with thie Mississippi. They descended this mighty stream a thousand miles to its confluence with the Arkansas. On their return to Canada, they did not fail to urge, in strong terms, the immediate occupation of the vast and fertile regions watered by the Mississippi and its branches. On the 7th of August, 1679, M. de la Salle, the French commandant of Fort Frontenac, on Laklie Ontario, launched, upon Lake Erie, the Griffin, a bark of about 60 tons, with which he proceeded through the Lakes to the Straits of Michillimackinac. Leaving his bark at this place, he proceeded up Lake Michigan, and from thence to the south west, till he arrived at Peoria Lake, in Illinois. At this place he erected a fort, and after having sent Father Lewis Hennepin on an exploring expedition, La Salle returned to Canada. In 1683, La Salle went to France, and, by the representations which he made, induced the French Government to fit out ail expedition for the purpose of planting a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi. This expedition failed, La Salle being murdered by his own men. This disaster did not abate the ardor of the French in their great plan of obtaining possession of the vast region westward of the English colonies. A second expedition sailed from France, under the command of M. D'Iberville. This officer entered the mouth of the Mississippi, and explored the river for several hundred miles * The principal sources from which this outline is derived, are the MSS. of Hon. Thomas Scott, of Chillicothe, Secretary of the Convention which framed the constitution of Ohio;the historical sketch prefixed to Chase's Statutes, and Perkins' Annals of the West.

Page  6 OUTLINE HISTORY. Permanent establishments were made at different points; and from this time the French colony west of the Alleghanies steadily in creased in numbers and strength. Previous to the year 1725, the colony had been divided into quarters, each having its local governor, or commandant, and judge, but all subject to the superior authoritv of the council general of Louisiana. One of these quarters was established north west of the Ohio. At this period, the French had erected forts on the Mississippi, on the Illinois, on the Maumee, and on the lakes. Still, however, the communication with Canada was through Lake Michigan. Before 1750, a French post had been fortified at the mouth of the Wabash and a communication was established through that river and the Maumee with Canada. About the same time, and for the purpose of checking the progress of the French, the Ohio Company was formed, and made some attempts to establish trading houses among the Indians. The French, however, established a chain of fortifications back of the English settlements, and thus, in a measure, had the entire control of the great Mississippi valley. The English government became alarmed at the encroachments of the French, and attempted to settle boundaries by negotiations. These availed nothing, and both parties were determined to settle their differences by the force of arms. The claims of the different European monarchs to large portions of the western continent were based upon the first discoveries made by their subjects. In 1609, the English monarch granted to the London Company, all the territories extending along the coast for two hundred miles north and south from Point Comfort, and "up into the land, throughout, from sea to sea, west and north-west." In 1662, Charles II. granted to certain settlers upon the Connecticut all the territory between the parallels of latitude which include the present State of Connecticut, from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. The claims which Massachusetts advanced, during the revolution, to an interest in the western lands, were founded upon a similar charter, granted thirty years afterwards. VWhen the king of France had dominions in North America, the whole of the late territory of the United States, north-west of the river Ohio, was included in the province of Louisiana, the north boundary of which, by the treaty of Utrecht, concluded between France and England in 1713, was fixed at the 49th parallel of latitude north of the Equator. After the conquest of the French possessions in North America by Great Britain, this tract was ceded by France to Great Britain, by the treaty of Paris, in 1763. The principal ground whereon the English claimed dominion beyond the Alleghanies was, that the Six Nations owned the Ohio valley, and had placed it with their other lands under the protection of En,gland. Some of the western lands were also claimed by the British as having been actually purchased, at Lancaster, Penn., in 1744, at a treaty between the colonists and the Six Nations at that place. In 1748, the "Ohio Company," for the purpose of securing 6 4

Page  7 OIJTLINE IIISTORY. the Indian trade, was formed. In 1749, it appears that the English built a trading house upon the Great Miami, at a spot since called Loramie's Store. In 1751, Christopher Gist, an agent of the Ohio Company, who was appointed to examine the western lands, made a visit to the Twigtwees, who lived upon the Miami river, about one hundred miles from its mouth. Early in 1752, the French having heard of the trading house ol the Miami, sent a party of soldiers to the Twigtwees and demanded the traders as intruders upon French lands. The Twigtwees refused to deliver up their friends. The French, assisted by the Ottawas and Chippewas, then attacked the trad(ling house, which was probably a block house, and after a severe battle, in which fourteen of the natives were killed and others wounded, took and destroyed it, carrying away the traders to (Cana-da. This foirt, or trading house, was called, by the Eng(lishl, Picl,(iwillany. Stuchl was the first British settlement in the Ohio valley, of which we have any record. After Braddock's defeat, in 1755, the Indians pushed their excursions as far east as the Blue Ridge. In order to repel them, Maajor Lewis, in Jan., 1756, was sent with a party of troops on an expedition against the Indian towns on the Ohio. The point apparently aimed at was the upper Shawanese town, situated on the Ohio, three miles above the mouth of the Great Kanawha. The attempt proved a failure, in consequence, it is said, of the swollen state of the streams, and the treachery of the guides. In 1764, Gen. Bradstreet, having dispersed the Indian forces besieging Detroit, passed into the Wyandot country by way of Sandusky Bay. He ascended the bay and river as far as it was navigable for boats, and there made a camp. A treaty of peace was signed by the Chiefs and head men. The Shawnees of the Scioto river, and the Delawares of the Muskingum, however, still continued hostile. Col. Boquet, in 1764, with a body of troops, marched from Fort Pitt into the heart of the Ohio country on the Muskingum river. This expedition was con ducted with great prudence and skill, and without scarcely any loss of life, as treaty of peace was effected with the Indians, who re stored the prisoners they had captured frown the white settlements. The next war with the Indians was in 1774, generally known as Lord Dunmore's. In the summer of that year, an expedition, under Col. M'Donald, was assembledat Wheeling, marched into the Muskin gum country and destroyed the Indian town of Wapatomica, a few miles above the site of Zanesville. In the fall, the Indians were de feated after a hard fought battle at Point Pleasant, on the Virginia side of the Ohio.. Shortly after this event, Lord Dunmore made peace with the Indians at Camp Charlotte, in what is now Picka way country. During the revolutionary war, most of the western Indians were more or less united against the Americans. In the fall of 1778, an expedition against Detroit was projected. As a preliminary step, it was resolved that the forces in the west, under Gen. M'Intosh, should move up and attack the Sandusky Indians. Preliminary to this. 7

Page  8 OUTLINE IIISTORY. Fort Laurens, so called in honor of the President of Congress, was built upon the Tuscarawas, a short distance below the site of Bolivar, Tuscarawas county. The expedition to Detroit was abandoned and the garrison of Fort Laurens, after suffering much from the Indians and from famine, were recalled in August, 1779. A month or two previous to the evacuation of this fort, Col. Bowman headed an ex pedition against the Shawanees. Their village, Chillicothe, three miles north of the site of Xenia, on the Little Miami, was burnt. The warriors showed an undaunted front, and the whites were forced to retreat. In the summer of 1780, an expedition directed against the Indian towns, in the forks of the Muskingum, moved from Wheeling, under Gen. Broadhead. This expedition, known as "the Coshocton campaign," was unimportant in its results. In the same summer, Gen. Clark led a body of Kentuckians against the Shaw nees. Chillicothe, on the Little Miami, was burnt on their approach, but at Piqua, their town on the Mad River, six miles below the site of Springfield, they gave battle to the whites and were defeated. In September, 1782, this officer led a second expedition against the Shawanese. Their towns, Upper and Lower Piqua, on the Miami, within what is now Miami county, were destroyed, together with the store of a tiader. There were other expeditions into the Indian country from Kentucky, which, although of later date, we mention in this connection. In 1786, Col. Logan conducted a successful expedition against the Mackachack towns, on the head waters of Mad River, in what is now Logan county. Edwards, in 1787, led an expedition to the head waters of the Big Miami, and, in 1788, Todd led one into the Scioto valley. There were also several minor expeditions, at various times, into the present limits of Ohio. The Moravian missionaries, prior to the war of the revolution, had a number of missionary stations within the limits of Ohio. The missionaries, Heckewelder and Post, were on the Muskingum as early as 1762. In March, 1782, a party of Americans, under Col. Williamson, murdered, in cold blood, ninety-four of the defenceless Moravian Indians, within the present limits of Tuscarawas county. In the June following, Col. Crawford, at the head of about 500 men, was defeated by the Indians, three miles north of the site of Upper Sandusky, in Wyandot county. Col. Crawford was taken prisoner in the retreat, and burnt at the stake with horrible tortures. By an act of the Parliament of Great Britain, passed in 1774, the whole of the late north-western Territory was annexed to, and made a part of, the province of Quebec, as created and established by the royal proclamation of the 7th of October, 1763. But nothing therein contained, relative to the boundary of the said province of Quebec, was in any wise to affect the boundaries of any other colony. The colonies having, in 1776, renounced their allegiance to the British king, and assumed rank as free, sovereign and independent States, each State claimed the right of soil and jurisdiction over the district of country embraced within its charter. The charters of 8

Page  9 OUTLINE HISTORY. several of the States embraced large portions of western unappropriated lands. Those States which had no such charters, insisted that these lands ought to be appropriated for the benefit of all the States, according to their population, as the title to them, if secured tt all, would be by the blood and treasure of all the States. Congress repeatedly urged upon those States owning western unappropuiated lands, to make liberal cessions of them for the common benefit of all. The claim-of the English monarch to the late north-western Territoy was ceded to the United States, by the treaty of peace, signedt at Paris, September 3d, 1783. The provisional articles which formed the basis of that treaty, more especially as related to the boundary, were signed at Paris, November 30th, 1782. During the pendency of the negociation relative to these preliminary articles, Mr. Oswald, the British commissioner, proposed the river Ohio as the western boundary of the United States, and but for the indomitable perseverance of the revolutionary patriot, John Adams, one of the American commissioners, who opposed the proposition, and insisted uponi the Mississippi as the boundary, the probability is, that the proposition of Mr. Oswald would have been acceded to by the United States commissioners. The States who owned western unappropriated lands, with a single exception, redeemed their respective pledges by ceding them to the United States. The State of Virginia, in March, 1784, ceded the right of soil and jurisdiction to the district of country embraced in her charter, situated to the north-west of the river Ohio. In September, 1786, the State of Connecticut also ceded her claim of soil and jurisdiction to the district of country whin the limits of her charter, situated west of a line beginning at the completion of the forty-first point degree of north latitude, one hundred and twenty miles west of the western boundary of Pennsylvania; and from thence by a line drawn north parallel to, and one hundred and twenty miles west of said line of Pennsylvania, and to continue north until it came to forty-two degrees and two minutes north latitude. The State of Connecticut, on the 30th of 13Iay, 1801, also ceded her jurisdictional claims to all that territory called the "Western Reserve of Connecticut." The States of New York and Massachusetts also ceded all their claims. The above were not the only claims which had to be made prior to the commencement of settlements within the limits of Ohio. Numerous tribes of Indian savages, by virtue of prior possession, asserted their respective claims, which also had to be extinguished. A treaty for this purpose was accordingly made at Fort Stanwix, October 27th, 1784, with the Sachems and warriors of the Mohawks, Onondagas, Senecas, Cayugas, Oneidas, and Tuscaroras; by the third article of which treaty, the said Six Nations ceded to the United States all claims to the country west of a line extending along the west boundary of Pennsylvania, firom the mouth of the Oyounayea to the river Ohio. 2 9

Page  10 OUTLINE HIIISTORY. A treaty was also concluded at Fort McIntosh, January 21st, 1785, with the Wyandot, Delaware, Chippewa, and Ottawa nations, by which the boundarv line between the United States and the Wyan dot and Delaware nations was declared to begin "at the mouth of the river Cuyahoga, and to extend up said river to the Portage, be tween that and the Tuscaroras branch of the Muskingum, thence down that branch to the crossing place above Fort Laurens, thlen westerly to the Portage of the Big Miami, which runs into the Ohio, at the mouth of which branch the fort stood which was taken by the French, in 1752; then along said Portage to the Great Miami, or Omee river, and down the south side of the same to its mouth; then along the south shore of Lake Erie to the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, where it began." The United States allotted all the lands contained within said lines to the Wyandot and Delaware nations, to live and hunt on, and to such of the Ottawa nation as lived thereon; saving and reserving for the establishment of trading posts, six miles square at the mouth of the Miami, or Omee river, and the same at the Portage, on that branch of the Big Miami which runs into the Ohio, and the same on the Lake of Sandusky where the fort formerly stood, and also two miles square on each side of the Lower Rapids of Sandusky river. The Indian title to a large part of the territory within the limits of Ohio having been extinguished, legislative action on the part of Congress became necessary before settlements were commenced as in the treaties made with the Indians, and in the acts of Congress, all citizens of the United States were prohibited settling on the lands of the Indians, as well as on those of the United States. Ordinances were accordingly made by Congress for the government of the North-western Territory, and for the survey and sale of portions of lands to which the Indian title had been extinguished. In May, 1785, Congress passed an ordinance for ascertaining the mode of disposing of these lands. Under that ordinance, the first seven ranges, bounded on the east by Pennsylvania, and on the south by the Ohio river, were surveyed. Sales of parts of these were made at New York, in 1787, the avails of which amounted to $72,974, and sales of other parts of said range were made at Pittsburg and Philadelphia, in 1796. The avails of sales made at the former place amounted to $43,446, and at the latter, $5,120. A portion of these lands were located under United States military land warrants. No further sales were made in that district until the Land Office was opened at Steubenville, July 1st, 1801. On the 27th of October, 1787, a contract in writing was entered into between the Board of Treasury for the United States of America, of the one part, and Manassah Cutler and Winthrop Sargeant, as agents for the directors of the New England Ohio Company of associates, of the other part, for the purchase of the tract of land bounded by the Ohio, from the mouth of the Scioto to the intersection of the western boundary of the seventh range of townships then surveying; thence by said boundary to the northern boundary of 10

Page  11 OUTLINE HISTORY. the tenth township from the Ohio; thence by a due west line to Scioto; thence by the Scioto to the beginning. The bounds of that contract were afterwards altered in 1792. The settlement of this purchase commenced at Marietta, at the mouth of the Muskingum river, in the spring of 1788, and was the first settlement formed within the limits of Ohio. An attempt at settlement within the bounds of Ohio had been made in April, 1785, at the mouth of the Scioto, on the site of Portsmouth, by four families from Redstone, Pa.; but difficulties with the Indians compelled its abandonment. The same year in which Marietta was first settled, Congress appointed Gen. Arthur St. Clair, an officer of the revolution, Governor; Winthrop Sargeant, Secretary; and the Hon. Samuel Holden Parsons, James Mitchell Yarnumn, and John Cleves Symmes, Judges; in, and over the Territory. The territorial government was organized, and sundry laws were made, or adopted, by the Governor and Judges Parsons and Varnum. The county of Washington, having its limits extended westward to the Scioto, and northward to Lake Erie, embracing about half the territory within the present limits of the State, was established by the proclamation of the Governor. On the 15th of October, 1788, John Cleves Symmes, in behalf of' himself and his associates, contracted with the Board of Treasury for the purchase of a large tract of land situated between the Great and Little Miami river, and the first settlemen{ within the limits of that purchase, and second in Ohio, was commenced in November of that year, at Columbia, at the mouth of the Little Miami, five miles above the site of Cincinnati. "A short time after the settlement at Marietta had commenced, an association was formed under the name of the "Scioto Land Company." A contract was made for the purchase of a part of the lands included in the Ohio Company's purchases. Plats and descriptions of the land contracted for, were, however, made out, and Joel Barlow was sent as an agent to Europe to make sales of the lands for the benefit of the company; and sales were effected of parts thereof to companies and individuals in France. On February 19th, 1791. two hundred and eighteen of these purchasers left Havre de Grace, in France, and arrived in Alexandria, D. C., on the 3d of May follow ing. During their passage, two were added to their number. On their arrival, they were told that the Scioto Company owned no land. The agent insisted that they did, and promised to secure to them good titles thereto, which he did, at Winchester, Brownsville, and Charleston (now Wellsburg). When they arrived at Marietta, about fifty of them landed. The rest of the company proceeded to Gallipolis, which was laid out about that time, and were assured by the agent that the place lay within their purchase. Every effort to secure titles to the lands they had purchased having failed, an appli cation was made to Congress, and in June, 1798, a grant was made to them of a tract of land on the Ohio, above the mouth of the Scioto river, which is called the' French Grant.'" 11

Page  12 OUTLINE HISTORY. The Legislatare of Connecticut, in May, 1795, appointed a committee to receive proposals and make sale of the lands she had reserved in Ohio. This committee sold the lands to sundry citizens of Connecticut and other States, and, in September of the same year, executed to several purchasers deeds of conveyance therefor. The purchasers proceeded to survey into townships of five miles square the whole of said tract lying east of the Cuyahoga; they made divisions thereof according to their respective proportions, and commenced settlements in many of the townships, and there were actually settled therein, by the 21st of March, 1800, about one thousand inhabitants. A number of mills had been built, and roads cut in valious directions to the extent of about 700 miles. The location of the lands appropriate for satisfying military land bounty warrants in the district appropriated for that purpose, granted for services in the revolutionary war, commenced on March 13th, 1800; and the location of the lands granted to the Canadian and Nova Scotia refugees commenced February 13th, 1802. The lands east of the Scioto, south of the military bounty lands, and west of the fifteenth range of townships, were first brought into market, and offered for sale by the United States on t!e first Monday of May, 1801. The State of Virginia, at an early period of the revolutionary war, raised two description of troops, State and Continental, to each of which bounties in land were promised. The lands within the limits of her charter, situate to the north-west of Ohio river, were withdrawn fi'om appropriation on treasury warrants, and the lands on Cumberland river, and between the Green and Tennessee rivers on the south-easterly side of the Ohio, were appropriated for these military bounties. Upon the recommendation of Congress, Virginia ceded her lands north of the Ohio, upon certain conditions; one of which was, that in case the lands south of Ohio should be insufficient for their legal bounties to their troops, the deficiency should be made up from lands north of the Ohio, between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami. In 1783, the Legislature of Virginia authorized the officers of their respective lines to appoint superintendants to regulate the survey of the bounty lands promised. Richard C. Anderson was appointed principal surveyor of the lands of the troops of the continental establishment. An office for the reception of locations and surveys was opened at Louisville, Kentucky, August 1st, 1784, and on the 1st of August, 1787, the said office was open for the reception of surveys and locations on the north side of the Ohio. In the year 1789, January 9th, a treaty was made at Fort Harmer, between Gov. St. Clair and the Sachems and warriors of the Wyandot, Chippewa., Potawatomie, and Sac nations, in which the treaty at Fort McIntosh was renewed and confirmed. It did not, however, produce the favorable results anticipated. The Indians, the same year, assuming a hostile appearance, were seen hovering round the infant settlements near the mouth of the Muskingum and between 12

Page  13 OUTLINE HISTORY. the Miamies, and nine persons were killed within the bounds of Symmes' purchase. The new settlers became alarmed and erected block-houses in each of the new settlements. In June, 1789, Major Doughty, with 140 men, from Fort Harmar, commenced the building of Fort Washington, on a spot now within the present limits of Cincinnati. A few months afterwards, Gen. Harmar arrived, with 300 men, and took command of the fort. Negotiations with the Indians proving unavailing, Gen. Harmar was directed to attack their towns. In pursuance of his instructions, he marched from Cincinnati, in September, 1790, with 1,300 men, of whom less than one-fourth were regulars. When near the Indian villages, on the Miami of the lake in the vicinity of what is now Fort Wayne, an advanced detachment of 210, consisting chiefly of militia, fell into an ambush and was defeated with severe loss. Gen. Harma;r, however, succeeded in burning the Indian villages, and in destroying their standing corn, and having effected this service, the army commenced its march homeward. They had not proceeded far when Harmar received intelligence that the Indians had returned to their ruined towns. He immediately detached about one-third of his remaining force, under the command of Col. Hardin, with orders to bring them to an engagement. He succeeded in this early the next morning; the Indians fought with great fury, and the militia and the regulars alike behaved with gallantry. More than one hundred of the militia, and all the regulars except nine, were killed, and the rest were driven back to the main body. Dispirited by this severe misfortune, Harmar immediately marched to Cincinnati, and the object of the expedition in intimidating the Indians was entirely unsuccessful. As the Indians continued hostile, a new army, superior to the former, was assembled at Cincinnati, under the command of Gov. St. Clair. The regular force amounted to 2,300 men; the militia numbered about 600. With this army, St. Clair commenced his march towards the Indian towns on the Maumee. Two forts, Hamilton and Jefferson, were established and garrisoned on the route, about forty miles from each other. Misfortune attended the expedition almost from its commencement. Soon after leaving Fort Jefferson, a considerable party of the militia deserted in a body. The first regiment, under Major Hamtramck, was ordered to pursue them and to secure the advancing convoys of provisions, which it was feared they designed to plunder. Thus weakened by desertion and division, St. Clair approached the Indian villages. On the third of November, 1791, when at what is now the line of Darke and Mercer counties, he halted, intending to throw up some slight fortification for the protection of baggage, and to await the return of the absent regiment. On the following morning, however, about half an hour before sun rise, the American army was attacked with great fury, as there is good reason to believe, by the whole disposable force of the north-west tribes. The Americans were totally defeated. Gen. Butler and upwards of six hundred men were killed. 13

Page  14 OUTLINE HISTORY. Indian outrages of every kind were now multiplied, and emigration was almost entirely suspended. President Washington now urged forward the vigorous prosecution of the war for the protection of the North-west Territory; but various obstacles retarded the enlistment and organization of a new army. In the spring of 1794, the American army assembled at Greenville, in Darke county, under the command of Gen. Anthony Wayne, a bold, energetic and experienced officer of the revolution. His force consisted of about two thousand regular troops, and fifteen hundred mounted volunteers from Kentucky. The Indians had collected their whole force, amounting to about two thousand men, near a British fort, erected since the treaty of 1783, in violation of its obligations, at the foot of the rapids of the Maumee. On the 20th of August, 1794, Gen. Wayne encountered the enemy, and after a short and deadly conflict, the Indians fled in the greatest confusion, and were pursued under the guns of the British fort. After destroying all the houses and corn fields above and below the British fort, on the Maumee, the victorious army returned to the mouth of Au Glaize, where Wayne erected Fort Defiance. Previous to this action, various fruitless attempts had been made to bring the Indians to peace. Some of the messengers sent among the Indians for that object were murdered. The victory of Wayne did not at first reduce the savages to submission. Their country was laid waste, and forts were erected in the heart of their territory before they could be entirely subdued. At length, however, they became thoroughly convinced of their inability to resist the American arms and sued for peace. A grand council was held at Greenville, where eleven of the most powerful north-western tribes were represented, to whom Gen. Wayne dictated the terms of pacification. The boundary established by the treaty at Fort McIntosh was confirmed and extended westward from Loramie's to Fort Recovery, and thence south-west to the mouth of Kentucky river. The Indians agreed to acknowledge the United States as their sole protector, and never to sell their lands to any other power. Upon these and other conditions, the United States received the Indian nations into their protection. A large quantity of goods was delivered to them on the spot, and perpetual annuities, payable in merchandise, &c., were promised to each tribe who became a party to the treaty. While the war with the Indians continued, of course, but little progress was made in the settlement in the west. The next county that was established after that of Washington, in 1788, was Hamilton, erected in 1790. Its bounds included the country between the Miamies, extending northward from the Ohio river, to a line drawn due east from the standing stone forks of the Great Miami. The name of the settlement opposite the Licking was, at this time, called Cincinnati. At this period, there was no fixed seat of government. The laws were passed whenever they seemed to be needed, and promulgated p,. 14

Page  15 OUTLINE HISTORY. at any place where the territorial legislators happened to be assembled. In 1789, the first Congress passed an act recognizing the binding force of the ordinance of 1787, and adapting its provisions to the federal constitution. At this period, the judges appointed by the national executive constituted the supreme court of the territory. Inferior to this court, were the county court, courts of common pleas, and the general quarter sessions of the peace. Single judges of the common pleas, and single justices of the quarter sessions, were also clothed with certain civil and criminal powers to be exercised out of court. In 1795, the governor and judges undertook to revise the territorial laws, and to establish a system of statutory jurisprudence, by adoptions from the laws of the original States, in conformity to the ordinance. For this purpose they assembled in Cincinnati, in June, and continued in session until the latter part of August. The general court was fixed at Cincinnati and Marietta; other courts were established, and laws and regulations were adopted for various purposes. The population of the territory now continued to increase and extend. From Marietta, settlers spread into the adjoining country. The Virginia military reservation drew a considerable number of revolutionary veterans, and others, from that State. The region between the Miamies, from the Ohio far up toward the sources of Mad river, became chequered with farms, and abounded in indications of the presence of an active and prosperous population. The neighborhood of Detroit became populous, and Connecticut, by grants of land within the tract, reserved in her deed of cession, induced many of her hardy citizens to seek a home on the borders of Lake Erie. In 1796, Wayne county was established, including all the north-western part of Ohio, a large tract in the north-eastern part of Indiana, and the whole territory of Michigan. In July, 1797, Adams county was erected, comprehending a large tract lying on both sides of Scioto, and extending northward to Wayne. Other counties were afterwards formed out of those already established. Before the end of the year 1798, the North-west Territory contained a population of five thousand free male inhabitants, of full age, and eight organized counties. The people were now entitled, under the ordinance of 1787, to a change in their form of government. That instrument provided that whenever there were five thousand free males, of full age, in the territory, the people should be authorized to elect representatives to a territorial legislature. These, when chosen, were to nominate ten freeholders of 500 acres, of whom the president was to appoint five, who were to constitute the legislative council. Representatives were to serve two, and councilmen five years. The first meeting of the territorial legislature was appointed on the 16th of September, 1799, but it was not till the 24th of. the same month that the two houses were organized for business; at which time they were addressed by Gov. St. Clair. An act was passed to confirm and give 15

Page  16 OUTLINE HISTORY. force to those laws enacted by the governor and judges, whose validity had been doubted. This act, as well as every other which originated in the council, was prepared and brought forward by Jacob Burnet, afterwards a distinguished judge and senator, to whose labors, at this session, the territory was indebted for some of its most beneficial laws. The whole number of acts passed and approved by the governor was thirty-seven. William H. Harrison, then secretary of the territory, was elected as delegate to Congress, having eleven of twenty-one votes. "Within a few months after the close of this session, Connecticut ceded to the United States her claim of jurisdiction over the northeastern part of the territory; upon which the president conveyed, by patent, the fee of the soil to the governor of the State, for the use of grantees and purchasers claiming under her. This tract, in the summer of the same year, was erected into a new county by the name of Trumbull. The same congress which made a final arrangement with Connecticut, passed an act dividing the North-western Territory into two governments, by a line drawn from the mouth of the Kentucky to Fort Recovery, and thence northward to the territorial line. East of this line, the government, already established, was continued; while west of it another, substantially similar, was established. This act fixed the seat of the eastern government at Chillicothe; subject, however, to be removed at the pleasure of the legislature." On the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed an act authorizing the call of a convention to form a State constitution. This convention assembled at Chillicothe, November 1st, and, on the 29th of the same month, a constitution of State government was ratified and signed by the members of the convention. It was never referred to the people for their approbation, but became the fundamental law of the State by the act of the convention alone; and, by this act, Ohio became one of the States of the Federal Union. "Besides framing the constitution, the convention had another duty to perform. The act of congress, providing for the admission of the new State into the Union, offered certain propositions to the people. These were, first, that section sixteen in each township, or, where that section had been disposed of, other contiguous and equivalent lands, should be granted to the inhabitants for the use of schools; second, that thirty-eight sections of land, where salt-springs had been found, of which one township was situated on the Scioto, one section on the Muskingum, and one section in the United States military tract, should be granted to the State, never, however, to be sold or leased for a longer term than ten years; and third, that onetwentieth of the proceeds of public lands sold within the State, should be applied to the construction of roads from the Atlantic, to and through the same. These propositions were offered on the condition that the convention should provide, Ly ordinance, that all lands sold by the United States after the thirtieth day of June, 1802; should be exempt from taxation, by the State, for five years after sale. 16

Page  17 OUTI,INE hIISTORY. " The ordinance of 1785, had already provided for the appropriation of section sixteen to the support of schools in every township sold by the United States; and this appropriation thus became a condition of the sale and settlement of the western country. It was a consideration offered to induce purchases of public lands, at a time when the treasury was well-nigh empty, and this source of revenue was much relied upon. It extended to every township of land within the territory, except those in the Virginia military reservation and wherever the reserved section had been disposed of, after the passage of the ordinance, Congress was bound to make other equivalent provision for the same object. The reservation of section sixteen, therefore, could not, in 1802, be properly made the object of a new bargain between the United States and the State: and many thought that the salt reservations and the twentieth of the proceeds of the public lands were very inadequate equivalents for the proposed surrender of the right to tax. The convention, however, determined to accept the propositions of Congress, on their being so far enlarged and modified as to vest in the State, for the use of schools, section sixteen in each township sold by the United States, and three other tracts of land, equal in quantity, respectively, to one thirty-sixth of the Virginia reservation, of the United States military tract, and of the Connecticut reserve, and to give three pei centum of the proceeds of the public lands sold within the State, to be applied under the direction of the legislature, to roads in Ohio. Congress assented to the proposed modifications, and thus completed the compact." The first General Assembly under the State constitution met at Chilicothe, March 1st, 1803. The legislature enacted such laws as were deemed necessary for the new order of things, and created eight new counties, namelv: Gallia, Scioto, Franklin, Columbiana, Butler, Warren, Green, and Montgomery. The first State officers elected by the assembly were as follows, viz.: flichael Baldwin, Speaker of the House of Representatives; Nathaniel IIassie, Speaker of the Senate; William Creighton, Jr., Secretary of State; Col. Thomas Gibson, Auditor; William AMcFarIand, Treasurer; Return J. Meigs, Jr., Samuel Huntinagton, and William Sprigg, Judges of the Supreme Court; Francis Duilavy, Wyllys Silliman, and Calvin Pease, Judges of the District Courts. The second General Assembly convened in December, 1803. At this session, the militia law was thoroughly revised and a law was passed to enable aliens to enjoy the same proprietary rights in Ohio as native citizens. At this session, also, the revenue system of the State was simplified and improved. Acts were passed providing for the incorporation of townships, and for the establishment of boards of commissioners of counties. In 1805, by a treaty with the Indians at Fort Industry, the United States acquired, for the use of the grantees of Connecticut, all that part of the western reserve which lies west of the Cuyahoga. By subsequent treaties, all the country watered by the Maumee and the 3 17 i i

Page  18 OUTLINE HISTORY. Sandusky have been acquired, and the Indian title to lands in Ohio is now extinct. In the course of the year 1805, the conspiracy of Aaron Burr began to agitate the western country. The precise scope of the conspiracy does not distinctly appear. "The immediate object, probably, was to seize on New Orleans and invade Mexico. The ulterior purpose may have been to detach the west from the American Union. In December, 1806, in consequence of a confidential message from the governor, founded on the representations of an agent of the general government deputed to watch the motions of Burr, the legislature passed an act authorizing the arrest of persons engaged in an unlawful enterprise, and the seizure of their goods. Under this act, ten boats, with a considerable quantity of arms, ammunition, and provisions, belonging to Burr's expedition, were seized. This was a fatal blow to the project." The Indians, who since the treaty at Greenville had been at peace, about the year 1810, began to commit aggressions upon the inhabitants of the west. The celebrated Tecumseh was conspicuously active in his efforts to unite the native tribes against the Americans, and to arrest the farther extension of the settlements. His proceedings, and those of his brother,'the Prophet,' soon made it evident that the west was about to suffer the calamities of another Indian war, and it was resolved to anticipate their movements. In 1811, Gen. Harrison, then governor of Indiana Territory, marched against the town of the'Prophet,' upon the Wabash. The battle of Tippecanoe ensued, in what is now Cass county, Indiana, in which the Indians were totally defeated. This year was also distinguished by an occurrence of immense importance to the whole west. This was the voyage, from Pittsburg to New Orleans, of the first steamboat ever launched upon the western waters. "In June, 1812, the United States declared war against Great Britain. Of this war the west was a principal theatre. Defeat, disaster, and disgrace marked its opening scenes; but the latter events of the contest were a series of splendid achievements. Croghan's gallant defence of Fort Stephenson; Perry's victory upon Lake Erie; the total defeat, by Harrison, of the allied British and savages, under Proctor and Tecumseh, on the Thames; and the great closing triumph of Jackson at New Orleans, reflected the most brilliant lustre upon the American arms. In every vicissitude of this contest, the conduct of Ohio was eminently patriotic and honorable. When the necessities of the national government compelled congress to resort to a direct tax, Ohio, for successive years, cheerfully assumed, and promptly paid her quota out of her State treasury. Her sons volunteered with alacrity their services in the field; and no troops more patiently endured hardship or performed better service. Hardly a battle was fought in the north-west, in which some of these brave citizen soldiers did not seal their devotion to their country with their blood. "In 1816, the seat of the State government was removed to Co 18

Page  19 OUTLINE HISTORY. lumbus, the proprietors of the town having, pursuant to an agreement entered into, in good faith, erected the State-house and other public buildings, for the accommodation of the legislature and the officers of state. "In January, 1817, the first resolution relating to a canal, connecting the Ohio river with Lake Erie, was introduced into the legislature. In 1819, the subject was again agitated. In 1820, on the recommendation of Gov. Brown, an act was passed, providing for the appointment of three canal commissioners, who were to employ a competent engineer and assistants, for the purpose of surveying the route of the canal. The action of the commissioners, however, was made to depend on the acceptance by congress of a proposition on behalf of the State, for a donation and sale of the public lands, lying upon and near the route of the proposed canal. In consequence of this restriction, nothing was accomplished for two years. In 1822, the subject was referred to a committee of the house of representatives. This committee recommended the employment of an engineer, and submitted various estimates and observations to illustrate the importance and feasibility of the work. Under this act, James Geddes, of New York, an experienced and skillful engineer, was employed to make the necessary examinations and surveys. Finally, after all the routes had been surveyed, and estimates made of the expense had been laid before the legislature at several sessions, an act was passed in Feb., 1825, "To provide for the internal improvement of the State by navigable canals," and thereupon the State embarked in good earnest in the prosecution of the great works of internal improvement." The construction of these and other works of internal improve ment, has been of immense advantage in developing the resources of Ohio, which, in little more than haltf, century, has changed from a wilderness to one of the most pow-erfu States of the Union. k: 19

Page  20

Page  21 COT-UN T I E S. ADAMS. ADAMS lies on the Ohio river, about fifty miles east of Cincinnati. and derives its name from John Adams, second President of the United States. It was formed, July 10th, 1797, by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, and covered a large tract of country, being then one ot the four counties into which the N. W. Territory was divided. The land is generally hilly and broken, and, in the eastern part, not fertile. The staples are wheat, corn, pork and oats. Many of the first settlers were from Virginia, Kentucky and Ireland. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population: Franklin, 1,358 Meigs, 1,071 Tiffin, 1,533 Green, 1,081 Monroe, 828 Wayne, 858 Jefferson, 938 Scott, 916 Winchester, 1,112 Liberty, 1,096 Sprigg, 1,984 The population of Adams, in 1820, was 10,406; in 1830, 12,278 and in 1840, 13,271, or 24 persons to a square mile. The first settlement within the Virginia military tract, and the only one between the Scioto and Little Miami until after the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, was made in this county, at Manchester, by the then Col., late Gen. Nathaniel Massie. McDonald, in his unpretending, but excellent little volume, says: Massie, in the winter of the year, 1790, determined to make a settlement in it, that he might be in the midst of his surveying operations and secure his party trom danger and exposure. In order to effect this, he gave general notice in Kentucky of his intention, and offered each of the first twenty-five families, as a donation, one in-lot, one out-lot, and one hundred acres of land, provided they would settle in a town he intended to lay off at his settlement. His proffered terms were soon closed in with, and upwards of thirty families joined him. After various consultations with his friends, the bottom on the Ohio river, opposite the lower of the Three Islands, was selected as the most eligible spot. Here, he fixed his station, and laid off into lots a town, now called Manchester; at this time a small place, about twelve miles above Maysville, (formerly Limestone,) Kentucky. This little confederacy, with Massie at the helm, (who was the soul of it,) went to work with spirit. Cabins were raised, and by the middle of March, 1791, the whole town was enclosed with strong pickets, firmly fixed in the ground, with block houses at each angle for defence. Thus was the first settlement in the Virginia military district, and the fourth settlement in the bounds of the State of Ohio, effected. Although this settlement was commenced in the hottest Indian war, it suffered less from depredation, and even interruptions, from the Indians, than any settlement previously made on the Ohio river. This was no doubt owing to the watchful band of brave spirits who guarded the place-men who were reared in the midst of danger and inured to perils, and as watchful as hawks. Here were the Beasleys,

Page  22 ADAMS COUNTY. the Stouts, the Washburns, the Ledoms, the Edgingtons, the Denings, the Ellisons, the Utts, the McKenzies, the Wades, and others, who were equal to the Indians in all the arts and stratagems of border war. As soon as Massie had completely prepared his station for defence, the whole population went to work, and cleared the lower of the Three Islands, and planted it in corn. The island was very rich, and produced heavy crops. The woods, with a little industry, supplied a choice variety of game. Deer, elk, buffalo, bears, and turkeys, were abundant, while the river furnished a variety of excellent fish. The wants of the inhabitants, under thlese circumstances, were few and easily gratified. When this station was made, the nearest neighbors north-west of the Ohio, were the inhabitants at Columbia, a settlement below the mouth of the Little Miami, five miles above Cincinnati, and at Gallipolis, a French settlement, near the mouth of the Great Kenhawa. The station being established, Massie continued to make locations and surveys. Great precautions were necessary to avoid the Indians, and even these did not always avail, as is shown by the following incidents, the first of which is derived from the narrative of Israel Donalson, in the American Pioneer, and the others from McDonald's sketches. I am not sure whether i'. was the last of March or first of April I came to the territory to reside; but on the night of the 21st of April, 1791, Mr. Massie and myself were sleeping together on our blankets, (for beds we had none,) on the loft of our cabin, to get out of the way of the fleas and gnats. Soon after lying down, I began dreaming of Indians, and continued to do so through the night. Sometime in the night, however, whether Mr. MIassie waked of himself, or whether I wakened him, I cannot now say, but I observed to him I did not know what was to be the consequence, for I had dreamed more about Indians that fight than in all the time I had been in the western country before. As is common, he made light of it, and we dropped again to sleep. He asked me next morning if I would go with him up the river, about four or five miles, to make a survey, and that William Lytle, who was then at the fort, was going along. We were both young surveyors, and were glad of the opportunity to practice. Accordingly we three, and a James Tittle, from Kentucky, who was about buying the land, got on board of a canoe, and was a long time going up, the river being very high at the time. We commenced at the mouth of a creek, which from that day has been called Donalson creek. We meandered up the river; Mr. Massie had the compass, Mr. Lytle and myself carried the chain. We had progressed perhaps one hundred and forty, or one hundred and fifty poles, when our chain broke or parted, but with the aid of the tomahawk we soon repaired it. We were then close to a large mound, and were standing in a triangle, and Lytle and myself were amusing ourselves pointing out to Tittle the great convenience he would have by building his house on that mound, when the one standing with his face up the river, spoke and said, boys, there are Indians; no, replied the other, they are Frenchmen. By this time I had caught a glimpse of them; I said they were Indians, I begged them to fire. I had no gun, and from the advantage we had, did not think of running until they started. The Indians were in two small bark canoes, and were close into shore and discovered us just at the instant we saw them; and before I started to run I saw one jump on shore. We took out through the bottom, and before getting to the hill, came to a spring branch. I was in the rear, and as I went to jump, something caught my foot, and I fell on the opposite side. They were then so close, I saw there was no chance of escape, and did not offer to rise. Three warriors first came up, presented their guns all ready to fire, but as I made no resistance they took them down, and one of them gave me his hand to help me up. At this time Mr. Lytle was about a chain's length before me, and threw away his hat; one of the Indians went forward and picked it up. They then took me back to the bank of the river, and set me down while they put up their stuff, and prepared for a march. While setting on the bank of the river, I could see the men walking about the block-house on the Kentucky shore, but they heard nothing of it. They went on rapidly that evening, and camped, I think, on the waters of Eagle creek, started next morning early, it raining hard, and one of them saw my hat was somewhat convenient to keep off the rain, came up and took it off my head, and put it on his own. By this time I had discovered some friendship in a very lusty Indian, I think the one that first came up to me; I made signs to h'im that one had taken my hat, he went and took it off the other Indian's head, and placed it again on mine, but had not gone far before they took it again. I complained as before, but my friend shook his head, took down and opened his budget, and took out a sort of blanket 22

Page  23 ADAMIS COUNTY. eap, and put it on my head. WNe went on; it still rained hard, and the waters were very much swollen, and when my friend discovered that I was timorous, he would lock his arm in mine, and lead me through, and frequently in open woods when I would get tired, I would do the same thing with him, and walk for miles. They did not make me carry any thing until Sunday or Monday. They got into a thicket of game, and killed, I think, two bears and some deer; they then halted and jerked their meat, eat a large portion, peeled some bark, made a kind of box, filled it, and put it on me to carry. I soon got tired of it and threw it down: they raised a great lau~l, examined my back, applied some bear's oil to it, and then put on the box again. I wet t on some distance and threw it down again; my friend then took it up, threw it over his head, and carried it. It weighed, I thought, at least fifty pounds. While resting one day, one of the Indians broke up little sticks and laid them up in the form of a fence, then took out a grain of corn, as carefully wrapped up as people used to wrap up guineas in olden timnes; this they planted and called out squaw, signif,ing to me that that would be my employment with the squaws. But, notwithstandin_i my situation at the time, I thought they would not eat much corn of my raising. On'Tuesday, as we were traveling along, there came to us a white man and an Indian on horseback; they had a long talk, and when they rode off, the Indians I was with seemed considerably alarmed; they immediately formed in Indian file, placed me in the centre, and shook a war club over my head, and showed me by these gestures that if I attemipted to run away they would kill me. We soon after arrived at the Shawanee camp, where we continued until late in the afternoon of the next day. During our stay there they trained my hair to their own fashion, put a jewel of tin in my nose, &c., &c. The Indians met with great formality when we came to the camp, which was very spacious. One side was entirely cleared out for our use, and the party I w-as with passed the camp to my great mortificatiotn, 1 thlinking they were going on; but on getting to the further end they wheeled shott round, came into the camp, sat down-not a whisper. In a few minutes two of the oldest get up, went round, shook hands, came and sat down again; then the Shawanees rising s5;nultaneously, came and shook hands with them. A few of the first took me by the hand; but one refused, and I did not offer them my hand again, not considering it any great honor. Soon after a kettle of bear's oil and some craclins were set before us, and we began eating, they first chewing the meat, then dipping it into the bear's oil, which I ttied to be excused from, but they compelled me to it, which tried nmy stomach, although by this time hiunger had compelled me to eat many a dirty morsel. Early in the afternoon, an Indian cartle to the camp, and was met by his party just outside, when they formed a circle and he spoke, I thought, near an hour, and so profound was the silence, that had they been on a board floor, I thought the fall of a pin might have been heard. I rightly judged of the disaster, for the day before I was taken I was at Lilmestone, and was solicited to join a party that was going down to the mouth of Snag creek, where some Indian canoes were discovered hid in the willows. The party went and divided, some came over to the Indian shore, and some remained in Kentucky, and they succeeded in killing nearly the whole party. There was at this camp two white men; one of them could swear in English, but very imperfectly, having I suppose been taken young; the other, who could speak good English, told me he was from South Carolina. He then told me different names which I have for got, except that of Ward; asked if I knew the Wards that lived near Washington, Ken rucky. I told him I did, and wanted him to leave the Indians and go to his brother's, and take me with him. He told me he preferred staying with the Indians, that he might nab the whites. He and I had a great deal of chat, and disagreed in almost every thing. He told me they had taken a prisoner by the name of Towns, that had lived near Washington, Kentucky, and that he had attempted to run away, and they killed him. But the truth was, they had taken Timothy Downing the day before I was taken, in the neighborhood of Blue Licks, and had got within four or five miles of that camp, and night comning on, and it being very rainy, they concluded to camp. There were but two Indians, an old chief and his son; Downing watched his opportunity, got hold of a squaw-axe and eave the fatal blow. His object was to bring the young Ii.dian in a prisoner; he said he had been so kind to him he could not think of killing him. But the instant he struck his father, the young man sprung upon his back and confined him so that it was with difficulty he extri cated himself from his grasp. Downing made then for his horse, and the Indian for the camp. The horse he caught and mounted; but not being a woodsman, struck the Ohio a little below Scioto, just as a boat was passing. They would not land for him until he rode several miles and convinced them that he was no decoy, and so close was the pursuit, that the boat. had only gained the stream when the enemy appeared on the shore. He had se verely wounded the young Indian in the scuffle, but did not know it until I told him. But 23

Page  24 ADAMS COUNTY. to return to my own narrative: two of the party, viz., my friend and another Indian, turned back from this camp to do other mischief, and never before had I parted with a friend with the same regret. We left the Shawanee camp about the middle of the afternoon, they under great excitement. What detained them I know not, for they had a number of their horses up, and their packs on, from early in the morning. I think they had at least one hundred of the best horses that at that timne Kentucky could aflord. They calculated on being pursued, and they were right, for the next day, viz., the 28th of April, Major Kenton, with about ninety men, were at the camp before the fires were extinguished; and I have always viewed it as a providential circunmstance that the enemy had departed, as a defeat on the part of the Kentuckians would have been inevitable. I never could get the Indians in a position to ascertain their precise number, but concluded there were sixty or upward, as sprightly looking men as I ever saw together, and well equipped as they could wish for. The Major himself agreed with me that it was a happy circumstance that they were gone. We traveled that evening, I thou ght, seven miles, and encamped in the edge of a prairie, the water a short distance off. Our supper that night consisted of a raccoon roasted un dressed. After this meal I became thirsty, and an old warrior, to whom my friend had given me in charge, directed another to go with me to the water, which made him angry; he struck me, and my nose bled. I had a great mind to return the stroke, but did not. I then determined, be the result what it might, that I would go no ifarther with them. They tied me and laid me down as usual, one of them lying on the rope oni each side of me they went to sleep, and I to work gnawing and picking the rope (made of bark) to pieces, but did not get loose until day was br-eaking. I crawled off on my hands and feet until 1 got into the edge of the prairie, and sat down on a trussuck to put on my imoccasins, aInd had put on one and was preparing to put on the other, when they raised the yell and took the back track, and I believe they made as much noise as twenty while men could do. Ilad they been still they might have heard me, as I was not more than two chains' length fiom them at the timne. But I started and ran, carrying one moccasin in my hand; and in order to evade them, chose the poorest ridges I could find; and when coining to tree-logs 3lying crosswise, would run along one and then along the other. I continued on that wav until about ten o'clock, then ascending a very poor ridge, crept in between two logs, and being very weary soon dropped to sleep, and did not waken until the sun was almost down; I traveled on a short distance further and took lodging for the night in a hollow tree. I think it was on Saturday that I got to the Miami. I collected some logs, made a raft by peeling bark and tying them together; but I soon found that too tedious and abandoned it. 1 founiid a turkey's nest with two eggs in it, each one having a double yelk; they made two delicious tueals for different days. I followed down the Miamii, until I struck Harmar's trace, made the previous fall, and continued on it until I came to Fort Washington, now Cincinnati. I think it was on Sabbath, the first day of May; I caught a horse, tied a piece of bark around his under jaw, on which there was a large tumor like a wart. The bark rubbed that, and he became restless and threw me, not hurting me much, however; I caught him again, and he again threw me, hurting me badly. HIow long I lay insensible I don't know; but when I revived he was a considerable distance from me. I then traveled on very slow, my feet entirely bare and full of thorns and briars. On Wednesday, the day that I got in, I was so far gone that I thought it entirely useless to make anlly further exertion, not knowing what distance I was from the river; and I took my station at the root of a tree, but soon got into a state of sleeping, and either dreamt, or thought that I should not be loitering away my time, that I should get in that day; which, on reflection, 1 had not the most distant idea. However, the impression was so strong that I got up and walked on some distance. I then took my station again as before, and the same thoughts occupied my mind. I got up and walked on. I had not traveled far before I thought I could see an opening for the river; and getting a little further on, I heard the sound of a bell. I then started and ran, (at a slow speed undoubtedly;) a little further onil, I began to perceive that I was coming to the river hill; and having got about half way down, I heard the sound of an axe, which was the sweetest music I had heard for many a day. It was in the extreme out-lot; when I got to the lot I crawled over the fence with difficulty, it being very high. I approached the person very cautiously till within about a chain's length, undiscovered, I then stopped and spoke; the person I spoke to was Mr. William Woodward, (the founder of the Woodward High School.) Mr. Woodward looked up, hastily cast his eyes round, and saw that I had no deadly weapon; he then spoke. "In the name of God," said he, "who are you?" I told him I had been a prisoner and had made my escape from the Indians. After a few more questions he told me to come to him. I did so. Seeing my situation, his fears soon subsided; he told me to sit down on a log and he would go and catch a horse ho had in the lot, and take me in. He caught his horse, set 24

Page  25 ADAMS COUNTY. nie on him, but kept the bridle in his own hand. When we got into the road, people began to inquire of Mr. Woodward, "who is he-an Indian?" I was not surprised nor offended at tile inquiries, for I was still in Indian uniform, bare hea(led, my hair cut off close, except the scalp and foretop, which they had put up in a piece of tin, with a bunch of turkey feathers, which I could not undo. They had also stripped off tile feathers of about two turkeys and hnng them to the hair of the scalp; these I had taIken off the day I left them. Mr. Woodward took me to his house, where every kindness was shown me. They soon gave me other clothiing; coming fi-rom different persons, they did not fit me very neatly; but there could not be a pair of shoes got in the place that I cotlid get on, my feet were so much swollen. In the spring of the year 1793, the settlers at Manchester commenced clearing the out-lots of the town; and while so engaged, an incident of much interest and excitement occurred. Mr. Andrew Ellison, one of the settlers, cleared a lot immediately adjoining the fort. He had completed the cutting of the timiber, rolled the logs together and set tlhem on fire. The next miorning, a short time before daybreak, Mr. Ellison opened one of the gates of the fort, and went out to throw his logs together. By the time he had finished this job, a number of the heaps blazed up brightly, and as hie was passing from one to thie other, he observed, by the light of the fires, three men walking briskly towards him. This did not alarm him in the least, although, he said, they were dark skinned fellows; yet he concluded they were the Wades, whose complexions were very dark, going early to hunt. He continued to right his log-heaps, until one of the fellows seized hirm by the irms, and called out in broken English, "How do? how d(lo?" He instantly looked in their faces, ani to his surprise and horror, found himself in tihe clutches of three Indians.'o resist wais useless. He therefore submitted to his fate, without any resistance or an attempt to esc,pe. The Indians quickly nioved off with him in the direction of Paint creek. When breakftst was ready, Mrs. Ellison sent one of her children to ask their tfither homiie but he could not be found at the log-heaps. His absence created no inmmediate -larm, as it w as thought he might have started to hunt after the completion of his work. Dinniel time arrived, and Ellison not returning, the family became uneasy, aI( be('an to suspect soiiie accident had happened to him. His gun-rack was examin ed, and tithere bung his iithe and h-is pouch in their usual place. Massie raised a party, and mnade a circatit troiundl the plaice, and found, after some search, the trails of four men, on oof whom li had on shioes;, (nl)tl is Ellison had shoes on, the truth, that the Indians had made himt a prisoner, was utlifl(ed. As it was almost night at the time the trail was discovered, the party retuiried to thecir station. Next miorning, early preparations were made by Massie and his praty to pursue the Indiians. In doing this they found great difficulty, is it was so early in the spring that thIe vegetation was not of sufficient growth to show pl)inily the trail of the Indians, Miio took the precaution to keep on hard and high -land, where their feet could make little or no imlpression. Massie and his party, however, were as unerring as a pack of well-trained hounds, and followed the trail to Paint creekl, when they found the Indians griled so fast on them, that pursuit was vain. They therefore abandoned it, and returned to the station. The Indians took their prisoner to Upper SandLsky, and compelled him to run the gauntlet. As Ellison was a large man and not very active, he received a severe flogging as he passed along the line. FroIn this place hlie was taken to Lower S.andusky, and was again compelled to run the gauntlet, and was then taken to Detroit, where he was generously ransomed by a British officer for one hundred dollars. He was shoritly afterwards sent by his friend, the officer, to Montreal, fi-orn whence he returned horne before the close of tihe summer of the same year. Another incident connected with the station at Manchester occurred shortly after this time, which, although somewhat out of order as to time, I will take the liberty to relate in this place. John Edgington, Asahel Edgington, and another man, started out on a hunting expedition towards Brush creek. They camped out six miles in a north-east direction from where West Union now stands, and near where Treber's tavern is now situated, on the road from Chillicothe to Maysville. The Edgingtons had good success in hunting. having killed a number of deer and bears. Of the deer killed, they saved the skins and hams alone. The bears, they fleeced; that is, they cut off all the meat which adhered to the hide without skinning, and left the bones as a skeleton. They hung up the proceeds of their hunt on a scaffold, out of the reach of the wolves and other wild animtals, and returned home for pack horses. No one returned to the camp with the two Edgingtons. As it was late in December, no one apprehended danger, as the winter season was usually a time of repose from Indian incursions. When the Edgingtons arrived at their old hunting camp, they alighted from their horses and were preparing to strike a fire, when a platoon of Indians fired upon them, at the distance of not more than twenty paces. Asahel Edg 4 25

Page  26 ADAMS COUNTY. ington fel to rise no more. John was more fortunate. The sharp crack of the rifles, and the horrid yells of the Indians, as they leaped from their place of ambush, frightened the horses, who took the track towards home at full speed. John Edgilgton was very active on foot, and now an occasioi offered which required his utmost speed. The moment the Indians leaped from their hitding place, they threw down their guns and took after him. They pursued him screaming and yelling in the most horrid manner. Edgington did not run a booty race. For about a mile the Indians stepped in his tracks almost before the bending grass could rise. The uplifted tomahawk was frequently so near his head, that he thought hlie felt its edge. Every effort was made to save his life, and every exertion of the Indians was made to arrest him in his flight. Edgington, who had the greatest stake in the race, at lengl'h began to gain on his pursuers, and after a long race, he distanced them, made his escape, and safely reached home. This, truly, was a most fearful and well contested race. The big Shawnee chief, Captain John, who headed the Indians on this occasion, after peace was made and Chillicothe settled, frequently told the writer of this sketch of the race. Captain John said, that "the white man who ran away -was a smart fellow, that the white man run and I run, he run and run, at last, the white man run clear off froml me." The first court in this county was held in Manchester. Winthrop Sargent, the secretary of the territory, acting in the absence of the governor, appointed commissioners, who located the county seat at an out of the way place, a few miles above the mouth of Brush creek, which they called Adamsville. The locality was soon named, in derision, Scant. At the next session of the court, its members became divided, and part sat in Manchester and part at Adamsville. The governor, on his return to the territory, finding the people in great confusion, and much bickering between them, removed the seat of justice to the mouth of Brush creek, where the first court was held in 1798. Here a town was laid out bv Noble G;rimes, under the name of Washington. A large log court house was built, with a jail in the lower story, and the governor appointed two more of the Scant party judges, which gave them a majoritv. In 1800, Charles Willing Byrd, secretary of the territory, in the absence of the governor, appointed two more of the Manchester party judges, which balanced the parties, and the contest was maintained until West Union became the county seat. Joseph Darlintone and Israel Donalson, were among the first judges of the Common Pleas. These gentlemen, now living in this county, were also members of the convention for forming the constitution of the State, there being, in 1847, only three others of that body living. AW'EST UNION, the county seat, is on the Maysville and Zaaiesville turnpike, 8 miles from the Ohio at Manchester, and 106 souttherly from Columbus. The name was given to it by Hon. Thonmas Kirker, o)ne of the commissioners who laid it out in 1804, and one of its earliest settlers. It stands on the summit of a high ridge, many hundred feet above the level of the Ohio. As early as 1815, a -.~wspaper was established here by James Finlay, entitled the Political Censor. The annexed view shows, on the left, the jail and market, and in'the centre, the court house and county offices. These last stand in a pleasant area, shaded by locusts. The cour't nouse is a substantial stone building, and bears good testimony to the * In 1803, Gen. Darlinton was appointed Clerk of Common Pleas and Clerk of the Su. prenie Court. The first office he left a few months since, and the last he still retains. 26

Page  27 ADAMS COUNTY. skill of its builder, ex-Governor Metcalf, of Kentucky, who, commencing life as a mason, has acquired the sobriquet of "Stone Hammer." The first court house here was of logs. West Union contains 4 churches: 1 Associate Reformed, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Metholist and 1 Baptist; 2 newspapers, a classical school, and 9 mercantile stores. It had, in 1820, a population of 406; in 1840, 452. Public Buildings, West Union. In the eastern part of this county are considerable beds of iron ore, that have been in use many years; it is a mineral region, and large hills are composed of aluminous slate. Some years since, a singular phenomenon occurred in this section, described by Dr. Hildreth, in the 29th volume of Silliman's Journal: A part of the summer of the year 1830 was excessively dry in the south-west portion o Ohio. During the drought, the water all disappeared from Brush creek, which heads among some slaty hills, leaving its bed entirely dry for several weeks. Towards the close of this period, loud and frequent explosions took place from the slate at the bottom of the creekl, throwing up large fragments of rock and shaking the earth violently for some distance. The inhabitants living near its borders became much alarmed, thinking a volcano was breaking out. On examining the spot, large pieces of iron pyrites were found mixed with the slate-stone. The water, which had heretofore protected the pyrites firom the atmosphere, being all evaporated, the oxygen found its way through the crevices of the slate to these beds, and acting chemically upon them, new combinations took place, forcing up the superincumbent strata with great violence and noise. When the water again covered he bed of the creek, the explosions ceased. The barren hills in this part of the county, and of some of the other river counties, remain, in many cases, the property of the General Government. They afford, however, a fine range for the cattle and hogs of the scattered inhabitants, and no small quantity of lumber, such as staves, hoop poles and tanner's bark, which are unscrupulously taken from the public lands. Dr. John Locke, from whose Geological Report these facts are derived, says: Indeed, there is a vagrant class who are supported by this kind of business. They erect a cabin towards the head of some ravine, collect the chestnut-oak bark from the neighboring hill tops, drag it on sleds to points accessible by wagons, where they sell it for perhaps $2 per cord to the wagoner. The last sells it at the river to the flat boat shipper, at $6 per cord, and he again to the consumer at Cincinnati, for $11. Besides this common trespass, the squatter helps himself out by hunting deer and coons, and, it is said, occasionally 27

Page  28 ALLEN COUNTY. by taking a sheep 4 r a hog, the loss of which may very rtasonably be charged to the wolves The poor families of the bark cutters often exhibit the very picture of imnprovidence. There begins to be a fear among the inhabitants that speculators may be tempted to purchase up these waste lands and deprive them of their present'range' and lumber. The speculator must still be a non-resident, and could hardly protect his purchase. The inhabitants have a hard, rough region to deal with, and need all of the advantages which their mountain tract can afford. Winchester, 12 miles NW. of the county seat, is a thriving town, with 7 stores and about 400 people; Manchester, 8 sw., has 4 stores and about 250 population; Jacksonville, 10 NE., has a population of about 200; Locust Grove, Rockville, Bentonville, Cherry Fork, Eckmansville and Rome, are small towns having post offices. ALLEN. ALLEN was formed April 1st, 1820, from Indian territory, and named in honor of a colonel of that name in the war of 1812: it was temporarily attached to Mercer county for judicial purposes. The surface is generally level; the soil varies from a sandy loam to clay, and is well adapted to grain and grass. The principal crops are wheat, corn, rye and oats, with timothy,-clover and flaxseed. The county is well settled for a new one, which arises from the U. S., and State land offices having formerly been within it, and the land, therefore, was taken by actual settlers. The population is of a mixed character, and the southern part has many Germans. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population: Amanda, 282 Goshen, 236 Shawanee, 429 Auglaise, 732 Jackson, 570 Union, 669 Bath, 1,382 Marion, 315 Washington, 457 Clay, 435 Moulton, 263 Wayne, 404 Duchaquet, 692 Perry, 565 German, 856 Pusheta, 768 The population of Allen, in 1840, was 9,081, or 16 inhabitants to a square mile. Lima, the county seat, is 95 miles WNW. from Columbus, and was laid off as the seat of justice for the county in the spring of 1831. It is several miles north of the centre of the county, the southern portion of which has been an Indian reservation. Thle annexed view was taken near the residence of Col. Jas. Cunningham, on the Wapakonetta road. The stream shown in the view is the Ottawa river, usually called Hog river-a name derived from the following circumstance: McKee, the British Indian agent, who resided at the Machachac towns, on Mad river, during the incursion of General Logan, in 1786, was obliged to flee with his effects. He had his swine driven on to the borders of this stream; the Indians thereafter called it Koshko sepe, which, in the Shawnee language, signifies Hog river. Lima contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 -Zs

Page  29 ALLEN COUNTY. Methodist, and 1 Baptist church; 6 dry goods and 4 grocery stores, a foundery, 2 newspaper printing offices, and a population estimated at about 500. The town is progressing with the gradual increase of the country. Lima. Wapakonetta is 10 miles from St. Maryv's, and 12 from Lima, on the Auglaize, and contains 1 Catholic and 1 Methodist church and 3 stores; it is settled principally by Germans, and in population is somewhat less than Lima. After the Shawnees were driven from Piqua by Gen. Clark, they settled a town here, which they called Wapaghkonetta.* By the treaty at the Maumee rapids, in 1817, the Shawnees were given a reservation of ten miles square in this county, within which was their council house at Wapakonetta, and also a tract of twenty-five square miles, which included their settlement on Hog Creek; by the treaty of the succeeding year, made at St. Mary's, 12,800 acres adjoining the east line of the Wapakonetta Reserve were added. At the village the-e is a fine orchard, at least sixty years of age, and from its being slanted in regular order, it is supposed to have been done by Frenchmen settled among the Indians. The society of Friends, for a number of years, had a mission at Wapakonetta. From the year 1796 till the formation of the state constitution, Judge Burnet, of Cincinnati, attended court regularly at that place, Marietta and Detroit, the last of which was then the seat of justice for Wayne county. The jaunts between these remote places, through a wilderness, were attended with exposure, fatigue and hazard, and were usually performed on horseback, in parties of two or three or * John Johnston says" Wapagh-ko-netta: this is the true Indian orthography. It was named after an Indian chief long since dead, but who survived years after my intercourse commenced with the Shawanoese. The chief was sor.e what club-footed, and the word has reference, I think, to that circumstance, although its full import I never could discover. For many years prior to 1829, I had m-r Indian head quarters at Wapagh-ko-netta. The business of the agency of the Shawano se, Wyandotts, Senecas and Delawares, was transacted there." 29

Page  30 AI,LEN COUNTY. more. On one of these occasions, while halting at Wapakonetta, he witnessed a game of ball among the people, of which he has given an interesting narration in his letters. Blue Jacket, the war chief, who commanded the Shawanees in the battle of 1794, at Maumee, resided in the village, but was absent. We were, however, received with kindness, by the old village chief, Buckingelas. When we went to his lodge, he was giving audience to a deputation of chiefs from some western tribes. We took seats at his request, till the conference was finished, and the strings of wampum disposed of-he gave us no intimation of the subject matter of the conference, and, of course, we could not ask for it. In a little tinle he called in some of his young men, and requested them to get up a game of football for our amusemient. A purse of trinkets was soon made up, and the whole village, imale and female, were on the lawn. At these games the men played against the women, and it was a rule, that the former were not to touch the ball with their hands on penalty of forfeiting the purse; while the latter had the privilege of picking it up, running with, and throwing it as far as they could. When a squaw had the ball, the men were allowed:o catch and shake her, and even throw her on the ground, if necessary, to extricate the ball from her hand, but they were not allowed to touch, or move it, except by their feet. At the opposite extremes of the lawn, which was a beautiful plain, thickly set with, blue grass, stakes were erected, about six feet apart-the contending parties arrayed themselves in front of these stakes; the men on the one side, and the women on the otlter. The party which succeeded in driving the ball through the stakes, at the goal of their opponents, were proclaimed victors, and received the purse. All things being ready, the old chief went to the centre of the lawn, and threw up the ball, making an exclamation, in the Shawanee language, which we did not understand. Ile immediately retired, and the contest began. The parties seemed to be fairly niatched, as to numbers, having about a hundred on a side. The game lasted more than an hour, with great animation, but was finally decided in favor of the ladies, by the power of an herculean squaw, who got the ball, and in spite of the men who seized her to shake it from her uplifted hand, held it firmly, dragging them along, till she was sufficiently near the goal to throw it through the stakes. The young squaws were the most active of their party, and, of course, most frequenitly caught the ball. When they did so, it vwas amnusing to see the strife between them and the young Indians, who immediately seized them, and always succeeded in rescuing the ball, though sometimes they could not effect their object till their female competitors were thrown on the grass. When the contending parties had retired from the field of strife, it was pleasant to see the feelings of exultation depicted in the faces of the victors; whose joy was manifestly enhanced by the fact, that their victory was won in the presence of white men, whom they supposed to be highly distinguished, and of great power in their nation. This was a natural conclusion for them to draw, as they knew we were journeying tc Detroit for the purpose of holding the general court; which, they supposed, conltroled and governed the nation. We sdent the night very pleasantly among them, and in the morning resumed our journey. In August, 1831, treaties were negotiated with the Senecas of Lewiston and the Shawnees of Wapakonetta, by James Gardiner, Esq., and Col. John M'Elvain, special commissioners appointed for this purpose. The terms offered were so liberal that the Indians consented to give up their land and remove beyond thle Mississip)i. The Shawnees had at this time about 66,000 acres in this county, and in conjunction with the Senecas about 40,300 acres at Lewiston. The Indians were removed to the Indian territory on Kanzas river, in the Far West, in September, 1832, D. M. Workman and David Robb being the agents for their removal. The latter, Mr. Robb, in a communication respecting the Indians, has given the following interesting facts. Intemperance to a great extent prevailed among the Indians; there was, however, as wide a contrast in this respect as with the whites, and some of the more virtuous refused to associate with the others. This class also cultivated their little farms with a degree of taste and judgment some of these could cook a comfortable meal, and I have eaten both 30

Page  31 ALLEN COUNTY. butter and a kind of cheese made by them. Many of them were quite ingenious and natural mechanics, with a considerable knowledge of, and an inclination to use tools. One chief had an assortment of carpenters' tools which he kept in neat order. He made plows. harrows, wagons, bedsteads, tables, bureaus, &c. Ile was frank, liberal and conscientious. On my asking him who taught him the use of tools, he replied, no one; then pointing up to the sky, he said, " the Great Spirit taught me." With all their foibles and vices, there is something fascinating in the Indian character, and one cannot long associate with them without having a perceptible growing attachment. The Indian is emphatically the natural man, and it is an easy thing to make an Indian out of a white person, but very difflicult to civilize or christianize an indian. I have known a number of whites who had been taken prisoners by the Indians when young, and without exception, they formed such attachments that, after being with them some time, they could not be induced to return to their own people. There was a woman among the Shawnees, supposed to be near an hundred years of age, who was taken prisoner, when young, ill eastern Pennsylvania. Some years after, her friends, through the agency of traders, endeavored to induce her to return, but in vain. She became, if possible, more of a squaw ill her habits and appearance than any female in the nation. As a sample of their punctuality in performing their contracts, I would state that I have often loaned themn money, which was always returned in due season, with a single exception. This was a loan to a young man who promised to pay me when they received their annuity. After the appointed time he shunned me, and the matter remained unsettled until just prior to our departure for their new homes. I then stated the circumstance to one of the chiefs, more from curiosity to see how he would receive the intelligence than with the expectation of its being the means of bringing the money. He, thereupon, talked with the lad upon the subject, but, being unsuccessful, he called a council of his brother chiefs, who formed a circle, with the young manl in the centre. After talking to him a while in a low tone, they broke out and vociferously reprimanded him for his dishonest conduct but all proved unavailing. Finally, the chiefs, in a most generous anId noble spirit, made up the amount from their own purses, and pleasantly tendered it to me. The Indians being firm believers in witchcraft, generally attributed sickness and other misfortunes to this cause, and were in the habit of murdering those whomi they suspected of practising it. They have been known to travel all the way fromi the Mississippi to Wapakonetta, and shoot down a person in his cabin merely on souspicionI of his being a wizzard, and return unmolested. 6When a person became so sick as to lead them to thllink he was in danger of death, it was usual for them to place him in the woods alone, with no one to attend except a nurse or doctor, who generally acted as an agent in hurrying on their dissolution. It was distressing to see one in this situation. I have been permitted to do this only through the courtesy of relatives, it being contrary to rule for any to visit them except such as had medical care of them. The whole nation are at liberty to attend the funerals, at which there is generally great lamentation. A chief, who died just previous to their removal, was buried in the following manner. They bored holes in the lid of his coffin-as is their custom-over his eyes and mouth, to let the Good Spirit pass in and out. Over the grave they laid presents, &c., with provisions, which they affirmed the Good Spirit would take him in the night. Sure enough!-these articles had all disappeared in the morning, by the hand of an evil spirit clothed in a humnan body. There were many funerals among the Indians, and their numbers rapidly decreased: intemperance, and pulmonary, and scrofulous diseases, made up a large share of their bills of mortality, anti the number of deaths to the births were as one to three. A few anecdotes will illustrate the wit and dishonesty of some, and the tragical encounters of others of the Indians. Col. M'Pherson, the former sub-agent, kept goods for sale, for which they often got in debt. Some were slow in making payments, and one in particular was so tardy that M'Pherson earnestly urged him to pay up. Knowing that he was in the habit of taking hides from the tanners, the Indian inquired if he would take hides for the debt. Being answered in the affirmative, he promised to bring them in about four days. The Indian, knowing that M'Pherson had at this time a flock of cattle ranging in the forest, went in pursuit, shot several, from which he took offthe hides, and delivered them punctually according to promise. While we were encamped, waiting for the Indians to finish their ceremonies prior to emigration, we were much annoyed by an unprincipled band of whites who came to trade, particularly in the article of whiskey, which they secreted from us in the woods. The In dians all knew of this depot, and were continually going, like bees from the hive, day and night, and it was difficult to tell whether some who lead in the worship passed most of the time in that employment or in drinking whiskey. While this state of things lasted, the 81

Page  32 ALLEN COUNTY. officers could do nothing satisfactorily with them, nor were they'sensible of the consequence of continuing in such a course'I'The government was bound by treaty stipulations to maintain them one year only, which was passing away, and winter was fast approaching, when they could not well travel, and if they could not arrive until spring, they would be unable to raise a crop, and consequently would be out of bread. We finally assembled the chiefs and other influential men, and presenting these facts vividly before them, they became alarmed and promised to reform. We then authorized them to tomahawk every barrel, keg, jug, or bottle of whiskey that they could find, under the promise to pay for all and protect them from harni in so doing. They all agreed to this, and went to work that night to accomplish the task. Having lain down at a late hour to sleep, I was awakened by one who said he had found and brought me a jug of whiskey: I handed him a quarter of a dollar, set the whiskey down, and fell asleep again. The same fellow then came, stole jug and all, and sold the contents that night to the Indians at a shilling a dram-a pretty good speculation on a half gallon of "whisk," as the Indians call it. I suspected him of the trick, but he would not confess it until I was about to part with them at the end of the journey, when he came to me and related the circumstances, saying that it was too good a story to keep. One of our interpreters, who was part Indian and had lived with them a long time, related the following tragical occurrence. A company of Shawnees Inet some time previous to my coming among them, had a drunken frolic and quarrelled. One vicious fellow who had an old grudge against several of the others, and stabbed two of the company successively until they fell dead, was making for the third, when his arm was arrested by a large athletic Indian, who, snatching the knife from him, plunged it into him until he fell. He attempted to rise and got on his knees, when the other straddled him, seized him by the hlair, lifted up his head with one hand, while with the other he drew his knife across his throat, exclaiming-" lie there, my friend! I guess you not eat any more hommnony." After we had rendezvoused, preparatory to moving, we were detained several weeks waiting until they had got over their tedious round of religious ceremonies, some of which were public and others kept private from us. One of their first eacts was to take away the fencing from the graves of their fathers, level them to the surrounding surface, and cover them so neatly with green sod, that not a trace of the graves could be seen. Subsequently, a few of the chiefs and others visited their friends at a. distance, gave and received presents from chiefs of other nations, at their head quarters. Among the ceremonies above alluded to was a dance,lkn which none participated but the wa rriors. They threw off all their clothing but their britchelouts, painted their faces and naked bodies in a fantastical manner, covering them with the pictures of snakes and disagreeable insects and animals, arnd then armed with war clubs, commenced dancing, yelling and frightfully distorting their countenances: the scene was truly terrific. This was followed by the dance they usually have on returning from a victorious battle, in which both sexes participated. It was a pleasing contrast to the other, and was performed in the night, in a ring, around a large fire. In this they sang and marched, males and females promiscuously, in single file, around the blaze. The leader of the band commenced singing, while all the rest were silent until he had sung a certain number of words, then the next ill the row commenced with the same, and the leader began with a new set, and so on to the end of their chanting. All were singing at once, but no two the same words. I was told that part of-the words they used were hallelujah! It was pleasing to witness the native modesty and graceful movements of those young females in this dance. When their ceremonies were over, they informed us they were now ready to leave They then mounted their horses, and such as went in wagons seated themselves, and sei out wkth their "high priest" in front, bearing on his shoulders "the ark of the covenant," which consisted of a large gourd and the bones of a deer's leg tied to its neck. Just pre pious to starting, the priest gave a blast of his trumpet, then moved slowly and solemnly while the others followed in like manner, until they were ordered to halt in the evening for encampment when the priest gave another blast as a signal to stop, erect their tents and cook supper. The same course was observed through the whole of the journey. When they arrived near St. Louis, they lost some of their number by cholera. The Shawnees who emigrated numbered about 700 souls, and the Senecas about 350. Among them was also a detachment of Ottawas, who were conducted by Capt. Hollister from the Maumee country. The principal speaker among the Shawnees at the period of their removal, was Wiwelipea. He was an eloquent orator-either grave or gay, humorous or severe, as the occasion required. At times 32

Page  33 ALLEN COUNTY. his manner was so fascinating, his countenance so full of varied expression, and his voice so musical, that surveyors and other strangers passing through the country, listened to him with delight, although the words fell upon their ears in an unknown language. He removed out west with his tribe. The chief Catahecassa, or Black Hoof, died at Wapakonetta, shortly previous to their removal, at, the age of 110 years. The sketches annexed of Black Hoof and Blue Jacket, are derived from Drake's Tecumseh. Among the celebrated chiefs of the Shawanoes, Black Hoof is entitled to a high rank. He was born in Florida, and at the period of the removal of a portion of that tribe to Ohio and Pennsylvania, was old enough to recollect having bathed in the salt water. He was present, with others of his tribe, at the defeat of Braddock, near Pittsburg, in 1755, and was engaged in all the wars in Ohio from that time until the treaty of Greenville, in 1795. Such was the sagacity of Black Hoof in planning his military expeditions, and such the energy with which he executed them, that he won the confidence of his whole nation, and was never at a loss for brares to fight under his banner. " He was known far and wide as the great Shawanoe warrior, whose cunning, sagacity, and experience, were only equalled by the fierce and desperate bravery with which he carried into operation his military plans. Like the other Shawanoe chiefs, he was the inveterate foe of the white man, and held that no peace should be made, nor any negociation attempted, except on the condition that the whites should repass the mountains, and leave the great plains of the west to the sole occupancy of the native tribes. "He was the orator of his tribe during the greater part of his long life, and was an excellent speaker. The venerable Colonel Johnston, of Piqua, to whom we are indebted for much valuable information, describes him as the most graceful Indian he had ever seen, and as possessing the most natural and happy faculty of expressing his ideas. He was well versed in the traditions of his people; no one understood better their peculiar relations to the whites, whose settlements were gradually encroaching on them, or could detail with m.ore minuteness the wrongs with which his nation was afflicted. But although a stern and uncompromising opposition to the whites had marked his policy through a series of forty years, and nerved his arm in a hundred battles, he became at length convinced of the madness of an ineffectual struggle against a vastly superior and hourly increasing foe. No sooner had he satisfied himself of this truth, than he acted upon it with the decision which formed a prominent trait in his character. The temporary success of the Indians in several engagements previous to the campaign of General Wayne, had kept alive their expiring hopes; but their signal defeat by that gallant officer convinced the more reflecting of their leaders of the desperate character of the conflict. Black Hoof was among those who decided upon making terms with the victorious American commander; and having signed the treaty of 1795, at Greenville, he continued faithful to his stipulations during the remainder of his life. From that day, be ceased to be the enemy of the white man; and as he was not one who could act a negative part, he became the firm ally and friend of those against whom his tomahawk had been so long raised in vindictive animosity. He was their friend, not from sympathy or conviction, but in obedience to a necessity whic left no middle course, and under a belief that submission alone could save his tribe from destruction; and having adopted this policy, his sagacity and sense of honor, alike forbade a recurrence either to open war or secret hostility. He was the principal chief of the Shawanoe nation, and possessed all the influence and authority which are usually attached to that office, at the period when Tecumseh and his brother the Prophet commenced their hostile operations against the United States." When Tecumseh and the Prophet embarked in their scheme for the recovery of the lands as far south as the Ohio river, it became their interest as well as policy to enlist Black Hoof in the enterprise; and every effort which the genius of the one, and the cunning of the other, could devise, was brought to bear upon him. But Black Hoof continued faithful to the treaty which he had signed at Greenville, in 1795, and by prudence and influence kept the greater part of his tribe from joining the standard of Tecumseh or engaging on the side of the British in the late war with England. In that contest he became the ally of the United States, and although he took no active part in it, he exerted a very salutary influence over his tribe. In January, 1813, he visited Gen. Tupper's camp, at Fort McArthur, and while there, about ten o'clock one night, when sitting by the fire in company with the (General and several other officers, some one fired a pistol through a hole in the wall of tiw 5 33

Page  34 ALLEN COUNTY. nut, and shot Black Hoof in the face: the ball entered the cheek, glanced against tie bone, and finally lodged in his neck: he fell, and for some time was supposed to be dead, but revived, and afterwards recovered from this severe wound. The most prompt and diligent inquiry as to the author of this cruel and dastardly act, failed to lead to his detection. No doubt was entertained that this attempt at assassination was made by a white man, stimulated perhaps by no better excuse than the memory of some actual or ideal wrong, inflicted on some of his own race by an unknown hand of kindred color with that of his intended victim. Black Hoof was opposed to polygamy, and to the practice of burning prisoners. He is reported to have lived forty years with one wife, and to have reared a numerous famnlily of children, who both loved and esteemed him. His disposition was cheerful, and his conversation sprightly and agreeable. In stature he was small, being not more than five feet eight inches in height. He was favored with good health, and unimpaired eye sight to the period of his death. BLUE JACKET, OR WEYAPIERSENWAH.-In the campaign of General Harmar, in the year 1790, Blue Jacket was associated with the Miami chief, Little Turtle, in the command of the Indians. In the battle of the 20th of August, 1794, when the combined army of the Indians was defeated by General Wayne, Blue Jacket had the chief control. The night previous to the battle, while the Indians were posted at Presque Isle, a council was held, composed of chiefs from the Miamis, Potawatimies, Delawares, Shawanoes, Chippewas, Ottawas and Senecas-the seven nations engaged in the action. They decided against the proposition to attack General Wayne that night in his encampment. The expediency of meeting him the next day then came up for consideration. Little Turtle was opposed to this measure, but being warmly supported by Blue Jacket, it was finally agreed upon. The former was strongly inclined to peace, and decidedly opposed to risking a battle under the circumstances in which the Indians were then placed. "We have beaten the enemy," said he, "twice, under separate commanders. We cannot expect the same good fortune always to attend us. The Americans are now led by a chief who never sleeps. The night and the day are alike to him; and, during all the time that he has been marching upon our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men, we have never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. There is something whispers me, it would be prudent to listen to his offers of peace." The councils of Blue Jacket, however, prevailed over the better judgment of Little Turtle. The battle was fought and the Indians defeated. In the month of October following this defeat, Blue Jacket concurred in the expediency of sueing for peace, and at the head of a deputation of chiefs, was about to bear a flag to General Wayne, then at Greenville, when the mission was arrested by foreign influence. Governor Sinicoe, Colonel McKee and the Mohawk chief, Captain John Brant, having in charge one hundred and fifty Mohawks and Messasagoes, arrived at the rapids of the Maumee, and invited the chiefs of the combined army to meet them at the mouth of the Detroit river, on the 10th of October. To this Blue Jacket assented, for the purpose of hearing what the British officers had to propose. Governor Simcoe urged the Indians to retain their hostile attitude towards the United States. In referring to the encroachments of the people of this country on the Indian lands, he said, "Children: I am still of the opinion that the Ohio is your right and title. I have given orders to the commandant of Fort Miami to fire on the Americans whenever they make their appearance again. I will go down to Quebec, and lay your grievances before the great man. From thence they will be forwarded to the king your father. Next spring you will know the result of every thing what you and I will do." He urged the Indians to obtain a cessation of hostilities, until the following spring, when the English would be ready to attack the Americans, and by driving them back across the Ohio, restore their lands to the Indians. These councils delayed the conclusion of peace until the following summer. Blue Jacket was present at the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, and conducted himself with moderation and dignity. Westminster, Lafayette, Allentown, Gallatin, St. Johns and Uniopolis are small places, the largest of which, Westminster, does not contain over 45 dwellings. Fort Amanda, a stockade in the last war, was on a commanding site on the west bank of the Big Anglaise, near the western line of the county, and on the site of an old Ottawa town. It was built by Kentucky troops, and named after some favorite lady of that state. 34

Page  35 ASHLAND COUNTY. ASHLAND. ASHLAND was formed February 26th, 1846. The surface on the south is hilly, the remainder of the county rolling. The soil of the upland is a sandy loam; of the valleys-which comprise a large part of the county-a rich sandy and gravelly loam, and very prcductive. The principal crop is wheat, of which probably no portion of the state, of equal extent, produces more. A great quantity of oats, corn, potatoes, &c., is raised, and grass and fruit in abundance. A majority of the population are of Pennsylvania origin. Its present territory originally comprised the townships of Vermillion, Montgomery, Orange, Green and Hanover, with parts of Monroe, Mifflin, Milton and Clear Creek, of Richland county; also the principal part of the townships of Jackson, Perry, Mohecan and Lake, of Wayne county; of Sullivan and Troy, Lorain county; and Ruggles, of Huron county. This tract, in 1840, contained a popillation of about 20,000, or 50 inhabitants to a square mile. Public Buildings in Ashland. Ashland, the county seat, was laid out in 1816, by William Montgomery, and bore, for many years, the name of Uniontown; it was changed to its present name in compliment to Henry Clay, whose seat near Lexington, Ky., bears that name. Daniel Carter, from Butler co., Pa., raised the first cabin in the county, about the year 1811, which stood where the store of Wm. Granger now is, in Ashland. Robert Newell, 3 miles east, and Mr. Fry, 1II miles north of the village, raised cabins about the same time. In 1817, the first store was opened by Joseph Sheets, in a frame building now kept as a store by the widow Yonker. Joseph Sheets, David Markley, Samuel Ury, Nicholas Shaffer, Alanson Andrews, Elias Slocum and George W. Palmer were among the first settlers of the place. Ashland is a flourishing village, 89 miles NW. of Columbus, and 14 from Mansfield. It contains 5 churches, viz: 2 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal Methodist, 1 Lutheran, and 1 Disciples, 9 dry goods, 4 grocery, 1 book, and 2 drug stores, 2 newspaper printing offices, a flourishing 35 I

Page  36 ASHLAND COUNTY. classical academy, numbering over 100 pupils of both sexes, and a population estimated at 1300. The above view was taken in front of the site selected for the erection of a court house, the Methodist church building-seen on the left-being now used for that purpose: the structures with steeples, commencing on the right, are the 1st Presbyterian church, the academy, and the 2d Presbyterian church. At the organization of the first court of common pleas for this county, at Ashland, an old gentleman, by the name of David Burns, was one of the grand jurors, who, as a remarkable fact, it is said, was also a member of the first grand jury ever empaneled in Ohio. The court met near the mouth of Wegee creek, in Belmont county, in 1795: the country being sparsely settled, he was compelled to travel forty miles to the place of holding court. Jeromeville, 8 miles SE. of Ashland, on Lake Fork of Mohiccan, contains 6 stores and about 500 people. In the late war, it was the only settlement within the present limits of the county, and consisted of a few families, who erected pickets for their safety. There was at that time a Frenchman, named Jerome, who resided there and gave name to the locality. He had been an Indian trader, and had taken a squaw for a wife. The people of that nation always became more easily domesticated among the Aborigines than the English. From very early times it was the policy of the French government not to allow their soldiers to take wives with them into the wilderness. Hence the soldiers and traders frequently married among the Indians, and were enabled to sustain themselves with far less difficulty. The Delaware Indians had a settlement at or near Jeromeville, which they left at the beginning of the war. Their chief was old Captain Pipe, who resided near the road to Mansfield, one mile south of Jeromeville. When young he was a great warrior, and the implacable foe of the whites. He was in St. Clair's defeat, where, according to his own account, he distinguished himself and slaughfered white men until his arm was weary with the work. He had a daughter of great beauty. A young chief, of noble mien, became in love with her, and on his suit being rejected, mortally poisoned himself with the May apple. A Captain Pipe, whose Indian name was Tauhangecaupouye, removed to the small Delaware Reserve, in the upper part of Marion county, and when his tribe sold out, about 20 years since, accompanied them to the far west, where he has since died. Louidonville 18 s., Rowsburg 9 E., Savannah 7 NW., Orange 4 E., and Haysville 8 s. of Ashland, are villages having each from 50 to 60 dwellings. At the last is the Haysville Literary Institute: the building is a substantial brick edifice. Sullivan 14 NE., and Perrysville 18 sw., have each but a few dwellings. 36

Page  37 ASHTABULA COUNTY. ASHTABULA. ASHTABULA was formed June 7, 1807, from Trumbull and Geauga and organized January 22, 1811. The name of the county was derived from Ashtabula river, which signifies, in the Indian language, Fish river. For a few miles parallel with the lake shore it is level, the remainder of the surface slightly undulating, and the soil generally clay. Butter and cheese are the principal articles of export. Generally, not sufficient wheat is raised for home consumption, but the soil is quite productive in corn and oats. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Andover, 881 Ashtabula, 1711 Austinburg, 1048 Cherry Valley, 689 Conneaut, 2650 Denmark, 176 Geneva, 1215 Harpersfield, 1399 Hartsgrove, 553 . Jefferson, 710 The population of the county, in 1820, was 7,369; in 1830, 14,584; in 1840, 23,724, or 34 inhabitants to a square mile. This county is memorable from being not only the first settled on the Western Reserve, but the earliest in the whole of northern Ohio. The incidents connected with its early history, although unmarked by scenes of military adventure, are of an interesting nature. They have been well collected and preserved by the Ashtabula Historical Society. This association, with a praiseworthy industry, have collected nearly a thousand folio pages of manuscript, relating principally to this county. Some of the articles are finely written, and as a whole, give a better idea of the toils, privations, customs and mode of pioneer life than any work that has ever met our notice. From this collection we have extracted nearlv all the historical materials embodied under the head of this county. On the 4th of July, 1796, the first surveying party of the Western Reserve landed at the mouth of Conneaut creek. Of this event, John Barr, Esq., in his sketch of the Western Reserve, in the National Magazine for December, 1845, has given a narration. The sons of revolutionary sires, some of Lhem sharers of themselves in the great baptism of the republic, they made the anniversary of their country's freedom a day of ceremonial and rejoicing. They felt that they had arrived at the place of their labors, the-to many of them-sites of home, as little alluring, almost as crowded with dangers, as were the levels of Jamestown, or the rocks of Plymouth to the ancestors who had preceded them in the conquest of the seacoast wilderness of this continent. From old homes and friendly and social associations, they were almost as completely exiled as were the cavaliers who debarked upon the shores of Virginia, or the Puritans who sought the strand of Massachusetts. Far away as they were from the villages of their birth and boyhood; before them the trackless forest, or the untraversed lake, yet did they resolve to cast fatigue and privation and 37 Kingsville, Lenox, Milford, Monroe, Morgan, NeLyme, Orwell, Phelps, Pi erpont, Plymouth, Richmond, Rome, Saybrook, Sheffield, Trumbull, Wayne, Williamsfield Windsor, 1420 550 173 1326 643 527 458 530 639 706 384 765 934 683 439 76'i 892 875

Page  38 ASIITAB3ULA COUNTY. peril from their thoughts for the time being, and give to the day its due, to patriotism its awards. Mustering their numbers, they sat them down on the eastward shore of the stream now known as Conneaut, and, dipping fiom the lake the liquor in which they pledged their country-their goblets some tin cups of no rare workmanship, yet every way answerable, with thile ordnance accompaniment of two or three fowling pieces discharging. the required national salute-the first settlers of the Reserve spent their landing-day as became the sons of the Pilgrim Fathers-as the advance pioneers of a population that has Conneaut,* the Plymouth of the Reserve, in July, 1796. since made the then wilderness of northern Ohio to "blossom as the rose," and prove the homes of a people as remarkable for integrity, industry, love of country, moral truth and enlightened legislation, as any to be found within thie territorial limits of their ancestral New England. The whole party numbered, on this occasion, fifty-two persons, of whom two were females, (Mrs. Stiles and Mrs. Gunn, and a child.) As these individuals were the advance of after millions of population, their names become worthy of record, and are therefore given, viz.: Moses Clevelan'd, agent of the company; Augustus Porter, principal surveyor; Seth Pease, Moses Warren, Amos Spafford, Milton Hawley, Richard M. Stoddard, surveyors; Joshua Stowe, commissary; Theodore Shepard, physician; Joseph Tinker, principal boatman; Joseph Mcintyre, George Prou(ilfoot, Francis Gay, Samuel Forbes, Elijah Gunn, wife and child, Amos Sawtenr, Stephen Benton, Amos Barber, Samuel Hungerford, William B. Hall, Samuel Davenport, Asa Mason, Amzi Atwater, Michael Coffin, Elisha Ayres, Thomas Harris, Norman Wilcox, Timothy Dunham, George Goodwin, Shadrach Benham, Samuel Agnew, Warhaln Shepard, David Bear4, John Briant? Titus V. Munson, Joseph Landon, Job V. Stiles and wife, Charles Parker, Ezekiel Hawley, Nathaniel Doan, Luke Hanchet, James Hasket, James Hamilton, Olney F. Rice, John Lock, and four others whose names are not mentioned. On the 5th of July, the w,orkmen of the expedition were employed in the erection of a large, awkwardly constructed log building; locating it on the sandy beach on the east shore of the streamn, and naming it " Stow Castle," after one of the party. This became the storehouse of the provisions, &c., and the dwelling-place of the families. The spot where the above described scene took place, has much altered in the lapse of half a century. One of the party, Amzi Atwater, Esq., now living in Portage county, in a communication before us, says: * The view was constructed from a sketch as the place is now, altered to represent its ancient appearance. The word Conneaut, in the Seneca language, signifies " many fish";' and was applied originally to the river. 38 .

Page  39 ASIITABULA COUNTY. It was then a mere L'and beach overgrown with timber, some of it of considerable size, which we cut to build the house and for other purposes. The mouth of the creek, like others of the lake streams in those days, was frequently choked up with a sand bar so that no visible harbor appeared for several days. This would only happen when the streams were low and after a high wind either down the lake or directly on shore for several days. I have passed over all the lake streams of this state east of the Cuyahoga and most of those in New York on hard, dry sand bars, and I have been told that the Cuyahoga has been so. They would not long continue, for as soon as the wind had subsided and the water in the streams had sufficiently risen, they would often cut their way through the bar in a different place and form new channels. Thus the mouths of the streams were oontinually shifting until the artificial harbors were built. Those blessed improvements have in a great measure remedied those evils and made the mouths of the streams far more healthy. Judge James Kingsbury, who arrived at Conneaut shortly after the surveying party, wintered with his family at this place in a cabin which stood on a spot now covered by the waters of the lake. This was about the first family that wintered on the Reserve. The story of the sufferings of this family has often been told, but in the midst of plenty, where want is unknown, can with difficulty be appreciated. The surveyors, in the prosecution of their labors westwardly, had principally removed their stores to Cleveland, while the family of Judge Kingsbury remained at Conneaut. Being compelled by business to leave in the fall for the state of New York, with the hope of a speedy return to his family, the Judge was attacked by a severe fit of sickness confining him to his bed until the setting in of winter. As soon as able he proceeded on his return as far as Buffalo, where he hired an Indian to guide him through the wilderness. At Presque Isle, anticipating the wants of his family, he purchased twenty pounds of flour. In crossing Elk Creek on the ice, he disabled his horse, left him in the snow, and mounting his flour on his own back, pursued his way filled with gloomy forebodings in relation to the fate of his family. On his arrival late one evening, his worst apprehensions were more than realized in a scene agonizing to the husband and father. Stretched on her cot lay the partner of his cares, who had followed him through all the dangers and hardships of the wilderness without repining, palt and emaciated, reduced by meagre famine to the last stages in which life can be supported, and near the mother, on a little pallet, were the remains of his youngest child, born in his absence, who had just expired for the want of that nourishment which the mother, deprived of sustenance, was unable to give. Shut up by a gloomy wilderness, she was far distant alike from the aid or sympathy of friends, filled with anxiety for an absent husband, suffering with want and destitute of necessary assistance, and her children expiring around her with hunger. Such is the picture presented, by which the wives and daughters of the present day may form some estimate of the hardships endured by the pioneers of this beautiful country. It appears that Judge Kingsbury, in order to supply the wants of his family, was under the necessity of transporting his provisions from Cleveland on a hand sled, and that himself and hired man drew a barrel of beef the whole distance at a single load. Mr. Kingsbury has since held several important judicial and legislative trusts, and is yet living in Newberg, about four miles distant from Cleveland. He was the first who thrust a sickle into the first whieat field planted on the soil of the Reserve. His wife was interred at Cleveland, about the year 1843. The fate of her childthe first white child born on the Reserve, starved to death for want of nourishment-will not soon be forgotten. The harbor of Conneaut is now an important point of transhipment. It has a pier, with a lighthouse upon it, 2 forwarding houses, and 11 dwellings. Several vessels ply from here, and it is a frequent stopping place for steamers. Two miles south of the harbor, 22 from Jefferson, 28 from Erie, Pa., is the borough of Conneaut,.. ......... on the west bank of Conneaut creek. It contains 1 Baptist, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, and I Christian church, 11 mercantile 39

Page  40 ASHTABULA COUNTY. stores, 1 newspaper printing office, a fine classical academy, Mr. L. W. Savage and Miss Mary Booth, Principals, and about 1000 inhabitants. East and West Conneaut and South Ridge are small places in this, the township of Conneaut, which once bore the name of Salem. The first permanent settlement in Conneaut was in 1799. Thomas Montgomery and Aron Wright settled here in the spring of 1798. Robert Montgomery and family, Levi and John Montgomery, Nathan and John King, and Samuel Bemus and family came the same season. When the settlers arrived, some twenty or thirty Indian cabins were still standing, which were said to present an appearance of neatness and comfort not usual with this race. TI'he Massauga tribe, which inhabited the spot, were obliged to leave in consequence of the murder of a white mall named Williams. Two young men taken at the defeat of St. Clair, were said to have been prisoners for a considerable time among the India,4ns of this village. On their arrival at Conneaut they were made to run the gauntlet, and received the orthodox number of blows and kicks usual on such occasions. In solemn council it was resolved that the life of Fitz Gibbon should be saved, but the other, whose name is not recollected, was condemned to be burned. He was bound to a tree, a large quantity of hickory barks tied into faggots and piled around him. But from the horrors of the most painful of deaths he was saved by the interposition of a young squaw belonging to the tribe. Touched by sympathy she interceded in his behalf; and by her expostulations, backed by several packages of fur and a small sum of money, succeeded in effecting his deliverance: an act in the lowly Indian maid which entitles her name to be honorably recorded with that of Pocahontas, among the good and virtuous of every age. There were mounds situated in the eastern part of the village of Conneaut and an extenlsive burying ground near the Presbyterian church, which appear to have had no connection with the burying places of the Indians. Among the human bones found in the mounds were some belonging to men of gigantic structure. Some of the skulls* were of sufficient capacity to admit the head of an ordinary man, and jaw bones that might have been fitted on over the face with equal facility: the other bones were proportionably large. The burying ground referred to contained about four acres, and with the exception of a slight angle in conformity with the natural contour of the ground, was in the form of an oblong square. It appeared to have been accurately surveyed into lots running from north to south, and exhibited all the order and propriety of arrangement deemed necessary-to constitute Christian burial. On the first examination of the ground by the settlers, they found it covered with the ordinary forest trees, with an opening near the centre containing a single butternut. The graves were distinguished by slight depressions disposed in straight rows, and were estimated to number from two to three thousand. On examination in 1800, they were found to contain human bones, invariably blackened by time, which on exposure to the air, soon crumbled to dust. Traces of ancient cultivation observed by the first settlers on the lands of the vicinity, although covered with forest, exhibited signs of having once been thrown up into squares and terraces, and laid out into gardens. There is a fragment or chip of a tree in the possession of the Historical Society, which is a curiosity. The tree of which that was a chip, was chopped down and butted off for a saw log, about three feet from the ground, some thirty rods SE. of Fort Hill, in Conneaut, in 1829, by Silas A. Davis, on land owned by B. H. King. Some marks were found upon it near the heart of the tree. The Hon. Nehemiah King, with a magnifying glass, counted 350 annualer rings in that part of the stump, outside of these marks. Deducting * In the spring of 1815, a mound on Harbor street, Conneaut, was cut through for a road. One morning succeeding a heavy rain, a Mr. Walker, who was up very early, picked up a jaw bone together with an artificial tooth which lay near. He brought them forthwith to Mr. P. R. Spencer, at present the Secretary of the Ashtabula Historical Society, who fitted the tooth in a cavity from which it had evidently fallen. The tooth was metallic, probably silver, but little was then thought of the circumstance. 40

Page  41 ASHTABULA COUNTY. 350 firom 1829, leaves 1479, which must have been the year when these cuts were made. This was 13 years before the discovery of America, by Columbus. It perhaps was done by the race of the mounds, with an axe of copper, as that people had the art of hardening that metal so as to cut like steel. The adventure of Mr. Salmon Sweatland, of Conneaut, who crossed Lake Erie in an open canoe, in September, 1817, is one of unusual interest. He had been accustomed, with the aid of a neighbor, Mr. Cozzens, and a few hounds, to drive the deer into the lake, where, pursuing them in a canoe, he shot them with but little difficulty. The circumstances which took place at this time, are vividly given in the annexed extract from the records of the Historical Society. It was a lovely morning in early autumn, and Sweatland, in anticipation of his favorite sport, had risen at the first dawn of light, and without putting on his coat or waistcoat left his cabin, listening in the mean time in expectation of the approach of the dogs. His patience was not put to a severe trial ere his ears were saluted by the deep baying of the hounds, and on arriving at the beach he perceived that the deer had already taken to the lake, and was moving at some distance from the shore. In the enthusiasm of the moment he threw his hat upon the beach, his canoe was put in requisition, and shoving fronm the shore he was soon engaged in a rapid and animated parsait.'The wind, which had been fiesh from the south during the night and gradually increasing, was now blowing nearly a gale, but intent on securing his prize, Sweatland was not in a situation to yield to the dictates of prudence. The deer, which was a vigorous animal of its kind, hoisted its flag of defiance, and breasting the waves stoutly showed that ini a race with a log canoe and a single paddle, he was not easily outdone. Sweatland had attained a considerable distance firom the shore and encountered a heavy sea before overtaking the animral, but was not apprized of the enliinent peril of his situation until shooting past him the deer turned towards the shore. He was however brought to a full appreciation of his d-anger when, on tacking his flail vessel and heading towards the land, he found that with his utmost exertions he could make no progress in the desired direction, but was continually drifting farther to sea. He had been observed in his outward progress by Mr. Cousins, who had arrived immediately alter the hounds, and by his own family, and as he disappeared firom sight, considerable apprehensions were entertained for his safety. The alarm was soon given in the neighborhood, and it was decided by those competent to judge that his return would be impossible, and that unless help could be afforded hlie was doomed to perish at sea. Actuated by those generous irrmpulses that often induce men to peril their ownI lives to preserve those of others, Messrs. Gilbert, Cousins and Belden took a light boat at the mouth of the creekl and proceeded in search of the wanderer, with the determination to make every effort for his relief. They met the deer returning towards the shore nearly exhausted, but the man who was the object of their solicitude was no where to be seen. They made stretches off shore within probable range of the fugitive for some hours, until they had gained a distance of five or six miles fiom land, when meeting with a sea. in which they judged it iiimpossible for a canoe to live, they abandoned the search, returned with difficulty to the shore, and Sweatland wa,- given up for lost. The canoe in which he was embarked was dug fiom a large whitewood log, by Major James Brookes, for a fishing boat: it was about fourteen feet in length and rather wide in proportion, and was considered a superior one of the kind. Sweatland still continued to lie off, still heading towards the land, with the faint hope that the wind might abate, or that aid might reach him fiom the shore. One or two schooners were in sight in course of the day, and he made every signal in his power to attract their attention, but without success. The shore continued in sight, and in tracing its distant outline he could distinguish the spot where his cabin stood, within whose holy precincts were contained the cherished objects of his affections, now doubly endeared f,om the prospect of losing them forever. As these familiar objects receded from view, and the shores appeared to sink beneath the troubled waters, the last tie which united him in companionship to his fellow-men seemed dissolved, and the busy world, with all its interests, forever hidden from his sight. Fortunately Sweatland possessed a cool head and a stout heart, which, united with a 6 41

Page  42 ASHTABULA COUNTY. tolerable share of physical strength and power of endurance, eminently qualified him for the part he was to act in this emergency. He was a good sailor, and as such would not yield to despondency until the last expedient had been exhausted. One only expedient remained, that of putting before the wind and endeavoring to reach the Canada shore, a distance of about fifty miles. This he resolved to embrace as his forlorn hope. It was now blowing a gale, and the sea was evidently increasing as he proceeded from the shore, and yet he was borne onwards over the dizzy waters by a power that no human agency could control. He was obliged to stand erect, moving cautiously fromn one ex tremity to the other, in order to trim his vessel to the waves, well aware that a single lost stroke of the paddle, or a tottering movement, would swamp his fiail bark and bring his adventure to a fiial close. Much of his attention was likewise required in bailing his canoe from thle water, an operation which he was obliged to perform by nmaking use of his shoes, a substantial, pair of stoggies, that happened fortunately to be upon his feet. Hitherto he had been blessed with the cheerful light of heaven, and amidst all his perils could say, "The light is sweet, and it is a pleasant thing for the eyes to behold the sun," but to add to his distress, the shades of night were now gathering around him, and lie was soon enveloped in darkness. The sky was overcast, and the light of a few stats that twinkled through the haze alone remained to guide his path over the dark and troubled waters. In this fearful condition, destitute of food and the necessary clothing, his log canoe was rocked upon the billows during that long and terrible night. When miorning appeared he was in sight of land, and found he had made Long Point, on the Canada shore. Here he was met by an adverse wind and a cross sea, but the same providential aid which had guided him thus far still stustainecd and protected him; and after being buffeted by the winds and waves for nearly thirty hours, he succeeded in reaching the land in safety. What were the emotions lihe experienced on treading once more "the green atnd solid earth," we shall not attempt to inquire, but his trials were not yet ended. lie found himself faint with hunger and exhausted with fatigue, at the distance of forty miles firom any human habitation, whilst the country that intervened was a desert filled with marshes and tangled thickets, from which nothing could be obtained to supply his wants. These difficulties, together with the reduced state of his strength, rendered his progress towards the settlements slow and toilsome. On his way he found a quantity of goods, supposed to have been driven on shore firom the wreck of some vessel, which, although they afforded him no immediate relief, were afterwards of material service. He ultimately arrived at the settlement, and was received and treated with great kindness and hospitality by the people. After his strength was sufficiently recruited, he returned with a boat, accompanied by some of the inhabitants, and brought off the goods. From this place he proceeded by land to Buffalo, where, with the avails of his treasure, he furnished himself in the garb of a gentleman, and finding the Traveler, Capt. Chas. Brown, from Conneaut, in the harbor, hlie shipped on board and was soon on his way to rejoin his family. When the packet arrived off his dwelling, they fired guns from the deck and the crew gave three loud cheers. On landing, he found his funeral sermon had been preached, and had the rare privilege of seeing his own widow clothed in the habiliments of mourning. The first regular settlement made within the present limits of the county was at Harpersfield, on the 7th of March, 1798. Alexander Harper, Wm. M'Farland and Ezra Gregory, with their families, started from Harpersfield, Delaware county, New York, and after a long and fatiguing journey arrived on the last of June, at their new homes in the wilderness. This little colony of about twenty persons, endured much privation in the first few months of their residence. The whole population of the Reserve amounted to less than 150 souls, viz: ten families at Youngstown, three at Cleveland, and two at Mentor. In the same summer three families came to Burton, and Judge Hudson settled at Hudson. Cut short of their expected supplies of provision for the winter, by the loss of a vessel they had chartered for that purpose, the little colony came near perishing by famine, having at one time been reduced to six kernels of parched corn to each person; but they were saved by the intrepidity of the sons of Col. Harper, James and William. These young men made frequent journies to Elk Creek, Pa., from which they packed on their backs bags of corn, which was about all the provision the settlers had to sustain life during a long and tedious winter. Some few of their iournies were perfbrmed on the ice of Lake Erie, whenever it 42

Page  43 ASTITA',:'UL. COUNTY. was sufficiently strong to hear themn. which " as sl(lom. On the first occasion of this kind they were progressing finely on the ice. when their sled broke through into the water. A third person who 1happened to be with thleni at this titiiie exclaimed," What shall we do?" ".Let it go," Jamrnes replied. " No "' exclaimed Williarn, who was of a (lifferent temperament, " you go into the woods and strike a file while I get the grain." Ile then with great difficulty secured the graili, by which operation he got completely wet through, and a cutting wind soon convertedl his clothing into a sheet of ice. He then went in search of his companions and was disappointed in finding they had not built a fire. The truth was, they had grown so sleeply with the intense cold as to be unable to strike fire. He soon had a cheerful blaze, and then converted himself into a nurse for the other two, who on getting warm were deadly sick. I ____________ I t1!II liltitslllil - _________ ___ II _ -'.' ".. - -'Illi! liii' I lIiJt . JEFERSiN HOUSL County Buildings at Jefferson. Jefferson, the county seat, is 56 miles firom Cleveland and 204 NE. of Columbus. It is an incorporated borough, laid out regularlv on a level plat of around, and contains 3 stores, 1 Pres., 1 Pap., 1 Episcopal, and 1 Methodist Church, aid 73 dwellings. The township of the same name in which it is situated, was originally owned by Gideon Granger of Conn. In the spring of 1804 he sent out Mr. Eldad Smith from Suffield in that state, who first opened a bridle path to Austinburg, and sowed and fenced ten acres of wheat. In the summer of the next year, Michael Webster, Jr., and family, and Jonathan Warner, made a permanent settlement. In the fall following, the family of James Wilson built a cabin on the site of the tavern shown in the view. The court house was finished in 1810 or'11, and the first court held in 1811; Timothy R. Hawley, Clerk, Quintus F. Atkins, Sheriff. Ashtabula is on Ashtabula river, on the Buffalo and Cleveland road, 8 miles from Jefferson. It is a pleasant village, adorned with neat dwellings and shrubbery. The borough contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, and 1 Baptist church, 10 mercantile stores, and a population estimated at 1200. The harbor of Ashtabula is 21 miles from the village at the mouth of the river. It has seveiral forwarding establishments, 20 or 30 houses, the lake steamers stop there, and considerable business is carried on; about a dozen vessels are owned at this port. The corn It 43

Page  44 46 ASHTABULA COUNTY. mercial business of this and Lake county has been much injured by - the internal improvement svstem of the state, which has diverted the back country trade into other channels. When the Erie canal North Public Square, Ashtabula. was finished, Northern Ohio felt its invigorating effects, for from the depression of the times after the late war, until the opening of that canal and the commencement of steami navigation on the lake, business languished and made but little progress. The invigorating effects of that work prompted a spirit in Ohio for similar enterprises. The representatives of this vicinity in the legislature drank deeply of the general enthusiasm, although aware that in any event their constituents would receive but a general benefit. The prosperity of Ashtabula received a severe shock in the loss of the steamer Washington, destroyed by fire on Lake Erie, off Silver Creek, in June, 1838, by which nmisfortune about 40 lives were lost. This boat was built at Ashtabula harbor, and most of her stock was owned by persons of moderate circumstances in this place. She was commanded by Capt. N. W. Brown. A passenger who was on board published, a few days after, the following account of this disastrous event. The W. left Cleveland on her passage down from Detroit, June 14th, at 8 A. M., proceeded on her way until Saturday 2 o'clock, A. M., when she arrived in the vicinity of Silver Creek, about 33 miles from Buffalo. The boat was discovered to be on fire, which proceeded from beneath the boilers. The passengers were alarmed, and aroused from their slumbers; such a scene of confiusion and distress ensued as those only of my readers can imagine who have been in similar circumstances. Despair did not however completely possess the mass, until it became evident that the progress of the flames could not be arrested. From that moment the scene beggars all description. Suffice it to say, that numbers precipitated themselves from the burning mass into the water; some of them with a shriek of despair, and others silently sunk beneath the waves; others momentarily more fortunate swam a short distance and drowned; others still, on pieces of boards and wood, arrived on the beach; yet some even of them, sank into a watery grave. The small boat had by this time put off loaded with about 25 souls for the shore. Those arrived safe, picking up one or two by the way. 'I'he writer of this article was one of the number. Other small boats came to our assistance, which, together with the Washington's boat, saved perhaps a majority of the passengers on board. There is reason to believe that as many as 40 perished. It is impossible to compulete the precise number. Many remained on the boat till it was wrapped in one sheet of flame. Of those there is reason to believe that numbers perished in the conflagration; while others, half burned, precipitated themselves into the watery element, thus 44

Page  45 ASHTA BULA COUNTY. suffering the double agency of death by fire and water. Most of the crew were saved, the Captain among the number, who, during the awful calamity, acted with the utmost decisionII and intrepidity. Indeed, no blame, so far as the writer has been informed, has been attached to any officer or hand on the boat. The utmost exertion was used to move her on the shore, until it became necessary to stop the enginie in order to let down the small boat, which having been done, the fire had progressed so far as to render it impossible to again start the machinery. I give a few particulars of the losses of the passengers. Mr. Shudds is the only survivor of his family of seven. A lady passenger lost three children, a sister and mother. Mr. Michael Parker lost his wife and parents, sister and her child. But I will not firther continue the cases of individual berea veincit., Kingsville, 14 miles NF,. of Jefferson, (contains 1 Baptist, 1 Piesbyterian, and 1 Methodist church; 3 stores, a woolen factory, and about 4(00 people. It is a pleasant village and his a public square on which stand the churches. It is surrounded by a fine and intelligent agricultural community. At this place is the Kingsville Academy, a thriving institution, in good repute, with about 13, pupils, under the charge of Mr. Z. Graves, and supported by the public spirit of the vicinity. The water privileges are good at Kingsville: Conneaut creek runs near the village, on whichi are several mills and factories, and a branch runs through it, on which, within half a mile, are 5 improved water privileges. Six miles westerly from Jefferson is Austinburg, a village similar in character to the above. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Congregational, and 1 Free Will Baptist church, and about 300 people. West of the town, on a commanding site, is the Grand River Institute, Rev. Thomas Tenney, Principal. The buildings are spacious and comfortable and the institution flourishing, having a large fund for its support and about 150 pupils of both sexes. The original proprietors of this township were Win. Battell, of Torringford, Solomon Rockwell & Co., of Winchester, and Eliphalet Austin, of New Hartford, Ct. By the instrumentality of Judge Austin, from whom the town was named, two families moved to this place from Connecticut in 1799. The Judge preceded them a short time driving, in company with a hired man, some cattle 150 miles through the woods on an Indian trail, while the rest came in a boat across the lake. There was at this time a few families at Harpersfield; at Windsor, southwest, about 20 miles, a family or two; also at Elk creek, 40 miles northeast, and at Vernon, 40 miles southeast, were several families, all of whom were in a destitute condition for provisions. In the year 1800, another family moved from Norfolk, Conn. In the spring of 1801, there was an accession of ten families to the settlement, principally from Norfolk, Conn. Part of these came from Buffalo by water, and part by land through the wilderness. During that season wheat was carried to mill at Elk creek, a distance of 40 miles, and in some instances one half was given for carrying it to mill and returning it in flour. On Wednesday, October 24th, 1801, a church was constituted at Austinburg with sixteen members. This was the first church on the Western Reserve, and was founded by the Rev. Joseph Badger, the first missionary on the Reserve, a sketch of whom is in another part of this volume. It is a fact worthy of note, that in 1802, Mr. 45

Page  46 ASIITABULA COUNTY. Badger moved his family from Buffalo to this town, in the first wag on that ever came from that place to the Reserve. In 1803,.Aus tinburg, Morgan and Harpersfield experienced a revival of religion I)y which about 35 from those places united with the church at Aus tinburg. This revival was attended with the phenomena of" bodily exercises," then common in the west. They have been classified by a clerical writer as 1 st, the Falling exercise; 2d, the Jerking exercise; 8d, the Rolling exercise; 4th, the Running exercise; 5th, the Dan cing exercise; 6th, the Barking exercise; 7th, Visions and Trances. We make room for an extract firom his account of the 2d of the series, which sufficiently characterises the remainder. It was familiarly called The Jerks, and the first recorded instance of its occurrence was at a sacrament in East Tennessee, when several hundred of both sexes were seized with this strange and involuntary contortion. The subject was instantaneously seized with spasms or coinvulsions in every muscle, nerve and tendon. His head was thrown or jerked from side to side with such rapidity that it was impossible to distinguish his visage, and the most lively fears were awakened lest he should dislocate his neck or dash out his brains. His body partook of the same impulse and was hurried on by like jerks over every obstacle, fallen trunks of trees, or in a church, over pews and benches, apparently to the most im minent danger of being bruised and mangled. It was useless to attempt to hold or restrain him, and the paroxysm was permitted gradually to exhaust itself. An additional motive for leaving him to himself was the superstitious notion that all attempt at restraint was resisting the spirit of God. The first form in which these spasmodic contortions made their appearance was that of a simple jerking of the arms from the elbows downwards. The jerk was very quick and sudden, and followed with short intervals. This was the simplest and most common form, but the convulsive motion was not confined to the arms; it extended in many instances to other parts of the body. When the joint of the neck was affected, the head was thrown backward and forward with a celerity fii'ightful to behold, and which was impossible to be imitated by persons who were not under the same stimulus. The bosom heaved, the coun tenance was disgustingly distorted, and the spectators were alarmed lest the neck should be broken. When the hair was loing, it was shaken with such quickness, backward and forward, as to crack and snap like the lash of a whip. Sometimes the muscles of the back were affected, and the patient was thrown down on the ground, when his contortions for some time resembled those of a live fish cast from its native element on the land. The most graphic description we have is fiom one who was not only an eye witness, but an apologist. He says, " Nothing in nature could better represent this strange and unaccountable operation, than for one to goad another, alternately on every side, with a piece of red hot iron. The exercise commonly began in the head, which would fly backward and forward, and from side to side, with a quick jolt, which the person would naturally labor to suppress, but in vain; and the more any one labored to stay himself and be sober, the more he staggered, anrid the more his twitches increased. He must necessarily go as he was inclined, whether with a violent dash on the ground, and bounce from place to place like a foot-ball, or hop round, with head, limbs and trunk twitching, and jolting in every direction, as if they must inevitably fly asunder. And how such could escape without injury, was no small wonder among spectators. By this strange operation the human frame was commonly so transformed and disfigured, as to lose every trace of its natural appearance. Sometimes the head would be twitched right and left, to a half round, with such velocity, that not a feature could be discovered, but the face appeared as much behind as before; and in the quick progressive jerk, it would seem as if the person was transmuted into some other species of creature. Head dresses were of little account among the female jerkers. Even handkerchiefs bound tight round the head would be flirted off almost with the first twitch, and the hair put into the utmost confusion; this was a very great inconvenience, to redress which the generality were shorn, though directly contrary to their confession of faith. Such as were seized with the jerks, were wrested at once, not only from under their own government, but that of every one else, so that it was dangerous to attempt confining them or touching them in any manner, to whatever danger they were exposed, yet few were hurt, except it were such as rebelled against the operation, through wilful and deliberate enmity, and refused to comply with the injunctions which it came to enforce." Front the universal testimony of those who have described these spasms, they appear to 46

Page  47 ASHTABULA COUNTY. have been wholly involuntary. This remark is applicable also to all the other bodily exercises. What demonstrates satisfactorily their involuntary nature is, not only that, as above stated, the twitches prevailed in spite of resistance, and even more for attempts to suppress them; but that wicked men would be seized with them while sedulously guarding against an attack, and cursing every jerk when made. Travellers on their journey, and laborers at their daily work, were also liable to them. We conclude our sketch of the county with some amusing incidents, related in the Mss. of the Society; although trivial in themselves, they are important in illustration. There is a stream in Geneva, called " llorse's Slough," and it took its cognomen in this wise. For a time after the Spencers, Austin, Hale, and Morse commenced operations on the lake shore, in the NE. corner of Geneva, they plied their labors there only a week at the time, or as long as a back load of provisions, that each carried, might happen to last. Whatever time of the week they went out, those having families returned on Saturday night to the settlements, and those without, returned whenever out of provisions. The main portion of provisions by them thus transported, consisted of Indian or corn bread: and whoever has been used to the labors of the woods, swinging the axe, for instance, from sun to sun, and limited to that kind of diet almost solely, will know that it requires a johnny-cake of no slight dimensions and weight to last an axeman a whole week. It must, in short, be a mammoth of its species! Such a loaf, baked in a huge Dutch oven, was snugly and firmly pinioned to the back of James M. Morse, as he, with others, wended his way to the lake shore, intent upon the labors of the week. The stream was then nameless, but nevertheless had to be crossed, and Morse must cross it to reach the scene of his labors. Although a light man, he had become ponderous by the addition of this tremendous johnny-cake. The ice lay upon the streams, and men passed and re-passed unloaded without harm. Not so those borne down with such incumbrance as distinguished the back of Morse, who was foremost among the gang of pioneers, all marching in Indian file and similarly encumbered. They came to the stream. Morse rushed upon the ice-it trembled-cracked-broke-and in a moment he was initiated into the mysteries beneath, with the johnny-cake holding him firmly to the bottom. The water and mud, though deep, were not over his head. The company, by aid of poles, approached him, removed the Gloucester hump of deformity from his shoulders, relieved him from his uncouth and unenvied attitude, and while he stood dripping and quivering on the margin of the turbid element-amid a shout of laughter they named this stream "i Iorse's Slough." A young man by the name of Eliiah Thompson, of Geneva, was out hunting in the forest with his favorite dog. While thus engaged, his dog left him as if he scented game, and soon was engaged with a pack of seven wolves. Youing Thompson, more anxious for the dog than his own safety, rushed to the rescue, firing his rifle as he approached, and then clubbing it, made a fierce onset upon the enemy. His dog, being badly wounded and nearly exhausted, could give him no assistance, and the contest seemed doubtful. The wolves fought with desperation; but the young man laid about him with so much energy and agility, that his blows told well, and he soon had the satisfaction of seeing wolf after wolfskulk away under the blows which he dealt them, until he remained master of the field, when, with the remains of his rifle-the barrtl-on his shoulder, and his bleeding and helpless dog under his arm, he left the scene pan.ing and weary, though not materially injured in the conflict. Mrs. John Austin, of the same township, hearing, on one occasion, a bear among her hogs, determined to defeat his purpose. First hurrying her little children up a ladder into her chamber, for safety, in case she was overcome by the animal, she seized a rifle, and rushing to the spot saw the bear only a few rods distant, carrying off a hog into the woods, while the prisoner sent forth deafening squeals, accompanied by the rest of the sty in full chorus. Nothing daunted, she rushed forward to the scene with her rifle ready cocked, on which the monster let go his prize, raised himself upon his haunches and faced her. Dropping upon her knees to obtain a steady aim, and resting her rifle on the fence, within six feet of the bear, the intrepid female pulled the trigger. Perhaps fortunately for her, the rifle missed fire. Again and again she snapped her piece, but with the same result. The bear, after keeping his position some time, dropped down on all fours, ant leaving the hogs behind, retreated to the forest and resigned the field to the woman. The early settlers experienced great difficulty in preserving their swine from the ravages of wild beasts. Messrs. Morgan and Murrain, who, with their wives, iweit in the same cabin, had with difficulty procured a sow which, with her progeny, occupied a strong pen 47

Page  48 ATHENS COUNTY. contiguous to the dwe,lling. During a dark night, their husb-nds being necessariiy absent, the repose of the ladles was disturbed by a very shrill serenade from the pen: arousing from their slumbers, they discovered a large bear making an assault upon the swine. They attempted, by loud screams and throwing fire brands, to terrify the animal; but not succeeding, they took an unloaded rifle, and having heard their husbands say that it required just two fingers of powder, they poured liberally into the muzzle, one of them in the meanwhile measuring lengthwise of her fingers, until the full amount was obtained, then driving in a ball they sallied out to the attack. One lady held the light, while the other fired the gun. Such another report, f;omn a tube of equal capacity, is seldom heard. The ladies both fell prostrate aind insensible, and the gui flew into the bushes. The bear was doubtless alarmed, but not materially injured. On the night of the 11th of August, 1812, the people of Conneaut were alarmed by a false report that the British were landing from some of their vessels. A sentinel, placed on the shore, descrying boats approaching, mistook them for the enemy. In his panic he threw away his musket, mounted his horse, and dashing through the settlement, cried with a stentorian voice, " turn out! turn out! save your lives, the British and Indians are landing, and will be on you in fifteen minutes!" The people, aroused from their beds, fled in the utmost terror to various places of covert in the forest. Those of East Conneaut had sheltered themselves in a dense grove, which being near the high road, it was deemed that the most perfect silence should be maintained. By that soothing attention mothers know how to bestow, the cries of the children were measurably stilled; but one little dog, from among his companions, kept up a continual unmitigated yelping. Various means having in vain been employed to still him, until the patience of the ladies was exhausted, it was nnauimously resolved, that that particular dog should die, and he was therefore sentenced to be hanged, without benefit of clergy. With the elastics supplied by the ladies, for a halter, and a young sapling for a gallows, the young dog passed from the shores of time to yelp no more. Rock Creek, 8 miles s. of Jefferson, contains 2 churches, 2 stores, 1 saw, 1 grist, 1 oil mill, 2 tanneries, and about 60 dwellings. It is on a creek of the same name, which furnishes considerable water. Eagleville is a somewhat smaller manufacturing village, 4 miles sw. of Jefferson, on Mill creek, a good mill stream. Windsor, 20 miles sw. of Jefferson, contains about 40 dwellings. There are other small villages in the county, generally bearing the names of the townships in which they are situated. ATHENS. ATHENS was formed from Washington, March 1, 1805, and derived lts name from Athens, its seat of justice. The surface is broken and hilly, with intervals of rich bottom lands. The hilly lands are covered with a fertile soil, and a heavy growth of trees. The principal crops are wheat, corn, oats and tobacco. Excellent coal abounds, iron ore is found in many places, and quantities of salt are made. The Hocking canal commences at Carrol, on the Ohio canal, in Fairfield county, and follows the river valley to Athens, a distance of 56 miles. The business, now small, is rapidly increasing. The coal trade of this valley is destined to be very great, ere many years. Below are the names of its townships, in 1840, with their population at that time. 48

Page  49 ATHENS COUNTY. Alexander, 1450 Carthage, 737 Trimble, 762 Ames, 1431 Dover, 1297 Troy, 1056 Athens, 1593 Elk, 1261 Vinton, 227 Bern, 381 Lee, 848 Ward, 345 Brown, 257 Lodi, 754 Waterloo, 741 Canaan, 800 Rome, 866 York, 1601 Population of Athens county, in 1820, was 6,342; in 1830, 9,778, and in 1840, 19,108, or 30 inhabitants to a square mile. In Evan's map of the middle British colonies, published in 1755, there is placed on the left bank of the Hocking, somewhere in this region, a town, station or fort, named "French Margarets." Probably Margarets creek, in this county, was named from it. In the county above, (Hocking,) have been found the remains of an old press, for packing furs and peltries, which are yet visible, and attest that French cupidity and enterprise had introduced an extensive trade among the Indians. Lord Dunmore, in his famous expedition against the Indian towns upon the Scioto, in the autumn of 1774-just prior to the commencement of the revolutionary war, descended the Ohio, and landed at the mouth of the Great Hockhocking, in this county. He was there during the bloody battle of Point Pleasant-on an air line 28 miles distant-between General Lewis and the Indians. At this place he established a depot and erected some defences, called Fort Gower, in honor of Earl Gower. From that point he marched up the valley of the river, encamping, tradition says, a night successively at Federal creek, Sunday creek, and at the falls of the Hocking. From the last, he proceeded to the Scioto, where the detachment under General Lewis joined him, and the war was brought to a close by a treaty or truce with the hostile tribes. Dunmore, on his return, stopped at Fort Gower, where the officers passed a series of resolutions, for which, see Pickaway county, with other details of this expedition. Colonel Robert Paterson, one of the original proprietors of Cincinnati, with a party of Kentuckians, was attacked, near the mouth of the Hocking, by the Indians, two years after the erection of Fort Gower. The circumstances are given under the head of Montgomery county. Athens, the county seat, is situated on a commanding site on the Hockhocking river, 72 miles SE. of Columbus. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Cumberland Presbyterian, and a Methodist church, a classical academy, 11 mercantile stores, and by the census of 1840, had 710 inhabitants. It was made the county seat in March, 1805. The Ohio University, the oldest college in Ohio, is situated here, but has temporarily suspended its operations, for the purpose of recovering from pecuniary embarrassment. It was first chartered by the territorial government, and afterwards, in 1804, by the state legislature. It was early endowed by Congress with the two townships of Athens and Alexander, containing 46,000 acres of land, which, with the connecting resources, yield an annual income ot 7 to

Page  50 ATHENS COUNTY. about $5000. The buildings are substantial and neat, and stand in a pleasant green. This institution has exerted a most beneficial influence upon the morals and intelligence of this region. Among its graduates are many who do it honor, and it will, doubtless, when Ohio University, at Athens. again in successful operation-as it soon will be-continue its good work. This county was settled shortly after Wayne's victory. The following named persons are recollected as settling in Athens and vicinity, two or three years subsequent to -that event, viz: Solomon Tuttle, Christopher Stevens, Jonathan Watkins, Alvan and Silas Bingham, Henry and David Bartlett, John Chandler, and John and Moses Hewit. On Federal creek, also, were Nathan Woodbury, George Ewing-fathler of Hon. Thomas Ewing-Ephraim Cutler and Benjamin Brown. The first mill was erected about 1800, on Margarets creek, prior to which some of the settlers were accustomed to make tedious voyages, in canoes, down the Hocking, up the Ohio, and 4 miles up the Muskingum, above Marietta, to get their corn ground, while others, comprising a majority, depended upon hand mills and hommony blocks. The annexed vivid sketch of the captivity and escape of Moses Hewit (one of the earliest settlers in this county) from the Indians, is from the history of the Bellville settlement, written by Dr. S. P. Hildreth, and published in the Hesperian, edited by William D. Gallagher. Moses Hewit was a native of New England, the land of active and enterprising men, and born in Worcester, Massachusetts, in the year 1767. He removed to the waters ot the Ohio, in 1790, in company with his uncle, Captain John Hewit, soon after the settlement of the Ohio Company; at the breaking out of the Indian war, he resided on the island now known by the name of "Blennerhasset,";' in the block house of Captain James, where he married a cousin, the daughter of Captain Hewit. After his marriage, he lived a short time at the mouth of the Little Kenawha, but as the Indians became dangerous, ho joined the company of settlers at "Neil's station," a short distance above, on the same so

Page  51 ATHENS COUNTY. $, stream. At this period, all the settlements on both banks of the Ohio were broken up, and the inhabitants retired to their garrisons for mutual defence. The garrison at the middle settlement, in Belprie, was called "Farmer's Castle," and was a strong stockaded defence, with comfortable dwelling houses erected along the margin of the stout palisades which surrounded it. It stood near the bank of the Ohio river, on the waters of which nearly all the intercourse between the stations was conducted in light canoes. At this garrison, Mr. Hewit was a frequent visitor, but not an inmate. Some ot the more fearless inhabitants, on the left bank, still continued to live in their own dwellings, considering themselves in a manner protected by the Ohio river, and by the vigilance of the "spies," who daily scoured the adjacent forests. Mr. Hewit was, at this time, in the prime of life and manhood; possessed of a vigorous frame, nearly six feet high, with. limbs of the finest mould, not surpassed by the Belvidere Apollo, for manly beauty. The hands and feet were small in proportion to the muscles of the arms and legs. Of their strength, some estimate may be formed, when it is stated that he could, with a single hand, lift with ease a large blacksmith's anvil, by grasping the tapering horn which projects from its side. To this great muscular strength was added a quickness of motion, which gave to the dash ot his fist the rapidity of thought,' as it was driven into the face or breast of his adversary. TI'he eye was coal black, small and sunken, but when excited or enraged, flashed fire like that of the tiger. The face and head were well developed, with such powerful masseter and ten oral muscles, that the fingers of the strongest man, when once confined between his teeth, could no more be withdrawn than from the jaws of a vice. With such physical powers, united to an unrefined and rather irritable mind, who shall wonder at his propensity for, and delight in, personal combat; especially when placed in the midst of rude and unlettered companions, where courage and bodily strength were held in unlimited estimation. Accordingly, we find him engaged in numberless personal contests, in which he almost universally came off victorious. One instance of his activity and reckless daring took place at Marietta, about the year 1796. In some quarrel at a tavern, the vigor of his arm was laid so heavily upon one of his opponents, that serious apprehensions were felt for his life. Comiplaint was made to the magistrate, and a warrant issued for his apprehension. Of this he had timely notice, and not relishing the inside of a jail at that inclemnent season of the year, it being in February, he started for the river, intending to cross into Virginia, out of the jurisdiction of the constable. It so happened that the rains on the head waters had raised the river to half bank, and broken up the ice, which completely covered the stream with fragments of all dimensions, so closely arranged that no canoe could be forced through them. Although late in the night, there was yet the light of the moon, and rushing down the bank, with the constable and a numerous posse at his back, he leaped fearlessly on to the floating ice, and springing from fragment to fragment, with the activity of a fox, he reached the opposite shore in safety, about half a mile below the point where he commenced this perilous adventure. The constable, seeing the object of his pursuit afloat on the ice, came to a halt, concluding that, although he had escaped from the penalty of the law, he could not avoid the fate which awaited him, and that he would certainly be drowned before he could gain the shore. But, as fortune is said to favor the brave, he escaped without hlarm, and his life was preserved for wise and providential purposes. Sometime in the month of May, 1792, while living at Neil's station, on the Little Kenawha, Mr. Hewit rose early in the morning and went out about a mile from the garrison in search of a stray horse, little expecting any Indians to be near, having heard of none in that vicinity for some time. He was sauntering along at his ease, in an obscure cattle path, thinking more of his stray animal than of danger, when all at once three Indians sprang from behind two large trees, that stood one on each side of the track, where they had been watching his approach. So sudden was the onset, and so completely was he in their grasp, that resistance was vain, and would probably have been the cause of his death. He therefore quietly surrendered, thinking that in a few days he should find some way of escape. For himself, he felt but little uneasiness; his great concern was for his wife and child, from whom, with the yearnings of a father's heart, he was thus forcibly separated, and whom he might never see again. In their progress to the towns on the Sandusky plains, the Indians treated their prisoner, Hewit, with as little harshness as could be expected. He was always confined at night by fastening his wrists and ancles to saplings, as he lay extended upon his back upon the ground, with an Indian on each side. By day his limbs were free, but always marching with one Indian before, and two behind him. As they approached the prairies, frequent halts were made to search for honey, the wild bee being found in every hollow tree, and often in tha ground beneath decayed roots, in astonishing numbers. This afforded them 51

Page  52 ATIIENS COUNTY. many luscious repasts, of which the prisoner was allowed to partake. The naturalization of the honey bee to the forests of North America, since its colonization by the whites, is, in fact, the only real addition to its comforts that the red man has ever received from the destroyer of his race; and this industrious insect, so fond of the society of man, seems also destined to destruction by the bee-moth, and like the buffalo and the deer, will soon vanish from the woods and prairiel of the West. While the Indians were occupied in these searches, Hewit closely watched an opportunity for escape, but his captors were equally vigilant. As they receded from the danger of pursuit, they became less hurried in their march, and often stopped to hunt and amuse themselves. The level prairie afforded fine ground for one of their favorite sports, the foot race. In this, Hewit was invited to join, and soon found that he could easily outrun two of them, but the other was more than his match, which discouraged him from trying to escape, until a more favorable opportunity. They treated him familiarly, and were much pleased with his lively, cheerful manners. After they had reached within one or two day's march of their village, they made a halt to hunt, and left their prisoner at their camp, although they had usually taken him with them, as he complained of being sick. To make all safe, they placed him on his back, confining his wrists with stout thongs of raw-hide to saplings, and his legs raised at a considerable elevation, to a small tree. After they had been gone a short time, he began to put in operation the plan he had been meditating for escape, trusting that the thickness of his wrists, in comparison with the smallness of his hands, would enable him to withdraw them from the ligatures. After long and violent exertions, hie succeeded in liberating his hands, but not without severely lacerating the skin and covering them with blood. His legs were next freed by untying them, but not without a great effort, from their elevation. Once fairly at liberty, the first object was to secure some food for the long journey which was before him. But as the Indian's larder is seldom well stocked, with all his search, he could only find two small pieces of jerked venison, not more than sufficient for a single meal. With this light stock of provision, his body nearly naked, and without even a knife or a tomahawk, to assist in procuring more, he started for the settlements on the Muskingum, as the nearest point where he could meet with fiiends. It seenms that the Indians returned to the camp soon after his escape, for that night while cautiously traversing a wood, he heard the cracking of a breaking twig not far fiom him. Dropping silently on to the ground where he stood, he beheld his three enemies in pursuit. To say that he was not agitated, would not be true; his senses were wide awake, and his heart beat quick, but it was a heart that never knew fear. It so happened that they passed a few yards to one side of him, and he remained unseen. As soon as they were at a sufficient distance, he altered his course and saw no more of them. Suffering every thing but death, from the exhausting effects of hunger and fatigue, he, after nine days, struck the waters of the Big Muskingum, and came in to the garrison, at Wolf creek mills. During this time he had no food but roots and the bark of the slipperyelm, after the two bits of venison were expended. When he came in sight of the station, he was so completely exhausted that he could not stand or halloo. His body was entirely naked, excepting a small strip of cloth round the loins, and so torn, bloody and disfigured, by the briers and brush, that he thought it imprudent to show himself, lest he should be taken for an Indian, and shot by the centries. It is a curious physiological fact, that famine and hunger will actually darken the skin in the manner mentioned by the prophet Jeremiah, when foretelling the fate of the Israelites; and may be accounted for by the absorption of the bile into the blood, when not used up in the process of digesting the food. In this forlorn state, Hewit remained until evening, when he crawled silently to the gateway, which was open, and crept in before any one was aware of his being near. As they all had heard of his capture, and some personally knew him, he was instantly recognized by a young man, as the light of the fire fell on his face, who exclaimed, "here is Hewit." They soon clothed and fed him, and his fine constitution directly restored his health. The course pursued by Mr. Hewit was in the direction of a favorite and well known trail, or war path of the Indians, from Sandusky to the settlements on the Muskingumn, and struck that river at a point called "Big Rock." firom an enormous block of sandstone that had tumbled out of a cliff and lay on the shore. The line of the trail lay between the waters of the Muskingum and those of the Scioto, crossing some of the branches of both these rivers. The war paths of the Indians were generally known to the old hunters, as in times of peace there was considerable intercourse for trade and hunting between the borderers and the Indian tribes. After the war was closed, by the masterly campaign of Gen. Wayne, the sturdy settlers on the shores of the Ohio, sallied out from their garrisons, where they had been more or less closely confined for five years, and took possession of the 52

Page  53 ATHENS COUNTY. various farms, which had fallen to their lots either as " donation lands," or as proprietors in the Ohio Company, some of which had been partially cleared and cultivated before the commencement of hostilities. During this period, they suffered from famine, sickness, and death, in addition to the depredations of the Indians. The small-pox and putrid sore throat, had both visited them in their garrisons, destroying, in some instances, whole families of children in a few days. The murderous savage without, with sickness and famine within, had made their castles wearisome dwelling places, although they protected them from the tomahawk, and saved the settlements from being entirely broken up. In the year 1797, Mr. Hewit cast his lot fin the valley of the Hockhocking river, near the town of Athens, and settled quietly down to clearing his farm. He was by nature endowed with a clear, discriminating, and vigorous mind; and, although his education was very limited, extending only to reading and writing, yet his judgment was acute, and his reasoning powers highly matured by intercourse with his fellow-men. For sonme years before his death, he was a member of the Methodist church, which has the praise of reclaiming more depraved men than perhaps any other sect, and became a valuable citizen and useful man in society. A short time previous to his decease, which took place in the year 1S14, he was appointed a Trustee of the Ohio University, at Athens. At that early time, thie duties of a Trustee mainly consisted in leasing out and managing the fiscal affair-s of the college domain, embracing two townships of land. For this business he was well fitted, and his judgment and good sense, were of real value to the institution, however little he might be qualified to act in literary matters. The life of Mr. Hewit affords an interesting subject of contemplation. Hundreds of others, who were among the western borderers in early days, afford similar examples of recklless daring, and outrageous acts, while surrounded with war, tumult and danger, who, when peace was restored and they returned to the quiet scenes of domestic and civil life, became some of the most useful, influential, and distinguished men. It shows how much man is the creature of habit; and that he is often governed more by the character, and tLe outward example of men around him, and the times in which he lives, than by any innate principle of good or evil, which may happen to predominate within him. About four miles north of Athens, are mounds and ancient fortifications with gateways. One of the mounds which was composed of a kind of stone, differing firom any in the vicinity, was taken for the construction of a dam across the Hocking; there were in it over a thousand perches, and some of the stones weighed two hundred pounds. In the mound were found copper rings and other relics. There are many mounds in some other parts of the county. Dr. S. P. Hildreth, of Marietta, a gentleman of well-known scientific attainments, thus speaks in Silliman's Journal of the fossil remains in this region. The sandstone rocks contain many relics of fossil trees, of that ancient and curious family, bearing those rare devices and figures on their bark, so artificial in their appearance as to induce a common belief among the ignorant, of their being the work of man before the flood, and buried by that catastrophe in huge heaps of sand, since consolidated into rock. The excavations in sandstone rocks have been, as yet, so few and partial, that but a small number have been brought to light, although the strata through this valley are one vast cemetery of the plants of a former creation. I have seen some specimens found in quarrying stones for a cellar, or in grading a road, and have heard of many more, proving that there is an abundant supply laid up for future geologists, when the country becomes more cultivated, and extensive openings shall be made in the earth. On the heads of Shade river, a few miles sw. of Athens, there is a large deposit of fossil trees, the wood being replaced by a dark ferruginous silex. The yellow pine is very abundant in the lower part of the Hocking valley, and was probably at no very remote period, the prevailing growth of this part of the country. On this point, Dr. Hildreth also gives the following interesting facts. Extensive districts in which a pine is not now found, are thickly scattered with pitch pine knots, lying on the surface, the relics of former forests, which some disease, or pro 53

Page  54 BELMONT COUNTY. bably the depredations of insects, had destroyed. In these situations large quantities of pitch and tar were formerly made. In numerous mounds, opened under my direction, the charcoal found about the human bones, which they almost universally contain, and which the aborigines first burned before casting up the mound of earth and stone, as a sacred monument for the dead, is most generally the charcoal of pine wood-leading also to the conclusion, that at their erection, yellow pine was the prevailing tree of the forest, for it is not probable they would take the trouble of bringing it from any distance. By the United States Statistics it appears there were 92,800 bushels of salt produced in.the county, and 47 men employed in the manufacture, in 1840. This has since increased. The principal salt wells now in the county, are those of Ewing, Vinton & Co., Fuller & Walker, and Samuel Denmans, at Chauncey; Hydes, Perkins & Prudens, near Athens. Nelsonville, on the Hocking canal, 13 miles above Athens, is a flourishing village, in the heart of the coal region and trade, and contains about 300 people: considerable tobacco is packed here. Chauncey, also on the canal 7 miles above Athens, is a village of about 200 inhabitants, where the manufacture of salt is extensively carried on, together with coal mining; at one mine the coal is obtained by sinking a shaft 120 feet perpendicular. M'Arthurstown, 26 miles wsw. of Athens, has about 250 people, and is in a good countrv. Hockingport, at the mouth of the Hocking, Hocking City, Amesville, Hebardsville, Albany, Millfield, Chesterfield, Savannah and Trimble, are small places. BELMONT. BELMONT was established, September 7th, 1801, by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, being the ninth county formed in the N. W. Territory. The name is derived from two French words, signifying a fine mountain. It is a hilly and picturesque tract, and contains much excellent land. The principal crops are wheat, oats, Indian corn and tobacco, of which last, about two million pounds are annually raised. It has about 68.000 sheep, and coal abounds. The following are the names of its townships in 1840, with their population. Colerain, 1389 Pultney, 9 N47 Warren, 2410 Flushing, 1683 Richland, 3735 Washington, 1388 Goshen, 1882 Smith, 1956 Wayne, 1734 Kirkwood, 2280 Somerset, 1932 Wheeling, 1389 Mead, 1496 Union, 2127 York, 1294 Pease, 2449 Population of Belmont county in 1820, 20,329; in 1830, 28,543; in 1840, 30,902, or 51 inhabitants to a square mile. Belmont county was one of the earliest settled within the State of Ohio, and the scene of several desperate encounters with the Indians. About 1790, or perhaps two or three years later, a fort called Dillie's fort was erected on the west side of the Ohio, opposite Grave creek. 54

Page  55 BELMONT CCUNTY. About 250 yards below this fort, an old man named Tate was shot down by the Indians very early in the morning, as he was opening his door. His daughter-in-law and grandson pulled him in and barred the door. The Indians endeavoring to force it open, were kept out for some time by the exertions of the boy and woman. They at length fired through and wounded the boy. The woman was shot from the outside as she endeavored to escape up chimney, and fell into the fire. The boy, who had hid behind some barrels, ran and pulled her out, and returned again to his hiding place. The Indians now effected an entrance, killed a girl as they came in, and scalped the three they had shot. They then went out behind that side of the house from the fort. The boy, who had been wounded in the mouth, embraced the opportunity, and escaped to the fort. The Indians, twelve or thirteen in number, went off unmolested, although the men in the fort had witnessed the transaction and had sufficient force to engage with them. Captina creek is a considerable stream entering the Ohio, near the southeast angle of Belmont. On its banks at an early day, a sanguinary contest took place known as "the bathtle of Captina." Its incidents have often and variously been given. We here relate them as they fell from the lips of Martin Baker, of Monroe, who was at that time a lad of about 12 years of age in Baker's fort. One mile below the mouth of Captina, on the Virginia shore, was Baker's fort, so named from my father. One morning, in May, 1794, four men were sent over according to the custom, to the Ohio side, to reconnoitre. They were Adam Miller, John Daniels, Isaac M'Cowan, and John Shoptaw. Miller and Daniels took up stream, the other two down. The upper scout were soon attacked by Indians, and Miller killed; Daniels ran up Captina about 3 miles, but beingf weak from the loss of blood issuing from a wound in his arm, was taken prisoner, carried into captivity, and subsequently released at the treaty of Greenville. The lower scout having discovered signs of the enemy, Shoptaw swam across the Ohio and escaped, but M'Gowan going up towards the canoe, was shot by Indians in ambush. Upon this, he ran down to the bank, and sprang into the water, pursued by the enemy, who overtook and scalped him. The firing being heard at the fort, they beat up for volunteers. There were about fifty men in the fort. There being much reluctance among them to volunteer, my sister exclaimed, "She wouldn't be a coward." This aroused the pride of my brother, John Baker, who before had determined not to go. He joined the others, 14 in number, including Capt. Abram Enochs. They soon crossed the river, and went up Captina in single file, a distance of a mile and a half, following the Indian trail. The enemy had come back on their trails and were in ambush on the hill side awaiting their approach. When suifficiently near they fired upon our people, but being on an elevated position, their balls passed harmless over them. The whites then treed. Some of the Indians came behind and shot Capt. Enochs and Mr. Hoffman. Our people soon re llb

Page  56 BELMONT COUNTY. treated, and the Indians pursued but a short distance. On theii retreat my brother was shot in the hip. Determined to sell his life as dearly as possible, he drew off one side and secreted himself in a hollow with a rock at his back, offering no chance for the enemy to approach but in front. Shortly after, two guns were heard in quick succession; doubtless one of them was fired by my brother, and from the signs afterwards, it was supposed he had killed an Indian. The next day the men turned out and visited the spot. Enochs, Hoffman and John Baker, were found dead and scalped. Enoch's bowels were torn out, his eyes and those of Hoffman screwed out with a wiping stick. The dead were wrapped in white hickory bark, and brought over to the Virginia shore, and buried in their bark coffins. There were about thirty Indians engaged in this action, and seven skeletons of their slain were found long after secreted in the crevices of rocks. M'Donald, in his biographical sketch of Gov. M'Arthur, who was in the action, says, that after the death of Capt. Enochs, that M'Arthur, although the youngest man in the company, was unanimously called upon to direct the retreat. The wounded who were able to walk were placed in front, while M'Arthur with his Spartan Band covered the retreat. The moment an Indian showed himself in pursuit, he was fired upon, and generally it is believed with efbfect. The Indians were so severely handled, that they gave up the puIsuit. The Indians were commanded by the Shawnee Chief, Charley Wilkey. He told the author [M'Donald] of this narrative, that the battle of Captina was the most severe conflict he ever witnessed; that although he had the advantage of the ground and the first fire, he lost the most of his men, half of them having been either killed or wounded. The celebrated Indian hunter, Lewis Wetzel, was often through this region. Belmont has been the scene of at least two of the daring adventures of this far-famed borderer. While hunting, Wetzel fell in with a young hunter who lived on Dunkard's creek, and was persuaded to accompany him to his home. On their arrival they found the house in ruins and all the family murdered, except a young woman who had been bred with them, and to whom the young man was ardently attached. She was taken alive, as was found by examining the trail of the enemy, who were three Indians and a white renegado. Burning with revenge, they followed the trail until opposite the mouth of Captina, where the enemy had crossed. They swam the stream and discovered the Indians camp, around the fires of which lay the enemy in careless repose. The young woman was apparently unhurt, but was making much moaning and lamentation. The young man, hardly able to restrain his rage, was for firing and rushing instantly upon them. Wetzel, more cautious, told him to wait until day light when there was a better chance of success in killing the whole party. At dawn the Indians prepared to depart.'I'he young man selecting the white renegado, and Wetzel the Indian, they both fired simultaneously with fatal effect. The young man rushed forward knife in hand to relieve the mistress of his affections, while Wetzel reloaded and pursued the two surviving Indians, who had taken to the woods until they could ascertain the number of their enemies. Wetzel, as soon as he was discovered, discharged his rifle at random in order to draw them from their covert. The ruse took effect, and taking to his heels he loaded as he ran, and suddenly wheeling about discharged his rifle through the body of his nearest and unsuspecting enemy. The remaining Indian seeing the fate of his companion, and that his enemy's rifle was unloaded, rushed forward with all energy, the prospect of prompt revenge being fairly before him. Wetzel led him on 56

Page  57 BELMONT COUNTY. dodging from tree to tree, until his rifle was again ready, when suddenly turning he fired, and his remaining enemy fell dead at his feet. After taking their scalps, Wetzel and his friend, with their rescued captive, returned in safety to the settlement. A short time after Crawford's defeat, in 1782, Wetzel accompanied Thomas Mills, a soldier in that action, to obtain his horse, which he had left near the site of St. Clairsville. They were met by a party of about forty Indians, at the Indian springs, two miles from St. Ciairsville, on the road to Wheeling. Both parties discovered each other at the same moment, when Lewis instantly fired and killed an Indian, while the Indians wounded his companion ilnL the heel, overtook and killed him. Four Indians pursued Wetzel. About half a mile beyond, one of the Indians having got, in the pursuit, within a few steps, Wetzel wheeled and shot him, and then continued the retreat. In less than a mile farther, a second one came so close to him that, as he turned to fire, he caught the muzzle of his gun, when, after a severe struggle, Wetzel brought it to his chest, and discharging it, his opponent fell dead. Wetzel still continued on his course, pursued by the two Indians. All three were pretty well fatigued, and often stopped and treed. After going something more than a mile, Wetzel took advantage of an open ground, over which the Indians were passing, stopped suddenly to shoot the foremost, who thereupon sprang behind a small sapling. Wetzel fired and wounded him mortally. The remaining Indian then gave a little yell, exclaiming, "No catch that man, gun always loaded." After the peace of 1795, Wetzel pushed for the frontier, on the Mississippi, where he could trap the beaver, hunt the buffalo and deer, and occasionally shoot an Indian, the object of his mortal hatred. He finally died, as he had lived, a free man of the forest. St. Clairsville.' St. Clairsville, the county seat, is situated on an elevated ana romantic site, in a rich aglricultural region, on the line of the National road, 11 miles west of Wheeling, and 116 east of Columbus. It contains 6 places for public worship: 2 Friends, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, and 1 Union, 1 female seminary, 12 mercantile stores, 2 or 3 newspaper offices, H. Anderson's map engraving and publishing establishment, and, in 1840, had 829 inhabitants. Cuming,'s tour, published in 1810, states that this town "was laid out in the woods, by David Newell, in 1801. On the south side of Newell's plat, is an additional part, laid out by William Matthews, which was incorporated with Newell's plat, on the 23d January, 1807, by the name of St. Clairsville." By the act of incorporation, the following officers were appointed until the first stated meeting of the inhabitants should be held for an election, viz. John Patterson, 57

Page  58 BELMONT COUNTY. President; Sterling Johnston, Recorder; Samuel Sullivan, Marshall,, Groves Wm. Brown, John Brown, and Josiah Dillon, Trustees; William Congliton, Collector; James Colwell, Treasurer, and Robert Griffeth, Town Marshall. The view given was taken from an elevation west of the town, near the National road, and Neis wanger's old tavern, shown on the extreme right. The building in the distance, on the left, shaded by poplars, is the Friend's meeting house; in the centre is shown the spire of the court house, and on the right, the tower of the Presbyterian church. St. Clairsville derives its name from the unfortunate but meritorious Arthur St. Clair. He was born in Scotland, in 1734, and after receiving a classical education in one of the most celebrated universities of his native country, studied medicine; but having a taste for military pursuits, he sought and obtained a subaltern's appointment, and was with Wolfe in the storming of Quebec. After the peace of 1763, he was assigned the command of Fort Ligonier, in Pennsylvania, and received there a grant of one thousand acres. Prior to the revolutionary war, he held several civil offices. His military skill and experience, intelligence and integrity were such, that when the revolutionary war commenced, he was appointed Colonel of Continentals. In August, 1776, he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier, and bore an active part in the battles of Trenton and Princeton. He was subsequently created a Major General, and ordered to repair to Ticonderoga, where he commanded the garrison, and on the approach of Burgoyne's army, abandoned it. Charges of cowardice, incapacity and treachery were brought against him, in consequence. He was tried by a court martial, who, with all the facts before them, acquitted him, accompanying their report with the declaration, that "Major General St. Clair is acquitted, with the highest honor, of the charges against him." Congress subsequently, with an unanimous voice, confirmed this sentence. The facts were, that the works were incomplete and incapable of being defended against the whole British army, and although St. Clair might have gained great applause by a brave attempt at defence, yet it would have resulted in the death of many of his men, and probably the capture of the remainder; a loss which, it was afterwards believed in camp, and perhaps foreseen by St. Clair, would have prevented the taking of Burgoyne's army. In daring to do an unpopular act, for the public good, St. Clair exhibited a high degree of moral courage, and deserves more honor than he who wins a battle. St. Clair served, with reputation, until the close of the war. In 1785, while residing on his farm, at Ligonier, he was appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress, and was soon after chosen President of that august body. After the passage of the ordinance for the government of the North-western territory, he was made governor, and continued in the office until within a few weeks of the termination of the territorial form of government, in the winter of 1802-3, when he was removed by President Jefferson. .58

Page  59 BEIMONT COUNTY. The remainder of the sketch of Gov. St. Clair, we give ill extracts from the Notes of Judge Burnet, who was personally acquainted with him. Beside being clearly and beautifully written, it contains important facts in the legislative history of Phio. During the continuance of the first grade of that imperfect government, he enjoyed the respect and confidence of every class of the people. He was plain and simple ill his dress and equipage, open and frank in his manners, and accessible to persons of every rank. Ill these respects, he exhibited a striking contrast with the Secretary, Colonel Sargent; and that contrast, in some measure, increased his popularity, which he retainled, unimpaired, till after the commencement of the first session of the legislature. During that session, he manifested a strong desire to enlarge his own powers, and restrict those of the Assembly; which was the more noticed, as he had opposed the usurpations of the legislative council, composed of himself, or in his absence, the Secretary, and the Judges of the General Court; and had taken an early opportunity of submitting his views on that subject to the General Assembly.... The effect of the construction he gave, of his own powers, may be seen in the fact, that of the thirty bills, passed by the two Houses, during the first session, and sent to him for his approval, he refused his assent to eleven; some of which Awere supposed to be of much importance, and all of them calculated, more or less, to advance the public interest. Some of them he rejected, because they related to the establishment of new counties; others, because he thought they were unnecessary or inexpedient. Thus more than a third of the fruits of the labor of that entire session was lost, by the exercise of the arbitrary discretion of one man. This, and some other occurrences of a similar character, which were manifest deviations from his usual course, not easily accounted for, multiplied his opponents very rapidly, and rendered it more difficult for his friends to defend'and sustain him. They also created a state of bad feeling between the legislative and executive branches, and eventually terminated in his removal from office, before the expiration of the territorial government. The governor was unquestionably a man of superior talents, of extensive information, and of great uprightness of purpose, as well as suavity of manners. His general course, though in the main correct, was in some respects injurious to his own popularity; but it was the result of an honest exercise of his judgment. He not only believed that the power he claimed belonged legitimately to the executive, but was convinced that the manner in which he exercised it, was imposed on him as a duty, by the Ordinance; and was calculated to advance the best interests of the territory... Soon after the governor was removed from office, he returned to the Legonier valley, poor, and destitute of the means of subsistence; and unfortunately, too much disabled, by age and infirmity, to embark in any kind of active business. During his administration of the territorial government, he was induced to make himself personally liable for the purchase of a number of pack-horses and other articles necessary to fit out an expedition against the Indians, to an amount of some two or three thousand dollars, which he was afterwards compelled to pay. Having no use for the money at the time, he did not present his claim to the government. After he was removed from office, he looked to that fund as his dependence for future subsistence; and, under a full expectation of receiving it, he repaired to Washington City, and presented his account to the proper officer of the treasury. To his utter surprise and disappointment, it was rejected, on the mortifying ground, that, admitting it to have been originally correct, it was barred by the statute; and that the time which had elapsed, afforded the highest presumption that it had been settled, although no voucher or memorandum to that effect could be found in the department. To counteract the alledged presumption of payment, the original vouchers, showing the purchase, the purpose to which the property was applied, and the payment of the money, were exhibited. It was, however, still insisted, that as the transaction was an old one, and had taken place before the burning of the war office, in Philadelphia, the lapse of time furnished satisfactory evidence that the claim must have been settled, and the vouchers destroyed in that conflagration. The pride of the old veteran was deeply wounded, by the ground on which his claim was refused; and he was induced, from that consideration, as well as by the pressure of poverty aRd want, to persevere in his efforts to maintain the justice and equity of his demand; still hoping that presumption would give way to truth. For the purpose of getting rid of his solicitations, Congress passed an act, purporting to be an act for his relief; but which merely removed the technical objection, founded on lapse of time, by authorizing a sett'ement of his demands, regardess of the limitation, This step seemed 59

Page  60 BELMONT COUNTY. necessary, to preserve their own character; but it left the worn o*t veteran still at the mercy of the accounting officers of the department, from whom he had nothing to expect, but disappointment. During the same session, a bill was introduced into the House of Representatives, granting him an annuity, which was rejected, on the third reading, by a vote of 48 to 50. After spending the principal part of two sessions, in useless efforts, subsisting, during the time, on the bounty of his friends, he abandoned the pursuit in despair, and returned to the Legonier valley, where he lived several years in the most abject poverty, in the family of a widowed daughter, as destitute as himself. At length, Pennsylvania, his adopted state, fiom considerations of personal respect, and gratitude for past services, as well as from a laudable feeling of state pride, settled on him an annuity of three hundred dollars, which was soon after raised to six hundred and fifty dollars. That act of beneficence gave to the gallant old soldier a comfortable subsistence for the little remnant of his days which then remained. The honor resulting to the state, from that step, was very much enhanced, by the fact, that the individual on whom their bounty was bestowed, was a foreigner, and was known to be a warm opponent, ill politics, to the great majority of the legislature and their constituents. He lived, however, but a short time to enjoy the bounty. On the 31st of August, 1818, that venerable officer of the Revolution, after a long, brilliant and useful life, died of an injury occasioned by the running away of his horse, near Greensburgh, in the eighty-fourth year of his age. Bridgeport, on the west bank of the Ohio, opposite the city of Wheeling, and on the National road, is an important point for the forwarding goods to the WVest. It contains 1 church, 1 grist and 1 saw mill, 3 stores, 3 forwarding and commission houses, and had, in 1840, 329 inhabitants. In the spring of 1791, the cabin of Captain Joseph Kirkwood, at this place, was attacked at night by a party of Indians, wl-ho, after a severe action, were repulsed. This Captain Kirkwood "was the gallant and unrewarded Captain Kirkwood, of the Delaware line, in the war of the revolution, to whom such frequent and honorable allusion is made in Lee's memoir of the Southern campaigns. The state of Delaware had but one continental regiment, which, at the defeat at Camden, was reduced to a single company. It was therefore impossible, under the rules, for Kirkwood to be promoted; and he was under the mortification of beholding inferior officers in the regiments of other states, promoted over him, while he, with all his merit, was compelled to remain a captain, solely in consequence ol the small force Delaware was enabled to maintain in the service. He fought with distinguished gallantry through the war, and was in the bloody battles of Camden, Holkirks, Eutaw and Ninety Six." Captain Kirkwood moved to this place in 1789, and built his cabin on the knoll, about thirty yards west of the present residence of Mr. M'Swords. At the time of the attack on the cabin, there was an unfinished block-house standing on the highest part of the knoll, only a few yards distant. On the night of the attack, a party of fourteen soldiers, under the command of Captain Joseph Biggs, together with Captain Kirkwood and family, were in the cabin. About two hours befobr day break, the captain's little son Joseph, had occasion to leave the cabin for a few moments, and requested Captain Biggs to accompany him. They were out but a few minutes, and although unknown to them, were surrounded by Indians. They had returned, and again retired to sleep in the upper loft. 60

Page  61 BELMONT COUNTY. when they soon discovered the roof in a blaze, which was the first intimation they had of the presence of an enemy. Captain K. was instantly awakened, when he and his men commenced pushing off the roof, the Indians at the same time firing upon them, from under cover of the block-house. Captain Biggs, on the first alarm, ran down the ladder into the room below, to get his rifle, when a ball entered a window and wounded him in the wrist. Soon the Indians had surrounded the house, and attempted to break in the door with their tomahawks. Those within braced it with puncheons from the floor. In the panic of the moment, several of the men wished to escape from the cabin, but Captain K. silenced them with the threat of taking the life of the first man who made the attempt, asserting that the Indians would tomahawk them as fast as they left. The people of Wheeling-one mile distant-hearing the noise of the attack, fired a swivel, to encourage the defenders, although fearful of coming to the rescue. This enraged the Indians the more; they sent forth terrific yells, and brought brush, piled it around the cabin, and set it on fire. Those within, in a measure smothered the flames, first with the water and milk in the house, and then with damp earth, from the floor of the cabin. The fight was kept up about two hours, until dawn, when the Indians retreated. Had they attacked earlier, success would have resulted. The loss of the Indians, or their number, was unknown-only one was seen. IHe was in the act of climbing up the corner of the cabin, when he was discovered, let go his hold and fell. Seven of those within were wounded, and one, a Mr. Walker, mortally. He was a brave man. As he lay, disabled and helpless, on his back, on the earth, he called out to the Indians, in a taunting manner. He died in a few hours, and was buried the next day, at Wheeling, with military honors. A party of men, under Gen. Benjamin Biggs, of West Liberty, went in pursuit of the Indians, but without success. A niece of Captain Kirkwood, during the attack, was on a visit about twenty miles distant, on Buffalo creek. In the night, she dreamed that the cabin was attacked, and heard the guns. So strong an impression did it make, that she arose and rode down with all her speed to Wheeling, where she arrived two hours after sunrise. After this affair, Captain Kirkwood moved with his family to Newark, Delaware. On his route, he met with some of St. Clair's troops, then on their way to Cincinnati. Exasperated at the Indians, for their attack upon his house, he accepted the command of a company of Delaware troops, was with them at the defeat of St. Clair, in the November following, "where he fell, in a brave attempt to repel the enemy with the bayonet, and thus closed a career as honorable as it was unrewarded." Elizabeth Zane, who acted with so much heroism at the siege of Wheeling, in 1782, lived many years since about two miles above Bridgeport, on the Ohio side of the river, near Martinsville. She was twice married, first to Mr. M'Laughlin, and secondly to Mr. Clark. The anecdote we derive from a published source. 61

Page  62 BELMONT COUNTY. When Lynn, the ranger, gave the alarm that an Indian army was approaching, the fort having been for some time unoccupied by a garrison, and Colonel Zane's house having been used for a magazine, those who retired into the fortress had to take with them a supply of ammunition for its defence. The supply of powder, deemed ample at the time, was now almost exhausted, by reason of the long continuance of the siege, and the repeated endeavors of the savages to take the fort by storm: a few rounds only remained. In this emergency, it became necessary to renew their stock from an abundant store which was deposited in Colonel Zane's house. Accordingly, it was proposed that one of the fleetest men should endeavor to reach the house, obtain a supply of powder, and return with it to the fort. It was an enterprise full of danger; but many of the heroic spirits shut up in the fort were willing to encounter the hazard. Among those who volunteered to go on this enterprise, was Elizabeth, the sister of Colonel E. Zane. She was young, active and athletic, with courage to dare the danger, and fortitude to sustain her through it. Disdaining to weigh the hazard of her own life against that of others, when told that a man would encounter less danger by reason of his greater fleetness, she replied, "and should he fall, his loss will be more severely felt; you have not one man to spare; a woman will not be missed in the defence of the fort." Iler services were then accepted. Divesting herself of some of her garments, as tending to imnpede her progress, she stood prepared for the hazardous adventure; and when the gate was thrown open, bounded forth with the buoyancy of hope, and in the confidence of success. Wrapt in amazement, the Indians beheld her springinlg forward, and only exclaiming, " a squaw," " a squaw," no attempt was made to interrupt her progress: arrived at the door, she proclaimed her errand. Colonel Silas Zane fastened a table cloth around her waist, and emptying into it a keg of powder, again she ventured forth. The Indians were no longer passive. Ball after ball whizzed by, several of which passed through her clothes: she reached the gate, and entered the fort in safety; and thus was the garrison again saved by female intrepidity. This heroine had but recently returned from Philadelphia', where she had received her education, and was wholly unused to such scenes as were daily passing on the frontiers. The distance she had to run was about forty yards. Among the best sketches of backwoods life, is that written by Mr. John S. Williams, editor of the American Pioneer, and published in it in October, 1843. In the spring of 1800, his father's family removed from Carolina and settled with others on Glenn's run, about six miles northeast of St. Clairsville. He was then a lad, as he relates, of seventy five pounds weight. From his sketch, "Our Cabin; or Life in the Woods," we make some extracts. Emigrants poured in from different parts, cabins were put up in every direction, and women, children and goods tumbled into them. The tide of emigration flowed like water through a breach in a mill-dam. Every thing was bustle and confusion, and all at work that could work. In the midst of all this, the mumps, and perhaps one or two other diseases, prevailed and gave us a seasoning. Our cabin had been raised, covered, part of the cracks chinked, and part of the floor laid when we moved in, on Christmas day! There had not been a stick cut except in building the cabin. We had intended an inside chimney, for we thought the chimney ought to be in the house. We had a log put across the whole width of the cabin for a mantel, but when the floor was in we found it so low as not to answer, and removed it. Here was a great change for my mother and sister, as well as the rest, but particularly my mother. She was raised in the most delicate manner in and near London, and lived most of her time in affluence, and always comfortable. She was now in the wilderness, surrounded by wild beasts; in a cabin with about half a floor, no door, no ceiling over head, not even a tolerable sign for a fireplace, the light of day and the chilling winds of night passing between every two logs in the building, the cabin so high from the ground that a bear, wolf, panther, or any other animal less in size than a cow, could enter without even a squeeze. Such was our situation on Thursday and Thursday night, December 25th, 1800, and which was bettered but by very slow degrees. We got the rest of the floor laid in a very few days, the chinking of the cracks went on slowly, but the daubing could not proceed till weather more suitable, which happened in a few days; door-ways were sawed out and steps made of the logs, and the back of the chimney was raised up to the mantel, but the funnel of sticks and clay was delayed until spring... Our family consisted of my mother, a sister, of twenty-two, my brother, near twenty-one and very weakly; and myself, in my eleventh year. Two years afterwards, Black Jenny 62

Page  63 BEI,MONT COUNTY. followed us in company with my half-brother, Richard, and his family. She lived two years with us ill Ohio, and died in the winter of 1803-4. In building our cabin it was set to front the north and south, my brother using my father's pocket compass on the occasion. We had no idea of living in a house that did not stand Our Cabin; or Life in the Woods. square with the earth itself. This argued our ignorance of the comforts and conveniencies of a pioneer life. The position of the house, end to the hill, necessarily elevated the lower end, and the determination of having both a north and south door, added much to the airiness of the domicil, particularly after the green ash puncheons had shrunk so as to have cracks in the floor and doors from one to two inches wide. At both the doors we had high, unsteady, and sometimes icy steps, made by piling up the logs cut out of the wvail. We had, as the reader will see, a window, if it could be called a window, when, perhaps, it was the largest spot in the top, bottom, or sides of the cabin at which the wind could not enter. It was made by sawing out a log, placing sticks across, and then, by pasting an old newspaper over the hole, and applying some hog's lard, we had a kind of glazing which shed a most beautiful and mellow light across the cabin when the sun shone on it. All other light entered at the doors, cracks and chimney. Our cabin was twenty four by eighteen. The west end was occupied by two beds, the center of each side by a door, and here our symmetry had to stop, for on the opposite side of the window, made of clapboards, supported on pins driven into the logs, were our shelves. UITpon these shelves my sister displayed in ample order, a host of pewter plates, basins, and ,ishes, and spooilis, scoured and bright. It was none of your new-fangled pewter made of lead, but the best London pewter, which our father himself bought of Townsend, the manufacturer. These were the plates upon which you could hold your meat so as to cut it without slipping and without dulling yo-. r knife. But, alas! the days of pewter plates and sharp dinner knives have passed away never to return. To return to our internal arrangements. A ladder of five rounds occupied the corner near the window. By this, when we got a floor above, we could ascend. Our chimney occupied most of the east end; pots and kettles opposite the window under the shelves, a gun on hooks over the north door, four split-bottom chairs, three three-legged stools, and a small eight by ten lookingglass sloped from the wall over a large towel and combcase. These, with a clumsy shovel and a pair of tongs, made in Frederick, with one shank straight, as the best manufacture of pinches and blood-blisters, completed our furniture, except a spinning-wheel and such things as were necessary to work with. It was absolutely necessary to have three-legged stools, as four legs of any thing could not all touch the floor at the same time. The completion of our cabin went on slowly. The season was inclement, we were weak-handed and weak-pocketed; in fact, laborers were not to be had. We got our chimney up breast high as soon as we could, and got our cabin daubed as high as the joists outside. It never was daubed on the inside, for my sister, who was very nice, could PM3 63

Page  64 BELMONT COUNTY. consent to "live right next to thie mud." My impression now is, that the window was not constructed till spring, for until the sticks and clay was put on the chimney we could possibly have no need of a window; for the flood of light which always poured into the cabin from the fireplace would have extinguished our paper window, and rendered it as useless as the moon at noonday. We got a floor laid over head as soon as possible, per hal)s in a month; but when it was laid, the reader will readily conceive of its imperviousness to wind or weather, when we mention that it was laid of loose clapboards split from a red oak, the stump of which may be seen beyond the cabin. That tree g'ew in the night, and so twisting that each board laid on two diagonally opposite corners, and a cat might have shook every board on our ceiling, It may be well to inform the unlearned reader that clapboards are s,ich lumber as pio neers split with a frow, and resemble barrel staves before they are shlaved, but are split longer, wider and thinner; of such our roof and ceiling were comiposed. Puncheons were planks made by splitting logs to about two and a half or three inches in thickness, and hewing them on one or both sides with the broad-axe. Of such our floor, doors, ta bles and stools were manufactured. The eave-bearers are those end logs which project over to receive the butting poles, against which the lower tier of clapboards rest in forming the roof. The trapping is the roof timbers, composing the gable end and the ribs, the ends of which appear in the drawing, being those logs upon which the clapboards lie. The trap logs are those of unequal length above the eave bearers, which form the gable ends, and upon which the ribs rest. The weight poles are those small logs laid on the roof, which weigh down the course of clapboards on which they lie, and against which the next course above is placed. The knees are pieces of heart timber placed above the butting poles, successively, to prevent the weight poles from rolling off...... The evenings of the first winter did not pass off as pleasantly as evenings afterward. We had raised no tobacco to stem and twist, no corn to shell, no turnips to scrape; we had no tow to spin into rope-yarn, nor straw to plait for hats, and we had come so late we could get but few walnuts to crack. We had, however, the Bible, George Fox's Journal, I"arklev's Apology, and a number of books, all better than much of the fashionable read ing of the present day-from which, after reading, the readertinds he has gained nothing, while his understanding has been made the dupe of the writer's fancy-that while reading he had given himself up to be led in mazes of fictitious imagination, and losing his taste for solid reading, as frothy luxuries destroy the appetite for wholesome food. To our stock of books were soon after added a borrowed copy of the Pilgrim's Progress, which we read twice through without stopping. The first winter our living was truly scanty and hard; but even this winter had its felicities. We had part of a barrel of flour which wev had brought from Fredericktown. Besides this, we had a part of a jar of hog's lard brought from old Carolina; not the tasteless stuff which now goes by that name, but pure le-if lard, taken from hogs raised on pine roots and fattened on sweet potatoes, and into which, while rendering, were immersed the boughs of the fragrant bay tree, that imparted to the lard a rich flavor. Of that flour, shortened with this lard, my sister every Sunday morning, and at no other time, made short biscuit for breakfast-not these greasy gum-elastic biscuit, we mostly meet with now, rolled out with a pin, or cut out with a cutter; or those that are, perhaps, speckled by or puffed up with refined lye called salaeratus, but made out, one by one, in her fair hands, placed in neat juxtaposition in a skillet or spider, pricked with a fork to prevent blistering, and baked before an open fire-not half-baked and half-stewed in a cooking stove.... In the ordering of a good Providence the winter was open, but windy. While the wind was of great use in driving the smoke and ashes out of our cabin, it shook terribly the timber standing almost over us. We were sometimes much and needlessly alarmed. We had never seen a dangerous looking tree near a dwelling, but here we were surrounded by the tall giants of the forest, waving their boughs and uniting their brows over us, as if in defiance of our disturbing their repose, and usurping their long and uncontested preemption rights. The beech on the left often shook his bushy head over us as if in absolute disapprobation of our settling there, threatening to crush us if we did not pack up and start. The walnut over the spring branch stood high and straight; no one could tell which way it inclined, but all concluded that if it had a preference, it was in favor of quartering on our cabin. We got assistance to cut it down. The axeman doubted his ability to control its direction, by reason that he must necessarily cut it almost off before it would fall. He thought by felling the tree in the direction of the reader, along near the chimney, and thus favor the little lean it seemed to have, would be the means of saving the cabin. He was successful. Part of the stump still stands. These, and all other dangerous trees, were got down without other damage than many frights and frequent desertions of the premises, by 64

Page  65 BEL.IMONT COUNTY. the famil," while the trees were being cut. T'he ash beyond the house crossed the scarf and fell Jn the cabin, but without damage.... The monotony of the time for several of the first years was broken and enlivened by the howl of wild beasts. The wolves howling around us seemed to moan their inability to drive us from their long and undisputed domain. The bears, panthers and deers seemingly got miffed at our approach or the partiality of the hunters, and but seldom troubled us. One bag of meal would make a whole family rejoicingly happy and thankful then, when a loaded East Indiaman will fail to do it now, and is passed off as a common business transaction without ever once thinking of the Giver, so independent have we become in the short space of forty years! Having got out of the wilderness in less time than the children of Israel, we seem to be even more forgetful and unthankful than they. When spring was fully come and our little patch of corn, three acres, put in among the beech roots, which at every step. contended with the shovel-plough for the right of soil, and held it too, we enlarged our stock of conveniences. As soon as bark would run, (peel off,) we could make ropes and bark boxes. These we stood in great need of, as such things as bureaus, stands, wardrobes, or even barrels, were not to be had. The manner of making ropes of linn bark, was to cut the bark in strips of convenient length, and water-rot it in the same manner as rotting flax or hemp. When this was done, the inside bark would peel off and split up so fine as to make a pretty considerably rough and good-for-but-little kind of a rope. Of this, however, we were very glad, and let no ship owner with his grass ropes laugh at us. We made two kinds of boxes for furniture. One kind was of hickory bark with the outside shaved off. This we would take off all around the tree, the size of which would determine the calibre of our box. Into one end we would place a flat piece of bark or puncheon cut round to fit in the bark, which stood on end the same as when on the tree. There was little need of hooping, as the strength of the bark would keep that all right enough. Its shrinkage would make the top unsightly in a parlor now-a-days, but then they were considered quite an addition to the furniture. A much finer article was made of slippery-elm bark, shaved smooth and with the inside out, bent round and sewed together where the ends of the hoop or main bark lapped over. The length of the bark was around the box, and inside out. A bottom was made of a piece of the same bark dried flat, and a lid like that of a common band box, made in the same way. This was the finest furniture in a lady's dressing room, and then, as now, with the finest furniture, the lapped or sewed side was turned to the wall and the prettiest part to the spectator. They were usually made oval, and while the bark was green were easily ornamented with drawings of birds, trees, &c., agreeably to the taste and skill of the fair manufacturer. As we belonged to the Society of Friends, it may be fairly presumed that our band boxes were not thus ornamented. We settled on beech land, which took much labor to clear. We could do no better than clear out the smaller stuff and burn the brush, &c., around the beeches which, in spite of the girdling and burning we could do to them, would leaf out the first year, and often a little the second. The land, however, was very rich, and would bring better corn than might be expected. We had to tend it principally with the hoe, that is, to chop down the nettles, the water-weed, and the touch-me-not. Grass, careless, lambs-quarter, and Spanish needles were reserved to pester the better prepared farmer. We cleared a small turnip patch, which we got in about the 10th of August. We sowed in timothy seed, which took well, and next year we had a little hay besides. The tops and blades of the corn were also carefully saved for our horse, cow, and the two sheep. The turnips were sweet and good, and in the fall we took care to gather walnuts and hickory nuts, which were very abundant. These, with the turnips which we scraped, supplied the place of fruit. I have always been partial to scraped turnips, and could now beat any three dandies at scraping them. Johnny-cake, also, when we had meal to make it of, helped to make up our evening's repast. The Sunday morning biscuit had all evaporated, but the loss was partially supplied by the nuts and turnips. Our regular supper was mush and milk, and by the time we had shelled our corn, stemmed tobacco, and plaited straw to make hats, &c., &c. the mush and milk had seemingly decamped from the neighborhood of our ribs. To relieve this difficulty, my brother and I would bake a thin johnny-cake, part of which we would eat, and leave the rest till morning. At daylight we would eat the balance as we walked from the house to work. The methods of eating mush and milk were various. Some would sit around the pot, and every one take therefrom for himself. Some would set a table and each have his tin cup of milk, and with a pewter spoon take just as much mush from the dish or the pot, if it was on the table, as he thought would fill his mouth or throat, then lowering it into the milk, would take uome to wash it down. This method kept the milk cool, and by 9 65 ii

Page  66 BROWN COUNTY. frequent repetitions the pioneer would contract a faculty of correctly estimating the proper amount of each. Others would mix mush and milk together... To get grinding done was often a great difficulty, by reason of the scarcity of mills, the freezes in winter, and droughts in summer. We had often to manufacture meal (when we had corn) in any way we could get the corn to pieces. We soaked and pounded it, we shaved it, we planed it, and, at the proper season, grated it. When one of our neighbors got a hand-mill, it was thought quite an acquisition to the neighborhood. In after years, when in time of freezing or drought, we could get grinding by waiting for our turn no more than one day and a night at a horse mill, we thought ourselves happy. To save meal we often made pumpkin bread, in which when meal was scarce, the pumpkin would so predominate as to render it next to impossible to tell our bread from that article, either by taste, looks, or the amount of nutriment it contained. Salt was five dollars per bushel, and we used none in our corn bread, which we soon liked as well without it. Often has sweat ran into my mouth, which tasted as fresh and flat as distilled water. What meat we had at first was fresh, and but little of that, for had we been hunters we had no time to practice it. We had no candles, and cared but little about them except for summer use. In Carolina we had the real fat light-wood, not merely pine knots, but the fat straight pine. This, from the brilliancy of ohr parlor, of winter evenings, might be supposed to put, not only candles, lamps, camphine, Greenough's chemical oil, but even gas itself, to the blush. In the West we had not this, but my business was to ramble the woods every evening for seasoned sticks, or the bark of the shelly hickory, for light.'Tis true that our light was not as good as even candles, but we got along without fretting, for we depended more upon the goodness of our eyes than we did upon the brilliancy of the light. Barnesville, 18 miles wsw. of St. Clairsville, is a large and flourishing town, containing 2 churches, 1 male academy, 1 masonic hall, and a population of about 750. Martinsville, 2 miles NW. of Wheeling city, on the Ohio river, contains 3 churches, 3 stores, and a population of 400. Morristown, 10 miles w. of St. Clairsville, on the National road, has 5 stores, 2 churches, and 350 people. Flushing, 10 miles NW. of St. Clairsville, has 3 stores and 250 people. Bellaire, Belmont, Ilendrysburg, Jacobsburg, Somerton, Uniontown, West Wheeling, Burlington, Centreville, ]armington, Loydsville, Shepperdstown, and Steinersvile, are also small villages. BROWN. BROWN was formed from Adams and Clermont, March 1, 1817, and named from Gen. Jacob Brown, an officer of the war of 1812. Excepting the Ohio river hills, the surface is level or undulating, and the soil generally fertile: the northern part, more especially, is adapted to grazing, and the southern to grain. The staples are wheat, corn, rye, oats and pork. The following are the names of its townships in 1840, with their population. Byrd, 2422 Huntington, 1957 Pleasant, 1485 Clark, 1290 Jackson, 1253 Scott, 1101 Eagle, 888 Lewis, 2044 Sterling, 608 Franklin, 1199 Perry, 1869 Union, 2071 Green, 358 Pike, 792 Washington, 848 Population of Brown county, in 1820, 13,367; in 1830, 17,866; in 1840, 22,715, or 44 inhabitants to a square mile. A short time previous to the settlement of this county, a severe 66

Page  67 BROWN COUNTY. battle was fought at a locality, callea "the salt lick," in Perry township, in the northern part of the county, between a party of Kentuckians and some Indians, under Tecumseh. The circumstances are here given from Drake's life of that celebrated Indian chief. "In the month of March, 1792, some horses were stolen by the Indians, fronm the settlements in Mason county, Kentucky. A party of whites, to the number of thirty-six, was immediately raised for the purpose of pursuing them. It embraced Kenton, Whiteman, M'Intyre, Downing, Washburn, Calvin and several other experienced woodsmen. The first named, Simon Kenton, a distinguished Indian fighter, was placed in command. The trail of the Indians being taken, it was found they had crossed the Ohio, just below the mouth of Lee's creek, which was reached by the pursuing party towards evening. Having prepared rafts, they crossed the Ohio that ni,ght, and encamped. Early next morning the trail was again taken and pursued, on a north course, all day, the weather being bad and the ground wet. On the ensuing morning, twelve of the men were unable to continue the pursuit, and were permitted to return. The remainder followed the trail until eleven o'clock, A. M., when a bell was heard, which they supposed indicated their approach to the Indian camp. A halt was called, and all useless baggage and clothing laid aside. Whiteman and two others were sent ahead as spies, in different directions, each being followed by a detachment of the party. After moving forward some distance, it was found that the bell was approaching them. They halted, and soon perceived a solitary Indian riding towards them. When within one hundred and fifty yards, he was fired at and killed. Kenton directed the spies to proceed, being now satisfied that the camp of the Indians was near at hand. They pushed on rapidly, and after going about four miles, found the Indians encamped on the south-east side of the east fork of the Little Miami, a few miles above the place where the town of Williamsburg has since been built. The indications of a considerable body of Indians were so strong, that the expediency of an attack at that hour of the day was doubted by Kenton. A hurried council was held, in which it was determined to retire, if it could be done without discovery, and lie concealed until night, and then assault the camp. This plan was carried into execution. Two of the spies were left to watch the Indians, and ascertain whether the pursuing party had been discovered. The others retreated for some distance, and took a commanding position on a ridge. The spies watched until night, and then reported to their commander, that they had not been discovered by the enemy. The men being wet and cold, they were now marched down into a hollow, where they kindled fires, dried their clothes, and put their rifles in order. The party was then divided into three detachments,-Kenton commanding the right, M'Intyre the centre, and Downing the left. By agreement, the three divisions were to move towards the camp, simultaneously, and when they had approached as near as possible, without giving an alarm, were to be guided in the commencement 67

Page  68 BROWN COUNTY. of the attack, by the fire from Kenton's party. When Downing and his detachment had approached close to the camp, an Indian rose upon his feet, and began to stir up the fire, which was but dimly burning. Fearing a discovery, Downing's party instantly shot him down. This was followed by a general fire from the three detachments, upon the Indians who were sleeping under some marquees and bark tents, close upon the margin of the stream. But unfortunately, as it proved in the sequel, Kenton's party had taken "Boone," as their watch-word. This name happening to be as familiar to the enemy as themselves, led to some confusion in the course of the engagement. When fired upon, the Indians, instead of retreating across the stream, as had been anticipated, boldly stood to their arms, returned the fire of the assailants, and rushed upon them. They were reinforced, moreover, from a camp on the opposite side of the river, which, until then, had been unperceived by the whites. In a few minutes, the Indians and the Kentuckians were blended with each other, and the cry of "Boone," and "Che Boone," arose simultaneously from each party. "It was after midnight when the attack was made, and there being no moon, it was very dark. Kenton, perceiving that his men were likely to be overpowered, ordered a retreat, after the attack had lasted for a few minutes; this was continued through the remainder of the night and part of the next day, the Indians pursuing them, but without killing more than one of the retreating party. The Kentuckians lost but two men, Alexander M'Intyre and John Barr. The loss of the Indians was much greater, according to the statements of some prisoners, who, after the peace of 1795, were released and returned to Kentucky. They related, that fourteen Indians were killed, and seventeen wounded. They stated further, that there were in the camp about one hundred warriors, among them several chiefs of note, including Tecumseh, Battise, Black Snake, Wolf and Chinskau; and that the party had been formed for the purpose of annoying the settlements in Kentucky, and attacking boats descending the Ohio river. Kenton and his party were three days in reaching Limestone, during two of which they were without food, and destitute of sufficient clothing to protect them from the cold winds and rains of March. The foregoing particulars of this expedition are taken from the manuscript narrative of Gen. Benjamin Whiteman, one of the early and gallant pioneers to Kentucky, now a resident of Green county, Ohio. "The statements of Anthony Shane and of Stephen Ruddell, touching this action, vary in some particulars from that which has been given above, and also from the narrative in McDonald's Sketches. The principal difference relates to the number of Indians in the engagement, and the loss sustained by them. They report but two killed, and that the Indian force was less than that of the whites. Ruddell states, that at the commencement of the attack, Tecumseh was lying by the fire, outside of the tents. When the first gun was heard, he sprang to his feet, and calling upon Sinnamatha to follow 68

Page  69 BROWN COUNTY. his example, and charge, he rushed forward and killed one of the whites [John Barr] with his war-club. The other Indians, raising the war-whoop, seized their arms, and rushing upon Kenton and his party, compelled them, after a severe contest of a few minutes, to retreat. One of the Indians, in the midst of the engagement, fell into the river, and in the effort to get out of the water, made so much noise, that it created a belief on the minds of the whites, that a reinforcement was crossing the stream to aid Tecumseh. This is supposed to have hastened the order from Kenton, for his men to retreat. The afternoon prior to the battle, one of Kenton's men, by the name of M'Intyre, succeeded in catching an Indian horse, which he tied in the rear of the camp; and, when a retreat was ordered, lie mounted and rode ofl. Early in the morning, Tecumseh and four of his men set off in pursuit of the retreating party. Having fallen upon the trail of M'Intyre, they pursued it for some distance, and at length overtook him. He had struck a fire, and was cooking some meat. When M'Intyre discovered his pursuers, he instantly fled at full speed. Tecumseh and two others followed, and were fast gaining, on him, when he turned and raised his gun. Two of the Indians, who happened to be in advance of T'ecumseh. sprung behind trees, but he rushed upon M'Intyre and made him prisoner. He was tied and taken back to the battle ground. Upon reaching it, Tecumseh deemed it prudent to draw off his men, lest the whites should rally and renew the attack. Hle requested some of the Indians to catch the horses, but they, hesitating, he undertook to do it himself, assisted by one of the party. When he returned to camp with the horses, he found that his men hadf killed M'Intyre. At this act of cruelty to a prisoner, he was exceedingly indlignant; declaring that it was a cowardly act to kill a man when tied, and a prisoner. The conduct of Tecumseh, in this engagement, and in the events of the following morning, is creditable alike to his courage and humanity. Resolutely brave in battle, his arm was never uplifted against a prisoner, nor did he suffer violence to be inflicted upon a captive, without promptly rebuking it." McDonald, in speaking of this action, says: "The celebrated Tecumseh commanded the Indians. His cautious and fearless intrepidity made him a host wherever he went. In military tactics, night attacks are not allowable, except in cases like this, when the assailing party are far inferior in numbers. Sometimes, in night attacks, panics and confusion are created in the attacked party, which may render them a prey to inferior numbers. Kenton trusted to something like this on the present occasion, but was disappointed; for when Tecumseh was present, his influence over the minds of his followers infused that confidence in his tact and intrepidity, that they could only be defeated by force of numbers." Georgetown, the county seat, is 107 miles from Columbus, 30 from Hillsboro, 46 from Wilmington, 21 from Batavia and West Union. It was laid off in the year 1819, and its original propietors 69

Page  70 BROWN COUNTY. were Allen Woods and Henry Newkirk. It is a smart business town, containing 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Christian Disciples, and 1 Methodist church, a newspaper printing office, and about 800 inhabitants. The view shows the public square, with the old court Public Square, Georgetown. house on the left, and on the right, in the distance, a new and elegant Methodist church. It is contemplated to erect, shortly, a new court house, in good architectural taste. Georgetown was the residence of the late Gen. ThoMAs L. HAMER, who died in Mexico. He commenced the practice of the law in Georgetown, in the year 1820, which he continued until June, 1846, at which time he volunteered in the Mexican war. He was elected Major of the 1st Reg. Ohio Volunteers, and received the appointment of Brig. Gen. from the President, before his departure for the seat of war. In that station, he acquitted himself with great ability up to the period of his death. He was in the battle at Monterey, and on Maj. Gen. Butler's being wounded, succeeded him in the command. He distin,guished himself on this occasion, by his coolness and courage. Gen. Hamer was endowed with most extraordinary abilities as an orator, advocate and lawyer. He represented the district in which he resided, six years in congress, and distinguished himself as an able and sagacious statesman; and at the time of his death, was a member elect to congress. The estimation in which he was held by his professional brethren, may be feebly gathered from the proceedings of the members of the bar of his county, the proceedings of which meeting were presented to the Supreme Court of Ohio, for Brown county, on the 23d of April, and the court requested to have the same entered upon their journals; whereupon, Judge Read expressed the views of the court, as follows: "It is with pleasure that the court direct the proceedings of the bar to be entered of record, as the customary tribute to distinguished worth. It is proper to add, that the court sympathize deeply with 70

Page  71 BROWN COUNTY. the family of Gen. Hamer, and the bar, and the community, in the loss we have sustained. Gen. Hamer was an ornament to the bar, and had distinguished himself in the counsels of the nation, and won to himself renown upon her battle fields. It is proper that one should cherish his memory, and keep his virtues and example before us. We, therefore, direct the clerk to enter these proceedings of record, as a testimonial of the high estimation entertained for the deceased by the court and the bar, and as a slight expression of the deep regret felt for his loss." In the county, there are two large settlements of colored persons, numbering about 500 each. One of these is 3 miles north of Georgetown; the other is in the NE. part of the county, about 16 miles distant. They emigrated from Virginia, in the year 1818, and were originally the slaves of Samuel Gist, who manumitted and settled them here, upon two large surveys of land. Their situation, unfortunately, is not prosperous. Ripley, from the Kentucky side of the Ohio. Ripley is upon the Ohio, 10 miles from Georgetown, 9 below Maysville, and 50 above Cincinnati. The town was laid out about the period of the war of 1812, by Col. James Poage, a native of Virginia, and first named Staunton, from Staunton, Va.; it was afterwards changod to Ripley, fiom Gen. Ripley, an officer of distinction in the war. When the county was first formed, the courts were directed to be held at the house of Alex. Campbell, in this town, until a permanent seat of justice should be established. For a time, it was supposed that this would be the county seat; a court house was begun, but before it was finished, the county seat was permanently established at Georgetown. The courts were, for a time, held in the 1st Presbyterian church, which was the first public 71

Page  72 BUTLER COUNTY. house of worship erected. Ripley is the largest and most business place in the county, and one of the most flourishing villages on the Ohio river, within the limits of the state. The view shows the central part of the town only; it extends about a mile on the river. Ripley contains 2 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, 1 Associate Reformed, 1 New Light, and 1 Catholic church, 20 stores, 1 newspaper printing office, 1 iron foundery, 1 carding machine, 3 flouring mills, and had, in 1840, 1245 inhabitants; since, it has considerably increased. The Ripley female seminary, under the charge of \Wm. C. Bissell and lady, has about forty pupils. The "Ripley College" was chartered by the state, but not endowed: it is now a high school, under the care of the Rev. John Rankin, and an assistant, and has about forty pupils, of both sexes. This institution admits colored children within its walls; and there are quite a number of people, in this region, who hold to the doctrine of equal rights, politically and socially, to all, irrespective of color. Aberdeen, opposite Maysville, Ky., was founded by Nathan Ellis, who was either from Scotland or of Scotch extraction. It contains several stores and churches, and had, in 1819, 405 inhabitants. Higginsport, on the river, 7 miles from Georgetown, is a considerable village, and has 3 churches, 4 stores, and, in 1840, had 393 inhabitants. Russelville is also a village of note, 7 miles E. of Georgetown, and is famous for its churches, of which it has seven, together with as many stores, and about 359 inhabitants. In the Perry township, in the extreme north part of the county, are many Catholics. They have a cathedral of much splendor, and a nunnery. Decatur, Hamersville, Arnheim, Sardinia, Fincastle, Carlisle, New Hope, Fayetteville and Greenbush are small villages in the county. BUTLER. BUTLER was formed in 1803, from Hamilton, and named in honor of Gen. Richard Butler, a distinguished officer of the revolution, who fell in St. Clair's defeat. The surface is level. It is all within the blue limestone formation, and is one of the richest agricultural tracts in Ohio. Its staples are corn, wheat, oats and pork. It produces more corn than any county of the state, the annual crop being over two millions of bushels! A large proportion of its population are of German descent. The following are the names of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Fairfield, 3580 Milford, 1868 Ross, 1524 Hanover, 1680 Morgan, 1726 St. Clair, 2307 Lemon, 3065 Oxford, 3422 Union, 2118 Liberty, 1479 Reily, 1758 Wayne, 1562 Madison, 2208 In 1820, its population was 21,755; inI 1830, 27,143; in 1840 28,207, or 59 inhabitants to a square mile. 72

Page  73 BUTLER COUNTY. The large and flourishing town of Hamilton, the county seat, A. 22 niles N. of Cincinnati, on the left bank of the Great Miami. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, 1 German Lu theran. 1 Associate Reformed, 1 Baptist, and 1 Catholic church, a Public Square, Hamilton. flourishing female academy, 2 newspaper printing offices, 3 flouring mills, 3 cotton factories, 3 saw mills, 2 foundries, 2 machine shops, and about 16 mercantile stores; in 1840, its population was 1409, since which it has considerably increased. Hamilton is destined to ie an important manufacturing town. The hydraulic works, lately built here, rank among the best water powers west of the Alleghanies. This work is formed by a canal, commencing at the Big Miami, four miles above the town, and emptying into the river near the bridge, at Hamilton. By it a very great amount of never failing water power has been created, sufficient, with a small additional investment, to propel 200 runs of 41 mill stones. It is durably constructed, and is adding much to the business of the community. View of Rossville, from Hamilton. Hamilton is neatly built, and has an elegant public square, on which stand the county buildings; it is enclosed by an iron fence, hand somely covered with green turf, and shaded by locusts and other 10 Ts

Page  74 BUTLER COIUNTY. expense of about Rossville, on the shows as it ap also a flourishing t, as that is as a stance, that it is e farmers of the contains 1 Pres out 18 mercantile urelation has since , in 1791, passed r, Fort Hamilton bhe site of Hamil sions, and to form ashington and the e camnpaign. It de of fifty yards our good bastions, for cannon in two barracks. In the eeding, an addi e to the fort, by Wilkinson, which enclosing, with rea of ground on rt, so that it exte river to about te of the present . The southern work extended to We Associate Reh. liven of the fort, irvey of Mr. Jas. Hamilton, made al years after. -A. The old fort Clair. B. Addicers quarters. b. c. Magazine. d. p. e, f, g. Block Present bridge across the Miami, shown in the view of Rossville. * This gentleman has written a large volume-as yet unpublished-filled with valuable acts and anecdotes connected with the history of the Miami valley. For the historical sKetch of Hamilton, and several incidents in various parts of our work, we are indebted to these Mss. T4

Page  75 BUTLER COUNTY. Late in the fall oi 1792, an advance corps of troops, under the comniand of Major Rudolph, arrived at Fort Hamilton, where they wintered. TI'hey consisted of three conmpanies of light dragoons, one of rifle, and one of infantry. Rudolph was a Major of dragoons, from lower Virginia. His reputation was that of an arbitrary and tyrannical officer. Sometime in the spring, seven soldiers deserted to the Ohio river, where, procuring a canoe, they started for New Orleans. Ten or fifteen miles below the falls of the Ohio, they were met by Lieut. (since Gen.) Clark, and sent back to Fort Hamilton, where a court martial sentenced three of them to be hung, two to run the gauntlet, and the remrnaining two to lie in irons, ill the guard house, for a stipulated period. John Browil, Seth Blin and Gallaher, were the three sentenced to be hung. The execution took place the next day, on a gallows erected below the fort, just south of the site of the present Associate Reformed church, and near the residence of James B. Thomas. Five hundred soldiers were drawn up in arms around the fatal spet, to witness the exit of their unfortunate comrades. The appearance of the sufferers, at the gallows, is said to have been most prepossessing. They were all young men of spirit, and handsome appearance, ill the opening bloom of life, with their long hair floating over their shoulders. John Brown was said to have been a young man, of very respectable connections, who lived near Albany, New York. Early in life, he had formed an attachment for a young woman in his neighborhood, of unimpeachable character, but whose socital standing did not comport with the pride of his. parents. He was forbidden to associate with her, and required to pay his addresses to another. Broken-hearted and desponding, he left his home, enlisted in a company of dragoons, and came to the west. His commanding odlicer treated him so unjustly, that hlie was led to desert. When under the gallows, the sergeant, acting as executioner, inquired why the sentence of the law should not be enforced upon him, he replied, with emphasis-pointing to Major Rudolph-" that he had rather die nine hundred deaths, than be subject to the command of such a mian;" and was swung off, without a murmur. Seth Blin was the son of a respectable widlow, residing in the state of New York. The rope being awkwardly fastened aroiund his neck, he struggled greatly. Three times he raised his feet, until they came in contact with the upper part of the gallows, when the exertion broke his neck. Immnediately after the sentence had been pronounced on these men, a fr-iend hastened to Fort Washington, where he obtained a pardon from Gen. Wilkinson. Blt he was too late. The execution had been hastened by MIjor Rudolph, and he arrived at Hallilton fifteen minutes after the spirits of these unfortunate men had taken their flight to another world. Their bodies were immediately committed to the grave, under the gilltows.''lhere, in the dark and narrow house, in silence, lies the only son of a widowed miiotliher, the last of his family. A vegetable garden is now cultivated over the spot, by those who thin,k not nor know not of the once warm heart that lies cold below. The two other deserters were sentenced to run the gauntlet sixteen times, between two ranks of soldiers, which was carried forthwith into execution. The lines were formied in the rising ground, east of the fort, where now lies Front street, and extended firom Smithman's corner to the intersection of Ludlow street. One of them, named Roberts, having passed eight times through the ranks, fell, and was unable to proceed. T'lhe attendant physician stated that he could stand it no longer, as his life had already been eidllngerl-ed. Sometime after Gen. Wayne arrived at the post, and although frequently represented as an arbitrary man, he was so much displeased with the cruelty of Major lRudolph, that he gave him his choice, to resign or be cashiered. He chose the former, returned to Virginia, and subsequently, in company with another gentleman, purchased a ship, and went on a trading voyage to Europe. They were captured (it is stated) by an Algerine cruiser, and Rudolph was hung at the yard arm of his own vessel. I have heard some of those who were under his command, in Wayne's army, express satisfaction at the fate of this unfortunate man. In the summer of 1792, two wagoners were watching some oxen, which had been turned out to graze on the common below the fort; a shower of rain coming on, they retired for shelter under a tree, which stood near where the sycamore grove now is. Some Indians, who had been watching from under the covert of the adjoining underbrush, rushed suddeitly upon them, killed one and took the other prisoner. The latter was Henry Shafor, who, after his return, lived, until a few years past, two or three miles below Rossville, on the river. In September, 1793, the army of Wayne marched from Cincinnati to Fort Hamilton, and encamped in the upper part of the prairie, about half a mile south of the present town, nearly on the same ground on which Gen. St. Clair had encamped in 1791. Here they threw up a breastwork, the remains of which may yet be traced at the point where the 75

Page  76 BUTLER COUNTY. present road strikes the Miami river, above Traber's mill. A few aays after, they con tinued their march toward the Indian country. Gen. Wayne detailed a stiong guard of men for the defence of the fort, the command of which was given to Major Jonathan Cass, of the army of the revolution, and father of the Hon. Lewis Cass, of the U. S. Senate. Major Cass continued in command until the treaty of Greenville. On the 17th of December, 1794, Israel Ludlow laid out, within Symmes's purchase, the original plot of the town of Hamilton, which he, at first, for a short time only, called Fair field. Shortly after, a few settlers came in. The first settlers were Darius C. Orcut, John Green, MWm. M Clennian, John Sutherland, John Torrence, Benj. F. Randolph, Benj. Davis, Isaac Wiles, Andrew Christy and Wm. Hubbert. Previous to 1801, all the lands on the west side of the Great Miami were owned by the United States, consequently there were no improvements made on that side of the river, except by a few squatters. There was one log house built at an early period, near tile west end of the bridge, now owned by the heirs of Lewis P. Sayre. On the first Mon day in April, 1801,-at the first sale of the United States lands west of the Miami, held at Cincinnati,-a company purchased the site of Rossville, on which, March 14th, 1804, they laid out the town. Mr. John Reily was the agent of the proprietors. The first settlers of Hamilton suffered much from the fever and ague, aild being princi pally disbanded soldiers, without energy, and many of thenm dissipated, but little improve ment was made for the first few years. In those early times, horse-racing was a favorite amusement, and all affair of all engrlossing interest. On public days, indeed on almost every other Saturday, the streets and cormmons in the upper part of the town were converted into race paths. The race course coinprehended the commnon from 2d to 4th street. At 2d street, a short distance north of the site of the Catholic church, was an elevated scaffold on which stood the judges of the race. On grand occasions, the plain within the course and near it, were occupied with booths, erected with forks and covered with boughs. Here every thing was said, done, eaten, sold and drank. Here was Black Jack with his fiddle, and his votaries mnaking the dust fly, with a four-hand(led, or rather four-footed reel; and every fifteen or twenty minutes was a rush to somne part to see a "fisty cvAff." Among the bustling crowd of jockies were asseminbled all classes. Even Judges of the court mingled with the crowd, and sometimes presided at the contests of speed between the ponies of the neighborhood. Soon after the formation of Butler county, Hamilton was made the county seat. The first sessions of the court were held in the tavern of Mr. Torrence, now the residence of Henry S. Earhart. The sessions of the court after this were held in the former mess room of the fort. It was a rough one story fiaiue building, about 40 by 20 feet, weather-boarded, without either filling or plastering, and stood about where the market now is. It was elevated fiom the ground about three feet by wooden blocks affording a favorite shelter for the hogs and sheep of the village. The Judges seat was a rough platform of unplaned boards, and a long table in front, like a carpenter's work bench, was used by the bar. It 1810, the court was removed to a room over the stone jail, and in 1817, transferred to the present court house. The court, at their July term,in 1803, selected the old magazine within the fort as a county jail. It was a heavy built log building, about 12 feet square, with a hipped roof conming to a common center and surmounted by a ball. The door had a hole in the center shaped like a half-moon, through which air, light and food( were conveyed, while on the outside it was secured by a pad-lock and hasp. It was very insecure, and escapes were almost as frequent as committals. It was the only jail for Butler county, firom 1803 to 1809. A small log house formerly a sutlers store, was used as a clerk's office. It has since beetn altered into a private dwelling, at present occupied by Dutch Jacob. The house erected by Gen. Wilkinson, in'92, for officer's quarters, (see a plan of fort,) was converted into a tavern kept by the county sheriff, Wm. M'Clellan, while the barracks and artificers shops were used as stables. JOHN CLEVES SYMMES, the author of the "Theory of Concentric Spheres, demon strating that the Earth is hol J. C. Symmes's Signature. low, habitable within, and widely open about the Poles," died at Hamilton, May 28th, 1829. He was born in New Jersey about the year 1780. His father, 76

Page  77 BUTLEI' COUNTY. Timothy Symmes, was the brother of John Cleves Symmrnes, wellknown as the founder of the first settlements of the Miami valley. In the early part of his life he received a common school education. and in 1802 was commissioned an ensign in the army. In 1813, he was promoted to a captaincy, in which capacity he served until the close of the war with honor. He was in the hard-fought battle of Bridgewater, and at the sortie of Fort Erie, where with his command he captured a battery, and personally spiked the cannon. At the close of the war he retired from the army, and for about three years was engaged in furnishing supplies to the troops stationed on the Upper Mississippi. After this, he resided for a number of years at Newport, Ky., and devoted himself to philosophical researches connected with his favorite theory. In a short circular, dated at St. Louis, in 1818, Capt. Symmes first promulgated the fundamental principles of his theory to the world. From time to time, he published various articles in the public prints upon the subject. He also delivered lectures, first at Cincinnati in 1820, and afterwards in various places in Kentucky and Ohio. "In the year 1822, Capt. Symmes petitioned the Congress of the United States, setting forth, in the first place, his belief of the existence of a habitable and accessible concave to this globe; his desire to embark on a voyage of discovery to one or other of the polar regions; his belief in the great profit and honor his country would derive from such a discovery; and prayed that Congress would equip and fit out for the expedition, two vessels of two hundred and fifty, or three hundred, tons burthen; and grant such other aid as government might deem necessary to promote the object. This petition was presented in the Senate by Col. Richard M. Johnson, a member from Kentucky, on the 7th day of March, 1822, when, (a motion to refer it to the committee of Foreign Relations having failed,) after a few remarks it was laid on the table.-Ayes, 25. In December, 1823, he forwarded similar petitions to both houses of Congress, which met with a similar fate. In January, 1824, he petitioned the General Assembly of the state of Ohio, praying that body to pass a resolution approbatory of his theory; and to recommend himn to Congress for an outfit suitable to the enterprise. This memorial was presented by Micajah T. Williams; and, on motion, the further consideration thereof was indefinitely postponed." His theory was met with ridicule, both in this country and Europe, and became a fruitful source of jest and levity,,to the public prints of the day. Notwithstanding, he advanced many plausi ble and ingenious arguments, and . won quite a number of converts among those who attended his lec tures, one of whom, a gentleman now residing at Hamilton, wrote a work in its support, published in Cincinnati in 1826, in which he states .'"'a!~.his readiness to embark on a voy -..~.'.__.age of discovery, for the purpose of testing its truth. Captain Symmes met with the usual fate of projec tors, in living and dying in great pecuniary embarrassment. In per son, he was of the medium stature J. C. Symme' Monument. and simple in his manners. He bore the character of an honest, exemplary man, and was respected 77

Page  78 BUTLER COUNTY. by all his associates. He was buried at Hamilton. Tne monument represented by the cut, has been built, but is not yet placed over his remains. It is surmounted by a globe, "open at the poles." MR. JOHN REILY, of this county, is one of the five members living of the convention which framed the Constitution of Ohio. His friend, Judge Burnet, in his late work, has given an eloquent tribute to his character and services. Middletown is 12 miles NE. of Hamilton, and 20 below Dayton, in a rich and beautiful country. The Miami canal runs east of the central part of the town, and the Miami river bounds it on the west. Lebanon Street, liiddletown. It is connected with Dayton and Cincinnati, and with West Alexandria, in Preble county, by turnpikes. The Warren county canal enters the main canal at this town. Two or three miles above, a dam is thrown across the Miami, from which a connecting feeder supplies the Miami canal. This work furnishes much water power, which, with a little expense, can be increased and used to great advantage. There are within three miles of Middletown, 8 flourming mills on the river and canal. Middletown was laid out in 1802, by Stephen Vail and James Sutton. Calvin Morrell, James Brady, Cyrus Osbourn, Daniel Doty, Elisha Wade and Richard Watts were among its early settlers. It contains 1IPresbyterian, 1 Bapl)tist, and 1 Methodist church, a classical academy, 16 mercantile stores, 2 forwarding houses, 1 grist mill and 1 woolen factory, and in 1840, had 809 inhabitants. The view of Lebanon street, was taken at its intersection with Broadway. Liebee's block is shown on the right, Deardorf's mill and the bridge over the Miami partly appear in the distance. In the northwest corner of the county, 12 miles from Hamilton, on a high and beautiful elevation, is the handsome town of Oxford, the seat of the Miami University. It contains 9 mercantile stores, 1 woolen factory, 2 Presbyterian, 1 Associate Reformed, and 1 Methodist church, and in 1840, had 1179 inhabitants. The Associate church have established a theological school here, under the care of the Rev. Dr. Claybaugh; it is yet in its infancy, promises well, and has a valuable collection of books. I 78

Page  79 CARROL COUNTY. The Miami University buildings are in the east part of the town, in a large enclosure of fifty acres, part of which is in the llliami University at Oxford. original forest, and the remainder covered with a green sward, and ornamented with scattering shade trees. Including the preparatory department, there are about 150 students in the institution, which is under the charge of a President-the Rev. E. D. MacMaster-and 4 professors, beside the principal of the preparatory department. "The course of studies are not less extensive than those of the best colleges in the Union, and its faculty are earnestly endeavoring to establish the institution on a solid foundation." It was chartered in 1809, by the legislature of Ohio, and a township of land given by Congress for its support. The University was not regularly opened for the reception of students, until Nov. 15th, 1824. From that period until 1841, it had 308 graduates. Somerville, 14 miles NNW. from Hamilton, had in 1840, 318 inhabitants; Millville, 7 w. from Hamilton, Monroe, 12 NE., Chester, 10 SE., and Darrtown, 10 Nw., had each about 200 inhabitants. Jacksonburg, Miltonville, Reily and Trenton are also small villages. In this county are numerous ancient works, mounds, fortifications, &e. CARROL. CARROL was formed in the session of 1832-3, from Columbiana, Stark, Tuscarawas, Harrison and Jefferson, and named from Chas. Carrol, of Carrolton, Md., the last survivor of the signers of the Declaration of American Independence. The surface is hilly, and the staples are wheat, oats and corn; coal and iron abound. The population mainly originated from Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland, with some Germans and Irish. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. 79

Page  80 CHAMPAIGN COUNTY. Harrison, 1308 Perry, 1344 Lee, 1372 Ross, 1593 Loudon, 966 Union, 889 Monroe, 1060 Washington, 1014 Orange, 1528 Carrol in 1840, was 18,108, or 45 inhabitants Augusta, 1234 Brown, 2165 Centre. 1139 East, 995 Fox, 1491 The population of to a square mile. View in Carrolton. Carrolton, the county seat, is 125 miles ENE. from Columrnbus. It was originally called Centreton, but on the organization of the county, changed to its present name. It is rather compactly built, with a public square in the centre-shown in the above view-on which stand the county buildings. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Lutheran, 1 Methodist Episcopal, and 1 Associate Reformed church, 6 mercantile stores. 2 printing offices, and 800 inhabitants. Leesburg, 12 miles sw. of Carrolton, has 2 churches, 3 stores, and about 60 dwellings. It is on One Leg, a stream so named from a one legged Indian who anciently dwelt upon its margin. The Indian name of this water course is the "Kannoten." The "Dining Fork of the Kannoten" derived its appellation, from the first explorers in this region dining upon its banks. Hagerstown, 1 miles east of Leesburg, is a somewhat smaller village, having a church, 3 stores, and a classical academy. New Harrisburg, Malvern, Magnolia, Pekin, Augusta, Norristown, Lodi, Minerva, Mechanicstown and Harlem, are small places; at the last of which is a chalybeate spring, said to possess excellent medicinal qualities. CHAMPAIGN. CHAMPAIGN was formed from Greene and Franklin, March 1st, 1805, and the temporary seat of justice fixed in Springfield, at the 80

Page  81 CHAMPAIGN COUNTY. house of George Fithian: it derived its name from the character of its surface. About half of it is level or slightly undulating, one quarter rolling, one fifth rather hilly, and about five per cent. wet prairie, and best adapted for grazing. The county is drained by Mad river and its tributaries. The stream flows through a beautiful country, and with its tributaries furnishes extensive mill privileges. The soil is generally rich, and the principal crops are wheat, corn, oats, barley and hay: wool and beef cattle are also important staples. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Adams, 970 Jackson, 1431 Salem, 1462 Concord, 935 Johnson, 1213 Union, 1249 Goshen, 1406 Mad River, 1894 Urbana, 2456 Harrison, 790 Rush, 1226 Wayne, 1300 The population of Champaign in 1820, was 8,479; in 1830, 12,137; and in 1840, 16,720, or 44 inhabitants to a square mile. Urbana, the county seat, is 42 miles WNW. from Columbus. It was laid out in 1805, by Col. Wm. Ward, originally from Greenbriar, Va. He was proprietor of the soil, and gave a large number of the lots to the county, with the provision that their sales should be appropriated for public objects. He also named the place, from the word urbanity. The two first settlers were the clerk of the court, Joseph C. Vance, father of Ex-Gov. Vance, and George Fithian, who opened the first tavern in a cabin, now forming a part of the dwelling of Wm. Thomas, on South Main street. Samuel M'Cord opened the first store, in the same cabin, in March, 1806, and built, the same year, the first shingled house, now the store of Wm. & Duncan M'Donald. In 1807, a temporary court house was erected, now the residence of Duncan M'Donald. A brick court house was subsequently built on the public square, which stood many years, and then gave place to the present substantial and handsome building. In 1807, the Methodists-those religious pioneers-built the first church, a log structure, which stood in the northeast part of the town, on the lot on which Mr. Ganson resides. Some years later, this denomination erected a brick church, now devoted to the manufacture of carriages and wagons by Mr. Childs, in the central part of the town. The first settlers in the village were Joseph C. Vance, Thos. and Ed. W. Pearce, George Fithian, Samuel M'Cord, Zeph. Luse, Benj. Doolittle, Geo. and Andrew Ward, Wm. H. Fyffe, Wm. and John Glenn, Fred. Ambrose, John Reynolds and Samuel Gibbs. Of those living in the county at that time, our informant recollects the names of Jacob Minturn, Henry and Jacob Vanmetre, Nathaniel Cartmell, Justice Jones, Felix Rock, Thomas Anderson, Abner Barret, Thomas Pearce, Benj. and Wm. Cheney, Matthew and Chas. Stuart, Parker Sullivan, John Logan, John Thomas, John Runyon, John Lafferty, John Owens, John Taylor, John Guttridge, John Cartmell, John Dawson, John Pence, Jonathan Long, Bennet Taber, Nathan Fitch, Robt. Nowce, Jacob Pence and Arthur Thomas. 11' S1

Page  82 CHAMPAIGN COUNTIY. The last named, Capt. Arthur Thomas, lived on King's creek, three miles from Urbana. He was ordered, in the war of 1812, with his company, to guard the public stores at Fort Findlay. On his return, DL;~~~~ _ uolzc Square, uroana. himself and son lost their horses, and separated from the rest of the company to hunt for them. They encamped at the Big Spring, near Solomonstown, about 5 miles north of Bellfontaine, and the next morning were found killed and scalped. Their bodies were brought into Urbana, by a deputation of citizens. On the 4th of July, two months previous to this event, "The Watch Tower," the first newspaper in the county was commenced at Urbana; its publishers were Corwin & Blackburn. Urbana was a point where the main army of Hull concentrated, ere leaving for Detroit. They encamped in the eastern part of the town, on the home-lot of Judge Elisha C. Berry. In the last war it was a general rendezvous for troops, before starting for the north. They encamped in various parts of the town. Quite a number of sick and disabled soldiers were sent here, some of whom died: the old court house was used as a hospital. The celebrated Simon Kenton was here at an early day. Judge Burnet in his letters, states, that when the troops were stationed at Urbana, a mutinous plan was formed by part of them to attack and destroy a settlement of friendly Indians, who had removed with their families within the settlement under assurance of protection. Kenton remonstrated against the measure, as being not only mutinous, but treacherous and cowardly. He contrasted his knowledge and experience of the Indian character with their ignorance of it. He vindicated them against the charge of treachery, which was alledged as a justification of the act they were about to perpetrate, and reminded them of the infamy they would incur by destroying a defenceless band of men, wo/len and children, who had placed themselves in their power, relying on a solemn promise of protection. He appealed to their humanity, their honor and their duty as soldiers. Having exhausted all the means of persuasion in his power, and finding them resolved to execute their purpose, he took a rifle and declared with great firmness that he would accompany them to the Indian encampment, and shoot down the first man who dared to molest them; that if they entered his camp they should do it by passing over his corpse. Knowing that the old veteran would redeem his pledge, they abandoned their purpose, and the poor Indians were saved. Though he was as brave as Cesar, and reckless of danger when it was his duty to expose his per 82

Page  83 CHAMPAIGN COUNTY. son; yet he was mild, eveni tempered, and had a heart that could bleed at the distresses ot others. There were several Indian councils in Urbana, at an early day, which were usually held in a grove near the burying ground: distinguished Shawnee and iWyandot chiefs were generally present. Betbfore the settlement of the town, in the spring of 1795, Tecumseh was established on Deer creek, near the site of Urbana, where he engaged in his favorite amusement of hunting, and remained until the succeeding spring. His biographer gives some anecdotes of him, which occurred within the present limits of the county. While residing on D)eer creek, an incident occurred, which greatly enhanced his reputationI as a hunter. One of his brothers, and several other Shawanoes of his own age, propcsed to bet with him, that they could each kill as many deer, in the space of three days, as he could. Tecumseh promptly accepted the overture. The parties took to the woods, and at the end of the stipulated time, returned with the evidences of their success. None of the party, except Tecumseh, had more than twelve deer skins; he brought in upwards of thirty-near three times as many as any of his competitors. From this time he was generally conceded to be the greatest hunter in the Shawanoe nation. In 1799, there was a council held about six miles north of the place where Urbana now stands, between the Indians and some of the principal settlers on Mad river, for the adjustment of difficulties which had grown up between these parties. Tecumseh, with other Shawanoe chiefs, attended this council. He appears to have been the most conspicuous orator of the conference, and made a speech on the occasion, which was much admired for its force and eloquence. The interpreter, Dechouset, said that he found it very difficult to translate the lofty flights of Tecumseh, although he was as well acquainted with the Shawanoe language, as with the French, which was his mother tongue. Some time during the year 1803, a stout Kentuckian came to Ohio, for the purpose of exploring the lands on Mad river, and lodged one night at the house of Capt. Abner Barrett, residing on the head waters of Buck creek. In the course of the evening, he learned, with apparent alarm, that there were some Indians encamped within a short distance of the house. Shortly after hearing this unwelcome intelligence, the door of Captain Barrett's dwelling was suddenly opened, and Tecumseh entered with his usual stately air: he paused in silence, and looked around, until at length his eye was fixed upon the stranger, who was manifesting symptoms of alarm, and did not venture to look the stern savage in the face. Tecumseh turned to his host, and pointing to the agitated Kentuckian, exclaimed, "a big baby! a big baby!" He then stepped up to him, and gently slapping him on the shoulder several times, repeated, with a contemptuous manner, the phrase," big baby! big baby." to the great alarm of the astonished man, and to the amusement of all present. On the 22d of March, 1830, a severe tornado, proceeding from the sw. to the NE., passed over the northern part of Urbana. It demolished the Presbyterian church and several dwellings, and materially injured the Methodist church. Two or three children were carried high in air, and killed; boards, books and various fragments were conveyed many miles. Urbana is a beautiful town, and has, in its outskirts, some elegant private residences. The engraving is a view in its central part, taken from near Reynold's store. The court house and Methodist church are seen in the distance. The building on the left, now occupied as a store by Wm. M'Donald, was, in the late war, Doo little's tavern, the head quarters of Governor Meigs. The one in front, with the date "1811," upon it, and now the store of D. & T. M'Gwynne, was then a commissaries office, and the building where Col. Richard M. Johnson was brought wounded from the battle of the Thames, and in which he remained several days, under a surgeon's care. Urbana contains 1 Associate Reformed, 1 Presbyterian, 83

Page  84 CLARKE COUNTY. 1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist church, 2 newspaper printing offices, 1 woollen factory, 1 foundery, 2 machine shops and 20 mercantile stores. In 1840, Urbana had 1070 inhabitants, which is far below its present population. Mechanicsburg, 10 miles E. of Urbana, on the Columbus road and head waters of Little Darby, is a flourishing village, containing 5 or 6 stores, 2 churches, 1 saw and 2 flour mills, a woollen factory, and had, in 1840, 258 inhabitants. Addison, 16 sw., St. Paris, 10 w., Westville, 4 w. of Urbana, and Woodstock and Lewisburg, in the NE. part of the county, are villages containing each from 36 to 60 dwellings. Middletown, Carysville, Millerstown, Middleburp and Texas are small places. CLARK. CLARK. was formed March 1, 1817, from Champaign, Madison and Greene, and named in honor of Gen. George Rogers Clarke. The first settlement in Clarke, was at Chribb's station, in the forks of Mad river, in the spring of 1796. The inhabitants of Moorefield, Pleasant, Madison, German and Pike are principally of Virginia extraction; Mad river, of New Jersey; Harmony, of New England and English; and Greene, of Pennsylvania origin. This county is very fertile and highly cultivated, and is well watered by Mad river, Buck and Beaver creeks, and their tributaries, which furnish a large amount of water power. Its principal products are wheat, corn and oats. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Bethel, 2033 Madison, 1115 Pike, 1437 German, 1667 Mad river, 1339 Pleasant, 1092 Greene, 1059 Moorefield, 1073 Springfield, 4443 Harmony, 1645 The population of the county, in 1820, was 9,553; in 1830, 13,074, and in 1840, 16,882, or 43 inhabitants to a square mile. The old Indian town of Piqua, the ancient Piqua of the Shawnees, and the birth place of TECUMSEH, was situated on the north side of Mad river, about five miles west of Springfield, and occupied the site on which a small town, called West Boston, has since been built. Drake'e life of Tecumseh, says. The principal part of Piqua stood upon a plain, rising fifteen or twenty feet above the river. On the south, between the village and head river, there was an extensive prairieon the northeast, some bold cliffs, terminating near the river-on the west and northwest, level timbered land; while on the opposite side of the stream, another prairie, of varying width, stretched back to the high grounds. The river sweeping by in a graceful bendthe precipitous, rocky cliffs-the undulating hills, with their towering trees-the prairies, garnished with tall grass and brilliant flowers-combined to render the situation of Piqua both beautiful and picturesque. At the period of its destruction, Piqua was quite populous. There was a rude log hut within its limits, surrounded by pickets. It was, however, sacked 84

Page  85 CLARKE COUNTY. and burnt on the 8th of August, by an army of one thousand men, from Kentucky, after a severe and well-conducted battle with the Indians who inhabited it. All the improvements of the Indians, including more than two hundred acres of corn and other vegetables then growing in their fields, were laid waste anid destroyed. The town was never after re-built by the Shawnees. Its inhabitants removed to the Great Miami river, and erected another town, which they called Piqua, after the one that had just been destroyed; and in defence of which they had fought with the skill and valor characteristic of their nation. The account appended of the destruction of Piqua by General George Rogers Clarke, was published twenty years since, in Bradford's notes on Kentucky. On the 2d of August, 1780, Gen. Clarke took up the line of march from where Cincinnati now stands, for the Indian towns. The line of march was as follows:-the first division, commanded by Clarke, took the front position; the centre was occupied by artillery, military stores and baggage; the second, commanded by Col. Logan, was placed in the rear. The men were ordered to march in four lines, at about forty yards distant from each other, and a line of flankers on each side, about the same distance from the right and left line. There was also a front and a rear guard, who only kept in sight of the main army. In order to prevent confusion, in case of ani attack of the enemy, on the march of the army, a general order was issued, that in the event of an attack in front, the front was to stand fast, and the two right lines to wheel to the right, and the two left hand lines to the left, and form a complete line, while the artillery was to advance forwards to the centre of the line. In case of an attack on either of the flanks or side lines, these lines were to stand fast, and likewise the artillery, while the opposite lines wheeled and formed on the two extremes of those lines. In the event of an attack being made on the rear, similar order was to be observed as in an attack in front. In this manner, the army moved on without encountering any thing worthy of notice until they arrived at Chillicothe, (situated on the little Miami river, in Greene county,) about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, on the 6th day of August. They found the town not only abandoned, but most of the houses burnt down and burning, having been set on fire that morning. The army encamped on the ground that night, and onl the following day cut down several hundred acres of corn; and about 4 o'clock in the evening, took up their line of march for the Piqua towns, which were about twelve miles from Chillicothe, [in Clarke county.] They had not marched more than a mile from Chillicothe, before there came on a very heavy rain, with thunder and lightning and considerable wind. Without tents or any other shelter from the rain, which fell in torrents, the men were as wet as if they had been plunged into the river, nor had they it in their power to keep their guns dry. It was nearly dark before the rain ceased, when they were ordered to encamp in a hollow square, with the baggage and horses in the centre-and as soon as:ires could be made, to dry their clothes, &c. They were ordered to examine their guns, and be sure they were in good order, to discharge them in the following manner. One company was to fire, and time given to re-load, when a company at the most remote part of the camp from that which had fired, was to discharge theirs, and so on alternately, until all the guns were fired. On the morning of the 8th, the army marched by sunrise, and having a level, open way, arrived in sight of Piqua, situated on the west side of the Mad river, about 2 o'clock, P. M. The Indian road from Chillicothe to Piqua, which the army followed, crossed the Mad river about a quarter of a mile below the town, and as soon as the advanced guard crossed into a prairie of high weeds, they were attacked by the Indians, who had concealed themselves in the weeds. The ground on which this attack, as well as the manner in which it was done, left no doubt but that a general engagement was intended. Col. Logan was therefore ordered, with about four hundred men, to file off to the right, and march up the river on the east side, and to continue to the upper end of the town, so as to prevent the Indians from escaping in that direction, while the remainder of the men, under Cols. Lynn, Floyd and Harrod, were ordered to cross the river and encompass the town on the west side, while Gen. Clarke, with the troops under Col. Shaughter, and such as were attached to the attillery, marched directly towards the town. The prairie in which the Indians were concealed, who commenced the attack, was only about two hundred yards across to the timbered land, and the division of the army destined to encompass the town on the west side, found it necessary to cross the prairie, to avoid the fire of a concealed enemy. The Indians evinced great military skill and judgment, and to prevent the westemrn division from executing the duties assigned them, they made a powerful effort to turn their left wing. This was discovered by Lloyd and Flynn, and to prevent being outflanked, 85

Page  86 CLARKE COUNTY. extended the line of battle west, more than a mile from the town, and whith continued warmly contested on both sides until about 5 o'clock, when the Indians disappeared every where unperceived, except a few in the town. The field piece, which had been entirely useless before, was now brought to bear upon the houses, when a few shot dislodged the Indians which were in them. A nephew of Gen. Clarke, who had been many years a prisoner among the Indians, and who attempted to come to the whites just before the close of the action, was supposed to be an Indian, and received a mortal wound; but he lived several hours after he arrived among them. The morning after the battle, a Frenchman, who had been taken by the Indians a short time before, on the Wabash, and who had stolen away from them during the action, was found in the loft of one of the Indian cabins. He gave the information, that the Indians did not expect that the Kentuckians would reach their town on that day, and if they did not, it was their intention to have attacked them in the night, ill their camp, with the tomahawk and knife, and not to fire a gun. They had intended to have made an attack the night before, but were prevented by the rain, and also the vigilance evinced by the Kentuckians, in firing off their guns and re-loading them, the reasons for which they com prehended, when they heard the firing. Another circumstance showed that the Indians were disappointed in the time of their arriving; they had not dined. When the men got into the town, they found a considerable quantity of provisions ready cooked, in large kettles and other vessels, almost untouched. The loss on each side was about equal-each having about 20 killed. The Piqua town was built in the manner of the French villages. It. extended along the margin of the river for more than three miles; the houses, in many places, were more than twenty poles apart. Col. Logan, therefore, in order to surround the town on the east, as was his orders, marched fully three miles, while the Indians turned their whole force against those on the opposite side of the town; and Logan's party never saw an Indian during the whole action. The action was so severe a short time before the close, that Simon Girty, a white man, who had joined the Indians, and who was made a chief among the Mingoes, drew off three hundred of his men, declaring to them, it was folly in the extreme to continue the action against men who acted so much like madmen, as General Clarke's men, for they rushed in the extreme of danger, with a seeming disregard of the consequences. This opinion of Girty,. and the withdrawal of the three hundred Mingoes, so disconcerted the rest, that the whole body soon after dispersed. It is a maxim among the Indians, never to encounter a fool or a madman, (in which terms they include a desperate man,) for they say, with a man who has not sense enough to take a prudent care of his own life, the life of his antagonist is in much greater danger than with a prudent man. It was estimated that at the two Indian towns, Chillicothe and Piqua, more than five hundred acres of corn was destroyed, as well as every species of eatable vegetables. In consequence of this, the Indians were obliged, for the support of their women and children, to employ their whole time in hunting, which gave quiet to Kentucky for a considerable time. The day after the battle, the 9th, was occupied in cutting down the growing corn, and destroying the cabins and fort, &c., and collecting horses. On the 10th of August, the army began their march homeward, and encamped in Chillicothe that night, and on the 11th, cut a field of corn, which had been left for the benefit of the men and horses, on their return. At the mouth of the Licking, the army dispersed, and each individual made his best way horne. Thus ended a campaign, in which most of the men had no other provisions for twentyfive days, than six quarts of Indian corn each, except the green corn and vegetables found at the Indian towns, and one gill of salt; and yet not a single complaint was heard to escape the lips of a solitary individual. All appeared to be impressed with the belief, that if this army should be defeated, that few would be able to escape, and that the Indians then would fall on the defenceless women and children in Kentucky, and destroy the whole. From this view of the subject, every man was determined to conquer or die. The late Abraham Thomas, of Miami county, was in this campaign against Piqua. His reminiscences, published in 1839, in the Troy Times, give some interesting facts omitted in the preceding. It also differs, in some respects, from the other, and is probably the most accurate. 86

Page  87 CLARKE COUNTY. In the summer of 1780, Gen. Clarke was getting up an expedition, with the object of destroying some Indian villages on Mad river. One division of the expedition, under Col. Logan, was to approach the Ohio by the way of Licking river; the other, to which I was attached, ascended the Ohio from the falls in boats, with provisions and a six-pound cannon. The plan of the expedition was for the two divisions to meet at a point ill the Indian country, opposite the. miouth of Licking, and thence march in a body to the interior. In ascending the Ohio, Daniel Boone and myself acted as spies on the Kentucky side of the river, and a large party, on the Indian side, was on the same duty; the latter were surprised by the Indians, and several killed and wounded. It was then a toilsome task to get the boats up the river, under constant expectation of attacks from the savages, and we were much rejoiced in making our destination. Before the boats crossed over to the Indian side, Boone and myself were taken into the foremost boat, and landed above a small cut in the bank, opposite the mouth of Licking. We were desired to spy through the woods for Indian signs. I was much younger than Boone, ran up the bank in great glee, and cut into a beech tree with my tomahawk, which I verily believe was the first tree cut into by a white man, on the present site of Cincinnati. We were soon joined by other rangers, and hunted over the other bottom: the forest every where was thick set with heavy beech and scattering underbrush of spice-wood and pawpaw. We started several deer, but seeing no sign of Indians, returned to the landing. By this time the men had all landed, and were busy in cutting timber for stockades and cabins. The division, under Col. Logan, shortly crossed over from the mouth of Licking, and after erecting a stockade, fort and cabin, for a small garrison and stores, the army started for Mad river. Our way lay over the uplands of an untracked, primitive forest, through which, with great labor, we cut and bridged a road for the accommodation of our pack horses and cannon. My duty, in the march, was to spy some two miles in advance of the main body. Our progress was slow, but the weather was pleasant, the country abounded in game; and we saw no Indians, that I recollect, until we approached the waters of Mad river. In the campaigns of these days, none but the officers thought of tents-each man had to provide for his own comfort. Our meat was cooked upon sticks set up before the fire; our beds were sought upon the ground, and he was the most fortunate man, that could gather small branches, leaves and bark to shield him from the ground, in moist places. After the lapse of so many years, it is difficult to recollect the details or dates, so as to mark the precise time or duration of our movements. But in gaining the open country of Mad river, we came in sight of the Indian villages. We had been kept all the night before on the march, and pushed rapidly towards the points of attack, and surprised three hundred Indian warriors, that had collected at the town, with the view of surprising and attacking us the next morning. At this place, a stockade fort had been reared near the village, on the side we were approaching it, but the Ildians feared to enter it, and took post in their houses. The village was situated oni a low prairie bottom of Mad river, between these cond bank and a bushy swamp piece of ground, on the margin of the river: it could be approached only from three points. The one our troops occupied, and from up and down the river. Gen. Clarke detached two divisions to secure the two last named points, while he extended his line to cover the first. By this arrangement, the whole body of Indians would have been surrounded and captured, but Col. Logan, who had charge of the lower division, became entangled in the swamp, and did not reach his assigned position before the attack commenced. The party I had joined was about entering the town, with great impetuosity, when Gen. Clarke sent orders for us to stop, as the Indians were making port holes in their cabins, and we should be in great danger, but added, he would soon make port holes for us both; on that, he brought his six-pounder to bear on the village, and a discharge of grape shot scattered the materials of their frail dwellings in every direction. The Indians poured out of their cabins in great consternation, while our party, and those on the bank, rushed into the village, took possession of all the squaws and papooses, and killed a great many warriors, but most of them at the lower part of the bottom. In this skirmish, a nephew of Gen. Clarke, who had some time before run away from the Monongahela settlements, and joined the Indians, was severely wounded. He was a great reprobate, and, as said, was to have led the Indians in the next morning's attack; before he expired, he asked forgiveness of his uncle and countrymen. During the day, the village was burned, the growing corn cut down; and the next morning we took up the line of march for the Ohio. This was a bloodless victory to our expedition, and the return march was attended with no unpleasant occurrence, save a great scarcity of provisions. On reaching the fort, on the Ohio, a party of us immediately crossed the river for our homes, for which we felt an extreme anxiety. We depended chiefly on our rifles for sustenance; but game not being within reach, without giving to it more time than our anxiety and rapid progress permitted, 87

Page  88 CLARKE COUNTY. we tried every expedient to hasten our journey without nunting, even to boiling green plums and nettles. These, at first, under sharp appetites, were quite palatable, but soon became bitter and offensive. At last, in traversing the head waters of Licking, we espied several buffalo, directly in our track. We killed one, which supplied us bountifully with meat until we reached our homes. View at Piqua, the birth-place of Tecumseh. The view given was taken near the residence of Mr. John Keifer. The hill, shown on the left in the engraving, was the one upon which stood the fort, previously mentioned. About twenty-five years since, when the hill was first cleared and cultivated by Mr. Keifer, ch-arred stumps were found around its edge, indicating the line of the stockade, which included a space of about two acres; the plow of Mr. Keifer brought up various relics, as skeletons, beads, gunbarrels, tomahawks, camp kettles, &c. Other relics led to the supposition that there was a store of a French trader destroyed at the time of the action at the south-western base of the hill. When the country was first settled, there were two white oak trees in the villag,e of Boston, which had been shot off some fifteen or twenty feet firom the ground, by the cannon balls of Clarke; their tops showed plainly the curved lines of the balls, around which they had sprouted bush-like; these trees were felled many years since by the Bostonians for fuel. There is a tradition here, that during the action, the Indians secreted their squaws and children in "the cliffs" about a mile up the stream from the fort. The village of Boston, we will observe in digression, was once the competitor with Springfield for the county seat; it never had but a few houses, and now has three or four only: one of them is shown on the right of the view, beyond which, a few rods only, is Mad river. We subjoin a sketch of the life of Tecumseh, derived from Drake's memoir of this celebrated chief: Puckeshinwa, the father of Tecumseh, was a member of the Kiscopoke, and Methoataske, the mother, of the Turtle tribe of the Shawanoe nation; they removed from Florida to Ohio abotf the middle of the last century. The father rose to the rank of a chief, and fell at the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774. After his death, his wife returned to the south, where she died, at an advanced age. Tecumseh was born at Piqua, about the year 1768, and like Napoleon, in his boyish pastimes, showed a passion for war; he was the acknowledged leader among his companions, by whom he was loved and respected, and over whom he exercised an unbounded influence; it is stated that the first battle in which he was, occurred on the site of Dayton, between a party of Kentuckians under Col. 88

Page  89 CLARKE COUNTY. Benjamin Logan, and some Shawanoes. When about 17 years of age, he manifested signal prowess, in an attack on some boats on the Ohio, near Limestone, Ky. The boats were all captured, and all in them killed, except one person, who was burnt alive. Tecuinseh was a silent spectator, never having before'witnessed the burning of a prisoner; after it was over, he expressed his strong abhorrence of the act, and by his eloquence persuaded his party never to burn any more prisoners. From this time his reputation as a brave, and his influence over other minds, increased, and he rose rapidly in popularity among his tribe; he was in several actions with the whites prior to Wayne's treaty, among which was the attack on Fort Recovery, and the battle of the Fallen Timbers. In the summer of 1795, Tecumseh became a chief; from the spring of this year until that of 1796, he resided on Deer Creek, near the site of Urbana, and from whence he removed to the vicinity of Piqua, on the Great Miami. In 1798, he accepted the invitation of the Delawares, then residing in part on White river, Indiana, to remove to that neighborhood with his followers. He continued in that vicinity a number of years, and gradually extended his influence among the Indians. In 1805, through the influence of Laulewasikaw, the brother of Tecumseh, a large number of Shawanoes established themselves at Greenville. Very soon after, Laulewasikaw assumed the office of a prophet; and forthwith commenced that career of cunning and pretended sorcery, which enabled him to sway the Indian mind in a wonderful degr ee. Throughout the year 1806, the brothers remained at Greenville, and were visited by many Indians from different tribes, not a few of whom became their followers. The Prophet dreamed many wonderful dreams, and claimed to have had many supernatural revelations made to him; the great eclipse of the sun which occurred in the summer of this year, a knowledge of which he had by some means attained, enabled him to carry conviction to the minds of many of his ignorant followers, that he was really the earthly agent of the Great Spirit. He boldly announced to the unbelievers, that on a certain day, he would give them proof of his supernatural powers, by bringing darkness over the sun when the day and hour of the eclipse arrived, and the earth, even at mid-day, was shrouded in the gloom of twilight, the Prophet, standing in the midst of his party, significantly pointed to the heavens, and cried out, did I not prophecy truly? Behold! darkness has shrouded the sun!" It may readily be supposed that this striking phenomenon, thus adroitly used, produced a strong impression on the Indians, and greatly increased their belief in the sacred character of their Prophet. The alarm caused by the assembling of the Indians still continuing, Gov. Harrison, in the autumn of 1807, sent to the head chiefs of the Shawanoe tribe, an address, in which he exhorted them to send away the people at Greenville, whose conduct was foreshadowing evil to the whites. To the appeal of the governor, the prophet made a cunning and evasive answer; it made no change in the measures of this artful man, nor did it arrest the spread of fanaticism among the Indians, which his incantations had produced. In the spring of 1808, Tecumseh and the prophet removed to a tract of land on the Tippecanoe, a tributary of the Wabash, where the latter continued his efforts to induce the Indians to forsake their vicious habits, while Tecumseh was visiting the neighboring tribes and quietly strengthening his own and the prophet's influence over them. The events of the early part of the year 1810, were such as to leave but little doubt of the hostile intentions of the brothers 12 89

Page  90 CLARKE COUNTY the Prophet was apparently the most prominent actor, while Tecum seh was in reality the main spring of all the movements, backed, it is supposed, by the insidious influence of British agents, who sup plied the Indians gratis with powder and ball, in anticipation, per haps, of hostilities between the two countries, in which event an union of all the tribes against the Americans was desirable. By various acts the feelings of Tecumseh became more and more evi dent; in August, he having visited Vincennes to see the governor, a council was held, at which, and a subsequent interview, the real position of affairs was ascertained. Governor Harrison had made arrangements for holding the council on the portico of his own house, which had been fitted up with seats for the occasion. Here, on the morn ing of the fifteenth, he awaited the arrival of the chief, being attended by the Judges of the Supreme Court, some officers of the army, a sergeant and twelve men, from Fort Knox, and a large number of citizens. At the appointed hour, Tecumseh, supported by forty of his principal warriors, made his appearance, the remainder of his followers being encamped in the village and its environs. When the chief had approached within thirty or forty yards of the house, he suddenly stopped, as if awaiting some advances from the governor; an interpreter was sent, requesting him and his followers to take seats on the portico. To this Tecumseh objected-he did not think the place a suitable one for holding the conference, but preferred that it should take place in a grove of trees-to which he pointed-standing a short distance from the house. The governor said he had no objec tion to the grove, except that there were no seats in it for their accommodation. Tecum seh replied, that constituted no objection to the grove, the earth being the most suitable place for the Indians, who loved to repose upon the bosom of their mother. The governor yielded the point, and the benches and chairs having been removed to the spot, the confer ence was begun, the Indians being seated on the grass. Tecumsch opened the meeting by stating, at length, his objections to the treaty of Fort Wayne, made by Governor Harrison, in the previous year; and in the course of his speech boldly avowed the principle of his party to be that of resistance to every cession of land, unless made by all the tribes, who, he contended, formed but one nation. He admitted that he had threatened to kill the chiefs who signed the treaty of Fort Wayne, and that it was his fixed determination not to permit the village chiefs, in future, to manage their af fairs, but to place the power with which they had been heretofore invested, in the hands ol the war chiefs. The Americans, he said, had driven the Indians from the sea-coast, and would soon push them into the lakes; and, while he disclaimed all intention of making war upon the United States, he declared it to be his unalterable resolution to take a stand, and resolutely oppose the further intrusion of the whites upon the Indian lands. He concluded, by making a brief but impassioned recital of the various wrongs and aggressions inflicted by the white men upon the Indians, from the commencement of the revolutionary war down to the period of that council; all of which was calculated to arouse and inflame the minds of such of his followers as were present. The governor rose in reply, and in examining the right of Tecumseh and his party to make objections to the treaty of Fort Wayne, took occasion to say that the Indians were not one nation, having a common property in the lands. The Miamis, he contended, were the real owners of the tract on the Wabash, ceded by the late treaty, and the Shawanoes had no right to interfere in the case; that upon the arrival of the whites on this continent, they had found the Miamis in possession of this land, the Shawanoes being then residents of Georgia, from which they had been driven by the Creeks, and that it was ridiculous to assert that the red men constituted but one nation; for, if such had been the intention of the Great Spirit, he would not have put different tongues in their heads, but have taught them all to speak the same language. The governor having taken his seat, the interpreter commenced explaining the speech to Tecumseh, who, after listening to a portion of it, sprung to his feet and began to speak with great vehemence of manner. The governor was surprised at his violent gestures, but as he did not understand him, thought he was making some explanation, and suffered his attention to be drawn towards Winnemac, a friendly Indian lying on the grass before him, who was renewing the priming of his pistol, which he had kept concealed from the other Indians, but in full view of the governor. His attention, however, was again directed towards Tecumseh, by hearing 90

Page  91 CLARKE COUNTY. General Gibson, who was intimately acquainted with the Shawanoe language, say to lieutenant Jennings, "those fellows intend mischief; you had better bring up the guard." At that moment, the followers of Tecumseh seized their tomahaws and war clubs, and sprung upon their feet, their eyes turned upon the governor. As soon as he could disengage himself from the armed chair in which he sat, he rose, drew a small sword which he had by his side, and stood on the defensive. Captain G. R. Floyd, of the army, who stood near him, drew a dirk, and the chief Winnemac cocked his pistol. The citizens present were more numerous than the Indians, but were unarmed; some of them procured clubs and brick-bats, and also stood onD. the defensive. The Rev. Mr. Winans, of the Methodist church, ran to the governor's house, got a gun, and posted himself at the door to defend the family. During this singular scene, no one spoke, until the guard came running up, and appearing to be in the act of firing, the governor ordered them not to do so. He then demanded of the interpreter an explanation of what had happened, who replied that Tecumseh had interrupted him, declaring that all the governor had said was false, and that he and the Seventeen Fires had cheated and imposed on the Indians. The governor then told Tecumnseh that he was a bad man, and that he would hold no further communication with him; that as he had come to Vincennes under the protection of a council-fire, he might return in safety, but that he must immediately leave the village. Here the council terminated. The undoubted purpose of the brothers now being known, Gov. Harrison proceeded to prepare for the contest he knew must ensue. In June of the year following, (1811,) he sent a message to the Shawanoes, biddling them beware of hostilities, to which Tecumseh gave a brief reply, promising to visit the governor. This visit he paid in July, accompanied by 300 followers, but as the Americans were prepared and determined, nothing resulted, and Tecumseh proceeded to the south, as it was supposed, to enlist the Creeks in the cause. In the meanwhile, Harrison took measures to increase his regular force; his plan was to again warn the Indians to obey the treaty of Greenville, but at the same time to prepare to break up the prophet's establishment, if necessary. On the 5th of October, having received his reinforcements, he was on the Wabash, about 60 miles above Vincennes, where he built Fort Harrison. On the 7th of November following, he was attacked by the Indians at Tippecanoe, and defeated them. Peace on the frontiers was one of the happy results of this severe and brilliant action. With the battle of Tippecanoe, the prophet lost his popularity and power among the Indians, he having, previously to the battle, promised them certain victory. On the first commencement of the war of 1812, Tecumseh was in the field, prepared for the conflict. In July, there was an assemblage at Brownstown of those Indians who were inclined to neutrality. A deputation was sent to Malden to Tecumseh to attend this council. "No," said he indignantly, "I have taken sides with the king, my father, and I will suffer my bones to bleach upon tls shore, before I will recross that stream to join in any council of neutrality." He participated in the battle of Brownstown, and commanded the Indians in the action near Maguagg. In the last he was wounded, and it is supposed that his bravery and good conduct led to his being shortly after appointed Brigadier General in the service of the British King. In the seige of Fort Meigs, Tecumseh behaved with great bravery and humanity. (See Wood co.) 91

Page  92 CLARKE COTUNTY. Immediately after the signal defeat of Proctor, at Fort Stephen. son, he returned with the British troops to Malden by water, while Tecumseh, with his followers, passed over by land, round the head of Lake Erie, and joined him at that point. Discouraged by the want of success, and having lost all confidence in Gen. Proctor, Tecumseh seriously meditated a withdrawal from the contest, but was induced to remain. When Perry's battle was fought, it was witnessed by the Indians from the distant shore. On the day succeeding the engagement, Gen. Proctor said to Tecumseh, "my fleet has whipped the Americans, but the vesels being much injured, have gone into Put-in Bay to refit, and will be here in a few days." This deception, however, upon the Indians was not of long duration. The sagacious eye of Tecumseh soon perceived indications of a retreat from Malden, and he promptly inquired into the matter. Gen. Proctor informed him that he was only going to send their valuable property up the Thames, where it would meet a reinforcement, and be safe. Tecumseh, however, was not to be deceived by this shallow device; and remonstrated most urgently against a retreat. ie finally demanded, in the name of all the Indians under his command, to be, heard by the general, and, on the 18th of September, delivered to him, as the representative of their great father, the king, the following speech: "Father, listen to your children! you have them now all before you. "The war before this, our British father gave the hatchet to his red children, when our old chiefs were alive. They are now dead. In that war our father was thrown upon his back by the Americans; and our father took them by the hand without our knowledge; and we are afraid that our father will do so again at this time. "Summer before last, when I came forward with my red brethren and was ready to take up the hatchet in favor of our British father, we were told nmt to be in a hurry, that he had not yet determined to fight the Americans. " Listen! when war was declared, our father stood up and gave us the tomahawk, and told us that he was then ready to strike the Americans; that he wanted our assistance, and that he would certainly get our lands back, which the Americans had taken from us. "Listen! you told us at that time, to bring forward our families to this place, and we did so; and you promised to take care of them, and they should want for nothing, while the men would go and fight the enemy; that we need not trouble ourselves about the eneIiy's garrisons; that we knew nothing about them, and that our father would attend to that part of the business. You also told your red children that you would take good care of your garrison here, which made our hearts glad. "Listen! when wig were last at the Rapids, it is true we gave you little assistance. It is hard to fight people who live like ground-hogs. "Father, listen! our fleet has gone out; we know they have fought we have heard the great guns; but we know nothing of what has happened to our father with one arm. Our ships have gone one way, and we are much astonished to see our father tying up every thing and preparing to run away the other, without letting his red children know what his intentions are. You always told us to remain here and take care of our lands; it made our hearts glad to hear that was your wish. Our great father, the king, is the head, and you represent him. You always told us you would never draw your foot off British ground; but now, father, we see that you are drawing back, and we are sorry to see our father doing so without seeing the enemy. We must compare our father's conduct to a fat dog, that carries his tail on its back, and when afrighted, drops it between its legs and runs off. "Father, listen! the Americans have not yet defeated us by land; neither are we sure that they have done so by water;' we, therefore, wish to remain here and fight our enemy, sh,uld they make their appearance. If they defeat us, we will then retreat with our father. f At the battle of the Rapids, last war, the Americans certainly defeated us; and when we returned to our father's fort at that place, the gates were shut against us. We were afraid that it would now be the case; but instead of that, we now see our British father pireparing to march out of his garrison. "Father, you have got the arms and ammunition which our great father sent for his red children. If you have an idea of going away, give them to us, and you may go and welcome, for us. Our lives are in the hands of the Great Spirit. We are determined to defend our lands, and if it be his will, we wish to leave our bones upon them." Tecumseh entered the battle of the Thames with a strong conviction that he should not survive it. Further flight he deemed disgraceful, while the hope of victory in the impending 92

Page  93 CLARKE COUJNTY. action, was feeble and distant. He, however, heroically resolved to achieve the latter or die in the effort. With this determination he took his stand among his followe rs, raised the war-cry and boldly met the enemy. From the commencement of the attack on the Indian line, his voice was distinctly heard by his followers, animating them to deeds worthy of the race to which they belonged. When that well-known voice was heard no longer above the din of arms, the battle ceased. The British troops having already surrendered, and the gallant leader of the Indians having fallen, they gave up the contest and fled. A short distance from where Tecumseh fell, the body of his friend and brother-in-law, WVasegoboah, was found.'I'hey had often fought side by side, and now, in front of their men, bravely battling the enemy, they side by side closed their mortal career. "'Thus fell the Indian warrior Tecumseh, in the 44th year of his age. He was of the Shawanoe tribe, five feet ten inches high, and with more than the usual stoutness, possessed all the agility and perseverance of the Indian character. His carriage was dignified, his eye penetrating, his countenance, which even in death, betrayed the indications of a lofty spirit, rather of the sterner cast. Had he not possessed a certain austerity of manners, he could never have controlled the wayward passions of those who followed him to battle. He was of a silent habit; but when his eloquence became roused into action by the reiterated encroachments of the Americans, his strong intellect could supply him with a flow of oratory that enabled him, as he governed in the field, so to prescribe in the council. Those who consider that in all territorial questions, the ablest diplomatists of the United States are sent to negotiate with the Indians, will readily appreciate the loss sustained by the latter in the death of their champion..... Such a man was the unlettered savage, Tecumseh, and such a man have the Indians lost forever. He has left a son, who, when his father fell, was about seventeen years old, and fought by his side. The prince regent, in 1814, out of respect to the memory of the old, sent out as a present to the young Tecumseh, a handsome sword. Unfortunately, however, for the Indian cause and country, faint are the prospects that Tecumseh the son, will ever equal, in wisdom or prowess, Tecumseh the father." It is stated by Mr. James, a British historian, that Tecumseh, after he fell, was not only scalped, but that his body was actuallyflayed, and the skin converted into razor-straps by the Kentuckians. Amid the great amount of conflicting testimony relating to the circumstances of Tecumseh's death, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain the precise facts. It is, however, generally believed that he fell by a pistol-shot, fired by Col. Richard M. Johnson of Kentucky, who acted a most prominent part in this battle. Springfield, the county seat, is 43 miles w. of Columbus, on the National road, and on the line of the railroads connecting Cincinnati with Sandusky city. It was laid out in 1803, by James Demint. It is surrounded by a handsome and fertile country, is noted for the morality and intelligence of its inhabitants, and, by many, is considered the most beautiful village within the limits of Ohio. The eastern fork of Mad river washes it on the north, a stream described "as unequalled for fine mill seats, its current very rapid, and the water never so low in the driest season as to interfere with the mills now upon it." Through the place runs the Lagonda, or Buck creek, a swift and unfailing mill stream. Within a range of three miles of the town are upwards of twenty mill seats. Springfield suffered much during the era of speculation, but is now prospering, and from its natural advantages, is destined to hold a prominent place among the manufacturing towns of the state. The engraving shows its appearance as viewed from the National road, a quarter of a mile east; the main street appears in front, on the left the academy, and on the right the court house, and one of the churches. The view is from a familiar position, but the village, like many other beautiful towns, .93

Page  94 CLARKE COUNTY. is so situated that no drawingo from any one point can show it to advantage. East View of Springfield. Several of the first settlers of Springfield still remain in and around it; among them may be mentioned the names of John Humphreys, David Lowry arnd Griffeth Foos, the last of whom occupied the first house built in the town as a tavern. The Ohio Conference of the Methodist Episcopal church has a flourishing high school at Springfield, for both sexes. A lyceum has been in successful operation about fourteen years, and the public libraries of the town comprise about 4000 volumes. Springfield contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Methodist Protestant, 1 Episcopal, 1 Associate Reformed Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Lutheran, 1 Universalist, and 1. African Methodist church; 2 or 3 printing offices; 3 drug, 1 book, 1 hardware, and 15 dry good stores; 1 paper, 1 oil, and 3 flouring mills; 1 cotton, 1 woolen, and 1 sash factory; 1 foundery and machine shop; and in 1830, had a population of 1080; in 1840, 2094; in 1846, 2952; and in 1847, about 3500. Springfield was the scene of an interesting incident in the life of Tecumseh, which is given at length by his biographer. In the autumn of this year, [1807,] a white man by the name of Myers, was killed a few miles west of where the town of Urbana now stands, by some straggling Indians. This murder, taken in connection with the assemblage of the Indians under Tecumseh and the prophet, created a great alarm on the frontier, and actually induced many families to remove back to Kentucky, from whence they had emigrated. A demand was made by the whites upon these two brothers for the Indians who had committed the murder. They denied that it was done by their party, or with their knowledge, and declared that they did not even know who the murderers were. The alarm continued, and some companies of militia were called out. It was finally agreed, that a council should be held on the subject in Springfield, for the purpose of quieting the settlements. Gen. Whiteman, Maj. Moore, Capt. Ward, and one or two others, acted as commissioners on the part of the whites. Two parties of Indians attended the council; one from the north, in charge of McPherson; the other, consisting of sixty or seventy, came from the neighborhood of Fort Wayne, under the charge of Tecumseh. Roundhead, Blackfish, and several other chiefs, were also present. There was no friendly feeling between these two parties, and each was willing that the blame of the murder should be fixed upon the other. The party under McPherson, in compliance with the wishes of the commissioners, left their arms a 94

Page  95 CLARKE COUNTY. few miles from Springfield. Tecumseh and his party refused to attend the council, unless permitted to retain their arms. After the conference was opened, it being held in a maple grove, a little north of where Werden's hotel now stands, the commissioners, fearing some violence, made another effort to induce Tecumseh to lay aside his arms. This he again refused, saying, in reply, that his tomahawk was also his pipe, and that he might wish to use it in that capacity before their business was closed. At this moment, a tall, lank-sided Pennsylvanian, who was standing among the spectators, and who, perhaps, had no love for the shining tomahawk of the self-willed chief, cautiously approached, and handed him all old, long stemmed, dirty looking earthen pipe, intimating, that if Tecumseh would deliver up the,fearful tomahawk, he might smoke the aforesaid pipe. The chief took it between his thumb and finger, held it up, looked at it for a moment, then at the owner, who was gradually receding from the point of danger, and immediately threw it, with an indignant sneer, over his head, into the bushes. The commissioners yielded the point, and proceeded to business. After a full and patient inquiryinto the facts of the case, it appeared that the murder of Myers was the act of an individual, and not justly chargeable upon either party of the Indians. Several speeches were made by the chiefs, but TI'ecumseh was the principal speaker. He gave a fill explanation of the views of the prophet and himself, in calling around them a band of Indians-disavowed all hostile intentions towards the United States, and denied that he or those under his control had committed any aggressions upon the whites. His manner, when speaking, was animated, fluent and rapid, and made a strong impression upon those present. The council terminated. In the course of it, the two hostile parties became reconciled to each other, and quiet was restored to the frontier. The Indians remained in Springfield for three days, and onl several occasions amused themselves by en,gaging in various games and other athletic exercises, in which Tecumseh generally proved himself victorious. His strength, and power of muscular action were remarkably great, and in the opinion of those who attended the council, corresponded with the high order of his moral and intellectual character. JVittemberg College. "Wittemberg College is organized on a large, and liberal prospective scale, and on the same basis as Yale College, Ct., having both a collegiate and theological department, under the same Board and Faculty. It is under the auspices of the Lutheran church, and was chartered in 1845. Arrangements are made for six professorships. It is located about a third of a mile from Springfield, on beautiful forest grounds, containing 24 acres, surrounded with springs of the best water, and with the most charming scenery. The town, railroad, Buck creek, and Mad river are in view from the building. The institution is under the superintendence of Rev. Ezra Keller, D. D., assisted by competent instructors. It has now been in operation for one year, and has had 72 students connected with it. A 95

Page  96 CLERMONT COUNTY. freshman and sophomore class has been formed. An Athaeneum, and two literarv societies have also been established. A general library, philosophical apparatus, and cabinet of natural and artificial curiosities have been begun. The German is taught as a living language. Tuition and boarding are furnished on very moderate terms. The government of the institution is made as nearly as possible to that of a well-regulated family." New Carlisle, 12 miles west of Springfield, is a flourishing village, in a beautiful and fertile country. It contains 2 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, and 1 Free or Union church, 6 stores, an extensive coach factory, a fine brick school house, and by the census of 1840, has 452 inhabitants. South Charleston, 12 miles SE. from Springfield, on the Xenia and Jefferson turnpike, has 2 churches, several stores, and had ir. 1840, 240 inhabitants, since which it has much increased. Enon, on the Dayton turnpike, 7 miles from Springfield, has 2 churches, several stores, and about 60 dwellings: on the outskirts of this town is a beautiful mound, 30 or 40 feet in height. North Hampton, Tremont, Vienna, Donaldsville, Brighton, Harmony, Noblesville, Catawba, and Cortsville, are small villages. (See Addenda.) CLERMONT. CLIERMONT, the 8th county, created in the North-west Territory, was formed Dec. 9th, 1800, by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair. The name was probably derived from Clermont, in France. The surface is generally rolling and quite broken near the Ohio: in the northeast, there is much "wet land." A large portion of the soil is rich. The geological formation is the blue fossiliferous limestone, interstratified with clay marl, and covered, in most places, with a rich vegetable mould. The principal crops are corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, tobacco, barley, buckwheat and rye; the principal exports are beef, pork, flour, hay and whiskey. It is well watered, and the streams furnish considerable water power. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Batavia, 2197 Monroe, 1617 Union, 1421 Franklin, 2219 Ohio, 2894 Washington, 2102 Goshen, 1445 Stonelick, 1478 Wayne, 976 Jackson, 883 Tate, 2292 Williamsburgh, 1459 Miami, 2061 The population of Clermont, in 1820, was 15,820; in 1830,20,466; and in 1840, 23,106, or 40 inhabitants to a square mile. The communication below, from Mr. Benjamin Morris, gives some facts respecting the history of the county and its early settlers. In June, 1804, and in the 19th year of my age, I came to Bethel, which, with Williamsburgh, were the only towns in the county. They Were laid out about 1798 or'99, and were competitors for the county seat. When I came, Clermont was an almost unbroken Wvilderness, and the settlers few and far between. In the langiage of the day, there was 96

Page  97 CLERMONT COUNTY. Denham's town, now Bethel; Lytlestown, now Williamsburgh; Witham's settlement now Williamsville; Apples', Collins', and Buchanan's settlements. The following are names of part of the settlers in and about Williamsburgh, hi 1804:-Wm. Lytle, R. W. Waring, David C. Bryan, James and Daniel Kain, Nicholas Sinks, Jasper Shotwell, and Peter Light. Wm. Lytle was the first clerk of the county, and was succeeded by R. W. Waring and David C. Bryan. Peter Light was a justice of the peace under the territorial and state governments, and county surveyor. Daniel Kaia was sheriff, and later justice of the peace under the state government. David C. Bryan represented the county several years in the state legislature, before he was appointed clerk. I was at Williamsburgh at the sitting of the court of common pleas in June, 1804. Francis Dunleavy was the presiding judge, and Philip Gatch, Ambrose Ransom, and John Wood, associates, while the attendant lawyers were Jacob Burnet, Arthur St. Clair-son of Gov. St. Clair-Joshua Collet, Martin Marshall and Thomas Morris. The following are part of the settlers in and about Bethel, in 1804: Obed Denhamproprietor of the town-James Denhami, Houton Clark, John Baggess, Dr. Loofborough, John and Thomas Morris, Jeremiah Beck, Henry Willis and James South. John Baggess for many years was a representative in the legislature, justice of the peace and county surveyor. John Morris was appointed associate judge after the death of Judge Wood, in 1807; he was also justice of the peace, and one of the first settlers at Columbia. Houton Clark was one of the first, if not the very first, justice of the peace in Clermont. Thomas Morris practised law in the county about forty years, was a representative in the legislature, and once appointed a judge of the supreme court. In the winter of 1832-33, he was elected to the United States Senate, where he acted a conspicueus part in the antislavery movements of the day. The most prominent political act of his life, was his reply to a speech of Mr. Clay. He died suddenly, Dec. 7th, 1844: posterity only can judge of the correctness or incorrectness of his course. A neat marble monument marks his resting place, near Bethel. Jeremiah Beck and Henry Willis were farmers and justices of the peace. Ulrey's Run takes its name from Jacob Ulrey, who settled on its west side in 1798, and was the earliest settler upon it. The place is now known as "the Ulrey farm." Bred in the wilds of Pennsylvania, hlie was a genuine backwoodsman, and a terror to the horse thieves, who infested the county at an early day. Deer and bear were plenty around him, and a large portion of his time was passed in hunting them, for their skins. The early settlers around him received substantial tokens of his generosity, by his supplying them with meat. The first newspaper in Clermont," The Political Censor," was printed at Williamsburg, in 1813: it was edited by Thos. S. Foot, Esq.; the second, called "The Western American," was printed in the same town, in 1814: David Morris, Esq., editor. A considerable number of the early settlers in Clermont, were from Kentucky. Of those before named, the following were from that state:-R. W. Waring, Jasper Shotwell, Peter Light, Obed and James Denham, Houton Clark, John Boggess, Jeremiah Beck, Henry Willis and James South. Nicholas Sinks was from Va.; David C. Bryan, from New Jersey, and John and Thomas Morris and the Kain family, (I believe,) from Pa. After 1804, the county increased rapidly by settlers from New Jersey, Kentucky and Pennsylvania, with some from Maryland, New England, and a few from North Carolina. Neville was laid out in 1811, Gen. Neville, proprietor.' Point Pleasant and New Richmond were laid out about 1814; Jacob Light, proprietor of the latter. George Ely laid out Batavia afterwards. The early settlers about that place, as well as I remember, were George Ely, Ezekiel Dimmit, Lewis Duckwall, Henry Miley, Robert and James Townsley, Titus Everhart and Wm. Patterson. Before Milford was laid out, Philip Gatch, Ambrose Ransom and John Pollock settled in its vicinity. Philip Gatch was a member from Clermont, of the convention which formed the state constitution, and for years after was associate judge. Ransom, as before stated, was associate judge; and John Pollock, for many years speaker of the house of representatives, and later, associate judge. Philip Gatch was a Virginian. He freed his slaves before emigrating, which circumstance led to his being selected as a member of the convention to form the state constitution. The most prominent settlers in the south part of Clermont, were the Sargeant, Pigman, Prather, Buchanan and Fee families. The oldest members of the Sargeant family, were the brothers James, John and Elijah. They were from Maryland. James, who had freed his slaves there, was, in consequence, chosen a member of the convention which formed the state constitution. The Sargeants, who are now numerous in this part of the county, are uncompromising opponents of slavery. The Pigman family were Joshua, sen., Joshua, jr., and Levi. The Buchanan family were William, Alexander, Robert, Andrew, James, John, &c. James Buchanan, the son of John, was at one time speaker of the Ohio house 13 97

Page  98 CLERMONT COUNTY. of representatives. The Buchanans were from Pennsylvania, and the Pigmants from Maryland. There were several brothers of the Fee family, from Pennsylvania. William, the most prominent, was the proprietor of Felicity, and a member of the legislature. His brothers were Thomas, Elisha and Elijah; other early settlers were Samuel Walrioen, James Daughters and Elijah Larkin, who has been postmaster at Neville, for more than a quarter of a century. In the vicinity of Withamsville, the early settlers were Nathaniel and Gideon Witham, James Ward, Shadrach, Robert and Samuel Lane. The Methodists were the most numerous in early times, and next, the Baptists; there were but a few Presbyterians among the first settlers. When I first came into the county, the "wet land," of which there is such a large proportion in the middle and northern part, was considered almost worthless; but a great change has taken place in public opinion in relation to its value. It is ascertained, that by judicious cultivation, it rapidly improves in fertility. At that time, these lands were covered by water more than half the summer, and we called them slashes: now the water leaves the surface in the woods, early in the spring. Forty years ago, the evenings were cool as soon as the sun went down. I have no recollection of warm nights, for many years after I came, and their coolness was a matter of general remark among the emigrants from the old states. I believe it was owing to the immense forests that oovered the country, and shut out the rays and heat of the sun from the surface of the ground, for after sunset there was no warm earth to impalt heat to the atmnosphere. Batavia, the county seat, is situated on the north bank of the east fork of the Little Miami river, 21 miles easterly from Cincinnati, and 103 sw. of Columbus. This to-wvn was laid out about the year 1820, by George Ely. About that time, the county seat was temporarily removed from Williamsburg to New Richmond, and Feb. 21st, 1824, permanently transferred to Batavia. It contains 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church, 4 stores, 2 newspaper printing offices, and had, by the census of 1840, 537 inhabitants. Williamsburg is on the east fork of the Miami, 7 miles east of Batavia, and had, in 1840, 385 inhabitants. As previously mentioned, it was laid out by Gen. William Lytle, one of the earliest settlers of Clermont. His life was one of much incident. We derive the annexed facts respecting him, from Cist's Advertiser. GEN. WM. LYTLE was born in Cumberland, Pa.; and in 1779, his family emigrated to Kentucky. Previous to the settlement of Ohio, young Lytle was in several desperate engagements with the Indians, where his cool, heroic bravery won general admiration. Before the treaty of Greenville, while making surveys in the Virginia military district, in Ohio, he was exposed to incessant dangers, suffered great privations, and was frequently attacked by the Indians. This business he followed for the greater portion of his life. In County Buildings, Batavia. 98

Page  99 CLERMONT COUNTY. the war of 1812, he was appointed Major General of Ohio militia, and, in 1829, surveyor general of the public lands of Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. In 1810, Gen. Lytle removed from Williamsburg to Cincinnati, where he died, in 1831. As a citizen, he was distinguished for public spirit and benevolence, and in his personal appearance and character, strikingly resembled President Jackson. Beside the facts given under the head of Logan county, we have space for but a single anecdote, exhibiting his Spartan-like conduct at Grant's defeat, in Indiana. In that desperate action, the Kentuckians, overpowered by nearly four times their number, performed feats of bravery scarcely equalled even in early border warfare. In this struggle, Lytle, then hardly 17 years of age, had both his arms shattered, his face powder burnt, his hair singed to the roots, and nineteen bullets passed through his body and clothing. In this condition, a retreat being ordered, he succeeded in bringing off the field several of his friends, generously aiding the wounded and the exhausted, by placing them on horses, while he himself ran forward in advance of the last remnant of the retreating party, to stop the only boat on the Ohio at that time, which could take them over and save them from the overwhelming force of their savage adversaries. On reaching the river, he found the boat in the act of putting off for the Kentucky shore. 'The men were reluctant to obey his demand for a delay, until those still in the rear should come up-one of them declaring that "it was better that a few should perish, than that all should be sacrificed." He threw the rifle, which he still carried on his shoulder, over the root of a fallen tree, and swore he would shoot the first man who pulled an oar until his friends were aboard. In this way the boat was detained until they came up, and were safely lodged from the pursuing foe. Disdaining personally to take advantage of this result, the boat being crowded almost to dipping, he ran up the river to where some horses stood panting under the willows, after their escape from the battle field, and mounting one of the strongest, forced him into the river, holding on to the mane by his teeth, until he was taken, in the middle of the stream, into the boat, bleeding, and almost fainting fromr,l wounds, by the order of his gallant captain, the lamented Stucker, who had observer h conduct with admiration throughout, and was resolved that such a spirit should int pe4sh; for by this time the balls of the enemy were rattling like hail about their ears. There was living many years since, near Williamsburg, Cornelius Washburn, or, as he was commonly called, Neil Washburn, who, in the early difficulties with the Indians, was distinguished for his sagacity and courage. Of his ultimate fate, we are somewhat uncertain: it is said, however, that the progress of civilization was too rapid for him, and that he long since left for the wilds of the far west, to pass his time in the congenial employment of hunting the bear and trapping the beaver. We have derived some facts from the lips of one who knew him well, Mr. Thomas M'DQnald, the brother of the author of the sketches and the first person who erected a cabin in Scioto county. In the year'90, I first became acquainted with Neil Washburn, then a lad of sixteen, living on the Kentucky side of the Ohio, six miles below Maysville. From his early years, he showed a disposition to follow the woods. When only nine or ten, he passed his time in setting snares for pheasants and wild animals. Shortly after, his father purchased for him a shot gun, in the use of which he soon became unexcelled. In the summer of'90, his father being out of fresh provisions, crossed the Ohio with him in a canoe, to shoot deer, at a lick near the mouth of Eagle creek. On entering the creek, their attention was arrested by a singular hacking noise, some distance up the bank. Neil landed, and with gun in hand, cautiously crawling up the river bank, discovered an Indian, about twenty feet up a hickory tree, busily engaged in cutting around the bark, to make a canoe, in which he probably anticipated the gratification of crossing the river and committing depredations upon the Kentuckians. However this may have been, his meditations and work were soon brought to a close, for the intrepid boy no sooner saw the dusky form of the savage, than he brought his gun to a level with his eye, and fired: the Indian fell dead to the earth, with a heavy sound. He hastily retreated to the canoe, from fear of the presence of other Indians, and re-crossed the Ohio. Early the next morning, a party of men, guided by Neil, visited the spot, and found the body of the Indian at the foot of the tree. Neil 99 I, I I ~

Page  100 CLINTON COUNTY. secured the scalp, and the same day showed it, much elated, to myself and others, in the town of Washington; in Mason. Several persons in the village made him presents, as testimonials of their opinion of his bravery. In the next year, he was employed as a spy between Maysville and the mouth of the Little Miami, to watch for Indians, who were accustomed to cross the Ohio into Kentucky, to steal and murder. While so engaged, he had some encounters with them, in which his unerring rifle dealt death to several of their number. One of these was at the mouth of Bullskin, on the Ohio side. In'92, the Indians committed such great depredations upon the Ohio, between the Great Kanawha and Maysville, that Gen. Lee, the government agent, in employing spies, endeavored to get some of them to go up the Ohio, above the Kanawha, and warn all single boats not to descend the river. None were found sufficiently daring to go, but Neil. Furnished with an elegant horse, and well armed, he started on his perilous mission. He met with no adventures until after crossing the Big Sandy. This he swam on his horse, and had reached about half a mile beyond, when he was suddenly fired upon by a party of Indians, in ambush. His horse fell dead, and the Indians gave a yell of triumph; but Neil was unhurt. Springing to his feet, he bounded back like a deer, and swam across the Big Sandy, holding his rifle and ammunition above his head. Panting from exertion, he rested upon the opposite bank to regain his strength, when the Indians, whooping and yelling, appeared on the other side, in fuill pursuit. Neil drew up, shot one of their number, and then continued his retreat down the Ohio, but meeting and exchanging shots with others, he saw it was impossible to keep the river valley in safety, and striking his course more inland, to evade his enemies, arrived safely at Maysville. In the fall of the same year, he was in the action with Kenton and others, against Tecumseh, in what is now Brown county, for the particulars of which, see page 67. Washburn continued as a spy throughout the war, adding "the sagacity of lion to the cunning of the fox." He was with Wayne in his campaign, and at the battle of the Fallen Timbers, manifested his usual prowess. Neil Washburn was in person near six feet in height, with broad shoulders, small feet, and tapered beautifully from his chest down. He was both powerful and active. His eyes were blue, his hair light, and complexion fair. A prominent Roman nose alone marred the symmetry of his personal appearance. In this county are several quite populous towns. New Richmond, which had, in 4840, a population of 772, Moscow, which had 228, Point Pleasant 150, Neville 228, and Chilo 102, are all upon the Ohio river. Near the first is a Fourierite association, but not in a thriving condition. Bethel, 12 miles srE. of Batavia, had, in 1840, 366 inhabitants; Felicity, 21 southerly, had 442, and Milford, 10 NW., had 460 inhabitants. Felicity and Milford have much improved within the last few years. The last named is on the east bank of the Little Miami river, over which is a bridge, connecting it with the Little Miami railroad, on the opposite bank. There are other small villages in the county, but none of much note. CLINTON. CLINTON, was organized in 1810, and named in honor of Gov. Geo. Clinton, Vice Pres. of United States. The surface is generally level; on the west undulating, and the soil is fertile. It is particularly adapted to Indian corn and grass. It has some prairie land, and its streams furnish good water power. The principal staples are corn, wheat, oats, wool and pork. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. 100 I.,.,

Page  101 CLINTON COUNTY. Chester, 1784 Liberty, 1050 Vernon, 1434 Clarke, 1297 Marion, 643 Washington, 1170 Green, 1842 Richland, 1385 Wayne, 1366 Jefferson, 474 Union, 3284 The population of Clinton in 1820, was 8,085; in 1830, 11,406; and in 1840, 15,729, or 39 inhabitants to a square mile. This county was settled about the year 1803, principally by emigrants from Kentucky, Pennsylvania and North Carolina. The first settlement, however, was made in 1797, by Wm. Smally. Most of the first emigrants were backswoodmen, and well fitted to endure the privations incident upon settling a new country. They lived principally upon game, and gave little attention to agricultural pursuits As the country grew older, game became scarce, emigrants flocked from different parts of the Union, and the primitive manner of living gave place to that more conformable to the customs of older states. The following are the names of some of the most noted of the early settlers: Thos. Hinkson, Aaron Burr and Jesse Hughes, the first associate judges; Nathan Linton, the first land surveyor; Abraham Ellis and Thomas Hardin, who had been soldiers of the revolution; Joseph Doan, James Mills and Henry Babb, who served as commissioners; Morgan Mendican, who erected the first mill in the county, on Todd's Fork; and Capt. James Spencer, who was distinguished in various conflicts with the Indians. The first house for divine worship was erected by Friends, at Center, in 1806. The first court was held in a barn, belonging to Judge Hughes, and for a number of years subsequent, in a small house belonging to John M'Gregor. There are some of the ancient works so common throughout the west on Todd's Fork, near Springfield meeting house. The "Deserted Camp," situated about three miles northeast of Wilmington, is a point of notoriety with the surveyors of land. It was so called from the circumstance, that a body of Kentuckians, on their way to attack the Indian towns on the Little Miami, encamping over night lost one of their number, who deserted to the enemy, and giving warning of their approach, frustrated the object of the expedition. Wilmington, the county seat, is in the township of Union, on Todd's Fork, 72 miles sw. from Columbus. It is regularly laid out on undulating ground, and contains 5 houses for divine worship, 1 newspaper printing office, 1 high school, 19 mercantile stores, and a population estimated at 1500. The engraving represents one of the principal streets of the village, as it appears from the store of Joseph Hale; the building with a spire is the court house, a structure of considerable elegance. Wilmington was laid out in 1810, principally settled by emigrants from North Carolina, and named from Wilmington in that state. The first log house was built by Wm. Hobsin, and Warren Sabin's was the first tavern. The first church, a small brick edifice, was erected by the Baptists. In 1812, the 101

Page  102 CLINTON COUNTY. first court was held. The earliest settlers were Warren Sabin, Samuel T Londen, Wm. Hobsin, Larkin Reynolds, John Swane, Jas. Montgomery, John M'Gregor, sen., and Isaiah Morris. This View in Wilmington. lv.st named gentleman, a native of Pennsylvania, descended the Ohio river with his uncle, in a flat-bottomed boat, in the spring of 1803, and landed first at Columbia, where his uncle opened a store, from a small stock of goods he had brought. After remaining at that place about three months, he removed his goods to Lebanon, and not long after died, leaving his nephew, then a lad of seventeen years of age, without any means of support. He however made friends, and eventually moved to Wilmington, where, on the 8th of July, 1811, he opened the first store in the town, in company with Wm. Ferguson. He was obliged, in moving from Lebanon, to make his way through the forest, cutting a wagon road part of the distance: the town having been laid out in the woods, it was with great difficulty that he could get through to the little one story frame house, erected in the midst of trees, logs and brush, on which he then settled and has since resided. Mr. Morris was the first postmaster in the town, the first representative from the county, to the legislature, and has since held various public offices.* WILLIAM SMALLY was born in western Pennsylvania, in 1764. At the age of six years he was stolen by the Indians, carried into the interior of Ohio, and remained with them until twenty years of age. While with them, he witnessed the burning of several white prisoners. On one occasion, he saw an infant snatched from its mother's arms and thrown into the flames. In 1784, he left the Indians, rejoined his parents near Pittsburg, and a few years afier, moved with them to the vicinity of Cincinnati. He was in Harmar's campaign, and at St. Clair's defeat, in the last of which, he discharged his rifle thirty five times, twenty one of which, it is said, took effect. He likewise accompanied Wayne's army * From the communication of Wm. H. Spencer, to whose researches we are mainly indebted for the historical and biographical materials embraced under the head of Clinton county. 102

Page  103 CLINTON COUNTY. Being on one occasion sent forward with others, on some mission to the Indians, they were fired upon on their approach to the camp, and his two companions killed. He evaded the danger by springing behind a tree, and calling to one of the chiefs, whom he knew, telling him that he had deserted the whites, and had come to join them. This not only saved his life, but caused him to be treated with great kindness. He, however, took an early opportunity, escaped to the army, and at the batfie of the Fallen Timbers, showed his usual cool courage. In 1797, he setled on Todd's Fork in this county, and resided there for a number of years, depending principally upon hunting for a subsistence. His personal appearance was good, but his address resembled that of a savage. A little anecdote illustrates his determined character. He purchased land on which he resided from a lawyer of Cincinnati, who refused to make him a deed. Smally armed himself, called upon him and demanded a bond for his land, with the threat that if not furnished in three days, he would take his scalp. This positive language soon brought the lawyer to a sense of his dangerous situation, and before the expiration of the time, he gave Simally the desired paper. Mr. Smially passed the latter part of his life in poverty. In 1836, he emigrated to Illinois, where he died in 1840. COL. THOMAS HINKISON was born in 1772, in iWestmorelanid county, Pa. His father had emIgrated from Ireland in early life, had becomlne an excellent woodsman, and visited Kentucky at a very early period. He established a station near the junction of Hinlkson anid Stoner, which form the south fork of Licking river. Ilere the subject of this notice was raised, until the age of eighteen years, when in the autumn of 1790, as a volunteer in the Keilitucky militia, he accompanied the expedition of Gen. Harmar. He was in the battle near the Miami villages, under Col. Hardin's commnandl in front of the town, and witnessed the total overthrow and massacre of the detachment of Maj. Wyllis. In this battle he received a slight wound in the left arm, and narrowly escaped with his life. He was afterwards in the disastrous defeat of Gen. St. Clair, but amidst the general slaughter, escaped unhurt. Hitherto he had served as a private, but was subsequently selected as a lieutenant inll the mounted volunteers from Kentucky, who formed a part of the forces of Gen. Wayne against the same Indians in 1794. He was in the battle near the Rapids of the Maumee, but never pretended that he had done any thing worthy of distinction on that memorable day. During these several campaigns, however, he had formed the acquaintance of most of the leading men of Kentucky, and others of the N. W. Territory, which was highly advantageous to him in after life. Shortly after Wayne's battle, he returned to Kentucky, married and settled on a farm inherited from his father, situated in Harrison county, where he lived until the spring of 1806, when he emigrated to Ohio, and in 1807, settled on a farm about eight miles east of Wilmington, but then in the county of Highland. He was soon afterwards elected a justice of the peace for the latter county, and captain of the militia company to which he belonged, in which several capacities he served until the erection of Clinton county, in 1810, when, without his knowledge, he was elected by the legislature one of the associate judges for the new county. He made no pretentions to legal knowledge, nor will the writer claim anything for him in this respect, further than good common sense, which generally prevents a man from making a very foolish decision. After this appointment, he remained quietly at home in the occupations common to fariners, until the declaration of war in 1812, nor did he manifest any disposition for actual service, until after Hull's surrender. That event cast a gloom over the west. All of Michigan, Northern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois were exposed to savage depredations. Some troops had been hastily assembled at Urbana and other points, to repel invasion. Captain Hinkson was then in the prime of life, possessing a robust and manly frame seldom equalled, even among pioneers. He was a man of few words, and they to the purpose intended. He briefly explained to his family that he believed the time had come to serve his country. He immediately set out for head-quarters, and tendered his services to Gov. Meigs, then at Urbana. The president having previously made a requisition on the governor of Ohio, for two companies of rangers, to scour the country between the settlements and the enemy, Capt. H. was appointed to command one of those companies, with liberty to choose his own followers. This was soon done, and a company presented to the governor ready for duty. By this time the Indians had actual possession of the exposed territory, and it was the duty of these companies to hold them in check, and keep the army advised of their numbers and position. In performing this duty, many incidents might be related in the life of Capt. Hinkson, but one or two must suffice. Having at one time ventured to the Miami of the Lake, to ascertain the condition of the enemy, they found them encamped near the foot of the rapids of that river, with a select company of rangers, commanded by Capt. Clark, from Canada, numbering in all from three to five hundred, and 103

Page  104 CLINTON COUNTY. under the command of the celebrated Tecumseh. The ground on the hill was for miles covered with a thick undergrowth, which enabled Capt. Hinkson and company to approach nearly within gun-shot of the enemy, without being seen. It was late in the afternoon, and while waiting for the approach of night, to enable them to withdraw more successfully, the company was secretly drawn up near the brink of the hill, and directed in whispers to merely take aim at the enemy. This was rather a hazardous display of humor, but as many of his men had never been in battle, Capt. H. told the writer it was merely to try their nerves. While engaged in this sport, they discovered Capt. Clark in the adjacent cornfield below, in hot pursuit after a flock of wild turkeys, which were running toward the place of concealment. Here was a crisis. He must be slain in cold blood, or made a prisoner. The latter alternative was adopted. The company was disposed so as to flank the captain and his turkeys. They were alarmed and flew into the tree tops, and while the captain was gazing up for his prey, Capt. Hinkson approached and politely requested him to ground arms, upon pain of instant death, in case he gave the least alarm. He at first indicated signs of resistance, but soon found " discretion the better part of valor," and surrendered himself a prisoner of war. Being at least one hundred miles from the army, in sight rf such a force, Capt. Hinkson and company were in a very delicate condition. No time was to be lost. A retreat was commenced in the most secret manner, in a southerly direction, at right angles from the river. By travelling all night they eluded pursuit, and brought their prize safely to camp. Shortly afterwards, Gen. Tupper's brigade arrived near the rapids and encamped for the night, during which, Capt. H. and company acted as piquet guard, and in the morning a few were selected to accompany him on a secret reconnaisance down the river. Unluckily they were met at the summit of a hill, by a detachment of the same kind from the enemy. Shots were exchanged, and the alarm now fairly given to both parties. This brought on the skirmish which ensued between that brigade and the Indians. While fighting in the Indian mode, near Wm. Venard, Esq., (one of Capt. Hinkson's men, who had been severely wounded,) Capt. H. saw a dusky figure suddenly rise from the grass. He had a rifle never before known to miss fire. They both presented their pieces, which simultaneously snapped without effect. In preparing for a second trial, it is supposed the Indian was a little ahead of the captain, when a shot from Daniel Workman, (another ranger,) sent the Indian to his long home. After this skirmish, the Indians withdrew to Frenchtown, and block houses were hastily thrown up near the spot where Fort Meigs was afterwards erected, and where the Ohio troops were encamped, when the fatal disaster befel Gen. Winchester, at Raisin, Jan. 22d, 1813. The news was carried by express, and the main body retreated, leaving Capt. H. and company to perform the sorrowful dirty of picking up some poor stragglers from that bloody defeat, and burning the block houses and provisions within twenty four hours, which was done before it was known that the enemy had retired to Malden. The Ohio brigade, and others from Pennsylvania and Virginia, soon rallied again, and formed a junction at the rapids, where they commenced building the fort, so renowned for withstanding two sieges in the spring and summer of 1813. During its erection, Capt. Hinkson was attacked with a peculiar fever, then raging in the army, from which he did not recover fit for duty, until late in the spring. With a shattered constitution he returned to his home, and was immediately elected colonel of the 3d regiment of the 2d brigade and 1st division Ohio militia, which was then a post of honor, requiring much patience and discretion, in a region rather backward in supporting the war. The reader will, in this narrative, see nothing beyond a simple memorial of facts, which is all that the unassuming character requires. He was a plain, gentlemanly individual, of a very mild and even temper; a good husband and kind father, but rather indifferent to his own interest in money matters, by which he became seriously involved, lost his property and removed to Indiana in 1821, where he died in 1824, aged 52 years. Clarksville, 9 miles sw. of Wilmington, Martinsville, 9 s., Port William, 9 N, New Vienna, 11 SE. and Burlington, 11 NW., are all considerable villages, each having more or less stores and churches; and the last, which is said to be the largest, having a population, estimated at about 300. Sabina, Sligo, Blanchester, Cuba, Lewisville, Westboro', Centerville and Morrisville, are small places. 104

Page  105 COLUMBIANA COUNTY. COLUMIBIANA. COLUMBIANA was formed from Jefferson and Washington, March 25th, 1803. Kilbourn, in his Gazetteer, says: "Columbiana is a fancy name, taken from the names Columbus and Anna. An anecdote is told pending its adoption in the legislature, that a member jocularly moved that the name Maria should be added thereto, so as to have it read Columbiana-maria." The southern part is generally broken and hilly, and the northern level or undulating. This is an excellent agricultural tract: it is well watered, abounds in fine mineral coal, iron ore, lime and free stone. The water lime stone of this county, is of the best quality. Salt water abounds on Yellow and Beaver creeks, which also afford a great amount of water power. This is the greatest wool-growing county in Ohio, and is exceeded by but three or four in the Union. The principal products are wool, wheat, corn, oats and potatoes. About one third of the population are of German origin, and there are many of Irish extraction. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Beaver, 1973 Hanover, 2963 Springfield, 1994 Butler, 1711 Knox, 2111 St. Clair, 1739 Center, 3472 Liverpool, 1096 Unity, 1984 Elkrun, 873 Madison, 1472 Washington, 814 Fairfield, 2108 Middletown, 1601 Wayne, 1086 Franklin, 893 Perry, 1630 West, 1915 Goshen, 1397 Salem, 1903 Yellow Creek, 2686 Greene, 3212 Smith, 2029 The population of Columbiana, in 1820, was 22,033; in 1830, 35,508, and, in 1840, 40,394, which was greater than any other counties in Ohio, excepting Hamilton and Richland. The number of inhabitants to a square mile, was then 46. In 1846, the county was reduced by the formation of Mahoning, to which the townships of Beaver, Goshen, Greene, Smith and Springfield now belong. This county was settled just before the commencement of the present century. In 1797, a few families moved across the Ohio and settled in its limits. One of them, named Carpenter, made a settlement near West Point. Shortly after, Captain Whiteyes, a noted Indian chief, stopped at the dwelling of Carpenter. Being intoxicated, he got into some difficulty with a son of Mr. C., a lad of about 17 years of age, and threatened to kill him. The young man upon this turned and ran, pursued by the Indian, with uplifted tomahawk, ready to bury it in his brains. Finding that the latter was fast gaining upon him, the young man turned and shot him, and shortly afterwards he expired. As this was in time of peace, Carpenter was apprehended and tried at Steubenville, under the territorial laws, the courts being then held by justices of the peace. He was cleared, it appearing that he acted in self-defence. The death of Whiteyes created great excitement, and fears were entertained that it would provoke hostilities from the Indians. Great exertions 14 104

Page  106 COLUMBIANA COUNTY, were made to reconcile them, and several presents were given to the friends of the late chief. The wife of Whiteyes received from three gentlemen, the sum of $300; one of these donors was the late Bezaleel Wells, of Steubenville. This was the last Indian blood shed by white men in this part of Ohio. Adam Poe, who, with his brother Andrew, had the noted fight with the Indians, once resided in this county, in Wayne township, on the west fork of Little Beaver. The son of Andrew-Deacon Adam Poe-is now living in the vicinity of Ravenna, Portage county, and has the tomahawk with which the Indian struck his father. The locality where the struggle occurred, he informs us, was nearly opposite the mouth of Little Yellow creek. We annex the particulars of this affair, firom "Doddridge's Notes," substituting, however, the name of Andrew for Adam, and vice versa, as they should be placed. In the summer of 17S2, a party of seven Wyandots, made an incursion into a settlement, some distance below Fort Pitt, and several miles from the Ohio river. Here, finding an old man alone, in a cabin, they killed him, packed up what plunder they could find, and commenced their retreat. Among their party was a celebrated Wyandot chief, who, in addition to his fame as a warrior and counsellor, was, as to his size and strength, a real giant. The news of the visit of the Indians soon spread through the neighborhood, and a party of eight good riflemen was collected, in a few hours, for the purpose of pursuing the Indians. In this party were two brothers of the names of Adam and Andrew Poe. They were both famous for courage, size and activity. This little party commenced the pursuit of the Indians, with a determination, if possible, not to suffer them to escape, as they usually did on such occasions, by making a speedy flight to the river, crossing it, and then dividing into small parties, to meet at a distant point, in a given time. The pursuit was continued the greater part of the night after the Indians had done the mischief. In the morning, the party found themselves on the trail of the Indians, which led to the river. When arrived within a little distance of the river, Andrew Poe, fearing an ambuscade, left the party, who followed directly on the trail, to creep aloniag the brink of the river bank, under cover of the weeds and bushes, to fall on the rear of the Indians, should he find them in ambuscade. He had not gone far, before he saw the Indian rafts at the water's edge. Not seeing any Indians, he stepped softly down the bank, with his rifle cocked. When about half way down, he discovered the large Wyandot chief and a small Indian, within a few steps of him. They were standing with their guns cocked, and looking in the direction of our party, who, by this time, had gone some distance lower down the bott9m. Poe took aim at the large chief, but his rifle missed fire. The Indians, hearing the snap of the gun-lock, instantly turned round and discovered Poe, who being too near them to retreat, dropped his gun and instantly sprang from the bank upon them, and seizing the large Indian by the cloths on his breast, and at the same time embracing the neck of the small one, threw them both down on the ground, himself being upmost. The Indian soon extricated himself, ran to the raft, got his tomahawk, and attempted to dispatch Poe, the large Indian holding him fast in his arms with all his might, the better to enable his fellow to effect his purpose. Poe, however, so well watched the motions of the Indian, that when in the act of aiming his blow at his head, by a vigorous and well-directed kick with one of his feet, he staggered the savage, and knocked the tomahawk out of his hand. This failure, on the part of the small Indian, was reproved, by an exclamation of contempt, from the large one. In a moment, the Indian caught up his tomahawk again, approached more cautiously, brandishing his tomahawk, and making a number of feigned blows, in defiance and derision. Poe, however, still on his guard, averted the real blow from his head, by throwing up his arm and receiving it on his wrist, in which he was severely wounded; but not so as to lose entirely the use of his hand. In this perilous moment, Poe, by a violent effort, broke loose from the Indian, snatched up one of the Iudian's guns, and shot the small Indian through the breast, as he ran up the third time to tomahawk him. Jni

Page  107 COLUMBIANA COUNTY. The large Indian was now on his feet, and grasping Poe by a shoulder and leg, threw him down on the bank. Poe instantly disengaged himself and got on his feet. The Indian then seized him again, and a new struggle ensued, which, owing to the slippery state of the bank, ended in the fall of both combatants into the water. In this situation, it was the object of each to drown the other. Their efforts to effect their purpose were continued for some time with alternate success, sometimes one being under the water, and sometimes the other. Poe at length seized the tuft of hair on the scalp of the Indian, with which he held his head under the water, until he supposed him drowned. Relaxing his hold too soon, Poe instantly found his gigantic antagonist on his feet again, and ready for another combat. In this, they were carried into the water beyond their dlepth. In this situation, they were compelled to loose their hold on each other, and swimn for mutual safety. Both sought the shore to seize a gun, and end the contest with bullets. The Indian, being the best swimmer, reached the land first. Poe seeing this, immediately turnedl back into the water to escape, if possible, being shot, by diving. Fortunately, the Indian caught up the rifle with which Poe had killed the other warrior. At this juncture, Adam Poe, missing his brother from the party, and supposing, from the report of the gun which he shot, that lie was either killed or engaged in conflict with the Ildians, hastened to the spot. On seeing him, Andrew called out to him to "kill the big Indian on shore." But Adam's gun, like that of the Indian's, was empty. The contest was now between the white man and the Indiani, who should load and fire first. Very fortunately for Poe, the Indian, in loading, drew the ramrod from the thimbles of the stock of the gun with so much violence, that it slipped out of his hand and fell a little distance from him; he quickly caught it up, and rammed down his bullet. This little delay gave Poe the advantage. He shot the Indian as he was raising his gun, to take aim at him. As soon as Adam had shot the Indian, he jumped into the river to assist his wounded brother to shore; but Andrew, thinking more of the honor of carrying the big Indian homie, as a trophy of victory, than of his own safety, urged Adam to go back, and prevent the struggling savage from rolling himself into the river, and escaping. Adam's solicitude for the life of his brother, prevented him from complying with this request. In the mean time, the Indian, jealous of the honor of his scalp, even in the agonies of death, succeeded in reaching the river and getting into the current, so that his body was never obtained. An unfortunate occurrence took place during this conflict. Just as Adam arrived at the top of the bank, for the relief of his brother, one of the party, who had followed close behind him, seeing Andrew in the river, and mistaking him for a wounded Indian, shot at him and wounded him in the shoulder. He, however, recovered from his wounds. During the contest between Andrew Poe and the Indians, the party had overtaken the remaining six of them. A desperate conflict ensued, in which five of the Indians were killed. Our loss was three men killed, and Adam Poe severely wounded. Thus ended this Spartan conflict, with the loss of three valiant men on our part, and with that of the whole of the Indian party, with the exception of one warrior. Never, on any occasions was there a greater display of desperate bravery, and seldom did a conflict take place, which, in the issue, proved fatal to so great a proportion of those engaged in it. The fatal issue of this little campaign on the side of the Indians, occasioned an universal mourning among the Wyandot nation. The big Indian, with his four brothers, all of whom were killed at the same place, were among the most distinguished chiefs and warriors of their nation. The big Indian was magnanimous, as well as brave. He, more than any other individual, contributed, by his example and influence, to the good character of the Wvandots, for lenity towards their prisoners. He would not suffer them to be killed or ill treated. This mercy to captives, was an honorable distinction in the character of the Wyandots, and was well understood by our first settlers, who, in case of captivity, thought it a fortunate circumstance to fall into their hands. New Lisbon, the county seat, is in the township of Center, 155 mniles NE. of Columbus, 35 from Steubenville, and 56 from Pittsburg. It is on the line of the Sandy and Beaver canal, on the middle fork of Little Beaver, and is surrounded by a populous and well cultivated country. The town is remarkably compact and substantially built; many of its streets are paved, and it has the appearance of a small city. The view was taken from the southeastern part of the 107

Page  108 COLUMBIANA COUNTY. public square; and shows, on the left, the county buildings, anid on the right, the market. New Lisbon was laid out in 1802, by the Rev. Lewis Kinney, of the Baptist denomination, and proprietor of the soil; a year or two after, it was made the county seat. It contains 1 Friends meeting house, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal and 1 Reformed Methodist, 1 Disciples, 1 Dutch Reformed, and 1 Seceder church, 3 newspaper printing offices, 2 woolen manufactories, 2 founderies, 2 flouring mills, 14 mercantile stores, and about 180S0 inhabitants. Carriage making and tanning are extensively carried on in this village. Public Square, New Lisbon. The Cottage of a German Swiss Emigrant. In travelling through the west, one often meets with scenes that remind him of another land. The foreigner who makes his home 108

Page  109 COLUMBIANA COUNTY. upon American soil, does not at once assimilate in language, modes of life, and current of thought with that congenial to his adopted country. The German emigrant is peculiar in this respect, and so much attached is he to his fatherland, that years often elapse ere there is any perceptible change. The annexed engraving illustrates these remarks. It shows the mud cottage of a German Swiss emigrant, now standing in the neighborhood of others of like character, in the northwestern part of this county. The frame work is of wood, with the interstices filled with light colored clay, and the whole surmounted by a ponderous shingled roof, of a picturesque form. Beside the tenement, hop vines are clustering around their slender supporters, while hard by stands the abandoned log dwelling of the emigrant-deserted for one more congenial with hi>; eriy predilections. Eastern entrance into Salem. Salem is 10 miles north of New Lisbon, in the midst of a beautiful agricultural country, thickly settled by Friends, who are industrious and wealthy. This flourishing town was laid out about 1806, by Zadock Street, John Strong and Samuel Davis, members of the society of Friends, from Redstone, Pa. Until within a few years, it was an inconsiderable village. It now contains 2 Friends meeting houses, 2 Baptist, 1 Methodist and 1 Presbyterian church, a classical academy, in good repute, under the charge of Rev. Jacob Coon, 24 mercantile stores, 2 woolen factories, 3 founderies, 1 grist mill, 2 engine shops, ana about 1300 inhabitants. There are four newspapers published here, one of which is the American Water Cure Advocate, edited by Dr. John P. Cope, principal of a water cure establishment, in full operation, in this village. The engraving shows the principal street of the town, as it appears on entering it from the east: Street's woolen factory is seen on the left. Wellsville is at the mouth of Yellow creek, on the great bend of 109

Page  110 COLUMBIANA COUNTY. the Ohio river, where it approximates nearest to Lake Erie, 50 miles below Pittsburg, and 14 from New Lisbon. It was laid out in the autumn of 1824, by William Wells, from whom it derived its name. Until 1828, it contained but a few buildings; it is now an important point for the shipment and transhipment of goods, and does a large ~~~ ___ _______ ENTERTAINMENT.. Wellsvzlle, on tke Unto. business with the surrounding country. The landing is one of the best, in all stages of water, on the river. This flourishing town has 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal Methodist, 1 Reformed Methodist, and 1 Disciples church, 1 newspaper printing office, 1 linseed oil and 1 saw mill, 1 pottery, 1 raw carding machine, 1 foundery, 16 mercantile stores, and, in 1840, had a population of 759, and in 1846, 1066. The view, taken from the Virginia bank of the Ohio, shows but a small part of the town. About a mile below, on the river bank, in a natural grove, are several beautiful private dwellings. The " Cleveland and Pittsburg railroad," 97 miles in length, will commence at Cleveland and terminate at Wellsville, and whenever built, will tend to make Wellsville a place of great business and population. A survey for this work has been recently made, and there is a good prospect of its being constructed. The first paper mill in Ohio, and the second west of the Alleghanies, was erected in 1805-6, on Little Beaver creek, near its mouth, in this county. It was called the Ohio paper mill: its proprietors were John Bever and John Coulter. Liverpool, 4 miles above Wellsville, on the Ohio, has a population of about 600. The manufacture of earthen-ware is carried on there to a considerable extent. Hanover, 10 miles west of New Lisbon, on the Sandy and Beaver canal, is a thriving town, containing 3 churches, 8 stores, and about 600 inhabitants. The following are 110

Page  111 COSHOCTON COUNTY the names of other towns in the county, with their population in 1840, some of which are smart business places. Columbiana, 273; Gillford, 263; Unity, 204; Georgetown, 219; New Garden, 194; Fairfield, 181; Calcutta, 135; Franklin Square, 151; Washingtonville, 107: Benton, Clarkson, Chambersburg, Dugannon, Damascus, Elkton, Middle Beaver, Palestine, Rochester, Salinesville and Westville are small places. COSHOCTON. COSIIOCTON was organized April 1st, 1811. The name is a Delaware word, and is derived from that of the Indian village Goschachqtenk, which is represented on a map in Loskiel, as having stood north of the mouth of the Tuscarawas river, in the fork formed by its junction with the Walhonding. The surface is mostly rolling; in some parts hilly, with fine broad rallies along the Muskingum and its tributaries. The soil is varied, and abruptly so: here we see the rich alluvion almost overhung by a red-bush hill, while, perhaps, on the very next acclivity, is seen the poplar and sugar tree, indicative of a fertile soil. With regard to sand and clay, the changes are equally sudden. The hills abound in coal and iron ore, and several salt wells have been sunk, and salt manufactured. The principal products are wheat, corn, oats and wool. It was first settled by Virginians and Pennsylvanians. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Adams, 838 Keene, 1043 Perry, 1339 Bedford, 1141 Lafayette, 848 Pike, 1115 Bethlehem, 827 Linton, 1196 Tiverton, 665 Clark, 703 Mill Creek, 907 Tuscarawas, 1144 Crawford, 1134 Monroe, 557 Virginia. 1005 Franklin, 670 New Castle, 905 Washington, 1029 Jackson, 1896 Oxford, 760 White Eyes, 997 Jefferson, 771 The population of the county, in 1820, was 7086; in 1830, 11,162, and in 1840, 21590, or 38 inhabitants to a square mile. Previous to the settlement of the country, there were several military expeditions into this region. The first in importance and in order of time, was that made by Col. Boquet, in October, 1764. The following is extracted from the lecture of CHARLES WHITTLESEY, Esq., delivered at Cleveland, Dec. 17th, 1846. The Indians were very much displeased, when they saw the English taking possession of their country, for they preferred the Frenchmen, who had been their friends and traders more than one hundred years, and had married Indian women. A noted chief of the Ottawa tribe, known by the name of Pontiac, formed the resolution to destroy all the English frontier posts at one assault, in which he was encouraged by the French traders. He succeeded in forming an alliance with the Ottawas, having 900 warriors; the Potowotomies, with 350; Miamies of the lake, 350; Chippewas, 5000; Wyandots, 300; Delawares, 600; Shawnees, 500; Kickapoos, 300; Ouatanons of the Wabash, 400, and the Pinankeshaws, 250; in all, able to muster 8950 warriors. This may be called the" First III

Page  112 COSHOCTON COUNTY. Great Northwestern Confederacy" against the whites The second took place under Brandt, or Thayandanegea, during the revolution, and was continued by Little Turtle; the third, under Tecumseh, in the last war. Pontiac's projects were brought to a focus in the fall of 1763, and the result was nearly equal to the design. The Indians collected at all the northwestern forts, under the pretence of trade and friendly intercourse; and having killed all the English traders who were scattered through their villages, they made a simultaneous attack upon the forts, and were in a great measure successful. The inhabitants of Pennsylvania and Virginia were now subject to great alarm, and frequently robberies and murders were committed upon them by the Indians, and prisoners were captured. General Gage was at this time the commander-in-chief of the British force~ in America, and his head-quarters were at Boston. He ordered an expedition of 3000 men for the relief of Detroit, to move early in the year 1764. It was directed to assemble at Fort Niagara, and proceeded aupLake Erie in boats, commanded by General Bradstreet. The other was the expedition I design principally to notice at this time. It was at first composed of the 42d and 77th regiments, who had been at the siege of Havana, in Cuba, under the command of Col. Henry Boquet. This force left Philadelphia, for the relief of Fort Pitt, in July, 1763, and after defeating the Indians at Bushy Run, in August, drove them across the Ohio. It wintered at Fort Pitt, where some of the houses, built by Col. Boquet, may still be seen, his name cut in stone upon the wall. General Gage directed Col. Boquet to organize a corps of 1500 men, and to enter the country of the Delawares and the Shawnees, at the same time that General Bradstreet was engaged in chastising the Wyandots and Ottawas, of Lake Erie, who were still investing Detroit. As a part of Col. Boquet's force was composed of militia from Pennsylvania and Virginia, it was slow to assemble. On the 5th of August, the Pennsylvania quota rendezvoused at Carlisle, where 300 of them deserted. The Virginia quota arrived at Fort Pitt on the 17th of September, and uniting with the provincial militia, a part of the 42d and 60th regiments, the army moved from Fort Pitt on the 3d of October. General Bradstreet, having dispersed the Indian forces besieging Detroit, passed into the Wyandot country, by way of Sandusky bay. He ascended the bay and river, as far as it was navigable for boats, and there made a camp. A treaty of peace and friendship was signed by the chiefs and head men, who delivered but very few of their prisoners. When Col. Boquet was at Fort Loudon, in Pennsylvania, between Carlisle and Fort Pitt, urging forward the militia levies, he received a despatch from General Bradstreet, notifying him of the peace effected at Sandusky. But the Ohio Indians, particularly the Shawnees of the Scioto river, and the Delawares of the Muskingum, still continued their robberies and murders along the frontier of Pennsylvania; and so Col. Boquet determined to proceed with his division, notwithstanding the peace of General Bradstreet, which did not include the Shawnees and Delawares. In the march from Philadelphia to Fort Pitt, Col. Boquet had shown himself to be a man of decision, courage and military genius. In the engagement at Bushy Run, he displayed that caution in preparing for emergencies, that high personal influence over his troops, and a facility in changing his plans as circumstances changed during the battle, which mark the good commander and the cool-headed officer. He had been with Forbes and Washington, when Fort Pitt was taken from the French. The Indians who were assembled at Fort Pitt, left the siege of that place and advanced to meet the force of Boquet, intending to execute a surprise and destroy the whole command. These savages remembered how easily they had entrapped General Braddock, a few years before, by the same movement, and had no doubt of success against Boquet. But he moved always in a hollow square, with his provision train and his cattle in the centre, impressing his men with the idea that a fire might open upon them at any moment. When the important hour arrived, and they were saluted with the discharge of a thousand rifles, accompanied by the terrific yells of so many savage warriors, arrayed in the livery of demons, the English and provincial troops behaved like veterans, whom nothing could shake. They achieved a complete victory, and drove the allied Indian force beyond the Ohio. From Fort Pitt, Col. Boquet proceeded westward, on the north bank of the Ohio, with such caution, that the Indians were unable to draw him into an ambuscade. At the mouth of Big Beaver, the troops crossed by a ford, and on the 6th of October, reached the Little Beaver, passed up its east branch, and across the highlands to the waters of the Yellow creek, through an open and bushy country. Reaching Sandy creek, they passed down its banks, and crossing the stream by a ford, reached a beautiful plain-where the village 112

Page  113 COSHOCTON COUNTY. of Bolivar now stands-on which they encamped. By the l(ath of October, Col. Boquet erected a stockade, two miles and forty rods below the ford, at a ravine, and completed his arrangements against a surprise. The Indians being convinced that they could not succeed in any attempt against him, made a treaty of peace, and engaged to restore all the prisoners taken from the whites. On Monday, the 22d, the troops broke up camp, and proceeded down the west bank of the Muskingum towards the Wakatomaka towns, about the mouth of the Whitewoman. The deputations accompanied them as guides. They reached the highland, one mile north of the mouth of the Walhonding or Whitewoman, on Thursday, and made a camp. The distance of this point from the mouth of Big Beaver or Mahoning river, by the route of the army, is 101 miles and 83 rods. Col. Boquet caused a stockade to be built, with four redoubts, and erected cabins and store-houses, determined to wait for the arrival of the prisoners. On the 9th of November, 206 prisoners, including women and children, had been delivered, of whom 32 men and 58 women and children were from Virginia, and 49 males and 67 females from Pennsylvania. On the 18th of November, the army broke up its cantonement at the Whitewoman and returned to Fort Pitt, which they reached on the 28th of the same month. This expedition was conducted with so much skill and prudence, that none of those frightful disasters that often result from Indian wars occurred. The savages, although in great strength, found no opportunity to make an attack. No prisoners were taken, none died of sickness, and every man of the party returned except one, who was killed and scalped by an Indian, when separated from camp. The Pennsylvania troops were under Lieut. Col. Francis, and Lieut. Col. Clayton. Col. Reid was next in command to Col. Boquet. The provincial troops were discharged, and the regulars sent to garrison Fort Loudon, Fort Bedford and Carlisle. Col. Boquet arrived at Philadelphia in January, and received a complimentary address from the legislature, and also from the house of Burgesses of Virginia. Before these resolutions reached England, the king promoted him to be a brigadier general. He was ordered to the command of the post of Mobile, and the next season died there. The scene which took place when the captives were brought in by the Indians, as mentioned in the preceding account, is thus related by Mr. Hutchins. Language indeed can but weakly describe the scene, one to which the poet or painter might have repaired to enrich the highest colorings of the variety of the human passions, the philosopher, to find ample subject for the most serious reflection, and the man to exercise all the tender and sympathetic feelings of the soul. There were to be seen fathers and mothers recognizing and clasping their once lost babes, husbands hanging round the necks of their newly recovered wives, sisters and brothers unexpectedly meeting together, after a long separation, scarcely able to speak the same language, or for some time to be sure that they were the children of the same parents. In all these interviews joy and rapture inexpressible were seen, while feelings of a very different nature were painted in the looks of others, flying from place to place, in eager inquiries after relatives not found; trembling to receive an answer to questions; distracted with doubts, hopes and fears on obtaining no account of those they sought for; or stiffened into living monuments of horror and woe, on learning their unhappy fate. The Indians too, as if wholly forgetting their usual savageness, bore a capital part in heightening this most affecting scene. They delivered up their beloved captives with the utmost reluctance-shed torrents of tears over them-recommending them to the care and protection of the commanding officer. Their regard to them continued all the while they remained in camp. They visited them from day to day, brought them what corn, skins, horses, and other matters had been bestowed upon them while in their families, accompanied with other presents, and all the marks of the most sincere and tender affection. Nay, they didn't stop here, but when the army marched, some of the Indians solicited and obtained permission to accompany their former captives to Fort Pitt, and employed themselves in hunting and bringing provisions for them on the way. A young Mingo carried this still farther, and gave an instance of love which would make a figure even in romance. 15 113

Page  114 COSHOCTON COUNTY. A young woman of Virginia, was among the captives, to whom he had formed so strong an attachment as to call her his wife. Against all the remonstrances of the imminent danger to which he exposed himself by approaching the frontier, he persisted in following her, at the risk of being killed by the surviving relatives of many unfortunate persons, who had been taken captive or scalped by those of his nation. Among the captives, a woman was brought into camp at Muskingum with a babe about three months old at the breast. One of the Virginia volunteers soon knew her to be his wife! She had been taken by the Indians about six months before. He flew with her to his tent and clothed her and his child with proper apparel. But their joy after the first transports, was soon dampened by the reflection that another dear child about two years old, taken with the mother had been separated from her, and was still missing, although many children had been brought in. A few days afterwards, a number of other persons were brought in, among them was sev eral children. The woman was sent for, and one supposed to be hers was produced to her. At first sight she was not certain, but viewing the child with great earnestness, she soon recol lected its features, and was so overcome with joy, that forgetting her sucking child, she dropt it from her arms, and catching up the new found child, in ecstacy, pressed it to her breast, and bursting into tears, carried it off unable to speak for joy. The father rising up with the babe she had let fall, followed her in no less transport and affection. But it must not be deemed that there were not some, even grown persons who showed an unwillingness to return. The Shawnees were obliged to bind some of their prisoners, and force them along to the camp, and some women who had been delivered up, afterwards found means to escape, and went back to the Indian tribes. Some who could not make their escape, clung to their savage acquaintances at parting, and continued many days in bitter lamentations, even refusing sustenance. Another expedition was undertaken in the summer of 1780, and directed against the Indian villages at the forks of the Muskingum. The narrative of this, usually known as "the Coshocton campaign," we derive from Doddridge's Notes. The place of rendezvous was Wheeling. The number of regulars and militia, about eight hundred. From Wheeling they made a rapid march, by the nearest route, to the place of their destina.ion. When the army reached the river, a little below Salem, the lower Moravian town, Col. Broadhead sent an express to the missionary in that place, the Rev. John Heckewelder, informing him of his arrival in his neighborhood, with his army, requesting a small supply of provisions, and a visit from him in his camp. When the missionary arrived at the camp, the general informed him of the object of the expedition he was engaged in, and inquired of him, whether any of the christian Indians were hunting, or engaged in business in the direction of his march. On being answered in the negative, he stated that nothing would give him greater pain, than to hear that any of the Moravian Indians had been molested by the troops, as these Indians had always, from the commencement of the war, conducted themselves in a manner that did them honor. A part of the militia had resolved on going up the river, to destroy the Moravian villages, but were prevented from executing their project by Gen. Broadhead, and Col. Shepherd, of Wheeling. At White Eyes' Plain, a few miles from Coshocton, an Indian prisoner was taken. Soon afterwards two more Indians were discovered, one of whom was wounded, but he, as well as the other, made their escape. The commander, knowing that these two Indians would make the utmost dispatch in going to the town, to give notice of the approach of the army, ordered a rapid march, in the midst of a heavy fall of rain, to reach the town before them, and take it by surprise. Tne plan succeeded. The army reached the place in three divisions. The right and left wings approached the river a little above and below the town, while the center marched directly upon it. The whole number of the Indians in the village, on the east side of the river, together with ten or twelve from a little village, some distance above, were made prisoners, without firing a single shot. The river having risen to a great height, owing to the recent fall of rain, the army could not cross it. Owing to this, the villages with their inhabitants on the west side of the river, escaped destruction. Among the prisoners, sixteen warriors were pointed out by Pekillon, a friendly Delaware chief, who was with the army of Broadhead. A little after dark, a council of war was held, to determine on the fate of the warriors in custody. They were doomed to death, and by order of the conmmander, they were bound, taken a little distance below the town and dispatched with tomahawks and spears, and scalped. 114

Page  115 COSIIOCTON COUNTY. Early the next morning, an Indian presented himself on the opposite bank of the river and asked for the big captain. Broadhead presented himself, and asked the Indian what he wanted? To which he replied, "I want peace." " Send over some of your chiefs," said Broadhead. "May be you kill," said the Indian. He was answered, "They shall not be killed." One of the chiefs, a well-looking man, came over the river, and entered into conversation with the commander in the street; but while engaged in conversation, a man of the name of Wetzel came up behind him, with a tomahawk concealed in the bosom of his hunting shirt, and struck him oil the back of his head. He fell and instantly expired. About 11 or 12 o'clock, the army commenced it retreat from Coshocton. Gen. Broadhead committed the care of the prisoners to the militia. They were about twenty in namber. After marching about half a mile, the men commenced killing them. In a short time they were all despatched, except a few women and children, who were spared and taken to Fort Pitt, and after some time, exchanged for an equal number of their prisoners. Public Square, Coshocton. Coshocton, the county seat, is finely situated on the Muskingum, at the junction of the Tuscarawas, with the Walhonding river, 83 miles northeast from Columbus, and 30 from Zanesville. The ground on which it is built, for situation, could scarcely be improved, as it lies in four broad natural terraces, each elevated about nine feet above the other, the last of which, is about one thousand feet wide. The town is much scattered. About sixty rods back from the Muskingum, is the public square, containing four acres, neatly fenced, planted with young trees and covered with a green sward; on it stand the county buildings, represented in the engraving. Coshocton was laid out in April, 1802, by Ebenezer Buckingham and John Matthews, under the name of Tuscarawa, and changed to its present appellation in 1811. The county was first settled only a few years prior to the formation of the town: among the early settlers, were Col. Chas. Williams, Wm. Morrison, Isaac Hoglin, Geo. M'Culloch, Andrew Craig and Wm. Whitten. Coshocton contains 2 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist Episcopal, and 1 Protestant Methodist church, 6 mercantile stores, 2 newspaper printing offices, I woolen factory, 1 flouring mill, and had in 1840, 625 inhabitants. In times of high water, steamboats occasionally run up to Coshocton. "A short distance below Coshocton," says Dr. Hildreth in Silliman's Journal, "on one of those elevated gravelly alluvions, so common on the rivers of the west, has been recently discovered a very singular ancient burying ground. From some remains of wood still [1835] apparent in the earth around the bones, the bodies seem all to have been deposited in coffins; and what is still more curious, is the fact, that the bodies buried here were gen. 115

Page  116 CRAWFORD COUNTY. erally not more than from three to four and a half feet in length. They are very numerous, and must have been tenants of a considerable city, or their numbers could not have been so great. A large number of graves have been opened, the inmates of which are all of this pigmy race. No metallic articles or utensils have yet been found, to throw any light on the period or nation to which they belonged. Similar burying grounds have been found in Tennessee, and near St. Louis, ill Missouri." We learn orally from another source, that this burying ground covered, in 1830, about 10 acres. The graves were arranged in regular rows, with avenues between, and the heads of all were placed to the west and the feet to the east. In one of them was a skeleton with pieces of oak boards and iron wrought nails. The corpse had evidently been dismembered before burial, as the skull was found among the bones of the pelvis, and other bones were displaced. The skull itself was triangular in shape, much flattened at the sides and back, and in the posterior part having an orifice, evidently made by some weapon of war, or bullet. In 1830, dwarf oaks of many years' growth were over several of the graves. The grave yard has since been plowed over. Nothing was known of its origin by the early settlers. Below the grave yard is a beautiful mound. On the west bank of the Muskingum, opposite to and connected with Coshocton by a bridge, is Roscoe. This town was laid off in 1816, by James Calder, under the name of Caldersburg. An addition was subsequently laid off by Ransom & Swane, which being united with it, the place was called Roscoe, from Wm. Roscoe, the English author. The Walhonding canal, which extends to the village of Rochester, a distance of 25 miles, unites with the Ohio canal at Roscoe. This town is at present a great wheat depot on the canal, and an important place of shipment and transhipment. Its capacities for a large manufacturing town are ample. "The canals bring together the whole water power of the Tuscarawas and Walhonding, the latter standing in the canal at this place, forty feet above the level of the Muskingum, and the canal being comparatively little used, the whole power of the stream, capable of performing almost any thing desired, could be used for manufacturing purposes; and sites for a whole manufacturing village, could be purchased comparatively for a trifle." Roscoe contains 1 Methodist Episcopal church, 5 dry goods and 2 grocery stores, 2 forwarding houses, 1 fulling, 2 saw and 2 flouring mills, and had in 1840, 468 inhabitants. From the hills back of town, a fine prospect is presented up the vallies of the Tuscarawas and Walhonding,, and down that of the Muskingum. The following are the names of small villages in the county, with their population, according to the census of 1840: since then some of them have much increased. East Union, 210; West Carlisle, 213; New Castle, 155; Rochester, 111; West Bedford, 103; and Keene, 100; New Bedford, Evansburg, Birmingham, Chili, Jacobsport, Lewisville, Plainfield, Van Buren and Warsaw, each less than 100. CRAWFORD. CRAWFORD was formed from old Indian Territory, April 1st, 1820. The surface is generally level, and in part slightly rolling: the south 116

Page  117 CRAWFORD COUNTY. and west part is beautiful prairie land. The plains are usually cov ered with a rich vegetable loam of from 6 to 15 inches deep: the subsoil in most parts of the county is clay, mixed with lime; in many places-particularly the plains-a mixture of marl. Several rich beds of shell marl have already been discovered. The whole county is well adapted to grazing. The principal products are wheat, corn, oats, clover and timothy seeds, grass, wool and horned cattle. There are some fine limestone quarries. The following is a i;st of the townships in 1840, with their population: Antrim, 261 Holmes, 744 Pitt, 423 Bucyrus, 1654 Jackson, 636 Sandusky, 679 Center, 132 Liberty, 1469 Sycamore, 958 Chatfield, 878 Lykens, 742 Tymochtee, 1659 Cranberry, 680 Mifflin, 316 Whetsone, 1124 Crawford, 812 The population of Crawford, in 1830, was 4,788, and in 1840, 13,167. In 1845, the county was much reduced by the formation of Wyandot. This county derived its name from Col. William Crawford, who was born in Virginia, in 1732, the same year with Washington. In 1758, he was a captain in Forbes expedition, which took possession of Fort Duquesne, on the site of Pittsburg. Washington was the friend of Crawford, and often in his visits to the then west, was an inmate of his humble dwelling, in Fayette county. He was a brave and energetic man, and, at the commencement of the revolution, raised a regiment by his own exertions, and received the commission of colonel of continentals. He often led parties against the Indians across the Ohio. In 1782, he reluctantly accepted the command of an expedition against the Ohio Indians. On this occasion he was taken prisoner, and burnt to death amid the most excruciating tortures, on the Tyemochtee, in the former limits of this, but now within the new county of Wyandot. Bucyrus, the county seat, is on the Sandusky river-here a small stream-62 miles N. of Columbus, and 46 firom Sandusky city. The view shows, on the right, the Lutheran church, and on the left, the county buildings and the academy. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Lutheran, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist and 1 Protestant Methodist church; 14 stores, 1 grist, 1 saw and 2 fulling mills, 1 newspaper printing office and a population of about 1,000: in 1840, it had 704 inhabitants. On the land of R. W. Musgrave, in the southeastern part of the town, a gas well has recently been dug. On first reaching the water-a distance of about 18 feet-it flew up about 6 feet with a loud, roaring noise; a pump has been placed over it, and the gas is conducted to the surface by a pipe, which, when a torch is applied, burns with a brilliant flame. Bucyrus was laid out Feb. 11th, 1822, by Samuel Norton and James Kilbourne, proprietors of the soil. The first settler on the site of the town was Samuel Norton, who moved in from Pa. in 1819. He wintered in a small cabin made of poles, which stood just north of his present residence on the bank of the Sandusky. This region of country was not thrown into market until August, 1820, at which time it abounded in bears, wolves, catamounts, foxes and other wild animals. When he came, there were but a few settlers in the 117

Page  118 CRAWFORD COUNTY. county, principally squatters on the Whetstone, the nearest of whom was on that stream eight miles distant. North and west of Mr. N. there was not a single settler in the county. Others of the early settlers in the town, whose names are recollected, were David and Michael Beedle, Daniel M'Michael, John Kent, Wm. Young, Jacob Shaeffer, Thomas and James Scott, James Steward, David Stein, George Black, John Blowers and Nehemiah Squires. The first frame house was built by Samuel Bailey, and is the small frame building standing next to, and north of F. Margraf's residence. The first brick dwelling is the one nowv owned by Wm. Timanlus, on the public square. The Mfethodists built the first church. View in Bucyrua. On the 13th of August, 1838, part of the skeleton of a mastodon was discovered in wet, marshy land belonging to Abraham Hahn, on the Sandusky plains, near Bucyrus. "This skeleton was particularly interesting and important to science, as the head and skull bones were perfect in all their parts, and furnished the only known specimen from which a correct idea could be obtained respecting the massive and singularly-shaped head of this animal." The horizontal length of the skull was 3 feet 3 inches; perpendicular height, 3 ft. 2- inches; weight of skull and upper jaw, 160 pounds, to which added the weight of the lower jaw, 77 pounds, made 237 pounds. The length of the back molar tooth was 721 inches. Kniseley's or Crawford sulphur spring is 7 miles NE. of Bucyrus, in Sandusky township. The water is highly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen, tarnishes silver and deposites a sulphurous precipitate a short distance from the spring. One of its most remarkable features is a deposit of a reddish or purple sediment at the bottom, giving to the water a color resembling a tincture of iodine. The water is a gentle cathartic, and is diuretic and diaphoretic in its effects. The place is now improved, a boarding house being there, and it proves a valuable resort for invalids. A few rods from it is a burning spring. The Annapolis sulphur is a beautiful, clear and copious spring, owned by Mr. Sliffer, who has neatly enclosed it with an iron railing. It possesses medicinal virtues. 118

Page  119 CUYAHOGA COUNTY. Opposite Bucyrus, near the river, is a chalybeate spring of toni(c qualities. There are various beds of peat in the county, the most extensive of which is in a wet prairie, called Cranberry marsh, in Cranberry township, which, as shown on the map, contains nearly 2,000 acres. This marsh formerly annually produced thousands of bushels of cranberries. The peat upon this marsh is estimated at two millions and five hundred thousand cords, by Dr. C. Briggs in the State Geographical report, from which we have derived the principal facts in this paragraph. Galeon, 11 miles SE. of Bucyrus, has 3 stores, 2 or 3 churches and about 375 inhabitants. Leesville, about 10 E. of Bucyrus, has 2 stores, 2 churches and about 250 inhabitants. Near this place is a locality called "the battle ground," where, it is said, Crawford, when on his way to Upper Sandusky, had a skirmish with some Indians. De Kalb, West Liberty, Middletown, New Washington, Annapolis, Benton, Oletangy and Osceola, are small places; at the last named, the Broken Sword creek has a fall of 32 feet within a space of two miles. CUYAHOGA. CUYAHOGA was formed from Geauga county, June 7th, 1807, and organized in May, 1810. The name was derived from the river, and is said to signify, in the Indian language, "crooked," a term significant of the river, which is very winding, and has its sources farther north than its mouth. The surface is level or gently undulating. Near the lake the soil is sandy, elsewhere generally a clayey loam. The vallies of the streams are highly productive in corn and oats; in other parts, the principal crops are wheat, barley and hay. The county produces a great variety and amount of excellent fruit; also, cheese, butter, beef cattle and wool. Bog iron ore is found in the west part, and furnaces are in operation. Excellent grindstone quarries are worked, and grindstones largely exported. The sandstone from these quarries, is beginning to be a prominent article of commerce, being in some cases shipped for building purposes, as far west as Chicago. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Bedford, 2021 Independence, 754 Rockport, 1235 Brecksville, 1124 Mayfield, 852 Royalton, 1051 Brooklyh, 1409 Middleburg, 339 Solon, 774 Cleveland, 7037 Newburg, 1342 Strongville, 1151 Dover, 966 Olmstead, 659 Warrensville, 1085 Euclid, 1774 Parma, 965 Orange, 1114 The population of Cuyahoga, in 1810, was 1495; in 1820, 6328; in 1830, 10,362, and in 1840, 26,512, or 43 inhabitants to a square mile. 119

Page  120 CUYAIIOGA COUNTY. As early as 1755, there was a French station within the present limits of Cuyahoga. On Lewis Evans' map of the middle Brit't /L. ~ ~R_I~ _ _ =,_ — ish colonies, published that year, there is L. I___~~__ —- marked upon the west bank of the Cuya hoga, the words, "French house," which was doubtless the station of a French trader. The ruins of a house, supposed ,\So~~~ ~ ~ to be those of the one alluded to, have been discovered on Foot's farm, in Brooklyn township, about five miles from the mouth I of the Cuyahoga. The small engraving A annexed, is from the map of Evans, and t}enckhts, ae, ATawas ~'-"~ delineates the geography as in the ori ginal. ",En<Qw~esA~ In 1786, the Moravian missionary Zeis berger, with his Indian converts, left De t doit, and arrived at the mouth of the As,_ Ciivyallog, ill a vessel called the Mack \{ Do ~ tha~iiw. troli theince, they proce(&led up thile river about ten miles from the site of Cleveland, and settled in an abandoned village of the Ottiwas, within the present limits of Independence, which they called Pilgerruh, i. e. Pilgirnim's rest. Their stay was brief, for in the April following, they left for Huron river, and settled near the site of Milan, Erie county, at a locality they named New Salem. The British, who, after the revolutionary war, refused to yield possession of the lake country west of the Cuyahoga, occupied to its shores until 1790. Their traders had a house in Ohio city, north of the Detroit road, on the point of the hill, near the river, when the surveyors first arrived here in 1796. From an early day, Washington, Jefferson and other leading Virginia statesmen regarded the mouth of the Cuyahoga, as an important commercial position. The first permanent settlement within the limits of Cuyahoga, was made at CLEVELAND, in the autumn of 1796. On the 4th of July previous, the first surveying party of the Reserve, landed at Conneaut. In September and October, the corps laid out the city, which was named in honor of the land company's agent, Gen. Moses Cleveland.* By the 18th of October, the surveyors quitted the place, leaving Mr. Job V. Stiles and family, and Mr. Edward Paine, who were the only persons that passed the winter of 1796 and'7, within the limits of the town. Their lonely residence was a log cabin, which stood near the site of the Commercial bank. The nearest white settlement west, was at the mouth of the Raisin; south or east at Fort M'Intosh, at the mouth of Big Beaver; and northeast, at Conneaut. Those families that wintered at Conneaut, suffered severely for want of food. The surveying party, on reaching the Reserve the succeeding season, again made Cleveland their head quarters. Early this season, Elijah Gunn and Judge Kingsbury removed here from Conneaut, with their families, and in the fall, the latter removed to Newburg, where he still resides, at an advanced age. The little colony was increased also by the arrival of Major Lorenzo Carter and Ezekiel Hawley, with their families. In 1798, Rodolphus Edwards and Nathaniel Doane, with their families, settled in Cleveland. To faintly show the difficulty of travelling at that time, it is stated that Mr. Doane was ninety-two days on his journey from Chatham, Conn. In the latter part of the summer and in the fall, every person in the town was sick, either with the billious fever or the fever and ague. Mr. Doane's family consisted of nine persons: the only one of them having sufficient strength to take care of them and bring a pail of water, was Seth Doane, then a lad of thirteen years of age, and even he had daily attacks of the fever and ague. Such was the severity of the billious fever at that time, that a person having only daily attacks of fever and ague, was deemed lucky. There was much suffering for the want ot food, particularly that proper for the sick. The only way this family was supplied, for two * GEN. MosEs CLEVELAN.D was born in Canterbury, Conn., about the year 1755, and graduated at Yale College, in 1777. He was bred a lawyer, and practised his profession in his native town. He married a sister of Gen. Henry Champion, of Colchester, and died at Canterbury, in 1806, leaving a large fortune. He was a man of note among his townsmen, and often represented them in the legislature of Connecticut. In person, he was of medium stature, thick set and portly, and of a very dark complexion. 120

Page  121 CUYAIIOGA COUNTY. nmonths or more, was through thie exertions of this boy, who daily, after having an attack of the ague, went to Judge Kingsbury's, in Newburg-five miles distant-got a peck of corn, mniashed it in a hand-mill, waited until a second attack of the ague was over, and then started on his return. There was at one time a space of several days when he was too ill to make the trip, during which, turnips comprised about all the vegetables the family had. Fortunately, Major Carter having only the fever and ague, was enabled, through the aid of his hounds and trusty rifle, to procure abundance of venison and other wild game. His family being somewvhat acclimated, suffered less than that of Mr. Doane. Their situation can scarcely be conceived of at the present day. Destitute of a physician, and with a few medicines, necessity taught them to use such means as nature had placed within their reach. For calomel, they substituted pills from the extract of the bark of the butternut, and in lieu of quinine, used dog wood and cherry bark. In November, four men, who had so far recovered as to have ague attacks no oftener than once in two or three days, started ill the only boat for Walnut creek, Pa., to obtain a winter's supply of flour for the colony. When below Euclid creek, a storm arose, drove them ashore, stove their boat in pieces, and it was with difficulty they saved their lives and regained the city. During the winter and summer followiing, the colony had no flour, except that ground in hand and coffee mills, which, for want of proper means to separate fiom the bran, was made into a bread similar to that of Graham's. In this summer, the Conn. land company opened the first road on the Reserve, which commenced about ten miles from the lake on the Pennsyvlvania line, and extended to Cleveland. In January,'99, Mr. Doiane moved to Doane's corners, and friom that tinme until April, 1800-a space of fifteen iimoths-Major Carter's was the only white fitmily in Cleveland. During the spring of '99, Wheeler WV. Williams, from Norwich, Conn.., and Major Wyatt, erected a stmall grist and a saw mill at the falls, on the site of Newburg, which being the flirst mill on the Reserve, spread joy atnongl the pioneers. A short time prior to this, each house in Cleveland had its own hand grist miill, in the chimney corner, which is thus described by one of the early settlers. "The stones were of the common grindstone grit, and about four inches thick and twenty in diameter. T'he runner was turned by hand, with a pole set in the top of it, near the verge.'I'he upper end of the pole went into another hole inserted into a board, and nailed on the under side of the joist, immediately over the hole in the verge of the runner. One person turned the stone, and another fed the corn into the eye with his hands. It was very hard work to grind, and the operators alternately changed places." In 1800, several settlers came, among whom were David Clark and Major Amos Spafford, and from this time the town slowly progressed. The first ball in Cleveland, was on the 4th of July, 1801, and was held at Major Carter's log cabin, on the side hill; John and Benjamin Wood and R. I-. Bliln, managers, and Major Samuel Jones, musician and master of ceremonies. The company consisted of about thirty, of both sexes. Mr. Jones' proficiency on the violin, won him great favor. Notwithstanding the dancers had a rough puncheon floor, and no better beverage to enliven their spirits than whiskey, sweetened with maple sugar, yet it is doubtful if the anniversary of American inldependence was ever celebrated in Cleveland by a more joyful and harmonious company, than those who danced the scamper-down, double-shuffle, western-swing and half-moon, forty-six years ago in the log cabin of Major Carter. The Indians were accustomed, at this period, to meet every autumn at Cleveland, in great numbers, and pile up their canoes at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. From thence they scattered into the interior, and passed the winter in hunting. In the spring, they returned, disposed their furs to traders, and launching their bark canoes upon the lake, re turned to their towns, in the region of the Sandusky and Maumee, where they remained until the succeeding autumn, to raise their crops of corn and potatoes. In this connection, we give an incident, showing the fearlessness and intrepidity of Major Lorenzo Carter, a native of Rutland, Vt., and a thorough pioneer, whose rough exterior covered a warm heart. Some time in the spring of'99, the Chippewas and Ottawas, to the number of several hundred, having disposed of their furs, determined to have one of their drinking frolics at their camp, on the west bank of the Cuyahoga. As a precautionary measure, they gave up their tomahawks and other deadly weapons to their squaws to secrete, so that, in the height of their frenzy, they need not harmn each other. They then sent to the Major for whiskey, from time to time, as they wanted it; and in proportion as they be came intoxicated, he weakened it with water. After a while, it resulted in the Indians becoming partially sober, from drinking freely of diluted liquor: perceiving the trick, they became much enraged. Nine of them came on to the Major's, swearing vengeance on him and family. Carter being apprised of their design, and knowing they were partially intoxicated, felt himself to be fully their match, although possessing but poor weapons of 16 121

Page  122 CUYAHOGA COUNTY. defence. Stationing himself beind his cabin door with a fire poker, he successively knocked down three or four, as they attempted to enter, and then leaping over their prostrate bodies, fuiriously attacked those on the outside, and drove them to their canoes. Soon after, a deputation of squaws came over to make peace with the Major, when, arming himself, he fearlessly repaired to their camp alone, and settled the difficulty. Such eventually became his influence over the Indians, that they regarded him as a magician, and many of them were made to believe that he could shoot them with a rifle, and not break their skins. The first militia muster in Cuyahoga county, was held on the 16th of June, 1506, at Doane's Corners. Nathaniel Doane was captain; Sylvanus Burke, lieutenant; and Sam uel Jones, ensign, with about fifty privates. The surveying party being at Cleveland, and many strangers, this event attracted much attention. Never had so many whites been collected together in this vicinity, as on this occasion. The military marched and counter marched to the lively roll of the drum of Joseph Burke, who had been drum major in the revolution, and the soul-stirring strains of the fife of Lewis Dill. " Yankee Doodle," "Hail Columbia," and "Who's Afeard," were among the tunes that aroused the martial spirit of many a gallant heart, as he wielded, perhaps, some ancient relic of the revolution upon his shoulder. Early in the spring previous, a small boat, containing a Mr. Hunter, wife and child, a colored man named Ben, and a small colored boy, who were moving to Cleveland, were overtaken on the lake by a squall of wind, and driven ashore east of Rocky river. The bluff being perpendicular, they were unable to ascend. They, however, climbed up the rocks as far as possible-the surge constantly beating over them-with the vain hope that the storm would subside; but on Saturday it increased, and during Sunday, Mrs. Hunter expired, the children having died previously. On Monday, Mr. Hunter expired. Black Ben held out until Tuesday, when, the storin subsiding, some French traders, going in a vessel from Cleveland to Detroit, discovered him, took him aboard, and returned with him to Cleveland. Thus, for three days and four nights, had he been without sleep or food, and with little clothing, exposed to the continued surge, and holding on for life to some small bushes ill the crevices of the rocks. Ben was treated with great kindness by Major Carter, in whose fanmily he remained an invalid over a year. Early the second spring succeeding, a similar incident occurred near the same place. Stephen Gilbert, Joseph Plumb, Adolphus Spafford and Mr. Gilmore started on a fishing expedition, for Maumee river, in a Canadian batteaux. They had aboard some goods and provisions, sent by Major Perry to his son Nathan, at Black river, and a hired woman, named Mary, as a passenger to that plaee. A Mr. White, of Newburg, and two sons of Mr. Plumb, not arriving in time, started by land for the mouth of Black river, intending to overtake the boat at that point. Pursuing the Indian trail, on the bank of the lake, they discovered, when about half way, the wreck of the boat on the beach, by the rocky shore, about sixty feet below them, in what is now Dover, and near it, Mr. Plumb, seriously injured, and suffering with cold. From him, they learned that a squall of wind had upset their boat, when about a mile from shore, and that all but him had drowned. They were all good swimmers but Plumb, who luckily got astraddle of the boat after it had upset, and floated ashore. The others made for the shore, Gilbert telling his companions to divest themselves of their clothing as much as possible: but all their efforts failed, the coldness of the water chilled them, so that they could not swim. Having learned the circumstances from Mr. Plumb, they made every effort to reach him, but were prevented by the steepness of the rocks. Mr. White and one of Mr. Plumb's sons hastened to Black river, to procure means of relief; leaving the other son to comfort his father. After they left, he climbed up an iron-wood sapling, which bent with his weight, and dropping about thirty feet perpendicular, joined his parent. In the night, Quintus F. Atkins and Nathan Perry returned with White, and recovered Mr. Plumb, by hauling him up the bank with a rope, by the light of a torch. This was no easy task for men worn down by fatigue, Mr. Plumb's weight being 220 pounds. The corpses of Gilmer and Spafford were afterwards found and buried at Cleveland; that of the colored woman was discovered and interred at Black river. This was a melancholy event to the colony. Of the eighteen deaths that had taken place among the inhabitants of Cleveland, from the first settlement in 1796, a period of twelve years, eleven had been by drowning. During this time, the nearest settled physicians were at Hudson, 24, and Austinburg, 50 miles.* On the 26th of June, 1812, an Indian, named O'Mic, was hung for murder, at Cleveland, on the public square. Fearing an attempt at rescue on the part of the Indians, a * The preceding part of this historical sketch, is mainly from the MSS. of JOHN BARR, Esq., of Cleveland, who is collecting materials for a history of the Western Reserve. 122

Page  123 CUYAHOGA COUNTY. large number of armed citizens from this and the adjoining counties assembled. At the hour of execution, he objected to going upon the scaffold; this difficulty was removed by the promise of a pint of whiskey, which he swallowed, and then took his departure for the land of spirits. In 1813, Cleveland became a depot of supplies and rendezvous for troops engaged in the war. A small stockade was erected at the foot of Ontario street, on the lake bank, and a permanent garrison stationed here, under Major (now Gelneral) Jessup, of the U. S. army. The return of peace was celebrated by libations of whiskey and the roar of artillery. One worthy, known as" Uncle Abram," was much elevated on the occasion. He carried the powder in an open tin pail, upon his arm, while another, to touch off the gun, carried a stick with fire at the end, kept alive by swinging it through the air. Amid the general excitement, a spark found its way to Uncle Abram's powder, about the time the gun was discharged; and his body was seen to rise twenty feet in the air, and return by its own gravity to the earth, blackened and destitute of clothing. He was dead, if his own vociferations were to be believed; but they were not, and he soon recovered from his wounds. CLEVELAND is at the northern termination of the Ohio canal, 139 miles NE. from Columbus, 255 from Cincinnati, 130 from Pittsburg, 190 from Buffalo, 455 from New York, and 130 from Detroit. It was incorporated as a village in 1814, and as a city in 1836. Excepting a small portion of it on the river, it is situated on a gravelly plain, elevated about 100 feet above the lake, of which it has a most commanding prospect. Some of the common streets are 100 feet wide, and the principal business one, Main street, has the extraordinary width of 132 feet. It is one of the most beautiful towns in the Union, and much taste is displayed in the private dwellings and disposition of shrubbery. "The location is dry and healthy, and the view of the meanderings of the Cuyahoga river, and of the steamboats and shipping in the port, and leaving or entering it, and of the numerous vessels on the lake under sail, presents a prospect exceedingly interesting, from the high shore of the lake. "Near the center of the place is a public square of ten acres, divided into four parts, by intersecting streets, neatly enclosed, and shaded with trees. The court house and one or two churches front on this square. "The harbor of Cleveland is one of the best on Lake Erie. It is formed by the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, and improved by a pier on each side, extending 425 yards into the lake, 200 feet apart, and faced with substantial stone masonry. Cleveland is the great mart of the greatest grain-growing state in the Union, and it is the Ohio and Erie canals that have made it such, though it exports much by the way of the Welland canal to Canada. It has a ready connection with Pittsburg, through the Pennsylvania and Ohio canal, which extends from the Ohio canal at Akron to Beaver creek, which enters the Ohio below Pittsburg. The natural advantages of this place are unsurpassed in the west, to which it has a large access by the lakes and the Ohio canal. But the Erie canal constitutes the principal source of its vast advantages; without that great work, it would have remained in its former insignificance." The construction of two contemplated railroads, the first connecting Clevelanc with Wellsville, on the Ohio; and the last, with Columbus, will ado much to the business facilities of the place. The government of the city is vested in a mayor and council, 123

Page  124 CUYAHOGA COUNTY. which consists of three members from each of the three wards into which the city is divided, and also an alderman from each ward. The following is a list of the mayors of the city since its organization, with the time of their election: John W. Willey, 1836 and 1837; Joshua Mills, 1838 and 1839; Nicholas Dockstader, 1840; John W. Allen, 1841; Joshua Mills, 1842; Nelson Hayward, 1843; Saml. Starkweather, 1844 and 1845; George Hoadley, 1846, and J. A. Harris, 1847. tedtical College. The Cleveland medical college, although established but four or five years, is in a very flourishing condition, and has gained so much in public estimation, as to be equalled in patronage by only one or two similar institutions in the west. It has seven professors, and all the necessary apparatus and facilities for instruction. In 1837, the government purchased nine acres on the height overlookiiing the lake, for the purpose of erecting a marine hospital; up to the present time, but little more than the foundation has been laid. It is to be of Ionic architecture, of hewn stone, and will combine convenience and beauty. There are in Cleveland a large number of mercantile and mechanical establishments, 4 banks, 3 daily, 6 weekly, and 1 semi-monthly newspapers, and 21 religious societies, viz: 3 Episcopal, 2 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Catholic, 1 Bethel, 1 Wesleyani Methodist, 1 German Evangelical Protestant, 1 German Mission Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1 German Evangelical Lutheran, 1 Evangelical Association of North America, 1 Associate Presbyterian, 1 Seceder, 1 Disciples, 1 Jewish, 1 Universalist and 2 Second Advent. The business of the port of Cleveland, both by canal and lake, is very heavy, and constantly increasing. The number of arrivals by lake, in 1845, was 2136; of these, 927 124

Page  125 CUYAHOGA COUNTY. were steamers. The tonnage then owned at this port, amounted to 13,493, and number of vessels, of all kinds, 85. The total value of the imports and exports by the lake, was over $9,000,000. The population of Cleveland, on the east side of the Cuyahoga, was, in the year 1796, 3; 1798, 16; 1825, 500; 1831, 1100; 1835, 5080; 1840, 6071, and 1846, 10,135. Of the last, 67SO0 were natives of the United States; 1472 of Germany; 808 of England; 632 of Ireland; 144 of Canada; 97 of the Isle of MAan, and 96 of Scotland. OHIo CITY is beautifully situated on a commanding eminence on the west side of the Cuyahoga, opposite Cleveland. It was incorporated as a city, March 3d, 1836, and its government vested in a mayor and council. The city is divided into three wards, and is well laid out and built. There are three churches, viz.: 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist Episcopal and 1 Episcopalian-the last of which is a Gothic structure of great beautv. The population of Ohio city, in 1840, was 1,577, and ill 1845, 2,4162. Chagrin Falls. The village of Chagrin Falls is in the new township of the same name, on Chagrin river, 17 miles SE. from Cleveland. The name Chagrin, originally applied to the river, then to the present village of Willoughby, in Lake county, and later to this town, "is supposed to have been derived from the sore disappointment of some surveyors who mistook it for the Cuyahoga river, and followed their respective lines to the lake. It had, however, long been previously known by that name, in consequence, it is said, of the wreck and sufferings of a French crew near its mouth, the particulars of which have not been preserved." In Evans' map, published in 1755, the river is called "Elk." Prior to the war of 1812, the Indians were numerous in this vicinity. In July, 1817, a person now living in the village, in company with another, visited the spot and killed a variety of wild game, such as bears, deer, turkeys, &c., and a short distance east, alarmed a drove of fi-om 40 to 50 elk. There were then several ancient mounds and burial places on the village site. On the 1st of April, 1833, two families commenced the foundation of the settlement, and on that day the first blow was struck with an axe upon the village site, and shortly after a log house and saw mill built where the furnace now stands. In the succeeding fall, the town was laid out by Noah Graves and Dr. S. S. Handerson. It was commenced without cash capital, and has been built up by the indefatigable enterprise of its inhabitants, many of whom are of Connecticut 125

Page  126 CUYAHOGA COUNTY. origin. For want of money, bartering and exchange of labor has been extensively practised. Notwithstanding these disadvantages, the village has scarcely an equal in Ohio in its rapid progress from a wilderness to a flourishing town. All that it requires to make it a large place, is a canal or railroad, to fuirnish transportation facilities to Lake Erie. Chagrin Falls contains 1 Congregational, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Wesleyan Methodist and 1 Free Will Baptist church; 1 academy, 9 mercantile stores, 1 axe and edge tool, 1 sash, 1 wheel and wheel head, 1 wooden bowl and three woolen factories; 1 paper, 2 flouring and 3 saw mills; 1 printing office and bindery; 1 furnace and machine establishment, 1 carriage, 2 tin, 3 harness and 3 cabinet shops, and about 1,200 inhabitants. The Cleveland and Pittsburg stages pass through the town, and a carriage daily runs to the former place. Near the village is an inexhaustible grindstone quarry, which is extensively worked. The township of Chagrin Falls was organized in June, 1S44, within which, including the village, there is a fall of 225 feet in the river, about one third of which is improved. The view shows the village as it appears from an elevation below, called either the side or slide bank. It was drawn and engraved by Mr. Jehu Brainerd of Cleveland. In the distance represented, the river has about one hundred feet descent. We introduce an incident in the life of an early settler, a lady, who was recently living but a few miles distant from Chagrin Falls. Joel Thorp, with his wife Sarah, moved with an ox team, in May,'99, from North Haven, Connecticut, to Millsford, in Ashtabula county, and were the first settlers in that region. They soon had a small clearing on and about an old beaver dam, which was very rich and mellow. Towards the first of June, the family being short of provisions, Mr. Thorp started offalone to procure some through the wilderness, with no guide but a pocket compass, to the nearest settlement, about 20 miles distant, in Pennsylvania. His family, consisting of Mrs. Thorp and three children, the oldest child, Basil, being but eight years of age, were before his return reduced to extremities for the want of food. They were compelled, in a measure, to dig for and subsist on roots, which yielded but little nourishment. The children in vain asked food, promising to be satisfied with the least possible portion. The boy Basil remembered to have seen some kernels of corn in a crack of one ofthe logs of the cabin, and passed hours in an unsuccessful search for them. Mrs. Thorp emptied the straw out of her bed and picked it over to obtain the little wheat it contained, which she boiled and gave to her children. Her husband, it seems, had taught her to shoot at a mark, in which she acquired great skill. When all her means for procuring food were exhausted, she saw, as she stood in her cabin door, a wild turkey flying near. She took down her husband's rifle, and, on looking for ammunition, was surprised to find only sufficient for a small charge. Carefully cleaning the barrel, so as not to lose any by its sticking to the sides as it went down, she set some apart for priming and loaded the piece with the remainder, and started in pursuit of the turkey, reflecting that on her success depended the lives of herself and children. Under the excitement of her feelings she came near defeating her object, by frightening the turkey, which flew a short distance and again alighted in a potato patch. Upon this, she returned to the house and waited until the fowl had begun to wallow in the loose earth. On her second approach, she acted with great caution and coolness, creeping slyly on her hands and knees from log to log until she had gained the last obstruction between herself and the desired object. It was now a trying moment, and a crowd of emotions passed through her mind as she lifted the rifle to a level with her eye. She fired; the result was fortunate: the turkey was killed and herself and family preserved from death by her skill. Mrs. Thorp married three times. Her first husband was killed, in Canada, in the war of 1812; her second was supposed to have been murdered. Her last husband's name was Gordiner. She died in Orange, in this county, Nov. 1st, 1846. Bedford, on the Pittsburg roa.d, 12 miles from Cleveland, has I 126

Page  127 DARKE COUNTY. Baptist, 1 Methodist and 1 Disciples church; 3 stores, 1 flouring and 3 saw mills, 1 woolen factory and about 80 dwellings. Newberg, 6 miles from Cleveland, on the same road with the above, has 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church and a few dwellings. Euclid, a beautiful village, 8 miles east of Cleveland, has 1 Presbyterian, 1 Disciples church, 1 academy,4 stores and 42 dwellings. Two miles east of it is the smaller village of East Euclid, which has 1 Baptist and 1 Methodist church. The Presbyterian church at Euclid, built in 1817, was the first frame meeting-house, with a spire, erected on the Reserve. The township of Euclid (says the Barr MSS.) was purchased of the Western Reserve Land Company under peculiar circumstances. While the surveyors of the Reserve were about to commence operations, they found some disposition among their men in camp to strike for hig,her wages. To settle this difficulty, Gen. Cleveland, the agent, agreed that a township should be surveyed and set apart, so that each individual of the party who should desire might have the privilege of purchasing a lot on long credit and at a stipulated price. This settled the difficulty, and this township was the one selected. In 1798, Joseph Burke and family, and in 1801, Timothy Doane and family, settled in Euclid. Albion and Strongville are two connecting villages, scattered along on the Cleveland and Columbus road, about 14 miles from the former, and contain 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, 1 Baptist and 1 Episcopal church; 3 stores, 1 woolen factory and about 80 dwellings. On the same road, about 4 miles from Cleveland, and separated by a creek, are the small villages of Brooklyn Centre and Brighton, jointly containing 1 Presbyterian and 2 Methodist churches. In the western part of the county, on branches of Rocky river, are the small but thriving manufacturing villages of Norris Falls and Berea. Rockport, Doan's Corners and Warrensville, are small places. At or near the latter, is a settlement of Manks-a term applied to natives of the Isle of Man. DARKE. DARKE was formed, Jan. 3d, 1809, from Miami county, and organized in March, 1817. The surface is generally level, and has some prairie land. It is well timbered with poplar, walnut, blue ash, sugar maple, hickory and beech. Much of it is well adapted to grazing, and it produces superior wheat. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Adams, 698 Gibson, 276 R Allen, 194 Greenville, 1851 T Brown, 293 Harrison, 1666 V Butler, 1116 Jackson, 304 M Franklin, 291 Mississinewa, 124 a German, 1173 Neave, 635 Y Population of Darke, in 1820, was 3717; in 1840, 13,145, or 20 inhabitants to a square mile. 127 ichland, win, an Buren, shington, e, 1830,6204; 589 1047 421 898 727 371 and in

Page  128 DARKE COUNTY. Gen. Wm. Darke, from whom this county derived its name, was born in Pennsylvania, in 1736, and removed at the age of five years, with his parents to near Shepherdstown, Va. He was with the Virginia provincials at Braddock's defeat, taken prisoner in the revolutionary war, at Germantown, commanded as colonel, two Virginia regiments at the siege of York, was a member of the Virginia Convention, of'88, and was repeatedly a member of the legislature of that ancient commonwealth. He distinguished himself at St. Clair's defeat, and died, Nov. 20th, 1801. Gen. Darke was by profession a farmner. He possessed an herculean frame, rough manners, a strong but uncultivated mind, and a frank and fearless disposition. This county has been the theatre of two important events in the early history of the west,-St. Clair's defeat and the treaty of Greenville. The first in order of time, was the defeat of St. Clair, which took place on the northern boundary of the county, within two or three miles of the Indiana line. The great object of St. Clair's campaign was to establish a military post at the Miami village, at the junction of the St. Mary and St. Joseph, at what is now Fort Wayne, Ia., with intermediate posts of communication between it and Fort Washington, to awe and curb the Indians in that quarter, as the only preventive of future hostilities. Acting under his instructions, St. Clair proceeded to organize his army. At the close of April, (1791,) he was at Pittsburg, to which point troops and munitions of war were being forwarded. On the 15th of May, he reached Fort Washington, but owing to various hindrances, among which was the mismanagement of the quartermaster's department, the troops instead of being in readiness to start upon the expedition, by the 1st of August, as was anticipated, were not prepared until many weeks later. From Fort Washington, the troops were advanced to Ludlow's station, six miles distant. Here the army continued until Sept. 17th, when being 2300 strong, exclusive of militia, they moved forward to a point upon the Great Miami, where they built Fort Hamilton. From thence, they moved forty four miles farther, and built Fort Jefferson, which they left on the 24th of October, and began their toilsome march through the wilderness. We copy below from the Notes of Judge Burnet. During this time, a body of the militia, amounting to three hundred, deserted, and returned to their homes. The supplies for the army being still in the rear, and the general entertaining fears that the deserters might meet and sieze them for their own use, determined, very reluctantly, to send back the first regiment, for the double purpose of bringing up the provisions, and, if possible, of overtaking and arresting some of the deserters. Having made that arrangement, the army resumed its march, and on the 3d of November, arrived at a creek running to the southwest, which was supposed to be the St. Mary's, one of the principal branches of the Maumee, but was afterwards ascertained to be a branch of the Wabash. It being then late in the afternoon, and the army much fatigued by a laborious march, they were encamped on a commanding piece of ground, having the creek in front. It was the intention of the general to occupy that position till the first regiment, with the provisions, should come up. He proposed on the next day, to commence a work of defence, agreeably to a plan concerted between himself and Maj. Ferguson, but he was not permitted to do either; for on the next morning, November 4th, half an hour before sunrise, the men having been just dismissed from parade, an attack was made on the militia posted in front, who gave way and rushed back into the camp, throwing the army into a state of disorder, from which it could not be recovered, as the Indians followed close at their heels. They were, however, checked a short time by the fire of the first line, but immedi 128


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Page  129 DARKE COUNTY. ately a very heavy fire was commenced on that line, and in a few minutes it was extendea to the second. In each case, the great weight of the fire was directed to the center, where the artillery was placed; from which the men were frequently driven with great slaughter. In that emergency resort was had to the bayonet. Col. Darke was ordered to make the charge with a part of the second line, which order was executed with great spirit. The Indians instantly gave way, and were driven back several hundred yards, but for want of a sufficient number of riflemen to preserve the advantage gained, the enemy soon renewed their attack, and the American troops, in turn, were forced to give away. At that instant, the Indians entered the American camp on the left, having forced back the troops stationed at that point. Another charge was then ordered and made by the battalions of Majors Butler and Clark, with great success. Several other charges were afterwards made, and always with equal effect. These attacks, however, were attended with a very heavy loss of men, and particularly of officers. In the charge made by the second regiment, Maj. Butler was dangerously wounded; and every officer of that regiment fell, except three, one of whom was shot through the body. TI'he artillery being silenced, and all the officers belonging to it killed, but Capt. Ford, who was dangerously wounded, and half the army having fallen, it became necessary to gain the road, if possible, and make a retreat. For that purpose, a successful charge was made on the enemy, as if to turn their right flank, but in reality, to gain the road, which was effected. The militia then commenced a retreat, followed by the United States' troops, Maj. Clark, with his battalion, covering the rear. The retreat, as might be expected, soon became a flight. The camp was abandoned, and so was the artillery, for the want of horses to remove it. The men threw away their arms and accoutrements, even after the pursuit had ceased, which was not continued more than four miles. The road was almost covered with those articles, for a great distance. All the horses of the general were killed, and he was mounted on a broken down packhorse, that could scarcely be forced out of a walk. It was therefore impossible for him to get forward in person, to command a halt, till regularity could be restored, and the orders which he dispatched by others, for that purpose, were wholly unattended to. The rout continued to Fort Jefferson, where they arrived about dark, twenty seven miles from the battle-ground. The retreat began at half past nine in the morning, and as the battle commenced half an hour before sunrise, it must have lasted three hours, during which time, with only one exception, the troops behaved with great bravery. This fact accounts for the immense slaughter which took place. Among the killed, were Maj. Gen. Butler, Col. Oldham, Major Ferguson, Maj. Hart, and Maj. Clark. Among the wounded, were Col. Sargeant, the Adjutant General, Col. Darke, Col. Gibson, Maj. Butler, and Viscount Malartie, who served in the character of an aid. In addition to these, the list of officers killed contains the names of Captains Bradford, Phelon, Kirkwood, Price, Van Swearingen, Tipton, Purdy, Smith, Piatt, Gaither, Crebbs, and Newman: Lieutenants Spear, Warren, Boyd, McMath, Burgess, Kelso, Read, Little, Hopper, and Lickins; also, Ensigns Cobb, Balch, Chase, Turner, Wilson, Brooks, Beatty, and Purdy; also, Quartermasters Reynolds and Ward, Audj. Anderson and Doc. Grasson. And in addition to the wounded officers whose names are mentioned above, the official list contains the names of Captains Doyle, Trueman, Ford, Buchanan, Darke, and Hough; also, of Lieutenants Greaton, Davidson, DeButts, Price, Morgan, MeCrea, Lysle, and Thompson; also, Adjutants Whistler and Crawford, and Ensign Bines. The melancholy result of that disastrous day was felt and lamented by all, who had sympathy for private distress, or public misfortune. The only charge alledged by the general against his army, was want of discipline, which they could not have acquired, during the short time they had been in the service. That defect rendered it impossible, when they were thrown into confusion, to restore them again to order, and is the chief reason why the loss fell so heavily on the officers. They were compelled to expose themselves in an unusual degree in their efforts to rally the men, and remedy the want of discipline. In that duty, the general set the example, though worn down by sickness, and suffering under a painful disease. It was alledged by the officers, that the Indians far outnumbered the American troops. That conclusion was drawn, in part, from the fact, that they outflanked and attacked the American lines with great force, at the same time, on every side. When the fugitives arrived at Fort Jefferson, they found the first regiment, which was just returning from the service on which it had been sent, without either overtaking the deserters, or meeting the convoy of provisions. The absence of that regiment, at the tine 17 129

Page  130 DARKE COUNTY. of the battle, was believed by some, to be the cause of the defeat. They supposed, that had it been present, the Indians would have been defeated, or would not have ven tured an attack at the time they made it; but Gen. St. Clair expressed great doubt on that subject. He seemed to think it uncertain, judging from the superior number of the enemy, whether he ought to consider the absence of that corps from the field of action, as fortunate or otherwise. On the whole, he seemed to think it fortunate, as he very much doubted, whether, if it had been in the action, the fortune of the day would have been changed; and if it had not, the triumph of the enemy would have been more complete, and the coun try would have been left destitue of the means of defence. As soon as the troops reached Fort Jefferson, it became a question whether they ought to continue at that place, or return to Fort Washington. For the purpose of determining that question, the general called on the surviving field officers, to wit: Col. Darke, Major Hamtramck, Maj. Zeigler, and Maj. Gaither, and also the Adjutant General, Col. Sargeant, for their advice, as to what would be the proper course to be pursued, under existing circumstances. After discussing the subject, they reported it to be their unanimous opinion, that the troops could not be accommodated in the fort; that they could not be supplied with provisions, at that place; and as it was known there were provisions on the road, at the distance of one or two marches, it would be proper, without loss of time, to proceed and meet them. That advice was adopted, and the army put in motion at 10 o'clock, and marched all night. On the succeeding day, they met a quantity of flour, and on the day after, a drove of cattle, which having been disposed of, as the wants of the troops required, the march was continued to Fort Washington. The loss sustained by the country, from the fall of so many gallant officers and men, was most seriously regretted. Gen. Butler and Maj. Ferguson, were spoken'of with peculiar interest. The public feeling was, however, in some measure alleviated, by the fact, that those brave men, officers and privates, fell covered with honor, in defending the cause of their country. The principal complaint made by the commander-in-chief was, that some of his orders, of great consequence, given to Col. Oldham, over night, were not executed; and that some very material intelligence, communicated by Capt. Hough, to Gen. Butler, in the course of the night, before the action, was not imparted to him; and that he did not hear of it, till his arrival at Fort Washington. It is important to the fame of the commanding general, that in consequence of the almost treasonable negligence of the agents of government, whose duty it was to furnish supplies, the army had been for many days on short allowance, and were so at the time of the battle. That fact had made it indispensably necessary, either to retreat, or send back the first regiment, which was the flower of the army, to bring up the provisions and military stores. The latter alternative was chosen, and in the absence of that corps, the attack was made. In regard to the negligence charged on the War Department, it is a well-authenticated fact, that boxes and packages were so carelessly put up and marked, that during the action a box was opened marked "flints," which was found to contain gun-locks. Several mistakes of the same character were discovered, as for example, a keg of powder marked "for the infantry,";' was found to be damaged cannon-powder, that could scarcely be ignited. Under all these disadvantages, it was generally believed by candid intelligent men, that the commanding general was not justly liable to much censure, if any. With one exception, at the commencement of the action, the troops behaved with great bravery. They maintained their ground for three tedious hours, in one uninterrupted conflict with a superior force; nor did they attempt to leave the field, till it was covered with the bodies of their companions, nor until further efforts were unavailing, and a retreat was ordered. The general, less anxious for himself than for others, was the last to leave the ground, after the retreat had been ordered. For sometime after the disaster, he was universally censured; but when a thorough investigation had been made by a committee of Congress, of which Mr. Giles, of Virginia, was the chairman, it was found that the campaign had been conducted with skill and personal bravery; and that the defeat was chiefly owing to the want of discipline in the militia, and to the negligence of those whose duty it was to procure and forward the provisions and military stores, necessary for the expedition. After the publication of that report, the Secretary of War, believing himself to be injured, addressed a letter to Congress, complaining that injustice had been done him by the committee; in consequence of which the report was recommitted to the same committee, who, after hearing the statements and explanations of the Secretary, and reconsidering the whole matter, re-affirmed their first report. This defeat of St. Clair drew upon his head, from one part of the 130

Page  131 DARKE COUNTY. country to the other, "one loud and merciless outcry of abuse and even detestation." Many a general, with far less bravery and military skill, has, when successful, been applauded by the unthinking multitude with vehement acclamations. The following, derived firom the narrative of his campaign, shows that he deserved a better fate. During the engagement, Gen. St. Clair and Gen. Butler were continually going up and down the lines; as one went up one, the other went down the opposite. St. Clair was so severely afflicted with the gout as to be unable to mount or dismount a horse without assistance. He had four horses for his use; they had been turned out to feed over night and were brought in before the action. The first he attempted to mount was a young horse, and the firing alarmed him so much that he was unable to accomplish it, although there were three or four people assisting him. He had just moved him to a place where he could have some advantage of the ground, when the horse was shot through the head, and the boy that was holding him through the arm. A second horse was brought, and the furniture of the first disengaged and put on him; but at the moment it was done, the horse and servant who held him were killed. The general then ordered the third horse to be got ready and follow him to the left of the front line, which by that time was warmly engaged, and set off on fi)ot to the point designated. However, the man and horse were never heard of afterward, and were supposed to have both been killed. Gent. St. Clair's fourth horse was killed under the Count de Malartie, one of his aids, whose horse had died on the march. On the day of the battle, St. Clair was not in his uniform; he wore a coarse cappo coat and a three-cornered hat. He had a long que and large locks, very gray, flowing beneath his beaver. Early in the action, when near the artillery, a ball grazed the side of his face and cut off a portion of one of his locks. It is said, that, during the action, eight balls passed through his clothes and hat. After his horses were killed, he exerted himself on foot, for a considerable time during the action, with a degree of alertness that surprised every body who saw him. After being on foot some time, and when nearly exhausted, a pack horse was brought to him. This he rode during the remainder of the day, although he could scarcely prick him out of a walk. Had he not been furnished with a horse, although unhurt, he must have remained on the field. During the action, Gen. St. Clair exerted himself with a courage and presence of miltd worthy of the best fortune. He was personally present at the first charge made upon the enemy with the bayonet, and gave the order to Col. Darke. When the enemy first entered the camp by the left flank, he led the troops that drove them back; and when a retreat became indispensable, he put himself at the head of the troops which broke through the enemy and opened the way for the rest, and then remained in the rear, making every exertion in his power to obtain a party to cover the retreat; but the panic was so great that his exertions were of but little avail. In the height of the action, a few of the men crowded around the fires in the center of the camp. St. Clair was seen drawing his pistols and threatening some of them, and ordering them to turn out and repel the enemy. In commenting upon his honorable acquittal of all blame by the committee of Congress, appointed to inquire into the causes of the failure of the expedition, Judge Marshall, in his Life of Washington, remarks, with his usual felicity of manner, "More satisfactory testimony in favor of St. Clair is furnished by the circumstance, that he still retained the undiminished esteem and good opinion of President Washington." To the foregoing description of the battle, we extract from the narrative of Major Jacob Fowler, now living in Covington, Ky., his own personal experience in the events of that fatal day. Mr. Cist, in his Advertiser, in which it was published, says: "There was hardly a battle fought, in the early struggles with the Indians, in which Mr. Fowler did not participate. He is now (July, 1844) at the age of eighty-his eye has not waxed dim, nor his natural force abated. He can still pick off a squirrel with his rifle at 100 yards distance. He can walk as firmly and as fast as most men at fifty, 131

Page  132 DARKE COUNTY. and I cannot perceive a gray hair in his head. His mind and memory are as vigorous as his physical functions." Excepting in a single instance, St. Clair kept out no scouting parties during his march, and we should have been completely surprised by the attack when it was made, if it had not been that volunteer scouting parties from the militia were out the evening before, and the constant discharge of rifles throughout the night warned us to prepare for the event. The militia were encamped about a quarter of a mile in front of the residue of the army, so as to receive, as they did, the first shock of the attack, which was made a little after daybreak. The camp was on the bank of a small creek, one of the heads of the Wabash river, the ground nearly level and covered with a heavy growth of timber. As surveyor, I drew the pay and rations of a subaltern, but, as an old hunter, was not disposed to trust myself among the Indians without my rifle. Indeed I found it very serviceable during the march, the army being upon not more than half rations the whole campaign. My stock of bullets becoming pretty low, from hunting, as soon as it was daylight that morning, I started for the militia camp to get a ladle for running some more, when I found that the battle had begun, and met the militia running in to the main body of the troops. I hailed one of the Kentuckians, who I found had been disabled in the right wrist by a bullet, asking him if he had balls to spare. He told me to take out his pouch and divide with him. I poured out a double handful and put back what I supposed was the half, and was about to leave him, when he said, " stop, you had better count them." It was no timne for laughing, but I could hardly resist the impulse to laugh, the idea was so ludicrous of counting a handfull of bullets when they were about to be so plenty as to be had for the picking up, by those who should be lucky enough to escape with their lives. " If we get through this day's scrape, my dear fellow," said I, "I will return you twice as many." But I never saw him again, and suppose he shared the fate that befel many a gallant spirit on that day. I owe the bullets, at any rate, at this moment. On returning to the lines, I found the engagement begun. One of Capt. Pratt's men lay near the spot I had left, shot through the belly. I saw an Indian behind a small tree, not twenty steps off, just outside the regular lines. He was loading his piece, squatting down as much as possible to screen himself. I drew sight at his butt and shot him through; he dropped, and as soon as I had fired I retreated into our lines to reload my rifle. Finding the fire had really ceased at this point, I ran to the rear line, where I met Col. Darke, leadii1g his men to a charge. These were of the six months' levies. I followed with my rifle. The Indians were driven by this movement clear out of sight, and the colonel called a halt and rallied his men, who were about 300 in number. As an experienced woodsman and hunter, I claimed the privilege of suggesting to the colonel that where we then stood-there being a pile of trees blown out of root-would form an excellent breastwork, being of length sufficient to protect the whole force, and that we might yet need it; I judged by the shouting and firing that the Indians behind us had closed up the gap we had made in charging, and told the colonel so. Now, if we return and charge on these Indians on our rear, we shall have them with their backs on us, and will no doubt be able to give a good account of them. "Lead the way, then," said he, and rode to the rear to march the whole body forward. We then charged on the Indians, but they were so thick we could do nothing with them. In a few minutes they were around us, and we found ourselves along side of the army-baggage and the artillery, which they had been taking possession of. I then took a tree, and after firing twelve or fourteen times, two or three rods being my farthest shot, I discovered that many of those I had struck were not brought down, as I had not sufficient experience to know I must shoot them in the hip to bring them down. As to the regulars, with their muskets, and in their unprotected state, it was little better than firing at random. By this time, there were but about 30 men of Col. Darke's command left standing, the rest being all shot down and lying around us, either killed or wounded. I ran to the colonel, who was in the thickest of it, waving his sword to encourage his men, and told him we should all be down in five minutes more if we did not charge on them. "Charge, then!" said he, to the little line that remained, and they did so. Fortunately, the army had charged on the other side at the same time, which put the Indians, for the moment, to the flight. I had been partially sheltered by a small tree; but a couple of Indians, who had taken a larger one, both fired at me at once, and, feeling the steam of their guns at my belly, I supposed myself cut to pieces. But no harm had been done, and I brought my piece to my side and fired, without aiming at the one that stood his ground, the fellow being so close to me that I could hardly miss him. I shot him through the hips, and while he was crawling away on all fours, Col. Darke, who had been dismounted, and stood close by me, made at him with his sword and struck his head off. By this time, the cock of my rifle lock had worn loose 132

Page  133 DARKE COUNTY. and gave me much trouble; meeting with an acquaintance from Cincimnnati, named M'Clure, who had no gun of his own, but picked up one from a militia man, I told him my difficulty. "There is a first-rate rifle," said he, pointinmg to one at a distance. I ran and got it, having ascertained that my bullets would fit it. Here I met Capt. J. S. Gano, who was unarmed, and handing to him the rifle I went into battle with, I observed to him that we were defeated, and would have to make our own escape as speedily as possible; that if we got off, we should need the rifles for subsistence in the woods. The battle still raged, and at one spot might be seen a party of soldiers gathered together, having nothing to do but to present mere marks for the enemy. They Plan of St. Clair's Battle Field. appeared stupified and bewildered with the danger. At another spot, the soldiers had broken into the marquees of the officers, eating the breakfast from which those had been called into the battle. It must be remembered, that neither officers nor men had eaten anything the whole morning. Some of the men were shot down in the very act of eating. Just where I stood, there were no Indians visible, although their rifle balls were striking all around. At last, I saw an Indian break for a tree about 40 yards off, behind which he loaded and fired four times, bringing down his man at every fire, and with such quickness as to give me no chance to take sight in the intervals of his firing. At length, I got a range of two inches inside his back bone and blazed away; down he fell, and I saw no more of him. A short time after, I heard the cry given by St. Clair and his adjutant sergeant to charge to the road, which was accordingly done. I ran across the army to where I had left my relative, Capt. Piatt, and told him that the army was broken up and in full retreat. "Don't say so," he replied; "you will discourage my men, and I can't believe it." I persisted a short time, when, finding him obstinate, I said, "If you will rush on your fate, in God's name do it." I then ran off towards the rear of the army, which was making off rapidly. Piatt called after me, saying, "Wait for me." It was no use to stop, for by this time the savages were in full chase and hardly twenty yards behind me. Being uncommonly active in those days, I soon got from the rear to front of the troops, although I had great trouble to avoid the bayonets which the men had thrown off in the retreat, with the sharp points towards their pursuers. It has been stated that the Indians followed us 30 miles, but this is not true, and my duty as surveyor having led me to mark the miles every day as we proceeded on our march out, it was easy to ascertain how far we were pursued. The Indians, after every other fire, fell back to load their rifles, and gained lost time by running on afresh...... Even during the last charge of Col. Darke, the bodies of the dead and the dying were around us, and the freshly II i 133 A II I I 11I Sca,7,e 6 0 Bad$ ,1, f, I I .I 11 ii -.., c I .E A

Page  134 DARKE COUNTY. scalped heads were reeking with smoke, and, in the heavy morning frost, looked like so many pumpkins through a cornfield in December. It was on the 4th November, and the day severely cold for the season; my fingers became so benumbed at times, that I had to take the bullets in my mouth and load from it, while I had the wiping stick in my hand to force them down. References.-A. High ground, on which the militia were encamped at the commencement of the action. B. C. Encampment of the main army. D. Retreat of the militia at the beginning of the battle. E. St. Clair's trace, on which the defeated army retreated. F. Place where Gen. Butler and other officers were buried. G. Trail to Girtv's Town, on the river St. Marys, at what is now the village of St. Marys. H. Site of Fort Recovery, built by Wayne; the line of Darke and Mercer runs within a few rods of the site of the fort. I. Place where a brass cannon was found buried, in 1830: it is on the bottom where the Indians were three times driven to the high land with the bayonet. The map of the battle-ground is from the survey of Mr. John S. Houston, of Celina. The localities* were pointed out to him by Mr. M'Dowl, who was in the action, and is now living near Recovery. In a letter, dated Celina, March 20th, 1847, MIr. Houston gives some notes of a conversation with Mr. M'Dowl. Mr. M'Dowl states, that on the morning of the battle, he and several others had just gone out to look after and guard their horses, when suddenly they heard the most hideous yells from the opposite side of the river, with discharges of musketry. He instantly rushed to camp, found his regiment repairing for action, joined them, and was with the party who so gallantly charged the enemy in the bottom. On the retreat, he was among those who defended the rear, and kept the enemy in check for several miles. The ground was covered with a slushy snow, which much retarded their progress; and after a while, many of them were so dispirited and hungry-having eaten no breakfast-that they threw down their arms and made the best of their way pell-mell among the retreating crowd. About this time, M'Dowl saw a female carrying her infant, a year old. She was so tired that she was about to fall by the way-side, when he took the child and carried it some distance. Afterwards, to save her own life, the woman threw away the child in the snow. The Indians took it up, carried it to the Sandusky towns, and raised it.t Soon after this, M'Dowl overtook a youth, some eighteen years old, wounded in the leg, hobbling along, and dispirited. He gave him a drink of spirits and a little bread, he himself had not had time to eat, which refreshed and encouraged him. Soon after, a poney came dashing by. This, M'Dowl caught, and mounting the youth upon it, he safely reached the fort. At Stillwater creek, twelve miles from the battle-ground, the Indians, who were no longer numerous, left them, and returned to share their booty. "Oh!" said an old squaw, who died many years ago, on the St. Mary's, "my arm that night was weary scalping white man." Some years ago-said the old man to me-and here his cheeks were moistened with tearsI was travelling in Kentucky, to visit a sister I had not seen in many years, when I arrived at Georgetown, and entered my name on the ledger, with the place of my residence-" Recovery, Ohio." After I had been sitting some time at ease, before a comfortable fire, a gentleman, who had noticed the entry of my name and residence, opened a friendly conversation about the place and country. He soon remarked that he was at the defeat of St. Clair, and that if it had not been for the assistance of a young man of But. ler's regiment, he would have been there yet. After a few more questions and repliefs, both parties recognized each other. The gentleman was the youth who had been shot, on the retreat, and whose life-as previously stated * The references A and D were not on the map; neither was the high ground on the east side of the river, which we have placed on it from personal recollection.-H. H. t It is stated in some accounts that about fifty, and in others, that near two hundred women were killed in the action and flight.-H. H. 134

Page  135 DARKE COUNTY. -was saved by the interposition of M'Dowl. At this discovery, their surprise and consequent mutual attachment may be imagined. The gentleman insisted upon taking him to his house, and introducing him to his wife and daughters. He had become wealthy by merchandizing, and on parting with M'Dowl, gave him a new suit of clothes and other presents, which he has carefully preserved to this day. M'Clung, in his Sketches of Western Adventure, relates some anecdotes, showing the heroism and activity of a young man who was in this action. The late William Kennan, of Fleming county, at that time a young man of eighteen, was attached to the corps of rangers who accompanied the regular force. He had long been remarkable for strength and activity. In the course of the march from Fort Washington, he had repeated opportunities of testing his astonishing powers in that respect, and was universally admitted to be the swiftest runner of the light corps. On the evening preceding the action, his corps had been advanced, as already observed, a few hundred yards in front of the first line of infantry, in order to give seasonable notice of the enemy's approach. Just as day was dawning, he observed about thirty Indians within one hundred yards of the guard fire, advancing cautiously towards the spot where he stood, together with about twenty rangers, the rest beilg considerably in the rear. Supposing it to be a mere scouting party, as usual, and not superior in number to the rangers, he sprung forward a few paces in order to shelter himself in a spot of peculiarly rank grass, and firing with a quick aim upon the foremost Indian, he instantly fell flat upon his face, and proceeded with all possible rapidity to reload his gun, not doubting, for a moment, but that the rangers would maintain their position, and support him. I'Thle Indians, however, rushed forward in such overwhelming masses, that the rallngers were compelled to fly with precipitation, leaving young Kennan in total ignorance of his danger. Fortunately the captain of his company had observed him when he threw himself in the grass, and sud denly shouted aloud, "Run Kennan! or you are a dead man!" He instantly sprung t~ his feet, and beheld Indians within ten feet of him, while his company was already more than one hundred yards in front. Not a moment was to be lost. He darted off with every muscle strained to its utmost, and was pursued by a dozen of the enemy with loud yells. He at first pressed straight forward to the usual fording place in the creek, which ran between the rangers and the main army, but several Indians who had passed him before he arose from the grass, threw themselves in the way, and completely cut him off from the rest. By the most powerful exertions, he had thrown the whole body of pursuers behind him, with the exception of one young chief, (probably Messhawa,) who displayed a swiftness and perseverance equal to his own. In the circuit which Kennan was obliged to take, the race continued for more than four hundred yards. The distance between them was about eighteen feet, which Kennan could not increase, nor his adversary diminish. Each, for the time, put his whole soul into the race. Kennan, as far as he was able, kept his eye upon the motions of his pursuer, lest he should throw the tomahawk, which he held aloft in a menacing attitude, and at length, finding that no other Indian was immediately at hand, he determined to try the mettle of his pursuer in a different manner, and felt for his tomahawk in order to turn at bay. It had escaped from its sheath, however, while he lay in the grass, and his hair had almost lifted the cap from his head, when he saw himself totally disarmed. As he had slackened his pace for a moment, the Indian was almost in reach of him, when he recommenced the race; but the idea of being without arms, lent wings to his flight, and, for the first time, he saw himself gaining ground. He had watched the motions of his pursuer too closely, however, to pay proper attention to the nature of the ground before him, and he suddenly found himself in front of a large tree which had been blown down, and upon which brush and other impediments lay to the height of eight or nine feet. The Indian (who heretofore had not uttered the slightest sound) now gave a short quick yell, as if secure of his victim. Kennan had not a moment to deliberate. He must clear the impediment at a leap, or perish. Putting his whole soul into the effort, he bounded into the air with a power which astonished himself, and clearing limbs, brush, and every thing else, alighted in perfect safety upon the other side. A loud yell of astonishment burst from the band of pursuers, not one of whom had the hardihood to attempt the same feat. Kennan, as may be readily imagined, had no leisure to enjoy his triumph, but dashing into the bed of the creek (upon the banks of which his feat had been performed) where the high banks would shield him from the fire of the enemy, he ran up the stream until a convenient place offered for crossing, and rejoined the rangers in the rear of the encampment. 135

Page  136 DARKE COUNTY. panting from the fatigue of exertions which have seldom been surpassed. No breathing time was allowed him, however. The attack instantly commenced, and as we have already observed, was maintained for three hours, with unabated fury. When the retreat commenced, Kennan was attached to Maj. Clarke's battalion, and had the dangerous service of protecting the rear. This corps quickly lost its commander, and was completely disorganized. Kennan was among the hindmost when the flight commenced, but exerting those same powers which had saved him in the morning, he quickly gained the front, passing several horsemen in the flight. Here he beheld a private in his own company, an intimate acqLuaintance, lying upon the ground, with his thigh broken, and in tones of the most piercing distress, implored each horseman who hurried by to take him up behind him. As soon as he beheld Kennan coming up on foot, he stretched out his arms and called aloud upon him to save him. Notwithstanding the imminent peril of the moment, his friend could not reject so passionate an appeal, but seizing him in his arms, lihe placed him upon his back, and ran in that manner for several hundred yards. Horseman after horseman passed them, all of whom refused to relieve him of his burden. At length the enemy was gaining upon him so fast, that Kennan saw their death certain, unless he relinquished his burden. He accordingly told his fiiend, that he had used every possible exertion to save his life, but in vain; that he most relax his hold around his neck or they would both perish. The unhappy wretch, heedless of every remonstrance, still clung convulsively to his back, and impeded his exertions until the foremost of the enemy (armed with tomahawks alone) were within twenty yards of them. Kennan then drew his knife from its sheath and cut the fingers of his companion, thus compelling him to relinquish his hold. The unhappy man rolled upon the ground in utter helplessness, and Kennan beheld him tomahawked before he had gone thirty yards. Relieved from his burden, he darted forward with an activity which once more brought him to the van. Here again he was compelled to neglect his own safety in order to attend to that of others. The late Governor Madison, of Kentucky, who afterwards commanded the corps which defended themselves so honorably at Raisin, a man who united the most amiable temper to the most unconquerable courage, was at that time a subaltern in St. Clair's army, and being a man of infirm constitution, was totally exhausted by the exertions of the morning, and was now sitting down calmly upon a log, awaiting the approach of his enemies. Kennan hastily accosted him, and inquired the cause of his delay. Madison, pointing to a wound which had bled profusely, replied that he was unable to walk further, and had no horse. Kennanl instantly ran back to a spot where he had seen an exhausted horse grazing, caught him without difficulty, and having assisted Madison to mount, walked by his side until they were out of danger. Fortunately, the pursuit soon ceased, as the plunder of the camp presented irresistible attractions to the enemy. The friendship thus formed between these two young men, endured without interruption through life. Mr. Kennan never entirely recovered from the immense exertions which he was compelled to make during this unfortunate expedition. He settled in Fleming county, and continued for many years a leading member of the Baptist church. He died in 1827. The number of Indians engaged in this action can never be ascertained with any degree of certainty. They have been variously etimated from 1000 to 3000. Col. John Johnston, long an Indian agent in this region, and whose opportunities for forming a correct opinion on this subject are worthy of consideration, in a communication to us, says: "The number of Indians at the defeat of St. Clair, must have been large. At that time game was plenty, and any number could be conveniently subsisted. Wells, one of our interpreters was there, with, and fought for the enemy. To use his own language, he tomahawked and scalped the wounded, dying and dead, until he was unable to raise his arm. The principal tribes in the battle were the Delawares, Shawanoese, Wyandots, Miamies and Ottawas, with some Chippewas and Putawatimes. The precise number of the whole I had no accurate means of knowing; it could not be less than 2000." The following song is not the best of poetry, but it has been frequently sung with sad emotion, and is worthy of preservation as a relic of olden time. SAINCLAIRE'S DEFEAT. 'Twas November the fourth, in the year of ninety-one, We had a sore engagement near to Fort Jefferson; Sinclaire was our commander, which may remembered be, For there we left nine hundred men in t' West'n Tertory. 136

Page  137 DARKE COUNTY. At Bunker's Hill and Quebeck, where many a hero fell, Likewise at Long Island, (it is I the truth can tell,) But such a dreadful carnage may I never see again As har'ned near St. Mary's, upon the river plain. Our army was attacked just as the day did dawn, And soon were overpowered and driven fromn the lawn. They killed Major Ouldhain, Levin and Briggs likewise, And horrid yells of sav'ges iesounded through the skies. Major Butler was wounded the very second fire; His manly bosom swell'd with rage when forc'd to retire; And as he lay in anguish, nor scarcely could he see, Exclaim'd, " Ye hounds of hell, 0! revenged I will be." We had not been long broken when General Butler found Himself so badly wounded, was forced to quit the ground. "My God!" says he, "what shall we do; we're wounded every man; Go charge them, valiant heroes, and beat them if you can." He leaned his back against a tree, and there resigned his breath, And like a valiant soldier sunk in the arms of death; When blessed angels did await, his spirit to convey; And unto the celestial fields he quickly bent his way. We charg'd again with courage firm, but soon again gave ground, The war-whoop then redoubled, as did the foes around. They killed Major Ferguson, which caused his men to cry, Our only safety is in flight; or fighting here to die." "Stand to your guns,"' says valiant Ford, "let's die upon them here Before we let the sav'ges know we ever harbored fear." Our cannonballs exhausted, and artill'ry-men all slain, Obliged were our musketmen the en'my to sustain. Yet three hours more we fought them, and then were forc'd to yield, When three hundred bloody warriors lay stretch'd upon the field. Says Colonel Gibson to his mnen, "My boys be not dismay'd; I'm sure that true Virginians were never yet afraid. Ten thousand deaths I'd rather die, than they should gain the field;" With that he got a fatal shot, which caused him to yield. Says Major Clark, "My heroes, I can here no longer stand, We'll strive to form in order, and retreat the best we can." The word, Retreat, being past around, there was a dismal cry, Then helter skelter through the woods, like wolves and sheep they fly. This well-appointed army, who but a day before, Defied and braved all danger, had like a cloud pass'd o'er. Alas! the dying and wounded, how dreadful was the thought, To the tomahawk and scalping-knife, i' mis'ry are brought. Some had a thigh and some an arm broke on the field that day, Who writhed in torments at the stake, to close the dire affray. To mention our brave officers, is what I wish to do; No sons of Mars e'er fought more brave, or with more courage true. To Captain Bradford I belonged, in his artillery, He fell that day amongst the slain, a valiant man was he. Sometime after the defeat of St. Clair, Wilkinson, who had succeeded him in the command of Fort Washington, ordered an expedition to visit the battle-ground. Capt. Buntin, who was with the party, afterwards addressed a letter to St. Clair, from which we make an extract. 18 137

Page  138 In my opinion, those anfortunate men who fell into the enemy's hands, with life, were used with the greatest torture, having their limbs torn off; and the women have been treated with the most indecent cruelty, having stakes as thick as a person's arm drove through their bodies. The first, I observed when burying the dead; and the latter was discovered by Col. Sargent and Dr. Brown. We found three whole carriages; the other five were so much damaged that they were rendered useless. By the general's orders, pits were dug in different places, and all the dead bodies that were exposed to view, or could be conveniently found (the snow being very deep) were buried. During this time, there was sundry parties detached, some for our safety, and others in examining the course of the creek; and some distance in advance of the ground occupied by the militia, they found a large camp, not less than three quarters of a mile long, which was supposed to be that of the Indians the night before the action. We remained on the field that night, and next morning fixed geared horses to the carriages, and moved for Fort Jefferson.... As there is little reason to believe that the enemy have carried off the cannon, it is the received opinion that they were either buried or thrown into the creek, and I think the latter the most probable; but as it was frozen over with thick ice, and that covered with a deep snow, it was impossible to make a search with any prospect of success. In a former part of this letter I have mentioned the camp occupied by the enemy the night before the action: had Col. Oldham been able to have complied with your orders on that evening things at this day might have worn a different aspect. Mr. M'Dowl, previously mentioned, was one of those who visited the battle-ground. He states that although the bodies were much abused and stripped of all of value, that they recognized and interred them in four large graves. Gen. Butler was found in the shattered remains of his tent. After he was wounded, he was borne to the tent, and while two surgeons were dressing his wounds, a ball struck one of them in the hip. At this instant, an Indian, who was determined to have the scalp of Butler, rushed in, and while attempting to scalp him, was shot by the dying surgeon. DARKE COUNTY. In December, 1793, Gen. Wayne having arrived with his army at Greenville, sent forward a detachment to the spot of St. Clair;s defeat. They arrived on the ground, on Christmas day, and pitched their tents on the battlegtound. When the men went to lie down in their tents at night, they had to scrape the bones together and carry them out to make their beds. TI'he next day holes were dug, and the bones remaining above ground were buried; six hundred skulls being found among them. The flesh was entirely off the bones, and in many cases, the sinews yet held them together. After this melancholy duty was performed, a fortification was built, and named FORT REcovERY, in commemoration of its being recovered from the Indians, who had possession of the ground in 1791. On the completion of the fort, one company of artillery and one of riflemen were left, while the rest returned to Greenville. The site of St. Clair's battle became the scene of a sanguinary affair in the summer of 1794, while Wayne's army was encamped at Greenville, of which Burnet's Notes give the best description we have seen. On the 30th of June, a very severe and bloody battle was fought under the walls of Fort Recovery, between a detachment of American troops, consisting of ninety riflemen and fifty dragoons, commanded by Maj. McMahon, and a very numerous body of Indians and British, who at the same instant, rushed on the detachment, and assailed the fort on every side, with great fury. They were repulsed, with a heavy loss, but again rallied and renewed the attack, keeping up a heavy and constant fire during the whole day, which was returned with spirit and effect, by the garrison. The succeeding night was foggy and dark, and gave the Indians an opportunity of carrying off their dead, by torch-light, which occasionally drew a fire from the garrison. They, however, succeeded so well, that there were but eight or ten bodies left on the ground, which were too near the garrison to be approached. On the next morning, McMahon's detachment having entered the fort, the enemy renewed the attack, and continued it with great desperation during the day, but were ultimately compelled to retreat from the same field, on which they had been proudly victorious on the 4th of November, 1791. 138

Page  139 DARKE COUNTY. The expectation of the assailants must have been to surprise the post, and carry it by storm, for they could not possibly have received intelligence of the movement of the escort, under Maj. McMahon, which only marched from Greenville, on the morning preceding, and on the same evening, deposited in Fort Recovery, the supplies it had convoyed. That occurrence could not, therefore, have led to the movement of the savages. Judging from the extent of their encampment, and their line of march, in seventeen colums, forming a wide and extended front, and from other circumstances, it was believed their numbers could not have been less than from fifteen hundred to two thousand warriors. It was also believed, that they were in want of provisions, as they had killed and eaten a number of pack-horses in their encampment, the evening after the assault, and also, at their encampment on their return, seven miles from Recovery, where they remained two nights, having been much encumbered with their dead and wounded. From the official return of Maj. Mills, adjutant general of the army, it appears that twenty two officers and non-commissioned officers were killed, and thirty wounded. Among the former, were Maj. McMahon, Capt. Hartshorn, and Lieut. Craig; and among the wounded, Capt. Taylor of the dragoons, and Lieut. Darke of the legion. Capt. Gibson, who commanded the fort, behaved with great gallantry, and received the thanks of the commander-in-chief, as did every officer and soldier of the garrison, and the escort, who were engaged in that most gallant and successful defence. Immediately after the enemy had retreated, it was ascertained, that their loss had been very heavy, but the full extent of it was not known till it was disclosed at the treaty of Greenville. References were made to that battle, by several of the chiefs in council, from which it was manifest, that they had not, even then, ceased to mourn the distressing losses sustained on that occasion. Having made the attack with a determination to carry the fort, or perish in the attempt, they exposed their persons in an unusual degree, and of course, a large number of the bravest of their chiefs and warriors, perished before they abandoned the enterprise. From the facts afterwards communicated to the general, it was satisfactorily ascertained that there were a considerable number of British soldiers and Detroit militia engaged with the savages, on that occasion. A few days previous to that affair, the general had sent out three small parties of Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians, to take prisoners, for the purpose of obtaining information. One of those parties returned to Greenville on the 2Sth, and reported that they had fallen in with a large body of Indians, at Girty's town, (crossing of the St. Mary's,) on the evening of the 27th of June, apparently bending their course towards Chillicothe, on the Miami; and that there were a great many white men with them. The other two parties followed the trail of the hostile Indians, and were in sight when the assault on the post commenced. They affirm, one and all, that there were a large number of armed white men, with painted faces, whom they frequently heard conversing in English, and encouraging the Indians to persevere; and that there were also three British officers, dressed in scarlet, who appeared to be men of distinction, from the great attention and respect which was paid to them. These persons kept at a distance, in the rear of the assailants. Another strong corroborating proof that there were British soldiers and militia in the assault, is, that a number of ounce-balls and buck-shot were found lodged in the block-houses and stockades of the fort; and that others were picked up on the ground, fired at such a distance as not to have momentum sufficient to enter the logs. It was supposed that the British engaged in the attack, expected to find the artillery that was lost on the fatal 4th of November, which had been hid in the ground and covered with logs, by the Indians, in the vicinity of the battle-field. This inference was supported by the fact, that during the conflict, they were seen turning over logs, and examining different places, in the neighborhood, as if searching for something. There were many reasons for believing, that they depended on that artillery, to aid in the reduction of the fort; but fortunately, most of it had been previously found by its legitimate owners, and was then employed in its defence. James Neill, a pack-horse-man in the American service, who was taken prisoner by the Indians, during the attack, and tied to a stump, about half a mile from the fort, after his return, stated to the general, that the enemy lost a great number in killed and wounded; that while he was at the stump, he saw about twenty of their dead, and a great many wounded, carried off. He understood there were fifteen hundred Indians and white men in the attack; and on their return to the Miami, the Indians stated, that no men ever fought better than they did at Recovery; and that their party lost twice as many men in that attack, as they did at St. Clair's defeat. Jonathan Alder, who was then living with the Indians, gives in his MSS. auto-biography, an account of the attack on the fort. He 139

Page  140 DARKE COUNTY. states that Siinon Girty was in the action, and that one of the American officers was killed by Thomas M'Kee, a son of the British agent, Col. Alex. M'Kee. We have room but for a single extract, showing the risk the Indians encountered, to bring off their wounded. In the morning, when we arose, an old Indian addressed us, saying, " We last night went out to take the fort by surprise, and lost several of our men, killed and wounded. There is one wounded man lying near the fort, who must be brought away, for it would be an eternal shame and scandal to the tribe to allow him to fall into the hands of the whites to be massacred. I wish to know who will volunteer to go and bring him away." Big Turtle, who knew where hlie lay, answered, that he would go; but as no one else volunteered, the old Illdian pointed out several of us successively, myself among the number, saying that we must accompany Big Turtle. Upon this, we rose up without a word, and started. As soon as we came into the edge of the cleared ground, those in the fort began shooting at us. We then ran crooked, from one tree to another, the bullets ill the meanwhile flying about us like hail. At length, while standing behind a big tree, Big Turtle ordered us not to stop any more, but run in a straight line, as we were only giving them time to load,that those foremost in going should have the liberty of first returning. He then pointed out the wounded man, and we started in a straight line, through a shower of bullets. When we reached him, we were within sixty yards of the fort. We all seized him and retreated for our lives, first dodging from one side and then to the other, until out of danger. None of us were wounded but Big Turtle; a ball grazed his thigh, and a number of bullets passed through.his hunting shirt, that hung loose. When we picked up the wounded man, his shirt flew up, and I saw that he was shot in the belly. It was green all around the bullet holes, and I concluded that we were risking our lives for a dead man. A small village, now containing a few houses only, was laid off on the site of St. Clair's defeat, in 1836, by Larkin & M'Daniels: it is 23 miles north of Greenville. Many relics of the battle have been discovered; muskets, swords, tomahawks, scalping knives, cannon balls, grape and musket shot, &c. Among the bone's found, is that of a skull, now in possession of Mr. Wm. M'Daniels, showing the marks of a bullet, a tomahawk and a scalping knife. St. Clair lost several cannon, all of which but one were subsequently recovered by Wayne. This was long known to be missing, and about a dozen years since was discovered, buried in the mud near the mouth of the creek: it is now in possession of an artillery company in Cincinnati. When the low ground in the valley of the river was cleared, several years since, a large quantity of bullets and grape shot were found in the bodies of trees, from twenty to thirty feet above the ground, from which it seems, that the troops and artillery, having been stationed on high ground, fired over the enemy. On burning the trees, the lead melting run down their trunks, discoloring them so much, as to be perceived at a considerable distance. The remains of Maj. McMahon and his companions, who fell at the time of the attack on the fort, were buried within its walls. Some years since, their bones were disinterred and reburied with the honors of war, in one coffin, in the village grave-yard. McMahon was known from the size of his bones, having been about 6 feet 6 inches in height: a bullet hole was in his skull, the ball having entered his temple and come out at the back of his head. He was originally from near the Mingo bottom, just below Steubenville. He was a famous Indian fighter and captain, and classed by the borderers on the Upper Ohio with Brady and the Wetzels. 140

Page  141 DARKE COUNTY. Fort Jefferson, 5 miles south of Greenville, was built by St. Clair. In the summer of 1792, a large body of Indians surrounded this fort. Before they were discovered, a party of them secreted themselves in some underbrush and behind some bogs, near the fort. Knowing that Capt. Shaylor, the commandant, was passionately fond of hunting, they imitated the noise of turkeys. The captain, not (ireammig of a decoy, hastened out with his son, fully expecting to return loaded with game. As they approached near the place, the savages rose, fired, and his son, a promising lad, fell. 'The captain turning, fled to the garrison. The Indians pursued closely, calculating either to take him prisoner or enter the sally gate with him, in case it were opened for his adiiission. They were, however, disappointed, though at his heels; he entered and the gate was closed the instant he reached it. In his retreat, he was badly wounded by an arrow in hie back. View in Greenville. Greenville, the county seat, is in the township of Greenville, 92 miles west of Columbus, and 10 from the Indiana line. It was laid off, Aug. 10th, 1808, by Robert Gray and John Devor, and contains 1 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, and 1 Christian church, 16 mercantile stores, 1 flouring mill, 1 newspaper printing office, and about 800 inhabitants. Greenville is a point of much historical note. In December,'93, Wayne built a fort at this place, which he called Fort Greenville. He remained until the 28th of July,'94, when he left for the Maumee rapids, where he defeated the Indians on the 20th of the month succeeding. His army returned to Greenville on the 2d of November, after an absence of three months and six days. Fort Greenville was an extensive work, and covered the greater part of the site of the town. The annexed plan is from the survey of Mr. James M'Bride, of Hamilton. The blocks represent the squares of the town, within the lines of the fort. Traces of the embankment are plainly discernable, and various localities within the fort are pointed out by the citizens of the town. The quarters of Wayne, were on the site of the residence of Stephen Perrine, on Main street. Henry House, now of this county, who was in Wayne's campaign, says, that the soldiers built log huts, arranged in rows, each regiment occupying one row, and each hut-of which there were many hundred-occupied by six soldiers. He also affirms that Wayne drilled his men to load while running; and every night when on the march, 141

Page  142 DARKE COUNTY. had good breast-wo-rlks erected, at which the men had been so wel practiced, as to be able to accomplish in a few minutes. prctce, s o e bldo acmls nafwmnt 'i j.N< ~~W\~~\ Y e~~~ a Fort Greenville. On the 3d of August, 1795, Wayne concluded a treaty of peace with the Indians, at Greenville. The number of Indians present was 1,130, viz: 180 Wyandots, 381 Delawares, 143 Shawnees, 45 Ottawas, 46 Chippewas, 240 Pottawatamies, 73 Miamries and Eel river, 12 Weas and Pianikeshaws, and 10 Kickapoos and Kaskaskias. The principal chiefs were Tarhe, Buckongehelas, Black Hoof, Blue Jacket, and Little Turtle. Most of the chiefs had been tampered with by M'Kee and other British agents; but their people, having been reduced to great extremities by the generalship of Wayne, had, notwithstanding, determined to make a permanent peace with the " Thirteen Fires," as they called the federal states. The basis of the treaty of Greenville was, that hostilities were to cease, and all prisoners restored. Article 3d, defined the Indian boundary as follows: The general boundary line between the lands of the United States, and the lands of the said Indian tribes, shall begin at the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, and run thence up the same to the Portage between that and the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum, thence down that branch to the crossing place above Fort Laurens, thence westerly, to a fork of that branch of the Great Miami river, running into the Ohio, at or near which fork stood Loromie's store, and where commenced the portage between the Miami of the Ohio, and St. Mary's river, which is a branch of the Miami, which runs into Lake Erie: thence, a west. erly course to Fort Recovery, which stands on the branch of the Wabash; thence, southerly in a direct line to the Ohio, so as to intersect that river opposite the mouth of Kentucke or Cuttawa river. The following are the reservations within the limits of Ohio, granted to the Indians by this treaty. 1st. One piece of land 6 miles square, at or near Loramie's store, before mentioned. 2d. One piece 2 miles square, at the head of the navigable water or landing on the St. Mary's river, near Girty's town. 3d. One piece, six miles square, at the head of the navigable water of the Auglatise river. 4th. One piece, six miles square, at the confluence of the Auglaise and Miami rivers, where Fort Defiance now stands. 8th. One piece, twelve miles square, at the British fort on the Miami of the lake, at the foot of the rapids. 9th. One piece, six miles square, at the mouth of the said river where it empties into the lake. 10th. One piece, six miles square, upon Sandusky lake, where a fort formerly stood. 11th. One piece, two miles square, at the lower rapids of the Sandusky river. i 142 n m

Page  143 DEFIANCE COUNTY. These with the other tracts were given, "for the same considerations, and as an evidence of the returning friendship of the said Indian tribes, of their confidence in the United States, and desire to provide for their accommodation, and for that convenient intercourse which will be beneficial to both parties." A second treaty was concluded at Greenville, July 22d, 1814, with the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Senecas and Miamies. The commissioners on the part of the United States, were Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison tand Gov. Lowis Cass. By it, these tribes engaged to aid the United States in the war with (Great Britain and her savage allies. The prominent chiefs were Tarhe, Capt. Pipe and Black Hoof. Both of.he treaties were held on the same spot, within the present garden of Abraham Scribner, in Greenville. On the 22d of July, 1840, just 26 years after the last treaty, there was a great celebration at this place, called "the Greenville Treaty Celebration," at which the many thousands present were addressed at length by Gen. Harrison. From the year 1805 to 1808, the celebrated Tecumseh, with his brother the prophet, resided at Greenville. It was the point where they formed their plans of hostility to the whites. During their residence at this place, they were visited by many Indians, who were wrought into the highest excitement by the eloquence of Tecumseh and the cunning of the prophet. * On the plan of Fort Greenville, is laid down" Tecumseh Point," at the junction of the rivulet with Greenville creek, about a quarter of a mile from the court house. At this place are some Indian graves,-here Tecumseh had a cabin, and formerly near it was a spring, called " Tecumseh's Spring." In 1832, the remnant of the Shawnees, then moving to their new homes in the far west, from their reservation on the Auglaize, took this place on their route, instead of Cincinnati, as desired by the United States agents. They encamped on Tecumseh's point, to the number of several hundred, and remained a day or two, to take a final farewell of a place so dear to their memories. New Madison, 10 miles southwest of Greenville, near the site of old Fort Black, is a new and thriving village, containing about 50 houses. Fort Jefferson, Fort Recovery, New Castine, Ithaca, New Harrison, Gettysburg, Versailles, Beamsville and Palestine are small towns. DEFIANCE. DEFIANCE was erected March 4th, -845, from Williams, Henry and Paulding, and named from Fort Defiance. It is watered by the Auglaize, the Tiffin and the Maumee: this last named stream was anciently called "Miami of the Lake," and sometimes "Omee." The Maumee is navigable by steamers,.in high water, to Fort Wayne, and in ordinary stages to that place for keel boats carrying 60 tons. The Auglaize is navigable for keel boats to Wapakoneta, and the Tiffin, which is a narrow, deep stream, is navigable, for pirogues of a few tons, about 50 miles. Much grain comes down those various streams. Prior to the building of the Wabash canal, Northern Indiana received a large part of its supplies by the Maumee. Much of this county is covered by the Black Swamp, and the surface, where cleared and drained, is very fertile. The county is divided into the following townships. Adams, Delaware, Highland, Tiffin, Crane, Farmer, Hicksford, Washington. Defiance, Hicksville, Richland, 143

Page  144 DEFIANCE COUNTY. Defiance having been formned since the last census, its population is unknown. The annexed plan and description IL t of Fort Defiance, is found in the mem 1~~~~ j~~ ~ oranda of Benj. Van Cleve, commu \ I \ ~nicated by his son, John W. Van a-^ ~ g /~ SA Cleve, of Dayton, to the American Pioneer. At each angle of the fort was a block-house, The one next the Maumee is marked A, hav iig port-holes B, on the three exterior sides, and i/ -- door D and chimney C on the side facing to the interior. There was a line of picklets on each side of the fort, connecting the block-houses by their nearest angles. Outside of the pickets and \ w $... Add__..:.;]around the block-houses was a glacis, a wall of '\,:A,. j/ wards from the feet of the pickets, supported by a log wall on the side of the ditch and by facines, a wall of faggots, on the side next the Auglaize. The ditch, fifteen feet wide and eight feet deep, surrounded the whole work except on the side toward the Auglaize; and diagonal pickets, eleven feet long and one foot apart, were secu r,27~ ~ red to the log wall and projected over the ditch. POSY E and E were gateways. F was a bank of Fort Defiance. earth, four feet wide, left for a passage across the ditch. G was a falling gate or drawbridge, which was raised and lowered by pullies, across the ditch, covering it or leaving it uncovered at pleasure. The officers' quarters were at H, and the storehouses at I. At K, two lines of pickets converged towards L, which was a ditch eight feet deep, by which water was procured firom the river without exposing the carrier to the enemy. M was a small sand-bar at the point. Defiance, the county seat, is on the south bank of the Maumee, at its junction with the Auglaize, on the line of the canal, 152 miles NW. of Columbus, 58 from Toledo and 50 from Fort Wayne. It was laid out in 1822, by Benj. Level and Horatio G. Philips, and contains 1 Methodist and 1 Catholic church, 5 mercantile stores and a population of about 700. It is destined, from its natural position, to be, when the country is fully settled, a large and flourishing place; it already has an extensive trade with a large district of country. Defiance is on the site of a large Indian settlement, which extended for miles up and down the river. Gen. Wayne, on his advance march, arrived at this place, Aug. 8th, 1794. His army found it surrounded by a highly cultivated country, there being vegetables of every kind in abundance, and not less than one thousand acres of corn around the Indian town, beside immense apple and peach orchards. It had been a great trading point between the Canadian French and the Indians. On the 9th of August, Wayne commenced the erection of a fort, which he called Fort Defiance. The army remained here several days and then moved northward, and on the 20th, routed the Indians at the Maumee rapids. On their return, they completed the fortress. Fort Defiance was built at the confluence of the Auglaize and Maumee, traces of which work are now plainly discernable. The situation is beautiful and commanding: it 144

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Page  144B U]l~o ~ ~ty. VIEW AT THE MOUTH OF THE C' VIEW AT THE MOUTH OF THE C 111111 111111

Page  145 DELAWARE COUNTY. is indicated in the view of Defiance by the flag shown on the left, Gen. Winchester, previous to his defeat at the river Raisin. in the war )Defiance from the North bank of the L-Iaumee. of 1812, encamped in a picketed fort, which he built on the Auglaize, about 100 yards south of the other, and named Fort Winchester. Brunersburg, Independence, Clarksville, Evansport, Delaware and Hicksville, are small places. (See Addenda.) DELAWARE. DELAWARE was formed from Frianklin county, Feb. 10th, 1808. The surface is generally level and the soil clay, except the river bottoms. About one third of the surface is adapted to meadow and pasture and the remainder to the plough. The principal products are wheat, corn, oats, pork and wool. The following is a list of its 21 townships, with their population in 1840. Bennington, 1051 Harlem, 963 Peru, 737 Berkshire, 1407 Harmony, 676 Porter, 678 Berlin, 827 Kingston, 657 Radnor, 1174 Brown, 908 Liberty, 811 Scioto, 877 Concord, 1185 Lincoln, 549 Thompson, 660 Delaware, 1019 Oxford, 774 Trenton, 11:88 Genoa, 1193 Orange, 789 Troy, The population of Delaware county, in 1820, was 7,639; ins830, 11,522, and in 1840, 22,060 or 36 inhabitants to a square mile. The name of this county originated from the Delaware tribe, some of whom once dwelt within its limits, and had extensive cornfields adjacent to its seat of justice. John Johnston says: "The true name of this once powerful tribe is Wa,be,nugh,ka, 19

Page  146 DELAWARE COUNTY. that is,'the people from the east,' or' the sun rising.' The tradition among themselves is, that they originally, at some very remote period, emigrated from the west, crossed the Mississippi, ascending the Ohio, fighting their way, until they reached the Delaware river, [so named from Lord Delaware,] near where Philadelphia now stands, in which region of county they became fixed. "About this time, they were so numerous that no enumeration could be made of the nation. They welcomed to the shores of the new world that great law-giver, Wm. Penn, and his peaceful followers, and ever since this people have entertained a kind and grateful recollection of them; and to this day, speaking of good men, they would say,' wa,she,a, E,le,ne'-such a man is a Quaker, i.e. all good men are Quakers. In 1823, I removed to the west of the Mississippi persons of this tribe, who were born and raised within 30 miles of Philadelphia. These were the most squalid, wretched and degraded of their race, and often furnished chiefs with a subject of reproach against the whites, pointing to these of their people and saying to us, 'see how you have spoiled them'-meaning, they had acquired all the bad habits of the white people, and were ignorant of hunting and incapable of making a livelihood as other Indians. "In 1819, there were belonging to my agency in Ohio, 80 Delawares, who were stationed near Upper Sandusky, and in Indiana, 2,300 of the same tribe. "Bockinghelas was the principal chief of the Delawares for many years after my going into the Indian country: he was a distinguished warrior in his day, and an old man when I knew him. Killbuck, another Delaware chief, had received a liberal education at Prince ton College, and retained until his death the great outlines of the morality of the. Gospel." Delaware, the county seat, is pleasantly situated, on rolling ground, upon the western bank of the' Olentangy river, 24 miles N. from Columbus. It was laid out in the spring of 1808, by Moses Byxbe, Esq. The engraving shows the public buildings on one of the principal streets of this neat and thriving town. The churches shown are respectively, commencing on the right, the 1st Presbyterian, the Episcopal and the 2d Presbyterian: between the two first, the Methodist church, a substantial stone structure, partially appears in the distance. The large building seen beyond the 2d Presbyterian church, is the " Hinton House," one of the largest and best construct-, ed hotels in Ohio. The Delaware Springs are situated in the southern part of the village, and large numbers of persons come here for the benefit of its waters. "Tradition states that the Indians resorted to these springs, to use the waters and kill the deer and buffalo, which came here in great numbers. Before the grounds were enclosed, in the early settlement of the country, the domestic animals for miles around made this a favorite resort in the heats of summer, and appeared satisfied with no other water. "The principal spring is a fine fountain of water, issuing forth into 140

Page  147 DELAWARE COUNTY. an artificial stone basin at the rate of 12 or 15 gallons per minute. The spring is of that class termed white sulphur, or cold hydrosulphurous water. The water is said to be similar to that of the View in WVinter Street, Delaware. celebrated white sulphur springs of Virginia, and equal in their min eral and medicinal qualities. The water is cooler, being as low as 53~, contains more gas and is therefore lighter and more pleasant than that of the Virginia water. Many cures have been effected of persons afflicted with scrofulous diseases, dyspepsia, bilious derangements of the liver and stomach, want of appetite and digestion, cases of erysipelas, when all the usual remedies had failed, and injuries inflicted by the excessive use of calomel. Prof. H. Michell, in giving his analysis of the waters, says; "Of gaseous products, I find that one wine pint of the water, taken immediately from the spring, contains of sulphurated hydrogen gas, 12 cubic inches; of carbonic acid gas, 3 do. One hundred grains of the deposit, which resulted from evaporating several gallons of the water, yielded, on analysis, of muriate of soda, 48 grains; do. of lime, 20 do.; sulphate of magnesia, 16 do.; do. of lime, 8 do.; carbonate of soda, 5 do.; total of the above, 97 grains. The above results show that these waters approach as nearly to the well-known waters of Aix la Chappelle and Harrowgate as those do respectively to each other......They are decidedly deobstruent, and calculated to remove glandular enlargements, as well of the liver as of the other viscera. In (cases of slow fever, disturbed state of the functions of digestion, or more confirmed dyspepsia-morbid secretions from the kidneys or bladder, gravel and chronic eruptions on the skin, I can strongly recommend their use; and, though last, not least, their power of subduing general constitutional irritation, and quieting and restoring tone to the system, when it has been necessary to have recourse to the 147

Page  148 DELAWARE COUNTY. frequent and long-continued action of calomel or other mercurial p)reparations, is, I am persuaded, of the greatest efficacy." _ _ _ 4 _ Ohio Wesleyan University. The Ohio Wesleyan University has been recently established at Delaware, with fine prospects of success-the Rev. Edward Thornson, D. D., President. The college edifice stands on a pleasant elevation, in the southern part of the village, and embraces within its grounds ten acres of land, including the sulphur spring, the position of which is indicated in the engraving by the figures seen in the distance among the trees on the left. The population of Delaware, in 1840, was 898-since which, it has probably doubled its number of inhabitants. The White Sulphur Fountain. The White Sulphur Fountain is beautifully situated on the rapids 148

Page  149 ERIE COUNTY. of the Scioto, 18 miles above Columbus and 10 sw. of Delaware, and is surrounded for miles by a fine undulating and healthy country. The buildings are neat, entirely new and, for the first time, opened this season (1847) to visitors. The fountain is a most remarkable curiosity, and rises from the bed of the Scioto through solid rock. It was first discovered in 1820, while boring for salt water, a hole of about 2.1 inches ill diameter. The operators had pierced through about 90 feet of solid rock, when the auger suddenly fell two feet and up gushed with great force a stream of strong white sulphur water, which has continued to rise with its original force and violence lo the present time. Experiments have shown some curious results; among which was that of placing an air-tight tube in an upright position, one end being inserted into the hole, when the water shot out of its top with as much force as when issuing from the rock beneath. The water, which is pure, is supposed to be driven by its own gas: its temperature is 500, and it deposits on the ground around a very heavy white deposit. On the grounds of the establishment is a beautiful chalybeate spring, having a temperature of 47~. "This place has every natural advantage that can be desired for making it one of the greatest places of resort for health and recreation, west of the mountains. From present indications, it is evidently destined to become so, as soon as preparations can be made to accommodate the public to a sufficient extent, which will soon be done, as improvements here are making rapid progress." There are several small towns in the county: the most important of these are Sunbury and Berkshire-the first of which is 12 miles E. of Delaware, and is a neat village, containing 4 stores, 3 churches and about 300 inhabitants. (See Addenda.) ERIE. ERIE was formed in 1838, from Huron and Sandusky counties. The surface is level, with some prairie land. Inexhaustible quarries of limestone and freestone abound. The freestone from Margaretta township resembles the famous Portland stone: when taken from the quarry it is soft and is frequently sawed with the hand-saw, and hardens on exposure to the atmosphere. The limestone is of the species called marine-shell marble. It is of the best quality, full of organic remains, and susceptible of an exquisite polish. Quantities of bog iron ore are found. The soil is generally alluvial and very fertile. The principal crops are wheat, corn, oats and potatoes. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Margaretta, Milan, Oxford, Berlin, Florence, Groton, Huron, The population of Erie in 1840, was 12,457, or about 48 inhabitants to a square mile. The name of this county was originally applied to the Erie tribe of Indians. This nation is said to have had their residence at the east end of the lake, near where Buffalo now stands. They are represented to have been the most powerful and warlike of all the 149 1628 1655 854 1488 1104 1531 736 Perkins, Portland, Vermillion, 839 1434 1334

Page  150 ERIE COUNTY. Indian tribes, and to have been extirpated by the Five Nations or Iroquois, two or three centuries since.* Father Lewis Hennepin, in his work published about 1684, in speaking of certain Catholic priests, thus alludes to the Eries: "These good fathers were great friends of the Hurons, who told them that the Iroquois went to war beyond Virginia, or New Sweden, near a lake which they called' Erige,' or' Erie,' which signifies,' the cat,' or' nation of the cat;' and because these savages brought captives from the nation of the cat in returning to their cantons along this lake, the Hurons named it, in their language,' Erige,' or'Ericke,''the lake of the cat,' and which our Canadians, in softening the word, have called'Lake Erie."' Charlevoix, writing in 1721, says respecting Lake Erie: "The name it bears is that of an Indian nation of the Huron [Wyandot] language, which was formerly seated on its banks, and who have been entirely destroyed by the Iroquois. Erie, in that language, signifies cat, and in some accounts, this nation is called the cat nation. This name probably comes from the large number of that animal formerly found in this country." The French established a small -L. EBA I E trading post at the mouth of Hiuron river, and another on the shore of I _ the bay on or near the site of San dusky city, which were abandoned I______ *before the war of the revolution. !- ~ 9 The small map annexed is copied forts naky.''a&ots from part of Evans's map of the Mid'~~' x~'. die British Colonies, published in I tF~ro,j~,,,,a,,t' 1755. The reader will perceive ~at F a upon the east bank of Sandusky ~andots / river, near the bay, a French fort anuos there described as "Fort Junandat, built in 1754." The words Wan dots are doubtlesss meant for Wyan dot towns. In 1764, while Pontiac was besieging Detroit, Gen. Bradstreet collected a force of 3,000 men, which embarked at Niagara in boats and proceeded up the lake to the relief of that post. Having burned the Indian corn-fields and villages at Sandusky and along the rich bottoms of the Maumee, and dispersed the Indians whom they there then found, he reached Detroit without opposition.t Having dispersed the Indians besieging Detroit, he passed into the Wyandot country by way of Sandusky bay. He ascended the bay and river as far as it was navigable for boats and there made a camp. A treaty of peace and friendship was signed by the chiefs and head men.1 Erie, Huron, and a small part of Ottawa counties comprise that portion of the Western Reserve known as "the fire-lands," being a tract of about 500,000 acres, granted by the State of Connecticut to the sufferers by fire from the British in their incursions into that State.~ The history which follows of the fire-lands and the settle * These facts are derived from the beautiful "tradition of the Eries," published in the Buffalo Commercial, in the summer of 1845. That tradition (says the editor) "may be implicitly relied upon, every detail having been taken from the lips of Blacksnake and other venerable chiefs of the Senecas and Tonawandas, who still cherish the traditions of their fathers." t Lanman's Michigan. t Whittlesey's address on Boquet's expedition. ~ For some facts connected with the history of the fire-lands, see sketch of the Western Reserve, to be found elsewhere in this volume. 150

Page  151 ERIE COUNTY. ment of this county, is from the Mss. history of the fire-lands, by the late C. B. Squier, Esq., of Sandusky City. The largest sufferers, and, consequently,those who held the largest interest in the fire-lands, purchased the rights of many who held smaller interests. The proprietors of the fire-lands, anxious that their new territory should be settled, offered strong inducements for persons to settle in this then unknown region. But, aside from the ordinary difficulties attending a new settlement, the Indian title to the western part of the reserve was not then extinguished; but by a treaty held at Fort Industry, on the Maumee, in July, 1805, this object was accomplished, and the east line of the Indian territory was established on the west line of the reserve. The proprietors of the fire-lands were deeply interested in this treaty, upon the result of which depended their ability to possess and settle their lands. Consequently, the Hon. Isaac Mills, secretary of the company, with others interested, left Connecticut to be present at these negotiations. Cleveland was the point first designated for holding the treaty. But upon their arrival, it was ascertained that the influence of the British agents among the Indians was so great as to occasion them to refuse to treat with the agents of the United States, unless they would come into their own territory, on the Miami of the Lakes, as the Maumee was then termed. Having arrived at the Maumee, they found several agents of the British government among the Indians, using every possible effort to prevent any negotiation whatever, and it was fifteen or twenty days before they could bring them to any reasonable terms. Soon after the conclusion of the treaty, the settlements commenced upon the fire-lands. It is quite difficult to ascertain who the first settlers were upon the fire-lands. As early, if not prior to the organization of the state, several persons had squatted upon the lands, at the mouth of the streams and near the shore of the lake, led a hunter's life and trafficked with the Indians. But they were a race of wanderers and gradually disappeared before the regular progress of the settlements. Those devoted missionaries, the Moravians, made a settlement, which they called New Salem, as early as 1790, on Huron river, about two miles below Milan, on the Hathaway farm. They afterwards settled at Milan. The first regular settlers upon the fire-lands were Col. Jerard Ward, who came in the spring of 1808, and Almon Ruggles and Jabez Wright, in the autumn succeeding. Ere the close of the next year, quite a number of families had settled in the townships of Huron, Florence, Berlin, Oxford, Margaretta, Portland and Vermillion. These early settlers generally erected the ordinary log cabin, but others of a wandering character built bark huts, which were made by driving a post at each of the four corners and one higher between each of the two end corners, in the middle, to support the roof, which were connected together by a ridge pole. Layers of bark were wound around the side of the posts, each upper layer lapping the one beneath to shed rain. The roof was barked over, strips being bent across from one eave over the ridge pole to the other and secured by poles on them. The occupants of these bark huts were squatters, and lived principally by hunting. They were the semi-civilized race that usually precedes the more substantial pioneer in the western wilderness. For two or three years previous to the late war, the inhabitants were so isolated from other settlements that no supplies could be had, and there was much suffering for want of tood and clothing; at times, whole families subsisted for weeks together on nothing but parched and pounded corn, with a very scanty supply of wild meat. Indeed, there was not a family in the fire-lands, between 1809 and'15, who did not keenly feel the want of both food and clothing. Wild meat, it is true, could usually be procured; but living on this alone would much enfeeble and disease any one but an Indian or a hunter accustomed to it for years. For even several years after the war, raccoon caps, with the fur outside, and deerskin jackets and pantaloons, were almost universally worn. The deerskin pantaloons could not be very well tanned, and when dried, after being wet, were hard and inflexible: when thrown upon the floor they bounded and rattled like tin kettles. A man, in a cold winter's morning, drawing on a pair, was in about as comfortable a position as if thrusting his limbs into a couple of frosty stove pipes. To add to the trials and hardships of the early settlers, it soon became very sickly, and remained so for several years. The following is but one of the many touching scenes of privation and distress that might be related: A young man with his family settled not far from the Huron river, building his cabin in the thick woods, distant from any other settlement. During the summer, he cleared a small patch, and in the fall, became sick and died. Soon after, a hunter on his way home, pass 151

Page  152 ERIE COUNTY. ing by the clearing, saw every thing still about the cabin, mistrusted all was not right, and knocked at the door to inquire. A feeble voice bade him enter. Opening the door he was startled by the appearance of the woman, sitting by the fire, pale, emaciated, and holding a puny, sickly babe! He immediately inquired their health. She burst into tears and was unable to answer. The hunter stood for a moment aghast at the scene. The woman, re covering from her gush of sorrow, at length raised her head and pointed towards the bed, saying, " there is my little Edward-I expect he is dying-and here is my babe, so sick I cannot lay it down; I am so feeble I can scarcely remain in my chair, and my poor husband lies buried beside the cabin!" and then, as if frantic by the fearful recital, she exclaimed in a tone of the deepest anguish," Oh! that I was back to my own country, where I could fall into the arms of my mother!" Tears of sympathy rolled down the weather-beaten cheeks of the iron-framed hunter as he rapidly walked away for assistance. It was a touching scene. A majority of the inhabitants of this period were of upright characters; bold, daring and somewhat restless, but generous-minded. Although enduring great privations, much hap piness fell to the kind of life they were leading. One of them says: "When I look back upon the first few years of our residence here, I am led to exclaim, O! happy days of prim itive simplicity! What little aristocratic feeling any one might have brought with him was soon quelled, for we soon found ourselves equally dependent on one another; and we en joyed our winter evenings around our blazing hearths in our log huts cracking nuts full as well, aye! much better than has fallen to our lots since the distinctions and animosities consequent upon the acquisition of wealth have crept in among us." Another pioneer says: "In illustration of that old saw, 'A man wants but little here below, Nor wants that little long,' I relate the following. A year or two after we arrived, a visit was got up by the ladies, in order to call on a neighboring family who lived a little out of the common way. The hostess was very much pleased to see them, and immediately commenced preparing the usual treat on such occasions-a cup of tea and its accompaniments. As she had but one fire-proof vessel in the house, an old broken bake kettle, it, of course, must take some time. In the first place, some pork was tried up in the kettle to get lard-secondly, some cakes were made and fried in it-thirdly, some shortcakes were made in it-fourthly, it was used as a bucket to draw water-fifthly, the water was heated in it, and sixthly and lastly, the tea was put in and a very sociable dish of tea they had. In those good old times, per fectly fresh to my recollection, the young men asked nothing better than buckskin pantaloons to go a courting in, and the young ladies were not too proud to go to meeting barefoot." The following little anecdote illustrates the intrepidity of a lady in indulging her social feelings. A gentleman settled with his family about two miles west of the Vermillion river without a neighbor near him. Soon after, a man and wife settled on the opposite side of the river, three miles distant; the lady on the west side was very anxious to visit her stranger neighbor on the east, and sent her a message setting a day when she should make her visit, and at the time appointed went down to cross the river with her husband, but found it so swollen with recent rains as to render it impossible to cross on foot. There was no canoe or horse in that part of the country. The obstacle was apparently insurmountable. Fortunately the man on the other side was fertile in expedients; he yoked up his oxen, anticipating the event, and arrived at the river just as the others were about to leave. Springing upon the back of one of the oxen he rode him across the river, and when he had reached the west bank, the lady, Europa-like, as fearlessly sprang on the back of the other ox, and they were both borne across the raging waters, and safely landed upon the opposite bank; and when she had concluded her visit, she returned in the same manner. The lady still lives on the same spot, and is noted for her goodness of heart, and cultivated manners. Early in the settlement of the fire-lands the landholders injudiciously raised the price of land to $5 per acre. The lands belonging to the general government on the west were opened for sale at $2 per acre; immigration ceased, and as most of the settlers had bought their land on a credit, the hard times which followed the last war pressed severely upon them, and the settlements languished. Money was so scarce in 1820 and 1822, that even those who had their farms paid for, were in the practice of laying up sixpences and shillings for many months to meet their taxes. All kinds of trade was carried on by barter. Many settlers left their improvements and removed further west, finding themselves unable to pay for their lands. The first exports of produce of any consequence commenced in 1817; in 1818 the article of salt was $8 per barrel; flour was then $10, and a poor article at that. 152

Page  153 E'RIEt COUNTY. There was no market for several years beyon(d the wants of the settlers, which was sufficient to swallow up all the surplus products of the farmer; but when such an outlet was wvallted, it was found at Detroit, Monroe, and the other settlements in the upper regions of Lake Erie. As to the conmmercial advantages, there was a sufficient number of vessels on the lake to do the business of the country, which was done at the price of $2,50 per barrel bulk, fiom Buffalo to this place, a distance of 250 miles. Now goods are transported from New York to Sandllsky City as low as forty-seven cents per hundred, or $9 per ton. Most kinds of mierchandize sold at a sale corresponding to the prices of freight. Domestic shlirtings from fifty to sixty-two cents per yard; satinets $2,50 to $3,50 do.; green teas $1,50 to $2,50 per lb.; brown sugar from twenty-five to thirty cents per lb.; loaf do. friomn forty to fifty per do., etc., etc. Butter was worth twenty-five cents, and corn $1,00 per bushel. As to wheat there was scarcely a price known for some of the first years, the inhabitants mostly depended on buying flour by the barrel on account of the want of mills. The Indians murdered several of the inhabitants in the fire-lands. One of the most barbarous murders was committed ill the spring of 1812, upon Michael Gibbs and one Buel, who lived together in a cabin about a mile southeast of the present town of Sandusky. The murderers were two Indians named Semo and Omic.'The whi,es went in pursuit of them; Omic was taken to Cleveland, tried, found guilty and executed. Semo was afterwards demanded of his tribe, and they were about to give him up, when, anticipating his fate, he gave the war-whoop, and shot himiself through the heart. In the late war, previous to Perry's victory, the inhabitants were in much dread of the Indians. Some people upon Huron river were captured by theni; and also at the head of Cold creek, where a Mrs. Putnam and a whole family by the name of Snow (the man excepted) were attacked. Mrs. Snow and one little child was cruelly butchered, and the rest taken captive, together with a Mrs. Butler and a girl named Page, and carried to Canada. They were, however. released or purchased by the whites a few months after. Other depredations and murders were committed by the savages. SANDUSKY CITY, the county seat, is situated on Sandusky bay, 105 miles north of Columbus, and 60 from Cleveland and Detroit. Its situation is pleasant, rising gradually from the lake, and commanding a fine view of it. The town is based upon an inexhaustible quarry of the finest limestone, which is not only used in building elegant and substantial edifices in the town, but is an extensive article of export. A few hundred yards back fiom the lake is a large and handsome public square, on which, fronting the lake, are the principal churches and public buildings. The first permanent settlement at Sandusky City was made in June, 1817, at which time the locality was called Ogontz place, from an Indian chief who resided here previous to the war of 1812. The town was laid out under the name of Portland in 1817, by its proprietors, Hon. Zalmon Wildman of Danbury, Ct., and Hon. Isaac Mills of New Haven, in the same state. On the first of July of that year, a small store of goods was opened by Moores Farwell, in the employment of Mr. Wildman. The same building is now standing on the bay shore, and is occupied by Mr. West. There were at this time but two log, huts in the place besides the store, which was a frame, and had been erected the year previous. One of the huts stood on the site of the Verandah hotel, and the other some sixty rods east. The first frame dwelling was erected by Wm. B. Smith in the fall of 1817, the second soon after by Cyrus W. Marsh, and a third in the succeeding spring by Moores Farwell. The Methodist Episcopal church, a small frame building, and the first built, was erected in 1830; the Episcopal and Presbyterian churches in 1835; the Wesleyan chapel in 1836, and the rest since. Sandusky City contains 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, 1 Congregational, 20 153

Page  154 ERIE COUNTY. 1 Reformed Methodist, 1 Catholic and 1 German Lutheran church, 1 high school, a large number of dry goods and-grocery stores, several forwarding and commission houses, 2 furnaces, 1 oil mill, 2 extensive machine shops for the manufacture of the iron for railroad cars, 2 printing offices, 2 banks, and a population estimated at .llilan from near the Sandusky City Road. 3000. This town is now very thriving, and promises to be, ere many years, a large city.; A great impetus has been given to its prosperity by the construction of two railroads which terminate here; the first the Mad River and Little Miami railroad connect it with Cincinnati; the other connects it with Mansfield, from which place it is constructing through Mount Vernon and Newark to Columbus: a branch will diverge from Newark to Zanesville. This last is one of the best built railroads in the country, and is doing a very heavy transportation business. The commerce of Sandusky City is heavy, and constantly increasing. The arrivals at this port in 1846 were 447, clearan(ces 441; and 843,746 bushels of wheat were among the articles exported. On the farm of Isaac A. Mills, west of the town, are some ancient works and mounds. In the late Canadian "patriot war," this city was a rendezvous for "patriots;" they had an action on the ice near Point-au-Pelee island with British cavalry in the winter of 1838. They were under Captain Bradley of this city, who has since commanded a company of volunteers in the war with Mexico. In this action the "patriots" behaved with cool bravery, and although attacked by a superior force, delivered their fire with steadiness, and repelled their enemy with considerable loss. Twelve miles from Sandusky City, and eight from Lake Erie is the flourishing town of Milan, in the township of the same name. It stands upon a.commanding bluff on the right bank of Huron river. The above engraving shows its appearance from a hill west of the road to Sandusky City, and a few rods back of Kneeland Towns 154

Page  155 ERIE COUNTY. end's old distillery building, which appears n front. In the middle ground is shown the Huron river and the canal; on the right the bridge across the river; on the hill, part of the town appears, with the tower of the Methodist, and spire of the Presbyterian church. Below we give in a communication from tthe Rev. E. Judson, of Milan, a historical and descriptive sketch of the village and township: On the spot where the town of Milan now stands, there was, at the time of the survey of the fire-lands, in 1807, an Indian village, containiing within it a Christian community, under the superintendance of Rev. Christian Frederic Dencke, a Moravian missionary. The Indian name of the town was Petquotting. The mission was established here in 1804. Mr. Dencke6 brought with him several families of Christian Indians, from the vicinity of the Thames river, in Upper Canada. They had a clhapel and a mission house, and were making good progress inll the cultivation of Christian principles, when the commencement of the white settlements, induced them, in 1809, to emigrate with their missionary to Canada. There was a Moravian mission attei-ipted as early as 1787. A considerable party of Christian Indians had been driven frionm their settlemenit at GnaC(lei hutten, on the Tuscarawas river, by the inhuman butchery of a large number of the inhabitants by the white settlers. After years of wandering, with Zeisberger for their spiritual guide, they at length formed a home on the banks of the Cuyahoga river, near Clevelanld, which they named Pilgerruh, (" Pilgrim's rest.") They were soon driven from this post, whence they came to the Huron, and commenced a settlement on its east bank, and near the north line of the township. To this village they gave the name of New Salem. Here the labors of their indefatigable missionary, were crowned with very considerable success. They were soon compelled to leave, however, by the persecutions of the pagan Indians. It seems to have been a portion of these exiles who returned, in 1804, to commence the new mission. The ground on both sides of the Huron river, through the entire length of the township, is distinctly marked at short intervals, by the remains of a former race. Mounds tind enclosures, both circular and angular, some of which have strongly marked features, occur at different points along the river. The land in the township of Milan, was brought into market in 1808. In the summer of the following year, David Abbott purchased 1800 acres, in the northeast section of the township, and lying on both sides of the Huron, for the purpose of commencing a settlement. He removed here, with his famnily, in 1810. Jared Ward purchased a part of Mr. Abbott's tract, and removed here, in 1809. He was the first" actual white settler," who had an interest in the soil. The progress of the settlemeint wvas at first rapid. When hostilities with Great Britain commenced, in 1812, there were within the township twenty three families, and about forty persons capable of bearing arms. The progress of the settlement was interrupted by the war, and few or no emigrants arrived between 1812 and 1816. This interruption was not the only evil experienced by the inhabitants. The British, in the early part of the war, commanded Lake Erie, and could at any moment make a descent upon the place. Many of the Indians were hostile, and were supposed to be instigated to acts of cruelty, by the willingness of the British commander at Fort Malden, to purchase the scalps of American citizens. Occasional outrages were perpetrated; houses were burned, and in a few instances individuals were murdered in cold blood, while others were taken prisoners. Near the southwestern corner of the township, at a place known as the Parker farm,-from its having been first purchased and occupied by Charles Parker,-there was a block-house, used as a place of resort during the war. A military guard was kept here. Two young men, apprehensive of no immediate danger, on a pleasant morning, in the fall of 1812, left the block-house and wandered to the distance of a mile, for the purpose of collecting honey from a "bee tree." While in the act of, cutting down the tree, they were surprised by the Indians, who, it seems, had been for sometime watching for their prey; one of them named Seymour, was killed on the spot; the other was recognized by one of the Indians, made a captive and treated kindly. The Indian who captured him, had been a frequent guest in the family where the young man had resided. Sometime previous two men, Buell and Gibbs, had been murdered by the Indians, near Sandusky. Thirteen persons, women and children, had been captured near the present village of Castalia, some six miles to the westward of Sandusky. Of these, five, most of whom belonged to the family of D. P. Snow, were massacred. All the men belonging to the settlement were absent at the time of the massacre. These repeated butcheries, supposed at the' time to be instigated by the British commander at Fort Malden, whither the scalps of all who were murdered were carried, kept the people of Milan in a constant state of 155

Page  156 ERIE COUNTY. alarm. In August, Gen. Hull surrendered Detroit to the British, and from this time to the achievement of Perry's victory, in September of the following year, the inhabitants were in constant apprehension for their personal safety. The sighing of the breeze, and the dis charge of the hunter's rifle, alike startled the wife and the mother, as she trembled for her absent husband, or her still more defenceless "little one." During this interval, Generai Simon Perkills, of Warren, with a regiment of mnilitia, had been stationed at" Fort Avery," a fortification hastily thrown up on the east bank of the Huron river, about a mile and a half north of the present town of' Milan; but the inexperience of the militia, and the coti stant presence in the neighborhood of scouting parties of Indians, whom no vigilance could detect, and no valor defeat, rendered the feeling of insecurity scarcely less than before. Some left the settlements, not to return till peace was restored. Those who remained were compelled, at firequent intervals, to collect in the fort for safety, or made sudden flights to the interior of the state, or to the more populous districts in the vicinity of Cleveland, where a few days of quiet would so far quell their fears as to lead them to return to their homes, to be driven off again by fresh alarms. With the return of peace, in 1815, prosperity was restored to the settlements, and the emigration was very considerable. The emigrants were almost exclusively of the New England stock, and the establishment of common schools and the organization of Christian churches, were among the earliest fruits of their enter prising spirit. The town of Milan was "laid out" in 1816, by Ebenezer Merry, who had two years previously removed to its township. Mr. Merry was a native of West Hart ford, in Connecticut, and by his example contributed much, as the proprietor of the town, to promote good morals among the early inhabitants. He took measures immediately for the erection of a flouring mill and saw mill, which contributed materially to thie inmprove iment of the town, and were of great service to the infant settlements in the vicinity. In the first settlement of the place, grain was carried nmore than fifty miles down the lake in open boats, to be ground; and sometimes from points more in the interior; on the shoulders of a father, whose power of endurance was greatly heightened by the anticipated smiles of a group of little ones, whose subsistence for weeks together had been venison and hourimony. Mr. Merry was a man of acute observation, practical benevolence and unbounded hos pitality. He repeatedly represented the county in the legislature of the state, was twice elected to a seat on the bench of the common pleas; an honor in both instances declined. He died, Jan. 1, 1846, at the age of 73, greatly beloved. David Abbott, as the first purchaser of land in the township, with a view to its occu pancy as a permanent "settler," deserves some notice in this brief sketch. Mr. Abbott was a native of Brookfield, Mass. He was educated at Yale College. His health failed, and he was obliged to forego a diploma, by leaving college in the early part of his senior year. He soon after entered upon the study of the law, and located himself at Rome, Oneida co., N. Y., whence he came to Ohio, in 1798, and spent a few years at Willoughby, whence he removed to Milan, in 1809. He was sheriff of Trumbull county, when the whole Western Reserve was embraced within its limits; was a member of the convention for the formation of the Constitution of the State, previous to its admission to the Union, in 1802; was one of the electors of President and Vice President, inll 1812; clerk of the supreme court for the county, and repeatedly a member of both houses of the state legislature. He was a man of eccentric habits, and his life was filled up with the stirring incidents, peculiar to a pioneer in the new settlements of the west. He several times traversed the entire length of Lake Erie, in an open boat, of which he was both helmsman and commander, and in one instance was driven before a tempest, diagonally across the lake, a distance of more than a hundred miles, and thrown upon the Canada shore. There was but one person with him in the boat, and he was employed most of the time in bailing out the water with his hat, the only thing on board capable of being appropriated to such use. When the storm had subsided and the wind veered about, they retraced their course in the frail craft that had endured the tempest unscathed; and after a weeks absence were hailed by their friends with great satisfaction, having been given up as lost. Mr. Abbott died in 1822, at the age of 57. Of the other citizens who have deceased, and whose names deserve honorable mention as having contributed in various ways to the prosperity of the town, are Ralph Lockwood, Dr. A. B. Harris and Hon. G. W. Choate. The religious societies of the place, are a Presbyterian, Methodist and Protestant Episcopal church, each of which enjoys the stated preaching of the gospel, and is in a flourishing state. The two former have substantial and valuable church edifices, the latter society have one in process of erection. In 1832, a substantial and commodious brick edifice was erected as an academy, furnishing, beside two public school rooms and suitable apartments for a library, and apparatus, ten rooms for the accommodation of students. The annual catalogue for the last ten years, has exhibited an average number of about 150 pupils. 156

Page  157 FAIRFIELD COUNTY. In 1833, a company of citizens, who had been previously incorporated for the purpose, entered vigorously upon the work of extending the navigation of Lake Erie, to this place by improving the navigation of the river some five miles from its mouth, and excavating a ship canal for the rehmaining distance of three miles. After much delay, occasioned by want of funds, and an outlay of about $75,000, the work was completed, and the first vessel, a schooner of 100 tons, floated in the basiln, July 4th, 1839. The canal is capable of being navigated by vessels, of from 200 to 250 tons burden. The chief exports of the place, are wheat, flour, pork, staves, ashes, wool and grass seed(s. The surrounding country is rapidly undergoing the improvements incident to the removal of the primitive forests, and with the increased productiveness, the business of the town has rapidly increased. The value of exports for the year 1844, was $825,098; of this, more than three fourths consisted of wheat and flour. The importation of mnerchandize, salt, plaster, etc., for the same period, was in value $634,711. The almost entire loss of the wheat crop for 1845, very essentially diminished the amount of business from the harvest of 1815, to that of the following year. The last half of 1846, shows a decided increase over any previous season. In the foregoing sketch, our correspondent does not give the population of the town. We should judge it to be not far from.000. Castalia, a neat village, 5 miles southwest of Sandusky City, at the head of Coal creek, and bordering on a beautiful prairie of about 3000 acres, was laid out in 1836, by Marshall Burton, and named from the Grecian fount. It contains 2 churches, 5 stores, and about 400 inhabitants. The source of Coad creek, is a beautiful and curious flooding spring, rising from a level prairie at the village. This spring is about 200 feet in diameter, and 60 feet deep. The water is so pure, that the smallest particle can be seen at the bottom, and when the sun is in the meridian, all the objects at the bottom, logs, stumps, &c., reflect the hues of the rainbow, forming a view of great beauty. The constituents of the water are lime, soda, magnesia and iron, and it petrifies all objects, such as grass, stumps, bushes, moss, &c., which come in contact with it. The stream courses about three miles through the prairie, and empties into Lake Erie. The water is very cold, but never freezes, and at its point of entrance into the lake, prevents the formation of ice. The stream at present furnishes power for twenty two runs of stone. Upon it, are the well-known Castalia and Co;tl creek mills, the water wheels of which are imperishable from decay, in consequence of their being incrusted by petrifaction. About two miles north of Castalia, is a cave, lately discovered and not as yet fully explored. Seven apartments have been entered, which abound in beautiful stalactites and stalagmites. A dog running into an aperture at the mouth of the cave, in pursuit of a rabbit, led to its discovery. The fountain and cave attract many avisiters. Huron, at the mouth of Huron river, 10 miles east of Sandusky City, is an older town than the county seat, and was formerly the greatest business place in the county. It is as yet an important point for the shipment of wheat, and contains 3 churches, 4 forwardilug houses, 4 stores and about 400 inhabitants. Vermillion, at the mouth of Vermillion river, is a thriving village, containing from 50 to 70 dwellings. Birmingham, a few miles above, on the same stream, is a somewhat smaller village. Berlinville, Berlin Center and Venice are small places in the county. FAIRFIELD. FAIRFIELD was formed, December 9th, 1800, by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, and so named from the beauty of its fair fields. It contains every variety of soil, from the richest to the most sterile. 157

Page  158 FAIRFIELD COUNTY. The western and northern parts are mostly level, the soil of which is very fertile, consisting of a rich loam, with a subsoil of clay. The remainder of the northern and western parts, together with the middie and a part of the eastern portion, is undulating; the soil good, consisting of a clayey loam, mixed with vegetable mould, and in many parts, interspersed with gravel. The southern part is hilly and broken, the soil of which is thin and barren, composed in many places of sand and gravel. The staples are wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, corn, barley, potatoes and tobacco. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Amanda, 1937 Hocking, 2120 Pleasant, 2025 Bern, 2431 Lancaster, 3278 Richland, 1960 Bloom, 2288 Liberty, 2778 Rush Creek, 2426 ClearCreek, 1716 Madison, 1085 Violet, 2400 Greenfield, 2148 Perry, 1171 Walnut, 2098 The population of the county, in 1820, was 16,508; in 1830, 24,753; and in 1840, 31,858, or 59 inhabitants to a square mile. View in Main Street, Lancaster. Lancaster, the county seat, is situated on the Hockhocking river and canal, on the Zanesville and Chillicothe turnpike, 28 miles southeast of Columbus, 37 from Zanesville, 18 from Somerset, 19 from Logan, 35 from Chillicothe, 20 from Circleville, and 27 from Newark. It stands in a beautiful and fertile valley, and is a flourishing, well-built town. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, 1 Catholic, 1 Lutheran, 1 Protestant Methodist, 1 Baptist and 1 German Reformed church, about 20 mercantile stores, 2 newspaper offices, and had, in 1840, 2,120 inhabitants: it has since much increased. The engraving shows the appearance of the principal street in the town. It was taken near the court house, and represents the western part of the street; the court house is shown on the right, and the market on the left, of the view. From the lecture delivered before the Lancaster Literary Institute, in March, 1844, by George Sanderson, Esq., we derive the following sketch of the history of the town and county. The lands watered by the sources of the Hockhocking river, and now comprehende 158

Page  159 FAIRFIELD COUNTY. within the limits of Fairfield county, when first discovered by the early settlers at Marietta, were owned and occupied by the Wyandot tribe of Indians. The principal town of the nation stood along the margin of the prairie, between the south end of Broad street and T. Ewing's canal basin; and the present town of Lancaster, and extending back to the base of the hill, south of the Methodist Episcopal church. It is said, that the town contained in 1790, about one hundred wigwams, and a population of 500 souls. It was called TARHE, or in English the Crane-town, and derived its name from that of the principal chief of the tribe. Another portion of the tribe then lived at Tobey-towin, nine miles west of Tarhetown, (now Royalton,) and was governed by an inferior chief called Tobey. The chief's wigwam, in Tarhe, stood upon the bank of the prairie, near where the fourth lock is built on the Hocking canal, and near where a beautiful spring of water flowed into the Hockhocking river. The wigwams were built of the bark of trees, set on poles, in the form of a sugar camp, with one square open, fronting a fire, and about the height of a man. The Wyandot tribe numbered at that day about 500 warriors... By the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, the Wyandots ceded all their territory on the Hockhocking river to the United States. The Crane chief, soon after the treaty, with many of the tribe, removed and settled at Upper Sandusky; others remained behind for four or five years after the settlement of the country, as if unable or unwilling to tear themselves away from the graves of their forefathers and their hunting grounds. They were, however, so peaceably disposed towards the settlers, that no one felt willing to drive them away. In process of time, the game and fur became scarce, and the lingering Indian, unwilling to labor for a living, was forced, by stern necessity, to quit the country, and take up his abode with those of his tribe, who had preceded him at Upper Sandusky. In 1797, Ebenezer Zane opened the road, known as "Zane's Trace," from Wheeling to Limestone, (now Maysville.) It passed through the site of Lancaster, at a fording about 300 yards below the present turnpike bridge, west of the town, and then called the "crossings of the Hockhocking." He located one of his three tracts of land, given by congress for the performance of this task, on the Hockhocking, at Lancaster. In 1797, Zane's trace having opened a communication between the eastern states and Kentucky, many individuals in both directions, wishing to better their condition in life, by emigrating and settling in the "backwoods," so called, visited the Hockhocking valley for that purpose. Finding the country surpassingly fertile, abounding in fine springs of the purest water, they determined to make it their new homes. In April, 1798, Capt. Joseph Hunter, a bold and enterprising man, with his family, emigrated from Kentucky, and settled on Zane's trace, upon the bank of the prairie, west of the crossings, and about one hundred and fifty yards northwest of the present turnpike road, and which place was called " Hunter's settlement." Here he cleared off the underbrush, felled the forest trees and erected a cabin, at a time when he had not a neighbor nearer than the Muskingum or Scioto rivers. This was the commencement of the first settlement in the Upper Hockhocking valley, and Capt. Hunter is regarded as the founder of the flourishing and populous county of Fairfield. He lived to see the county densely settled and in a high state of improvement, and died about the year 1829. His wife was the first white woman that settled in the valley, and shared with her husband all the toils, sufferings, hardships and privations incident to the formation of the new settlement. During the spring of the same year, (1798,) Nathaniel Wilson, the elder, John and Allen Green, John and Joseph M'Mullen, Robert Cooper, Isaac Shaeffer and a few others, reached the valley, erected cabins and put out a crop of corn. In 1799, the tide of emigration set in with great force. In the spring of this year, two settlements were made in the present township of Greenfield. Each settlement contained twenty or thirty families. One was called the Forks of the Hockhocking, and the other Yankeetown. Settlements were also made along the river below Hunter's, on Rush creek, Raccoon and Indian creeks, Pleasant run, Fetter's run, at Tobeytown, Muddy Prairie, and on Clear creek. In the fall of 1799, Joseph Loveland and Hezekiah Smith, erected a log grist mill at the upper falls of the Hockhocking, now called the Rock mill. This,was the first grist mill built on the Hockhocking. In April, 1799, Samuel Coates, sen., and Samuel Coates, jr., from England, built a cabin in the prairie at the "Crossings,f the Hockhocking;' kept bachelors hall and raised 159 I

Page  160 FAIRFIELD COUNTY. a crop of corn. In the latter part of the year, a mail route was established along Zanes's trace, from Wheeling to Limestone. The mail was carried through on horseback, and at first, only once a week. Samuel Coates, sen., was the postmaster, and kept his office at the Crossings. This was the first established mail route through the interior of the territory, and Samuel Coates was the first postmaster at the new settlements. The settlers subsisted principally on corn bread, potatoes, milk and butter, and wild meats. Flour, tea and coffee were scarcely to be had; and when brought to the country, such prices were asked, as to put it out of the reach of many to purchase. Salt was an indispensable article, and cost at the Scioto salt works, $5 per 50 pounds. Flour brought $16 per barrel; tea, $2,50; coffee, $1,50; spice and pepper, $1 per pound. In the fall of 1800, Ebenezer Zane laid out Lancaster, and by way of compliment to a number of emigrants from Lancaster co., Pa., called it New Lancaster. It retained that name until 1805, when, by an act of the legislature, the word "New" was dropped. A sale of lots took place soon after the town was laid off, and sold to purchasers at prices ranging from five to fifty dollars each. The greater portion of the purchasers were mechanics, and they immediately set about putting up log buildings. Much of the material needed for thatt purpose, was found upon their lots and in the streets, and so rapidly did the work of improvement progress, during the fall of 1800 and following winter, that in the spring of 1801, the principal streets and alleys assumed their present shapes, and gave assurance that New Lancaster would, at no distant day, become a town of some importance. About this time, merchants and professional men made their appearance. The Rev. John Wright, of the Presbyterian church, settled in Lancaster, in 1801, and the Rev. Asa Shinn and Rev. James Quinn, of the Methodist church, travelled on the Fairfield circuit. Shortly after the settlement, and while the stumps yet remained in the streets, a small portion of the settlers occasi(,nally indulged in drinking frolics, ending frequently in fights. In the absence of law, the better disposed part of the population, determined to stop the growing evil. They accordingly met and resolved, that any person of the town found intoxicated, should, for every such offence, dig a stump out of the streets, or suffer personal chastisement. The result was, that after several offenders had expiated their crimes, dram drinking ceased, and for a time all became a sober, temperate and happy people. On the 9th day of December, 1800, the Governor and Council of the N. W. Territory, organized the county of Fairfield, and designated New Lancaster as the seat of justice. The county then contained within its limits, all, or nearly all, of the present counties of Licking and Knox; a large portion of Perry, and small parts of lickaway and Hocking counties. The first white male child born in Fairfield, was the son of Mrs. Ruhama Greene. This lady emigrated to this region in 1798, and settled three miles west of Lancaster, where her child was born. The sketch appended of her, is from Col. John M'Donald, of Ross county. Mrs. Ruhama Greene was born and raised in Jefferson county, Virginia. In 1785, she married a Mr. Charles Builderback, and with him crossed the mountains and settled at the mouth of Short creek, on the east bank of the Ohio, a few miles above Wheeling. Her husband, a brave man, had on many occasions distinguished himself in repelling the Indians, who had often felt the sure aim of his unerring rifle. They therefore determined at all hazards to kill him. On a beautiful summer morning in June, 1789, at a time when it was thought the enemy had abandoned the western shores of the Ohio, Capt. Charles Builderback, his wife and brother, Jacob Builderback, crossed the Ohio to look after some cattle. On reaching the shore, a party of fifteen or twenty Indians rushed out from an ambush, and firing upon them, wounded Jacob in the shoulder. Charles was taken while he was running to escape. Jacob returned to the canoe and got away. In the mean time, Mrs. Builderback 160

Page  161 FAIRFIELD COUNTY. secreted herself in some drift-wood, near the bank of the river. As soon as the Indians had secured and tied her husband, and not being enabled to discover her hiding-place, they compelled him, with threats of immediate death, to call her to him. With a hope of appeasing their fury, he did so. She heard him, but made no answer. "Here," to use her words, "a struggle took place in my breast, which I cannot describe. Shall I go to him and become a prisoner, or shall I remain, return to our cabin and provide for and take care of our two children." He shouted to her a second time to come to him, saying, "that if she obeyed, perhaps it would be the means of saving his life." She no longer hesitated, left her place of safety, and surrendered herself to his savage captors. All this took place in full view of their cabin, on the opposite shore, and where they had left their two children, one a son about three years of age, and an infant daughter. The Indians, knowing that they would be pursued as soon as the news of their visit reached the stockade, at Wheeling, commenced their retreat. Mrs. Builderback and her husband travelled together that day and the following night. The next morning, the Indians separated into two bands, one taking Builderback, and the other his wife, and continued a westward course by different routes. In a few days, the band having Ms. Builderback in custody, reached the Tuscarawas river, where they encamped, and were soon rejoined by the band that had had her husband in charge. Here the murderers exhibited his scalp on the top of a pole, and to convince her that they had killed him, pulled it down and threw it into her lap. She recognized it at once by the redness of his hair. She said nothing, and uttered no complaint. It was evening; her ears pained with the terrific yells of the savages, and wearied by constant travelling, she reclined against a tree and fell into a profound sleep, and forgot all her sufferings, until morning.* When she awoke, the scalp of her murdered husband was gone, and she never learned what became of it. As soon as the capture of Builderback was known at Wheeling, a party of scouts set off in pursuit, and taking the trail of one of the bands, followed it until they found the body of Builderback. He had been tomahawked and scalped, and apparently suffered a lingering death. The Indians, on reaching their towns on the Big Miami, adopted Mrs. Builderback into a family, with whom she resided until released from captivity. She remained a prisoner about nine months, performing the labor and drudgery of squaws, such as carrying in meat from the hunting grounds, preparing and drying it, making moccasins, leggings and other clothing for the family in which she was raised. After her adoption, she suffered much from the rough and filthy manner of Indian living, but had no cause to complain of illtreatment otherwise. In a few months after her capture, some friendly Indians informed the commandant at Fort Washington, that there was a wvhite woman in captivity at the Miaini towns. She was ransomed and brought into the fort, and in a few weeks was sent up the river to her lonely cabin, and to the embrace of her two orphan children. She then re-crossed the mountains, and settled in her native county. In 1791, Mrs. Builderback married Mr. John Green, and in 1798, they emigrated to the Hockhocking valley, and settled about three miles west of Lancaster, where she continued to reside until the time of her death, about the year 1842. She survived her last husband about ten years. Near the town of Lancaster, stands a bold and romantic emi nence, about two hundred feet high, known as Mt. Pleasant, whiokL was called by the Indians, "the Standing Stone." A writer on geology says, in reference to this rock: "What is properly called the sandstone formation, terminates near Lancaster, in immense detached mural precipices, like the remains of ancient islands; one of these, called Mt. Pleasant, seated on the borders of a large plain, * Her husband commanded a company at Crawford's defeat. He was a large, noble looking man, and a bold and intrepid warrior. He was in the bloody Moravian campaign, and took his share in the tragedy, by shedding the first blood on that occasion, when he shot, tomahawked and scalped Shebosh, a Moravian chief. But retributive justice was meted to him. After being taken prisoner, the Indians inquired his name. " Charles Builderback," replied he, after some little pause. At this revelation, the Indians stared at each other with a malignant triumph. "Ha!" said they, "you kill many Indians-you big captain-you kill Moravians." From that moment, probably, his death was decreed. 21 161

Page  162 FAYETTE COUNTY. affords from its top a fine view of the adjacent country. The base is a mile and a half in circumference, while the apex is only about thirty by one hundred yards, resembling, at a distance, a huge pyra mid. These lofty towers of sandstone are like so many monuments, Mount Pleasant. to point out the boundaries of that ancient western Mediterranean, which once covered the present rich prairies of Ohio." It is a place much resorted to by parties of pleasure. The Duke of Saxe Weimar, when in this country some twenty years since, visited this mount and carved his name upon the rocks. The lecture delivered before the Literary Institute, gives a thrilling narrative of the visit of two gallant scouts to this spot, at an early day-their successful fight with the Indians-the re-capture of a female prisoner, and their perilous escape from the enemy. There are several small villages in the county, some of which are thriving business places. They are Amanda, Baltimore, Bazil, Bremen, Carroll, Greencastle, Havenport, Lockville, Monticello, Millersport, New Geneva, New Strasburg, New Salem, Pickerington, Vleasantville, Royalton, Rushville, (East and West,) Waterloo and Winchester. FAYETTE. FAYETTE was formed in March, 1810, from Ross and Highland, and named from the Marquis De La Fayette. The surface is generally level; about half of the soil is a dark, vegetable loam, on a clayey sub-soil, mixed with a limestone gravel; the rest is a yellow, clayey loam. The principal productions are wheat and corn, cattle, 162

Page  163 FAYETTE COUNTY. hogs, sheep and wool. In the northeastern part is a small tract, called "the barrens," so termed from the land being divested of undergrowth and tall timber; it is covered with a grass well adapted to pasturage. The growth of the county, in former years, was retarded by much of the land being owned by non-residents and not in market, and also from the wet lands, which, contrary to the original opinion, have, when drained, proved very productive. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Concord, 1074 Madison, 765 Union, 1945 Green, 1616 Marion, 879 Wayne, 1540 Jefferson, 1948 Paint, 1212 The population of Fayette, in 1820, was 6,33-6; in 1830, 8,183, and in 1840, 10,979; or 26 inhabitants to a square mile. 2=, = ~~~~~~~~~. Washington, the county seat, is on a fork of Paint creek, 43 miles ssw. of Columbus. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist church, 1 academy, 8 mercantile stores, 2 newspaper printing offices, 2 woollen factories, 1 saw and 2 grist mills and 97 dwellings. It was laid out in 1810 as the county seat, on land given for that purpose by Benj. Temple, of Kentucky, out of his survey. The following are the names of some of the first settlers of this county, viz.: Colonel James Stewart, Jesse Milliken, Wade Loofborough, Thos. M'Donald, Doctor Thomas M'Gara, John Popejoy, Gen. B. Harrison, Jesse Rowe, John Dewitt, Hamilton and Benjamin Rogers, William Harper, James Hays, Michael Carr, Peter Eyeman, William Snider, Judge Jacob Jamison, Samuel Waddle, James Sanderson, and Smith and William Rankin. Colonel Stewart, at an early date, settled near the site of Bloomingburg, about 5 miles northerly from Washington. His untiring industry in improving the country in his vicinity, and the moral influence which he had in the community, will be long remembered. Jesse Milliken was one of the first settlers of Washington, was the first post-master and the first clerk of both the Supreme and Common Pleas Courts of the county, in all of which offices he continued until his death, in Aug., 1835. He was also an excellent surveyor, performed much of the first surveying done in the county, and erected some of the first houses built in the town. Wade Loofborough, Esq., 163

Page  164 FAYETTE COUNTY. was one of the first citizens and lawyers in the county. Thomas M'Donald was one of the first settlers in this part of Ohio, built the first cabin in Scioto county, was engaged with Gen. Massie and others in laying off the county into surveys. He rendered valuable services in Wayne's campaign, in which he acted as a spy, and was also in the war of 1812. Dr. Thos. M'Gara, now residing in Greenfield, Highland county, was one of the first settlers and first physician of the town of Wash ington, where he practiced his profession for a number of years. He represented the county in the legislature, and was associate judge. John Popejoy, Esq., was one of the first justices in the county; he built the one story house on Court street, on the lot No. 5. It is said that he kept his docket on detached scraps of paper in the most con venient cracks of his cabin, and that his ink was made of walnut bark. Although many amusing anecdotes are related of him, yet he was a good man, sincerely desirous of promoting peace and good will in the community. When a lawsuit was brought before him, his uni versal practice was, if possible, to prevail upon the parties to settle the dispute amicably. He always either charged no costs, or took it in beer, cider, or some other innocent beverage, of which the witnesses, parties and spectators partook, at his request, and the parties generally left his court in better humor and better satisfied than when they entered. The first Court of Common Pleas in the county was held by Judge Thompson, at the cabin of John Devault, a little north of where Blooniingburg now stands. The judge received a severe lecture from old Mrs. Devault, for sitting upon and rumpling her bed. The grand jury held their deliberations in the stable and in the hazel brush. Judge Thompson was a man of strict and Puritan-like morality, and distinguished for the long (and in some instances tedious) moral lectures, given in open court, to the culprits brought before him. The pioneers of Fayette county were principally from Virginia and Kentucky, and were generally hale and robust, brave and generous. Among the Kentuckians was a family of great notoriety, by the name of Funk. The men, from old Adam down to Absalom, were of uncommonly large size, and distinguished for their boldness, activity and fighting propensities. Jake Funk, the most notorious, having been arrested in Kentucky for passing counterfeit money, or some other crime, was bailed by a friend, a Kentuckian by the name of Trumbo. Having failed to appear at court, Trumbo, with about a dozen of his friends, well armed, proceeded to the house of the Funks for the purpose of taking Jake, running him off to Kentucky and delivering him up to the proper authorities, to free himself from paying bail. The Funks, having notice of the contemplated attack, prepared themselves for the conflict. Old Adam, the father, took his seat in the middle of the floor to give command to his sons, who were armed with pistols, knives, &c. When Trumbo and his party appeared, they were warned to desist; instead of which, they made a rush at 164

Page  165 FAYETTE COUNTY. Jake, who was on the porch. A Mr. Wilson, of the attacking party grappled with Jake, at which the firing commenced on both sides. Wilson was shot dead. Ab. Funk was also shot down. Trumbo having clinched Jake, the latter drew him to the door, and was about to cut his throat with a large knife, when old Adam cried out, "Spare him!-don't kill him!-his father once saved me from being murdered by the Indians!"-at which he was let off, after being severely wounded, and his companions were glad to escape with their lives. The old house at which this fight occurred is still standing, on the east fork, about 8 miles N. of Washington, with the bulletholes in the logs as a memento of the conflict. The Funk family were no enemies to whiskey. Old Adam, with some of his comrades, being one day at Roebuck's grocery-the first opened in the county, about a mile below Funk's house-became merry by drillking. Old Adam, wishing to carry a gallon of whiskey home, in vain endeavored even to procure a wash-tub for the purpose. Observing one of Roebuck's pigs running about the yard, he purchased it for a dollar and skinned it whole, taking out the bone about two inches from the root of the tail, which served as a neck for the bottle. Tying up the other holes that would, of necessity, be in the skin, he poured in the liquor and started for home with his companions, where they all got drunk from the contents of the hogskin.* Captain John was a Shawanee chief, well known to the early settlers of the Scioto valley. He was over six feet in height, strong and active, full of spirit and fond of frolic. In the late war, he joined the American army, and was with Logan at the time the latter received his death wound. We extract two anecdotes respecting him from the notice by Col. John M'Donald. The scene of the first was in Pickaway, and the last, in this county. When Chillicothe was first settled by the whites, an Indian named John Cushen, a half blood, made his principal home with the M'Coy family, and said it was his intention to live with the white people. He would sometimes engage ill chopping wood, and making rails and working in the corn-fields. He was a large, muscular man, good humored and pleasant in his interviews with the whites. In the fall season, he would leave the white settlement to take a hunt in the lonely forest. In the autumn of 1779, he went up Darby creek to make his annual hunt. There was an Indian trader by the name of Fallenash, who traversed the country from one Indian camp to another with pack-horses, laden with whiskey and other articles. Captain John's hunting camp was near Darby creek, and John Cushen arrived at his camp while Fallenash, the Indian trader, was there with his goods and whiskey. The Indians set to for a real drunken frolic. During the night, Capt. John and John Cushen had a quarrel, which ended in a fight: they were separated by Fallenash and the other Indians, but both were enraged to the high-st pitch of fury. They made an arrangement to fight the next morning, with tomahawks and knives. They stuck a post on the south side of a log, made a notch in the log, and agreed that when the shadow of the post came into the notch the fight should commence. When the shadow of the post drew near the spot, they deliberately, and in gloomy silence, took their stations on the log. At length the shadow of the post came into the notch, and these two desperadoes, thirsting for each other's blood, simultaneously sprang to their feet, with each a tomahawk in his right hand and a scalping-knife in the left, and flew at each other with the fury of tigers, * The preceding items of history respecting Fayette, are derived from a communication from a gentleman residing in Washington. 165

Page  166 FRANKLIN COUNTY. swinging their tomahawks around their heads and yelling in the most terrific manner. Language fails to describe the horrible scene. After several passes and some wounds, Captain John's tomahawk fell on Cushen's head and left him lifeless on the ground. Thus ended this affair of honor, and the guilty one escaped. About the year 1800, Captain John, with a party of Indians, went to hunt on the waters of what is called the Rattlesnake fork of Paint creek, a branch of the Scioto river. After they had been some time at camp, Captain John and his wife had a quarrel and mutually agreed to separate, which of them was to leave the camp is not now recollected. After they had divided their property, the wife insisted upon keeping the child; they had but one, a little boy of two or three years of age. Tile wife laid hold of the child, and John attempted to wrest it from her; at length John's passion was roused to a fury, he drew his fist, knocked down his wife, seized the child and carrying it to a log cut it into two parts, and then, throwing one half to his wife, bade her take it, but never again show her face, or he would treat her in the same manner. Thus ended this cruel and brutal scene of savage tragedy. Bloomingburg, on the east fork of Paint, 5 miles easterly from Washington, has 4 stores, 3 churches and about 300 inhabitants. Jeffersonville, 10 NW. from Washington, has one church, 2 stores and about 200 inhabitants. Waterloo, Martinsburg, Staunton and Mount Vernon are small places. FRANKLIN. FRANKLIN was formed from Ross, April 30th, 1803, and named from Benj. Franklin. The prevailing character of the soil is clay, and the surface is generally level. It contains much low and wet land, and is better adapted to grazing than grain, but along the numerous water courses are many fertile and well-cultivated farms. The principal products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, pork and wool. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Blendon, 972 Jefferson, 1040 Plain, 1263 Brown, 425 Madison, 1815 Pleasant, 811 Clinton, 965 Mifflin, 832 Prairie, 603 Franklin, 1345 Montgomery, 7497 Sharon, 1168 Hamilton, 1238 Norwich, 740 Truro, 1418 Jackson, 787 Perry, 1039 Washington, 842 The population of Franklin, in 1820, was 10,300; in 1830, 14,756, and in 1840, 24,880, or 49 inhabitants to a square mile. The tract comprised within the limits of the county, was once the residence of the Wyandot Indians. They had a large town on the site of the city of Columbus, and cultivated extensive fields of corn on the river bottoms opposite their town. Mr. Jeremiah Armstrong, who now or recently kept a hotel at Columbus, was taken prisoner when a boy from the frontier of Pennsylvania, and brought captive to this place: after residing with them a number of years, he was ransomed and returned to his friends. Mr. Robert Armstrong, also a native of Pennsylvania, being an orphan boy, was bound to a trader, and while trapping and trading on the Alleghany, himself and employer were surprised by some Wyandots and Senecas. The mas 166

Page  167 FRANKLIN COUNTY. ter was killed and Armstrong brought to their town at Franklinton. He was raised by the Indians, became a great favorite, lived, married and died among them. He was occasionally an interpreter for the United States. He left two sons, now with the Wyandots in the far west; both of them were educated, and one of them admitted to the Ohio bar.* In the year 1780. a party of whites followed a band of Indians from the mouth of the Kanawha, overtook them on or near the site of Columbus and gave them battle and defeated them. During the fight, one of the whites saw two squaws secrete themselves in a large hollow tree, and when the action was over they drew them out and carried them captive to Virginia. This tree was alive and standing, on the west bank of the Scioto, as late as 1845.t In June, 1810, there was an old Wyandot chief, named Leatherlips, executed in this county on the charge of withcraft. We take the account of this event from Drake's life of Tectumseh, where it is abridged from an article by Otway Curry, in the Hesperian. General Harrison entertained the opinion that his death was the result of the prophet's command, and that the party who acted as executioners went directly from Tippecanoe to the banks of the Scioto, where the tragedy was enacted. Leatherlips was found encamped upon that stream, twelve miles above Columbus. The six Wyandots who put him to death, were headed, it is supposed, by the chief Roundhead. An effort was made by some white men, who were present, to save the life of the accused, but without success. A council of two or three hours took place: the accusing party spoke with warmth and bitterness of feeling: Leatherlips was calm and dispassionate in his replies. The sentence of death, which had been previously passed upon him, was reaffirmed. "The prisoner then walked slowly to his camp, partook of a dinner of jerked *nison, washed and arrayed himself in his best apparel, and afterwards painted his face. His dress was very rich-his hair gray, and his whole appearance graceful and commanding." When the hour for the execution had arrived, Leatherlips shook hands in silence with the spectators. "He then turned from his wigwam, and with a voice of surpassing strength and melody commenced the chlant of the death song. He was followed closely by the Wyandot warriors, all timing with their slow and measured march the music of his wild and melancholy dirge. The white men were likewise all silent followers in that strange procession. At the distance of seventy or eighty yards from the camp, they came to a shallow grave, which,' unknown to the white men, had been previously prepared by the Indians. Here the old man knelt down, and in an elevated but solemn tone of voice, addressed his prayer to the Great Spirit. As soon as he had finished, the captain of the Indians knelt beside him and prayed in a similar manner. Their prayers, of course, were spoken in the Wyandot tongue.... "After a few moments delay, the prisoner again sank down upon his knees and prayed, as he had done before. When he had ceased, he still continued in a kneeling position. All the rifles belonging to the party had been left at the wigwam. There was not a weapon of any kind to be seen at the place of execution, and the spectators were consequently unable to form any conjecture as to the mode of procedure which the executioners had determined on for the fulfilment of their purpose. Suddenly one of the warriors drew from beneath the skirts of his capote, a keen, bright tomahawk-walked rapidly up behind the chieftain-brandished the weapon on high for a single moment, and then struck with his whole strength. The blow descended directly upon the crown of the head, and the victim immediately fell prostrate. After he had lain awhile in the agonies of death, the Indian captain directed the attention of the white men to the drops of sweat which were gathering upon his neck and face; remarked with much apparent exultation, that it was conclusive proof of the sufferer's guilt. Again the executioner advanced, and with the same weapon inflicted two or three additional and heavy blows. As soon as life was entirely extinct, the body was hastily buried, with all its apparel and decorations, and the assemblage dispersed." One of Mr. Heckewelder's correspondents, as quoted in his historical account of the Indian nations, makes Tarhe, better known by the name of Crane, the leader of this party. t Jonathan Alder, of Madison county. 167 * Col. John Johnston.

Page  168 FRANKLIN COUNTY. This has been denied; and the letter of Gen. Harrison on the subject, proves quite conclu sively that this celebrated chief had nothing to do with the execution of Leatherlips. Mr. Heckewelder's correspondent concurs in the opinion that the original order for the death of this old man, was issued from the head-quarters of the prophet and his brother Tecumseh. The annexed anecdote, derived from J. W. Van Cleve, of Dayton, shows a more pleasing feature in the character of the Indian. A party, surveying on the Scioto, above the site of Columbus, in'97, had been reduced to three scanty meals for four days. They came to the camp of a Wyandot Indian with his family, and he gave them all the provisions he had, which comprised only two rabbits and a small piece of venison. This Wyandot's father had been murdered by the whites in time of peace: the father of one of the surveyors had been killed by the Indians in time of war. He concluded that the Indian had more reason to cherish hostility towards the white man than he toward the Indian. The first settlement of this county was commenced in 1797. Some of the early settlers were Robert Armstrong, George Skidmore, Lucas Sullivant, Wm. Domigan, the Deardorfs, the M'Elvains, the Sellses, James Marshall, John Dill, Jacob Grubb, Jacob Overdier, Arthur O'Harra, Colonel Culbertson and John Brickell. This last named gentleman was taken prisoner when a boy, in Pennsylvania, brought into Ohio and held captive four and a half years among the Delawares. Hlie was liberated at Fort Defiance, shortly after the treaty of Greenville. We cannot but digress here and extract from his narrative, published in the Pioneer, an affecting account of his separation from his Indian father, who bore the singular name of Whlingwy Pooshies. On the breaking up of spring we all went up to Fort Defiance, and on arriving on the shore opposite, we saluted the fort with a round of rifles, and they shot a cannon thirteen times. We then encamped on the spot. On the same day Whingwy Pooshies told me I must go over to the fort. The children hung round me crying, and asked me if I was going to leave them? I told them I did not know. When we got over to the fort, and were seated with the officers, Whingwy Pooshies told me to stand up, which I did; he then rose and addressed me in about these words: " My son, there are men the same color with yourself. There may be some of your kin there, or your kin may be a great way off from you. You have lived a long time with us. I call on you to say if I have not been a father to you?-if I have not used you as a father would use a son?" I said," You have used me as well as a father could use a son." He said, "I am glad you say so. You have lived long with me; you have hunted for me; but our treaty says you must be free. If you choose to go with the people of your own color, I have no right to say a word, but if you choose to stay with me, your people have no right to speak. Now reflect on it and take your choice, and tell us as soon as you make up your mind." I was silent a few minutes, in which time it seemed as if I thought of almost every thing. I thought of the children I had just left crying; I thought of the Indians I was attached to, and I thought of my people which I remembered; and this latter thought predominated, and I said,' I will go with my kin." The old man then said, "I have raised you-I have learned you to hunt. You are a good hunter-you have been better to me than my own sons. I am now getting old and I cannot hunt. I thought you would be a support to my age. I leaned on you as on a staff. Now it is broken-you are going to leave me, and I have no right to say a word, but I am ruined." He then sank back in tears to his seat. I heartily joined him in his tears-parted with him, and have never seen nor heard of him since. In the month of August, 1797, Franklinton was laid out by Lucas Sullivant. The settlement at that place was the first in the county. Mr. Sullivant was a self-made man and noted as a surveyor. He had often encountered great peril from the attacks of Indians while making his surveys. Next after the settlement of Franklinton, a Mr. Springer and his son-in-law, Osborn Bettled on Darby; then next was a scattering settlement along Alum creek, which last was 168

Page  169 FRANKLIN COUNTY. probably about the summer of 1798. Among the first settlers here were Messrs. White, Nelson, Shaw, Agler and Reed. About the same time, some improvements were made near the mouth of Gahannah, (formerly called Big belly,) and the settlements thus gradually extended along the principal water courses. In the mean time, Franklinton was the point to which emigrants first repaired, to spend some months, or probably years, prior to their permanent location. For several years, there was no mill nor considerable settlement nearer than the vicinity of Chillicothe. In Franklinton, the neighbors constructed a kind of handmill, upon which they gene ally ground their corn. Some pounded it, and occasionally a trip was made with a canoe or periogue, by way of the river, to the Chillicothe mill. About the year 1799, a Mr. John D. Rush erected an inferior mill on the Scioto, a short distance above Franklinton; it was, however, a poor concern, and soon fell to ruin. A horse-mill was then resorted to, and kept up for some time; but the first mill of any considerable advantage to the country was erected by Col. Kilbourne, near Worthington, about the year 1805. About the same time, Carpenter's mill, near Delaware, and.Dyer's, on Darby, were erected. About one year, probably, after the first settlement of Franklinton, a Mr. James Scott opened the first small store in the place, which added much to the convenience of the settlers. For probably seven or eight years, there was no post-office nearer than Chillicothe, and when other opportunities did not offer, the men would occasionally raise by contribution the means, and employ a man to go the moderate distance of forty-five miles to the post-office to inquire for letters and newspapers. During the first years of the settlement, it was extremely sickly-perhaps as much so as any part of the state. Although sickness was so general in the fall season as to almost entirely discourage the inhabitants, yet, on the return of health, the prospective advantages of the country, the luxuriant crops, and abundance of game of all kinds, together with the gradual improvement in the health of the country generally, induced them to remain. The principal disease of the country being fever and ague, deaths were comparatively seldom.* Franklinton lies on the west side of the Scioto, opposite Columbus. It was the first town laid off in the Scioto valley N. of Chillicothe. From the formation of the county, in 1803, it remained its seat of justice until 1824, when it was removed to Columbus. During the late war, it was a place of general rendezvous for the N. W. army, and sometimes from one to three thousand troops were stationed there. In those days, it was a place of considerable note: it is now a small village, containing, by the census of 1840, 394 inhabitants. Worthington is a neat town, 9 miles N. of Columbus, containing 3 churches, and by the census of 1840, 440 inhabitants. At this _ -place is a classical academy, in the - old botanic college building, in fine =- d o _ ~~repute, under the charge of the Rev. i U 15 U il _ R. K. Nash; also a flourishing female I I! l l seminary, under the patronage of the III EU Ohio Methodist Conference, of which the Rev. Alex. Nelson is the principal. The building is of brick, and stands in Worthington Female Seminary. a pleasant green. The township of Sharon, in which Worthington is, was very early settled by "the Scioto Company," formed in Granby, Connecticut, in the winter of 1801-2, and consisting at first of eight associates. They drew up articles of association, among which was one limiting their number to forty, each of whom must be unanimously chosen by ballot, a single negative being sufficient to prevent an election. Col. James Kilbourne was sent out the succeeding spring to explore * From "A Brief History and Description of Franklin County, to accompany Wheeler's map." 22 169

Page  170 FRANKLIN COUNTY, the country, select and purchase a township for settlement. He re turned in the fall without making a purchase, through fear that the state constitution, then about to be formed, should tolerate SLAVERY, in which case the project would have been abandoned. It is here worthy of notice, that Col. Kilbourne, on this visit, con structed the FIRST MAP OF OHIO, which he compiled from maps of its different sections in the office of Col., afterwards Gov. Worthing ton, then register of the United States land office at Chillicothe. The part delineating the Indian territory was from a map made by John itch, of steamboat memory, who had been a prisoner among the Indians, which, although in a measure conjectural, was the most accurate of that part of the N. W. territory. Immediately upon receiving the information that the constitution of Ohio prohibited slavery, Col. Kilbourne purchased this township, lying within the United States military land district, and in the spring of 1803, returned to Ohio and commenced improvements. By the succeeding December, one hundred settlers, mainly from Hart ford county, Connecticut, and Hampshire county, Massachusetts, arrived at their new home. Obeying to the letter the articles of association, the first cabin erected was used for a school-house and church of the Protestant Episcopal denomination: the first Sabbath after the arrival of the third family, divine worship was held therein, and on the arrival of the eleventh family, a school was commenced. This early attention to religion and education has left its favorable impress upon the character of the people to the present day. The succeeding 4th of July was appropriately celebrated. Seventeen gigantic trees, emblematical of the seventeen states forming the * Federal Union, were cut so that a few blows of the axe, at sunrise on the 4th, prostrated each successively with a tremendous crash, forming a national salute novel in the world's history. COLUMBUS, the capital of Ohio and seat of justice for Franklin county, "is 106 miles southerly from Sandusky City, 139 miles south west from Cleveland, 148 southwestwardly from Steubenville, 184 in the same direction from Pittsburg, Pa., 126 miles west from Wheel ing, Va., about 100 northwest from Marietta, 105 northwest from Gallipolis, 45 north from Chillicothe, 90 in the same direction from Portsmouth, at the mouth of the Scioto river, 118 northwardly firom Maysville, Ky., 110 northeast from Cincinnati, 68 easterly from Day ton, 104 southwardly from Lower Sanduslky, and 175 due south from Detroit, Michigan. North lat. 39 deg. 57 min., west long. 6 deg. from Washington city, or 83 deg. from London. It is situated ex actly on the same parallel of latitude with Zanesville and Philadel phia, from which latter place, it is 450 miles distant; and on the same meridian with Detroit, Michigan; and Milledgeville, Georgia. The National road passed through it east and west, and the Columbus and Sandusky turnpike extends from this point north to Lake Erie. In all other directions roads are laid out, and many of them in good re pair. By the Columbus feeder, water communication is opened with the Ohio canal, and thence to Lake Erie and the Ohio river." 170

Page  171 FRANKLIN COUNTY. From the first organization of the state government until 1816, there was no permanent state capital. The sessions of the legislature were held at Chillicothe until 1810; the sessions of 1810-11 and 1811-12, were held at Zanesville; after that, until December, 1816, they were again held at Chillicothe, at which time the legislature was first convened at Columbus. Among the various proposals to the legislature, while in session at Zanesville, for the establishment of a permanent seat of government, were those of Lyne Starling, Jas. Johnston, Alex. M'Laughlin and John Kerr, the after proprietors of Columbus, for establishing it on the "high bank of the Scioto river, opposite Franklinton," which site was then a native forest. On the 14th Feb., 1812, the legislature passed a law accepting their proposalS, and in one of its sections, selected Chillicothe as a temporary seat of government merely. By an act amendatory of the other, passed Feb. 17th, 1816, it was enacted," that from and after the second Tuesday of October next, the seat of government of this state shall be established at the town of Columbus." On the 19th of Feb., 1812, the proprietors signed and acknowledged their articles at Zanesville, as partners, under the law for laying out, &c., of the town of Columbus. The contract having been closed between the proprietors and the state, the town was laid out in the spring of 1812, under the direction of Moses Wright. On the 18th of June, the same day war wvas declared with Great Britain, the first public sale of lots, by auction, was held. Among the first settlers, or as early as 1813, were George M'Cormick, Geo. B. Harvey, Jno. Shields, Michael Patton, Alex. Patton, Wm. Altman, John Collett, Wm. M'Elvaiii, Daniel Kooser, Peter Putnam, Jacob Hare, Christian Heyl, Jarvis, George and Benj. Pike, Wm. Long and Dr. John M. Edmiston. The first building erected for public worship was a cabin, on Spring street, in the spring of 1814, on a lot of Dr. Hoge's, which was used by the Presbyterians. It was not long occupied for that purpose: that denomination then worshipped in the Franklinton meetinghouse until 1818, when the 1st Presbyterian church was organized in Columbus, and a frame meeting-house erected on Front street, where Dr. Hoge preached until the erection of " the 1st Presbyterian church," about 1825. In 1814, the Methodist church of Columbus was organized; and the same year they erected, on the lot where the present Methodist church stands, a small hewed log-house, which served the double purpose of school-house and church until about 1824, when a permanent building was erected. The first penitentiary was erected in 1813. The state house was erected in 1814; the brick of this edifice were partly made from a beautiful mound near by, which has given the name to a street. On the 10th of Feb., 1816, the town was incorporated as "the borough of Columbus." The first board of councilmen elected were Henry Brown, Michael Patton, Jarvis Pike, Robt. and Jeremiah Armstrong, John Kerr, John Cutler, Caleb Houston and Robt. M'Coy. About the year 1819, the United States or old court-house was erected. In 1824, the county seat was removed from Franklinton to Columbus. The present city oharter was granted March 3d, 1834. The first newspaper in Columbus was commenced about the beginning of 1814, and was called " the Western Intelligencer and Columbus Gazette:" it was the foundation, the original of" the Ohio State Journal." For the first few years Columbus improved rapidly. Emigrants flowed in, apparently, from all quarters, and the improvements and general business of the place kept pace with the increase of population. Columbus, however, was a rough spot in the woods, off from any public road of much consequence. The east and west travel passed through Zanesville, Lancaster and Chillicothe, and the mails came in cross-line on horseback. The first successful attempt to carry a mail to or from Columbus, otherwise than on horseback, was by Philip Zinn, about the year 1816, once a week between Chillicothe and Columbus. The years from 1819 to'26, were the dullest years of Columbus; but soon after it began to improve. The location of the national road and of the Columbus feeder to the Ohio canal, gave an impetus to improvements.* Columbus is beautifully situated on the east bank of the Scioto about half a mile below its junction with the Olentangy. The streets are spacious, the site level, and it has many elegant private dwellings. Columbus has a few manufactories only; it does, however, a heavy mercantile business, there being many stores of various kinds. It contains 17 churches, viz.: 2 Methodist Episcopal, 1 German Metho * From the brief history in the Columbus Directory, for 1843. 0. 171

Page  172 FRANKLIN COUNTY. dist, 2 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 German Lutheran, 1 do. Evangelical Protestant, 1 do. Reformed, 2 Episcopal, 1 Catholic, 1 Welch Presbyterian, 1 United Brethren, 1 Universalist and 1 Bethel, and 1 Baptist for colored persons. The principal literary institutions in this city, are the Columbus institute, a flourishing classical institution for males, Mr. and Mrs. Schencks' female seminary, and the German theological Lutheran seminary, which last has been established about 17 years, Rev. Wm. Lehmann, professor of theology. There are in Columbus 6 weekly, 2 tri-weekly and 1 semi-monthly newspapers and several banks. Its population, in 1815, was about 700; in 1820, about 1,400; in 1830, 2,437; in 1840, 6,048, and in 1846, 10,016. Ohio Lunatic Asylum. The great state institutions located at Columbus, do honor to Ohio, give great interest to the city, and present strong attractions to strangers. OHIO LUNATIC ASYLUM.-This noble structure occupies a commanding position in an open space of ground, about one mile east of the state house. There are thirty acres of land attached to it, with an extensive plat in front of the building, handsomely ornamented by shrubbery. The institution is under the direction of Dr. William MI'Awl, with whom are several assistants. The buildings present a continuous front of 376 feet: the main building is 296 feet in length and 46 feet in depth. The wings project beyond it 11 feet and extend back 218 feet, thus forming a large court in its rear. The wings are 39 feet wide. "The buildings were commenced in the year 1836. They contain upwards of five millions of brick, and have cost (including the labor of convicts, which was a large item,) upwards of $150,000. They cover an acre of ground, and contain 440 rooms. They are capable of accommodating (besides the officers, assistants, attendants, &c.,) 350 patients. The style of the buildings is in good taste, and does credit to the architect, (N. B. Kelley, Esq.,) by whom the de. signs were prepared, and who presided over their execution 172

Page  173 FRANKLIN COUNTY. "The institution went into operation in the month of November, 1838. Since that time, there have been in it 866 patients: 461 males and 405 females; 247 pay patients, 649 supported by the state; 358 have been discharged cured-92 have died; 420 were "recent cases," (of less than a year's duration when the patient was received,) 446 were old cases, (of more than a year's duration.) Of the recent cases discharged, 90.59-100 per cent. (or 289) were cured-of the old cases, 27 per cent. (or 69.) In addition to this, a great number of those incurable have been much improved in their condition. "During the past year, [1846,] 175 patients have been admitted: 88 males and 87 females. Of these, 101 were "recent cases," 74 were old cases; 71 have been discharged "cured," 18 have died. In the recent cases discharged, 95.38-100 per cent. were cured-in the old cases, 20.93-100 per cent. A number are still improving, with fair prospects of recovery. These results compare favorably with those in the best institutions, both in this country and abroad. The number of patients in the institution at the close of the fiscal year, was 291." Ohio Blind Institution. THE OHIO INSTITUTION FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE BLIND, is situated about three quarters of a mile easterly from the state house, on the national road, and is under the superintendence of W. Chapin, Esq. The building is a large and handsome structure of brick, in front of which the ground is pleasantly laid out into graveled walks, with flowers and shade trees. The institution was established in 1837, is now flourishing and has about 100 pupils. They are taught in a liberal course of instruction in the several English branches, with lectures on moral and natural science. They are also instructed in vocal and instrumental music, and have among them an excellent band of music. In the afternoon, they are engaged in several me 173

Page  174 FRANKLIN COUNTY. chanical branches and fancy and ornamental work. The institution is flourishing, and the pupils contented and cheerful. THE OHIO ASYLUM FOR THE INSTRUCTION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB, is situated one third of a mile east of the state house. The buildings, which are of brick, cost about $25,000, including the grounds, which are handsomely laid out and adorned with shrubbery. The number of pupils is about 130. The institution is under the superintendence of H. N. Hubbell, Esq., and is in a thriving condition. Its site was selected in 1829, and it soon after went into operation Ohio Deaf and Dumb Asylum. The pupils are daily instructed in the branches usually taught at other seminaries. The girls spend a portion of their time in domestic, and the boys in mechanical operations. These noble institutions are sustained by the state, with a liberality that pure benevolence must delight to witness. Their several superintendents feel vividly the importance of their responsibilities, and discharge them in a happy and judicious manner. THE OHIO PENITENTIARY the most imposing edifice in Columbus, is situated on the east bank of the Scioto, about half a mile north of the state house. The main building, shown in the annexed view, is built of Ohio marble. It contains the warden's house, the office and guard rooms, and in each of its wings are 350 cells for prisoners, arranged in five tiers. With the penitentiary walls, this building forms a hollow square of six acres: about one third of this area is shown in the large xiew. A railroad, about two miles long, extends from the prison to a stone quarry, at which a portion of the prisoners work in getting out stone. The prisoners are all employed in several useful manufactures, and such is the efficiency of discipline, that the industry of the convicts equals any association of voluntary or paid laborers. The discipline of the prison is conducted by rules, printed copies of which are given to the prisoners. At the sound of a bell, at noon, 174

Page  175 FRANKLIN COUNTY. they leave work and arrange themselves in thirteen different companies, in front of their workshops. One of these companies is composed entirely of blacks. When the bell strikes a second time, they march to their dinner, with their heads to the left, so as to bring their faces in view of the attendant, and prevent conversation. Ohio Penitentiary. They move in close order, with the lock-step, and make a shuffling noise, that echoes loudly upon the walls of the area. Arrived at the table, they arrange themselves before their seats. At the sound of a small bell, they take off their caps, and when it again sounds, commence eating. They eat from wooden dishes made in the prison, and drink from tin cups; in the morning, their beverage is rye coffee, at noon, water. Their knives and forks are coarse, with wooden handles. A late visitor describes, in a public print, the discipline of the prison and treatment of its convicts. The present warden has gathered around him assistants who have in their hearts much of the milk of human kindness. The new directory approves and seconds his labors, and as the result of these labors of love, the subordination is more perfect than ever before, the lash is very rarely used, the convicts are rarely reported, an air of cheerful alacrity characterizes the operations of the various shops, and all the movements of those who are compelled to pay the penalties of their crimes within the walls of the Ohio Penitentiary. There are, at this time, about five hundred convicts in the penitentiary. Their labor yields to the state a surplus of $16,000 or $18,000 annually. They receive an abundance of substantial food, and enjoy good health. On the Sabbath, they all attend religious services in the chapel. Their religious instruction is under the charge of Rev. Mr. Finley, one of the pioneer missionaries of the Methodist church, in the west-an old veteran of more than sixty winters, who is robust and vigorous, and whose heart overflows with love for poor, weak humanity. His tearful appeals have had their effect, too, and many of his charge do right from religious principle. There is a choir connected with the congregation, that meets regularly for practice before service on Sabbath. During service, the effect is almost electric when those five hundredc voices peal forth their sacred songs. With tears streaming from their eyes, have I heard these unfortunate men confessing their gratitude for the blessed lessons they had been taught in the penitentiary. There is connected, also, with the penitentiary, a Sabbath school. Nearly one fifth of the convicts are permitted to avail themselves of its benefits. The instructions there given by Christians of the city, who attend for the purpose, exert an important, all-powerful in 17b

Page  176 FRANKLIN COUNTR. fluence for good upon the minds of the convicts. Superadded to all this, there is an excel, lent library of several hundred volumes, secured mainly through the labors of the present warden and chaplain. The former chaplain, (Rev. Mr. Mills,) laid the foundation. The convicts rejoice in the benefits of this library, and speak of it with grateful emotions. They all have Bibles in their cells, also. They are permitted to write, within stated periods, to their friends and relatives, and receive as many letters as are sent to them, when containing nothing improper. At a meeting held a few Sabbaths since, in the chapel, and in reply to a question propounded, about fifty of them acknowledged that they had learned to read since they entered the prison. Temperance addresses are occasionally delivered in the chapel of the penitentiary. Messrs. T. and G. recently addressed the inmates. The question was put, " How many committed the crimes of which they stand convicted, owing to the use and while under the influence of intoxicating drinks." More than four hundred arose on their feet. Seventy or eighty admitted that they had been engaged in vending or making liquor. Nearly every one declared, by rising, his purpose to abstain entirely from the use of intoxicating drink the rest of his days. We here insert a curiosity, from the Columbus Gazette, of Aug. 29th, 1822. At an early day, there was a law passed offering a bounty for the scalps of squirrels. Whether it was in force at this time, we do not know; if so, it must have made quite a draft on the treasury. Grand Squirrel Hunt!-The squirrels are becoming so numerous in the county, as to threaten serious injury, if not destruction, to the hopes of the farmer during the ensuing fall. Much good might be done by a general turn out of all citizens whose convenience will permit, for two or three days, in order to prevent the alarming ravages of those mischievous neighbors. It is therefore respectfully submitted to the different townships, each to meet and choose two or three of their citizens to meet in a hunting caucus, at the house of Christian Heyl, on Saturday, the 31st inst., at 2 o'clock P. M. Should the time above stated prove too short for the townships to hold meetings, as above recommended, the following persons are respectfully nominated and invited to attend the meeting at Columbus. illontgomery-Jeremiah M'Lene and Edward Livingston. Hamilton-George W. Williams and Andrew Dill. 2ffadison-Nicholas Goetschius and W. H. Richardson. Truro-Abiather V. Taylor and John Hanson. Jefferson-John Edgar and Elias Ogden. Plain-Thomas B. Patterson and Jonathan Whitehead. Harrison-F. C. Olmsted and Capt. Bishop. Sharon-Matthew Matthews and Bulkley Comstock. Perry-Griffith a Thomas and William Mickey. Washington-Peter Sells and Uriah Clark. No-wich- A Robert Elliott and Alanson Perry. Clinton-Col. Cook and Samuel Henderson. Frank. lin-John M'Elvain and Lewis Williams. Prairie-John Hunter and Jacob Neff. Pleaeant-James Gardiner and Reuben Golliday. Jackson-Woollery Coonrod and Nicholas HoovE-.. 3lifflin-Adam Reed and William Dalzell. In case any township should be unrepresented in the meeting, those present will taku the liberty of nominating suitable persons for said absent township. RALPH OSBORN, LUCAS SULLIVANT, GUSTAVUS SWAN, SAMUEL G. FLENNIKEN, CHRISTIAN HEYL, JOHN A. M'DOWELL. A subsequent paper says: "the hunt was conducted agreeably to the instructions in eur last paper. On counting the scalps, it appeared that nineteen thousand six hundred ad sixty scalps were produced. It is impossible to say what number in all were killed, an a great many of the hunters did not come in. We think we may safely challenge any otler county in the state to kill squirrels with us." The following is a list of villages in this county, not previously mentioned, with their population in 1840. Dublin, 166; Harrisburg, 81; Lockbourne, 139, and Reynoldsburg, 309. Central college is a new and flourishing institution, in Blendon township, of which tho Rev. Mr. Covert is president. 176


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Page  177 GALLIA COUNTY. GALLIA. Gallia was formed firom Washington, April 30th, 1803. The word Gallia is the ancient name of France, from whence it was originally settled. The surface is generally broken, excepting in the eastern part and on the Ohio river and Kiger creek, where it is more level, and the soil fertile. Much of the county is well adapted to wheat, and a great part covered with a sandy loam. The principal crops are corn, wheat, oats and beans. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Addison, 692 Guyan, 342 Perry, 973 Cheshire, 791 Harrison, 688 Raccoon, 1610 Clay, 745 Huntington, 972 Springfield, 991 Gallipolis, 1413 Morgan, 744 Walnut, 424 Green, 1047 Ohio, 626 Wilkesville, 738 Greenfield, 639 The population of the county was, in 1820, 7098; in 1830, 9733, and in 1840, 13,445, or 25 inhabitants to a square mile. The first settlement in the county was at Gallipolis. It was settled in 1791, by a French colony, sent out under the auspices of "the Scioto company." This company was in some way connected with the Ohio company. What that connection was, does not fully appear.* Col. Duer, of New York, "secretary to the board of treasury," a Mr. Flint and a Mr. Craig seem to have been the most prominent members of the company. In May or June, 1788, Joel Barlow, the agent of the company, left this country for Europe. He distributed proposalst at Paris, from which the annexed is an extract. A climate wholesome and delightful, frost even in winter almost entirely unknown, and a river called, by way of eminence, the beautiful, and abounding in excellent fish of a vast size. Noble forests, consisting of trees that spontaneously produce sugar, (the sugar maple,) and a plant that yields ready-made candles, (myrica cerifera.) Vension in plenty, the pursuit of which is uninterrupted by wolves, foxes, lions or tigers. A couple of swine will multiply themselves a hundred fold in two or three years, without taking any care of them. No taxes to pay, no military services to be performed. Volney, who came to America in 1795, in his "View," where we find the above, says: * Volney speaks of the Ohio company as being the original proprietors, and the Scioto as purchasers from them. Judge Hall, in his Statistics of the West, says the Scioto company, which was formed from or by the Ohio company, as a subordinate. Barlow, he says, was sent to Europe by the Ohio company-which fact the biographical sketch of Barlow also states-and by them the lands in question were conveyed to the Scioto company. Kilbourn's gazetteer says: "the Scioto company, which intended to buy of congress all the tract between the western boundary of the Ohio company's purchase and the Scioto, directed the French settlers to Gallipolis, supposing it to be west of the Ohio company's purchase, though it proved not to be." The company, he adds, failing to make their payments, the whole of the proposed purchase remained with government.-Annals of the West. t Volney states that these proposals were distributed in 1790. 23 . 4 1'77

Page  178 GALLIA COUNTY. These munificent promisers forgot to say, that these forests must be cut down before corn jould be raised; that for a year, at least, they must bring their daily bread from a great distance; that hunting and fishing are agreeable amusements, when pursued for the sake of amusement, but are widely different when followed for the sake of subsistence: and they quite forgot to mention, that though there be no bears or tigers in the neighborhood, there are wild beasts infinitely more cunning and ferocious, in the shape of men, who were at that time at open and cruel war with the whites. In truth, the market value of these lands at that time, in America, was no more than six or seven cents an acre. In France, in Paris, the imagination was too heated to admit of doubt or suspicion, and people were too ignorant and uninformed to perceive where the picture was defective, and its colors too glaring. The example, too, of the wealthy and reputedly wise confirmed the popular delusion. Nothing was talked of, in every social circle, but the paradise that was opened for Frenchmen in the western wilderness; the free and happy life to be led on the blissful banks of the Scioto. At length, Brissot published his travels,* and completed the flattering delusion: buyers became numerous and importunate, chiefly among the better sort of the middle class: single persons and whole families disposed of their all, flattering themselves with having made excellent bargains. With the proposals, a map was shown at Paris by the agents of the Scioto company, Joel Barlow, from the United States, an Englishman by the name of Playfair, and a Frenchman, named De Saisson. An impression of this map is in the possession of Mons. J. P. R. Bureau, of Gallipolis, one of the original settlers. From it the annexed engraving was taken, omitting some non-essentials. The original is sixteen inches long and twelve wide. It is in French, handsomely engraved and colored, with the lands of the two companies and the tract east of them, all divided into townships of six miles square. It represents the Scioto company's tract as extending about one hundred miles north of the mouth of the Kanawha, and including more or less of the present counties of Meigs, Athens, Muskingum, Licking, Franklin, Pickaway, Ross, Pike, Scioto, Gallia, Lawrence, Perry, Jackson, Hocking, and Fairfield. This tract, on the map, is divided into 142 townships and 32 fractions. The north line of the Ohio land company's tract is 18 miles south of the other, and included the present county of Morgan, and parts of Washington, Meigs, Athens, Muskingum, Guernsey and Monroe, there divided into 91 townships and 16 fractions. The tract east of that of the Ohio company, extends 48 miles farther north. Upon the original, are the words "Sept rangs de municipalite acquis par des individues et occupes depuis, 1786;" * Volney here refers to the travels of Brissot de Warville. Brissot published several volumes relating to America, as we infer from his preface to his "New Travels in America," a work issued in the spring of 1791, and consisting in part of a series of letters written from this country, in 1788. In his preface to the last, he says: "the third volume was published in 1787, by Mr. Claviere and me." In the last, he refers to the charges against the Scioto company, in this wise. "This company has been much calumniated. It has been accused of selling lands which it does not possess, of giving exaggerated accounts of its fertility, of deceiving the emigrants, of robbing France of her inhabitants, and of sending them to be butchered by the savages. But the title of this association is incontestable; the proprietors are reputable men; the description which they have given of the lands is taken from the public and authentic reports of Mr. Hutchins, geographer of congress. No person can dispute their prodigious fertility." He elsewhere speaks, in this volume, in high terms of the company. 178

Page  179 GALLIA COUNTY. i.e. Seven ranges of townships acquired by individuals, and occupied since 1786. pied since 1786. c~', CU ...,_ands Hf tf~~~~t 2 L re~Ctcrol d are ~~~Frersoe Dfciay\ A A + ~^ fh V~~~~~~akbie >> OSCITO OM PA Y ArS l my Fjrst fCldr n Lands X f AN; I FTUCK, jT "Plan of the Purchase of the Ohio and Scioto Land Companies." The map is inaccurate in its geography, and fraudulent in its statements. It represents the country as "cleared and inhabited," when it was a wilderness, the only settlement being at Marietta, with perhaps some offshoots from it on the Ohio and Muskingum. The glowing representations made by the agents of th6 company, were well-timed for their enterprise. It was about the beginning of the French revolution, and the "flattering delusion" took strong 179

Page  180 GALLIA COUNTY. hold The terms to induce emigration, were as follows: the company proposed to take the emigrant to their lands and pay the cost, and the latter bound himself to work three years for the company, for which he was to receive fifty acres, a house and a cow.* Printed deeds, executed at Paris, with all due formality, were given to some of the purchasers, by Playfair and De Saisson. About five hundred Frenchmen left their native country, landed mostly at Alexandria, and mr-a(de tlheiri w t o the promised land. They were persons ill Gallipolis in 1791 fitted for such an enterprise. Among them were not a few carvers and gilders to his majesty, coach and peruke makers, friseurs and other artist,s,s about equally well fitted for a backwoods life, with only ten or twelve farmers and laborers. On the map is shown the "first town," i.e. "Premiere Ville," lying opposite the mouth of the Kanawha. It was laid out by the Ohio company, under the name of Fair Haven; but as the ground there is low and liable to overflow, Gallipolis was located four miles belowv, upon a high bank, ten feet above the flood of 1832.t This location was made just before the arrival of the French. Col. Rufus Putnam sent Major Burnham, with about forty men, for that purpose, who made the clearing and erected block-houses and cabins. Col. Robert Safford, now living near Gallipolis, was of this party, and cut the first tree. From his description, we give the view of the place at that time, the greater part of which stood on the site of the public square. On the public square stood 80 log cabins, 20 in each row. At each of the corners were block-houses, two stories in height. In front of the cabins, close by the river bank, was a small log breastwork, erected for a defence while building the cabins. Above the * J. P. R. Bureau. 180 t Ibid.

Page  181 GALLIA COUNTY. cabins, on the square, were two other parallel rows of catins, which, with a high stockade fence and block-houses at each of the upper corners, formed a sufficient fortification in times of danger. These upper cabins were a story and a half in height, built of hewed logs, and finished in better style than those below, being intended for the richer class. In the upper cabins was a room used for a council chamber and a ball room. The Scioto company contracted with Putnam to erect these build ings and furnish the settlers with provisions; but failed of payment, bT which he lost a large amount. We continue the history of Gallipolis, in the annexed extract from a communication in the Pioneer, by Waldeurard M\Ieulette, one of the colonists. At an early meeting of the colonists, the town was named Gallipolis, (town of the French.) I did not arrive till nearly all the colonists were there. I descended the river in 1791, in flat boats, loaded with troops, commanded by Gen. St. Clair, destined for an expedition against the Indians. Some of my countrymen joined that expedition; among others was Count lealartie, a captain ill the French guard of Louis XVI. General St. Clair made him one of his aid-de-camps in the battle, ill which he was severely wounded. He went back to Philadelphia, from whence he returned to France. The Indians were encouraged to greater depredations and murders, by their success in this expedition, but most especially against the American settlements. From their intercourse with the French in Canada, or some other cause, they seemed less disposed to trouble us. Immediately after St. Clair's defeat, Col. Sproat, commlnandant at Marietta, appointed four spies for Gallipolis-two Americans and two French, of which I was one, and it was not until after the treaty at Greenville, in 1795, that we were released. Notwithstanding the great difficulties, the difference of tempers, education and professions, the inhabitants lived in harmony, and having little or nothing to do, made themselves agreeable and useful to each other. The Americans and hunters, employed by the company, performed the first labors of clearing the township, which was divided into lots. Although the French were willing to work, yet the clearing of an American wilderness and its heavy timber, was far more than they could perform. To migrate from the eastern states to the "far west,' is painful enough now-a-days, but how much more so it must be for a citizen of a large European town! even a farmer of the old countries would find it very hard, if not impossible, to clear land in the wilderness. Those hunters were paid by the colonists to prepare their garden ground, which was to receive the seeds brought from France; few of the colonists knew how to make a garden, but they were guided by a few books on that subject, which they had brought likewise from France. The colony then began to improve in its appearance and comfort. The fresh provisions were supplied by the company's hunters, the others came from their magazines. When, of the expeditions of General St. Clair and Wayne, many of the troops stopped at Gallipolis to take provi6ions, which had been deposited there for that purpose by government; the Indians, who, no doubt, often came there il the night, at last saw the regulars going morning and evening round the town in order to ascertain if there were any Indian traces, and attacked them, killing and wounding several-a soldier, besides other wounds, was tomahawked, but recovered. A French colonist, who had tried to raise corn at some distance from the town, seeing an Indian rising from behind some brushwood against a tree, shot him in the shoulder; the Indian hearing an American patrole, must have thought that the Frenchman made a part of it; and sometime afterward a Frenchman was killed, and a man and woman made prisoners, as they were going to collect ashes to make soap, at some dis tance from town. After this, although the Indians committed depredations on the Americans on both sides of the river, the French had suffered only by the loss of some cattle carried away, until the murder of the man above related. The Scioto company, in the mean time, had nearly fulfilled all their engagements during six months, after which time they ceased their supply of provisions to the colonists, and one of their agents gave as a reason for it, that the company had been cheated by one or two of their agents in France, who, having received the funds in Fran,e for the purchased lands, had kept the money for themselves and run off with it to England, without having purchased or possessing any of the tract which the 181

Page  182 GALLIA COUNTY. had sold to the deceived colonists. This intelligence exasperated them, and was the more sensibly felt, as a scarcity of provisions added to their disappointment. The winter was uncommonly severe; the creek and the Ohio were frozen; the hunters had no longer any meat to sell; flat boats could not come down with flour to furnish as they had done before. This produced almost a famine in the settlement, and a family of eight persons, father, mother and children, was obliged to subsist for eight or ten days on dry beans, boiled in water, without either salt, grease or bread, and those had never known, before that time, what it was to want for any thing. On the other hand, the dangers from the Indians seemed to augment every day. The colonists were by this time weary of being confined to a few acres of land; their industry and their labor was lost; the money and clothes which they had brought were nearly gone. They knew not to whom they were to apply to get their lands; they hoped that if Wayne's campaign forced the Indians to make a lasting peace, the Scioto company would send immediately, either to recover or to purchase those promised lands; but they soon found out their mistake. After the treaty of Greenville, many Indians passing through Gallipolis, on their way to the seat of government, and several travellers, revealed the whole transaction, from which it was ascertained that the pretended Scioto company was composed of New Englanders, the names of very few only being known to the French, who, being themselves ignorant of the English language, and at such a distance from the place of residence of their defrauders, and without means for prosecuting them, could get no redress. Far in a distant land, separated forever from their friends and relations-with exhausted means, was it surprising that they were disheartened, and that every social tie should have been loosened, nearly broken, and a great portion of the deceived colonists should have become reckless? May the happy of this day, never feel as they did, when all hope was blasted, and they were left so destitute! Many of the colonists went off and settled elsewhere with the means that remained to them, and resumed their trades in more populous parts of the country; others led a half-savage life, as hunters for skins: the greater part, however, resolved, in a general assembly, to make a memorial of their grievances, and send it to congress. The memorial claimed no rights from that body, but it was a detail of their wrongs and sufferings, together with an appeal to the generosity and feelings of congress; and they did not appeal in vain. One of the colonists proposed to carry the petition; he only stipulated that his expenses should be paid by a contribution of the colonists, whether he succeeded or not in their object; but, he added, that if he obtained for himself the quantity of land which he had paid for, and the rest had none, he should be repaid by their gratitude for his efforts.* At Philadelphia, he met with a French lawyer, M. Duponceau, and through his means he obtained from congress a grant of 24,000 acres of land, known by the name of the French grant, opposite to Little Sandy, for the French, who were still resident at Gallipolis. The act annexed the condition of settling on the lands three years before reviewing the deed of gift. The bearer of the petition had his 4000 acres; the rest was divided among the remaining French, amounting to ninety-two persons, married and single. Each inhabitant had thus a lot of 217A acres of land; but before the surveys and other arrangements could be made, some tine was necessary, during which, those x ho had reclaimed the wilderness and improved Gallipolis being reluctant to lose all their labor, and finding that a company, owning the lands of Marietta, and where there was a settlement previous to that of the French colony, had met to divide lands which they had purchased in a common stock, the colonists sent a deputation for the purpose of proposing to the company to sell them the spot where Gallipolis was and is situated, and to be paid in proportion to what was improved, which was accepted. When at last the distribution of the lots of the French grant was achieved, some sold their share, others went to settle on it, or put tenants, and either remained at Gallipolis, or went elsewhere; but how few entered again heartily into a new kind of life, after having lost many of their lives and much of their health, amid hardships, excess of labor, or the indolence which follows discouragement and hopeless efforts! Few of the original settlers remain at Gallipolis: not many at the French grant. Breckenridge, in his Recollectionrs, gives some reminiscences of Gallipolis, related in a style of charnming simplicity and humor. He * Our contributor is not clear here; we presume he meant to say: "But he added, that if he obtained as much, he would expect for himself the quantity of land he had paid for, viz: 4000 acres; and if the rest who had no land got some, he would be repaid by their gratitude for his efforts."-Ed. 182

Page  183 GALLIA COUNTY. was at Gallipolis in 1795, at which time he was a boy of nine year of age. Behold me once more in port, and domicilated at the house, or the inn, of Monsieur, or rather, Dr. Saugrain, a cheerful, sprightly little Frenchman, four feet six, English measure and a chemist, natural philosopher, and physician, both in the English and French signi fication of the word.... This singular village was settled by people from Paris and Lyons, chiefly artisans and artists, peculiarly unfitted to sit down in the wilderness and clear away forests. I have seen half a dozen at work in taking down a tree, some pulling ropes fastened to the brar.-hes, while others were cutting around it like beavers. Sometimes serious accidents occur:ed in consequence of their awkwardness. Their former employment had been only calculated to administer to the luxury of highly polished and wealthy societies. There were carvers and gilders to the king, coach makers, freizurs and peruke makers, and a variety of others who might have found some employment in our larger towns, but who were entirely out of their place in the wilds of Ohio. Their means by this time had been exhausted, and they were beginning to suffer from the want of the comforts, and even the necessaries of life. The country back from the river was still a wilderness, and the Gallipotians did not pretend to cultivate any thing more than small garden spots, depending for their supply of provisions, on the boats which now began to descend the river; but they had to pay in cash and that was become scarce. They still assembled at the ball-room twice a week; it was evident, however, that they felt disappointment, and were no longer happy. The predilections-of the best among them, being on the side of the Bourbons, the honors of the French revolution, even in their remote situation, mingled with their private misfortunes, which had at this time nearly reachet their acme, in consequence of the discovery that they had no title to their lands, having been cruelly deceived by those from whom they had purchased. It is well known that congress generously made them a grant of twenty thousand acres, from which, however, but few of them ever derived any advantage. As the Ohio was now more frequented, the house was occasionally resorted to, and especially by persons looking out for land to purchase. The doct:)r had a small apartment which contained his chemical apparatus, and I used to sit by him, as often as I could watching the curious operation of his blow-pipe and crucible. I loved the cheerful little man, and he became very fond of me in return. Many of my countrymen used to come and stare at his doings, which they were half inclined to think, had a too near resemblance to the black art. The doctors little phosphoric matches, igniting spontaneously when the glass tube was broken, and from which he derived some emolument, were thought by some, to be rather beyond mere human power. His barometer and thermometer, with the scale neatly painted with the pen, and the frames richly carved, were objects of wonder, and probably some of them are yet extant in the west. But what most astonished some of our visitors, was a large peach in a glass bottle, the neck of which would only admit a common cork; this was accomplished by tying the bottle to the limb of a tree, with the peach when young inserted into it. His swans which swam around basins of water amused me more than any wonders exhibited by the wonderful man. The doctor was a great favorite with the Americans, as well for his vivacity and sweetness of temper, which nothing could sour, as on account of a circumstance which gave him high claim to the esteem of the backwoodsmen. He had shown himself, notwithstanding his small stature and great good nature, a very hero in combat with the Indians. He had descended the Ohio in company with two French philosophers, who were believers in the primitive in nocence and goodness of the children of the forest. They could not be persuaded, that any danger was to be apprehended from the Indians; as they had no intentions to injure that people, they supposed no harm could be meditated on their part. Dr. Saugrain was not altogether so well convinced of their good intentions, and accordingly kept his pistols loaded. Near the mouth of the Sandy, a canoe with a party of warriors approached the boat; the philosophers invited them on board by signs, when they came rather too will ingly. The first thing they did on coming on board of the boat, was to salute the two philosophers with the tomahawk; and they would have treated the doctor in the same way but that he used his pistols with good effect-killed two of the savages, and then leaped into the water, diving like a dipper at the flash of the guns of the others, and succeeded in swimming to the shore with several severe wounds whose scars were conspicuous. The doctor was married to an amiable young woman, but not possessing as much viva city as himself. As Madam Saugrain had no maid to assist her, her brother, a boy of my age, and myself, were her principal helps irinthe kitchen. We brought water and wood, and washed the dishes. I used to go in the morning about two miles for a little milk, 183 i i

Page  184 GALLIA COUNTY. sometimes on the frozen ground, barefooted. I tried a pair of savots, or wooden shoes, but was unable to make any use of them, although they had been made by the carver to the king. Little perquisites, too, sometimes fell to our share from blacking boots and shoes; my companion generally saved his, while mine would have burned a hole in my pocket, if it had remained there. In the spring and summer, a good deal of my time was passed in the garden, weeding the beds. While thus engaged, I formed an acquaintance with a young lady, of eighteen or twenty, on the other side of the palings, who was often similarly occupied. Our friendship, which was purely Platonic, commenced with the story of Blue Beard, recounted by her, and with the novelty and pathos of which I was much interested. This incident may perhaps remind the reader of the story of Pyramus and Thisbe, or perhaps of the hortical ecologue of Dean Swift, "Dermot and Shela" Connected with this lady, is an incident which I feel a pleasure in relating. One day while standing alone on the bank of the river, I saw a man who had gone in to bathe, and who had got beyond his depth, without being able to swim. He had began to struggle for life, and in a few seconds would have sunk to rise no more. I shot down the bank like an arrow, leaped into a canoe, which fortunately happened to be close by, pushed the end to him, and as he rose, perhaps for the last time, he seized it with a deadly convulsive grasp, and held so firmly that the skin afterward came off the parts of his arms which pressed against the wood. I screamed for help; several persons came and took him out, perfectly insensible. He afterwards married the young lady, and raised a numerous and respectable family. One of his daughters married a young lawyer, who now represents that district in congress... Toward the latter part of summer, the inhabitants suffered severely from sickness and want of provisions. Their situation was truly wretched. The swamp in the rear, now exposed by the clearing between it and the river, became the cause of a frightful epidemic, from which few escaped, and many became its victims. I had recovered from the ague, and was among the few exempted from the disease: but our family, as well as the rest, suffered much from absolute hunger, a most painful sensation, as I had before experienced. To show the extremity of our distress, on one occasion the brother of Madam Saugrain and myself pushed a light canoe to an island above town, where we pulled some corn, took it to mill, and excepting some of the raw grains, had nothing to eat from the day before, until we carried home the flour and made some bread, but had neither milk nor meat. I have learned to be thankful when I had a sufficiency of wholesome food, how ever plain, and was blessed with health; and I could put up with humble fare, without a murmur, although accustomed to luxuries, when I have seen those who have never experi enced absolute starvation, turn up their noses at that, which was a very little worse than the best they had ever known. I had been nearly a year at Gallipolis, when Capt. Smith, of the United States army came along in advance of the barge of Gen. Wilkinson, and according to the request of my father, took me into his custody, for the purpose of bringing me once more to my native place. He remained two or three days waiting for the general, and in the meanwhile procured me hat, shoes and clothes befitting a gentleman's son, and then took me on board his boat. Shortly after the general overtook us, I was transferred on board his barge, as a playmate for his son Biddle, a boy of my own age. The general's lady, and several ladies and gentlemen, were on board his boat, which was fitted up in a style of convenience, and even magnificence, scarcely surpassed even by the present steamboats. It was propelled against the stream by twenty five or thirty men, sometimes by the pole, the cordelle, and often by the oar. TI'here was also a band of musicians on board, and the whole had the appearance of a mere party of pleasure. My senses were overpowered-it seemed an Elysium! The splendor of the furniture-the elegance of the dresses-and then, the luxuries of the table, to a half-starved creature like me, produced an effect which can scarce be easily described. Every repast was a royal banquet, and such delicacies were placed before me, as I had never seen before, and in sufficient abundance to satiate my insatiable appetite. I was no more like what I had been, than the cast-off skin of the black snake resembles the new dress in which he glistens in the sunbeam. The general's countenance was continually lighted up with smiles, and he seemed faire le bonheur, of all around him,-it seemed his business to make every one happy about him. His countenance and manners were such as I have rarely seen, and now that I can form a more just estimate of them, were such as better fitted him for a court than a republic. His lady was truly an estimable person, of the mildest and softest manners. She gave her son and myself a reproof one day, which I never forgot. She saw us catching minnows with pin-hooks, made us desist, and then explained in the sweetest manner, the cruelty of taking away life wantonly from the humblest thing in creation. 184

Page  185 GALLIA COUNTY. In 1807, Breckenridge again saw Gallipolis. As we passed Point Pleasant and the island below it, Gallipolis, which I looked for with anxious feelings, hove in sight. I thought of the French inhabitants-I thought of my friend Saugrain; and I recalled, in the liveliest colors, the incidents of that portion of my life which was passed here. A year is a long time at that period-every day is crowded with new and great and striking events. When the boat landed, I ran up the bank and looked around; but alas! how changed! The Americans had taken the town in hand, and no trace of antiquity, that is, of twelve years ago, remained. I hastened to the spot where I expected to find the abode, the little log house, tavern and labratory of the doctor, but they had vanished like the palace of Aladdin. After some inquiry, I found a little Frenchman, who, like the old woman of Goldsmiith's village, was "the sad historian of the deserted plain,"-that is, deserted by one race, to be peopled by another. He led me to where a few logs might be seen, as the only remains of the once happy tenement which had sheltered me-but all around it was a commoiin; the town had taken a different direction. My heart sickened; the picture which my imagination had drawn-the scenes which my memory loved to cherish, were blotted out aend obliterated. A volume of reminiscences seemed to be annihilated in an instant! I took a hasty glance at the new town, as I returned to the boat. I saw brick houses, painted frames, fanciful enclosures, ornamental trees! Even the pond, which had carried off a thirdrof the French population by its malaria, had disappeared, and a pretty green had usurped its place, with a neat brick court house in the midst of it. This was too much; I hastened my pace, and with sorrow, once more pushed into the stream. Gallipolis, the county seat, is pleasantly situated on the Ohio river, 02 miles southeasterly from Columbus. It contains 1 Presbyterian, I Episcopal and 1 Methodist church, 12 or 14 stores, 2 newspaper printing offices, and by the census of 1840, had 1,221 inhabitants, and now has about 1700. A part of the population is of French descent, but they have in a great measure lost their national characteristics. Some few of the original French settlers are yet living. The engraving of the public square, shows the market and court house near the center of the view, with a glimpse of the Ohio river on the left. The failure of the Gallipolis bank, at this place, a few years since, excited a strong sensation throughout the state. The history of the institution we derive from the communication of one familiar with it. The charter of the bank of Gallipolis, was passed in the year 1818, but the commis 24 18.5

Page  186 GALLIA COUNTY. sioners named in it, never judged it advisable to open books for subscription, until the spring of 1839, when they were opened at the solicitation of M. B. Sherwood, of Buffalo, he proposing, on behalf of the Erie County bank in that city, to subscribe to a large amount. Mr. Sherwood brought such strong testimonials of integrity of character, and ability to accomplish what he proposed, as to satisfy the commissioners, and he was permitted to subscribe for $200,000 of the stock, paying thereon $20,000, by a certificate of stock deposit in the Erie County bank; this certificate was paid at the time, to show that Mr. Sherwood was in earnest, in organizing the bank in good faith. He stated at the time, that those for whom he acted, were men of wealth-had established two banks in New York, the Staten Island and the Erie County banks, and were anxious to connect their business with a west ern bank, as it would much facilitate the transaction of their business, and prove of mutua advantage and profits to both institutions. When the time came for putting the bank into operation, Mr. Sherwood was presen with about $40,000 in specie and the paper of specie-paying banks; the bank was exam ined by a commissioner, Geo. House, appointed by the governor, Wilson Shannon, and au thorized to do business as a bank, by the governor's proclamation. The president, Mr. Smith, the cashier, Mr. Scovill, and Whiting, chief clerk, were also from Buffalo. The other directors were among the most respectable men of Gallipolis. The bank failed in January, 1841, when it became apparent, that a most stupendous system of fraud had been carried on by means of this bank and others, all under the management of the same band cf swindlers, Sherwood, Cole and others. The manner seems to have been this. The directors of the Gallipolis bank had procured bills to be struck by Rawdon, Wright & Hatch, of New York, engravers, to the amount of $175,000, and this was the entire amount of bills as was supposed by the resident directors; but it turns out that the president and cashier, under the direction of Sherwood, had in some way procured bills to be struck to the amount of some $1,200,000, without the knowledge of the other directors, and while the books and accounts were kept, and the circulation predicated upon bills to the amount of $175,000, Sherwood was scattering broad-cast over the land, this vast fraudulent circulation, unknown to the resident directors, until it was brought to light by the vast over-issue, coming in after the failure. There were other banks with which the same company was connected, to wit, the Manhatten bank, in Lucas county, Ohio, the Circleville bank, at Circleville, Ohio, the West Union bank, at West Union, Ohio, and the Mineral Point bank, in Wisconsin. Sherwood seems to have operated largely in state stocks, paying for them in the paper of these fraudulent banks. When the explosion came, he and these banks were indebted to Illinois, near $100,000; to Indiana, about $600,000, besides an unredeemed circulation of these banks, of not less than from $300,000 to $400,000. Before the failure of the bank in January, 1841, a Mr. Farrington appeared in Gallipolis, in October of 1840, where he remained until January following, when he presented a transfer of the stock belonging to Kinney & Smith, in whose names it stood for the use of the Erie County bank, as wasstated, and became himself president of the bank, under representations, on his part, of his great wealth. During the months of October, November and December, 1840, several strangers, of the names of Hill, Weed and others, appeared in Gallipolis, talked largely of their wealth, proposed entering into business, but never went beyond talking; what their business was, no one knew. After the failure of the bank, it became apparent that these men were the associates of Farrington, and that their business at Gallipolis, had been to fill their pockets with the Gallipolis bank paper, and then to go off and pay it out for whatever they could obtain. They bought up property of every description at exorbitant prices, in order to swindle the community. Farrington, Hill, Weed and some others, the men who had engaged in swindling in the fraudulent bank of Millington, in Maryland, seem to have purchased of Sherwood & Co., the chance of what could be made by means of the Gallipolis bank, before the explosion should take place. Hill, in a letter to Farrington, received after his arrest, states that Sherwood had cheated them, as he, Hill, was satisfied that there was a greater over-issue than had been represented. At the time of the failure of the banik, Farrington was arrested, and, with Scovill, Whiting and some others, indicted, tried, convicted, and sent to the penitentiary for six years. Whiting was arrested at Lowell, in Massachusetts, brought to Gallipolis, and confined to await his trial; but with the aid of certain persons, he escaped, and has never since been retaken. Sherwood was compelled to run for Texas, to protect himself from justice The assets of the bank, at the time of the failure, were applied by the resident directors, to the redemption of its liabilities, as far as they would go, having been handed over to those presenting claims against the bank, as fast as the claims were presented. The cir 186

Page  187 GEAUGA COUNTY. culation redeemed was very large, but no one can tell the amount. The whole affair was dS stupendous a scheme of swindling, as has Over been carried on in the country, and the whole resting upon the credit of two banks in New York, organized under the free banking law of that state, with stocks, which were probably borrowed of the states of Indiana and Illinois. Gen. Edward W. Tupper, in July, 1812, raised for a six months' duty, a force of 1000 men, principally from this, Lawrence and Jackson counties. Daniel Womeldorf, of this county, commanded a company of cavalry. They marched to the northwest, and had a skirmish with the enemy at the foot of the Maumee rapids, with unimportant results. Gen. Tupper resided in Gallipolis, and died many years since. Capt. Womeldorf, is living in the county. The following are the names of small villages in this county, with their population, in 1840. Patriot 119, Wilkesville 119, Centerville 84, Porter 75, and Vinton 82. (See Addenda.) GEAUGA. GEAUGA was formed from Trumbull, in 1805, since which its original limits have been much reduced. In March, 1840, the county of Lake was mainly formed from its northern part. The name Geauga, or Sheauga, signifies, in the Indian language, raccoon: it was originally applied to Grand river; thus, "Sheauga sepe," i. e. Raccoon river. The surface is rolling and heavily timbered, and the soil generally clay. The principal exports are sheep, cattle, butter and cheese. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Auburn, 1198 Claridon, 879 Newburgh, 1209 Bainbridge, 988 Hampden, 840 Parkman, 1181 Batavia, 771 Hurtsburgh, 911 Russell, 742 Burton, 1022 Montville, 567 Thompson, 1038 Chardon, 1910 Munson, 1263 Troy, 1208 Chester, 962 The population of Geauga, in 1820, was 7791; in 1830, 15,813, and in 1840, 16,299, or 42 inhabitants to a square mile. This county being at the head waters of Chagrin, Cuyahoga and part of Grand rivers, is high ground, and more subject to deep snows than any other part of the Reserve. It was formerly much subject to very high sweeping winds or tornadoes. In August, 1804, John Miner was killed at Chester. He had lately moved from Burton, with part of his family, into a log house which he had built at that place. A furious storm suddenly arose, and the timber commenced falling on all sides, lwhen he directed his tm v children to go under the floor, and stepped to the door to see the falling timber: at that instant, three trees fell across the house and killed him instantly. The children remained in the house until the next morning. whenr 187

Page  188 GEAUGA COUNTY. the oldest made her way to a neighbor, about two miles distant, and related the sad tidings.* The first settlement in Geauga, was at Burton, in the year 1798, when three families settled there from Connecticut. This settlement was in the interior of the country, at a considerable distance from any other. The hardships and privations of the early settlers of the Reserve, are well described in the annexed article from the pen of one who was familiar with them. The settlement of the Reserve commenced in a manner somewhat peculiar. Instead of beginniing on one side of a county, and progressing gradually into the interior, as had usually been done in similar cases, the proprietors of the Reserve, being governed by dif ferent and separate views, began their improvements wherever their individual interests led them. Hence we find many of the first settlers immured in a dense forest, 15 or 20 miles or more from the abode of any white inhabitants. In consequence of their scattered situation, journeys were some times to be performed of 20 or 50 miles, for the sole purpose of having the staple of an ox-yoke mended, or some other mechanical job, in itself trifling, but absolutely essential for the successful prosecution of business. These journeys had to be performed through the wilderness, at a great expense of time, and, in many cases, the only safe guide to direct their course, were the township lines made by the surveyors. The want of mills to grind the first harvests, was in itself a great evil. Prior to the year 1800, many families used a small hand-mill, properly called a sweat-mill, which took the hard labor of two hours to supply flour enough for one person a single day. About the year 1800, one or two grist-mills, operating by water power, were erected. One of these was at Newburg, now in Cuyahoga county. But the distance of many of the settlements from the mills, and the want of roads, often rendered the expense of grinding a single bushel, equal the value of two or three. The difficulties of procuring subsistence for a family, in such circumstances, must be obvious. Few, however, can now fully realize circumstances then very common. Often would a man leave his family in the wilderness with a stinted supply of food, and with his team or pack horse go perhaps some 20 or 30 miles for provision. The necessary appendages of his journey would be an axe, a pocket compass, fire works, and blanket and bells. He cut and beat his way through the woods with his axe, and forded almost impassable streams. When the day was spent, he stopped where he was, fastened his bells to his beasts, and set them at liberty to provide for themselves. Then he would strike a fire, not only to dissipate, in some degree, the gloom and damps of night, but to annoy the gnats and musketoes, and prevent the approach of wolves, bears and panthers. Thus the night passed, with the trees for his shelter. At early dawn, or perhaps long before, he is listening to catch the sound of bells, to him sweet music, for often many hours of tedious wanderings were consumed, ere he could find his team and resume his journey. If prospered, on reaching his place of destination, in obtaining his expected supply, he follows his lonely way back to his anxious and secluded family, and perhaps has scarce time to refresh and rest himself, ere the same journey and errand had to be repeated. CHIARDON is 170 miles NE. of Columbus, and 28 firom Cleveland. It was laid out about the year 1808, for the county seat, and named from Peter Chardon Brookes, of Boston, then proprietor of the soil. There are but few villages in Ohio, that stand upon such an elevated, commanding ridge as this, and it can be seen in some directions for several miles: although but about 14 miles from Lake Erie, it is computed to be 600 feet above it. The village is scattered and small. In the center is a handsome green, of about eleven acres. on which stands the public buildings, two of which, the court house and Methodist church, are shown in the engraving.' The Baptist church and a classical academy, which are on or face the public * Judge Amzi Atwater. 188

Page  189 GEAUGA COUNTY. square, are n:,t shown in this view. Chardon has 6 stores, a newspap)er piintin'z office, and in 1S40, had 446 inhabitants. Geau a suffered miue h fi-om the'great drouth," in northern Ohio, in the summer of 1845, the following brief description of which was communicated to Dr. S. P. Hildreth, by Seabury Ford, Esq., of Geauga, and published in Silliman's Journal. The district of country which suffered the most, was about one hundred miles in length, and fifty or sixty in width; extending nearly east and west parallel with the lake, and in some places directly bordering on the shore of this great inland sea. There was no rain from the last of March, or the 1st of April, until the 10th of June, when there fell a little rain for one day, but no more until the 2d of July, when there probably fell half an inch, as it made the roads a little muddy. From this time, no more rain fell until early in September. This long-continued drouth reduced the streams of water to mere rills, and many springs and wells heretofore unfailing became dry, or nearly so. The grass crop entirely failed, and through several counties the pasture grounds in places were so dry, that in walking across them the dust would rise under the feet, as in highways. So dry was the grass in meadows, that fires, when accidentally kindled, would run over them as over a stubble-field, and great caution was required to prevent damage from them. The crop of oats and corn was nearly destroyed. Many fields of wheat so perished that no attempt was made to harvest them. Scions set in the nursery, dried up for lack of sap in the stocks, and many of the forest trees withered, and all shed their leaves much earlier than usual. The health of the inhabitants was not materially affected, although much sickness was anticipated. Grasshoppers were multiplied exceedingly in many places, and destroyed every green thing that the drouth had spared, even to the thistles and elder tops by the road side. The late frosts and cold drying winds of the spring months, cut off nearly all the fruit, and what few apples remained, were defective at the core, and decayed soon after being gathered in the fall. Many of the farmers sowed fields of turnips in August and September, hoping to raise winter food for their cattle, but the seed generally failed to vegetate for lack of moisture. So great was the scarcity of food for the domestic animals, that early in the autumn large droves of cattle were sent into the valley of the;cioto, where the crops were more abundant, to pass the winter, while others were sent eastward into the borders of Pennsylvania. This region of country abounds in grasses, and one of the staple commodities is the produce of the dairy. Many stocks of dairy cows were broken up and dispersed, selling for only four or five dollars a head, as the cost of wintering would be more than their worth in the spring. Such great losses and suffering from the effects of drouth, has not been experienced in Ohio for many years, if at all since the settlement of the country. As the lands become more completely cleared of the forest trees, dry summers will doubtless be more frequent. In a region so near a large body of water, we FicZ in Chardoni. 189

Page  190 &RLENE COUNTY. should expect more rain than in one at a distance. The sky in that district is, nevertheless, much oftener covered with clouds than in the southern portion of the state, where rains are mnore abundant; but the dividing ridge, or height of land between Lake Erie and the waters of the Ohio, lacks a range of high hills to attract the moisture from the clouds and cause it to descend in showers of rain. Burton, a pleasant village, 8 miles SE. of Chardon, contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist and 1 Disciples church, an academy, and about 175 inhabitants. Parkman, on a branch of Grand river, and named from Robert B. Parkman, is 16 miles SE. of Chardon, and contains an academy, 1 Methodist and 1 Univeisalist church, 1 flouring, 1 saw and 1 fulling mill, and about 30 dwellings. Three dams are thrown across the river at this place, having unitedly about 60 feet fall, and furnishing much power. There are other small places in the county, at which are post-offices: they are Auburn, Bundysburg, East Claridon, Fowler's Mill, Hamden, Huntsburg, Newburg, Thompson, Welshfield and Chester Cross Roads. At Chester, is the Geauga seminary, under the patronage of the Western Reserve Free-Will Baptist society. This flourishing institution has about 200 pupils, Elder Daniel Branch, A. M., principal. GREENE. GREENE was formed from Hamilton and Ross, May 1st, 1803, and named from Gen. Nathaniel Greene, of the revolution. The soil is generally clayey; the surface on the east is flat and well adapted to grazing, the rest of the county is rolling and productive in wheat and corn. Considerable water power is furnished by the streams. There are some fine limestone quarries, and near Xenia, on Cesar's creek, is a quarry of beautifully variegated marble. The principal productions are wheat, corn, rye, grass, grass seed, oats, barley, sheep and swine. The following is a list of the townships, in 1840, with their population. Bath, 1717 Miami, 1230 Sugar Creek, 2379 Beaver Creek, 1762 Ross, 1310 Xenia, 5190 Casar's Creek, 1730 Silver Creek, 2435 The population of Greene, in 1820, was 10,509: in 1830, 15,122; and in 1840, 17,753, or 43 inhabitants to a square mile. The Shawnee town, "Old Chillicothe," was on the Little Miami, in this county, about 3 miles north of the site of Xenia: it was a place of note, and is frequently mentioned in the annals of the early explorations and settlements of the west. In the year 1773, Capt. Thomas Bullit, of Virginia, one of the first settlers of Kentucky, was proceeding down the Ohio river, with a party, to make surveys and a settlement there, when he stopped and left his companions on the river, and passed through the wilderness to Old Chillicothe, to obtain the consent of the Indians to his intended settlement. He entered the town alone, with a flag of truce, before he was discovered. The Indians, astonished at his L90

Page  191 GREENE COUNTY boldness flocked around him, when the f)llowing dialogue ensued between him and a principal chief. Indian Chief. What news do you bring? are you from the Long Knife? If you are an ambassador, why did you not send a runner? Bullit. I have no bad news. The Long Knife and the Red men are at peace, and I have come among my brothers to have a friendly talk with them about settling on the other side of the Ohio. Indian Chief. Why did you not send a runner? Bullit. I had no runner swifter than myself, and as I was in haste, I could not wait the return of a runner. If you were hungry and had killed a deer, would you send your squaw to town to tell the news, and wait her return before you would eat? This reply of Bullit put the bystanders in high humor; they relaxed from their native gravity and laughed heartily. The Indians conducted Bullit into the principal wigwam of the town, and regaled him with venison, after which, he addressed the chief as follows: Brothers -I am sent with my people, whom I left on the Ohio, to settle the country on the other side of that river, as low down as the falls. We came from Virginia. I only want the country to settle and to cultivate the soil. There will be no objection to your hunting and trapping in it, as heretofore. I hope you will live with us in friendship. To this address, the principal chief made the following reply. Brother:-You have come a hard journey through the woods and the grass. We are pleased to find that your people in settling our country, are not to disturb us in our hunting; for we must hunt to kill meat for our women and children, and to have something to buy powder and lead, and procure blankets and other necessaries. We desire you will be strong in discharging your promises towards us, as we are determined to be strong in advising our young men to be kind, friendly and peaceable towards you. Having finished his mission, Capt. Bullit returned to his men, and with them descended the river to the falls.* Some of this party of Bullit's shortly after laid out the town of Louisville, Kentucky. The celebrated Daniel Boone was taken prisoner, with 27 others, in Kentucky, in February, 1778, in the war of the revolution, and brought to Old Chillicothe. Through the influence of the British Governor, Hamilton, Boone, with 10 others, was taken from thence to Detroit. The governor took an especial fancy to Boone, and offered considerable sums for his release, but to no purpose, for the Indians also had taken their fancy, and so great was it that they took him back to Old Chillicothe, adopted him into a family, and fondly caressed him. He mingled with their sports, shot, fished, hunted and swam with them, and had become deeply ingratiated in their favor, when on the 1st of June, they took him to assist them in making salt in the Scioto valley, at the old salt wells, near, or at, we believe, the present town of Jackson, Jackson county. They remained a few days, and when returned to Old Chillicothe, his heart was agonized by the sight of 450 warriors, armed, painted and equipped in all the paraphanalia of savage splendor, ready to start on an expedition against Boonesborough. To avert the cruel blow that was about to fall upon his friends, he alone, on the morning of the 16th of June, escaped from his Indian companions, and arrived in time to foil the plans of the enemy, and not only saved the borough, which he himself had founded, but probably all the frontier parts of Kentucky, from devastation. Boone told an aged pioneer, yet living,* that when taken prisoner on this occasion, the Indians got out of food, and after having killed and eaten their dogs, were ten days without any other sustenance than that of a decoction made from the oozings of the inner-bark of the white oak, which after drinking, Boone could travel with the best of them. At length, the Indians shot a deer, and boiled its entrails to a jelly, of which they all drank, and it soon acted freely on their bowels. They gave some to Boone, but his stomach refused it. After repeated efforts, they forced him to swallow about half a pint, which he did with wry faces and disagreeable retchings, much to the amusement of the simple savages who laughed heartily. After this medicine had well operated, the Indians told Boone that he might eat; but that if he had done so before, it would have killed him. They then all fell to, and soon made amends for their long fast. At Detroit, he astonished the governor by making gun-powder, he having been shut up in a room with all the materials. t Joseph Wood, Esq., of Marietta. 191 * Notes on Kentucky.

Page  192 GREENE COUNrY. Another early pioneer,* who knew Boone well, says in a communication to us: It is now (1847) 54 years since I first saw Daniel Boone. He was then about 60 years old, of a medium size, say 5 feet 10 inches, not given to corpulency, retired, unobtrusive, and a man of few words. My acquaintance was made with him in the winter season, and well remember his dress was of tow cloth, and not a woollen garment on his body, unless his stockings were of that material. Home-made was the common wear of the people of Kentucky, at that time: sheep were not yet introduced into the country. I slept four nights in the house of one West, with Boone: there were a number of strangers, and he was constantly occupied in answering questions. He had nothing remarkable in his personal appearance. His son, Capt. N. Boone, now an old man, is serving in the 1st regiment United States Dragoons. In July, 1779, the year after Boone escaped from Old Chillicothe, Colonel John Bowman, with 160 Kentuckians, marched against the town. The narrative of this expedition is derived from the "Notes on Kentucky." The party rendezvoused at the mouth of the Licking, and at the end of the second night got in sight of the town undiscovered. It was determnined to await until daylil ht in the morning before they would make the attack; but by the imprudence of some of the men, whose curiosity exceeded their judgment, the party was discovered by the Indians before the officers and men had arrived at the several positions assigned them. As soon as the alarm was given, a fire commenced on both sides, and was kept up, while the women and children were seen running from cabin to cabin, in the greatest confusion, and collecting in the most central and strongest. At clear day-light, it was discovered that Bowman's men were from seventy to one hundred yards from the cabins, in which the Indians had collected, and which they appeared determined to defend. Having no other arms than tomahawks and rifles, it was thought imprudent to attempt to storm strong cabins, well defended by expert warriors. In consequence of the warriors collecting in a few cabins contiguous to each other, the remainder of the town was left unprotected, therefore, while a fire was kept up at the port holes, which engaged the attention of those within, fire was set to 30 or 40 cabins, which were consumed, and a considerable quantity of property, consisting of kettles and blankets, were taken from those cabins. In searching the woods near the town, 133 horses were collected. About 10 o'clock, Bowman and his party commenced their march homeward, after having nine men killed. What loss the Indians sustained, was never known, except Blackfish, their principal chief, who was wounded through the knee and died of the wound.t After receiving the wound, Blackfish proposed to surrender, being confident that his wound was dangerous, and believing that there were among the white people surgeons that could cure him, but that none among his own people could do it. The party had not marched more than eight or ten miles on their return home, before the Indians appeared in considerable force on their rear, and began to press hard upon that quarter. Bowman selected his ground, and formed his men in a square; but the Indians declined a close engagement, only keeping up a scattering fire, it was soon discovered that their object was to retard their march until they could procure reinforcements from the neighboring villages. As soon as a strong position was taken by Col. Bowman, the Indians retired, and he resumed the line of march, when he was again attacked in the rear. He again formed for battle, and again the Indians retired, and the scene was acted over several times. At length, John Bulger, James Harrod and George Michael Bedinger, with about 100 more mounted on horseback, rushed on the Indian ranks and dispersed them in every direction. After which the Indians abandoned the pursuit. Bowman crossed the Ohio at the mouth of the Little Miami, and after crosssing, the men dispersed to their several homes. In the summer after this expedition, Gen. Clark invaded the In * Col. John Johnston. t This is an error. A late publication gives evidence that he was killed in an excursion into Kentucky, by a white woman.-H. H. 192

Page  192A I

Page  192B 'I I SCENE=AT THE OHIO PENITENTI, The view was taken within the inner inclosure of the Penitentiary, and shom their work. Their shops appear on three sides of the area, while

Page  193 GREENE COUNTY. dian country. On his approach, the Indians reduced Old Chillicothe to ashes. See page 85. The article relating to early times in Greene county, is slightly abridged from a communication by Thomas C. Wright, Esq., the county auditor. First Court House in Greene. After Abdolonymus had been taken from his humble station in life, and made king of Sidonea, it is said he kept a pair of wooden shoes near his throne, to remind him of his former obscurity, and check the pride which power is so apt to engender in the heart of man. The above drawingz is deemed worthy of preservation, not only as a memento of early times, and serving as a contrast to the present advanced state of improvement, but on account of the historical associations it raises in the memory of the first judicial proceedings and organization of Greene county. The house, of which the engraving is a correct representation, is yet standing, 51 miles west of Xenia, near the Dayton road. It was built by Gen. Benj. Whiteman, a short distance south of the log cabin mill of Owen Davis, on Beaver creek. This mill, the first erected in Greene, was finished in 1798. A short distance east, were erected two blockhouses, and it was intended, should danger render it necessary, to connect them by a line of pickets, and include the mill within the stockade. This mill was used by the settlers of "the Dutch Station," some 30 miles distant, in the center of Miami county. On the 10th of May, 1803, the first court for organizing Greene county, was held in this house, then the residence of Peter Borders. Wm. Maxwell, Benj. Whiteman and James Barret were the associate judges, and John Paul, clerk. The first business of the court was to lay off the county into townships, and after transacting some other business, they adjourned "until court in course," having been in session one day. The first court for the trial of causes, was held in the same house, on Tuesday, Aug. 2d, 1803, with the same associate judges, and Francis Dunlavy, presiding judge, and Daniel Simms, prosecuting attorney. " And there came a grand jury, to wit: Wm. J. Stewart, foreman, John Willson, Wm. Buckles, Abrm. Van Eaton, James Snodgrass, John Judy, Evan Morgan, Robt. Marshall, Alex. C. Armstrong, Joseph C. Vance, Joseph Willson, John Buckhannon, Martin Mendenhall and Harry Martin, who were sworn a grand jury of inquest, for the body of Greene county." After receiving the charge, "they retired out of court;" a circumstance not to be wondered at, as there was but one room in the house. Their place of retirement, or jury room, was a little squat-shaped pole hut, shown on the right of the view. And now, while their honors, with becoming gravity, are sitting behind a table ready for business, and the grand jury making solemn inquest of crimes committed, the contrast between the state of the county then and at present, naturally presents itself to the mind. Since then, forty-four years ago —a period within the recollection of many of our citizens 25 193

Page  194 GREENE COUNTY. and what a change! Then it was almost an entire wilderness-a primeval forest, planted by the hand of nature. The first house in Greene county was built by Daniel Willson, who is now living near Centerville, Montgomery county. It was raised on the 7th day of April, 1796, about 4 miles from where Bellbrook has long since been laid out, in Sugarcreek township. In 1798, Thomas Tounsley settled near the falls of Massie's creek, some 8 miles from Xenia. The same year, James Galloway, sen., settled on the Little Miami, 2 miles north of Oldtown. Isaiah and Wm. Garner Sutton erected the first house in Caesar's creek township, in 1799, about 5 miles south of Xenia, near where the Bullskin road crosses Cesar's creek. Ctsarsville was laid out by T. Carneal, in 1800, and the first house in ft was built the year following. It was expected to become the county seat, but was finally rejected in favor of Xenia. C.esarsville, at the time of this court, contained a few log cabins, and so scattered about, miles apart, the traveller might find one of these primitive dwellings sending up its smoke from a mud and stick chimney among the giants of the forest, each cabin with a little patch of a corn-field, thickly dotted over with girdled trees. A bridle-path, or blazed trees, led the traveller from one to the other. But they were the abodes of contentment, simplicity of manners, whole-hearted hospitality and generosity of souL, which does honor to human nature and gives a charm to existence. We glance at the county as it now appears, teeming with population, in an advanced state of improve ment and cultivation-farm contiguous to farm, with large barns-the hewed log-houses which succeeded log-cabins are mostly gone, and in their stead are commodious brick, stone and frame dwellingsflourishing orchards, numerous excellent mis-the whole county intersected with roads in every direction-a railroad running through it, connecting it with the Queen city, and the same connection will soon be with Lake Erie, affording a speedy transportation to market of the immense quantities of produce raised by the farmers. The change is so great that it brings to mind the wonder-working wand of Prospero, which being waved over a wilderness, had transformed it into a blooming garden. But the magical wand, in this case, was free, white labor, persevering industry and good management. But to return to the court. From a careful examination of the records and other sources of information, I cannot learn there was any business for the grand jury when they retired. But they were not permitted to remain idle long: the spectators in attendance promptly took the matter into consideration. They, doubtless, thought it a great pity to have a learned court and nothing for it to do: so they set to and cut out employment for their honors by engaging in divers hard fights at fisty-cuffs, right on the ground. So it seems our pioneers fought for the benefit of the court. At all events, while their honors were waiting to settle differences according to law, they were making up issues and settling them by trial "by combat"-a process by which they avoided the much complained of" laws delay," and incurred no other damages than black eyes and bloody noses, which were regarded as mere trifles, of course. Among the incidents of the day, characteristic of the times, was this: A Mr. -, from Warren county, was in attendance. Owen Davis, the owner of the mill, who, by the way, was a brave Indian fighter, as well as a kind-hearted, obliging man, charged this Warren county man with speculating in pork, alias stealing his neighbor's hogs. The insult was resented-a combat took place forthwith, in which Davis proved victorious. He then went into court, and planting himself in front of the judges, he observed, addressing himself particularly to one of them, " Well, Ben, I've whipped that d-d hog-thief-what's the damage-what's to pay? and thereupon, suiting the action to the word, he drew out his buckskin purse, containing 8 or 10 dollars, and slammed it down on the table-then shaking his fist at the judge, whom he addressed, he continued, " Yes, Ben, and if you'd steal a hog, d-n you, I'd whip you too." He had, doubtless, come to the conclusion, that, as there was a court, the luxury of fighting could not be indulged in gratis, and he was for paying up as he went. Seventeen witnesses were sworn and sent before the grand jury, and nine bills of indictment were found the same day-all for affrays and assaults and batteries committed after the court was organized. To these indictments the parties all pleaded guilty, and were fined-Davis among the rest, who was fined eight dollars for his share in the transactions of the day. The following is the first entry made on the record after the grand jury retired: "The court then proceeded to examine the several candidates for the surveyor's office, and James Galloway, jun., being well qualified, was appointed surveyor of said county." On the 2d day of the term, Joseph C. Vance (father of ex-Gov. Vance, of Champaign county,) was appointed to make the necessary arrangements for establishing the seat of justice, who, with David Huston and Joseph Willson, his securities, entered into a bond, with a penalty of 1500 dollars, for the faithful performance of his duties. He surveyed and laid out the town of Xenia (which, by the way, is an old French word, signifying a new-year's gift,) the same season, for at the next December term, he was allowed "$49.25 for laying off the town of 194

Page  195 GREENE COUNTY. Xenia, finding chainmen, making plots and selling lots." On the 3d day of the term, Daniel Symmes was allowed twenty dollars for prosecuting in behalf of the state. The presiding judge then left the court, but it was continued by the associate judges for the transaction of county business. In addition to the duties now pertaining to associate judges, they discharged the duties now performed by the board of county commissioners. Archibald Lowry and Griffith Foos, were each licensed to keep a tavern in the town of Springfield, on the payment of eight dollars for each license. A license was also granted to Peter Borders to keep a tavern at his house, on the payment of four dollars, "together with all legal fees." So our old log-house has the honor of having the first learned court held within its rough walls; and, in addition to that, it was, in fact, the first hotel ever licensed in the county in which hog and hoinmony, and new corn whiskey could be had in abundance. Perhaps the court was a little interested in granting the license. Like old Jack Fallstaff, they might like "to take their own ease in their own inn." James Galloway, sen., was appointed county treasurer. The court then adjourned, having been in session three days. Napoleon said, it was " but one step from the sublime to the ridiculous." Old Faneuil Hall has the proud boast of being the cradle of liberty; and it may be claimed for our old cabin, that it is the cradle of Greene county-in which it was organized-in which was had the first judicial proceedings-whose walls first resounded with the eloquence of those longrobed gentlemen, of whom Martial has satirically said," Iras et verba locant." On the 19th day of the same month, (August,) the associate judges held another court for the transaction of county business. They continued to meet and adjourn from day to day, waiting for the lister of taxable property to return his book, until the 22d, when they made an order, that 50 cents should be paid for each wolf killed within the bounds of the county, and "that the largest block-house should be appropriated to the use of a jail;" and Benjamin Whiteman, Esq., was appointed, in behalf of the county, to contract for repairing it-a decisive mark of civilization-and that the rights of meums and tuum were hereafter to be observed and enforced. Among the allowances, at this term, there was one of 6 dollars to Joseph C. Vance, for carrying the election returns of Sugar creek township to Cincinnati; and a like sum to David Huston, for returning the poll-book of Beaver creek. He afterwards held the office of associate judge 21 years, and twice represented Greene county in the state legislature. He lived the life of an honest man-was beloved and respected by all who knew him. He died in 1843. The clerk and sheriff were allowed 20 dollars each for ex-officio fees, and Jacob Shingledecker, 9 dollars and 50 cents, for preparing the block-house to serve as a jail-a great perversion from the original design of the building, as it was intended, at first, to keep unwelcome visitors out, and ended in keeping unwilling visitors in. It was ordered by the court, that the inhabitants of Mad River township should be exempted from the payment of taxes, or rather, their taxes were reduced two cents on each horse and one cent on each cow. The reason assigned for this favor, was "for erecting public buildings." As we have seen no public buildings yet but the two block-houses, and the one which figures at the head of this communication, the reader would, doubtless, be much surprised that the erection of these should be deemed sufficiently meritorious as, in part, to exempt the inhabitants from the payment of taxes. But these public buildings were situated in Cincinnati. We apprehend that but few of our citizens are aware of the fact, that the first settlers in this county contributed to the erection of public buildings in Cincinnati-the old stone court-house, we suppose, which was burnt down while used as barracks in time of the last war, and the hewed log jail which stood on the north side of the public square. The first supreme court was held in the same house, on the 25th day of October, 1803, by their honors Samuel Huntingdon and Wm. Spriggs, judges; William Maxwell, sheriff, John Paul, clerk, and Arthur St. Clair, Esq., of Cincinnati, prosecuting attorney. Richard Thomas was admitted an attorney and counsellor at law. Nothing more was done, and the court adjourned the same day. At the November term of the court of common pleas, the first thing was to arraign Thomas Davis, a justice of the peace, for misconduct in office. He pleaded guilty, was fined one dollar, and ordered, in the language of the record, " to stand committed until performance." But what the misconduct was for which he was fined, the record sayeth not; neither is it known whether he raised the dollar, or was made familiar with the inside of the block-house. On the first day of this term, the Rev. Robert Armstrong received a license to solemnize the rites of matrimony. He and the Rev. Andrew Fulton were sent, by the general associate synod of Scotland, as missionaries to Kentucky, and arrived at Maysville in 1798; but, not liking the institution of slavery, Mr. Fulton went to the neighborhood where South Hanover now is, Indiana, and Mr. Armstrong came to Greene county, Ohio. lThis was the commencement of the Seceder denomination in this county. From 195

Page  196 GREENE COUNTY. this small beginning, it has become the most numerous, perhaps, of any other in the county. They form a large portion of an orderly, law-abiding and industrious population-strict in observing the Sabbath and in the discharge of their religious duties, and correct in moral conduct. They are mostly farmers, in independent circumstances. Mr. Armstrong was a small man, of vast learning, with the simplicity, in some things, of a child. An anecdote is told of his being at a log-rolling, assisting to carry a log, and having but a few inches of handspike, the weight of it rested mostly on him. The person with whom he was lifting, seeing his situation, said, "stop, Mr. Armstrong-let me give you more handspike." "No," said the rev. gentleman, "no more stick for me; I have already as much as I can carry." He was universally esteemed and respected. He died in 1818. He brought a very large library of books with him, and was very liberal in lending them. To this circumstance, perhaps, may be attributed:he fact, that more books have been sold and read in this county than in any other of the same population in the state. At this term, in the case of Wm. Orr vs. Peter Borders, leave was given to amend the declaration, on payment of costs-an indication that some attention began to be paid to special pleading. The first civil case that was tried by a jury, was that of Wallingsford vs. Vandolah. A verdict was rendered for the plaintiff of 24 cents, upon which "he paid the jury and constables fees." At the December term of the common pleas, four cases of assault and battery were tried by jury, which took up the first day. The day following, this entry was made: William Chipmall vs. Henry Stortn, "judgment confessed for one cent damages and costs." But such is the imperfect manner in which the records were kept, that it is impossible to ascertain what the subject matter of the controversy was in which such heavy damages were admitted. The court decided, that the fee paid to the states' attorney, at the August term, was illegal, and should be refunded. This was the result of" the sober second thoughts" of the court about that twenty dollar fee, for which the attorney came from Cincinnati, more than 50 miles, through the woods, and drew nine bills of indictment and attended to the cases. At this term, Andrew Read, an early settler near where the beautiful village of Fairfield now is, took his seat on the bench as associate judge, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the election of William Maxwell to the office of sheriff. The first view and survey of a new road route was granted at this term. It was to commence at Springfield, pass the Yellow spring and intersect the Pinkney road near Isaac Morgan's. Wm. Maxwell, Lewis Davis, and Thomas Tounsley were appointed viewers, and James Galloway, jun., surveyor. So our fellow-citizen, Maj. Galloway, was the first county surveyor, surveyed the first road by order of the court, and afterwards made a map of the county, in its present metes and bounds, showing all the surveys and sections of the land, with their divisions and subdivisions into tracts. Tavern licenses were granted to Thomas Fream, William Moore, and James M'Pherson, to keep taverns in their houses for one year, and so ended the term. The June term of 1804, was the last court ever held in the old log house. It was composed of the same judges, clerk and sheriff, with Arthur St. Clair, Esq., of Cincinnati, prosecuting attorney. The writer of this has been informed, he wore a cocked hat and a sword. William M'Farland was foieman of the grand jury. A singular incident took place at the opening of this court. There was a shelf in one corner, consisting of a board on two pins inserted in the wall, containing a few books, among which counsellor St. Clair searched for a bible, on which to swear the jury. At length he took down a volume, and observed, with his peculiar lisp, "Well, gentlemen, here is a book which looks thist like a testament." The foreman of the grand jury was accordingly sworn upon it-but the book, which so much resembled a testament in external appearance, turned out, in fact, to be an odd volume of The Arabian Nights Entertainment!! From this mistake, or some unknown cause, the practice of swearing on the Evangelists, has gone entirely out of use in this county, being substituted by swearing with the uplifted hand, or affirming. The grand jury found several bills of indictment, and were discharged the same day. In proportion as cases of assault and battery begin to decrease, a sprinkling of civil suits make their appearance on the docket. Fourteen cases were called the first day, and all continued, except one, in which judgment was confessed, and stay of execution granted until next term. The entry of continuance was in this form: A. B. vs. C. D. E. F. and G. H. pledges for the defendant in the sum $-. This form was observed in all cases, the amount being more or less, according to the subject matter in controversy. On Wednesday of this term, Joseph Tatman produced his commission as associate judge, and took the oath of office. He afterwards, in 1816, in company with Samuel and Williamni Casad, laid out the town of Fairfield, not far from the site of an old Indian town, named Piqua, at which Gen. George R. Clark defeated the Indians, in 1780. On this day, 22 cases were called: 11 continued, 2 settled, 1 judgment, 5 ruled for plea in 40 days, one in 196

Page  197 GREENE COUNTY. 10 days, 1 discontinued and 1 abated by death. This was certainly a pretty fair beginning, and quite encouraging to the learned profession. The total amount of taxable property returned by the "listers," was $393.04, and this levy included houses and mills, if any. As to houses, there was but one returned, and that was valued for taxation at one dollar! Considering the sparseness of population, and small amount of property in the county, the proportion of litigation was greater then, than at this time, 1847, when the total amount of taxable property is $6,583,673. So much of a change in 43 years. They fought less and lawed more. In newly settled counties, there appears to be a peculiar fondness amnong the people for lawsuits. After a court has bieen organized in a new county, they still continue to settle their difficulties by combat, until fines become troublesome. The court then becomes the arena in which their contentions and quarrels are carried and finally disposed of. If one cannot afford the fine or imprisonment which would be incurred, by taking personal satisfaction, he can bring a suit, if any cause of action can be found, and no matter how small the amount claimned, or fiivolous the matter, if he can only cast his adversary and throw him in the costs, he is as much gratified as if he had made him halloa "enough-take him off." It is this spirit which gives rise to so many trifling and vexatious law suits. And now we take leave of our primitive dwelling house, court house and tavern. It is still standing, and occupied as a residence. While our drawing was being taken, an oldfashioned long-handled frying-pan was over the fire-its spacious bottom well paved with rashers of ham, sending forth a savory odor, enough to make a hungry persons' mouth water. What scenes it has witnessed-what memoriesit recalls. It has witnessed the organization of the county-the first administration of law and justice-the first exercise of the right of suffrage through the ballot-box, and the first legal punishment of criminals. Near it the first corn was ground into meal for the use of the settlers, and here they rallied to build block-houses to protect them from the hostile attacks of the Indians. As a tavern many a weary traveller, through the tall and lonely forest, has been sheltered and refieshled beneath its humble roof. How many buckeye lads and lasses have been reared within its walls-for "Buirdly chiels and clever hizzies Are bred in sic a way as this is!" How many jovial dances have been had on its puncheon floor. While we may suppose some lame or lazy fellow seated on a stool in a corner, prepared with an awl or Barlow knife, to extract splinters from the heels of the dancers, as fast as the sets were over. How many courtships have been carried on during the long winter nights-the old folks asleep, and the young lovers comfortably toasting their shins over the decaying enmbers-happy in present love, and indulging in bright anticipations of housekeeping in a cabin. Long mayest thou stand, old relic, as a memento of pioneer life, primitive simplicity and good old-fashioned honesty, to remind the rising generation of the hardships and privations our pioneer fathers encountered, in first settling the county, and to show by this humble beginning, compared with the present state of improvement, how much honest labor, pains-taking industry and thrifty management can accomplish. Xenia, the county seat, is on the Little Miami railroad, 64 miles north of Cincinnati, and 61 from Columbus. It is a handsome, flourishing and well-built town, with broad streets, and some fine stores and elegant dwellings. The engraving represents a part of the principal street: the court house, shown on the left, is the most elegant, as yet built, in Ohio. Xenia was laid off in the forest, in the autumn of 1803, by Joseph C. Vance, on the land of John Paul, who gave the ground bounded by Main, Market, Detroit and Greene streets, for the public buildings. The first cabin was erected in April, 1804, by John Marshall, in the southwest corner of the town. The first good hewed log house was erected for the Rev. James Fowler, of the Methodist persuasion, from Petersburg, Va.: it is still standing, and is now the hatter's shop, a short distance west of the old bank. David A. 197

Page  198 GREENE COUNTY. Sanders built the first fiame house, on the spot occupied by the newv bank: it is yet standing, on Main street, in Gowdy's addition. View in Xenia. . The first supreme court was held Oct. 3d, 1804. The grand jury held their deliberations under a sugar tree, in the rear of the present residence of James Gowdy. The first court of common pleas in Xenia, was on the 15th of November, 1804, and was held by the associate judges. A license was granted to "William A. Beatty, to keep a tavern in the town of Xenia for one year, on the payment of $8.00!" This was the first tavern ever licensed in the place. It was a double hewed log house, two stories high, and was in progress of erection at the same time with Fowler's house. It stood on the south side of Main street, opposite the public square, on the spot where there now is a two story brick house, occupied as a drug store. In the west room, above stairs, the court was held. The first election in the place was held in this house. It continued to be a tavern until after the last war with Great Britain, and, until Mr. James Collier built his brick tavern on Detroit street, was the grand hotel of the place. In a corner of the west room, there was an old-fashioned bar-the upper part enclosed with upright slats of wood, with a little wicket, through which the grog was handed out in half pint glass cruets. In time of the war, the recruiting officers put up at this house; and here might be seen the recruiting sergeant rattling dollars on a drum's head, and calling for half pints, appealing to the patriotism of the bystanders, tempting them with gingling dollars, and adding thereto the potency of whiskey, to enlist recruits for the army. Court continued to be held in this house for the years 1804 and 1805, and until a new court house was built. In 1804, the building of the first jail was let to Amos Darough; it was received from the contractor in October. It stood on ground now covered by the new court house, and was constructed of hewed logs. -It was burnt down the year following; and in April, 1806, a new jail was accepted from William A. 3eatty. It stood on the site of the present market house-was a rough log building; two stories high, with a cabin roof, and was burnt down in time of the war with England. The building of the first court house was let on the 8th day of April, 1806, to William Kendall, who was allowed six dollars for clearing the timber from the public square. The house was built of brick, 40 feet square and 28 feet high, with a cupola in the center of the roof, 10 feet in diameter and 15 feet high. It was finished, and on the 14th day of August, 1809, accepted. On the 6th of April. 1806, "a license was granted to James Gowdy, for retailing merchandise, on his complying with the law!" He opened his goods in a log house, with a mud and stick chimney, which stood on Greene street, at the north end of where Mr. John Ewing's store now is. He was the first merchant in the place. The first punishment for crime was in 1806. The person was convicted for stealing 198 ~~~~~~_ ~ =., I., - - a

Page  199 GREENE COUNTY. leather, to half-sole a pair of shoes. There was a sugar tree on the public square, which served as a whipping-post. He was tied up to the tree, and underwent the sentence of the court, which was to receive one stripe on his bare back, which was inflicted by James Collier. The sugar tree served as a whipping-post for the last time on the 8th of October, 1808. A man was convicted for stealing a shovel-plow and clevis, and the sentence was that he should receive eight lashes on his bare back, "and stand committed until performance." He drank a pint of whiskey jus'. before hugging the tree, though it did not prevent him from halloaing lustily, while receiving the eight stripes.* Xenia contains 1 German Lutheran, 1 Miethodist Episcopal, 1 Methodist Protestant, 1 Seceder, 1 Associate Reformed and 1 Baptist church, beside 2 churches for colored persons- two church edifices are erecting, one by the Presbyterian and the other by the Associate Reformed denomination-17 mercantile stores, 1 foundery, 2 newspaper printing offices, 1 bank, a classical academy in fine repute, and in 1840, had 1414 inhabitants, and in' 1S47, about 2800. JOSIAH HUNT resided in this county in the time of the last war with Great Britain. He was a stout, well-formed, heavy-set man, capable of enduring great hardships and privations, and was then a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. There was a tone of candor and sincerity, as well as modesty, in his manner of relating the thrilling scenes in which he had been an actor, which left no doubt of their truth in the minds of those who heard him. He was one of Wayne's legion, and was in the battle of the Fallen Tim'ilber, on the 20th of August, 1794. At the commencement of the onset, just after entering the fallen timnber, Hunt was rushing on, and about to spring over a fallen tree, when he was fired at by an Indian, concealed behind it. The latter was compelled to fire in such haste that hlie missed his aim. It was, however, a close shave, for the bullet whizzed through the lock of his right temple, causing that ear to ring for an hour after.'I'he Indian's body was entirely naked from the waist up, with a red stripe painted up and down his back. As soon as he fired, he took to his heels. Hunt aimed at the center of the red stripe, the Indian running zig-zag "like the worm of a fence." When he fired the Indian bounded up and fell forward. He had fought his last battle. He was an excellent hunter. In the winter of 1793, while the army lay at Greenville, he was employed to supply the officers with game, and in consequence was exempted from garrison duty. The sentinels had orders to permit him to leave and enter the fort whenever he chose. The Indians made a practice of climbing trees in the vicinity of the fort, the better to watch the garrison. If a person was seen to go out, notice was taken of the direction he went, his path ambushed and his scalp secured. To avoid this danger, Hunt always left the fort in the darkness of night, for said he," when once I had got into the woods without their knowledge, I had as good a chance as they." He was accustomed, on leaving the fort, to proceed some distance in the direction he intended to hunt the next day, and bivauck for the night. To keep fromn freezing to death, it was necessary to have a fire; but to show a light in the enemy's country, was to invite certain destruction. To avoid this danger he dug a hole in the ground with his tomahawk, about the size and depth of a hat crown. Having prepared it properly, he procured some "roth," meaning thick white oak bark, from a dead tree, which will retain a strong heat when covered with its ashes. Kindling a fire from flint and steel at the bottom of his "coal pit," as he termed it, the bark was severed into strips and placed in layers crosswise, until the pit was full. After it was sufficiently ignited, it was covered over with dirt, with the exception of two air holes in the margin, which could be opened or closed at pleasure. Spreading down a layer of bark or brush to keep him off the cold ground, he set down with the " coal pit" between his legs, enveloped himself in his blanket, and slept cat-dozes in an upright position. If his fire became too much smothered, he would freshen it up by blowing into one of the air holes. He declared he could make himself sweat whenever he chose. The snapping of a dry twig was sufficient to awaken him, when uncovering his head, he keenly scrutinized in the darkness and gloom around-his right hand on his trusty rifle " ready for the mischance of the hour." A person now, in full security from danger, enjoying the comforts and refinements of civilized life, can scarcely bring his mind to realize his situation, or do justice to the powers of bodily endurance, firmness of nerve, self-reliance and * From Thomas Coke Wright. 199

Page  200 GREENE COUNTY. courage, manifested by him that winter. A lone man in a dreary interminable forest, swarming with enemies, blood-thirsty, crafty and of horrid barbarity, without a friend or human being to afford him the least aid, in the depth of winter, the freezing winds moaning through the bare and leafless branches of the tall trees, while the dismal howling of a pack of wolves "Cruel as death, and hungry as the grave Burning for blood, bony, gaunt and grim," might be heard in the distance, mingled with the howlings of the wintry winds, were well calculated to create a lonely sensation about the heart and appal any common spirit. I'There would hlie sit, nodding in his blanket, undistinguishable in the darkness from an oid stulnp, enduring the rigor of winter, keeping himself from freezing, yet showing no fire,-calm, ready and prompt to engage in mortal combat, with whatever enemy miight assail, whether Indian, bear or panther. At day-light he commenced hunting, proceeding slowliy and with extreme caution, looking for game and watching for Indians at the same t iie. When he found a deer, previously to shooting it, he put a bullet in his mouth, ready for reloading his gun with all possible dispatch, which he did before moving from the spot, casting searching glances in every direction for Indians. Cautiously approaching the deer, after he had shot it, hlie dragged it to a tree and commnienced the process of skinning with his back towards the tree, and his rifle leaning against it, in reach of his right hand. And so with his rear protected by the tree, he would skin a short time, then straighten up and scan in every direction, to see if the report of his rifle had brought an Indian in his vicinity, then apply himself to skinning again. If he heard a stick break, or any-the slightest noise indicating the proximity of animal life, he clutched his rifle instantly, and was on the alert prepared for any emergency. Having skinned and cut up the animal, the four-quarters were packed in the hide, which was so arranged as to be slung to his back like a knapsack, with which hlie wended his way to the fort. If the deer was killed far from the garrison, he only brought in the fore-quarters. One day he got within gun-shot of three Indians unperceived by them. He was on a ridge and they in a hollow. He took aim at the foremost one, and waited some time for a chance for two to range against each other, intending, if they got in that position, to shoot two and take his chance with the other in single combat. But they continued marching in Indian file, and though he could have killed either of them, the other two would have made the odds againts him too great, so he let them pass unmolested. Amidst all the danger to which he was constantly exposed, he passed unharmed. Owing to the constant and powerful exercise of the faculties, his ability to hear and discriminate sounds was wonderfully increased, and the perceptive faculties much enlarged. He made $70 that winter by hunting, over and above his pay as a soldier. At the treaty at Greenville, in 1795, the Indians seemed to consider Hunt as the next greatest man to Wayne himiself. They inquired for him, got round him, and were loud and earnlest in their praises and compliments: "Great man, Capt. Hunt-great warrior-good hunting man; Indian no can kill!" They informed him that some of their bravest and most cunning warriors, had often set out expressly to kill him. They knew how he made his secret camp-fires, the ingenuity of which excited their admiration. The parties in quest of him had often seen him-could describe, the dress he wore, and his cap, which was made of a raccoon's skin with the tail hanging down behind, the front turned up and ornamented with three brass rings. The scalp of such a great hunter and warrior they considered to be an invaluable trophy. Yet they never could catch him off his guard-never get within shooting distance, without being discovered and exposed to his death-dealing rifle. LIany years ago he went to Indiana, nor has the writer* of this ever heard from him since, nor is it known among his old friends here, whether he is living. Nine miles north of Xenia, on thle Little Miami river and railroad, are the Yellow Springs. It has been fitted up as a place of fashionable resort. The improvements, consisting of a hotel and numerous cottages, are in a picturesque situation. "The springs are strongly impregnated with sulphur and possess medicinal qualities, deemed equal in utility to any in the United States." The Duke of Saxe Weimer says in his Travels: The spring originates in a limestone rock, the water has a little taste of iron, and de * Thomas Coke Wright. 200

Page  201 GBEENN COUNTY. posites a great quantity of ochre, from which it takes its name. The spring is said to give 110 gallons of water per minute, which is received in a basin surrounded with cedar trees. The yellow stream which comes fiom the basin, runs a short distance over a bed of limestone and is afterwards precipitated into the valley. These limestone rocks form very singular figures on the edge of this valley; the detached pieces resemble the Devil's Wall of the Ilartz. Clifton is a flourishing manufacturing village, 10 miles north of Xenia, on the Little Miami, and contains 2 churches, 3 stores, 1 cot.on and woollen factory, 1 paper, 1 grist and 1 saw mill, and over 300 .nhabitants. The name originated from the cliffs which bound the river at this place. The -r _-__ - stream commences run =. - _ ning through a deep ra __ ______ - vine at the eastern ex - ______ tremity of the village, and - Ed ____ ____ --- after circling around the ~n ~~ E-~ ~ ~town, leaves it on the southwest. For more than two miles it runs through a deep a nd nar row gor ge, b ou nded by perpendicular and im pending rocks, overhung by evergreens, and pre senting scenery of a wild and picturesque charac ter. In this distance the stream is estimated, in an o rdinary stage of wa te r, to afford sufficientt power f or o ne hundred and five pair of burr stones. The mills and factories above mentioned are upon it, and __________________ --.... the woollen and cotton fac -____________ ____-_ tory is built in the ravine and extends completely across it. The view given, was taken a short distan ce Cascade at Clifton. below this building, and shows a little water-fall on the northern wall of the bounding cliffs, at that point about 50 feet high. Fairfield, 12 miles northwest of Xenia, on the Dayton and Springfield turnpike, is a smart business place, in a rich country. It contains 4 churches, 5 stores and about 400 inhabitants. Bellbrook, 9 southwest of Xenia, has 3 stores, 4 churches and about 350 inhabitants. Jamestown, 11 east of Xenia, on the Dayton, Xenia and Washington turnpike, has 8 stores, 3 churches and 50 dwellings. Spring Valley, 7 southwest of Xenia, is a small manufacturing village, at which is a woollen factory, 1 oil, 1 grist and 1 carding mill. 26 201

Page  202 GUERNSEY COUNTY. Cedarville, on Massie's creek, 8 miles from Xenia, has 3 stores and churches, and about 300 inhabitants. Burlington and Paintersville are small places. On Massie's creek, 7 miles northeast of Xenia, ia an ancient stone fort and a mound. GUERNSEY. GUERNSEY was organized in March, 1810. The upland is hilly and of various qualities, and the soil clay or clayey loam. There is much excellent land in the bottom of Wills' creek and its branches, which cover about one third of the county. The principal crops are wheat, corn and tobacco. Wool is a staple product of the county, together with beef cattle, horses and swine. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Adams, 866 Knox, 538 Richland, 1772 Beaver, 1686 Liberty, 835 Seneca, 1356 Buffalo, 1025 Londonderry, 1629 Spencer, 1669 Cambridge, 2033 Madison, 1569 Washington, 1008 Center, 976 Millwood, 1722 Westland, 1077 Jackson, 1155 Monroe, 1098 Wheeling, 769 Jefferson, 755 Oxford, 2133 Wills, 1887 The population of Guernsey in 1820, was 9,292; in 1830, 18,036; and in 1840, 27,729, or 45 inhabitants to the square mile. Previous to the first settlement of the county, there was a party of whites attacked by Indians on Wills' creek, near the site of Cam bridge. The particulars which follow are from the pen of Col. John M'Donald, author of the Biographical Sketches. In the year 1791 or'92, the Indians having made frequent incursions into the settlements, along the Ohio river, between Wheeling and the Mingo bottom, sometimes killing or capturing whole families; at other times stealing all the horses belonging to a station or fort, a company consisting of seven men, rendezvoused at a place called the Beech bottom, on the Ohio river, a few miles below where Wellsburg has been erected. This company were John Whetzel, William M'Collough, John Hough, Thomas Biggs, Joseph Hedges, Kinzie Dickerson, and a Mr. Linn. Their avowed object was to go to the Indian towns to steal horses. This was then considered a legal, honorable business, as we were then at open war with the Indians. It would only be retaliating upon them in their own way. These seven men were all trained to Indian warfare, and a life in the woods from their youth. Perhaps the western frontier, at no time, could furnish seven men whose souls were better fitted, and whose nerves and sinews were better strung to perform any enterprise which required resolution and firmness. They crossed the Ohio, and proceeded with cautious steps, and vigilant glances on their way through the cheerless, dark, and almost impervious forest, in the Indian country, till they came to an Indian town, near where the head waters of the Sandusky and Muskingum rivers interlock. Here they made a fine haul, and set off homeward with fifteen horses. They travelled rapidly, only making short halts, to let their horses graze, and breathe a short time to recruit their strength and activity. In the evening of the second day of their rapid retreat, they arrived at Wills creek, not far from where the town of Cambridge has been since erected. Here Mr. Linn was taken violently sick, and they must stop their march, or leave him alone, to perish in the dark and lonely woods. Our frontier men, notwithstanding their rough and unpolished manners, had too much of my Uncle To )y's" sympathy for suffering humanity," to forsake a comrade in distress. They halted, and placed sentinels on their back trail, who remained there till late in the night, without seeing any signs of being pursued. The sentinels on the back trail returned 202

Page  203 GUERNSEY COUNTY. to the camp, Mr. Linn still lying in excruciating pain. All the simple remedies in thei power were administered to the sick man, without producing any effect. Being late in the night, they all lay down to rest, except one who was placed as guard. Their camp was on the bank of a small branch. Just before day-break the guard took a small bucket, and dipped some water out of the stream; on carrying it to the fire he discovered the water to be muddy. The muddy water waked his suspicion that the enemy might be approaching them, and were walking down in the stream, as their footsteps would be noiseless in the ,water. He waked his companions, and communicated his suspicion. They arose, examilied the branch a little distance, and listened attentively for some time; but neither saw nor heard any thing, and then concluded it must have been raccoons, or some other animlals, puddling in the stream. After this conclusion the company all lay down to rest, except the sentinel, who was stationed just outside of the light. Happily for them the fire had burned down, and only a few coals afforded a dim light to point out where they lay. The enemy had come silently down the creek, as the sentinel suspected, to within ten or twelve feet of the place where they lay, and fired several guns over the bank. Mr. Linn, the sick man, was lying with his side towards the bank, and received nearly all the balls which were at first fired. The Indians then, with tremendous yells, mounted the bank with loaded rifles, war-clubs and tomahawks, rushed upon our men, who fled barefooted and without arms. Mr. Linn, Thomas Biggs and Joseph Hedges were killed in and near the camp. William M'Collough had run but a short distance when he was fired at by the enemy. At the instant the fire was given, he jumped into a quagmire and fell; the Indians supposing that they killed him, ran past in pursuit of others. He soon extricated himself out of the mire, and so made his escape. He fell in with John Hough, and came into Wheeling. John Whetzel and Kinzie Dickerson met in their retreat, and returned together. Those who made their escape were without arms, without clothing or provision. Their sufferings were great; but this they bore with stoical indifference, as it was the fortune of war. Whether the Indians who defeated our heroes followed in pursuit from their towns, or were a party of warriors, who accidentally happened to fall in with them, has never been ascertained. From the place they had stolen the horses, they had travelled two nights and almost two entire days, without halting, except just a few minutes at a time, to let the horses graze. From the circumstance of their rapid retreat with the horses, it was supposed that no pursuit could possibly have overtaken them, but that fate had decreed that this party of Indians should meet and defeat them. As soon as the stragglers arrived at Wheeling, Capt. John M'Collough collected a party of men, and went to Wills creek, and buried the unfortunate men who fell in and near the camp. The Indians had mangled the dead bodies at a most barbarous rate. Thus was closed the horse stealing tragedy. Of the four who survived this tragedy, none are now living to tell the story of their suffering. They continued to hunt and to fight as long as the war lased. John Whetzel and Dickerson died in the countpy near Wheeling. John Hough died a few years since, near Columbia, Hamilton county, Ohio. The brave Capt. William M'Collough, fell in 1812, in the battle of Brownstown, in the campaign with Gen. Hull. Cambridge, the county seat; is on the national road, 77 miles east of Columbus and 24 east of Zanesville. It is a flourishing village and contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Seceder, 1 Methodist Episcopal and 1 Reformed Methodist church, an academy, 9 mercantile stores, 2 carding machines, 1 flouring and 2 fulling mills, 1 newspaper printing office and about 1000 inhabitants. The view represents the town as it appears from a hill on the west, about 300 yards north of the national road: the bridge across Wills creek is shown on the right, and the town on the hill in the distance. In 1798, soon after "Zane's trace" was cut through the county, a Mr. Graham made the first settlement on the site of Cambridge. At this time, the only dwelling between Lancaster and Wheeling was at Zanesville. He remained about two years, and was succeeded by George Beymer, from Somerset, Pennsylvania. Both of these persons kept a house of entertainment, and a ferry for travellers on their way to Kentucky and other parts of the west. Mr. Beymner, ir April, 1803, gave up his tavern to Mr J'hn Beatty, who moved in 203

Page  204 GUERNSEY COUNTY. from Loudon county, Virginia. Mr. Wyatt Hutchinson, who, until recently, kept a tavern in this town, was a member of Beatty's family, which consisted of eleven persons. The Indians then hunted in this Cambridge, from the hill west. vicinity, and often encamped on the creek. In June, 1806, Cam bridge was laid out; and on the day the lots were first offered for sale, several families firom the British isle of Guernsey, near the coast of France, stopped here and purchased lands. These were followed by other families, amounting in all to some fifteen or twenty, from the same island; all of whom settling in the county, gave origin to its present name. Among the heads of these families, are recollected the names of Wm. Ogier, Thos. Naftel, Thos. Lanphesty, James Bishard, Chas. and John Marquand, John Robbins, Daniel Ferbroch, Peter, Thomas and Jol-n Sarchet, and Daniel Hubert. Washington is S miles east of Cambridge, on the national road. It is a very thriving village, and does an extensive business with the surrounding country, which is very fertile. It has 1 Lutheran, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, 1 Union and 1 Catholic church-the last of which is an elegant and costly gothic edifice; 6 mercantile stores, 1 woollen factory, and a population nearly equal to Cambridge. It was laid out about the year 1805, by Simon Beymer, proprietor of the soil, and a native of Cumberland county, Pennsylvania. There were two companies raised in this county, and which entered into service, in the war with Great Britain-one of which was commanded by Simon Beymer, and the other by Cyrus P. Beatty. The first cannel coal found in this country was discovered several years since, five miles west of Cambridge, near Wills creek. This bituminous coal does not materially differ from the common slaty coal of the country; it contains rather more bituminous and less carbonaceous matter.* * See communication of Hon. Benj. Tappan, in the 28'h, and that of Dr. S. P. Hildreth, in the 29th volume of Silliman's Journal. 204

Page  205 HAMILTON COUNTY. Middletown, 14 miles east of Cambridge, on the national road, has 4 stores, two or three churches and about 250 inhabitants. On and about the Salt fork in this vicinity, there were twelve or fifteen famrnilies settled about the year 1803: the names recollected are Hite, Burns, Cary, Smith, Masters, Hall, Wilson and Warren. Fairview, 6 miles east of the above, on the national road, is a larger town, containing several churches and stores and about 425 inhabitants. Senecaville, 10 miles southeast of Cambridge, is a flourishing town, containing several churches and stores, and about 300 inhabitants. Cumberland, Claysville, Williamsburg, Mount Ephraim, Liberty, Winchester, Londonderry, Birmingham and Antrim, are villages, the largest of which may contain 70 dwellings. At Antrim is Madison College, which has 40 pupils: at Cambridge is a high school, a female seminary and a printing office. HAMILTON. HA-MILTON was the second county established in the N. W. territory. It was formed Jan. 2d, 1790, by proclamation of Governor St. Clair, and named from Gen. Alex. Hamilton. Its original boundaries were thus defined: "Beginning on the Ohio river, at the confluence of the Little Miami, and down the said Ohio to the mouth of the Big Miami; and up said Miami to the standing stone forks or branch of said river, and thence with a line to be drawn due east to the Little Miami, and down said Little Miami river to the place of beginning." The surface is generally rolling, soil on the uplands, clay, and in the river and creek vallies, deep alluvion, with a sub-stratum of sand. The agricultural productions are more varied than any other county in the state; beside the ordinary farm products of wheat, corn, rye, barley, oats and grass, there is produced a great variety of fruits and vegetables for the Cincinnati market. Much attention has been given of late to the cultivation of vineyards upon the Ohio rivehills, for the manufacture of wine, and it promises to be a business of great extent in the course of a few years. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Anderson, 2311 Fulton, 1505 Storrs, 740 Colerain, 2272 Green, 2939 Sycamore, 3207 Columbia, 3022 Miami, 2189 Symmes, 1033 Crosby, 1875 Mill Creek, 6249 Whitewater, 1883 Delphi, 1466 Springfield, 3092 CINCINNATI, (CITY,) 46382 The population of Hamilton, in 1820, was 31,764, in 1830, 52,380, and in 1840, 80,165, or, omitting the city of Cincinnati, 79 persons to the square mile. This county was the second settled in Ohio, and the first within Symmes' purchase. The history of its settlemen; we append from Burnet's Notes. Soon after the settlement was commenced at Marietta, three parties were formed to oc 205

Page  206 HAMILTON COUNTY. cupy and improve separate portions of Judge Symmes' purchase, between the Miami rivers. The first, led by Major Benjamnin Stites, consisted of eighteen or twenty, who landed in November, 1788, at the mouth of the Little Miami river, within the limits of a tract of ten thousand acres, purchased by Major Stites from Judge Symmes. They constructed a log fort, and laid out the town of Columbia, which soon became a promising village. Among them were Colonel Spencer, Major Gano, Judge Goforth, Francis Dunlavy, Major Kibbey, Rev. John Smith, Judge Foster, Colonel Brown, Mr. Hubbell, Captain Flinn, Jacob White and John Riley. They were all men of energy and enterprise, and were more numerous than either of the parties who commenced their settlements below them on the Ohio. Their village was also more flourishing, and for two or three years contained a larger number of inhabitants than any other in the Miami purchase. This superiority, however, did not continue, as will appear from the sequel. The second party destined for the Miami, was formed at Limestone, under Matthias Denman and Robert Patterson, amounting to twelve or fifteen in number. After much difficulty and danger, caused by floating ice in the river, they landed on the north bank of the Ohio, opposite the mouth of Licking, on the 24th of December, 1788. Their purpose was to establish a station, and lay out a town according to a plan agreed on, before they left Limestone. The name adopted for the proposed town was Losanteville, which had been manufactured by a pedantic foreigner, whose name, fortunately, has been forgotten. It was formed, as he said, from the words Le os ante ville, which he rendered "the village opposite the mouth." Logicians may decide whether the words might not be rendered more correctly, the mouth before the village. Be that as it may, the settlement then formed was immediately designated by the name adopted for the projected town-though the town itself never was laid out, for reasons which will be explained hereafter. Yet, from the facts stated, a very general belief has prevailed that the original name of the town of Cincinnati was Losanteville, and that through the influence of Gov. St. Clair and others, that name was abandoned, and the name of Cincinnati substituted. This impression, though a natural one, under the circumstances of the case, was nevertheless incorrect. It is impossible to say what influence operated on the minds of the proprietors, to induce them to adopt the name of Cincinnati, in preference to the one previously proposed. Judge Symmes, being on the spot, might have advised it; but it is not probable that Gov. St. Clair had agency in it, as he was at the time negotiating a treaty with the north-western Indians, at Marietta, between which place and Cincinnati, there was then but very little intercourse. The truth may be gathered from the facts of the case, which are these. Matthias Denman, of Springfield, New Jersey, had purchased the fraction of land on the bank of the Ohio, and the entire section adjoining it on the north, which, on the survey of Symmes' grant should be found to lie opposite the mouth of Licking river. In the summer of 1788, he came out to the west to see the lands he had purchased, and to ex amine the country. On his return to Limestone, he met among others, Col. Patterson, of Lexington, and a surveyor by the name of Filson. Denman communicated to them his intention of laying out a town on his land, opposite Licking; and, afier some conversation, agreed to take them in as partners, each paying a third of the purchase-money; and, on the further condition, that Col. Patterson should exert his influence to obtain settlers, and that Filson, in the ensuing spring, should survey the town, stake off the lots, and superintend the sale. They also agreed on the plan of the town, and to call it Losanteville. This being done, Patterson and Filson, with a party of settlers, proceeded to the ground, where they arrived late in December. In the course of the winter, before any attempt had been made to lay out the town, Filson went on an exploring expedition with Judge Symmes and others, who had in contemplation to become purchasers and settle in the country. After the party had proceeded some thirty or forty miles into the wilderness, Filson, for some cause not now known, left them, for the purpose of returning to the settlements on the Ohio; and in that attempt was murdered by the Indians. This terminated his contract with Denman, as no part of the consideration had been paid, and his personal services, in surveying the town and superintending the sale of the lots, had become impracticable. Mr. Denman, being yet at Limestone, entered into another contract with Col. Patterson and Israel Ludlow, by which Ludlow was to perform the same services as were to have been rendered by the unfortunate Filson, had he lived to execute his contract. A new plan of a town was then made, differing, in many important respects, from the former,particularly as to the public square, the commons, and the names of the streets. The whimsical name which had been adopted for the town to be laid out under the first conttact, was repudiated, and Cincinnati selected, as the name of the town, to be laid out under the new contract. Late in the succeeding fall, Col. Ludlow commenced a survey of 206

Page  207 HAMILTON COUNTY. the town which has since become the Queen City of the West. He first laid off the lots, which, by previous agreement, were to be disposed of as donations to volunteer settlers, and completed the survey at his leisure. A misapprehension has prevailed, as appears from some recent publications, in regard to the price paid by the proprietors for the land on which the city stands. The original purchase by Mr. Denman, included a section and a fractional section, containing about eight hundred acres; for which he paid five shillings per acre, in continental certificates, which were then worth, in specie, five shillings on the pound-so that the specie price per acre was fifteen pence. That sum multiplied by the number of acres, will give the original cost of the plat of Cincinnati. The third party of adventurers to the Miami purchase, were under the immediate care and direction of Judge Symmes. They left Limestone on the 29th of January, 1789, and on their passage down the river, were obstructed, delayed, and exposed to imminent danger from floating ice, which covered the river. They, however, reached the Bend, the place of their destination, in safety, early in February. The first object of the Judge was to found a city at that place, which had received the name of North Bend, from the fact that it was the most northern bend in the Ohio river below the mouth of the Great Kanawha. The water-craft used in descending the Ohio, in those primitive times, were flat-boats made of green oak plank, fastened by wooden pins to a frame of timber, and caulked with tow, or any other pliant substance that could be procured. Boats similarly constructed on the northern waters, were then called ar?ks, but on the western rivers, they were denominated Kentucky boats. The materials of which they were composed, were found to be of great utility in the construction of temporary buildings for safety, and for protection from the inclemency of the weather, after they had arrived at their destination. At the earnest solicitation of the Judge, General Harmar sent Captain Kearsey with forty-eight rank and file, to protect the improvements just commencing in the Miami country. This detachment reached Limestone in December, 1788, and in a few days after, Captain Kearsey sent a part of his command in advance, as a guard to protect the pioneers under Major Stites, at the Little Miami, where they arrived soon after. Mr. Symmes and his party, accompanied by Captain Kearsey, landed at Columbia, on their passage down the river, and the detachment previously sent to that place joined their company. They then proceeded to the Bend, and landed about the first or second of February. When they left Limestone, it was the purpose of Captain Kearsey to occupy the fort built at the mouth of the Miami, by a detachment of United States troops, who afterwards descended the river to the falls. That purpose was defeated by the flood in the river, which had spread over the low grounds and rendered it difficult to reach the fort. Captain Kearsey, however, was anxious to make the attempt, but the Judge would not consent to it; he was of course much disappointed, and greatly displeased. When he set out on the expedition, expecting to find a fort ready built to receive him, he did not provide the implements necessary to construct one. TI'hus disappointed and displeased, he resolved that he would not attempt to construct a new work, but w'uld leave the Bend and join the garrison at Louisville. In pursuance of that resolution, he embarked early in March, and descended the river with his command. The Judge immediately wrote to Major Willis, commandant of the garrison at the Falls, complaining of the conduct of Captain Kearsey, representing the exposed situation of the Miami settlement, stating the indications of hostility manifested by the Indians, and requesting a guard to be sent to the Bend. This request was promptly granted, and before the close of the month, Ensign Luce arrived with seventeen or eighteen soldiers, which, for the time, removed the apprehensions of the pioneers at that place. It was not long, however, before the Indians made an attack on them, in which they killed one soldier, and wounded four or fife other persons, including Major J. R. Mills, an emigrant from Elizabethtown, New Jersey, who was a surveyor, and an intelligent and highly respected citizen. Although he recovered from his wounds, he felt their disabling effects to the day of his death. The surface of the ground where the Judge and his party had landed, was above the reach of the water, and sufficiently level to admit of a convenient settlement. He therefore determined, for the immediate accommodation of his party, to lay out a village at that place, and to suspend, for the present, the execution of his purpose, as to the city, of which he had given notice, until satisfactory information could be obtained in regard to the comparative advantages of different places in the vcinity. The determination, however, of laying out such a city, was not abandoned, but was executed in the succeeding year on a magnificent scale. It included the village, and extended from the Ohio across the peninslar to the Miami river. This city, which was certainly a beautiful one, on paper, was 207

Page  208 HAMILTON COUNTY. called Symmes, and for a time was a subject of conversation and of criticism; but it soon ceased to be remembered-even its name was forgotten, and the settlement continued to be called North Bend. Since then, that village has been distinguished as the residence and the home of the soldier and statesman, William Henry Harrison, whose remains now repose in a humble vault on one of its beautiful hills. In conformity with a stipulation made at Limestone, every individual belonging to the party received a donation lot, which he was required to improve, as the condition of ob taining a title. As the number of these adventurers increased in consequence of the pro tection afforded by the military, the Judge was induced to lay out another village, six or seven miles higher tip the river, which he called South Bend, where he disposed of some donation lots; but that project failed, and in a few years the village was deserted and con verted into a farm. During these transactions, the Judge was visited by a number of Indians from a camp in the neighborhood of Stites' settlement. One of them, a Shawnee chief, had many com plaints to make of frauds practised on them by white traders, who fortunately had no con nection with the pioneers. After several conversations, and some small presents, he pro fessed to be satisfied with the explanation he had received, and gave assurances that the Indians would trade with the white men as friends. Ill one of their interviews, the Judge told him he had been commissioned and sent out to their country, by the thirteen fires, in the spirit of friendship and kindness; and that he was instructed to treat them as firiends and brothers. In proof of this he showed them the flag of the Union, with its stars and stripes, and also his commission, having the great seal of the United States attached to it; exhibiting the American eagle, with the olive branch in one claw, emblematical of peace, and the instrument of war and death in the other. He explained the meaning of those symbols to their satisfaction, though at first the chief seemed to think they were not very striking emblems either of peace or friendship; but before he departed from the Bend, he gave assurances of the most friendly character. Yet, when they left their camp to return to their towns, they carried off a number of horses belonging to the Columbia settlement, to compensate for the injuries done them by wandering traders, who had no part or lot with the pioneers. These depredations havinig been repeated, a party was sent out in pursuit, who followed the trail of the Indians a considerable distance, when they discovered fresh signs, and sent Captain Flinn, one of their party, in advance, to reconnoitre. He had not proceeded far before he was surprised, taken prisoner, and carried to the Indian camp. Not liking the movements he saw going on, which seemed to indicate personal violence, in regard to himself, and having great confidence in his activity and strength, at a favorable moment he sprang from the camp, made his escape, and joined his party. The Indians, fearing an ambuscade, did not pursue. The party possessed themselves of some horses belonging to the Indians, and returned to Columbia. In a few days, the Indians brought in Captain Flinn's rifle, and begged Major Stites to restore their horse —alledging that they were innocent of the depredations laid to their charge. After some further explanations, the matter was amicably settled, and the horses were given up. The three principal settlements of the Miami country were commenced in the manner above described; and although they had one general object, and were threatened by one common danger, yet there existed a strong spirit of rivalry between them-each feeling a pride in the prosperity of the little colony to which he belonged. That spirit produced a strong influence on the feelings of the pioneers of the different villages, and produced an esprit du corps, scarcely to be expected under circumstances so critical and dangerous a& those which threatened them. For some time it was a matter of doubt which of the rivals. Columbia, Cincinnati, or North Bend, would eventually become the chief seat of business. In the beginning, Columbia, the eldest of the three,vtook the lead, both in the number of its inhabitants, and the convenience and appearance of its dwellings. It was a flourishing village, and many believed it would become the great business town of the Miami country. That delusion, however, lasted but a short time. The garrison having been established at Cincinnati, made it the head-quarters, and the depot of the army. In addition to this, as soon as the county courts of the territory were organized, it was made the seat of justice of Hamilton county. These advantages convinced every body that it was destined to become the emporium of the Miami country. At first, North Bend had a decided advantage over it; as the troops detailed by Generat Harmar for the protection of the Miami pioneers were landed there, through the influence of Judge Symmes. That consideration induced many of the first adventurers to plant themselves at the Bend, believing it to be the place of the greatest safety. But, as has been stated, that detachment soon took its departure for Louisville. It appears also that Ensign 208

Page  209 HAMILTON COUNTY. Luce, the commandant of the party which succeeded it, did not feel bound to erect his fort at any particular place, but was at liberty to select the spot best calculated to afford the most extensive protection to the Miami settlers. Viewing his duty in that light, he put up a small temporary work, sufficient for the security of his troops, regardless of the earnest entreaty of the Judge, to proceed at once to erect a substantial, spacious block-house, sufficient for the protection of the inhabitants of the village. The remonstrances and entreaties of the Judge had but little influence on the mind of this obstinate officer; for, in despite of them all, he left the Bend, and proceeded to Cincinnati with his command, where he immediately commenced the construction of a military work. That important move was followed by very decided resultsit terminated the strife for supremacy, by removing the only motive which had induced former emigrants to pass the settlements above, and proceed to the Bend. As soon as the troops removed from that place to Cincinnati, the settlers of the Bend, who were then the most numerous, feeling the loss of the protection on which they had relied, became uneasy, and began to follow; and ere long the place was almost entirely deserted, and the hope of making it even a respectable town, was abandoned. In the course of the ensuing summer, Major Doughty arrived at Cincinnati, with troops from Fort Harmar, and commenced the construction of Fort Washington, which was the most extensive and important military work in the territory belonging to the United States. About that time there was a rnmior prevailing in the settlement, said to have been endorsed by the Judge himself, which goes far to unravel the mystery, in which the removal of the troops from th B n,id asas involved. It was said and believed, that while the officer in command at that plaice was looking out very leisurely for a suitable site, on which to build the block-house, he formed an acquaintance with a beautiful black-eyed female, who called forth his most assi(duous and tender attentions. She was the wife of one of the settlers at the Bend. Her husband saw the danger to which he would be exposed, if he remained where he was. He therefore resolved at once to remove to Cincinnati, and very promptly executed his resolution. As soon as the gallant commandant discovered that the object of his admniration had changed her residence, he began to think that the Bend was not an advantageous situation for a military work, and communicated that opinion to Judge Symmes, who strenuously opposed it. His reasoning, however, was not as persuasive as the sparkling eyes of the fair dulcinea then at Cincinnati. The result was a determination to visit Cincinnati, and examine its advantages for a military post, which he communicated to the Judge, with an assurance that if, on examination, it did not prove to be the most eligible place, he would return and erect the fort at the Bend. The visit was quickly made, and resulted in a conviction that the Bend could not be compared with Cincinnati as a military position. The troops were accordingly removed to that place, and the building of a block-house commenced. Whether this structure was on the ground on which Fort Washington was erected by Major Doughty, cannot now be decided. That movement, produced by a cause whimsical, and apparently trivial in itself, was attended with results of incalculable importance. It settled the question whether North Bend or Cincinnati was to be the great commercial town of the Miami country. Thus we see what unexpected results are sometimes produced by circumstances apparently trivial. The incomparable beauty of a Spartan dame, produced a ten years' war, which terminated in the destruction of Troy; and the irresistible charms of another female, transferred the commercial emporium of Ohio from the place where it had been commenced, to the place where it now is. If this captivating American Helen had continued at the Bend, the garrision would have been erected there-population, capital and business would have centered there, and there would havebeen the Queen City of the West. e e* * * *.. A large number of the original adventurers to the Miami purchase, had exhausted their means by paying for their land, and removing their families to the country. Others were wholly destitute of property, and came out as volunteers, under the expectation of obtaining, gratuitously, such small tracts of land as might be forfeited by the purchasers, under Judge Symmes, for not making the improvements required by the conditions stipulated in the terms of sale and settlement of Miami lands, published by the Judge, in 1787; which will be more fully explained in a subsequent chapter. The class of adventurers first named was comparatively numerous, and had come out under an expectation of taking immediate possession of their lands, and of commencing the cultivation of them for subsistence. Their situation, therefore, was distressing. To go out into the wilderness to till the soil, appeared to be certain death; to remain in the settlements threatened them 27 209

Page  210 HAMILTON COUNTY. with starvation. The best provided of the pioneers found it difficult to obtain subsistence; and, of course, the class now spoken of were not far from total destitution. They depended on game, fish, and such products of the earth as could be raised on small patches of ground in the immediate vicinity of the settlements. Occasionally, small lots of provision were brought down the river by emigrants, and sometimes were transported on pack-horses, from Lexington, at a heavy expense, and not without danger. But supplies, thus procured, were beyond the reach of those destitute persons now referred to. Having endured these privations as long as they could be borne, the more resolute of them determined to brave the consequences of moving on to their lands. To accomplish the object with the least exposure, those whose lands were in the same neighborhood, united as one family; and on that principle, a number of associations were formed, amounting to a dozen or more, who went out resolved to maintain their positions. Each party erected a strong block-house, near to which their cabins were put up, and the whole was enclosed by strong log pickets. This being done, they commenced clearing their lands, and preparing for planting their crops. During the day, while they were at work, one person was placed as a sentinel, to warn them of approaching danger. At sunset they retired to the block-house and their cabins, taking every thing of value within the pickets. In this manner they proceeded from day to day, and week to week, till their improvements were sufficiently extensive to support their families. During this time, they depended for subsistence on wild game, obtained at some hazard, more than on the scanty supplies they were able to procure from the settlements on the river. In a short time these stations gave protection and food to a large number of destitute families. After they were established, the Indians became less annoying to the settlements on the Ohio, as part of their time was employed in watching the stations. The former, however, did not escape, but endured their share of the fruits of savage hostility. In fact, no place or situation was exempt from danger. The safety of the pioneer depended on his means of defence, and on perpetual vigilance. The Indians viewed those stations with great jealousy, as they had the appearance of permanent military establishments, intended to retain possession of their country. In that view they were correct; and it was fortunate for the settlers, that the Indians wanted either the skill or the means of demolishing them.. The truth of the matter is, their great error consisted in permitting those works to be constructed at all. They might have prevented it with great ease, but they appeared not to be aware of the serious consequences which were to result, until it was too late to act with effect. Several attacks were, however, made at different times, with an apparent determination to destroy them; but they failed in every instance. The assault made on the station erected by Captain Jacob White, a pioneer of much energy and enterprise, at the third crossing of Mill creek from Cincinnati, on the old Hamilton road, was resolute and daring; but it was gallantly met and successfully repelled. During the attack, which was in the night, Captain White shot and killed a warrior, who fell so near the blockhouse, that his companions could not remove his body. The next morning it was brought in, and judging from his stature, as reported by the inmates, he might have claimed descent from a race of giants. On examining the ground in the vicinity of the block-house, the appearances of blood indicated that the assailants had suffered severely. In the winter of 1790-1, an attack was made, with a strong party, amounting, probably, to four or five hundred, on Dunlap's station, at Colerain. The block-house at that place was occupied by a small number of United States' troops, commanded by Col. Kingsbury, then a subaltern in the army. The fort was furnished with a piece of artillery, which was an object of terror to the Indians; yet that did not deter them from an attempt to effect their purpose. The attack was violent, and for some time the station was in imminent danger. The savages were led by the notorious Simon Girty, and outnumbered the garrison, at least, ten to one. The works were entirely of wood, and the only obstacle between the assailants and the assailed, was a picket of logs, that might have been demolished, with a loss not exceeding, probably, twenty or thirty lives. The garrison displayed unusual gallantry-they frequently exposed their persons above the pickets, to insult and provoke the assailants; and judging from the facts reported, they conducted with as much folly as bravery. Col. John Wallace, of Cincinnati, one of the earliest and bravest of the pioneers, and as amiable as he was brave, was in the fort when the attack was made. Although the works were completely surrounded by the enemy, the colonel volunteered his services to go to Cincinnati for a reinforcement. The fort stood on the east bank of the Big Miami. 210

Page  211 HAMILTON COUNTY. Late in the night, he was conveyed across the river, in a canoe, and landed on the opposite shore. Having passed down some miles below the fort, he swam the river, and directed his course for Cincinnati. On his way down, the next day, he met a body of men from that place and from Columbia, proceeding to Colerain. They had been informed of the attack, by persons hunting in the neighborhood, who were sufficiently near the fort to hear the firing when it began. He joined the party, and led them to the station by the same route he had travelled from it; but before they arrived, the Indians had taken their departure. It was afterwards ascertained that Mr. Abner Hunt, a respectable citizen of New Jersey, who was on a surveying tour in the nighborhood of Colerain, at the time of the attack, was killed before he could reach the fort. His body was afterwards found, shockingly mangled. O. M. Spencer, in his "Indian Captivity," says: The Indians tied Hunt to a sapling, within sight of the garrison, who distinctly heard his screams, and built a large fire so near as to scorch him, inflicting the most acute pain; then, as his flesh, from the action of the fire and the frequent application of live coals, became less sensible, making deep incisions in his limbs, as if to renew his sensibility of pain; answering his cries for water, to allay the extreme thirst caused by burning, by fresh tortures; and,'finally, when, exhausted and fainting, death seemed approaching to release the wretched prisoner, terminating his sufferings by applying flaming brands to his naked bowels. Soon as the settlers of Cincinnati landed they commenced erecting three or four cabins, the first of which was built on Front, east of and near Main street. The lower table of land was then covered with sycamore and maple trees, and the upper with beech and oak. Through this dense forest the streets were laid out, their corners being marked upon the trees. This survey extended from Eastern row, now Broadway, to Western row. and from the river as far north as to Northern row, now Seventh street. In January, 1790, Gen. Arthur St. Clair, then governor of the N. W. territory, arrived at Cincinnati to organize the county of Hamilton. In the succeeding fall, Gen. Harmar marched from Fort Washington on his expedition against the Indians of the northwest. In the following year, (1791,) the unfortunate army of St. Clair marched from the same place. On his return, St. Clair gave Major Zeigler the command of Fort Washington and repaired to Philadelphia. Soon after, the latter was succeeded by Col. Wilkinson. This year, Cincinnati had little increase in its population. About one half of the inhabitants were attached to the army of St. Clair, and many killed in the defeat. In 1792, about 50 persons were added by emigration to the population of Cincinnati, and a house of worship erected. In the spring following, the troops which had been recruited for Wayne's army landed at Cincinnati and encamped on the bank of the river, between the village of Cincinnati and Mill creek. To that encampment Wayne gave the name of " Hobson's choice," it being the only suitable place for that object. Here he remained several months, constantly drilling his troops, and then moved on to a spot now in Darke county, where he erected Fort Greenville. In the fall, after the army had left, the small-pox broke out in the garrison at Fort Washington, and spread with so much malignity that nearly one third of the soldiers and citizens fell victims. In July, 1794, the army left Fort Greenville, and on the 20th of August, defeated the 211

Page  212 HAMIILTON COUNTY. enemy at the battle of "the Fallen Timbers," in what is now Lucas county, a few miles above Toledo. Judge Burnet thus describes Cincinnati, at about this period. "Prior to the treaty of Greenville, which established a permanent peace between the United States and the Indians, but few improvements had been made, of any description, and scarcely one of a permanent character. In Cincinnati, Fort Washington was the most remarkable object. That rude, but highly interesting structure, stood between Third and Fourth streets produced, east of Eastern Row, now Broadway, which was then a two-pole alley, and was the eastern boundary of the town, as originally laid out. It was composed of a number of strongly built, hewed-log cabins, a story and a half high, calculated for soldier's barracks. Some of them, more conveniently arranged, and better finished, were intended for officers' quarters. They were so placed as to form a hollow square of about an acre of ground, with a strong block-house at each angle. It was built of large logs, cut from the ground on which it stood, which was a tract of fifteen acres, reserved by Congress in the law of 1792, for the accommodation of the garrison. "The artificers' yard was an appendage to the fort, and stood on the bank of the river, immediately in front. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by small contiguous buildings, occupied as work-shops and quarters for laborers. Within the enclosure, there was a large two story frame house, familiarly called the'yellow house,' built for the accommodation of the Quartermaster General, which was the most commodious and best finished edifice in Cincinnati. "On the north side of Fourth street, immediately behind the fort, Colonel Sargent, secretary of the territory, had a convenient frame house, and a spacious garden, cultivated with care and taste. On the east side of the fort, Dr. Allison, the surgeon general of the army, had a plain frame dwelling, in the center of a large lot, cultivated as a garden and fruitery, which was called Peach Grove. "The Presbyterian church, an interesting edifice, stood on Main street, in front of the spacious brick building now occupied by the first Presbyterian congregation. It was a substantial frame building, about 40 feet by 30, enclosed with clapboards, but neither lathed, plastered nor ceiled. The floor was of boat plank, resting on wooden blocks. In that humble edifice, the pioneers and their families assembled, statedly, for public worship; and, during the continuance of the war, they always attended with loaded rifles b) their sides. That building was afterwards neatly finished, and some years subsequently, [1814,] was sold and removed to Vine street where it now remains, the property of Judge Burke. "On the north side of Fourth street, opposite where St. Paul's church now stands, there stood a frame school house, enclosed, but unfinished, in which the children of the village were instructed. On the north side of the public square, there was a strong log building, erected and occupied as a jail. A room in the tavern of George 212

Page  213 HAM.ILTOiN COUNTY. Avery, near the frog-pond, at the corner of Main and Fifth streets, had been rented for the accommcdation of the courts; and as the penitentiary system had not been adopted, and Cincinnati was a The First Church in Cincinoati. [The engraving represents the first Presbyterian church, as it iappeated in February, 1847. In the following spring, it was taken down, and the materials uled for the construction of several dwellings in the part of Cincinnati called Texas. The greater proportion of the timber was found to be perfectly sound. In 1791, a number of the inhabitants formed themselves into a company, to escort the Rev. James Kemnper from beyond the Kentucky river to Cincinnati; and after his arrival, a subscription was set on foot to build this church, which was erected in 1792. This subscription paper is still in existence, and bears date January 16th, 1792. Among its signers, were Gen. Wilkinson, Captains Ford, Peters and Shaylor, of the regular service, Dr. Allison, surgeon to St. Clair and Wayne, Winthrop Sargeant, Capt. Robert Elliot and others, principally citizens, to the number of 106, not one of whom survive.] seat of justice, it was ornamented with a pillory, stocks and whipping-post, and occasionally with a gallows. These were all the structures of a public character then in the place. Add to these, the cabins and other temporary buildings for the shelter of the inhabitants, and it will complete the schedule of the improvements of Cincinnati, at the time of the treaty of Greenville. The only vestige of them, now remaining, is the church of the pioneers. With that exception, and probably two or three frame buildings which have been repaired, improved and preserved, every edifice in the city has been erected since the ratification of that treaty. The stations of defence scattered through the Miami valley, were all temporary, and have long since gone to decay, or been demolished. "It may assist the reader in forming something like a correct idea of the appearance of Cincinnati, and of what it actually was at that time, to know, that the intersection of Main and Fifth streets, now the center of business and tasteful improvement, there was a pond of water, full of alder bushes, from which the frogs serenaded the neigliborhood during the summer and fall, and which rendered it necessary to construct a causeway of logs, to pass it. That morass remained in its natural state, with its alders and its frogs, several 213

Page  214 HAMILTON COUNTY. years after Mr. B. became a resident of the place, the population of which, including the garrison and followers of the army, was about six hundred. The fort was then commanded by William H. Harrison, a captain in the army, but afterwards president of the United States. In 1797, General Wilkinson, the commander-in chief of the army, made it his head-quarters for a few months, but did not, apparently, interfere with the command of Captain Harri son, which continued till his resignation in 1798. "During the period now spoken of, the settlements of the territory, including Cincinnati, contained but few individuals, and still fewer families, who had been accustomed to mingle in the circles of polished society. That fact put it in the power of the military to give character to the manners and customs of the people. Such a school, it must be admitted, was by no means calculated to make the most favorable impression on the morals and sobriety of any community, as was abundantly proved by the result. "Idleness, drinking and gambling prevailed in the army to a greater extent than it has done to any subsequent period. This may be attributed to the fact, that they had been several years in the wilderness, cut off from all society but their own, with but few comforts or conveniences at hand, and no amusements but such as their own ingenuity could invent. Libraries were not to be found-men of literarv minds, or polished manners, were rarely met with; and they had long been deprived of the advantage of modest, accomplished female society, which always produces a salutary influence on the feelings and moral habits of men. Thus situated, the officers were urged, by an irresistible impulse, to tax their wits for expedients to fill up the chasms of leisure which were left on their hands, after a full discharge of their military duties; and, as is too frequently the case, in such circumstances, the bottle, the dice-box and the card-table were among the expedients resorted to, because they were the nearest at hand, and the most easily procured. "It is a distressing fact, that a very large proportion of the officers under General Wayne, and subsequently under General Wilkinson, were hard drinkers. Harrison, Clark, Shomberg, Ford, Strong and a few others, were the only exceptions. Such were the habits of the army when they began to associate with the inhabitants of Cincinnati, and of the western settlements generally, and to give tone to public sentiment. "As a natural consequence, the citizens indulged in the same practices, and formed the same habits. As a proof of this, it may be stated, that when Mr. Burnet came to the bar, there were nine resident lawyers engaged in the practice, of whom he is, and has been for many years, the only survivor. They all became confirmed sots, and descended to premature graves, excepting his brother, who was a young man of high promise, but whose life was terminated by a rapid consumption, in the summer of 1801. He expired under the shade of a tree, by the side of the road, on the banks of Paint creek, a few miles from Chillicothe." 214

Page  215 HAMILTON COUNTY. On the 9th of November, 1793, Wm. Maxwell established, at Cincinnati, "the Centinel of the North-Western Territory," with the motto, "open to all parties-influenced by none." It was on a half sheet, royal quarto size, and was the first newspaper printed north of the Ohio river. In 1796, Edward Freeman became the owner of the paper, which he changed to "Freeman's Journal," which he continued until the beginning of 1800, when he removed to Chillicothe. On the 28th of May, 1799, Joseph Carpenter issued the first number of a weekly paper, entitled the "Western Spy and Hamilton Gazette." On the 11 th of January, 1794, two keel boats sailed from Cincinnati to Pittsburg, each making a trip once in four weeks. Each boat was so covered as to be protected against rifle and musket balls, and had port-holes to fire out at, and was provided with six pieces, carrying pound balls, a number of muskets and ammunition, as a protection against the Indians on the banks of the Ohio. In 1801, the first sea vessel equipped for sea, of 100 tons, built at Marietta, passed down the Ohio, carrying produce; and the banks of the river at Cincinnati were crowded with spectators to witness this novel event. Dec. 19th, 1801, the territorial legislature passed a bill, removing the seat of governmient firom Chillicothe to Cincinnati. January 2d, 1802, the territorial legislature incorporated the town of Cincinnati, and the following officers were appointed: David Zeigler, president; Jacob Burnet, recorder; Wm. Ramsay, David E. Wade, Chas. Avery, John Reily, Wm. Stanley, Samuel Dick and Wm. Ruffner, trustees; Jo. Prince, assessor; Abram Cary, collector, and James Smith, town marshal. In 1795, the town contained 94 cabins, 10 frame houses, and about 500 inhabitants. In 1800, the population was estimated at 750, and in 1810, it was 2,540. We give, on an adjoining page, a view of Cincinnati, taken by J. Cutler, as it appeared about the year 1810. It is from an engraving in "the Topographical Description of Ohio, Indiana Territory, and Louisiana, by a late officer of the army," and published at Boston, in 1812. That work states, that Cincinnati contains about 400 dwellings, an elegant court-house, jail, 3 market-houses, a land office for the sale of congress lands, 2 printing offices, issuing weekly gazettes, 30 mercantile stores, and the various branches of mechanism are carried on with spirit. Industry of every kind being duly encouraged by the citizens, it is likely to become a considerable manufacturing place. It has a bank, issuing notes under the authority of the state, called the Miami Exporting Company.... A considerable trade is carried on between Cincinnati and New Orleans in keel boats, which return laden with foreign goods. The passage of a boat, of forty tons, down to New Orleans, is computed at about 25, and its return at about 65 days. In 1819, a charter was obtained from the state legislature, by which Cincinnati was incorporated as a city. This, since repeatedly amended and altered, forms the basis of its present municipal authority. CINCINNATI is 116 miles southwest Columbus; 120 southeast Indianapolis, Ia.; 90 north northwest Lexington, Ky.; 270 north northeast Nashville, Tenn.; 455 below Pittsburg, Pa., by the course of the river; 132 above Louisville, Ky.; 494 above the mouth of the 215

Page  216 HAMILTON COUNTY. Ohio river, and 1447 miles above New Orleans by the Mississippi and Ohio rivers; 518 by post route west of Baltimore; 617 miles west by south of Philadelphia; 9'50 from New York by Lake Erie, Erie canal and Hudson river, and 492 from Washington City. It is in 39 deg. 6 minutes 30 seconds north lat., and 7 deg. 24 minutes 25 seconds west long. It is the largest city of the west, north of New Orleans, and the fifth in population in the United States. It is situated on the north bank of the Ohio river, opposite the mouth of Licking river, which enters the Ohio between Newport and Covington, Ky. The Ohio here has a gradual bend towards the south. This city is near the eastern extremity of a valley, about twelve miles in circumference, surrounded by beautiful hills, which rise to the height of 300 feet by gentle and varying slopes, and mostly covered with native forest trees. The summit of these hills presents a beautiful and picturesque view of the city and valley. The city is built on two table lands, the one elevated from 40 to 60 feet above the other. Low water mark in the river, which is 108 below the upper part of the city, is 432 feet above tide water at Albany, and 133 feet below the level of Lake Erie. The population in 1800, was 750; in 1810, 2540; in 1820, 9602; in 1830, 24,831; in 1840, 46,338, and in 1847, over 90,000. Employed in commerce in 1840, 2,226; in manufactures and trades, 10,866: navigating rivers and canals, 1748; in the learned professions, 377. Covington and Newport opposite, in Ky., and Fulton and the adjacent parts of Mill creek township on the north, are in fact, suburbs of Cincinnati, and if added to the above population would extend it to 105,000. The shores of the Ohio at the landing, is substantially paved to low water mark and is supplied with floating wharves, adapted to the great rise and fall of river, which renders the landing and shipping of goods at all times convenient. Cincinnati seems to have been originally laid out on the model ot Philadelphia, with great regularity. North of Main street, between the north side of Front street and the bank of the river, is the landinrg, an open area of 10 acres, with about 1000 feet front. This area is of great importance to the business of the city, and generally presents a scene of much activity. The corporate limits include about four square miles. The central part is compactly and finely built, with spacious warehouses, large stores and handsome dwellings; but in its outer parts, it is but partially built up and the houses irregularly scattered. Many of them are of stone or brick, but an equal or greater number are of wood, and are generally from two to four stories high. The city contains over 11,000 edifices public and private; and of those recently erected, the number of brick exceeds those of wood, and the style of architecture is constantly improving. Many of the streets are well paved, extensively shaded with trees and the houses ornamented with shrubbery. The climate is more variable than on the Atlantic coast, in the same latitude. Snow rarely falls sufficiently deep, or lies long enough, to furnish sleighing. Few places are more healthy, the average annual mor 216

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Page  218 HAMILTON COUNTY. tality being 1 in 40. The inhabitants are from every state in the Union and from various countries in Europe. Besides natives of Ohio, Pennsylvania and New Jersey have furnished the greatest number; but many are from New York, Virginia, Maryland and New England. Nearly one fifth of the adult population are Ger mans. But England, Ireland, Scotland, France and Wales, have furnished considerable numbers. The Ohio river at Cincinati, is 1800 feet, or about one third of a mile wide, and its mean annual range from low to high water, is about 50 feet; the extreme range may be about 10 feet more. The greatest depressions are generally in August, September and Octo ber; and the greatest rise in December, March, May and June. The upward navigation is generally suspended by floating ice for eight or ten weeks in the winter. Its current at its mean height, is about 3 miles an hour; when higher and rising, it is more; and when very low, it does not exceed 2 miles. The quantity of rain and snow which falls annually at Cincinnati, is near 3 feet 9 inches. The wettest month is May, and the driest January. The average number of clear and fair days in a year, is 146; of variable, 114; of cloudy, 105. There have been, since 1840, from thirty to thirty eight steamboats annually built with an average aggregate tonnage of 6500 tons. Among the public buildings of Cincinnati, is the court house on Main street; it is a spacious building. The edifice of the Franklin and Lafayette bank of Cincinnati, on Third street, has a splendid portico of Grecian Doric columns, 4 feet 6 inches in diameter, extending through the entire front, was built after the model of the Parthenon, and is truly classical and beautiful. The first and second Presbyterian churches are beautiful edifices, and the Unitarian church is singularly neat. There are several churches built within the last three years, which possess great beauty, either internally or externally. But the most impressive building is the Catholic Cathedral, which at far less cost, surpasses in beauty and picturesque effect, the metropolitan edifice at Baltimore. There are many fine blocks of stores, on Front, Walnut, Pearl, Main and Fourth streets, and the eye is arrested by many beautiful private habitations. The most showy quarters are Main street, Broadway, Pearl and Fourth street, west of its intersection with Main. There are 76 churches in Cincinnati, viz.: 7 Presbyterian, (4 old and 3 new school;) 2 Congregational; 12 Episcopal Methodist; 2 Methodist Protestant; 2 Wesleyan Methodist; 1 Methodist Episcopal south; 1 Bethel; 1 Associate Reformed; 1 Reformed Presbyterian; 6 Baptist; 5 Disciples; 1 Universalist; 1 Restorationist; 1 Christian; 8 German Lutheran and Reformed; English Lutheran and Reformed 1 each; 1 United Brethren; 1 Welch Calvinistic; 1 Welch Congregational; 1 Unitarian; 2 Friends; 1 New Jerusalem; 8 Catholic, 6 of which are for Germans; 2 Jews Synagogues; 5 Episcopal and 1 Second Advent. There are 5 market houses and 3 theatres, of which 1 is German. 218

Page  219 hIAMILTON COUNTY. Cincinnati contains many literary and charitable institutions. The Cincinnati college was founded in 1819. The building is in the center of the city, and s the most beautiful edifice of the kind St. Xavier's College. in the state. It is of the Grecian Doric order, with pilaster fionts and facade of Dayton marble, and cost about $35,000. It has 7 professors or other instructors, about 169 pupils, one quarter of whom are in the collegiate department. Woodward college, named from its founder, who gave a valuable block of ground in the north Lane Seminary. part of the city, has a president and five professors, or other instructors, and including its preparatory department, near 200 students. The Catholics have a college called St. Xavier's, which 219

Page  220 HAMILTON COUNTY. has about 100 students and near 5000 volumes in its libraries. Lane seminary, a theological institution, is at Walnut Hills, 2 miles from the centre of the city. It went into operation in 1833, has near 100 students, and over 10,000 volumes in its libraries. There is no charge for tuition. Rooms are provided and furnished at $5 per annumi, and the students boarded at 90 and 62-1 cents per week. The Medical college was chartered and placed under trustees, in 1825. It has a arge and commodious building, a library of over 2000 volumes, 7 professors and abcut 150 students. The Cincinnati law school is connected with Cincinnati college, has 3 professors and about 30 students. The mechanics' institute, chartered in 1828, has a valuable philosophical and chemical apparatus, a library and a reading room. The common free schools of the city are of a high order, with fine buildings, teachers and apparatus. In the high schools, there are not less than 1500 pupils; in the common and pri vate 5000, and including the students in the collegiate institutions, there are 7000 persons in the various departments of education. In 1831, a college of teachers was established, having for its object the elevation of the profession, and the advancement of the interest of schools in the Mississippi valley, which holds an annual meeting in Cincinnati, in October. The young men's mercantile library association has a fine library and reading rooms. The library con tains over 3800 volumes, and the institution promises to be an honor and a blessing to the commercial community. The apprentices' li brary, founded in 1821, contains 2200 volumes. The charitable institutions of the city are highly respectable. The Cincinnati orphan asylum is in a building, which cost $18,000. Attached is a library and well-organized school, with a provision even for infants; and it is surrounded by ample grounds. It has trained up over 300 children for usefulness. The Catholics have one mnale and female orphan asylum. The commercial hospital and lunatic asylum of Ohio, was incorporated in 1821. The edifice, in the nortlhwest part of the city, will accommodate 250 persons; 1100 have been admitted within a year. A part of the building is used for a poor house; and there are separate apartments for the insane. The city is supplied by water raised from the Ohio river, by a steam engine, of 40 horse power, and forced into two reservoirs, on a hill, 700 feet distant; from whence it is carried in pipes to the intersectiou of Broadway and Third streets, and thence distributed through the principal streets in pipes. These works are now owned by the city. Cincinnati is an extensive manufacturing place. Its natural destitution of water power is extensively compensated at present by steam engines, and by the surplus water of the Miami canal, which affords 3000 cubic feet per minute. But the Cincinnati and White Water canal, which extends 25 miles and connects with the White Water canal of Indiana, half a mile south of Harrison, on the state line, will furnish a great increase of water power, equal to 90 runs of n illsto'ies. The manufactures of the olty, already large, may be 220

Page  221 HAMILTON COUNTY. expected to greatly increase. By a late enumeration, it appears that the manufactures of Cincinnati of all kinds, employs 10,647 persons, a capital of $14,541,842, and produces articles of over seventeen millions of dollars value. The trade of Cincinnati embraces the country from the Ohio to the lakes, north and south; and from the Scioto to the Wabash, east and west. The Ohio river line, in Kentucky, for 50 miles down, and as far up as the Virginia line, make their purchases here. Its manufactures are sent into the upper and lower Mississippi country. There are six incorporated banks, with aggregate capital of $5,800,000, beside two unincorporated banks. Cincinnati is the greatest pork market in the world. Not far from three millions of dollars worth of pork are annually exported. Cincinnati enjoys great facilities for communication with the surrounding country. The total length of canals, railroads and turnpikes which center here, completed and constructing, is 1125 miles. Those who have made it a matter of investigation predict, that Cincinnati will eventually be a city of a very great population. A writers in Cist's "Cincinnati in 1841," in a long article on this subject, commences with the startling announcement: "Not having before my eyes the fear of men,'who-in the language of Governeur Morris-with too much pride to study and too much wit to think, undervalue what they do not understand, and condemn what they do not comprehend,' I venture the prediction, that within one hundred years from this time, Cincinnati will be the greatest city in America; and by the year of our Lord, 2000, the greatest city in the world." We have not space here to recapitulate the arguments on which this prediction is based. The prediction itself we place on record for future reference.t The few following pages are devoted to incidents which have transpired within the city or county. They are derived mainly from published sources. A Legend of Jacob TVetzel.-The road along the Ohio river, leading to Storrs and Delhi, some four hundred yards below the junction of Front and Fifth streets, crosses what, in early days, was the outlet of a water-course, and notwithstanding the changes made by the lapse of years, and the building improvements adjacent, the spot still possesses many features of its original surtface, although now divested of its forest character. At the period of this adventure-Oct. 7th, 1790-besides the dense forest of maple and beech, its heavy u ndergrowth of spice-wood and grape-vine made it an admirable lurking place for the savage beasts, and more savage still, the red men of the woods. Wetzel had been out on his accustomed pursuit-hunting-and was returning to town, at that time a few cabins and huts collected in the space fronting the river, and extending from Main street to Broadway. Ile had been very successful, and was returning to procure a horse to bear a load too heavy for his own shoulders, and, at the spot alluded to, had sat down on a decaying tree-trunk to rest himself, and wipe the sweat from his brow, which his forcing his way through the brush had started, cool as was the weather, when he heard the rustling of leaves and branches, which betokened that an animal or an enemy was approaching. Silencing the growl of his dog, who sat at his feet, and appeared equally con * J. W. Scott, editor of the Toledo Blade. t The preceding descriptive sketch of Cincinnati is abridged from that in M'Culloch's Gazetteer, by Charles Cist, editor of the Advertiser, with the statistics brought down to 1847. 221

Page  222 HAMILTON COUNTY. scious of danger, he sprang behind a tree and discovered the dark form of an Indian, half hidden by the body of a large oakl, who had his rifle in his hands, ready for any emergency that might require the use of it-as he, too, appeared to be on his guard, having heard the low growling of the dog. At this instant, the dog also spied the Indian and barked aloud, which told the Indian of the proximity of his enemy. To raise his rifle was but the work of a moment, and the distinct cracks of two weapons were heard almost at the same time. The Indian's fell from his hands, as the ball of the hlunter's had penetrated and broken the elbow of his left arm, while the hunter escaped unhurt. Before the Indian could possibly re load his rifle in his wounded condition, Wetzel had rushed swiftly upon him with his knife, but not before the Indian had drawn his. The first thrust was parried off by the Indian with the greatest skill, and the shock was so great in the effort that the hunter's weapon was thrown some thirty feet from him. Nothing daunted, he threw himself upon the Indian with all his force and seized him around the body; at the same time encircling the right arm, in which the Indian still grasped his knife. The Indian, however, was a very muscu lar fellow, and the conflict now seemed doubtful indeed. The savage was striving with all his might to release his arm, in order to use his knife. In their struggle, their feet became interlocked, and they both fell to the ground, the Indian uppermost, which extricated the Indian's arm fiom the iron grasp of the hunter. He was making his greatest endeavors to use his knife, but could not, from the position in which they were lying, as Wetzel soon forced him over on his right side, and, consequently, he could have no use of his arm. Just at this point of the deadly conflict, the Indian gave an appalling yell, and, with re newed strength, placed his enemy underneath him again, and with a most exulting cry of victory, as he sat upon his body, raised his arm for that fatal plunge. Wetzel saw death before his eyes, and gave himself up for lost, when, just at this most critical juncture, his faithful dog, who had not been an uninterested observer of the scene, sprang forward and seized the Indian with such force by the throat, as caused the weapon to fall harmless from hiq hand. Wetzel, seeing such a sudden change in his fate, made one last and desperate effort for his life, and threw the Indian from him. Before the prostrate savage had time to recover himself, the hunter had seized his knife, and with redoubled energy rushed upon him, and with his foot firmly planted on the Indian's breast, plunged the weapon up to the hilt in his heart. The savage gave one convulsive shudder, and was no more. As soon as Wetzel had possessed himself of his rifle, together with the Indian's weapons, he started immediately on his way. He had gone but a short distance when his ears were assailed by the startling whoop of a number of Indians. He ran eagerly for the river, and, fortunately, finding a canoe on the beach near the water, was soon out of reach, and made his way, without further danger, to the cove at the foot of Sycamore street. The Indians came up to the place of the recent renconter, and discovered the body of a fallen comrade. They gave a most hideous yell when, upon examination, they recognized in the dead Indian the features of one of their bravest chiefs. O. 131. Spencer taken Captive.-In July, 1792, two men, together with Mrs. Colemar and Oliver M. Spencer, then a lad, were returning in a canoe from Cincinnati to Columbia. They were fired upon by two Indians, in ambush on the river bank; one of the men was killed, and the other, a Mr. Light, wounded. Mrs. Coleman jumped from the canoe into the river, and without making any exertions to swim, floated down nearly two miles It is supposed she was borne up by her dress, which, according to the fashion of that time, consisted of a stuffed quilt and other buoyant robes. Spencer was taken and carried captive to the Maumee, where he remained about eight months and was ransomed. A narrative of his captivity, written by himself, has been published by the Methodists. Death of Col. Robt. Elliott.-In 1794, Col. Robert Elliott, contractor for supplying the United States army, while travelling with his servant from Fort Washington to Fort Hamilton, was waylaid and killed by the Indians, at the big hill, south of where Thos. Fleming lived, and near the line of Hamilton and Butler counties. When shot, he fell from his horse. The servant made his escape by putting his horse at full speed, followed by that of Elliott's, into Fort Hamilton. The savage who shot the colonel, in haste to take his scalp, drew his knife, and seized him by the wig which he wore. To his astonishment, the scalp came off at the first touch, when he exclaimed, " dam lie!" In a few minutes, the surprise of the party was over, and they made themselves merry at the expense of their comrade. The next day, a party from the fort, under the guidance of the servant, visited the spot, placed the body in a coffin and proceeded on their way to Fort Washington. About a mile south of Springdale, they were fired upon by Indians, and the servant, who was on the horse of his late master, was shot at the first fire. The party retreated, leaving the body of Elliott 222

Page  223 HAMTILTON COUNTY. with the savages, who had broken open the coffin, when the former rallied, re-took the body and carried it, with that of the servant, to Cincinnati, and buried them side by side in the Presbyterian cemetery, on Twelfth street. Several years after, a neat monument was erected, with the following inscription. In memory of ROBERT ELLIOTT, SLAIN BY A PARTY OF INDIANS, Near this point, While in the service of his country. Placed by his son, Com. J. D. ELLIOTT, U.S. Navy. 1835. DAMON AND FIDELITY. A TWitch Story.-About the year 1814, one of our most wealthy and respectable farmers on Mill creek, who had taken great pains and expended much money in procuring and propagating a fine breed of horses, was unfortunate in losing a number of them, by a distemper which appeared to be of a novel character. As the disease baffled all his skill, he soon became satisfied that it was the result of witchcraft. Under that impression, he consulted such persons as were reputed to have a knowledge of sorcery, or who pretended to be fortune-tellers. These persons instructed him how to proceed to discover and destroy the witch. One of the experiments he was directed to make, was to boil certain ingredients, herbs, et cetera, over a hot fire, with pins and needles in the cauldron, which, he was told, would produce great mental and bodily distress in the witch or wizzard. He tried that experiment, and while the pot was boiling furiously, placed himself in his door, which overlooked the principal part of his farm, including the field in which his horses were kept. It so happened, that, while standing in the door, he saw his daughter-in-law, who lived in a cabin about 80 rods from his own house, hastening to the spring for a bucket of water. His imagination connected that hurried movement with his incantation so strongly, that he immediately ordered his son to move his family from the farm. From some cause, he had formed an opinion that a Mrs. Garrison, an aged woman, in feeble health, fast sinking to the grave, living some eight or ten miles from his farm, was the principal agent in the destruction of his horses. He had frequently expressed that opinion in the neighborhood. Mrs. Garrison had heard of it, and, as might be expected, her feelings were injured and her spirits much depressed by the slanderous report. One of the charms he had been directed to try, was to shoot a silver bullet at a horse while the witch was evidently in him. This he was told would kill the witch and cure the animal. He accordingly prepared a silver ball, and shot it at a very fine brood mare which was affected by the distemper. The mare, of course, was killed; and as it so happened, that, in a very short time after, poor Mrs. Garrison died, the experiment was declared to be successful, and the experimenter believes to this day that his silver bullet killed the poor old woman. However that may be, his slanderous report had a great effect on her health, and no doubt hastened her death. Explosion of the Moselle.-The new and elegant steamboat, Moselle, Capt. Perkin, left the wharf in Cincinnati, April 26th, 1838, (full of passengers,) for Louisville and St. Louis; and, with the view of taking a family on board at Fulton, about a mile and a half above the quay, proceeded up the river and made fast to a lumber raft for that purpose. Here the family was taken on board; and, during the whole time of their detention, the captain had madly held on to all the steam that he could create, with the intention, not only of showing off to the best advantage the great speed of his boat, as it passed down the river the entire length of the city, but that he mig!it overtake and pass another boat which had left the wharf for Louisville, but a short time previous. As the Moselle was a new brag boat, and had recently made several exceedingly quick trips to and from Cincinnati, it would not do to risk her popularity for speed, by giving to another boat (even though that boat had the advantage of time and distance) the most remote chance of being the first to arrive at the destined port. This insane policy,-this poor ambition of proprietors and 223

Page  224 IIAMILTON COUNTY. captains, has almost always inevitably tended to the same melancholy results. The Mo selle had but just parted from the lumber raft to which she had been fast,-her wheels had scarcely made their first revolution,-when her boilers burst with an awful and astound ing noise, equal to the most violent clap of thunder. The explosion was destructive and heart-rending in the extreme; heads, limbs and bodies, were seen flying through the air in every direction, attended with the most horrible shrieks and groans from the wounded and dying. The boat, at the time of the accident, was about thirty feet from the shore, and was rendered a perfect wreck. It seemed to be entirely shattered as far back as the gentlemen's cabin; and her hurricane deck, the whole length, was entirely swept away. The boat nimmediately began to sink, and float with a strong current down the river, at the same time receding farther from the shore,-while the passengers, who yet remained unhurt in the gentlemen's and ladies' cabins, became panic-struck, and most of them, with a fatuity which seems unaccountable, jumped into the river. Being above the ordinary business parts of the city, there was no boats at hand, except a few large and unmanageable wood-floats, which were carried to the relief of the sufferers, as soon as possible, by the few persons on the shore. Many were drowned, however, before they could be rescued, and many sunk, who were never seen afterwards. There was one little boy on the shore who was seen wringing his hands in agony, imploring those present to save his father, mother and three sisters,-all of whom were struggling in the water to gain the shore,-but whom the little fellow had the awful misfortune to see perish, one by one, almost within his reach; an infant child, belonging to the family, was picked up alive, floating down the river on one of the frag-ments of the hurricane deck. The boat sunk about fifteen minutes after the explosion, leaving nothing to be seen but her chimneys, and a small portion of her upper works. The Moselle was crowded with passengers from stem to stern, principally Germans, bound to St. Louis. Nearly all on board (with the exception of those in the ladies' cabin) were killed or wounded. Most of the sufferers were among the hands of the boat and the steerage passengers. The captain was thrown by the explosion into the street, and was picked up dead and dreadfully mangled. Another man was forced through the roof of one of the neighboring houses; the pilot was thrown about a hundred feet into the air, whence he fell and found his grave in the river,-and many were the limbs and other fragments of human bodies, which were found scattered about upon the river, and far along the shore. The number destroyed by the explosion, was estimated at over two hundred persons. The Asiatic Cholera.-The cholera made its appearance in Cincinnati, in October, 1832. The reports of the board of health, as published in the city papers, commenced on the 10th of that month, and terminated on the 3d of November. The whole number of deaths, as then published, was 351, which was probably much less than the real number. The greatest number of deaths in any one day, was on Oct. 21st, when 42 persons died. The following articles are derived from the newspapers of Gin cinnati, and relate to events of the few past years. The Great Freshet of February, 1832.-The Ohio river commenced rising at this place about the 9th inst. On the 12th, it began to swell over the banks, and on the 14th, many merchants and others near the river, were compelled to remove their goods to the second story of their houses. It continued to rise rapidly till Saturday morning, Feb. 18th, when it came to a stand, having risen sixty three feet above low water mark. Differences of opinion exists as to its comparative height, with the rises of 1792 and 1815. It is supposed to have been about 5 feet higher than in 1792 or 1815. About noon, on the 18th, it commenced falling very slowly, and yet continues to fall. In the course of two or three days it probably will be confined within its banks. The M was of the lost distressing character. It carried desolation into all the lower part of the city. Hundreds of families were turned houseless upon the community. During the early part of the rise, many in the lower part of the city were awakened at night by the water pouring in upon them, and were obliged to fly; others betook themselves to the upper stories, and were brought away in boats the next morning. Many families continue to reside in the upper part of their dwellings, making use of boats in going from and returning to their stores and houses. We have heard of the death of but two individuals, Mr. John Harding and Mr. William Aulsbrook; the former, a man of family, the latter, a single man. They were in the employ of Mr. William Tift, of this city, and lost their lives in endeavoring to keep the water out of his cellar. While at work the back wall of the building gave way-the cellar filled in an instant, and they were unable to get out. They both were very worthy men. 224

Page  225 HAMILTON COUNTY. The water extended over about thirty-five squares of the thickly settled part of the city, from John street on the west, to Deer creek on the east, and north to Lower Market and Pearl streets. The distance of about a mile west of John street was likewise submerged This part of the city, however, is but thinly settled. The amount of damage sustained by merchants, owners of improved real estate and others cannot be correctly ascertained. Many houses have floated away, a great num ber have moved from their foundations and turned over; many walls have settled so as to injure the houses materially; and a great quantity of lumber and other property has floated oft. The large bridge over the mouth of Mill creek floated away, and that over Deer creek is much injured. Thousands and tens of thousands of dollars worth of dry goods groceries, &c., have been destroyed or materially injured. Business of almost every description was stopped; money became scarce, and wood and flour enormously high. Active measures were taken by the citizens for the relief of the sufferers. A town meeting was held at the council chamber, on the 15th inst. G. W. Jones was appointed chairman, and Samuel H. Goodin, secretary. On motion, a committee of 15 (3 from a ward) was appointed to take up collections for the relief of the sufferers, consisting of the following persons: E. Hulse, N. G. Pendleton, E. C. Smith, J. W. Gazlay, Jno. Wood, G. W. Jones, W. G. Orr, W. Holmes, A. Owen, P. Britt, J. Resor, O. Lovell and G. C. Miller. A committee of vigilance was also appointed, whose duty it was to remove persons and goods surrounded with water. The following persons composed that committee: J. Pierce, Wm. Phillips, Saml. Fosdick, Wm. Stephenson, Chas. Fox, Henry Tatem, I. A. Butterfield, Jas. M'Iitire, N. M. Whittemore, M. Coffin, Jas. M'Lean, J. Aumack, J. D. Garrard, A. G. Dodd and Fullom Perry. T. D. Carneal, J. M. Mason, J. C. Avery, Chas. Fox and R. Buchanan were appointed a conmmrittee to procure shelter for those whose houses were rendered untenable. On motion, it was resolved that persons who may need assistance, be requested to make application to the council chamber, where members of the committee of vigilance shall rendezvous, and where one or more shall at all times remain for the purpose of affording relief. At a subsequent meeting, 20 were added to the committee of vigilance. It gives us pleasure to state, that the members of the foregoing committees most faithfully discharged their respective duties. A provision house was opened by the committee of vigilance, on Fourth street, where meats, bread, wood, clothes, &c., were liberally given to all who applied. The ladies supported their well-known character for benevolence, by contributing clothing and food to the sufferers. The committee appointed to collect funds, found the citizens liberal in their donations. All who had vacant houses and rooms, cheerfully appropriated them to the use of those made houseless. Public buildings, school houses, and basement stories of churches, were appropriated to this purpose. Mr. Brown of the ampitheatre, Mr. Franks, proprietor of the gallery of paintings, Mr. R. Letton, proprietor of the Museum, appropriated the entire proceeds of their houses, the first, on the night of 17th; the second, on the 18th, and the third, on that of the 20th, for the relief of the sufferers. The Beethoven society of sacred music also gave a concert for the same purpose, in the second Presbyterian church, on Fourth street, on the night of the 24th. Destruction of the Philanthropist newspaper printing office by a mob, July 30th, 1836. -The paper had then been published in Cincinnati about three months, and was edited by James G. Birney. As early as the 14th of July, the press room was broken open and the press and materials defaced and destroyed. July 23d, a meeting of citizens was convened at the Lower Market house" to decide whether they will permit the publication or distribution of abolition papers in this city." This meeting appointed a committee, who opened a correspondence with the conductors of that print-the executive committee of the Ohio antislavery society-requesting them to discontinue its publication. This effort being unsuccessfiul, the committee of citizens published the correspondence, to which they alpended a resolution, in one clause of which they stated, "That in discharging their duties, they have used all the measures of persuasion and conciliation in their power. That their exertions have not been successful, the above correspondence will show. It only remains, then, in pursuance of their instructors, to publish their proceedings and adjourn without day. But ere they do this, they owe it themselves, and those whom they represent, to express their utmost abhorrence of every thing like violence; and earnestly to implore their fellow citizens to abstain therefrom." The sequel is thus given by a city print. On Saturday night, July 30th, very soon after dark a, concourse of citizens assembled at the corner of Main and Seventh streets, in this city, and upon a short consultation, broke open the printing office of the Philanthropist, the abolition paper, scattered the type into the 29 295

Page  226 HAMILTON COUNTY. streets, tore down the presses and completely dismantled the office. It was owned by A. Pugh, a peaceable and orderly printer, who printed the Philanthropist for the anti-slavery society of Ohio. From the printing office, the crowd went to the house of A. Pugh, where they supposed there were other printing materials, but found none, nor offered any violence. Then to the Messrs. Donaldson's, where only ladies were at home. The residence of Mr. Birney, the editor, was then visited; no person was at home, but a youth, upon whose explanations the house was left undisturbed. A shout was raised for Dr. Colby's; and tha concourse returned to Main street, proposed to pile up the contents of the office in the street and make a bonfire of them. A gentleman mounted the pile, and advised against burning it, lest the houses near might take fire. A portion of the press was then dragged down Main street, broken up and thrown into the river. The Exchange was then visited and refreshments taken. After which, the concourse again went up Main street, to about opposite the Gazette office. Some suggestions were hinted that it should be demolished, but the hint was overruled. An attackl was then made upon the residence of some blacks, in Church alley; two guns were fired upon the assailants and they recoiled. It was supposed that one man was wounded, but that was not the case. It was some time before a rally could again be made, several voices declaring they did not wish to endanger themselves. A second attack was made, the houses found empty and their interior contents destroyed... On the afternoon of Aug. 2d, pursuant to a call, a very large and respectable meeting of citizens met at the court house, and passed a series of resolutions, the first of which was "that this meeting deeply regret the cause of the recent occurrences, and entirely disapprove of mobs, or other unlawful assemblages." The concluding resolution was approbatory of the course of the colonization society, and expressed an opinion that it was" the only method of getting clear of slavery." Riot of September, 1841.-This city has been in a most alarming condition for several days; and from until 8 o'clock on Friday evening, until 3 o'clock yesterday [Sunday] morning, almost entirely at the mercy of a lawless mob, ranging in number from 200 to 1500. On Tuesday evening last, as we are informed, a quarrel took place on the corner of Sixth street and Broadway, between a party of Irishmen and some negroes: some two or three of each party were wounded. On Wednesday night, the quarrel was renewed in some way, and sometime after midnight a party of excited men, armed with clubs, &c., attacked a house occupied as a negro boarding-house on Macalister street, demanding the surrender of a negro, whom they said was secreted in the house, and uttering the most violent threats against the house and the negroes in general. Several of the adjoining houses were occupied by negro families. The violence increased and was resisted by those in or about the houses-an engagement took place, in which several were wounded on each side. On Thursday night, another rencontre took place in the neighborhood of the Lower Market, between some young men and boys and some negroes, in which one or two boys were badly wounded, as was supposed, with knives. On Friday evening, before 8 o'clock, a mob, the principal organization of which, we understand, took place in Kentucky, openly assembled in Fifth street market, unmolested by the police or citizens. They marched from their rendezvous towards Broadway and Sixth street, armed with clubs, stones, &c. Reaching the scene of operations with shouts and blasphemous imprecations, they attacked a negro confectionary in Broadway, next to the synagogue, and demolished the doors and windows. This attracted an immense crowd. About this time, before 9 o'clock, they were addressed by J. W. Piatt, who exorted them to peace and obedience to the law; but his voice was drowned by shouts and throwing of stones. The Mayor also attempted to address them. The savage yell was instantly raised: "down with him! run him off!" were shouted and intermixed with horrid imprecations and exhortations to the mob to move onward. A large portion of the leading disturbers appeared to be strangers-some connected with river navigation and backed by boat hands of the lowest order. They advanced to the attack with stones, &c., and were repeatedly fired upon by the negroes. The mob scattered, but immediately rallied again, and again were in like manner repulsed. Men were wounded on both sides and carried off-and many reported dead. The negroes rallied several times, advanced upon the crowd, and most unjustifiably fired down the street into it, causing a great rush down the street. These things were repeated until past 1 o'clock, when a party procured an iron six pounder from near the river, loaded with boiler punchings, &c., and hauled it to the ground, against the exhortations of the mayor and others. It was posted on Broadway and pointed down Sixth street. The yells continued, 226

Page  227 HAMILTON COUNTY. but there was a partial cessation of firing. Many of the negroes had fled to the hills. The attack upon the houses was recommenced with the firing of guns upon both sides, which continued during most of the night; and exaggerated rumors of the killed and wounded filled the streets. The cannon was discharged several times. About 2 o'clock, a portion of the military, upon the call of the mayor, proceeded to the scene of disorder and succeeded in keeping the mob at bay. In the morning, and throughout the day, several blocks, including the battle-ground, were surrounded with sentinels and kept under martial law,-keeping within the negroes there, and adding to them such as were brought in during the day for protection. A meeting of citizens was held at the court house on Saturday morning, at which the mayor presided. This meeting was addressed by the mayor and others, and a series of resolutions passed discountenancing mobs-invoking the aid of the civil authorities to stay the violence, repudiating the doctrines of the abolitionists, etc., etc. The city council also heid a special session, to concert measures to vindicate the majesty of the law and restore peace to the city. Intense excitement continued during the day, the mob and their leaders boldly occupying the streets without arrest. The negroes held a meeting in a church, and respectfully assured the mayor and citizens, that they would use every effort to conduct as orderly citizens, to suppress imprudent conduct among their own people, etc., etc. They expressed their readiness to conform to the law of 1807, and give bond, or to leave within a specified time-and tendered their thanks to the mayor, watch, officers and gentlemen Of the city, for the efforts made to save their property, their lives, their wives and children. At 3 P. M., the mayor, sheriff, marshall and a portion of the police, proceeded to the battle-ground, and there, under the protection of the military, though in the presence of the mob, and so far controlled by them, as to prevent the taking away of any negroes upon their complying with the law. Several of the negroes gave bond and obtained permission to go away with their sureties, who were some of our most respectable citizens, but were headed even within the military sentinels, and compelled to return within the ground. It was resolved then to embody the male negroes, and march them to jail for security, under the protection of the civil and military authority. From 250 to 300 were accordingly escorted to that place with difficulty, surrounded by the military and officers, and a dense mass of men, women and boys, confounding all distinction between the orderly and disorderly, accompanied with deafening yells. They were safely lodged, and still remain in prison, separated from their families. The crowd was in that way dispersed. The succeeding night, the military were ordered out, the firemen were out, clothed with authority as a police band. About eighty citizens enrolled themselves as assistants of the marshall. A troop of horse, and several companies of volunteer infantry continued on duty, until near midnight. Some were then permitted to sleep upon their arms; others remained on duty until morning, guarding the jail, &c. As was anticipated, the mob efficiently organized, early commenced operations, dividing their force and making their attacks at different points, thus distracting the attention of the police. The first successful onset was made upon the printing office of the Philanthropist. They succeeded in entering the establishment, breaking up the press, and running with it amid savage yells, down through Main street to the river into which it was thrown. The military appeared in the alley near the office, interrupting the mob for a short time. They escaped through the bye-ways, and when the military retired, returned to their work of destruction in the office, which they completed. Several houses were broken open in different parts of the city, occupied by negroes, and the windows, doors and furniture completely destroyed. Among these was the negro church on Sixth street. One of their last efforts was to fire or otherwise destroy the book establishment of Messrs. Truman & Smith, on Main street. From this they were driven by the police, and soon after, before daylight, dispersed from mere exhaustion. It is impossible to learn either the numnber of killed and wounded on either side, probably several were killed and twenty or thirty variously wounded, though but few dangerously. Several of the citizen-police were hurt with stones, &c.; the authorities succeeded in arresting about forty of the mob, who are now in prison. The mob was in many cases encouraged and led on by persons from Kentucky. About 11 o'clock on Saturday night, a bonfire was lighted on that side of the river, and loud shouts sent up, as if a great triumph had been achieved. In some cases the motions of the mob were directed and managed by mere boys, who suggested the points of attack, put the vote, declared the result and led the way! After all the negro men had been disarmed and committeed to prison for safe keeping, under a solemn pledge that their wives and children should be protected, a band 227

Page  228 HAMILTON COUNTY. of white men were permitted to renew their brutal attacks upon these females and children. The excitement continued yesterday. The governor, who had arrived in town, issued his proclamation. The citizens rallied with spirit to aid the city authorities. Strong patroles of military and citizens, last night, prevented any further outbreak. Bank Mob, Jan. 11, 1842.-Monday evening, the Miami Exporting Company Bank assigned its effects, and on Tuesday morning, (Jan. 11,) the bank of Cincinnati closed doors. Early in the morning, the crowd, in consequence of their failures, began to collect around the doors of these institutions, and by 11 o'clock, had broken into them, destroying all the movable property and whatever of books or papers could be laid hold of. About this time, ten of the city guards, headed by their brave captain, Mitchell, appeared, drove the rioters away, and, for a time, gallantly maintained their position; but they were called off. On retiring, they were assailed-they fired, and wounded some one or two persons. The mob had, with this exception, undisputed possession of the city, and commenced, first an attack upon Babes' Exchange Bank, and after that, upon Lougee's exchange office, both of which they destroyed, making havock of every thing which was at all destructible. Distressing Fire, Feb. 28th, 1843.-On Saturday morning, about 5 o'clock, a fire broke out in the smoke-house of Messrs. Pugh & Alvord, at the corner of Walnut street and the canal, which, in its consequences, has been one of the most distressing that ever occurred in this city. The smoke-house was in the rear, and somewhat detached from the main build ing, being connected with it only by a wooden door and narrow passage-way, through which the meat was usually wheeled. It was thought the fire could be confined to the former, and for that purpose the pork-house was closed as tight as possible, by shutting all the doors and windows, to exclude a rush of air to feed the flames. In the course of half an hour, the main building was filled with smoke, rarified air and inflammable gas from the smokehouse; and when the flames burst through the wooden door connecting the two buildings, an instantaneous roar of flame was perceived, and in the twinkling of an eye, the whole of this spacious, substantial building was a mass of ruins. The whole roof was lifted in the air and thrown into the streets in large fragments-the second story walls, on the north and south sides, were thrown down, and the whole eastern end of both stories fronting on Walnut street, blown into the streets from its foundation up. The appearance of the explosion was awfully terrific, and its consequences fatal to several of our most estimable citizens. We annex the names of the killed and severely wounded, as far as we can now ascertain them. Killed-Joseph Bonsall, Caleb W. Taylor, H. S. Edmands, J. S. Chamberlain, H. O. Merrill, John Ohe, a German laborer, with two or three other German laborers. IVounded severely-George Shillito, H. Thorpe, T. S. Shaeffer, Mr. Alvord, (of the firm ofPugh & Alvord,) Samuel Schooley, Warren G. Finch, John Blakemore, Lewis Wisby, John M. Vansickle, Joseph Trefts, A. Oppenhermer, Jas. Tryatt, Robt. Rice, William H. Goodloe. A few minutes before the explosion, the smoke settled to the ground around the corner of the building, on the canal and Walnut street fronts, which caused the removal of the masses of people which filled those spaces, unconscious of danger. But for this, the force of the explosion being in that direction, the destruction of life would have been frightfully extensive. On Sunday morning, a special meeting of the city council was called, and in obedience to one of the resolutions passed, the mayor issued a proclamation, requesting the citizens to suspend their business on Monday, the 27th inst., and attend the fiunerals of the deceased. On Monday, the court of common pleas adjourned for this purpose, shops were closed, and the business of the day was set aside. The bells were tolled, and little was done save to aid in performing the last sad rites of the dead. They had fallen in the public service, and the public mind was anxious to testify to their virtues and bespeak the sorrow felt for the common loss. Never, indeed, did we ever observe a deeper solemnity than pervaded the immense masses who attended the funeral services of Chamberlain and Edmands. Close around their biers, pressed the brave firemen who had stood by their side whenever their common services were required; and as the men of God lifted up their voices in prayer, and spoke of the virtues of the dead, their emotion was too strong to be suppressed; and as they stood at the altar and the grave, they gave strorng utterance to their own and the public sorrow. And thus were these useful citizens and worthy men borne to their long home. 228

Page  229 HAMILTON COUNTY. - The engraving shows the old Baptist church, at Columbia, as it ap- peared in 1830, even to the loose weather-board ing. It was taken down E in 1835, but we have not the date of its erection. The engraving is copied from one in the Ameri- can Pioneer, where it is stated that this was the first house of worship - built in Ofli, which, from some evidence produ ced below, we think is an error. The society which worshipped in it, was constituted in 1790, by Dr. Stephen Gano. We have previously slightly noticed the his tory of the settlement at present, in addition, some late O. M. Spencer, who Columbia, the second in Ohio, and now reminiscences from the narrative of the was there as early as December, 1790. It is, perhaps, unknown to many, that the broad and extensive plain stretching along the Ohio from the Crawfish to the mouth, and for three miles up the Little Miami, and now divided into farms, highly cultivated, was the ancient site of Columbia, a town laid out by Major Benjamin Stites, its original proprietor; and by him and others once expected to become a large city, the great capital of the west. From Crawfish, the small creek forming its northwestern boundary, more than one mile up the Ohio, and extending back about three-fourths of a mile, and half way up the high hill which formed a part of its eastern and northern limits, the ground was laid off into blocks, containing each eight lots of half an acre, bounded by streets intersected at right angles. The residue of the plain was divided into lots of four and five acres, for the accommodation of the town. Over this plain, on our arrival, we found scattered about fifty cabins, flanked by a small stockade nearly half a mile below the mouth of the Miami, together with a few block-houses for the protection of the inhabitants, at suitable distalnces along the bank of the Ohio. Fresh in my remembrance is the rude log-house, the first humble sanctuary of the first settlers of Columbia, standing amidst the tall forest trees, on the beautiful knoll, where now [1834] is a grave-yard, and the ruins of a Baptist meeting-house of later years. There, on the holy Sabbath, we were wont to assemble to hear the word of life; but our fathers met, with their muskets and rifles, prepared for action, and ready to repel any attack of the enemy. And while the watchman on the walls of Zion was uttering his faithful and pathetic warning, the sentinels without, at a few rods distance, with measured step, were now pacing their walks, and now standing and with strained eyes endeavoring to pierce through the distance, carefully scanning every object that seemed to have life or motion. The first clergyman I there heard preach was Mr. Gano, father of the late Gen. Gano, of this city, then a captain, and one of the earliest settlers of Columbia. Never shall I forget that holy and venerable man, with locks white with years, as with a voice tremulous with age, he ably expounded the word of truth. I well recollect, that in 1791, so scarce and dear was flour, that the little that could be afforded in families, was laid by to be used only in sickness, or for the entertainment of 229 Old Baptist Church at Columnbia.

Page  230 HAMILTON COUNTY. friends; and although corn was then abundant, there was but one mill, (Wickerharn's,) a floating mill, on the Little Miami, near where Turpin's now [1834] stands: it was built in a small flat boat tied to the bank, its wheel turning slowly with the natural current running between the flat and a small pirogue anchored in the stream, and on which one end of its shaft rested; and having only one pair of small stones, it was at best barely sufficient to supply meal for the inhabitants of Columbia and the neighboring families; and sometimes, from low water and other unfavorable circumstances, it was of little use, so that we were obliged to supply the deficiency from hand-mills, a most laborious mode of grinding. The winter of 179l-2, was followed by an early and delightful spring; indeed, I have often thought that our first western winters were much milder, our springs earlier, and our autumns longer than they now are. On the last of February, some of the trees were putting forth their foliage; in March, the red bud, the hawthorn and the dog-wood, in full bloom, checkered the hills, displaying their beautiful colors of rose and lily; and in April, the ground was covered with May apple, bloodroot, ginseng, violets, and a great variety of herbs and flowers. Flocks of parroquets were seen, decked in their rich plumage of green and gold. Birds of various species, and of every hue, were flitting from tree to tree, and the beautiful redbird, and the untaught songster of the west, made the woods vocal with their melody. Now might be heard the plaintive wail of the dove, and now the rumbling drum of the partridge, or the loud gobble of the turkey. Here might be seen the clumsy bear, doggedly moving off, or urged by pursuit into a laboring gallop, retreating to his citadel in the top of some lofty tree; or approached suddenly, raising himself erect in the attitude of defence, facing his enemy and waiting his approach; there the timid deer, watchfully resting, or cautiously feedig, or aroused from his thicket, gracefully bounding off, then stopping, erecting his stately head and for a moment gazing around, or snuffing the air to ascertain his enemy, instantly springing off, clearing logs and bushes at a bound, and soon distancing his pursuers. It seemed an earthly paradise; and but for apprehension of the wily copperhead, who lay silently coiled among the leaves, or beneath the plants, waiting to strike his victim; the horrid rattle-snake, who more chivalrous, however, with head erect amidst its ample folds, prepared to dart upon his foe, generously with the loud noise of his rattle, apprised him of danger; and the still more fearful and insidious savage, who, crawling upon the ground, or noiselessly approaching behind trees and thickets, sped the deadly shaft or fatal bullet, you might have fancied you were in the confines of Eden or the borders of Elysium. At this delightful season, the inhabitants of our village went forth to their labor, inclosing their fields, which the spring flood had opened, tilling their ground, and planting their corn for their next year's sustenance. I said, went forth, for their principal corn-field was distant from Columbus about one and a half miles east, and adjoining the extensive plain on which the town stood. That large tract of alluvial ground, still known by the name of Turkey Bottom, and which, lying about fifteen feet below the adjoining plain, and annually overflowed, is yet very fertile, was laid off into lots of five acres each, and owned by the inhabitants of Columbia; some possessing one, and others two or more lots; and to save labor, was enclosed with one fence. Here the men generally worked in companies exchanging labor, or in adjoining fields, with their fire-arms near them, that in case of tm attack they might be ready to unite for their common defence. Here, their usual annual crop of corn from ground very ordinarily cultivated, was eighty bushels per acre; and some lots, well tilled, produced a hundred, and in very favorable seasons, a hundred and ten bushels to the acre. An inhabitant of New England, New Jersey, or some portions of Maryland, would scarcely think it credible, that in hills four feet apart, were four or five stalks, one and a half inches in diameter, and fifteen feet in height, bearing each two or three ears of corn, of which some were so far from the ground, that to pull them an ordinary man was obliged to stand on tiptoe. North Bend is situated 16 miles below Cincinnati, and 4 from the Indiana line, at the northernmost point of a bend in the Ohio river. This place, which was of note in the early settlement of the country, has in later years derived its interest from having been the residence of Gen. Wm. H. Harrison, and the spot where rest his mortal remains. The family mansion stands on a level plat, about 300 yards back from the Ohio, amid scenery of a pleasing and retired character. The eastern half of the mansion, that is, all that part on the reader's right, from the door in the main building, is built of logs; but the 230

Page  231 HAMILTON. COUNTY. whole of the building being clapboarded and painted white, has the sanie external appearance. The wings were alike: a part of the southern one was destroyed by fire since the decease of its illustrious occupant, a memento of which disaster is shown by the naked Residence of the late President Harrison, at Northh Ben(l. chimney, that rises like a monument over the ruins. Th-e dwelling is respectably, though plainly furnished, and is at present occupied by the widow of the lamented Harrison, long distinguished for the virtues which adorn the female character. About a quarter of a mile south of the family mansion, and perhaps half that distance from the river, is the tomb of Harrison. It Tomb of President Harrison. stands upon the summit of a small oval-shaped hill, rising about 100 feet from the plain, ornamented by a few scattering trees, and commanding a view of great beauty. The tomb is of brick, and is 231

Page  232 HAMILTON COUNTY. entered by a plain, unpainted door, on its western end. There is no inscription upon it, nor is any required to mark the resting place of Harrison. The annexed sketch of General Harrison, is mainly derived from that published in the National Portrait Gallery, in 1836. WILLIAMI HENRY HARRISON was born at Berkley, the family seat of his father, (i i James river, 25 miles from Richmond, Virginia, in 1773. v lie was the youngest of three sons of Benjamin Harrison, a descendant of the celebrated leader of 7 the same name in the wars of Cromwell. Benjamin Hlarrison occupied a conspicuous part in our own revolutionary struggle, and was one of the _Fac-simile of Harrison's signature. most active of that daritng band who set the ball in motion. He represented Virginia in congress, in 1774,'75, and'76. He was chairman of the committee of the whole house, when the declaration of independence was agreed to, and was one of its signers. He w as elected governor of Virginia, and was one of the most popular officers that ever filled the executive chair. He died in 1791. Wm. Henry Harrison was early placed at Hamnpden Sydney College, which he left at 17 years of age, his mind well imbued with classical literature, and deeply impressed with adiiiration of the principles of republican Greece and Rome. In obedience to the wishes of his father, whose hospitable and liberal conduct through life prevented him from promising wealth to his son, he entered on the study of medicine; and after a short preparatory course, he repaired, in the spring of 1791, to Philadelphia, to prosecute his studies with greater advantage. The death of his father immediately after his arrival, checked his professional aspirations; and the "note of preparation" which was sounding through the country, for a campaign against the Indians of the west, decided his destiny. He resolved to enter into the service of his government, and to create a name for himself worthy of his father. His guardian, the celebrated Robert Morris, opposed his wishes with all the eloquence of his great mind; but it was in vain that he placed the enterprise before the enthusiastic youth in all its hardships and privations. In order to deter him from his project, he painted an Indian war in a remote and untried wilderness in the darkest colors; he spoke of victory, against such foes, as not involving glory; but of defeat, as insuring disgrace. The remonstrances of his friend and guardian were fruitless, and General Washington at length yielded to the importunities of the youth; he presented hin with an ensign's commission. With characteristic ardor he departed for Fort Washington, now Cincinnati; where, however, he arrived too late to participate in the unfortunate campaign. The fatal 4th of November had passed, and he was only in time to learn the earliest intelligence of the death of Butler, and of Oldham, and of the unparalleled massacre of the army of St. Clair. The return of the broken troops had no effect in damping the zeal of young Harrison. He devoted himself ardently to the study of the theory of the higher tactics; his education gave him advantages possessed by few young soldiers of that day; and when, in the succeeding year, the gallant Wayne assumed the command, Ensign Harrison was immediately noticed by this experienced commander, and selected by him for one of his aids. The judicious movemnents of the new army, and the success which crowned the campaign under Wayne, are a brilliant portion of our history. Harrison distinguished himself handsomely in Wayne's victory, and his chief did him the justice to name him specially in the official report of the engagement. After the treaty of Greenville, 1795, Captain Harrison was left in command of Fort Washington; and shoitly after the departure of General Wayne for the Atlantic states, he married the daughter of Judge Symmes, the proprietor of the Miami purchase. The writer of this brief sketch cannot let the opportunity slip, without offering a passing tribute to the virtues of this estimable woman. She is distinguished for her benevolen,ce and her piety; all who know her, view her with esteem and affection; and her whole course through life, in all its relations, has been characterized by those qualifications that complete the character of an accomplished matron. The idleness and dissipation of a garrison life comported neither with the taste nor active temper of Captain Harrison. He resigned his commission, and commenced his civil career, at the age of twenty-four years, as secretary of the north-western territory. His capacity was soon noticed by the leaders in the new territory, and he was elected, in 1799, the first delegate in congress for that extensive region, now comprising the states of Ohio, Indiana, 232

Page  233 HAMILTON COUNTY. Illinois, and the territory of Michigan. The first and general object of his attention as a representative, was an alteration of the land system of the territory. The law, as it then existed, ordained that not less than four thousand acres (except in particular cases of fractions on the banks of rivers) could be sold at once. The operation of such an ordinance must have been fatal to that class of population, whose industry and labor have since caused the country to advance with such rapid strides to wealth and greatness; it was alone calculated to benefit the speculator and rich monopolist. He was appointed chairman of the committee on lands, (the only instance, it is believed, in the history of our legislation, in which a delegate was so distinguished,) and with the aid of the able men who cooperated with him, he presented the celebrated land report, based on his own previous motion. A bill was framed, and after undergoing some amendments in the senate, was passed into a law, by which one half of the public lands were divided into sections of six hundred and forty acres, and the other into half sections of three hundred and twenty acres. The old system of forfeiture for non-payment was abolished, and payment ordered to be made, one fourth in hand, and the balance at the end of two, three, and four years, allowing still one year, after the expiration of the fourth year, to enable the purchaser to extricate himself, if necessary. This was a point gained, although it was not all the delegate contended for. To this measure is to be imputed the rapid settlement of the country; and if Mr. Harrison had then been called from this world, without rendering any other service to his country, he would richly have merited the title of benefactor of the territory northwest of the Ohio. The reputation acquired by the young delegate from his legislative success, created a pirty in his favor, who intimated a desire that he should supersede the venerable governor of the territory. But Mr. Harrison checked the development of this feeling as soon as it wa-s.iade known to him. He cherished too high a veneration for the pure and patriotic St. Clair; he had too just an estimate of the splendid talents of the governor, and too nmuch isynii)athy tor the war-worn, though sometimes unfortunate hero, to sanction an atteinpt, w hich, whether successful or not, would have inflicted one more pang in the bosom of the veteran. A soldier can best feel for a soldier; he declined the interference of his friends, and the subject was dropped. But when, shortly after, Indiana was erected into a separate territory, he was appointed by Mr. Adams the first governor. Previously, however, to quitting congress, hlie was present at the discussion of the bill for the settlement of Judge Symmes' purchase; and although this gentleman was his father-in-law, he took an active part in favor of those individuals who had purchased from him before he had obtained his patent. It was viewed as a matter of doubt, whether those who had sued the judge in the courts of common law, would be entitled to the remedy in equity against him. He went before the committee in person, and urged them to insert a provision in their favor. Nor did he desist until assured by the attorney general and Mr. Harper, that these persons canme fully under the provisions of the act as it then stood. This was the impulse of stern duty; for at the moment he was thus engaged, he considered himself as jeoparding a large pecuniary interest of his father-in-law. In 1801, Governor Harrison entered upon the duties of his new office, at the old military post of Vincennes. The powers with which he was vested by law have never, since the organization of our government, been conferred upon any other officer,* civil or military; and the arduous character of the duties he had to perform, can only be appreciated by those who are acquainted with the savage and cunning temper of the northwestern Indians; with the genius of the early pioneers, and the nature of a frontier settlement. The dangers of such actions as the battle of Tippecanoe, the defence of Fort Meigs, and the battle of the Thames, are appreciated and feli by all; and the victories which were consequent upon them have crowned the victors with a never fading wreath: but these acts, brilliant as they were, fade when put in comparison with the unremitting labor and exposure to which, for many years after the organization of the first grade of territorial government, the new executive was exposed. The whole territory consisted of three settlements, so widely separated that it was impossible for them to contribute to their mutual defence or encouragement. The first was Clarke's grant at the falls of Ohio; the second, the old French establishment at Vincennes; and the third extended from Kaskaskia to Kahokia, on the Mississippi; the whole comprising a population of about five thousand souls. The territory thus defenceless, presented a frontier, assailable almost at every point, on the northeast, north, and northwest boundaries. Numerous tribes of warlike Indians were thickly scattered throughout the northern portion of the territory, and far beyond its limits, * Among his duties was that of commissioner to treat with the Indians. In this capacity, he concluded fifteen treaties, and purchased their title to upwards of seventy millions of acres of land. 30 233

Page  234 HAMILTON COUNTY. whose hostile feelings were constantly inflamed by the intrigues of British agents and traders, if not by the immediate influence of the English government itself, and not un frequently by the uncontrollable outrages of the American hunters themselves; a circum stance which it always has been found impossible to prevent, in the early settlement of the west. Governor Harrison applied himself with characteristic energy and skill. It seems truly miraculous to us, when we retrospect into the early history of his government, that he should have been able to keep down Indian invasion in the infant state of the territory, seeing the great capacity the savages displayed for harassing him at a period when his re sources and means had so much increased. The fact proclaims loudly the talents of the chief. Justice tempered by mildness; conciliation and firmness, accompanied by a never slumbering watchfulness; were the means he used. These enabled him to surmount diffi culties, under which an ordinary capacity must have been prostrated. The voluminous cor respondence of Governor Harrison with Mr. Jefferson, from 1802 till 1809, is a recorded testimony of the ability and success of his administration. During the year 1811, however, the intrigues of British agents operating on the passions of the Indians, brought affairs to a crisis which rendered hostilities unavoidable. Tecum seh, and his prophet brother, had been laboring unceasingly, since 1805, to bring about this result. Harrison called upon Colonel Boyd, of the 4th United States regiment, then at Pittsburg, (who immediately joined him,) and embodied a militia force as strong as the emergency would permit. To these were added a small but gallant band of chivalrous volunteers from Kentucky, consisting of about sixty-five individuals. With these he com menced his march towards the prophet's town at Tippecanoe. On the 6th of November he arrived in sight of the Indian village, and in obedience to his orders, made several fruit less attempts to negotiate with the savages. Finding it impossible to bring them to any discussion, he resolved to encamp for the night, under a promise from the chiefs to hold a conference next day. He sent forward Brigade Major Clarkle and Major Waller Taylor, to select a proper position for the encampment. These officers shortly after returned, and reported that they had found a situation well calculated for the purpose, and on examina tion, the commander approved of it. Subsequent examination has proved that the ground was admirably adapted to baffle the success of a sudden attack, the only kind which the great experience of Harrison assured him would be attempted. The men reposed upon the spot which each, individually, should occupy, in case of attack. The event justified the anticipations of the chief. On the morning of the 7th, before daylight, the onset was made with the usual yells and impetuosity. But the army was ready; Harrison had risen some time before, and had roused the officers near him. Our limits do not permit us to enter into a detail of the action; the arrangement of the troops was masterly, and spoke the well educated and experienced soldier. The Indians fought with their usual desperation, and maintained their ground for some time with extraordinary courage. Victory declared in favor of discipline, at the expense, however, of some of the most gallant spirits of the age. Among the slain were Colonels Daveis and Owen, of Kentucky, and Captain Spencer, of Indiana. Governor Harrison received a bullet through his stock, without touching his neck. The legislature of Kentucky, at its next session, while in mourning for her gallant dead, passed the following resolution, viz: "Resolved, That Governor William H. Harrison has behaved like a hero, a patriot and general; and that for his cool, deliberate, skillful and gallant conduct, in the battle of Tippecanoe, he well deserves the thanks of the nation." From this period, until after the declaration of war against England, Governor Harrison was unremittingly engaged in negotiating with the Indians, and preparing to resist a more extended attack from them. In August, 1812, he received the brevet of major general in the Kentucky militia, to enable him to command the forces marching to relieve Detroit. He immediately applied himself to the proper organization of his army on the northwestern frontier. The surrender of Hull changed the face of affairs; he was appointed a major general in the army of the United States, and his duties embraced a larger sphere. Every thing was in confusion, and every thing was to be done; money, arms and men were to be raised. It is under circumstances like these that the talents of a great general are developed more powerfully than in conducting a battle. To do justice to this part of the biography of Harrison, requires a volume of itself. Becoming stronger from reverses, collecting munitions of war, and defending Fort Meigs, were the prominent features of his operations, until we find him in pursuit of Proctor, on the Canadian shore. On the 5th of October, 1813, he brought the British army and their Indian allies, under Proctor and Tecumseh, to action, near the river Thames. The victory achieved by militia over the disciplined troops of England, on this brilliant day, was decisive; and like the battle of the Cowpens, in the war of the revolution, spread joy and animation over the whole union. 234

Page  235 HAMILTON COUNTY. For this important action, congress presented General Harrison with a gold medal. The success of the day is mainly attributable to the novel expedient of charging through the British lines with mounted infantry. The glory of originating this maneuvre belongs exelusively to General Harrison. The northwestern frontier being relieved, and important aid given to that of Niagara, General Harrison left his troops at Sacket's Harbor, under the command of Colonel Smith, and departed for Washington by the way of New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. On the whole route he was received with enthusiasm, and honored with the highest marks of distinction that can be offered to a citizen bv a republican people. Owing to a nmisunderstanding between Mr. Secretary Armstrong and himself, General Harrison resigned his commission in the spring of 1814. Mr. Madison sincerely deplored this step, and assured Governor Shelby, in a letter written immediately after the resignation, "that it would not have been accepted had he been in Washington." It was received and accepted by Secretary Armstrong, while the president was absent at the springs. General hIarrison retired to his farml at North Bend, in Ohio, from which he was successively called by the people, to represent them in the congress of the United States, and in the legislature of the state. In 18245, he was elected to the senate of the United States; and in 1828, he was appointed minister to Columbia, which station he held until hlie was recalled by President Jackson, not for any alledged fault, but in consequence of some difference of views on the Panama question. Geniieral Harrison again returned to the pursuits of agriculture at North Bend. In 1834, on the almost unanimous petition of the citizens of the county, he was appointed prothonotary of the court of Hamilton county. In 184U, General Harrison was called by the people of the United States to preside over the country as its chief magistrate. His election was a triumphant one; of 294 votes for president, he received 234. From the time when he was first nominated for the office until his death, he had been rising in public esteem and confidence; he entered upon the duties of his office with an uncommon degree of popularity, and a high expectation was cherished that his administration would be honorable to himself and advantageous to the country. His death, which took place April 4th, 1841, just a month after his inauguration, caused a deep sensation throughout the country. He was the first president of the United States that had died in office. The members of his cabinet, in their official notification of the event, said: "The people of the United States, overwhelmed like ourselves by an event so unexpected and so melancholy. will derive consolation from knowing that his death was calm and resigned, as his life had been patriotic, useful and distinguished; and that the last utterance of his lips expressed a fervent desire for the perpetuity of the constitution and the preservation of its true principles. In death, as in life, the happiness of his country was uppermost in his thoughts." President Harrison was distinguished by a generosity and liberality of feeling which was exercised beyond what strict justice to himself and family should have permitted. With ample opportuity for amassing immense wealth, he ever disdained to profit by his public situation for private emolument. His theory was too rigidly honest to permit him to engage in speculation, and his chivalry was too sensitive to permit him to use the time belonging to his country, for private benefit. After nearly fifty years devotion to his duties in the highest stations, he left at his death but little more to his family than the inheritance of an unsullied reputation. About 30 rods in a westerly direction from the tomb of Harrison, on an adjacent hill, in a family cemetery, is the grave of Judge Symmes. It is covered by a tablet, laid horizontally upon brick work, slightly raised from the ground. On it is the following inscription: I Here rest the remains of John Cleves Symnies, who, at the foot of these hills, made the first settlement between the Miami rivers. Born on Long Island, state of New York, July 21st, A. D. 1742. Died at Cincinnati, February 26, A.D. 1814. Mr. Symmes was born at Riverhead, on Long Island, and early in life was employed in land surveying, and in teaching school. He served in the war of the revolution, though in what capacity is not known, and was in the battle of Saratoga. Having removed to 235

Page  236 HAMILTON COUNTY. New Jersey, he became chief justice of the state, and at one time represented it in congress. As early as 1787, and at the same time with the agents of the Ohio company, he made application to congress, in the name of himself and associates, for the purchase of a large tract of land lying between the two Miamies. "The price was 66 cents per acre, to be paid in United States military land Block House, near North Bend. warrants, and certificates of debt due from the United States to individuals. The payments were divided into six annual instalments. His associates were principally composed of the officers of the New Jersey line who had served in the war of the revolution. Among them were General Dayton and Elias Boudinot, D. D. His first contract was for one million of acres, made in October, 1788, but owing to the difficulty of making the payments, and the embarrassments growing out of the Indian war, the first contract was not fulfilled, and a new one was made for two hundred and forty-eight thousand acres, in May, 1794, and a patent issued to him and his associates in September following."* Meanwhile, in the spring of 1789, Judge Symmes had located himself at North Bend, where he laid out "Symmes' city," the fate of which has already been stated. The residence of Judge Symmes stood about a mile northwest of his grave. It was destroyed by fire in March, 1811, and all his valuable papers consumed. It was supposed to have been the act of an individual, out of revenge for his refusal to vote for him as a justice of the peace. At the treaty of Greenville, the Indians told him and others, that in the war, they had frequently brought up their rifles to shoot him, and then recognizing him, refrained from pulling the trigger. This was in consequence of his previous kindness to them, and speaks volumes in praise of his benevolence. On the farm of the late Wm. Henry Harrison, jr., three miles * Dr. S. P. Hildreth, in the American Pioneer. 236

Page  237 HANCOCK COUNTY. below North Bend, and two from the Indiana line, was a settlement made at the same time with North Bend. It was called the Sugar Camp settlement, and was composed of about thirty houses. The settlers there erected a block house, near the Ohio river, as a protection against the Indians. It is now standing, though in a more dilapidated condition than represented in the engraving. It is built of logs, in the ordinary manner of block houses, the distinguishing feature of which is, that from the height of a man's shoulder, the building, the rest of the way up, projects a foot or two from the lower part, leaving, at the point of junction between the two parts, a cavity, through which to thrust rifles, on the approach of enemies. There are several villages in the county, each containing from 200 to 700 inhabitants. They are Harrison, 20 miles from Cincinnati, on the Indiana line; Mt. Pleasant, on the west turnpike to Hamilton, 10 mtles from C.; Springfield, on the east turnpike to Hamilton, 15 from C.; Montgomery, 13 miles from C., on the Lebanon road; Miami, 14 miles from C., on the road to Brookville, Indiana; Reading 10, and Sharon, 13 from C., each on the Lebanon turnpike; and Newtown, 10 from C., on the Batavia road. Elizabethtown, Cheviot, Cleve, Warsaw, Sharpsburg, Madisonville, Cummingsville, Burlington and Columbia are small places. About six miles north of Cincinnati, in a beautiful situation among the hills, has lately been built the Farmer's Academy, a chartered institution. HANCOCK. HANCOCK was formed, April Ist, 1820, and named from John Hancock, first president of the revolutionary congress. The surface is level; the soil is black loam, mixed with sand, and based on limestone and very fertile. Its settlers are generally of Pennsylvania origin. The principal products are pork, wheat, corn, oats and maple sugar. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Amanda, 490 Findlay, 1024. Portage, 675 Big Lick, 431 Jackson, 631 Richland, 332 Blanchard, 629 Liberty, 592 Ridge, 479 Cass, 588 Marion, 707 Union, 637 Delaware, 532 Orange, 314 Van Buren, 432 Eagle, 524 Pleasant, 252 Washington, 830 The population of Hancock in 1830, was 813; and in 1840, 10,099, or 17 inhabitants to a square mile. The central and southern part of this county is watered by Blanchard's fork of the Auglaize and its branches. The Shawnee name of this stream was Sho-po-qua-te-sepe, or Tailor's river. It seems that Blanchard, from whom this stream was named, was a tailor, or one that sewed garments. He was a native of France, and a man of intelligence; but no part of his history could be ob 237

Page  238 HANCOCK COUNTY. tained from him. He doubtless fled his country for some offense against its laws, intermarried with a Shawnee woman, and after living here thirty years, died in 1802, at or near the site of Fort Findlay. When the Shawnese emigrated to the west, seven of his children were living, one of whom was a chief.* In the war of 1812, a road was cut through this county, over which the troops for the northwest passed. Among these was the army of Hull, which was p)iloted by Isaac Zane, M'Pherson and Robert Armstrong. View in Findlay. Findlay, the county seat, is on Blanchard's fork, 90 miles northeast of Columbus. It contains 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church, 1 academy, 2 newspaper printing offices, 13 mercantile stores, 1 foundery, 1 clothing, 1 flouring and 1 grist mill, and 112 families. A branch railroad has been surveyed from Cary, on the Mad river railroad, to this place, a distance of 16 miles, which will probably ere long be constructed. Findlay derives its name from Fort Findlay, built in the late war by James Findlay, who was a citizen of Cincinnati, a colonel in the late war, and afterwards a member of congress. This fort stood on the south bank of Blanchard's fork, just west of the present bridge. It was a stockade of about fifty yards square, with block houses at its corners, and a ditch in front. It was used as a depot for military stores and provisions. About 9 o'clock one dark and windy night in the late war, Capt. Wm. Oliver, (now of Cincinnati,) in company with a Kentuckian, left Fort Meigs for Fort Findlay, on an errand of importance, the distance being about 33 miles. They had scarcely started on their dreary and perilous journey, when they unexpectedly came upon an Indian camp, around the fires of which, the Indians were busy cooking their suppers. Disturbed by the noise of their approach, the savages sprang up and ran towards them. At this they reined their horses into the branches of a fallen tree. Fortunately the horses, as if conscious of the danger, stood perfectly still, and the Indians passed around the tree, without making any discovery in the thick darkness. At this juncture, Oliver and his companion put spurs to their horses and dashed forwards into the. woods, through which they passed all the way to their point of destination. They arrived safely, but with their clothes completely torn off by the brambles and bushes, and their bodies bruised all over by contusions against the trees. They had scarcely arrived in the fort, when the Indians in pursuit made their appearance, but too late, for their prey had escaped. * Col. John Johnston. 238

Page  239 lIARDIN COUNTY. The town of Findlay was first laid out by Ex-Gov. Joseph Vance and Elnathan Corry, in 1821, and in 1829 relaid out, lots sold and a settlement systemiticallv commenced. In the fall of 1821, however, Wilson Vance (brother of the above) moved into Findlay with his family. There wel e then some ten or fifteen Wyandot families in the place, who had made improvements. They were a temperate, fine-looking people, and friendly to the first settlers. There were at this time but six other white families in the county, besides that of Mr. Vance. Mr. V. is now the oldest settler in the county. For the first two or three years, all the grain which he used, he brought in teams from his brothers' mills in Champaign county, about forty miles distant. To this should be excepted some little corn which he bought of the Indians, for which he occasionally paid as high as $1 per bushel, and ground it in a hand-mill. There are some curiosities in the town and county, worthy of note. At the south end of Findlay are two gas wells. From one of them, the gas has been conducted by a pipe into a neighboring dwelling, and used for light. A short distance west of the bridge, on the north bank of Blanchard's fork at Findlay, is a chalybeate spring of excellent medicinal qualities, and from which issues inflammable gas. In the eastern part of the town, is a mineral spring possessing similar qualities. Three miles south of Findlay, is a sycamore of great height, and 34 feet in circumference at its base. Ten miles below Findlay, on the west bank of Blanchard's fork, on the road to Defiance, are two sugar maple trees, 30 feet distant at their base, which, about 60 feet up, unite and form one trunk, and thus continue from thence up, the body of one actually growing into the other, so that each loose their identity and form one entire tree. Mount Blanchard, Williamstown, Canonsburg, Benton, Van Buren and Risdon are small places, the largest of which may contain 30 dwellings. HARDIN. HARDIN was formed from old Indian territory, April 1st, 1820. About half of the county is level, and the remainder undulating: the soil is part gravel y loam and part clayey, and based on limestone. The principal productions are wheat, corn and swine. The following is a list of the townships in 1840, with their population. Blanchara, 241 Jackson, 260 Pleasant, 569 Cissna, 259 Liberty, 170 Round Head, 564 Dudley, 349 Marion, 177 Taylor Creek, 400 Goshen, 549 M'Donald, 285 Washington, 203 Hale, 267 The population of Hardin, in 1840, was 4583, or 9 inhabitants to a square nle. 289

Page  240 HARDIN COUNTY. Col. JoHN HARDIN, from whom this county was named, was an officer of distinction in the early settlement of the west. He was born of humble parentage, in Fauquier county, Virginia, in 1753. From his very youth, he was initiated into the life of a woodsman, and acquired uncommon skill as a marksman ana a hunter. In the spring of 1774, young Hardin, then not 21 years of age, was appointed an ensign in a militia company, and shortly after, in an action with the Indians, was wounded in the knee. Before he had fully recovered from his wound, he joined the noted expedition of Dunmore. In the war of the revolution, he was a lieutenant in Morgan's celebrated rifle corps. He was high in the esteem of General Morgan, and was often selected for enterprises of peril, requiring discretion and intrepidity. On one of these occasions, while with the northern army, he was sent out on a reconnoitering expedition, with orders to take a prisoner, for the purpose of obtaininig information. Marching silently in advance of his party, he ascended to the top of all abrupt hill, where he met two or three British soldiers and a Mohawk Indian. The moment was critical. Hardin felt no hesitation-his rifle was instantly presented, and they ordered to surrender. The soldiers immediately threw down their arms-the Indian clubbed his gun. They stood, while he continued to advance on them: but none of his men having come up, and thinking he might want some assistance, he turned his head a little and called to them to come on: at this moment, the Indian, observing his eye with irawn from him, reversed his gun with a rapid motion, in order to shoot Hardin; when he, catching in his vision the gleam of light reflected from the polished barrel, with equal rapidity apprehended its meaning, and was prompt to prevent the dire effect. He brings his rifle to a level in his own hands, and fires without raising it to his face-he had not time, the attempt would have given the Indian the first fire, on that depended life and death-he gained it, and gave the Indian a mortal wound; who, also, firing in the succeeding moment, sent his ball through Hardin's hair. The rest of the party made no resstance, but were marched to camp. On this occasion, Hardin received the thanks of General Gates. In 1786, he settled in Washington county, Kentucky, and there was no expedition into the Indian country after he settled in Kentucky, except that of General St. Clair, which he was prevented from joining from an accidental lameness, in which he was not engaged. In these, he generally distinguished himself by his gallantry and success. In Harmar's expedition, however, he was unfortunate, being defeated by the Indians when on a detached command, near Fort Wayne. Colonel Hardin was killed in the 39th year of his age. He wassays Marshall, in his history of Kentucky, from which these facts are derived-a man of unassuming manners, and great gentleness of deportment; yet of singular firmness and inflexibility as to matters of truth and justice. Prior to the news of his death, such was his popularity in Kentucky, that he was appointed general of the first brigade. Colonel Hardin was killed by the Indians, in 1792. He was sent by General Washing ton on a mission of peace to them-and was on his way to the Shawnees' town. He had reached within a few miles of his point of destination, and was within what is now Shelby county, in this state, when he was overtaken by a few Indians, who proposed encamping with him, and to accompany him the next day to the residence of their chiefs. In the night, they basely murdered him, as was alledged, for his horse and equipments, which were attractive and valuable. His companion, a white man, who spoke Indian, and acted as interpreter, was uninjured. When the chiefs heard of Hardin's death, they were sorry, for they desired to hear what the messenger of peace had to communicate. A town was laid out on the spot some years since, on the state road from Piqua through Wapakonetta, and named, at the suggestion of Col. John Johnston, Hardin, to perpetuate the memory and sufferings of this brave and patriotic man. A son of his was lately secretary to the commonwealth of Kentucky. Fort M'Arthur was a fortification built in the late war, on the Scioto river, in this county, and on Hull's road. The site was a low, flat place, in the far woods, and with but little communication with the settlements, as no person could go from one to the other but at the peril of his life, the woods being infested with hostile Indians. The fort was a weak stockade, enclosing about half an acre. There were two block houses; one in the northwest, and the other ill the southeast angle. Seventy or eighty feet of the enclosure was composed of a rvow of log corn cribs, covered with a shed roof, 240 -W

Page  241 HARDIN COUNTY. sloping inside. A part of the pickets were of split timber, and lapped at the edges: others were round logs, set up ei.dways, and touching each other. The rows of huts for the garrison were a few feet from the walls. It was a post of much danger, liable at any moment to be attacked. It was at one time commanded by Captain Robert M'Clelland, who recently died in Greene county. He was brave, and when roused, brave to rashness. While he commanded at Fort M'Arthur, one of his men had gone a short distance from the walls for the purpose of peeling bark-while he was engaged at a tree, he was shot twice through the body, by a couple of Indians in ambush, whose rifles went off so near together that the reports were barely distinguishable. He uttered one piercing scream of agony, and ran with almost superhuman speed, but fell before he reached the fort. An instant alarm was spread through the garrison, as no doubt was entertained but that this was the commencement of a general attack, which had been long expected. Instead of shutting the gates to keep out danger, M'CIelland seized his rifle, and calling on some of his men to follow, of which but few obeyed, he hastened to the place of ambush and made diligent search for the enemy, who, by an instant and rapid retreat, had effected their escape; nor did he return until he had scoured the woods all around in the vicinity of the fort.* Kenton, the county seat, is on the Scioto river and Mad river railroad, 71 miles northwest of Columbus, and 78 from Sandusky City. It was laid out only a few years since, and named from Gen. Simon Kenton, a sketch of whom is under the head of Logan county. The view shown was taken southwest of the town. The railroad is shown in front, with the depot on the left: the Presbyterian church appears near the center of the view. In the center of the town is a neat public square. From the facilities furnished by the railroad, Kenton promises to be an inland town of considerable business and population. It now contains 8 dry goods and 4 grocery stores, 1 newspaper printing office, 1 foundery, 1 grist and 1 saw mill, 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church, and had in 1840, 300 inhabitants, since which it is estimated to have more than doubled its population. There is a house in this town, the rain flowing from its north ridge finds its way to Lake Erie, and that from its south ridge to the Gulf of Mexico. Patterson, 10 miles north, on the railroad, and Roundhead, 14 southwest of Kenton, are small villages. This Kenton. * Thomas C. Wright. 31 241

Page  242 HARRISON COUNTY. last was named from Roundhead, a Wyandot chief, who had a village there. Major Galloway, who visited it about the year 1800, says that there were then quite a number of apple trees in the village, and that the Indians raised many swine. Roundhead, whose Indian name was Stiahta, was a fine looking man. He had a brother named John Battise, of great size and personal strength. His nose, which was enormous, resembled, in hue, a blue potatoe, was full of indentations, and when he laughed, it shook like jelly. These Indians joined the British in the late war, and Battise was killed at Fort Meigs. HARRISON. HARRISON was formed Jan. 1st, 1814, from Jefferson and Tuscarawas, and named from Gen. Wm. H. Harrison. It is generally very hilly: these hills are usually beautifully curving and highly cultivated. The soil is clayey, in which coal and limestone abound. It is one of the greatest wool-growing counties in Ohio, having, in 1847, 102,971 sheep. Large quantities of wheat, corn, oats and hay are produced, and a considerable number of horses, cattle and swine exported. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Archer, 1009 German, 1349 Nottingham, 1368 Athens, 1435 Green, 1465 Rumley, 1027 Cadiz, 2386 Monroe, 896 Short Creek, 2023 Franklin, 941 Moorefield, 1344 Stock, 826 Freeport, 1294 North, 1090 Washington, 1004 The population, in 1820, was 14,345, in 1830, 20,920, and in 1840, 20,099; or 50 inhabitants to a square mile. In April, 1799, Alex. Henderson and family, from Washington county, Pennsylvania, squatted on the southwest quarter of the section on which Cadiz stands: at this time, Daniel Peterson resided at the forks of Short Creek, with his family, the only one within the present limits of Harrison. In 1800, emigrants, principally from Western Pennsylvania, began to cross the Ohio river; and in the course of five or six years, there had settled within the county the following named persons, with their families, viz.: John Craig, John Taggart, John Jamison, John M'Fadden, John Kernahan, John Huff, John Maholm, John Wallace, John Lyons, Rev. John Rea, Danl. Welch, William Moore, Jas. Black, Saml. Dunlap, James Arnold, J)seph and Samuel M'Fadden, Saml. Gilmore, James Finney, Thos. and Robt. Vincent, Robert Braden, Jas. Wilkin, Samuel and George Kernahan, Thos. Dickerson, Joseph Holmes, James Hanna, Joseph, Wm. and Eleazer Huff, Baldwin Parsons, James Haverfield, Robert Cochran, Samuel Maholm, Hugh Teas, Joseph Clark, Morris West, Jacob Sheplar, Martin Snider, Saml. Osborn, Saml. Smith, and perhaps others, besides those in Cadiz and on Short Creek; Thomas Taylor, John Ross, Thos. Hitchcock, Arthur and Thomas Barrett, Robert and Thos. Maxwell, Absalom Kent, John Pugh, Michael Waxler, Wm. M'Clary, Joseph, Joel and Wm. Johnson, George Layport, William Ingles, Thos. Wilson, and perhaps others on Stillwater; John M'Connell, George Brown, John Love. Wm. and Robt. M'Cullough, Brokaw and others, on Wheeling creek. 242

Page  243 HARRISON COUNTY. Robt. Maxwell, Wm. and Joseph Huff and Michael Maxler, were great hunters, and the three former had been Indian spies, and had many perilous adventures with the Indians. On one occasion, after peace, an Indian boasted, in the presence of Wm. Huff and others, that he had scalped so many whites. Towards evening, the Indian left for his wigwam, but never reached it. Being, shortly after, found killed, some inquiry was made as to the probable cause of his death, when Huff observed, that he had seen him the last time, sitting on a log, smoking his pipe; that he was looking at him and reflecting what he had said about scalping white people, when suddenly his pipe fell firom his mouth, and he, Huff, turned away, and had not again seen him until found dead. Beside frequent trouble with the Indians, the first settlers were much annoyed by wild animals. On one occasion, two sons of Geo. Layport having trapped a wolf, skinned it alive, turned it loose, and a few days after it was found dead. County Buildings at Cadiz. One mile west of the east boundary line of Harrison county, there was founded, in 1805, a Presbyterian church, called "Beach Spring," of which Rev. John Rea is at present, and for more than 40 years has been, the stated pastor. Their beginning was small; a log cabin, of not more than 20 feet square, was sufficient to contain all the members and all that attended with them. Their log cabin being burned down by accident, a large house, sufficient to contain a thousand worshippers, was raised in its room, and from 50 communing members, they increased in a short time to 3 and 400, and became the largest Presbyterian church in the state. Cadiz, the county seat, is a remarkably well-built and city-like town, 4 miles southeasterly from the center of the county, 11I easterly from Columbus, 24 westerly from Steubenville, and 24 niortherly from Wheeling. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Me,hodist Episcopal, 1 Associate, (Seceder,) and 1 Associate Reform i X lurch. It also contains 2 printing presses, 12 dry goods, 7 gro(,:wt nd 2 243 x"

Page  244 HARRISON C RUNTY. drug stores, and had, in 1840, 1028 inhabitants, and is now estimated to contain 1200. Cadiz was laid out in 1803 or'4, by Messrs. Biggs and Beatty. Its site was then like most of the surrounding country, a forest, and its location was induced by the junction there of the road from Pittsburgh, by Steubenville, with the road from Washington, Pa., by Wellsburgh, Va., from where the two united, passed by Cambridge to Zanesville; and pre vious to the construction of the national road through Ohio, was travelled more, perhaps, than any other road northwest of the Ohio river. In April, 1807, it contained the following named persons, with their families: Jacob Arnold, innkeeper; Andrew M'Neeley, hatter, and justice of the peace; Joseph Harris, merchant; John Jamison, tanner; John M'Crea, wheelwright, Robt. Wilkin, brickmaker; Connell Abdill, shoemaker; Jacob Myers, carpenter, John Pritchard, blacksmith; Nathan Adams, tailor; James Simpson, reed-maker; Wm. Tingley, school teacher, and old granny Young, midwife and baker, who was subsequently elected (by the citizens of the township, in a fit of hilarity) to the office of justice of the peace; but females not being eligible to office in Ohio, the old lady was obliged to forego the pleasure of serving her constituents. The first celebration of independence in Cadiz was on the 4th of July, 1806, when the people generally, of the town and country, for miles around, attended and partook of a fine repast of venison, wild turkey, bear meat, and such vegetables as the country afforded; while for a drink, rye whiskey was used. There was much hilarity and good feeling, for at this time, men were supported for office from their fitness, rather than from their political sentiments. About one and a half miles west of Cadiz, on the northern peak of a high sandy ridge, are the remains of what is called the "standing stone," from which a branch of Stillwater derived its name. The owner of the land has quarried off its top some eight feet. It is sandstone, and was originally from 16 to 18 feet high, about 50 feet around its base, and tapered from midway up to a cone-like top, being only about 20 feet around near its summit. It is said to have been a place of great resort by the Indians, and its origin has been a subject of speculation with many persons. It is, however, what geologists term a boulder, and was brought to its present position from, perhaps, a thousand miles north, embedded in a huge mass of ice, in some great convulsion of nature, ages since. The following is a list of the most important villages in the county with their distance and direction from Cadiz, and population in 1840 Harrisville, 9 southeast, 262; New Jefferson, 11 northeast, 155 New Rumley, 11 north, 136; Deersville, 12 west, 202; Freeport, 17 south of west, 255; Moorfield, 12 southwest, 210; Athens, 6 south, 319. At this last, is Franklin college, a respectable institution, founded in 1825, which has at present 65 students and a library of near 2,000 volumes. Quite a number of students have graduated there, and its situation, in regard to retirement, economy and health, is auspicious to its success. At present, Rev. Alex. D. Clark is pre 4 244

Page  245 HENRY C)UNTY. sident, Rev. Andrew M. Black, prof. of languages, and Rev. Joseph Gorden, prof. of mathematics.* HENRY. HENRY was formed, April 1st, 1820, from old Indian territory, and named from Patrick Henry, the celebrated Virginian orator in the revolutionary era. This county is well supplied with running streams, and the soil naturally rich and productive. The principal products are Indian corn, oats, potatoes and maple sugar. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Adams, 188 Fredonia, 105 Richfield, 83 Damascus, 489 Napoleon, 609 Richland, 542 Flatrock, 476 The population of Henry, in 1840, was 2,492, or 5 inhabitants to a square mile. A greater part of this county is covered by the famous "Black Swamp." This tract reaches over an extent of country of one hundred and twenty miles in length, with an average breadth of forty miles, about equalling in area the state of Connecticut. It is at present thinly settled, and has a population of about 50,000; but, probably, in less than a century, when it shall be cleared and drained, it will be the garden of Ohio, and support half a million of people. The surface is generally high and level, and "sustains a dense growth of forest-trees, among which beech, ash, elm, and oak, cotton wood and_ poplar, most abound. The branches and foliage of this magnificent! forest are almost impenetrable to the rays of the sun, and its gloomy silence remained unbroken until disturbed by the restless emigrants of the west." It is an interesting country to travel through. The perfect uniformity of the soil, the level surface of the ground, alike retaining and alike absorbing water, has given to the forest a homogeneous character: the trees are all generally of the same height, so that when viewed at a distance through the haze, the forest appears like an immense blue wall, stretched across the horizon. It is yet the abode of wild animals: flocks of deer are occasionally seen bounding through its labyrinths, flowers and flowering shrubs bloom in its midst, and beautiful birds make it vocal with melody. Throughout the swamp, a mile or two apart, are slight ridges of limestone, from 40 rods to a mile wide, running usually in a westerly direction, and covered with black walnut, butternut, red elm and maple. The top soil of the swamp is about a foot thick, and com. posed of a black, decayed vegetable matter, extremely fertile. Beneath this, and extending several feet, is a rich yellow clay, having large quantities of the fertilizing substances of lime and silex. Lower * The facts embodied under the head of Harrison county, were mainly derived from the communication of a gentleman residing in Cadiz. 245

Page  246 HENRY COUNTY. still is a stratum of black clay of great depth. The water of the swamp is unpleasant to the taste, from containing a large quantity of sulphur: it is, however, healthy and peculiarly beneficial to persons of a costive habit, or having diseases of the blood. The soil is excellent for grain and almost all productions: garden vegetables and fruit thrive wonderfully. We were shown an orchard of apple trees, some of which had attained the height of 20 feet, and measured at their base 20 inches, which, when first planted, five years since, were mere twigs, but a few feet in height, and no larger than one's finger. The notorious Simon Girty once resided 5 miles above Napoleon, at a place still called "Girty's Point." His cabin was on the bank of the Maumee, a few rods west of the residence of Mr. Elijah Gunn. All traces of his habitation have been obliterated by culture, and a fine farm now surrounds the spot. Simon Girty was from Pennsylvania, to which his father had emigrated from Ireland. The old man was beastly intemperate, and nothing ranked higher in his estimation than a jug of whiskey "Grog was his song, and grog would he have." His sottishness turned his wife's affection. Ready for seduction, she yielded her heart to a neighboring rustic, who, to remove all obstacles to their wishes, knocked Girty on the head and bore off the trophy of his prowess. Four sons of this interesting couple were left, Thomas, Simon, George and James. The three latter were taken prisoners, in Braddock's war, by the Indians. George was adopted by the Delawares, became a ferocious savage, and died in a drunken fit. James was adopted by the Shawnees, and became as depraved as his other brothers. It is said, he often visited Kentucky, at the time of its first settlement, and in flicted most barbarous tortures upon all captive women who came within his reach. Traders, who were acquainted with him, say, so furious was he, that he would not have turned on his heel to save a prisoner from the flames. To this monster are to be attributed many of the cruelties charged upon his brother Simon; yet he was caressed by Proctor and Elliott. Simon was adopted by the Senecas, and became an expert hunter. In Kentucky and Ohio, *he sustained the character of an unrelenting barbarian. Sixty years ago, with his name was associated every thing cruel and fiend-like. To the women and children, in particular, nothing was more terrifying than the name of Simon Girty. At that time, it was believed by many that he had fled from justice and sought refuge among the Indians, determined to do his countrymen all the harm in his power. This impression was an erroneous one. Being adopted by the Indians, he joined them in their wars, and conformed to their usages. This was the education he had received, and their foes were his. Although trained in all his pursuits as an Indian, it is said to be a fact susceptible of proof, that, through his impor tunities, many prisoners were saved from death. His influence was great, and when he chose to be merciful, it was generally in his power to protect the imploring captive. His reputation was that of an honest man, and he fulfilled his engagements to the last cent. It is said, he once sold his horse rather than to incur the odium of violating his promise. He was intemperate, and when intoxicated, ferocious and abusive alike of friends and foes. Although much disabled the last ten years of his life, by rheumatism, he rode to his hunting grounds in pursuit of game. Suffering the most excruciating pains, he often boasted of his warlike spirit. It was his constant wish, one that was gratified, that he might die in battle. He was at Proctor's defeat, and was cut to pieces by Col. Johnson's mounted men. The above we derive from Campbell's sketches. We have, in addition, some anecdotes and facts, which throw doubt over the character of Simon Girty, as there given. In September, 1777, Girty led the attack on Fort Henry, on the site of Wheeling, during which he appeared at the window of a cabin, with a white flag, and demanded the surrender of the fort in tho name of his Britannic majesty. He read the proclamation of Gov. Hamilton, and promised the protection of the crown if they would 246

Page  247 HENRY COUNTY. lay down their arms and swear allegiance to the king. He warned them to submit peaceably, and admitted his inability to restrain his warriors, when excited in the strife of battle. Col. Shepherd, the commandant, promptly replied, that they would never surrender to him, and that he could only obtain possession of the fort when there remained no longer an American soldier to defend it. Girty renewed his proposition, but it was abruptly ended by a shot from a thoughtless youth, and Girty retired and opened the siege, which proved unsuccessful. Baker's station, in that vicinity, was also attacked, not far from this time, by Girty and his band, but without success. In August, 1782, a powerful body of Indians, led by Girty, appeared before Bryan's station, in Kentucky, about five miles from Lexington. The Kentuckians made such a gallant resistance, that the Indians became disheartened, and were about abandoning the siege; upon this, Girty thinking he might frighten the garrison into a surrender, mounted a stump, within speaking distance, and commenced a parley. He told them who he was, that he looked hourly for reinforcemnents with cannon, and that they had better surrender at once; if they did so, no one should be hurt; otherwise, he feared they would all fall victims. The garrison were intimidated; but one young man, named Reynolds, seeing the effect of this harangue, and believing his story, as it was, to be false, of his own accord, answered him in this wise: "You need not be so particular to tell us your name; we know your name and you too. I've had a villainous untrustworthy cur dog this long while, named Simon Girty, in compliment to you; he's so like you-just as ugly and just as wicked. As to the cannon, let them come on; the country's roused, and the scalps ot your red cut-throats, and your own too, will be drying on our cabins in twenty-four hours; and if, by chance, you or your allies do get into the fort, we've a big store of rods laid in, on purpose to scourge you out again." This method of Reynolds was effectual; the Indians withdrew, and were pursued a few days after, the defenders of the fort being reinforced, to the Blue licks, where the Indians lay in ambush, and defeated the Kentuckians with great slaughter. Girty was also at St. Clair's defeat and led the attack on Colerain. Dr. Knight, in his narrative of his captivity and burning of Col. Crawford, (see Wyandot co.,) speaks of the cruelty of Simon Girty to the colonel and himself. Col. John Johnston corroborates the account of Dr. Knight. In a communication before us he says. "He was notorious for his cruelty to the whites, who fell into the hands of the Indians. His cruelty to the unfortunate Col. Crawford, is well known to myself, and although I did not witness the tragedy, I can vouch for the facts of the case, having had them from eye witnesses. When that brave and unfortunate commander was suffering at the stake by a slow fiAe, in order to lengthen his misery to the longest possible time, he besought Girty to have him shot, to end his torments, when the monster mocked him by firing powder without ball at him. Crawford and Girty had been intimately acquainted in the 247

Page  248 HENRY COUNTY. early settlement of Penlsylvania; I knew a brother of the latter at Pittsburg, in 1793. When Simon Kenton was taken prisoner, his life was saved through the interposition of Girty. (See a sketch of Kenton in Logan county.) Mr. Daniel M. Workman, now living in Logan county, gave us orally the following respecting the last years of Girty. In 1813, said hle, I went to Malden and put up at a hotel kept by a Frenchman. I noticed in the bar-room, a grey headed and blind old man. The landlady, who was his daughter, a woman of about thirty years of age, inquired of me, "'Do you know who that is'" pointing to the old man. On my replying, "No!" she rejoined, it is Simon Girty! He had then been blind about four years. In 1815, I returned to Malden and ascertained that Girty had died a short time previous. Simon Kenton informed me that Girty left the whites, because he was not promoted to the command of a company or a battallion. I was also so informed by my father-in-law, who was taken prisoner by the Indians. Girty was a man of extraordinary strength, power of endurance, courage and sagacity. He was in height about 5 feet 10 inches and strongly made. Oliver M. Spencer, who was taken prisoner by the Indians while a youth, in 1792, in his narrative of his captivity makes some merntion of the Girtys. While at Defiance, the old Indian priestess, Cooh-coo-cheeh, with whom he lived, took him to a Shawnee village, a short distance below, on a visit. There he saw the celebrated chief; Blue Jacket, and Simon Girty, of whom he speaks as follows: One of the visitors of Blue Jacket, (the Snake,) was a plain, grave chief of sage appearance; the other, Simon Girty, whether it was from prejudice, associating with his look the fact, that he was a renegado, the murderer of his own countrymen, racking his diabolic invention to inflict new and more excruciating tortures, or not, his dark shaggy hair, his low forehead, his brows contracted, and meeting above his short flat nose; his grey sunkeni eyes, averting the ingenious gaze; his lips thin and compressed, and the dark and sinister expression of his countenance, to me, seemed the very picture of a villain. He wore the Indian costume, but without any ornament; and his silk handkerchief, while it supplied the place of a hat, hid an unsightly wound in his forehead. On each side, in his belt, was stuck a silver-mounted pistol, and at his left, hung a short broad dirk, serving occasionally the uses of a knife. He made of me many inquiries; some about my family, and the particulars of my captivity; but more of the strength of the different garrisons; the number of American troops at Fort Washington, and whether the president intended soon to send another army against the Indians. He spoke of the wrongs he had received at the hands of his countrymen, and with fiendish exultation of the revenge he had taken. He boasted of his exploits, of the number of his victories, and of his personal prowess; then raising his handkerchief, and exhibiting the deep wound in his forehead, (which I was afterwards told was inflicted by the tomahawk of the celebrated Indian chief, Brandt, in a drunken frvlic,) said it was a sabre cut, which he received in battle at St. Clair's defeat; adding with an oath, that he had "sent the d-d Yankee officer" that gave it," to h-l." He ended by telling me that I would never see home; but if I should turn out to be a good hunter and a brave warrior, I might one day be a chief." His presence and conversation having rendered my situation painful, I was not a little relieved when, a few hours after, ending our visit, we returned to our quiet lodge on the bank of the Maumee. Just before Spencer was liberated from captivity, he had an interview with Joseph Girty, and not a very pleasant one either, judging from his narration of it. Elliot ordered Joseph to take me over to James Girty's, where he said our breakfast would be provided. Girty's wife soon furnished us with some coffee, wheat bread, and stewed pork and venison, of which (it being so much better than the food to which I had been lately accustomed) I ate with great goat; but I had not more than half breakfasted, when Girty came in, and seating himself opposite me, said, "So, my young Yankee, you're about to start for home." I answered," Yes, sir, I hope so." That, he said, would depend on my master, in whose kitchen he had no doubt I should first serve a few years' apprenticeship as a scullion. Then taking his knife, said,'while sharpening it on a whet 248

Page  249 HIGHLAND COUNTY. stone,) "I see your ears are whole yet, but I'm d-n-y mistaken if you leave this without the Indian ear mark, that we may know you when we catch you again." I did not wait to prove whether he was in jest, or in downright earnest; but leaving my breakfast half finished, I instantly sprang from the table, leaped out of the door, and in a few seconds took refuge in Mr. Ironside's house. On learning the cause of my flight, Elliot uttered a sardonic laugh, deriding my unfounded childish fears, as he was pleased to term them; but Ironside looked serious, shaking his head, as if he had no doubt that if I had remained, Girty would have executed his threat. We finish this notice of the Girtys by a brief extract from the Mss. of Jonathan Alder, who knew Simon-showing that he Was by no means wholly destitute of kind feelings. I knew Simon Girty to purchase at his own expense, several boys who were prisoners, take them to the British and have them educated. He was certainly a friend to many prisoners. * Napoleon, the county seat, is on the Maumee river and Wabash and Erie canal, 17 miles below Defiance, 40 above Toledo and 154 NW. of Columbus. It is a small village containing about 300 inhabitants. Florida, 8 miles above, on the canal, is also a small town. HIGHLAND. HIGHLAND was formed in May, 1805, from Ross, Adams and Clermont, and so named because on the high land between the Scioto and Little Miami. The surface is part rolling and part level, and the soil various in its quality. As a whole, it is a wealthy and productive county, and the wheat raised here being of a superior quality, commands the highest market price. The principal productions are wheat, Indian corn, oats, maple sugar, wool, swine and cattle. The following is a list of its townships, in 1840, with their population. Brush Creek, 1502 Jackson, 2352 Paint, 2560 Clay, 783 Liberty, 3521 Salem, 1004 Concord, 1014 Madison, 1916 Union, 1089 Dodson, 795 New Market, 1302 White Oak, 887 Fairfield, 3544 The population of Highland in 1820, was 12,308; in 1830, 16,347; in 1840, 22,269, or 40 inhabitants to a square mile. This county was first settled about the year 1801; the principal part of the early settlers were from Virginia and North Carolina, many of whom were Friends. The first settlement was made in the vicinity of New Market, by Oliver Ross, Robert Huston, Geo. W. Barrere and others. Among the settlers of the county, was Bernard Weyer, the discoverer of the noted cave in Virginia, known as" Weyer's cave," who is yet living on the rocky fork of Paint creek. The celebrated pioneer and hunter, Simon Kenton, made a trace through this county, which passed through or near the site of Hillsboro': it is designated in various land titles as" Kenton's Trace." In the southeastern part of the county, near the village of Sinking Spring, is an eminence five hundred feet above Brush creek, which 32 249

Page  250 HIGHLAND COUNTY. washes its base, called "Fort Hill;" on its summit, is an ancient work of over half a mile in length; a full description and drawing of which, by Dr. John Locke, is in the Geological Reports of Ohio Gorge in Rocky Fork of Paint Oreek. About 13 miles east of Hillsborough, near the county line and road to Chillicothe, the Rocky fork of Paint creek passes for about two miles, previous to its junction with the main stream, through a deep gorge, in some places more than a hundred feet in depth, and forming a series of wild picturesque views, one of which, at a place called "the narrows," is here represented. In the ravine are numerous caves, which are much visited. One or two of them have been explored for a distance of several hundred yards. Hillsborough, the county seat, is on the dividing ridge between the Miami and Scioto, in a remarkably healthy situation, 62 miles southeasterly from Columbus, and 36 westerly from Chillicothe. It was laid out as the seat of justice in 1807, on land of Benjamin Ellicott, of Baltimore, the site being selected by David Hays, the commissioner appointed for that purpose. Prior to this, the seat of justice 250

Page  251 HIGHLAND COUNTY. was at New Market, although the greater part of the population of Highland, was north and east of Hillsborough. The original town plat comprised 200 acres, 100 of which Mr. Ellicott gave to the View in Hillsborough. county, and sold the remainder at $2 per acre. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist and 1 Baptist church, 2 newspaper. printing offices, 14 stores, and had in 1840, 868 inhabitants. It is a neat village, the tone of society elevated, and its inhabitants disposed to foster the literary institutions situated here. The Hillsborough academy was founded in 1827; its first teacher was the Rev. J. M'D. Mathews. A charter was obtained shortly after, and the funds of the institution augmented by two valuable tracts, comprising 2000 acres, given by Maj. Adam Hoops and the late Hon. John Brown, of Kentucky. A handsome brick building has been purchased by its trustees, on a beautiful eminence near the town, which is devoted to the purposes of the institution. It has the nucleus for a fine library, and ere long will possess an excellent philosophical and chemical apparatus. It is now very flourishing, and has a large number of pupils; "the classical and mathematical courses are as thorough and extensive, as at any college in the west;" instruction is also given in other branches usually taught in colleges. Especial attention is given to training young men as teachers. It is under the charge of Isaac Sarns, Esq. The Oakland female seminary, a chartered institution, was commenced in 1839, by the Rev. J. M'D. Mathews, who has still charge of it. It now has over 100 pupils, and is in excellent repute. Diplomas are conferred upon its graduates. The academy is beautifully located in the outskirts of the village, and is well furnished with maps, apparatus, &c., and has a small library. The HoN. WILLIAM A. TRIMBLE was born in Woodford, Ky., April 4th, 1786. His father, Capt. James Trimble, had emigrated with his family from Augusta, Va., to Kentucky. In the year 1804, being deeply impressed with the evils of slavery, he was about to remove into Highland, when he was taken unwell and died. His son William graduated at Transylvania university, after which he returned to Ohio, spent some time in the office of his brother Allen, since Gov. Trimble, later studied law at Litchfield, Conn., and returned to Highland and commenced the practice of his profession. At the breaking out of the war of 1812, he was chosen major in the Ohio vwlunteers, 251

Page  252 HOCKING COUNTY. was at Hull's surrender and was liberated on his patrole. Some time in the following winter he was regularly exchanged, and in March was commissioned major in the 26th regiment. In the defence of and sortie from Fort Erie, he acted with signal bravery, and received a severe wound, which was the prominent cause of his death, years after. He continued in the army until 1819, with the rank of brevet lieutenant colonel, at which time he was elected to the national senate, to succeed Mr. Morrow, whose time of ser vice had expired. In December, 1819, he took his seat, and soon gave promise of much future usefulness. He progressed for two sessions of congress in advancing the public interest, and storing his mind with useful knowledge, when nature yielded to the recurring shocks of disease, and he died, Dec. 13th, 1821, aged 35 years. Greenfield, in the northeast corner of the county, 19 miles from Hillsborough and 21 west of Chillicothe, on Paint creek, in a beautiful and highly cultivated co.intry, is a flourishing town, containing 4 churches, a printing office, an academy, a large number of stores which do an extensive business, and a population nearly equal to the county seat. Large quantities of corn are raised in that section, on the bottom lands of the various streams. Near the town are excellent limestone quarries, and one of a fine-grained sandstone. The following is a list of towns in the county, with their distances and directions from Hillsborough and population, in 1840; Leesburgh, 11 north, 298; Lexington, 11 west of north, 151; Lynchburg, 10 west, 102; Marshall, 9 south of east, 126; New Market, 6 south, 212; Petersburg, 10 north of east, 278; Rainsborough, 10 east, 115, and Sinking Spring, 16 southeast, 223; Belfast, Buford, Danville, Monroe, Mourytown, Dodsonville, Allensburgh and New Boston, are small places. HOCKING. HocKING was formed March 1st, 1818, from Ross, Athens and Fairfield. The land is generally hilly and broken, but along the streams, level and fertile. The principal products are Indian corn, wheat, tobacco and maple sugar. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Benton, 448 Jackson, 472 Starr, 622 Falls, 1625 Laurel, 836 Swan, 759 Good Hope, 469 Marion, 1370 Washington, 1124 Greene, 1189 Salt Creek, 821 The population of Hocking, in 1820, was 2080; in 1830, 4008, and in 1840, 9735, or 22 inhabitants to a square mile. The name of this county is a contraction of that of the river Hockhocking, which flows through it. Hock-hock-ing, in the language of the Delaware Indians, signifies a bottle: the Shawnees have it, TVea-tha-kagh-qua sepe, i. e. bottle river. Jno. White, in the American Pioneer, says: "about six or seven miles northwest of Lancaster, there is a fall in the Hockhocking, of about twenty feet: above the fall, for a short distance, the creek is very narrow and straight, forming a neck, while at the falls it suddenly widens on 252

Page  253 HOCKING COUNTY. each side and swells into the appearance of the body of a bottle. The whole, when seen from above, appears exactly in the shape of a bottle, and from this fact, the Indians called the creek Hockhocking." Dr. S. P. Hildreth, in a late publication, has incidentally given a description of the wild scenery of the southwestern part of Hocking. One of the favorite descents of the Indians was down the waters of Queer creek, a tributary of Salt creek, and opened a direct course to their town of old Chillicothe. It is a wild, romantic ravine, in which the stream has cut a passage, for several miles in extent, through the solid rock, forming mural cliffs, now more than one hundred and twenty feet in height. They are also full of caverns and grottoes, clothed with dark evergreens of the hemlock and cedar. Near the outlet of this rocky and narrow valley, there stood, a few years since, a large beech tree, on which was engraven, in legible characters, " This is the road to hell, 1782." These words were probably traced by some unfortunate prisoner then on his way to the old Indian town of Chillicothe. This whole region is full of interesting scenery, and affords some of the most wild and picturesque views of any other of equal extent in the state of Ohio. It was one of the best hunting grounds for the bear; as its numerous grottoes and caverns afforded them the finest retreats for their winter quarters. These caverns were also valuable on another account, as furnishing vast beds of nitrous earth, from which the old hunters, in time of peace, extracted large quantities of saltpetre for the manufacture of gunpowder, at which art some of them were great proficients. One of these grottoes, well known to the inhabitants of the vicinity, by the name of the "Ash cave," contains a large heap of ashes piled up by the side of the rock which forms one of its boundaries. It has been estimated, by different persons, to contain several thousand bushels. The writer visited this grotto in 1837, and should say there was at that time not less than three or four hundred bushels of clean ashes, as dry and free from moisture as they were on the day they were burned. Whether they are the refuse of the old saltpetre makers, or were piled up there in the course of ages, by some of the aborigines who made these caverns their dwelling places, remains as yet a subject for conjecture. These ravines and grottoes have all been formed in the out-cropping edges of the sandstone and conglomerate rocks, which underlie the coal fields of Ohio, by the wasting action of the weather, and attrition of running water. The process is yet going on in several streams on the southwest side of Hocking county, where the water has a descent of thirty, forty or even fifty feet at a single pitch, and a fall of eighty or a hundred in a few rods. The falls of the Cuyahoga and the Hockhocking, are cut in the same geological formation. The water, in some of these branches, is of sufficient volume to turn the machinery of a a grist or sawmill, and being lined and overhung with the graceful foliage of the evergreen hemlock, furnishes some of the wildest and most beautiful scenery. This is especially so at the "Cedar falls," and "the falls of Black Jack." The country is at present but partially settled, but when good roads are opened and convenient inns established, no portion of Ohio can afford a richer treat for the lovers of wild and picturesque views. There is a tradition among the credulous settlers of this retired spot, that lead ore was found here and worked by the Indians; and many a weary day has been spent in its fruitless search among the cliffs and grottoes which line all the streams of this region. They often find ashes and heaps of cinders; and the "pot holes" in a bench of the sand rock in the "Ash cave," evidently worn by the water at a remote period, when the stream ran here, although it is now eighty or one hundred feet lower, and ten or twelve rods farther north, they imagine, were in some way used for smelting the lead. This tract of country once belonged to the Wyandots, and a con siderable town of that tribe, situated at the confluence of a small stream with the river, one mile below Logan, gives the name Oldtown to the creek. The abundance of bears, deer, elks, and occasionally buffaloes, with which the hills and vallies were stored, together with the river fishing, must have made this a desirable residence. About five miles southeast of Logan, are two mounds, of the usual conical form, about sixty feet in diameter at the base, erected entirely from stones, evidently brought from a great distance to their present location. 253

Page  254 HOCKING COUNTY. For the annexed historical sketch of the county, we are indebted to a resident. Early in the spring of 1798, several families from different places, passing through the territory of the Ohio company, settled at various points on the river, some of whom reniained, while others again started in pursuit of "the far west." The first actual settler in the county was Christian Westenhaver, from near Hagerstown, Md., of German extraction, a good practical farmer and an honest man, who died in 1829, full of years, and leaving a numerous race of descendants. In the same spring came the Brians, the Pences and the Francisco's, from western Virginia, men renowned for feats of daring prowess in hunting the bear, an animal at that time extremely numerous. As an example of the View in Logan. privations of pioneer life, when Mr. Westenhaver ascended the river with his family, a sack of corn-meal constituted no mean part of his treasures. By the accidental upsetting of his canoe, this unfortunately became wet, and consequently blue and mouldy. Nevertheless it was kept, and only on special occasions served out with their bountiful supply of bear's meat, venison and turkeys, until the approaching autumn yielded them potatoes and roasting ears, which they enjoyed with a gusto that epicures might well envy. And when fall gave the settlers a rich harvest of Indian corn, in order to reduce it to meal they had to choose between the hommony mortar, or a toilsome journey of near thirty miles over an Indian trace to the mill. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, there is but little doubt that for many years there was more enjoyment of real life than ordinarily falls to a more artificial state of society. True, though generally united, disputes would sometimes arise, and when other modes of settlement were unavailing, the last resort, a duel, decided all. But in this, no "Colt's revolver" was put in requisition, but the pugilistic ring was effectual. Here the victor's wounded honor was fuilly satisfied, and a treat of" old Monongahela" (rye whiskey) by the vanquished, restored perfect good feelings among all parties. As to deciding disputes by law, it was almost unthought of. It is true, there were some few men'ycelped justices of the peace, generally selected for strong natural sense, who admirably answered all the purposes of their election. One, a very worthy old gentleman, being present at what he considered an unlawful demonstration, commanded the peace, which command not being heeded, he immediately threw off his "warmus,"* rolled up his * The "warmus" is a working garment, similar in appearance to a "roundabout;' but more full, and being usually made of red flannel, is elastic and easy to the wearer. It is an article generally unknown in New England, New York, and the extreme northern or southern part of our country, but is more peculiar to the Germans of Pennsylvania. If any traveller, in passing through Ohio, should chance to see a large number of "lobster back" people on the farms, or about the village taverns, he may at once know, without any inquiry, that he is among the descendants of the worthy settlers of the "key-stone state." 254

Page  255 HOLMES COUNTY. sleeves, and shouted, "Boys! I'll be if you shan't keep the peace," which awful display of magisterial power instantly dispersed the terror-stricken multitude. This state of things continued with slow, but almost imperceptible alterations, until 1818, when the number of inhabitants, and their advance in civilization, obtained the organization of the county. Logan, the county seat, is on the Hockhocking river and canal, one mile below the great fall of the Hockhocking river, 47 miles SE. of Columbus, 18 below Lancaster, and 38 miles E. of Chillicothe. It was laid out about the year 1816, and contains 4 stores, 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church, and about 600 inhabitants. The view, taken near the American hotel, shows in the center the court house, an expensive and substantial structure, and on the extreme right, the printing office. There are no other villages in the county of any note. HOLMES. HOLMES was formed January 20th, 1824, from Coshocton, Tuscarawas and Wayne, and organized the succeeding year. The southwestern part is broken and very hilly, and the soil thin; the remainder of the county is hilly and uneven, but produces excellent wheat. Along Killbuck's creek, coal of a superior quality abounds. The principal products are wheat, Indian corn, oats, potatoes, maple sugar, swine, sheep and neat cattle. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Berlin, 1151 Mechanic, 1400 Ripley, 1279 German, 1281 Monroe, 898 Salt Creeek. 1730 Hardy, 1985 Paint, 1361 Walnut Creek, 1000 Killbuck, 906 Prairie, 1347 Washington, 1457 Knox, 1178 Richland, 1088 The population of Holmes, in 1830, was 9123, and in 1840, 18,061, or 45 inhabitants to a square mile. This county was named from Major Holmes, a gallant young officer of the war of 1812, who was killed in the unsuccessful attack upon Mackinac, under Colonel Croghan, August 4th, 1814. Its settlers principally originated from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia: among them are also some Swiss Germans. It was first settled about 1810, by Thomas Butler, who settled about 7 miles north of Millersburg, on the Wooster road, and Peter Casey, who built a cabin half a mile west of the county seat. About this time, William and Samuel Morrison and George Carpenter settled on Doughty's fork, 8 miles south of the court house. In the late war, there was a block house erected, called "Morgan's block house," just over the northern line of the county, on the road to Wooster. There were 24000 acres of choice land scattered about the county of the Connecticut Western Reserve school land, which, not being in market until 1831, operated disadvantageously to the dense settle 255

Page  256 HOLMES COUNTY. ment of the country. Since then, Holmes has more than doubled its population. Nearly 2 miles south of Millersburg, on land belonging to the Rev. Alexander Campbell, of Bethany, is a strongly impregnated chalybeate spring. In the northwest corner of Holmes, is "Odell's lake," a beautiful sheet of water, about three miles long, half a mile broad, and abounding in fish of various kinds. F ew zn ir ers urg. Millersburg, the county seat, is situated on elevated ground, surrounded by lofty hills, on Killbuck creek, 87 miles northeast of Columbus, and about 70 south of Cleveland. It was laid out in 1824, by Charles Miller and Adam Johnson, and public lots sold on the 4th of June, of that year. There had been previously, a quarter of a mile north, a town of the same name, laid out about the year 1816. The names recollected of the first settlers in the village, are Seth Hunt, Colonel Wm. Painter, Samuel S. Henry, George Stout, Samuel C. M'Dowell, R. K. Enos, Jonathan Korn, John Smurr, John Glasgow, Thomas Hoskins, James Withrow, James M'Kennan -the first lawyer in Holmes-and James S. Irvine, the first physician in the same. A short time previous to the sale, three houses were erected: the first was a frame, on the NE. corner of Jackson and Washington streets; the second, a frame, on the NE. corner of Washington and Adams streets; and the last, a log, on the site of S. C. Bever's residence. The Seceder church, the first built, was erected in 1830, and the Methodist Episcopal, in 1833. The village was laid out in the forest, and in 1830, the population reached to 320. About fourteen years since, on a Sunday afternoon, a fire broke out in the frame house on the corner of Washington and Adams streets, and destroyed a large part of the village. Among the buildings burnt, was the court house and jail, which were of log, the first standing on the NE. corner of the public square, and the other a few rods south of it. Millersburg contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal Methodist, 1 Lutheran and 1 Seceder church, 2 newspaper printing offices, 10 dry goods and 3 grocery stores, 1 foundery, 1 grist mill, and had, in 1846, 673 inhabitants. 256

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Page  257 HUTON COUNTY. In the eastern part of Holmes, is an extensive settlement of Dunkards, who originated from eastern Pennsylvania, and speak the German language. They are excellent farmers, and life in a good substantial style. The men wear long beards and shad-bellied coats, and use hooks and eyes instead of buttons;. The females are attired in petticoats and short gowns, caps without frills, and when doing out-door labor, instead of bonnets, wear broad-brimmed hats. Berlin, 7 miles E. of Millersburg, on the Dover road, has 2 churches, 5 stores, 1 foundery, 1 machine shop, and is a thriving business place, with a population of near 400. Nashville, 11 w. of M., has 3 churches, 3 stores, and something less than 300 inhabitants. Benton, Middletown, Lafayette, Oxford, Napoleon, Farmersville and New Carlisle are small villages. HURON. HURON was formed, February 7th, 1809, and organized in 1815. It originally constituted the whole of "the fire-lands." The name, Heron, was given by the French to the Wyandot tribe: its signification is probably unknown. The surface is mostly level, some parts slightly undulating; soil mostly sandy mixed with clay, forming a loam. In the northwest part are some prairies, and in the northern part are the sand ridges which run on the southern side of Lake Erie, and vary in width from a few rods to more than a mile. Huron was miuch reduced in 1838, in population and area, by the formation of Erie county. Its principal productions are hay and grass, wheat, corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, flaxseed, potatoes, butter, cheese, wool and swine. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Bronson, 1t291 Lyme, 1318 Ridgefield, 1599 Clarksfield, 1473 New Haven, 1270 Ripley, 804 Fairfield, 1067 NewLondon, 1218 Ruggles, 1244 Fitchville, 1294 Norwich, 676 Sherman, 692 Greenfield, 1460 Norwalk, 2613 Townsend, 868 Greenwich, 1067 Peru, 1998 Wakeman, 702 Hartland, 925 Richmond, 306 The population of Huron in 1820, was 6,677; in 1830, 13,340, and in 1840, 23,934, or 52 inhabitants to a square mile. Norwalk, the county seat, named from Norwalk, Ct., is 110 miles N. of Columbus and 16 from Sandusky City. It lies principally on a single street, extending nearly 2 miles and beautifully shaded by maple trees. Much taste is evinced in the private dwellings and churches, and in adorning the grounds around them with shrubbery. As a whole, the town is one of the most neat and pleasant in Ohio. The view given represents a small portion of the principal street: on the right is shown the court-house and jail, with a part of the public square, and in the distance is seen the tower of the Norwalk *~~~~ ~33 *1I 257 I I

Page  258 HURON COUNTY. institute. Norwalk contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist and 1 Catholic church, 9 dry goods, 1 book and 4 gro _ _. -.: - -. -:-. View in Norwalk. cery stores, 1 bank, 2 newspaper printing offices, 1 flouring mill, 2 foundries, and about 1800 inhabitants. The Norwalk institute is an incorporated academy, under the patronage of the Baptists: a large and substantial brick building, three stories in height, is devoted to its purposes; the institution is flourishing and numbers over 100 pupils, including both sexes. A female seminary has recently been commenced under auspicious circumstances, and a handsome building erected in the form of a Grecian temple. About a mile west of the village are some ancient fortifications. The site of Norwalk was first visited with a view to the founding of a town, by the Hon. Elisha Whittlesey, Platt Benedict, and one or two others, in October, 1815. The place was then in the wilderness, and there were but a few settlers in the county. The examination being satisfactory, the town plat was laid out in the spring following, by Almon Ruggles, and lots offered for sale at from $60 to $100 each. In the fall of 1817, Platt Benedict built a log house, with the intention of removing his family, but in his absence it was destroyed by fire. He reconstructed his dwelling shortly after, and thus commenced the foundation of the village. In the May after, Norwalk was made the county seat, and the public buildings subsequently erected. The year after, a census was taken, and the population had reached 109. In the first few years of the settlement, the different denominations appearing to have forgotten their peculiar doctrines, were accustomed to meet at the old court house for sacred worsl,ip, at the second blowing of the horn. In 1820, the Methodists organized a class, and in 1821, the Episcopal society was constituted. From that time to the present, the village has grown with the progressive increase of the country. In 1819, two Indians were tried and executed at Norwalk, for murder. Their names were Ne-go-sheck and Ne-gon-a-ba, the last of which is said to signify "one who walksfar." The circumstances of their crime and execution we take from the Mss. history of the "fire-lands," by the late C. B. Squier, Esq.* * For some facts respecting the history of the " fire-ii.ads;' see Erie county and the sketch of the Western Reserve in this volume. 258

Page  259 JACKSON COUNTY. In the spring of 1816, John Wood of Venice, and George Bishop bf Danbury, were trapping for muskrats on the west side of Danbury, in the vicinity of the " two harbors," so called; and having collected a few skins, had lain down for the night in their temporary hat. Three straggling Ottawa Indians came, in the course of the night, upon their camp and discovered them sleeping. To obtain their little pittance of furs, &c., they were induced to plan their destruction. Aftercompleting their arrangements, the two eldest armed themselves with clubs, singled out their victims, and each, with a well-directed blow upon their heads, dispatched them in an instant. They then forced their youngest companion, Negasow, who had been until then merely a spectator, to beat the bodies with a club, that he might be made to feel that he was a participator in the murder, and so refrain from exposing their crime. After securing whatever was then in the camp that they desired, they took up their line of march for the Maumee, avoiding, as far as possible, the Indian settlements on their course. Wood left a wife to mourn his untimely fate, but Bishop was a single man. Their bodies were found in a day or two by the whites, under such circumstances, that evinced that they had been murdered by Indians, and a pursuit was forthwith commenced. The Indians living about the mouth of Portage river, had seen these straggling Indians passing eastward, now suspected them of the crime, and joined the whites in the pursuit. They were overtaken in the neighborhood of the Maumee river, brought back and examined before a magistrate. They confessed their crime and were committed to jail. At the trial the two principals were sentenced to be hung in June, 1819: the younger one was discharged. The county of Huron had at this time no secure jail, and they were closely watched by an armed guard. They nevertheless escaped one dark night. The guard fired and wounded one of them severely in the body, but he continued to run for several miles, till tired and faint with the loss of blood, he laid down, telling his companion he should die, and urging him to continue on. The wounded man was found after the lapse of two or three days, somewhere in Penn township in a dangerous condition, but he soon recovered. The other was recaptured near the Maumee by the Indians, and brought to Norwalk, where they were both hanged according to sentence. In this transaction, the various Indian tribes evinced a commendable willingness that the laws of the whites should be carried out. Many of them attended the execution, and only requested that the bodies of their comrades should not be disturbed in their graves. There are several large and thriving villages in this county, containing each several churches and stores, and doing considerable business. Bellevue, 13 miles w. of Norwalk, on the county line and Mad river railroad, has a population of nearly 700. Paris, or Plymouth, is 20 miles ssw., on the county line, and the Sandusky City and Mansfield railroad, New Haven 17 ssw. of N., on the same railroad, and Monroeville, 5 w. of N., have each about 500 inhabitants. Maxville, or Peru, 6 ssw. of N., Steamburg, 10 s., and Fitchville, 12 SE., are of less note, though villages of importance. JACKSON. JACKSON was organized in March, 1816, and named from President Jackson. The surface is hilly, but in many parts produces excellent wheat. The county is rich in minerals, and abounds in coal and iron ore: and mining will be extensively prosecuted whenever communication is had with navigable waters by railroads. The early settlers were many of them western Virginians; and a considerable portion of its present inhabitants are from Wales and Pennsylvania, who are developing its agricultural resources. The exports are 259 I'A

Page  260 JACKSON COI'NTY. cattle, horses, wool, swine, mill-stones, lumber, tobacco and iron. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Bloomfield, 721 Jackson, 410 Milton, 912 Clinton, 824 Jefferson, 752 Richland, 548 Franklin, 1055 Liberty, 474 Scioto, 931 Hamilton, 415 Lick, 822 Washington, 481 Harrison, 378 Madison, 724 The population of Jackson, in 1820, was 3,842, in 1830, 5,941, and in 1840, 9,744; or 20 inhabitants to the square mile. Mr. Samuel Davis, who is now residing in Franklin county, near Columbus, was taken prisoner by the Indians, and made his escape while within the present limits of this county. He was born in New England, moved to the west, and was employed by the governor of Kentucky as a spy against the Indians on the Ohio. The circumstances of his captivity and escape are from his biography, by Col. John M'Donald. In the fall of 1792, when the spies were discharged, Davis concluded he would make a winter's hunt up the Big Sandy river. He and a Mr. William Campbell prepared them selves with a light canoe, with traps and ammunition, for a fall hunt. They set off from Massie's station, (Manchester,) up the Ohio; thence up Big Sandy some distance, hunting and trapping as they went along. Their success in hunting and trapping was equal to their expectation. Beaver and otter were plenty. Although they saw no Indian sign, they were very circumspect in concealing their canoe, either by sinking it in deep water, or conceal ing it in thick willow brush. They generally slept out in the hills, without fire. This con stant vigilance and care was habitual to the frontier men of that day. They hunted and trapped till the winter began to set in. They now began to think of returning, before the rivers would freeze up. They accordingly commenced a retrograde move down the river, trapping as they leisurely went down. They had been several days going down the riverthey landed on a small island covered with willows. Here they observed signs of beaver. They set their traps, dragged their canoe among the willows, and remained quiet till late in the night. They now concluded that any persons, white, red, or black, that might happen to be in the neighborhood, would be in their camp. They then made a small fire among the willows, cooked and eat their supper, and lay down to sleep without putting out their fire. They concluded that the light of their small fire could not penetrate through the thick willows. They therefore lay down in perfect self-security. Sometime before day, as they lay fast asleep, they were awakened by some fellows calling in broken English, " Come, come-get up, get up." Davis awoke from sleep, looked up, and, to his astonishment, found himself and companion surrounded by a number of Indians, and two standing over him with uplifted tomahawks. To resist, in such a case, would be to throw away their lives in hopeless struggle. They surrendered themselves prisoners. The party of Indians, consisting of upwards of thirty warriors, had crossed the Ohio about the mouth of Guyandotte river, and passed through Virginia to a station near the head of Big Sandy. They attacked the station and were repulsed, after continuing their attack two days and nights. Several Indians were killed during the siege, and several wounded. They had taken one white man prisoner from the station, by the name of Daniels, and taken all the horses belonging to the station. The Indians had taken, or made, some canoes, in which they placed their wounded and baggage, and were descending the river in their canoes. As they were moving down in the night, they discovered a glimpse of Davis's fire through the willows. They cautiously landed on the island, found Davis and Campbell fast asleep, and awakened them in the manner above related. Davis and Campbell were securely fastened with tugs, and placed in their own canoe. Their rifles, traps, and the proceeds of their successful hunt, all fell into the hands of the Indians. The Indians made no delay, but immediately set off down the river in their canoes with their prisoners, while their main force went by land, keeping along the river bottoms with the horses they had taken from the station-keeping near the canoes, so as to be able to support each other in case of pursuit or attack. Early the next day, they reached the Ohio. The wounded and prisoners were first taken across the Ohio, and placed under 260

Page  261 : JACKSON COUNTY. a guard. They returned with the canoes, (leaving their arms stacked against a tree,) to assist in getting the horses across the river. It was very cold, and as soon as the horses would find themselves swimming, they would turn round and land on the same shore. The Indians had a great deal of trouble before they got the horses across the Ohio. The guard who watched Davis and his companions, were anxious, impatient spectators of the restive disposition of the horses to take the water. Upon one occasion, the guard left the prisoners twenty or thirty yards, to have a better view of the difficulty with the horses. Davis and his fellow-prisoners were as near to where the arms were stacked as were the Indian guard. D)avis, who possessed courage and presence of mind in an eminent degree, urged his fellowprisoners to embrace the auspicious moment, seize the arms, and kill the guard. His companions faltered-they thought the attempt too perilous-should they fail of success, nothing but instant death would be the consequence. While tha prisoners were hesitating to adopt the bold plan of Davis, their guard returned to their arms, to the chagrin of Davis. This opportunity of escape was permitted to pass by without being used. Davis ever after affirmed, that if the opportunity which then presented itself for their escape had been boldly seized, their escape was certain. He frequently averred to the writer of this narrative, that if Duncan M'Arthur, Nat Beasly, or Sam. M'Dowel, had been with him upon this occasion, similarly situated, that he had no doubt they would not only have made their escape, but killed the guard and the wounded Indians, and carried off or destroyed the Indians' arms. He said, if it had not been for the pusillanimity of his fellow-prisoners, they might have promptly and boldly snatched themselves from captivity, and done something worth talking about. The opportunity, once let slip, could not again be recalled. The Indians, after a great deal of exertion, at length got the horses across the Ohio, and hastily fixed litters to carry their wounded They destroyed their canoes, and went ahead for their own country. This body of Indians was commanded by a Shawnee chief, who called himself Captain Charles Wilkey. After Wayne's treaty, in 1795, when peace blessed our frontiers, the writer of this sketch became well acquainted with this Captain Wilky. He was a short, thick, strong, active man, with a very agreeable and intelligent countenance. He was communicative and social in his manners. The first three or four years after Chillicothe was settled, this Indian mixed freely with the whites, and upon no occasion did he show a disposition to be troublesome. He was admitted by the other Indians who spoke of him, to be a warrior of the first order-fertile in expedients, and bold to carry his plans into execution. Davis always spoke of him as being kind and-humane to him. The Indians left the Ohio, and pushed across the country in the direction of Sandusky; and as they were encumbered with several wounded, and a good deal of baggage, without road or path, they travelled very slow, not more than ten or twelve miles a day. As many of the prisoners, taken by the Indians, were burned with slow fires, or otherwise tortured to death, Davis brooded over his captivity in sullen silence, and determined to effect his escape the first opportunity that would offer, that would not look like madness to embrace. At all events, he determined to effect his escape or die a fighting. The Indians moved on till they came to Salt Creek, in what is now Jackson county, O., and there camped for the night. Their manner of securing their prisoners for the night, was as follows: They took a strong tug, made from the raw hide of the buffalo or elk. This tug they tied tight around the prisoner's waist. Each end of the tug was fastened around an Indian's waist. Thus, with the same tug fastened to two Indians, he could not turn to the one side or the other, without drawing an Indian with him. In this uncomfortable manner, the prisoner had to lay on his back till the Indians thought proper to rise. If the Indians discovered the prisoner making the least stir, they would quiet him with a few blows. In this painful situation, the prisoners must lay till light in the morning, when they would be unconfined. As the company of Indians was numerous, the prisoners were unconfined in daylight, but were told that instant death would be the consequence of any movement to leave the line of march, upon any occasion whatever, unless accompanied by an Indian. One morning, just before day began to appear, as Davis lay in his uncomfortable situation, he hunched one of the Indians, to whom he was fastened, and requested to be untied. The Indian raised up his head and looked round, and found it was still dark, and no Indians up about the fires He gave Davis a severe dig with his fist, and bid him lay still. Davis's mind was now in a state of desperation. Fire and faggot, sleeping or awake, were constantly floating before his mind's eye. This torturing suspense w)uld chill his soul with horror. After sometime, a number of Indians rose - and made their fires. [t was growing light, but not light enough to draw a bead. Davis again jogged one of the Indians to whom he was fastened, and said the tug hurt his middle, and again requested the Indian to untie him. The Indian raised up his head and looked round, and saw it was getting light, and a number of Indians about the fires, he untied him. Davis rose to his feet, and was k 261

Page  262 JACKSON COUNTY. determined, as soon as he could look round and see the most probable direction of making his escape, to make the attempt, at all hazards. He " screwed his courage to the sticking point." It was a most desperate undertaking. Should he fail to effect his escape, death, instant, cruel death, was his certain doom. As he rose up to his feet, with this determined intention, his heart fluttered with tremors-his sight grew dim at the thought of the perilous plunge he was about to make. He rose up to his feet-stood a minute between the two Indians to whom he had been fastened, and took a quick glance at the Indians who were standing around him. In the evening, the Indians had cut two forks, which were stuck into the ground; a pole was laid across these forks, and all their rifles were leaned against the pole. If he made his start back from the Indian camp, the rifles of the Indians, who were standing round the fires, and who, he knew, would pursue him, would be before them; and as they started after him, they would have nothing to do but pick up a rifle as they ran. On the contrary, if he made his plunge through the midst of them, they would have to run back for their guns, and by that time, as it was only twilight in the morning, he could be so far from them that their aim would be very uncertain. All this passed through his mind in a moment. As he determined to'make his dash through the midst of the Indians who were standing around the fires, he prepared his mind and body for the dreadful attempt. The success of his daring enterprise depended on the swiftness of his heels. He knew his bottom was good. A large, active Indian was standing between Davis and the fire. He drew back his fist and struck that Indian with all his force, and dropped him into the fire; and with the agility of a buck, he sprang over his body, and took to the woods with all the speed that was in his power. The Indians pursued, yelling and screaming like demons; but, as Davis anticipated, not a gun was fired at him. Several Indians pursued him for some distance, and for some time it was a doubtful race. The foremost Indian was so close to him, that he sometimes fancied that he felt his clutch. However, at length Davis began to gain ground upon his pursuers-the breaking and rustling of brush was still farther and farther off. He took up a long, sloping ridge; when he reached the top, he, for the first time, looked back, and, to his infinite pleasure, saw no person in pursuit. He now slackened his pace, and went a mile or two further, when he began to find his feet gashed and bruised by the sharp stones over which he had run, without picking his way, in his rapid flight. He now stopped, pulled off his waistcoat, tore it in two pieces, and wrapped them around his feet, instead of moccasons. He now pushed his way for the Ohio. He crossed the Scioto river, not far from where Piketon, in Pike county, now stands. He then marched over the rugged hills of Sunfish, Camp creek, Scioto Brush creek, and Turkey creek, and struck the Ohio river eight or ten miles below the mouth of Scioto. It was about the first of January. He was nearly three days and two nights without food, fire, or covering, exposed to the winter storms. Hardy as he undoubtedly was, these exposures and privations were almost too severe for human nature to sustain. But as Davis was an unwavering believer in that All-seeing eye, whose providence prepares means to guard and protect those who put their trust in him, his confidence and courage never forsook him for a moment, during this trying and fatiguing march. When he arrived at the Ohio, he began to look about for some dry logs to make a kind of raft, on which to float down the stream. Before he began to make his raft, he looked up the Ohio, and to his infinite gratification, he saw a Kentucky boat come floating down the stream. He now thought his deliverance sure. Our fondest hopes are frequently blasted in disappointment. As soon as the boat floated opposite to him, he called to the people in the boat-told them of his lamentable captivity, and fortunate escape. The boatmen heard his tale of distress with suspicion. Many boats, about this time, had been decoyed to shore by similar tales of woe; and as soon as landed, their inmates cruelly massacred. The boatmen heard his story, but refused to land. They said they had heard too much about such prisoners, and escapes, to be deceived in his case. As the Ohio was low, he kept pace with the boat as it slowly glided along. The more pitiably he described his forlorn situation, the more determined were the boat crew not to land for him. He at length requested them to row the boat a little nearer the shore, and he would swim to them. To this proposition the boatmen consented. They commenced rowing the boat towards the shore, when Davis plunged into the freezing water and swam for the boat. The boatmen, seeing ltim swimming towards them, their suspicions gave way, and they rowed the boat with all their force to meet him. He was at length lifted into the boat, almost exhausted. (Our old boatmen, though they had rough exteriors, had Samaritan hearts.) The boatmen were not to blame for their suspicion. They now administered to his relief and comfort every thing that was in their power. That night, or the next morning, he was landed at Massie's station, (Manchester,) among his former friends and associates, where he soon recovered hi asual health and activity. 262

Page  263 JACKSON COUNTY. Jackson, the county seat, was laid out in 1817, and is 73 miles SE. of Columbus, and 28 from Chillicothe. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Episcopal Methodist and 1 Protestant Methodist church, 6 or 8 stores, 1 newspaper printing office, and, in 1840, had 297 inhabitants; since which, the town has rapidly improved, and is now judged to contain a population of 500. In this vicinity are several valuable mineral springs, and also remains of ancient fortifications. The famous "old Scioto salt-works" are in this region, on the banks of Salt creek, a tributary of the Scioto. The wells were sunk to the depth of about 30 feet, but the water was very weak, requiring ten or fifteen gallons to make a pound of salt. It was first made by the whites about the year 1798, and transferred from the kettles to pack-horses of the salt purchasers, who carried it to the various settlements, and sold it to the inhabitants for three or four dollars per bushel, as late as 1808. This saline was thought to be so important to the country, that, when Ohio was formed into a state, a tract of six miles square was set apart by Congress, for the use of the state, embracing this saline. In 1804, an act was passed by the legislature, regulating its management, and appointing an agent to rent out small lots on the borders of the creek, where the salt water was most abundant to the manufacturers.* As better and more accessible saline springs have been discovered, these are now abandoned. The expression, very common in this region," shooting one with a pack-saddle'," is said to have originated, in early days, in this way. A person, who had come on horseback, from some distance, to the salt-works to purchase salt, had his pack-saddle stolen by the boilers, who were a rough, coarse set, thrown into the salt filimace, and destroyed. He made little or no complaint, but determined to have revenge for the trick played upon him. On the next errand of this nature, he partly filled his pack-saddle with gunpowder, and gave the boilers another opportunity to steal and burn it, which they embraced-when, lo! much to their consternation, a terrific explosion ensued, and they narrowly escaped serious injury. These old salt-works were among the first worked by the whites in Ohio. They had long been known, and have been indicated on maps, published as early as 1755. The Indians, prior to the settlement of the country, used to come from long distances to make salt at this place; and it was not uncommon for them to be accompanied by whites, whom they had taken captive and adopted. Daniel Boone, when a prisoner, spent some time at these works. Jonathan Alder, a sketch of whom is under the head of Madison county, was taken prisoner, when a boy, by the Indians, in 1782, in Virginia, and adopted into one of their families, near the head waters of Mad river. He had been with them about a year, when they took him with them to the salt-works, where he met a Mrs. Martin, likewise a prisoner. The meeting between them was affecting. We give the particulars in his own simple and artless language. It was now better than a year after I was taken prisoner, when the Indians started off to the Scioto salt-springs, near Chillicothe, to iake salt, and took me alongwith them. Here I got to see Mrs. Martin, that was taken prisoner at the same time I was, and this was the first time that I had seen her since we were separated, at the council-house. When she * Dr. Hildreth on the" Saliferous Rock formation in the valley of the Ohio;" Silliman's Journal, Vol. XXIV, N4. 1, pp. 48, 49. "k. 263

Page  264 JEFFERSON COUNTY. saw me, she came smiling and asked me if it was me. I told her it was. She asked me how I had been. I told her I had been very unwell, for I had had the fever and ague for a long time. So she took me off to a log, and there we sat down; and she combed my head, and asked me a great many questions about how I lived, and if I didn't want to see my mother and little brothers. I told her that I should be glad to see them, but never expected to again. She then pulled out some pieces of her daughter's scalp, that she said were some trimmings they had trimmed off the night after she was killed, and that she meant to keep them as long as she lived. She then talked and cried about her family, that was all destroyed and gone, except the remaining bits of her daughter's scalp. We staid here a considerable time, and, meanwhile, took many a cry together; and when we parted again, took our last and final farewell, for I never saw her again. There was found in this county, about ten years since, the remains of a mastodon, described in the public prints of the time. Near the southern line of the county, is the iron furnace of Ellison, Tewksbury & Co., called "the Jackson Furnace." Allensville, Middleton, Oak Hill and Charleston, are small post villages. JEFFERSON. JEFFERSON, named from President Jefferson, was the fifth county established in Ohio: it was created by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, July 29th, 1797: its original limits included the country west of Pennsylvania and Ohio; and east and north of a line from the mouth of the Cuyahoga; southwardly to the Muskingum, and east to the Ohio: within those boundaries is Cleveland, Canton, Steubenville, Warren and many other large towns and populous counties. The surface is hilly and the soil fertile. It is one of the greatest manufacturing counties in the state, and abounds in excellent coal. The principal crops are wheat, Indian corn and oats. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Brush Creek, 757 Ross, 927 Steubenville, 5203 Cross Creek, 1702 Salem, 2044 Warren, 1945 Island Creek, 1867 Saline, 963 Wayne, 1746 Knox, 1529 Smithfield, 2095 Wells, 1492 Mount Pleasant, 1676 Springfield, 1077 The population of Jefferson, in 1820, was 18,531; in 1830,22,489, and in 1840, 25,031, or 62 inhabitants to a square mile. The old Mingo town, three miles below Steubenville, now the site of the farms of Jeremiah H. Hallock, Esq. and Mr. Daniel Potter, was a place of note prior to the settlement of the country. It was the point where the troops of Col. Williamson rendezvoused in the infamous Moravian campaign, and those of Col. Crawford, in his unfortunate expedition against the Sandusky Indians. It was also, at one time, the residence of Logan, the celebrated Mingo chief, whose form was striking and manly, and whose magnanimity and eloquence has seldom been equalled. He was a son of the Cayuga chief Skikellimus, who dwelt at Shamokin, Pa., in 1742, and was converted to Christianity, under the preaching of the Moravian missionaries. Skikellimus highly esteemed James Logan, the secre 264

Page  265 JEFFERSON COUNTY. tary of the province, named his son from him, and probably had him baptized by the missionaries. In early life, Logan for a while dwelt in Pennsylvania: and in Day's Historical Collections of that state, is a view in Mifflin county, of Logan's spring, which will long remain a memorial of this distinguished chief. The letter below, gives an incident which occurred there, that speaks in praise of Logan. It was written by the Hon. R. P. Maclay, a member of the state senate, and son of the gentleman alluded to in the anecdote, and published in the Pitts burg Daily American. Senate Chamber, March 21, 1842. DEAR SIR-Allow me to correct a few inaccuracies as to place and names, in the anecdote of Logan, the celebrated Mingo chief, as published in the Pittsburg Daily American of March 17th, 1842, to which you callcd my attention. The person surprised at the spring now called the Big spring, and about six [four] miles west of Logan's spring, was William Brown-the first actual settler in a Kishacoquillas valley, and one of the associate judges in Mifflin county, from its organization till his death, at the age of ninety-one or two-and not Samuel Maclay, as stated by Dr. Hudreth. I will give you the anecdote as I heard it related by Judge Brown himself, while on a visit to my brother, who then owned and occupied the Big Spring farm.* "The first time I ever saw that spring," said the old gentleman, "my brother, James Reed and myself, had wandered out of the valley in search of land, and finding it very good, we were looking about for springs. About a mile from this we started a bear, and separated to get a shot at him. I was travelling along, looking about on the rising ground for the bear, when I came suddenly upon the spring; and being dry, and more rejoiced to find so fine a spring than to have killed a dozen bears, I set my rifle against a bush and rushed down the bank and laid down to drink. Upon putting my head down, I'saw reflected in the water, on the opposite side, the shadow of a tall Indian. I sprang to my rifle, when the Indian gave a yell, whether for peace or war I was not just then sufficiently master of my faculties to determine; but upon my seizing my rifle, and facing him, he knocked up the pan of his gun, threw out the priming, and extended his open palm toward me in token of friendship. After putting down our guns, we again met at the spring, and shook hands. This was Logan-the best specimen of humanity I ever met with, either white or red. He could speak a little English, and told me there was another white hunter a little way down the stream, and offered to guide me to his camp. There I first met your father. We remained together in the valley a week, looking for springs and selecting lands, and laid the foundation of a friendship which never has had the slightest inter We visited Logan at his camp, at Logan's spring, and your father and he shot at a mark for a dollar a shot. Logan lost four or five rounds, and acknowledged himself beaten. When we were about to leave him, he went into his hut, and brought out as many deer skins as he had lost dollars, and handed them to Mr. Maclay-who refused to take them, alledging that we had been his guests, and did not come to rob him-that the shooting had been only a trial of skill, and the bet merely nominal. Logan drew himself op with great dignity, and said,' Me bet to make you shoot your best-me gentleman, and me take your dollar if me beat.' So he was obliged to take the skins, or affront our friend, whose nice sense of honor would not permit him to receive even a horn of powder in return. "The next year;' said the old gentleman, "I brought my wife up and camped under a big walnut tree, on the bank of Tea creek, until I had built a cabin near where the mill now stands, and have lived in the valley ever since. Poor Logan" (and the big tears Yours, R. P. MACLAY. Mrs. Norris, who lives near the site of Logan's spring, is a daughter of Judge Brown: she confirmed the above, and gave Mr. Day * This spring is a few rods south of the Huntington road, in the rear of a blacksmith's shop, four miles west of Reedville. 34 265

Page  266 JEFFERSON COUNTY. the following additional incidents, highly characteristic of the be nevolent chief which we take firom that gentleman's work. Logan supported his family by killing deer, dressing the skins, and selling them to the whites. He had sold quite a parcel to one De Yong, a tailor, who lived in Ferguson's valley, below the gap. Tailors in those days dealt extensively in buckskin breeches. Logan received his pay, according to stipulation, in wheat. The wheat, on being taken to the mill, was found so worthless that the miller refused to grind it. Logan was much cha grined, and attempted in vain to obtain redress from the tailor. He then took the matter before his friend Brown, then a magistrate; and on the judge's questioning him as to the character of the wheat, and what was in it, Logan sought in vain to find words to express the precise nature of the article with which the wheat was adulterated, but said that it resembled in appearance the wheat itself, "It must have been cheat," said the judge. "Yoh!" said Logan, "that very good name for him." A decision was awarded in Logan's favor, and a writ given to Logan to hand to the constable, which, he was told, would bring him the money for his skins. But the untutored Indian-too uncivilized to be dishonestcould not comprehend by what magic this little paper would force the tailor, against his will, to pay for the skins. The judge took down his own commission, with the arms of the king upon it, and explained to him the first principles and operations of civil law. " Law good," said Logan; "make rogues pay." But how much more simple and efficient was the law which the Great Spirit had impressed upon his heart-to do as he would be done by! When a sister of Mrs. Norris (afterwards Mrs. Gen. Potter) was just beginning to learn to walk, her mother happened to express her regret that she could not get a pair of shoes to give more firmness to her little step. Logan stood by, but said nothing. He soon after asked Mrs. Brown to let the little girl go up and spend the day at his cabin. The cautious heart of the mother was alarmed at such a proposition; but she knew the delicacy of an Indian's feelingsand she knew Logan, too-and with secret reluctance, but apparent cheerfulness, she complied with his request. The hours of the day wore very slowly away, and it was nearly night, when her little one had not returned. But just as the sun was going down, the trusty chief was seen coming down the path with his charge; and in a moment more the little one trotted into her mother's arms, proudly exhibiting a beautiful pair of moccasons on her little feet-the product of Logan's skill. Logan took no part in the old French war, which ended in 1760, except that of a peace maker, and was always the friend of the white people until the base murder of his family, to which has been attributed the origin of Dunmore's war. This event took place near the mouth of Yellow creek, in this county, about 17 miles above Steubenville. The circumstances have been variously related. We annex them as given by Henry Jolly, Esq., who was for a number of years an associate judge on the bench of Washington county, in this state. The facts are very valuable, as coming from the pen of one who saw the party the day after the murder; was personally acquainted with some of the individuals, and familiar with that spot and the surrounding region.* He says: I was about sixteen years of age, but I very well recollect what I then saw, and the information that I have since obtained, was derived from (I believe) good authority. In the spring of the year 1774, a party of Indians encamped on the northwest of the Ohio near the mouth of the Yellow creek. A party of whites, called "Greathouse's party,' lay on the opposite side of the river. The Indians came over to the white party, consisting, I think, of five men and one woman, with an infant. The whites gave them rum, which three of them drank, and in a short time they became very drunk The other two men and the woman refused to drink. The sober Indians were challenged to shoot at a mark, to which they agreed; and as soon as they had emptied their guns, the whites shot them down. The woman attempted to escape by flight, but was also shot down; she lived long enough, however, to beg mercy for her babe, telling them that it was a kin to themselves. The whites had a man in the cabin, pre * This statement was written for Dr. S. P. Hildreth, by Mr. Jolly, and published in Silli. man's Journal, for 1836. 266

Page  267 JEFFERSON COUNTY. pared with a tomahawk for the purpose of killing the three drunken Indians, which was immediately done. The party of men then moved off for the interior settlements, and came to "Catfish camp" on the evening of the next day, where they tarried until the day following. I very well recollect my mother feeding and dressing the babe; chirruping to the little innocent, and its smiling. However, they took it away, and talked of sending it to its supposed father, Col. George Gibson, of Carlisle, Pa., "who was then, and had been for many years a trader among the Indians." The remainder of the party at the mouth of Yellow creek, finding that their friends on the opposite side of the river were massacred, attempted to escape by descending the Ohio; and in order to prevent being discovered by the whites, passed on the west side of Wheeling island, and landed at Pipe creek, a small stream that empties into the Ohio a few miles below Grave creek, where they were overtaken by Cresap, with a party of men from Wheeling.* They took one Indian scalp, and had one white man (Big Tarrenler) badly wounded. They, I believe, carried him in a litter from Wheeling to Redstone. I saw the party on their return from their victorious campaign. The Indians had for some time before these events, thought themselves intruded upon by the " Long Knife," as they at that time called the Virginians, and many of them were for war. However, they called a council, in which Logan acted a conspicuous part. He admitted their grounds of complaint, but at the same time reminded them of some aggressions on the part of the Indians, and that by a war they could but harrass and distress the frontier settlements for a short time; that "the Long Knife" would come like the trees in the woods, and that ultimately they should be driven from the good lands which they now possessed. He therefore strongly recommended peace. To him they all agreed; grounded the hatchet, and every thing wore a tranquil appearance; when behold, the fiugitives arrived from Yellow creek; and reported that Logan's father, brother and sister, were murdered! Three of the nearest and dearest relations of Logan, had been massacred by white men. The consequence was, that this same Logan, who a few days before was so pacific, raised the hatchet, with a declaration that he would not ground it until he had taken ten for one; which I believe he completely fulfilled, by taking thirty scalps and prisoners in the summer of 1774. The above has often been related to me by several persons who were at the Indian towns at the time of the council alluded to, and also when the remains of the party came in from Yellow creek. Thomas Nicholson in particular, has told me the above and much more. Another person (whose name I cannot recollect) in formed me that he was at the towns when the Yellow creek Indians came in, and that there was great lamentation by all the Indians of that place. Some friendly Indian advised him to leave the Indian settlements, which he did. Could any rational person believe for a moment, that the Indians came to Yellow creek with hostile intentions, or that they had any suspicion of similar intentions on the part of the whites, against them? Would five men have crossed the river, three of them become in a short time dead drunk, while the other two discharged their guns, and thus put themselves entirely at the mercy of the whites; or would they have brought over a squaw with an infant pappoos, if they had not reposed the utmost confidence in the friendship of the whites? Every person who is at all acquainted with Indians knows better; and it was the belief of the inhabitants who were capable of reasoning on the subject, that all the depredations committed on the frontiers, by Logan and his party, in 1774, were as a retaliation for the murder of Logan's friends at Yellow creek. It was well known that _lichael Cresap had no hand in the massacre at Yellow creek.t During the war which followed, Logan frequently showed his magnanimity towards prisoners who fell into his hands. Among them was Maj. Wm. Robinson, of Clarksburg, Va., from whose de claration, given in Jefferson's Notes, and information orally commu * Cresap did not live at Wheeling, but happened to be there at that time with a party of men, who had, with himself, just returned from an exploring expedition down the Ohio, for the purpose of selecting and appropriating lands (called in the west, locating lands) along the river in choice situations; a practice at that early day very common, when Virginia claimed both sides of the stream, including what is now the state of Ohio.-S. P. H. f A brother of Capt. Daniel Greathouse, said to have been present at the massacre, was killed by the Indians the 24th March, 1791, between the mouth of the Scioto and Limestone, while emigrating to Kentucky in a flat boat, with his family. He seems to have made little or no resistance to the Indians, who attacked him in canoes. They probably knew who he was, and remembered the slaughter of Logan's family, as he was taken on shore, tied to a tree, and whipped to death with rods.-S. P. H. 267 I

Page  268 JEFFERSON COUNTY. niotated by his son, Col. Jamnes Robinson, now living near Coshoctoii, these facts are derived. On the 12th of July, 1774, Major Robinson, then a resident on the west fork of Monongahela river, was in the field with Mr. Colburn B3rown and Mr. Helen, pulling flax, when they were surprised and fired upon by a party of eight Indians, led by Logan. lMr. Brown was killed and the other two made prisoners. On the first alarm, Mr. Robinson started and ran. When he had got about 50 yards, Logan called out in English, "Stop, I won't hurt you!" "Yes, you will," replied Robinson, in tones of fear. "No, I won't," rejoined Logan, "but if you don't stop, by - I'll shoot you." Robinson still continued his race, but stumbling over a log, fell and was made cap tive by a fleet savage in pursuit. Logan immediately made himself known to Mr. Robinson and manifested a friendly disposition to him, told him that he must be of good heart and go with him to his town, where he would probably be adopted in some of their families. When near the Indian village, on the site of Dresden, Muskingum county, Logan informed him that he must run the gauntlet, and gave him such directions, that he reached the council-house without the slightest harm. He was then tied to a stake for the purpose of being burnt, when Logan arose and addressed the assembled council of chiefs, in his behalf. He spoke long and with great energy, until the saliva foamed from the sides of his mouth. This was followed by other chiefs in opposition, and rejoinders from Logan. Three separate times was he tied to the stake to be burnt, the councils of the hostile chiefs prevailing, and as often untied by Logan and a belt of wampum placed around him as a mark of adoption. His life appeared to hang on a balance; but the eloquence of Logan prevailed, and when the belt of wampum was at last put on him by Logan, he introduced a young Indian to him, saying, "this is your cousin, you are to go home with him and he will take care of you." From this place, Mr. Robinson accompanied the Indians up the Muskingum, through two or three Indian villages, until they arrived at one of their towns on the site of New Comerstown, in Tuscarawas county. About the 21st of July, Logan came to Robinson and brought a piece of paper, saying that he must write a letter for him, which he meant to carry and leave in some house, which he should attack. Mr. Robinson wrote a note with ink, which he manufactured from gun-powder. He made three separate attempts before he could get the language, which Logan dictated, sufficiently strong to satisfy that chief. This note was addressed to Col. Cresap, whom Logan supposed was the murderer of his family. It was afterwards found, tied to a war club, in the cabin of a settler who lived on or near the north fork of Holston river.* It was doubtless left by Logan after murdering the family. A copy of it is given below, which on comparison with his celebrated speech, shows a striking similarity of style. * See letter of Judge Innes, in the Pioneer, Vol. I, p. 14. 268

Page  269 JEFFERSON COUNTY. CAPTAIN CRESAP: What did you kill my people on Yellow creek for? The white people killed my kin, at Conestoga, a great while ago; and I thought nothing of that. But you killed my kin again on Yellow creek and took my cousin prisoner. Then I thought I must kill too; and I have been three times to war since; but the Indians are not angry; only'myself. July 21st, 1774. CAPTAIN JOHN LOGAN. Major Robinson, after remaining with the Indians about four months, returned to his home in Virginia. In 1801, he removed to Coshocton county, and settled on a section of military land, on the Muskingum, a few miles below Coshocton, where he died in 1815, aged 72 years. His son resides on the same farm. Dunmore's war was of short duration. It was terminated in November of the same year, within the present limits of Pickaway county, in this state, under which head will be found a copy of the speech which has rendered immortal the name of Logan. The heroic adventure of the two Johnson boys, who killed two Indians in this county, has often and erroneously been published. One of these, Henry, the youngest is yet living in Monroe county, in this state, where we made his acquaintance in the spring of 1846. He is a fine specimen of the fast vanishing race of Indian hunters, tall and erect, with the bearing of a genuine backwoodsman. His narrative, recently published in a Woodsfield paper, here follows: I was born in Westmoreland county, Pa., on the 4th day of February, 1777. When I was about eight years old, my father having a large family to provide for, sold his farm with the expectation of acquiring larger possessions farther west. Thus he was stimulated to encounter the perils of a pioneer life. He crossed the Ohio river and bought some improvements on what was called Beach Bottom flats, two and a half miles from the river, and three or four miles above the mouth of Short creek. Soon after he came there, the Indians became troublesome. They stole horses and various other things, and killed a number of persons in our neighborhood. When I was between eleven and twelve years old, I think it was the fall of 1788, I was taken prisoner with my brother John, who was about eighteen months older than I. The circumstances are as follows: On Saturday evening we were out with an older brother, and came home late in the evening; one of us had lost a hat, and John and I went back the next day to look for it. We found the hat, and sat down on a log and were cracking nuts. After a short time, we saw two men coming down from the direction of the house; from their dress we took them to be two of our neighbors, James Perdue and J. Russell. We paid but little attention to them till they came quite near us. To escape by flight was now impossible, had we been disposed to try it. We sat still until they came up to us. One of them said," how do brodder-;" my brother then asked them if they were Indians, and they answered in the affirmative, and said we must go with them. One of them had a blue buckskin, which he gave my brother to carry, and without further ceremony, we took up the line of march for the wilderness; not knowing whether we should ever return to the cheerful home we had left; and not having much love for our commanding officers, of course we obeyed martial orders rather tardily. One of the Indians walked about ten steps before, and the other about the same distance behind us. After travelling some distance we halted in a deep hollow and sat down. They took out their knives and whet them, and talked some time in the Indian tongue, which we could not understand. I told my brother that I thought they were going to kill us, and I believe he thought so too; for he began to talk to them, and told them that his father was cross to him and made him work hard, and that he did not like hard work, that he would rather be a hunter and live in the woods. This seemed to please them, for they put up their knives and talked more lively and pleasantly to us. We returned the same familiarity, and many questions passed between us; all parties were very inquisitive. They asked my brother which way home was, and he told them the contrary way every time they would ask him, although he knew the way very well: this would make them laugh; they thought we were lost and that we knew no better. They conducted us over Short creek hills in search of horses, but found none; so we 269

Page  270 JEFFERSON COUNTY. continued on foot. Night carve on, and we halted in a low hollow, about 3 miles from Carpenter's fort, and about 4 from the place where they first took us. Our route being somewhat circuitous and full of zigzags, we made headway but slowly. As night began to close in around us, I became fretful; my brother encouraged me, by whispering to me that we would kill the Indians that night. After they had selected the place of encampment, one of them scouted round the camp, while the other struck fire, which was done by stopping the touch-hole of the gun an(i flashing powder in the pan. After the Indian got the fire kindled, he re-primed the gun and went to an old stump to get some dry tinder wood for fire; and while he was thus employed, my brother John took the gun, cocked it, and was about to shoot the Indian; but I was alarmed fearing the other might be close by, and be able to overpower us; so I remonstrated against his shooting and took hold of the gun and prevented the shot. I, at the same time, begged him to wait till night and I would help him to kill them both. The Indian that had taken the scout came back about dark. We took our suppers, talked some time and went to bed on the naked ground to try to rest, and study out the best mode of attack. They put us between them, that they might be the better able to guard us. After a while one of the Indians, supposing we were asleep; got up and stretched himself down on the other side of the fire, and soon began to snore John, who had been watching every motion, found they were sound asleep, and whispered to me to get up. We got up as carefully as possible. John took the gun which the Indian struck fire with, cocked it and placed it in the direction of the head of one the Indians; he then took a tomahawk and drew it over the head of the other; I pulled the trigger and he struck at the same instant; the blow, falling too far back on the neck, only stunned the Indian; he attempted to spring to his feet, uttering most hideous yells. Although my brother repeated the blows with some effect, the conflict became terrible and somewhat doubtful. The Indian, however, was forced to yield to the blows he received upon his head, and, in a short time, he lay quiet and still at our feet. After we were satisfied that they were both dead, and fearing there were others close by, we hurried off, and took nothing with us but the gun I shot with. We took our course towards the river, and in about three quarters of a mile we found a path which led to Carpenter's fort. My brother here hung up his hat, that we might know on our return where to turn off to find our camp. We got to the fort a little before daybreak. We related our adventure, and a small party went back with my brother and found the Indian that was tomahawked; the other had crawled away a short distance with the gun. A skeleton and a gun were found, some time after, near the place where we had encamped. The last blood shed in battle between the whites and Indians in this part of the Ohio country, was in Jefferson county, in August, 1793. This action, known as "Buskirk's battle," took place on the farm of Mr. John Adams, on what was then known as Indian Cross creek now as Battle-Ground run. The incidents given below were published in a Steubenville paper, a few years since. A party of twenty eight Indians having committed depredations on this side of the river, a force of thirty eight Virginians, all of them veteran Indian fighters, under Capt. Buskirk, crossed the river to give them battle. And although they knew they were in the vicinity of the enemy, they marched into an ambuscade, and but for a most singular circumstance, would have been mowed down like pigeons. The whites marched in Indian file with their captain, Buskirk, at their head. The ambush quartered on their flank, and they were totally unsuspicious of it. The plan of the Indians was to permit the whites to advance in numbers along the line before firing upon them. This was done, but instead of each selecting his man, every gun was directed at the captain, who fell with thirteen bullet holes in his body. The whites and Indians instantly treed, and the contest lasted more than an hour. The Indians, however, were defeated, and retreated towards the Muskingum with the loss of several killed, while the Virginians, with the exception of their captain, had none killed and but three wounded. STEUBENVILLE is on the Ohio river, 22 miles above Wheeling, 35 below Pittsburg and 147 E. by N. from Columbus. It derives its name from a fort, called Fort Steuben, erected on its site as early as 1789. It stood on High street, near the site of the female seminary. It was built of block-houses connected by palisade fences, 270

Page  271 JEFFERSON COUNTY. and was dismantled at the time of Wayne's victory, previous to which it had been garrisoned by U. S. infantry, under the command of Col. Beatty, father of the Rev. Dr. Beatty, of Steubenville. On the opp)osite side of the river then stood a block-house. ,,,._.. Steubenville Female Seminary. The town was laid out in 1798, by Bezaleel Wells and the IHon. James Ross of Pennsylvania, from whom Ross county, in this state, derived its name. Mr. Ross, who has attained high honor, is yet living; but Mr. Wells died poor, after having been at one time considered the most wealthy person in eastern Ohio. On the 14th of February, 1805, the town was incorporated and the following officers appointed: David Hull, president; John Ward, recorder; David Hog, Zacheus A. Beatty, Benj. Hough, Thos. Vincents, John England, Martin Andrews and Abm. Cazier, trustees; Samuel Hunter, treasurer; Matthew Adams, assessor; Charles Maxwell, collector, and Anthony Beck, town marshall. Steubenville is situated upon a handsome and elevated plain, in the midst of beautiful scenery. The country adjacent is rich and highly cultivated, affording the finest soil for wheat and sheep. Messrs. Bezaleel Wells and Dickerson introduced the merino sheep at an early day, and established in the town, in 1814, a woolen nanufactory, which laid the foundation for the extensive manufac 271 f

Page  272 KNOX COUNTY. tures of the place. Steubenville contains about 30 mercantile stores, 2 printing offices, (1 daily newspaper,) 1 Episcopal, 2 Presbyterian, 3 Methodist, 1 Catholic, 1 Baptist, 1 Associate Reformed, 1 New Jerusalem and 1 church for persons of color, 1 bank, 5 woolen, 1 paper, 1 cotton and 2 glass manufactories, 1 iron foundery and nu merous other manufacturing and mechanical establishments. In the vicinity are 7 copperas manufactories. From 800 to 1000 hands are employed in these various establishments, and over a million bush els of coal annually consumed, which is obtained from inexhaustible coal beds in the vicinity, at 3 cents per bushel. The town is very thriving and rapidly increasing. Its population in 1810, was 800; in 1820, 2,479; in 1830, 2,964; in 1840, 4,247, and in 1847, about 7,000. Much attention is given to the cause of education in Steubenville. There are 5 public and 4 select schools; a male academy and a female seminary. The male institution, called "Grove academy," is flourishing. It is under the charge of the Rev. John W. Scott, has 3 teachers and 80 scholars. The female seminary is pleasantly situated on the bank of the Ohio, commanding an extensive view of the river and the surrounding hills. It is under the charge of the Rev. Charles C. Beatty, D. D., superintendent, and Mrs. Hetty E. Beatty, principal. It was first established in the spring of 1829, and now receives only scholars over twelve years of age. It is in a very high degree flourishing, having a widely extended reputation. The establishment cost nearly $40,000, employs from 10 to 12 teachers and usually has 150 pupils, the full number which it can accommodate. Mount Pleasant, 21 miles sw. of Steubenville, is a large and flourishing village, containing 4 churches, beside 2 Friends meeting houses, 8 or 10 stores, a female seminary, and by the census of 1840, had 666 inhabitants; and now has about 1000. Richmond, 11 NW. of S., has 5 stores, a classical academy for males, 2 churches, 1 Friends meeting house and about 500 inhabitants. Smithfield, 14 sw. of S., has about the same number of stores, churches and inhabitants, as Richmond. The following are names of villages in Jefferson, with their population in 1840: Warren 209, Knoxville 166, Springfield 138, Tiltonville 137, Portland 113, Wintersville 107, New Trenton 103, New Somerset 98, New Amsterdam 85, Newburgh 75, York 54 and Monroesville 49. KNOX. KNox was named from General Henry Knox, a native of Boston, general in the war of the revolution, and secretary of war in Washington's administration. It was formed from Fairfield, March 1st, 1808. The north and east part is hilly-the central west and south part, undulating or level. The bottom lands of the streams are very 272

Page  272A II g 18 III 88*88II88 5111511 WIll 1111111 III I III NATI, FROM THE OHIO.

Page  272B

Page  273 KNOX COUNTY, rich, particularly those of Vernon river, which stream affords abundance of water power. The principal productions are wheat, Indian corn, oats, tobacco, maple sugar, potatoes and wool. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population. Berlin, 1100 Harrison, 833 Miller, 977 Bloomfield, 1252 Hillier, 1012 Monroe, 1258 Brown, 1204 Howard, 999 Morgan, 912 Butler, 647 Jackson, 994 Morris, 1077 Chester, 1297 Jefferson, 994 Pike, 1216 Clay, 1304 Liberty, 1205 Pleasant, 888 Clinton, 920 Middlebury, 1002 Union, 1098 Franklin, 1343 Milford, 1157 Berlnkin, 11 arsn 343 Millerd, 9177 The population of Knox, in 1820, was 8,326, in 1830, 17,125, and in 1840, 29,584; or 48 inhabitants to a square mile. The early settlers of the county were mainly from the middle states, with some of New England origin. In 1805, Mount Vernon was laid out, and named by the proprietors of the soil, who were Joseph Walker, Thos. B. Paterson and Benj. Butler, from the seat of Washington. At this time, the county was thinly settled. Two years after, the principal settlers were, as far as their names are recollected, the Rileys, Darlings, Shriplins, Butlers, Kritchfields, Welkers, Dials, Logues, and De Witts, on Vernon river. In other parts of the county, the Hurds, Beams, Hunts and Dimick, Kerr, Ayres, Dalrymple, Houck, Hilliard, the Youngs, Mitchells, Bryants, Knights and Walkers. In the spring of 1807, there were only three families living on the plat of Mount Vernon, viz.: Benjamin Butler, tavern-keeper, from Penn., Peter Coyle, and James Craig. The early settlers of the village were, beside those named, Joseph and James Walker, Michael Click, David and Wm. Petigrue, Samuel Kratzer, Gilman Bryant, and Rev. James Smith, who came in 1808, and was the first Methodist clergyman. When the settlers first came, there were two wells, only a few rods apart, on the south bank of Vernon river, on the edge of the town, the origin of which remains unknown. They were built of neatly hammered stone, laid in regular masonry, and had the appearance of being overgrown with moss. Near by, was a salt lick, at which the Indians had been accustomed to encamp. Almost immediately after the first settlement, all traces of the wells were obliterated, as was supposed, by the Indians. A similar well was later brought to light, a mile and a half distant, by the plow of Philip Cosner, while plowing in a newly cleared piece of forest land. It was covered with poles and earth, and was about 30 feet deep. In the spring of 1807, Gilman Bryant opened the first store in Mt Vernon, in a small sycamore cabin, in the western part of the town. A hewed log and shingle-roofed building stood on the northeast corner of Wood and Main streets: it was the first tavern, and was kept by Benj. Butler. The first frame building was put up in 1809, and is now standing on lot 138 Main street. The old court-house9 erected about 1810, opposite the present court-house, on the public square, 35 273

Page  274 KNOX COUNTY. was the first brick building: it was two stories high, and thirty-six feet square. The first brick building was erected in the spring of 1815, by Gilman Bryant, now standing next to and south of his pre sent residence. The first church, the old school Presbyterian, (now down,) was built about 1817. It was of brick, 40 feet square, and one story high: the first pastor was the Rev. James Scott. The first licensed preacher in the county was the Rev. WnVm. Thrift, a Baptist, from Loudon county, Va., who came in 1807, and travelled about from house to house. The first crops raised in the county were corn and potatoes. They were grown on the bottom lands, which were the first cleared: those lands were too rich for wheat, making "sick wheat," so termed, because when made into bread, it had the effect of an emetic, and produced feelings similar to sea-sickness. At an early day, the Indians, in great numbers, came to Mount Vernon to trade. They encamped on the river bank, and brought large quantities of furs and cranberries to dispose of for goods. The whites of the present day might take some beneficial hints from their method of trading at the store in this place. They walked in deliberately and seated themselves, upon which the merchant presented each with a small piece of tobacco. Having lighted their pipes, they returned the residue to their pouches. These were made of a whole mink skin, dressed with the hair on, with a slit cut in the throat, as an opening. In it, they kept, also, some kinnickinnick bark, or sumach, which they always smoked with their tobacco, in the proportion of about three of the former to one of the latter. After smoking and talking awhile together, one only at a time arose, went to the counter, and, taking up a yard stick, pointed to the first article he desired, and inquired the price. The questions were in this manner: "how many buckskins for a shirt pattern?" or "cloth for leggings?" &c. According to their skin currency, A muskrat skin was equal to a quarter of a dollar; a raccoon skin, a third of a dollar; a doe skinrt, half a dollar, and a buck skin, "the almighty dollar." The Indian, learning the price of an article, payed for it by picking out and handing over the skins, before proceeding to purchase the second, when he repeated the process, and so on through the whole, paying for every thing as he went on, and never waiting for that purpose until he had finished. While the first Indian was trading, the others looked uninterruptedly on, and when he was through, another took his place, and so on, in rotation, until all had traded. No one desired to trade before his turn, and all observed a proper decorum, and never attempted to "beat down," but, if dissatisfied with the price, passed on to the next article. They were cautious not to trade while intoxicated; but usually preserved some of their skins to buy liquor, and end their visit with a frolic. The early settlers in the town all felt as one family. If one got a piece of fresh meat, he shared it with his neighbors, and when a person was sick, all sympathized. At night, they met in each other's cabins, to talk, dance, and take a social glass. There was no distinction of party, for it was a social democracy. At their weddings, a puncheon table, formed like a bench, without a cloth, was covered with refreshments. These were plain and simple: wild turkeys, that had been gobbling about in the woods, were stewed and eaten with a relish; corn, that had grown on the river flats, made into "pone," served as wedding cake; while metheglin and whiskey, the only articles probably laot indigenous, were the beverages that washed them down. Their plates were either of wood or pewter, perhaps both, and no two alike; their knives, frequently butcher knives, and their forks often of wood. A dance was the finale of their festivities. They made merry on the puncheon floor to the music of the fiddle. Cotillions were inknown, while jigs, four-handed reels, the double shuffle and break down " were all the rage." -274

Page  275 KNOX COUNTY After Mount Vernon was laid out, the settlers from thi region round about were accus,)med to come into town on Saturdays, to clear the stumps out of the streets. Early in ihe afternoon they quitted work, and grew jolly over a large kettle of "stew." This was made as follows: First, a huge kettle, of gallons' capacity, was placed upon the ground, resting upon three stones, and a fire kindled under it. In it was put two or three buckets of water, a few pounds of maple sugar, a few ounces of allspice, which had been pounded in a rag, a pound of butter, and, finally, two or three gallons of whiskey. When boiled, the stew was taken off, a circle was formed around, and the men helped themselves liberally, with tin cups, to the liquor, told hunting stories, wrestled, ran, hopped and jumped, engaged in foot races, shot at mark for goods or tobacco purchased at the store, and occasionally enlivened the scene by a fight. Upon the organization of the county, there was a spirit of rivalry as to which should be the county seat, Mount Vernon or Clinton, a town laid out a mile and a half north, by Samuel Smith-then a place of the most population, now among the " things that were." The commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice, first entered Mount Vernon, and were received with the best cheer, at the log tavern of Mr. Butler. To impress them with an idea of the public spirit of the place, the people were very busy at the moment of their entrance and during their stay, at work, all with their coats off, grubbing the streets. As they left for Clinton, all quitted their labor, not " of love;" and some rowdies, who dwelt in cabins scattered round about in the woods, away from the town, left "the crowd," and stealing ahead of the commissioners, arrived at Clinton first. On the arrival of the others at that place, these fellows pretended to be in a state not comformable to temperance principles, ran against the commissioners, and by their rude and boisterous conduct, so disgusted the worthy officials as to the apparent morals of the inhabitants of Clinton, that they returned and made known their determination that Mount Vernon should be the favored spot. That night, there were great rejoicings in town. Bonfires were kindled, stew made and drank, and live trees split with gunpowder. The first settler north of Mount Vernon, was Nathaniel M. Young, from Pa., who, in 1803, built a cabin on the south fork of Vernon river, three miles west of Fredericktown. Mr. Young and his neighbors being much troubled with wolves, got together and made a written agreement to give nine bushels of corn for every wolf's scalp. In the winter of 1805-6, Mr. Young, John Lewis and James Bryant caught forty-one wolves, in steel traps and pens. Wolf pens were about 6 feet long, 4 wide and 3 high, formed like a huge square box, of small logs, and floored with puncheons. The lid, also of puncheons, was very heavy, and moved by an axle at one end, made of a small, round stick. The trap was set by a figure four, with any kind of meat except that of wolf's, the animals being fonder of any other than their own. On gnawing the meat, the lid fell and enclosed the unamiable native. Often, to have sport for the dogs, they pulled out the legs of a wolf through the crevices of the logs, hamstrung, and then let him loose, upon which the dogs sprang upon him, while he, crippled by the operation, made but an ineffectual resistance. In the adjoining county of Delaware, a man, somewhat advanced in years, went into a wolf-trap to render the adjustment of the spring more delicate, when the trap sprung upon him, and, knocking him flat on his face, securely caught him as was ever any of the wolf species. He was unable to lift up the lid, and several miles from any house. There he lay all one day and night, and would have perished had not a passing hunter heard his groans and relieved him from his peril. Mount Vernon, the county seat, is 45 miles NE. of Columbus. It is beautifully situated on ground slightly ascending from Vernon river. The town is compactly and substantially built, and some of the dwellings elegant. Main, the principal business street, is about a mile in length, on which are many brick blocks, three stories in neight. The view was taken in this street, at the southern extremity of the public square, looking north: on the left is shown the market and court-house, on the right, the Episcopal church, an elegant stone edifice, and in the centre, the tower of the old school Presbyterian church and the jail. This flourishing town contains 2 Presbyterian, 2 Methodist, 1 Baptist, 1 Lutheran, 1 Catholic and 1 Episcopal church, 20 dry goods, 6 grocery, 2 hardware, 3 apothecary and 2 book stores; 1 fulling, 4 grist and 5 saw mills, 3 newspaper printing offices, 275

Page  276 KNOX COUNTY. and had, in 1840, 2,363 inhabitants, and has now over 3,000. The railroad, constructing from Sandusky City to Columbus, will connect this place with those. ______'ii Public Square, Mount Vernon. Five miles east of Mount Vernon, on a beautiful, healthy and elevated ridge, encompassed on three sides by the Vernon river, is the village of Gambier, so named from lord Gambier, and widely known as the seat of Kenyon college. This town, exclusive of the college, contains about 200 inhabitants. It was laid out under the auspices of the venerable Bishop Chase, in July, 1826, in the center of a 4,000 acre tract, belonging to Kenyon college. This institution was then founded, with funds obtained by Bishop Chase in England, and named after lord Kenyon, one of its principal benefactors. It was first chartered as a theological seminary. It is richly endowed, having 8,000 acres of land, and its property is valued at $100,000. The college proper has about 50 students; the theological seminary about 20; the senior grammar school about 20, and Milnor Hall, an institute for boys, about 25. In the various libraries are near 10,000 volumes. The main college building is romantically situated. You enter a gate into a large area: in the foreground is a large grassy, cleared plat of several acres, on the right of which stands Rosse chapel, an elegant Grecian structure; on the left and below, is the beautiful Vernon valley, bounded by forest-clad hills, over which the eye passes in the perspective for miles and miles, until the blue of distant hills and sky meet and blend in one. Through the centre of the grassy plat passes a footpath, which, at the distance of 200 yards, continues its straight line in a narrow opening through a forest, and terminates at the college, about one third of a mile distant, the spire of which rises darkly above the green foliage, like that of an ancient abbey, while the main building is mostly concealed. The 276

Page  277 KNOX COUNTY. whole scene, the graceful, cheerful architecture of the chapel, on the right, the valley on the left, the pleasant, grassy green in front, the forest beyond, with the sombre, half-concealed building in the dis tance, give an ever-enduring impression. Standing at the gate, with the back to the college, the scene changes: a broad avenue terminates at the distance of half a mile, at the head of which, in a commanding position, faces Bexley Hall, a building appropriated to the theological seminary. It is a large, elegant, and highly ornamented Gothic structure, of a light color, with battlements and turrets, standing boldly relieved against the blue sky, except its lower portion, where it is concealed by the shrubbery of a spacious yard in front. To the left, and near the Hall, an imposing residence, late occupied by Bishop M'Ilvaine, faces the avenue. Away off to the right, among the trees, is Milnor Hall, and scattered about in various directions, near and far, private dwellings, offices and various structures, some plain and others adorned, some in full view and others partly hid by the undulations of the ground, trees and shrubbery. Fredericktown is a flourishing and well-built village, 7 miles NW. of Mount Vernon, which was laid out in 1807, by John Kerr. Vernon river, on which it is situated, furnishes considerable water power: on the middle branch of that stream, near the village, are some ancient fortifications and mounds. The town contains 2 Presbyterian, 2 Methodist and 1 Universalist church; 8 dry goods and 1 grocery store, 2 grist, 2 saw, 2 carding and 2 fulling mills, and had, in 1840, 444 inhabitants-since which, it has increased. Chesterville, 12 miles NW. from Mount Vernon, on Vernon river, has 2 churches, 5 stores, 2 flouring mills, and atout 400 inhabitants. Martinsburgh, 12 SE. of the county seat, on the Zanesville road, has 4 stores, 2 churches, an excellent academy, and about 400 inhabitants. Millwood, Bladensburgh, Amity, Danville, Centerburg, Mt. Liberty, Sparta, Palmyra and Mount Holly, are villages, the largest of which may contain 300 inhabitants. Kenyon College. 277

Page  278 LAKE COUNTY. LAKE. LAKE was formed March 6th, 1840, from Geauga and Cuyahoga, and so named from its bordering on Lake Erie. The surface is more rolling than level; the soil is good, and generally clayey loam, inter spersed with ridges of sand and gravel. The principal crops are wheat, corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, hay and potatoes. Dairy products, beef cattle and wool are also among the staples. This county is peculiar for the quality and quantity of its fruit, as apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, &c. Many thousand dollars' worth are annually exported, and many of its inhabitants leave every spring, to engage in the business of grafting at the south and west. The situation of this county is very favorable to the preservation of the fruit from the early frosts, the warm lake winds often preventing its destruction, while that some twenty miles inland, is cut off. Bog iron ore is found in large quantities in Perry and Madison, and there are several furnaces in the county. The following is a list of its townships in 1840, with their population: Concord, 1136 Madison, 2801 Perry, 1337 Kirtland, 1777 Mentor, 1245 Willoughby, 1943 Leroy, 898 Painesville, 2580 Population of Lake, in 1840, 13,717, or 65 inhabitants to the square mile. Mentor was the first place settled in this county. In the summer of 1799, two families were there.* Among the earliest settlers of Lake, was the Hon. John Walworth, who was born at New London, Ct., in 1765. When a young man, he spent five years at sea and in Demarara, South America. About the year 1792, he removed, with his family, to the then new country east of Cayuga lake, New York. In 1799, he visited Cleveland, and after his return, in the fall of that year, journeyed to Connecticut, purchased over two thousand acres of land in the present township of Painesville, with the design of making a settlement. On the 20th of February, 1800, he commenced the removal of his family and effects. They were brought on as far as Buffalo, in sleighs. At that place, after some little detention, the party being enlarged by the addition of some others, drove in two sleighs on to the ice of the lake, and proceeded until abreast of Cattaraugus creek, at which point they were about ten miles from land. At dusk, leaving their sleighs and horses some 50 or 60 rods from shore, they made their camp under some hemlock trees, where all, men, women and children passed an agreeable night, its earlier hours being enlivened by good cheer and social converse. The next afternoon, they arrived at Presque isle, (now Erie, Pa.,) where, leaving his family, Mr. Walworth went back to Buffalo, for his goods. On his return to Erie, he, with his hired man and two horses and a yoke of oxen, followed the lake shore, and arrived in safety at his new purchase. His nearest neighbors east, were at Harpersfield, 15 miles distant. On the west, a few miles distant, within or near the present limits of Mentor, was what was then called the Marsh settlement, where was then living Judge Jesse Phelps, Jared Wood, Ebenezer Merry, Charles Parker and Moses Parks. Mr. Walworth soon returned to Erie, on foot, and brought out his family and effects in a flat boat, all arriving safe at the new home on the 7th of April. The first fortnight they lived in a tent, during which period the sun was not seen. About the expiration of this time, Gen. Edward Paine-the first delegate to the legislature from the Lake county, in the winter of 1801-2-arrived with seven or eight hired men, and settled about a mile distant. Mutually assisting each other, cabins were soon erected for shelter, and gradually the conveniences of civilization clustered around them. * Mrs. Tappan, in the MSS. of the Ashtabula Historical Society. 278 I

Page  279 LAKE COUNTY. Shortly after the formation of the state government, Mr. Walworth, Solomon Griswold, of Windsor, and Calvin Austin, of Warren, were appointed associate judges of Trumbull county. In 1805, Judge Walworth was appointed collector of customs for the district of Erie. In August, he opened the collector's office at Cleveland, and in the March ensuing, removed his family thither. He held various offices until his decease, Sept. 10th, 1812, and was an extensive land agent. Judge Walworth was small in stature, and of weakly constitution. Prior to his removal to the west, it was supposed he had the consumption; but to the hardships and fatigue he endured, and change of climate, his physicians attributed the prolongation of his life many years. He was a fearless man, and possessed of that indomitable perseverance and